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Sample records for traditional amerindian cultivators

  1. Traditional Amerindian cultivators combine directional and ideotypic selection for sustainable management of cassava genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duputié, A; Massol, F; David, P; Haxaire, C; McKey, D

    2009-06-01

    Plant domestication provides striking examples of rapid evolution. Yet, it involves more complex processes than plain directional selection. Understanding the dynamics of diversity in traditional agroecosystems is both a fundamental goal in evolutionary biology and a practical goal in conservation. We studied how Amerindian cultivators maintain dynamically evolving gene pools in cassava. Farmers purposely maintain diversity in the form of phenotypically distinct, clonally propagated landraces. Landrace gene pools are continuously renewed by incorporating seedlings issued from spontaneous sexual reproduction. This poses two problems: agronomic quality may decrease because some seedlings are inbred, and landrace identity may be progressively lost through the incorporation of unrelated seedlings. Using a large microsatellite dataset, we show that farmers solve these problems by applying two kinds of selection: directional selection against inbred genotypes, and counter-selection of off-type phenotypes, which maintains high intra-landrace relatedness. Thus, cultural elements such as ideotypes (a representation of the ideal phenotype of a landrace) can shape genetic diversity.

  2. Amerindian and Afro-American perceptions of their traditional knowledge in the Chocó biodiversity hotspot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camara Leret, Rodrigo; Copete Maturana, Juan; Balslev, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The Chocó biodiversity hotspot is one of the most biodiverse and threatened regions on Earth, yet the traditional knowledge (TK) of its inhabitants about biodiversity remains little studied. The Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) aims to integrate different...... knowledge systems, including scientific and TK, to assess the state of the planet's biodiversity. We documented the TK of three ethnic groups: Afro-Colombians (n=86 participants), and Amerindian Emberá (n=88) and Tsa’chila (n=52), focusing on their perceptions about (i) the most important palms, (ii...... use, palm materials were absent in Afro-Colombian and Tsa’chila homes, and were being increasingly replaced in Emberá homes. In all three cultures, it was generally believed that TK was not being transmitted to the younger generations. In aggregate, the current perceptions of decreasing transmission...

  3. Traditional pattern of cashew cultivation : A lesson from Sumenep-Madura, Indonesia

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    Jadid, Nurul; Sutikno, Dewi, Dyah Santhi; Nurhidayati, Tutik; Abdulgani, Nurlita; Muzaki, Farid Kamal; Arraniry, Byan Arasyi; Mardika, Rizal Kharisma; Rakhman, R. Yuvita

    2017-11-01

    Belonging to the Anacardiaceae family, the cashew tree (Anacardium Occidentale, Linn.) is one of the important tropical plants that possess high economic value. This plant is commonly grown in Indonesian regions including Sumenep, Madura, where the red sandy loam type of soil is commonly present. This study aims to obtain rough data on the pattern of cashew cultivation and identify the cashew cultivation knowledge of local communities. Data were taken in Bringin village, Sumenep-Madura. Our field survey showed that the cashew's cultivation pattern in this village applies the so-called traditional organic farming. Cashew trees are planted along the boundaries of the owner's farm field, functioning as a fence of their farm. Nevertheless, our survey also indicated that this pattern of cultivation is still below standard of cultivation. The planting distance between the cashew trees with one another is relatively close (< 5 meters), causing the cashew branches to overlap with each other. Moreover, we observed that there was no rejuvenation of old cashew trees. Finally, knowledge of the community about post-harvest processing is limited. Therefore, we suggest that educating the community about good standard cashew cultivation is required to improve productivity as well as the quality of cashew nuts.

  4. The microbiome of uncontacted Amerindians.

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    Clemente, Jose C; Pehrsson, Erica C; Blaser, Martin J; Sandhu, Kuldip; Gao, Zhan; Wang, Bin; Magris, Magda; Hidalgo, Glida; Contreras, Monica; Noya-Alarcón, Óscar; Lander, Orlana; McDonald, Jeremy; Cox, Mike; Walter, Jens; Oh, Phaik Lyn; Ruiz, Jean F; Rodriguez, Selena; Shen, Nan; Song, Se Jin; Metcalf, Jessica; Knight, Rob; Dantas, Gautam; Dominguez-Bello, M Gloria

    2015-04-03

    Most studies of the human microbiome have focused on westernized people with life-style practices that decrease microbial survival and transmission, or on traditional societies that are currently in transition to westernization. We characterize the fecal, oral, and skin bacterial microbiome and resistome of members of an isolated Yanomami Amerindian village with no documented previous contact with Western people. These Yanomami harbor a microbiome with the highest diversity of bacteria and genetic functions ever reported in a human group. Despite their isolation, presumably for >11,000 years since their ancestors arrived in South America, and no known exposure to antibiotics, they harbor bacteria that carry functional antibiotic resistance (AR) genes, including those that confer resistance to synthetic antibiotics and are syntenic with mobilization elements. These results suggest that westernization significantly affects human microbiome diversity and that functional AR genes appear to be a feature of the human microbiome even in the absence of exposure to commercial antibiotics. AR genes are likely poised for mobilization and enrichment upon exposure to pharmacological levels of antibiotics. Our findings emphasize the need for extensive characterization of the function of the microbiome and resistome in remote nonwesternized populations before globalization of modern practices affects potentially beneficial bacteria harbored in the human body.

  5. Energy and economic analysis of traditional versus introduced crops cultivation in the mountains of the Indian Himalayas: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nautiyal, Sunil; Kaechele, H. [Leibniz-Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Institute of Socioeconomics, Eberswalder Str. 84, 15374 Muencheberg (Germany); Rao, K.S. [Centre for Inter-disciplinary Studies of Mountain and Hill Environment, Academic Research Center, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Maikhuri, R.K. [G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Garhwal Unit, P.O. Box 92, Srinagar (Garhwal) 246174 (India); Saxena, K.G. [School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2007-12-15

    This study analyzed the energy and economics associated with cultivation of traditional and introduced crops in the mountains of the Central Himalaya, India. The production cost in terms of energy for introduced crops such as tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) cultivation was 90,358-320,516 MJ ha{sup -1} as compared to between 19,814 and 42,380 MJ ha{sup -1} for traditional crops within Himalayan agroecosystems. For the introduced crops, high energy and monetary input was associated with human labor, forest resources, chemical fertilizer and pesticides. However, energy threshold/projection for farmyard manure in traditional crop cultivation was 80-90% of the total energy cost, thus traditional crop cultivation was more efficient in energy and economics. During the study, the farm productivity of introduced crops cultivation declined with increasing years of cultivation. Consequently, the energy output from the system has been declining at the rate of -y20,598 to y20,748 MJ ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} for tomato and y12,072 to y15,056 MJ ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} for bell pepper under irrigated and rain-fed land use in the mountains, respectively. The comparative analysis on this paradigm shift indicates that more research is needed to support sustainable crop cultivation in the fragile Himalayan environment. (author)

  6. Cultivation-independent comprehensive investigations on bacterial communities in serofluid dish, a traditional Chinese fermented food

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    Peng Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Serofluid dish (or Jiangshui, in Chinese, a traditional food in the Chinese culture, is made from vegetables by fermentation. In this study, bacterial community of the fermented serofluid dish was assessed by Illumina amplicon sequencing. The metagenome comprised of 49,589 average raw reads with an average 11,497,917 bp and G+C content is 52.46%. This is the first report on V4 hyper-variable region of the 16S rRNA metagenome sequence employing Illumina platform to profile the microbial community of this little known fermented food from Gansu Province, China. The metagenome sequence can be accessed at NCBI, SRA database accession no. SRP065370. Keywords: Serofluid dish, Jiangshui, 16S rRNA, Cultivation-independent, Microbial diversity

  7. Socio-economic comparison between traditional and improved cultivation methods in agroforestry systems, East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Teija; Quiroz, Roberto; Msikula, Shija

    2005-11-01

    The East Usambara Mountains, recognized as one of the 25 most important biodiversity hot spots in the world, have a high degree of species diversity and endemism that is threatened by increasing human pressure on resources. Traditional slash and burn cultivation in the area is no longer sustainable. However, it is possible to maintain land productivity, decrease land degradation, and improve rural people's livelihood by ameliorating cultivation methods. Improved agroforestry seems to be a very convincing and suitable method for buffer zones of conservation areas. Farmers could receive a reasonable net income from their farm with little investment in terms of time, capital, and labor. By increasing the diversity and production of already existing cultivations, the pressure on natural forests can be diminished. The present study shows a significant gap between traditional cultivation methods and improved agroforestry systems in socio-economic terms. Improved agroforestry systems provide approximately double income per capita in comparison to traditional methods. More intensified cash crop cultivation in the highlands of the East Usambara also results in double income compared to that in the lowlands. However, people are sensitive to risks of changing farming practices. Encouraging farmers to apply better land management and practice sustainable cultivation of cash crops in combination with multipurpose trees would be relevant in improving their economic situation in the relatively short term. The markets of most cash crops are already available. Improved agroforestry methods could ameliorate the living conditions of the local population and protect the natural reserves from human disturbance.

  8. The population genetics of cultivation: domestication of a traditional Chinese medicine, Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. (Scrophulariaceae.

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    Chuan Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Domestic cultivation of medicinal plants is an important strategy for protecting these species from over harvesting. Some species of medicinal plants have been brought into cultivation for more than hundreds years. Concerns about severe loss of genetic diversity and sustainable cultivation can potentially limit future use of these valuable plants. Genetic studies with comprehensive sampling of multiple medicinal species by molecular markers will allow for assessment and management of these species. Here we examine the population genetic consequences of cultivation and domestication in Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. We used chloroplast DNA and genomic AFLP markers to clarify not only the effects of domestication on genetic diversity, but also determine the geographic origins of cultivars and their genetic divergence from native populations. These results will allow both better management of cultivated populations, but also provide insights for crop improvement. RESULTS: Twenty-one cpDNA haplotypes of S. ningpoensis were identified. Wild populations contain all haplotypes, whereas only three haplotypes were found in cultivated populations with wild populations having twice the haplotype diversity of cultivated populations. Genetic differentiation between cultivated populations and wild populations was significant. Genomic AFLP markers revealed similar genetic diversity patterns. Furthermore, Structure analysis grouped all wild populations into two gene pools; two of which shared the same gene pool with cultivated S. ningpoensis. The result of Neighbor-Joining analysis was consistent with the structure analysis. In principal coordinate analysis, three cultivated populations from Zhejiang Province grouped together and were separated from other cultivated populations. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that cultivated S. ningpoensis has experienced dramatic loss of genetic diversity under anthropogenic influence. We postulate that strong

  9. The population genetics of cultivation: domestication of a traditional Chinese medicine, Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. (Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuan; Li, Pan; Wang, Rui-Hong; Schaal, Barbara A; Fu, Cheng-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Domestic cultivation of medicinal plants is an important strategy for protecting these species from over harvesting. Some species of medicinal plants have been brought into cultivation for more than hundreds years. Concerns about severe loss of genetic diversity and sustainable cultivation can potentially limit future use of these valuable plants. Genetic studies with comprehensive sampling of multiple medicinal species by molecular markers will allow for assessment and management of these species. Here we examine the population genetic consequences of cultivation and domestication in Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. We used chloroplast DNA and genomic AFLP markers to clarify not only the effects of domestication on genetic diversity, but also determine the geographic origins of cultivars and their genetic divergence from native populations. These results will allow both better management of cultivated populations, but also provide insights for crop improvement. Twenty-one cpDNA haplotypes of S. ningpoensis were identified. Wild populations contain all haplotypes, whereas only three haplotypes were found in cultivated populations with wild populations having twice the haplotype diversity of cultivated populations. Genetic differentiation between cultivated populations and wild populations was significant. Genomic AFLP markers revealed similar genetic diversity patterns. Furthermore, Structure analysis grouped all wild populations into two gene pools; two of which shared the same gene pool with cultivated S. ningpoensis. The result of Neighbor-Joining analysis was consistent with the structure analysis. In principal coordinate analysis, three cultivated populations from Zhejiang Province grouped together and were separated from other cultivated populations. These results suggest that cultivated S. ningpoensis has experienced dramatic loss of genetic diversity under anthropogenic influence. We postulate that strong artificial selection for medicinal quality has

  10. Reverse perspective as a narrative technique in Amerindian prosaic texts

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    Volkova Svitlana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the narrative perspective of interpreting the ethno-cultural meanings hidden in the characters of prosaic texts written by contemporary Amerindian writers (N.S. Momaday, Linda Hogan, Leslie Silko and others. The main idea raised in their works is to highlight ethno-cultural traditions, values, ceremonies and understanding the world. The main author’s interest is paid to the reverse perspective as a narrative technique of interpretation the central character as ethno-cultural symbol.

  11. Traditional agroecosystems as conservatories and incubators of cultivated plant varietal diversity: the case of fig (Ficus carica L. in Morocco

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    Santoni Sylvain

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional agroecosystems are known to host both large crop species diversity and high within crop genetic diversity. In a context of global change, this diversity may be needed to feed the world. Are these agroecosystems museums (i.e. large core collections or cradles of diversity? We investigated this question for a clonally propagated plant, fig (Ficus carica, within its native range, in Morocco, but as far away as possible from supposed centers of domestication. Results Fig varieties were locally numerous. They were found to be mainly highly local and corresponded to clones propagated vegetatively. Nevertheless these clones were often sufficiently old to have accumulated somatic mutations for selected traits (fig skin color and at neutral loci (microsatellite markers. Further the pattern of spatial genetic structure was similar to the pattern expected in natural population for a mutation/drift/migration model at equilibrium, with homogeneous levels of local genetic diversity throughout Moroccan traditional agroecosystems. Conclusions We conclude that traditional agroecosystems constitue active incubators of varietal diversity even for clonally propagated crop species, and even when varieties correspond to clones that are often old. As only female fig is cultivated, wild fig and cultivated fig probably constitute a single evolutionary unit within these traditional agroecosystems. Core collections, however useful, are museums and hence cannot serve the same functions as traditional agroecosystems.

  12. HLA genes in Chimila Amerindians (Colombia), the Peopling of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our aim is to study the HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1 and -DQB1 gene frequencies in the Chimila Amerindian (Colombia) ethnic group. Results are compared with other World populations in order to obtain information about Chimila and Amerindian Health promotion, Amerindian origins and America peopling. Written consent was ...

  13. Factor IX gene haplotypes in Amerindians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, R F; Araújo, A G; Zago, M A; Guerreiro, J F; Figueiredo, M S

    1997-02-01

    We have determined the haplotypes of the factor IX gene for 95 Indians from 5 Brazilian Amazon tribes: Wayampí, Wayana-Apalaí, Kayapó, Arára, and Yanomámi. Eight polymorphisms linked to the factor IX gene were investigated: MseI (at 5', nt -698), BamHI (at 5', nt -561), DdeI (intron 1), BamHI (intron 2), XmnI (intron 3), TaqI (intron 4), MspI (intron 4), and HhaI (at 3', approximately 8 kb). The results of the haplotype distribution and the allele frequencies for each of the factor IX gene polymorphisms in Amerindians were similar to the results reported for Asian populations but differed from results for other ethnic groups. Only five haplotypes were identified within the entire Amerindian study population, and the haplotype distribution was significantly different among the five tribes, with one (Arára) to four (Wayampí) haplotypes being found per tribe. These findings indicate a significant heterogeneity among the Indian tribes and contrast with the homogeneous distribution of the beta-globin gene cluster haplotypes but agree with our recent findings on the distribution of alpha-globin gene cluster haplotypes and the allele frequencies for six VNTRs in the same Amerindian tribes. Our data represent the first study of factor IX-associated polymorphisms in Amerindian populations and emphasizes the applicability of these genetic markers for population and human evolution studies.

  14. Adapting the Caesium-137 technique to document soil redistribution rates associated with traditional cultivation practices in Haiti.

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    Velasco, H; Astorga, R Torres; Joseph, D; Antoine, J S; Mabit, L; Toloza, A; Dercon, G; Walling, Des E

    2018-03-01

    Large-scale deforestation, intensive land use and unfavourable rainfall conditions are responsible for significant continuous degradation of the Haitian uplands. To develop soil conservation strategies, simple and cost-effective methods are needed to assess rates of soil loss from farmland in Haiti. The fallout radionuclide caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) provides one such means of documenting medium-term soil redistribution rates. In this contribution, the authors report the first use in Haiti of 137 Cs measurements to document soil redistribution rates and the associated pattern of erosion/sedimentation rates along typical hillslopes within a traditional upland Haitian farming area. The local 137 Cs reference inventory, measured at an adjacent undisturbed flat area, was 670 Bq m -2 (SD = 100 Bq m -2 , CV = 15%, n = 7). Within the study area, where cultivation commenced in 1992 after deforestation, three representative downslope transects were sampled. These were characterized by 137 Cs inventories ranging from 190 to 2200 Bq m -2 . Although, the study area was cultivated by the local farmers, the 137 Cs depth distributions obtained from the area differed markedly from those expected from a cultivated area. They showed little evidence of tillage mixing within the upper part of the soil or, more particularly, of the near-uniform activities normally associated with the plough layer or cultivation horizon. They were very similar to that found at the reference site and were characterized by high 137 Cs activities at the surface and much lower activities at greater depths. This situation is thought to reflect the traditional manual tillage practices which cause limited disturbance and mixing of the upper part of the soil. It precluded the use of the conversion models normally used to estimate soil redistribution rates from 137 Cs measurements on cultivated soils and the Diffusion and Migration conversion model frequently used for uncultivated soils was modified for

  15. Effects of Interannual Climate Variability on Water Availability and Productivity in Capoeira and Crops Under Traditional and Alternative Shifting Cultivation

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    Guild, Liane S.; Sa, Tatiana D. A.; Carvalho, Claudio J. R.; Potter, Christopher S.; Wickel, Albert J.; Brienza, Silvio, Jr.; Kato, Maria doSocorro A.; Kato, Osvaldo; Brass, James (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Regenerating forests play an important role in long-term carbon sequestration and sustainable landuse as they act as potentially important carbon and nutrient sinks during the shifting agriculture fallow period. The long-term functioning of capoeira. is increasingly threatened by a shortening fallow period during shifting cultivation due to demographic pressures and associated increased vulnerability to severe climatic events. Declining productivity and functioning of fallow forests of shifting cultivation combined with progressive loss of nutrients by successive burning and cropping activities has resulted in declining agricultural productivity. In addition to the effects of intense land use practices, droughts associated with El Nino events are becoming more frequent and severe in moist tropical forests and negative effects on capoeira productivity could be considerable. In Igarape-Acu (near Belem, Para), we hypothesize that experimental alternative landuse/clearing practices (mulching and fallow vegetation improvement by planting with fast-growing leguminous tree species) may make capoeira and agriculture more resilient to the effects of agricultural pressures and drought through (1) increased biomass, soil organic matter and associated increase in soil water storage, and nutrient retention and (2) greater rooting depth of trees planted for fallow improvement. This experimental practice (moto mechanized chop-and-mulch with fallow improvement) has resulted increased soil moisture during the cropping phase, reduced loss of nutrients and organic matter, and higher rates of secondary-forest biomass accumulation. We present preliminary data on water relations during the dry season of 2001 in capoeira and crops for both traditional slash-and-burn and alternative chop-and-mulch practices. These data will be used to test IKONOS data for the detection of moisture status differences. The principal goal of the research is to determine the extent to which capoeira and

  16. Health and disease in unacculturated Amerindian populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neel, J V

    1977-08-01

    The stereotype of uncontacted tribal populations is that they must reproduce at near capacity to maintain or slightly increase their numbers. This paper argues that the health of minimally contacted Amerindians, as judged by the results of physical examinations and life tables for the Yanomama of Southern Venezuela and Northern Brazil, is relatively good, with population control a feature of the Indian culture. It is further argued that the usual deterioration in health with contacts with western culture probably does not result so much from special innate susceptibilities to certain epidemic diseases and to the diets and ''stresses'' of civilization as from the epidemiological characteristics of newly contacted peoples.

  17. Proximate, mineral composition and antioxidant activity of traditional small millets cultivated and consumed in Rayalaseema region of south India.

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    Vali Pasha, Kotwal; Ratnavathi, Chamarthy Venkata; Ajani, Jayanna; Raju, Dugyala; Manoj Kumar, Sriramoju; Beedu, Sashidhar Rao

    2018-01-01

    Millets are a diverse group of small seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as cereal foods. This communication details the proximate, mineral profile and antioxidant activity of six different small millets (Finger, Foxtail, Proso, Little, Barnyard and Kodo millets) and their 21 cultivars that are traditionally cultivated and consumed in the region of Ralayaseema, south India. The proximate analysis revealed that these millets are rich in protein, fat, ash (mineral), total dietary fibre and total phenols with appreciable antioxidant activity. However, starch and amylose content was comparatively lower as compared to major millet sorghum. ICP-MS analysis of small millets demonstrated that they are rich in minerals such as Ca, P, K, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr, Mo and Se. Finger and kodo millets were found to be nutritionally superior over other small millets. The results suggest that small millets have a potential to provide food security and can combat micronutrient malnutrition. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Uniparental genetic markers in South Amerindians

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    Rafael Bisso-Machado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive review of uniparental systems in South Amerindians was undertaken. Variability in the Y-chromosome haplogroups were assessed in 68 populations and 1,814 individuals whereas that of Y-STR markers was assessed in 29 populations and 590 subjects. Variability in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroup was examined in 108 populations and 6,697 persons, and sequencing studies used either the complete mtDNA genome or the highly variable segments 1 and 2. The diversity of the markers made it difficult to establish a general picture of Y-chromosome variability in the populations studied. However, haplogroup Q1a3a* was almost always the most prevalent whereas Q1a3* occurred equally in all regions, which suggested its prevalence among the early colonizers. The STR allele frequencies were used to derive a possible ancient Native American Q-clade chromosome haplotype and five of six STR loci showed significant geographic variation. Geographic and linguistic factors moderately influenced the mtDNA distributions (6% and 7%, respectively and mtDNA haplogroups A and D correlated positively and negatively, respectively, with latitude. The data analyzed here provide rich material for understanding the biological history of South Amerindians and can serve as a basis for comparative studies involving other types of data, such as cultural data.

  19. Ibero-American Amerindian Loanwords in Slovak

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    Bohdan Ulašin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the presence of loanwords of Amerindian origin in Slovak, in which Spanish (or Portuguese acted as the first European intermediate language for all the other European languages. The criteria for their inclusion are presented, and an exhaustive corpus of all such loanwords found in selected prestigious works of Slovak lexicography is thus formed. The total number of entries is 106. These are then analysed and classified in terms of assimilation processes: regularized and most frequent changes on different levels are shown; origin: almost four fifths of the corpus comes from four major sources (Tupi-Guarani languages Quechua, Arawakan languages and Nahuatl; thematic area (an absolute prevalence of specific New World geographical features and botanical and animal species unknown in Europe; chronology of occurrence (the first being the word čokoláda ‘chocolate’, the earliest written occurrence of which dates from 1691 and semantic development in the Slovak language, which does not have a parallel in Spanish. Moreover, the process of borrowing Amerindian loanwords has not finished. In today’s connected and globalized world we can observe new loanwords that do not yet appear in dictionaries, although they have already settled in the Slovak lexicon. These usually refer to gastronomic or religious concepts.

  20. Nature and culture in Amazonian landscape: a photographic experience echoing Amerindian cosmology and historical ecology

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    Patrick Pardini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available As an artistic experience, the photographic research "Arborescence - plant physiognomy in Amazonian landscape" conduces the author to discover landscape as an interpenetration of Nature and Culture (man's indirect presence; being face to face with vegetable subjects; continuity, undifferentiation and equivalence between the 'natural' (heterogeneous, spontaneous, native, rural and the 'cultural' (homogeneous, cultivated, exotic, urban in the experience of landscape; arborescence as a "cosmic image" (Gaston Bachelard, where the high (sky, light, branches, sky water and the low (earth, shade, roots, land water are equivalent and reversible poles. Such experience echoes the eco-cosmology of forest societies in Amazonia. The Amerindian cosmology is a "symbolic ecology" (Philippe Descola, that is, "a complex dynamics of social intercourse and transformations between humans and non-humans, visible and invisible subjects" (Bruce Albert; the Amerindian ecology is "a cosmology put into practice" (Kaj Århem, wherein hunted animals and cultivated plants are 'relatives' to be seduced or coerced. Such model appears to be a form of "socialization of nature" (Descola, "humanization of the forest" (Evaristo Eduardo de Miranda and "indirect anthropization" of Amazonian ecosystems (Descola which produces "cultural forests" (William Balée.

  1. Amerindian names of Colombian palms (Palmae

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    Diana Marmolejo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A glossary of 1276 Amerindian names or name variants of palms is presented, representing at least 121 species in 64 aboriginal languages of Colombia. The species with documented names in the largest number of languages are Bactris gasipaes, Oenocarpus bataua, Mauritia flexuosa,Euterpe precatoria, andAstrocaryum chambira, which are five of the most used palms in South America. The languages with the largest number of named species are uitoto (48, tikuna (47, muinane (43, siona (34, sikuani (31 and miraña (30. These figures reflect the detailed studies carried out with these ethnic groups, besides the palm diversity of their territories and their knowledge about it. The names are presented in three separate lists –arranged by species, by language, and a global list of names that includes references for each individual record.

  2. Health and disease in unacculturated Amerindian populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neel, J.V.

    1977-08-01

    The stereotype of uncontacted tribal populations is that they must reproduce at near capacity to maintain or slightly increase their numbers. This paper argues that the health of minimally contacted Amerindians, as judged by the results of physical examinations and life tables for the Yanomama of Southern Venezuela and Northern Brazil, is relatively good, with population control a feature of the Indian culture. It is further argued that the usual deterioration in health with contacts with western culture probably does not result so much from special innate susceptibilities to certain epidemic diseases and to the diets and ''stresses'' of civilization as from the epidemiological characteristics of newly contacted peoples.

  3. Argentine Population Genetic Structure: Large Variance in Amerindian Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldin, Michael F.; Tian, Chao; Shigeta, Russell; Scherbarth, Hugo R.; Silva, Gabriel; Belmont, John W.; Kittles, Rick; Gamron, Susana; Allevi, Alberto; Palatnik, Simon A.; Alvarellos, Alejandro; Paira, Sergio; Caprarulo, Cesar; Guillerón, Carolina; Catoggio, Luis J.; Prigione, Cristina; Berbotto, Guillermo A.; García, Mercedes A.; Perandones, Carlos E.; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Alarcon-Riquelme, Marta E.

    2011-01-01

    Argentine population genetic structure was examined using a set of 78 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to assess the contributions of European, Amerindian, and African ancestry in 94 individuals members of this population. Using the Bayesian clustering algorithm STRUCTURE, the mean European contribution was 78%, the Amerindian contribution was 19.4%, and the African contribution was 2.5%. Similar results were found using weighted least mean square method: European, 80.2%; Amerindian, 18.1%; and African, 1.7%. Consistent with previous studies the current results showed very few individuals (four of 94) with greater than 10% African admixture. Notably, when individual admixture was examined, the Amerindian and European admixture showed a very large variance and individual Amerindian contribution ranged from 1.5 to 84.5% in the 94 individual Argentine subjects. These results indicate that admixture must be considered when clinical epidemiology or case control genetic analyses are studied in this population. Moreover, the current study provides a set of informative SNPs that can be used to ascertain or control for this potentially hidden stratification. In addition, the large variance in admixture proportions in individual Argentine subjects shown by this study suggests that this population is appropriate for future admixture mapping studies. PMID:17177183

  4. Tradition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otto, Ton

    2016-01-01

    : beliefs, practices, institutions, and also things. In this sense, the meaning of the term in social research is very close to its usage in common language and is not always theoretically well developed (see Shils, 1971: 123). But the concept of tradition has also been central to major theoretical debates...... on the nature of social change, especially in connection with the notion of modernity. Here tradition is linked to various forms of agency as a factor of both stability and intentional change....

  5. Perceived health properties of wild and cultivated food plants in local and popular traditions of Italy: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarrera, P M; Savo, V

    2013-04-19

    Many wild and cultivated plants are rich in mineral elements and bioactive compounds and are consumed for health purposes. Studies have demonstrated the curative properties of many of these food plants. In this paper, we discuss the properties of several plants with potential health benefits that have previously received little attention. This review provides an overview and critical discussion of food plants perceived by informants (emic view) as healthy or used as 'food medicine' in Italy. Pharmacological activity of these plants is explored, based upon published scientific research (etic view). Preparation methods, taste perception, toxicity and various potentialities of some food plants are also discussed. The present review includes literature available from 1877 to 2012. The information was collected from books, scientific papers, and abstracts that reported any plants used as food medicine in Italy. The perceived health properties were analyzed in the framework of recent international phytochemical and phytopharmacological literature. A total of 67 edible wild plants and 18 cultivated vegetables, distributed into 20 families, were reported by informants (in literature). Several plants were highly cited (e.g., Taraxacum officinale Webb., Crepis vesicaria L., Allium cepa L., Allium sativum L.). The most frequent health properties attributed to edible plants by the informants were: laxative (22 species), diuretic (15), digestive (11), galactagogue (8), antitussive (cough) (8), hypotensive (7), tonic (7), sedative (7), hypoglycemic (6). Some edible plants are promising for their potential health properties, such as Crepis vesicaria L., Sanguisorba minor Scop. and Sonchus oleraceus L. Several wild species were perceived by informants to maintain health but have never been studied from a phytochemical or pharmacological point of view: e.g., Asparagus albus L., Crepis leontodontoides All., Hyoseris radiata L. subsp. radiata, Phyteuma spicatum L. Copyright © 2013

  6. HLA genetic profile of Mapuche (Araucanian) Amerindians from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Diego; Parga-Lozano, Carlos; Moscoso, Juan; Areces, Cristina; Enriquez-de-Salamanca, Mercedes; Fernández-Honrado, Mercedes; Abd-El-Fatah-Khalil, Sedeka; Alonso-Rubio, Javier; Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio

    2013-07-01

    Amerindian Mapuche (Araucanians) are now living in Chile and Argentina at both sides of Andean Mountains. They are anthropologically and genetically different from southernmost South America Patagonian Amerindians. Most of the HLA alleles found in our Mapuche sample are frequent or very frequent in North and South America Amerindians: (1) Class I: A*02:01, A*03:01, A*68:01, B*39:09, B*51:01, (2) Class II: DRB1*03:01, DRB1*04:03, DRB1*07:01, DRB1*08:02, DRB1*14:02, DRB1*16:02. One of the nine most frequent extended haplotypes seems to be from European origin, suggesting the existence of a degree of admixture with Europeans in our Mapuche sample. It has been calculated of about 11 % admixture. Three of the extended haplotypes are also found in other Amerindians and five of them are newly found in Mapuche Amerindians: A*68:01-B*39:09-DRB1*08:02-DQB1*04:02; A*68:01-B*51:01-DRB1*04:03-DQB1*03:02; A*29:01-B*08:01-DRB1*03:01-DQB1*02:01; A*02:01-B*15:01-DRB1*04:03-DQB1*03:02; A*33:01-B*14:02-DRB1*07:01-DQB1*03:03. The medical importance of calculating HLA profile is discussed on the diagnostic (HLA and disease) and therapeutical bases of HLA pharmacogenomics and on the construction of a virtual transplantation HLA list profile. Also, anthropological conclusions are drawn.

  7. Amerindian Helicobacter pylori strains go extinct, as european strains expand their host range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G Domínguez-Bello

    Full Text Available We studied the diversity of bacteria and host in the H. pylori-human model. The human indigenous bacterium H. pylori diverged along with humans, into African, European, Asian and Amerindian groups. Of these, Amerindians have the least genetic diversity. Since niche diversity widens the sets of resources for colonizing species, we predicted that the Amerindian H. pylori strains would be the least diverse. We analyzed the multilocus sequence (7 housekeeping genes of 131 strains: 19 cultured from Africans, 36 from Spanish, 11 from Koreans, 43 from Amerindians and 22 from South American Mestizos. We found that all strains that had been cultured from Africans were African strains (hpAfrica1, all from Spanish were European (hpEurope and all from Koreans were hspEAsia but that Amerindians and Mestizos carried mixed strains: hspAmerind and hpEurope strains had been cultured from Amerindians and hpEurope and hpAfrica1 were cultured from Mestizos. The least genetically diverse H. pylori strains were hspAmerind. Strains hpEurope were the most diverse and showed remarkable multilocus sequence mosaicism (indicating recombination. The lower genetic structure in hpEurope strains is consistent with colonization of a diversity of hosts. If diversity is important for the success of H. pylori, then the low diversity of Amerindian strains might be linked to their apparent tendency to disappear. This suggests that Amerindian strains may lack the needed diversity to survive the diversity brought by non-Amerindian hosts.

  8. Ancestry informative markers in Amerindians from Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luizon, Marcelo Rizzatti; Mendes-Junior, Celso Teixeira; De Oliveira, Silviene Fabiana; Simões, Aguinaldo Luiz

    2008-01-01

    Ancestry informative markers (AIMs) are genetic loci with large frequency differences between the major ethnic groups and are very useful in admixture estimation. However, their frequencies are poorly known within South American indigenous populations, making it difficult to use them in admixture studies with Latin American populations, such as the trihybrid Brazilian population. To minimize this problem, the frequencies of the AIMs FY-null, RB2300, LPL, AT3-I/D, Sb19.3, APO, and PV92 were determined via PCR and PCR-RFLP in four tribes from Brazilian Amazon (Tikúna, Kashinawa, Baníwa, and Kanamarí), to evaluate their potential for discriminating indigenous populations from Europeans and Africans, as well as discriminating each tribe from the others. Although capable of differentiating tribes, as evidenced by the exact test of population differentiation, a neighbor-joining tree suggests that the AIMs are useless in obtaining reliable reconstructions of the biological relationships and evolutionary history that characterize the villages and tribes studied. The mean allele frequencies from these AIMs were very similar to those observed for North American natives. They discriminated Amerindians from Africans, but not from Europeans. On the other hand, the neighbor-joining dendrogram separated Africans and Europeans from Amerindians with a high statistical support (bootstrap = 0.989). The relatively low diversity (G(ST) = 0.042) among North American natives and Amerindians from Brazilian Amazon agrees with the lack of intra-ethnic variation previously reported for these markers. Despite genetic drift effects, the mean allelic frequencies herein presented could be used as Amerindian parental frequencies in admixture estimates in urban Brazilian populations. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. MHC Class II haplotypes of Colombian Amerindian tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunis, Juan J.; Yunis, Edmond J.; Yunis, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed 1041 individuals belonging to 17 Amerindian tribes of Colombia, Chimila, Bari and Tunebo (Chibcha linguistic family), Embera, Waunana (Choco linguistic family), Puinave and Nukak (Maku-Puinave linguistic families), Cubeo, Guanano, Tucano, Desano and Piratapuyo (Tukano linguistic family), Guahibo and Guayabero (Guayabero Linguistic Family), Curripaco and Piapoco (Arawak linguistic family) and Yucpa (Karib linguistic family). for MHC class II haplotypes (HLA-DRB1, DQA1, DQB1). Approximately 90% of the MHC class II haplotypes found among these tribes are haplotypes frequently encountered in other Amerindian tribes. Nonetheless, striking differences were observed among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes. The DRB1*04:04, DRB1*04:11, DRB1*09:01 carrying haplotypes were frequently found among non-Chibcha speaking tribes, while the DRB1*04:07 haplotype showed significant frequencies among Chibcha speaking tribes, and only marginal frequencies among non-Chibcha speaking tribes. Our results suggest that the differences in MHC class II haplotype frequency found among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes could be due to genetic differentiation in Mesoamerica of the ancestral Amerindian population into Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking populations before they entered into South America. PMID:23885196

  10. Tradisi dan Perubahan Budi Daya Pohon di Desa Rambahan Kuansing dan Desa Ranggang Tanah Laut (Tradition and Change of Tree Cultivation in Rambahan Kuansing and Ranggang Tanah Laut Villages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didik Suharjito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of widespread tree cultivation by local community in some countries during the last threedecades has been explained by researchers with a macro perspective. This study is to understand the phenomenonat the micro level and from the native (peasant or farmer point of view. This study aims to explain the traditionand changes in tree cultivation. Theoris economic system were used as the basis to explain the tradition andchanges in tree cultivation in Rambahan village community of the Kuansing District and Ranggang Villagecommunity of Tanah Laut District. Case study method was used in this study. The data were collected  frominformants through individual interviews and focused group discussions. The results of this study show that thecultivation of trees has been practiced and institutionalized in the everyday lives of local people and passeddown from generation to generation, as well as a source of socio-economic stability of families. Factors thatfarmers take into consideration in the selection of tree crops to be cultivated are price, easy to sell, harvestingintensity, knowledge and skills, labor availability (particularly family labor, and capital availability. Theresults of this study also indicate that some elements of the economic system of Ranggang and Rambahancommunities have the characteristics of capitalism adherent, while some other elements have the characteristicsof pre-capitalism. In other words, two communities are in a transition between pre-capitalism and capitalism asshown in the practice of tree cultivation.Keyword: tree cultivation tradition, tenancy system of land and tree,  pre-capitalism community, Kuansing, Tanah Laut

  11. Physical activity and modernization among Bolivian Amerindians.

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    Michael Gurven

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is a growing public health problem, and the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Conversely, indigenous populations living traditional lifestyles reportedly engage in vigorous daily activity that is protective against non-communicable diseases. Here we analyze physical activity patterns among the Tsimane, forager-horticulturalists of Amazonian Bolivia with minimal heart disease and diabetes. We assess age patterns of adult activity among men and women, test whether modernization affects activity levels, and examine whether nascent obesity is associated with reduced activity.A factorial method based on a large sample of behavioral observations was employed to estimate effects of age, sex, body mass index, and modernization variables on physical activity ratio (PAR, the ratio of total energy expenditure to basal metabolic rate. Accelerometry combined with heart rate monitoring was compared to the factorial method and used for nighttime sampling. Tsimane men and women display 24 hr physical activity level (PAL of 2.02-2.15 and 1.73-1.85, respectively. Little time was spent "sedentary", whereas most activity was light to moderate, rather than vigorous. Activity peaks by the late twenties in men, and declines thereafter, but remains constant among women after the early teens. Neither BMI, fat free mass or body fat percentage are associated with PAR. There was no negative effect of modernization on physical activity.Tsimane display relatively high PALs typical of other subsistence populations, but of moderate intensity, and not outside the range of developed populations. Despite rapidly increasing socioeconomic change, there is little evidence that total activity has yet been affected. Overweight and obesity are more prevalent among women than men, and Spanish fluency is associated with greater obesity in women. The lack of cardiovascular disease among Tsimane is unlikely caused by activity alone; further study of diet

  12. Physical activity and modernization among Bolivian Amerindians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurven, Michael; Jaeggi, Adrian V; Kaplan, Hillard; Cummings, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a growing public health problem, and the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Conversely, indigenous populations living traditional lifestyles reportedly engage in vigorous daily activity that is protective against non-communicable diseases. Here we analyze physical activity patterns among the Tsimane, forager-horticulturalists of Amazonian Bolivia with minimal heart disease and diabetes. We assess age patterns of adult activity among men and women, test whether modernization affects activity levels, and examine whether nascent obesity is associated with reduced activity. A factorial method based on a large sample of behavioral observations was employed to estimate effects of age, sex, body mass index, and modernization variables on physical activity ratio (PAR), the ratio of total energy expenditure to basal metabolic rate. Accelerometry combined with heart rate monitoring was compared to the factorial method and used for nighttime sampling. Tsimane men and women display 24 hr physical activity level (PAL) of 2.02-2.15 and 1.73-1.85, respectively. Little time was spent "sedentary", whereas most activity was light to moderate, rather than vigorous. Activity peaks by the late twenties in men, and declines thereafter, but remains constant among women after the early teens. Neither BMI, fat free mass or body fat percentage are associated with PAR. There was no negative effect of modernization on physical activity. Tsimane display relatively high PALs typical of other subsistence populations, but of moderate intensity, and not outside the range of developed populations. Despite rapidly increasing socioeconomic change, there is little evidence that total activity has yet been affected. Overweight and obesity are more prevalent among women than men, and Spanish fluency is associated with greater obesity in women. The lack of cardiovascular disease among Tsimane is unlikely caused by activity alone; further study of diet, food intake and

  13. Helminths and skewed cytokine profiles increase tuberculin skin test positivity in Warao Amerindians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, L. M.; Hermans, P. W. M.; Warris, A.; de Groot, R.; Maes, M.; Villalba, J. A.; del Nogal, B.; van den Hof, S.; Mughini Gras, L.; van Soolingen, D.; Pinelli, E.; de Waard, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    The immune regulatory mechanisms involved in the acquisition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children are largely unknown. We investigated the influence of parasitic infections, malnutrition and plasma cytokine profiles on tuberculin skin test (TST) positivity in Warao Amerindians in

  14. Study of Colombia North Wiwa El Encanto Amerindians HLA- genes: Pacific Islanders relatedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio; Palacio-Grüber, Jose; Juarez, Ignacio; Muñiz, Ester; Hernández, Ennio; Bayona, Brayan; Campos, Cristina; Nuñez, Jorge; Lopez-Nares, Adrian; Martin-Villa, Manuel; Silvera, Carlos

    2018-07-01

    We have studied Wiwa/Sanja Amerindians HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1 and DQB1 allele frequencies and extended haplotypes in 52 unrelated individuals from "El Encanto" town at Guanachaca riverside. High frequency alleles were in general present in other Amerindian populations. Also, three extended haplotypes and eight ones were respectively both "new found" and already described in Amerindians from North, Central and South America, including Lakota-Sioux, Mayas, Teeneks, Quechua and Aymaras. Analyses of HLA-A*24:02 and -C*01:02 Wiwa high frequency alleles suggested a specific relatedness with another Amerindian and Pacific Islander ethnic groups (these two particular alleles bearing in high frequencies); they include New Zealand Maoris, Taiwanese, Japanese, Papua New Guinea, and Samoans among others. This may indicate that selective forces are maintaining these two alleles high frequency within this wide American/Pacific area. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Origin of Aymaras from Bolivia and their relationship with other Amerindians according to HLA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaiz-Villena, A; Siles, N; Moscoso, J; Zamora, J; Serrano-Vela, J I; Gomez-Casado, E; Castro, M J; Martinez-Laso, J

    2005-04-01

    Aymara Amerindians from the Titicaca Lake Andean highlands are studied for HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 gene frequencies. Genetic distances, neighbour-joining and correspondence analyses are performed by using other Amerindian and worldwide populations (15384 chromosomes are studied). The HLA genetic profile of Aymaras is different from neighbouring and language-related Quechuas (Incas). Both Quechuas and Aymaras seem to present an HLA-DRB1*0901 high frequency, which is present in a very low frequency or absent in Mesoamericans (Mazatecans, Mayans) and most studied Amerindians. Moreover, it is observed a closer relatedness of Aymaras with Amerindians from the Amazon Basin and Chaco lowlands, compared to Quechuans.

  16. Further evidence of an Amerindian contribution to the Polynesian gene pool on Easter Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsby, E; Flåm, S T; Woldseth, B; Dupuy, B M; Sanchez-Mazas, A; Fernandez-Vina, M A

    2009-06-01

    Available evidence suggests a Polynesian origin of the Easter Island population. We recently found that some native Easter Islanders also carried some common American Indian (Amerindian) human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles, which probably were introduced before Europeans discovered the island in 1722. In this study, we report molecular genetic investigations of 21 other selected native Easter Islanders. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome markers showed no traces of an Amerindian contribution. However, high-resolution genomic HLA typing showed that two individuals carried some other common Amerindian HLA alleles, different from those found in our previous investigations. The new data support our previous evidence of an Amerindian contribution to the gene pool on Easter Island.

  17. Recovering mitochondrial DNA lineages of extinct Amerindian nations in extant homopatric Brazilian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Vanessa F; Parra, Flavia C; Gonçalves-Dornelas, Higgor; Rodrigues-Carvalho, Claudia; Silva, Hilton P; Pena, Sergio Dj

    2010-12-01

    Brazilian Amerindians have experienced a drastic population decrease in the past 500 years. Indeed, many native groups from eastern Brazil have vanished. However, their mitochondrial mtDNA haplotypes, still persist in Brazilians, at least 50 million of whom carry Amerindian mitochondrial lineages. Our objective was to test whether, by analyzing extant rural populations from regions anciently occupied by specific Amerindian groups, we could identify potentially authentic mitochondrial lineages, a strategy we have named 'homopatric targeting'. We studied 173 individuals from Queixadinha, a small village located in a territory previously occupied by the now extinct Botocudo Amerindian nation. Pedigree analysis revealed 74 unrelated matrilineages, which were screened for Amerindian mtDNA lineages by restriction fragment length polymorphism. A cosmopolitan control group was composed of 100 individuals from surrounding cities. All Amerindian lineages identified had their hypervariable segment HVSI sequenced, yielding 13 Amerindian haplotypes in Queixadinha, nine of which were not present in available databanks or in the literature. Among these haplotypes, there was a significant excess of haplogroup C (70%) and absence of haplogroup A lineages, which were the most common in the control group. The novelty of the haplotypes and the excess of the C haplogroup suggested that we might indeed have identified Botocudo lineages. To validate our strategy, we studied teeth extracted from 14 ancient skulls of Botocudo Amerindians from the collection of the National Museum of Rio de Janeiro. We recovered mtDNA sequences from all the teeth, identifying only six different haplotypes (a low haplotypic diversity of 0.8352 ± 0.0617), one of which was present among the lineages observed in the extant individuals studied. These findings validate the technique of homopatric targeting as a useful new strategy to study the peopling and colonization of the New World, especially when direct

  18. Low child survival index in a multi-dimensionally poor Amerindian population in Venezuela.

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    Julian A Villalba

    Full Text Available Warao Amerindians, who inhabit the Orinoco Delta, are the second largest indigenous group in Venezuela.  High Warao general mortality rates were mentioned in a limited study 21 years ago. However, there have been no comprehensive studies addressing child survival across the entire population.To determine the Child Survival-Index (CSI (ratio: still-living children/total-live births in the Warao population, the principal causes of childhood death and the socio-demographic factors associated with childhood deaths.We conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological survey of 688 women from 97 communities in 7 different subregions of the Orinoco Delta. Data collected included socio-demographic characteristics and the reproductive history of each woman surveyed. The multidimensional poverty index (MPI was used to classify the households as deprived across the three dimensions of the Human Development Index. Multivariable linear regression and Generalized Linear Model Procedures were used to identify socioeconomic and environmental characteristics statistically associated with the CSI.The average CSI was 73.8% ±26. The two most common causes of death were gastroenteritis/diarrhea (63% and acute respiratory tract Infection/pneumonia (18%.  Deaths in children under five years accounted for 97.3% of childhood deaths, with 54% occurring in the neonatal period or first year of life.  Most of the women (95.5% were classified as multidimensionally poor.  The general MPI in the sample was 0.56.   CSI was negatively correlated with MPI, maternal age, residence in a traditional dwelling and profession of the head of household other than nurse or teacher.The Warao have a low CSI which is correlated with MPI and maternal age.  Infectious diseases are responsible for 85% of childhood deaths.  The low socioeconomic development, lack of infrastructure and geographic and cultural isolation suggest that an integrated approach is urgently needed to

  19. Low child survival index in a multi-dimensionally poor Amerindian population in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Julian A; Liu, Yushi; Alvarez, Mauyuri K; Calderon, Luisana; Canache, Merari; Cardenas, Gaudymar; Del Nogal, Berenice; Takiff, Howard E; De Waard, Jacobus H

    2013-01-01

    Warao Amerindians, who inhabit the Orinoco Delta, are the second largest indigenous group in Venezuela.  High Warao general mortality rates were mentioned in a limited study 21 years ago. However, there have been no comprehensive studies addressing child survival across the entire population. To determine the Child Survival-Index (CSI) (ratio: still-living children/total-live births) in the Warao population, the principal causes of childhood death and the socio-demographic factors associated with childhood deaths. We conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological survey of 688 women from 97 communities in 7 different subregions of the Orinoco Delta. Data collected included socio-demographic characteristics and the reproductive history of each woman surveyed. The multidimensional poverty index (MPI) was used to classify the households as deprived across the three dimensions of the Human Development Index. Multivariable linear regression and Generalized Linear Model Procedures were used to identify socioeconomic and environmental characteristics statistically associated with the CSI. The average CSI was 73.8% ±26. The two most common causes of death were gastroenteritis/diarrhea (63%) and acute respiratory tract Infection/pneumonia (18%).  Deaths in children under five years accounted for 97.3% of childhood deaths, with 54% occurring in the neonatal period or first year of life.  Most of the women (95.5%) were classified as multidimensionally poor.  The general MPI in the sample was 0.56.   CSI was negatively correlated with MPI, maternal age, residence in a traditional dwelling and profession of the head of household other than nurse or teacher. The Warao have a low CSI which is correlated with MPI and maternal age.  Infectious diseases are responsible for 85% of childhood deaths.  The low socioeconomic development, lack of infrastructure and geographic and cultural isolation suggest that an integrated approach is urgently needed to improve the

  20. Differential perpetuation of malaria species among Amazonian Yanomami Amerindians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laserson, K F; Wypij, D; Petralanda, I; Spielman, A; Maguire, J H

    1999-05-01

    To determine whether malaria perpetuates within isolated Amerindian villages in the Venezuelan Amazon, we surveyed malaria infection and disease among 1,311 Yanomami in three communities during a 16-month period. Plasmodium vivax was generally present in each of these small, isolated villages; asymptomatic infection was frequent, and clinical disease was most evident among children less than five years of age (odds ratio [OR] = 6.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4-29.2) and among persons experiencing parasitemias > or = 1,000 parasites/mm3 of blood (OR = 45.0, 95% CI = 5.5-370.7). Plasmodium falciparum, in contrast, was less prevalent, except during an abrupt outbreak in which 72 infections resulted in symptoms in all age groups and at all levels of parasitemia, and occasionally were life-threatening. The observed endemic pattern of P. vivax infection may derive from the capacity of this pathogen to relapse, while the epidemic pattern of P. falciparum infection may reflect occasional introductions of strains carried by immigrants or residents of distant villages and the subsequent disappearance of this non-relapsing pathogen.

  1. HIV-1 epidemic in Warao Amerindians from Venezuela: spatial phylodynamics and epidemiological patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Julian A; Bello, Gonzalo; Maes, Mailis; Sulbaran, Yoneira F; Garzaro, Domingo; Loureiro, Carmen L; Rangel, Hector R; de Waard, Jacobus H; Pujol, Flor H

    2013-07-17

    We previously reported HIV-1 infection in Warao Amerindians from Venezuela. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent and the dynamic of HIV-1 dissemination in eight Warao communities. HIV-1 infection was evaluated in 576 Warao Amerindians from the Orinoco Delta. Partial HIV-1 pol sequences were analyzed to reconstruct the spatiotemporal and demographic dynamics of the epidemic. HIV-1 antibodies were present in 9.55% of Warao Amerindians, ranging from 0 to 22%. A significantly higher prevalence was found in men (15.6%) compared with women (2.6%), reaching up to 35% in men from one community. All but one isolates were classified as subtype B. Warao's HIV-1 subtype-B epidemic resulted from a single viral introduction at around the early 2000s. After an initial phase of slow growth, the subtype B started to spread at a fast rate (0.8/year) following two major routes of migration within the communities. A dramatic high prevalence was documented in almost all the communities of Warao Amerindians from the Orinoco Delta tested for HIV-1 infection. This epidemic resulted from the dissemination of a single HIV-1 subtype B founder strain introduced about 10 years ago and its size is probably doubling every year, creating a situation that can be devastating for this vulnerable Amerindian group.

  2. The Polynesian gene pool: an early contribution by Amerindians to Easter Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsby, Erik

    2012-03-19

    It is now generally accepted that Polynesia was first settled by peoples from southeast Asia. An alternative that eastern parts of Polynesia were first inhabited by Amerindians has found little support. There are, however, many indications of a 'prehistoric' (i.e. before Polynesia was discovered by Europeans) contact between Polynesia and the Americas, but genetic evidence of a prehistoric Amerindian contribution to the Polynesian gene pool has been lacking. We recently carried out genomic HLA (human leucocyte antigen) typing as well as typing for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y chromosome markers of blood samples collected in 1971 and 2008 from reputedly non-admixed Easter Islanders. All individuals carried HLA alleles and mtDNA types previously found in Polynesia, and most of the males carried Y chromosome markers of Polynesian origin (a few had European Y chromosome markers), further supporting an initial Polynesian population on Easter Island. The HLA investigations revealed, however, that some individuals also carried HLA alleles which have previously almost only been found in Amerindians. We could trace the introduction of these Amerindian alleles to before the Peruvian slave trades, i.e. before the 1860s, and provide suggestive evidence that they were introduced already in prehistoric time. Our results demonstrate an early Amerindian contribution to the Polynesian gene pool on Easter Island, and illustrate the usefulness of typing for immunogenetic markers such as HLA to complement mtDNA and Y chromosome analyses in anthropological investigations.

  3. Effects of Amerindian Genetic Ancestry on Clinical Variables and Therapy in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Elena; García de la Torre, Ignacio; Sacnún, Mónica; Goñi, Mario; Berbotto, Guillermo; Paira, Sergio; Musuruana, Jorge Luis; Graf, César; Alvarellos, Alejandro; Messina, Osvaldo D; Babini, Alejandra; Strusberg, Ingrid; Marcos, Juan Carlos; Scherbarth, Hugo; Spindler, Alberto; Quinteros, Ana; Toloza, Sergio; Moreno, José Luis C; Catoggio, Luis J; Tate, Guillermo; Eimon, Alicia; Citera, Gustavo; Pellet, Antonio Catalán; Nasswetter, Gustavo; Cardiel, Mario H; Miranda, Pedro; Ballesteros, Francisco; Esquivel-Valerio, Jorge A; Maradiaga-Ceceña, Marco A; Acevedo-Vásquez, Eduardo M; García, Conrado García; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E

    2017-12-01

    To define whether Amerindian genetic ancestry correlates with clinical and therapeutic variables in admixed individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from Latin America. Patients with RA (n = 1347) and healthy controls (n = 1012) from Argentina, Mexico, Chile, and Peru were included. Samples were genotyped for the Immunochip v1 using the Illumina platform. Clinical data were obtained through interviews or the clinical history. Percentage of Amerindian ancestry was comparable between cases and controls. Morning stiffness (p ancestry after Bonferroni correction. Higher Amerindian ancestry correlated only with weight loss (p Bonferroni ancestry correlated with higher doses of azathioprine (p ancestry protects against most major clinical criteria of RA, but regarding the association of RF with increased European ancestry, age, sex, and smoking are modifiers. Ancestry also correlates with the therapeutic profiles.

  4. Plasma lipid fatty acid composition, desaturase activities and insulin sensitivity in Amerindian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessby, B; Ahrén, B; Warensjö, E; Lindgärde, F

    2012-03-01

    Two Amerindian populations--Shuar women living in the Amazonian rain forest under traditional conditions and urbanized women in a suburb of Lima were studied. The fatty acid composition in plasma lipids and the relationships between fatty acid composition and metabolic variables were studied, as well as in a reference group of Swedish women. Fasting plasma was used for analyses of glucose, insulin, leptin and fatty acid composition. Women in Lima had more body fat, higher fasting insulin and leptin and lower insulin sensitivity than the Shuar women, who had insulin sensitivity similar to Swedish women. Shuar women had very high proportions (mean; SD) of palmitoleic (13.2; 3.9%) and oleic (33.9; 3.7%) acids in the plasma cholesteryl esters with very low levels of linoleic acid (29.1; 6.1 3%), as expected on a low fat, high carbohydrate diet. The estimated activity of delta 9 (SCD-1) desaturase was about twice as high in the Shuar compared with Lima women, suggesting neo lipogenesis, while the delta 5 desaturase activity did not differ. The Lima women, as well as the Swedish, showed strong positive correlations between SCD-1 activity on the one hand and fasting insulin and HOMA index on the other. These associations were absent in the Shuar women. The high SCD-1 activity in the Shuar women may reflect increased lipogenesis in adipose tissue. It also illustrates how a low fat diet rich in non-refined carbohydrates can be linked to a good metabolic situation. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Bioreactor design and implementation strategies for the cultivation of filamentous fungi and the production of fungal metabolites: from traditional methods to engineered systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musoni, M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of fungal metabolites and conidia at an industrial scale requires an adequate yield at relatively low cost. To this end, many factors are examined and the design of the bioreactor to be used for the selected product takes a predominant place in the analysis. One approach to addressing the issue is to integrate the scaling-up procedure according to the biological characteristics of the microorganism considered, i.e. in our case filamentous fungi. Indeed, the scaling-up procedure is considered as one of the major bottlenecks in fermentation technology, mainly due to the near impossibility of reproducing the ideal conditions obtained in small reactors designed for research purposes when transposing them to a much larger production scale. The present review seeks to make the point regarding the bioreactor design and its implementation for cultivation of filamentous fungi and the production of fungal metabolites according to different developmental stages of fungi of industrial interest. Solid-state (semi-solid, submerged, fermentation and biofilm reactors are analyzed. The different bioreactor designs used for these three processes are also described at the technological level.

  6. Typing of Amerindian Kichwas and Mestizos from Ecuador with the SNPforID multiplex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lena; Børsting, Claus; Tomas, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    77 were from Native Amerindian Kichwas. We obtained full SNP profiles in all individuals and concordance of duplicated analyses. No deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) was observed for any SNP in the Mestizo and Kichwa populations and only one and four pairs of loci, respectively showed...

  7. Cunning Pedagogics: The Encounter between the Jesuit Missionaries and Amerindians in Th-Century New France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The Jesuit encounter with the Amerindians of the St. Lawrence Valley in Th-century New France provides us with incalculable insights into the inner workings of the "colonial imagination" that believes the objects of instruction have everything to learn and nothing of value to teach. This article explicates how the Jesuits got to know their…

  8. HLA-DRB1 alleles in four Amerindian populations from Argentina and Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is one of the biological systems of major polymorphisms. The study of HLA class II variability has allowed the identification of several alleles that are characteristic to Amerindian populations, and it is an excellent tool to define the relations and biological affinities among them. In this work, we analyzed the allelic distribution of the HLA-DRB1 class II locus in four Amerindian populations: Mapuche (n = 34) and Tehuelche (n = 23) from the Patagonian region of Argentina, and Wichi SV (n = 24) and Lengua (n = 17) from the Argentinean and Paraguayan Chaco regions, respectively. In all of these groups, relatively high frequencies of Amerindian HLA-DRB1 alleles were observed (DRB1*0403, DRB1*0407, DRB1*0411, DRB1*0417, DRB1*0802, DRB1*0901, DRB1*1402, DRB1*1406 and DRB1*1602). However, we also detected the presence of non-Amerindian variants in Mapuche (35%) and Tehuelche (22%). We compared our data with those obtained in six indigenous groups of the Argentinean Chaco region and in a sample from Buenos Aires City. The genetic distance dendrogram showed a clear-cut division between the Patagonian and Chaco populations, which formed two different clusters. In spite of their linguistic differences, it can be inferred that the biological affinities observed are in concordance with the geographic distributions and interethnic relations established among the groups studied. PMID:21637670

  9. Molecular variability in Amerindians: widespread but uneven information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO M. SALZANO

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A review was made in relation to the molecular variability present in North, Central, and South American Indian populations. It involved results from ancient DNA, mitochondrial DNA in extant populations, HLA and other autosomal markers, X and Y chromosome variation, as well as data from parasitic viruses which could show coevolutionary changes. The questions considered were their origin, ways in which the early colonization of the continent took place, types and levels of the variability which developed, peculiarities of the Amerindian evolutionary processes, and eventual genetic heterogeneity which evolved in different geographical areas. Although much information is already available, it is highly heterogeneous in relation to populations and types of genetic systems investigated. Unfortunately, the present trend of favoring essentially applied research suggest that the situation will not basically improve in the future.Foi realizada uma revisão quanto à variabilidade molecular presente em populações indígenas das Américas do Norte, Central e do Sul. Ela envolveu resultados sobre DNA antigo, DNA mitocondrial em populações atuais, HLA e outros marcadores autossômicos, variação nos cromossomos X e Y, bem como dados de virus parasitas que podem mostrar mudanças coevolucionárias. As questões consideradas foram a sua origem, maneiras como ocorreu a colonização pré-histórica do continente, tipos e níveis da variabilidade que foi desenvolvida, peculiaridades dos processos evolucionários em ameríndios, e a eventual heterogeneidade genética que surgiu em diferentes áreas geográficas. Apesar de que já foi obtida muita informação, ela é muito heterogênea quanto a populações e tipos de sistemas genéticos investigados. Infelizmente, a tendência atual a favorecer pesquisas essencialmente aplicadas sugere que esta situação não deverá melhorar no futuro.

  10. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Global Warming Potential of Traditional and Diversified Tropical Rice Rotation Systems including Impacts of Upland Crop Management Practices i.e. Mulching and Inter-crop Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janz, Baldur; Weller, Sebastian; Kraus, David; Wassmann, Reiner; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Kiese, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Paddy rice cultivation is increasingly challenged by irrigation water scarcity, while at the same time changes in demand (e.g. changes in diets or increasing demand for biofuels) will feed back on agricultural practices. These factors are changing traditional cropping patterns from flooded double-rice systems to the introduction of well-aerated upland crop systems in the dry season. Emissions of methane (CH4) are expected to decrease, while emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) will increase and soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks will most likely be volatilized in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2). We measured greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in the Philippines to provide a comparative assessment of the global warming potentials (GWP) as well as yield scaled GWPs of different crop rotations and to evaluate mitigation potentials or risks of new management practices i.e. mulching and inter-crop cultivation. New management practices of mulching and intercrop cultivation will also have the potential to change SOC dynamics, thus can play the key role in contributing to the GWP of upland cropping systems. To present, more than three years of continuous measurement data of CH4 and N2O emissions in double-rice cropping (R-R) and paddy rice rotations diversified with either maize (R-M) or aerobic rice (R-A) in upland cultivation have been collected. Introduction of upland crops in the dry season reduced irrigation water use and CH4 emissions by 66-81% and 95-99%, respectively. Moreover, for practices including upland crops, CH4 emissions in the subsequent wet season with paddy rice were reduced by 54-60%. Although annual N2O emissions increased twice- to threefold in the diversified systems, the strong reduction of CH4 led to a significantly lower (pbalance but also with regard to soil fertility. New upland crop management practices where first implemented during land-preparation for dry season (July) 2015 where i) 6t/ha rice straw

  11. Evaluation of forensic and anthropological potential of D9S1120 in Mestizos and Amerindian populations from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Villalobos, Héctor; Sánchez-Gutiérrez, Viviana M; Botello-Ruiz, Miriam; Salazar-Flores, Joel; Martínez-Cortés, Gabriela; Muñoz-Valle, José F; Phillips, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Aim To carry out a deeper forensic and anthropological evaluation of the short tandem repeat (STR) D9S1120 in five Mestizo populations and eight Amerindian groups from Mexico. Methods We amplified the STR D9S1120 based on primers and conditions described by Phillips et al, followed by capillary electrophoresis in the genetic analyzer ABI Prism 310. Genotypes were analyzed with the GeneMapper ID software. In each population we estimated statistical parameters of forensic importance and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Heterozygosity and FST-values were compared with those previously obtained with nine STRs of the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS-STRs). Results Amerindian and Mestizo populations showed high frequencies of the allele 9 and 16, respectively. Population structure analysis (AMOVA) showed a significant differentiation between Amerindian groups (FST = 2.81%; P anthropological potential to differentiate Mestizos and Amerindian populations. PMID:23100204

  12. Evidence of at Least Two Introductions of HIV-1 in the Amerindian Warao Population from Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Héctor R.; Maes, Mailis; Villalba, Julian; Sulbarán, Yoneira; de Waard, Jacobus H.; Bello, Gonzalo; Pujol, Flor H.

    2012-01-01

    Background The Venezuelan Amerindians were, until recently, free of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, in 2007, HIV-1 infection was detected for the first time in the Warao Amerindian population living in the Eastern part of Venezuela, in the delta of the Orinoco river. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic diversity of the HIV-1 circulating in this population. Methodology/Principal Findings The pol genomic region was sequenced for 16 HIV-1 isolates and for some of them, sequences from env, vif and nef genomic regions were obtained. All HIV-1 isolates were classified as subtype B, with exception of one that was classified as subtype C. The 15 subtype B isolates exhibited a high degree of genetic similarity and formed a highly supported monophyletic cluster in each genomic region analyzed. Evolutionary analyses of the pol genomic region indicated that the date of the most recent common ancestor of the Waraos subtype B clade dates back to the late 1990s. Conclusions/Significance At least two independent introductions of HIV-1 have occurred in the Warao Amerindians from Venezuela. The HIV-1 subtype B was successfully established and got disseminated in the community, while no evidence of local dissemination of the HIV-1 subtype C was detected in this study. These results warrant further surveys to evaluate the burden of this disease, which can be particularly devastating in this Amerindian population, with a high prevalence of tuberculosis, hepatitis B, among other infectious diseases, and with limited access to primary health care. PMID:22808212

  13. Genetic and environmental determinants of the susceptibility of Amerindian derived populations for having hypertriglyceridemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Tusie-Luna, Teresa; Pajukanta, Päivi

    2014-01-01

    Here, we discuss potential explanations for the higher prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia in populations with an Amerindian background. Although environmental factors are the triggers, the search for the ethnic related factors that explains the increased susceptibility of the Amerindians is a promising area for research. The study of the genetics of hypertriglyceridemia in Hispanic populations faces several challenges. Ethnicity could be a major confounding variable to prove genetic associations. Despite that, the study of hypertriglyceridemia in Hispanics has resulted in significant contributions. Two GWAS reports have exclusively included Mexican mestizos. Fifty percent of the associations reported in Caucasians could be generalized to the Mexicans, but in many cases the Mexican lead SNP was different than that reported in Europeans. Both reports included new associations with apo B or triglycerides concentrations. The frequency of susceptibility alleles in Mexicans is higher than that found in Europeans for several of the genes with the greatest effect on triglycerides levels. An example is the SNP rs964184 in APOA5. The same trend was observed for ANGPTL3 and TIMD4 variants. In summary, we postulate that the study of the genetic determinants of hypertriglyceridemia in Amerindian populations which have major changes in their lifestyle, may prove to be a great resource to identify new genes and pathways associated with hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:24768220

  14. Characterization of hepatitis B virus in Amerindian children and mothers from Amazonas State, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mario Jaramillo

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B Virus (HBV infection is a worldwide public health problem. In the 1980's a highly effective and safe vaccine against HBV was developed, although breakthrough infection still occasionally occurs because of the emergence of escape mutants. The aim of this study was to identify HBV genotypes and escape mutants in children and their mothers in Amerindian communities of the Amazonas State, Southern Colombia.Blood specimens collected from children and mothers belonging to 37 Amerindian communities in Amazonas state, were screened for HBsAg and anti-HBc using ELISA. The partial region containing the S ORF was amplified by nested PCR, and amplicons were sequenced. The phylogenetic analysis was performed using the MEGA 5.05 software.Forty-six children (46/1275, 3.6% and one hundred and seventy-seven mothers (177/572, 30.9% were tested positive for the anti-HBc serological marker. Among them, 190 samples were tested for viral genome detection; 8.3% (2/31 serum samples obtained from children and 3.1% (5/159 from mothers were positive for the ORF S PCR. The predominant HBV genotype in the study population was F, subgenotype F1b; in addition, subgenotype F1a and genotype A were also characterized. Two HBV escape mutants were identified, G145R, reported worldwide, and W156*; this stop codon was identified in a child with occult HBV infection. Other mutations were found, L109R and G130E, located in critical positions of the HBsAg sequence.This study aimed to characterize the HBV genotype F, subgenotypes F1b and F1a, and genotype A in Amerindian communities and for the first time escape mutants in Colombia. Further investigations are necessary to elucidate the frequency and the epidemiological impact of the escape mutants in the country.

  15. Low Child Survival Index in a Multi-Dimensionally Poor Amerindian Population in Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Villalba, Julian A.; Liu, Yushi; Alvarez, Mauyuri K.; Calderon, Luisana; Canache, Merari; Cardenas, Gaudymar; Del Nogal, Berenice; Takiff, Howard E.; De Waard, Jacobus H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Warao Amerindians, who inhabit the Orinoco Delta, are the second largest indigenous group in Venezuela.  High Warao general mortality rates were mentioned in a limited study 21 years ago. However, there have been no comprehensive studies addressing child survival across the entire population. Objectives To determine the Child Survival-Index (CSI) (ratio: still-living children/total-live births) in the Warao population, the principal causes of childhood death and the socio-demograph...

  16. AMERINDIAN RELATIONAL OBJECTS: THE (INVISIBILITY OF KADIWÉU INDIANS ART IN A BRAZILIAN SOAP OPERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Koller Lecznieski

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the role of ceramics in Kadiwéu social life. The Kadiwéu are Amerindians who live in the southern part of Pantanal Matogrossense, Brazil. The relations between art and social world will be described and analyzed through ethnographic examples, showing how the Kadiwéu understand their ceramic as a special way of relating to the external world, markedly the “world of the “whites”. This relational understanding of objects also points out, in a reflexive and critical manner, to crucial aspects of western conceptions of human relations.

  17. HLA non-class II genes may confer type I diabetes susceptibility in a Mapuche (Amerindian) affected family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Bravo, Francisco; Martinez-Laso, Jorge; Martin-Villa, Jose M; Moscoso, Juan; Moreno, Almudena; Serrano-Vela, Juan I; Zamora, Jorge; Asenjo, Silvia; Gleisner, Andrea; Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    A rare case of type I diabetes is studied in an Amerindian (Mapuche) family from Chile, analyzing glutamic acid decarboxylase, islet-cell autoantibodies and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes. The affected sib is the only one that has one specific HLA haplotype combination that differs from the other sibs only in the HLA class I genes. It is concluded that HLA diabetes susceptibility factors may be placed outside the class II region or even that susceptibility factors do not exist in the HLA region in this Amerindian family.

  18. Anemia and malaria in a Yanomami Amerindian population from the southern Venezuelan Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Mato, S

    1998-12-01

    The prevalence and age distribution of anemia and malaria among Yanomami Amerindians undergoing sociocultural assimilation are described. Anemia and malaria proportions were determined in 103 individuals randomly selected from 515 villagers in Mavaca in the southern Venezuelan Amazon. The age and sex distribution reflected that of the entire village cluster. Anemia (hematocrit less than World Health Organization/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference values) was found in 91% of the study population. As a group, adults (> or = 15 years old) had the highest proportion of anemia (P=0.037). Adult females had lower mean hematocrit values than adult males (P=0.013). The anemia was predominantly hypochromic and microcytic (62%), a finding that could suggest a diagnosis of iron deficiency in the absence of known hereditary hemoglobinopathies in these Amerindians. Malaria was diagnosed in 14% overall. Children (< 10 years old) displayed the highest proportion of Plasmodium falciparum (17%) and P. vivax (14%) parasitemia, splenomegaly (94%), and fever (34%) (P=0.059, 0.039, 0.005, and 0.008, respectively). The high proportions of anemia and splenomegaly observed in the survey may be used as indicators of inadequately controlled malaria in this community. Further studies to assess the epidemiology of risk factors for the high prevalence of anemia, and predominance of P. falciparum infections in the area are urgently needed.

  19. Mitochondrial DNA variability among six South American Amerindian villages from the Pano linguistic group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Junior, Celso T; Simoes, Aguinaldo L

    2014-01-01

    Although scattered throughout a large geographic area, the members of the Pano linguistic group present strong ethnic, linguistic, and cultural homogeneity, a feature that causes them to be considered components of a same "Pano" tribe. Nevertheless, the genetic homogeneity between Pano villages has not yet been examined. To study the genetic structure of the Pano linguistic group, four major Native American mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) founder haplogroups were analyzed in 77 Amerindians from six villages of four Pano tribes (Katukina, Kaxináwa, Marúbo, and Yaminawa) located in the Brazilian Amazon. The central position of these tribes in the continent makes them relevant for attempts to reconstruct population movements in South America. Except for a single individual that presented an African haplogroup L, all remaining individuals presented one of the four Native American haplogroups. Significant heterogeneity was observed across the six Pano villages. Although Amerindian populations are usually characterized by considerable interpopulational diversity, the high heterogeneity level observed is unexpected if the strong ethnic, linguistic, and cultural homogeneity of the Pano linguistic group is taken into account. The present findings indicate that the ethnic, linguistic, and cultural homogeneity does not imply genetic homogeneity. Even though the genetic heterogeneity uncovered may be a female-specific process, the most probable explanation for that is the joint action of isolation and genetic drift as major factors influencing the genetic structure of the Pano linguistic group. Copyright © 2014 Wayne State University Press, Detroit, Michigan 48201-1309.

  20. Low prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in Amerindians from Western Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Monsalve-Castillo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have not found hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in Amerindians from Western Venezuela. A survey of 254 Bari and Yukpa natives aged 10-60 years (mean ± SD age = 35 ± 5.4 years from four communities, two Bari and two Yukpa, in this area were studied to assess the prevalence of antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV and HCV RNA among these indigenous populations. Serum samples were examined initially for anti-HCV by a four generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Reactive samples were then tested using a third generation recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA-3. Viral RNA was investigated in all immunoblot-reactive samples by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR method. Six (2.3% of 254 natives were positive by ELISA, one (2.2% of these reactive samples were positive by RIBA, and four (1.5% were indeterminate. Only two (0.8% were positive by PCR, corresponding to 1 (2.1% of 47 inhabitants of a Yukpa community and to 1 (2.2% of 45 subjects of a Bari community. Iatrogenic is thought to play a role in acquisition of the infection. The findings indicate a HCV focus of low endemicity and are compatible with a low degree of exposures of the natives to the virus. Studies are necessary to assess the risk factors for infection in these Amerindians.

  1. Moral Self-Cultivation East and West: A Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slote, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Moral Self-Cultivation plays an important, even a central role, in the Confucian philosophical tradition, but philosophers in the West, most notably Aristotle and Kant, also hold that moral self-cultivation or self-shaping is possible and morally imperative. This paper argues that these traditions are psychologically unrealistic in what they say…

  2. From Suazoid to folk pottery: pottery manufacturing traditions in a changing social and cultural environment on St. Lucia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne L. Hofman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Overview of pottery manufacturing traditions in St Lucia, placed within the island's cultural history from pre-Columbian times up to present Afro-Caribbean folk pottery. Authors focus on manufacturing processes in different cultural traditions through history, looking at raw materials used, the shaping and finishing, decoration, and firing process. First, they sketch St Lucia's habitation history since the first Amerindian settlers in 200 AD, and evidence of pottery, which climaxed in the later Suazoid period pottery since about 1150 AD, and discuss how later European colonization and arrival of Africans contributed to the decline of Amerindian traditions, replaced by European and West African pottery traditions, although some Amerindian traditions remained. The pottery manufacturing of 3 main cultural traditions are examined, discussing differences, as well as similarities due to cultural blending: Suazoid pottery, later Amerindian Island Carib pottery, with origins in the Guianas region, related to the Kar'ina, and current St Lucian, West African-influenced, "folk pottery". Authors conclude that all 3 traditions mainly use local clay, and include hand-built and low-fired pottery. Shaping techniques include coiling, and in today's pottery also fashioning with smaller lumps. Surfaces are smooth and polished in today's pottery, but more scraped and scratched in Suazoid vessels. Further, they find that decoration is uncommon in today's pottery, while Suazoid ceramics included decorations, and that vessel shapes tend to be simple in all 3 traditions. They also find that women have been the principal potters through time, although pottery was a male activity among the Island Caribs in the mid-17th c.

  3. Amino acid substitutions in inherited albumin variants from Amerindian and Japanese populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, N.; Takahashi, Y.; Isobe, T.; Putnam, F.W.; Fujita, M.; Satoh, C.; Neel, J.V.

    1987-01-01

    The authors report an effort to determine the basis for the altered migration of seven inherited albumin variants detected by one-dimensional electrophoresis in population surveys involving tribal Amerindians and Japanese children. An amino acid substitution has thus far been determined for four of the variants. The randomness in the albumin polypeptide of these and the other sixteen independently ascertained amino acid substitutions of albumin and proalbumin thus far established was analyzed; the clustering of eight of these at two positions in the six-amino acid propeptide sequence seems noteworthy. By comparison with other proteins studied by electrophoresis, albumin exhibits average variability. It is a paradox that individuals who, for genetic reasons, lack albumin exhibit no obvious ill effects; yet, electrophoretic variants of albumin are no more numerous than are variants of proteins, the absence of which results in severe disease

  4. Genetic characterization of an epidemic of Plasmodium falciparum malaria among Yanomami Amerindians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laserson, K F; Petralanda, I; Almera, R; Barker, R H; Spielman, A; Maguire, J H; Wirth, D F

    1999-12-01

    Malaria parasites are genetically diverse at all levels of endemicity. In contrast, the merozoite surface protein (MSP) alleles in samples from 2 isolated populations of Yanomami Amerindians during an epidemic of Plasmodium falciparum were identical. The nonvariable restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns further suggested that the sequential outbreak comprised only a single P. falciparum genotype. By examination of serial samples from single human infections, the MSP characteristics were found to remain constant throughout the course of infection. An apparent clonal population structure of parasites seemed to cause outbreaks in small isolated villages. The use of standard molecular epidemiologic methods to measure genetic diversity in malaria revealed the occurrence of a genetically monomorphic population of P. falciparum within a human community.

  5. Improving Former Shifted Cultivation Land Using Wetland Cultivation in Kapuas District, Central Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyudi Wahyudi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Degraded forest area in Kalimantan could be caused by shifted cultivation activity that be conducted by local peoples in the surrounding forest areas. Efforts to improve the former shifted cultivation area (non productive land is developing the settled cultivation by use of irrigation system, better paddy seed, land processing, fertilizing, spraying pesticide, weeding, and better acces to the market.  Local peoples, especially in Kalimantan, has been depended their food on the shifted cultivation pattern since the long time ago.  This tradition could cause forest damage, forest fire, forest degradation, deforestation, and lose out of children education because they were following shifted cultivation activity although itsspace is very far from their home.  This research was aimed to improve former shifted cultivation lands using wetland cultivation in order to improve land productivity and to support food securityin the local community. This research was administratively located in Tanjung Rendan Village, Kapuas Hulu Sub-Ddistrict, Kapuas District, Central Kalimantan Province, Indonesia.  Data of rice yield from settled cultivation and shifted cultivation were got from 15 households that was taking by random at 2010 to 2011. Homogeneity test, analysis of variants, and least significant different (LSD test using SPSS 15.0 for Windows. Result of this research showed that     paddy yield at settled cultivation was significantly differentand better than shifted cultivation at 0.05 level. LSD test also indicated that all paddy yields from settled cultivation were significantly different compare to shifted cultivation at the 0.05 level.  The community in Tanjung Rendan Villages preferred settled cultivation than shifted cultivation, especially due to higher paddy production. Profit for settled cultivation was IDR10.95 million ha-1, meanwhile profit for shifted cultivation was just IDR 2.81 million ha-1 only.  Settled cultivation pattern could

  6. From Cultivation to Education: A Study of the Development of the Swedish Universities from a Traditional Cultural Institution to a Rational Educational Institution. R&D for Higher Education, 1980:9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Lennart

    The history of the Swedish universities and their roots in various traditions are traced. Attention is directed to the historico-sociological theory concerning the development and transformation of the Swedish universities from a traditional cultural institution to a rational educational institution. Six themes are covered: a general historical…

  7. Strawberry cultivation in Brazil | Cultivo de morangos no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Machado

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The strawberry is cultivated in different regions of the world. Their cultivation have shown demand larger family hand labor and highly profitable.  The strawberry is a very old fruit. Wild species existed for more 50 million years, but the specie was tamed around the XIV century A.C.  There are various types of cultivation, among them stand out traditional cultivation and organic cultivation. The more important factors affecting the strawberries are climate, pests and diseases. Know the types of cultivation and strawberry it is important for decision making in the future, such as use of lichens in cultivation. The aim of this work is to explain about conventional and organic agriculture with emphasis in lichens on strawberry crop to support scientific research in more depth character.> S

  8. INTENSIFICATION OF JELLY MUSHROOM CULTIVATION IN PAKEM SLEMAN

    OpenAIRE

    Sulistiya; Retno Lantarsih; Titop Dwiwinarno*

    2015-01-01

    Mushroom cultivation is long enough to be a source of income for some people in Pakem, Sleman. However, cultivation techniques that do not yet meet the standards for technical, so that productivity is still low. Marketing mushrooms are limited to the traditional market. Waste mushroom has not been used well, so potentially to pollute the environment mushroom. This service activities include the provision of mushroom cultivation equipment, such as water pumps and termohygrome...

  9. Increasing seroprevalence of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) with age confirms HHV-8 endemicity in Amazon Amerindians from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, A M G; Caterino-de-Araujo, A; Costa, S C B; Santos-Fortuna, E; Boa-Sorte, N C A; Gonçalves, M S; Costa, F F; Galvão-Castro, B

    2005-09-01

    Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) seroprevalences were determined in two isolated Amazon Amerindian tribes, according to age, gender and familial aggregation. Plasma and serum samples obtained from 982 Amazon Amerindians (664 Tiriyó and 318 Waiampi) were tested for antibodies against lytic and latent HHV-8 antigens by using 'in-house' immunofluorescence assays. Overall, HHV-8 seroprevalence was 56.8 % (57.4 % in the Tiriyó tribe and 55.7 % in the Waiampi tribe). Seroprevalence was independent of gender and increased linearly with age: it was 35.0 % among children aged 2-9 years, 51.4 % in adolescents (10-19 years), 72.9 % in adults and 82.3 % in adults aged >50 years. Interestingly, 44.4 % of children under 2 years of age were HHV-8-seropositive. No significant differences in seroprevalence between tribes and age groups were detected. It is concluded that HHV-8 is hyperendemic in Brazilian Amazon Amerindians, with vertical and horizontal transmission during childhood, familial transmission and sexual contact in adulthood contributing to this high prevalence in these isolated populations.

  10. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III genetics in two Amerindian tribes from southern Brazil: the Kaingang and the Guarani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weg-Remers, S; Brenden, M; Schwarz, E; Witzel, K; Schneider, P M; Guerra, L K; Rehfeldt, I R; Lima, M T; Hartmann, D; Petzl-Erler, M L; de Messias, I J; Mauff, G

    1997-10-01

    Population genetic studies of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III region, comprising C2, BF and C4 phenotypes, and molecular genetic data are rarely available for populations other than Caucasoids. We have investigated three Amerindian populations from Southern Brazil: 131 Kaingang from Ivaí (KIV), 111 Kaingang (KRC) and 100 Guarani (GRC) from Rio das Cobras. Extended MHC haplotypes were derived after standard C2, BF, C4 phenotyping and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis with TaqI, together with HLA data published previously by segregation analysis. C2 and BF frequencies corresponded to other Amerindian populations. C4B*Q0 frequency was high in the GRC (0.429) but low in the Kaingang. Unusual C4 alleles were found, viz. C4A*58, A*55 and C4B*22 (presumably non-Amerindian) and aberrant C4A*3 of Amerindian origin occurring with a frequency of 0.223 in the GRC. C4A*3 bands of homo- and heterozygous individuals carrying this variant were Rodgers 1 positive and Chido 1,3 positive, showed a C4A specific lysis type and a C4A like alpha-chain. Polymerase chain reaction studies and sequencing showed that this is based on a C4A*3 duplication with a regular C4A*3 and a partially converted C4A*0304 carrying the C4B specific epitopes Ch 6 and Ch 1,3. Associations of class III haplotypes with particular RFLP patterns were similar to those reported for Caucasoids. The previously described association between combined C4A and CYP21P deletions and the 6.4 kb TaqI fragment was not seen in these Amerindians. This fragment occurred within a regular two locus gene structure in the Kaingang, representing a "short" gene at C4 locus I. C4 and CYP21 duplications were frequently observed. The distribution of extended MHC haplotypes provides evidence for a close relationship between the KIV and KRC and a larger genetic distance between the two Kaingang groups and the GRC.

  11. Mitochondrial DNA diversity of the Amerindian populations living in the Andean Piedmont of Bolivia: Chimane, Moseten, Aymara and Quechua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corella, Alfons; Bert, Francesc; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro; Gené, Manel; Turbón, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Chimane, Moseten Aymara and Quechua are Amerindian populations living in the Bolivian Piedmont, a characteristic ecoregion between the eastern slope of the Andean mountains and the Amazonian Llanos de Moxos. In both neighbouring areas, dense and complex societies have developed over the centuries. The Piedmont area is especially interesting from a human peopling perspective since there is no clear evidence regarding the genetic influence and peculiarities of these populations. This land has been used extensively as a territory of economic and cultural exchange between the Andes and Amazonia, however Chimane and Moseten populations have been sufficiently isolated from their neighbour groups to be recognized as distinct populations. Genetic information suggests that evolutionary processes, such as genetic drift, natural selection and genetic admixture have formed the history of the Piedmont populations. The objective of this study is to characterize the genetic diversity of the Piedmont populations, analysing the sequence variability of the HVR-I control region in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Haplogroup mtDNA data available from the whole of Central and South America were utilized to determine the relationship of the Piedmont populations with other Amerindian populations. Hair pulls were obtained in situ, and DNA from non-related individuals was extracted using a standard Chelex 100 method. A 401 bp DNA fragment of HVR-I region was amplified using standard procedures. Two independent 401 and 328 bp DNA fragments were sequenced separately for each sample. The sequence analyses included mismatch distribution and mean pairwise differences, median network analyses, AMOVA and principal component analyses. The genetic diversity of DNA sequences was measured and compared with other South Amerindian populations. The genetic diversity of 401 nucleotide mtDNA sequences, in the hypervariable Control Region, from positions 16 000-16 400, was characterized in a sample of 46

  12. Absence of Multiple Sclerosis and Demyelinating Diseases among Lacandonians, a Pure Amerindian Ethnic Group in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Flores

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Sclerosis (MS is a highly polymorphic disease characterized by different neurologic signs and symptoms. In MS, racial and genetic factors may play an important role in the geographic distribution of this disease. Studies have reported the presence of several protective alleles against the development of autoimmune disorders. In the case of MS, however, they help define MS as a complex disease, and confirm the importance of environmental agents as an independent variable not associated with ethnicity. We carried out an on-site epidemiological study to confirm the absence of MS or NMO among Lacandonians, a pure Amerindian ethnic group in Mexico. We administered a structured interview to 5,372 Lacandonians to assess by family background any clinical data consistent with the presence of a prior demyelinating event. Every participating subject underwent a comprehensive neurological examination by a group of three members of the research team with experience in the diagnosis and treatment of demyelinating disorders to detect clinical signs compatible with a demyelinating disease. We did not find any clinical signs compatible with multiple sclerosis among study participants.

  13. Founding Amerindian mitochondrial DNA lineages in ancient Maya from Xcaret, Quintana Roo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Oliver, A; Márquez-Morfín, L; Jiménez, J C; Torre-Blanco, A

    2001-11-01

    Ancient DNA from the bone remains of 25 out of 28 pre-Columbian individuals from the Late Classic-Postclassic Maya site of Xcaret, Quintana Roo, was recovered, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was amplified by using the polymerase chain reaction. The presence of the four founding Amerindian mtDNA lineages was investigated by restriction analysis and by direct sequencing in selected individuals. The mtDNA lineages A, B, and C were found in this population. Eighty-four percent of the individuals were lineage A, whereas lineages B and C were present at low frequencies, 4% and 8%, respectively. Lineage D was absent from our sample. One individual did not possess any of the four lineages. Six skeletons out of 7 dated from the Late Classic period were haplotype A, whereas 11 skeletons out of 16 dated from the Postclassic period were also haplotype A. The distribution of mtDNA lineages in the Xcaret population contrasts sharply with that found in ancient Maya from Copán, which lack lineages A and B. On the other hand, our results resemble more closely the frequencies of mtDNA lineages found in contemporary Maya from the Yucatán Peninsula and in other Native American contemporary populations of Mesoamerican origin. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. High prevalence of chitotriosidase deficiency in Peruvian Amerindians exposed to chitin-bearing food and enteroparasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manno, N; Sherratt, S; Boaretto, F; Coico, F Mejìa; Camus, C Espinoza; Campos, C Jara; Musumeci, S; Battisti, A; Quinnell, R J; León, J Mostacero; Vazza, G; Mostacciuolo, M L; Paoletti, M G; Falcone, F H

    2014-11-26

    The human genome encodes a gene for an enzymatically active chitinase (CHIT1) located in a single copy on Chromosome 1, which is highly expressed by activated macrophages and in other cells of the innate immune response. Several dysfunctional mutations are known in CHIT1, including a 24-bp duplication in Exon 10 causing catalytic deficiency. This duplication is a common variant conserved in many human populations, except in West and South Africans. Thus it has been proposed that human migration out of Africa and the consequent reduction of exposure to chitin from environmental factors may have enabled the conservation of dysfunctional mutations in human chitinases. Our data obtained from 85 indigenous Amerindians from Peru, representative of populations characterized by high prevalence of chitin-bearing enteroparasites and intense entomophagy, reveal a very high frequency of the 24-bp duplication (47.06%), and of other single nucleotide polymorphisms which are known to partially affect enzymatic activity (G102S: 42.7% and A442G/V: 25.5%). Our finding is in line with a founder effect, but appears to confute our previous hypothesis of a protective role against parasite infection and sustains the discussion on the redundancy of chitinolytic function. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of chemotherapy on malaria transmission among Yanomami Amerindians: simulated consequences of placebo treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, J; Laserson, K F; Petralanda, I; Spielman, A

    1999-05-01

    To determine whether chemotherapy effectively reduces Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission in isolated human populations, we followed two abrupt sequential outbreaks of malaria infection among Yanomami Amerindians and modeled the effect of chemotherapy and the consequences if no drug was available. A Macdonald-type mathematical model demonstrated that both outbreaks comprised a single epidemic event linked by an invisible outbreak in vector mosquitoes. The basic reproductive number, R0, from fitted values based on the treated epidemic was 2 during the initial phase of the epidemic, and waned as vector density decreased with the onset of the dry season. In the observed epidemic, 60 (45%) of 132 village residents were affected, and the treated outbreak ended after two months. Although the initial chemotherapy regimen was only marginally effective, the duration of human infectivity was reduced from an expected nine months to two weeks. In the absence of this intervention, the initial R0 value would have been 40, more than 60% of the population would have been infected, and more than 30% would have remained parasitemic until the next rainy season (about six months later). Another outbreak would then have ensued, and malaria probably would have remained endemic in this village. Our simulated placebo treatment permits us to conclude that even partially effective chemotherapeutic interventions, such as those in our study, interrupt serial transmission of P. falciparum among isolated human populations that are exposed to infection seasonally.

  16. African, Amerindian and European hepatitis B virus strains circulate on the Caribbean Island of Martinique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brichler, Ségolène; Lagathu, Gisèle; Chekaraou, Mariama Abdou; Le Gal, Frédéric; Edouard, André; Dény, Paul; Césaire, Raymond; Gordien, Emmanuel

    2013-10-01

    Ten Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes, as well as numerous subgenotypes, have been described in well-characterized ethnogeographical populations. Martinique has been at a crossroads between Africa, Europe, India and the Americas because of the slave trade (17th-19th centuries), followed by an important immigration of Indian and West African workers. In this work, we aimed to study the molecular epidemiology of HBV infection in Martinique according to this unique settlement pattern. To that end, blood samples from 86 consecutive HBV-infected patients from the main hospitals of the island, were retrospectively analysed. Direct sequencing of the pre-S1 or pre-C-C region or complete genome sequencing, followed by phylogenetic analyses were performed. HBV genotypes were: HBV/A1 (68.6 %), HBV/A2 (10.5 %), HBV/D, mainly HBV/D3 and HBV/D4 (8.1 %), HBV/F (3.5 %), and also HBV/E (2.3 %), two strains isolated from two West-African patients. Moreover, 74 % of the HBeAg-negative strains harboured classical pre-C-C mutations, and most HBV/A1 strains also containing specific mutations. Finally, various patterns of deletion mutants in pre-S and pre-C-C regions were found. In conclusion, our findings point to historical and migration-related issues in HBV-genotype distribution suggesting that HBV/A1, but not HBV/E, was imported from Africa during the slave trade, and further supporting the hypothesis that HBV/E has emerged recently in West Africa (<150 years). Potential origins of 'European' HBV/A2 and HBV/D3, 'Amerindian' HBV/F, and HBV/D4 strains are also discussed. Such HBV genetic diversity, beyond its epidemiological interest, may have a clinical impact on the natural history of HBV infection in Martinique.

  17. Amerindian (but not African or European) ancestry is significantly associated with diurnal preference within an admixed Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Kieren J; Campos Santos, Hadassa; Beijamini, Felipe; Duarte, Núbia E; Horimoto, Andréa R V R; Taporoski, Tâmara P; Vallada, Homero; Negrão, André B; Krieger, José E; Pedrazzoli, Mário; Knutson, Kristen L; Pereira, Alexandre C; von Schantz, Malcolm

    2017-01-01

    Significant questions remain unanswered regarding the genetic versus environmental contributions to racial/ethnic differences in sleep and circadian rhythms. We addressed this question by investigating the association between diurnal preference, using the morningness-eveningness questionnaire (MEQ), and genetic ancestry within the Baependi Heart Study cohort, a highly admixed Brazilian population based in a rural town. Analysis was performed using measures of ancestry, using the Admixture program, and MEQ from 1,453 individuals. We found an association between the degree of Amerindian (but not European of African) ancestry and morningness, equating to 0.16 units for each additional percent of Amerindian ancestry, after adjustment for age, sex, education, and residential zone. To our knowledge, this is the first published report identifying an association between genetic ancestry and MEQ, and above all, the first one based on ancestral contributions within individuals living in the same community. This previously unknown ancestral dimension of diurnal preference suggests a stratification between racial/ethnic groups in an as yet unknown number of genetic polymorphisms.

  18. Origin of Bolivian Quechua Amerindians: their relationship with other American Indians and Asians according to HLA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Laso, Jorge; Siles, Nancy; Moscoso, Juan; Zamora, Jorge; Serrano-Vela, Juan I; R-A-Cachafeiro, Juan I; Castro, Maria J; Serrano-Rios, Manuel; Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    The Incas were Quechua-speaking people who settled down near Cuzco (Peru). They had an empire ranging from Ecuador to Chile, when Spanish conquerors seized their kingdom around 1532 AD. Nowadays, Quechua-speaking people inhabits Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, Peru and Argentina; however, Quechua language was imposed by both Incas and Spaniards to many non-Quechua speaking communities. We have taken a sample of Quechuan Bolivian blood donors from La Paz (Titicaca Lake region) where Inca-Quechuas themselves believed that came from. This group was compared with 6892 individuals from 68 different world populations regarding HLA/DNA allele frequencies distribution. Genetic distances, dendrograms and correspondence analyses were carried out in order to establish relationships among populations. The main conclusions are: (1) DRB1 and -DQB1 haplotypes shared with Asians are found in Quechuas and are not observed in other (Mesoamerican) Amerindians. (2) Aymara-speaking people from the same Titicaca Lake (La Paz) area shows close genetic distances with Quechuas in one dimension results (genetic distances); however, their HLA gene frequency distribution differs according to Neighbor-Joining (NJ) trees and correspondence analysis (multidimensional and more reliable analyses). Also, the common high frequency Asian and Athabascan HLA-DRB1*0901 allele is found in Quechuas in a significant frequency. Quechuas are clearly included within the Amerindian group.

  19. Genetic structure of Quechua-speakers of the Central Andes and geographic patterns of gene frequencies in South Amerindian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiselli, D; Simoni, L; Tarazona-Santos, E; Pastor, S; Pettener, D

    2000-09-01

    A sample of 141 Quechua-speaking individuals of the population of Tayacaja, in the Peruvian Central Andes, was typed for the following 16 genetic systems: ABO, Rh, MNSs, P, Duffy, AcP1, EsD, GLOI, PGM1, AK, 6-PGD, Hp, Gc, Pi, C3, and Bf. The genetic structure of the population was analyzed in relation to the allele frequencies available for other South Amerindian populations, using a combination of multivariate and multivariable techniques. Spatial autocorrelation analysis was performed independently for 13 alleles to identify patterns of gene flow in South America as a whole and in more specific geographic regions. We found a longitudinal cline for the AcP1*a and EsD*1 alleles which we interpreted as the result of an ancient longitudinal expansion of a putative ancestral population of modern Amerindians. Monmonnier's algorithm, used to identify areas of sharp genetic discontinuity, suggested a clear east-west differentiation of native South American populations, which was confirmed by analysis of the distribution of genetic distances. We suggest that this pattern of genetic structures is the consequence of the independent peopling of western and eastern South America or to low levels of gene flow between these regions, related to different environmental and demographic histories. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Analysis of genetic susceptibility to mercury contamination evaluated through molecular biomarkers in at-risk Amazon Amerindian populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Nazare Klautau-Guimarães

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated Individual differences in susceptibility to methylmercury (MeHg contamination and its relationship with polymorphisms of the detoxifying enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST. In Brazil, some Amerindian tribes from the Amazon region have an increased level of mercury in their hair. Samples of hair and blood were taken from inhabitants of two villages in the Kayabi and Munduruku Amerindian communities to investigate mercury levels in association with genetic polymorphism of GSTs. Other molecular biological markers were also studied, such as hemoglobin, haptoglobin and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH. Higher levels of mercury contamination were found in the Kayabi villagers, who had a null genotype (GSTM1 0/0, also denominated GSTM1 null frequency of 26%, than in the Munduruku villagers, for which the null genotype frequency was 0%. Individuals with the GSTM1 null phenotype had higher concentrations of mercury in their hair than individuals with GSTM1+/+ phenotypes (F = 21.51, p < 0.0001. No association with other markers studied was observed. This study suggests that GSTM1 may be involved in the biotransformation of mercury in humans.

  1. Self-Cultivation: Culturally Sensitive Psychotherapies in Confucian Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kwang-Kuo; Chang, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    This article describes self-cultivation practices originating from the cultural traditions of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism. It delineates the therapeutic implications of the three states of self pursued by these three traditions: namely, the "relational self", the "authentic self", and the "nonself". Several…

  2. Blood is thicker than water : Amerindian intra- and inter-insular relationships and social organization in the pre-Colonial Windward Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bright, Alistair Jan

    2011-01-01

    This study represents a contribution to the pre-Colonial archaeology of the Windward Islands in the Caribbean. The research aimed to determine how the Ceramic Age (400 BC – AD 1492) Amerindian inhabitants of the region related to one another and others at various geographic scales, with a view to

  3. Isolation and Cultivation of Anaerobes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aragao Börner, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic microorganisms play important roles in different biotechnological processes. Their complex metabolism and special cultivation requirements have led to less isolated representatives in comparison to their aerobic counterparts.In view of that, the isolation and cultivation of anaerobic...

  4. Changes in shifting cultivation systems on small Pacific islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Ole; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Elberling, Bo

    2012-01-01

    The limited information on change in shifting cultivation systems of small islands of the Pacific stands in contrast to increasing evidence of this farming system's demise in other parts of the tropics. Here, we assess changes in agricultural activities during the past 40 years of Bellona Island......, Solomon Islands, where shifting cultivation is still maintained in the traditional way. Fallow length has increased despite population growth due to redistribution of the cultivated area, migration-induced extensification and changes in crops. Productivity of the farming system remains high although...

  5. Microorganisms with a taste of Vanilla; Microbial ecology of traditional Indonesian vanilla curing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roling, W.F.M.; Kerler, J.; Braster, M.; Apriyantono, A.; Stam, H.; van Verseveld, H.W.

    2001-01-01

    The microbial ecology of traditional postharvesting processing of vanilla beans (curing) was examined using a polyphasic approach consisting of conventional cultivation, substrate utilization-based and molecular identification of isolates, and cultivation-independent community profiling by 16S

  6. [Dendrobium officinale stereoscopic cultivation method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jin-Ping; Dong, Hong-Xiu; Liao, Xin-Yan; Zhu, Yu-Qiu; Li, Hui

    2014-12-01

    The study is aimed to make the most of available space of Dendrobium officinale cultivation facility, reveal the yield and functional components variation of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale, and improve quality, yield and efficiency. The agronomic traits and yield variation of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale were studied by operating field experiment. The content of polysaccharide and extractum were determined by using phenol-sulfuric acid method and 2010 edition of "Chinese Pharmacopoeia" Appendix X A. The results showed that the land utilization of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale increased 2.74 times, the stems, leaves and their total fresh or dry weight in unit area of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale were all heavier than those of the ground cultivated ones. There was no significant difference in polysaccharide content between stereoscopic cultivation and ground cultivation. But the extractum content and total content of polysaccharide and extractum were significantly higher than those of the ground cultivated ones. In additional, the polysaccharide content and total content of polysaccharide and extractum from the top two levels of stereoscopic culture matrix were significantly higher than that of the ones from the other levels and ground cultivation. Steroscopic cultivation can effectively improves the utilization of space and yield, while the total content of polysaccharides and extractum were significantly higher than that of the ground cultivated ones. The significant difference in Dendrobium polysaccharides among the plants from different height of stereo- scopic culture matrix may be associated with light factor.

  7. Cultivating an entrepreneurial mindset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Sandra A

    2013-01-01

    Now as never before, familiar challenges require bold, novel approaches. Registered dietitians will benefit by cultivating an entrepreneurial mindset that involves being comfortable with uncertainty, learning to take calculated risks, and daring to just try it. An entrepreneur is someone who takes risks to create something new, usually in business. But the entrepreneurial mindset is available to anyone prepared to rely only on their own abilities for their economic security and expect no opportunity without first creating value for others.

  8. Cultivating strategic thinking skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirey, Maria R

    2012-06-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author presents an overview of strategic leadership and offers approaches for cultivating strategic thinking skills.

  9. Recurrent wheezing is associated with intestinal protozoan infections in Warao Amerindian children in Venezuela: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overeem, Marcella M A; Verhagen, Lilly M; Hermans, Peter W M; del Nogal, Berenice; Sánchez, Adriana Márquez; Acevedo, Natacha Martinez; Murga, Rosalicia Ramirez; Roelfsema, Jeroen; Pinelli, Elena; de Waard, Jacobus H

    2014-05-29

    While in developed countries the prevalence of allergic diseases is rising, inflammatory diseases are relatively uncommon in rural developing areas. High prevalence rates of helminth and protozoan infections are commonly found in children living in rural settings and several studies suggest an inverse association between helminth infections and allergies. No studies investigating the relationship between parasitic infections and atopic diseases in rural children of developing countries under the age of 2 years have been published so far. We performed a cross-sectional survey to investigate the association of helminth and protozoan infections and malnutrition with recurrent wheezing and atopic eczema in Warao Amerindian children in Venezuela. From August to November 2012, 229 children aged 0 to 2 years residing in the Orinoco Delta in Venezuela were enrolled. Data were collected through standardized questionnaires and physical examination, including inspection of the skin and anthropometric measurements. A stool sample was requested from all participants and detection of different parasites was performed using microscopy and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We observed high prevalence rates of atopic eczema and recurrent wheezing, respectively 19% and 23%. The prevalence of helminth infections was 26% and the prevalence of protozoan infections was 59%. Atopic eczema and recurrent wheezing were more frequently observed in stunted compared with non-stunted children in multivariable analysis (OR 4.3, 95% CI 1.3 - 13.6, p = 0.015 and OR 4.5, 95% CI 0.97 - 21.2, p = 0.055). Furthermore, recurrent wheezing was significantly more often observed in children with protozoan infections than in children without protozoan infections (OR 6.7, 95% CI 1.5 - 30.5). High prevalence rates of atopic eczema and recurrent wheezing in Warao Amerindian children under 2 years of age were related to stunting and intestinal protozoan infections respectively. Helminth

  10. Characterization of traditional maize populations cultivated in Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PTMB8) showed good husk cover. The populations gave relatively low grain yields (less than 4 t/ha) and were not significantly different for that trait. All the populations should be improved for grain yield. In addition, the populations PTMB4 and ...

  11. Transition in nori cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delaney, Alyne

    2011-01-01

    . Technological change has had a profound impact on both the manner of nori production as well as the household division of labor and work and gender roles. Women play a key role in nori production today. With better understanding of such outward manifestations of culture and society we can bring the human...... of social and environmental sustainability, we must understand both society and cultural institutions. With this in mind, this article focuses on the division of labor among cultivators, particularly along gender lines and the impacts, on a cultural level, of technological change on nori production...

  12. Body mass index, waist circumference, body adiposity index, and risk for type 2 diabetes in two populations in Brazil: general and Amerindian.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Oliveira Alvim

    Full Text Available The use of the anthropometric indices of adiposity, especially body mass index and waist circumference in the prediction of diabetes mellitus has been widely explored. Recently, a new body composition index, the body adiposity index was proposed. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of body mass index, waist circumference, and body adiposity index in the risk assessment for type 2 diabetes mellitus.A total of 1,572 individuals from the general population of Vitoria City, Brazil and 620 Amerindians from the Aracruz Indian Reserve, Brazil were randomly selected. BMI, waist circumference, and BAI were determined according to a standard protocol. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was diagnosed by the presence of fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL or by the use of antidiabetic drugs.The area under the curve was similar for all anthropometric indices tested in the Amerindian population, but with very different sensitivities or specificities. In women from the general population, the area under the curve of waist circumference was significantly higher than that of the body adiposity index. Regarding risk assessment for type 2 diabetes mellitus, the body adiposity index was a better risk predictor than body mass index and waist circumference in the Amerindian population and was the index with highest odds ratio for type 2 diabetes mellitus in men from the general population, while in women from the general population waist circumference was the best risk predictor.Body adiposity index was the best risk predictor for type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Amerindian population and men from the general population. Our data suggest that the body adiposity index is a useful tool for the risk assessment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in admixture populations.

  13. Cultivar of Gerbera grown in soil less culture on inert substrates with open and closed systems in comparison with a traditional cultivation on soil in beds; Coltivazione di gerbera in idroponica su substrato con sistema di irrigazione a ciclo aperto e a ciclo chiuso a confronto con la coltivazione tradizionale in cassone su terriccio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiavi, A [MIRAAF, Istituto Sperimentale per l` Orticultura (Italy). Sezione di Ascoli Piceno; Venezia, A [Istituto Sperimentale per l` Orticoltura (Italy). Sezione di Montanaso Lomabardo; Martignon, G [Centro Ricerca Ambiente e Materiali, Unita` Calore residuo e Biomasse, Gruppo Agritermia, Milan (Italy)

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the experiment was the evaluation of the yield of several cultivar of gerbera grown in soil less culture on inert substrates with open and closed systems, in comparison with a traditional cultivation on soil in beds. The trial was carried out in the experimental station at Tavazzano (Milan), in a iron plastic greenhouse heated with the waste water discharged by the local thermo electrical power plant. Two inert substrates (rokwool and perlite) were tested in soil less culture both with an open system and a closed system, based on the reuse of the drained nutrient solution. The cultivars Rosula, Pascal, Queen Rebecca, Horizon, Sunspot e Fleur were utilized, grown with a plant density of 10 plants/mq. The trial started in april 1993 and ended in december 1994. The results have pointed out statistically significative differences in the production of cut flower in the growing systems tested. Plants grown in soil less culture with open system gave a number of cut flowers/plant higher both than those grown on soil and with soil less closed system. Agriperlite gave a better commercially yield than rockwool in soil less culture. The distribution of commercial cut flowers in the three category considered (extra, first and second class) was the same for the all thesis; the not marketable production was lower for plant grown on soil than on both the soil less culture systems. With regard to the response of the cultivar, Queen Rebecca and Pascal gave a commercial yield of about 30 cut flowers/plant higher than Rosula, Horizon and Fleur; the cultivar SunSpot showed the lower yield (17 cut flowers/plant).

  14. Glass bead cultivation of fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, H.

    2013-01-01

    Production of bioactive compounds and enzymes from filamentous fungi is highly dependent on cultivation conditions. Here we present an easy way to cultivate filamentous fungi on glass beads that allow complete control of nutrient supply. Secondary metabolite production in Fusarium graminearum...... and Fusarium solani cultivated on agar plates, in shaking liquid culture or on glass beads was compared. Agar plate culture and glass bead cultivation yielded comparable results while liquid culture had lower production of secondary metabolites. RNA extraction from glass beads and liquid cultures was easier...... to specific nutrient factors. •Fungal growth on glass beads eases and improves fungal RNA extraction....

  15. “Georgetown ain’t got a tree. We got the trees”—Amerindian Power & Participation in Guyana’s Low Carbon Development Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Airey

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available International bi-lateral agreements to support the conservation of rainforests to reduce greenhouse gas emissions are growing in prevalence. In 2009, the governments of Guyana and Norway established Guyana’s Low Carbon Development Strategy (LCDS. We examine the extent to which the participation and inclusion of Guyana’s indigenous population within the LCDS is being achieved. We conducted a single site case study, focussing on the experiences and perceptions from the Amerindian community of Chenapou. Based on 30 interviews, we find that a deficit of adequate dialogue and consultation has occurred in the six years since the LCDS was established. Moreover, key indigenous rights, inscribed at both a national and international level, have not been upheld with respect to the community of Chenapou. Our findings identify consistent shortcomings to achieve genuine participation and the distinct and reinforced marginalisation of Amerindian communities within the LCDS. A further critique is the failure of the government to act on previous research, indicating a weakness of not including indigenous groups in the Guyana-Norway bi-lateral agreement. We conclude that, if the government is to uphold the rights of Amerindian communities in Guyana, significant adjustments are needed. A more contextualised governance, decentralising power and offering genuine participation and inclusion, is required to support the engagement of marginal forest-dependent communities in the management of their natural resources.

  16. Molecular genetic studies of natives on Easter Island: evidence of an early European and Amerindian contribution to the Polynesian gene pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, B A; Dupuy, B M; Spurkland, A; Fernández-Viña, M A; Hagelberg, E; Thorsby, E

    2007-01-01

    Most archaeological and linguistic evidence suggest a Polynesian origin of the population of Easter Island (Rapanui), and this view has been supported by the identification of Polynesian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphisms in prehistoric skeletal remains. However, some evidence of an early South American contact also exists (the sweet potato, bottle gourd etc.), but genetic studies have so far failed to show an early Amerindian contribution to the gene pool on Easter Island. To address this issue, we analyzed mtDNA and Y chromosome markers and performed high-resolution human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotyping of DNA harvested from previously collected sera of 48 reputedly nonadmixed native Easter Islanders. All individuals carried mtDNA types and HLA alleles previously found in Polynesia, and most men carried Y chromosome markers of Polynesian origin, providing further evidence of a Polynesian origin of the population of Easter Island. A few individuals carried HLA alleles and/or Y chromosome markers of European origin. More interestingly, some individuals carried the HLA alleles A*0212 and B*3905, which are of typical Amerindian origin. The genealogy of some of the individuals carrying these non-Polynesian HLA alleles and their haplotypic backgrounds suggest an introduction into Easter Island in the early 1800s, or earlier. Thus, there may have been an early European and Amerindian contribution to the Polynesian gene pool of Easter Island.

  17. Starting from grape cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, A

    1992-06-01

    Rapid population growth can only be stopped by lowering the fertility rate. The UNFPA recommends improving the employment opportunities for women as the single best way of achieving this reduction. An example of this phenomenon is the grape cultivation in the Nordeste (Northeastern) region of Brazil. This area is the poorest part of Brazil and has the highest proportion of indigent people. These people have been deforesting the Amazon in search of a better life. What they have done is sterilize the land and turned a tropical rain forest into a desert. In an effort to reverse this trend, grape cultivation has been introduced in an area called Petrolina. The area is very dry with less than 500 mm of precipitation annually. They do have access to a 5000 square kilometer artificial lake (the largest in the world) and the 3rd largest river in Brazil (the Sao Francisco). In an effort to avoid using agricultural medicines, the vines are fertilized with organic matter created on the farm and little or no pesticides are used since pests do not live in such an arid region. It has taken 20 years of trial and error, but the quality of the grapes is now very high and is competitive on the world market. Because of climate and location, harvesting is done year round which increases the productivity of the land. The farm managers have found that married women make the best workers and have the highest level of productivity. Age at 1st marriage averages 24-25, compared with 15-16 for unemployed women in the same area. The fertility rate averages 50% of that for unemployed women in the same area. Agricultural development offers the best opportunity for the women of developing countries. It can pay a high wage, reduce fertility, and replant desert areas.

  18. Construction and Practice of the New Business Specialty Talent Cultivation Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiaokong

    2009-01-01

    The vocational education of business should actively adapt the demands of the domestic and foreign business development to cultivate high-quality applicable talents with international knowledge. The traditional business specialty teaching and the talent cultivation mode have not followed the domestic and foreign market demands, and are difficult…

  19. Do Specialized MBA Programs Cultivate Alumni Relationships and Donations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jennifer Wiggins; Thomas, Veronica; Peck, Joann

    2010-01-01

    A recent trend among universities shifts from traditional MBA programs to specialized MBA offerings. Specialized programs are believed to cultivate stronger relationships with students, which lead to stronger alumni relationships and increased donations. This research tests this empirically by examining relationship perceptions and donation…

  20. Micrometeorological principles of protected cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protected cultivation is a broad term commonly used among producers of specialty crops. Techniques can range from complex fixed structures to field site selection, to straightforward cultural practices in the field. This introduction to the ASHS workshop "Protected cultivation for fruit crops" consi...

  1. Onchocerciasis in Venezuela: prevalence of microfilaraemia in Amerindians and morphological characteristics of the microfilariae from the Upper Orinoco Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botto, C; Arango, M; Yarzábal, L

    1984-09-01

    Data are presented on microfilaraemia in 191 Yanomami Amerindians from two areas of Venezuela's Upper Orinoco Basin, where an endemic focus of onchocerciasis has been recently detected. Onchocerca microfilariae were found in the blood of 12.6% of the persons examined. In the village with the higher number of examined individuals (N = 162), the prevalence of microfilaraemia in the age groups covaried with the prevalence of microfilariae in the skin and with the parasite load (mf/mg of skin). A positive correlation was found between age and these three variables. The prevalence of Onchocerca microfilaraemia in the Upper Orinoco focus is high, and may be related to the ability of the strain to invade the blood stream. Morphobiometric characteristics of the Onchocerca microfilariae isolated from human blood are similar to those of O. volvulus fixed in formalin from skin and from the uterus of female O. volvulus worms. All have a very short cephalic space. Comparisons with the entity from the Upper Caura river designated as Microfilaria bolivarensis were also made. It was concluded that there are no valid biometric differences in thick blood smears between microfilaria bolivarensis and microfilaria of O. volvulus from the Upper Orinoco deme. A more striking difference may be in the concentration of microfilariae observed in the blood, which in one case of mf. bolivarensis was more than forty times the highest number recorded for microfilaria O. volvulus in Parima.

  2. Absence of the HLA-G*0113N allele in Amerindian populations from the Brazilian Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Junior, Celso T; Castelli, Erick C; Moreau, Philippe; Simões, Aguinaldo L; Donadi, Eduardo A

    2010-04-01

    The HLA-G gene is predominantly expressed at the maternal-fetal interface and has been associated with maternal-fetal tolerance. The HLA-G*0113N is a null allele defined by the insertion of a premature stop codon at exon 2, observed in a single Ghanaian individual. Likewise the G*0105N allele, the occurrence of the HLA-G*0113N in a population from an area with high pathogen load suggests that the reduced HLA-G expression in G*0113N heterozygous placentas could improve the intrauterine defense against infections. The presence of the G*0113N allele here was investigated in 150 Amerindians from five isolated tribes that inhabit the Central Amazon and in 295 admixed individuals from the State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, previously genotyped for HLA-G. No copy of the G*0113N null allele was found in both population samples by exon 2 sequence-based analysis, reinforcing its restricted occurrence in Africa.

  3. Keeping Tradition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zenhong, C.; Buwalda, P.L.

    2011-01-01

    Chinese dumplings such as Jiao Zi and Bao Zi are two of the popular traditional foods in Asia. They are usually made from wheat flour dough (rice flour or starch is sometimes used) that contains fillings. They can be steamed, boiled and fried and are consumed either as a main meal or dessert. As

  4. The Cultivation of Wisdom in the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Reams

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on a research project that was designed to inquire into the cultivation of wisdom in the classroom in the context of a newly implemented school subject called Glück (English: happiness. Glück was introduced in order to make a difference in traditional mainstream schooling as a reaction to school curricula that emphasize data and knowledge transfer. It is different and new because it embraces the kind of learning that includes the senses, the mind, body, spirit and the guts. Its multidimensional approach makes an attempt to validate a renunciation of the reductionistic perspective of traditional and contemporary schooling. How it is implemented served as a transformational process through a set of experiential exercises, group discussions, contemplative practices, teamwork etc. It is my aim to give an insight into what I understood as an alternative learning arena embedded in a traditional schooling system and the implications for further development beyond the transfer of data and information in adolescents. Zooming in on Glück, I aim to provide some perspectives on how key experiences and the reflection upon them can lead to the cultivation of wisdom. The understanding of cultivating wisdom I have gained from this study is that it is a dynamic process where the creation of new structures of meaning making emerge through the interaction with others, with oneself and the reflection upon one’s own interior processes that can help unfold, know how to use and refine tacit knowledge. Part of this process is actively discovering and transforming complex information in order to embody it and make it one’s own. Due to the assumption that traditional schooling mostly puts an emphasis on conveying informational knowledge (Hart, 2009; Sternberg, 2001 (to the more or less attentive students and another assumption that wisdom is often seen in connection to age, this article makes an attempt to give an alternative perspective. In

  5. Dermatoglyphic traits of six Chibcha-speaking Amerindians of Costa Rica, and an assessment of the genetic affinities among populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Segura-WW Ramiro Barrantes

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Dermatoglyphic traits have been used to evaluate population structure and microdifferentiation in several populations. For Chibcha-speaking groups of Lower Central America there are few dermatoglyphic studies, but extensive linguistic, anthropological and genetic data support their historical, cultural and biological relationships. The main objectives of this study were to describe new dermatoglyphic data for six Chibcha- speaking Amerindians of Costa Rica, and to assess the relationships between these and other Amerindian and Eskimo groups, at different levels of population differentiation by means of multivariate analyses of quantitative traits. Sexual (2 =227.22, df=33, pLos dermatoglifos se han utilizado para evaluar la estructura poblacional y microdiferenciación de varias poblaciones. Para los grupos chibcha de Baja Centroamérica hay pocos estudios sobre dermatoglifos pero los datos lingüísticos, antropológicos y genéticos muestran la existencia de relaciones históricas, culturales y biológicas. Los objetivos del presente estudio fueron describir nuevos datos de dermatoglifos para seis tribus amerindias chibcha de Costa Rica y evaluar las relaciones entre estas y otros grupos amerindios y esquimales, a diferentes niveles de diferenciación poblacional por medio de análisis multivariados. Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre ambos sexos (2=27.22, df=3, p<0.01 y ambas manos (2=54.45, df=3, p<0.01, similar a lo descrito para otras poblaciones. Las tribus estudiadas se caracterizan por presentar alta frecuencia de arcos, baja frecuencia de verticilos y bajo conteo total de líneas. Al nivel más bajo de diferenciación poblacional, se compararon dos subpoblaciones cabécar (Atlántico y Chirripo y no se encontraron diferencias significativas (F=0.001, p=0.72 lo cual sugiere que los dermatoglifos no permiten discriminar entre grupos a este nivel. Las comparaciones entre las tribus chibcha estudiadas por medio de

  6. [Traditional nostrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Shigeru

    2006-01-01

    The commercialization of drugs started toward the end of Heian period (794-1192) when not only aristocrats and monks who were traditional patrons to drug makers, but also local clans and landlords who became powerful as a result of the disbanding of aristocratic manors accumulated enough wealth to spend money on medicine. Although traveling around the country was still a dangerous endeavor, merchants assembled groups to bring lucrative foreign drugs (mainly Chinese) to remote areas. The spread of commercial drugs to common people, however, did not happen until the early Edo period (1603-1867), when the so-called barrier system was installed nationwide to make domestic travel safe. Commercialization started in large cities and gradually spread to other areas. Many nostrums popular until recently appeared in the Genroku period (1688-1703) or later. Many such nostrums were all-cures, often consisting of such active ingredients as Saussureae radix, Agalloch, or Gambir. Even in the Edo period, many people living in agricultural or fishing villages, as well as those in the lower tier, were still poor. Much of the medication available to those people was therefore made of various plant or animal-derived substances that were traditionally used as folk medicines.

  7. Seaweed cultivation on the Southern and Southeastern Brazilian Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciane Pellizzari

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are used directly as food or applied indirectly as texturing agents with gelling and thickening properties (carrageenan, agar and alginates in many industries. They can also be used as fertilizers, animal feed, biomass for fuel, cosmetics and a source of pharmaceuticals, among other applications. The aquaculture of macroalgae is an alternative for producing raw material. Brazil has a coastline with numerous locations suitable for this endeavor. However, despite the known economical and social relevance of seaweed cultivation, Brazilians do not have tradition of using edible seaweeds. In general, the raw material for indirect use (e.g., as a texturing agent is imported. Consequently, seaweed aquaculture is still incipient in Brazil. This contribution presents data and information about macroalgae cultivation on commercial and experimental scales performed on the Southern and Southeastern Brazilian Coastline, as well as a brief overview of research related to some species cultivated in the last decade.

  8. INTENSIFICATION OF JELLY MUSHROOM CULTIVATION IN PAKEM SLEMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistiya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mushroom cultivation is long enough to be a source of income for some people in Pakem, Sleman. However, cultivation techniques that do not yet meet the standards for technical, so that productivity is still low. Marketing mushrooms are limited to the traditional market. Waste mushroom has not been used well, so potentially to pollute the environment mushroom. This service activities include the provision of mushroom cultivation equipment, such as water pumps and termohygrometer and nozzle, and education and training bookkeeping, marketing, and processing waste into mushroom compost. The results showed an increase in the production of mushroom seen from the Biological Conversion Efficiency (BCE are in the top 30 percent. Partners also has a business bookkeeping and have Blog to market the mushroom by on-line. Partners also have the skills to process the manure (compost made from the waste of mushroom which can be used to help fertilize their crops.

  9. Analysis of Polymorphisms in Genes (AGT, MTHFR, GPIIIa, and GSTP1 Associated with Hypertension, Thrombophilia and Oxidative Stress in Mestizo and Amerindian Populations of México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Juárez-Velázquez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Several polymorphisms related to hypertension, thrombophilia, and oxidative stress has been associated with the development of cardiovascular disease. We analyzed the frequency of M235T angiotensinogen (AGT, A222V 5,10 methylenete-trahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR, L33P glycoprotein IIIa (GPIIIa, and I105V glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1 polymorphisms in 285 individuals belonging to Mexican-Mestizo and five Amerindian population from México, by real time PCR allelic discrimination. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared using χ2 tests.

  10. Protracted outbreak of severe delta hepatitis: experience in an isolated Amerindian population of the Upper Orinoco basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, J R; Mondolfi, A

    1991-01-01

    In an investigation of a 21-year-old epidemic of severe hepatitis, 80 serum samples were studied from two isolated Yanomami Amerindian populations of the Upper Orinoco basin in Venezuela. Of the assayed samples, 30.6% were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), 53.7% were considered to reflect immunity to infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), and only 16.2% were believed to reflect susceptibility to HBV infection; 82.5% of the samples tested positive for any marker of HBV infection. Thirty-one (39.7%) of 78 samples were also positive for antibody to delta antigen, including 91.6% of those positive for HBsAg and 20.9% of those immune to HBV. Our findings provide evidence of a high prevalence of HBV infection in this population. Furthermore, the high prevalence of antibody to delta antigen strongly suggests that coinfections with HBV or superinfections with hepatitis delta virus (HDV) in HBV carriers may be an important factor in the occurrence of an unusually high number of cases of fulminant hepatitis and of chronic liver disease. Serum samples obtained at the beginning of the outbreak 13 years earlier from 36 selected cases in the same population revealed a high rate of HBV infection (96.5%). All six HBsAg carriers from whom enough serum remained to be assayed were positive for antibody to delta antigen. Our findings indicate that the outbreak coincided with the introduction of HDV into a population with an already-high prevalence of HBV infection.

  11. Fungal cultivation on glass-beads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, Henriette

    Transcription of various bioactive compounds and enzymes are dependent on fungal cultivation method. In this study we cultivate Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium solani on glass-beads with liquid media in petri dishes as an easy and inexpensive cultivation method, that resembles in secondary...... metabolite production to agar-cultivation but with an easier and more pure RNA-extraction of total fungal mycelia....

  12. Dark Earths and manioc cultivation in Central Amazonia: a window on pre-Columbian agricultural systems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Fraser

    Full Text Available Many commentators highlight the fertility of Anthropogenic Dark Earths (ADE, emphasizing their potential for sustainable agriculture. Some scholars believe that terra mulata (the less fertile, more extensive form of ADE was created by means of agricultural practices used by large settled populations of pre-Columbian farmers. But what was it that these Amerindian farmers were growing? Until recently, scholarly consensus held that manioc does not perform well on ADE. New research on the middle Madeira River is showing, however, that this consensus was premature. In this region, the most common crop in ADE fields is bitter manioc. Farmers there have various landraces of manioc that they believe yield particularly well on ADE, and logically plant more of these varieties on ADE. Aspects of the behaviour and perception of manioc cultivation among 52 farmers at the community of Barro Alto were measured quantitatively on four terra firme soil types (Terra Preta, Terra Mulata, Oxisols and Ultisols. These farmers plant different configurations of landraces in different soils, according to their perception of the suitability of particular landraces and their characteristics to certain soil types and successional processes. This, in turn, shapes selective pressures on these varieties, as new genetic material incorporated from volunteer seedlings is more likely to contain traits present in the most prevalent landrace(s in each soil type. Owing to localized population pressure at Barro Alto, manioc is under more intensive cultivation systems, with shorter cropping periods (5-10 months and shorter fallow periods (1-2 years. The outcome of these processes is different co-evolutionary dynamics on ADE as opposed to non-anthropogenic soils. Further anthropological study of manioc swiddening in one of the richest agricultural environments in Amazonia can fill a gap in the literature, thus opening an additional window on the pre-Columbian period.

  13. Dark Earths and manioc cultivation in Central Amazonia: a window on pre-Columbian agricultural systems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Fraser

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Many commentators highlight the fertility of Anthropogenic Dark Earths (ADE, emphasizing their potential for sustainable agriculture. Some scholars believe that terra mulata (the less fertile, more extensive form of ADE was created by means of agricultural practices used by large settled populations of pre-Columbian farmers. But what was it that these Amerindian farmers were growing? Until recently, scholarly consensus held that manioc does not perform well on ADE. New research on the middle Madeira River is showing, however, that this consensus was premature. In this region, the most common crop in ADE fields is bitter manioc. Farmers there have various landraces of manioc that they believe yield particularly well on ADE, and logically plant more of these varieties on ADE. Aspects of the behaviour and perception of manioc cultivation among 52 farmers at the community of Barro Alto were measured quantitatively on four terra firme soil types (Terra Preta, Terra Mulata, Oxisols and Ultisols. These farmers plant different configurations of landraces in different soils, according to their perception of the suitability of particular landraces and their characteristics to certain soil types and successional processes.This, in turn, shapes selective pressures on these varieties, as new genetic material incorporated from volunteer seedlings is more likely to contain traits present in the most prevalent landrace(s in each soil type. Owing to localized population pressure at Barro Alto, manioc is under more intensive cultivation systems, with shorter cropping periods (5-10 months and shorter fallow periods (1-2 years. The outcome of these processes is different co-evolutionary dynamics on ADE as opposed to non-anthropogenic soils. Further anthropological study of manioc swiddening in one of the richest agricultural environments in Amazonia can fill a gap in the literature, thus opening an additional window on the pre-Columbian period.

  14. Genetic diversity of the HLA-G coding region in Amerindian populations from the Brazilian Amazon: a possible role of natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Junior, C T; Castelli, E C; Meyer, D; Simões, A L; Donadi, E A

    2013-12-01

    HLA-G has an important role in the modulation of the maternal immune system during pregnancy, and evidence that balancing selection acts in the promoter and 3'UTR regions has been previously reported. To determine whether selection acts on the HLA-G coding region in the Amazon Rainforest, exons 2, 3 and 4 were analyzed in a sample of 142 Amerindians from nine villages of five isolated tribes that inhabit the Central Amazon. Six previously described single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified and the Expectation-Maximization (EM) and PHASE algorithms were used to computationally reconstruct SNP haplotypes (HLA-G alleles). A new HLA-G allele, which originated in Amerindian populations by a crossing-over event between two widespread HLA-G alleles, was identified in 18 individuals. Neutrality tests evidenced that natural selection has a complex part in the HLA-G coding region. Although balancing selection is the type of selection that shapes variability at a local level (Native American populations), we have also shown that purifying selection may occur on a worldwide scale. Moreover, the balancing selection does not seem to act on the coding region as strongly as it acts on the flanking regulatory regions, and such coding signature may actually reflect a hitchhiking effect.

  15. Significance, progress and prospects for research in simplified cultivation technologies for rice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, M; Ibrahim, Md; Xia, B; Zou, Y

    2011-08-01

    Simplified cultivation technologies for rice have become increasingly attractive in recent years in China because of their social, economical and environmental benefits. To date, several simplified cultivation technologies, such as conventional tillage and seedling throwing (CTST), conventional tillage and direct seeding (CTDS), no-tillage and seedling throwing (NTST), no-tillage and direct seeding (NTDS) and no-tillage and transplanting (NTTP), have been developed in China. Most studies have shown that rice grown under each of these simplified cultivation technologies can produce a grain yield equal to or higher than traditional cultivation (conventional tillage and transplanting). Studies that have described the influences of agronomic practices on yield formation of rice under simplified cultivation have demonstrated that optimizing agronomy practices would increase the efficiencies of simplified cultivation systems. Further research is needed to optimize the management strategies for CTST, CTDS and NTST rice which have developed quickly in recent years, to strengthen basic research for those simplified cultivation technologies that are rarely used at present (such as NTTP and NTDS), to select and breed cultivars suitable for simplified cultivation and to compare the practicability and effectiveness of different simplified cultivation technologies in different rice production regions.

  16. Local ecological knowledge concerning the invasion of Amerindian lands in the northern Brazilian Amazon by Acacia mangium (Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Arlene Oliveira; Chaves, Maria do Perpétuo Socorro Rodrigues; Barbosa, Reinaldo Imbrozio; Clement, Charles Roland

    2018-05-03

    Invasive plants can impact biodiversity as well as the lives of native human populations. Natural ecosystems represent sources of natural resources essential for the subsistence and socio-cultural continuity of these social groups. Approximately 30,000 ha of Acacia mangium were planted for commercial purposes in savanna areas surrounding indigenous lands in Roraima State, Brazil, at the end of the 1990s. We examined the local ecological knowledge of indigenous Wapichana and Macuxi Amerindians, members of the Arawak and Carib linguistic families, respectively, concerning A. mangium Willdenow (Fabaceae) in a savanna ecosystem ("Lavrado") to attempt to understand its propagation beyond the limits of the commercial plantations and contribute to mitigating its impacts on socio-ecological systems. The present study was undertaken in the Moskow, São Domingos, and Malacacheta communities in the Moskow and Malacacheta Indigenous Lands (ILs) in the Serra da Lua region of Roraima State, in the northern Brazilian Amazon region. Interviews were conducted with a total of 94 indigenous individuals of both sexes, with ages between 18 and 76, and low levels of formal schooling, with an average time of permanence in the area of 21 years; some still spoke only their native languages. The interviews focused on their ecological knowledge of the invasive, non-native A. mangium and their uses of it. The informants affirmed that A. mangium negatively impacted the local fauna and flora, making their subsistence more difficult and altering their daily routines. Among the problems cited were alterations of water quality (71.3%), negative impacts on crops (60.6%), negative impacts on the equilibrium of the local fauna (52.1%), increased farm labor requirements (41.5%), and restriction of access to indigenous lands (23.4%). There were no significant differences between the opinions of men and women, nor between community leaders and nonleaders. Most of the interviewees (89%) felt that A

  17. Cultivation and uses of cucurbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultivated cucurbits have spread through trade and exploration from their respective Old and New World centers of origin to the six arable continents and are important in local, regional and world trade. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), melon (Cucumis melo L.), pumpkin, squash and gourd (Cucurbita spp...

  18. Cultivating Audiences: Taming, Teaching, Transforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolucci, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Satisfying and successful school concerts require an active, empathic, and cooperative partnership between performers and audience members. As music educators work to prepare artful, dignified, and confident performers, "audiences" for these performers must be cultivated just as purposefully. Concertgoers can be motivated to consume school…

  19. Analysis of the CCR5 gene coding region diversity in five South American populations reveals two new non-synonymous alleles in Amerindians and high CCR5*D32 frequency in Euro-Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica B.W. Boldt

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5 molecule is an important co-receptor for HIV. The effect of the CCR5*D32 allele in susceptibility to HIV infection and AIDS disease is well known. Other alleles than CCR5*D32 have not been analysed before, neither in Amerindians nor in the majority of the populations all over the world. We investigated the distribution of the CCR5 coding region alleles in South Brazil and noticed a high CCR5*D32 frequency in the Euro-Brazilian population of the Paraná State (9.3%, which is the highest thus far reported for Latin America. The D32 frequency is even higher among the Euro-Brazilian Mennonites (14.2%. This allele is uncommon in Afro-Brazilians (2.0%, rare in the Guarani Amerindians (0.4% and absent in the Kaingang Amerindians and the Oriental-Brazilians. R223Q is common in the Oriental-Brazilians (7.7% and R60S in the Afro-Brazilians (5.0%. A29S and L55Q present an impaired response to b-chemokines and occurred in Afro- and Euro-Brazilians with cumulative frequencies of 4.4% and 2.7%, respectively. Two new non-synonymous alleles were found in Amerindians: C323F (g.3729G > T in Guarani (1.4% and Y68C (g.2964A > G in Kaingang (10.3%. The functional characteristics of these alleles should be defined and considered in epidemiological investigations about HIV-1 infection and AIDS incidence in Amerindian populations.

  20. Developing a laboratory cultivation protocol for local species of Porphyra spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Lavik, Andreas Quale

    2016-01-01

    The cultivation of Porphyra for use in food has a long tradition in Asian countries, and with recent food trends and nutritional awareness, macroalgae has become a popular ingredient throughout the rest of the world as well. The Norwegian coast has several species of Porphyra suited for use in many ways, but harvesting wild material is time consuming and limited by few occurrences in the wild. Cultivation is thus the preferred option for future exploitation of the genus. This study is aimed a...

  1. Sustainable intensification of cultivated pastures using multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rangeland and wildlife parks) for guidelines to implementing this approach in cultivated pasture. In rangeland or natural grassland ... Keywords: animal production, biodiversity, cultivated pastures, foraging ecology, plant–herbivore interactions ...

  2. Application of nuclear irradiation to traditional chinese medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Jianping; Li Xuehu; Lu Xihong; Tao Lei; Wang Shuyang

    2010-01-01

    The application of nuclear irradiation in the field of traditional Chinese medicine has received much attention. In this paper we reviewed the application of nuclear radiation on the cultivation, breeding and disinfection of traditional Chinese medicine, and pointed out that the combination of radiation-induced mutagenesis and biological technology would promise broad prospects for increasing the cellular mutation rate and speeding up the genetic improvement of traditional Chinese medicine. (authors)

  3. Bacterial Diversity and Community Structure in Korean Ginseng Field Soil Are Shifted by Cultivation Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ngoc-Lan; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Hoang, Van-An; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Kang, Jong-Pyo; Kang, Chang Ho; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Traditional molecular methods have been used to examine bacterial communities in ginseng-cultivated soil samples in a time-dependent manner. Despite these efforts, our understanding of the bacterial community is still inadequate. Therefore, in this study, a high-throughput sequencing approach was employed to investigate bacterial diversity in various ginseng field soil samples over cultivation times of 2, 4, and 6 years in the first and second rounds of cultivation. We used non-cultivated soil samples to perform a comparative study. Moreover, this study assessed changes in the bacterial community associated with soil depth and the health state of the ginseng. Bacterial richness decreased through years of cultivation. This study detected differences in relative abundance of bacterial populations between the first and second rounds of cultivation, years of cultivation, and health states of ginseng. These bacterial populations were mainly distributed in the classes Acidobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Sphingobacteria. In addition, we found that pH, available phosphorus, and exchangeable Ca+ seemed to have high correlations with bacterial class in ginseng cultivated soil.

  4. [Species diversity of ex-situ cultivated Chinese medicinal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Que, Ling; Chi, Xiu-Lian; Zang, Chun-Xin; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Min; Yang, Guang; Jin, An-Qi

    2018-03-01

    Ex-situ conservation is an important means to protect biological genetic resources. Resource protection has received more and more attention with the continuous improvement of the comprehensive utilization of traditional Chinese medicine resources. In this paper, the research and compilation of the species list of ex-situ cultivated medicinal plants in 12 Chinese Academy of Sciences botanic gardens and 19 specialized medicinal botanic gardens in China were carried out. Based on the Species 2000(2017) and other classification databases, species diversity of medicinal plants ex-situ cultivated in these botanical gardens were analyzed. The study found that there were 16 351 higher plant species in our country, belonging to 276 families and 1 936 genera. Of these, 6 949 specieswere medicinal plants, accounting for 50.4% of the total medicinal plants. There were 1 280 medicinal plants were in threatened status, accounting for 19.6% of all threatened species in the Chinese Biodiversity Red List, with ex-situ cultivated proportion of 59.5%. And 3 988 medicinal plants were Chinese endemic species, accounting for 22.5% of all Chinese endemic species, with ex-situ cultivated proportion of 53.3%. This article has reference significance for the management and protection of medicinal plant resources. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  5. Exploring the Cultivable Ectocarpus Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KleinJan, Hetty; Jeanthon, Christian; Boyen, Catherine; Dittami, Simon M

    2017-01-01

    Coastal areas form the major habitat of brown macroalgae, photosynthetic multicellular eukaryotes that have great ecological value and industrial potential. Macroalgal growth, development, and physiology are influenced by the microbial community they accommodate. Studying the algal microbiome should thus increase our fundamental understanding of algal biology and may help to improve culturing efforts. Currently, a freshwater strain of the brown macroalga Ectocarpus subulatus is being developed as a model organism for brown macroalgal physiology and algal microbiome studies. It can grow in high and low salinities depending on which microbes it hosts. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this process are still unclear. Cultivation of Ectocarpus -associated bacteria is the first step toward the development of a model system for in vitro functional studies of brown macroalgal-bacterial interactions during abiotic stress. The main aim of the present study is thus to provide an extensive collection of cultivable E . subulatus -associated bacteria. To meet the variety of metabolic demands of Ectocarpus -associated bacteria, several isolation techniques were applied, i.e., direct plating and dilution-to-extinction cultivation techniques, each with chemically defined and undefined bacterial growth media. Algal tissue and algal growth media were directly used as inoculum, or they were pretreated with antibiotics, by filtration, or by digestion of algal cell walls. In total, 388 isolates were identified falling into 33 genera (46 distinct strains), of which Halomonas ( Gammaproteobacteria ), Bosea ( Alphaproteobacteria ), and Limnobacter ( Betaproteobacteria ) were the most abundant. Comparisons with 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding data showed that culturability in this study was remarkably high (∼50%), although several cultivable strains were not detected or only present in extremely low abundance in the libraries. These undetected bacteria could be considered as part

  6. Exploring the Cultivable Ectocarpus Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetty KleinJan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Coastal areas form the major habitat of brown macroalgae, photosynthetic multicellular eukaryotes that have great ecological value and industrial potential. Macroalgal growth, development, and physiology are influenced by the microbial community they accommodate. Studying the algal microbiome should thus increase our fundamental understanding of algal biology and may help to improve culturing efforts. Currently, a freshwater strain of the brown macroalga Ectocarpus subulatus is being developed as a model organism for brown macroalgal physiology and algal microbiome studies. It can grow in high and low salinities depending on which microbes it hosts. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this process are still unclear. Cultivation of Ectocarpus-associated bacteria is the first step toward the development of a model system for in vitro functional studies of brown macroalgal–bacterial interactions during abiotic stress. The main aim of the present study is thus to provide an extensive collection of cultivable E. subulatus-associated bacteria. To meet the variety of metabolic demands of Ectocarpus-associated bacteria, several isolation techniques were applied, i.e., direct plating and dilution-to-extinction cultivation techniques, each with chemically defined and undefined bacterial growth media. Algal tissue and algal growth media were directly used as inoculum, or they were pretreated with antibiotics, by filtration, or by digestion of algal cell walls. In total, 388 isolates were identified falling into 33 genera (46 distinct strains, of which Halomonas (Gammaproteobacteria, Bosea (Alphaproteobacteria, and Limnobacter (Betaproteobacteria were the most abundant. Comparisons with 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding data showed that culturability in this study was remarkably high (∼50%, although several cultivable strains were not detected or only present in extremely low abundance in the libraries. These undetected bacteria could be considered

  7. Hydroponic cultivation of Oncidium baueri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Brandstetter Rodrigues

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, orchid cultivation has been increasing steadily over the last few years and contributing significantly to the economy. It has been reported that several vegetable crops and ornamentals have been successfully grown by soilless cultivation. The orchid Oncidium baueri Lindl. is grown on pot substrates. Nevertheless, hydroponics is an excellent alternative, especially for the production of cut flowers and bare root plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the development of Oncidium baueri on two soilless systems: (a pots containing Amafibra® coconut fiber, carbonized rice husk, and pine bark (1:1:1 irrigated with nutrient solution every 15 d; and (b a nutrient film technique (NFT hydroponic system irrigated with nutrient solution daily. Shoot height, pseudobulb diameter, and number of sprouts were evaluated monthly. The number of flowering plants, number of flowers, dry mass of shoots, and dry mass of roots were evaluated 11 months after onset of experiment. The pot cultivation system yielded more flowers and higher values for all vegetative parameters than the NFT hydroponic system.

  8. Environmental impact estimation of the sugar cane cultivation, using the methodology of the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saavedra D, Juan Felipe; Vargas V, Olga Rocio

    2000-01-01

    This article describes the results of a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) for traditional and organic cultivation of sugar cane in Valle del Cauca. Eco-scores obtained for each case, shown that organic cultivation is less harmful, in environmental terms, than traditional one. In the last one, the biomass burning process, made to facilitate the crop, is the principal environmental problem, while in the first one, it is the use of pollinaza, an organic fertilizer based on these results recommendations were made to obtain significant reduction in the impact of the sugar cane cultivation

  9. HLA antigens in five Amerindian groups (Yuko, Bari, Tunebo, Guane and Paez) of Colombia: results of 'Expedición Humana'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, J E; Duran, C; Briceno, I; Ortega, J; Papiha, S S

    1995-01-01

    The serological HLA types (A, B, C and D loci) were studied in five different Indian groups in Colombia. The range of polymorphism was not very restricted in these groups, but there was significant genetic heterogeneity among the five populations in all the HLA loci. The gene frequency data, when converted into a kinship matrix and a two-dimensional eigen vector plot, showed a closer affinity between Bari and Yuko Indians, while Guane, Tunebo and Paez Indians were not only genetically different from the former but also well-differentiated from each other. It seems therefore from this study that geographical proximity may play a greater role than linguistic similarities in the genetic affinities of Colombian Amerindians.

  10. Cultivating the Deep Subsurface Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casar, C. P.; Osburn, M. R.; Flynn, T. M.; Masterson, A.; Kruger, B.

    2017-12-01

    Subterranean ecosystems are poorly understood because many microbes detected in metagenomic surveys are only distantly related to characterized isolates. Cultivating microorganisms from the deep subsurface is challenging due to its inaccessibility and potential for contamination. The Deep Mine Microbial Observatory (DeMMO) in Lead, SD however, offers access to deep microbial life via pristine fracture fluids in bedrock to a depth of 1478 m. The metabolic landscape of DeMMO was previously characterized via thermodynamic modeling coupled with genomic data, illustrating the potential for microbial inhabitants of DeMMO to utilize mineral substrates as energy sources. Here, we employ field and lab based cultivation approaches with pure minerals to link phylogeny to metabolism at DeMMO. Fracture fluids were directed through reactors filled with Fe3O4, Fe2O3, FeS2, MnO2, and FeCO3 at two sites (610 m and 1478 m) for 2 months prior to harvesting for subsequent analyses. We examined mineralogical, geochemical, and microbiological composition of the reactors via DNA sequencing, microscopy, lipid biomarker characterization, and bulk C and N isotope ratios to determine the influence of mineralogy on biofilm community development. Pre-characterized mineral chips were imaged via SEM to assay microbial growth; preliminary results suggest MnO2, Fe3O4, and Fe2O3 were most conducive to colonization. Solid materials from reactors were used as inoculum for batch cultivation experiments. Media designed to mimic fracture fluid chemistry was supplemented with mineral substrates targeting metal reducers. DNA sequences and microscopy of iron oxide-rich biofilms and fracture fluids suggest iron oxidation is a major energy source at redox transition zones where anaerobic fluids meet more oxidizing conditions. We utilized these biofilms and fluids as inoculum in gradient cultivation experiments targeting microaerophilic iron oxidizers. Cultivation of microbes endemic to DeMMO, a system

  11. Plants cultivation in controlled containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The plants cultivation in controlled containments permits to the - Departement d'Ecophysiologie Vegetale et de Microbiologie (DVEM) - of the CEA to lead several topics of research. The works of DVEM which are based on the molecular labelling, technique adapted to plants, contribute to understand the plant - soil relationships and the plant growth process. In addition, the staff of DVEM study the impact of pollutant heavy metals, existing in the soil, on plants and the plant stress induced by oxygen, light, ionizing radiations,... and defence mechanisms of plants (F. M.)

  12. ADAPTIVE ENERGY-SAVING CULTIVATOR FOR STONY SOILS CULTIVATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Kudzaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Practice of cultivators operation on stony soils in RNO-Alania with high hardness and humidity indicates that traction resistance during the work varies widely, with deviation from the mean value by more than 2 times. Optimally adjust the machine to the soil background when using most modern mechanisms of regulation is not always possible. Customizing the data machine boils down to the choice of priority between the vibration of the working bodies in the soil, the maintenance of the given depth and power reserve stands required to crawl the working body of the big stones. It is very difficult to get in practice the best combination of these three factors, especially on stony soils. Therefore, the machine must be designed with the ability to quickly adjust to changing operating conditions and modes to ensure energy-saving effects and not violations of the specified soil depth of various hardness with the possibility of equipping the machine racks with different working bodies. The interrow cultivator with the possibility of the quick adjustment (including automated to varying conditions was developed. In the process of studied basic parameters of elastic composite racks and parameters of pneumatic mechanism drive to adjust the proposed section of the machine were established. The system hardiness in layouts by elastic bars with air pressure up to 0.6 MPa varies from 17.7 to 45.3 N/mm. It was received effective values of pressures 0.4-0.5 MPa in the pneumatic drive partitions of the machine when operating with universal blade and ridger body OK-3 on stony soil. As a result, traction resistance decreases by 30-35 percent.

  13. [Biotechnological cultivation of edible macrofungi: an alternative for obtaining nutraceutics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez Arango, Carolina; Nieto, Ivonne Jeannette

    2013-01-03

    Macromycetes have been part of the human culture for thousand years, and have been reported as food in the most important civilizations in history. Many nutraceutical properties of macromycetes have been described, such as anti-cancer, anti-tumour, cholesterol lowering, antiviral, antibacterial, or immunomodulatory, among others. Given that production of mushrooms by traditional cultivation and extraction of bioactive metabolites is very difficult in some cases, biotechnology is essential for the development of profitable and productive techniques for obtaining these metabolites. It is the development of this technology, and the ease in which it enables the use of its variables that has allowed mycelium to be cultivated in liquid medium of macrofungi, with a significant reduction in time and an increased production of metabolites. This increased production has led to the study of compounds that have medicinal, nutriceutical and quasi-farmaceutical potential, in the exhausted media and the mycelium. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the use of liquid-state fermentation as a technological tool for obtaining edible fungi, and the study of these and their metabolites, by describing the different cultivation conditions used in recent years, as well as the results obtained. The relevance of Agaricus, Flammulina, Grifola, Pleurotus and Lentinula genera, will also be discussed, with emphasis on the last one, since Shiitake has been always considered as the ultimate medicinal mushroom. Copyright © 2011 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. Biology, cultivation, and medicinal functions of the mushroom Hericium erinaceum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Sokół

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hericium erinaceum (Bull.: Fr. Pers. is an edible fungus of great significance in medicine. It is rarely found in Europe, in contrast, it is common in Japan and North America. Its fruitbodies have been well-known for hundreds of years in traditional Chinese medicine and cuisine. A cradle of H. erinaceum cultivation is Asia. In Eastern Europe is rare in natural habitats, but can be successfully cultivated. Both fruitbodies and mycelia are rich in active, health promoting substances. Tests of substances extracted from this mushroom carried out on animals and in vitro have given good results. They can be used in the treatment of cancer, hepatic disorders, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, wound healing. They improve cognitive abilities, support the nervous and immune systems. Promising results have been reported in clinical trials and case reports about the human treatment (e.g., recovery from schizophrenia, an improvement of the quality of sleep, alleviation of the menopause symptoms. The subject of this paper is to summarize information about the development of mycelium, the best conditions for cultivation of fruitbodies, bioactive substances and their use in medicine.

  15. Commercial cultivation by farmers of medicinal plants in northern Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. M. Manzoor Rashid

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants (MPs are an important component of non-timber forest products (NTFPs, which are traditionally used in healthcare and source of livelihood all over the world. In an over-populated country like Bangladesh, the pressure on natural forests is immense; thus the cultivation of MPs can significantly contribute towards improving the livelihood of poor people, reducing the pressure on natural forests and enhancing biological diversity. Notwithstanding the growing recognition of its importance and economic and ecological potential, there has been little research on MPs, especially the cultivation, management and marketing aspects, in Bangladesh. Based on extensive fieldwork in a northern district of Bangladesh, this study explores various aspects of the cultivation, management and marketing of MPs. How collective efforts have brought economic and social benefits to communities was also examined in this study. It assesses the major processes and elements of management, identifies key problems and challenges and indicates ways of maximizing the potential of this important sector. The issues covered in this research include: farmers ’ perceptions and experiences; existing research and policy-making processes related to the MP sector; constraining factors (such as lack of processing technology, inadequate transportation, logistics, financial and storage infrastructure, lack of institutional capacity; markets, finance and networking; land use; pattern of livelihood and value chain issue.

  16. Feeding mice with diets containing mercury-contaminated fish flesh from French Guiana: a model for the mercurial intoxication of the Wayana Amerindians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossignol Rodrigue

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2005, 84% of Wayana Amerindians living in the upper marshes of the Maroni River in French Guiana presented a hair mercury concentration exceeding the limit set up by the World Health Organization (10 μg/g. To determine whether this mercurial contamination was harmful, mice have been fed diets prepared by incorporation of mercury-polluted fish from French Guiana. Methods Four diets containing 0, 0.1, 1, and 7.5% fish flesh, representing 0, 5, 62, and 520 ng methylmercury per g, respectively, were given to four groups of mice for a month. The lowest fish regimen led to a mercurial contamination pressure of 1 ng mercury per day per g of body weight, which is precisely that affecting the Wayana Amerindians. Results The expression of several genes was modified with mercury intoxication in liver, kidneys, and hippocampus, even at the lowest tested fish regimen. A net genetic response could be observed for mercury concentrations accumulated within tissues as weak as 0.15 ppm in the liver, 1.4 ppm in the kidneys, and 0.4 ppm in the hippocampus. This last value is in the range of the mercury concentrations found in the brains of chronically exposed patients in the Minamata region or in brains from heavy fish consumers. Mitochondrial respiratory rates showed a 35–40% decrease in respiration for the three contaminated mice groups. In the muscles of mice fed the lightest fish-containing diet, cytochrome c oxidase activity was decreased to 45% of that of the control muscles. When mice behavior was assessed in a cross maze, those fed the lowest and mid-level fish-containing diets developed higher anxiety state behaviors compared to mice fed with control diet. Conclusion We conclude that a vegetarian diet containing as little as 0.1% of mercury-contaminated fish is able to trigger in mice, after only one month of exposure, disorders presenting all the hallmarks of mercurial contamination.

  17. Mixotrophic cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production: status and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinghan; Yang, Haizhen; Wang, Feng

    2014-04-01

    Biodiesel from microalgae provides a promising alternative for biofuel production. Microalgae can be produced under three major cultivation modes, namely photoautotrophic cultivation, heterotrophic cultivation, and mixotrophic cultivation. Potentials and practices of biodiesel production from microalgae have been demonstrated mostly focusing on photoautotrophic cultivation; mixotrophic cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production has rarely been reviewed. This paper summarizes the mechanisms and virtues of mixotrophic microalgae cultivation through comparison with other major cultivation modes. Influencing factors of microalgal biodiesel production under mixotrophic cultivation are presented, development of combining microalgal biodiesel production with wastewater treatment is especially reviewed, and bottlenecks and strategies for future commercial production are also identified.

  18. Multiple outcomes of cultivation in the Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Laura Vang; Reenberg, Anette

    2015-01-01

    A default assumption about the Sahel is that farmers consider food provision for the family as the sole reason for cultivation. The degree to which this ‘cultivation for food’ assumption has been embedded in the scientific literature on land use changes is signified by the fact that hardly any...

  19. Shifting Cultivation : Promoting Innovative Policy and Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Shifting Cultivation : Promoting Innovative Policy and Development Options in the Eastern Himalayas. Shifting ... pressure and market forces. The idea is to share good policies and practices related to shifting cultivation and alternative options through regional exchange. ... Les chaînes de valeur comme leviers stratégiques.

  20. Microalgal Cultivation in Treating Liquid Digestate from Biogas Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ao; Murphy, Jerry D

    2016-04-01

    Biogas production via anaerobic digestion (AD) has rapidly developed in recent years. In addition to biogas, digestate is an important byproduct. Liquid digestate is the major fraction of digestate and may contain high levels of ammonia nitrogen. Traditional processing technologies (such as land application) require significant energy inputs and raise environmental risks (such as eutrophication). Alternatively, microalgae can efficiently remove the nutrients from digestate while producing high-value biomass that can be used for the production of biochemicals and biofuels. Both inorganic and organic carbon sources derived from biogas production can significantly improve microalgal production. Land requirement for microalgal cultivation is estimated as 3% of traditional direct land application of digestate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Understanding traditional African healing

    OpenAIRE

    MOKGOBI, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of tradition...

  2. Edible Mushroom Cultivation for Food Security and Rural Development in China: Bio-Innovation, Technological Dissemination and Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Yaoqi Zhang; Wei Geng; Yueqin Shen; Yanling Wang; Yu-Cheng Dai

    2014-01-01

    Mushrooms traditionally collected from forests and now more cultivated have recently become the products of the fifth-largest agricultural sector in China. It was estimated that more than 25 million farmers in China are currently engaged in the collection, cultivation processing and marketing of mushrooms. The total value of mushroom products amounted to 149 billion RMB Yuan (24 billion USD) in 2011. The raw materials have expanded from a few hardwoods to a variety of woods and increasing mor...

  3. Analysis of Polymorphisms in Genes (AGT, MTHFR, GPIIIa, and GSTP1) Associated with Hypertension, Thrombophilia and Oxidative Stress in Mestizo and Amerindian Populations of México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Velázquez, Rocio; Canto, Patricia; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Rangel-Villalobos, Hector; Rosas-Vargas, Haydee; Rodríguez, Maricela; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Velázquez Wong, Ana Claudia; Ordoñez-Razo, Rosa María; Vilchis-Dorantes, Guadalupe; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    Several polymorphisms related to hypertension, thrombophilia, and oxidative stress has been associated with the development of cardiovascular disease. We analyzed the frequency of M235T angiotensinogen (AGT), A222V 5,10 methylenete-trahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), L33P glycoprotein IIIa (GPIIIa), and I105V glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) polymorphisms in 285 individuals belonging to Mexican-Mestizo and five Amerindian population from México, by real time PCR allelic discrimination. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared using χ2 tests. All populations followed the Hardy Weinberg equilibrium for assay markers with the exception of the Triki, whose were in Hardy Weinberg dysequilibrium for the glutathione S-transferase P1 polymorphism. Interestingly, according to all the analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the Triki population was the most differentiated and homogeneous group of the six populations analyzed. A comparison of our data with those previously published for some Caucasian, Asian and Black populations showed quite significant differences. These differences were remarkable with all the Mexican populations having a lower frequency of the 105V allele of the glutathione S-transferase P1 and reduced occurrence of the 222A allele of the 5,10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. Our results show the genetic diversity among different Mexican populations and with other racial groups. PMID:20592457

  4. Hyperreactive malarial splenomegaly is associated with low levels of antibodies against red blood cell and Plasmodium falciparum derived glycolipids in Yanomami Amerindians from Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas, Livia; O'Dea, Kieran P; Noya, Oscar; Pabon, Rosalba; Magris, Magda; Botto, Carlos; Holder, Anthony A; Brown, K Neil

    2008-03-01

    The immunological basis of the aberrant immune response in hyperreactive malarial splenomegaly (HMS) is poorly understood, but believed to be associated with polyclonal B cell activation by an unidentified malaria mitogen, leading to unregulated immunoglobulin and autoantibody production. HMS has been previously reported in Yanomami communities in the Upper Orinoco region of the Venezuelan Amazon. To investigate a possible association between antibody responses against Plasmodium falciparum and uninfected red blood cell (URBC) glycolipids and splenomegaly, a direct comparison of the parasite versus host anti-glycolipid antibody responses was made in an isolated community of this area. The anti-P. falciparum glycolipid (Pfglp) response was IgG3 dominated, whereas the uninfected red blood cell glycolipid (URBCglp) response showed a predominance of IgG1. The levels of IgG1 against Pfglp, and of IgG4 and IgM against URBCglp were significantly higher in women, while the anti-Pfglp or URBCglp IgM levels were inversely correlated with the degree of splenomegaly. Overall, these results suggest differential regulation of anti-parasite and autoreactive responses and that these responses may be linked to the development and evolution of HMS in this population exposed to endemic malaria. The high mortality rates associated with HMS point out that its early diagnosis together with the implementation of malaria control measures in these isolated Amerindian communities are a priority.

  5. Geospatial patterns in traditional knowledge serve in assessing intellectual property rights and benefit-sharing in northwest South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cámara-Leret, Rodrigo; Paniagua-Zambrana, Narel; Svenning, J.-C.

    2014-01-01

    medicinal palm (Arecaceae) uses is unique and how much is shared across (i) four countries (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia), (ii) two cultural groups (Amerindian and non-Amerindian), (iii) 52 Amerindian tribes, (iv) six non-Amerindian groups, (v) 41 communities, and (vi) individuals in the 41 communities...... in the number of unshared and shared uses accounted for by the five birth cohorts. Results We found that most knowledge was not shared among countries, cultural groups, tribes, communities, or even individuals within them. Still, a minor knowledge component was widely shared, even across countries. General...

  6. Understanding traditional African healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokgobi, M G

    2014-09-01

    Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of traditional healers as well as the role of traditional healers in their communities are discussed. In conclusion, the services of traditional healers go far beyond the uses of herbs for physical illnesses. Traditional healers serve many roles which include but not limited to custodians of the traditional African religion and customs, educators about culture, counselors, social workers and psychologists.

  7. Shifting Cultivation : Promoting Innovative Policy and Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... if improved and rationalized as an agroforestry system, has high potential for poverty ... with the livelihood issues of the cultivators and the health of the ecosystem, and assess the ... International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development.

  8. Soilless cultivation system for functional food crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahamad Sahali Mardi; Shyful Azizi Abdul Rahman; Ahmad Nazrul Abd Wahid; Abdul Razak Ruslan; Hazlina Abdullah

    2007-01-01

    This soilless cultivation system is based on the fertigation system and cultivation technologies using Functional Plant Cultivation System (FPCS). EBARA Japan has been studying on the cultivation conditions in order to enhance the function of decease risk reduction in plants. Through the research and development activities, EBARA found the possibilities on the enhancement of functions. Quality and quantity of the products in term of bioactive compounds present in the plants may be affected by unforeseen environmental conditions, such as temperature, strong light and UV radiation. The main objective to develop this system is, to support? Functional Food Industry? as newly emerging field in agriculture business. To success the system, needs comprehensive applying agriculture biotechnologies, health biotechnologies and also information technologies, in agriculture. By this system, production of valuable bioactive compounds is an advantage, because the market size of functional food is increasing more and more in the future. (Author)

  9. Cultivation of parasitic leptospires: effect of pyruvate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R C; Walby, J; Henry, R A; Auran, N E

    1973-07-01

    Sodium pyruvate (100 mug/ml) is a useful addition to the Tween 80-albumin medium for the cultivation of parasitic serotypes. It is most effective in promoting growth from small inocula and growth of the nutritionally fastidious serotypes.

  10. Advancing gut microbiome research using cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Morten OA

    2015-01-01

    Culture-independent approaches have driven the field of microbiome research and illuminated intricate relationships between the gut microbiota and human health. However, definitively associating phenotypes to specific strains or elucidating physiological interactions is challenging for metagenomic...... approaches. Recently a number of new approaches to gut microbiota cultivation have emerged through the integration of high-throughput phylogenetic mapping and new simplified cultivation methods. These methodologies are described along with their potential use within microbiome research. Deployment of novel...... cultivation approaches should enable improved studies of xenobiotic tolerance and modification phenotypes and allow a drastic expansion of the gut microbiota reference genome catalogues. Furthermore, the new cultivation methods should facilitate systematic studies of the causal relationship between...

  11. How to Cultivate the Student's Cultural Awareness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    tian xiu ying

    2008-01-01

    Language and culture are inseparable and cultural awareness must be integrated with language teaching. How to cultivate the learners' cultural awareness is an important issue that we have to carry out in teaching practice in China.

  12. Genetic resources of cultivated and volunteer vegetables in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Branka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Number of plant species and populations in the diet and agriculture, and knowledge about them, their cultivation and use, represent the biological, cultural and social heritage of the humankind. Due to favourable geographic, soil, and climate conditions, and large diversity of flora in Serbia, there is a rich tradition of vegetable use in the diet, cultivated and volunteer, autochthonous. More than 70 botanical vegetable species that are accepted for long-term preservation are mentioned nowadays in Serbia. Besides that, some plant species that are classified as industrial, medicinal and aromatic plants are being used as vegetables. Vegetables include legumes used as stewing vegetables. Serbia has three vegetable regions: lowlands (along the rivers Danube, Tisa and Sava, Moravian (along three Morava Rivers and their tributaries and mountainous (Eastern, South-eastern and Western areas, Kosovo and Metohija. In these regions, genetic resources of vegetables should be looked for in cultivated and volunteering flora of different domestic and domesticated populations developed due to adaptation to the specific abiotic and biotic factors, including breeders' selection. International and national projects have been organised in the field of preserving genetic resources of vegetables in the past, as well as nowadays in Serbia. Collected samples are stored in Plant Gene Bank of Serbia and in gene banks all over the world. Significant part is located in the collections of national institutes and faculties. Samples are described with passport data, while those in collections even in more detail. However, none of this is sufficient. In the last decades in Serbia, many populations and vegetable species have threatened to disappear. Many villages are disappearing, there are few growers of vegetables, and extinction of numerous valuable genotypes is accelerated by unfavourable weather conditions. Large number of cultivars and vegetable species that were

  13. Effectiveness of Training Programme on Mushroom Cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Md. Sazzadur; Hossain, Kh. Zulfikar; Ali, Md. Sekender; Afroz, Fauzia

    2017-01-01

    Effectiveness is one of the key parameters to assess success of any programs. However, the effectiveness of training programme on mushroom cultivation was not well addressed. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of training programme on mushroom cultivation and to explore the relationships of each of the selected characteristics of the trained mushroom farmers with their effectiveness of training programme. Data were collected from the trained mushroom farmers of s...

  14. Reform of experimental teaching based on quality cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Yan, Xingwei; Liu, Wei; Yao, Tianfu; Shi, Jianhua; Lei, Bing; Hu, Haojun

    2017-08-01

    Experimental teaching plays an import part in quality education which devotes to cultivating students with innovative spirit, strong technological talents and practical ability. However, in the traditional experimental teaching mode, the experiments are treated as a vassal or supplementary mean of theoretical teaching, and students prefer focus on theory to practice. Therefore, the traditional experimental teaching mode is difficult to meet the requirements of quality education. To address this issue, the reform of experimental teaching is introduced in this paper taking the photoelectric detector experiment as the example. The new experimental teaching mode is designed from such aspects as experimental content, teaching method and experimental evaluation. With the purpose of cultivating students' practical ability, two different-level experimental content is designed. Not only the basic experiments used to verify the theory are set to consolidate the students' learned theoretical knowledge, but also comprehensive experiments are designed to encourage the students to apply their learned knowledge to solve practical problems. In the teaching process, heuristic teaching thought is adopt and the traditional `teacher-centered' teaching form is replaced by `student-centered' form, which aims to encourage students to design the experimental systems by their own with the teacher's guidance. In addition to depending on stimulating the students' interest of science research, experimental evaluation is necessary to urge students to complete the experiments efficiently. Multifaceted evaluation method is proposed to test the students' mastery of theoretical knowledge, practice ability, troubleshooting and problem solving skills, and innovation capability comprehensively. Practices demonstrated the satisfying effect of our experimental teaching mode.

  15. The Cultivation of Human Granulosa Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Brůčková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The major functions of granulosa cells (GCs include the production of steroids, as well as a myriad of growth factors to interact with the oocyte during its development within the ovarian follicle. Also FSH stimulates GCs to convert androgens (coming from the thecal cells to estradiol by aromatase. However, after ovulation the GCs produce progesterone that may maintain a potential pregnancy. Experiments with human GCs are mainly focused on the purification of GCs from ovarian follicular fluid followed by FACS analysis or short-term cultivation. The aim of our study was to cultivate GCs for a long period, to characterize their morphology and phenotype. Moreover, we have cultivated GCs under gonadotropin stimulation in order to simulate different pathological mechanisms during folliculogenesis (e.g. ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. GCs were harvested from women undergoing in vitro fertilization. Complex oocyte-cumulus oophorus was dissociated by hyaluronidase. The best condition for transport of GCs was optimized as short transport in follicular fluid at 37 °C. GCs expansion medium consisted of DMEM/F12, 2 % FCS, ascorbic acid, dexamethasone, L-glutamine, gentamycine, penicillin, streptomycin and growth factors (EGF, bFGF. GCs transported in follicular fluid and cultivated in 2 % FCS containing DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with follicular fluid presented increased adhesion, proliferation, viability and decreased doubling time. Cell viability was 92 % and mean cell doubling time was 52 hrs. We have optimized transport and cultivation protocols for long-term cultivation of GCs.

  16. Antiplasmodial and anti-inflammatory effects of an antimalarial remedy from the Wayana Amerindians, French Guiana: takamalaimë (Psidium acutangulum Mart. ex DC., Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houël, Emeline; Fleury, Marie; Odonne, Guillaume; Nardella, Flore; Bourdy, Geneviève; Vonthron-Sénécheau, Catherine; Villa, Pascal; Obrecht, Adeline; Eparvier, Véronique; Deharo, Eric; Stien, Didier

    2015-05-26

    Field investigations highlighted the use of Psidium acutangulum Mart. ex DC (syn. P. persoonii McVaugh), a small tree used by the Wayana Amerindians in Twenke-Taluhwen and Antecume-Pata, French Guiana, for the treatment of malaria, and administered either orally in the form of a decoction or applied externally over the whole body. This use appears limited to the Wayana cultural group in French Guiana and has never been reported anywhere else. Our goal was to evaluate the antimalarial and anti-inflammatory activities of a P. acutangulum decoction to explain the good reputation of this remedy. Interviews with the Wayana inhabitants of Twenke-Taluhwen and Antecume-Pata were conducted within the TRAMAZ project according to the TRAMIL methodology, which is based on a quantitative and qualitative analysis of medicinal plant uses. A decoction of dried aerial parts of P. acutangulum was prepared in consistency with the Wayana recipe. In vitro antiplasmodial assays were performed on chloroquine-resistant FcB1 ([(3)H]-hypoxanthine bioassay) and 7G8 (pLDH bioassay) P. falciparum strains and on chloroquine sensitive NF54 ([(3)H]-hypoxanthine bioassay) P. falciparum strain. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNFα) was evaluated on LPS-stimulated human PBMC and NO secretion inhibition was measured on LPS stimulated RAW murine macrophages. Cytotoxicity of the decoction was measured on L6 mammalian cells, PBMCs, and RAW cells. A preliminary evaluation of the in vivo antimalarial activity of the decoction, administered orally twice daily, was assessed by the classical four-day suppressive test against P. berghei NK65 in mice. The decoction displayed a good antiplasmodial activity in vitro against the three tested strains, regardless to the bioassay used, with IC50 values of 3.3µg/mL and 10.3µg/mL against P. falciparum FcB1 and NF54, respectively and 19.0µg/mL against P. falciparum 7G8. It also exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in vitro in a

  17. A comparative epidemiological study of hepatitis B and hepatitis D virus infections in Yanomami and Piaroa Amerindians of Amazonas State, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, María Carolina; Cardona, Nathalia; Poblete, Fresia; González, Kenia; García, Mayila; Pacheco, Milian; Botto, Carlos; Pujol, Flor H; Williams, John R

    2010-08-01

    To report the prevalences of hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis D (HDV) infections in remote and more accessible Yanomami and Piaroa Venezuelan Amazonian Amerindian populations; to estimate incidence per susceptible. Clinico-epidemiological evaluation was carried out in 9 Piaroa villages. Blood samples were tested for HBV core antibody (anti-HBc), surface antigen (HBsAg) and HDV antibody (anti-HDV). Results were analysed using logistic regression, and estimates made of HBV forces of infection (FOI). Prevalences and FOI were also estimated for 4 Yanomami villages. Mean Piaroa anti-HBc and HBsAg prevalences were 27.4% and 5.1%, respectively (up to 53% and 19% in the remote Autana region). Mean Yanomami anti-HBc and HBsAg prevalences were, respectively, 58.0% (range 43-70%) and 14.3% (31% in the village with highest HBsAg). No significant difference was found between sexes, with age and maternal HBsAg the only risk factors for HBV identified in multivariate regression of Piaroa data. Only 4 Piaroa and 2 Yanomami individuals were anti-HDV positive. Piaroa HBV prevalences were generally higher in remote villages than in less remote ones, with prevalences in Yanomami villages even higher. Anti-HBc prevalence was 47% in one Yanomami village with a history of HBV vaccination but no HBsAg cases were identified, suggestive of previously cleared or possibly transient infection or vaccine escape. Despite a past history of HDV epidemic outbreaks and HBsAg levels in some villages appearing sufficient to facilitate HDV transmission, anti-HDV prevalence was low; it remains to be established why no recent outbreaks have been reported.

  18. [Traditional medicine under Japanese rule after 1930s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-won

    2003-12-01

    Japan, which occupied Korea from 1910 through the end of World War II, transformed traditional medicine. Japanese colonialists propagandized the "benefits of modern civilization such as western medicine" and rejected the advantages of traditional medicine. This bias against Korean traditional medicine mirrored the government's rejection of its own traditional medicine. So, Korean traditional medicine was marginalized in the national health care system: traditional doctors were excluded from public institutions and references to traditional medicine were purged from school textbooks and newspapers. The wars that Japan waged between 1931 and 1944 effected a favorable change toward traditional medicines, however. The wars created a severe shortage of drugs and medical personnel. Thus the colonial government was eager for Koreans to cultivate and gather herbal drugs; it also built a large research institute for herbalism at the Keijo Imperial University in 1938. The colonial government made pharmacopoeia for traditional herbal drugs including plant and animal drugs from 1937 to 1942, independently from Japan. Under these conditions, the prestige of traditional medicine was greatly improved. Influential newspapers and magazines covered the traditional medicine and public lectures on traditional medicine drew large audiences. The wartime government abandoned its opposition to traditional medicine, and appointed a traditional practitioner to the staff of the public hospital in 1934. Moreover, the government allowed the association of the traditional medical doctors in Seoul to train three hundred more practitioners between 1937 and 1942. Japanese colonial policy toward traditional medicine reflected the contradiction between modernizing ideology and the reality of poor colonial medical care. Japanese propaganda promised that the colonial regime would provide more advanced medicine to Korea, but the promise was an empty one. In this situation, traditional medical doctors

  19. Hydroponic cultivation of soybean for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascale, Stefania; De Micco, Veronica; Aronne, Giovanna; Paradiso, Roberta

    For long time our research group has been involved in experiments aiming to evaluate the possibility to cultivate plants in Space to regenerate resources and produce food. Apart from investigating the response of specific growth processes (at morpho-functional levels) to space factors (namely microgravity and ionising radiation), wide attention has been dedicated to agro-technologies applied to ecologically closed systems. Based on technical and human dietary requirements, soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is studied as one of the candidate species for hydroponic (soilless) cultivation in the research program MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) of the European Space Agency (ESA). Soybean seeds show high nutritional value, due to the relevant content of protein, lipids, dietary fiber and biologically active substances such as isoflavones. They can produce fresh sprouts or be transformed in several edible products (soymilk and okara or soy pulp). Soybean is traditionally grown in open field where specific interactions with soil microrganisms occur. Most available information on plant growth, seed productivity and nutrient composition relate to cultivated varieties (cultivars) selected for soil cultivation. However, in a space outpost, plant cultivation would rely on soilless systems. Given that plant growth, seed yield and quality strictly depend on the environmental conditions, to make successful the cultivation of soybean in space, it was necessary to screen all agronomic information according to space constraints. Indeed, selected cultivars have to comply with the space growth environment while providing a suitable nutritional quality to fulfill the astronauts needs. We proposed an objective criterion for the preliminary theoretical selection of the most suitable cultivars for seed production, which were subsequently evaluated in bench tests in hydroponics. Several Space-oriented experiments were carried out in a closed growth chamber to

  20. Sustainable Utilization of Traditional Chinese Medicine Resources: Systematic Evaluation on Different Production Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwen Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The usage amount of medicinal plant rapidly increased along with the development of traditional Chinese medicine industry. The higher market demand and the shortage of wild herbal resources enforce us to carry out large-scale introduction and cultivation. Herbal cultivation can ease current contradiction between medicinal resources supply and demand while they bring new problems such as pesticide residues and plant disease and pests. Researchers have recently placed high hopes on the application of natural fostering, a new method incorporated herbal production and diversity protecting practically, which can solve the problems brought by artificial cultivation. However no modes can solve all problems existing in current herbal production. This study evaluated different production modes including cultivation, natural fostering, and wild collection to guide the traditional Chinese medicine production for sustainable utilization of herbal resources.

  1. Integration of microalgae cultivation with industrial waste remediation for biofuel and bioenergy production: opportunities and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Patrick J; Dickinson, Kathryn E; Bhatti, Shabana; Frigon, Jean-Claude; Guiot, Serge R; O'Leary, Stephen J B

    2011-09-01

    There is currently a renewed interest in developing microalgae as a source of renewable energy and fuel. Microalgae hold great potential as a source of biomass for the production of energy and fungible liquid transportation fuels. However, the technologies required for large-scale cultivation, processing, and conversion of microalgal biomass to energy products are underdeveloped. Microalgae offer several advantages over traditional 'first-generation' biofuels crops like corn: these include superior biomass productivity, the ability to grow on poor-quality land unsuitable for agriculture, and the potential for sustainable growth by extracting macro- and micronutrients from wastewater and industrial flue-stack emissions. Integrating microalgal cultivation with municipal wastewater treatment and industrial CO(2) emissions from coal-fired power plants is a potential strategy to produce large quantities of biomass, and represents an opportunity to develop, test, and optimize the necessary technologies to make microalgal biofuels more cost-effective and efficient. However, many constraints on the eventual deployment of this technology must be taken into consideration and mitigating strategies developed before large scale microalgal cultivation can become a reality. As a strategy for CO(2) biomitigation from industrial point source emitters, microalgal cultivation can be limited by the availability of land, light, and other nutrients like N and P. Effective removal of N and P from municipal wastewater is limited by the processing capacity of available microalgal cultivation systems. Strategies to mitigate against the constraints are discussed.

  2. Community-Led Assessment of Risk from Exposure to Mercury by Native Amerindian Wayana in Southeast Suriname

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peplow, D.; Augustine, S.; Peplow, D.

    2012-01-01

    This study was a collaboration between Western public health researchers and Suriname indigenous communities. The question asked was how can Western researchers effectively engage traditional indigenous communities in Suriname, South America, in public health research. The approach used a combination of Participatory Action Research methods in which Western researchers became participating observers in an indigenous-led research initiative. The Wayana communities of Puleowime (Apetina) and Kawemhakan (Anapayke) defined a single objective: determine for themselves whether they are at risk from exposure to mercury (Hg) contamination. Community members collected hair samples for analysis. Hair samples were analyzed using a portable Hg analyzer. Individual, community and hazard quotient indices were used to quantify risk. Results showed the Wayana were at a high lifetime risk of adverse effects from exposure to Hg. This study showed that the community-led approach is an effective way Westerners can engage indigenous communities and address serious public health threats. While factors that appealed to indigenous communities were identified, obstacles inherent to Western research methodology were also encountered

  3. Review on Natural Enemies and Diseases in the Artificial Cultivation of Chinese Caterpillar Mushroom, Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ascomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zenghui; Shi, Ping; He, Yuanchuan; Zhang, Deli; He, Zongyi; Chen, Shijiang; Tu, Yongqin; Li, Li; Liu, Fei; Zeng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis), well known as DongChongXiaCao (DCXC), is one of the most valuable traditional Chinese medicinal species. In this article, we provide a systematic review of natural enemies and diseases encountered in artificial cultivation of DCXC. Unfortunately, DCXC has been endangered over the past decades due to overharvesting and a worsening ecological environment. Therefore, the artificial cultivation of DCXC has been extensively investigated in recent years. Complete indoor artificial cultivation and semi-field cultivation are the two most common strategies used to cultivate DCXC. However, cultured DCXCs are often attacked by various natural enemies and diseases, which have resulted in substantial loss of the valuable medicinal resource. In this study, we have summarized the species of natural enemies and types of diseases confronted by DCXC. Twenty reported natural enemy species are categorized into four classes, one of which is reported for the first time in this study. Moreover, six microbial pathogens are also discussed. The recapitulation of the natural enemies and diseases in DCXC artificial cultivation not only promote the development of integrated pest management of DCXC cultivation but also provide important information to help preserve and develop this valuable resource.

  4. Alternative substrates for higher mushrooms mycelia cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TETIANA KRUPODOROVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of 29 species of higher mushroom mycelia on alternative substrates – wastes of Ukrainian oil-fat industry, has been investigated. The amount of mushroom mycelia obtaining on 12 investigated substrates varied significantly, from 1.0 g/L to 22.9 g/L on the 14th day of cultivation. The superficial cultivation adopted in this study allows for easy to choose appropriate medium (substrate for mycelia production. Alternative substrates (compared to glucose-peptone-yeast medium were selected for all studied species, from soybean cake – most suitable for the mycelial growth of 24 species, to walnut cake − suitable only for 2 species. The utilization of substrates has been evaluated by biological efficiency. The best index of biological efficiency varied from 19.0% to 41.6% depending on the mushroom species. It was established high biological efficiency of mycelia cultivation on substrates: wheat seed cake – Pleurotus djamor, Lyophyllum shimeji, Crinipellis schevczenkovi, Phellinus igniarius, Spongipellis litschaueri; oat seed cake – Ganoderma applanatum and G. lucidum; soybean cake – Hohenbuehelia myxotricha, Trametes versicolor, Morchella esculenta, Cordyceps sinensis, C. militaris, and Agrocybe aegerita; rape seed cake – Auriporia aurea; camelina seed cake – Fomes fomentarius. The cultivation of these species are perspective as a biotechnological process of agricultural wastes converted into mycelia, which could be used in different forms of products with therapeutic action: powder or tablets nutraceuticals or ingredients for functional foods.

  5. Environmental and nutritional requirements for tea cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajiboland Roghieh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis is an important beverage crop cultivated in the tropics and subtropics under acid soil conditions. Increased awareness of the health-promoting properties of the tea beverage has led to an increase in its level of consumption over the last decades. Tea production contributes significantly to the economy of several tea-cultivating countries in Asia and Africa. Environmental constrains, particularly water deficiency due to inadequate and/or poorly distributed rainfall, seriously limit tea production in the majority of tea-producing countries. It is also predicted that global climate change will have a considerable adverse impact on tea production in the near future. Application of fertilizers for higher production and increased quality and quantity of tea is a common agricultural practice, but due to its environmental consequences, such as groundwater pollution, the rate of fertilizer application needs to be reconsidered. Cultivation of tea under humid conditions renders it highly susceptible to pathogens and pest attacks. Application of pesticides and fungicides adversely affects the quality of tea and increases health risks of the tea beverage. Organic cultivation as an agricultural practice without using synthetic fertilizers and other chemical additives such as pesticides and fungicides is a sustainable and eco-friendly approach to producing healthy tea. A growing number of tea-producing countries are joining organic tea cultivation programmes in order to improve the quality and to maintain the health benefits of the tea produced.

  6. Cultivating Healthy Growth and Nutrition through the Gut Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Sathish; Blanton, Laura; Frese, Steven A.; Charbonneau, Mark; Mills, David A.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.

    2015-01-01

    Microbiota assembly is perturbed in children with undernutrition, resulting in persistent microbiota immaturity that is not rescued by current nutritional interventions. Evidence is accumulating that this immaturity is causally related to the pathogenesis of undernutrition and its lingering sequelae. Preclinical models in which human gut communities are replicated in gnotobiotic mice have provided an opportunity to identify and predict the effects of different dietary ingredients on microbiota structure, expressed functions, and host biology. This capacity sets the stage for proof-of-concept tests designed to deliberately shape the developmental trajectory and configurations of microbiota in children representing different geographies, cultural traditions, and states of health. Developing these capabilities for microbial stewardship is timely given the global health burden of childhood undernutrition, the effects of changing eating practices brought about by globalization, and the realization that affordable nutritious foods need to be developed to enhance our capacity to cultivate healthier microbiota in populations at risk for poor nutrition. PMID:25815983

  7. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the

  8. Traditional timber frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorissen, A.J.M.; Hamer, den J.; Leijten, A.J.M.; Salenikovich, A.

    2014-01-01

    Due to new possibilities traditional timber framing has become increasingly popular since the beginning of the 21e century. Although traditional timber framing has been used for centuries, the expected mechanical behaviour is not dealt with in great detail in building codes, guidelines or text

  9. Phenylhydrazines in the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, H. C.; Gry, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    In 1991, the Nordic Working Group on Food Toxicology and Risk Evaluation (NNT) reviewed the available data on phenylhydrazines naturally occurring in the cultivated mushroom. It was concluded that the mushroom may contain about 500 mg of the hydrazine derivatives per kg fresh weight. The hydrazine...... derivatives as well as extracts of the cultivated mushroom were mutagenic to a variable degree in most of the reported short-term tests. The raw mushroom and several of the hydrazines induced tumours when administered to Swiss mice as reported by American scientists. However, reservations were expressed...... as to the design of the studies. Based on this review, and due to the concern expressed, a Nordic project (coordinated by Jørn Gry, Danish Veterinary and Food Administration) was initiated dealing with toxicological and chemical studies on the cultivated mushroom and its phenylhydrazine derivatives in order...

  10. Zeolites as possible biofortifiers in Maitake cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vunduk Jovana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of Ni, Cu and Mg in Grifola frondosa (also known as Maitake mushroom fruit body produced on zeolite Minazel Plus (MG-supplemented substrate were measured with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. Two different concentrations of MG were added to the substrate for mushroom cultivation. Levels of selected metals were measured in cultivated dry carpophores. The content of Ni increased in fruit bodies produced on supplemented substrate, while in case of Cu, a pronounced decrease was observed. When two different concentrations of MG were implemented, the Mg level showed both positive and negative trend, depending on the applied concentration of zeolite. MG in a concentration of 1% showed the strongest influence on the observed elements in the cultivated fruiting body of Maitake mushroom. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46010

  11. Cultivating creativity in conservation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Clare E; Pinsky, Malin L; Ryan, Maureen E; Souther, Sara; Terrell, Kimberly A

    2014-04-01

    Conservation practitioners and scientists are often faced with seemingly intractable problems in which traditional approaches fail. While other sectors (e.g., business) frequently emphasize creative thinking to overcome complex challenges, creativity is rarely identified as an essential skill for conservationists. Yet more creative approaches are urgently needed in the effort to sustain Earth's biodiversity. We identified 4 strategies to develop skills in creative thinking and discuss underlying research and examples supporting each strategy. First, by breaking down barriers between disciplines and surrounding oneself with unfamiliar people, concepts, and perspectives, one can expand base knowledge and experiences and increase the potential for new combinations of ideas. Second, by meeting people where they are (both literally and figuratively), one exposes oneself to new environments and perspectives, which again broadens experiences and increases ability to communicate effectively with stakeholders. Third, by embracing risk responsibly, one is more likely to develop new, nontraditional solutions and be open to high-impact outcomes. Finally, by following a cycle of learning, struggle, and reflection, one can trigger neurophysiological changes that allow the brain to become more creative. Creativity is a learned trait, rather than an innate skill. It can be actively developed at both the individual and institutional levels, and learning to navigate the relevant social and practical barriers is key to the process. To maximize the success of conservation in the face of escalating challenges, one must take advantage of what has been learned from other disciplines and foster creativity as both a professional skill and an essential component of career training and individual development. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Functional State Modelling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cultivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iasen Hristozov

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of functional state approach for modelling of yeast cultivation is considered in this paper. This concept helps in monitoring and control of complex processes such as bioprocesses. Using of functional state modelling approach for fermentation processes aims to overcome the main disadvantage of using global process model, namely complex model structure and big number of model parameters. The main advantage of functional state modelling is that the parameters of each local model can be separately estimated from other local models parameters. The results achieved from batch, as well as from fed-batch, cultivations are presented.

  13. Characterization and cultivation of Psilocybe barrerae

    OpenAIRE

    E. Montiel; J. C. Barragán; I. Tello; V. M. Mora; I. León; D. Martínez

    2008-01-01

    A strain of Psilocybe barrerae (Strophariaceae) was isolated, characterized, and cultivated under laboratory conditions. Mycelial colonies were white to off-white, showing average growth rates of 3.9 mm/day on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and 3.6 mm/day on corn meal agar (CMA). The production of biomass varied from 0.2872 g dry weight/L/day (CMA) to 0.1353 g dry weight/L/day (PDA). One flush of fruit bodies, cultivated on a mixture of sand and compost as substrate, was produced reaching a biolo...

  14. Microgravity cultivation of cells and tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, L. E.; Pellis, N.; Searby, N.; de Luis, J.; Preda, C.; Bordonaro, J.; Vunjak-Novakovic, G.

    1999-01-01

    In vitro studies of cells and tissues in microgravity, either simulated by cultivation conditions on earth or actual, during spaceflight, are expected to help identify mechanisms underlying gravity sensing and transduction in biological organisms. In this paper, we review rotating bioreactor studies of engineered skeletal and cardiovascular tissues carried out in unit gravity, a four month long cartilage tissue engineering study carried out aboard the Mir Space Station, and the ongoing laboratory development and testing of a system for cell and tissue cultivation aboard the International Space Station.

  15. REE Distribution in Cultivated and No Cultivated Soils in Two Viticultural Areas of Central Chile: Mineralogical, Pedological and Anthropic Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, P.; Townley, B.; Aburto, F.

    2017-12-01

    Within the scope of a Corfo-Innova Project (I+D Wines of Chile-University of Chile) we have recognized remarkable REE patterns in soils of two vineyards located in traditional vinicultural areas: Casablanca and Santa Cruz. Both vineyards have granitic parent rock, with similar petrographic features and REE patterns. We studied REE distribution on twelve cultivated soil profiles at each vineyard, where a full mineralogical, geochemical and pedogenic sampling and characterization was performed. To establish the effect of management no cultivated soil profiles were included from each vineyard location. REE in soil samples were measured by ICP-MS using two digestion methods: lithium metaborate/tetraborate fusion to obtain REE contents in total soil and MMI® partial extraction technique for REE contents on bioavailable phases.Soils display similar signatures of REEs respect to the rock source at both vineyards, but showing relative enrichments in soils of Casablanca and depletion in soils of Santa Cruz. Bioavailable phase data indicates a relative depletion of LREEs compared to HREEs and different anomalies for Ce (positive vs negative) in different areas of the same vineyard. Similar patterns of soils and parent rock suggest that REEs are adequate tracers of lithological source. Enrichments and/or depletions of REE patterns in soils respect to the rock source and Ce anomalies, evidence differential pedogenetic processes occurring at each sampled site. Results of bioavailable phase are coherent with the immobilization and fractionation of LREEs by stable minerals within soils as clays and Fe oxides. Mineralogical results in soil thin sections of Casablanca evidence the occurrence of Ti phases as sphene, ilmenite and rutile, which probably control the relative REE enrichment, since these minerals are considered more stable under pedogenic conditions.Finally, cultivated soils show a depleted but analogous pattern of REE regarding to no cultivated soil, indicating the

  16. Traditional medicine and genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Joshi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ′Omics′ developments in the form of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics have increased the impetus of traditional medicine research. Studies exploring the genomic, proteomic and metabolomic basis of human constitutional types based on Ayurveda and other systems of oriental medicine are becoming popular. Such studies remain important to developing better understanding of human variations and individual differences. Countries like India, Korea, China and Japan are investing in research on evidence-based traditional medicines and scientific validation of fundamental principles. This review provides an account of studies addressing relationships between traditional medicine and genomics.

  17. Traditional medicine and genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Kalpana; Ghodke, Yogita; Shintre, Pooja

    2010-01-01

    'Omics' developments in the form of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics have increased the impetus of traditional medicine research. Studies exploring the genomic, proteomic and metabolomic basis of human constitutional types based on Ayurveda and other systems of oriental medicine are becoming popular. Such studies remain important to developing better understanding of human variations and individual differences. Countries like India, Korea, China and Japan are investing in research on evidence-based traditional medicines and scientific validation of fundamental principles. This review provides an account of studies addressing relationships between traditional medicine and genomics.

  18. The Third Perspective on Shifting Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanya Sharma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT There are two perspectives in which the understanding of food sustainability in the world is entangled. The first perspective which believes that food sustainability can be achieved by technology presents shifting cultivation as a reflection of a lower state of cultural evolution in comparison with more sophisticated societies (O’Brien 2002.The second perspective which believes in culture, in the ‘way of life’ paradigm valorise shifting cultivation as a form of indigenous genius, representing the indigenous people as perhaps the original environmentalist (Bandy et al.1993; Conklin 1957; Grandstaff 1981; Hong 1987. The biasness of both the perspectives is well visible. The task now is to document and evaluate indigenous strategies of shifting cultivation through a process of research and development. This process involves identification of promising indigenous practices, characterization of the practices, validation of the utility of the practice for other communities, extrapolation to other locations, verification with key farmers, and wide-scale extension. This can be treated as the third perspective available to the policy makers. By this, the detrimental effects of shifting cultivation can be mitigated and productivity increased (Mali 2003.

  19. Comparative study of potato cultivation through micropropagation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A trial was carried out to evaluate the productivity of Solanum tuberosum L. cultivated through conventional farming and micropropagation method. Survival rate, biomass and tuber yield of both micropropagated and tuber propagated potatoes was evaluated. Survival percentages of potatoes were 90% for conventional ...

  20. Aggregate stability in soils cultivated with eucalyptus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eucalyptus cultivation has increased in many Brazilian regions. In order to recommend good management practices, it is necessary to understand changes in soil properties where eucalyptus is planted. Aggregate stability analyses have proved to be a useful tool to measure soil effects caused by change...

  1. Cultivating Visionary Leaders to Transform Our World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coers, Natalie J.

    2018-01-01

    Vision has long been a quality and characteristic defining leadership. To cultivate vision among undergraduate students in a course, the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals are utilized as a foundation to inspire a vision that connects local service and personal interests to global, complex issues. Students select a goal to work with for…

  2. Cultivation of the bacterium Azotobacter chroococcum for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... increase of bioprocess efficiency parameters (yield coefficient and productivity) were observed compared with the batch cultivation. On the basis of the obtained results, repeated batch technique appeared to be the most suitable for the bacterial biomass production at industrial scale. Key words: Azotobacter chroococcum, ...

  3. Comparative study of potato cultivation through micropropagation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sonu

    Comparative study of potato cultivation through micropropagation and conventional farming methods .... and Murate potash were used as fertilizer source of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, respectively (Table 1) ..... through Tissue culture- Application and Feasibility. U.S.D.A.,. Beltsville. Agric. Res. Sci. Educ. Admin.

  4. Cultivation of Parasitic Leptospires: Effect of Pyruvate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. C.; Walby, J.; Henry, R. A.; Auran, N. E.

    1973-01-01

    Sodium pyruvate (100 μg/ml) is a useful addition to the Tween 80-albumin medium for the cultivation of parasitic serotypes. It is most effective in promoting growth from small inocula and growth of the nutritionally fastidious serotypes. Images PMID:4580191

  5. Cultivation Theory and Research: A Conceptual Critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, W. James

    1993-01-01

    Presents a critical analysis of how cultivation (long-term formation of perceptions and beliefs about the world as a result of exposure to media) has been conceptualized in theory and research. Analyses the construct of television exposure. Suggests revisions for conceptualizing the existing theory and extending it. (RS)

  6. Tree size predicts vascular epiphytic richness of traditional cultivated tea plantations in Southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Species–area relationship has been widely addressed on many plant communities, but very few have conducted on epiphytic communities. Epiphytic plants are plentiful on ancient tea trees (Camelia sinensis var. assamica in the well-known Jingmai tea plantation area, Langcang region of Yunnan Province, SW China, and add to the plant community biodiversity. We investigated 343 tea trees with various ground diameter, canopy area, under branch height, and tree height. A total of 146 vascular epiphytic plants, belonging to 19 species in seven families were recorded from the trunk or branches of 93 (27.11% investigated trees. We examined in situ abundance, richness, and diversity (Shannon–Weiner index of the recorded vascular epiphytes, and their relationships to tree variables. Our results showed that the distribution (abundance, richness, and diversity of epiphytic plants are significantly related to the canopy area (p<0.05 and basal diameter (p<0.0001 of tea trees, supporting their use as key factors and good predictor for the epiphyte’s appearance in this type of agro-ecosystems. We also concluded that the species–area relationship is a useful epiphytic species community research tool.

  7. Cultivating ICT Students' Interpersonal Soft Skills in Online Learning Environments Using Traditional Active Learning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Trina S.; Blackman, Anna; Andersen, Trevor; Hay, Rachel; Lee, Ickjai; Gray, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Flexible online delivery of tertiary ICT programs is experiencing rapid growth. Creating an online environment that develops team building and interpersonal skills is difficult due to factors such as student isolation and the individual-centric model of online learning that encourages discrete study rather than teamwork. Incorporating teamwork…

  8. Deforestation and cultivation mobilize mercury from topsoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamby, Rebecca L; Hammerschmidt, Chad R; Costello, David M; Lamborg, Carl H; Runkle, James R

    2015-11-01

    Terrestrial biomass and soils are a primary global reservoir of mercury (Hg) derived from natural and anthropogenic sources; however, relatively little is known about the fate and stability of Hg in the surface soil reservoir and its susceptibility to change as a result of deforestation and cultivation. In southwest Ohio, we measured Hg concentrations in soils of deciduous old- and new-growth forests, as well as fallow grassland and agricultural soils that had once been forested to examine how, over decadal to century time scales, man-made deforestation and cultivation influence Hg mobility from temperate surface soils. Mercury concentrations in surficial soils were significantly greater in the old-growth than new-growth forest, and both forest soils had greater Hg concentrations than cultivated and fallow fields. Differences in Hg:lead ratios between old-growth forest and agricultural topsoils suggest that about half of the Hg lost from deforested and cultivated Ohio soils may have been volatilized and the other half eroded. The estimated mobilization potential of Hg as a result of deforestation was 4.1 mg m(-2), which was proportional to mobilization potentials measured at multiple locations in the Amazon relative to concentrations in forested surface soils. Based on this relationship and an estimate of the global average of Hg concentrations in forested soils, we approximate that about 550 M mol of Hg has been mobilized globally from soil as a result of deforestation during the past two centuries. This estimate is comparable to, if not greater than, the amount of anthropogenic Hg hypothesized by others to have been sequestered by the soil reservoir since Industrialization. Our results suggest that deforestation and soil cultivation are significant anthropogenic processes that exacerbate Hg mobilization from soil and its cycling in the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The medicinal Agaricus mushroom cultivated in Brazil: biology, cultivation and non-medicinal valorisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largeteau, Michèle L; Llarena-Hernández, Régulo Carlos; Regnault-Roger, Catherine; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2011-12-01

    Sun mushroom is a cultivated mushroom extensively studied for its medicinal properties for several years and literature abounds on the topic. Besides, agronomical aspects were investigated in Brazil, the country the mushroom comes from, and some studies focus on the biology of the fungus. This review aimed to present an overview of the non-medicinal knowledge on the mushroom. Areas of commercial production and marketing trends are presented. Its specific fragrance, taste, nutritional value and potential use of extracts as food additives are compared to those of the most cultivated fungi and laboratory models. The interest of the mushroom for lignocellulosic enzyme production and source of biomolecules for the control of plant pathogens are shown. Investigation of genetic variability among cultivars is reported. Growing and storage of mycelium, as well as cultivation conditions (substrate and casing generally based on local products; indoor and outdoor cultivation; diseases and disorders) are described and compared to knowledge on Agaricus bisporus.

  10. Palikur traditional roundwood construction in eastern French Guiana: ethnobotanical and cultural perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogeron, Clémence; Odonne, Guillaume; Cristinoi, Antonia; Engel, Julien; Grenand, Pierre; Beauchêne, Jacques; Clair, Bruno; Davy, Damien

    2018-04-24

    Palikur Amerindians live in the eastern part of French Guiana which is undergoing deep-seated changes due to the geographical and economic opening of the region. So far, Palikur's traditional ecological knowledge is poorly documented, apart from medicinal plants. The aim of this study was to document ethnobotanical practices related to traditional construction in the region. A combination of qualitative and quantitative methods was used. Thirty-nine Palikur men were interviewed in three localities (Saint-Georges de l'Oyapock, Regina and Trois-Palétuviers) between December 2013 and July 2014. Twenty-four inventories of wood species used in traditional buildings were conducted in the villages, as well as ethnobotanical walks in the neighboring forests, to complete data about usable species and to determine Linnaean names. After an ethnographic description of roundwood Palikur habitat, the in situ wood selection process of Palikur is precisely described. A total of 960 roundwood pieces were inventoried in situ according to Palikur taxonomy, of which 860 were beams and rafters, and 100 posts in 20 permanent and 4 temporary buildings. Twenty-seven folk species were identified. Sixty-three folk species used in construction were recorded during ethnobotanical walks. They correspond to 263 botanical species belonging to 25 families. Posts in permanent buildings were made of yawu (Minquartia guianensis) (51%) and wakap (Vouacapoua americana) (14%). Beams and rafters were made of wood from Annonaceae (79%) and Lecythidaceae (13%) families. The most frequently used species were kuukumwi priye (Oxandra asbeckii), kuukumwi seyne (Pseudoxandra cuspidata), and pukuu (Xylopia nitida and X. cayennensis). Although the Palikur's relationship with their habitat is undergoing significant changes, knowledge about construction wood is still very much alive in the Oyapock basin. Many people continue to construct traditional buildings alongside modern houses, using a wide array of species

  11. Microbe observation and cultivation array (MOCA) for cultivating and analyzing environmental microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Weimin; Navarroli, Dena; Naimark, Jared; Zhang, Weiwen; Chao, Shih-Hui; Meldrum, Deirdre R

    2013-01-09

    The use of culture-independent nucleic acid techniques, such as ribosomal RNA gene cloning library analysis, has unveiled the tremendous microbial diversity that exists in natural environments. In sharp contrast to this great achievement is the current difficulty in cultivating the majority of bacterial species or phylotypes revealed by molecular approaches. Although recent new technologies such as metagenomics and metatranscriptomics can provide more functionality information about the microbial communities, it is still important to develop the capacity to isolate and cultivate individual microbial species or strains in order to gain a better understanding of microbial physiology and to apply isolates for various biotechnological applications. We have developed a new system to cultivate bacteria in an array of droplets. The key component of the system is the microbe observation and cultivation array (MOCA), which consists of a Petri dish that contains an array of droplets as cultivation chambers. MOCA exploits the dominance of surface tension in small amounts of liquid to spontaneously trap cells in well-defined droplets on hydrophilic patterns. During cultivation, the growth of the bacterial cells across the droplet array can be monitored using an automated microscope, which can produce a real-time record of the growth. When bacterial cells grow to a visible microcolony level in the system, they can be transferred using a micropipette for further cultivation or analysis. MOCA is a flexible system that is easy to set up, and provides the sensitivity to monitor growth of single bacterial cells. It is a cost-efficient technical platform for bioassay screening and for cultivation and isolation of bacteria from natural environments.

  12. Benchmarketing - Fashionable Term Concerning Traditional Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Udrescu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Marketing is a major factor to boost the competitiveness of the firm in an environment which is more and more turbulent. It centers the company’s management as being the ideal satisfaction of the current and potential consumer. This is why, in our conception, the marketing’s management represents a subsystem of the company’s’ general management by which shall be administered to specific activities, and also designed to contour the company’s’ activity object. In this article, the intent is to highlight the fact that the benchmarketing has come loose from cultivating the traditional process to the innovative organizational culture product. In this paper, the authors consider benchmarketing as a process of qualitative organizational culture adaptation to market requirements, depending on the context, so as to ensure the improvement of the economic criteria of appreciation of the business lucrative activities. Based on direct observations concerning small firms, followed by analysis, comparison and synthesis, the authors suggest taking into consideration the theoretical and practical benchmarketings’ approach, as being the current strategy of acquiring and cultivating excellence, as initiation philosophy and business development.

  13. Does market integration buffer risk, erode traditional sharing practices and increase inequality? A test among Bolivian forager-farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurven, Michael; Jaeggi, Adrian V; von Rueden, Chris; Hooper, Paul L; Kaplan, Hillard

    2015-08-01

    Sharing and exchange are common practices for minimizing food insecurity in rural populations. The advent of markets and monetization in egalitarian indigenous populations presents an alternative means of managing risk, with the potential impact of eroding traditional networks. We test whether market involvement buffers several types of risk and reduces traditional sharing behavior among Tsimane Amerindians of the Bolivian Amazon. Results vary based on type of market integration and scale of analysis (household vs. village), consistent with the notion that local culture and ecology shape risk management strategies. Greater wealth and income were unassociated with the reliance on others for food, or on reciprocity, but wealth was associated with a greater proportion of food given to others (i.e., giving intensity) and a greater number of sharing partners (i.e., sharing breadth). Across villages, greater mean income was negatively associated with reciprocity, but economic inequality was positively associated with giving intensity and sharing breadth. Incipient market integration does not necessarily replace traditional buffering strategies but instead can often enhance social capital.

  14. Some estimates of the continuous cultivation of microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Alekseev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The proteins, fats and carbohydrates received by the person traditionally from animal and vegetable sources don't cover all increasing needs of mankind any more today. At the same time proteins and fats of microorganisms with success can replace proteins and fats of a traditional origin. As protein producers microorganisms at the high content of protein in biomass and high growth rate of microorganisms have certain advantages. The present article is devoted to questions of numerical modeling of processes of cultivation of microorganisms. On the basis of the known model offered Mono in which saturation of growth rate of culture at increase in initial concentration of a substratum of S0 is considered the system of the differential equations describing the happening processes in that number before achievement of stationarity is written down. At the same time dependence of separate sizes, the systems entering the equations is insufficiently studied at change of parameters of process. The behavior of all system at violation of regulations is of interest or at unauthorized change of one of parameters. For studying of these questions numerical modeling is carried out and the basic picture of change of chemostate curves in these conditions is received

  15. Evaluation of cellulosic wastes for the cultivation of Pleurotus eryngii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... of plant residues, and they have been found to be nutritionally and ... In most countries, there is a well-established consumer accep- tance for cultivated ... temperature, dampness, CO2, cultivation methods and tecniques etc.

  16. KASTAMONU TRADITIONAL WOMEN CLOTHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Elhan ÖZUS

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Clothing is a unique dressing style of a community, a period or a profession. In clothing there is social status and difference principle rather than fashion. In this context, the society created a clothing style in line with its own customs, traditions and social structure. One of the features separating societies from each other and indicating their cultural and social classes is the clothing style. As it is known, traditional Turkish clothes reflecting the characteristics of Turkish society is our most beautiful heritage from past to present. From this heritage there are several examples of women's clothes c arried to present. When these examples are examined, it is possible to see the taste, the way of understanding art, joy and the lifestyle of the history. These garments are also the documents outlining the taste and grace of Turkish people. In the present study, traditional Kastamonu women's clothing, that has an important place in traditional cultural clothes of Anatolia, is investigated . The method of the present research is primarily defined as the examination of the written sources. The study is complet ed with the observations and examinations made in Kastamonu. According to the findings of the study, traditional Kastamonu women's clothing are examined and adapted to todays’ clothing.

  17. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  18. Healthier Traditional Food

    OpenAIRE

    Edward F. Millen

    2017-01-01

    The study of traditional food and healthy eating habits has been one of the fast growing areas. All humans, both men and women, require food for their survival. However, both men and women indulge in food as if it were their sole purpose of existence. Hence, eating disorders are common among men and women. Then media has played an effective role not only in establishing faulty standards for traditional healthy food but also it has highlighted the importance of healthy eating. It has brought t...

  19. Bioremediation of industrial waste through mushroom cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Shweta; Mathur, Nupur; Bhatnagar, Pradeep; Jain, B L

    2010-07-01

    Handmade paper and cardboard industries are involved in processing of cellulosic and ligno-cellulosic substances for making paper by hand or simple machinery. In the present study solid sludge and effluent of both cardboard and handmade paper industries was collected for developing a mushroom cultivation technique to achieve zero waste discharges. Findings of present research work reveals that when 50% paper industries waste is used by mixing with 50% (w/w) wheat straw, significant increase (96.38%) in biological efficiency over control of wheat straw was observed. Further, cultivated basidiocarps showed normal morphology of stipe and pileus. Cross section of lamellae did not show any abnormality in the attachment of basidiospores, hymenal trama and basidium. No toxicity was found when fruiting bodies were tested chemically.

  20. Biodiversity, evolution and adaptation of cultivated crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigouroux, Yves; Barnaud, Adeline; Scarcelli, Nora; Thuillet, Anne-Céline

    2011-05-01

    The human diet depends on very few crops. Current diversity in these crops is the result of a long interaction between farmers and cultivated plants, and their environment. Man largely shaped crop biodiversity from the domestication period 12,000 B.P. to the development of improved varieties during the last century. We illustrate this process through a detailed analysis of the domestication and early diffusion of maize. In smallholder agricultural systems, farmers still have a major impact on crop diversity today. We review several examples of the major impact of man on current diversity. Finally, biodiversity is considered to be an asset for adaptation to current environmental changes. We describe the evolution of pearl millet in West Africa, where average rainfall has decreased over the last forty years. Diversity in cultivated varieties has certainly helped this crop to adapt to climate variation. Copyright © 2011 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetically modified plants: Decade of commercial cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Drinić Snežana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The year 2005 marks the beginning of the 10th consecutive year of commercial cultivation of genetically modified plants all around the world. The first GM variety of crops appeared on market during 1995 year and from that global area of biotech crops increased to 81 mil hectares in 2004. Genetically modified plant tolerant to herbicides, resistant to insects, improved quality have been developed. The use of GMO, their release into environment cultivation, utilization as food and feed is regulated in the EU by set of directives: 90/220, 2001/18, 2002/53, 1830/2003. Informer Yugoslavia the low about GMO was adopted in may 2001. That law consist of common regulation and it is in accordinance with EU regulation. Detection of genetic modification in seed and food could be done by PCR or ELISA methods.

  2. Resource-saving inter-row cultivator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Rudenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inter-row cultivators have some shortcomings: design is complicated due to placing on each section of a 4-unit (parallelogram suspension of working tools; as the copying means use wheels which are mounted at distance from working tools, in other vertical plane, and have negative effect on variability of tillage depth; working tools are V-shaped hoes with a crumbling angle not more than 16 degrees. In the operation course the parts of a leg and a hoe, moving in the soil, raise it and throw to the side, creating not aligned surface grooves are formed, imposed moist soil. These processes are exacerbated by increasing the operating speed of the cultivator. The authors offered a resource-saving inter-row cultivator with a radial suspension of working tools. A flat plate spring was used as a beam. This simplifies the design, eliminates the horizontal oscillations of the working tools, provides a constant pressing them in the process. The working tool in the form of a flat lancet plowshares with a spiral fixed on the leg was designed. Operating width of a ploughshare is of 420 mm, thickness equals 4 (5 mm. The spiral with a diameter of 50 mm is made of a carbon spring wire with a diameter of 2-3 mm. One hoe is set instead of three-five tines on each section, that significantly reduces material consumption. A plough share with a spiral form the swinging-loosening element that provides creating a fine lumpy topsoil. The ploughshare performs the copying functions therefore the additional copying wheels are not required. Tests showed that the new working tool of a cultivator allows to operate qualitatively at a speed up to 14-18 km/h.

  3. Cultivation Of Deep Subsurface Microbial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrzut, Natalia; Casar, Caitlin; Osburn, Magdalena R.

    2018-01-01

    The potential habitability of surface environments on other planets in our solar system is limited by exposure to extreme radiation and desiccation. In contrast, subsurface environments may offer protection from these stressors and are potential reservoirs for liquid water and energy that support microbial life (Michalski et al., 2013) and are thus of interest to the astrobiology community. The samples used in this project were extracted from the Deep Mine Microbial Observatory (DeMMO) in the former Homestake Mine at depths of 800 to 2000 feet underground (Osburn et al., 2014). Phylogenetic data from these sites indicates the lack of cultured representatives within the community. We used geochemical data to guide media design to cultivate and isolate organisms from the DeMMO communities. Media used for cultivation varied from heterotrophic with oxygen, nitrate or sulfate to autotrophic media with ammonia or ferrous iron. Environmental fluid was used as inoculum in batch cultivation and strains were isolated via serial transfers or dilution to extinction. These methods resulted in isolating aerobic heterotrophs, nitrate reducers, sulfate reducers, ammonia oxidizers, and ferric iron reducers. DNA sequencing of these strains is underway to confirm which species they belong to. This project is part of the NASA Astrobiology Institute Life Underground initiative to detect and characterize subsurface microbial life; by characterizing the intraterrestrials, the life living deep within Earth’s crust, we aim to understand the controls on how and where life survives in subsurface settings. Cultivation of terrestrial deep subsurface microbes will provide insight into the survival mechanisms of intraterrestrials guiding the search for these life forms on other planets.

  4. Soil protection through almond tree cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, C.; Hernandez, T.; Moreno, J. L.; Bastida, F.; Masciandaro, G.; Mennone, C.; Ceccanti, B.

    2009-01-01

    Most threat to soil are particularly severe in areas with steps slopes and suffering dry periods followed by heavy rain such as the Mediterranean regions. Severity is aggravated by lacking or inappropriate farming systems. Therefore the objective of this work was to demonstrate that land management based on cultivation of new varieties of local crops (almond trees) suited to these conditions may result in a sustainable system to prevent soil degradation. (Author)

  5. Morphology and rheology in filamentous cultivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wucherpfennig, T; Kiep, K A; Driouch, H; Wittmann, C; Krull, R

    2010-01-01

    Because of their metabolic diversity, high production capacity, secretion efficiency, and capability of carrying out posttranslational modifications, filamentous fungi are widely exploited as efficient cell factories in the production of metabolites, bioactive substances, and native or heterologous proteins, respectively. There is, however, a complex relationship between the morphology of these microorganisms, transport phenomena, the viscosity of the cultivation broth, and related productivity. The morphological characteristics vary between freely dispersed mycelia and distinct pellets of aggregated biomass, every growth form having a distinct influence on broth rheology. Hence, the advantages and disadvantages for mycelial or pellet cultivation have to be balanced out carefully. Because of the still inadequate understanding of the morphogenesis of filamentous microorganisms, fungal morphology is often a bottleneck of productivity in industrial production. To obtain an optimized production process, it is of great importance to gain a better understanding of the molecular and cell biology of these microorganisms as well as the relevant approaches in biochemical engineering. In this chapter, morphology and growth of filamentous fungi are described, with special attention given to specific problems as they arise from fungal growth forms; growth and mass transfer in fungal biopellets are discussed as an example. To emphasize the importance of the flow behavior of filamentous cultivation broths, an introduction to rheology is also given, reviewing important rheological models and recent studies concerning rheological parameters. Furthermore, current knowledge on morphology and productivity in relation to the environom is outlined in the last section of this review. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of waste material in cultivation substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Salaš

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Gardeners' practical experience and experimental work prove the affirmation that the used substrate is a very important base for the production of quality nursery products. It is important to emphasis the complexity and synergy of all factors influencing the ecosystem and there mutual relations. Physical, chemical and biological properties do not separately affect the growth and development of plants. In addition, the relations are not statical but differ in relation with other factors changes. This article is dealing with the possibility to use waste material from timber processing in cultivation substrates. The large scale use of such substrates would enable people to reach a relative independence from peat substrates, of which the global reserve is gradually decreasing.Our research activities focus on the use of bark. The basic problems of a bark substrate are easy dehydration and unbalanced nutrition of trees and shrubs. The suggested and experimented cultivation technology solves these problems. It is based on the cultivation of woody species in bark substrates, using modern irrigation systems, slow release fertilisers (Silvamix Forte and special soil conditioners (TerraCottem. This technology was tested on the following species of trees and shrubs: Malus and Buxus.

  7. Noodles, traditionally and today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chinese noodles originated in the Han dynasty, which has more than 4,000 years of history. There are many stories about the origin of noodles. To a certain extent, noodles also reflect the cultural traditions and customs of China, which essentially means “human nature” and “worldly common sense”. There are thousands of varieties of noodles in China, according to the classification of the shape of noodles, seasoning gravy, cooking craft, and so on. Many noodles have local characteristics. Noodles are accepted by people from all over the world. The industrial revolution and the development of the food industry realized the transition from a traditional handicraft industry to mass production using machinery. In addition, the invention of instant noodles and their mass production also greatly changed the noodle industry. In essence, noodles are a kind of cereal food, which is the main body of the traditional Chinese diet. It is the main source of energy for Chinese people and the most economical energy food. Adhering to the principle of “making cereal food the main food”, is to maintain our Chinese good diet tradition, which can avoid the disadvantages of a high energy, high fat, and low carbohydrate diet, and promote health. The importance of the status of noodles in the dietary structure of residents in our country and the health impact should not be ignored.

  8. Traditional Cherokee Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Janey B.

    A collection for children and teachers of traditional Cherokee recipes emphasizes the art, rather than the science, of cooking. The hand-printed, illustrated format is designed to communicate the feeling of Cherokee history and culture and to encourage readers to collect and add family recipes. The cookbook could be used as a starting point for…

  9. Modern vs. Traditional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenhui, Rao

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses traditional methods, such as the grammar-translation, and modern methods, the communicative approach, for teaching English-as-a-foreign-language in China. The relationship between linguistic accuracy and communicative competence, student-centered orientation, and the role of the teacher are highlighted. (Author/VWL)

  10. Non-Traditional Wraps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Buffy

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a recipe for non-traditional wraps. In this article, the author describes how adults and children can help with the recipe and the skills involved with this recipe. The bigger role that children can play in the making of the item the more they are apt to try new things and appreciate the texture and taste.

  11. Making Tradition Healthy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-01

    In this podcast, a Latina nutrition educator shows how a community worked with local farmers to grow produce traditionally enjoyed by Hispanic/Latinos.  Created: 11/1/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 11/10/2007.

  12. Challenging tradition in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriya, K E

    1991-01-01

    In Nigeria since 1987, the National Association of Nigeria Nurses and Midwives (NSNNM) has used traditional medial and traditional health care workers to curtail the practice of female circumcision. Other harmful traditions are being changed also, such as early marriage, taboos of pregnancy and childbirth, and scarification. 30,000 member of NANNM are involved in this effort to halt the harmful practices themselves and to change community opinion. The program involved national and state level workshops on harmful health consequences of traditional practices and instruction on how to conduct focus group discussions to assess women's beliefs and practices. The focus groups were found to be a particularly successful method of opening up discussion of taboo topics and expressing deep emotions. The response to the knowledge that circumcision was not necessary was rage and anger, which was channeled into advocacy roles or change in the practice. The result was the channeled into advocacy roles for change in the practice. The result was the development of books, leaflets and videos. One community group designed a dress with a decorative motif of tatoos and bodily cuts to symbolize circumcision and scarring. Plays and songs were written and performed. Artists provided models of female genitalia both before and after circumcision. The campaign has been successful in bringing this issue to the public attention in prominent ways, such a national television, health talk shows, and women;s magazines. One of the most important results of the effort has been the demonstration that culture and tradition can be changed from within, rather than from outside imposition of values and beliefs.

  13. Sadum: Traditional and Contemporary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Panggabean

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Sadum is one of the traditional cloths of the Batak people in North Sumatra. It is woven on a back strap loom with supplementary weft technique. Sadum is a warp faced weaving made of cotton and beads woven into the cloth. Ritually it is used as a shoulder cloth, gifts exchanges, and in dances. It also bears the symbol of good tidings and blessings for the receiver. The cloth has change during times in technique, color, patterns, as well as in functions. But the use as a ritual cloth stays the same. The basic weaving techniques and equipments used to create it hasn’t change, but its material and added techniques has made this cloth become more rich in color, pattern, and texture. Most changes began when the Europeans came to Indonesia and introduced new material such as synthetic fibers and colors. In the 70s traditional cloth of Indonesia got its boost when the government declared batik as Indonesian national attire. This encourages other traditional weavings to develop into contemporary clothing. Later, new techniques and material were introduced to the Sadum weavings including embroidery, silk and golden threads which were never used before.

  14. Assessing sub-Saharan Erythrina for efficacy: traditional uses, biological activities and phytochemistry.

    OpenAIRE

    Kone , Witabouna Mamidou; Solange , Kakou-Ngazoa E; Dosso , Mireille

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The genus Erythrina comprises more than 100 species, widely distributed in tropical and subtropical areas. In Africa, 31 wild species and 14 cultivated species have been described. In sub-Saharan Africa, Erythrina species are used to treat frequent parasitic and microbial diseases, inflammation, cancer, wounds. The rationale of these traditional uses in African traditional medicine was established by screening several species for biological activities. Promising activi...

  15. Erinoso et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2016) 13(3):33 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and in cosmetic industries for the development of new or improved baby skin care ... The climate favours the cultivation of a wide range of food crops such as rice, ... Traditional black soap and Shea butter also featured in the herbal remedy for ...

  16. Uranium uptake by hydroponically cultivated crop plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soudek, Petr; Petrova, Sarka [Laboratory of Plant Biotechnologies, Joint Laboratory of Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR, v.v.i. and Crop Research Institute, v.v.i., Rozvojova 263, 162 05 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Benesova, Dagmar [Laboratory of Plant Biotechnologies, Joint Laboratory of Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR, v.v.i. and Crop Research Institute, v.v.i., Rozvojova 263, 162 05 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Faculty of Environment Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Dvorakova, Marcela [Laboratory of Plant Biotechnologies, Joint Laboratory of Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR, v.v.i. and Crop Research Institute, v.v.i., Rozvojova 263, 162 05 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Vanek, Tomas, E-mail: vanek@ueb.cas.cz [Laboratory of Plant Biotechnologies, Joint Laboratory of Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR, v.v.i. and Crop Research Institute, v.v.i., Rozvojova 263, 162 05 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2011-06-15

    Hydroponicaly cultivated plants were grown on medium containing uranium. The appropriate concentrations of uranium for the experiments were selected on the basis of a standard ecotoxicity test. The most sensitive plant species was determined to be Lactuca sativa with an EC{sub 50} value about 0.1 mM. Cucumis sativa represented the most resistant plant to uranium (EC{sub 50} = 0.71 mM). Therefore, we used the uranium in a concentration range from 0.1 to 1 mM. Twenty different plant species were tested in hydroponic solution supplemented by 0.1 mM or 0.5 mM uranium concentration. The uranium accumulation of these plants varied from 0.16 mg/g DW to 0.011 mg/g DW. The highest uranium uptake was determined for Zea mays and the lowest for Arabidopsis thaliana. The amount of accumulated uranium was strongly influenced by uranium concentration in the cultivation medium. Autoradiography showed that uranium is mainly localized in the root system of the plants tested. Additional experiments demonstrated the possibility of influencing the uranium uptake from the cultivation medium by amendments. Tartaric acid was able to increase uranium uptake by Brassica oleracea and Sinapis alba up to 2.8 times or 1.9 times, respectively. Phosphate deficiency increased uranium uptake up to 4.5 times or 3.9 times, respectively, by Brassica oleracea and S. alba. In the case of deficiency of iron or presence of cadmium ions we did not find any increase in uranium accumulation. - Highlights: > The uranium accumulation in twenty different plant species varied from 0.160 to 0.011 mg/g DW. > Uranium is mainly localized in the root system. > Tartaric acid was able to increase uranium uptake by Brassica oleracea and Sinapis alba. > The phosphates deficiency increase the uranium uptake.

  17. Uranium uptake by hydroponically cultivated crop plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soudek, Petr; Petrova, Sarka; Benesova, Dagmar; Dvorakova, Marcela; Vanek, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Hydroponicaly cultivated plants were grown on medium containing uranium. The appropriate concentrations of uranium for the experiments were selected on the basis of a standard ecotoxicity test. The most sensitive plant species was determined to be Lactuca sativa with an EC 50 value about 0.1 mM. Cucumis sativa represented the most resistant plant to uranium (EC 50 = 0.71 mM). Therefore, we used the uranium in a concentration range from 0.1 to 1 mM. Twenty different plant species were tested in hydroponic solution supplemented by 0.1 mM or 0.5 mM uranium concentration. The uranium accumulation of these plants varied from 0.16 mg/g DW to 0.011 mg/g DW. The highest uranium uptake was determined for Zea mays and the lowest for Arabidopsis thaliana. The amount of accumulated uranium was strongly influenced by uranium concentration in the cultivation medium. Autoradiography showed that uranium is mainly localized in the root system of the plants tested. Additional experiments demonstrated the possibility of influencing the uranium uptake from the cultivation medium by amendments. Tartaric acid was able to increase uranium uptake by Brassica oleracea and Sinapis alba up to 2.8 times or 1.9 times, respectively. Phosphate deficiency increased uranium uptake up to 4.5 times or 3.9 times, respectively, by Brassica oleracea and S. alba. In the case of deficiency of iron or presence of cadmium ions we did not find any increase in uranium accumulation. - Highlights: → The uranium accumulation in twenty different plant species varied from 0.160 to 0.011 mg/g DW. → Uranium is mainly localized in the root system. → Tartaric acid was able to increase uranium uptake by Brassica oleracea and Sinapis alba. → The phosphates deficiency increase the uranium uptake.

  18. Radiocaesium - 137 in cultivated and woodland mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankovic, S.; Stankovic, A.

    1997-01-01

    In the present work the results obtained for activity levels of 137 Cs in samples of cultivated mushrooms (Champignons - Agaricus Silvicola Vitt. Peck.) and woodland fruits ( Chantarelle - Cantarelus Cibarius Fr.; Bollets -Boletus Edulis. ex Fr. and Black Trumpets - Cratarelus Conucopioides) are presented. These samples were collected from 1991 to 1996. Biodiversity of the mushrooms regarding their uptake of radionuclides was found. Thus, the maximum value of 137 Cs activity was found in the sample of dry Bollets 375 Bq/kg in 1993. Moreover, the mean activity level of this species was much higher (126 + - 10 Bq/kg) in 1996. than, levels found in any samples taken from the same environment. (author)

  19. Microeconomic aspects of energy crops cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolelli, V.; Mutinati, G.; Pisani, F.

    1992-01-01

    The topic of energy crops, namely of those crops designed to produce biomass to transform into ethanol, has been explored, in Italy and abroad, in all its technical and agronomical aspects. The microeconomic aspect, including the evaluation of convenience for the farmer in adopting such crops, is, on the contrary, less well researched. RENAGRI has developed a research methodology able to give information about the level of convenience of two energy crops (Sweet Sorghum and Topinambour) and has applied it to different Italian agricultural situations, in order to verify the existence of conditions favourable to the cultivation of the two crops, or to indicate the necessity of eventual subvention. (author)

  20. Cultivating nursing leadership for our envisioned future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galuska, Lee A

    2012-01-01

    Nurses have been called upon to lead and partner in the transformation of health care. Leadership is a component of the scope of nursing practice; however, the optimal approach to development of leadership competency has not been established. A metasynthesis of qualitative studies on leadership development was conducted to enhance an understanding of conditions that nurses reported to support or hinder their development as leaders. Noblit and Hare's approach was used for the metasynthesis process. Three overarching themes emerged. Opportunity structure, the relationship factor, and organizational culture are essential factors contributing to the successful cultivation of leadership competencies in nurses.

  1. Traditional sorghum beer "ikigage"

    OpenAIRE

    Lyumugabe Loshima, François

    2010-01-01

    Samples of traditional sorghum beer Ikigage was collected in the southern province of Rwanda and analyzed for microbiological and physico-chemical contents. Ikigage contained total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (33.55 x 106 cfu/ml), yeast (10.15 x 106 cfu/ml), lactic acid bacteria (35.35 x 104 cfu/ml), moulds (4.12 x 104 cfu/ml), E. coli (21.90 x 103 cfu/ml), fecal streptococci (22.50 x 103 cfu/ml), Staphylococcus aureus (16.02 x 103 cfu/ml), total coliform (32.30 x 103 cfu/ml), eth...

  2. In the Dirac tradition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1988-04-15

    It was Paul Dirac who cast quantum mechanics into the form we now use, and many generations of theoreticians openly acknowledge his influence on their thinking. When Dirac died in 1984, St. John's College, Cambridge, his base for most of his lifetime, instituted an annual lecture in his memory at Cambridge. The first lecture, in 1986, attracted two heavyweights - Richard Feynman and Steven Weinberg. Far from using the lectures as a platform for their own work, in the Dirac tradition they presented stimulating material on deep underlying questions.

  3. In the Dirac tradition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    It was Paul Dirac who cast quantum mechanics into the form we now use, and many generations of theoreticians openly acknowledge his influence on their thinking. When Dirac died in 1984, St. John's College, Cambridge, his base for most of his lifetime, instituted an annual lecture in his memory at Cambridge. The first lecture, in 1986, attracted two heavyweights - Richard Feynman and Steven Weinberg. Far from using the lectures as a platform for their own work, in the Dirac tradition they presented stimulating material on deep underlying questions

  4. Amino acids in the cultivation of mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Andrew; Keusgen, Michael; von Hagen, Jörg

    2016-05-01

    Amino acids are crucial for the cultivation of mammalian cells. This importance of amino acids was realized soon after the development of the first cell lines, and a solution of a mixture of amino acids has been supplied to cultured cells ever since. The importance of amino acids is further pronounced in chemically defined mammalian cell culture media, making the consideration of their biological and chemical properties necessary. Amino acids concentrations have been traditionally adjusted to their cellular consumption rates. However, since changes in the metabolic equilibrium of amino acids can be caused by changes in extracellular concentrations, metabolomics in conjunction with flux balance analysis is being used in the development of culture media. The study of amino acid transporters is also gaining importance since they control the intracellular concentrations of these molecules and are influenced by conditions in cell culture media. A better understanding of the solubility, stability, dissolution kinetics, and interactions of these molecules is needed for an exploitation of these properties in the development of dry powdered chemically defined media for mammalian cells. Due to the complexity of these mixtures however, this has proven to be challenging. Studying amino acids in mammalian cell culture media will help provide a better understanding of how mammalian cells in culture interact with their environment. It would also provide insight into the chemical behavior of these molecules in solutions of complex mixtures, which is important in the understanding of the contribution of individual amino acids to protein structure.

  5. Cultivating microbial dark matter in benzene-degrading methanogenic consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Fei; Devine, Cheryl E; Edwards, Elizabeth A

    2016-09-01

    The microbes responsible for anaerobic benzene biodegradation remain poorly characterized. In this study, we identified and quantified microbial populations in a series of 16 distinct methanogenic, benzene-degrading enrichment cultures using a combination of traditional 16S rRNA clone libraries (four cultures), pyrotag 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing (11 cultures), metagenome sequencing (1 culture) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR; 12 cultures). An operational taxonomic unit (OTU) from the Deltaproteobacteria designated ORM2 that is only 84% to 86% similar to Syntrophus or Desulfobacterium spp. was consistently identified in all enrichment cultures, and typically comprised more than half of the bacterial sequences. In addition to ORM2, a sequence belonging to Parcubacteria (candidate division OD1) identified from the metagenome data was the only other OTU common to all the cultures surveyed. Culture transfers (1% and 0.1%) were made in the presence and absence of benzene, and the abundance of ORM2, OD1 and other OTUs was tracked over 415 days using qPCR. ORM2 sequence abundance increased only when benzene was present, while the abundance of OD1 and other OTUs increased even in the absence of benzene. Deltaproteobacterium ORM2 is unequivocally the benzene-metabolizing population. This study also hints at laboratory cultivation conditions for a member of the widely distributed yet uncultivated Parcubacteria (OD1). © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Optimisation of cultivation parameters in photobioreactors for microalgae cultivation using the A-stat technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbosa, M.J.; Hoogakker, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    Light availability inside the reactor is often the bottleneck in microalgal cultivation and for this reason much attention is being given to light limited growth kinetics of microalgae, aiming at the increase of productivity in photobioreactors. Steady-state culture characteristics are commonly used

  7. Comparison between cultivated and total bacterial communities associated with Cucurbita pepo using cultivation-dependent techniques and 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eevers, N; Beckers, B; Op de Beeck, M; White, J C; Vangronsveld, J; Weyens, N

    2016-02-01

    Endophytic bacteria often have beneficial effects on their host plants that can be exploited for bioremediation applications but, according to the literature, only 0.001-1% of all endophytic microbes should be cultivable. This study compared the cultivated endophytic communities of the roots and shoots of Cucurbita pepo with the total endophytic communities as determined by cultivation-dependent techniques and 454 pyrosequencing. The ten most abundant taxa of the total communities aligned well with the cultivated taxa; however, the abundance of these taxa in the two communities differed greatly. Enterobacter showed very low presence in the total communities, whereas they were dominantly present in the cultivated communities. Although Rhizobium dominated in total root and shoot communities, it was poorly cultivable and even then only in growth media containing plant extract. Since endophytes likely contribute to plant-growth promotion, cultivated bacterial strains were tested for their plant-growth promoting capabilities, and the results were correlated with their abundance in the total community. Bacillus and Pseudomonas showed promising results when considering cultivability, abundance in the total community and plant-growth promoting capability. This study demonstrated that, although a limited number of bacterial genera were cultivable, current cultivation-dependent techniques may be sufficient for further isolation and inoculation experiments that aim to improve phytoremediation efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of crossbreeding high-yield-potential strains for commercial cultivation in the medicinal mushroom Wolfiporia cocos (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xiaozhao; Wang, Xiaoxia; Bian, Yinbing; Xu, Zhangyi

    2016-07-01

    Wolfiporia cocos is a well-known medicinal mushroom, and its dried sclerotia has been widely used as a traditional medicine in China, Japan, and other Asian countries for centuries. However, long-term asexual reproduction of the breeding system in W. cocos results in a current universal degeneration of cultivated strains. To develop a W. cocos breeding program that will benefit commercial cultivation, we previously developed an optimum method for indoor induction of W. cocos fruiting bodies and clarified the nature of preponderant binuclear sexual basidiospores. In this paper, we first show that the majority of W. cocos single-spore isolates cannot form sclerotium in field cultivation. We then investigated the possibility of breeding new strains by crossbreeding. Three types of mating reactions were observed in both intra-strain pairings and inter-strain pairings, and a total of fifty-five hybrids were selected by antagonistic testing and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Field cultivation of hybrids demonstrated that some hybrids can form sclerotium via two cultivated methods. Two new high-yield strains were identified. This report will stimulate new thinking on W. cocos and promote further extensive studies on crossbreeding in W. cocos, a new topic related to the development of more efficient protocols for the discrimination of hybrids in W. cocos.

  9. Nutritional and antioxidant contributions of Laurus nobilis L. leaves: would be more suitable a wild or a cultivated sample?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Maria Inês; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Alves, Rita C; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2014-08-01

    Medicinal and aromatic plants are used since ancient times in folk medicine and traditional food, but also in novel pharmaceutical preparations. The controversy lies in the use of cultivated and/or wild plants presenting both advantages and disadvantages in biological, ecological but also economic terms. Herein, cultivated and wild samples of Laurus nobilis L. were chemically characterized regarding nutritional value, free sugars, organic acids, fatty acids and tocopherols. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity (scavenging activity, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition) and individual phenolic profile of L. nobilis extracts and infusions were evaluated. Data showed that the wild sample gave higher nutritional contribution related to a higher content of proteins, free sugars, organic acids, PUFA and tocopherols. It also gave better PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 ratios. Regarding antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds, it was the cultivated sample (mostly the infusion) that showed the highest values. The present study supports the arguments defending the use of wild and cultivated medicinal and aromatic plants as both present very interesting features, whether nutritional or antioxidant, that can be an assessed by their consumption. In vitro culture could be applied to L. nobilis as a production methodology that allows combination of the benefits of wild and cultivated samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Photobioreactor cultivation strategies for microalgae and cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tylor J; Katuwal, Sarmila; Anderson, Gary A; Gu, Liping; Zhou, Ruanbao; Gibbons, William R

    2018-03-08

    The current burden on fossil-derived chemicals and fuels combined with the rapidly increasing global population has led to a crucial need to develop renewable and sustainable sources of chemicals and biofuels. Photoautotrophic microorganisms, including cyanobacteria and microalgae, have garnered a great deal of attention for their capability to produce these chemicals from carbon dioxide, mineralized water, and solar energy. While there have been substantial amounts of research directed at scaling-up production from these microorganisms, several factors have proven difficult to overcome, including high costs associated with cultivation, photobioreactor construction, and artificial lighting. Decreasing these costs will substantially increase the economic feasibility of these production processes. Thus, the purpose of this review is to describe various photobioreactor designs, and then provide an overview on lighting systems, mixing, gas transfer, and the hydrodynamics of bubbles. These factors must be considered when the goal of a production process is economic feasibility. Targets for improving microalgae and cyanobacteria cultivation media, including water reduction strategies will also be described. As fossil fuel reserves continue to be depleted and the world population continues to increase, it is imperative that renewable chemical and biofuel production processes be developed toward becoming economically feasible. Thus, it is essential that future research is directed toward improving these processes. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2018. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  11. Production of deuterated switchgrass by hydroponic cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Barbara R; Bali, Garima; Foston, Marcus; Ragauskas, Arthur J; O'Neill, Hugh M; Shah, Riddhi; McGaughey, Joseph; Reeves, David; Rempe, Caroline S; Davison, Brian H

    2015-07-01

    The bioenergy crop switchgrass was grown hydroponically from tiller cuttings in 50 % D 2 O to obtain biomass with 34 % deuterium substitution and physicochemical properties similar to those of H 2 O-grown switchgrass controls. Deuterium enrichment of biological materials can potentially enable expanded experimental use of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to investigate molecular structural transitions of complex systems such as plant cell walls. Two key advances have been made that facilitate cultivation of switchgrass, an important forage and biofuel crop, for controlled isotopic enrichment: (1) perfusion system with individual chambers and (2) hydroponic growth from tiller cuttings. Plants were grown and maintained for several months with periodic harvest. Photosynthetic activity was monitored by measurement of CO2 in outflow from the growth chambers. Plant morphology and composition appeared normal compared to matched controls grown with H2O. Using this improved method, gram quantities of switchgrass leaves and stems were produced by continuous hydroponic cultivation using growth medium consisting of basal mineral salts in 50 % D2O. Deuterium incorporation was confirmed by detection of the O-D and C-D stretching peaks with FTIR and quantified by (1)H- and (2)H-NMR. This capability to produce deuterated lignocellulosic biomass under controlled conditions will enhance investigation of cell wall structure and its deconstruction by neutron scattering and NMR techniques.

  12. Comparison of Chemical Compositions in Pseudostellariae Radix from Different Cultivated Fields and Germplasms by NMR-Based Metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujiao Hua

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pseudostellariae Radix (PR is an important traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, which is consumed commonly for its positive health effects. However, the chemical differences of PR from different cultivated fields and germplasms are still unknown. In order to comprehensively compare the chemical compositions of PR from different cultivated fields, in this study, 1H-NMR-based metabolomics coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC were used to investigate the different metabolites in PR from five germplasms (jr, zs1, zs2, sb, and xc cultivated in traditional fields (Jurong, Jiangsu, JSJR and cultivated fields (Zherong, Fujian, FJZR. A total of 34 metabolites were identified based on 1H-NMR data, and fourteen of them were found to be different in PR from JSJR and FJZR. The relative contents of alanine, lactate, lysine, taurine, sucrose, tyrosine, linolenic acid, γ-aminobutyrate, and hyperoside in PR from JSJR were higher than that in PR from FJZR, while PR from FJZR contained higher levels of glutamine, raffinose, xylose, unsaturated fatty acid, and formic acid. The contents of Heterophyllin A and Heterophyllin B were higher in PR from FJZR. This study will provide the basic information for exploring the influence law of ecological environment and germplasm genetic variation on metabolite biosynthesis of PR and its quality formation mechanism.

  13. Mushroom cultivation in Brazil: challenges and potential for growth

    OpenAIRE

    Dias,Eustáquio Souza

    2010-01-01

    Mushroom cultivation is rapidly expanding in Brazil because Brazilians have discovered the medicinal and culinary value of mushrooms and their economic situation has improved. However, the horticultural technology for cultivating mushrooms under Brazilian conditions is lacking. For many years, the mushroom cultivation technology used in Brazil was adapted from developed countries whose materials and climate were different from those of Brazil. In order to exploit the Brazilian potential for m...

  14. ECOLOGICAL FACTOR SCORE OF THE TOBACCO CULTIVATION ON THE ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г. Архіпова

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the quality and safety of tobacco cultivation in Ukraine was described in the article. Asfar as the cultivation of this plant is accompanied by using of the pesticides and other hazardous chemicals,the problem requires the solution in the nearest future. The techniques of "organic" tobacco cultivation,which are used in other countries and can be adopted in Ukraine, have been considered

  15. OCIAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE CULTIVATION OF COCA IN AFROCOLOMBIAN COMMUNITIES IN CAQUETÁ: ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP AMONG THE ILLICIT ECONOMY, THE TRADITIONAL FARMING PRACTICES, AND THEIR ROLE IN FOOD SECURITY. CONSECUENCIAS SOCIALES DEL CULTIVO DE LA COCA EN COMUNIDADES AFROCOLOMBIANAS DEL CAQUETÁ: ANÁLISIS DE LA RELACIÓN ENTRE LA ECONOMÍA ILÍCITA, LAS PRÁCTICAS CAMPESINAS TRADICIONALES Y SU PAPEL EN LA SEGURIDAD ALIMENTARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Carrillo González.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the main results of an investigation into the consequences of the adoption of the cultivation of coca, the productive logic of the illicit economy, and anti-drug policies of the Colombian State have meant for the safety and food sovereignty of Afrocolombian communities in the State of Caquetá. The work was based on extensive field work carried out in the rural area of inspection of Rionegro, Municipality of Puerto Rico. The text examines the role played by the regional history, the social and economic context in the reasons that help to explain the reason for the presence of coca. It gives an account of the main features of the mode of family production that characterizes the coca in the region and finally, and it shows the impact that the counter-narcotics policy has on food security of the communities in the study area. In order to provide elements for the discussion of the alternatives to the cultivation of coca, the article shows how the production practices in the region, both legal and illegal, do not pass through the construction of a project of food sovereignty and fail to meet the basics of food safety. RESUMEN: El artículo expone los principales resultados de una investigación sobre las consecuencias que la adopción del cultivo de coca, las lógicas productivas de la economía ilícita, y las políticas antinarcóticos del estado Colombiano han significado para la seguridad y soberanía alimentaria de comunidades afrocolombianas en el departamento del Caquetá. El trabajo se sustentó en un extenso trabajo de campo realizado en la zona rural de la inspección de Rionegro, municipio de puerto Rico. En el texto se analiza el papel que juegan la historia regional, el contexto social y económico en las razones que permiten explicar el por qué de la presencia de la coca. Se da cuenta de las principales características de la modalidad de producción familiar que caracteriza la coca en la región y finalmente, y

  16. Domestication of a Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree, Spondias purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Allison; Schaal, Barbara

    2005-09-06

    Contemporary patterns of genetic variation in crops reflect historical processes associated with domestication, such as the geographic origin(s) of cultivated populations. Although significant progress has been made in identifying several global centers of domestication, few studies have addressed the issue of multiple origins of cultivated plant populations from different geographic regions within a domestication center. This study investigates the domestication history of jocote (Spondias purpurea), a Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree. Sequences of the chloroplast spacer trnG-trnS were obtained for cultivated and wild S. purpurea trees, two sympatric taxa (Spondias mombin var. mombin and Spondias radlkoferi), and two outgroups (S. mombin var. globosa and Spondias testudinus). A phylogeographic approach was used and statistically significant associations of clades and geographical location were tested with a nested clade analysis. The sequences confirm that wild populations of S. purpurea are the likely progenitors of cultivated jocote trees. This study provides phylogeographic evidence of multiple domestications of this Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree. Haplotypes detected in S. purpurea trees form two clusters, each of which includes alleles recovered in both cultivated and wild populations from distinct geographic regions. Cultivated S. purpurea populations have fewer unique trnG-trnS alleles than wild populations; however, five haplotypes were absent in the wild. The presence of unique alleles in cultivation may reflect contemporary extinction of the tropical dry forests of Mesoamerica. These data indicate that some agricultural habitats may be functioning as reservoirs of genetic variation in S. purpurea.

  17. Cultivation of native seaweed Gracilaria domingensis (Rhodophyta in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pedrassoli Salles

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the cultivation of Gracilaria domingensis in a mussel farming urbanized area in Santa Catarina, Brazil. Relative growth rate was the parameter used to evaluate the cuttings attachment methods on the cultivation rope, cuttings density, cultivation period and cystocarpic versus unfertile thalli performance. The cultivation was feasible only when protected by net cages due to herbivory. The tie-tie attachment method presented the best results. No differences were observed when comparing the cuttings densities and reproductive phase. Future studies should evaluate the cost-effectiveness of producing the species in net cages and its potential as biofilter.

  18. Non-traditional inheritance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    In the last few years, several non-traditional forms of inheritance have been recognized. These include mosaicism, cytoplasmic inheritance, uniparental disomy, imprinting, amplification/anticipation, and somatic recombination. Genomic imprinting (GI) is the dependence of the phenotype on the sex of the transmitting parent. GI in humans seems to involve growth, behaviour, and survival in utero. The detailed mechanism of genomic imprinting is not known, but it seems that some process is involved in turning a gene off; this probably involves two genes, one of which produces a product that turns a gene off, and the gene that is itself turned off. The process of imprinting (turning off) may be associated with methylation. Erasure of imprinting can occur, and seems to be associated with meiosis. 10 refs

  19. Investigation of quality and antimicrobal activity of cultivated marigold flowers Calendula officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurzulov Katarina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Marigold flower, Calendula officinalis L, Asteraceae, is traditionally used to treat skin diseases. Marigold flowers contain triterpenoid saponins, carotenoids, flavonoids and essential oil. Extracts and essential oil exhibit anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate quality of cultivated Calendulae flos, to compare flavonoids content in inflorescence and ligulate florets and to determine antimicrobial activity of extract and traditional ointment based on marigold. Material and Methods: Plant material was collected from private gardens in Kikinda, Mokrin and Vrnjacka Banja during September and November 2015. Quality investigation included: macroscopic and microscopic analysis and determination of the specific quality according to the monograph of European Pharmacopoeia 7.0. The identification of flavonoids was carried out by HPLC. Antimicrobial activity of ethanol extracts (1:20 and traditional ointment based on ligulate florets or whole inflorescences was tested against six standard laboratory strains by agar-diffusion method. Results: Macroscopic and microscopic characteristics and content of flavonoids (2.0-2.76% in the ligulate florets of cultivated marigold corresponded to the requirements of Ph. Eur. 7.0. Separated ligulate florets (2.76 ± 0.01% contained a higher concentration of flavonoids than whole inflorescence (1.68 ± 0.0%. Also, in ligulate florets differences were found in the flavonoids content during September (2.76 ± 0.01% and November (1.45 ± 0.01%, while in whole inflorescences concentration didn't significantly change. In all tested samples 3-O-heterosides of quercetin and isorhamnetin were identified. The ethanol extracts of ligulate florets, whole inflorescence as well as traditional ointments showed the antimicrobial activity. The traditional ointment based on ligulate florets showed stronger antimicrobial effect than the ointment based on full

  20. Microalgae: cultivation techniques and wastewater phycoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Marcondes M; Hoeltz, Michele; Moraes, Maria S A; Schneider, Rosana C S

    2015-01-01

    Generation of liquid and gaseous effluents is associated with almost all anthropogenic activities. The discharge of these effluents into the environment without treatment has reduced the availability and quality of natural resources, representing a serious threat to the balance of different ecosystems and human health. Universal access to water and global warming are topics of intense concern and are listed as priorities in the vast majority of global scientific, social and political guidelines. Conventional techniques to treat liquid and gaseous effluents pose economic and/or environmental limitations that prevent their use in certain applications. The technique of phycoremediation, which uses microalgae, macroalgae, and cyanobacteria for the removal or biotransformation of pollutants, is an emerging technology that has been highlighted due to its economic viability and environmental sustainability. This literature review discusses different techniques of microalgae cultivation and their use in the phycoremediation of contaminants in wastewater.

  1. USE OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHT IN MUSHROOM CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Poyedinok

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Artificial light is used in greenhouses to increase productivity and quality of agricultural and ornamental plants. Despite the awareness of the fact that light also plays important role in the life of nonhotosynthetic organisms, such as fungi, its using in their biotechnology cultivation is currently limited. Science has quite a large amount information about the influence of artificial light of different nature on morphogenesis, metabolic processes and productivity of more than 100 species of fungi, many of which are valuable producers of biologically active compounds. Themechanisms of photoreactions of various fungi, which is an integral part of a purposeful photoregulation their activity in biotechnological processes are described. The analysis of the researches and of the experience of their practical application allows predicting potential of using artificial light in mushroom growing industry, as well as in creating highly productive, environmentally clean technologies of targeted synthesis of the final product.

  2. Lisianthus cultivation using differentiated light transmission nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Hercilio Viegas Rodrigues

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Lisianthus stands out as one of the ten most cut flowers sold in the world. The use of meshes in a different light transmission is gaining more space in horticulture with promising results in greenhouse. The aim of this study was to evaluate the development of lisianthus grown in different light transmission meshes in blue, black, red and control treatments, which were transplanted 20 seedlings to cultivate Snow white with three replications, and therefore, 60 plants 240 plants per treatment in total. Agronomic characteristics such as plant height and length of the top pair of leaves were evaluated at 15, 38, 59, 82 and 105 days after transplanting. Other features such as early flowering, thick stem, distance between us and weight of the harvested stems were obtained at harvest stage. At the end of the evaluations, the treatment of red net was the most consistent with a significant difference in stem height and earliness in flowering.

  3. Principals, Trust, and Cultivating Vibrant Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Tschannen-Moran

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although principals are ultimately held accountable to student learning in their buildings, the most consistent research results have suggested that their impact on student achievement is largely indirect. Leithwood, Patten, and Jantzi proposed four paths through which this indirect influence would flow, and the purpose of this special issue is to examine in greater depth these mediating variables. Among mediating variables, we assert that trust is key. In this paper, we explore the evidence that points to the role that faculty trust in the principal plays in student learning and how principals can cultivate trust by attending to the five facets of trust, as well as the correlates of trust that mediate student learning, including academic press, collective teacher efficacy, and teacher professionalism. We argue that trust plays a role in each of the four paths identified by Leithwood, Patten, and Jantzi. Finally, we explore possible new directions for future research.

  4. Cultivated Land Changes and Agricultural Potential Productivity in Mainland China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Xiao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With rapid and continuous population growth and the associated declining quality of cultivated land, food security in China has been attracting the attention of scholars both domestically and internationally. In recent decades, the implications of the cultivated land balance policy have promoted spatial changes of cultivated land. Estimating the agricultural potential productivity and assessing its response to cultivated land changes could provide a scientific basis for strategic decision-making concerning grain production and thus guarantee food security. In the present study, the Agro-Ecological Zone (AEZ model was applied to estimate the agricultural potential productivity. Data from the second national land survey were first applied to characterize the changes of cultivated land (by comparing the cultivated land in 2009 with that in 2012 and their influence on potential productivity in Mainland China. We propose a utilization degree of total potential productivity (UTP and its ratio coefficient (RUTP to reveal the utilization status of potential productivity and its change characteristics at the provincial level. It was found that there was a trend for cultivated land to be shifted away from cities, and the average productive capability per hectare of cultivated land declined from 7386.5 kg/ha to 6955.2 kg/ha by occupying highly productive cultivated land generally near the cities and compensating less productive cultivated land in remote areas. UTPs and RUTPs indicate a significant difference in the utilization status of potential productivity among the 31 provinces of Mainland China. Grain production with the aim of sustainable development should be strategized according to the particular facts of each province. The methods we applied can mine the impacts of cultivated land changes on potential productivity and the utilization of potential productivity effectively.

  5. Genetic diversity of cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) germplasm assessed by retrotransposon-based markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smýkal, P; Bačová-Kerteszová, N; Kalendar, R; Corander, J; Schulman, A H; Pavelek, M

    2011-05-01

    Retrotransposon segments were characterized and inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP) markers developed for cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and the Linum genus. Over 75 distinct long terminal repeat retrotransposon segments were cloned, the first set for Linum, and specific primers designed for them. IRAP was then used to evaluate genetic diversity among 708 accessions of cultivated flax comprising 143 landraces, 387 varieties, and 178 breeding lines. These included both traditional and modern, oil (86), fiber (351), and combined-use (271) accessions, originating from 36 countries, and 10 wild Linum species. The set of 10 most polymorphic primers yielded 141 reproducible informative data points per accession, with 52% polymorphism and a 0.34 Shannon diversity index. The maximal genetic diversity was detected among wild Linum species (100% IRAP polymorphism and 0.57 Jaccard similarity), while diversity within cultivated germplasm decreased from landraces (58%, 0.63) to breeding lines (48%, 0.85) and cultivars (50%, 0.81). Application of Bayesian methods for clustering resulted in the robust identification of 20 clusters of accessions, which were unstratified according to origin or user type. This indicates an overlap in genetic diversity despite disruptive selection for fiber versus oil types. Nevertheless, eight clusters contained high proportions (70-100%) of commercial cultivars, whereas two clusters were rich (60%) in landraces. These findings provide a basis for better flax germplasm management, core collection establishment, and exploration of diversity in breeding, as well as for exploration of the role of retrotransposons in flax genome dynamics.

  6. Adopting Cultivation to Remain Pastoralists: The Diversification of Maasai Livelihoods in Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, J Terrence; Leslie, Paul W; Deluca, Laura

    2010-06-01

    Over the past four decades, Maasai pastoralists in Tanzania have adopted agriculture, integrating it with their traditional pastoralism. This livelihood diversification has complex origins and profound implications for Maasai social organization, culture, and demography, and ultimately for their health and well being and for the local and regional environment. In this paper, we examine the process by which this engagement with, and increasing dependence upon, agriculture came about in Ngorongoro District, northern Tanzania. The process there was more complex and influenced by a wider variety of factors than has been reported by previous descriptions of Maasai livelihood diversification. It generally involved two stages: planting a garden first, and later expanding the garden to a farm. We found that some households adopted cultivation out of necessity, but far more did so by choice. Among the latter, some adopted cultivation to reduce risk, while for others it was a reflection of changing cultural and social norms. Motivations for adopting cultivation differed among people of different wealth categories. Diversification was part of wider cultural changes, and was also influenced by power differentials among Maasai age sets and by government policies.

  7. Mechanism and capacities of reducing ecological cost through rice-duck cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Pan; Huang, Huang; Liao, Xiaolan; Fu, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Huabin; Chen, Aiwu; Chen, Can

    2013-09-01

    Rice-duck cultivation is the essence of Chinese traditional agriculture. A scientific assessment of the mechanism and its capacity is of theoretical significance and practical value in improving modern agricultural technology. The duck's secretions, excreta and their treading, pecking and predation decrease the occurrence of plant diseases, pests and weeds, enrich species diversity and improve the field environment. The rice-duck intergrowth system effectively prevents rice planthoppers and rice leafhoppers. The control effects can be up to 98.47% and 100% respectively; it also has effects on the control of Chilo suppressalis, Tryporyza incertulas and the rice leafrollers. Notable control results are found on sheath blight, while the effects on other diseases are about 50%. Harm from weeds is placed under primary control; prevention of weeds is sequenced by broadleaf weeds > sedge weeds > Gramineae weeds. Contents of soil organic matter, N, P and K are improved by the system; nutrient utilization is accelerated, resulting in decreased fertilizer application. Greenhouse gas emissions are reduced by 1-2% and duck fodder is saved in this system. There is also an obvious economic benefit. Compared to conventional rice cultivation, rice-duck cultivation shows great benefits to ecologic cost and economic income. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. PROSPECTS OF INTRODUCTION OF NON-TRADITIONAL FRUIT BERRY AND VEGETABLE CROPS IN THE CONDITIONS OF DAGESTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Gins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available June 9-13, 2014 in Makhachkala hosted XI International scientific-methodical conference on the theme: «Introduction, conservation and use of biological diversity of cultivated plants», organized by FGBNU VNIISSOK, Dagestan Research Institute for Agriculture and GBS DSC RAS. The conference was attended by scientists from Russia, CIS and foreign countries. Due to the conference Dagestan turned out to be a prime location for the cultivation of both traditional and non-traditional plants with a high content of biologically active substances, as well as a training ground for resistance tests because of the combination of mountain and plain zones.

  9. High-power LEDs for plant cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamulaitis, Gintautas; Duchovskis, Pavelas; Bliznikas, Zenius; Breive, Kestutis; Ulinskaite, Raimonda; Brazaityte, Ausra; Novickovas, Algirdas; Zukauskas, Arturas; Shur, Michael S.

    2004-10-01

    We report on high-power solid-state lighting facility for cultivation of greenhouse vegetables and on the results of the study of control of photosynthetic activity and growth morphology of radish and lettuce imposed by variation of the spectral composition of illumination. Experimental lighting modules (useful area of 0.22 m2) were designed based on 4 types of high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with emission peaked in red at the wavelengths of 660 nm and 640 nm (predominantly absorbed by chlorophyll a and b for photosynthesis, respectively), in blue at 455 nm (phototropic function), and in far-red at 735 nm (important for photomorphology). Morphological characteristics, chlorophyll and phytohormone concentrations in radish and lettuce grown in phytotron chambers under lighting with different spectral composition of the LED-based illuminator and under illumination by high pressure sodium lamps with an equivalent photosynthetic photon flux density were compared. A well-balanced solid-state lighting was found to enhance production of green mass and to ensure healthy morphogenesis of plants compared to those grown using conventional lighting. We observed that the plant morphology and concentrations of morphologically active phytohormones is strongly affected by the spectral composition of light in the red region. Commercial application of the LED-based illumination for large-scale plant cultivation is discussed. This technology is favorable from the point of view of energy consumption, controllable growth, and food safety but is hindered by high cost of the LEDs. Large scale manufacturing of high-power red AlInGaP-based LEDs emitting at 650 nm and a further decrease of the photon price for the LEDs emitting in the vicinity of the absorption peak of chlorophylls have to be achieved to promote horticulture applications.

  10. [Study on Different Parts of Wild and Cultivated Gentiana Rigescens with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yun-xia; Zhao, Yan-li; Zhang, Ji; Zuo, Zhi-tian; Wang, Yuan-zhong; Zhang, Qing-zhi

    2016-03-01

    The application of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and their preparations have a long history. With the deepening of the research, the market demand is increasing. However, wild resources are so limited that it can not meet the needs of the market. The development of wild and cultivated samples and research on accumulation dynamics of chemical component are of great significance. In order to compare composition difference of different parts (root, stem, and leaf) of wild and cultivated G. rigescens, Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and second derivative spectra were used to analyze and evaluate. The second derivative spectra of 60 samples and the rate of affinity (the match values) were measured automatically using the appropriate software (Omnic 8.0). The results showed that the various parts of wild and cultivated G. rigescens. were high similar the peaks at 1732, 1 643, 1 613, 1 510, 1 417, 1 366, 1 322, 1 070 cm(-1) were the characteristic peak of esters, terpenoids and saccharides, respectively. Moreover, the shape and peak intensity were more distinct in the second derivative spectrum of samples. In the second derivative spectrum range of 1 800-600 cm(-1), the fingerprint characteristic peak of samples and gentiopicroside standards were 1 679, 1 613, 1 466, 1 272, 1 204, 1 103, 1 074, 985, 935 cm(-1). The characteristic peak intensity of gentiopicroside of roots of wild and cultivated samples at 1 613 cm(-1) (C-C) was higher than stems and leaves which indicated the higher content of gentiopicroside in root than in stem and leaves. Stems of wild samples at 1 521, 1 462 and 1 452 cm(-1) are the skeletal vibration peak of benzene ring of lignin, and the stem of cultivated sample have stronger peak than other samples which showed that rich lignin in stems. The iInfrared spectrum of samples were similar with the average spectral of root of wild samples, and significant difference was found for the correlation between second derivative spectrum of samples

  11. Molecular Characterization of Cultivated Pawpaw (Asimina triloba) Using RAPD Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongwen Huang; Desmond R. Layne; Thomas L. Kubisiak

    2003-01-01

    Thirty-four extant pawpaw [Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal] cultivars and advanced selections representing a large portion of the gene pool of cultivated pawpaws were investigated using 71 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers to establish genetic identities and evaluate genetic relatedness. All 34 cultivated pawpaws were uniquely...

  12. The complemental role of dryland cultivated pastures in market ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The complemental role of dryland cultivated pastures in market-related beef production from semi-arid rangeland. ... Abstract. Rangeland condition is a decisive factor in determining the income/cost ratio of production hence in the profitability of any beef production enterprise. Cultivated pastures can play an important role in ...

  13. Psychological Processes Underlying Cultivation Effects: Further Tests of Construct Accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrum, L. J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a study that tested whether the accessibility of information in memory mediates the cultivation effect (the effect of television viewing on social perceptions), consistent with the availability heuristic. Shows that heavy viewers gave higher frequency estimates (cultivation effect) and responded faster (accessibility effect) than did…

  14. Socio-Economic Determinants of Wetland Cultivation in Kemise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of wetland use in Kemise, central Illubabor, southwestern Ethiopia, shows food shortage as the main factor behind wetland cultivation in the locality. However, discriminant analysis results indicate that it is the wealthier farmers who tend to cultivate wetlands rather than the economically less fortunate ones.

  15. Cultivating Discontinuity: Pentecostal Pedagogies of Yielding and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahinsky, Josh

    2013-01-01

    Exploring missionary study at an Assemblies of God Bible college through ethnography and training manuals demonstrates systematic pedagogies that cultivate sensory capabilities encouraging yielding, opening to rupture, and constraint. Ritual theory and the Anthropology of Christianity shift analytic scales to include "cultivation," a…

  16. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of previous cultivation on regeneration potential under miombo woodlands in a resettlement area, a spatial product of Zimbabwe's land reforms. We predicted that cultivation would affect population structure, regeneration, recruitment and potential grazing capacity of rangelands. Plant attributes ...

  17. Agent-based modelling of shifting cultivation field patterns, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck; Leisz, S.; Rasmussen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Shifting cultivation in the Nghe An Province of Vietnam's Northern Mountain Region produces a characteristic land-cover pattern of small and larger fields. The pattern is the result of farmers cultivating either individually or in spatially clustered groups. Using spatially explicit agent...

  18. Cultivation of oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus spp.) on palm oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oyster mushroom is a popular mushroom due to its nutritional, medicinal and potential commercial value. In Malaysia, the fungus is currently cultivated on sawdust and rice husk. In this study, the efficiency of cultivating oyster mushroom was assessed using palm oil mesocarp fibre as a substrate. The experiment consisted ...

  19. Compound serum and hemin free medium for cultivation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum free cultivation of Leishmania is cost-effective and improves large scale production of well defined parasite material. Moreover, the production of recombinant pharmaceutical proteins requires cultivation of the host in a culture medium free of animal materials, so several culture media for Leishmania tarentolae ...

  20. Agronomic performance of five banana cultivars under protected cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banana has been grown both in open-field and protected cultivation in Turkey. So far protected cultivation is very popular due to the high yield and quality. The objective of the study was to evaluate agronomic performance of five new banana cultivars under plastic greenhouse. ‘MA 13’, ‘Williams’, ‘...

  1. Processes and Causes of Accelerated Soil Erosion on Cultivated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Processes and Causes of Accelerated Soil Erosion on Cultivated Fields of South Welo, Ethiopia. ... In most of the highlands, crop cultivation is carried out without any type of terracing, while about 74 per cent of this land requires application of contour plowing, broad-based terracing, or bench terracing. The third group of ...

  2. Health Impacts of Tobacco Cultivation in Bangladesh | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... health problems among men, women, and children in Bangladesh will examine the health and socio-economic impact of tobacco cultivation. To date, the health hazards of growing tobacco have not been documented or well researched, particularly in low-and middle-income countries with high rates of tobacco cultivation.

  3. Effect of organic cultivation of rooibos tea plants ( Aspalathus linearis )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The shoots of rooibos (Aspalathus linearis (Burm.f.) R.Dahlgren) plants, cultivated organically by small-scale farmers in Nieuwoudtville, are harvested for the production of tea. These practices could lead to decreasing soil fertility. It was hypothesised that soil from cultivated rooibos plots will have lower nutrient ...

  4. Functional State Modelling of Cultivation Processes: Dissolved Oxygen Limitation State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olympia Roeva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new functional state, namely dissolved oxygen limitation state for both bacteria Escherichia coli and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae fed-batch cultivation processes is presented in this study. Functional state modelling approach is applied to cultivation processes in order to overcome the main disadvantages of using global process model, namely complex model structure and a big number of model parameters. Alongwith the newly introduced dissolved oxygen limitation state, second acetate production state and first acetate production state are recognized during the fed-batch cultivation of E. coli, while mixed oxidative state and first ethanol production state are recognized during the fed-batch cultivation of S. cerevisiae. For all mentioned above functional states both structural and parameter identification is here performed based on experimental data of E. coli and S. cerevisiae fed-batch cultivations.

  5. Economic benefit analysis of cultivating Pleurotus ostreatus with rape straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qinlan; Gong, Mingfu; Tang, Mei

    2018-04-01

    The cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus with rape straw not only can save the cultivation cost of P. ostreatus, but also can reuse the resources and protect the environment. By adding different proportion of rape straw to the cultivation material of P. ostreatus, the reasonable amount of rape straw was selected and the economic benefit of P. ostreatus cultivated with the optimum amount of rape straw was analyzed. The results showed that adding 10% to 40% rape straw to the cultivation material of P. ostreatus did not affect the yield and biological conversion rate of P. ostreatus, and the ratio of production and investment of the amount of rape straw in the range of 10% to 50% was higher than of cottonseed husk alone as the main material of the formula.

  6. Aeration strategy for biofilm cultivation of the microalga Scenedesmus dimorphus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chunli; Wang, Junfeng; Liu, Tianzhong

    2015-10-01

    Biofilm cultivation of microalgae may be useful for biofuel production. However, many aspects for this cultivation method have not been well assessed. Accordingly, aeration strategy for biofilm cultivation of Scenedesmus dimorphus has been explored. Biomass, lipid and triacylglycerol (TAG) productivity in increased S. dimorphus as the CO2 concentration increased within 0.038-0.5% and kept constant with further increases. The biomass, lipid and TAG productivity increased with the speed increasing and an obvious threshold point was observed at 6.6 ml(-2) min(-1). The lipid and TAG content was unaffected by the aeration rate. Both the CO2 concentration as well as aeration speed affected the growth of S. dimorphus in biofilm cultivation. The optimized aeration strategy for biofilm cultivation was continuous air flow enriched with 1% CO2 (v/v) at 6.6 ml(-2) min(-1).

  7. The Cultivation of Cultural Awareness in English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宁

    2015-01-01

    As the development of the information age,the cultivation of intercultural communicative competence has been extremely important. Thus foreign language teaching lays stress on the cultivation of language comprehensive application ability. Culture awareness is an important part of language comprehensive application ability. The cultivating of students’ cultural awareness is beneficial to improve their humanistic quality,broaden their international view,strengthen their patriotism spirit and sense of national mission,and achieve their all-round development. The paper will discuss the current situation of cultural awareness cultivation in English teaching. In view of the problems and its causes existing in the cultural awareness cultivation,three count measures have been proposed.

  8. Traditional Medicine in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Rikke Stamp

    or spiritual healer and self-treatment with herbal medicine or medicinal plants. Reliance on traditional medicine varies between countries and rural and urban areas, but is reported to be as high as 80% in some developing countries. Increased realization of the continued importance of traditional medicine has......People use traditional medicine to meet their health care needs in developing countries and medical pluralism persists worldwide despite increased access to allopathic medicine. Traditional medicine includes a variety of treatment opportunities, among others, consultation with a traditional healer...... led to the formulation of policies on the integration of traditional medicine into public health care. Local level integration is already taking place as people use multiple treatments when experiencing illness. Research on local level use of traditional medicine for health care, in particular the use...

  9. Chants of the Byzantine Rite: the Italo-Albanian Tradition in Sicily / Canti Ecclesiastici della Tradizione Italo-Albanese in Sicilia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsgård, Christian; Garofalo, Girolamo

    Chants of the Byzantine Rite: The Italo-Albanian Tradition in Sicily offers for the first time transcriptions of the full repertory of orally transmitted hymns for the celebration of the Byzantine Rite in Sicily. This little-known chant tradition has without interruption been cultivated by the Al...

  10. Antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of Plebeian herba (Salvia plebeia R. Br.) under different cultivation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Kang, Young-Hwa

    2014-03-12

    An adaptation of cultural management to the specific cultural system, as well as crop demand, can further result in the improvement of the quality of horticultural products. Therefore, this study focused on the antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of Plebeian herba (Salvia plebeia R. Br.) grown in hydroponics in comparison with those of the plant grown in soil. The antioxidant activities of Plebeian herba extract were measured as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging abilities as well as the reducing power by decreasing nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) in vitro. Interestingly, by comparison with hydroponics and traditional cultivation, Plebeian herba cultivated in nutrition-based soil improved inhibitory effect on free radicals of DPPH, ABTS, and NO and increased the contents of phenolics such as caffeic acid (1), luteolin-7-glucoside (2), homoplantaginin (3), hispidulin (4), and eupatorin. Free radical scavenging and SOD activity, as well as α-glucosidase inhibitory effect, were higher in Plebeian herba grown in nutrition-based soil than in plants grown in hydroponics and traditional condition.

  11. The Process of Self-Cultivation and the Mandala Model of the Self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meiyao

    2017-01-01

    In his Mandala model of the self, Taiwanese scholar Kwang-Kuo Hwang sees each human being as a combination or intersection of private individual and social person, and also of knowledge and action. To further elaborate the model-with a particular emphasis on teaching/learning, the development of the ideal self and spiritual transcendence-this article will explore the psychological process of self-cultivation in the light of traditional Confucian thinking, which means keeping a balance between inner/outer and self/other. The Neo-Confucian thinker Zhongsha Mou's theories of "the awareness of unexpected developments" and his meditation/cognitive thinking opposition will also be discussed. The analyzed sources will include the traditional Confucian classics (the Four Books and Liji, or Classic of Rites ) and especially the " Lessons for Learning ( Xue-Ji )" in the Classic of Rites ( Liji ), along with the relevant textual research. Based upon a cultural-semantic analysis of these classics as well as of Hwang's central ideas, the author attempts to further conceptualize the process of cultivating the ideal self in Confucian education.

  12. A study on the comparison of antioxidant effects among cultivated ginseng, and cultivated wild ginseng extracts -Using the measurement of superoxide and hydroxy radical scavenging activities-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Jin, Rhim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant effects among cultivated wild ginseng and ginseng extracts. Methods : In vitro antioxidant activities were examined by superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng extracts. Results : 1. In the superoxide radical scavenging activities of ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng extracts, antioxidant activities of cultivated wild ginseng extracts was showed higher than cultivated ginseng in the concentration of 0.25 and 0.50㎎/㎖. 2. In the hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng extracts, antioxidant activities of cultivated wild ginseng extracts was showed higher than cultivated ginseng in the concentration of 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0㎎/㎖. Conclusions : In summary, the results of this study demonstrate that cultivated wild ginseng extracts had higher antioxidant activities to cultivated ginseng.

  13. The Hausa Lexicographic Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Ma Newman

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Hausa, a major language of West Africa, is one of the most widely studied languagesof Sub-Saharan Africa. It has a rich lexicographic tradition dating back some two centuries. Sincethe first major vocabulary published in 1843 up to the present time, almost 60 lexicographic works— dictionaries, vocabularies, glossaries — have been published, in a range of metalanguages, fromEnglish to Hausa itself. This article traces the historical development of the major studies accordingto their type and function as general reference works, specialized works, pedagogical works, andterminological works. For each work, there is a general discussion of its size, accuracy of the phonological,lexical, and grammatical information, and the adequacy of its definitions and illustrativematerial. A complete list of the lexicographic works is included.

    Keywords: ARABIC, BILINGUAL LEXICOGRAPHY, DIALECTAL VARIANTS, DICTIONARIES,ENGLISH, ETYMOLOGIES, FRENCH, GERMAN, GLOSSARIES, GRAMMATICALCATEGORIES, HAUSA, LANGUAGE LEARNING, LOANWORDS, NEOLOGISMS, NIGER,NIGERIA, ORTHOGRAPHY, PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION, PHONOLOGY, RUSSIAN, STANDARDDIALECT, STANDARDIZATION, TERMINOLOGY, VOCABULARIES, WEST AFRICA.

    Opsomming: Die leksikografiese tradisie in Hausa. Hausa, 'n belangrike taal vanWes-Afrika, is een van die tale van Afrika suid van die Sahara wat die wydste bestudeer word. Dithet 'n ryk leksikografiese tradisie wat ongeveer twee eeue oud is. Van die eerste groot woordeboekwat in 1843 gepubliseer is tot die hede is ongeveer 60 leksikografiese werke — woordeboeke,naamlyste, woordelyste — gepubliseer in 'n reeks metatale van Engels tot Hausa self. Hierdie artikelgaan die historiese ontwikkeling van die groter studies aan die hand van hulle tipe en funksieas algemene naslaanwerke, gespesialiseerde werke, opvoedkundige werke, en terminologiesewerke na. Vir elke werk is daar 'n algemene bespreking oor sy grootte, akkuraatheid van die fonologiese,leksikale en

  14. A study on the comparison of antioxidant effects among wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and cultivated ginseng extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Young, Jang

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant effects among wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts. Methods : In vitro antioxidant activities were examined by total antioxidant capacity (TAC, oxygen radical scavenging capacity(ORAC, total phenolic content, 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity, inhibition of induced lipid peroxidation using liver mitochondria, reactive oxygen species(ROS scavenging effect using 2’, 7’-dichlorofluorescein(DCF fluorescence. Results : 1. TAC of 1.5 and 3.75 mg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 2. ORAC of 2, 10, and 20 μg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 3. Total phenolic content of 0.375, 0.938, and 1.875 mg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 4. DPPH(1, 1 -Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity between wild ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng did not differ significantly (p>0.05. 5. Induced lipid peroxidation, measured by TBARS concentration in solution containing rat liver mitochondria incubated in the presence of FeSO4/ascorbic acid was inhibited as amounts of wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts increased. TBARS concentration of ginseng extracts were significantly (p<0.05 higher than wild ginseng or cultivated wild ginseng extracts. 6. DCF fluorescence intensity was decreased as concentrations of wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts increased, demonstrating that ROS generation was inhibited in a concentrationdependent manner. Conclusions : In summary, the results of this study demonstrate that cultivated wild ginseng extracts had similar antioxidant activities to wild ginseng extracts and greater that of cultivated ginseng extracts.

  15. Technical evaluation of photobioreactors for microalgae cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Płaczek Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper undertakes the description and assessment of various solutions applied for the design of photobioreactors as the type of apparatus, which can provide high output of green algae biomass. The design of such apparatus plays an important role in the context of the concurrent fulfillment of ecological and economic requirements, which are necessary to conduct an efficient and effective technology using cheap and easily accessible resources to produce different goods. Nowadays, algae is seen as one of the most promising sustainable way to produce energy in the future (biofuels, electricity, thermal energy but technologies of biomass production and processing are still under development particularly to increase biomass and energy output. The cultivation costs in closed systems are still high, limiting their commercial applications to high-valued compounds but they can be reduced by efficient bioreactor designs, which are able to achieve high areal biomass productivities. This paper focuses on the advantages and drawbacks associated with the application of the particular types of bioreactors in algae production, description of their operation parameters and area for practical application, pointing of the constructions (tubular, flat panel, bubble column that can contribute to improvement the profitability of large-scale production.

  16. Advanced continuous cultivation methods for systems microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamberg, Kaarel; Valgepea, Kaspar; Vilu, Raivo

    2015-09-01

    Increasing the throughput of systems biology-based experimental characterization of in silico-designed strains has great potential for accelerating the development of cell factories. For this, analysis of metabolism in the steady state is essential as only this enables the unequivocal definition of the physiological state of cells, which is needed for the complete description and in silico reconstruction of their phenotypes. In this review, we show that for a systems microbiology approach, high-resolution characterization of metabolism in the steady state--growth space analysis (GSA)--can be achieved by using advanced continuous cultivation methods termed changestats. In changestats, an environmental parameter is continuously changed at a constant rate within one experiment whilst maintaining cells in the physiological steady state similar to chemostats. This increases the resolution and throughput of GSA compared with chemostats, and, moreover, enables following of the dynamics of metabolism and detection of metabolic switch-points and optimal growth conditions. We also describe the concept, challenge and necessary criteria of the systematic analysis of steady-state metabolism. Finally, we propose that such systematic characterization of the steady-state growth space of cells using changestats has value not only for fundamental studies of metabolism, but also for systems biology-based metabolic engineering of cell factories.

  17. The organic fertilization in the onion cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Llorente Villa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work was developed in the UBPC “The Coast”, belonging to the Miscellaneous Crops Enterprise of Campechuela municipality, Granma province, during the period from November to March of the year 2010 – 2011. It was carried out in a reddish brown fersialitic soil, according with the new genetic classification of the soils of Cuba MINAGRI, (2000, with the objective of studying and evaluating the influence of different organic fertilizers in the growth, development and yield in the cultivation of onion, variety Texas Early Grain. For this reason it was necessary to work on blocks with 4 treatments and 4 replies. The treatments applied were: treatment 1 (vermicompost, treatment 2 (cow dung, treatment 3 (cachaça and treatment 4 (control, those were applied in a solid way. The growth variables that were evaluated were number of leaves, height of the plant, equatorial diameter, polar diameter and fresh weight of the bulb. The yield was also evaluated in t.ha-1 per treatment. High yields are achieved with the application of organic fertilizer, among 27 and 30 t.ha-1, this is an alternative for the sustainable production of this product which is highly demanded by the population.

  18. Cultivating gratitude and giving through experiential consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jesse; Kumar, Amit; Gilovich, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Gratitude promotes well-being and prompts prosocial behavior. Here, we examine a novel way to cultivate this beneficial emotion. We demonstrate that 2 different types of consumption-material consumption (buying for the sake of having) and experiential consumption (buying for the sake of doing)-differentially foster gratitude and giving. In 6 studies we show that reflecting on experiential purchases (e.g., travel, meals out, tickets to events) inspires more gratitude than reflecting on material purchases (e.g., clothing, jewelry, furniture), and that thinking about experiences leads to more subsequent altruistic behavior than thinking about possessions. In Studies 1-2b, we use within-subject and between-subjects designs to test our main hypothesis: that people are more grateful for what they've done than what they have. Study 3 finds evidence for this effect in the real-world setting of online customer reviews: Consumers are more likely to spontaneously mention feeling grateful for experiences they have bought than for material goods they have bought. In our final 2 studies, we show that experiential consumption also makes people more likely to be generous to others. Participants who contemplated a significant experiential purchase behaved more generously toward anonymous others in an economic game than those who contemplated a significant material purchase. It thus appears that shifting spending toward experiential consumption can improve people's everyday lives as well as the lives of those around them. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Technical evaluation of photobioreactors for microalgae cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płaczek, Małgorzata; Patyna, Agnieszka; Witczak, Stanisław

    2017-10-01

    This paper undertakes the description and assessment of various solutions applied for the design of photobioreactors as the type of apparatus, which can provide high output of green algae biomass. The design of such apparatus plays an important role in the context of the concurrent fulfillment of ecological and economic requirements, which are necessary to conduct an efficient and effective technology using cheap and easily accessible resources to produce different goods. Nowadays, algae is seen as one of the most promising sustainable way to produce energy in the future (biofuels, electricity, thermal energy) but technologies of biomass production and processing are still under development particularly to increase biomass and energy output. The cultivation costs in closed systems are still high, limiting their commercial applications to high-valued compounds but they can be reduced by efficient bioreactor designs, which are able to achieve high areal biomass productivities. This paper focuses on the advantages and drawbacks associated with the application of the particular types of bioreactors in algae production, description of their operation parameters and area for practical application, pointing of the constructions (tubular, flat panel, bubble column) that can contribute to improvement the profitability of large-scale production.

  20. Maize Endophytic Bacterial Diversity as Affected by Soil Cultivation History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Galeote, David; Bedmar, Eulogio J; Arone, Gregorio J

    2018-01-01

    The bacterial endophytic communities residing within roots of maize ( Zea mays L.) plants cultivated by a sustainable management in soils from the Quechua maize belt (Peruvian Andes) were examined using tags pyrosequencing spanning the V4 and V5 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA. Across four replicate libraries, two corresponding to sequences of endophytic bacteria from long time maize-cultivated soils and the other two obtained from fallow soils, 793 bacterial sequences were found that grouped into 188 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs, 97% genetic similarity). The numbers of OTUs in the libraries from the maize-cultivated soils were significantly higher than those found in the libraries from fallow soils. A mean of 30 genera were found in the fallow soil libraries and 47 were in those from the maize-cultivated soils. Both alpha and beta diversity indexes showed clear differences between bacterial endophytic populations from plants with different soil cultivation history and that the soils cultivated for long time requires a higher diversity of endophytes. The number of sequences corresponding to main genera Sphingomonas, Herbaspirillum, Bradyrhizobium and Methylophilus in the maize-cultivated libraries were statistically more abundant than those from the fallow soils. Sequences of genera Dyella and Sreptococcus were significantly more abundant in the libraries from the fallow soils. Relative abundance of genera Burkholderia, candidatus Glomeribacter, Staphylococcus, Variovorax, Bacillus and Chitinophaga were similar among libraries. A canonical correspondence analysis of the relative abundance of the main genera showed that the four libraries distributed in two clearly separated groups. Our results suggest that cultivation history is an important driver of endophytic colonization of maize and that after a long time of cultivation of the soil the maize plants need to increase the richness of the bacterial endophytes communities.

  1. Geospatial Modeling To Assess Geomorphological Risk For Relentless Shifting Cultivation In Garo Hills Of Meghalaya, North East India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Kumar Yadav

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to shifting cultivation, the overall structure and composition of ecological condition is affected, hence landscape study becomes important for maintaining ecological diversity and appropriate scientific planning of any area. Garo hills region of northeast India is suffering from Geomorphological risk like sheet erosion, landslide etc. due to the age old tradition of shifting cultivation in the fragile hill slopes aided by other anthropogenic activities. The present study was conducted to examine the role of shifting cultivation for deforestation and degradation with variant of slope and elevation to relate vegetation cover with slope and elevation in the Garo Hills landscape of Meghalaya using temporal remote sensing data of 1991, 2001 and 2010. It revealed that there is decrease in dense forest and open forest during the 1st decade while areas under dense forest and non-forest increased in 2nd decade. This increased forest area is confined in the high slopes, which are inaccessible. The study shows increase in shifting cultivation near-about double fold in high slope and more than a double fold in the high altitudinal area in last decade, which is negative sign in terms of Geomorphological protection. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 91-104 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9212

  2. Heterotrophic cultivation of microalgae for production of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohd Shamzi; Wei, Lai Zee; Ariff, Arbakariya B

    2011-08-01

    High cell density cultivation of microalgae via heterotrophic growth mechanism could effectively address the issues of low productivity and operational constraints presently affecting the solar driven biodiesel production. This paper reviews the progress made so far in the development of commercial-scale heterotrophic microalgae cultivation processes. The review also discusses on patentable concepts and innovations disclosed in the past four years with regards to new approaches to microalgal cultivation technique, improvisation on the process flow designs to economically produced biodiesel and genetic manipulation to confer desirable traits leading to much valued high lipid-bearing microalgae strains.

  3. Reception of the Istrian musical tradition(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marušić Dario

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The successive colonization of Istria with culturally differentiated populations, and peripheral position of the peninsula regarding both the Latin and Slav worlds, has conditioned interesting phenomena which defines the traditional life of the province. On the spiritual level it is primarily reflected in two cultural dimensions: the language and traditional music.

  4. In vitro antitumor activity and structure characterization of ethanol extracts from wild and cultivated Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pilát (Aphyllophoromycetideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong; Yin, Ting; Chen, Xian-Hui; Zhang, Gong; Curtis, Rempel B; Lu, Zhan-Hui; Jiang, Ji-Hong

    2011-01-01

    Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pilát has been traditionally used as a folk remedy for treatment of cancers, cardiovascular disease and diabetes in Russia, Poland, and most of the Baltic countries, but natural reserves of this fungus have nearly been exhausted. This study was designed to investigate the artificial cultivation of I. obliquus and the antitumor activity of its tissues. The ethanol extract of cultivated sclerotium had the highest cell growth inhibitory rate (74.6%) as determined by an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. 78% of the bags produced sclerotia and only 6.17 g/bag of sclerotium was obtained. Extracts of the cultivated fruiting body showed 44.2% inhibitory activity against tumor cells. However, the yield was as high as 18.24 g/bag, and 98% of the bags produced fruiting body. The results of gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) showed that similar compounds were extracted from the wild and cultivated samples. The principal compounds observed were lanosterol, inotodiol, and ergosterol. Their percentages of the mass fraction were 86.1, 59.9, and 71.8% of the total, for the wild sclerotium, cultivated sclerotium, and cultivated fruiting body, respectively. Ergosterol was found to be much higher (27.32%) in cultivated fruiting body. We conclude that cultivated fruiting body of I. obliquus obtained by inoculation of the substrate with spawn mycelium of the fifth generation could serve as an ideal substitute for the wild I. obliquus.

  5. Transition of shifting cultivation and its impact on people’s livelihoods in the Miombo Woodlands of Northern Zambia and South-Western Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grogan, Kenneth Joseph; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Lyimo, James

    2013-01-01

    population, government policies, and an increasing commercialization/market integration. Questionnaires, focus group meetings, and in-depth interviews reveal that despite the breakdown of the traditional shifting cultivation practices, a general improvement of livelihoods has taken place. This has happened...... through adaptation and diversification in both agricultural practices and livelihood activities. However, it is also seen that because of the often rapidly changing external factors (market conditions and policies), life in the shifting cultivation communities involves a continual shift of emphasis among...... a variety of livelihood strategies....

  6. [Status of traditional Chinese medicine materials seed and seedling breeding bases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Huang, Lu-Qi; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Wang, Hui; Cheng, Meng; Zhang, Tian; Yang, Guang

    2017-11-01

    Seeds and seedlings are the material basis of traditional Chinese medicine materials production, and the construction of traditional Chinese medicine materials seed and seedling breeding bases is beneficial to the production of high-quality traditional Chinese medicine materials. The construction of traditional Chinese medicine materials seed and seedling breeding bases is one of the major topics of Chinese medica resources census pilot. Targets, tasks of traditional Chinese medicine materials seed and seedling breeding bases based on Chinese medica resources census pilot were expounded.Construction progress including hardware construction, germplasm conservation and breeding, procedures and standardsestablishment, social servicesare presented. Development counter measures were proposed for the next step: perfect the standard and system, maintain and strengthen the breeding function, strengthen the cultivation of multi-level talents, explore market development model, joint efforts to deepen services and development. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  7. Phylogeography of the wild and cultivated stimulant plant qat (Catha edulis, Celastraceae) in areas of historical cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tembrock, Luke R; Simmons, Mark P; Richards, Christopher M; Reeves, Patrick A; Reilley, Ann; Curto, Manuel A; Meimberg, Harald; Ngugi, Grace; Demissew, Sebsebe; Al Khulaidi, Abdul Wali; Al-Thobhani, Mansoor; Simpson, Sheron; Varisco, Daniel M

    2017-04-01

    Qat ( Catha edulis , Celastraceae) is a woody plant species cultivated for its stimulant alkaloids. Qat is important to the economy and culture in large regions of Ethiopia, Kenya, and Yemen. Despite the importance of this species, the wild origins and dispersal of cultivars have only been described in often contradictory historical documents. We examined the wild origins, human-mediated dispersal, and genetic divergence of cultivated qat compared to wild qat. We sampled 17 SSR markers and 1561 wild and cultivated individuals across the historical areas of qat cultivation. On the basis of genetic structure inferred using Bayesian and nonparametric methods, two centers of origin in Kenya and one in Ethiopia were found for cultivated qat. The centers of origin in Ethiopia and northeast of Mt. Kenya are the primary sources of cultivated qat genotypes. Qat cultivated in Yemen is derived from Ethiopian genotypes rather than Yemeni wild populations. Cultivated qat with a wild Kenyan origin has not spread to Ethiopia or Yemen, whereas a small minority of qat cultivated in Kenya originated in Ethiopia. Hybrid genotypes with both Ethiopian and Kenyan parentage are present in northern Kenya. Ethiopian cultivars have diverged from their wild relatives, whereas Kenyan qat has diverged less. This pattern of divergence could be caused by the extinction of the wild-source qat populations in Ethiopia due to deforestation, undersampling, and/or artificial selection for agronomically important traits. © 2017 Tembrock et al. Published by the Botanical Society of America. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons public domain license (CC0 1.0).

  8. The hidden Mediterranean diet: wild vegetables traditionally gathered and consumed in the Gargano area, Apulia, SE Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Nello Biscotti; Andrea Pieroni

    2015-01-01

    Despite the extensive bio-scientific literature concerning the Mediterranean diet, which emerged in the last three decades, systematic ethnography-centered investigations on a crucial portion of this food system, linked to the traditional consumption of non-cultivated vegetables, are still largely lacking in many areas of the Mediterranean Basin. In this research, an ethnobotanical field study focusing on wild vegetables traditionally gathered and consumed locally, was conducted ...

  9. Dissolved triazines in watersheds under sugarcane cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portocarrero, Rocio; Aparicio, Virginia; De Gerónimo, Eduardo; Costa, José Luis

    2017-04-01

    Sugarcane is an important extensive crop in north western of Argentina. Chemical weed control have been increasing over the last years. The typical period of this practice takes place from October to December, at beginnig of rainy season. Atrazine and ametryn are the main herbicides used, they have moderate to high potential mobility in soils, which is a potential source of contamination for nearby streams. The aim of this study was to quantify both atrazine and ametryn contamination levels in two streams of the southeast of Tucuman (Argentina) under sugarcane production. This area has a subtropical climate, and a monsoon rainfall regime with an annual average of 700 mm. Five sampling points of Mista and Saladillo streams were monitored from September to April, during three growing season. In each growing season, four sampling moments were defined: M1) Before the herbicides application; M2) Beginning of the rainy season and during the chemical weed control period; M3) High accumulated rainfall; M4) End of the rainy season. Water samples were taken and stored in polypropylene bottles at -20°C until analysis. Samples were analyzed by ultra performance liquid chromatography (Waters® ACQUITY® UPLC) coupled to a mass spectrometer (MS/MS Quattro Premier XE Waters). Atrazine was quantified in all samples and the highest concentrations were found in M2 (0.03-3.07 μg L-1). For the others sampling moments, atrazine concentrations were ranged from 0.003 to 0.2 μg L-1. Ametryn was detected in the 90% of the samples. Ametryn concentrations in M2 varied from 0.004 to 0.32 μg L-1, and in the rest sampling moments were less than 0.11 μg L-1. Both herbicides were highly detected in the study area. Although atrazine is authorized for other crops in the area, ametryn is only authorized for sugarcane, the largest cultivation in the area.

  10. A traditional Chinese medicine formula extracts stimulate proliferation and inhibit mineralization of human mesenchymal stem cells in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Muwan; Feng, Wenzhou; Cao, Hui

    2009-01-01

    AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the effects of a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula extract, named as ZD-I, on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: When hMSCs cultivated in the basal medium with ZD-I, cell...

  11. Energy balance, costs and CO2 analysis of tillage technologies in maize cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šarauskis, Egidijus; Buragienė, Sidona; Masilionytė, Laura; Romaneckas, Kęstutis; Avižienytė, Dovile; Sakalauskas, Antanas

    2014-01-01

    To achieve energy independence, Lithuania and other Baltic countries are searching for new ways to produce energy. Maize is a crop that is suitable for both food and forage, as well as for the production of bioenergy. The objective of this work was to assess the energy efficiency of maize cultivation technologies in different systems of reduced tillage. The experimental research and energy assessment was carried out for five different tillage systems: DP (deep ploughing), SP (), DC (deep cultivation), SC (shallow cultivation) and NT (no tillage). The assessment of the fuel inputs for these systems revealed that the greatest amount of diesel fuel (67.2 l ha −1 ) was used in the traditional DP system. The reduced tillage systems required 12–58% less fuel. Lower fuel consumption reduces the costs of technological operations and reduces CO 2 emissions, which are associated with the greenhouse effect. The agricultural machinery used in reduced tillage technologies emits 107–223 kg ha −1 of CO 2 gas into the environment, whereas DP emits 253 kg ha −1 of CO 2 . The energy analysis conducted in this study showed that the greatest total energy input (approximately 18.1 GJ ha −1 ) was associated with the conventional deep-ploughing tillage technology. The energy inputs associated with the reduced-tillage technologies, namely SP, DC and SC, ranged from 17.1 to 17.6 GJ ha −1 . The lowest energy input (16.2 GJ ha −1 ) was associated with the NT technology. Energy efficiency ratios for the various technologies were calculated as a function of the yield of maize grain and biomass. The best energy balance and the highest energy efficiency ratio (14.0) in maize cultivation was achieved with the NT technology. The energy efficiency ratios for DP, SP, DC and SC were 12.4, 13.4, 11.3 and 12.0, respectively. - Highlights: • Energetical and economic analysis of maize cultivation was done. • Reduced tillage technology reduces working time, fuel consumption

  12. How 'Digital' is Traditional Crime?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, L.; Junger, Marianne; Hartel, Pieter H.

    Measuring how much cybercrime exists is typically done by first defining cybercrime and then quantifying how many cases fit that definition. The drawback is that definitions vary across countries and many cybercrimes are recorded as traditional crimes. An alternative is to keep traditional

  13. Cultivation of three types of indigenous wild edible mushrooms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... effects related to their disposal (Mshandete et al., 2008). Cultivation of mushroom can .... The holes facilitated drainage, aeration (free diffusion of gases and .... sium, iron, copper, manganese, zinc and cobalt) were determined.

  14. Cultivating Peace: Conflict and Collaboration in Natural Resource ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cultivating Peace presents original case studies from Africa, Asia, and Latin America, ... experience on moving from conflict to collaborative modes of management. ... public health, and health systems research relevant to the emerging crisis.

  15. The Edibility and Cultivation of the Oyster Mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneman, James; Guttman, Mark C.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an enjoyable and fascinating experience that involves the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. By allowing students to participate in this process, the students are able to better understand the biology and utility of fungi. (ZWH)

  16. Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus and other edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Carmen

    2010-02-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus is the second most cultivated edible mushroom worldwide after Agaricus bisporus. It has economic and ecological values and medicinal properties. Mushroom culture has moved toward diversification with the production of other mushrooms. Edible mushrooms are able to colonize and degrade a large variety of lignocellulosic substrates and other wastes which are produced primarily through the activities of the agricultural, forest, and food-processing industries. Particularly, P. ostreatus requires a shorter growth time in comparison to other edible mushrooms. The substrate used for their cultivation does not require sterilization, only pasteurization, which is less expensive. Growing oyster mushrooms convert a high percentage of the substrate to fruiting bodies, increasing profitability. P. ostreatus demands few environmental controls, and their fruiting bodies are not often attacked by diseases and pests, and they can be cultivated in a simple and cheap way. All this makes P. ostreatus cultivation an excellent alternative for production of mushrooms when compared to other mushrooms.

  17. The Problems Detected in Mushroom Cultivation in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mürüvvet Ulusoy Deniz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of the cultivated mushroom farming which began to be produced in the 1960s in Turkey, has been more faster in the Mediterranean region than other regions. The development of mushroom cultivation has began to seen Marmara and İç Anadolu regions in recent years. The mushroom production which is very important for human health and nutrition, has been changing year to year (sometimes increase, sometimes decrease in the province of Ankara. The first private mushrrom cultivation company had been established in1963. Up to date, the number of private enterprises has changed over the years in Ankara. This study was carried out by doing a survey with an active 12 enterprises which the annual production capacity of 10-600 ton. The enterprises were visited and problems were determined during the cultivation. As a result of the study, It was observed that there are problems in production and marketing phases and with surface soil material

  18. Cultivation of live food organisms - status and scope in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan

    In the hatchery production of cultivable shell-fishes and fin-fishes, a reliable and continuous supply of live food of appropriate size is of importance. The organisms cultured as live feed presently in India are the microalgae, turbellarians...

  19. Mini Review: Innovation technology cultivation of durio in East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AFRILIA TRI WIDYAWATI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Widyawati AT, Nurbani. 2017. . Pros Sem Nas Masy Biodiv Indon 3: 132-137. Durian is native of the region where the climate is tropical wet, especially in Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. Durian plant species most widely known and cultivated in Indonesia is Durio zibethinus Murr. Improve the quality of fruit production in sufficient quantity to do with the increase in population as well as increasing fruit crop cultivation technology do. In addition to ensuring that products are safe to eat fruit cultivation technology needs to be done in an environmentally responsible in accordance with the SOP (Standard Operating Procedure and the concept of cultivation of GAP (Good Agriculture Practice.

  20. Carbon And Nitrogen Requirements For The Cultivation Of Oyster ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carbon And Nitrogen Requirements For The Cultivation Of Oyster Mushroom ... It was found that under these experimental conditions, the carbon compounds supported growth except ribose, starch and dextrin. ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  1. Macronutrient composition of three cucurbit species cultivated for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    .) Matsum. & Nakai., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin, and Cucumis melo var. agrestis L.] largely cultivated in Côte d'Ivoire and consumed as sauce thickeners were analyzed for their proximate composition and compared to a local landrace of ...

  2. On Cultivating Students' Motivation in Second Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈小平

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore the cultivation of motivation in second language acquisition based on shedding new light on the definition, the importance, and the classification of learners' motivation in second language acquisition.

  3. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on wheat straw and waste tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on wheat straw and waste tea leaves based composts and locally available casing materials Part III: Dry matter, protein, and carbohydrate contents of Agaricus bisporus.

  4. Microalgal cultivation with biogas slurry for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liandong; Yan, Cheng; Li, Zhaohua

    2016-11-01

    Microalgal growth requires a substantial amount of chemical fertilizers. An alternative to the utilization of fertilizer is to apply biogas slurry produced through anaerobic digestion to cultivate microalgae for the production of biofuels. Plenty of studies have suggested that anaerobic digestate containing high nutrient contents is a potentially feasible nutrient source to culture microalgae. However, current literature indicates a lack of review available regarding microalgal cultivation with biogas slurry for the production of biofuels. To help fill this gap, this review highlights the integration of digestate nutrient management with microalgal production. It first unveils the current status of microalgal production, providing basic background to the topic. Subsequently, microalgal cultivation technologies using biogas slurry are discussed in detail. A scale-up scheme for simultaneous biogas upgrade and digestate application through microalgal cultivation is then proposed. Afterwards, several uncertainties that might affect this practice are explored. Finally, concluding remarks are put forward. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Growth regulators, DNA content and anatomy in vitro -cultivated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth regulators, DNA content and anatomy in vitro -cultivated Curcuma longa ... Shoots were inoculated in MS culture medium with the addition of 30 g/L of sucrose ... flow cytometry, utilizing two reference standards, green pea, and tomato.

  6. Enhancing Jatropha curcas (Linnaeus) Cultivation and Seed Yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhancing Jatropha curcas (Linnaeus) Cultivation and Seed Yield among ... Journal of Agricultural Research and Development ... Jatropha curcas yields substantial quantity of seed oil and is growing in importance as a source of biodiesel.

  7. Morphological classification of genetic diversity in cultivated okra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphological classification of genetic diversity in cultivated okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench using principal component analysis (PCA) and single linkage cluster analysis (SLCA). CC Nwangburuka, OB Kehinde, DK Ojo, OA Denton, AR Popoola ...

  8. Domestication of a Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree, Spondias purpurea

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Allison; Schaal, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Contemporary patterns of genetic variation in crops reflect historical processes associated with domestication, such as the geographic origin(s) of cultivated populations. Although significant progress has been made in identifying several global centers of domestication, few studies have addressed the issue of multiple origins of cultivated plant populations from different geographic regions within a domestication center. This study investigates the domestication history of jocote (Spondias p...

  9. Biochar from commercially cultivated seaweed for soil amelioration

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, David A.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Bird, Michael I.; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-01-01

    Seaweed cultivation is a high growth industry that is primarily targeted at human food and hydrocolloid markets. However, seaweed biomass also offers a feedstock for the production of nutrient-rich biochar for soil amelioration. We provide the first data of biochar yield and characteristics from intensively cultivated seaweeds (Saccharina, Undaria and Sargassum ? brown seaweeds, and Gracilaria, Kappaphycus and Eucheuma ? red seaweeds). While there is some variability in biochar properties as ...

  10. [Synthesis of protective antigens during submerged cultivation of Vibrio cholerae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, V A; Syrova, N A; Gromova, O V; Tershkina, N E; Devdariani, Z L; Dzhaparidze, M N; Meleshchenko, M V; Dobrova, G V; Beliakova, N I; Ermakov, N M; Eliseev, Iu Iu

    2000-01-01

    The effectiveness of dot immunoanalysis for evaluating the dynamics of the synthesis of O-antigen, cholera toxin, neuraminidase, adhesin CFA1 in the process of the reactor cultivation of V. cholerae used for the production of oral chemical cholera vaccine is shown. The established regularities of the synthesis of the protective antigens of V. cholerae in the process of scaled-up cultivation are discussed.

  11. Continuous cultivation of photosynthetic microorganisms: Approaches, applications and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Bruno D; Mota, Andre; Teixeira, Jose A; Vicente, Antonio A

    2015-11-01

    The possibility of using photosynthetic microorganisms, such as cyanobacteria and microalgae, for converting light and carbon dioxide into valuable biochemical products has raised the need for new cost-efficient processes ensuring a constant product quality. Food, feed, biofuels, cosmetics and pharmaceutics are among the sectors that can profit from the application of photosynthetic microorganisms. Biomass growth in a photobioreactor is a complex process influenced by multiple parameters, such as photosynthetic light capture and attenuation, nutrient uptake, photobioreactor hydrodynamics and gas-liquid mass transfer. In order to optimize productivity while keeping a standard product quality, a permanent control of the main cultivation parameters is necessary, where the continuous cultivation has shown to be the best option. However it is of utmost importance to recognize the singularity of continuous cultivation of cyanobacteria and microalgae due to their dependence on light availability and intensity. In this sense, this review provides comprehensive information on recent breakthroughs and possible future trends regarding technological and process improvements in continuous cultivation systems of microalgae and cyanobacteria, that will directly affect cost-effectiveness and product quality standardization. An overview of the various applications, techniques and equipment (with special emphasis on photobioreactors) in continuous cultivation of microalgae and cyanobacteria are presented. Additionally, mathematical modeling, feasibility, economics as well as the applicability of continuous cultivation into large-scale operation, are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Waste Management: A Case Study of Ongoing Traditional Practices at East Calcutta Wetland

    OpenAIRE

    Shaon Raychaudhuri; Madhusmita Mishra; Poulomi Nandy; Ashoke R. Thakur

    2008-01-01

    Calcutta has a unique waste management system which uses the traditional non conventional practice for treating both the solid as well as soluble waste for its 12 million inhabitants . It not only detoxifies the waste but also generates resources for the existing society in form of employment as well as edibles like sufficient vegetable, fish as well as paddy for consumption. The elemental analysis of these products showed no metal toxicity due to their cultivation using waste resource. Thus ...

  13. Alternative method for vegetables cultivation in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Recchia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the developing countries populations, which are already vulnerable and food insecure, are likely to be the most seriously affected by the effects of climate change, e.g. yield decreases and price increases for the most important agricultural crops. The IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report for Africa describes a trend of warming at a rate faster than the global average and increasing aridity: in many parts of Africa, it seems that warmer climates and changes in precipitation will destabilise agricultural production and aggravates food security. The present work concerns the vegetables cultivation in the Parakou region in Benin, where agriculture employs approximately 70% of the active population and contributes to 36% of the Gross Domestic Product and 88% of export earnings. However, the agricultural sector has been regarded as unproductive with low adaptation capacities because of structural factors (e.g. high level of poverty among rural populations, weak mechanization and intensification of production modes, but also because of natural constraints (e.g. poor management of water and soils, leading to soil degradation. Considering the aridity, the low carbon content and the reduced level of nutrients available in the soil, the use of an hydroponic module has been hypothesised. In this way sufficient yields of the crops may be assured and no agricultural machines will be needed for the tillage operations. In addition, the nutrients can be added to the growing solution using residual materials as poultry manure, ashes and green wastes. In order to verify if some construction or maintenance problems can occur and if a growing solution can be easily obtained using agricultural wastes, some tests have been carried out. Moreover laboratory analyses have been done for different solutions that may be adopted with different shares of water, poultry manure, ashes and green wastes. The tests have indicated that the hydroponic module could be used in Benin

  14. Unveiling Cebuano Traditional Healing Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZachiaRaiza Joy S. Berdon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the features of Cebuano’s traditional healing practices. Specifically, it also answers the following objectives: analyze traditional healing in Cebuano’s perspectives, explain the traditional healing process practiced in terms of the traditional healers’ belief, and extrapolate perceptions of medical practitioners toward traditional healing. This study made use of qualitative approach, among five traditional healers who performed healing for not less than ten years, in the mountain barangays of Cebu City. These healers served as the primary informants who were selected because of their popularity in healing. The use of open-ended interview in local dialect and naturalistic observation provided a free listing of their verbatim accounts were noted and as primary narratives. Participation in the study was voluntary and participants were interviewed privately after obtaining their consent. The Cebuano traditional healing practices or “panambal” comprise the use of “himolso” (pulse-checking, “palakaw” (petition, “pasubay” (determining what causes the sickness and its possible means of healing, “pangalap” (searching of medicinal plants for “palina” (fumigation, “tayhop” (gentle-blowing, “tutho” (saliva-blowing,“tuob” (boiling, “orasyon” (mystical prayers, “hilot” (massage, and “barang” (sorcery. Though traditional with medical science disapproval, it contributes to a mystical identity of Cebuano healers, as a manifestation of folk Catholicism belief, in order to do a good legacy to the community that needs help. For further study, researchers may conduct further the studies on the: curative effects of medicinal plants in Cebu, psychological effect pulsechecking healed persons by the mananambal, and unmasking the other features of traditional healing.

  15. Effects of Methylmercury Contained in a Diet Mimicking the Wayana Amerindians Contamination through Fish Consumption: Mercury Accumulation, Metallothionein Induction, Gene Expression Variations, and Role of the Chemokine CCL2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Brèthes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Methylmercury (MeHg is a potent neurotoxin, and human beings are mainly exposed to this pollutant through fish consumption. We addressed the question of whether a diet mimicking the fish consumption of Wayanas Amerindians from French Guiana could result in observable adverse effects in mice. Wayanas adult men are subjected to a mean mercurial dose of 7 g Hg/week/kg of body weight. We decided to supplement a vegetarian-based mice diet with 0.1% of lyophilized Hoplias aimara fish, which Wayanas are fond of and equivalent to the same dose as that afflicting the Wayanas Amerindians. Total mercury contents were 1.4 ± 0.2 and 5.4 ± 0.5 ng Hg/g of food pellets for the control and aimara diets, respectively. After 14 months of exposure, the body parts and tissues displaying the highest mercury concentration on a dry weight (dw basis were hair (733 ng/g and kidney (511 ng/g, followed by the liver (77 ng/g. Surprisingly, despite the fact that MeHg is a neurotoxic compound, the brain accumulated low levels of mercury (35 ng/g in the cortex. The metallothionein (MT protein concentration only increased in those tissues (kidney, muscles in which MeHg demethylation had occurred. This can be taken as a molecular sign of divalent mercurial contamination since only Hg2+ has been reported yet to induce MT accumulation in contaminated tissues. The suppression of the synthesis of the chemokine CCL2 in the corresponding knockout (KO mice resulted in important changes in gene expression patterns in the liver and brain. After three months of exposure to an aimara-containing diet, eight of 10 genes selected (Sdhb, Cytb, Cox1, Sod1, Sod2, Mt2, Mdr1a and Bax were repressed in wild-type mice liver whereas none presented a differential expression in KO Ccl2/ mice. In the wild-type mice brain, six of 12 genes

  16. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  17. Component analysis of cultivated ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng by structural parts using HPLC method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ju,Han

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of this experiments is to provide an objective differentiation of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng through components analysis of different parts of ginseng. Methods : Comparative analyses of ginsenoside-, ginsenoside-, and ginsenosides and from the root, stem, and leaves of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng were conducted using HPLC. Results : 1. For content comparison of leaves, ginseng showed highest content of ginsenoside than other samples. Natural wild ginseng showed relatively high content of ginsenosides and than other samples. 2. For content comparison of the stem, ginseng and 10 years old Chinese cultivated wild ginseng didn't contain ginsenoside . Natural wild ginseng showed higher content of ginsenosides and than other samples. 3. For content comparison of the root, ginsenoside was found only in 5 and 10 years old Korean cultivated wild ginseng. 4. Distribution of contents by the parts of ginseng was similar in ginseng and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng. Conclusions : Above experiment data can be an important indicator for the identification of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng.

  18. Cellular viability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultivated in association with contaminates bacteria of alcoholic fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobre, Thais de Paula

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of the bacteria Bacillus and Lactobacillus, as well as their metabolic products, in reduction of cellular viability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, when in mixed culture of yeast and active and treated bacteria. Also was to evaluated an alternative medium (MCC) for the cultivation of bacteria and yeast, constituted of sugarcane juice diluted to 5 deg Brix and supplemented with yeast extract and peptone. The bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus plantarum were cultivated in association with yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain Y-904) for 72 h on 32 deg C, under agitation. The cellular viability, budding rate and population of S. cerevisiae, the total acidity, volatile acidity and pH of culture were determined from 0, 24, 48 e 72 h of mixed culture. Also were determined the initial and final of microorganism population across the pour plate method, in traditional culture medium (PCA for Bacillus, MRS-agar for Lactobacillus and YEPD-agar for yeast S. cerevisiae) and in medium constituted of sugarcane juice. The bacteria cultures were treated by heat sterilization (120 deg C for 20 minutes), antibacterial agent (Kamoran HJ in concentration 3,0 ppm) or irradiation (radiation gamma, with doses of 5,0 kGy for Lactobacillus and 15,0 kGy for Bacillus). The results of the present research showed that just the culture mediums more acids (with higher concentrations of total and volatile acidity, and smaller values of pH), contaminated with active bacteria L. fermentum and B. subtilis, caused reduction on yeast cellular viability. Except the bacteria B. subtilis treated with radiation, the others bacteria treated by different procedures (heat, radiation e antibacterial) did not cause reduction on yeast cellular viability and population, indicating that the isolated presence of the cellular metabolic of theses bacteria was not enough to reduce the

  19. [Status of termite-mushroom artificial domestication cultivation--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujin; Guo, Huachun; Li, Rongchun

    2010-10-01

    Two models of domestication and cultivation of termite-mushroom were discussed: the cultivation of termitomyces model, which method of woodrotting fungi cultivation was emphasized and the original ecological model, which multiplication of symbiotic termites was focused. The problems and possible solutions during termite-mushroom cultivation were also discussed.

  20. Cultivating creativity in methodology and research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Charlotte; Meier, Ninna; Maslo, Elina

    in which ‘accountable’ research methodologies involve adventurousness and an element of uncertainty. Written by scholars from a range of different fields, academic levels and geographic locations, this unique book will offer significant insight to those from a range of academic fields.......This book presents a variety of narratives on key elements of academic work, from data analysis, writing practices and engagement with the field. The authors discuss how elements of academic work and life – usually edited out of traditional research papers – can elicit important analytical insight....... The book reveals how the unplanned, accidental and even obstructive events that often occur in research life, the ‘detours’, can potentially glean important results. The authors introduce the process of ‘writing-sharing-reading-writing’ as a way to expand the playground of research and inspire a culture...

  1. MECHANIZED HARVESTING TESTS PERFORMED BY GRAPE HARVESTERS IN SUPER INTENSIVE OLIVE ORCHARD CULTIVATION IN SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennaro Giametta

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Today also those countries boasting a century-old olive growing tradition have to look at the latest, most dynamic, non labour-intensive olive growing systems to abate production (notably, harvesting operations costs and remain competitive in a globalized market. This is why over the last few years super intensive olive orchard cultivation has been attracting a lot of interest on the part of olive growers all over the world as it accounts for an innovative model whereby olive groves are tailored to the special needs of grape harvesters. This paper reports the first results of experimental mechanical harvesting tests in a super-intensive olive cultivation. The study is intended to explore both productivity and work capacity of two of the most commonly used grape harvesters, Grégoire G120SW and New Holland Braud VX680, in a view to assessing their harvesting performance by a series of tests conducted in Spain. On the basis of the tests it was possible to verify that the machines are able to detach the almost all the drupes (more than 90%, with one only passage, and this independently of both size and location of drupes on the tree crown and of their maturity stage. Using these machines, two people can often carry out the whole harvest process: an operator driving the harvester and another person transferring the fruit from the harvester in the field to the olive oil mill for processing. With this system, the work speed is usually, in the best working conditions, about 1.7 km/hour and the average harvesting time is about 2.5-3 hours/ha. For the time being it is however impossible to draw definitive conclusions in terms of performance of the above cultivation systems and harvesting machines. Additional key observational studies are needed in the years to come to assess the efficiency of the entire model.

  2. Microbial Diversity of Browning Peninsula, Eastern Antarctica Revealed Using Molecular and Cultivation Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudasaini, Sarita; Wilson, John; Ji, Mukan; van Dorst, Josie; Snape, Ian; Palmer, Anne S; Burns, Brendan P; Ferrari, Belinda C

    2017-01-01

    Browning Peninsula is an ice-free polar desert situated in the Windmill Islands, Eastern Antarctica. The entire site is described as a barren landscape, comprised of frost boils with soils dominated by microbial life. In this study, we explored the microbial diversity and edaphic drivers of community structure across this site using traditional cultivation methods, a novel approach the soil substrate membrane system (SSMS), and culture-independent 454-tag pyrosequencing. The measured soil environmental and microphysical factors of chlorine, phosphate, aspect and elevation were found to be significant drivers of the bacterial community, while none of the soil parameters analyzed were significantly correlated to the fungal community. Overall, Browning Peninsula soil harbored a distinctive microbial community in comparison to other Antarctic soils comprised of a unique bacterial diversity and extremely limited fungal diversity. Tag pyrosequencing data revealed the bacterial community to be dominated by Actinobacteria (36%), followed by Chloroflexi (18%), Cyanobacteria (14%), and Proteobacteria (10%). For fungi, Ascomycota (97%) dominated the soil microbiome, followed by Basidiomycota. As expected the diversity recovered from culture-based techniques was lower than that detected using tag sequencing. However, in the SSMS enrichments, that mimic the natural conditions for cultivating oligophilic "k-selected" bacteria, a larger proportion of rare bacterial taxa (15%), such as Blastococcus, Devosia, Herbaspirillum, Propionibacterium and Methylocella and fungal (11%) taxa, such as Nigrospora, Exophiala, Hortaea , and Penidiella were recovered at the genus level. At phylum level, a comparison of OTU's showed that the SSMS shared 21% of Acidobacteria, 11% of Actinobacteria and 10% of Proteobacteria OTU's with soil. For fungi, the shared OTUs was 4% (Basidiomycota) and <0.5% (Ascomycota). This was the first known attempt to culture microfungi using the SSMS which resulted in

  3. Submergence rice cultivation in southern Bangladesh: farmers opinion and adaptations practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AKM Abdul Ahad Biswas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice productivity in coastal Bangladesh is lower than the national average and total coastal area is considered to be submergence-prone and higher vulnerable in July to January cropping season. The selected study areas are Kalapara and Patuakhali Sadar Upazila that are too vulnerable to agriculture practices. Field survey was conducted during 01st June to 30th July, 2015 to investigate the impact of submergence on Aman rice cultivation (ARC, existing adopted local adaptation practices with impacts and options to address the submergence problem. Primary data was collected through Focus Group Discussion (FGD, Individual Interview and Key Informant Interview methods and secondary data was collected from different secondary sources. A well-structured pretested questionnaire schedule was developed keeping in mind the objectives and variables under this study. After cyclone SIDR and AILA devastation, the rate of traditional ARC is decreasing every year and in 2015 it was 26.51%. Recently farmers have adopted new cropping practices and strategies like modern ARC in Aman season as single crop; Boro-Aus-Aman season as triple crop and Aus-Aman season as double crop are practicing. Approximately all farmers have adopted to grow stress tolerant rice varieties (STRV; farmer’s curiosities to familiar with and to have the STRV are encouraging. Farmers were fully adopted BRRIdhan52 rice cultivation with positive perceptions of higher yield and lower production cost. Therefore it can be concluded that the intensity of adoption of adaptation and mitigation measures are significantly influenced positively by the STRV yield capability; farmer’s participation in intervention programs; livelihood diversification; frequency of extension personnel contact; submergence and inundation characteristics; tolerance attributes of STRV and availability of STRV cultivation information.International Journal of Environment Vol.4(4 2015: 100-113

  4. Effects of screenhouse cultivation and organic materials incorporation on global warming potential in rice fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guochun; Liu, Xin; Wang, Qiangsheng; Xiong, Ruiheng; Hang, Yuhao

    2017-03-01

    Global rice production will be increasingly challenged by providing healthy food for a growing population at minimal environmental cost. In this study, a 2-year field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a novel rice cultivation mode (screenhouse cultivation, SHC) and organic material (OM) incorporation (wheat straw and wheat straw-based biogas residue) on methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions and rice yields. In addition, the environmental factors and soil properties were also determined. Relative to the traditional open-field cultivation (OFC), SHC decreased the CH 4 and N 2 O emissions by 6.58-18.73 and 2.51-21.35%, respectively, and the global warming potential (GWP) was reduced by 6.49-18.65%. This trend was mainly because of lower soil temperature and higher soil redox potential in SHC. Although the rice grain yield for SHC were reduced by 2.51-4.98% compared to the OFC, the CH 4 emissions and GWP per unit of grain yield (yield-scaled CH 4 emissions and GWP) under SHC were declined. Compared to use of inorganic fertilizer only (IN), combining inorganic fertilizer with wheat straw (WS) or wheat straw-based biogas residue (BR) improved rice grain yield by 2.12-4.10 and 4.68-5.89%, respectively. However, OM incorporation enhanced CH 4 emissions and GWP, leading to higher yield-scaled CH 4 emissions and GWP in WS treatment. Due to rice yield that is relatively high, there was no obvious effect of BR treatment on them. These findings suggest that apparent environmental benefit can be realized by applying SHC and fermenting straw aerobically before its incorporation.

  5. Traditional birth attendants in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. M. Smit

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs and traditional healers form an important link in the chain of health personnel providing primary health care in Malawi. In spite of the establishment of hospitals and health centres, it is to these traditional healers and TBAs that the majority of people turn in times of sickness and child-birth. Approximately 60 percent of all deliveries in Malawi occur in the villages. It is therefore important that due regard be paid to the activities of these traditional practitioners in order to ensure the achievement of the goal - "Health for all by the year 2000". The training of TBAs is seen as part of the Maternal and Child Health Services in the country.

  6. Traditional birth attendants in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. M. Smit

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs and traditional healers form an important link in the chain of health personnel providing primary health care in Malawi. In spite of the establishment of hospitals and health centres, it is to these traditional healers and TBAs that the majority of people turn in times of sickness and child-birth. Approximately 60 percent of all deliveries in Malawi occur in the villages. It is therefore important that due regard be paid to the activities of these traditional practitioners in order to ensure the achievement of the goal - "Health for all by the year 2000". The training of TBAs is seen as part of the Maternal and Child Health Services in the country.

  7. [Common household traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Yuan; Li, Mei; Fu, Dan; Liu, Yang; Wang, Hui; Tan, Wei

    2016-02-01

    With the enhancement in the awareness of self-diagnosis among residents, it's very common for each family to prepare common medicines for unexpected needs. Meanwhile, with the popularization of the traditional Chinese medicine knowledge, the proportion of common traditional Chinese medicines prepared at residents' families is increasingly higher than western medicines year by year. To make it clear, both pre-research and closed questionnaire research were adopted for residents in Chaoyang District, Beijing, excluding residents with a medical background. Based on the results of data, a analysis was made to define the role and influence on the quality of life of residents and give suggestions for relevant departments to improve the traditional Chinese medicine popularization and promote the traditional Chinese medicine market. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  8. Traditional Chinese Medicine: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources CME/CEU and Online Lectures Online Continuing Education Series Distinguished Lecture Series Integrated Medicine Research Lecture ... TCM, it is important to separate questions about traditional theories and ... of modern science-based medicine and health promotion practices. The ...

  9. The Zulu traditional birth attendant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some of the important practices of Zulu traditional birth attendants ... the people as regards pregnancy and labour. This article docu- .... into account previous perinatal deaths. ... They were either widows or married to husbands unable to work.

  10. Potential Air Quality Impacts of Global Bioenergy Crop Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, W. C.; Rosenstiel, T. N.; Barsanti, K. C.

    2012-12-01

    The use of bioenergy crops as a replacement for traditional coal-powered electricity generation will require large-scale land-use change, and the resulting changes in emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) may have negative impacts on local to regional air quality. BVOCs contribute to the formation of both ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), with magnitudes of specific compound emissions governed largely by plant speciation and land coverage. For this reason, large-scale land-use change has the potential to markedly alter regional O3 and PM2.5 levels, especially if there are large differences between the emission profiles of the replacement bioenergy crops (many of which are high BVOC emitters) and the previous crops or land cover. In this work, replacement areas suitable for the cultivation of the bioenergy crops switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and giant reed (Arundo donax) were selected based on existing global inventories of under-utilized cropland and local climatological conditions. These two crops are among the most popular current candidates for bioenergy production, and provide contrasting examples of energy densities and emissions profiles. While giant reed has been selected in an ongoing large-scale coal-to-biocharcoal conversion in the Northwestern United States due to its high crop yields and energy density, it is also among the highest biogenic emitters of isoprene. On the other hand, switchgrass produces less biomass per acre, but also emits essentially no isoprene and low total BVOCs. The effects of large-scale conversion to these crops on O3 and PM2.5 were simulated using version 1.1 of the Community Earth System Model (CESM) coupled with version 2.1 of the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN). By comparing crop replacement scenarios involving A. donax and P. virgatum, the sensitivities of O3 and PM2.5 levels to worldwide increases in bioenergy production were examined, providing an initial

  11. Little Eyolf and dramatic tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Lysell

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article criticises an Ibsen tradition who has seen the last scene of Little Eyolf as a reconciliation. Instead, the article discusses the improbability of a happy marriage characterised by social engagement. The play is open but it is hardly probable that Rita, with her erotic desire, and Allmers, whose desire has turned into metaphysics, can be happy together. The arguments refer to inner criteria and the constantly present dramatic tradition.

  12. TRADITIONAL PHYSICAL CULTURE OF BELARUSIANS

    OpenAIRE

    Shamak, Ales

    2017-01-01

    Relevance. The study of the history of physical culture makes it possible to reveal the laws of its development, the relationship with socio-political and economic factors. The aim of the research is to substantiate the essence, types and structure of the traditional physical culture of Belarusians. Results of the Research. Traditional physical culture has been the main type of physical culture of the Belarusian people for about a thousand years. It is regarded as the activity of the society ...

  13. Was the Monetarist Tradition Invented?

    OpenAIRE

    George S. Tavlas

    1998-01-01

    In 1969, Harry Johnson charged that Milton Friedman 'invented' a Chicago oral quantity theory tradition, the idea being that in order to launch a monetarist counter-revolution, Friedman needed to establish a linkage with pre-Keynesian orthodoxy. This paper shows that there was a distinct pre-Keynesian Chicago quantity-theory tradition that advocated increased government expenditure during the Great Depression in order to put money directly into circulation. This policy stance distinguished th...

  14. Electronic commerce versus traditional commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Dorin Vicentiu Popescu; Manoela Popescu

    2007-01-01

    The internet represents new opportunities for the traditional companies, including the diversification of the given services and also the promotion of the new ones, which are personalized and attractive and they are possible thanks to the information and communication technologies. According to this, the Internet impact, which has allowed the development of a new form of commerce- the commerce via Internet (which is a component of the electronic commerce), against the traditional global comme...

  15. Chapter 1. Traditional marketing revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Lambin, Jean-Jacques

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to review the traditional marketing concept and to analyse its main ambiguities as presented in popular textbooks. The traditional marketing management model placing heavy emphasis of the marketing mix is in fact a supply-driven approach of the market, using the understanding of consumers’ needs to mould demand to the requirements of supply, instead of adapting supply to the expectations of demand. To clarify the true role of marketing, a distinction is made b...

  16. The Living Indian Critical Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Dwivedi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to establish the identity of something that is often considered to be missing – a living Indian critical tradition. I refer to the tradition that arises out of the work of those Indians who write in English. The chief architects of this tradition are Sri Aurobindo, C.D. Narasimhaiah, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak and Homi K. Bhabha. It is possible to believe that Indian literary theories derive almost solely from ancient Sanskrit poetics. Or, alternatively, one can be concerned about the sad state of affairs regarding Indian literary theories or criticism in English. There have been scholars who have raised the question of the pathetic state of Indian scholarship in English and have even come up with some positive suggestions. But these scholars are those who are ignorant about the living Indian critical tradition. The significance of the Indian critical tradition lies in the fact that it provides the real focus to the Indian critical scene. Without an awareness of this tradition Indian literary scholarship (which is quite a different thing from Indian literary criticism and theory as it does not have the same impact as the latter two do can easily fail to see who the real Indian literary critics and theorists are.

  17. Lifetime Video Game Consumption, Interpersonal Aggression, Hostile Sexism, and Rape Myth Acceptance: A Cultivation Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jesse; Potocki, Bridget

    2016-06-01

    Although previous research has investigated relationships between media consumption, sexism, and rape myth acceptance (RMA), limited research has investigated video games despite their emergence as one of the most popular forms of media entertainment globally. Given that video games typically feature even less diverse and more objectified representations of women than traditional mainstream media, we predicted that there would be relationships between video game consumption and negative beliefs and attitudes about women. In this study, we conducted a survey (N = 351) of male and female adults and used structural equation modeling to analyze relationships among video game consumption, trait interpersonal aggression, ambivalent sexism, and first-order (percentage of false rape accusations) and second-order cultivation effects (RMA). We found support for the hypothesized cultivation model, indicating a relationship between video game consumption and RMA via interpersonal aggression and hostile sexism. Although these findings cannot be interpreted causally, we discuss the implications of these associations and future directions for research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Implications of changes in tropical shifting cultivation intensification on land productivity and GHG-related biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustier, Bernard; Ngoy, Alfred; Pietsch, Stephan; Mosnier, Aline

    2017-04-01

    Traditional shifting cultivation used to be a sustainable type of land use for the subsistence of populations in tropical rainforests. The vast resource of moist tropical forests together with low population densities allowed for long fallow periods on sparsely distributed slash and burn parcels with large areas of untouched forest in between. Population growth and concomitant increase in land demand for subsistence as well as increasing infrastructure development for commercial forestry, cash crops and mining, however, altered the picture over recent decades. As a result, fallow periods were reduced due to lack of pristine land. In this study we use field data and modeling results from the Congo Basin to assess the impacts of reduced fallow periods on Carbon sequestration dynamics using a BGC model calibrated and validated with > 150 research plots distributed over the western Congo Basin and representing different management and land use histories. We find that the average carbon sequestration rate reduces over the number of cultivation cycles and that a reduction of the fallow from 10 years to 7 years reduce the average carbon sequestration between 13 and 21% and from 7 years to 4 years between 23 and 29% depending on soil fertility. Results will be discussed in the context of population growth and changes in environmetal conditions.

  19. Barriers to Eating Traditional Foods Vary by Age Group in Ecuador With Biodiversity Loss as a Key Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penafiel, Daniela; Termote, Celine; Lachat, Carl; Espinel, Ramon; Kolsteren, Patrick; Van Damme, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    To document the perceptions of indigenous peoples for the sustainable management of natural resources against malnutrition. Initially 4 and then 12 interviews were conducted with 4 different age groups. Eight rural villages in Guasaganda, central Ecuador, were studied in 2011-2012. A total of 75 people (22 children, 18 adolescents, 20 adults, and 15 elders). Benefits, severity, susceptibility, barriers, cues to action, and self-efficacy of eating traditional foods. Qualitative content analysis was completed using NVivo software. Initial analysis was inductive, followed by a content analysis directed by the Health Belief Model. Coding was completed independently by 2 researchers and kappa statistics (κ ≥ 0.65) were used to evaluate agreement. Healthy perceptions toward traditional foods existed and differed by age. Local young people ate traditional foods for their health benefits and good taste; adults cultivated traditional foods that had an economic benefit. Traditional knowledge used for consumption and cultivation of traditional foods was present but needs to be disseminated. Nutrition education in schools is needed that supports traditional knowledge in younger groups and prevents dietary changes toward unhealthy eating. Increased production of traditional food is needed to address current economic realities. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cultivating Microalgae in Domestic Wastewater for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soha S.M. MOSTAFA

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth of nine species of microalgae (green and blue green microalgae on domestic waste water samples obtained from Zenein Waste Water Treatment Plant (ZWWTP, Giza governorate, Egypt. The species were cultivated in different kind of waste water; before treatment; after sterilization; with nutrients with sterilization and with nutrients without sterilization. The experiment was conducted in triplicate and cultures were incubated at 25�1�C under continuous shaking (150 rpm and illumination (2000 Lux for 15 days. pH, electric conductivity (EC, optical density (OD , dry weight (DW, were done at the time of incubation and at the end of experiment, in addition to determine the percentage of lipid and biodiesel. The data revealed that, domestic waste water with nutrient media (T3 was promising for cultivation of five algal species when compared with conventional media, Moreover, domestic waste water after sterilization (T2 was selected media for cultivation of Oscillatoria sp and Phormedium sp. However, T1 media (waste water without treatment was the promising media for cultivation of Nostoc humifusum. The biodiesel produced from algal species cultivated in waste water media ranged from 3.8 to 11.80% when compared with the conventional method (3.90 to 12.52%. The results of this study suggest that growing algae in nutrient rich media offers a new option of applying algal process in ZWWTP to mange the nutrient load for growth and valuable biodiesel feedstock production.

  1. Cultivating Microalgae in Domestic Wastewater for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soha S.M. MOSTAFA

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth of nine species of microalgae (green and blue green microalgae on domestic waste water samples obtained from Zenein Waste Water Treatment Plant (ZWWTP, Giza governorate, Egypt. The species were cultivated in different kind of waste water; before treatment; after sterilization; with nutrients with sterilization and with nutrients without sterilization. The experiment was conducted in triplicate and cultures were incubated at 251C under continuous shaking (150 rpm and illumination (2000 Lux for 15 days. pH, electric conductivity (EC, optical density (OD , dry weight (DW, were done at the time of incubation and at the end of experiment, in addition to determine the percentage of lipid and biodiesel. The data revealed that, domestic waste water with nutrient media (T3 was promising for cultivation of five algal species when compared with conventional media, Moreover, domestic waste water after sterilization (T2 was selected media for cultivation of Oscillatoria sp and Phormedium sp. However, T1 media (waste water without treatment was the promising media for cultivation of Nostoc humifusum. The biodiesel produced from algal species cultivated in waste water media ranged from 3.8 to 11.80% when compared with the conventional method (3.90 to 12.52%. The results of this study suggest that growing algae in nutrient rich media offers a new option of applying algal process in ZWWTP to mange the nutrient load for growth and valuable biodiesel feedstock production.

  2. Motivation of farmers to cultivate organic rice in Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmiyatun, T.; Eddy, B. T.; Sumekar, W.; Mardiningsih, D.

    2018-01-01

    The consumer’s need for organic agricultural products increases sharply along with awareness of health, lifestyle and environmental concern. This research was intended to determine the relationship between social factors and the motivation of farmers for cultivating organic rice in Central Java. The research has been done by survey to farmers groups at three regions i.e. Semarang, Sragen and Demak. The determination of the location was carried out by means of purposive i.e. farmer groups that conduct organic rice cultivation (not semi organic). The determination of the sample was conducted purposively for a number of 50 people each regencies. Data were analyzed descriptive analysis and rank Spearman correlation analysis. The results showed that social factors include age, cultivated area, education, farming experience have correlation with motivation. education and cultivated area of land has a fairly close relation with correlation value 0,463% and 0,242%. Based on the motivation level, 33% of farmers have high motivation, motivation of farmers varied but most of them, 54% of total farmers stated that the motivation to cultivate organic rice is the quality of organic rice products and high income.

  3. Biomek Cell Workstation: A Variable System for Automated Cell Cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, R; Severitt, J C; Roddelkopf, T; Junginger, S; Thurow, K

    2016-06-01

    Automated cell cultivation is an important tool for simplifying routine laboratory work. Automated methods are independent of skill levels and daily constitution of laboratory staff in combination with a constant quality and performance of the methods. The Biomek Cell Workstation was configured as a flexible and compatible system. The modified Biomek Cell Workstation enables the cultivation of adherent and suspension cells. Until now, no commercially available systems enabled the automated handling of both types of cells in one system. In particular, the automated cultivation of suspension cells in this form has not been published. The cell counts and viabilities were nonsignificantly decreased for cells cultivated in AutoFlasks in automated handling. The proliferation of manual and automated bioscreening by the WST-1 assay showed a nonsignificant lower proliferation of automatically disseminated cells associated with a mostly lower standard error. The disseminated suspension cell lines showed different pronounced proliferations in descending order, starting with Jurkat cells followed by SEM, Molt4, and RS4 cells having the lowest proliferation. In this respect, we successfully disseminated and screened suspension cells in an automated way. The automated cultivation and dissemination of a variety of suspension cells can replace the manual method. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  4. [Using ecology thinking reconstructing traditional agronomy: role of production ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Song-Liang

    2012-08-01

    Traditional agronomy, as a discipline or specialty, is originated from the reductionism thinking of neoteric experimental sciences and motivated by the great success of industrialized revolution, but loses the ensemble grasp of the relationships between agricultural organisms and their resources and environment, i.e., agroecosystem mechanism. Moreover, due to the excessively relying on exogenous fossil energy input and the monoculture with a few highly productive crop cultivars, the agricultural interior sustainability has unceasingly lost, making our mankind facing the double crises of grain security and food safety. Therefore, it is imperative to reconstruct the traditional agronomy and its educational system. In this paper, the author proposed to link traditional agronomy with ecology, establishing agroecology as the core subject and agroecosystem management as the core applied system, and in particular, establishing 'production ecology' to fill up the wide gap between the crop cultivation and farming system and the crop genetics and breeding, the two second grade disciplines under agronomy. Ideologically and methodologically, this proposal could provide disciplinary, scientific, and educational bases to authentically implement the strategy of sustainable development of agriculture.

  5. From Conflict to Collaboration: An Innovative Approach to Reducing Coca Cultivation in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Ledebur

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Upon his presidential election, Bolivian coca grower leader Evo Morales adopted a policy of promoting consensual coca reduction through social control, a sophisticated coca monitoring system, and economic development. That strategy is paying off. In 2011, coca cultivation decreased by 13 per cent according to the U.S. government. The Morales administration has also made significant progress facing the ongoing challenges of drug production and trafficking. Seizures of coca paste and cocaine and destruction of drug laboratories have steadily increased since President Morales took office. Despite continued tensions in bilateral relations, U.S.-Bolivian counter-drug cooperation continues and the signing of a new framework agreement in 2011 should lead to an exchange of ambassadors. Internationally, Bolivia has successfully gained acceptance of the right to the traditional use of coca within its own territory. But Bolivia’s efforts must be carried out in tandem with effective demand reduction strategies to shrink the global cocaine market.

  6. Sasang Constitutional Medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Comparative Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghee Yoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM is a holistic typological constitution medicine which balances psychological, social, and physical aspects of an individual to achieve wellness and increase longevity. SCM has the qualities of preventative medicine, as it emphasizes daily health management based on constitutionally differentiated regimens and self-cultivation of the mind and body. This review's goal is to establish a fundamental understanding of SCM and to provide a foundation for further study. It compares the similarities and differences of philosophical origins, perspectives on the mind (heart, typological systems, pathology, and therapeutics between SCM and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. TCM is based on the Taoist view of the universe and humanity. The health and longevity of an individual depends on a harmonious relationship with the universe. On the other hand, SCM is based on the Confucian view of the universe and humanity. SCM focuses on the influence of human affairs on the psyche, physiology, and pathology.

  7. Traditional botanical medicine: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Richard A; Chaudhary, Jayesh; Castro-Eschenbach, Diane

    2011-01-01

    The role of traditional medicine in the well-being of mankind has certainly journeyed a long way. From an ancient era, in which knowledge was limited to a few traditional healers and dominated by the use of whole plants or crude drugs, the science has gradually evolved into a complete healthcare system with global recognition. Technologic advancements have facilitated traditional science to deliver numerous breakthrough botanicals with potency equivalent to those of conventional drugs. The renewed interest in traditional medicine is mainly attributed to its ability to prevent disease, promote health, and improve quality of life. Despite the support received from public bodies and research organizations, development of botanical medicines continues to be a challenging process. The present article gives a summarized description of the various difficulties encountered in the development and evaluation of botanical drugs, including isolation of active compounds and standardization of plant ingredients. It indicates a future direction of traditional medicine toward evidence-based evaluation of health claims through well-controlled safety and efficacy studies.

  8. Cultivation of kelp species in the Limfjord, Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegeberg, S.

    2010-04-15

    To evaluate the scope of the work and yield of cultivating kelp species in the Danish waters for DONG Energy, Denmark, a pilot?scale cultivation project was initiated in connection with the review of the potential of algal biomass for bio?energy production in Denmark. Two species of large brown algae, sea girdles (Laminaria digitata) and sweet tangle (Saccharina latissima) were cultivated with the expectation to gain maximum biomass yield, partly because of the species' size and partly because of their growth strategy. The result of the pilot study was that sugar seaweed's average maximum length was 7-8 cm, while finger seaweed's length was only 5 cm. The relative small yield is attributable to an overgrowth of sessile animals (hydroids and sea squirts). (ln)

  9. PROPAGATION TECHNIQUES AND AGRONOMIC REQUIREMENTS FOR THE CULTIVATION OF BARBADOS ALOE (ALOE VERA (L. BURM. F. - A REVIEW.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara De Lucia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Barbados aloe (Aloe vera (L. Burm. f. has traditionally been used for healing in natural medicine. However, aloe is now attracting great interest in the global market due to its bioactive chemicals which are extracted from the leaves and used in industrial preparations for pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food products. Aloe originated from tropical and sub-tropical Africa, but it is also now cultivated in warm climatic areas of Asia, Europe and America.In this review, the most important factors affecting aloe production are described. We focus on propagation techniques, sustainable agronomic practices and efficient post harvesting and processing systems.

  10. Propagation Techniques and Agronomic Requirements for the Cultivation of Barbados Aloe (Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F.)—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristiano, Giuseppe; Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; De Lucia, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Barbados aloe (Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F.) has traditionally been used for healing in natural medicine. However, aloe is now attracting great interest in the global market due to its bioactive chemicals which are extracted from the leaves and used in industrial preparations for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food products. Aloe originated from tropical and sub-tropical Africa, but it is also now cultivated in warm climatic areas of Asia, Europe, and America. In this review, the most important factors affecting aloe production are described. We focus on propagation techniques, sustainable agronomic practices and efficient post harvesting and processing systems. PMID:27721816

  11. Astaxanthin production from sewage of traditional Thai rice vermicelli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujarit, Chutinut; Rittirut, Waigoon; Amornlerdpison, Doungporn; Siripatana, Chairat

    2017-03-01

    This research aimed to investigate an optimal condition for astaxanthin production by Phaffia rhodozyma TISTR 5730 in two different media: synthetic YM medium and the medium added with coconut water and diluted with sewage from Thai traditional rice vermicelli plant (coconut water: sewage of 1:0, 1:1, 1:3 and 1:5 ration respectively). The basic medium formulation was composed of 10 g/L glucose, 3 g/L yeast extract, 0.1 g/L K2HPO4, 0.01 g/L NaCl, 0.01 g/L MgSO4 and 0.01 g/L CaCl2 with initial pH 5.5. The cultures were cultivated on 200 rpm shaking bath at 50 °C for 120 hr. It was found that P. rhodozyma TISTR 5370 grew optimally when cultivated in a mixture of coconut water and Thai rice vermicelli sewage (ratio of 1:3), with growth of 3.23 g dry biomass/L and specific astaxanthin production of 680 μg/g dry cell respectively. When fan palm sugar was added to increase reducing sugar from 10 to 15, 20 and 25 g/L, it was demonstrated that the 15 g/L formulation produced highest both dry cell weight (9.66 g/L) and astaxanthin (810 μg/g dry cell weight). Furthermore, when 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g/L citric acid was added as supplement, it was found that 1.0-g/L citric acid formulation gave the best result: 10.30 g/L dried cell weight and 930 μg/g dry cell weight astaxanthin. This study provides a promising alternative method of sewage reduction and valorization of wastewater from Thai traditional rice vermicelli plant.

  12. TERMITES ENDANGERED TRADITIONAL MEDICAL PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syaukani Syaukani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Surveys on traditional medical plants affected by termites have been conducted since June to August 2010 at Ketambe, northern Aceh. Traditional medical plants and their natural habitats were obtained through interviewing local people. Termites were collected by adopted a Standardized Sampling Protocol and final. taxonomic confirmation was done with the help of Termite Research Group (the Natural History Museum, London. About 20 species of medical plants were attacked by termites with various levels. Nine genera and 20 species were collected from various habitats throughout Ketambe, Simpur as well as Gunung Setan villages. Coffe (Coffea arabica, hazelnut (Aleurites moluccana , and areca (Area catechu were among the worse of traditional medical  plant that had been attached by the termites.

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions under conservation agriculture compared to traditional cultivation of maize in the central highlands of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dendooven, Luc; Gutiérrez-Oliva, Vicente F.; Patiño-Zúñiga, Leonardo; Ramírez-Villanueva, Daniel A.; Verhulst, Nele; Luna-Guido, Marco; Marsch, Rodolfo; Montes-Molina, Joaquín; Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico A.; Vásquez-Murrieta, Soledad; Govaerts, Bram

    2012-01-01

    In 1991, the ‘International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center’ (CIMMYT) started a field experiment in the rain fed Mexican highlands to investigate conservation agriculture (CA) as a sustainable alternative for conventional maize production practices (CT). CT techniques, characterized by deep tillage, monoculture and crop residue removal, have deteriorated soil fertility and reduced yields. CA, which combines minimum tillage, crop rotations and residue retention, restores soil fertility and increases yields. Soil organic matter increases in CA compared to CT, but increases in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in CA might offset the gains obtained to mitigate global warming. Therefore, CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O emissions, soil temperature, C and water content were monitored in CA and CT treatments in 2010–2011. The cumulative GHG emitted were similar for CA and CT in both years, but the C content in the 0–60 cm layer was higher in CA (117.7 Mg C ha −1 ) than in CT (69.7 Mg C ha −1 ). The net global warming potential (GWP) of CA (considering soil C sequestration, GHG emissions, fuel use, and fertilizer and seeds production) was − 7729 kg CO 2 ha −1 y −1 in 2008–2009 and − 7892 kg CO 2 ha −1 y −1 in 2010–2011, whereas that of CT was 1327 and 1156 kg CO 2 ha −1 y −1 . It was found that the contribution of CA to GWP was small compared to that of CT. - Highlights: ► Conservation agriculture (CA) and conventional agriculture (CT) systems ► Greenhouse gasses emitted were similar from CA and CT. ► C content in the 0–60 cm layer was much higher in CA than in CT. ► The net global warming potential of CA was negative, but positive in CT. ► C sequestered in soil is far more important than GHG emitted.

  14. Study of four plants with traditional medicinal use cultivated in the Huetar Norte and Atlantica regions of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira-Gonzalez, Ileana; Arnaez Serrano, Elizabeth; Murillo-Masis, Renato; Quesada Mora, Silvia; Castro Araya, Victor; Zamora Ramirez, William; Navarro-Hoyos, Mirtha; Cordero-Hernandez, Meliza; Loaiza-Cardenas, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    The advance in the domestication process of Phyllanthus niruri (chanca stone), Senna reticulata (Saragundi), Pettiveria alliaceae (Garlic) and Phyllanthus acuminatus (Chilillo) is highlighted, also phytochemistry and biological potential using techniques towards the establishment of protocols that ensure the proper use. At the same time, in a systematic way, good specific farming practice were introduced for the four species in groups of communities from the Huetar Norte and Huetar Atlantica regions. The purpose has been to support the use of these plants in a sustainable way. The transfer of results regarding good practices as well as knowledge on polyphenol contents and biological potential to the target groups has sought to support capacity building looking to improve their insertion in productive chains within communities, as an alternative livelihood, thus providing, in addition to academic scientific development through basic research results, socioeconomic and environmentally sustainable development. (author) [es

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions under conservation agriculture compared to traditional cultivation of maize in the central highlands of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dendooven, Luc, E-mail: dendooven@me.com [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, ABACUS, Cinvestav, Avenida Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, C.P. 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Gutierrez-Oliva, Vicente F. [Laboratory of Plant Biotechnology, Instituto Tecnologico de Tuxtla-Gutierrez, Tuxtla-Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico); Patino-Zuniga, Leonardo [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, ABACUS, Cinvestav, Avenida Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, C.P. 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ramirez-Villanueva, Daniel A. [Departamento de Microbiologia, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas-IPN, Av. Prolongacion de Carpio y Plan de Ayala, C.P. 11340 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Verhulst, Nele [International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT), Apdo. Postal 6-641, 06600, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Luna-Guido, Marco; Marsch, Rodolfo [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, ABACUS, Cinvestav, Avenida Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, C.P. 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Montes-Molina, Joaquin; Gutierrez-Miceli, Federico A. [Laboratory of Plant Biotechnology, Instituto Tecnologico de Tuxtla-Gutierrez, Tuxtla-Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico); Vasquez-Murrieta, Soledad [Departamento de Microbiologia, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas-IPN, Av. Prolongacion de Carpio y Plan de Ayala, C.P. 11340 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Govaerts, Bram [International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT), Apdo. Postal 6-641, 06600, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2012-08-01

    In 1991, the 'International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center' (CIMMYT) started a field experiment in the rain fed Mexican highlands to investigate conservation agriculture (CA) as a sustainable alternative for conventional maize production practices (CT). CT techniques, characterized by deep tillage, monoculture and crop residue removal, have deteriorated soil fertility and reduced yields. CA, which combines minimum tillage, crop rotations and residue retention, restores soil fertility and increases yields. Soil organic matter increases in CA compared to CT, but increases in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in CA might offset the gains obtained to mitigate global warming. Therefore, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions, soil temperature, C and water content were monitored in CA and CT treatments in 2010-2011. The cumulative GHG emitted were similar for CA and CT in both years, but the C content in the 0-60 cm layer was higher in CA (117.7 Mg C ha{sup -1}) than in CT (69.7 Mg C ha{sup -1}). The net global warming potential (GWP) of CA (considering soil C sequestration, GHG emissions, fuel use, and fertilizer and seeds production) was - 7729 kg CO{sub 2} ha{sup -1} y{sup -1} in 2008-2009 and - 7892 kg CO{sub 2} ha{sup -1} y{sup -1} in 2010-2011, whereas that of CT was 1327 and 1156 kg CO{sub 2} ha{sup -1} y{sup -1}. It was found that the contribution of CA to GWP was small compared to that of CT. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conservation agriculture (CA) and conventional agriculture (CT) systems Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Greenhouse gasses emitted were similar from CA and CT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C content in the 0-60 cm layer was much higher in CA than in CT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The net global warming potential of CA was negative, but positive in CT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C sequestered in soil is far more important than GHG emitted.

  16. Spatial distribution models of erosion on slopes cultivated with vineyards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armaez, J.; Ortigosa, L.; Ruiz-Falno, P.; Llorente, J. A.; Lasanta, T.

    2009-01-01

    Soils cultivated with vineyards have high rates of erosion. In the Mediterranean area, this is related to the environmental characteristics and the management of cultivation techniques. Indeed, in this region the rainfall intensity and the location of vineyards on slopes favour the erosive activity of runoff. The total area of vineyards in La Rioja (Spain) is currently almost 40,000 ha. Vineyards are located on hillsides between 400 and 60 m.a.s.l. Of the vineyards of La Rioja 81,7% are planted on slopes with a gradient between 3 degree centigrade and 9 degree centigrade. (Author) 5 refs.

  17. Cytogenetic characterization of Encyclia caximboensis cultivated in vitro (Orchidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gizelly Mendes Silva; Tatiane Lemos Varella; Kaliane Maximiliano Cruz; Ilio Fealho Carvalho; Isane Vera Karsburg; Maurecilne Lemes Silva

    2015-01-01

    Encyclia caximboensis is an Amazonian species endemic to the Serra do Cachimbo, which is located between the northern of the Mato Grosso state and the southern part of Para state. Studies reporting in vitro cultivation and cytogenetic characterization of this species are still scarce. Therefore, the objective of this work was to determine the cytogenetic characteristics and to identify the nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) of the species E. Caximboensis, cultivated in vitro. Seeds of E. caxi...

  18. Nootropic activity of extracts from wild and cultivated Alfredia cernua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafin, R N; Shilova, I V; Suslov, N I; Kuvacheva, N V; Amelchenko, V P

    2011-01-01

    Antihypoxic and nootropic activities of extracts from aerial parts of wild and cultivated Alfredia cernua (L.) Cass. were studied on the models of pressure chamber hypoxia, open field test, and passive avoidance conditioning. The extracts of Alfredia cernua promoted retention of the orientation reflex and passive avoidance conditioned response and normalized orientation and exploratory activities disordered as a result of hypoxic injury. The efficiency of the extracts was superior to that of piracetam by the effect on retention of passive avoidance response throughout the greater part of the experiment. Nootropic activity of cultivated Alfredia cernua was not inferior to that of the wild plant.

  19. Robust, small-scale cultivation platform for Streptomyces coelicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohoni, Sujata Vijay; Bapat, Prashant Madhusudan; Lantz, Anna Eliasson

    2012-01-01

    rates of antibiotics. CONCLUSION: We observed good agreement of the physiological data obtained in the developed MTP platform with bench-scale. Hence, the described MTP-based screening platform has a high potential for investigation of secondary metabolite biosynthesis in Streptomycetes and other....... The MTP cultivations were found to behave similar to bench-scale in terms of growth rate, productivity and substrate uptake rate and so was the onset of antibiotic synthesis. Shake flask cultivations however, showed discrepancy with respect to morphology and had considerably reduced volumetric production...

  20. Analysis of Traditional Historical Clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten; Schmidt, A. L.; Petersen, A. H.

    2013-01-01

    for establishing a three-dimensional model and the corresponding two-dimensional pattern for items of skin clothing that are not flat. The new method is non-destructive, and also accurate and fast. Furthermore, this paper presents an overview of the more traditional methods of pattern documentation and measurement......A recurrent problem for scholars who investigate traditional and historical clothing is the measuring of items of clothing and subsequent pattern construction. The challenge is to produce exact data without damaging the item. The main focus of this paper is to present a new procedure...

  1. Influences of Urban Expansion on Cultivated Lands in China Since 1970S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Yu, S.; Wang, X.; Zuo, L.

    2018-04-01

    Urban expansion has far-reaching influences on cultivated lands, and has a serious effect on grain output and safety. However, relatively little attention has been paid to monitor cultivated land losses through urban expansion over a long timeframe and multi-frequency, especially its differences on national scale systematically. In this work, the characteristics of Chinese cultivated land dynamics were described using annual occupied area per city, contribution rate of cultivated lands to urban expansion and the classification method of basic trend of cultivated land losses. Results indicate that: (1) in the past four decades, large amount of cultivated lands have been occupied during the urban expansion process, and have become the first land source for Chinese urban expansion. (2) Cultivated land loss among municipalities, provincial capitals and other cities was obviously different. The higher of cities' administrative level was, the more obvious of cultivated land loss in these cities appeared, and the earlier of acceleration loss stage of cultivated lands occurred. (3) Cultivated land loss in five population-size cities was unbalanced, representing obviously different loss process and contribution on urban expansion. The bigger of cities' population size was, the more obvious of cultivated land loss in these cities appeared, and the earlier of acceleration loss stage of cultivated lands occurred. (4) Cultivated land losses during urban expansion process were imbalanced in China, and were classified into seven trends. (5) Chinese cultivated land protection has been carried out from the awakening stage to the deep implementation stage.

  2. Feasibility Study on Sterilization of Badge using Radiation and Cultivation by Nano-bubble Water for Matsutake Mushroom Cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Inha

    2013-12-01

    This report on the 'Sterilization of Badge using Radiation and Cultivation by Nano-bubble Water for Matsutake Mushroom Cultivation' is belonged to the final report on the preliminary study of the first subject in 2013 for civilian project. This was complimented on the responsible of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute for 1 st of June 2013 to 30 th of November 2013. We are going to make sterilization the badge using the gamma ray and supplying the oxygen by nano-bubble oxygen rich water for cultivating the Matsutake Mushroom, instead of the conventional process of sterilization of the badge by hot steam over 120 .deg. C consuming over 8 hours and expensive ventilation system for supplying the fresh air for delivering the oxygen

  3. Feasibility Study on Sterilization of Badge using Radiation and Cultivation by Nano-bubble Water for Matsutake Mushroom Cultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Inha

    2013-12-15

    This report on the 'Sterilization of Badge using Radiation and Cultivation by Nano-bubble Water for Matsutake Mushroom Cultivation' is belonged to the final report on the preliminary study of the first subject in 2013 for civilian project. This was complimented on the responsible of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute for 1{sup st} of June 2013 to 30{sup th} of November 2013. We are going to make sterilization the badge using the gamma ray and supplying the oxygen by nano-bubble oxygen rich water for cultivating the Matsutake Mushroom, instead of the conventional process of sterilization of the badge by hot steam over 120 .deg. C consuming over 8 hours and expensive ventilation system for supplying the fresh air for delivering the oxygen.

  4. Study of the evolution of nitrogen compounds during grape ripening. application to differentiate grape varieties and cultivated systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Lorenzo, Cándida; Lara, José Félix; Pardo, Francisco; Ancín-Azpilicueta, Carmen; Salinas, M Rosario

    2009-03-25

    The aim of this work was to study the evolution of amino acids and ammonium during grape ripening and to evaluate its application to differentiate grape varieties and cultivated systems (organic and nonorganic). For this purpose, Monastrell, Syrah, Merlot, and Petit Verdot grapes produced using conventional agriculture and Monastrell grape cultivated using organic agriculture, collected during two consecutive harvests at different stages of ripening, were studied. These years of harvest were very different climatic years; even so, the grape varieties presented similar qualitative compositions. Therefore, the percentage of amino acids at harvest moment allowed differentiation of grapes according to variety and cultivated system, regardless of the year. The nitrogen composition could allow estimation of the fermentative aroma potential of grapes. Thus, Syrah was the grape with the greatest aroma potential at harvest. Monastrell nonorganic grape had a concentration of nitrogen compounds superior to that of Monastrell organic grape. In Monastrell, Syrah, and Merlot, traditional varieties in the area, the highest concentration of nitrogen compounds coincided with the highest degrees Baume/total acidity ratio and color index during 2007. Consequently, technological and phenolic maturity of these grape varieties coincided with the maximum composition of nitrogen compounds. However, in 2008, this did not happen because grape ripening was irregular as a consequence of different climatological conditions.

  5. Component Analysis of Cultivated Ginseng, Red Ginseng, Cultivated Wild Ginseng, and Red Wild Ginseng Using HPLC Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Ho, Lee

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of this experiment is to provide an differentiation of ginseng, red ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng(CWG, and red wild ginseng(RWG through component analysis using HPLC(High Performance Liquid Chromatography, hereafter HPLC. Methods : Comparative analyses of ginsenoside Rg3, ginsenoside Rh2, and ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 of various ginsengs were conducted using HPLC. Results : 1. CWG was relatively heat-resistant and showed slow change in color during the process of steaming and drying, compared to cultivated ginseng. 2. Ginsenoside Rg3 was not detected in cultivated ginseng and CWG, whereas it was high in red ginseng and RWG. Ginsenoside Rg3 was more generated in red ginseng than in RWG. 3. Ginsenoside Rh2 appreared during steaming and drying of cultivated ginseng, whereas it was more increased during steaming and drying of CWG. 4. Ginsenoside Rg1 content was more increased during steaming and drying of cultivated ginseng, whereas it was more decreased during steaming and drying of CWG. 5. Ginsenoside Rb1 content was increased about 500% during steaming and drying of cultivated ginseng, whereas it was increased about 30% during steaming and drying of CWG, indicating that ginsenoside Rb1 was more generated in red ginseng than in RWG. 6. Ginsenoside Rg3 content was higher, whereas ginsenoside Rg1 content was lower in 11th RWG than in 9th RWG, indicating that ginsenoside Rg3 content was increased and Rg1 content was decreased as steaming and drying continued to proceed. Ginsenoside Rh2 and Rb1 contents began to be increased, followed by decreased after 9th steaming and drying process. Conclusions : Above experiment data can be an important indicator for the identification of ginseng, red ginseng, CWG, and RWG. And the following studies will be need for making good product using CWG.

  6. Appraisal of traditional technologies i

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jobo

    A survey on the production practices and mode of utilization of mumu – a traditional, ready-to-eat Nigerian cereal-based food product - was conducted to be able to provide information that would be used to improve on the processing, nutritional quality and acceptability of the product. 83 % of respondents indicated the use ...

  7. Active Learning versus Traditional Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Azzalis

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In traditional teaching most of the class time is spent with the professor lecturing and the students watching and listening. The students work individually, and cooperation is discouraged. On the other hand,  active learning  changes the focus of activity from the teacher to the learners, in which students solve problems, answer questions, formulate questions of their own, discuss, explain, debate during class;  moreover, students work in teams on problems and projects under conditions that assure positive interdependence and individual accountability. Although student-centered methods have repeatedly been shown to be superior to the traditional teacher-centered approach to instruction, the literature regarding the efficacy of various teaching methods is inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to compare the student perceptions of course and instructor effectiveness, course difficulty, and amount learned between the active learning and lecture sections  in Health Sciences´ courses by statistical data from Anhembi Morumbi University. Results indicated significant  difference between active  learning and traditional  teaching. Our conclusions were that strategies promoting  active  learning to  traditional lectures could increase knowledge and understanding.

  8. Individualizing in Traditional Classroom Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornell, John G.

    1980-01-01

    Effective individualized instruction depends primarily on the teacher possessing the skills to implement it. Individualization is therefore quite compatible with the traditional self-contained elementary classroom model, but not with its alternative, departmentalization, which allows teachers neither the time flexibility nor the familiarity with…

  9. Waldorf Education: An Innovative Tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Sheila

    1993-01-01

    Waldorf Schools represent the largest nonsectarian school movement in the world, shunning fads and technology and relying on the creative gifts of teachers and students. Studies include eurythmy, woodworking, weaving, and traditional academic subjects, and no commercial textbooks are used. Despite teacher/funding shortages, the system continues to…

  10. Traditional Knowledge and Patent Protection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adam

    intellectual property rights laws. 5 into traditional knowledge areas, in turn, has ... range of innovations in industrial, agricultural, environment and health ... Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety 2008 ..... Ghosh 2003 Colum J Asian L 106. 80 ..... Management'" 1998 Mich Law Rev 462-556.

  11. Does Scottish Education Need Traditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Lindsay

    2009-01-01

    Scottish education was, until quite recently, the conscious product of liberal tradition, of the belief by influential elites that the nation's educational history was strong, coherent, and progressive, a source of economic flexibility, of modernising ideas, and of liberal opportunity. In recent decades, however, it has become fashionable to decry…

  12. Japan between tradition and renewal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anni

    what is still visible in the cityscapes. Furthermore, according to Greve’s publication “Learning from Tokyo urbanism: The urban sanctuaries”, they will figure out how traditions frame interactions between strangers. Thereby, the tea ceremony serves as an example for spaces in-between public and private...

  13. Traditional Chinese Masks Reveal Customs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    CHINESE masks are undoubtedly an important component in the worldwide mask culture. Minority nationality masks are a major component of China’s mask culture. Traditional Chinese masks, or nuo, represent a cultural component which originated from religious rites in prehistoric times. Various types of nuo are highly valuable for studies of Chinese customs.

  14. Traditional Literacy and Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Priscille

    2016-01-01

    How school librarians focus on activating critical thinking through traditional literacy development can proactively set the stage for the deep thinking that occurs in all literacy development. The critical-thinking skills students build while becoming accomplished readers and writers provide the foundation for learning in a variety of…

  15. Goddess Traditions in Tantric Hinduism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinduism cannot be understood without the Great Goddess and the goddess-orientated Śākta traditions. The Goddess pervades Hinduism at all levels, from aniconic village deities to high-caste pan-Hindu goddesses to esoteric, tantric goddesses. Nevertheless, the highly influential tantric forms...

  16. Agriculture and the promotion of insect pests: rice cultivation in river floodplains and malaria vectors in The Gambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louca Vasilis

    2009-07-01

    fly. The traditional practice of 'swamp rice' cultivation uses different bodies of water on the floodplains to cultivate rice during the rainy season. A consequence of this cultivation is the provizion of ideal conditions for malaria vectors to thrive. As the demand for locally-produced rice grows, increased rice farming will generate great numbers of vectors; emphasizing the need to protect local communities against malaria.

  17. Buddhist Pedagogy in Teacher Education: Cultivating Wisdom by Skillful Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma Rhea, Zane

    2018-01-01

    This paper draws on research I have conducted about the cultivation of wisdom in Thailand and Australia. I examine the ancient pedagogy of pavi?aupaya skillful means investigating how this pedagogy can inform contemporary development of teacher educators and teachers. I examine the Panjaawi´tee Wisdom Method that has its foundations in the…

  18. Cultivating Teachers' Morality and the Pedagogy of Emotional Rationality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkang

    2013-01-01

    Teachers are expected to act ethically and provide moral role models in performing their duties, even though teacher education has often relegated the cultivation of teachers' ethical awareness and moral development to the margins. When it is addressed, the main theoretical assumptions have relied heavily on the cognitivist developmental theories…

  19. Wanted: Information on the Distribution of Cultivated Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Richard A.

    1970-01-01

    Lack of documentation makes it very difficult to discover where species of cultivated plants may be found in the United States. Plead for compilation of "campus floras and herbarium collections. Need for a rational locator file of available plant materials. Lists and reviews present sources of information. Bibliography of campus floras. (EB)

  20. Characteristics of papillae in wild, cultivated and hybrid sea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the characteristics of papillae of living, boiled and dried specimens of three wild populations, cultivated and hybrid Apostichopus japonicus in the laboratory. Visual observation showed that the appearance of the papillae was obviously different among the populations. For the first time, we established a ...

  1. On Design Experiment Teaching in Engineering Quality Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao

    2008-01-01

    Design experiment refers to that designed and conducted by students independently and is surely an important method to cultivate students' comprehensive quality. According to the development and requirements of experimental teaching, this article carries out a study and analysis on the purpose, significance, denotation, connotation and…

  2. Status of jatropha cultivation for biodiesel production in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.A.; Usmani, J.N.

    2010-01-01

    Pakistan is highly dependent on imported fuels. Sustainable production of biodiesel presents an opportunity to reduce reliance on imported oil, save foreign-exchange reserves, reduce poverty and unemployment, stimulate rural development in areas with acute poverty and enhance access to renewable commercial energy. We are an agriculture-based economy; therefore, production of Bio diesel by utilizing agro-base cultivation will strengthen our agricultural sector and empower the farmers. Moreover, the country has immense potential to attain energy-security through domestic cultivation and processing of bio fuel crops. Some details of the processing plant and manufacturing are also given. This paper describes and delineates the present status of Jatropha cultivation in Pakistan. An attempt is made to project the future of bio diesel, through Jatropha seeds and simultaneous efforts to cultivate other bio diesel- producing seeds to make its cost as low as possible. This paper can also be taken as a base to predict the minimum time required to produce 5-10% replacement of mineral diesel by biodiesel. (author)

  3. Continuous Cultivation of Photosynthetic Bacteria for Fatty Acids Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Ji-Hye; Hwang, Yuhoon

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, we introduced a novel approach for microbial fatty acids (FA) production. Photosynthetic bacteria, Rhodobacter sphaeroides KD131, were cultivated in a continuous-flow, stirred-tank reactor (CFSTR) at various substrate (lactate) concentrations.At hydraulic retention time (HRT)....... sphaeroides was around 35% of dry cell weight, mainly composed of vaccenic acid (C18:1, omega-7)....

  4. Farmers' perception of risk in cultivating hybrid rice in Bangladesh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although there is an enormous potential for improving adoption of hybrid rice in Bangladesh, it is going through some difficulties in practice. Understanding farmers' perception about difficulties is critical to successful promotion. The present study was conducted to analyze farmers' perception of risk in cultivating hybrid rice ...

  5. Lignocellulose pretreatment in a fungus-cultivating termite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongjie Li; Daniel J. Yelle; Chang Li; Mengyi Yang; Jing Ke; Ruijuan Zhang; Yu Liu; Na Zhu; Shiyou Liang; Xiaochang Mo; John Ralph; Cameron R. Currie; Jianchu Mo

    2017-01-01

    Depolymerizing lignin, the complex phenolic polymer fortifying plant cell walls, is an essential but challenging starting point for the lignocellulosics industries. The variety of ether– and carbon–carbon interunit linkages produced via radical coupling during lignification limit chemical and biological depolymerization efficiency. In an ancient fungus-cultivating...

  6. Technologies of Self and the Cultivation of Virtues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattam, Robert; Baker, Bernadette

    2015-01-01

    In this article we engage with and against Foucault's provocation to think about diagrams of subjectivation. With Foucault we take up his meditation on spirituality and propose a Buddhist alternative to Greco-Roman technologies of self. Against Foucault's notion of an "arts of existence" we suggest instead "cultivation of…

  7. Seed constraint to cultivation and productivity of African indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-availability of improved seeds constitutes a major constraint to the cultivation and productivity of the indigenous leaf vegetables (ILVs) of Africa. Research on African ILVs has focused mainly on the ethnobotany, collection, preservation, and the assessment of food value and chemical composition of the ILVs. No serious ...

  8. Religion and the Cultivation of Citizenship in Chinese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenzhou

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of research has documented the escalating popularity of religion among student populations in China's higher education settings. Despite the changes sustained by China's religious policies throughout the post-Mao era, the state has not abandoned its long-standing approach of cultivating citizenship through Marxist-Leninist-oriented…

  9. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on some compost formulas and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three compost formulas; wheat straw based and using different activator materials such as wheat brain, chicken manure, and pigeon manure were used for Agaricus bisporus cultivation. Locally available casing materials such as peat of Bolu, peat of Agacbasi, peat of Caykara, and their mixture (80:20; v:v) with perlite were ...

  10. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on some compost formulas and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three compost formulas (formula I, formula II, and formula III) based waste tea leaves and using some activator materials such as wheat bran, chicken manure and pigeon manure were studied for Agaricus bisporus cultivation. Some locally available peats such as peat of Bolu, peat of Agacbasi, peat of Caykara and theirs ...

  11. On the capitalization and cultivation of social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldstrøm, Christian; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2008-01-01

    a dual focus on social capital as both immediately and potentially productive resources, i.e. assets that can be immediately capitalized by individuals as well as ‘cultivated' for future use. We argue that to further operationalize this concept we must distinguish between actual/potential social capital...

  12. Concerted Cultivation and Music Learning: Global Issues and Local Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilari, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    "Concerted cultivation" has been described as a common, urban middle-class practice concerning the enrollment of children in a variety of age-specific activities that may promote the learning of valuable life skills as well as the development of individual abilities (Lareau, 2003). Music is one such activity. This study investigated the…

  13. On the use of selective environments in microalgal cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, P.R.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with selective environments in microalgal cultivation. As explained in Chapter 1 microalgae have changed the course of life on Earth dramatically by performing oxygenic photosynthesis. In oxygenic photosynthesis electrons from water are used to reduce carbon dioxide to

  14. Comparisons of dioxin levels of cucumber varieties and cultivation periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eun, H.; Watanabe, E.; Ishii, Y.; Ueji, M. [National Inst. for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba (Japan); Narita, I.; Nakamura, K. [Saitama Prefecture Agriculture and Forestry Research Center, Saitama (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    According to a 2001 survey on Daily Intake in Japan, the total dioxins intake of a person in Japan amounts to 1.68 pg-TEQ per kg of body weight/day on average. The sharing a percentage of agricultural crops was about 3%in Japanese TDI amounts. However, all cases collect samples from supermarkets to estimate TDI of dioxins, which make it difficult to understand under what environment, food samples were pretreated and cultivated. Especially, TDI values in agricultural crops are probably dependent on the collection situation. In the agricultural environment, some reports indicate that dioxins have accumulated in paddy and upland in Japan due to the past use of some types of agricultural chemicals, which contained dioxins as impurities. Furthermore, taking the atmospheric pathway, for example, dioxins in the ambient air are associated with particulate matter and fall to the ground, contaminating agricultural land. Thus, it has been emphasized that dioxin compounds have a possibility to have adverse effect on vegetables. However, there is little understanding related to this fact in the country and worldwide. Empirical studies conducted in Japan and abroad have reported low residual concentrations of dioxins in cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.), a member of the gourd family. However, there have been extremely few instances of research involving overall comparisons of cultivation environments. Thus, we studied the persistence of dioxins in cucumbers of different varieties cultivated outdoors over varying cultivation periods, conducting thorough experiments to elucidate the actual conditions and mechanisms of dioxin contamination of cucumbers.

  15. Sequencing of a Cultivated Diploid Cotton Genome-Gossypium arboreum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WILKINS; Thea; A

    2008-01-01

    Sequencing the genomes of crop species and model systems contributes significantly to our understanding of the organization,structure and function of plant genomes.In a `white paper' published in 2007,the cotton community set forth a strategic plan for sequencing the AD genome of cultivated upland cotton that initially targets less complex diploid genomes.This strategy banks on the high degree

  16. Cultivating Critical-Thinking Dispositions throughout the Business Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Janel; Spataro, Sandra E.

    2014-01-01

    Critical thinking is an essential component of managerial literacy, yet business school graduates struggle to apply critical-thinking skills at work to the level that employers desire. This article argues for a dispositional approach to teaching critical thinking, rooted in cultivating a critical-thinking culture. We suggest a two-pronged approach…

  17. Cultivation of algae in photobioreator and obtention of biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane B. Hobuss

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work we described the cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris in a photobioreactor to algal biomass production. The dried biomass was used as feedstock for biodiesel production, it presented 26% lipids and via sonocatalysis stage of the methodology resulted in 60% of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME. The FAME content was confirmed by Gas Chromatography (GC.

  18. Inferring ancient Agave cultivation practices from contemporary genetic patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Kathleen C; Trapnell, Dorset W; Hamrick, J L; Hodgson, Wendy C; Parker, Albert J

    2010-04-01

    Several Agave species have played an important ethnobotanical role since prehistory in Mesoamerica and semiarid areas to the north, including central Arizona. We examined genetic variation in relict Agave parryi populations northeast of the Mogollon Rim in Arizona, remnants from anthropogenic manipulation over 600 years ago. We used both allozymes and microsatellites to compare genetic variability and structure in anthropogenically manipulated populations with putative wild populations, to assess whether they were actively cultivated or the result of inadvertent manipulation, and to determine probable source locations for anthropogenic populations. Wild populations were more genetically diverse than anthropogenic populations, with greater expected heterozygosity, polymorphic loci, effective number of alleles and allelic richness. Anthropogenic populations exhibited many traits indicative of past active cultivation: fixed heterozygosity for several loci in all populations (nonexistent in wild populations); fewer multilocus genotypes, which differed by fewer alleles; and greater differentiation among populations than was characteristic of wild populations. Furthermore, manipulated populations date from a period when changes in the cultural context may have favoured active cultivation near dwellings. Patterns of genetic similarity among populations suggest a complex anthropogenic history. Anthropogenic populations were not simply derived from the closest wild A. parryi stock; instead they evidently came from more distant, often more diverse, wild populations, perhaps obtained through trade networks in existence at the time of cultivation.

  19. Kant and Rawls on the Cultivation of Virtue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Talbot

    2013-01-01

    In "Two Conceptions of Virtue," Thomas Hill reconstructs the conceptions of virtue, and of proper moral upbringing, found in Kant and Rawls. Here I offer some brief reflections on these conceptions of virtue and its cultivation. I argue that Kant's conception of virtue is grounded in a mistaken conception of desire, and that this…

  20. What quantitative mechanical loading stimulates in vitro cultivation best?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natenstedt, Jerry; Kok, Aimee C.; Dankelman, Jenny; Tuijthof, Gabrielle J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Articular cartilage has limited regeneration capacities. One of the factors that appear to affect the in vitro cultivation of articular cartilage is mechanical stimulation. So far, no combination of parameters has been identified that offers the best results. The goal is to review the literature in

  1. Triple Hybridization with Cultivated Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, R. von; Claesson, L.; Flink, J.

    1989-01-01

    A crossing programme for trispecific hybridization including cultivated barely (Hordeum vulgare L.) as the third parent was carried out. The primary hybrids comprised 11 interspecific combinations, each of which had either H. jabatum or H. lechleri as one of the parents. The second parent...

  2. Cultivation of Schizophyllum commune mushroom on different wood substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.N. Dasanayaka

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Schizophyllum commune is an edible mushroom grown on wood under natural conditions. Present study focused on cultivation of S.commune on different wood substrates since it is not commercially cultivated. A pure culture of S. commune was obtained by growing a tissue of the mushroom on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA medium. Spawns were produced by growing the mycelium on paddy grains. Mushroom was cultivated on sawdust of seven different wood substrates. The maximum yield was observed in sawdust of jackfruit (Artocarpusheterophyllus followed by sawdust of rambutan (Nepheliumlappaceum and country almond (Terminaliacatappa. A significant difference was not observed when mango (Mangiferaindica elephant apple (Dilleniaindica, tulip wood tree (Harpulliaarborea and thungfaa (Alstoniamacrophylla sawdust used as substrate. The lowest yield was observed in thungfaa (Alstoniamacrophylla sawdust. Effect of some additives on the yield was studied and significant difference in yield was observed when rice bran and used-tea leaves used as additives. Effect of rice bran on yield was studied using different ratios of sawdust to rice bran and the highest was observed in 2:1 ratio of sawdust to rice bran. The best incubating temperature for mycelial growth on the substrate was 350C. The composition of the mushroom on a dry weight basis was; 71.4% moisture, 23.35% crude protein and 6% ash. Tested wood species are promising substrates for cultivation of S.communeas cottage industry.

  3. The case for small-scale domestic cannabis cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decorte, Tom

    2010-07-01

    The shift to (inter)regional production, trade and domestic cultivation has become an irreversible international trend. Until now, the focus of most empirical work has been on large-scale, commercially oriented and professionally organized segments of the cannabis industry, often based on police data and on the perspective of law enforcement agencies. This paper offers a review of recent Dutch-language research that focuses on cannabis cultivation. Empirical studies were identified through literature searches using relevant search terms and Web of Science, Elin, Social Science Research Network and Elsevier ScienceDirect. The paper presents the main findings of Dutch and Belgian empirical work on the factors that stimulated the import substitution process on the cannabis market, aspects related to quality and potency issues, typologies of cannabis growers, and (unintended) effects of pursued policies. In the light of this (selective) review the author offers some commentary and analysis concerning the claims made by different stakeholders, and concludes with some reflections on future research and on policy implications. The author outlines the importance of small-scale, independent or ideologically oriented cannabis cultivation as an under-researched market segment. The author also makes a case for greater toleration of small-scale cannabis cultivation, to secure the least worst of cannabis markets. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetic analysis of wild and cultivated germplasm of pigeonpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To compare the efficiency of the use of single versus multiple markers, the genetic diversity was quantified among 12 diverse pigeonpea germplasm comprised of eight wild and four cultivated using both random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and how well these two types ...

  5. Cultivation, isolation and characterization of bacteriocin from fresh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focus on cultivation, isolation and characterization of Bacteriocin from fresh cow milk (FCM) and fresh cow meat (FMS) samples obtained from Lapai Market in Niger State, Nigeria. Potential bacteriocinogenic bacteria were screened with agar diffusion method on culture plates seeded with Staphylococcus and ...

  6. Recent advances in periodontal microbiology: An update on cultivation techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore G Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial members of the subgingival plaque community play a major role in the initiation and progression of periodontal diseases. Majority of these bacteria are anaerobic in nature and several anaerobic systems have been used for their cultivation. Among them anaerobic jars are the most popular and are routinely used for the detection of periodontal pathogens from clinical samples. Despite best efforts, a significant portion of oral microbes have not yet been cultivated and several hypotheses have been put forth to explain this anomaly. This has led to renewed efforts to cultivate the oral bacteria so far identified only by their molecular signatures resulting in improvisation of existing culture techniques and devising novel methods of isolation. Several devices have been used on environmental samples successfully: One method called "minitrap" has been successfully adapted to oral cavity and has shown great promise in isolation of not yet cultivated oral bacterial species. These newer techniques are sure to shed more light on the role of microbes in the etiology of periodontal diseases.

  7. Effects of different cultivation techniques on vineyard fauna

    OpenAIRE

    Mikulas, J.; Kutasi, Cs.; Mark, V.; Balog, A.

    2002-01-01

    Green covering compared to soil cultivation enhanced the number of individuals of Araneae living on or near soil. No differences between the different soil management systems were found for the number of individuals of Staphylinidae and Carabidae. The typical main species of the two systems were different for all groups analyzed (Araneae, Staphylinidae and Carabidae).

  8. Sharing and Cultivating Tacit Knowledge in an Online Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Meng Yew; Karney, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Research on knowledge cultivation often focuses on explicit forms of knowledge. However, knowledge can also take a tacit form--a form that is often difficult or impossible to tease out, even when it is considered critical in an educational context. A review of the literature revealed that few studies have examined tacit knowledge issues in online…

  9. The art of cultivation (på kinesisk)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauxner, Malene

    2007-01-01

     All art forms have their own language. As music has its sound language, ballet has its step language and film has its film language, landscape architecture also has its specific language. As an art of cultivation it has two, which I call an agricultural and a pastoral language corresponding to two...

  10. Bacteria associated with compost used for cultivation of Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacteria involved in an outdoor single phase composting using sawdust and wheat bran as substrates for cultivation of Pleurotus tuber-regium (Fr.) Singer, and Lentinus squarrosulus (Berk.), two Nigerian edible mushrooms were identified. Composting was carried out for 2 weeks. The highest core and peripheral ...

  11. Trends in shifting cultivation and the REDD mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Ole

    2009-01-01

    of the transitions taking place. The proposed mechanism for reduced greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) can be both a challenge and opportunity for shifting cultivators. Very limited literature is available on this dilemma, but a few sources point to benefits from ‘compensated...

  12. Algae Cultivation for Carbon Capture and Utilization Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-05-01

    The Algae Cultivation for Carbon Capture and Utilization Workshop Summary Report summarizes a workshop hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Technologies Office on May 23–24, 2017, in Orlando, Florida. The event gathered stakeholder input through facilitated discussions focused on innovative technologies and business strategies for growing algae on waste carbon dioxide resources.

  13. Cultivation of mushroom ( Pleurotus ostreatus ) using corn cobs and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation was carried out on the cultivation of mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) using corn cobs and saw dust as the main substrates. Lignocellulosic wastes such as corn cobs and saw dust were packaged inside heat – resistant polythene bags and pasteurized before being seeded with 7.5% w/w millet spawn of ...

  14. Cultivation of the microalga, Chlorella pyrenoidosa , in biogas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the microalga was introduced to be cultivated in the biogas wastewater, which could not only bioremediate the wastewater, but also produce plenty of the microalga biomass that could be used for the exploitation of fertilizers, feed additives and biofuels. This study showed that the microalga, C. pyrenoidosa could ...

  15. Parenting Priorities and Pressures: Furthering Understanding of "Concerted Cultivation"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Carol; Maxwell, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This paper re-examines the purposes of a planned and intentional parenting style--"concerted cultivation"--for different middle-class groups, highlighting that social class fraction, ethnicity, and also individual family disposition, guides understandings of the purposes of enrolling children in particular enrichment activities. We…

  16. Closing the water and nutrient cycles in soilless cultivation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerling, E.A.M.; Blok, C.; Maas, van der A.A.; Os, van E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Soilless cultivation systems are common in Dutch greenhouse horticulture, i.e., less than 20% of the greenhouse area is still soil grown. For long, it was assumed that in these so-called closed systems the emission of nutrients and plant protection products (PPPs) was close to zero. However, Water

  17. Pleurotus pulmonarius cultivation on amended palm press fibre waste

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the last few decades, rapid global demand for edible oils has resulted in a significant increase in the land area of oil crop cultivation. In the process of extraction of palm oil from oil palm fruit, biomass materials such as palm pressed fibre (PPF) are generated as waste products. This research was undertaken to evaluate ...

  18. Suitability of Nigerian Weather Conditions for Cultivation of Microalgae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Client

    compared with optimal conditions for cultivation of various species of microalgae. ... The results of average hours of sunshine showed that Jos has the lowest number of hours ... Temperature stratification in ponds within Abakaliki was ... question of how we will feed the starving masses of our ever increasing world population.

  19. Population Dynamics Among six Major Groups of the Oryza rufipogon Species Complex, Wild Relative of Cultivated Asian Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HyunJung; Jung, Janelle; Singh, Namrata; Greenberg, Anthony; Doyle, Jeff J; Tyagi, Wricha; Chung, Jong-Wook; Kimball, Jennifer; Hamilton, Ruaraidh Sackville; McCouch, Susan R

    2016-12-01

    Understanding population structure of the wild progenitor of Asian cultivated rice (O. sativa), the Oryza rufipogon species complex (ORSC), is of interest to plant breeders and contributes to our understanding of rice domestication. A collection of 286 diverse ORSC accessions was evaluated for nuclear variation using genotyping-by-sequencing (113,739 SNPs) and for chloroplast variation using Sanger sequencing (25 polymorphic sites). Six wild subpopulations were identified, with 25 % of accessions classified as admixed. Three of the wild groups were genetically and geographically closely related to the O. sativa subpopulations, indica, aus and japonica, and carried O. sativa introgressions; the other three wild groups were genetically divergent, had unique chloroplast haplotypes, and were located at the geographical extremes of the species range. The genetic subpopulations were significantly correlated (r 2  = 0.562) with traditional species designations, O. rufipogon (perennial) and O. nivara (annual), differentiated based on morphology and life history. A wild diversity panel of 95 purified (inbred) accessions was developed for future genetic studies. Our results suggest that the cultivated aus subpopulation is most closely related to an annual wild relative, japonica to a perennial wild relative, and indica to an admixed population of diverse annual and perennial wild ancestors. Gene flow between ORSC and O. sativa is common in regions where rice is cultivated, threatening the identity and diversity of wild ORSC populations. The three geographically isolated ORSC populations harbor variation rarely seen in cultivated rice and provide a unique window into the genetic composition of ancient rice subpopulations.

  20. Lessons from conducting trans-national Internet-mediated participatory research with hidden populations of cannabis cultivators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Monica J; Potter, Gary R; Wouters, Marije; Wilkins, Chris; Werse, Bernd; Perälä, Jussi; Pedersen, Michael Mulbjerg; Nguyen, Holly; Malm, Aili; Lenton, Simon; Korf, Dirk; Klein, Axel; Heyde, Julie; Hakkarainen, Pekka; Frank, Vibeke Asmussen; Decorte, Tom; Bouchard, Martin; Blok, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Internet-mediated research methods are increasingly used to access hidden populations. The International Cannabis Cultivation Questionnaire (ICCQ) is an online survey designed to facilitate international comparisons into the relatively under-researched but increasingly significant phenomenon of domestic cannabis cultivation. The Global Cannabis Cultivation Research Consortium has used the ICCQ to survey over 6000 cannabis cultivators across 11 countries. In this paper, we describe and reflect upon our methodological approach, focusing on the digital and traditional recruitment methods used to access this hidden population and the challenges of working across multiple countries, cultures and languages. Descriptive statistics showing eligibility and completion rates and recruitment source by country of residence. Over three quarters of eligible respondents who were presented with the survey were included in the final sample of n=6528. English-speaking countries expended more effort to recruit participants than non-English-speaking countries. The most effective recruitment modes were cannabis websites/groups (33%), Facebook (14%) and news articles (11%). While respondents recruited through news articles were older, growing practice variables were strikingly similar between these main recruitment modes. Through this process, we learnt that there are trade-offs between hosting multiple surveys in each country vs. using one integrated database. We also found that although perceived anonymity is routinely assumed to be a benefit of using digital research methodologies, there are significant limits to research participant anonymity in the current era of mass digital surveillance, especially when the target group is particularly concerned about evading law enforcement. Finally, we list a number of specific recommendations for future researchers utilising Internet-mediated approaches to researching hidden populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Species Identity of the Widely Cultivated Ganoderma, ‘G. lucidum’ (Ling-zhi), in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Cun; Xi, Rui-Jiao; Li, Yi; Wang, Dong-Mei; Yao, Yi-Jian

    2012-01-01

    Ling-zhi, a widely cultivated fungus in China, has a long history in traditional Chinese medicine. Although the name ‘Ganoderma lucidum’, a species originally described from England, has been applied to the fungus, their identities are not the same. This study aims to clarify the identity of this medicinally and economically important fungus. Specimens of Ling-zhi from China (field collections and cultivated basidiomata of the Chinese ‘G. lucidum’), G. lucidum from UK and other related Ganoderma species, were examined both morphologically and molecularly. High variability of basidioma morphology was found in the cultivated specimens of the Chinese ‘G. lucidum’, while some microscopic characters were more or less consistent, i.e. short clavate cutis elements, Bovista-type ligative hyphae and strongly echinulate basidiospores. These characters were also found in the holotype of G. sichuanense, a species originally described from Sichuan, China, and in recent collections made in the type locality of the species, which matched the diagnostic characters in the prologue. For comparison, specimens of closely related species, G. lucidum, G. multipileum, G. resinaceum, G. tropicum and G. weberianum, were also examined. DNA sequences were obtained from field collections, cultivated basidiomata and living strains of the Chinese ‘G. lucidum’, specimens from the type locality of G. sichuanense, and specimens of the closely related species studied. Three-gene combined analyses (ITS+IGS+rpb2) were performed and the results indicated that the Chinese ‘G. lucidum’ shared almost identical sequences with G. sichuanense. Based on both morphological and molecular data, the identity of the Chinese ‘G. lucidum’ (Ling-zhi) is considered conspecific with G. sichuanense. Detailed morphological descriptions and illustrations are provided in addition to discussion of nomenclature implications. PMID:22911713

  2. Submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms: bioprocesses and products (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisashvili, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal mushrooms belonging to higher Basidiomycetes are an immensely rich yet largely untapped resource of useful, easily accessible, natural compounds with various biological activities that may promote human well-being. The medicinal properties are found in various cellular components and secondary metabolites (polysaccharides, proteins and their complexes, phenolic compounds, polyketides, triterpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, nucleotides, etc.), which have been isolated and identified from the fruiting bodies, culture mycelium, and culture broth of mushrooms. Some of these compounds have cholesterol-lowering, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, antitumor, immunomodulating, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities ready for industrial trials and further commercialization, while others are in various stages of development. Recently, the submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms has received a great deal of attention as a promising and reproducible alternative for the efficient production of mushroom mycelium and metabolites. Submerged cultivation of mushrooms has significant industrial potential, but its success on a commercial scale depends on increasing product yields and development of novel production systems that address the problems associated with this technique of mushroom cultivation. In spite of many researchers' efforts for the production of bioactive metabolites by mushrooms, the physiological and engineering aspects of submerged cultures are still far from being thoroughly studied. The vast majority of studies have focused on polysaccharide and ganoderic acid production in submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms, and very little has been written so far on the antioxidant and hemagglutinating activity of submerged mushroom cultures. The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the present state of the art and future prospects of submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms to produce mycelium and bioactive metabolites, and to make a

  3. Gene flow and genetic diversity in cultivated and wild cacao (Theobroma cacao) in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumacero de Schawe, Claudia; Durka, Walter; Tscharntke, Teja; Hensen, Isabell; Kessler, Michael

    2013-11-01

    The role of pollen flow within and between cultivated and wild tropical crop species is little known. To study the pollen flow of cacao, we estimated the degree of self-pollination and pollen dispersal distances as well as gene flow between wild and cultivated cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). We studied pollen flow and genetic diversity of cultivated and wild cacao populations by genotyping 143 wild and 86 cultivated mature plants and 374 seedlings raised from 19 wild and 25 cultivated trees at nine microsatellite loci. A principal component analysis distinguished wild and cultivated cacao trees, supporting the notion that Bolivia harbors truly wild cacao populations. Cultivated cacao had a higher level of genetic diversity than wild cacao, presumably reflecting the varied origin of cultivated plants. Both cacao types had high outcrossing rates, but the paternity analysis revealed 7-14% self-pollination in wild and cultivated cacao. Despite the tiny size of the pollinators, pollen was transported distances up to 3 km; wild cacao showed longer distances (mean = 922 m) than cultivated cacao (826 m). Our data revealed that 16-20% of pollination events occurred between cultivated and wild populations. We found evidence of self-pollination in both wild and cultivated cacao. Pollination distances are larger than those typically reported in tropical understory tree species. The relatively high pollen exchange from cultivated to wild cacao compromises genetic identity of wild populations, calling for the protection of extensive natural forest tracts to protect wild cacao in Bolivia.

  4. Blending traditional and digital marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Dania TODOR

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is a matter of fact that we are in the digital era and internet marketing and social media have a significant impact on the way consumers behave, companies do business and it is a must for companies to adapt to the new reality. Due to the fast evolution of the technology, the continuous increase in demand and supply, the supply chain elongation and the big amount of date, the only solution to face the major changes is the automation of all the processes. But even though the new era of communication is here, specialist suggest that companies should not ignore traditional methods, and to try to blend digital marketing with traditional campaigns in order to achieve their goals.

  5. Trust and Traditions in Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQuaid, Sara Dybris

    On New Year’s Eve 2013, months of talks on ‘Dealing with the past’, ‘Flags’ and ‘Parades’ ended without agreement on how to move towards a reconciliation of positions in Northern Ireland. The failure of the talks illustrates the importance of culture and (mis)trust in divided societies, where...... politics often pivot around whose culture shall be official and whose subordinated, whose history shall be remembered and whose forgotten (Jordan and Weedon 1995). These struggles are particularly intense in times of transition where traditions, power relations and frames of relevant remembrance...... are reconfigured. Historically, parading traditions have been important cultural carriers of identity in Northern Ireland. (Jarman 1997). Correspondingly, the marching season has been an arena for politico-cultural struggles and resistance, indexing relations of trust between communities, between society...

  6. [Hygiene between tradition and implementation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansis, M L

    2004-04-01

    The basis of evidence for hygiene rules implemented in hospitals is traditionally small. This is not only because there is little theoretical knowledge on the reciprocal influence between a single hygienic mistake/a single microbial input and the manifestation of a nosocomial infection. There are also not enough clinical studies, especially on complex hygiene questions, to determine whether special measures (e.g., septic rooms)can compensate for deficits in hygiene practice. Furthermore, it would be necessary to designate security buffers distinctly. In-house traditions are able to stabilize hygienic behavior in an excellent manner. They should be fostered and not disparaged as myths. Discussions of experts should not be conducted in public; that is disastrous for the everyday work of physicians in hospitals.

  7. An Online Process Model of Second-Order Cultivation Effects: How Television Cultivates Materialism and Its Consequences for Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrum, L. J.; Lee, Jaehoon; Burroughs, James E.; Rindfleisch, Aric

    2011-01-01

    Two studies investigated the interrelations among television viewing, materialism, and life satisfaction, and their underlying processes. Study 1 tested an online process model for television's cultivation of materialism by manipulating level of materialistic content. Viewing level influenced materialism, but only among participants who reported…

  8. Phylogeography of the wild and cultivated stimulant plant qat (Catha edulis, Celastraceae) in areas of historic cultivation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qat (Catha edulis, Celastraceae) is a woody plant species cultivated for its stimulant alkaloids. Qat is important to the economy and culture in large regions of Ethiopia, Kenya, and Yemen. Despite the importance of this species, the wild origins and dispersal of cultivars have only been described i...

  9. Insomnia in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Feyzabadi, Zohre; Jafari, Farhad; Feizabadi, Parvin Sadat; Ashayeri, Hassan; Esfahani, Mohammad Mahdi; Badiee Aval, Shapour

    2014-01-01

    Context: Insomnia is one of the most prevalent sleep disorders characterized by sleep difficulty that impairs daily functioning and reduces quality of life. The burden of medical, psychiatric, interpersonal, and societal consequences of insomnia expresses the importance of diagnosing and treatment of insomnia. The aim of study was to investigate causes of insomnia from the viewpoint of Iranian traditional medicine. Evidence Acquisition: In this review study, we searched insomnia in a few of t...

  10. Mangghuer Embroidery: A Vanishing Tradition

    OpenAIRE

    Aila Pullinen

    2015-01-01

    Aila Pullinen. 2015. Mangghuer Embroidery: A Vanishing Tradition IN Gerald Roche and CK Stuart (eds) Asian Highlands Perspectives 36: Mapping the Monguor, 178-188, 301-332. Visits were undertaken in the years 2001 and 2002 to Minhe Hui and Mangghuer (Tu) Autonomous County, Haidong Municipality, Qinghai Province, China to research and document Mangghuer embroidery. This research is summarized in terms of the history of Mangghuer embroidery, tools and materials, embroidery techniques, embr...

  11. Insomnia in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyzabadi, Zohre; Jafari, Farhad; Feizabadi, Parvin Sadat; Ashayeri, Hassan; Esfahani, Mohammad Mahdi; Badiee Aval, Shapour

    2014-01-01

    Context: Insomnia is one of the most prevalent sleep disorders characterized by sleep difficulty that impairs daily functioning and reduces quality of life. The burden of medical, psychiatric, interpersonal, and societal consequences of insomnia expresses the importance of diagnosing and treatment of insomnia. The aim of study was to investigate causes of insomnia from the viewpoint of Iranian traditional medicine. Evidence Acquisition: In this review study, we searched insomnia in a few of the most famous ancient textbooks of Iranian traditional medicine from different centuries. This books includeThe Canon of Medicine by Avicenna (the first version of Beirut), Zakhire Kharazmshahi by Jurjani (the scanned version of Bonyade Farhang-e Iran), Malfaregh by Razes (the first version of Iran University of Medical Sciences), and Aqili’s cure by Aqili (the first version of Iran University of Medical Sciences). Results: This study found that in Iranian traditional medicine manuscripts, insomnia was called sahar and even though many factors induce insomnia, most of them act through causing brain dystemperament. Conclusions: The brain dystemperament is considered one of the main causes of insomnia and insomnia can be well managed with an organized line of treatment, by correcting the brain dystemperament through elimination of causes. This study helps to find new solutions to treat insomnia. PMID:24829786

  12. Health traditions of Sikkim Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Panda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ancient medical systems are still prevalent in Sikkim, popularly nurtured by Buddhist groups using the traditional Tibetan pharmacopoeia overlapping with Ayurvedic medicine. Traditional medical practices and their associated cultural values are based round Sikkim′s three major communities, Lepcha, Bhutia and Nepalis. In this study, a semi-structured questionnaire was prepared for folk healers covering age and sex, educational qualification, source of knowledge, types of practices, experience and generation of practice, and transformation of knowledge. These were administered to forty-eight folk healers identified in different parts of Sikkim. 490 medicinal plants find their habitats in Sikkim because of its large variations in altitude and climate. For 31 commonly used by these folk healers, we present botanical name, family, local name, distribution, and parts used, together with their therapeutic uses, mostly Rheumatoid arthritis, Gout, Gonorrhea, Fever, Viral flu, asthma, Cough and Cold, indigestion, Jaundice etc. A case treated by a folk healer is also recounted. This study indicates that, in the studied area, Sikkim′s health traditions and folk practices are declining due to shifts in socio-economic patterns, and unwillingness of the younger generation to adopt folk healing as a profession.

  13. Echinacea plants as antioxidant and antibacterial agents: From traditional medicine to biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi-Rad, Mehdi; Mnayer, Dima; Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana Bezerra; Carneiro, Joara Nályda Pereira; Bezerra, Camila Fonseca; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Salehi, Bahare; Martorell, Miquel; Del Mar Contreras, María; Soltani-Nejad, Azam; Uribe, Yoshie Adriana Hata; Yousaf, Zubaida; Iriti, Marcello; Sharifi-Rad, Javad

    2018-05-10

    The genus Echinacea consists of 11 taxa of herbaceous and perennial flowering plants. In particular, Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench is widely cultivated all over the United States, Canada, and in Europe, exclusively in Germany, for its beauty and reported medicinal properties. Echinacea extracts have been used traditionally as wound healing to improve the immune system and to treat respiratory symptoms caused by bacterial infections. Echinacea extracts have demonstrated antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, and to be safe. This survey aims at reviewing the medicinal properties of Echinacea species, their cultivation, chemical composition, and the potential uses of these plants as antioxidant and antibacterial agents in foods and in a clinical context. Moreover, the factors affecting the chemical composition of Echinacea spp. are also covered. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Research on cultivating medical students' self-learning ability using teaching system integrated with learning analysis technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hong; Wu, Cheng; He, Qian; Wang, Shi-Yong; Ma, Xiu-Qiang; Wang, Ri; Li, Bing; He, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Along with the advancement of information technology and the era of big data education, using learning process data to provide strategic decision-making in cultivating and improving medical students' self-learning ability has become a trend in educational research. Educator Abuwen Toffler said once, the illiterates in the future may not be the people not able to read and write, but not capable to know how to learn. Serving as educational institutions cultivating medical students' learning ability, colleges and universities should not only instruct specific professional knowledge and skills, but also develop medical students' self-learning ability. In this research, we built a teaching system which can help to restore medical students' self-learning processes and analyze their learning outcomes and behaviors. To evaluate the effectiveness of the system in supporting medical students' self-learning, an experiment was conducted in 116 medical students from two grades. The results indicated that problems in self-learning process through this system was consistent with problems raised from traditional classroom teaching. Moreover, the experimental group (using this system) acted better than control group (using traditional classroom teaching) to some extent. Thus, this system can not only help medical students to develop their self-learning ability, but also enhances the ability of teachers to target medical students' questions quickly, improving the efficiency of answering questions in class.

  15. Fast Decline of Pythium zingiberum in Soil and Its Recolonization by Cultivating Susceptible Host Plants

    OpenAIRE

    ICHITANI, Takio; SHIMIZU, Tokiya

    1984-01-01

    This experiment demonstrates the fast decline of Pythium zingiberum in soil and its recolonization by cultivating mioga, susceptible host plant, and discusses growth and survival of the pathogen in the host rhizosphere in cultivated fields.

  16. Reducing the variability of antibiotic production in Streptomyces by cultivation in 24-square deepwell plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebenberg, S.; Bapat, Prashant Madhusudhan; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Highly reproducible production values of the aminocoumarin antibiotic novobiocin were achieved by cultivation of a heterologous Streptomyces producer strain in commercially available square deepwell plates consisting of 24 wells of 3 ml culture volume each. Between parallel cultivation batches...

  17. Modernism and tradition and the traditions of modernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kros Džonatan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventionally, the story of musical modernism has been told in terms of a catastrophic break with the (tonal past and the search for entirely new techniques and modes of expression suitable to a new age. The resulting notion of a single, linear, modernist mainstream (predicated on the basis of a Schoenbergian model of musical progress has served to conceal a more subtle relationship between past and present. Increasingly, it is being recognized that there exist many modernisms and their various identities are forged from a continual renegotiation between past and present, between tradition(s and the avant-garde. This is especially relevant when attempting to discuss the reception of modernism outside central Europe, where the adoption of (Germanic avant-garde attitudes was often interpreted as being "unpatriotic". The case of Great Britain is examined in detail: Harrison Birtwistle’s opera The Mask of Orpheus (1973–83 forms the focus for a wider discussion of modernism within the context of late/post-modern thought.

  18. Scalable cultivation of human pluripotent stem cells on chemically-defined surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, Michael Chi-Wei

    Human stem cells (SCs) are classified as self-renewing cells possessing great ability in therapeutic applications due of their ability to differentiate along any major cell lineage in the human body. Despite their restorative potential, widespread use of SCs is hampered by strenuous control issues. Along with the need for strict xeno-free environments to sustain growth in culture, current methods for growing human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) rely on platforms which impede large-scale cultivation and therapeutic delivery. Hence, any progress towards development of large-scale culture systems is severely hindered. In a concentrated effort to develop a scheme that can serve as a model precursor for large scale SC propagation in clinical use, we have explored methods for cultivating hPSCs on completely defined surfaces. We discuss novel approaches with the potential to go beyond the limitations presented by current methods. In particular, we studied the cultivation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) on surface which underwent synthetic or chemical modification. Current methods for hPSCs rely on animal-based extracellular matrices (ECMs) such as mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) or feeders and murine sacoma cell-derived substrates to facilitate their growth. While these layers or coatings can be used to maximize the output of hPSC production, they cannot be considered for clinical use because they risk introducing foreign pathogens into culture. We have identified and developed conditions for a completely defined xeno-free substrate used for culturing hPSCs. By utilizing coupling chemistry, we can functionalize ester groups on a given surface and conjugate synthetic peptides containing the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif, known for their role in cell adhesion. This method offers advantages over traditional hPSC culture by keeping the modified substrata free of xenogenic response and can be scaled up in

  19. Traditional versus agricultural lifestyle among Shuar women of the Ecuadorian Amazon: effects on leptin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgärde, Folke; Widén, Iréne; Gebb, Miriam; Ahrén, Bo

    2004-10-01

    Leptin is a key biological marker related to energy balance and development of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Its levels are increased in populations with a high degree of the metabolic syndrome. Life history of evolution has, however, largely taken place under the ecological context of hunting and gathering. In this study, we explored whether the first steps of transition to sedentary agriculture involve a change of body composition, plasma leptin concentration, and markers of the metabolic syndrome. A total of 59 healthy Shuar Amerindian women living in 5 isolated communities in the Ecuadorian Amazonian rain forest were examined. Women (n = 33) from the largest and oldest community, Yuwientsa, who are more dependent on agriculture had higher fat mass (11.7 +/- 3.3 v 14.5 +/- 4.0 kg; P = .023) but the same body mass index (24.1 +/- 2.7 v 23.1 +/- 2.8 kg/m2; not significant [NS]) and lean body mass (41.0 +/- 5.0 v 40.2 +/- 6.2 kg; NS) than women (n = 26) from the 4 traditional hunter/gather settlements. Furthermore, women from Yuwientsia had higher leptin (5.5 +/- 3.1 v 4.1 +/- 2.7 ng/mL; P = .021) and plasma insulin levels (49.8 +/- 37.4 v 35.5 +/- 12.7 pmol/L; P = .013). Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) values (8.8 +/- 4.8 v 6.1 +/- 2.2; P = .004) and plasma triglyceride levels (2.3 +/- 1.0 v 1.7 +/- 0.6 mmol/L; P = .025) as markers of the metabolic syndrome were also increased in the Yuwientsa population. Mean plasma glucagon concentrations were not different between the groups. We conclude that body fat and levels of insulin and leptin are higher in the population more dependent on agriculture for living. In fact, the leptin concentrations from the 4 hunter/gather communities are the lowest mean value ever reported from a population of healthy females. As there are no genetic or biologic differences between the Shuar Indians from the 5 communities, we hypothesize that behavioral responses to a changing environment may be the key to the development of

  20. Greatly reduced phylogenetic structure in the cultivated potato clade of potatoes, Solanum section Petota

    Science.gov (United States)

    The species boundaries of wild and cultivated potatoes, Solanum section Petota, are controversial with most of the taxonomic problems in a clade containing cultivated potatoes. We here provide the first in-depth phylogenetic study of the cultivated potato clade to explore possible causes of these pr...

  1. Molecular comparison of cultivable protozoa from a pristine and a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon polluted site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lara, E; Berney, C; Ekelund, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    We compared the abundance and diversity of cultivable protozoa (flagellates and amoebae) in a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) polluted soil and an unpolluted control, by isolating and cultivating clonal strains. The number of cultivable protozoa was higher in the polluted soil; however...

  2. Development of a domestic platn cultivation unit. Kateiyo saibai sochi no gaiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, K. (The Tohoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Sendai (Japan))

    1993-06-15

    This paper describes development and operation evaluation on a domestic plant cultivating unit that can cultivate plants throughout a year by installing a prototype cultivating device effectively utilizing electric power, and controlling the cultivation environments. The prototype plant cultivating device uses trially an air cooling heat pump for general household use with high general-purpose applicability installed in a glass greenhouse with an area of about 10 m[sup 2], similar to those used by orchid lover club members. The device also uses commercially available humidifying and ventilating devices. No household horticultural facilities in cold district have ever used this kind of heat pump. Generally, cultivating environments in glass greenhouses are affected more easily by outside climate change as the greenhouse volume becomes smaller. For this reason, with this small-scale prototype cultivating device, orchids are cultivated to identify cultivating environments, and study technological development on controls over proper year-round cultivation and effective cultivation environments, as well as development and operation evaluation on household plant cultivation devices. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Aboriginal traditional knowledge - panel presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnaby, J. [JB, Consultant, Paris (France); Duiven, M. [Skeena Fisheries Commission, Kispiox, BC (Canada); Garibaldi, A. [Integral Ecology Group, Ltd., Victoria, BC (Canada); McGregor, D. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Geography and Aboriginal Studies, Toronto, ON (Canada); Straker, J. [Integral Ecology Group, Ltd., Victoria, BC (Canada); Patton, P. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Aboriginal peoples in Canada are playing a more active role in land use and resource management decisions around industrial development in their traditional territories and communities. Both indigenous and non-indigenous people are therefore increasing efforts to collaborate in decision-making and to effectively interweave Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge (ATK) and Western knowledge or science. Challenges exist, in part because non-Aboriginal people often find it difficult to define ATK and to understand the differences from Western perspectives. ATK is best defined as a holistic system that involves not only knowledge but principles of conduct and a strong relationship component. Research has focused on approaches to more easily bridge ATK and Western knowledge, through dialogue/negotiation and shared decision-making that is complementary to both. There are some examples of organizations and communities that have achieved success in this bridging of the two forms of knowledge. The Skeena Fisheries Commission (SFC) in British Columbia manages the fish resource in the Skeena Watershed and generates scientific research through links to ATK. The observations of indigenous people about apparent changes in the resource are subjected to scientific assessment, which has led to changes in how fish are caught, and in how and by whom data is collected. Traditional knowledge has also been incorporated into the reclamation of lands and species in Fort McKay, Alberta, an indigenous community whose traditional way of life has been significantly affected by development of the oil sands. New models have been developed to incorporate ATK into long-term planning for land use. This includes using ATK to develop a 50-to 60-year projection of probable future effects from development and to build strategies for achieving a 'desired future landscape.' To plan for post-mining land reclamation projects, another project makes use of cultural keystone species (CKS), through which

  4. Analysis of traditional Tibetan pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesnek, Martin; Štefánik, Milan; Miglierini, Marcel; Kmječ, Tomáš; Sklenka, L'ubomír

    2017-11-01

    Traditional Tibetan medicine starts to be a very popular complementary medicine in USA and Europe. These pills contain many elements essential for the human body. However, they might also contain heavy metals such as mercury, iron, arsenic, etc. This paper focuses on elemental composition of two Tibetan pills and investigation of forms of iron in them. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and neutron activation analysis identified the presence of several heavy metals such as mercury, iron and copper. Mőssbauer spectroscopy revealed the possible presence of α - F e 2 O 3(hematite) and α - F e O O H(goethite) in both of the investigated samples.

  5. Adapting agriculture with traditional knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiderska, Krystyna; Reid, Hannah [IIED, London (United Kingdom); Song, Yiching; Li, Jingsong [Centre for Chinese Agriculutral Policy (China); Mutta, Doris [Kenya Forestry Research Institute (Kenya)

    2011-10-15

    Over the coming decades, climate change is likely to pose a major challenge to agriculture; temperatures are rising, rainfall is becoming more variable and extreme weather is becoming a more common event. Researchers and policymakers agree that adapting agriculture to these impacts is a priority for ensuring future food security. Strategies to achieve that in practice tend to focus on modern science. But evidence, both old and new, suggests that the traditional knowledge and crop varieties of indigenous peoples and local communities could prove even more important in adapting agriculture to climate change.

  6. Tree Ordination as Invented Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avery Morrow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The symbolic ordination of trees as monks in Thailand is widely perceived in Western scholarship to be proof of the power of Buddhism to spur ecological thought. However, a closer analysis of tree ordination demonstrates that it is not primarily about Buddhist teaching, but rather is an invented tradition based on the sanctity of Thai Buddhist symbols as well as those of spirit worship and the monarchy. Tree ordinations performed by non-Buddhist minorities in Thailand do not demonstrate a religious commitment but rather a political one.

  7. Aboriginal traditional knowledge - panel presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnaby, J.; Duiven, M.; Garibaldi, A.; McGregor, D.; Straker, J.; Patton, P.

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal peoples in Canada are playing a more active role in land use and resource management decisions around industrial development in their traditional territories and communities. Both indigenous and non-indigenous people are therefore increasing efforts to collaborate in decision-making and to effectively interweave Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge (ATK) and Western knowledge or science. Challenges exist, in part because non-Aboriginal people often find it difficult to define ATK and to understand the differences from Western perspectives. ATK is best defined as a holistic system that involves not only knowledge but principles of conduct and a strong relationship component. Research has focused on approaches to more easily bridge ATK and Western knowledge, through dialogue/negotiation and shared decision-making that is complementary to both. There are some examples of organizations and communities that have achieved success in this bridging of the two forms of knowledge. The Skeena Fisheries Commission (SFC) in British Columbia manages the fish resource in the Skeena Watershed and generates scientific research through links to ATK. The observations of indigenous people about apparent changes in the resource are subjected to scientific assessment, which has led to changes in how fish are caught, and in how and by whom data is collected. Traditional knowledge has also been incorporated into the reclamation of lands and species in Fort McKay, Alberta, an indigenous community whose traditional way of life has been significantly affected by development of the oil sands. New models have been developed to incorporate ATK into long-term planning for land use. This includes using ATK to develop a 50-to 60-year projection of probable future effects from development and to build strategies for achieving a 'desired future landscape.' To plan for post-mining land reclamation projects, another project makes use of cultural keystone species (CKS), through which

  8. Evaluation of cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activities of wild and cultivated samples of sage (Salvia fruticosa) by activity-guided fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senol, Fatma Sezer; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Erdem, Sinem Aslan; Kartal, Murat; Sener, Bilge; Kan, Yüksel; Celep, Ferhat; Kahraman, Ahmet; Dogan, Musa

    2011-11-01

    In European folk medicine, Salvia species have traditionally been used to enhance memory. In our previous study of 55 Salvia taxa, we explored significant anticholinesterase activity of cultivated S. fruticosa. In this study, we compared the inhibitory activity of dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol extracts of 3 wild-grown samples and 1 cultivated sample of S. fruticosa against acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase enzymes (which are associated with pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease) by using the spectrophotometric Ellman method. Antioxidant activities were assessed by determining 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity, iron-chelating capacity, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power. The dichloromethane extract of the cultivated sample was then subjected to fractionation by using open column chromatography and medium-pressure liquid chromatography to obtain the most active fraction by activity-guided fractionation. All fractions and subfractions were tested in the same manner, and inactive subfractions were discarded. The essential oil of the cultivated sample was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  9. Traditional games in primary school curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Popeska, Biljana; Jovanova-Mitkovska, Snezana

    2017-01-01

    Traditional games are cultural and national heritage. They, cultural and traditional activities transmitted from one generation to another, sharing different movement and cognitive games used in order to educate, to socialize, to share the experience and to influence toward development of young generation. The people create traditional games, and they represent the habits, culture and tradition of countries, region or even a town or village. There are lot of different traditional games. They ...

  10. Heterotrophic cultivation of microalgae for pigment production: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianjun; Nagarajan, Dillirani; Zhang, Quanguo; Chang, Jo-Shu; Lee, Duu-Jong

    Pigments (mainly carotenoids) are important nutraceuticals known for their potent anti-oxidant activities and have been used extensively as high end health supplements. Microalgae are the most promising sources of natural carotenoids and are devoid of the toxic effects associated with synthetic derivatives. Compared to photoautotrophic cultivation, heterotrophic cultivation of microalgae in well-controlled bioreactors for pigments production has attracted much attention for commercial applications due to overcoming the difficulties associated with the supply of CO 2 and light, as well as avoiding the contamination problems and land requirements in open autotrophic culture systems. In this review, the heterotrophic metabolic potential of microalgae and their uses in pigment production are comprehensively described. Strategies to enhance pigment production under heterotrophic conditions are critically discussed and the challenges faced in heterotrophic pigment production with possible alternative solutions are presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cultivation Of Microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris For Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blinová Lenka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Production of biofuel from renewable sources is considered to be one of the most sustainable alternatives to petroleum sourced fuels. Biofuels are also viable means of environmental and economic sustainability. Biofuels are divided into four generations, depending on the type of biomass used for biofuels production. At present, microalgae are presented as an ideal third generation biofuel feedstock because of their rapid growth rate. They also do not compete with food or feed crops, and can be produced on non-arable land. Cultivation conditions (temperature, pH, light, nutrient quantity and quality, salinity, aerating are the major factors that influence photosynthesis activity and behaviour of the microalgae growth rate. In this paper, we present an overview about the effect of cultivation conditions on microalgae growth.

  12. Cultivation and Stimulation of the English Learning Motivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马茹

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, more and more researches show that we should pay more attention to students to play a main role in English study, because students who get the final effect on English learning motivation play central role in numerous students' learning affected factors. Therefore, in the education teaching activities, many teachers regard learning motivation of English effect as important aspect and use it in teaching through different ways and methods to cultivate and motivate students to learn English motivation. According to the definition of learning motivation,combined with the modern middle school students’English study, such as, the current situation of teachers' teaching, the actual situation of the relationship between teach-ers and students to talk about encouraging and educating high school students in English learning motivation by means and methods, in order to culti-vate and stimulate students`English learning motivation and improve English teaching level.

  13. Cultivation characteristics of immobilized Aspergillus oryzae for kojic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, M Y; Rhee, J S

    1992-04-15

    Aspergillus oryzae in situ grown from spores entrapped in calcium alginate gel beads was used for the production of kojic acid. The immobilized cells in flask cultures produced kojic acid in a linear proportion while maintaining the stable metabolic activity for a prolonged production period. Kojic acid was accumulated up to a high concentration of 83 g/L, at which the kojic acid began to crystallize, and, thus, the culture had to be replaced with fresh media for the next batch culture. The overall productivities of two consecutive cultivations were higher than that of free mycelial fermentation. However, the production rate of kojic acid by the immobilized cells was suddenly decreased with the appearance of central cavernae inside the immobilized gel beads after 12 days of the third batch cultivation.

  14. The cultivable autochthonous microbiota of the critically endangered Northern bald ibis (Geronticus eremita)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loncaric, Igor; Tichy, Alexander; Fritz, Johannes; Scope, Alexandra

    2018-01-01

    The critically endangered Northern bald ibis (Geronticus eremita) is a migratory bird that became extinct in Europe centuries ago. Since 2014, the Northern bald ibis is subject to an intensive rehabilitation and conservation regime aiming to reintroduce the bird in its original distribution range in Central Europe and concurrently to maintain bird health and increase population size. Hitherto, virtually nothing is known about the microbial communities associated with the ibis species; an information pivotal for the veterinary management of these birds. Hence, the present study was conducted to provide a baseline description of the cultivable microbiota residing in the Northern bald ibis. Samples derived from the choana, trachea, crop and cloaca were examined employing a culturomic approach in order to identify microbes at each sampling site and to compare their frequency among age classes, seasonal appearances and rearing types. In total, 94 microbial species including 14 potentially new bacterial taxa were cultivated from the Northern bald ibis with 36, 58 and 59 bacterial species isolated from the choana, crop and cloaca, respectively. The microbiota of the Northern bald ibis was dominated by members of the phylum Firmicutes, followed by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Fusobacteria, altogether phylotypes commonly observed within avian gut environments. Differences in relative abundances of various microbial taxa were evident among sample types indicating mucosa-specific colonisation properties and tissue tropism. Besides, results of the present study indicate that the composition of microbiota was also affected by age, season (environment) and rearing type. While the prevalence of traditional pathogenic microbial species was extremely low, several opportunists including Clostridium perfringens toxotype A were frequently present in samples indicating that the Northern bald ibis may represent an important animal reservoir for these pathogens. In

  15. Impact of different soil cultivation on weed species in winter rape (oilseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Winkler

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A community of weeds and crops is affected by a number of factors, including, among other things, also tillage. In the years 2000–2002, the composition of weed species in rape stands was evaluated on the fields with the total area of 551 hectares (1 hectar equals to some 2.47 acres. The evaluation was carried out with the application of methodology developed by Kühn (1982. On the fields located in the cadastral area of Olomouc – Holice, which had been cultivated in a traditional manner, 115 relevés were recorded. On the fields in the cadastral area of Bohuňovice, which had been cultivated with the application of reduced tillage, 97 relevés were recorded and evaluated. All of the above fields were subjected to the application of chemical agents reducing the occurrence of weeds. The data thus received were processed by means of multidimensional analysis of ecological data with the application of a RDA method (Redundancy Analysis. In the course of three years, 75 weed species were found on the fields under conventional tillage, on the average, 8.2 species per a relevé, while 66 weed species were found during the same period of time on the fields cultivated by means of reduced tillage, on the average, 8.6 species per a relevé. The application of RDA analysis enabled us to sort out the selected species of weeds (i.e. those the frequency of occurrence of which exceeded 15 % into three groups. The conditions provided by the conventional tillage appeared to be more satisfactory for the weed species included in the first group (Arctium tomentosum, Elytrigia repens, Helianthus tuberosus, Chenopodium album, Lolium perenne and Papaver rhoeas. The species included in the second group, i.e. Alsinula media, Apera spica-venti, Atriplex patula, Bromus sterilis, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Equisetum arvense, Fallopia convolvulus, Myosotis arvensis and Thlaspi arvense., responded to reduced tillage by the increase in cover or by increased frequency of

  16. Genetic diversity, population structure, and traditional culture of Camellia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Tong; Huang, Weijuan; De Riek, Jan; Zhang, Shuang; Ahmed, Selena; Van Huylenbroeck, Johan; Long, Chunlin

    2017-11-01

    Camellia reticulata is an arbor tree that has been cultivated in southwestern China by various sociolinguistic groups for esthetic purposes as well as to derive an edible seed oil. This study examined the influence of management, socio-economic factors, and religion on the genetic diversity patterns of Camellia reticulata utilizing a combination of ethnobotanical and molecular genetic approaches. Semi-structured interviews and key informant interviews were carried out with local communities in China's Yunnan Province. We collected plant material ( n  = 190 individuals) from five populations at study sites using single-dose AFLP markers in order to access the genetic diversity within and between populations. A total of 387 DNA fragments were produced by four AFLP primer sets. All DNA fragments were found to be polymorphic (100%). A relatively high level of genetic diversity was revealed in C. reticulata samples at both the species ( H sp  = 0.3397, I sp  = 0.5236) and population (percentage of polymorphic loci = 85.63%, H pop  = 0.2937, I pop  = 0.4421) levels. Findings further revealed a relatively high degree of genetic diversity within C. reticulata populations (Analysis of Molecular Variance = 96.31%). The higher genetic diversity within populations than among populations of C. reticulata from different geographies is likely due to the cultural and social influences associated with its long cultivation history for esthetic and culinary purposes by diverse sociolinguistic groups. This study highlights the influence of human management, socio-economic factors, and other cultural variables on the genetic and morphological diversity of C. reticulata at a regional level. Findings emphasize the important role of traditional culture on the conservation and utilization of plant genetic diversity.

  17. Comparisons of Herbicide Treated and Cultivated Herbicide-Resistant Corn

    OpenAIRE

    H. Arnold Bruns; Hamed K. Abbas

    2010-01-01

    Four glyphosate resistant corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids, a glufosinate-ammonium resistant hybrid, and a conventional atrazine resistant hybrid gown at Stoneville, MS in 2005, 2006, and 2007 with furrow irrigation were treated with their respective herbicides and their growth, yield, and mycotoxin incidence were compared with untreated cultivated plots. Leaf area index (LAI) and dry matter accumulation (DMA) were collected on a weekly basis beginning at growth stage V3 and terminating at anthesi...

  18. Sunflowers. Cultivation, processing, economic aspects. Sonnenblumen. Anbau, Verfahrenstechnik, Wirtschaftlichkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindemann, K [Landwirtschaftsschule, Alzey (Germany, F.R.); Hunger, A [Landes-, Lehr- und Forschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Weinbau und Gartenbau, Neustadt (Germany, F.R.); Weickel, J [Landespflanzenschutzamt Rheinland-Pfalz, Mainz (Germany, F.R.)

    1988-01-01

    Sunflowers are cultivated throughout the world, primarily for oil extraction but also as a birdseed, for eating, or for backing. Although some attempts have been made, they are hardly ever used as green fodder. Sunflowers grown for oil extraction usually have thin-shelled, black seeds. They have an oil fraction of 40 to 50% and a protein fraction of more than 20%. Sunflowers for other uses have large seeds with thick, striped shells. Their oil fraction is between 25 and 30%. (orig.).

  19. Nysius cymoides (Spinola on Chenopodium quinoa Willd. cultivated in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bocchi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Family: Amaranthaceae – APG classification is an Andean grain recently introduced on the European market and cultivated in experimental fields. In one of these experimental fields, in San Giorgio Piacentino (Italy, a heavy bug infestation was observed. The species was identified as Nysius cymoides (Spinola (Heteroptera Lygaeidae, a polyphagous species known as a pest of different crops. It occurs in the Mediterranean area from the sea level to the alpine meadows.

  20. Expanded algal cultivation can reverse key planetary boundary transgressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Calahan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Humanity is degrading multiple ecosystem services, potentially irreversibly. Two of the most important human impacts are excess agricultural nutrient loading in our fresh and estuarine waters and excess carbon dioxide in our oceans and atmosphere. Large-scale global intervention is required to slow, halt, and eventually reverse these stresses. Cultivating attached polyculture algae within controlled open-field photobioreactors is a practical technique for exploiting the ubiquity and high primary productivity of algae to capture and recycle the pollutants driving humanity into unsafe regimes of biogeochemical cycling, ocean acidification, and global warming. Expanded globally and appropriately distributed, algal cultivation is capable of removing excess nutrients from global environments, while additionally sequestering appreciable excess carbon. While obviously a major capital and operational investment, such a project is comparable in magnitude to the construction and maintenance of the global road transportation network. Beyond direct amelioration of critical threats, expanded algal cultivation would produce a major new commodity flow of biomass, potentially useful either as a valuable organic commodity itself, or used to reduce the scale of the problem by improving soils, slowing or reversing the loss of arable land. A 100 year project to expand algal cultivation to completely recycle excess global agricultural N and P would, when fully operational, require gross global expenses no greater than $2.3 × 1012 yr−1, (3.0% of the 2016 global domestic product and less than 1.9 × 107 ha (4.7 × 107 ac, 0.38% of the land area used globally to grow food. The biomass generated embodies renewable energy equivalent to 2.8% of global primary energy production.

  1. College English Students’ Autonomous Learning Motivation and Cultivation Model Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳荣; 李娥

    2015-01-01

    Studying the autonomous learning motivation and excitation model can stimulate intrinsic motivation of foreign language learners,develop students self-management strategy evaluation are very necessary.The purpose of this paper is to give students the skills of listening and speaking for their autonomous learning.Then study the cultivation and motivation of college English students autonomous learning,hoping to make students to learn autonomous learning and stimulate their motivation fully.

  2. Establishment and cultivation of the radiation safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhigang; Fan Yumao

    2010-01-01

    Safety culture is the cure of the corporate culture for nuclear technology application unit's. This article introduces the definition, connotation and levels of safety culture, and discusses the requirements of safety culture for organization and individuals in the area of technology application. Finally, key practical issues for the cultivation of safety culture are explained and some ideas about the construction of safety culture are proposed. (authors)

  3. Genetically modified organisms authorized for cultivation and breeding in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana V Matveeva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: In July 2016 the State Duma adopted the Federal Law “On Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation in terms of improving the state regulation in the field of genetic engineering” (03.07.2016 N 358-FL. This review is devoted to the analysis of Article 4 of the Act, namely the discussion of what GMOs may be authorized for cultivation and breeding in Russia.

  4. [Prevention of soil deterioration during cultivation of medicinal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lan-ping; Huang, Lu-qi; Jiang, You-xu; Lv, Dong-mei

    2006-05-01

    This paper summarized the aspects of the soil deterioration due to continuous growth of medicinal plants, such as nutrition insufficient, pH variation, harmful salt accumulating, harmful microbe and allelopathic substance increasing, soil physics and chemistry properties variation. And the ways to prevent and rehabilitate the deteriorated soil was indicated, which included anti-adversity species selecting, scientific management such as whorl cropping, nutrient elements supplement, usage of physical methods, nutrient liquid cultivating and VAM inoculating etc.

  5. Effects of Aeration of Sawdust Cultivation Bags on Hyphal Growth of Lentinula edodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwa-Yong; Ham, Eun-Ju; Yoo, Young-Jin; Kim, Eui-Sung; Shim, Kyu-Kwang; Kim, Myung-Kon; Koo, Chang-Duck

    2012-09-01

    The effects of aeration through lid filters on the hyphal growth of Lentinula edodes (oak mushroom) in sawdust cultivation bags were investigated. The aeration treatment levels were traditional 27 mm hole cotton plugs, cotton balls and combinations of seven hole sizes × two hole positions (up and under) in the lids covering plastic bags containing 1.4 kg sawdust medium at 63% moisture that had been autoclaved for one hour and inoculated with sawdust spawn of L. edodes strain 921. Aeration treatment effects were measured based on the CO(2) concentration at the 15th wk, as well as the hyphal growth rate and degree of weight loss of bags every 14 days for 15 wk. In bags with traditional cotton plugs, the CO(2) concentration was 3.8 ± 1.3%, daily mean hyphal growth was 2.3 ± 0.6 mm and daily mean weight loss was 0.84 ± 0.26 g. In the bags with 15 mm diameter holes, the CO(2) concentration was 6.0 ± 1.6%, daily hyphal growth was 2.8 ± 0.2 mm and daily weight loss was 0.86 ± 0.4 g. The bags with 15 mm holes had a higher CO(2) concentration and lower water loss than bags with other hole sizes, but the hyphal growth was not significantly different from that of other bags. The weight loss of bags increased proportionally relative to the lid hole sizes. Taken together, these results indicate that traditional cotton plugs are economically efficient, but 15 mm hole lids are the most efficient at maintaining hyphal growth and controlling water loss while allowing CO(2) emissions.

  6. Radiopasteurization of traditional herbal medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilmy, N; Suryasaputra, C [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre

    1981-04-01

    Investigation on the effects of irradiation using pasteurization dose of 500 krad (5kGy) on microbes contaminating traditional herbal medicine, produced by 3 large manufacturers in Indonesia, was carried out. Storage effects on microbial count moisture content of traditional herbal medicine packed in microbe tight packages, were also observed. The results showed that initial bacterial counts varied between 10/sup 4/ and 10/sup 8/ per gram, and mould and yeast counts varied between 0 and 10/sup 5/ per gram. These numbers decreased as much as 2 to 5 log cycles after irradiation with 500 krad. After 6 month storage, bacterial counts of irradiated samples decreased as much as 0 to 10/sup 3/ per gram. Initial moisture content varied from 5 to 12% and after 6 month storage the moisture content of most samples increased as much as 0 to 5%. Irradiated samples were found to be mould free, and most of the surviving microbes consisted of spore forming aerobic bacteria and yeast.

  7. Radiopasteurization of traditional herbal medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmy, Nazly; Suryasaputra, C.

    1981-01-01

    Investigation on the effects of irradiation using pasteurization dose of 500 krad (5kGy) on microbes contaminating traditional herbal medicine, produced by 3 large manufacturers in Indonesia, was carried out. Storage effects on microbial count moisture content of traditional herbal medicine packed in microbe tight packages, were also observed. The results showed that initial bacterial counts varied between 10 4 and 10 8 per gram, and mould and yeast counts varied between 0 and 10 5 per gram. These numbers decreased as much as 2 to 5 log cycles after irradiation with 500 krad. After 6 month storage, bacterial counts of irradiated samples decreased as much as 0 to 10 3 per gram. Initial moisture content varied from 5 to 12% and after 6 month storage the moisture content of most samples increased as much as 0 to 5%. Irradiated samples were found to be mould free, and most of the surviving microbes consisted of spore forming aerobic bacteria and yeast. (author)

  8. Digesters in traditional Persian medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudpour, Zeinab; Shirafkan, Hoda; Mojahedi, Morteza; Gorji, Narjes; Mozaffarpur, Seyyed Ali

    2018-01-01

    Background: Functional gastrointestinal diseases are common in general populations and comprise more than 40% visits to gastroenterologists. Treatment options of gastrointestinal diseases have been limited. There are a few medications for functional gastrointestinal diseases and some of medications are not available in the market or in the place where the patient lives. Traditional Persian medicine (TPM) is a branch of alternative and traditional medicine based on individual viewpoint and humoral theory, focuses on lifestyle modification and uses natural products to manage the patients. Methods: In this study, a set of compound drugs known as digesters (jawarishes) and other applications are described based on main TPM text books. Results: Jawarishes have different formulations containing various medicinal herbs used for better food digestion and improved gastric functions and also used for other disorders including reinforcing the brain, heart, liver and some therapeutic approaches. Conclusions: By reviewing medieval Persian pharmaceutical manuscripts, we can conclude that many herbs are effective in different systems of the body and improve gastric functions. Zingiber officinalis and Piper nigrum are mixed together to get various formulations. The variety of jawarishes formulations and their different clinical applications can indicate continuity of their use. PMID:29387312

  9. TRADITIONAL FERMENTED FOODS OF LESOTHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tendekayi H. Gadaga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the traditional methods of preparing fermented foods and beverages of Lesotho. Information on the preparation methods was obtained through a combination of literature review and face to face interviews with respondents from Roma in Lesotho. An unstructured questionnaire was used to capture information on the processes, raw materials and utensils used. Four products; motoho (a fermented porridge, Sesotho (a sorghum based alcoholic beverage, hopose (sorghum fermented beer with added hops and mafi (spontaneously fermented milk, were found to be the main fermented foods prepared and consumed at household level in Lesotho. Motoho is a thin gruel, popular as refreshing beverage as well as a weaning food. Sesotho is sorghum based alcoholic beverage prepared for household consumption as well as for sale. It is consumed in the actively fermenting state. Mafi is the name given to spontaneously fermented milk with a thick consistency. Little research has been done on the technological aspects, including the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of fermented foods in Lesotho. Some of the traditional aspects of the preparation methods, such as use of earthenware pots, are being replaced, and modern equipment including plastic utensils are being used. There is need for further systematic studies on the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of these these products.

  10. Integrated mangrove-shrimp cultivation: Potential for blue carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nesar; Thompson, Shirley; Glaser, Marion

    2018-05-01

    Globally, shrimp farming has had devastating effects on mangrove forests. However, mangroves are the most carbon-rich forests, with blue carbon (i.e., carbon in coastal and marine ecosystems) emissions seriously augmented due to devastating effects on mangrove forests. Nevertheless, integrated mangrove-shrimp cultivation has emerged as a part of the potential solution to blue carbon emissions. Integrated mangrove-shrimp farming is also known as organic aquaculture if deforested mangrove area does not exceed 50% of the total farm area. Mangrove destruction is not permitted in organic aquaculture and the former mangrove area in parts of the shrimp farm shall be reforested to at least 50% during a period of maximum 5 years according to Naturland organic aquaculture standards. This article reviews integrated mangrove-shrimp cultivation that can help to sequester blue carbon through mangrove restoration, which can be an option for climate change mitigation. However, the adoption of integrated mangrove-shrimp cultivation could face several challenges that need to be addressed in order to realize substantial benefits from blue carbon sequestration.

  11. The utilization of ultisol soil for horticulture crops cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumono; Parinduri, SM; Huda, N.; Ichwan, N.

    2018-02-01

    Ultisol soil is a marginal soil commonly used for palm oil cultivation in Indonesia, its very potential for cultivation of horticulture crops. The utilization of ultisol soil can be done with adding compost with certain proportions. The research aimed to know best proportion of ultisol soil and compost, and proportion of water concentration, and its relationship with fresh and dry weight of horticulture crops . The research was divided 3 steps. The first, mixed ultisol soil and compost with certain proportion and flooding until steady. The second, watering with different concentration to soil mixture. The last, studied its relationship with fresh and dry weight of crops. The result show that physical properties and nutrient content of ultisol soil was increasing with adding compost. SC4 (70% soil and 30% compost) is the best composition to soil mixture. Watering with different concentration show that trend decreased from reference and the bulk density and porosity decreased not significantly at the significant level ∝ = 0.05. Watering affect mass of pakcoynot significantly at the significant level ∝ = 0.05. Hence, ultisol soil was a potential marginal soil to utilizing as a media for cultivating horticulture crops.

  12. Cultivation Techniques and Medicinal Properties of Pleurotus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Gregori

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Pleurotus (oyster mushroom comprises some most popular edible mushrooms due to their favourable organoleptic and medicinal properties, vigorous growth and undemanding cultivation conditions. It can be cultivated on log and a wide variety of agroforestry (by-products, weeds and wastes for the production of food, feed, enzymes and medicinal compounds, or for waste degradation and detoxification. Many different techniques and substrates have been successfully utilized for mushroom cultivation and biomass production by means of solid-state and submerged liquid fermentation. However, in contrast to submerged liquid fermentation, solid-state fermentation is not often used in large scale due to severe engineering problems. Various Pleurotus species have been shown to possess a number of medicinal properties, such as antitumour, immunomodulatory, antigenotoxic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolaemic, antihypertensive, antiplatelet-aggregating, antihyperglycaemic, antimicrobial and antiviral activities. These therapeutic activities are exhibited by extracts or isolated compounds from Pleurotus spp. fermentation broth, mycelia and fruiting bodies. In particular, polysaccharides appear to be potent antitumour and immuno-enhancing substances, besides possessing other beneficial activities. However, the biochemical mechanisms of these therapeutic activities still remain largely unknown. This review focuses on recent advances in the biotechnology of Pleurotus spp., with emphasis on the production of fruiting bodies, the production of mycelium and bioactive compounds by solid-state and submerged liquid fermentation. The medicinal properties of this mushroom are also outlined.

  13. Sustainable cultivation of broadleaved trees in a recycling community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christersson, L.

    1996-01-01

    In the future, with problems of global warming and acidification and with an increasing need to recirculate wastes of the community in an ecologically acceptable and economically sound manner, the cultivation of broadleaved species (birch, aspen, poplar, alder and willow in particular) on suitable forest land and on former agricultural land is of utmost interest if following the recycling philosophy. The wood produced could be used primarily for short fibres and for energy. Also of interest is the production of methanol, biogas and electricity, chipboard and laminates, in the context of a forest industry concerned with the further development of the raw materials. The main advantages of cultivating fast-growing, broadleaved trees on former agricultural land are that: * in Sweden it has been shown possible to produce 10-12 tonnes of dry matter of woody biomass per hectare and year by cultivating willows and hybrid poplars, * in such plantations, the energy efficiency ratio will be 1 to 15-20, meaning that for every energy unit used, 15-20 can be harvested, and * some residual products from society, such as sludges, ashes, and wastewaters can be used as fertilizers in such plantations. 16 refs

  14. In vitro cultivation of Gymnophalloides seoi metacercariae (Digenea:Gymnophallidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kook, J; Lee, S H; Chai, J Y

    1997-03-01

    Gymnophalloides seoi is a human intestinal trematode prevalent on southwestern islands in Korea. In the present study, we investigated whether G. seoi metacercariae can grow and develop into adults by in vitro cultivation. The metacercariae were obtained from naturally infected oysters, and cultured in vitro for 5 days under three conditions; 37 degrees C/5% CO2, 41 degrees C/8% CO2, or 41 degrees C/5% CO2, in NCTC 109 complete media containing 20% FBS and 1% antibiotics-antimycotics. The degree of worm growth and development was compared with that grown in vivo of C3H mice. The length of the worms cultivated in vitro was 200-300 microns not significantly different from metacercariae, whereas the length of the worms recovered from C3H mice was significantly larger, 300-400 microns. The worms produced eggs when grown in C3H mice or cultured in vitro for 2 days under 41 degrees C/8% CO2 or 41 degrees C/5% CO2, but not when cultured under 37 degrees C/5% CO2. Among the in vitro conditions, 41 degrees C/5% CO2 was best for egg production, although the number of eggs was about half of worms obtained from C3H mice. In conclusion, in vitro cultivation of G. seoi metacercariae into egg-producing adults was partially successful under culture conditions of 41 degrees C/5% CO2 or 41 degrees C/8% CO2.

  15. [Study on High-yield Cultivation Measures for Arctii Fructus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shi-yong; Jiang, Xiao-bo; Wang, Tao; Sun, Ji-ye; Hu, Shang-qin; Zhang, Li

    2015-02-01

    To find out the high yield cultivation measures for Arctii Fructus. Completely randomized block experiment design method was used in the field planting, to analyze the effect of different cultivation way on agronomic characters, phenological phase,quality and quantity of Arctii Fructus. Arctium lappa planted on August 28 had the best results of plant height, thousand seeds weight and yield. The highest yield of Arctii Fructus was got at the density of 1,482 plants/667 m2. Arctiin content was in an increase trend with the planting time delay and planting density increasing. The plant height, thousand seeds weight, yield and arctiin content by split application of fertilizer were significantly higher than that by one-time fertilization. Compared with open field Arctium lappa, plant height, yield, arctiin content and relative water content of plastic film mulching Arctium lappa was higher by 7.74%, 10.87%, 6.38% and 24.20%, respectively. In the topping Arctium lappa, the yield was increased by 11.09%, with 39. 89% less branching number. Early planting time and topping shortened the growth cycle of Arctium lappa plant. The high-yield cultivation measures of Arctii Fructus are: around August 28 to sowing, planting density of 1 482 plants/667 m2, split application of fertilizer for four times, covering film on surface of the soil and topping in bolting.

  16. Use of diluted urine for cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaatinen, Sanna; Lakaniemi, Aino-Maija; Rintala, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to study the biomass growth of microalga Chlorella vulgaris using diluted human urine as a sole nutrient source. Batch cultivations (21 days) were conducted in five different urine dilutions (1:25-1:300), in 1:100-diluted urine as such and with added trace elements, and as a reference, in artificial growth medium. The highest biomass density was obtained in 1:100-diluted urine with and without additional trace elements (0.73 and 0.60 g L(-1), respectively). Similar biomass growth trends and densities were obtained with 1:25- and 1:300-diluted urine (0.52 vs. 0.48 gVSS L(-1)) indicating that urine at dilution 1:25 can be used to cultivate microalgal based biomass. Interestingly, even 1:300-diluted urine contained sufficiently nutrients and trace elements to support biomass growth. Biomass production was similar despite pH-variation from < 5 to 9 in different incubations indicating robustness of the biomass growth. Ammonium formation did not inhibit overall biomass growth. At the beginning of cultivation, the majority of the biomass consisted of living algal cells, while towards the end, their share decreased and the estimated share of bacteria and cell debris increased.

  17. Weed infestation of onion in soil reduced cultivation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Błażej-Woźniak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted in the years 1998-2000 in GD Felin. The influence of no-tillage cultivation and conventional tillage with spring ploughing on weed infestation of onion was compared. In experiment four cover crop mulches (Sinapis alba L., Vicia sativa L., Phacelia tanacetifolia B., Avena sativa L. were applied. From annual weeds in weed infestation of onion in great number Matricaria chamomilla L., and Senecio vulgaris L. stepped out. and from perennial - Agropyron repens (L.P.B. Reduced soil cultivation system (no-tillage caused the significant growth of primary weed infestation of onion in comparison with conventional tillage. In all years of investigations the executed pre-sowing ploughing limited significantly the annual weeds' number in primary weed infestation. The applied mulches from cover plants limited in considerable degree the number of primary weed infestation. In all years of investigations the most weeds stepped out on control object. Among investigated cover crop mulches Vicia sativa L. and Avena sativa L. had a profitable effect on decrease of onion`s primary weed infestation. Soil cultivation system and cover crop mulches had no signi ficant residual influence on the secondary weed infestation of onion.

  18. Degradation Processes of Pesticides Used in Potato Cultivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurek, M; Barchańska, H; Turek, M

    Potato is one of the most important crops, after maize, rice and wheat. Its global production is about 300 million tons per year and is constantly increasing. It grows in temperate climate and is used as a source of starch, food, and in breeding industry.Potato cultivation requires application of numerous agro-technical products, including pesticides, since it can be affected by insects, weeds, fungi, and viruses. In the European Union the most frequently used pesticides in potato cultivations check are: thiamethoxam, lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin (insecticides), rimsulfuron (herbicide) and metalaxyl (fungicide).Application of pesticides improves crop efficiency, however, as pesticides are not totally selective, it affects also non-target organisms. Moreover, the agrochemicals may accumulate in crops and, as a consequence, negatively influence the quality of food products and consumer health. Additional risks of plant protection products are related to their derivatives, that are created both in the environment (soil, water) and in plant organisms, since many of these compounds may exhibit toxic effects.This article is devoted to the degradation processes of pesticides used in potato crop protection. Attention is also paid to the toxicity of both parent compounds and their degradation products for living organisms, including humans. Information about the level of pesticide contamination in the environment (water, soil) and accumulation level in edible plants complement the current knowledge about the risks associated with widespread use of thiamethoxam, lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin, rimsulfuron and metalaxyl in potato cultivation.

  19. Physiological and agronomical responses of Syrah grapevine under protected cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rita de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of Syrah grapevine under protected cultivation with different plastic films was evaluated during 2012 and 2013 seasons in South of Minas Gerais State. Agronomical and physiological measurements were done on eight years old grapevines, grafted onto ‘1103 Paulsen’ rootstock cultivated under uncovered conditions, covered with transparent and with diffuse plastic films. Both plastic covers induced the highest shoot growth rate and specific leaf area. The diffuse plastic induced greater differences on leaf area, pruning weight and leaf chlorophyll content as compared to uncovered vines. Grapevines under diffuse plastic also had the lowest rates of photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration. Leaf starch, glucose and fructose contents were not affected by treatment, but leaf sucrose was reduced by transparent plastic. The leaf and stem water potential were higher under diffuse plastic. In 2013, grapevines under diffuse plastic showed the highest yields mainly due to decreased rot incidence and increased cluster weight. Furthermore, berries under diffuse plastic showed the highest anthocyanins concentration. The use of diffuse plastic induces more agronomical benefits to produce Syrah grape under protected cultivation.

  20. Recycling produced water for algal cultivation for biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, Justin N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sullivan, Enid J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dean, Cynthia A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steichen, Seth A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-09

    Algal growth demands a continuous source of water of appropriate salinity and nutritional content. Fresh water sources are scarce in the deserts of the Southwestern United States, hence, salt water algae species are being investigated as a renewable biofuel source. The use of produced water from oil wells (PW) could offset the demand for fresh water in cultivation. Produced water can contain various concentrations of dissolved solids, metals and organic contaminants and often requires treatment beyond oil/water separation to make it suitable for algae cultivation. The produced water used in this study was taken from an oil well in Jal, New Mexico. An F/2-Si (minus silica) growth media commonly used to cultivate Nannochloropsis salina 1776 (NS 1776) was prepared using the produced water (F/2-Si PW) taking into account the metals and salts already present in the water. NS 1776 was seeded into a bioreactor containing 5L of the (F/2-Si PW) media. After eleven days the optical density at 750 nm (an indicator of algal growth) increased from 0 to 2.52. These results indicate algae are able to grow, though inhibited when compared with non-PW media, in the complex chemical conditions found in produced water. Savings from using nutrients present in the PW, such as P, K, and HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, results in a 44.38% cost savings over fresh water to mix the F/2-Si media.

  1. Use of cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques to assess contamination of central venous catheters: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Høiby Niels

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Catheters are the most common cause of nosocomial infections and are associated with increased risk of mortality, length of hospital stay and cost. Prevention of infections and fast and correct diagnosis is highly important. Methods In this study traditional semiquantitative culture-dependent methods for diagnosis of bacteria involved in central venous catheter-related infections as described by Maki were compared with the following culture-independent molecular biological methods: Clone libraries, denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis, phylogeny and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Results In accordance with previous studies, the cultivation of central venous catheters from 18 patients revealed that S. epidermidis and other coagulase-negative staphylococci were most abundant and that a few other microorganisms such as P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae occasionally were found on the catheters. The molecular analysis using clone libraries and sequencing, denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing provided several important results. The species found by cultivation were confirmed by molecular methods. However, many other bacteria belonging to the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were also found, stressing that only a minor portion of the species present were found by cultivation. Some of these bacteria are known to be pathogens, some have not before been described in relation to human health, and some were not closely related to known pathogens and may represent new pathogenic species. Furthermore, there was a clear difference between the bacterial species found in biofilm on the external (exluminal and internal (luminal side of the central venous catheter, which can not be detected by Maki's method. Polymicrobial biofilms were observed on most of the catheters and were much more common than the cultivation-dependent methods indicated. Conclusion The results show that diagnosis

  2. [Effects of different cultivation patterns on soil aggregates and organic carbon fractions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiao-Lei; Zong, Liang-Gang; Liu, Yi-Fan; Du, Xia-Fei; Luo, Min; Wang, Run-Chi

    2015-03-01

    Combined with the research in an organic farm in the past 10 years, differences of soil aggregates composition, distribution and organic carbon fractions between organic and conventional cultivation were studied by simultaneous sampling analysis. The results showed that the percentages of aggregates (> 1 mm, 1-0.5 mm, 0.5-0.25 mm and organic cultivation were 9.73%, 18.41%, 24.46% and 43.90%, respectively. The percentage of organic cultivation than that in conventional cultivation. Organic cultivation increased soil organic carbon (average of 17.95 g x kg(-1)) and total nitrogen contents (average of 1.51 g x kg(-1)). Among the same aggregates in organic cultivation, the average content of heavy organic carbon fraction was significantly higher than that in conventional cultivation. This fraction accumulated in organic carbon. In organic cultivation, the content of labile organic carbon in > 1 mm macro-aggregates was significantly higher than that in conventional cultivation, while no significant difference was found among the other aggregates, indicating that the labile organic carbon was enriched in > 1 mm macro-aggregates. Organic cultivation increased the amounts of organic carbon and its fractions, reduced tillage damage to aggregates, and enhanced the stability of organic carbon. Organic cultivation was therefore beneficial for soil carbon sequestration. The findings of this research may provide theoretical basis for further acceleration of the organic agriculture development.

  3. Exposure of Cucurbita pepo to DDE-contamination alters the endophytic community: A cultivation dependent vs a cultivation independent approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eevers, N; Hawthorne, J R; White, J C; Vangronsveld, J; Weyens, N

    2016-02-01

    2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloro-ethylene (DDE) is the most abundant and persistent degradation product of the pesticide 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT) and is encountered in contaminated soils worldwide. Both DDE and DDT are classified as Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) due to their high hydrophobicity and potential for bioaccumulation and biomagnification in the food chain. Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo) has been shown to accumulate high concentrations of DDE and other POPs and has been proposed as a phytoremediation tool for contaminated soils. The endophytic bacteria associated with this plant may play an important role in the remedial process. Therefore, this research focuses on changes in endophytic bacterial communities caused by the exposure of C. pepo to DDE. The total bacterial community was investigated using cultivation-independent 454 pyrosequencing, while the cultivable community was identified using cultivation-dependent isolation procedures. For both procedures, increasing numbers of endophytic bacteria, as well as higher diversities of genera were observed when plants were exposed to DDE. Several bacterial genera such as Stenotrophomonas sp. and Sphingomonas sp. showed higher abundance when DDE was present, while, for example Pseudomonas sp. showed a significantly lower abundance in the presence of DDE. These findings suggest tolerance of different bacterial strains to DDE, which might be incorporated in further investigations to optimize phytoremediation with the possible use of DDE-degrading endophytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Application of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) to the Cultivation Line of Mushroom and Other Cultivated Edible Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, José E; de Figueirêdo, Vinícius Reis; Alvarez-Ortí, Manuel; Zied, Diego C; Peñaranda, Jesús A; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Pardo-Giménez, Arturo

    2013-09-01

    The Hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) is a preventive system which seeks to ensure food safety and security. It allows product protection and correction of errors, improves the costs derived from quality defects and reduces the final overcontrol. In this paper, the system is applied to the line of cultivation of mushrooms and other edible cultivated fungi. From all stages of the process, only the reception of covering materials (stage 1) and compost (stage 3), the pre-fruiting and induction (step 6) and the harvest (stage 7) have been considered as critical control point (CCP). The main hazards found were the presence of unauthorized phytosanitary products or above the permitted dose (stages 6 and 7), and the presence of pathogenic bacteria (stages 1 and 3) and/or heavy metals (stage 3). The implementation of this knowledge will allow the self-control of their productions based on the system HACCP to any plant dedicated to mushroom or other edible fungi cultivation.

  5. Chinese Confucian culture and the medical ethical tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Z

    1995-08-01

    The Confucian culture, rich in its contents and great in its significance, exerted on the thinking, culture and political life of ancient China immense influences, unparalleled by any other school of thought or culture. Confucian theories on morality and ethics, with 'goodness' as the core and 'rites' as the norm, served as the 'key notes' of the traditional medical ethics of China. The viewpoints of Confucianism on benevolence and material interests, on good and evil, on kindheartedness, and on character cultivation were all inherited by the medical workers and thus became prominent in Chinese traditional medical ethics. Hence, it is clear that the medical profession and Confucianism have long shared common goals in terms of ethics. Influenced by the excellent Confucian thinking and culture, a rather highly-developed system of Chinese traditional medical ethics emerged with a well-defined basic content, and the system has been followed and amended by medical professionals of all generations throughout Chinese history. This system, just to mention briefly, contains concepts such as the need: to attach great importance to the value of life; to do one's best to rescue the dying and to heal the wounded; to show concern to those who suffer from diseases; to practise medicine with honesty; to study medical skills painstakingly; to oppose a careless style of work; to comfort oneself in a dignified manner; to respect local customs and to be polite; to treat patients, noble or humble, equally, and to respect the academic achievements of others, etc. Of course, at the same time, Confucian culture has its own historical and class limitations, which exerted negative influences on traditional medical ethics. Now, if we are to keep up with the development of modern medicine, a serious topic must be addressed. That is how to retain the essence of our traditional medical ethics so as to maintain historic continuity and yet, at the same time, add on the new contents of medical

  6. Traditional Procurement is too Slow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Kong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an exploratory interview survey of construction project participants aimed at identifying the reasons for the decrease in use of the traditional, lump-sum, procurement system in Malaysia. The results show that most people believe it is too slow. This appears to be in part due to the contiguous nature of the various phase and stages of the process and especially the separation of the design and construction phases. The delays caused by disputes between the various parties are also seen as a contributory factor - the most prominent cause being the frequency of variations, with design and scope changes being a particular source of discontent. It is concluded that an up scaling of the whole of the time related reward/penalty system may be the most appropriate measure for the practice in future.

  7. Neymar, defender of brazilian tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Islandia Cardoso da Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze how university students of Teresina-PI appropriate of the message of a report of the television show Esporte Espetacular. There was use of the technique of focus groups and analytical-descriptive method for collecting and analyzing data. The sample consisted of 24 university students, aged between 18 and 24 years. The report features Neymar as responsible to follow the "tradition" of Brazilians and to be crowned as the best player in the world. The subjects of research said that the speech conveyed by the report can reproduce and create a reality sometimes dreamlike, because objective to confer to Neymar great importance with regard to national identity.

  8. Genetic characterization of two traditional leafy vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... Adéoti, K.1,2, Rival, A.3, Dansi, A.2*, Santoni, S.4, Brown, S.5, Beule, T.3, Nato, ... ecogeographical origin and the status (cultivated or wild) of the analyzed .... ethanol 96%) were added to 200 µl of DAN solution and incubated.

  9. Understanding the evolution of rice technology in China - from traditional agriculture to GM rice today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaobai

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an historical survey of the evolution of rice technology in China, from the traditional farming system to genetically modified rice today. Using sociotechnological analytical framework, it analyses rice technology as a socio-technical ensemble - a complex interaction of material and social elements, and discusses the specificity of technology development and its socio-technical outcomes. It points to two imperatives in rice variety development: wholesale transporting agricultural technology and social mechanism to developing countries are likely lead to negative consequences; indigenous innovation including deploying GM technology for seed varietal development and capturing/cultivating local knowledge will provide better solutions.

  10. Traditional perception of Greeks in Serbian oral tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konjik Ivana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on material on Greeks from Vuk’s corpus of epic poems, we discuss the construction of ethnic stereotype of Greeks in Serbian language. However, the limitation of the paper’s possible conclusion lies in the nature of the corpus: Vuk had deliberately chosen one material over another, therefore, the corpus relating to Greeks cannot be considered as representative of the whole Serbian folk poems. Therefore, the discussion is limited to certain elements of the stereotype. Nevertheless, these Serbian epic folk poems contain many layers: historical, geographical, sociological, mythological and so on, with a strong foundation in traditional culture; thus, they provide an insight into geo-political situation of the time period, viewpoints, perspectives and experiences of other ethnic groups that Serbs have been into contact with. In particular, the relationship toward Greeks was marked with pronounced patriarchal attitude concerning others: we-others, ours-foreign, good-bad. In this sense, Greeks are portrayed as foreign, and as such, as a potential source of danger. On the other hand, Greeks are Christian Orthodox, which associates them with the category ours. In socio-economic sense, they were traders and wealthy, respected gentlemen. In epical-heroic profile, they were not considered as great heroes, but as "lousy army", and frequently, as unfaithful.

  11. ORAL TRADITION AND HISTORICAL RECONSTRUCTION IN IGBO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FBL

    control, which exists in all societies that make for near accurate preservation of traditions ... historical sources from written sources and from material objects. ..... traditions were detached very early from the rural to the urban areas, where urban.

  12. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. ... and Ficus thonningii blume (moraceae), two plants used in traditional medicine in the ... The effective method for investigation meridian tropism theory in rats · EMAIL ...

  13. Factors that negatively influence consumption of traditionally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors that negatively influence consumption of traditionally fermented milk ... in various countries of sub-Saharan Africa and a number of health benefits to human ... influence consumption of Mursik, a traditionally fermented milk product from ...

  14. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines: Advanced Search. Journal Home > African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines: Advanced Search. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. Traditional and ayurvedic foods of Indian origin

    OpenAIRE

    Preetam Sarkar; Lohith Kumar DH; Chanda Dhumal; Shubham Subrot Panigrahi; Ruplal Choudhary

    2015-01-01

    The Ayurveda contains a wealth of knowledge on health sciences. Accordingly traditional foods and their dietary guidelines are prescribed in Ayurveda. There is so much similarity in ayurvedic dietetics and traditional foods that many of the traditional health foods in India can be called ayurvedic foods. This review article introduces the concepts of ayurvedic health foods in India and describes several traditional heath foods across various regions of India. Recommended dietary guidelines ac...

  16. Vietnamese traditional medicine from a pharmacist's perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdenbag, H.J.; Nguyen, T.M.; Vu, D.V.; Tran, H.; Nguyen, D.T.; Tran, T.V.; Smet, P.A.G.M. de; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional medicine plays an important role in the healthcare system of Vietnam. Vietnamese traditional medicine (VTM) is underpinned by the oriental philosophy and theory of healing. VTM is largely influenced by traditional Chinese medicine, but differs to a certain extent. VTM is largely not

  17. Vietnamese traditional medicine from a pharmacist's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdenbag, H.J.; Nguyen, T.M.; Vu, D.V.; Tran, Hung; Nguyen, D.T.; Tran, T.V.; De Smet, P.A.; Brouwers, J.R.

    Traditional medicine plays an important role in the healthcare system of Vietnam. Vietnamese traditional medicine (VTM) is underpinned by the oriental philosophy and theory of healing. VTM is largely influenced by traditional Chinese medicine, but differs to a certain extent. VTM is largely not

  18. Infusing Qualitative Traditions in Counseling Research Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Danica G.; Wood, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Research traditions serve as a blueprint or guide for a variety of design decisions throughout qualitative inquiry. This article presents 6 qualitative research traditions: grounded theory, phenomenology, consensual qualitative research, ethnography, narratology, and participatory action research. For each tradition, the authors describe its…

  19. Public Information and African Traditional Communication Delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is an analysis of how African traditional communication and the literature produced about it portray African traditional communication. The analysis premises an interest to ascertain whether the portrayal is in a perspective showing traditional media as capable of playing expected public information role. Drawing ...

  20. Documenting indigenous knowledge about Africa's traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the global debates about indigenous knowledge and Africa's traditional medicine. It explores whether it is possible to document all the elements of indigenous knowledge about Africa's traditional medicine that is used for the treatment of diverse forms of sickness. Certain types of Africa's traditional ...