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Sample records for tradition preliminary considerations

  1. Preliminary considerations concerning actinide solubilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, T.W.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; Erdal, B.R.; Ogard, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Work at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on the fundamental solution chemistry of the actinides has thus far been confined to preliminary considerations of the problems involved in developing an understanding of the precipitation and dissolution behavior of actinide compounds under environmental conditions. Attempts have been made to calculate solubility as a function of Eh and pH using the appropriate thermodynamic data; results have been presented in terms of contour maps showing lines of constant solubility as a function of Eh and pH. Possible methods of control of the redox potential of rock-groundwater systems by the use of Eh buffers (redox couples) is presented

  2. Preliminary consideration of CFETR ITER-like case diagnostic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, G. S.; Liu, Y. K.; Gao, X.; Yang, Y.; Wang, Y. M.; Ming, T. F.; Han, X.; Liu, S. C.; Wang, E. H.; Yang, W. J.; Li, G. Q.; Hu, Q. S.

    2016-01-01

    Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is a new superconducting tokamak device being designed in China, which aims at bridging the gap between ITER and DEMO, where DEMO is a tokamak demonstration fusion reactor. Two diagnostic cases, ITER-like case and towards DEMO case, have been considered for CFETR early and later operating phases, respectively. In this paper, some preliminary consideration of ITER-like case will be presented. Based on ITER diagnostic system, three versions of increased complexity and coverage of the ITER-like case diagnostic system have been developed with different goals and functions. Version A aims only machine protection and basic control. Both of version B and version C are mainly for machine protection, basic and advanced control, but version C has an increased level of redundancy necessary for improved measurements capability. The performance of these versions and needed R&D work are outlined.

  3. Preliminary consideration of CFETR ITER-like case diagnostic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G S; Yang, Y; Wang, Y M; Ming, T F; Han, X; Liu, S C; Wang, E H; Liu, Y K; Yang, W J; Li, G Q; Hu, Q S; Gao, X

    2016-11-01

    Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is a new superconducting tokamak device being designed in China, which aims at bridging the gap between ITER and DEMO, where DEMO is a tokamak demonstration fusion reactor. Two diagnostic cases, ITER-like case and towards DEMO case, have been considered for CFETR early and later operating phases, respectively. In this paper, some preliminary consideration of ITER-like case will be presented. Based on ITER diagnostic system, three versions of increased complexity and coverage of the ITER-like case diagnostic system have been developed with different goals and functions. Version A aims only machine protection and basic control. Both of version B and version C are mainly for machine protection, basic and advanced control, but version C has an increased level of redundancy necessary for improved measurements capability. The performance of these versions and needed R&D work are outlined.

  4. Preliminary considerations on the startup phase for the ASTRID core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mignot, G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary considerations on the startup phase for the ASTRID core, as well as an overview of the different steps before reaching the optimised equilibrium core. The start-up phase is assumed to cover the period between loading the dummy core into the reactor (for commissioning tests) and achieving the optimised equilibrium core. Four main stages are considered: a first stage of start-up tests before fuel core loading, a second stage related to zero power and power ramp-up tests, a third stage corresponding to the transition from the first core to the equilibrium contractual core, and the last stage to reach the optimised performance for the equilibrium core. In the two last stages, a sub-assembly surveillance plan based on post-irradiation examinations is taken into account. As this work is in its preliminary stages, the first scenarios shown for the start-up phase must not be considered as the ASTRID reference scenarios. The scenarios strongly depend on the assumptions considered in the analysis, whereas those discussed in this paper aim at outlining the content and the duration of the starting phases for the ASTRID core, which will be useful in subsequently assessing the core sub-assembly fabrication needs. Assumptions for the start-up phase will be updated in accordance with progress on the ASTRID core design development and core qualification programme. (author)

  5. Traditional Knowledge: Considerations for Protecting Water in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah McGregor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In Canada, the water crisis increasingly felt around the world is being experienced primarily in small, usually Indigenous, communities. At the heart of this issue lies an ongoing struggle to have Indigenous voices heard in the decision-making processes that affect their lives, lands, and waters. As part of ancient systems of Traditional Knowledge (TK, Indigenous people bear the knowledge and the responsibility to care for the waters upon which they depend for survival. A series of internationally developed documents has supported Indigenous peoples’ calls for increased recognition of the importance of TK in resolving environmental crises, including those involving water. Ontario provincial and Canadian federal governments have been developing legislative and regulatory documents to help fend off further water-related catastrophes within their jurisdictions. Despite such efforts, a number of barriers to the successful and appropriate involvement of TK in water management remain. Based on years of community-based and policy-related research with First Nations people involved in water-related undertakings, this article highlights progress made to date, and provides Indigenous viewpoints on what further steps need to be taken. Key among these steps are the need to restore and maintain Indigenous access to traditional territories and ways of life, and the requirement for mutually respectful collaboration between TK and Western science.

  6. An Instructional Satellite System for the United States: Preliminary Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuMolin, James R.; Morgan, Robert P.

    Based on educational, social, political, and other considerations, an instructional satellite system, AVSIN (Ausio-Visual Satellite Instruction), is hypothesized which represents one possible organizational and administrative arrangement for delivering large amounts of quality software to schools and learning centers. The AVSIN system is conceived…

  7. Preliminary conceptual engineering design considerations for the MX machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulmer, R.H.; Calderon, M.U.; Hibbs, S.M.; Kozman, T.A.

    1975-01-01

    The mirror experiment was designed to develop the technologies necessary to make the transition from the presently small-scale physics experiments (2XIIB and BBII) to large-scale steady-state DT burning systems, such as the Fusion Engineering Research Facility (FERF) and Controlled Thermonuclear Reactors (CTR) based on plasma confinement in open magnetic geometry. The confinement parameters in the design of the present machine include a 20-kG central field with a mirror ratio of 2 to 1 and an overall BL product approximately 5 times greater than that currently available with the 2XIIB compression coils (or a mirror-to-mirror length of 3.4 m). Several types of Yin-Yang minimum parallel B parallel geometries were studied, and a ''displaced'' Yin-Yang was chosen because the center of the machine is easily accessable between the coils and between the magnet lobes. Other important design considerations include the target plasma system, the vacuum system, and the injectors. The target plasma system includes a pellet generating system used to produce a 400-μm deuterium pellet and a two-arm laser system where the laser energy is produced from a 1-kJ, 10-GW CO 2 laser at 100 ns

  8. The Consideration of Socioeconomic Determinants in Prevention of Traditional Male Circumcision Deaths and Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Mbuyiselo; Hongoro, Charles

    2018-05-01

    The responsiveness to socioeconomic determinants is perceived as highly crucial in preventing the high mortality and morbidity rates of traditional male circumcision initiates in the Eastern Cape, a province in South Africa. The study sought to describe social determinants and explore economic determinants related to traditional circumcision of boys from 12 to 18 years of age in Libode rural communities in Eastern Cape Province. From the results of a descriptive cross-sectional survey ( n = 1,036), 956 (92.2%) boys preferred traditional male circumcision because of associated social determinants which included the variables for the attainment of social manhood values and benefits; 403 (38.9%) wanted to attain community respect; 347 (33.5%) wanted the accepted traditional male circumcision for hygienic purposes. The findings from the exploratory focus group discussions were revolving around variables associated with poverty, unemployment, and illegal actions to gain money. The three negative economic determinants were yielded as themes: (a) commercialization and profitmaking, (b) poverty and unemployment, (c) taking health risk for cheaper practices, and the last theme was the (d) actions suggested to prevent the problem. The study concluded with discussion and recommendations based on a developed strategic circumcision health promotion program which is considerate of socioeconomic determinants.

  9. Preliminary site requirements and considerations for a monitored retrievable storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    This report presents preliminary requirements and considerations for siting monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. It purpose is to provide guidance for assessing the technical suitability of potential sites for the facility. It has been reviewed by the NRC staff, which stated that this document is suitable for ''guidance in making preliminary determinations concerning MRS site suitability.'' The MRS facility will be licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. It will receive spent fuel from commercial nuclear power plants and provide a limited amount of storage for this spent fuel. When a geologic repository starts operations, the MRS facility will also stage spent-fuel shipments to the repository. By law, storage at the MRS facility is to be temporary, with permanent disposal provided in a geologic repository to be developed by the DOE

  10. Preliminary Evidence on the Efficacy of Mindfulness Combined with Traditional Classroom Management Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasson, Erin M; Wilson, Alyssa N

    2017-09-01

    The current case study combined mindfulness-based strategies with a classroom behavior management treatment package, to assist teachers with managing 3rd grade student behaviors. Two teachers (Classroom teacher and Specials teacher) and six students within the same classroom were observed using a 5-min momentary time sampling procedure. A delayed multiple baseline across settings (e.g., Classroom teacher, Specials teacher) design was used to assess student behaviors across baseline (A), classroom behavior management treatment package (CBM) (B), CBM plus mindfulness (C), and CBM plus mindfulness and self-monitoring (D). Behavioral treatment alone increased on-task behaviors for four of six (66%) students compared to baseline; however, five of six (83%) students increased and sustained high rates of on-task behaviors when mindfulness exercises were added to the behavior analytic techniques. These preliminary results support the combination of mindfulness-based strategies with traditional behavior analytic interventions for increasing student on-task behaviors in classroom settings.

  11. LASL experimental engineered waste burial facility: design considerations and preliminary plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePoorter, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    The LASL Experimental Engineered Waste Burial Facility is a part of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program on Shallow-Land Burial Technology. It is a test facility where basic information can be obtained on the processes that occur in shallow-land burial operations and where new concepts for shallow-land burial can be tested on an accelerated basis on an appropriate scale. The purpose of this paper is to present some of the factors considered in the design of the facility and to present a preliminary description of the experiments that are initially planned. This will be done by discussing waste management philosophies, the purposes of the facility in the context of the waste management philosophy for the facility, and the design considerations, and by describing the experiments initially planned for inclusion in the facility, and the facility site

  12. Preliminary area selection considerations for radioactive waste repositories in bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagoner, J.L.; Steinborn, T.L.

    1979-01-01

    This guide describes an approach to selection of areas of bedded salt which contain potentially suitable sites for the storage of radioactive waste. To evaluate a site selected by a license applicant, it is necessary to understand the technical site characteristics which should be considered in the preliminary phase of site selection. These site characteristics are presented here in checklist form, and each item is accompanied by a discussion which explains its significance. These qualitative considerations are used first to select an area of interest within a broad geologic or geomorphic region. Once an area has been selected, more quantitative information must be acquired to determine whether the proposed site meets the resultations for storage of nuclear waste

  13. The importance of traditional orchards for breeding birds: The preliminary study on Central European example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajtoch, Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    Orchards are parts of agriculture and apart from their economic role they may preserve biodiversity in highly transformed farmlands. An increasing intensity of orchards management is known to be threat for some species, especially pollinators and birds. On the other hand, the biodiversity of abandoned orchards was hardly investigated. Here, I present a survey of orchards in Poland to estimate how bird's diversities differ in response to the intensity of orchards management. In 2014, 66 orchards of three types - abandoned, extensively and intensively managed - were investigated. Bird species' richness and abundance were found to be highest in abandoned orchards but overall bird diversity and species composition in abandoned did not differ from these found in extensively managed orchards. In abandoned and extensively managed orchards, hollow-dwellers and insectivores (with some rare old-forest associated species) dominated, whereas in intensively managed orchards the most diverse were ground-dwellers. Among the several selected environmental features, the highest impact on bird diversity was related to the tree diversity, abundance of older trees, presence of multilayer understory and heterogeneous surrounding. The preliminary study point that traditional orchards could play a important role for wood-dwelling species in agriculture and because of that the removal or replacement of all traditional orchards by intensively managed orchards should be avoided and needs of orchard protection should be implemented into Agri-Environmental Schemes/High Nature Value farming systems and possibly also into habitat directive of EU. Unfortunately, the number of abandoned and extensively managed orchards is declining from agricultural landscapes, and traditional orchards are replaced by conventional fruit plantations.

  14. Ethical considerations on dynamic psychiatry and the tradition of relationship in psychoanalysis. An historical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, E

    2001-01-01

    The historical tradition of psychoanalysis as the therapeutic science of interpersonal processes is traced back to its roots in Freud and discussed in its therapeutic and philosophical implications. The Berlin School of Dynamic Psychiatry enlarges the interpersonal principle with the therapeutic concept of group dynamics, identity and of social energy, giving it an implication of therapeutic optimism and a new ethical significance.

  15. The Art Gallery Test: A Preliminary Comparison between Traditional Neuropsychological and Ecological VR-Based Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gamito

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ecological validity should be the cornerstone of any assessment of cognitive functioning. For this purpose, we have developed a preliminary study to test the Art Gallery Test (AGT as an alternative to traditional neuropsychological testing. The AGT involves three visual search subtests displayed in a virtual reality (VR art gallery, designed to assess visual attention within an ecologically valid setting. To evaluate the relation between AGT and standard neuropsychological assessment scales, data were collected on a normative sample of healthy adults (n = 30. The measures consisted of concurrent paper-and-pencil neuropsychological measures [Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA, Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB, and Color Trails Test (CTT] along with the outcomes from the three subtests of the AGT. The results showed significant correlations between the AGT subtests describing different visual search exercises strategies with global and specific cognitive measures. Comparative visual search was associated with attention and cognitive flexibility (CTT; whereas visual searches involving pictograms correlated with global cognitive function (MoCA.

  16. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE ROMANIAN REGULATIONS OF „CENSORS”, AN INSTITUTION BETWEEN TRADITION AND ACTUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Georgiana Sabău

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes the institution of “censors”, as company body of internal control, aiming to determine whether this institution corresponds or not to a real need of some companies or it is just maintained in the virtue of the tradition of Romanian law system regulations regarding the internal control. Analyzing the evolution of company control and the institution of censors and especially the large attributions, rights and obligations the censors have, that are more extended than those of the auditors I came to the conclusion that the censors by their permanent and general activity corresponds to real needs of some companies. Therefore I consider that there are real grounds for which the institution of censors, part of the traditional system of internal control provided in the course of time by the Romanian law system, continues to exist. In the final part after analyzing the existing legal provision I suggested some amendments of the law such as : to request expertise of the persons nominated as censors in order to avoid a formal and inefficient control, to extend the secret vote for censors election as provided for companies by shares to all companies, to eliminate the obligation of the limited company by shares having more than 15 shareholders to nominate censors if such company enter into contract with auditors, as well as some suggestions regarding the correlation of the terminology.

  17. [Consideration about chemistry, manufacture and control (CMC) key problems in simplified registration of classical traditional Chinese medicine excellent prescriptions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Min; Liu, Ju-Yan; Liu, Xiao-Qian; Wang, De-Qin; Yan, Li-Hua; Zhu, Jin-Jin; Gao, Hui-Min; Li, Chun; Wang, Jin-Yu; Li, Chu-Yuan; Ni, Qing-Chun; Huang, Ji-Sheng; Lin, Juan

    2017-05-01

    As an outstanding representative of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) prescriptions accumulated from famous TCM doctors' clinical experiences in past dynasties, classical TCM excellent prescriptions (cTCMeP) are the most valuable part of TCM system. To support the research and development of cTCMeP, a series of regulations and measures were issued to encourage its simplified registration. There is still a long-way to go because many key problems and puzzles about technology, registration and administration in cTCMeP R&D process are not resolved. Based on the analysis of registration and management regulations of botanical drug products in FDA of USA and Japan, and EMA of Europe, the possible key problems and countermeasures in chemistry, manufacture and control (CMC) of simplified registration of cTCMeP were analyzed on the consideration of its actual situation. The method of "reference decoction extract by traditional prescription" (RDETP) was firstly proposed as standard to evaluate the quality and preparation uniformity between the new developing product under simplified registration and traditional original usages of cTCMeP, instead of Standard Decoction method in Japan. "Totality of the evidence" approach, mass balance and bioassay/biological assay of cTCMeP were emphatically suggested to introduce to the quality uniformity evaluation system in the raw drug material, drug substance and final product between the modern product and traditional decoction. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  18. [Preliminary study on main impacting factors on brand equity of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wei; Geng, Dong-Mei; Rong, Xue; Li, Zi; Liu, Wei; Yang, Li; Xu, Si-Qun; Jie, Xiao-Qian

    2013-05-01

    The brand equity is valuable intangible assets of traditional Chinese medicine companies, who are excellent representatives of traditional Chinese medicine enterprises and the most promising ones to good international medicine brands. However, there is still no systematic study on how to correctly evaluate the brand equity of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies at present. To make it clear, the main impacting factors on brand equity of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies, both structured open outline pre-research and closed questionnaire research were adopted for the field survey, and some suggestions for how to protect and enhance the brand equity were also presented on the basis of survey and analysis, in the hope of improving the brand management level of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies, and making a beneficial exploration for the development of brand theory of the traditional Chinese medicine industry.

  19. Effects of traditional Japanese massage therapy on gene expression: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoyama, Nozomi; Ohkoshi, Norio

    2011-06-01

    Changes in gene expression after traditional Japanese massage therapy were investigated to clarify the mechanisms of the clinical effects of traditional Japanese massage therapy. This was a pilot experimental study. The study was conducted in a laboratory at Tsukuba University of Technology. The subjects were 2 healthy female volunteers (58-year-old Participant A, 55-year-old Participant B). The intervention consisted of a 40-minute full-body massage using standard traditional Japanese massage techniques through the clothing and a 40-minute rest as a control, in which participants lie on the massage table without being massaged. Before and after an intervention, blood was taken and analyzed by microarray: (1) The number of genes whose expression was more than double after the intervention than before was examined; (2) For those genes, gene ontology analysis identified statistically significant gene ontology terms. The gene expression count in the total of 41,000 genes was 1256 genes for Participant A and 1778 for Participant B after traditional Japanese massage, and was 157 and 82 after the control, respectively. The significant gene ontology terms selected by both Participants A and B after massage were "immune response" and "immune system," whereas no gene ontology terms were selected by them in the control. It is implied that traditional Japanese massage therapy may affect the immune function. Further studies with more samples are necessary.

  20. BELTING AND POP, NONCLASSICAL APPROACHES TO THE FEMALE MIDDLE VOICE - SOME PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHUTTE, HK; MILLER, DG

    There is a commonly perceived difference in the sound produced in the approximate range D4-D5 by female singers in the western opera and concert tradition, on the one hand, and certain other styles, including rock, pop, folk, and some Broadway musicals, on the other. The term ''belting'' is

  1. Preliminary consideration on the seismic actions recorded during the 2016 Central Italy seismic sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo Ponzo, Felice; Ditommaso, Rocco; Nigro, Antonella; Nigro, Domenico S.; Iacovino, Chiara

    2017-04-01

    After the Mw 6.0 mainshock of August 24, 2016 at 03.36 a.m. (local time), with the epicenter located between the towns of Accumoli (province of Rieti), Amatrice (province of Rieti) and Arquata del Tronto (province of Ascoli Piceno), several activities were started in order to perform some preliminary evaluations on the characteristics of the recent seismic sequence in the areas affected by the earthquake. Ambient vibration acquisitions have been performed using two three-directional velocimetric synchronized stations, with a natural frequency equal to 0.5Hz and a digitizer resolution of equal to 24bit. The activities are continuing after the events of the seismic sequence of October 26 and October 30, 2016. In this paper, in order to compare recorded and code provision values in terms of peak (PGA, PGV and PGD), spectral and integral (Housner Intensity) seismic parameters, several preliminary analyses have been performed on accelerometric time-histories acquired by three near fault station of the RAN (Italian Accelerometric Network): Amatrice station (station code AMT), Norcia station (station code NRC) and Castelsantangelo sul Nera station (station code CNE). Several comparisons between the elastic response spectra derived from accelerometric recordings and the elastic demand spectra provided by the Italian seismic code (NTC 2008) have been performed. Preliminary results retrieved from these analyses highlight several apparent difference between experimental data and conventional code provision. Then, the ongoing seismic sequence appears compatible with the historical seismicity in terms of integral parameters, but not in terms of peak and spectral values. It seems appropriate to reconsider the necessity to revise the simplified design approach based on the conventional spectral values. Acknowledgements This study was partially funded by the Italian Department of Civil Protection within the project DPC-RELUIS 2016 - RS4 ''Seismic observatory of structures and

  2. 242Pu: Preliminary evaluation with consideration of 240Pu, and some sensitivity results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jary, J.; Lagrange, C.; Philis, C.

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation of 242 Pu nuclear data is presented for the neutron energy range from 10 keV to 20 MeV. The fission cross section is based upon recent experimental measurements on 242 Pu. The remaining cross sections have been calculated using various nuclear models with parameters obtained mainly by both fits on 240 Pu experimental data and general reflexions on the actinides. Particular care has been taken of the direct interactions. The laws of secondary neutron energy spectra and the average number of neutrons produced per fission have been evaluated. The results have been placed in ENDF/BIV format and combined with the low energy region of ENDF/BIV MAT = 1161 data to make complete the evaluation over the whole energy range 10 -5 eV - 20 MeV. Finally, the sensitivities of some of these nuclear data available for reactor calculations are given in terms of the variation of the calculated critical masses

  3. THE WEDDING CEREMONY IN THE TRADITIONAL VILLAGES OF OLTENIA. PRELIMINARY RITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca CEAUŞESCU

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Marriage is the second most significant moment from a man’s life, an event that gives the opportunity of a rich display of folkloric manifestations. The ceremonial complex of the wedding mark, in a festive manner, the passing to another social statute. In Oltenia, it generally has a unitary structure, with small individualising elements, from one village to the other. The nuptial ceremony also presents in its development the three categories of rites, specific to the passing rites, such are: preliminary, liminary, post-liminary. Therefore, the nuptial scenario includes the existence of new rules and a logical succession in the development of the sequences. In the present material, we are going to stop on the customs from the stage that precedes the nuptial ceremony (wooing, discussing the dowry of the girl, the engagement, trying to point towards few dominant element of the phenomenon.

  4. [Preliminary analysis on relationship between traditional efficacy of Chinese medicine and modern pharmacological action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jun-Guo; Wang, Dong-Zhi; Lei, Lei; Kang, Li; Liu, Jian-Xun

    2017-05-01

    To find the relationship between traditional efficacy of Chinese medicine and modern pharmacological action by using data mining, and provide information and reference for further research and development for the pharmacology research of traditional Chinese medicine.The information of 547 kinds of traditional Chinese medicines, 335 kinds of Chinese medicine effects and 86 kinds of pharmacological actions were collected and processed in Clinical Guide to the Chinese Pharmacopoeia published in 2010; Access and Excel software were used to analyze the frequence and frequency of single effect, pharmacological action, and both. In addition, the relationship between efficacy and pharmacology was analyzed with the clearing heat and antibacterial effects as the example. The analysis results showed that 547 kinds of Chinese medicines involved 335 kinds of Chinese medicine effects and 86 kinds of pharmacological actions. Among them, the most frequent Chinese medicine effect was"clearing heat", whose frequence was 130 and the frequency was 0.24; the most frequent pharmacological action was "anti-inflammatory action" whose frequence was 191 and the frequency was 0.35. The most common efficacy-pharmacological action group was "clearing heat" and "anti-bacterial action", whose frequence was 75 and the frequency was 0.26. The couple of "purgation" and "cathartic effect" had the largest frequency of 0.30, but they just appeared together for 3 times. There were 52 kinds of pharmacological actions that occurred together with clearing heat, of which, the top 10 were anti-bacterial action, anti-inflammatory action, antineoplastic action, anti-hepatic injury action, immunoregulation action, antipyretic action, antiviralaction, hypoglycemic action, antioxidant action and analgesic action. There were 161 kinds of Chinese medicine effects that occurred together with anti-bacterial action, of which, the top 10 were clearing heat, detoxification, detumescence, analgesia, resolving dampness

  5. Preliminary considerations concerning neutral plasma beam propagation across a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanahan, W.R.; Faehl, R.J.; Godfrey, B.B.

    1979-08-01

    A plan to address physical questions of interest for exoatmospheric military applications of intense neutralized plasma beams is described. After a brief review of earlier work relevant to this matter and a detailed explanation of why such work cannot answer questions of present interest, a plan employing interactive application of several numerical and analytic techniques to treat relevant phenomena occurring on the various rather disparate time and length scales involved is suggested. The first part of the study would determine the macroscopic features of beam propagation through calculations effected with a magnetohydrodynamical numerical code. Classical transport coefficients would be employed in this initial phase. Using information thus gained concerning gross charge and current distributions, particle-in-cell simulations would be initialized to study those microscopic, phase-space-dependent phenomena which can alter the phenomonological transport coefficients appearing in the fluid description. Insight thereby gained concerning anomaous, collectively induced transport effects would then be applied to yield a refined, accurate description of the macroscopic aspects of neutral plasma beam propagation. Personnel and computational resources available at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory are described. Results of a very preliminary particle-in-cell simulation of a neutral plasma beam propagating across a magnetic field are presented

  6. 242Pu: preliminary evaluation with consideration of 240Pu, and some sensitivity results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jary, J.; Lagrange, C.; Philis, C.

    1979-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation of 242 Pu nuclear data is presented for the neutron energy range from 10 keV to 20 MeV. The fission cross section is based upon recent experimental measurements on 242 Pu. The remaining cross sections were calculated by use of various nuclear models with parameters obtained mainly by both fits on 240 Pu experimental data and general reflexions on the actinides. Particular care was taken of the direct interactions. The laws of secondary neutron energy spectra and the average number of neutrons produced per fission were evaluated. The results were put in ENDF/B-IV format and combined with the low-energy region of ENDF/B-IV MAT = 1161 data to make complete the evaluation over the whole energy range 10 -5 eV to 20 MeV. Finally, the sensitivities of some of these nuclear data available for reactor calculations are given in terms of the variation of the calculated critical masses. 21 figures, 4 tables

  7. IRSN preliminary considerations of the Fukushima event impact on the GENIV reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    • The IRSN study aims to identify main specific safety issues for each GEN IV concept with regards to the European Nuclear Safety Regulatory Group (ENSREG) stress tests topics: → Earthquake; → Flooding; → Loss of the heat sink; →Loss of the power supply; → Combination of the two previous ones; → Severe accident management. • These main specific safety issues are identified as far as they could have a specific impact on: → Grace times; → Cliff edge effects; → Difficulties to cope with them. • The situation is different between existing reactors and for reactors not yet designed because the hazard level may be increase for the new reactors. • Nevertheless, the “hardened safety core” concept may be kept for extreme situations and will be identified on the basis of the above mentioned main specific safety issues. This analysis is a preliminary one based of the IRSN knowledge about the six GEN IV concepts issued from safety assessment already performed (in particular on the French SFRs already built) and publications

  8. National health financing policy in Eritrea: a survey of preliminary considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirigia Joses

    2012-08-01

    human resources for health; over 68.8% indicated cost-sharing, taxation and social health insurance as preferred revenue collection mechanisms; and 68.75% indicated their preferred provider payment mechanism to be a global (lump sum budget. Conclusion This study succeeded in gathering the preliminary views of senior staff of selected Eritrean ministries and agencies regarding the likely elements of the NHFP, i.e. the vision, objectives, components, provider payment mechanisms, and health financing agency and its governance. In addition to stakeholder surveys, it would be helpful to inform the development of the NHFP with other pieces of evidence, including cost-effectiveness analysis of health services and interventions, financial feasibility analysis of financing options, a survey of the political and professional acceptability of financing options, national health accounts, and equity analyses.

  9. The quest for knowledge transfer efficacy: blended teaching, online and in-class, with consideration of learning typologies for non-traditional and traditional students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Rouse Van Doorn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The pedagogical paradigm shift in higher education to 24-hour learning environments composed of teaching delivery methods of online courses, blended/hybrid formats, and face-to-face (f2f classes is increasing access to global, lifelong learning. Online degrees have been offered at 62.4% of 2,800 colleges and universities. Students can now design flexible, life-balanced course schedules. Higher knowledge transfer rates may exist with blended course formats with online quizzes and valuable class time set for Socratic, quality discussions and creative team presentations. Research indicates that younger, traditional students exhibit heightened performance goal orientations and prefer entertaining professors who are funny, whereas non-traditional students exhibit mastery profiles and prefer courses taught by flexible, yet organized, professors. A 5-year study found that amongst 51,000 students taking both f2f and online courses, higher online failure rates occurred. Competing life roles for non-traditional students and reading and writing needs for at-risk students suggest that performance may be better if programs are started in f2f courses. Models on effective knowledge transfer consider the planning process, delivery methods, and workplace application, but a gap exists for identifying the diversity of learner needs. Higher education enrollments are being compromised with lower online retention rates. Therefore, the main purpose of this review is to delineate disparate learning styles and present a typology for the learning needs of traditional and non-traditional students. Secondly, psychology as a science may need more rigorous curriculum markers like mapping APA guidelines to knowledge objectives, critical assignments, and student learning outcomes (SLOs (e.g. online rubric assessments for scoring APA style critical thinking essays on selected New York Times books. Efficacious knowledge transfer to diverse, 21st century students should be the

  10. The quest for knowledge transfer efficacy: blended teaching, online and in-class, with consideration of learning typologies for non-traditional and traditional students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doorn, Judy R; Van Doorn, John D

    2014-01-01

    The pedagogical paradigm shift in higher education to 24-h learning environments composed of teaching delivery methods of online courses, blended/hybrid formats, and face-to-face (f2f) classes is increasing access to global, lifelong learning. Online degrees have been offered at 62.4% of 2800 colleges and universities. Students can now design flexible, life-balanced course schedules. Higher knowledge transfer rates may exist with blended course formats with online quizzes and valuable class time set for Socratic, quality discussions and creative team presentations. Research indicates that younger, traditional students exhibit heightened performance goal orientations and prefer entertaining professors who are funny, whereas non-traditional students exhibit mastery profiles and prefer courses taught by flexible, yet organized, professors. A 5-year study found that amongst 51,000 students taking both f2f and online courses, higher online failure rates occurred. Competing life roles for non-traditional students and reading and writing needs for at-risk students suggest that performance may be better if programs are started in f2f courses. Models on effective knowledge transfer consider the planning process, delivery methods, and workplace application, but a gap exists for identifying the diversity of learner needs. Higher education enrollments are being compromised with lower online retention rates. Therefore, the main purpose of this review is to delineate disparate learning styles and present a typology for the learning needs of traditional and non-traditional students. Secondly, psychology as a science may need more rigorous curriculum markers like mapping APA guidelines to knowledge objectives, critical assignments, and student learning outcomes (SLOs) (e.g., online rubric assessments for scoring APA style critical thinking essays on selected New York Times books). Efficacious knowledge transfer to diverse, 21st century students should be the Academy's focus.

  11. The quest for knowledge transfer efficacy: blended teaching, online and in-class, with consideration of learning typologies for non-traditional and traditional students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doorn, Judy R.; Van Doorn, John D.

    2014-01-01

    The pedagogical paradigm shift in higher education to 24-h learning environments composed of teaching delivery methods of online courses, blended/hybrid formats, and face-to-face (f2f) classes is increasing access to global, lifelong learning. Online degrees have been offered at 62.4% of 2800 colleges and universities. Students can now design flexible, life-balanced course schedules. Higher knowledge transfer rates may exist with blended course formats with online quizzes and valuable class time set for Socratic, quality discussions and creative team presentations. Research indicates that younger, traditional students exhibit heightened performance goal orientations and prefer entertaining professors who are funny, whereas non-traditional students exhibit mastery profiles and prefer courses taught by flexible, yet organized, professors. A 5-year study found that amongst 51,000 students taking both f2f and online courses, higher online failure rates occurred. Competing life roles for non-traditional students and reading and writing needs for at-risk students suggest that performance may be better if programs are started in f2f courses. Models on effective knowledge transfer consider the planning process, delivery methods, and workplace application, but a gap exists for identifying the diversity of learner needs. Higher education enrollments are being compromised with lower online retention rates. Therefore, the main purpose of this review is to delineate disparate learning styles and present a typology for the learning needs of traditional and non-traditional students. Secondly, psychology as a science may need more rigorous curriculum markers like mapping APA guidelines to knowledge objectives, critical assignments, and student learning outcomes (SLOs) (e.g., online rubric assessments for scoring APA style critical thinking essays on selected New York Times books). Efficacious knowledge transfer to diverse, 21st century students should be the Academy's focus. PMID

  12. Preliminary investigation of naturally occurring radionuclides in some traditional medicinal plants used in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L. Njinga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The preliminary investigation of the activity concentration of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs in seven different medicinal plants; Anacardium occidentale, Azadirachta indica, Daniella oliveri, Moringa oleifera, Psidium guajava, Terminalia catappa and Vitellaria paradoxa by means of gamma spectroscopic analysis using a NaI[Tl] detector shows that the activity concentration of 40K in the medicinal plants ranges from 74.59 ± 2.19 Bq/Kg to 324.18 ± 8.69 Bq/Kg with an average of 171.72 ± 6.09 Bq/Kg. The highest activity concentration of 40K was recorded for A. indica while A. occidentale had the lowest activity concentration. 226Ra activity concentration varies from 10.79 ± 4.24 Bq/Kg to 42.47 ± 2.76 Bq/Kg with an average of 25.02 ± 3.18 Bq/Kg. The lowest activity was recorded for P. guajava while the highest activity was recorded for V. paradoxa. For the activity concentration of 232Th, it ranges from 27.76 ± 1.02 Bq/Kg to 41.05 ± 1.05 Bq/Kg, with an average of 35.09 ± 0.71 Bq/Kg. The lowest activity was recorded for V. paradoxa while the highest activity was recorded for T. catappa. The average annual committed effective doses due to ingestion of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the plants ranges from 0.00426 ± 0.00050 mSv/yr to 0.00686 ± 0.00044 mSv/yr with an average of 0.00538 ± 0.00035 mSv/yr, the highest value was recorded for A. occidentale while P. guajava has the lowest, the results determined for all the plants are far below the worldwide average annual committed effective dose of 0.3 mSv/yr for an individual provided in UNSCEAR 2000 report indicating that the associated radiological health risk resulting from the intake of radionuclides in the medicinal plants is insignificant. Consequently, the medicinal plants of this study are considered safe in terms of the radiological health hazards.

  13. Effectiveness comparison between Thai traditional massage and Chinese acupuncture for myofascial back pain in Thai military personnel: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumnerddee, Wipoo

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this randomized comparative study was to provide preliminary data of comparative effectiveness of Thai traditional massage (TTM) and Chinese acupuncture for the treatment of myofascial back pain in young military personnel. Eighteen Thai military personnel, aged ranging from 20-40 years were randomly divided into TTM and acupuncture groups. Each group received 5 sessions of massage or acupuncture during a 10-day period. The Thai version McGill Pain Questionnaire, 100-mm, visual analog scale (VAS) and summation of pain threshold in each trigger point measured by pressure algometer were assessed at day 0, 3, 8 and 10. At the end of treatment protocols, McGill scores decreased significantly in TTM and acupuncture groups (p = 0.024 and 0.002, respectively). VAS also decreased significantly (p = 0.029 and 0.003, respectively). However, the pain pressure threshold increased significantly in the acupuncture group but not in the TTM group (p = 0.006 and 0.08, respectively). When outcomes were compared between the two groups, no significant difference was found in the VAS (p = 0.115) and pain pressure threshold (p = 0.116), whereas the acupuncture group showed significantly lower McGill scores than the TTM group (p = 0.039). In conclusion, five sessions of Thai traditional massage and Chinese acupuncture were effective for the treatment of myofascial back pain in young Thai military personnel. Significant effects in both groups begin after the first session. Acupuncture is more effective than Thai traditional massage when affective aspect is also evaluated.

  14. Novel Considerations about Diabetes Management Strategies in Chinese Immigrants in America: Possible Corollaries of the Use of Traditional Chinese Medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A Devonish

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and its related management costs have increased over time. The latest predictions anticipate this trend to continue during the next few decades. As individuals with T2DM in the United States (US are burdened with escalating prescription drug expenses, the appeal and use of cost effective alternatives may also increase. Herbal supplements are an example of such an alternative, but are unregulated and mostly lacking scientific evidence of advertised claims. In general, plant based herbal preparations are often advertised as ‘natural’, ‘less-toxic’, ‘medicines’ and are widely available from public retailers throughout the country. Over half of the US adult population report the use of supplements. Eastern countries, and especially China, have a long history of the use of herbal preparations as traditional medicine to prevent and treat diabetes. Recently the US has experienced a growth in the number imports of herbal supplements and other Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM to the country as well as the most rapid population growth in individuals who identify themselves as Asian. To date, little is known about the prevalence TCM use in the management of T2DM either alone or in combination with prescription medicines in the US. Knowledge of possible implications to patient safety (e.g., interactions, adverse effects with concurrent use of both TCM and prescription medicines is also lacking. This review begins with summaries of the T2DM management strategies employed in traditional modern medicine (TMM and Chinese medicine (TCM. A review of literature follows where the most commonly used TCM herbal preparations and their ingredients are identified and found along with any published reports of their proposed mechanisms of action, efficacy, adverse effects, and contraindications. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or

  15. Stakeholders and public involvement for flood protection: traditional river management organisations for a better consideration of local knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utz, Stephan; Lane, Stuart; Reynard, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    This research explores participatory processes in the domain of river management in Switzerland. The main objective is to understand how traditional, highly participatory, local organisations for flood protection have been institutionalised into current river management policy, and to what extent this has impacted on wider participatory processes of producing knowledge. Traditionally, flood protection strategies have been based upon scientific knowledge but have often ignored the capacities of local actors to contribute to the development of the policy. Thus, there may be a gap between scientists, stakeholders and the public that favours controversies and leads to opposition to flood protection projects. In order to reduce this gap and to increase incorporation of local knowledge, participatory processes are set up. They are considered as allowing the integration of all the actors concerned by flood risks to discuss their positions and to develop alternative solutions. This is a particularly important goal in the Swiss political system where direct democracy (the possibility of calling the decision of any level of government into question through a popular vote) means that a reasonable level of project acceptance is a necessary element of project. In order to support implementation of participatory processes, federal funding includes a special grant to cover the additional costs due to these actions. It is considered that, since its introduction in 2008, this grant certainly furthered participatory processes for flood protection projects and fostered water management policy implementation. However, the implication of stakeholders and public in decision-making processes is much well-established than modern river management often assumes. In some regions, flood protection tasks have been traditionally assumed by local organisations such as dyke corporations (DCs). These comprise land and property owners who are DC members and have to participate in flood protection

  16. Pilot postal audits in radiotherapy for 60Co in non-reference conditions in Cuba: practical consideration and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Lores, S.; Walwyn Salas, G.; Alonso Villanueva, G.

    2008-01-01

    Discusses the practical consideration and preliminary results of the Cuban's SSDL in Pilot Postal Audit in Radiotherapy for Co-60 in non-reference conditions under IAEA Coordinated Research Project E2.40.12. A strategy for national TLD audit programmes has been developed by the international Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). It involves progression through three sequential dosimetry audit steps. The first step audits are for the beam output in reference conditions for photon beams. The second step audits are for the dose in reference and non-reference conditions on the beam axis for photon beams. The third step audits involve measurements of the dose in reference, and non-reference conditions off-axis for open and wedged symmetric and symmetric fields for photon beams. Under coordinated research project E2.40.12 were characterized 100 micro rods. All of these rods were identified individually with a consecutive number made over one of its sides, using a fine tip of graphite. The method used to determinate the individual sensibility of the TL detectors was: irradiating a group of them, with the same history of irradiation and readout. The TLD signal was read using HARSHAW 2000C/B reader. Based on the IAEA standard TLD holder for photon beams, a TLD holder was developed with horizontal arm to enable measurements 5 cm off the central axis. Successful results in two external trial carried out using the IAEA TLD service in the years 2003 - 2004 were obtained. Five 5 facilities were considered to be included in the Pilot Audit Audits in Radiotherapy for Co-60 in non reference conditions (on-axis) in the year 2003, according to recommendation of External Audit Group (EAG). For the year 2004 were considered only 3 facilities in the Pilot Audit Audits in Radiotherapy for Co-60 in non reference conditions (off-axis). Extend the postal dose audits to the rest of the institutions around the country. The participation in these audits promotes a major understanding of the physicists

  17. The MELiSSA GreenMOSS Study: Preliminary Design Considerations for a Greenhouse Module on the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobascio, Cesare; Paille, Christel; Lamantea, Matteo Maria; Boscheri, Giorgio; Rossetti, Vittorio

    Extended human presence on an extraterrestrial planetary surface will be made possible by the development of life support systems affordable in the long term. The key elements to support the goal will be the maximization of closure of air and water cycles, as well as the development of cost-effective and reliable hardware, including a careful strategic effort toward reduction of spare parts and consumables. Regenerative life support systems likely represent the final step toward long term sustainability of a space crew, allowing in situ food production and regeneration of organic waste. Referring to the MELiSSA loop, a key element for food production is the Higher Plant Compartment. The paper focuses on the preliminary design of a Greenhouse at the lunar South Pole, as performed within the “Greenhouse Module for Space System” (GreenMOSS) study, under a contract from the European Space Agency. The greenhouse is in support to a relatively small crew for provision of an energetic food complement. Resources necessary for the greenhouse such as water, carbon dioxide and nitrogen are assumed available, as required. The relevant mass and energy balances for incoming resources should be part of future studies, and should help integrate this element with the interfacing MELISSA compartments. Net oxygen production and harvested crop biomass from the greenhouse system will be quantified. This work presents the results of the two major trade-offs performed as part of this study: artificial vs natural illumination and monocrop vs multicrop solutions. Comparisons among possible design solutions were driven by the ALiSSE metric as far as practicable within this preliminary stage, considering mass and power parameters. Finally, the paper presents the mission duration threshold for determining the convenience of the designed solution with respect to other resources provision strategies

  18. Preliminary study on the inactivation of anisakid larvae in baccalà prepared according to traditional methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Smaldone

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The European Food Safety Authority stated that many traditional marinating and cold smoking methods are not sufficient to kill A. simplex and asked to evaluate alternative treatments for killing viable parasites in fishery. Baccalà is a well-liked traditional product. The aim of study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the salting process on the inactivation of nematodes of the genus Anisakis in naturally infected Baccalà fillets. N. 19 fillets, subjected to a dual salting process (brine and dry salting were analyzed. Visual inspection and chloropeptic digestion were performed. Larvae viability was evaluated, and parameters such as NaCl (%, moisture (%, WPS and aw were determined. In n. 17 samples parasites were found 123 parasites with a mean intensity of 7.23±4.78 and an mean abundance of 6.47±5.05. Visual examination has revealed 109 parasites. 61.8% of larvae were found in the ventral portions. The results show that salting process with a salt concentration of 18.6%, aw values of 0.7514 and 24.15% WPS in all parts of baccalà fillets, devitalise Anisakidae larvae in a 15-day period.

  19. A preliminary survey of mycological and fumonisin and aflatoxin contamination of African traditional herbal medicines sold in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katerere, D R; Stockenström, S; Thembo, K M; Rheeder, J P; Shephard, G S; Vismer, H F

    2008-11-01

    Traditional medicine is an important aspect of healthcare delivery in South Africa and is used by at least 70% of the country's population. The trade in medicinal plants is a multi-million rand business which is a major driver for rural economies. However, the conditions in which these plant products are transported and stored make them prone to fungal contamination which results in economic losses to the traders and pose potential health hazards to consumers. Of major concern is the possible presence of toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins. This study assessed fungal and mycotoxin contamination of African herbal products sold in Cape Town and Tshwane (formerly Pretoria) in South Africa. Of the 16 samples analyzed, 15 were contaminated with at least one of these three fungal genera: Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium. Fumonisin B(1) was present in 13 of the samples in quantities ranging from 14 to 139 microg/kg (detection limit 5 microg/kg). None of the samples was contaminated with aflatoxigenic fungi or aflatoxin (detection limit 0.5 microg/kg). This is the first study to report on mycological and mycotoxin contamination of commercial traditional African medicines in South Africa. There is a need to expand the study to other urban centers to gain enough insight into this problem and then to intervene with measures that can protect the public from potential harm.

  20. Effects of virtual reality-based training with BTs-Nirvana on functional recovery in stroke patients: preliminary considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Rosaria; Russo, Margherita; Naro, Antonino; Tomasello, Provvidenza; Leonardi, Simona; Santamaria, Floriana; Desireè, Latella; Bramanti, Alessia; Silvestri, Giuseppe; Bramanti, Placido; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore

    2018-02-02

    Cognitive impairment occurs frequently in post-stroke patients. This study aimed to determine the effects of a virtual reality training (VRT) with BTs-Nirvana (BTsN) on the recovery of cognitive functions in stroke patients, using the Interactive-Semi-Immersive Program (I-SIP). We enrolled 12 subjects (randomly divided into two groups: experimental group (EG); and control group (CG)), who attended the Laboratory of Robotic and Cognitive Rehabilitation of IRCCS Neurolesi of Messina from January to June 2016. The EG underwent a VRT with BTsN, whereas CG received a standard cognitive treatment. Both the groups underwent the same conventional physiotherapy program. Each treatment session lasted 45 minutes and was repeated three times a week for 8 weeks. All the patients were evaluated by a specific clinical-psychometric battery before (T0), immediately (T1), and one month (T2) after the end of the training. At T1, the EG presented a greater improvement in the trunk control test (p = 0.03), the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (p = 0.01), the selective attention assessment scores (p = 0.01), the verbal memory (p = 0.03), and the visuospatial and constructive abilities (p = 0.01), as compared to CG. Moreover, such amelioration persisted at T2 only in the EG. According to these preliminary data, VRT with I-SIP can be considered a useful complementary treatment to potentiate functional recovery, with regard to attention, visual-spatial deficits, and motor function in patients affected by stroke.

  1. Comparison of a Web-Based Teaching Tool and Traditional Didactic Learning for In Vitro Fertilization Patients: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vause, Tannys Dawn Reiko; Allison, David J; Vause, Tricia; Tekok-Kilic, Ayda; Ditor, David S; Min, Jason K

    2017-10-17

    The objective of this prospective RCT was to compare the efficacy of a web-based teaching tool to traditional didactic teaching in IVF patients. Forty women undergoing their first IVF cycle were randomly allocated to an interactive web-based teaching session or a nurse-led didactic teaching session. The primary outcome measure was participant knowledge regarding the IVF process, risks, and logistics assessed before and after the respective teaching session. Secondary outcomes included patient stress, assessed before and after the respective teaching session, and patient satisfaction, assessed following the respective teaching session and on the day of embryo transfer (following implementation of the teaching protocol). Both groups demonstrated similar and significant improvements in knowledge and stress after exposure to their respective teaching sessions. The web-based group was significantly more satisfied than the didactic teaching group. Web-based teaching was also shown to be equally effective for participants of high versus low income and education status for knowledge, stress, and satisfaction. This study provides preliminary support for the use of web-based teaching as an equally effective tool for increasing knowledge and reducing stress compared to traditional didactic teaching in IVF patients, with the added benefit of increased patient satisfaction. Copyright © 2017 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Preliminary considerations of an intense slow positron facility based on a 78Kr loop in the high flux isotopes reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulett, L.D. Jr.; Donohue, D.L.; Peretz, F.J.; Montgomery, B.H.; Hayter, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    Suggestions have been made to the National Steering Committee for the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) by Mills that provisions be made to install a high intensity slow positron facility, based on a 78 Kr loop, that would be available to the general community of scientists interested in this field. The flux of thermal neutrons calculated for the ANS is E + 15 sec -1 m -2 , which Mills has estimated will produce 5 mm beam of slow positrons having a current of about 1 E + 12 sec -1 . The intensity of such a beam will be a least 3 orders of magnitude greater than those presently available. The construction of the ANS is not anticipated to be complete until the year 2000. In order to properly plan the design of the ANS, strong considerations are being given to a proof-of-principle experiment, using the presently available High Flux Isotopes Reactor, to test the 78 Kr loop technique. The positron current from the HFIR facility is expected to be about 1 E + 10 sec -1 , which is 2 orders of magnitude greater than any other available. If the experiment succeeds, a very valuable facility will be established, and important formation will be generated on how the ANS should be designed. 3 refs., 1 fig

  3. [A preliminary epidemiological study and discussion on traditional Chinese medicine pathogenesis of chronic fatigue syndrome in Hong Kong].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Yan-Mun; Qiu, Ming-Yi

    2005-09-01

    Our purpose is to conduct an epidemiological study of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and its syndrome types and symptoms of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) among adults (20-50 years old) in Hong Kong, and to discuss the TCM pathogenesis. Cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Demographic data, CDC (1994) CFS diagnostic criteria, Trudie Chalder fatigue scale, and China national standard for TCM syndrome types criteria. Twenty to fifty years old adults by convenient sampling. One thousand and thirteen subjects were successfully interviewed. Five hundred and eighty-five subjects (57.8%) had different levels of fatigue. Sixty-five subjects (6.4%) met CFS diagnostic criteria. In terms of TCM syndrome types, blood stasis due to qi deficiency had the highest prevalence (35.7%) among CFS. In the 54 symptoms investigated in total, the first eight symptoms in order of appearing rates were soreness of loins and weakness in knees, poor spirit, lassitude, pain, insomnia, forgetting, vessels blood stasis, vertigo and dazzle. The mostly appeared tongue figures were pale and corpulent or pale dim tongue proper, white and white greasy tongue coating, and the mostly appeared pulse figure was sunken-thin. The point prevalence of CFS among adults of 20 to 50 years old was found to be 6.4%. The most prevalent TCM syndrome type was blood stasis due to qi deficiency. The TCM pathogenesis of CFS was deficiency of origin, mainly deficiency of qi and kidney, with excess of superficiality.

  4. The Influence of Firm€™s Service, Dissatisfaction and Consumer Consideration on Consumer Switching Behavior From Traditional Market to Modern Market

    OpenAIRE

    Pangemanan, Sifrit S.; Lumihi, F. Feinny

    2015-01-01

    Modern market has become a new shopping trend for society. Although the traditional market has occupied an important role for a long time in the life of the community as a place to shop daily products. The purpose of this study to determine the existence a difference of customer dissatisfaction and behavioral factors displacement between a modern market and a traditional market. This study is a causal study, because the questionnaire as a tool to collect data and analysis. Research hypothesis...

  5. Library Hospitality: Some Preliminary Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric D. M.; Kazmer, Michelle M.

    2011-01-01

    Library scholars and practitioners have frequently reflected on the various factors that in combination make up a hospitable library, but there has been little theoretical synthesis of the notion of the library as a place of hospitality. The hospitality industry provides a rich vein of theoretical material from which to draw definitions of…

  6. Developing a library of authenticated Traditional Chinese Medicinal (TCM) plants for systematic biological evaluation--rationale, methods and preliminary results from a Sino-American collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, David M; Harris, Eric S J; Littlefield, Bruce A; Cao, Shugeng; Craycroft, Jane A; Scholten, Robert; Bayliss, Peter; Fu, Yanling; Wang, Wenquan; Qiao, Yanjiang; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Chen, Hubiao; Liu, Yong; Kaptchuk, Ted; Hahn, William C; Wang, Xiaoxing; Roberts, Thomas; Shamu, Caroline E; Clardy, Jon

    2011-01-01

    individually and in combinations (i.e., "complex mixtures") consistent with traditional ethnomedical practice. This manuscript summarizes the rationale, methods and preliminary "proof of principle" for the establishment of this prototype, authenticated medicinal plant library. It is hoped that these methods will foster scientific discoveries with therapeutic potential and enhance efforts to systematically evaluate commonly used herbal therapies worldwide. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Developing a library of authenticated Traditional Chinese Medicinal (TCM) plants for systematic biological evaluation — Rationale, methods and preliminary results from a Sino-American collaboration☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, David M.; Harris, Eric S.J.; Littlefield, Bruce A.; Cao, Shugeng; Craycroft, Jane A.; Scholten, Robert; Bayliss, Peter; Fu, Yanling; Wang, Wenquan; Qiao, Yanjiang; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Chen, Hubiao; Liu, Yong; Kaptchuk, Ted; Hahn, William C.; Wang, Xiaoxing; Roberts, Thomas; Shamu, Caroline E.; Clardy, Jon

    2011-01-01

    activity individually and in combinations (i.e., “complex mixtures”) consistent with traditional ethnomedical practice. This manuscript summarizes the rationale, methods and preliminary “proof of principle” for the establishment of this prototype, authenticated medicinal plant library. It is hoped that these methods will foster scientific discoveries with therapeutic potential and enhance efforts to systematically evaluate commonly used herbal therapies worldwide. PMID:21108995

  8. Finite-element model evaluation of barrier configurations to reduce infiltration into waste-disposal structures: preliminary results and design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, A.H.; Phillips, S.J.; Adams, M.R.

    1982-09-01

    Barriers to reduce infiltration into waste burial disposal structures (trenches, pits, etc.) may be required to provide adequate waste confinement. The preliminary engineering design of these barriers should consider interrelated barrier performance factors. This paper summarizes preliminary computer simulation activities to further engineering barrier design efforts. Several barrier configurations were conceived and evaluated. Models were simulated for each barrier configuration using a finite element computer code. Results of this preliminary evaluation indicate that barrier configurations, depending on their morphology and materials, may significantly influence infiltration, flux, drainage, and storage of water through and within waste disposal structures. 9 figures

  9. An Alternative Approach to Scoring the MTA-SNAP-IV to Guide Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Medication Treatment Titration towards Symptom Remission: A Preliminary Consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Daniel J; McLennan, John D

    2015-12-01

    The Multimodal Treatment Study for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, Version IV (MTA-SNAP-IV) is a common rating scale to measure attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms during medication treatment. Relying on the traditional scoring approach for this instrument to identify symptom remission, however, may leave a child with significant residual symptoms. The objective of this study was to examine an alternative scoring approach for this instrument to identify the extent of residual symptoms for children completing ADHD medication treatment. Parent and teacher ratings on the ADHD symptom component of the MTA-SNAP-IV were extracted from medical records of 80 children completing medication treatment at a specialty clinic in Canada. Data were scored in two ways. 1) Traditional scoring based on assigning a value ranging from 0 to 3 for response options: "Not at all," "Just a little," "Pretty much," or "Very much," for each symptom and then determining a mean across items, and 2) alternative scoring based on assigning values of 0, 0, 0.5, and 1 across the same response options and summing the total across items. Symptom remission based on the former is defined as a mean value ≤ 1, and for the latter it is defined as a summed value equal to 0. Children were significantly less likely to be classified as symptom remitted under the alternative scoring method based on parent, teacher, and combined parent-teacher ratings. Using the alternative scoring approach, residual symptoms were identified for 25%, 39%, and 70% of children classified as symptom remitted (under traditional scoring rules) by parents, teachers, and parents/teachers combined, respectively. Potential "residual" ADHD symptoms were identified in many children attaining symptom remission using the traditional scoring approach; however, further scrutiny of this alternative scoring approach is required. Although it may improve the ability to detect residual

  10. Radioanalytical determination of 239+240Pu and 241Am in bioassay samples by anion exchange and extraction chromatography: Preliminary considerations about the two methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridone, S.; Arginelli, D.; Berton, G.; Bortoluzzi, S.; Canuto, G.; Montalto, M.; Nocente, M.; Vegro, M.

    2006-01-01

    During the radiation protection surveillance of exposed workers samples of urine and faeces were collected. Anion exchange chromatography was used for the separation of Pu. We investigated a technique to purify and separate Pu and Am isotopes using extraction chromatography with TRU resin. We tested different procedures to dissolve organic matter and eliminate interferences for chromatographic elution. At the end of the proces we have succeeded in electroplating the two radionuclides separately. We have also studied extraction chromatography with UTEVA resin to purify Pu isotopes and separate it from natural uranium radioisotopes, present in some biological samples. We validated a method for the determination of Pu in biological samples and a rather constant chemical yield and resolved peaks were obtained. The preliminary studies on TRU resin have indicated that it is possible to combine extraction and anion-exchange chromatography for analysing separately Pu and Am isotopes from the same sample aliquote.

  11. Traditional medicine applied by the Saraguro yachakkuna: a preliminary approach to the use of sacred and psychoactive plant species in the southern region of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijos, Chabaco; Cota, Iuliana; González, Silvia

    2014-02-24

    During the colonial period, the indigenous saraguros maintained their traditions, knowledge, and practices to restore and preserve the health of their members. Unfortunately, many of their practices and medicinal resources have not been documented. In this study, we sought to document the traditional healers' (yachakkuna saraguros) knowledge about medicinal and psychoactive plants used in the mesas and in magical-religious rituals. The study was conducted under a technical and scientific cooperation agreement between the Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja (UTPL), the Dirección Provincial de Salud de Loja (DPSL), and the Saraguro Healers Council (Consejo de Sanadores de Saraguro). For the present study, the DPSL and Saraguro Healers Council selected the 10 yachakkuna most recognized for their knowledge and their use of sacred and psychoactive species. Ten interviews with the selected yachakkuna were conducted between 2010 and 2011 to ascertain how the Saraguro traditional healing system is structured and to obtain a record of the sacred and medicinal plant species used to treat supernatural diseases and for psychoactive purposes. The present study describes the traditional health system in the Saraguro indigenous community located in southern Ecuador. It also describes the main empirical methods used to diagnose diseases: direct physical examination of the patient, observation of the patient's urine, documentation of the patient's pulse, limpia, palpation and visionary methods, including supernatural diseases (susto, vaho de agua, mal aire, mal hecho, shuka) and reports of the use of sacred and medicinal psychoactive plants, such as the San Pedro cactus (Echinopsis pachanoi), wandug (Brugmansia spp.), and tobacco (Nicotiana spp.). This study also describes the rituals (limpia, soplada) employed by the Saraguro yachakkuna to treat supernatural diseases. Finally, we report on the main plants used during limpia in the Saraguro community. The current traditional

  12. Considerations preliminary phonetic-phonological ’Language-of-saint’ and ’Language-of-the-holy people’ in Yards of Candomblé Rio Branco - AC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Océlio Lima de Oliveira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to give a description of preliminary phonetic-phonological 'tongue-in-holy' and 'tongue-in-us-de-santo' (Pessoa de Castro, 1968a and 1968b, 1977, 1980, 1983 spoken in a yard of candomblé in the city of Rio Branco - AC. Initially, he was made a general survey of the main headphones worn by followers of Candomblé in three songs offered to the orisha EXU and lexical items used in everyday situations by supporters of the yard. Subsequently the survey of headphones, we analyzed the occurrence of these pairs of headphones, particularly the phonetically similar to check the status phonemic, based on the theoretical and methodological assumptions of structuralist phonemic (PIKE, 1947. From the analysis of phonetic-phonological general, it was found that the 'tongue-in-holy' and 'tongue-in-saint-people' have the repertoire phonetic and phonemic characteristics similar to Brazilian Portuguese analyzed by Mattoso Jr . (2008 and Cristófaro-Silva (2007.

  13. The application of traditional and geometric morphometric analyses for forensic quantification of sexual dimorphism: preliminary investigations in a Western Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Daniel; Cardini, Andrea; Flavel, Ambika; Kuliukas, Algis

    2012-07-01

    A current limitation of forensic practice in Western Australia is a lack of contemporary population-specific standards for biological profiling; this directly relates to the unavailability of documented human skeletal collections. With rapidly advancing technology, however, it is now possible to acquire accurate skeletal measurements from 3D scans contained in medical databases. The purpose of the present study, therefore, is to explore the accuracy of using cranial form to predict sex in adult Australians. Both traditional and geometric morphometric methods are applied to data derived from 3D landmarks acquired in CT-reconstructed crania. The sample comprises multi-detector computed tomography scans of 200 adult individuals; following 3D volume rendering, 46 anatomical landmarks are acquired using OsiriX (version 3.9). Centroid size and shape (first 20 PCs of the Procrustes coordinates) and the inter-landmark (ILD) distances between all possible pairs of landmarks are then calculated. Sex classification effectiveness of the 3D multivariate descriptors of size and shape and selected ILD measurements are assessed and compared; robustness of findings is explored using resampling statistics. Cranial shape and size and the ILD measurements are sexually dimorphic and explain 3.2 to 54.3 % of sample variance; sex classification accuracy is 83.5-88.0 %. Sex estimation using 3D shape appears to have some advantages compared to approaches using size measurements. We have, however, identified a simple and biologically meaningful single non-traditional linear measurement (glabella-zygion) that classifies Western Australian individuals according to sex with a high degree of expected accuracy (87.5-88 %).

  14. Effectiveness of Traditional Japanese Herbal (Kampo Medicine, Daiobotanpito, in Combination with Antibiotic Therapy in the Treatment of Acute Diverticulitis: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Ogawa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional Japanese herbal (Kampo medicine, daiobotanpito (DBT or Da Huang Mu Dan Tang in Chinese has been used in medical treatment of acute diverticulitis for many years based on the experience. Our aim was to investigate whether the treatment of acute diverticulitis can be treated with intravenous antibiotics plus orally administrated DBT than intravenous antibiotics alone. A retrospective nonrandomized open-label trial was established to compare patients with acute diverticulitis who received oral DBT associated with intravenous antibiotics with those who received intravenous antibiotic alone. We included 34 patients, eleven patients in group 1 with DBT and 23 patients in group 2 without DBT. Both groups were comparable in patient demographics and clinical characteristics. There was a significantly better outcome in the group treated with DBT than in the group without DBT when comparing duration of fever, abdominal pain, and antibiotics administration. A trend toward a day shorter mean hospital stay and fasting was seen in group 1, although this did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, most patients with acute diverticulitis can be managed safely with oral DBT. Although randomized, double-blind study must be done, we could show the possibility to use daiobotanpito as an additional option in treating acute diverticulitis.

  15. Aeroelastic Considerations in the Preliminary Design Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    disponibles -par balayage en (Ref. 4) Hfithode trs rapide mais mal cdteta une pr~sentation domtqet rfiduite - par double balayage (m~thodep-~ mode par mode...peu utilis~es au niveau pr~visionnel sur les rotors arri~re, car le champ des vitesses locales est mal connu et d’autre part elles apportent peu au...retour, le mattre d’oeuvre actualise oon mod~le simplifi6 a pertir des calculs d6taill~e des coop~rents pour menor los calculs d6finitifs d’a~ro~lasticit6

  16. Following Tradition

    OpenAIRE

    Bronner, Simon J.

    1998-01-01

    Following Tradition is an expansive examination of the history of tradition—"one of the most common as well as most contested terms in English language usage"—in Americans' thinking and discourse about culture. Tradition in use becomes problematic because of "its multiple meanings and its conceptual softness." As a term and a concept, it has been important in the development of all scholarly fields that study American culture. Folklore, history, American studies, anthropology, cultural studie...

  17. Considerations for GPU SEE Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrwas, Edward J.

    2017-01-01

    This presentation will discuss the considerations an engineer should take to perform Single Event Effects (SEE) testing on GPU devices. Notable topics will include setup complexity, architecture insight which permits cross platform normalization, acquiring a reasonable detail of information from the test suite, and a few lessons learned from preliminary testing.

  18. Room considerations with TAVR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Neal

    2012-01-01

    While transcatheter aortic valve replacement is considered a viable alternative to traditional surgery for patients with critical aortic stenosis, it is still a cardiac surgical procedure with a steep learning curve. Space consideration is a key aspect of the procedure's success. A TAVR program requires the commitment from and investment of institutional resources, the outfitting of an appropriate procedure room, and meticulous training of a multidisciplinary TAVR team. Careful integration of the various imaging modalities, medical specialties, and equipment is necessary to ensure the safety and efficacy of the procedure and to treat complications that may arise.

  19. International Education Comparison: An Intellectual Tradition and Its Contemporary Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Chih

    2017-01-01

    What is the nature of comparative and international education as a discipline? What are the relationships and connections between comparison and internationalization? Such questions have long been discussed in comparative education and have provoked much debate."Comparative and International Education: An Introduction to Theory, Method, and…

  20. Traditionalism and modern subjectivity: Enlightenment and conservatism of Edmund Burke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitović Aleksandar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of traditionalism versus modern subjectivism in the light of the conflict of Edmund Burke`s conservatism with the Enlightenment as the ideological basis of the French revolution was not discussed or studied sufficiently in our political and philosophical theory. In this paper we are reconsidering a theoretical debate between arising modern rationalism of Enlightenment and European traditionalism. The text further explains on the reasons for choosing this subject and course the research will take subsequently. An overview is provided of the most important topics as well as a preliminary conception of the problem structure in this research. Considering the importance and overwhelming influence exhorted by French revolution it is only logical that the event of such magnitude met not only with approvals but with challenges and disputes as well, and all of it contributed to the theoretical considerations of the historical sense and purpose of this event. The aim of the project is to provide explanations and evaluations of the origins Enlightenment on one hand side and theoretically reconsidered traditionalism on the other. Looking at the dawn of modern era and evaluating these events would cast sharper light on the spirit of times of this crucial moment of history, and it would provide new basis for reconsideration of the achievements and implications of the fundamental ideas of Moderna.

  1. Epigenetic considerations in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackenzie R. Gavery

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetics has attracted considerable attention with respect to its potential value in many areas of agricultural production, particularly under conditions where the environment can be manipulated or natural variation exists. Here we introduce key concepts and definitions of epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNA, review the current understanding of epigenetics in both fish and shellfish, and propose key areas of aquaculture where epigenetics could be applied. The first key area is environmental manipulation, where the intention is to induce an ‘epigenetic memory’ either within or between generations to produce a desired phenotype. The second key area is epigenetic selection, which, alone or combined with genetic selection, may increase the reliability of producing animals with desired phenotypes. Based on aspects of life history and husbandry practices in aquaculture species, the application of epigenetic knowledge could significantly affect the productivity and sustainability of aquaculture practices. Conversely, clarifying the role of epigenetic mechanisms in aquaculture species may upend traditional assumptions about selection practices. Ultimately, there are still many unanswered questions regarding how epigenetic mechanisms might be leveraged in aquaculture.

  2. Understanding traditional African healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokgobi, M G

    2014-09-01

    Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of traditional healers as well as the role of traditional healers in their communities are discussed. In conclusion, the services of traditional healers go far beyond the uses of herbs for physical illnesses. Traditional healers serve many roles which include but not limited to custodians of the traditional African religion and customs, educators about culture, counselors, social workers and psychologists.

  3. Relação entre Público e Privado na Atenção Primária à Saúde: considerações preliminares Public-Private Relationship in Primary Care: preliminary considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivaldo Carneiro Junior

    2011-12-01

    emerged as a major issue in the context of the State reform movement from 1980 onwards, presenting views that challenge the government's role in providing social goods, and criticizing its efficiency in running public services. Thus, the nonprofit (non-governmental - NGO organizations arise as the social agents that are suitable to play this role in partnership with public power/government. Traditionally, primary health care has been a direct responsibility of the government, but in the context of the reforms, proposals have been made to change this central governance, moving the task of running primary care services and facilities towards the private sector. In Brazil, this question emerged more forcefully at the beginning of the 1990s with the recruitment of professionals through partnerships between the public sector, charities and nonprofit organizations, enabling the implementation and expansion of the Family Health Strategy, particularly in large urban centers. The state of São Paulo has accumulated extensive experience in the articulation between public and private in health care, particularly in primary care, through social organizations. It is necessary to enhance the debate about the public-private relationship, especially in primary care, in order to recognize the possibilities and limits of actions by the non-governmental sector.

  4. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Dick

    1997-01-01

    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate…

  5. Developing ontological model of computational linear algebra - preliminary considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasielewska, K.; Ganzha, M.; Paprzycki, M.; Lirkov, I.

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose a method for application of ontologically represented domain knowledge to support Grid users. The work is presented in the context provided by the Agents in Grid system, which aims at development of an agent-semantic infrastructure for efficient resource management in the Grid. Decision support within the system should provide functionality beyond the existing Grid middleware, specifically, help the user to choose optimal algorithm and/or resource to solve a problem from a given domain. The system assists the user in at least two situations. First, for users without in-depth knowledge about the domain, it should help them to select the method and the resource that (together) would best fit the problem to be solved (and match the available resources). Second, if the user explicitly indicates the method and the resource configuration, it should "verify" if her choice is consistent with the expert recommendations (encapsulated in the knowledge base). Furthermore, one of the goals is to simplify the use of the selected resource to execute the job; i.e., provide a user-friendly method of submitting jobs, without required technical knowledge about the Grid middleware. To achieve the mentioned goals, an adaptable method of expert knowledge representation for the decision support system has to be implemented. The selected approach is to utilize ontologies and semantic data processing, supported by multicriterial decision making. As a starting point, an area of computational linear algebra was selected to be modeled, however, the paper presents a general approach that shall be easily extendable to other domains.

  6. Preliminary design considerations for the stage 1 PEP lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helm, R.H.; Lee, M.J.

    1974-07-01

    A general description of the proposed PEP e + e - storage ring is discussed in the paper. We discuss the lattice and its operating characteristics in more detail, show how the design luminosity operative regions may be met and outline the limits of the operative regions of the beam parameters in several modes of operation. 18 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab

  7. The optimisation of occupational potential exposures - preliminary considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crouail, P. [Centre d`Etude sur l`Evaluation de la Protection dans le domaine Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Guimaraes, L. [Cidade Universitaria Armando de Salles Oliveira (Brazil)

    1995-03-01

    One of the major innovation brought about the ICRP 60 recommendations and emphasized by the ICRP 64 publication, is the introduction of the concept of potential exposures into the system of radiological protection. Potential exposures are characterized by {open_quotes}probability of occurrence lesser than unity{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}radiological risks exceeding normal levels{close_quotes} where normal must be interpreted as not exceeding the planned routine exposures. It is then necessary to develop consensual methods to look for and choose the optimum scenarios (i.e. those for which probability of events and possible consequences have been reduced as low as reasonably achievable). Moreover, the boundaries for the unacceptable levels of risks for workers should be defined, as well as reasonable risk indicators. The aim of this paper is to discuss the actual changes in the field of occupational radiological protection, induced by the potential exposure concept with particular emphasize on the optimization of protection.

  8. Compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactors (CRFPR): preliminary engineering considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.; Miller, R.L.; Embrechts, M.J.; Schnurr, N.M.; Battat, M.E.; LaBauve, R.J.; Davidson, J.W.

    1984-08-01

    The unique confinement physics of the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) projects to a compact, high-power-density fusion reactor that promises a significant reduction in the cost of electricity. The compact reactor also promises a factor-of-two reduction in the fraction of total cost devoted to the reactor plant equipment (i.e., fusion power core (FPC) plus support systems). In addition to operational and developmental benefits, these physically smaller systems can operate economically over a range of total power output. After giving an extended background and rationale for the compact fusion approaches, key FPC subsystems for the Compact RFP Reactor (CRFPR) are developed, designed, and integrated for a minimum-cost, 1000-MWe(net) system. Both the problems and promise of the compact, high-power-density fusion reactor are quantitatively evaluated on the basis of this conceptual design. The material presented in this report both forms a framework for a broader, more expanded conceptual design as well as suggests directions and emphases for related research and development.

  9. Compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactors (CRFPR): preliminary engineering considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.; Miller, R.L.; Embrechts, M.J.; Schnurr, N.M.; Battat, M.E.; LaBauve, R.J.; Davidson, J.W.

    1984-08-01

    The unique confinement physics of the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) projects to a compact, high-power-density fusion reactor that promises a significant reduction in the cost of electricity. The compact reactor also promises a factor-of-two reduction in the fraction of total cost devoted to the reactor plant equipment [i.e., fusion power core (FPC) plus support systems]. In addition to operational and developmental benefits, these physically smaller systems can operate economically over a range of total power output. After giving an extended background and rationale for the compact fusion approaches, key FPC subsystems for the Compact RFP Reactor (CRFPR) are developed, designed, and integrated for a minimum-cost, 1000-MWe(net) system. Both the problems and promise of the compact, high-power-density fusion reactor are quantitatively evaluated on the basis of this conceptual design. The material presented in this report both forms a framework for a broader, more expanded conceptual design as well as suggests directions and emphases for related research and development

  10. Preliminary considerations on safety of computerized control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vittet, J.

    1983-02-01

    Safety problems are analyzed in this report by the study of the interaction: ''human behavior in a rigid environment/information overload in perturbed situation''. For pedagogy the study is presented as a research of factors influencing operator performance in a control room and a dialogue between an analyst and a conceiving engineer. Danger of all control room where the strategy for data acquisition is too rigid and without spatial reference is stressed in conclusion. Orientations for an advanced control room are outlined [fr

  11. Preliminary subsurface hydrologic considerations: Columbia River Plateau physiographic province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veatch, M.D.

    1979-01-01

    Subsurface hydrologic conditions in the Pacific Northwest are strongly controlled by the structural and stratigraphic framework of subregions. A significant portion of the Pacific Northwest is underlain by the Columbia River Plateau basalt sequence. This discussion is limited to hydrologic conditions as they relate to the Columbia River Plateau physiographic province and specifically to the Pasco Basin in the central part of the province

  12. [Even cigarette butts can impact environment and health: preliminary considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Gianrocco; Gorini, Giuseppe; Chellini, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    In Italy, every year about 72 billion of cigarette butts are thrown away in the environment. Cigarette butts represent 50% of the wastes of urban areas (parks, roads) in the world, and 40% of Mediterranean Sea wastes. In particular, total polluting load is constituted of 1,872 Bq millions of Polonium-210, assuming 75 mBq per cigarette butt, and 1,800 tons of volatile organic compounds. As a matter of fact, according to several surveys, cigarette butts are considered by smokers and non-smokers as a common and acceptable waste in the environment. In 2008, European Union issued a Directive on wastes considering the «extended producer responsibility» (i.e., every industry is liable for costs of collection, transport and disposal of its own products). In October 2012, the Italian Parliament proposed a bill that classifies cigarette butts as special wastes in the frame of this responsibility. It could be interesting in the future to follow the legislative process of that bill in the Italian Parliament in order to show how strong it will be supported.

  13. The Importance of Creativity in Family Therapy: A Preliminary Consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, David K.

    1999-01-01

    Looks at the importance of creativity in the context of family therapy. Examines creative techniques such as family sculpturing, family art therapy, puppetry, family drawings, and psychodrama. Focuses on the concept of creativity in prominent theories of counseling (i.e., humanistic, Gestalt, cognitive psychology) and the relation of divergent…

  14. Biological evolution: Some genetic considerations | Salem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article, through analysis, criticism and reevaluation of some relevant genetic considerations that have long been traditionally considered as observations in support of the concept of evolution, viz. genetic memory and evolutionary variations, genomic adaptations to stress and evolution, comparative genomics and ...

  15. Due process traditionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunstein, Cass R

    2008-06-01

    In important cases, the Supreme Court has limited the scope of "substantive due process" by reference to tradition, but it has yet to explain why it has done so. Due process traditionalism might be defended in several distinctive ways. The most ambitious defense draws on a set of ideas associated with Edmund Burke and Friedrich Hayek, who suggested that traditions have special credentials by virtue of their acceptance by many minds. But this defense runs into three problems. Those who have participated in a tradition may not have accepted any relevant proposition; they might suffer from a systematic bias; and they might have joined a cascade. An alternative defense sees due process traditionalism as a second-best substitute for two preferable alternatives: a purely procedural approach to the Due Process Clause, and an approach that gives legislatures the benefit of every reasonable doubt. But it is not clear that in these domains, the first-best approaches are especially attractive; and even if they are, the second-best may be an unacceptably crude substitute. The most plausible defense of due process traditionalism operates on rule-consequentialist grounds, with the suggestion that even if traditions are not great, they are often good, and judges do best if they defer to traditions rather than attempting to specify the content of "liberty" on their own. But the rule-consequentialist defense depends on controversial and probably false assumptions about the likely goodness of traditions and the institutional incapacities of judges.

  16. The Fine Dutch Tradition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooimeijer, F.L.

    2012-01-01

    Publication of the exhibition and symposium on water adaptive urban planning and architecture in Bangkok. The Urban Fine Dutch Tradition is a dynamic tradition of making urban designs using the parameters of the natural system – incorperating in an efficient way the hydrological cycle, the soil and

  17. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the

  18. Site identification: environmental and radiological considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waite, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    Radiological and environmental considerations are recognized as being of utmost importance in planning, siting, licensing, operating, and decommissioning a high-level nuclear waste repository. In such a complex undertaking, it is important to identify the major concerns anticipated to arise in all of these phases in order to address them as early as possible in the program. Three representative activities/studies are summarized which will identify some of the important radiological and environmental considerations which must be addressed through this prolonged sequence of events and will indicate how these considerations are being addressed. It should be emphasized that these are only three of many which could have been chosen. The three key activities/studies are: (1) the NWTS Program criteria for identifying repository sites, (2) the generic guide for preparing environmental evaluations for deep drilling and (3) a preliminary environmental assessment for disposal of mined rock during excavation of a repository

  19. Men, Muscles, and Eating Disorders: an Overview of Traditional and Muscularity-Oriented Disordered Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Jason M; Brown, Tiffany A; Murray, Stuart B

    2017-06-01

    There is growing recognition that eating disorder (ED) symptoms, particularly those of a muscularity-oriented nature, are more common in men than previously understood. The purpose of the current review is to describe contemporary directions and implications of research on traditional and muscularity-oriented ED symptoms among males. Evidence indicates that ED symptoms occur in a substantial minority of men. Importantly, recent research has focused on muscularity-oriented body image and disordered eating in males, demonstrating the prevalence, correlates, and consequences of maladaptive muscularity-oriented attitudes and behaviors. A growing number of assessments are available to measure these constructs in males, and preliminary treatment considerations have begun to be addressed in the literature. Research on male EDs and body image is increasingly focusing on muscularity-oriented manifestations. Continued empirical work will be critical to improve our understanding of the onset, maintenance, and treatment of muscularity-oriented disordered eating in males.

  20. Traditional medicine as an alternative form of health care system: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional medicine as an alternative form of health care system: A preliminary case study of Nangabo sub-county, central Uganda. ... African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines ... The findings indicated that most (43%) respondents derive their livelihoods from traditional medicine practices.

  1. Traditional medicine and genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Joshi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ′Omics′ developments in the form of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics have increased the impetus of traditional medicine research. Studies exploring the genomic, proteomic and metabolomic basis of human constitutional types based on Ayurveda and other systems of oriental medicine are becoming popular. Such studies remain important to developing better understanding of human variations and individual differences. Countries like India, Korea, China and Japan are investing in research on evidence-based traditional medicines and scientific validation of fundamental principles. This review provides an account of studies addressing relationships between traditional medicine and genomics.

  2. Traditional medicine and genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Kalpana; Ghodke, Yogita; Shintre, Pooja

    2010-01-01

    'Omics' developments in the form of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics have increased the impetus of traditional medicine research. Studies exploring the genomic, proteomic and metabolomic basis of human constitutional types based on Ayurveda and other systems of oriental medicine are becoming popular. Such studies remain important to developing better understanding of human variations and individual differences. Countries like India, Korea, China and Japan are investing in research on evidence-based traditional medicines and scientific validation of fundamental principles. This review provides an account of studies addressing relationships between traditional medicine and genomics.

  3. Oral Tradition and Sappho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Scott Garner

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Through an exploration of Sappho’s verse-structuring tendencies and repeated phraseology, the current essay demonstrates that Sappho’s stanzaic poetry was enabled primarily by a traditional system of composition that allowed her words to be encoded with extralexical meaning (or to use John Miles Foley’s term, “traditional referentiality”. Through a renewed appreciation of these oral traditional influences on Sappho’s poetry we thus can begin to approach an understanding of this art much closer to that held by its earliest ancient Greek audiences.

  4. Preliminary Phytochemical, Antimicrobial and Acute Toxicity Studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-10-11

    Oct 11, 2010 ... Preliminary Phytochemical, Antimicrobial and Acute. Toxicity Studies of the Stem, bark and the Leaves of a cultivated Syzygium cumini Linn. (Family: Myrtaceae) in. Nigeria. *Ugbabe, G.E1, *Ezeunala, M.N2, Edmond, I.N3, Apev, J1 and Salawu, O.A3. 1Medicinal Plant Research and Traditional Medicine ...

  5. Jewish Wedding Traditions

    OpenAIRE

    ÜNAL, Asife

    2016-01-01

    The traditional Jewish wedding has so far unchanged for centuries in the basic elements, although each congregation has demonstrated little differences due to settled customs. The Jewish wedding traditions carries proper religious properties for the the sanctity of family unity which conduce to the continuation of the Jewish generation. The community attaches great importance to this united ceremony, combining the engagement (erusin/kiddushin) and the marriage (nisuin) which had been done sep...

  6. Traditional Indonesian dairy foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surono, Ingrid S

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia is the largest archipelago blessed with one of the richest mega-biodiversities and also home to one of the most diverse cuisines and traditional fermented foods. There are 3 types of traditional dairy foods, namely the butter-like product minyak samin; yogurt-like product dadih; and cheese-like products dali or bagot in horbo, dangke, litsusu, and cologanti, which reflect the culture of dairy product consumption in Indonesia.

  7. DOE handbook: Design considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The Design Considerations Handbook includes information and suggestions for the design of systems typical to nuclear facilities, information specific to various types of special facilities, and information useful to various design disciplines. The handbook is presented in two parts. Part 1, which addresses design considerations, includes two sections. The first addresses the design of systems typically used in nuclear facilities to control radiation or radioactive materials. Specifically, this part addresses the design of confinement systems and radiation protection and effluent monitoring systems. The second section of Part 1 addresses the design of special facilities (i.e., specific types of nonreactor nuclear facilities). The specific design considerations provided in this section were developed from review of DOE 6430.1A and are supplemented with specific suggestions and considerations from designers with experience designing and operating such facilities. Part 2 of the Design Considerations Handbook describes good practices and design principles that should be considered in specific design disciplines, such as mechanical systems and electrical systems. These good practices are based on specific experiences in the design of nuclear facilities by design engineers with related experience. This part of the Design Considerations Handbook contains five sections, each of which applies to a particular engineering discipline.

  8. DOE handbook: Design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    The Design Considerations Handbook includes information and suggestions for the design of systems typical to nuclear facilities, information specific to various types of special facilities, and information useful to various design disciplines. The handbook is presented in two parts. Part 1, which addresses design considerations, includes two sections. The first addresses the design of systems typically used in nuclear facilities to control radiation or radioactive materials. Specifically, this part addresses the design of confinement systems and radiation protection and effluent monitoring systems. The second section of Part 1 addresses the design of special facilities (i.e., specific types of nonreactor nuclear facilities). The specific design considerations provided in this section were developed from review of DOE 6430.1A and are supplemented with specific suggestions and considerations from designers with experience designing and operating such facilities. Part 2 of the Design Considerations Handbook describes good practices and design principles that should be considered in specific design disciplines, such as mechanical systems and electrical systems. These good practices are based on specific experiences in the design of nuclear facilities by design engineers with related experience. This part of the Design Considerations Handbook contains five sections, each of which applies to a particular engineering discipline

  9. Considerations for climate intervention research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Action to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions is essential for addressing rapid environmental change in the Earth's polar regions. However, the potential for threshold crossing events in polar climate elements with untenable consequences for society and ecosystems may motivate consideration of additional "climate interventions". A recent National Research Council study identified risks and research needs associated with global scale intervention options such as atmospheric carbon removal and albedo modification. In addition to the issues raised by the NRC panel, any serious study of climate interventions would likely transcend the traditional scope of earth system science. Current observational systems are not designed to detect, attribute or monitor climate intervention attempts and would warrant significant augmentation. Potential field experiments to improve scientific understanding of albedo modification options would likely span a huge range of physical scales, material and energy (some in-family with established atmospheric research but others that would be wholly unprecedented). Targeted interventions focused on polar climate elements have received even less study than global-scale intervention and their consideration could present unique challenges. Finally, research priorities have not yet been informed by any strategy or scenarios about where and when climate interventions might fit in society's portfolio of climate responses.

  10. [Study on incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xin-sheng; Duan, Jin-ao; Hua, Hao-ming; Qian, Da-wei; Shang, Er-xin; Guo, Jian-ming

    2015-04-01

    The incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicines is related to the clinical medication safety, so has attracted wide attentions from the public. With the deepening of studies on the incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicines represented by 18 incompatible herbs, the incompatibility of theory traditional Chinese medicines has raised to new heights. From the origin of incompatibility theory of traditional Chinese medicines, relationship of herbs, harms of incompatible herbs and principle of prevention to toxic effects of specific incompatible medicines, the innovation and development of the traditional Chinese medicine incompatibility theory was explored. Structurally, the incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicines refers to the opposition of two herbs based on seven emotions and clinical experience. The combination of incompatible herbs may lead to human harms, especially latent harm and inefficacy of intervention medicines. The avoidance of the combination of incompatible herbs and the consideration of both symptoms and drug efficacy are the basic method to prevent adverse reactions. The recent studies have revealed five characteristics of incompatible herbs. Toxicity potentiation, toxication, efficacy reduction and inefficacy are the four manifestations of the incompatible relations. The material changes can reflect the effects of toxicity potentiation and toxication of opposite herbs. The accumulation of toxicity and metabolic changes are the basis for latent harms. The antagonistic effect of main efficacies and the coexistence of positive and negative effects are the distinctive part of the incompatibility. The connotation of incompatible herbs plays an important role in the innovation of the traditional Chinese medicine incompatibility theory.

  11. KASTAMONU TRADITIONAL WOMEN CLOTHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Elhan ÖZUS

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Clothing is a unique dressing style of a community, a period or a profession. In clothing there is social status and difference principle rather than fashion. In this context, the society created a clothing style in line with its own customs, traditions and social structure. One of the features separating societies from each other and indicating their cultural and social classes is the clothing style. As it is known, traditional Turkish clothes reflecting the characteristics of Turkish society is our most beautiful heritage from past to present. From this heritage there are several examples of women's clothes c arried to present. When these examples are examined, it is possible to see the taste, the way of understanding art, joy and the lifestyle of the history. These garments are also the documents outlining the taste and grace of Turkish people. In the present study, traditional Kastamonu women's clothing, that has an important place in traditional cultural clothes of Anatolia, is investigated . The method of the present research is primarily defined as the examination of the written sources. The study is complet ed with the observations and examinations made in Kastamonu. According to the findings of the study, traditional Kastamonu women's clothing are examined and adapted to todays’ clothing.

  12. Traditional medicine in late pregnancy and labour: perceptions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa most black women use antenatal care services and deliver in clinics, and a considerable number complement this use of formal health services with traditional medicine. This study reported here examined the knowledge, beliefs and practical experiences of pregnant women, traditional healers and midwives ...

  13. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  14. Preliminary assessments the shortcut to remediation (category III-surplus facility assessments)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byars, L.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the details of the preliminary assessments for the shortcut of decontamination of surplus nuclear facilities. Topics discussed include: environment, health and safety concerns; economic considerations; reduction of transition time; preliminary characterization reports; preliminary project plan; health and safety plan; quality assurance plan; surveillance and maintenance plan; and waste management plan

  15. Family traditions and generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Gerald; Barrera, Maru

    2009-01-01

    Currently, traditional family values that have been passed down through generations appear to be at risk. This has significant implications for the stability and health of individuals, families, and communities. This article explores selected issues related to intergenerational transmission of family values and cultural beliefs, with particular reference to Western culture and values that are rooted in Jewish and Christian traditions. It also examines family values and parenting styles as they influence the developing perspective of children and the family's adaptation to a changing world.

  16. Construction traditions and Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Paolo Torsello

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In view of the physical and material incompatibility of many restoration works performed in the past, in recent years there has arisen a debate about the wisdom of retrieving old building traditions for the restoration process with a simple mechanical interpretation. Professor Torsello dissects the concept of tradition as regards its relationship with experience, science, history and production to discover an order of problems that affect the structure of our knowledge and whose origin resides in the radical changes that characterise modernity.

  17. Healthier Traditional Food

    OpenAIRE

    Edward F. Millen

    2017-01-01

    The study of traditional food and healthy eating habits has been one of the fast growing areas. All humans, both men and women, require food for their survival. However, both men and women indulge in food as if it were their sole purpose of existence. Hence, eating disorders are common among men and women. Then media has played an effective role not only in establishing faulty standards for traditional healthy food but also it has highlighted the importance of healthy eating. It has brought t...

  18. Preliminary Monthly Climatological Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Preliminary Local Climatological Data, recorded since 1970 on Weather Burean Form 1030 and then National Weather Service Form F-6. The preliminary climate data pages...

  19. Considerations for Visualizing Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleicher, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Supporting comparison is a common and diverse challenge in visualization. Such support is difficult to design because solutions must address both the specifics of their scenario as well as the general issues of comparison. This paper aids designers by providing a strategy for considering those general issues. It presents four considerations that abstract comparison. These considerations identify issues and categorize solutions in a domain independent manner. The first considers how the common elements of comparison-a target set of items that are related and an action the user wants to perform on that relationship-are present in an analysis problem. The second considers why these elements lead to challenges because of their scale, in number of items, complexity of items, or complexity of relationship. The third considers what strategies address the identified scaling challenges, grouping solutions into three broad categories. The fourth considers which visual designs map to these strategies to provide solutions for a comparison analysis problem. In sequence, these considerations provide a process for developers to consider support for comparison in the design of visualization tools. Case studies show how these considerations can help in the design and evaluation of visualization solutions for comparison problems.

  20. Tuberous sclerosis Anaesthetic considerations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    SYNDROMIC VIGNETTES IN ANAESTHESIA. Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia & Analgesia - May 2003. 4. Tuberous sclerosis. Anaesthetic considerations. Tuberous sclerosis. Tuberous sclerosis(TS) was first described by Bourneville in. 1880.1 TS is said to be one of the commonest autosomal domi- nant diseases.

  1. Noodles, traditionally and today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chinese noodles originated in the Han dynasty, which has more than 4,000 years of history. There are many stories about the origin of noodles. To a certain extent, noodles also reflect the cultural traditions and customs of China, which essentially means “human nature” and “worldly common sense”. There are thousands of varieties of noodles in China, according to the classification of the shape of noodles, seasoning gravy, cooking craft, and so on. Many noodles have local characteristics. Noodles are accepted by people from all over the world. The industrial revolution and the development of the food industry realized the transition from a traditional handicraft industry to mass production using machinery. In addition, the invention of instant noodles and their mass production also greatly changed the noodle industry. In essence, noodles are a kind of cereal food, which is the main body of the traditional Chinese diet. It is the main source of energy for Chinese people and the most economical energy food. Adhering to the principle of “making cereal food the main food”, is to maintain our Chinese good diet tradition, which can avoid the disadvantages of a high energy, high fat, and low carbohydrate diet, and promote health. The importance of the status of noodles in the dietary structure of residents in our country and the health impact should not be ignored.

  2. Making Tradition Healthy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-01

    In this podcast, a Latina nutrition educator shows how a community worked with local farmers to grow produce traditionally enjoyed by Hispanic/Latinos.  Created: 11/1/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 11/10/2007.

  3. by traditional bonesetters.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    menace caused by them. All patients referred to the University College Hospital between 1996 and 2001 were included in this study. Only a few number of the patients have been selected just to illustrate the menace caused by the traditional bonesetters in so many African societies. The deformities, financial loss.

  4. Traditions of technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandy, A.

    1979-01-01

    Modern technology, with about 300 years of history behind it, has become the dominant tradition by marginalizing the other traditions of technology in the West and in the rest of the world. Important roles have been played in this marginalization by the ideology of Englightenment, by the Industrial Revolution, and nineteenth and twentieth century colonialism. They have blurred the difference between science and technology, underwritten the mechanomorphic world-image and promoted the concept of a value-free, ethically unrestrained technology. However, the present crises of technological consciousness has brought to the fore alternative traditions of technology, not as ethnotechnologies from which a universal, secular, modern technology can draw lessons, but as a competing philosophies of universality which can provide correctives to the alienating, exploitative, and dehumanizing role of modern science and technology. An alternative ideology of science is needed for this as well as a new legitimacy for the traditional technosystems and their cultural environments. Such a legitimacy will have to be based on a different set of values relating to the man--nature and man--man relationships and a deeper understanding of the politics of technology in its cross-national and cross-cultural contexts.

  5. Challenging tradition in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriya, K E

    1991-01-01

    In Nigeria since 1987, the National Association of Nigeria Nurses and Midwives (NSNNM) has used traditional medial and traditional health care workers to curtail the practice of female circumcision. Other harmful traditions are being changed also, such as early marriage, taboos of pregnancy and childbirth, and scarification. 30,000 member of NANNM are involved in this effort to halt the harmful practices themselves and to change community opinion. The program involved national and state level workshops on harmful health consequences of traditional practices and instruction on how to conduct focus group discussions to assess women's beliefs and practices. The focus groups were found to be a particularly successful method of opening up discussion of taboo topics and expressing deep emotions. The response to the knowledge that circumcision was not necessary was rage and anger, which was channeled into advocacy roles or change in the practice. The result was the channeled into advocacy roles for change in the practice. The result was the development of books, leaflets and videos. One community group designed a dress with a decorative motif of tatoos and bodily cuts to symbolize circumcision and scarring. Plays and songs were written and performed. Artists provided models of female genitalia both before and after circumcision. The campaign has been successful in bringing this issue to the public attention in prominent ways, such a national television, health talk shows, and women;s magazines. One of the most important results of the effort has been the demonstration that culture and tradition can be changed from within, rather than from outside imposition of values and beliefs.

  6. Collaborative Robotics Design Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-06

    traditional manner, by manually reviewing a large number of recent publications in multi-robot research. This effort, while able to consider the...robots." The IEEE multi-robot research groups, above, were manually created within the 354 abstracts file using terms/phrases taken from the text of...Robotics Technologies," [4] Bay, J., Borrelli , L., Chapman, K., Harrold, T., "User Interface and Display Management Design for Multiple Robot Command

  7. Fusion facility siting considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussell, G.T.

    1985-01-01

    Inherent in the fusion program's transition from hydrogen devices to commercial power machines is a general increase in the size and scope of succeeding projects. This growth will lead to increased emphasis on safety, environmental impact, and the external effects of fusion in general, and of each new device in particular. A critically important consideration in this regard is site selection. The purpose of this paper is to examine major siting issues that may affect the economics, safety, and environmental impact of fusion

  8. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water reflected (i.e., surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established. When evaluating arrays, it has become more common for analysts to use calculations to demonstrate the safety of the array configuration. In performing these calculations, the analyst has considerable freedom concerning the assumptions made for modeling the reflection of the array. Considerations are given for the physical layout of the array with little or no discussion (or demonstration) of what conditions are bounded by the assumed reflection conditions. For example, an array may be generically evaluated by placing it in a corner of a room in which the opposing walls are far away. Typically, it is believed that complete flooding of the room is incredible, so the array is evaluated for various levels of water mist interspersed among array containers. This paper discusses some assumptions that are made regarding storage array reflection

  9. Traditional preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    conventional operative care, and since controlling the caries process prior to first restoration is the key to breaking the repair cycle and improving care for patients, future research should address the shortcomings in the current level of supporting evidence for the various traditional preventive treatment......Preventive treatment options can be divided into primary, secondary and tertiary prevention techniques, which can involve patient- or professionally applied methods. These include: oral hygiene (instruction), pit and fissure sealants ('temporary' or 'permanent'), fluoride applications (patient...

  10. Sadum: Traditional and Contemporary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Panggabean

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Sadum is one of the traditional cloths of the Batak people in North Sumatra. It is woven on a back strap loom with supplementary weft technique. Sadum is a warp faced weaving made of cotton and beads woven into the cloth. Ritually it is used as a shoulder cloth, gifts exchanges, and in dances. It also bears the symbol of good tidings and blessings for the receiver. The cloth has change during times in technique, color, patterns, as well as in functions. But the use as a ritual cloth stays the same. The basic weaving techniques and equipments used to create it hasn’t change, but its material and added techniques has made this cloth become more rich in color, pattern, and texture. Most changes began when the Europeans came to Indonesia and introduced new material such as synthetic fibers and colors. In the 70s traditional cloth of Indonesia got its boost when the government declared batik as Indonesian national attire. This encourages other traditional weavings to develop into contemporary clothing. Later, new techniques and material were introduced to the Sadum weavings including embroidery, silk and golden threads which were never used before.

  11. Welfare of non-traditional pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuppli, C A; Fraser, D; Bacon, H J

    2014-04-01

    The keeping of non-traditional or 'exotic' pets has been growing in popularity worldwide. In addition to the typical welfare challenges of keeping more traditional pet species like dogs and cats, ensuring the welfare of non-traditional pets is complicated by factors such as lack of knowledge, difficulties meeting requirements in the home and where and how animals are obtained. This paper uses examples of different species to highlight three major welfare concerns: ensuring that pets under our care i) function well biologically, ii) are free from negative psychological states and able to experience normal pleasures, and iii) lead reasonably natural lives. The keeping of non-traditional pets also raises ethical concerns about whether the animal poses any danger to others (e.g. transmission of zoonotic diseases) and whether the animal might cause environmental damage (e.g. invading non-native habitats when released). The authors used these considerations to create a checklist, which identifies and organises the various concerns that may arise over keeping non-traditional species as pets. An inability to address these concerns raises questions about how to mitigate them or even whether or not certain species should be kept as pets at all. Thus, the authors propose five categories, which range from relatively unproblematic pet species to species whose keeping poses unacceptable risks to the animals, to humans, or to the environment. This approach to the evaluation and categorisation of species could provide a constructive basis for advocacy and regulatory actions.

  12. Part 8. Deployment considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dance, K.D.; Chang, Y.I.; Daly, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    This report addresses considerations of fast breeder reactor development and deployment from a national perspective. Nations vary greatly in their expertise and interest relative to nuclear power, and hence a single set of steps to be taken by a nation in decision-making on breeder development and deployment cannot be presented. The approach taken in this report is to present discussions on key factors influencing the breeder development and deployment decisions, especially in non-breeder nations, by drawing upon historical perspectives of the Light Water Reactor for comparison

  13. In the Dirac tradition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    It was Paul Dirac who cast quantum mechanics into the form we now use, and many generations of theoreticians openly acknowledge his influence on their thinking. When Dirac died in 1984, St. John's College, Cambridge, his base for most of his lifetime, instituted an annual lecture in his memory at Cambridge. The first lecture, in 1986, attracted two heavyweights - Richard Feynman and Steven Weinberg. Far from using the lectures as a platform for their own work, in the Dirac tradition they presented stimulating material on deep underlying questions

  14. Rice and sushi cravings: a preliminary study of food craving among Japanese females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Sakura

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a preliminary version of the Food Craving Inventory for Japanese (FCI-J) and to investigate the phenomenon of food craving among Japanese females. One hundred and eighty-five female college students completed newly developed FCI-J. Factor analysis yielded conceptual factors that were interpreted as sweets, snacks, western foods, sushi, and rice. Test-retest and internal consistency analyses indicated a good reliability for both total score and score of subscales. In addition, results showed that the FCI-J has a good content, concurrent, construct, and discriminant validity. It is noteworthy that "rice craving" may be characteristic among Asian rice consuming countries, and that there are considerable "sushi cravers" in Japan. These findings suggested that the craving for some kind of food is influenced by the tradition of food products and cultures.

  15. Considerations on TV Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcisa Gales

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Media has become a very powerful cultural institution in the last past decades of the 20th century and inspired many critical studies in disciplines such as linguistics, semiotics, pragmatics, discourse studies and not least, in the field of mass communication itself. The first studies of media language focused on easily observable surface structures, such as the biased or partisan use of words in the description of Us and Them, especially along political and social lines, for instance in the representations of communists. The traditional approach on the analysis of the biased, stereotypical - sexist or racist images in the media, has taken into account both texts, as well as illustrations of photos. Semiotics found its way into media studies quite early, and thus brought some basic structural notions to the study of media discourse and a necessary component of a broader study of media images.

  16. Radiological considerations for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    It has been said, by those uninitiated to decommissioning work, that radiological considerations required for decommissioning are the same as those for an operating facility. In reality, nothing could be further from the truth. The act of decommissioning can be likened to cutting off a tree limb while sitting on it. This paper discusses some of the unique radiological aspects that are associated with implementing a decommissioning health physics program. There are physical constraints that may cause major differences between a normal operational and a decommissioning health physics program. Throughout the decommissioning process, the installed equipment and services that were needed to support an operational program are constantly being removed or may already be disabled due to the age of the facility. Those affecting radiological protection programs typically would include radiation shielding, ventilation systems, breathing air supply for respiratory protection, and radiological monitoring systems

  17. Non-traditional inheritance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    In the last few years, several non-traditional forms of inheritance have been recognized. These include mosaicism, cytoplasmic inheritance, uniparental disomy, imprinting, amplification/anticipation, and somatic recombination. Genomic imprinting (GI) is the dependence of the phenotype on the sex of the transmitting parent. GI in humans seems to involve growth, behaviour, and survival in utero. The detailed mechanism of genomic imprinting is not known, but it seems that some process is involved in turning a gene off; this probably involves two genes, one of which produces a product that turns a gene off, and the gene that is itself turned off. The process of imprinting (turning off) may be associated with methylation. Erasure of imprinting can occur, and seems to be associated with meiosis. 10 refs

  18. Paediatricians, social media and blogs: Ethical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Laurent-Gagnon, Thérèse; Coughlin, Kevin W

    2012-05-01

    The use of blogs, Facebook and similar social networking sites is rapidly expanding and, when compared with e-mail, may be having a significantly different impact on the traditional doctor-patient relationship. Characteristics specific to these online platforms have major implications for professional relationships, including the 'Facebook effect' (the relative permanence of postings) and the 'online disinhibition effect'. The present practice point illustrates relevant ethical considerations and provides guidance to paediatricians and others concerning the prudent professional and personal use of social networking media.

  19. Biodiversity, carbon stocks and community monitoring in traditional agroforestry practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartoyo, Adisti Permatasari Putri; Siregar, Iskandar Z.; Supriyanto

    2016-01-01

    Traditional agroforestry practices in Berau, East Kalimantan, are suitable land use types to conserve that potentially support the implementation of REDD+. The objectives of this research are to assess biodiversity and carbon stock in various traditional agroforestry practices, also to determine...... the accuracy of the ability levels of local community in biodiversity and carbon stock monitoring. This paper presents the implementation plan and preliminary data in Kampung Birang and Kampung Merabu, in Berau district. Professional forester-led methods of biodiversity and carbon stock assessment follow...

  20. Use of traditional motives in Serbian science-fiction literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject of this paper is consideration of use of traditional motives in Serbian science-fiction literature in relation with socio-cultural milieu of Serbia from late 80s until now. The author tries to point out ways of usage and construction of some traditional and mythological patterns in certain literature works. This genre of literary production is perceived as a popular culture phenomenon - with this premise, the paper intents to analyze communication process between text and audiences.

  1. Specific Considerations for LGBT Eldercare

    OpenAIRE

    Claassen, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    The LGBT community has changed considerably in numbers, awareness, and acceptance in the past few decades. Due to the growing number of LGBT elderly, special considera-tions must be taken into account in planning their care. This study aimed at showcasing considerations that should be taken into account when planning elderly care and future elderly living arrangements. The research questions used were (a) are there special considerations for LGBT seniors? and (b), if so, what are the cons...

  2. System considerations for airborne, high power superconducting generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southall, H.L.; Oberly, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    The design of rotating superconducting field windings in high power generators is greatly influenced by system considerations. Experience with two superconducting generators designed to produce 5 and 20 Mw resulted in a number of design restrictions. The design restrictions imposed by system considerations have not prevented low weight and high voltage power generation capability. The application of multifilament Nb;sub 3;Sn has permitted a large thermal margin to be designed into the rotating field winding. This margin permits the field winding to remain superconducting under severe system operational requirements. System considerations include: fast rotational startup, fast ramped magnetic fields, load induced transient fields and airborne cryogen logistics. Preliminary selection of a multifilament Nb;sub 3;Sn cable has resulted from these considerations. The cable will carry 864 amp at 8.5K and 6.8 Tesla. 10 refs

  3. Regulatory considerations for biosimilars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjani Nellore

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently there is considerable interest in the legislative debate around generic biological drugs or "biosimilars" in the EU and US due to the large, lucrative market that it offers to the industry. While some countries have issued a few regulatory guidelines as well as product specific requirements, there is no general consensus as to a single, simple mechanism similar to the bioequivalence determination that leads to approval of generic small molecules all over the world. The inherent complex nature of the molecules, along with complicated manufacturing and analytical techniques to characterize them make it difficult to rely on a single human pharmacokinetic study for assurance of safety and efficacy. In general, the concept of comparability has been used for evaluation of the currently approved "similar" biological where a step by step assessment on the quality, preclinical and clinical aspects is made. In India, the focus is primarily on the availability and affordability of life-saving drugs. In this context every product needs to be evaluated on its own merit irrespective of the innovator brand. The formation of the National Biotechnology Regulatory Authority may provide a step in the right direction for regulation of these complex molecules. However, in order to have an efficient machinery for initial approval and ongoing oversight with a country-specific focus, cooperation with international authorities for granting approvals and continuous risk-benefit review is essential. Several steps are still needed for India to be perceived as a country that leads the world in providing quality biological products.

  4. Transforming traditional communicative language instruction into computer-technology based instruction: experiences, challenges and considerations. Experiencias, retos y puntos para tener en cuenta en la transición entre un enfoque comunicativo de enseñanza del inglés como lengua extranjera a un enfoque mediado por el uso de las TICS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Alejandro Galvis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper serves as a report on a qualitative study that was conducted in a language center in Colombia, with the aim of exploring the integration of computer technology into two EFL classes. This process involved the transformation of a traditional communicative language syllabus into a computer-technology oriented one which included the use of virtual communities, E-mail, Blogs and an instant-messaging application. Results of this study led to a critical discussion of the role of teachers and institutions when implementing computer technology. Other findings of this study suggest that some of the participants tended to choose computer-mediated communication over face-to-face interaction when communicating in EFL. It could also be observed that the participants expressed their willingness to continue using computer technology in future language instruction.Resumen Este artículo reporta una investigación de tipo cualitativo que se realizó en un centro de enseñanza del inglés en Colombia y cuyo objetivo fue explorar la implementación de la tecnología en dos clases de enseñanza del inglés como lengua extranjera. Este proceso se llevo a cabo por medio de modificaciones curriculares que llevaron a la inclusión de correo electrónico, foros de discusiones y aplicaciones de mensajería instantánea como medios para facilitar proyectos en el aula. Los resultados llevan a replantear el rol de docentes e instituciones para contribuir a la integración de las TIC cuando estas han sido excluidas curricularmente. De la misma manera, los resultados sugieren que algunos participantes preferirían seguir utilizando tecnología, y comunicarse por medios electrónicos en lengua extranjera en lugar de sostener conversaciones vis-à-vis entre sus compañeros de clase.

  5. Traditional Medicine in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Rikke Stamp

    People use traditional medicine to meet their health care needs in developing countries and medical pluralism persists worldwide despite increased access to allopathic medicine. Traditional medicine includes a variety of treatment opportunities, among others, consultation with a traditional healer...... or spiritual healer and self-treatment with herbal medicine or medicinal plants. Reliance on traditional medicine varies between countries and rural and urban areas, but is reported to be as high as 80% in some developing countries. Increased realization of the continued importance of traditional medicine has...... led to the formulation of policies on the integration of traditional medicine into public health care. Local level integration is already taking place as people use multiple treatments when experiencing illness. Research on local level use of traditional medicine for health care, in particular the use...

  6. The Hausa Lexicographic Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Ma Newman

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Hausa, a major language of West Africa, is one of the most widely studied languagesof Sub-Saharan Africa. It has a rich lexicographic tradition dating back some two centuries. Sincethe first major vocabulary published in 1843 up to the present time, almost 60 lexicographic works— dictionaries, vocabularies, glossaries — have been published, in a range of metalanguages, fromEnglish to Hausa itself. This article traces the historical development of the major studies accordingto their type and function as general reference works, specialized works, pedagogical works, andterminological works. For each work, there is a general discussion of its size, accuracy of the phonological,lexical, and grammatical information, and the adequacy of its definitions and illustrativematerial. A complete list of the lexicographic works is included.

    Keywords: ARABIC, BILINGUAL LEXICOGRAPHY, DIALECTAL VARIANTS, DICTIONARIES,ENGLISH, ETYMOLOGIES, FRENCH, GERMAN, GLOSSARIES, GRAMMATICALCATEGORIES, HAUSA, LANGUAGE LEARNING, LOANWORDS, NEOLOGISMS, NIGER,NIGERIA, ORTHOGRAPHY, PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION, PHONOLOGY, RUSSIAN, STANDARDDIALECT, STANDARDIZATION, TERMINOLOGY, VOCABULARIES, WEST AFRICA.

    Opsomming: Die leksikografiese tradisie in Hausa. Hausa, 'n belangrike taal vanWes-Afrika, is een van die tale van Afrika suid van die Sahara wat die wydste bestudeer word. Dithet 'n ryk leksikografiese tradisie wat ongeveer twee eeue oud is. Van die eerste groot woordeboekwat in 1843 gepubliseer is tot die hede is ongeveer 60 leksikografiese werke — woordeboeke,naamlyste, woordelyste — gepubliseer in 'n reeks metatale van Engels tot Hausa self. Hierdie artikelgaan die historiese ontwikkeling van die groter studies aan die hand van hulle tipe en funksieas algemene naslaanwerke, gespesialiseerde werke, opvoedkundige werke, en terminologiesewerke na. Vir elke werk is daar 'n algemene bespreking oor sy grootte, akkuraatheid van die fonologiese,leksikale en

  7. Investigation of Indonesian Traditional Houses through CFD Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhendri; Koerniawan, M. D.

    2017-03-01

    Modern buildings in Indonesia rely mostly on artificial lighting, heating, cooling and ventilation. It means more energy is used to drive mechanical appliances, and presumably not sustainable. Meanwhile modern buildings consume much energy, traditional architectures are known as the source of knowledge for sustainable, energy efficient and climate responsive design. Noticeably, one of the differences between modern and traditional buildings in Indonesia is shown in their strategy to provide thermal comfort to the user. Traditional buildings use natural ventilation, but modern buildings use mechanical air conditioning. By focusing on wind-driven ventilation, the study aims to investigate natural ventilation strategy of Indonesian traditional house, and their potential improvement to be used in modern Indonesian buildings. Three traditional houses are studied in this research, representing west, central, and east Indonesia. The houses are Lampung traditional house, Javanese traditional house, and Toraja traditional house. CFD simulation is conducted to simulate wind-driven ventilation behaviour and the temperature of the buildings. Concisely, the wind-natural ventilation of case study houses is potential to provide thermal comfort inside the houses. However, the strategy still can be optimized by adding some other passive design strategies: sun-shading; vegetation; or buildings arrangement in the traditional dwelling. Consideration about the roof’s shape and windows position to the roof is important as well to create a uniform air distribution.

  8. Ideological Considerations in Official Dubbing in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Khoshsaligheh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In our globalizing world, audiovisual products are understandably considered tools that advertise their original language and culture. Most societies do not stand any interference from the outside, especially if it considerably opposes the socio-cultural norms. Translation is a practice of cross-cultural communication which most often complies with the socio-cultural guidelines and norms of the recipient society. However, translated products might face resistance as they can be regarded threatening and hostile by the ruling gatekeepers. Given the dramatic disparities between most languages and cultures, translators are not the only decision-makers and other agents have pivotal roles in the process of adapting the translated product to the dominant conventions and socio-cultural norms. This paper aims at shedding some light on the role which agents play in the process of dubbing, both for public access national television and for private home distribution. The study explores the effects of preliminary and operational norms, and cultural appropriation conducted at both textual and visual levels through a method including interview data and textual analysis. The results show that foreign movies dubbed into Persian in the religious context of the contemporary Iran are strictly controlled both before the process of dubbing and during and after the process of dubbing due to a number of socio-cultural, political, and ideological considerations.

  9. Complementary therapies and traditional Judaism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, F

    1999-03-01

    In Jewish tradition, physicians are obligated to heal the sick and patients are obligated to seek healing from physicians. Judaism also sanctions certain complementary therapies such as prayers, faith healing, and amulets, when used as supplements to traditional medical therapy. Confidence in the healing powers of God through prayer and contrition is encouraged, provided that the patient uses prayer alongside traditional scientific medicine, not as a substitute for it.

  10. Reception of the Istrian musical tradition(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marušić Dario

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The successive colonization of Istria with culturally differentiated populations, and peripheral position of the peninsula regarding both the Latin and Slav worlds, has conditioned interesting phenomena which defines the traditional life of the province. On the spiritual level it is primarily reflected in two cultural dimensions: the language and traditional music.

  11. Nkwa music of Achina traditional society in Igbo culture | Ibekwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Royalty in Igbo traditional society is accorded inestimable prominence that every community in Igbo culture enjoys to be identified with such celebrity-oriented fraternity. This essay unravels the suitability and functionality of Nkwa music of Achina as a type of royal music genre, taken into consideration its socio-cultural ...

  12. Traditional Institutions and Agenda Setting: The Case of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-20

    May 20, 2011 ... role of traditional institutions in setting the agenda for the adoption of the national education trust fund ... He argues that agenda setting is the process of getting public problem to the consideration of the .... funding education became imperative to halt the fallen standard of education and the deterioration of ...

  13. Aesop and Company: Using Traditional Tales in EFL Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Virginia French

    Making repeated use of a traditional tale can offer various kinds of language practice. Many new teachers use a reading passage just once, investing considerable time in the explanation of the vocabulary needed to understand it, and then rush on to something new. Actually, the best potentialities of the material are still to be tapped, through…

  14. Machinery penile injuries associated with traditional trousers of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Editorial Comment on: “Machinery penile injuries associated with traditional trousers of the Yorubas of south-western Nigeria: A consideration for proper work clothes”. Dirk Schultheiss, MD. Professor of Urology, Department of Urology, Protestant Hospital, Giessen, Germany. Received 11 January 2012. This article nicely ...

  15. The potential for upgrading traditional fermented foods through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These include the use of starter cultures, stabilization of spontaneous fermentations, and production of food processing enzymes. In view of the considerable range of technologies for improving traditional bioprocessing, the challenges and potential application of biotechnology in upgrading these foods will be discussed.

  16. Traditional African Religions (TARs): on HIV/AIDS, health and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional African Religions (TARs) played a big role in the well-being of the people especially in the field of health in the context of the World Health Organization definition. Unfortunately, they do not seem to have been given consideration in the fight against the current AIDS epidemic and its consequences. TARS being ...

  17. Preliminary Study of Plants Used in Ethnoveterinary Medicine in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary Study of Plants Used in Ethnoveterinary Medicine in Tunisia and in Italy. ... African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines ... Results: Thirty-nine plants, representing 22 families, used in Tunisia in ethnoveterinary medicine were reported, and comparisons made with close species used ...

  18. How 'Digital' is Traditional Crime?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, L.; Junger, Marianne; Hartel, Pieter H.

    Measuring how much cybercrime exists is typically done by first defining cybercrime and then quantifying how many cases fit that definition. The drawback is that definitions vary across countries and many cybercrimes are recorded as traditional crimes. An alternative is to keep traditional

  19. Understanding Traditional Research Impact Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Joseph S; Sebastian, Arjun S; Kaye, I David; Wagner, Scott C; Morrissey, Patrick B; Schroeder, Gregory D; Kepler, Christopher K; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2017-05-01

    Traditionally, the success of a researcher has been judged by the number of publications he or she has published in peer-review, indexed, high impact journals. However, to quantify the impact of research in the wider scientific community, a number of traditional metrics have been used, including Impact Factor, SCImago Journal Rank, Eigenfactor Score, and Article Influence Score. This article attempts to provide a broad overview of the main traditional impact metrics that have been used to assess scholarly output and research impact. We determine that there is no perfect all-encompassing metric to measure research impact, and, in the modern era, no single traditional metric is capable of accommodating all facets of research impact. Academics and researchers should be aware of the advantages and limitations of traditional metrics and should be judicious when selecting any metrics for an objective assessment of scholarly output and research impact.

  20. Advanced LBB methodology and considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, R.; Rahman, S.; Scott, P. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    LBB applications have existed in many industries and more recently have been applied in the nuclear industry under limited circumstances. Research over the past 10 years has evolved the technology so that more advanced consideration of LBB can now be given. Some of the advanced considerations for nuclear plants subjected to seismic loading evaluations are summarized in this paper.

  1. Ethical Considerations in Technology Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    Examines ethical considerations involved in the transfer of appropriate information technology to less developed countries. Approaches to technology are considered; two philosophical frameworks for studying ethical considerations are discussed, i.e., the Kantian approach and the utilitarian perspective by John Stuart Mill; and integration of the…

  2. Advanced LBB methodology and considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.; Rahman, S.; Scott, P.

    1997-01-01

    LBB applications have existed in many industries and more recently have been applied in the nuclear industry under limited circumstances. Research over the past 10 years has evolved the technology so that more advanced consideration of LBB can now be given. Some of the advanced considerations for nuclear plants subjected to seismic loading evaluations are summarized in this paper

  3. Revealed preference with limited consideration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demuynck, T.; Seel, C.

    2014-01-01

    We derive revealed preference tests for models where individuals use consideration sets to simplify their consumption problem. Our basic test provides necessary and sufficient conditions for consistency of observed choices with the existence of consideration set restrictions. The same conditions can

  4. Management considerations and environmental benefit analysis for turning food garbage into agricultural resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Tien

    2008-09-01

    The management of food garbage is of great importance because of its high energy consumption, potential environmental hazards and public health risks. In Taiwan, through the competent authorities at all levels and the citizens' participation in sorting household wastes, many recycling efforts have recently been implemented to further utilize it as available resources such as swine feeds and organic fertilizer by composting. As a result, a total of approximately 570 thousand metric tons was recycled with a recycling ratio of about 21.2% on a basis of food garbage generation in 2006, rising over 22% from a year earlier. These figures showed that compulsory garbage sorting has indeed dramatically increased the recycling of food garbage. The objective of this paper is to present and discuss some management considerations in turning food garbage into agricultural resources due to the compulsory garbage sorting directive in Taiwan. The description first aims at the current status in food garbage generation and its recycling, and at the regulatory polices which have become effective since 2000. It also centers on the environmental and agricultural measures on upgrading food garbage recycling. Based on the preliminary analysis of environmental benefit by the Revised 1996 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, it is obvious that composting food garbage is superior to that by traditional treatments (i.e., incineration and sanitary landfill) from the viewpoint of reducing greenhouse gases (i.e., CO(2) and CH(4)) emissions.

  5. Preliminary results from NOAMP deep drifting floats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollitrault, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper is a very brief and preliminary outline of first results obtained with deep SOFAR floats in the NOAMP area. The work is now going toward more precise statistical estimations of mean and variable currents, together with better tracking to resolve submesoscales and estimate diffusivities due to mesoscale and smaller scale motions. However the preliminary results confirm that the NOAMP region (and surroundings) has a deep mesoscale eddy field that is considerably more energetic that the mean field (r.m.s. velocities are of order 5 cm s -1 ), although both values are diminished compared to the western basin. A data report containing trajectories and statistics is scheduled to be published by IFREMER in the near future. The project main task is to especially study the dispersion of radioactive substances

  6. Acute toxicity test of leachates from traditional and sustainable landfills using luminescent bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivato, Alberto; Gaspari, Lorenzo

    2006-01-01

    Landfilling is a fundamental step in any waste management strategy, but it can constitute a hazard for the environment for a long time. The need to protect the environment from potential landfill emissions makes risk assessment a decision tool of extreme necessity. The heterogeneity of wastes and the complexity of physical, chemical and biological processes that occur in the body of a landfill need specific procedures in order to evaluate the groundwater risk for the environment. Given the complexity of the composition of landfill leachates, the exact contribution of each potential toxic substance cannot be known precisely. Some reference contaminants that constitute the hazard (toxicity) of leachate have to be found to perform the risk assessment. A preliminary ecotoxicological investigation with luminescent bacteria has been carried out on different leachates from traditional and sustainable landfills in order to rank the chemicals that better characterize the leachate (heavy metals, ammonia and dissolved organic content). The attention has been focused on ammonia because it is present in high concentration and can last for centuries and can seriously contaminate the groundwater. The results showed that the toxicity of the leachate might reliably depend on the ammonia concentration and that the leachate toxicity is considerably lower in sustainable landfills where the ammonia had been degraded. This has an important consequence because if the containment system fails (as usually occur within 30-50 yr), the risk of groundwater contamination will be calculated easier only in terms of the probability that the ammonia concentration is higher than a reference concentration

  7. Advocate program for healthy traditional houses, Ume Kbubu, in a Timor community: preserving traditional behavior and promoting improved health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasodjo, Rachmalina; Musadad, D Anwar; Muhidin, Salut; Pardosi, Jerico; Silalahi, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Families in the Timor society of Indonesia have customarily used traditional houses, called Ume Kbubu, for confinement practices of a newborn baby and the mother during the first 40 days after birth. The practice, known as Sei (smoke) tradition, involves retaining heat, which is believed to foster healing, inside the house by continuously burning a wood burning stove. Exacerbated by inadequate ventilation in the traditional house, this practice results in poor indoor air quality and negatively affects the health of the mother and baby. Preliminary findings from a baseline study conducted in 2009 identified high levels of indoor air pollution in Ume Kbubu where mothers practiced the Sei tradition. Many respondents expressed that they suffered from respiratory health problems during the practice. On the basis of those results, a follow-up study was conducted in 2011 to develop and test a communication-focused behavior change intervention that would foster conversion of traditional houses into healthy Ume Kbubu and promote changes to traditional practices for better health outcomes. The study suggests that redesigning an Ume Kbubu house could promote better air quality inside the house and involving the community in the health intervention program led to positive changes in the Sei practice (i.e., decreasing the Sei period's length from 40 days to 4 days on average and attempting to reduce household air pollution). The study resulted in several recommendations in relation to sustained transformation to improve health behaviors.

  8. Personalized medicine: a confluence of traditional and contemporary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Samineh; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Saeidnia, Soodabeh

    2014-01-01

    Traditional systems of medicine have attained great popularity among patients in recent years. Success of this system in the treatment of disease warrants consideration, particularly in cases for which conventional medicine has been insufficient. This study investigates the similarities in principles and approaches of 3 traditional systems and explores whether conventional medicine is able to exploit the advantages of traditional systems. This study first identifies and explores the advantages of 3 well-known systems-traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), ayurveda, and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM)-that are similar in their basic principles and methods. Second, it clarifies whether and how conventional medicine could exploit the advantages of traditional systems as it modernizes, to become more personalized. Finally, this study investigates the possibility that conventional medicine could benefit from traditional typology to improve its personalization. The acknowledgment of the unity of humans and nature, applying rational methods, and personalized approaches is fundamentally similar in the 3 systems. Additionally, they all promote the holistic view that health is harmony and disease is disharmony of the body. Other similarities include their recognition of the unique nature of every person and their categorization of people into different body types. Although conventional medicine has mostly failed to incorporate the advantages of traditional medicine, its integration with traditional medicine is achievable. For instance, exploiting traditional typologies in genomic and other studies may facilitate personalization of conventional medicine. From its review, the research team concludes that prospects are bright for the integration of traditional and conventional medicines and, consequently, for a dramatic improvement in health systems.

  9. Examination of Traditional Medicine and Herbal Pharmacology and the Implications for Teaching and Education: A Ghanaian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asabere-Ameyaw, Akwasi; Sefa Dei, George J.; Raheem, Kolawole

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the preliminary findings of a pilot study of the practice, uses, and effectiveness of traditional medicine in Ghana. Based on in-depth interviews with local key practitioners and users of traditional medicine, the article points to some of the educational significance of local cultural knowledge on the environment and the…

  10. Unveiling Cebuano Traditional Healing Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZachiaRaiza Joy S. Berdon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the features of Cebuano’s traditional healing practices. Specifically, it also answers the following objectives: analyze traditional healing in Cebuano’s perspectives, explain the traditional healing process practiced in terms of the traditional healers’ belief, and extrapolate perceptions of medical practitioners toward traditional healing. This study made use of qualitative approach, among five traditional healers who performed healing for not less than ten years, in the mountain barangays of Cebu City. These healers served as the primary informants who were selected because of their popularity in healing. The use of open-ended interview in local dialect and naturalistic observation provided a free listing of their verbatim accounts were noted and as primary narratives. Participation in the study was voluntary and participants were interviewed privately after obtaining their consent. The Cebuano traditional healing practices or “panambal” comprise the use of “himolso” (pulse-checking, “palakaw” (petition, “pasubay” (determining what causes the sickness and its possible means of healing, “pangalap” (searching of medicinal plants for “palina” (fumigation, “tayhop” (gentle-blowing, “tutho” (saliva-blowing,“tuob” (boiling, “orasyon” (mystical prayers, “hilot” (massage, and “barang” (sorcery. Though traditional with medical science disapproval, it contributes to a mystical identity of Cebuano healers, as a manifestation of folk Catholicism belief, in order to do a good legacy to the community that needs help. For further study, researchers may conduct further the studies on the: curative effects of medicinal plants in Cebu, psychological effect pulsechecking healed persons by the mananambal, and unmasking the other features of traditional healing.

  11. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  12. Goddess Traditions in Tantric Hinduism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinduism cannot be understood without the Great Goddess and the goddess-orientated Śākta traditions. The Goddess pervades Hinduism at all levels, from aniconic village deities to high-caste pan-Hindu goddesses to esoteric, tantric goddesses. Nevertheless, the highly influential tantric forms of S...... of South Asian goddess worship have only recently begun to draw scholarly attention. This book addresses the increasing interest in the Great Goddess and the tantric traditions of India by exploring the history, doctrine and practices of the Śākta tantric traditions....

  13. Traditional soyfoods: processing and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbitz, P

    1995-03-01

    Although soyfoods have been consumed for more than 1000 years, only for the past 15 years have they made an inroad into Western cultures and diets. Soyfoods are typically divided into two categories: nonfermented and fermented. Traditional nonfermented soyfoods include fresh green soybeans, whole dry soybeans, soy nuts, soy sprouts, whole-fat soy flour, soymilk and soymilk products, tofu, okara and yuba. Traditional fermented soyfoods include tempeh, miso, soy sauces, natto and fermented tofu and soymilk products. This paper presents a brief overview of processing techniques used in the manufacture of traditional soyfoods.

  14. Quantitative morphological descriptors confirm traditionally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-09-30

    Sep 30, 2015 ... J. Appl. Biosci. 2015 Quantitative morphological descriptors confirm traditionally classified morphotypes of Pentadesma butyracea Sabine (clusiaceae). 8736. Quantitative morphological descriptors ...... Hijmans RJ, Cameron SE, Parra JL, Jones PG, Jarvis. A, 2004. The WorldClim interpolated global.

  15. [Common household traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Yuan; Li, Mei; Fu, Dan; Liu, Yang; Wang, Hui; Tan, Wei

    2016-02-01

    With the enhancement in the awareness of self-diagnosis among residents, it's very common for each family to prepare common medicines for unexpected needs. Meanwhile, with the popularization of the traditional Chinese medicine knowledge, the proportion of common traditional Chinese medicines prepared at residents' families is increasingly higher than western medicines year by year. To make it clear, both pre-research and closed questionnaire research were adopted for residents in Chaoyang District, Beijing, excluding residents with a medical background. Based on the results of data, a analysis was made to define the role and influence on the quality of life of residents and give suggestions for relevant departments to improve the traditional Chinese medicine popularization and promote the traditional Chinese medicine market. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  16. Electronic commerce versus traditional commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Dorin Vicentiu Popescu; Manoela Popescu

    2007-01-01

    The internet represents new opportunities for the traditional companies, including the diversification of the given services and also the promotion of the new ones, which are personalized and attractive and they are possible thanks to the information and communication technologies. According to this, the Internet impact, which has allowed the development of a new form of commerce- the commerce via Internet (which is a component of the electronic commerce), against the traditional global comme...

  17. Was the Monetarist Tradition Invented?

    OpenAIRE

    George S. Tavlas

    1998-01-01

    In 1969, Harry Johnson charged that Milton Friedman 'invented' a Chicago oral quantity theory tradition, the idea being that in order to launch a monetarist counter-revolution, Friedman needed to establish a linkage with pre-Keynesian orthodoxy. This paper shows that there was a distinct pre-Keynesian Chicago quantity-theory tradition that advocated increased government expenditure during the Great Depression in order to put money directly into circulation. This policy stance distinguished th...

  18. Little Eyolf and dramatic tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Lysell

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article criticises an Ibsen tradition who has seen the last scene of Little Eyolf as a reconciliation. Instead, the article discusses the improbability of a happy marriage characterised by social engagement. The play is open but it is hardly probable that Rita, with her erotic desire, and Allmers, whose desire has turned into metaphysics, can be happy together. The arguments refer to inner criteria and the constantly present dramatic tradition.

  19. [Concern points and considerations for pharmacodynamic study design of new traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fang-Hua

    2014-03-01

    Pharmacodynamic (PD) studies play an important role in research and development of new traditonal Chinese medicines (TCMs). Phamacologic and toxicologic studies that aim to research drug ability can provide supporting data for the clinical trials and reduce the risk of clinical trials. In recent years, PD studies in TCMs are developing and progressing, but there are still some problems affecting the value of PD studies in the development of new TCMs. The value of PD studies depends on scientific and rational study design. This article summaries some defects in PD study design of new TCMs that are common in the application data, including defects in study type, testing targets, dosing, duration of administration, control group, testing time. This article also discusses some points of concern and specific requirements for PD study design of new TCMs.

  20. The Living Indian Critical Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Dwivedi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to establish the identity of something that is often considered to be missing – a living Indian critical tradition. I refer to the tradition that arises out of the work of those Indians who write in English. The chief architects of this tradition are Sri Aurobindo, C.D. Narasimhaiah, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak and Homi K. Bhabha. It is possible to believe that Indian literary theories derive almost solely from ancient Sanskrit poetics. Or, alternatively, one can be concerned about the sad state of affairs regarding Indian literary theories or criticism in English. There have been scholars who have raised the question of the pathetic state of Indian scholarship in English and have even come up with some positive suggestions. But these scholars are those who are ignorant about the living Indian critical tradition. The significance of the Indian critical tradition lies in the fact that it provides the real focus to the Indian critical scene. Without an awareness of this tradition Indian literary scholarship (which is quite a different thing from Indian literary criticism and theory as it does not have the same impact as the latter two do can easily fail to see who the real Indian literary critics and theorists are.

  1. The commercialization of traditional medicine in modern Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Bandeth; Lê, Gillian; McPake, Barbara; Fustukian, Suzanne

    2018-01-01

    Globally, traditional medicine has long been used to address relatively common illness, mental ill health and during childbirth and post-natal care. However, traditional medicine is primarily provided by the private sector and it is unclear how far expenditures on traditional medicine contribute to household impoverishment. A life history method was used to understand the health seeking experience of 24 households over the last 60 years in Cambodia, a country with high out-of-pocket expenditures for health. The life histories suggest that traditional medicine in Cambodia has been undergoing a process of commercialization, with significant impacts on poor households. In the earlier lives of respondents, payments for traditional medicine were reported to have been flexible, voluntary or appropriate to patients' financial means. In contrast, contemporary practitioners appear to seek immediate cash payments that have frequently led to considerable debt and asset sales by traditional medicine users. Given traditional medicine's popularity as a source of treatment in Cambodia and its potential to contribute to household impoverishment, we suggest that it needs to be included in a national conversation about achieving Universal Health Coverage in the country. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

  2. Tradition?! Traditional Cultural Institutions on Customary Practices in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna R. Quinn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution traces the importance of traditional institutions in rehabilitating societies in general terms and more particularly in post-independence Uganda. The current regime, partly by inventing “traditional” cultural institutions, partly by co-opting them for its own interests, contributed to a loss of legitimacy of those who claim responsibility for customary law. More recently, international prosecutions have complicated the use of customary mechanisms within such societies. This article shows that some traditional and cultural leaders continue to struggle to restore their original institutions, some having taken the initiative of inventing new forms of engaging with society. Uganda is presented as a test case for the International Criminal Court’s ability to work with traditional judicial institutions in Africa.

  3. Aquarius study - engineering and economic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, Roger F.

    1970-01-01

    The two previous papers described the scope of the Aquarius Study and the various applications considered in evaluating the use of nuclear explosives for the development of water resources in Arizona. Surface storage behind a dam created with the use of nuclear explosives was selected for the major effort, primarily because it could afford the most valid direct comparison between nuclear and conventional methods. In this paper I will focus on the engineering and economic considerations involved in developing and evaluating three concepts for constructing a rockfill dam using nuclear explosives. Engineering development and economic evaluation of the concepts was the principal responsibility of Bechtel Corporation as a consultant in the study to the Arizona Atomic Energy Commission. We depended heavily on information supplied by the Federal participants, notably the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation for site data and the U.S. AEC*s Lawrence Radiation Laboratory for information on nuclear explosives effects. Since the study report has not yet been published and additional material is still forthcoming, some of the information I will present, such as the cost estimates, may be subject to change and should be considered preliminary. (author)

  4. Traditional botanical medicine: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Richard A; Chaudhary, Jayesh; Castro-Eschenbach, Diane

    2011-01-01

    The role of traditional medicine in the well-being of mankind has certainly journeyed a long way. From an ancient era, in which knowledge was limited to a few traditional healers and dominated by the use of whole plants or crude drugs, the science has gradually evolved into a complete healthcare system with global recognition. Technologic advancements have facilitated traditional science to deliver numerous breakthrough botanicals with potency equivalent to those of conventional drugs. The renewed interest in traditional medicine is mainly attributed to its ability to prevent disease, promote health, and improve quality of life. Despite the support received from public bodies and research organizations, development of botanical medicines continues to be a challenging process. The present article gives a summarized description of the various difficulties encountered in the development and evaluation of botanical drugs, including isolation of active compounds and standardization of plant ingredients. It indicates a future direction of traditional medicine toward evidence-based evaluation of health claims through well-controlled safety and efficacy studies.

  5. Studies on the quality of traditionally-smoked dry snail meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of traditionally smoked-dry snail meat as it occurred on the open market in Ghana was investigated. Quality evaluation on representative samples of the product collected involved proximate composition, water rehydration capacity, microbiological and sensory analyses. A preliminary survey was also carried out ...

  6. Traditional beliefs and electromagnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin A. Ross

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The author proposes that a wide range of traditional beliefs and practices may provide clues to real electromagnetic field interactions in the biosphere. For instance, evil eye beliefs may be a cultural elaboration of the sense of being stared at, which in turn may have a basis in real electromagnetic emissions through the eye. Data to support this hypothesis are presented. Other traditional beliefs such as remote sensing of game and the importance of connection to the Earth Mother may also contain a kernel of truth. A series of testable scientific hypotheses concerning traditional beliefs and electromagnetic fields is presented. At this stage, the theory does not have sufficient evidence to be accepted as proven; its purpose is to stimulate thought and research

  7. Traditional knowledge and intellectual property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Baruch A

    2010-09-01

    Biotechnological inventions are sometimes based upon the traditional knowledge of indigenous communities about the beneficial properties of plants and animals. Some institutions have adopted the uniqueness of traditional knowledge approach, which maintains that the indigenous communities have sui generis rights to a share of the profits from these inventions. Others have adopted the protection of inventive steps approach, which maintains that the inventors are entitled to the full profits from the invention if it involves a non-obvious and novel inventive step. The article analyzes this debate at the Convention on Biological Diversity, at the World Intellectual Property Organization, and at the World Trade Organization. It concludes that the adherents of the uniqueness of traditional knowledge approach have not justified their claims.

  8. Traditional non-Western diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipski, Elizabeth

    2010-12-01

    In traditional cultures, balancing health with a balanced lifestyle was a core belief. The diseases of modern civilization were rare. Indigenous people have patterns of illness very different from Western civilization; yet, they rapidly develop diseases once exposed to Western foods and lifestyles. Food and medicine were interwoven. All cultures used special or functional foods to prevent disease. Food could be used at different times either as food or medicine. Foods, cultivation, and cooking methods maximized community health and well-being. With methods passed down through generations, cooking processes were utilized that enhanced mineral and nutrient bioavailability. This article focuses on what researchers observed about the food traditions of indigenous people, their disease patterns, the use of specific foods, and the environmental factors that affect people who still eat traditional foods.

  9. TERMITES ENDANGERED TRADITIONAL MEDICAL PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syaukani Syaukani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Surveys on traditional medical plants affected by termites have been conducted since June to August 2010 at Ketambe, northern Aceh. Traditional medical plants and their natural habitats were obtained through interviewing local people. Termites were collected by adopted a Standardized Sampling Protocol and final. taxonomic confirmation was done with the help of Termite Research Group (the Natural History Museum, London. About 20 species of medical plants were attacked by termites with various levels. Nine genera and 20 species were collected from various habitats throughout Ketambe, Simpur as well as Gunung Setan villages. Coffe (Coffea arabica, hazelnut (Aleurites moluccana , and areca (Area catechu were among the worse of traditional medical  plant that had been attached by the termites.

  10. Antibody Drug Conjugates: Preclinical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Gadi G

    2015-05-01

    The development path for antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) is more complex and challenging than for unmodified antibodies. While many of the preclinical considerations for both unmodified and antibody drug conjugates are shared, special considerations must be taken into account when developing an ADC. Unlike unmodified antibodies, an ADC must preferentially bind to tumor cells, internalize, and traffic to the appropriate intracellular compartment to release the payload. Parameters that can impact the pharmacological properties of this class of therapeutics include the selection of the payload, the type of linker, and the methodology for payload drug conjugation. Despite a plethora of in vitro assays and in vivo models to screen and evaluate ADCs, the challenge remains to develop improved preclinical tools that will be more predictive of clinical outcome. This review will focus on preclinical considerations for clinically validated small molecule ADCs. In addition, the lessons learned from Mylotarg®, the first in class FDA-approved ADC, are highlighted.

  11. Biological imprinting: Some genetic considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saad Zaghloul Salem

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic imprinting represents one of the most puzzling, still unexplained, phenomena in genetics. Changing some agreed upon concepts and redefinition of some common traditional terms in classical genetics seems imperative for understanding the nature of imprinting, as well as for interpretation of possible mechanisms implicated in its occurrence.

  12. UVISS preliminary visibility analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part of the w......The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part...... of the work is also to setup the kernel of a software tool for the visibility analysis thatshould be easily expandable to consider more complex strucures for future activities.This analysis is part of the UVISS assessment study and it is meant to provide elementsfor the definition and the selection...

  13. Preliminary analysis of alternative fuel cycles for proliferation evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steindler, M.J.; Ripfel, H.C.F.; Rainey, R.H.

    1977-01-01

    The ERDA Division of Nuclear Research and Applications proposed 67 nuclear fuel cycles for assessment as to their nonproliferation potential. The object of the assessment was to determine which fuel cycles pose inherently low risk for nuclear weapon proliferation while retaining the major benefits of nuclear energy. This report is a preliminary analysis of these fuel cycles to develop the fuel-recycle data that will complement reactor data, environmental data, and political considerations, which must be included in the overall evaluation. This report presents the preliminary evaluations from ANL, HEDL, ORNL, and SRL and is the basis for a continuing in-depth study

  14. Preliminary analysis of alternative fuel cycles for proliferation evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindler, M. J.; Ripfel, H. C.F.; Rainey, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    The ERDA Division of Nuclear Research and Applications proposed 67 nuclear fuel cycles for assessment as to their nonproliferation potential. The object of the assessment was to determine which fuel cycles pose inherently low risk for nuclear weapon proliferation while retaining the major benefits of nuclear energy. This report is a preliminary analysis of these fuel cycles to develop the fuel-recycle data that will complement reactor data, environmental data, and political considerations, which must be included in the overall evaluation. This report presents the preliminary evaluations from ANL, HEDL, ORNL, and SRL and is the basis for a continuing in-depth study. (DLC)

  15. Preliminary y remarks y

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ranjeetha

    Preliminary. Rohini M. G. Chair, WiS Pan. March 1. S.N. S.Adar y remarks y. Godbole nel of IASc. 11 2014, , rsh College. Page 2. What will this. Little bit about the pro. Science: Career in Scie today and a bit about th. (WiS) Panel of the Indi. Sciences' and by implic. Sciences and by implic .... education but more to attr.

  16. Engineering and physics considerations for a linear theta-pinch hybrid reactor (LTPHR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.; Hagenson, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    A fusion-fission hybrid reactor based on pulsed, high-β, linear theta-pinch magnetic confinement is considered. A preliminary design which incorporates key physics, engineering and economic considerations is presented. An extensive presentation of the system energy balance is made, and this energy balance is evaluated parametrically. The feasibility of end-loss reduction is addressed

  17. EPR safety. Consideration of the internal and external hazards in the safety studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueguin, H.

    2008-04-01

    The author presents the main points of the Preliminary Safety Report of EDF on the EPR reactor safety. It concerns the considerations of the internal (fire, flood, explosions, pipes failures) and external (earthquakes, airplane falls, explosions, exceptional natural disasters, extreme meteorological conditions) damages. It presents how the safety report takes into account the aggression. (A.L.B.)

  18. General B factory design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, M.S.

    1992-12-01

    We describe the general considerations that go into the design of an asymmetric B factory collider. Justification is given for the typical parameters of such a facility, and the physics and technology challenges that arise from these parameter choices are discussed. Cost and schedule issues for a B factory are discussed briefly. A summary of existing proposals is presented, noting their similarities and differences

  19. Practical considerations for effective microendoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Thanassis; Papazoglou, Theodore G.; Daykhovsky, Leon; Gershman, Alex; Segalowitz, Jacob; Reznik, G.; Beeder, Clain; Chandra, Mudjianto; Grundfest, Warren S.

    1991-07-01

    This paper reports on the application of angioscopic technology to the endoscopy of previously inaccessible body cavities. Necessary instruments including endoscopes, light sources, cameras, video recorders, monitors, and other accessories are described. Practical considerations for effective instrumentation are discussed. An overview of our clinical microendoscopic applications in more than 630 patients is presented.

  20. Coupling Considerations in Assembly Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-05

    number of global variables used as control = number of modules called ( fan -out) = number of modules calling the module under consideration... fan -in) NAWCWD TP 8823 6 Distribution Statement A. These definitions are easy to understand in the environment of a HOL but need

  1. Appraisal of traditional technologies i

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jobo

    A survey on the production practices and mode of utilization of mumu – a traditional, ready-to-eat Nigerian cereal-based food product - was conducted to be able to provide information that would be used to improve on the processing, nutritional quality and acceptability of the product. 83 % of respondents indicated the use ...

  2. Waldorf Education: An Innovative Tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Sheila

    1993-01-01

    Waldorf Schools represent the largest nonsectarian school movement in the world, shunning fads and technology and relying on the creative gifts of teachers and students. Studies include eurythmy, woodworking, weaving, and traditional academic subjects, and no commercial textbooks are used. Despite teacher/funding shortages, the system continues to…

  3. Comparison of Traditional and const

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    development were Jean Piaget and John. Dewey (Richardson, 1997). In constructivist approach, learning is an active process in which the learner uses sensory input and constructs meaning out of it. The more traditional formulation of this idea involves the terminology of the active learner (Dewey's term) stressing that.

  4. "Friluftsliv": Traditional Norwegian Outdoor Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellnes, Atle

    1992-01-01

    Nature and outdoor life are part of Norway's national identity, as exemplified by a long history of nature-inspired art and literature, the formation of outdoor organizations since the turn of the century, and the development of skiing. Norwegian traditional outdoor life is characterized as travelling with respectful use of nature, to achieve a…

  5. Traditional Literacy and Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Priscille

    2016-01-01

    How school librarians focus on activating critical thinking through traditional literacy development can proactively set the stage for the deep thinking that occurs in all literacy development. The critical-thinking skills students build while becoming accomplished readers and writers provide the foundation for learning in a variety of…

  6. The Zulu traditional birth attendant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    birth attendants in their care of pregnant women are .... Postnatal care. The TBA normally visits any woman she has delivered during the traditional lying-in period of 8 days. She bathes the baby, gives him an enema when she considers this necessary, and offers ... instructed to kneel so that her heels press the wound edges ...

  7. Analysis of Traditional Historical Clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten; Schmidt, A. L.; Petersen, A. H.

    2013-01-01

    for establishing a three-dimensional model and the corresponding two-dimensional pattern for items of skin clothing that are not flat. The new method is non-destructive, and also accurate and fast. Furthermore, this paper presents an overview of the more traditional methods of pattern documentation and measurement...

  8. Active Learning versus Traditional Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Azzalis

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In traditional teaching most of the class time is spent with the professor lecturing and the students watching and listening. The students work individually, and cooperation is discouraged. On the other hand,  active learning  changes the focus of activity from the teacher to the learners, in which students solve problems, answer questions, formulate questions of their own, discuss, explain, debate during class;  moreover, students work in teams on problems and projects under conditions that assure positive interdependence and individual accountability. Although student-centered methods have repeatedly been shown to be superior to the traditional teacher-centered approach to instruction, the literature regarding the efficacy of various teaching methods is inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to compare the student perceptions of course and instructor effectiveness, course difficulty, and amount learned between the active learning and lecture sections  in Health Sciences´ courses by statistical data from Anhembi Morumbi University. Results indicated significant  difference between active  learning and traditional  teaching. Our conclusions were that strategies promoting  active  learning to  traditional lectures could increase knowledge and understanding.

  9. Traditional Knowledge and Patent Protection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adam

    Traditional knowledge is also very significant for the economy. The world market for herbal medicines ..... the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits from the use of genetic resources." 97. Since many developing ... and to ensure benefit sharing, rather than to establish a system of positive protection. 98. Article 8(j) of the ...

  10. PROMOTING TRADITIONAL FOOD PRODUCTS AS HEALTHY DIET PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Teodora TARCZA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose a brief introspection in the literature review in an attempt to highlight the peculiarities of traditional foodstuffs that enable them to be promoted as the primary food for a healthy diet. The trend of healthy eating is gaining ground not only for experts and researchers, but also for consumers on a daily basis. Traditional foodstuffs are brought back into the consumers’ attention in a market full of highly-processed foodstuffs. Marketing specialists noticed the link between the two concepts and they elaborated promotional strategies for traditional foodstuffs, having the ‘healthy diet’ as insight. Throughout the paper we will present theoretical considerations such as the concept of ‘traditional food product’, ‘promotion’, and ‘healthy diet’ from a marketing perspective followed by several examples of traditional food products perceived as healthy, and lastly, we will highlight the benefits of promoting a healthy diet by consuming traditional food products.

  11. Sustainable Traditional Medicine: Taking the Inspirations from Ancient Veterinary Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Rastogi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid reduction in natural resources as a consequence to the expanded urbanization, global warming and reduced natural habitat posed a considerable threat to the sustainability of traditional medicine. Being completely dependent upon natural resources like herbs, minerals and animal products, traditional medicine would possibly rank first in order of extinction of heritage if an alternative way is not considered well in time. In reference to the use of animal products, Ayurveda presents some unique examples where animals are used without causing harm to them and so without posing a threat to their existence. In the current context, when natural resources are facing a threat to their existence, a revisit to these ideas may give us a new insight to refine our look at natural resources used in traditional medicine.

  12. Safety considerations in MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanal, E.; Shellock, F.G.; Talagala, L. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    The authors identify eight areas of potential safety concern during clinical magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. These include (a) biologic effects of the static magnetic field; (b) ferromagnetic attractive projectile effects of the static magnetic field; (c) potential effects of the relatively slowly time-varying magnetic field gradients; (d) effects of the rapidly varying radio-frequency (RF) magnetic fields, including RF power deposition concerns; (e) auditory considerations from noise caused by the rapidly pulsed magnetic field gradients; (f) safety considerations concerning superconductive systems, including quenches, use of cryogens, and cryogen storage and handling; (g) psychological effects, such as claustrophobia and anxiety induced because of the examination; and (h) possible effects of the intravenous use of the MR contrast agent gadopentetate dimeglumine. The concerns in each of these categories are elaborated upon, and the available data are presented to clarify their status.155 references.

  13. Trust and Traditions in Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQuaid, Sara Dybris

    On New Year’s Eve 2013, months of talks on ‘Dealing with the past’, ‘Flags’ and ‘Parades’ ended without agreement on how to move towards a reconciliation of positions in Northern Ireland. The failure of the talks illustrates the importance of culture and (mis)trust in divided societies, where...... politics often pivot around whose culture shall be official and whose subordinated, whose history shall be remembered and whose forgotten (Jordan and Weedon 1995). These struggles are particularly intense in times of transition where traditions, power relations and frames of relevant remembrance...... are reconfigured. Historically, parading traditions have been important cultural carriers of identity in Northern Ireland. (Jarman 1997). Correspondingly, the marching season has been an arena for politico-cultural struggles and resistance, indexing relations of trust between communities, between society...

  14. Blending traditional and digital marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Dania TODOR

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is a matter of fact that we are in the digital era and internet marketing and social media have a significant impact on the way consumers behave, companies do business and it is a must for companies to adapt to the new reality. Due to the fast evolution of the technology, the continuous increase in demand and supply, the supply chain elongation and the big amount of date, the only solution to face the major changes is the automation of all the processes. But even though the new era of communication is here, specialist suggest that companies should not ignore traditional methods, and to try to blend digital marketing with traditional campaigns in order to achieve their goals.

  15. Thermal processing system concepts and considerations for RWMC buried waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, T.L.; Kong, P.C.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents a preliminary determination of ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for application to remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated buried wastes (TRUW) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Beginning with top-level thermal treatment concepts and requirements identified in a previous Preliminary Systems Design Study (SDS), a more detailed consideration of the waste materials thermal processing problem is provided. Anticipated waste stream elements and problem characteristics are identified and considered. Final waste form performance criteria, requirements, and options are examined within the context of providing a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic, final waste form material. Thermal processing conditions required and capability of key systems components (equipment) to provide these material process conditions are considered. Information from closely related companion study reports on melter technology development needs assessment and INEL Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) research are considered. Five potentially practicable thermal process system design configuration concepts are defined and compared. A scenario for thermal processing of a mixed waste and soils stream with essentially no complex presorting and using a series process of incineration and high temperature melting is recommended. Recommendations for applied research and development necessary to further detail and demonstrate the final waste form, required thermal processes, and melter process equipment are provided.

  16. Insomnia in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Feyzabadi, Zohre; Jafari, Farhad; Feizabadi, Parvin Sadat; Ashayeri, Hassan; Esfahani, Mohammad Mahdi; Badiee Aval, Shapour

    2014-01-01

    Context: Insomnia is one of the most prevalent sleep disorders characterized by sleep difficulty that impairs daily functioning and reduces quality of life. The burden of medical, psychiatric, interpersonal, and societal consequences of insomnia expresses the importance of diagnosing and treatment of insomnia. The aim of study was to investigate causes of insomnia from the viewpoint of Iranian traditional medicine. Evidence Acquisition: In this review study, we searched insomnia in a few of t...

  17. Health traditions of Sikkim Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Ashok Kumar; Misra, Sangram

    2010-07-01

    Ancient medical systems are still prevalent in Sikkim, popularly nurtured by Buddhist groups using the traditional Tibetan pharmacopoeia overlapping with Ayurvedic medicine. Traditional medical practices and their associated cultural values are based round Sikkim's three major communities, Lepcha, Bhutia and Nepalis. In this study, a semi-structured questionnaire was prepared for folk healers covering age and sex, educational qualification, source of knowledge, types of practices, experience and generation of practice, and transformation of knowledge. These were administered to forty-eight folk healers identified in different parts of Sikkim.490 medicinal plants find their habitats in Sikkim because of its large variations in altitude and climate. For 31 commonly used by these folk healers, we present botanical name, family, local name, distribution, and parts used, together with their therapeutic uses, mostly Rheumatoid arthritis, Gout, Gonorrhea, Fever, Viral flu, asthma, Cough and Cold, indigestion, Jaundice etc. A case treated by a folk healer is also recounted. This study indicates that, in the studied area, Sikkim's health traditions and folk practices are declining due to shifts in socio-economic patterns, and unwillingness of the younger generation to adopt folk healing as a profession.

  18. Health traditions of Sikkim Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Panda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ancient medical systems are still prevalent in Sikkim, popularly nurtured by Buddhist groups using the traditional Tibetan pharmacopoeia overlapping with Ayurvedic medicine. Traditional medical practices and their associated cultural values are based round Sikkim′s three major communities, Lepcha, Bhutia and Nepalis. In this study, a semi-structured questionnaire was prepared for folk healers covering age and sex, educational qualification, source of knowledge, types of practices, experience and generation of practice, and transformation of knowledge. These were administered to forty-eight folk healers identified in different parts of Sikkim. 490 medicinal plants find their habitats in Sikkim because of its large variations in altitude and climate. For 31 commonly used by these folk healers, we present botanical name, family, local name, distribution, and parts used, together with their therapeutic uses, mostly Rheumatoid arthritis, Gout, Gonorrhea, Fever, Viral flu, asthma, Cough and Cold, indigestion, Jaundice etc. A case treated by a folk healer is also recounted. This study indicates that, in the studied area, Sikkim′s health traditions and folk practices are declining due to shifts in socio-economic patterns, and unwillingness of the younger generation to adopt folk healing as a profession.

  19. Environmental Survey preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque (SNLA). The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SNLA, and interviews with site personnel. 85 refs., 49 figs., 48 tabs.

  20. Pharmacognostic and Preliminary Phytochemical Analysis of Sauropus androgynus (L) Merr. Leaf

    OpenAIRE

    Ankad Gireesh; Hegde Harsha; Kholkute S.D; Hurkadale Pramod

    2013-01-01

    The leaves of Sauropus androgynus (L.) Merr. are used in traditional medicine to treat various disorders and also used as vegetable for its nutritive value. Such plant having medicinal and nutritive values lacks pharmacognostical and preliminary phytochemical information. Hence the present work is intended to study pharmacognostical and preliminary phytochemical studies, which will serve as quality control parameters. The pharmacognostical parameters like transverse section of midrib, epiderm...

  1. Playware Research – Methodological Considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2014-01-01

    Several sub-disciplines of engineering are driven by the researchers’ aim of providing positive change to the society through their engineering. These researchers are challenged by the traditional research method of experimental research with a waterfall model which demands clearly defined project...... definition and functional requirements, and impose a sequential processes leading to the final system evaluation, which may lead to solutions which work in the lab, but have little impact in the messy real world. Based on two decades research in developing engineering systems with a societal impact (e...

  2. OMEGA Upgrade preliminary design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craxton, R.S.

    1989-10-01

    The OMEGA laser system at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester is the only major facility in the United States capable of conducting fully diagnosed, direct-drive, spherical implosion experiments. As such, it serves as the national Laser Users Facility, benefiting scientists throughout the country. The University's participation in the National Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program underwent review by a group of experts under the auspices of the National Academy of Sciences (the Happer Committee) in 1985. The Happer Committee recommended that the OMEGA laser be upgraded in energy to 30 kJ. To this end, Congress appropriated $4,000,000 for the preliminary design of the OMEGA Upgrade, spread across FY88 and FY89. This document describes the preliminary design of the OMEGA Upgrade. The proposed enhancements to the existing OMEGA facility will result in a 30-kHJ, 351-nm, 60-beam direct-drive system, with a versatile pulse-shaping facility and a 1%--2% uniformity of target drive. The Upgrade will allow scientists to explore the ignition-scaling regime, and to study target behavior that is hydrodynamically equivalent to that of targets appropriate for a laboratory microfusion facility (LMF). In addition, it will be possible to perform critical interaction experiments with large-scale-length uniformly irradiated plasmas

  3. Traditional musical instruments in Serbian folk tradition: Etnophraseological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Vesna N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to give an insight in the significance and role of native musical instruments in Serbian folk tradition based on the representation of these instruments in the Serbian ethnographic material. The focus will also be on the semantic description of phraseological units that have those instruments as central components, in order to show how different cultural contents, typical for a particular native culture, are precisely reflected in the phraseology and language fund of that culture. We will first try to present those instruments and provide brief ethnological analysis of their role in the folk life, followed by the whole repertoire and semantic description of phrasemes, whose central lexical element has the name of a folk musical instrument or some related actions. Ethnographic and phraseological data related to folk instruments was taken from the Serbian ethnographic material and dictionaries of Serbian language. The analysis showed that in Serbian traditional culture musical instruments were used as a signaling tools as well as for communication between people and higher powers.

  4. Discrete modeling considerations in multiphase fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ransom, V.H.; Ramshaw, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    The modeling of multiphase flows play a fundamental role in light water reactor safety. The main ingredients in our discrete modeling Weltanschauung are the following considerations: (1) Any physical model must be cast into discrete form for a digital computer. (2) The usual approach of formulating models in differential form and then discretizing them is potentially hazardous. It may be preferable to formulate the model in discrete terms from the outset. (3) Computer time and storage constraints limit the resolution that can be employed in practical calculations. These limits effectively define the physical phenomena, length scales, and time scales which cannot be directly represented in the calculation and therefore must be modeled. This information should be injected into the model formulation process at an early stage. (4) Practical resolution limits are generally so coarse that traditional convergence and truncation-error analyses become irrelevant. (5) A discrete model constitutes a reduced description of a physical system, from which fine-scale details are eliminated. This elimination creates a statistical closure problem. Methods from statistical physics may therefore be useful in the formulation of discrete models. In the present paper we elaborate on these themes and illustrate them with simple examples. 48 refs

  5. Commercial considerations in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansbridge, Jonathan

    2006-10-01

    Tissue engineering is a field with immense promise. Using the example of an early tissue-engineered skin implant, Dermagraft, factors involved in the successful commercial development of devices of this type are explored. Tissue engineering has to strike a balance between tissue culture, which is a resource-intensive activity, and business considerations that are concerned with minimizing cost and maximizing customer convenience. Bioreactor design takes place in a highly regulated environment, so factors to be incorporated into the concept include not only tissue culture considerations but also matters related to asepsis, scaleup, automation and ease of use by the final customer. Dermagraft is an allogeneic tissue. Stasis preservation, in this case cryopreservation, is essential in allogeneic tissue engineering, allowing sterility testing, inventory control and, in the case of Dermagraft, a cellular stress that may be important for hormesis following implantation. Although the use of allogeneic cells provides advantages in manufacturing under suitable conditions, it raises the spectre of immunological rejection. Such rejection has not been experienced with Dermagraft. Possible reasons for this and the vision of further application of allogeneic tissues are important considerations in future tissue-engineered cellular devices. This review illustrates approaches that indicate some of the criteria that may provide a basis for further developments. Marketing is a further requirement for success, which entails understanding of the mechanism of action of the procedure, and is illustrated for Dermagraft. The success of a tissue-engineered product is dependent on many interacting operations, some discussed here, each of which must be performed simultaneously and well.

  6. Considerations Regarding Students’ Social Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Cenar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper entitled “Considerations Regarding Students’ Social Protection” addresses the main forms of support offered to students and their families, divided in relation to the aim pursued, which may be relate to stimulating students’ performance and discipline, material and financial support (social assistance, supplementing family income. For these components there were taken into account: the circumstances in which it acquires to status of beneficiary, evolutionary dimensions in terms of beneficiary numbers, the amounts awarded, the need to ensure the complementarities with the informal side of social protection.

  7. Psychosocial considerations for mass decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemyre, L.; Johnson, C.; Corneil, W.

    2010-01-01

    Mass exposure to explosions, infectious agents, food-borne illnesses, chemicals or radiological materials may require mass decontamination that have critical psychosocial implications for the public and for both traditional and non-traditional responders in terms of impact and of response. Five main issues are common to mass decontamination events: (i) perception, (ii) somatisation, (iii) media role and communication, (iv) information sharing, (v) behavioural guidance and (vi) organisational issues. Empirical evidence is drawn from a number of cases, including Chernobyl; Goiania, Brazil; the sarin gas attack in Tokyo; the anthrax attacks in the USA; Three Mile Island; and by features of the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome pandemic. In this paper, a common platform for mass casualty management is explored and suggestions for mass interventions are proposed across the complete event timeline, from pre-event threat and warning stages through to the impact and reconstruction phases. Implication for responders, health care and emergency infrastructure, public behaviour, screening processes, risk communication and media management are described. (authors)

  8. Environmental compliance considerations for the management of cultural resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, S.A.; Whitfield, S.; McGinnis, K.

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines three key considerations underlying the programmatic management of cultural resources that may be affected by a large federal project. These considerations are statutory background and the compliance process, cultural resource compliance tasks, and quality assurance. The first consideration addresses the legal requirements and steps that must be met and taken for federal agencies to fulfill their cultural resource compliance responsibilities. The second consideration focuses on the tasks that must be performed by technical specialists to facilitate related federal and state compliance actions. The third consideration ensures that compliance requirements are being properly fulfilled. In the technical literature and compliance planning, archaeological and historic sites and Native American cultural resources are grouped under the general heading of cultural resources. Also included under this heading are the traditions and resources of Folk societies. Cultural resources encompass both material and nonmaterial aspects of our cultural heritage and include buildings, structures, objects, sites, districts, archaeological resources, places of religious importance, and unique, distinctive, or unusual lifeways. For compliance purposes, it is useful to treat these resources within four roughly chronological culture-historical periods: prehistoric, ethnohistoric, historic, and contemporary. 6 refs., 6 tabs

  9. Traditional Therapies for Severe Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Eileen; Hoyte, Flavia C L

    2016-08-01

    Severe asthma is a complex and heterogeneous disease. The European Respiratory Society and American Thoracic Society guidelines define severe asthma for patients 6 years or older as "asthma which requires treatment with high-dose inhaled corticosteroids…plus a second controller or systemic corticosteroids to prevent it from becoming 'uncontrolled' or which remains 'uncontrolled' despite this therapy." This article reviews available traditional therapies, data behind their uses in severe asthma, and varying recommendations. As various asthma endotypes and phenotypes are better understood and characterized, targeted therapies should help improve disease outcomes, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Li-Jun; Tao, Ran

    2017-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine(TCM) has been utilized in China for more than 2,000 years, and it has been practiced in treatment of substance addiction and non-substance addictions. TCM have efficacy in the rehabilitation of abnormal physical problems induced by chronic drug use, including improving immune function, increasing working memory, and protecting against neurological disorders. Given that TCM is potentially effective in the prevention of relapse, it has been suggested that TCM may be the ideal choice in the future for the treatment of opiate addiction. This review examines the significance of effective Chinese herbs and prescriptions for Drug Addiction, Alcohol addiction and food addiction.

  11. Aboriginal traditional knowledge - panel presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnaby, J.; Duiven, M.; Garibaldi, A.; McGregor, D.; Straker, J.; Patton, P.

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal peoples in Canada are playing a more active role in land use and resource management decisions around industrial development in their traditional territories and communities. Both indigenous and non-indigenous people are therefore increasing efforts to collaborate in decision-making and to effectively interweave Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge (ATK) and Western knowledge or science. Challenges exist, in part because non-Aboriginal people often find it difficult to define ATK and to understand the differences from Western perspectives. ATK is best defined as a holistic system that involves not only knowledge but principles of conduct and a strong relationship component. Research has focused on approaches to more easily bridge ATK and Western knowledge, through dialogue/negotiation and shared decision-making that is complementary to both. There are some examples of organizations and communities that have achieved success in this bridging of the two forms of knowledge. The Skeena Fisheries Commission (SFC) in British Columbia manages the fish resource in the Skeena Watershed and generates scientific research through links to ATK. The observations of indigenous people about apparent changes in the resource are subjected to scientific assessment, which has led to changes in how fish are caught, and in how and by whom data is collected. Traditional knowledge has also been incorporated into the reclamation of lands and species in Fort McKay, Alberta, an indigenous community whose traditional way of life has been significantly affected by development of the oil sands. New models have been developed to incorporate ATK into long-term planning for land use. This includes using ATK to develop a 50-to 60-year projection of probable future effects from development and to build strategies for achieving a 'desired future landscape.' To plan for post-mining land reclamation projects, another project makes use of cultural keystone species (CKS), through which

  12. Adapting agriculture with traditional knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiderska, Krystyna; Reid, Hannah [IIED, London (United Kingdom); Song, Yiching; Li, Jingsong [Centre for Chinese Agriculutral Policy (China); Mutta, Doris [Kenya Forestry Research Institute (Kenya)

    2011-10-15

    Over the coming decades, climate change is likely to pose a major challenge to agriculture; temperatures are rising, rainfall is becoming more variable and extreme weather is becoming a more common event. Researchers and policymakers agree that adapting agriculture to these impacts is a priority for ensuring future food security. Strategies to achieve that in practice tend to focus on modern science. But evidence, both old and new, suggests that the traditional knowledge and crop varieties of indigenous peoples and local communities could prove even more important in adapting agriculture to climate change.

  13. Aboriginal traditional knowledge - panel presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnaby, J. [JB, Consultant, Paris (France); Duiven, M. [Skeena Fisheries Commission, Kispiox, BC (Canada); Garibaldi, A. [Integral Ecology Group, Ltd., Victoria, BC (Canada); McGregor, D. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Geography and Aboriginal Studies, Toronto, ON (Canada); Straker, J. [Integral Ecology Group, Ltd., Victoria, BC (Canada); Patton, P. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Aboriginal peoples in Canada are playing a more active role in land use and resource management decisions around industrial development in their traditional territories and communities. Both indigenous and non-indigenous people are therefore increasing efforts to collaborate in decision-making and to effectively interweave Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge (ATK) and Western knowledge or science. Challenges exist, in part because non-Aboriginal people often find it difficult to define ATK and to understand the differences from Western perspectives. ATK is best defined as a holistic system that involves not only knowledge but principles of conduct and a strong relationship component. Research has focused on approaches to more easily bridge ATK and Western knowledge, through dialogue/negotiation and shared decision-making that is complementary to both. There are some examples of organizations and communities that have achieved success in this bridging of the two forms of knowledge. The Skeena Fisheries Commission (SFC) in British Columbia manages the fish resource in the Skeena Watershed and generates scientific research through links to ATK. The observations of indigenous people about apparent changes in the resource are subjected to scientific assessment, which has led to changes in how fish are caught, and in how and by whom data is collected. Traditional knowledge has also been incorporated into the reclamation of lands and species in Fort McKay, Alberta, an indigenous community whose traditional way of life has been significantly affected by development of the oil sands. New models have been developed to incorporate ATK into long-term planning for land use. This includes using ATK to develop a 50-to 60-year projection of probable future effects from development and to build strategies for achieving a 'desired future landscape.' To plan for post-mining land reclamation projects, another project makes use of cultural keystone species (CKS), through which

  14. Information visualization: Beyond traditional engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, James J.

    1995-01-01

    This presentation addresses a different aspect of the human-computer interface; specifically the human-information interface. This interface will be dominated by an emerging technology called Information Visualization (IV). IV goes beyond the traditional views of computer graphics, CADS, and enables new approaches for engineering. IV specifically must visualize text, documents, sound, images, and video in such a way that the human can rapidly interact with and understand the content structure of information entities. IV is the interactive visual interface between humans and their information resources.

  15. Analysis of traditional Tibetan pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesnek, Martin; Štefánik, Milan; Miglierini, Marcel; Kmječ, Tomáš; Sklenka, L'ubomír

    2017-11-01

    Traditional Tibetan medicine starts to be a very popular complementary medicine in USA and Europe. These pills contain many elements essential for the human body. However, they might also contain heavy metals such as mercury, iron, arsenic, etc. This paper focuses on elemental composition of two Tibetan pills and investigation of forms of iron in them. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and neutron activation analysis identified the presence of several heavy metals such as mercury, iron and copper. Mőssbauer spectroscopy revealed the possible presence of α - F e 2 O 3(hematite) and α - F e O O H(goethite) in both of the investigated samples.

  16. Tree Ordination as Invented Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avery Morrow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The symbolic ordination of trees as monks in Thailand is widely perceived in Western scholarship to be proof of the power of Buddhism to spur ecological thought. However, a closer analysis of tree ordination demonstrates that it is not primarily about Buddhist teaching, but rather is an invented tradition based on the sanctity of Thai Buddhist symbols as well as those of spirit worship and the monarchy. Tree ordinations performed by non-Buddhist minorities in Thailand do not demonstrate a religious commitment but rather a political one.

  17. Neymar, defender of brazilian tradition

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Francisca Islandia Cardoso da; Rodrigues, Janete de Páscoa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze how university students of Teresina-PI appropriate of the message of a report of the television show Esporte Espetacular. There was use of the technique of focus groups and analytical-descriptive method for collecting and analyzing data. The sample consisted of 24 university students, aged between 18 and 24 years. The report features Neymar as responsible to follow the "tradition" of Brazilians and to be crowned as the best player in the world. The su...

  18. Slovakia: Fertility between tradition and modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuša Jurcová

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last 60 years, Slovakia has experienced comparatively high and most recently very low fertility, long periods of stable fertility alternating with periods of changes, periods of substantial as well as lesser state interventions. Fertility was above replacement in 1990 and declined to the lowest-low levels during the period of transformation. Postponement of life course transitions - leaving the parental home, marrying and becoming a parent - became widespread among younger cohorts after 1990. High unemployment of young adults, increasing economy-driven migration and problems to gain a stable job contribute to this phenomenon. Reproductive behavior is changing, yet Slovak society remains culturally conservative. The dominant form of partnership is marriage, although extra-marital childbearing is rising. Cohabitation is spreading mainly as a prelude to marriage but is not widely approved. Population measures have a long tradition, although 15 years after regime change their nature is very different than that of the state socialist era. Considerable attention was and is being paid to population problems, however, the government has not designed and implemented a comprehensive system of family and population policies.

  19. 28 CFR 51.34 - Expedited consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expedited consideration. 51.34 Section 51... consideration. (a) When a submitting authority is required under State law or local ordinance or otherwise finds... the submission be given expedited consideration. The submission should explain why such consideration...

  20. 46 CFR 114.550 - Special consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 114.550 Section 114.550 Shipping... consideration. In applying the provisions of this subchapter, the OCMI may give special consideration to... vessel operates must approve any special consideration granted to the vessel. ...

  1. Methodological Considerations in Gender Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Asghari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available What differentiates a scientific research study from a non-scientific one and makes it valid or non-valid is the research methodology. Methodological considerations, especially in studies such as gender studies, which are not generally covered in the framework of a special discipline, call for more precision and sensitivity due to their complicated nature and dimensions. Therefore, the present article, by examining the methodological aspects of the research carried out on the effect of the variable of gender on job satisfaction of faculty members and using qualitative approach and systematic review technique, tries to draw researchers’ attention to the necessity, importance and role of methodological considerations in making a deeper understanding and explanation of research possible, and providing a clear and precise answer in conformity with reality for problem-solving and fulfilling research objective. The findings of this study show that there are two main problems in the works of research studied here. One is ambiguity and lack of transparency in problem statement and research objective, and the other is tendency toward using a single (quantitative research method without paying attention to differences in the nature and dimensions of fields of research. It seems that in fields such as gender studies, in order to gain a deeper understanding and a more valid and clear answer, adopting a combined approach will be a more reliable choice.

  2. Effects of Interannual Climate Variability in Secondary Forests and Crops Under Traditional and Alternative Shifting Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, T. D.; Guild, L. S.; Carvalho, C. J.; Potter, C. S.; Wickel, A. J.; Brienza, S.; Kato, M. A.; Kato, O.

    2002-12-01

    Regenerating forests play an important role in long-term carbon sequestration and sustainable landuse as they act as potentially important carbon and nutrient sinks during the shifting agriculture fallow period. The long-term functioning of secondary forests (capoeira) is increasingly threatened by a shortening fallow period during shifting cultivation due to demographic pressures and associated increased vulnerability to severe climatic events. Declining productivity and functioning of fallow forests of shifting cultivation combined with progressive loss of nutrients by successive burning and cropping activities has resulted in declining agricultural productivity. In addition to the effects of intense land use practices, droughts associated with El Ni¤o events are becoming more frequent and severe in moist tropical forests and negative effects on capoeira productivity could be considerable. In Igarape-Acu (near Belem, Para), we hypothesize that experimental alternative landuse/clearing practices (mulching and fallow vegetation improvement by planting with fast-growing leguminous tree species) may make capoeira and crops more resilient to the effects of agricultural pressures and drought through 1) increased biomass, soil organic matter and associated increase in soil water storage, and nutrient retention and 2) greater rooting depth of trees planted for fallow improvement. This experimental practice (mechanized chop-and-mulch with fallow improvement) has resulted in increased soil moisture during the cropping phase, reduced loss of nutrients and organic matter, and higher rates of secondary-forest biomass accumulation. We present preliminary data on water relations during the dry season of 2001 in capoeira and crops for both traditional slash-and-burn and alternative chop-and-mulch practices. These data will be used to test IKONOS data for the detection of moisture status differences. The principal goal of the research is to determine the extent to which capoeira

  3. Architectural and operational considerations emerging from hybrid RF-optical network loading simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yijiang; Abraham, Douglas S.; Heckman, David P.; Kwok, Andrew; MacNeal, Bruce E.; Tran, Kristy; Wu, Janet P.

    2016-03-01

    A technology demonstration of free space optical communication at interplanetary distances is planned via one or more future NASA deep-space missions. Such demonstrations will "pave the way" for operational use of optical communications on future robotic/potential Human missions. Hence, the Deep Space Network architecture will need to evolve. Preliminary attempts to model the anticipated future mission set and simulate how well it loads onto assumed architectures with combinations of RF and optical apertures have been evaluated. This paper discusses the results of preliminary loading simulations for hybrid RF-optical network architectures and highlights key mission and ground infrastructure considerations that emerge.

  4. TRADITIONAL FERMENTED FOODS OF LESOTHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tendekayi H. Gadaga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the traditional methods of preparing fermented foods and beverages of Lesotho. Information on the preparation methods was obtained through a combination of literature review and face to face interviews with respondents from Roma in Lesotho. An unstructured questionnaire was used to capture information on the processes, raw materials and utensils used. Four products; motoho (a fermented porridge, Sesotho (a sorghum based alcoholic beverage, hopose (sorghum fermented beer with added hops and mafi (spontaneously fermented milk, were found to be the main fermented foods prepared and consumed at household level in Lesotho. Motoho is a thin gruel, popular as refreshing beverage as well as a weaning food. Sesotho is sorghum based alcoholic beverage prepared for household consumption as well as for sale. It is consumed in the actively fermenting state. Mafi is the name given to spontaneously fermented milk with a thick consistency. Little research has been done on the technological aspects, including the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of fermented foods in Lesotho. Some of the traditional aspects of the preparation methods, such as use of earthenware pots, are being replaced, and modern equipment including plastic utensils are being used. There is need for further systematic studies on the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of these these products.

  5. Radiopasteurization of traditional herbal medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmy, Nazly; Suryasaputra, C.

    1981-01-01

    Investigation on the effects of irradiation using pasteurization dose of 500 krad (5kGy) on microbes contaminating traditional herbal medicine, produced by 3 large manufacturers in Indonesia, was carried out. Storage effects on microbial count moisture content of traditional herbal medicine packed in microbe tight packages, were also observed. The results showed that initial bacterial counts varied between 10 4 and 10 8 per gram, and mould and yeast counts varied between 0 and 10 5 per gram. These numbers decreased as much as 2 to 5 log cycles after irradiation with 500 krad. After 6 month storage, bacterial counts of irradiated samples decreased as much as 0 to 10 3 per gram. Initial moisture content varied from 5 to 12% and after 6 month storage the moisture content of most samples increased as much as 0 to 5%. Irradiated samples were found to be mould free, and most of the surviving microbes consisted of spore forming aerobic bacteria and yeast. (author)

  6. Preliminary rail access study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site, located on the southwestern edge of the Nevada Test Site, is an undeveloped area under investigation as a potential site for nuclear waste disposal by the US Department of Energy. The site currently lacks rail service and an existing rail right-of-way. If the site is suitable and selected for development as a disposal site, rail service is desirable to the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program because of the potential of rail to reduce number of shipments and costs relative to highway transportation. This preliminary report is a summary of progress to date for activities to identify and evaluate potential rail options from major rail carriers in the region to the Yucca Mountain site. It is currently anticipated that the rail spur will be operational after the year 2000. 9 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Some Theoretical Considerations on Caste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudan Subedi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Caste as a system of social stratification was an encompassing system in the past. There was reciprocal system of exchange goods and services. With time, occupation and mode of generation of livelihood of various caste groups changed, and the traditional form of jajmani system fizzled out. This paper provides an account of changing perspectives of caste relations in social science writing and political discourse. The discourse of caste has been shifted from ritual hierarchy and social discrimination to an instrument to mobilize people for economic and political gain. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/dsaj.v7i0.10437 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 7, 2013; 51-86

  8. Considerations Regarding the International Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mosteanu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Taxation, an essential element of an efficient public finance system, is the best way for collecting income to achive the public expenditures programs and, in the same time, a way to redistribute the income, in order to get rid of poverty and to ensure social equity. Studies on the topic of international taxation, in its traditional meaning, were addressed to the problems regarding the international taxation effects on trade and investments, unequitable and discriminatory taxation, also the means of preventing such cases, international fiscal evasion, all these aspects being comprised into the area of fiscal competition. The present concept of international taxation, meant to cross states borders, in order to redistribute the income or to achive other objectives with international implications, such as fight against poverty, maintaining world peace or environment protection, is a quite recent one.

  9. Communicating new ideas to traditional villagers (an Indonesian case).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muis, A

    1984-01-01

    Recent cases derived from a series of communication research projects conducted in remote villages on the island of Sulawesi, Indonesia, are presented. These cases, which indicate the tremendously complex problem of communicating new ideas to traditional villages, also reflect the equally complex problem of social marketing. Indonesian, villagers remain very traditional, but their communication environment has been undergoing marked changes over the past decade or so. Overwhelming media exposure has pushed these people towards a modern environment filled with new knowledge and experiences. In view of the importance of changing attitudes and behavior of traditional villagers -- to realize modernization for the rural society -- the government of Indonesia has been using a host of communication means and channels. These include all the viable traditional or indigenous communication systems, but mainly face-to-face communication. Traditional dances, story-telling, and music are no longer interesting to the rural people themselves, and, apparently, no real developmental message can be transmitted by traditional "mass media." Among the 50 respondents randomly selected from the isolated village of Gelang (Case I), only 17% claimed to have listened to news in addition to music and songs. 67% of the respondents explained that information carrying novel ideas or methods usually attract them, but they are always reluctant to accept the new ideas for real application. Case II is about the effect of movie exposure on traditional villagers. As many as 73% of 50 respondents explained that the knowledge of the peasant-fisherman has increased considerably with regard to the urban way of life, as a result of movie attendance. The informants indicated that many villagers were disgusted by feature films or theatrical ones and that 62% of the villagers had yet to go to a movie. Case III involved the communication of new methods of medication to rural societies, including traditional

  10. Part-construction licenses and preliminary licenses issued within the licensing procedure under atomic energy law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, F.J.

    1984-01-01

    The author elaborates a delimitation in terms of law of various licenses available under atomic energy law within the licensing procedure for nuclear installations, such as the part-construction license, preliminary license and preliminary approval of the overall concept, preliminary conceptual approval and conceptual license, preliminary conceptual approval subject to subsequent examinations and decisions, preliminary site ruling and site approval, advance permits and subsequent partial licenses. Such a delimitation becomes particularly significant in case of the plant conceptual design or the site being the subject under review, and the definitions stated also have considerable impact on administrative court proceedings. In this review the author tries to bear in mind the various interests of all parties involved in the licensing procedure. (HSCH) [de

  11. Warm pre-stressing, preliminary experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedner, G.

    1984-09-01

    The beneficial effect of warm pre-stressing, WPS, on apparent fracture thoughness at low temperature is well established. Tests are usually performed with constant load during the cooling part of the load cycle. In practice load variations may occur during this part. The present paper reports a preliminary study of the influence of superimposed fatigue loads. It is found that if crack propagation occurs during cooling+fatigue loading, then the maximum load during the fatigue load cycle is the preload to be used for WPS consideration. A few tests were preformed to study the effect of preload reversal. Tensile preload was followed by a compressive load and after unloading the specimens were cooled and fractured. It was found that for the high preload level used in the tests, the beneficial effect of the tensile preload could be totally annihilated by the compressive preload. (author)

  12. Biosimilars: Considerations for Oncology Nurses
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizgirda, Vida; Jacobs, Ira

    2017-04-01

    Biosimilars are developed to be highly similar to and treat the same conditions as licensed biologics. As they are approved and their use becomes more widespread, oncology nurses should be aware of their development and unique considerations. This article reviews properties of biosimilars; their regulation and approval process; the ways in which their quality, safety, and efficacy are evaluated; their postmarketing safety monitoring; and their significance to oncology nurses and oncology nursing.
. A search of PubMed and regulatory agency websites was conducted for references related to the development and use of biosimilars in oncology. 
. Because biologics are large, structurally complex molecules, biosimilars cannot be considered generic equivalents to licensed biologic products. Consequently, regulatory approval for biosimilars is different from approval for small-molecule generics. Oncology nurses are in a unique position to educate themselves, other clinicians, and patients and their families about biosimilars to ensure accurate understanding, as well as optimal and safe use, of biosimilars.

  13. Nutritional considerations after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Kelly

    2003-01-01

    Malnutrition is a risk that is associated with all bariatric surgeries. Malnutrition is largely preventable after these surgeries if proper patient selection, thorough preoperative nutrition education, and postoperative nutritional follow-up take place along with patient compliance. Bariatric surgery is divided into 2 major categories: restrictive or malabsorptive (with or without the restrictive aspect). The more dramatic weight loss is generally associated with procedures that are malabsorptive in nature. There is an increased risk of specific nutritional deficiencies associated with these surgeries. With proper supplementation these deficiencies are largely avoidable. This article reviews the more common bariatric surgeries and the nutritional considerations associated specifically with each surgery. The article then summarizes the typical diet advancement schedule and reviews critical care nutrition in regards to total parenteral nutrition administration for the morbidly obese individual, following bariatric surgery.

  14. Preliminary Hazards Analysis Plasma Hearth Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aycock, M.; Coordes, D.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P.

    1993-11-01

    This Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for the Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) follows the requirements of United States Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23 (DOE, 1992a), DOE Order 5480.21 (DOE, 1991d), DOE Order 5480.22 (DOE, 1992c), DOE Order 5481.1B (DOE, 1986), and the guidance provided in DOE Standards DOE-STD-1027-92 (DOE, 1992b). Consideration is given to ft proposed regulations published as 10 CFR 830 (DOE, 1993) and DOE Safety Guide SG 830.110 (DOE, 1992b). The purpose of performing a PRA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PRA then is followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title I and II design. This PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during construction, testing, and acceptance and completed before routine operation. Radiological assessments indicate that a PHP facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous material assessments indicate that a PHP facility will be a Low Hazard facility having no significant impacts either onsite or offsite to personnel and the environment

  15. Preaching in the Lutheran Tradition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorensen, Marlene Ringgaard

    2010-01-01

    of Denmark. On one hand there is a strong reformed emphasis on the belief that Preadicatio verbi dei est verbum dei - The preaching of the Word of God is the Word of God. On the other hand the majority of preachers cannot easily make themselves advocates for continuing the category, "Word of God...... the belief that proclamation demands to be understood somehow as the "Word of God".   Udgivelsesdato: October......", as a homiletical basis. The dialectical theology's attempt of reviving the category, in the middle of the 20th century, led homiletics into too grave difficulties and has been accused of great co-responsibility for the drying out of the church's preaching tradition. The claim that preaching is the Word of God has...

  16. Neymar, defender of brazilian tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Islandia Cardoso da Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze how university students of Teresina-PI appropriate of the message of a report of the television show Esporte Espetacular. There was use of the technique of focus groups and analytical-descriptive method for collecting and analyzing data. The sample consisted of 24 university students, aged between 18 and 24 years. The report features Neymar as responsible to follow the "tradition" of Brazilians and to be crowned as the best player in the world. The subjects of research said that the speech conveyed by the report can reproduce and create a reality sometimes dreamlike, because objective to confer to Neymar great importance with regard to national identity.

  17. Traditional Procurement is too Slow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Kong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an exploratory interview survey of construction project participants aimed at identifying the reasons for the decrease in use of the traditional, lump-sum, procurement system in Malaysia. The results show that most people believe it is too slow. This appears to be in part due to the contiguous nature of the various phase and stages of the process and especially the separation of the design and construction phases. The delays caused by disputes between the various parties are also seen as a contributory factor - the most prominent cause being the frequency of variations, with design and scope changes being a particular source of discontent. It is concluded that an up scaling of the whole of the time related reward/penalty system may be the most appropriate measure for the practice in future.

  18. Japan between tradition and renewal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anni

    "The film “Beyond Metabolism” portrays the International Congress Centre in Kyoto, built in 1966 by Sachio Otani. It became known as the setting for the signing of the ‘Kyoto Protocol’. The film captures the atmosphere of the building and thereby raises the question of what impact the Metabolist ....... What is the status and function of tradition in today’s Japanese society? How does it manifest in architecture and urban life? And what specific role does it play in the differences between rural and urban architecture?"...... architecture had on the outcome of the congress. In conversation with Viktoria Diemer Bennetzen, the sociologist Professor Anni Greve will take a closer look ‘beyond metabolism’ - the last architectural avantgarde from Japan. They will examine the transition from Metabolism to contemporary architecture and ask...

  19. Traditional perception of Greeks in Serbian oral tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konjik Ivana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on material on Greeks from Vuk’s corpus of epic poems, we discuss the construction of ethnic stereotype of Greeks in Serbian language. However, the limitation of the paper’s possible conclusion lies in the nature of the corpus: Vuk had deliberately chosen one material over another, therefore, the corpus relating to Greeks cannot be considered as representative of the whole Serbian folk poems. Therefore, the discussion is limited to certain elements of the stereotype. Nevertheless, these Serbian epic folk poems contain many layers: historical, geographical, sociological, mythological and so on, with a strong foundation in traditional culture; thus, they provide an insight into geo-political situation of the time period, viewpoints, perspectives and experiences of other ethnic groups that Serbs have been into contact with. In particular, the relationship toward Greeks was marked with pronounced patriarchal attitude concerning others: we-others, ours-foreign, good-bad. In this sense, Greeks are portrayed as foreign, and as such, as a potential source of danger. On the other hand, Greeks are Christian Orthodox, which associates them with the category ours. In socio-economic sense, they were traders and wealthy, respected gentlemen. In epical-heroic profile, they were not considered as great heroes, but as "lousy army", and frequently, as unfaithful.

  20. Rectal drug administration: clinical pharmacokinetic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, A G; Moolenaar, F; de Leede, L G; Breimer, D D

    1982-01-01

    The human rectum represents a body cavity in which drugs can be easily introduced and retained and from which absorption is well possible. There are important therapeutic reasons why it is sometimes preferable to give a drug rectally rather than orally, e.g. in cases of nausea and vomiting. Drawbacks of rectal drug administration include the interruption of absorption by defaecation and lack of patient acceptability. The mechanism of drug absorption from the rectum is probably no different to that in the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract, despite the fact that the physiological circumstances (e.g. pH, fluid content) differ substantially, Absorption from aqueous and alcoholic solutions may occur very rapidly, which has proved to be of considerable therapeutic value in the rapid suppression of acute convulsive attacks by diazepam (e.g. in children), but absorption from suppositories is generally slower and very much dependent on the nature of the suppository base, the use of surfactants or other additives, particle size of the active ingredient, etc. There is some evidence that hepatic first-pass elimination of high clearance drugs is partially avoided after rectal administration, e.g. lignocaine. This can be explained by the rectal venous blood supply: the upper part is connected with the portal system, whereas the lower part is directly connected with the systemic circulation. Plasma concentration data following rectal administration of representatives of several classes of drugs are reviewed: anticonvulsants, non-narcotic analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, hypnosedatives and anaesthetics, strong analgesics, theophylline and derivatives, corticosteroids, antibacterial agents, thiazinamium, promethazine, hyoscine-N-butyl-bromide, streptokinase, progesterone, ergotamine tartrate and levodopa. Only limited number of cases has it been adequately shown that the rectal route of administration gives plasma concentrations which are comparable to

  1. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines: Advanced Search. Journal Home > African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines: Advanced Search. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. A study of traditional boats of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shaikh, Z.A.; Tripati, S.; Shinde, V.

    Goa, being situated along the Arabian Sea of India, is known for maritime activities and traditional boat building throughout the history. Traditional folk songs of Goa frequently mention ‘Vodem’ which denotes canoe. The recent discovery of stone...

  3. The Preliminaries of a Reference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham; Sadl, Urska

    2018-01-01

    On 11 June 2015, the President of the First Chamber of the Court of Justice of the EU (the Court) issued an order to delete Bogdan Chain v Atlanco Ltd (C-189/14) from the Registry. This comment and the reflection are thus not motivated by a judgment, but rather by the reasons why the Court after ...... in the preliminary reference procedure. It highlights the fact that preliminary references can only work when the preliminaries of a reference—the culture of sincere co-operation and litigation, efficient communication, and flexible procedural rules—are in place....

  4. Space Tourism: Orbital Debris Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian, N.; Shajiee, S.; Moghani, T.; Bahrami, M.

    2002-01-01

    Space activities after a phase of research and development, political competition and national prestige have entered an era of real commercialization. Remote sensing, earth observation, and communication are among the areas in which this growing industry is facing competition and declining government money. A project like International Space Station, which draws from public money, has not only opened a window of real multinational cooperation, but also changed space travel from a mere fantasy into a real world activity. Besides research activities for sending man to moon and Mars and other outer planets, space travel has attracted a considerable attention in recent years in the form of space tourism. Four countries from space fairing nations are actively involved in the development of space tourism. Even, nations which are either in early stages of space technology development or just beginning their space activities, have high ambitions in this area. This is worth noting considering their limited resources. At present, trips to space are available, but limited and expensive. To move beyond this point to generally available trips to orbit and week long stays in LEO, in orbital hotels, some of the required basic transportations, living requirements, and technological developments required for long stay in orbit are already underway. For tourism to develop to a real everyday business, not only the price has to come down to meaningful levels, but also safety considerations should be fully developed to attract travelers' trust. A serious hazard to space activities in general and space tourism in particular is space debris in earth orbit. Orbiting debris are man-made objects left over by space operations, hazardous to space missions. Since the higher density of debris population occurs in low earth orbit, which is also the same orbit of interest to space tourism, a careful attention should be paid to the effect of debris on tourism activities. In this study, after a

  5. Sample design considerations of indoor air exposure surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, B.G.; Mage, D.T.; Immerman, F.W.

    1988-01-01

    Concern about the potential for indoor air pollution has prompted recent surveys of radon and NO 2 concentrations in homes and personal exposure studies of volatile organics, carbon monoxide and pesticides, to name a few. The statistical problems in designing sample surveys that measure the physical environment are diverse and more complicated than those encountered in traditional surveys of human attitudes and attributes. This paper addresses issues encountered when designing indoor air quality (IAQ) studies. General statistical concepts related to target population definition, frame creation, and sample selection for area household surveys and telephone surveys are presented. The implications of different measurement approaches are discussed, and response rate considerations are described

  6. Analysis of Pedagogical Considerations of M-Learning in Smart Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mostakhdemin-Hosseini

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT- Unlike the traditional classroom based learning where the learning happened on the specific time and place. In mobile learning the learning is not depended to any designated time and place. Learning through mobile device requires extensive design and pedagogical considerations. The traditional teaching pedagogy theories are not suitable for mobile learning since the main assumptions on teaching are in the classroom. There have already been some initiatives for defining distinct pedagogical theories for mobile learning. The main focuses of the mobile learning pedagogical consideration must be directed to content of the learning materials and the context where the learning occurs.

  7. The seismicity of Bulgaria and the possibility for radioactive waste storage (preliminary considerations)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christoskov, L.; Samardjieva, E.; Solakov, D.

    1993-01-01

    Data on the number of earthquakes in the Balkan countries for the period 1901-1970 with magnitude M>4 and M>7 and epicentral intensity I 0 >IX are summarized. An overview of the seismicity of Bulgaria is given according to historical data taken from the Catalogue of Bulgarian Earthquakes (where destructive events since the 1 c. B.C. are documented). In more detail an analysis of the seismic activity since the beginning of the present century is made. In comparison with the data for the Central Balkans, the data concerning Bulgaria show lower recurrence of the shocks, i.e. longer average time intervals between earthquakes of a given M. Maps of epicenters of the earthquakes with M≥2 and M≥4 as well as of the magnitude-frequency distribution of the contemporary seismic events are given. A map of expected seismic source zones (SSZ) for Bulgaria and neighbouring lands and a detailed SSZ map for the territory of Bulgaria in magnitude intervals from 7.6 to 5.0, from which impacts of VII degree and greater, according to MSK-64 scale, could be expected, are also presented. It is concluded that the zones with a magnitude higher than 7.1 are exposed to potentially strong danger of future earthquakes and in regions with bad ground conditions SSZ of magnitude 6.1-7.0 could cause destructive consequences as well. The most appropriate places for preservation of radioactive wastes are the SSZ of magnitude below 5.0. In the initial steps towards the selection of site of radwaste repository, one must proceed from the normative shakeability map, taking into account the similar map for a 10000 year period as well as the map of expected SSZ. In the principally unsuitable seismic conditions in the country, it is advisable such kind of installations to be oriented to regions in the most NW part of Bulgaria and Burgas province. 9 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs. (author)

  8. Preliminary considerations on developing IAEA technical safeguards for LMFBR power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persiani, P.J.

    1980-09-01

    Nuclear fuel cycles safeguards should be considered in the dynamic context of a world deployment of various reactor types and varying availability of fuel-cycle services. There will be a close interaction between thermal-reactor cycles and the future deployment of fast breeders. The quantitites of plutonium and the reprocessing, conversion, fabrication, and storage methods of the fuel for the fast breeders will have a significant impact on safeguards techniques. The approach to the fast breeder fuel cycle safeguards follows the general safeguards system approach proposed by the IAEA. Objective of IAEA safeguards is the detection of diversion of nuclear material and deterrence of such diversion. To achieve independent verification of material balance accountancy requires the capability to monitor inventory status and verify material flows and quantities of all nuclear materials subject to safeguards. Containment and surveillance measures are applied to monitor key measurement points, maintain integrity of material balance, and complement material accountancy. The safeguards study attempts to develop a generic reference IAEA Safeguards System and explores various system options using containment/surveillance and material accountancy instrumentation and integrated systems designs

  9. Materials considerations for UF6 gas-core reactor. Interim report for preliminary design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, P.

    1977-04-01

    The limiting materials problem in a high-temperature UF 6 core reactor is the corrosion of the core containment vessel. The UF 6 , the lower fluorides of uranium, and the fluorine that exist at the anticipated reactor operating conditions (1000 K and about one atmosphere UF 6 ) are all corrosive. Because of this, the materials evaluation effort for this reactor design study has concentrated on the identification of a viable system for the containment vessel that meets both the materials and neutronic requirements. A study of the literature has revealed that the most promising corrosion-resistant candidates are Ni or Ni-Al alloys. One of the conclusions of this work is that the containment vessel use a nickel liner or clad since the use of Ni as a structural member is precluded by its relative blackness to thermal neutrons. Estimates of corrosion rates of Ni and Ni-Al alloys, the effects of the pressure and temperature of F 2 on the corrosion rates, calculated equilibrium gas compositions at reactor core operating conditions, suggested methods of fabrication, and recommendations for future research and development are included

  10. Defining an outcomes management program for definitive irradiation of prostate cancer: preliminary considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seltzer, Jonathan; Valicenti, Richard K.; Dlutowski, Mark; Corn, Benjamin W.

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: The advent of managed medical care presents challenges to health care providers who strive to maintain a high quality of patient care at a reasonable cost. The goals of clinical guidelines and paths are to improve the quality of patient care by using outcomes to redefine the path and to eliminate ineffective steps in the clinical algorithm. The purpose of the current endeavor was to systematically develop a clinical pathway for the radiation therapy of prostate cancer which can serve as 1) a measurement tool of operational variables such as cost and utilization, 2) a treatment tool to measure satisfaction and toxicity, 3) a research framework from which questions of efficacy can be investigated. METHODS: An initial path was constructed by the physicians based on recommendations from consensus conference of the Patterns of Care Study (PCS), and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). The program was initiated by a core group of 2 attending radiation oncologists, a radiation physicist, a clinical nurse specialist, a dosimetrist, a simulation technologist, a treatment technologist, and a medical social worker. These data served as a baseline from which clinical pathway development could begin using the method of Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) as described by Berwick (New Engl J Med 320: 53, 1989). Following the creation of a draft path, the document was circulated to other staff members of the team. Simultaneously, the Clinical Financial Management System (Transition Systems Incorporated, Boston, MA) was applied to departmental and institutional records to determine treatment patterns, utilization, toxicity, and cost for prostate cancer patients irradiated between July 1, 1995 and December 31, 1995. The aforementioned staff team as well as a seven person patient group were queried by a CQI facilitator to identify process and quality factors to be included in the clinical path. RESULTS: During the period of study, 51 patients were definitively treated in our department. The physicians defined a pathway based on the standards from the literature that centered around diagnosis and staging, conformal planning with a CT-simulator, and biochemical monitoring of response with PSA. The physicians raised concerns about the utility of routine ancillary laboratory testing, the need for verification simulation on a conventional fluoroscopic unit, and biochemical monitoring of the subjects. The non-physician members of the staff team were most concerned about the adequacy of patient education, evaluation of sexual function pre- and post-treatment, and the ability to smoothly disseminate treatment plans to all members of the care giving team. Patients were highly satisfied, but were most concerned with adequate provision of information about the actual procedures involved in simulation (eg urethrophy) and the benefits to themselves for protocol participation. To address these concerns, we have modified the original protocol to take into account these concerns and created measurement tools in order to monitor outcome of greatest concern to the three respective groups. Our department has implemented prospective tools to document patient understanding, criteria for scoring and treating acute symptoms, and a randomized trial to assess the need for verification simulation. CONCLUSIONS: The process of CQI seems to be a useful tool to identify outcome measures which should be included in a clinical pathway. Although physician guidance with respect to pathology and treatment plans are fundamental to pathway development, physicians may be unaware of some of the outcomes of care. In this study CQI has proved an effective methodology to discern outcomes which should be measured which would otherwise have not been prioritized. CQI methodology requires a commitment by the physicians to seriously evaluate suggested outcomes measures by the non-professional participants in the care process. Models such as the one proposed must be developed so that future modifications in therapeutic algorithms can be operationally assessed. By using the CQI methodology, we were able to distinguish the unique outcome concerns of the various parties involved in the total care process

  11. Student Voices on the Higher Education Pathway: Preliminary Insights & Stakeholders Engagement Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Agenda, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Efforts to improve student learning and success at community colleges are in the national policy spotlight. Colleges around the country are reviewing their institutional practices and gathering groups of education stakeholders to design and then implement changes in advising, developmental education, programs of study and curricula, student…

  12. Narrative foreclosure in later life: Preliminary considerations for a new sensitizing concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas; Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Randall, W.; Tromp, T.; Kenyon, G.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to explore narrative foreclosure as a sensitizing concept for studying the ways in which narrative identity development falters in later life. Two main characters in famous movies are contrasted to provide a better understanding of narrative foreclosure. The concept is

  13. Juventude e adolescência: considerações preliminares = Youth and adolescence: preliminary considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira, Jacqueline de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo busca trabalhar o conceito de juventude no campo da psicologia. A partir do conceito de adolescência, são realizadas aproximações e distanciamentos acerca do tema. As ciências sociais e a filosofia são convocadas nesta discussão que localiza o jovem nas sociedades, moderna e a pós-moderna. A juventude, como paradigma cultural na contemporaneidade, será abordada neste artigo, que propõe uma reflexão acerca dos processos de subjetivação e as contradições que implicam a saída da juventude e a inserção no mundo adulto na pós-modernidade

  14. Considerations preliminary to the application of early and immediate loading protocols in dental implantology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmukler-Moncler, S; Piattelli, A; Favero, G A; Dubruille, J H

    2000-02-01

    In oral implantology, a 3-6 month stress-free healing period is presently accepted as a prerequisite to achieve bone apposition without interposition of a fibrous scar tissue. This protocol was introduced by Brånemark and co-workers in 1977. The aim of the present paper is to review the reasons that led Brånemark and collaborators to require long delayed loading periods. It is shown that the requirement for long delayed loading periods was drawn from the initiation and development periods of their original clinical trial. Demanding conditions were met involving simultaneously: 1) patients with poor bone quality and quantity, 2) non-optimized implant design, 3) short implants, 4) non-optimized surgical placement, 5) non-optimized surgical protocol and 6) biomechanically non-optimized prosthesis. Extrapolation of the requirement for long healing periods from these particular conditions to more standard situations involving refined surgical protocols and careful patient selection might be questioned. Albeit premature loading has been interpreted as inducing fibrous tissue interposition, immediate loading per se is not responsible for fibrous encapsulation. It is the excess of micromotion during the healing phase that interferes with bone repair. A threshold of tolerated micromotion exists, that is somewhere between 50 microns and 150 microns. It is suggested that loading protocols might be shortened through 2 different approaches. The first way would be to decrease stepwise the delayed loading period for free-standing implants below the presently accepted 3-6 months of healing. The second way would be to identify immediate loading protocols that are capable of keeping the amount of micromotion beneath the threshold of deleterious micromotion. Immediate loading protocols for implants-retained overdentures and fixed bridges are reviewed. It is shown that successful premature loading protocols require a careful and strict patient selection aimed to achieve the best primary stability. These various protocols need to be further documented in order to assess their predictability.

  15. Using analytic hierarchy process approach in ontological multicriterial decision making - Preliminary considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasielewska, K.; Ganzha, M.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we consider combining ontologically demarcated information with Saaty's Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) [1] for the multicriterial assessment of offers during contract negotiations. The context for the proposal is provided by the Agents in Grid project (AiG; [2]), which aims at development of an agent-based infrastructure for efficient resource management in the Grid. In the AiG project, software agents representing users can either (1) join a team and earn money, or (2) find a team to execute a job. Moreover, agents form teams, managers of which negotiate with clients and workers terms of potential collaboration. Here, ontologically described contracts (Service Level Agreements) are the results of autonomous multiround negotiations. Therefore, taking into account relatively complex nature of the negotiated contracts, multicriterial assessment of proposals plays a crucial role. The AHP method is based on pairwise comparisons of criteria and relies on the judgement of a panel of experts. It measures how well does an offer serve the objective of a decision maker. In this paper, we propose how the AHP method can be used to assess ontologically described contract proposals.

  16. Rio Grande Lidar Bank Erosion Monitoring: Preliminary 2007-2008 Results and Survey Design Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER University of New Mexico MSC01 1070 Civil Engineering...Coonrod, and John Stormont University of New Mexico MSC01 1070 Civil Engineering Albuquerque, NM 87120 Final report Approved for public release...only area where no extrapolation was performed . ................... 17 Figure 8. Photographs of Atrisco site between I-40 and Central Avenue before

  17. Preliminary Consideration for the Development of Regulatory Level 2 PSA Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang-Ju

    2006-01-01

    In order to assess the validity of PSA (probabilistic safety assessment) results and to establish regulatory requirements for relevant safety issues most of the regulators want to develop an independent and convenient risk assessment model including Level 2 PSA area. As this model and framework should be implicitly independent on the licensee's PSA model, it has a primary objective directly for applying to the risk-informed regulatory affairs and for supporting those kinds of works. According this, the regulator can take an objective view for the uncertainty of risk information made by the licensee and keep up the capability and decision-making framework for overall risk assessment results. In addition, the regulatory model may be used to verify and validate the operational risk levels of all engineered safety features of nuclear power plants (NPPs). An issue for plant-specific application of safety goals was previously identified in the US NRC's risk-informed regulatory guidance development activities, and discussed in many Commission papers, e. g. SECY-97-287, which identifies the goal for large early release frequency (LERF). LERF defines a containment performance criteria derived from the quantitative health objectives. As we know, the LERF was chosen to assess risk significance in Regulatory Guide 1.174 (2002) again, which provides one measure of the performance of the containment barrier, and represents a surrogate for early health effects

  18. Los Alamos Experimental Engineering Waste Burial Facility: design considerations and preliminary experimental plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePoorter, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Experimental Engineered Waste Burial Facility is a field test site where generic experiments can be performed on several scales to get the basic information necessary to understand the processes occurring in low-level waste disposal facilities. The experiments include hydrological, chemical, mechanical, and biological factors. In order to separate these various factors in the experiments and to extrapolate the experimental results to actual facilities, experiments will be performed on several different scales

  19. Precast, Prestressed Concrete Bent Caps : Volume 1, Preliminary Design Considerations and Experimental Test Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    Precast prestressed concrete bent caps may provide significant benefits by enabling accelerated construction of bridge substructures and improve longevity by reducing the propensity for cracking. The Texas Department of Transportation enables the use...

  20. Combining semantic technologies with a content-based image retrieval system - Preliminary considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, P.; Ganzha, M.; Jaworska, T.; Paprzycki, M.

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays, as a part of systematic growth of volume, and variety, of information that can be found on the Internet, we observe also dramatic increase in sizes of available image collections. There are many ways to help users browsing / selecting images of interest. One of popular approaches are Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) systems, which allow users to search for images that match their interests, expressed in the form of images (query by example). However, we believe that image search and retrieval could take advantage of semantic technologies. We have decided to test this hypothesis. Specifically, on the basis of knowledge captured in the CBIR, we have developed a domain ontology of residential real estate (detached houses, in particular). This allows us to semantically represent each image (and its constitutive architectural elements) represented within the CBIR. The proposed ontology was extended to capture not only the elements resulting from image segmentation, but also "spatial relations" between them. As a result, a new approach to querying the image database (semantic querying) has materialized, thus extending capabilities of the developed system.

  1. Traditional and ayurvedic foods of Indian origin

    OpenAIRE

    Preetam Sarkar; Lohith Kumar DH; Chanda Dhumal; Shubham Subrot Panigrahi; Ruplal Choudhary

    2015-01-01

    The Ayurveda contains a wealth of knowledge on health sciences. Accordingly traditional foods and their dietary guidelines are prescribed in Ayurveda. There is so much similarity in ayurvedic dietetics and traditional foods that many of the traditional health foods in India can be called ayurvedic foods. This review article introduces the concepts of ayurvedic health foods in India and describes several traditional heath foods across various regions of India. Recommended dietary guidelines ac...

  2. ACEH IN HISTORY: Preserving Traditions and Embracing Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirul Hadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to critically discuss on how the Acehnese in history, while trying to embrace the modern world, have made every effort at preserving their traditions. As an ethnic group which has a glorious past, Aceh has strongly been connected to “identity”; and this is expressed in various means, including “social memory.” For this very reason, “traditions”, including those of the past, are explored and preserved. Yet, the challenges of modernity are also apparent. It is in this context that the Acehnese are trapped at the crossroad. On the one hand, they tend to preserve their traditions, yet, on the other, they need to embrace modern lives. The Acehnese seem to have encountered considerable obstacles on this issue, for they tend to focus more on historical “romanticism” (nostalgia rather than historical “awareness” (consciousness. Eventually, the “spirit” of the past cannot be brought into light.

  3. SPATIAL ARRANGEMENTS IN TRADITIONAL M'ZABITE HOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T BELLAL

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the morphology of M'zabite traditional houses. The study uses the space syntax method. Space syntax proposes a fundamental relationship between the configuration of space in a house and the way that it functions. It is the aim of this research work to test this proposition in an M'zab cross settlement sample. The study particularly focuses on the measure known as " difference factor ". The concept of difference factor has been widely used as a technique to measure the strength of a spatial genotype. As a preliminary conclusion, four characteristic patterns of integration are found, the first one centred on the Ammas N'tadart  [Berber for Wast Eddar], the second on the Ikoumar or arched portico, the third on the stairs, and the last but not the least, is centred on the Tigharghart or upper courtyard.

  4. Traditional 'air-dried' fermented sausages from Central Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lücke, Friedrich-Karl; Vogeley, Ingo

    2012-04-01

    Traditional varieties of fermented pork sausages from Central Germany are different from related meat products in various aspects. First, they are prepared from "warm" pork immediately after slaughter. The meat is then minced, mixed with spices and minimal amounts of sugars, salt and nitrate, and the stuffed sausages ripen for a minimum of 6-8 weeks at temperatures below 15 °C. Second, surface mould growth during ripening is regularly removed or suppressed. The manufacturing methods require a minimum of investments and labour and reflect the socio-economic situation in the manufacturing area. The sausages have a good record of safety, and a preliminary risk assessment indicates that pathogens are kept under sufficient control by the extended ripening at low temperatures. Small-scale (artisanal) manufacture of these products is only possible with a flexible interpretation of the hygienic principles set up in current legislation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. History versus customary law: Commission on Traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the practices of the Commission on Traditional Leadership: Disputes and Claims, set up under the Framework Act of 2003 to 'cleanse' the institution of traditional leadership by ridding it of the illegitimate traditional leaders installed during the colonial and homeland eras. Close analysis of the ...

  6. Vietnamese traditional medicine from a pharmacist's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdenbag, H.J.; Nguyen, T.M.; Vu, D.V.; Tran, Hung; Nguyen, D.T.; Tran, T.V.; De Smet, P.A.; Brouwers, J.R.

    Traditional medicine plays an important role in the healthcare system of Vietnam. Vietnamese traditional medicine (VTM) is underpinned by the oriental philosophy and theory of healing. VTM is largely influenced by traditional Chinese medicine, but differs to a certain extent. VTM is largely not

  7. Vietnamese traditional medicine from a pharmacist's perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdenbag, H.J.; Nguyen, T.M.; Vu, D.V.; Tran, H.; Nguyen, D.T.; Tran, T.V.; Smet, P.A.G.M. de; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional medicine plays an important role in the healthcare system of Vietnam. Vietnamese traditional medicine (VTM) is underpinned by the oriental philosophy and theory of healing. VTM is largely influenced by traditional Chinese medicine, but differs to a certain extent. VTM is largely not

  8. Public Information and African Traditional Communication Delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is an analysis of how African traditional communication and the literature produced about it portray African traditional communication. The analysis premises an interest to ascertain whether the portrayal is in a perspective showing traditional media as capable of playing expected public information role. Drawing ...

  9. African Traditional Sculpture and Aesthetic Realism | Mangiri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional African sculpture which is one of the essences of modern art movements in the world of art has not been attributed with that aesthetic identity. However, a close look at the traditional African sculpture reveals the artistic and aesthetic qualities. African traditional sculpture was regarded as mere objects or crafts.

  10. Infusing Qualitative Traditions in Counseling Research Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Danica G.; Wood, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Research traditions serve as a blueprint or guide for a variety of design decisions throughout qualitative inquiry. This article presents 6 qualitative research traditions: grounded theory, phenomenology, consensual qualitative research, ethnography, narratology, and participatory action research. For each tradition, the authors describe its…

  11. Challenges and Prospects of Traditional Food Processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on challenges and prospects of traditional food processing technologies and their products in Nigeria. The major objective of the paper is to identify the challenges confronting traditional food processing technologies as well as the potentials the traditional food processing technologies has in boosting the ...

  12. Documenting indigenous knowledge about Africa's traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the global debates about indigenous knowledge and Africa's traditional medicine. It explores whether it is possible to document all the elements of indigenous knowledge about Africa's traditional medicine that is used for the treatment of diverse forms of sickness. Certain types of Africa's traditional ...

  13. Considerations regarding dosimetry in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilday, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The most important consideration when deciding whether or not to perform a nuclear medicine procedure in a child is whether the benefit of the information obtained exceeds the potential risk. In most circumstances the potential benefits are well define. No patient should be studied unless the question to be answered is clearly understood and there is a reasonable change to answer it. To properly perform procedures in children one must not only have a schedule to scale the radiopharmaceutical dose to be administered to the child's body surface area but also one must have an established minimum dose for small babies and infants. There is no point in under-dosing the patient as then the information will not be obtained from the nuclear medicine society. The value of nuclear medicine in the pediatric population cannot be underestimated. It is often the single most important test that can be performed diagnostically. For these reasons it is very important to understand the proper relationship of an adequate study versus the minimization of radiation. 3 references

  14. MARKETING CONSIDERATIONS ON BRAND COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-C. Budac

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Most consumers spend an important part of their free time looking for online information about the brands before taking a decision to purchase. The Internet is the main factor which has led to a considerable increase of the time allotted by consumers for search and comparing information about brands, as a step preceding the decision to purchase and also one of the most important factors that influence the interaction between the brand and the consumer. Although the general trend is that the public to become more active and more involved in the choice of the brand, consumer's responses to its messages obviously depend on cultural, social or economic factors. The work has the purpose to clarify what brand community means and how it appeared - if it was really built from scratch or it has already existed in a latent way and it must only be recognized - the characteristics of successful communities, which of the objectives of the brands can be achieved by means of these groups, what is the role of social media in the development of these communities, what kind of types of mem¬bers are likely to be encountered inside of the online communities and what is their proportion for each and which are the research methodologies that can give support to companies in monitoring these groups.

  15. Enabling fast charging - Vehicle considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meintz, Andrew; Zhang, Jiucai; Vijayagopal, Ram; Kreutzer, Cory; Ahmed, Shabbir; Bloom, Ira; Burnham, Andrew; Carlson, Richard B.; Dias, Fernando; Dufek, Eric J.; Francfort, James; Hardy, Keith; Jansen, Andrew N.; Keyser, Matthew; Markel, Anthony; Michelbacher, Christopher; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Pesaran, Ahmad; Scoffield, Don; Shirk, Matthew; Stephens, Thomas; Tanim, Tanvir

    2017-11-01

    To achieve a successful increase in the plug-in battery electric vehicle (BEV) market, it is anticipated that a significant improvement in battery performance is required to increase the range that BEVs can travel and the rate at which they can be recharged. While the range that BEVs can travel on a single recharge is improving, the recharge rate is still much slower than the refueling rate of conventional internal combustion engine vehicles. To achieve comparable recharge times, we explore the vehicle considerations of charge rates of at least 400 kW. Faster recharge is expected to significantly mitigate the perceived deficiencies for long-distance transportation, to provide alternative charging in densely populated areas where overnight charging at home may not be possible, and to reduce range anxiety for travel within a city when unplanned charging may be required. This substantial increase in charging rate is expected to create technical issues in the design of the battery system and the vehicle's electrical architecture that must be resolved. This work focuses on vehicle system design and total recharge time to meet the goals of implementing improved charge rates and the impacts of these expected increases on system voltage and vehicle components.

  16. Whose Confession? Which Tradition? (A Preliminary Critique of Penny Thompson, 2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doble, Peter

    2005-01-01

    What does Penny Thompson really want? Reading her article in "BJRE" 26 (1) proved a baffling experience: it clearly wanted to say something, and to say it passionately, yet signally failed to do so. It fails largely because it lacks an argument; there seems also to be conceptual muddle at its heart. A fuller critique will need to attend…

  17. Characterisation and preliminary lipid-lowering evaluation of Lactobacillus isolated from a traditional Serbian dairy product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavišić, G; Ristić, S; Petrièević, S; Novaković Jovanović, J; Janać Petković, B; Strahinić, I; Piperski, V

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the potential probiotic properties of indigenous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Serbian homemade cheese. Seventeen LAB strains were isolated and characterised using standard protocols. One of the strains showed several probiotic properties: survival at low pH and in bile salts solution, antimicrobial activity, susceptibility to antibiotics and adhesion to hexodecane. DNA analysis identified the isolate as Lactobacillus casei, hereafter named L. casei 5s. The lipid lowering effect of L. casei 5s was evaluated in vivo using a hyperlipidemic rat model. Orally administered L. casei 5s significantly decreased the elevated total serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and attenuated macro vesicular steatosis in the liver. Moreover, L. casei 5s improved the intestinal microbial balance in favour of lactobacilli, while decreasing the number of Escherichia coli cells. The bacteria were re-isolated and identified from the surface of the intestinal mucosa and from the faecal samples of treated animals, indicating adhesiveness and colonisation ability. The results of an acute oral toxicity study in mice and the absence of translocation to other organs demonstrated the safety of the strain. In conclusion, L. casei 5s demonstrated promising probiotic potential and might be a good candidate for more detailed investigations.

  18. Preliminary comparative analysis of four botanicals used in the traditional medicines of pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, J.; Rehman, N.U.; Khan, A.L.

    2014-01-01

    In present study, the proximate parameters and nutrient profile of four medicinal plants viz., Datura innoxia, Adhotoda visica, Solanum surattens, and Acacia nilotica (leaves and roots) were determined through standard procedures of AOAC and Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES DV 7300, Perkin Elmer, USA). In proximate parameters, significantly higher (p<0.05) ash content and crude fats was observed in Datura innoxia as compared to other medicinal plants. The concentration of fiber was highest in Adhotoda visica (42.186%) and lowest in Solanum surattens (18%). The highest energy value was recorded (329.11 Kcal/100g) for Acacia nilotica (roots), while protein and carbohydrates were significant in S. surattens. The concentration of the macronutrients ranged from 54.242 to 97.468 ng/g for calcium, 27.552-97.468 ng/g for potassium, 3.457-21.707 ng/g for magnesium, 6.546-9.136 ng/g for sodium, 2.617-8.976 ng/g for potassium and 0.047-0.74 ng/g for sulfur. In conclusion, D. innoxia and S. surattens were found to be a good source of ash, fats, fiber, carbohydrates and macronutrients (Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, and Si), which can be considered for healthy life besides their medicinal values. (author)

  19. Preliminary Analysis of Photoreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Danielle S.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to provide a preliminary analysis of a reading strategy called PhotoReading. PhotoReading is a technique developed by Paul Scheele that claims to increase reading rate to 25,000 words per minute (Scheele, 1993). PhotoReading itself involves entering a "relaxed state" and looking at, but not reading, each page of a text for a brief moment (about I to 2 seconds). While this technique has received attention in the popular press, there had been no objective examinations of the technique's validity. To examine the effectiveness of PhotoReading, the principal investigator (i.e., trainee) participated in a PhotoReading workshop to learn the technique. Parallel versions of two standardized and three experimenter-created reading comprehension tests were administered to the trainee and an expert user of the PhotoReading technique to compare the use of normal reading strategies and the PhotoReading technique by both readers. The results for all measures yielded no benefits of using the PhotoReading technique. The extremely rapid reading rates claimed by PhotoReaders were not observed; indeed, the reading rates were generally comparable to those for normal reading. Moreover, the PhotoReading expert generally showed an increase in reading time when using the PhotoReading technique in comparison to when using normal reading strategies to process text. This increase in reading time when PhotoReading was accompanied by a decrease in text comprehension.

  20. Dissociating Prediction Failure: Considerations from Music Perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Suzi; Hansen, Niels Christian

    2016-01-01

    Dissociating Prediction Failure: Considerations from Music Perception The Journal of Neuroscience, 16 March 2016, 36(11): 3103-3105;......Dissociating Prediction Failure: Considerations from Music Perception The Journal of Neuroscience, 16 March 2016, 36(11): 3103-3105;...

  1. Salt creep design consideration for underground nuclear waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, W.T.; Wu, C.L.; Antonas, N.J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper summarizes the creep consideration in the design of nuclear waste storage facilities in salt, describes the non-linear analysis method for evaluating the design adequacy, and presents computational results for the current storage design. The application of rock mechanics instrumentation to assure the appropriateness of the design is discussed. It also describes the design evolution of such a facility, starting from the conceptual design, through the preliminary design, to the detailed design stage. The empirical design method, laboratory tests and numerical analyses, and the underground in situ tests have been incorporated in the design process to assure the stability of the underground openings, retrievability of waste during the operation phase and encapsulation of waste after decommissioning

  2. Slates from Uruguay: a traditional natural stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Demarco, M.; Oyhantçabal, P.; Stein, K.-J.; Siegesmund, S.

    2012-04-01

    Slates were traditionally used as roofing material or for cladding worldwide and also in Uruguay. In regions where this resource was easily mined, the widespread application of slates in constructions resulted in the development of characteristic cultural landscapes. The application of slates in a wider sense is nowadays open for all uses of dimensional stone, compared to the restricted use as roofing or cladding material in the past. This has been achieved by the discovery and mining of new deposits within the last 25 years worldwide. Furthermore, the optimization of mining techniques that allows the excavation of larger blocks and the technical development for further handling of the blocks has contributed to an open spectrum of applications. The slate deposits from Uruguay are associated with the Neoproterozoic thrust and fold belt of the Dom Feliciano Belt. The slates are linked to calc-silicate strata in a greenschist facies volcano-sedimentary sequence and the deposits are located in the limb of a regional fold, where bedding and cleavage are parallel. The main lithotype is a layered and fine-grained calcareous phyllite with a quite diverse palette of colors: light green, grey, dark grey, reddish and black. The mined slate is split into slabs 0.5 - 2cm thick. The technical properties were investigated in a very systematic way with respect to the new European standards, showing values comparable to those registered for internationally known slates. In the past, the average production in Uruguay was around 4000 tons/year and a historical maximum of 13,000 tons was reached in 1993. The oscillations in the regional demand were the cause of several flourishing and decay cycles in the activity, but our investigation shows a considerable volume of indicated resources and therefore a very good potential. Exploration for colors and qualities and quantification of reserves is a prerequisite for the development of the sector.

  3. Nutraceutical enriched Indian traditional chikki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, Chetana; Pamisetty, Aruna; Reddy, Sunki Reddy Yella

    2015-08-01

    Chikki or peanut brittle, a traditional sweet snack was chosen as vehicle for enrichment with added natural nutraceuticals through herbs. The formulation and process for preparation of chikki with added herbs like ashwagandha (Withania somenifera), tulasi (Ocimumsanctum L.) and ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi S.) were standardized. The polyphenol content of chikki with added herbs ranged 0.29-0.46 g/100 g. Among the herbs, ajwain showed more potent antioxidant activity followed by tulasi, whereas ashwagandha and product prepared with it showed the least activity. Total carotenoid contents of chikki with added herbs ranged between 1.5 and 4.3 mg/100 g. Storage studies showed that chikki prepared with tulasi and ajwain were sensorily acceptable up to 90 days, while rancid notes were observed in control and chikki with added ashwagandha at the end of 30 days. Thus chikki with added herbs in addition to containing natural nutraceuticals like polyphenols and carotenoids had improved storage stability compared to control.

  4. [Popular and traditional contraceptive methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castadot, R G

    1976-09-11

    This review gives the mode of action, efficacy, causes of failure, advantages, drawbacks, and geographical areas of wide use of abstinence, withdrawal, postcoital douche, lactation, condom, cervical cap, spermicides, and rhythm. The effectiveness of these methods ranges from 15-20 failures/100 woman-years for withdrawal, 30-60% for douche, 8-17% for lactation, 10-20% for condom, 8% theoretically for cap, 15-25% for spermicides and 3-15% for C-film, and 7-40% for rhythm. Coitus interruptus is used widely in Eastern Europe and the Mid-East. The only recommended application for douche is for a broken condom. Caps, made of lucite, celluloid, or metal, are used chiefly in Germany, and have the advantage of being left in place for days at a time. Spermicides usually contain nonylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol, and foam and C-film are probably the best products in effectiveness and convenience. Rhythm may be based on calendar, body temperature, or both, and its use in declining. The traditional methods should be taught and advertised, especially in countries and locales where medical services are inaccessible, such as developing countries and urban ghettos.

  5. [General considerations on psychiatric interconsultation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpinacci, J A

    1975-03-01

    This paper attempts to follow the evolution of some general ideas on Psychiatric Interconsulting. It is the result of six years' work at Ramos Mejía Hospital, Buenos Aires. Progressive transformations were imposed by daily practice on our team's theoretical and technical conceptions. We started with an individualistic-phenomenical approach, and we were forced to switch to a dynamical-situational one. The general working model we use at present is briefly summarized, emphasizing the important role played by Psychiatric Interconsulting in the change of the medical cultural patterns prevailing at present in our milieu. Two main factors for the role of privilege played by the Interconsulting team are set forth: one is conceptual, the other is pragmatic. From a conceptual standpoint, the theoretical basis of Psychiatric Interconsulting is much broader than those of other specialities, like clinical practice or surgery, for it includes, besides Biology, the Psychological and Socio-Historical determinants of the disturbance the diseases man suffers. From a pragmatic standpoint, the boundaries of human and physical fields within which Psychiatric Interconsulting is operating, go beyond the scope of daily medical practice. Their place could be located in between formal traditional wefts, relating to institutional structures as well as to specific medical practice. Professionals working at Interconsulting are usually required at general wards, at consulting offices, at emergency wards, in corridors, or even at the bar. They are interested not only in specific medical problems; they encompass the whole range of personal and institutional framework, and consider the whole situation in a comprehensive approach. Knowledge acquired in this widened professional field, together with actual experience in dealing with people in distress, are the main sources for theoretical conceptualization of new activities, as well as for building pragmatic tools to modify the official medical

  6. Components of sustainability considerations in management of petrochemical industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryanasl, Amir; Ghodousi, Jamal; Arjmandi, Reza; Mansouri, Nabiollah

    2017-06-01

    Sustainability comprises three pillars of social, environmental, and economic aspects. Petrochemical industry has a great inter-related complex impact on social and economic development of societies and adverse impact on almost all environmental aspects and resource depletion in many countries, which make sustainability a crucial issue for petrochemical industries. This study was conducted to propose components of sustainability considerations in management of petrochemical industries.A combination of exploratory study-to prepare a preliminary list of components of sustainable business in petrochemical industries based on review of literature and Delphi-to obtain experts' view on this preliminary list and provide a detailed list of components and sub-components that should be addressed to bring sustainability to petrochemical industries, were used.Two sets of components were provided. First general components, which include stakeholders (staffs, society, and environment) with four sub-components, financial resources with 11 sub-components, improvement of design and processes with nine sub-components, policy and strategy of cleaner production with seven sub-components and leadership with seven sub-components. The second operational components included raw material supply and preparation with five, synthesis with ten, product separation and refinement with nine, product handling and storage with five, emission abatement with eight, and improvement of technology and equipment with 16 sub-components.

  7. 32 CFR 643.74 - Consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Consideration. 643.74 Section 643.74 National... Licenses § 643.74 Consideration. When a license is granted under the authority of an easement or leasing statute, the same rules will apply in regard to consideration as is applicable to the granting of an...

  8. 5 CFR 330.206 - Job consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Job consideration. 330.206 Section 330..., SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Reemployment Priority List (RPL) § 330.206 Job consideration. (a)(1) An eligible employee under § 330.203 is entitled to consideration for positions in the commuting area for...

  9. 32 CFR 643.53 - Consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Consideration. 643.53 Section 643.53 National... Leases § 643.53 Consideration. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by this regulation or directed by the SA, the consideration for a lease of real estate will be the appraised fair market rental value. However...

  10. 15 CFR 2301.5 - Special consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special consideration. 2301.5 Section... PROGRAM Application Requirements § 2301.5 Special consideration. In accordance with section 392(f) of the Act, the Agency will give special consideration to applications that foster ownership of, operation of...

  11. 46 CFR 169.112 - Special consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 169.112 Section 169.112 Shipping... Provisions § 169.112 Special consideration. In applying the provisions of this part, the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, may give special consideration to departures from the specific requirements when...

  12. 44 CFR 331.4 - Special consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 331.4... AND FACILITIES IN LABOR SURPLUS AREAS § 331.4 Special consideration. When an entire industry that... hearing of interested parties, will give consideration to appropriate measures applicable to the entire...

  13. 49 CFR 260.7 - Priority consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Priority consideration. 260.7 Section 260.7... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Overview § 260.7 Priority consideration. When evaluating applications, the Administrator will give priority consideration (but not necessarily in the following order...

  14. 46 CFR 175.550 - Special consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 175.550 Section 175.550 Shipping...) GENERAL PROVISIONS § 175.550 Special consideration. In applying the provisions of this subchapter, the OCMI may give special consideration to authorizing departures from the specific requirements when...

  15. Materials considerations in accelerator targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, H.B. Jr.; Iyer, N.C.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Future nuclear materials production and/or the burn-up of long lived radioisotopes may be accomplished through the capture of spallation produced neutrons in accelerators. Aluminum clad-lead and/or lead alloys has been proposed as a spallation target. Aluminum was the cladding choice because of the low neutron absorption cross section, fast radioactivity decay, high thermal conductivity, and excellent fabricability. Metallic lead and lead oxide powders were considered for the target core with the fabrication options being casting or powder metallurgy (PM). Scoping tests to evaluate gravity casting, squeeze casting, and casting and swaging processes showed that, based on fabricability and heat transfer considerations, squeeze casting was the preferred option for manufacture of targets with initial core cladding contact. Thousands of aluminum clad aluminum-lithium alloy core targets and control rods for tritium production have been fabricated by coextrusion processes and successfully irradiated in the SRS reactors. Tritium retention in, and release from the coextruded product was modeled from experimental and operational data. Newly produced tritium atoms were trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability was the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release was determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. The model can be used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy targets during postulated accelerator operational and accident conditions. This paper describes the manufacturing technologies evaluated and presents the model for tritium retention in aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy tritium production targets

  16. Materials considerations in accelerator targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, H. B. Jr.; Iyer, N. C.; Louthan, M. R. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Future nuclear materials production and/or the burn-up of long lived radioisotopes may be accomplished through the capture of spallation produced neutrons in accelerators. Aluminum clad-lead and/or lead alloys has been proposed as a spallation target. Aluminum was the cladding choice because of the low neutron absorption cross section, fast radioactivity decay, high thermal conductivity, and excellent fabricability. Metallic lead and lead oxide powders were considered for the target core with the fabrication options being casting or powder metallurgy (PM). Scoping tests to evaluate gravity casting, squeeze casting, and casting and swaging processes showed that, based on fabricability and heat transfer considerations, squeeze casting was the preferred option for manufacture of targets with initial core cladding contact. Thousands of aluminum clad aluminum-lithium alloy core targets and control rods for tritium production have been fabricated by coextrusion processes and successfully irradiated in the SRS reactors. Tritium retention in, and release from, the coextruded product was modeled from experimental and operational data. The model assumed that tritium atoms, formed by the 6Li(n,a)3He reaction, were produced in solid solution in the Al-Li alloy. Because of the low solubility of hydrogen isotopes in aluminum alloys, the irradiated Al-Li rapidly became supersaturated in tritium. Newly produced tritium atoms were trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability was the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release was determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. The model can be used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy targets during postulated accelerator operational and accident conditions. This paper describes

  17. Traditional and non-traditional uses of Mitragynine (Kratom): A survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Darshan; Narayanan, Suresh; Vicknasingam, Balasingam

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the paper was to highlight the differences in the traditional and non-traditional users of kratom in the South East Asian and Western contexts. A literature survey of published kratom studies among humans was conducted. Forty published studies relevant to the objective were reviewed. Apart from the differences in the sources of supply, patterns of use and social acceptability of kratom within these two regions, the most interesting finding is its evolution to a recreational drug in both settings and the severity of the adverse effects of kratom use reported in the West. While several cases of toxicity and death have emerged in the West, such reports have been non-existent in South East Asia where kratom has had a longer history of use. We highlight the possible reasons for this as discussed in the literature. More importantly, it should be borne in mind that the individual clinical case-reports emerging from the West that link kratom use to adverse reactions or fatalities frequently pertained to kratom used together with other substances. Therefore, there is a danger of these reports being used to strengthen the case for legal sanction against kratom. This would be unfortunate since the experiences from South East Asia suggest considerable potential for therapeutic use among people who use drugs. Despite its addictive properties, reported side-effects and its tendency to be used a recreational drug, more scientific clinical human studies are necessary to determine its potential therapeutic value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Contraception: traditional and religious attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, J G; Rabenou, V

    1993-04-01

    Humans have tried to control fertility for centuries. Primitive, preliterate societies practiced infanticide and abortion. When primitive women understood the advantages of conception control, they tried, when possible, to use contraception. In the 4th century B.C., Plato and Aristotle advocated a one-child family. Greek medical literature reported a hollow tube inserted through the cervix into the uterus and a potion as contraceptives. Islamic physicians had much knowledge about conception control. The attitudes toward contraception. In the 5th century B.C., Saint Augustine condemned contraception, even among married couples. The condom emerged in the early modern period. Yet, they were usually worn to protect against disease, e.g., bilharzia in Egypt and syphilis in Europe. The cervical cap and the diaphragm are examples of occlusive pessaries. By 1880, contraceptives and spermicides were advertised. In 1928, the IUD joined the existing contraceptives. Today we have combined oral contraceptives. Judaic law requires husbands to fulfill their wives sexual needs, separate from their duty to procreate. It also calls men, not women, to procreate and forbids men from masturbating, thus Judaic law does not forbid women from practicing contraception. The Roman Catholic church forbids contraceptive use because it is a sin against nature. Some Protestant denominations have allowed contraceptive use. Islamic law states that children are gifts from Allah. Some Moslems believe that they must have many children, but Allah and the Prophet state that children have rights to education and future security. These rights allow couples to prevent pregnancy. Neither Hinduism nor Buddhism prohibit contraceptive use. Differences in husband-wife communication, sex roles, access to contraceptives, and traditional family values will have more of an effect on contraceptive use and fertility than theological barriers or the social class of religious groups.

  19. Preliminary figures for 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Neste Corporation's net sales during 1991 totalled USD 12.6 billion, an increase of 11 % over the figure for 1990. The largest growth in net sales took place in Neste Oil's trading activities and sales of in-house-produced crude oil. In the chemicals sector. particular growth was recorded in resins production. Gas, Shipping and Exploration and Production performed slightly better than during 1990. Oil's performance remained satisfactory. The performance of Chemicals, however, fell back considerably, primarily, as a result of the worldwide drop in prices in the petrochemicals and plastics industries. As a result, the Corporation's overall result was substantially below the good level recorded in 1990. The Corporation's operating margin totalled USD 650 million

  20. Preliminary In-Vivo Evaluation of Convex Array Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Høgholm; Gammelmark, Kim; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2004-01-01

    Synthetic transmit aperture (STA) imaging has previously been investigated and compared to traditional imaging techniques in simulations and phantom studies. However, a full in-vivo study evaluating its clinical potential has yet to be conducted. This paper presents a preliminary in-vivo study of...

  1. Summary of the Preliminary Optical ICHMI Design Study: A Preliminary Engineering Design Study for a Standpipe Viewport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheier, Norman C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qiao, Hong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Berglin, Eric J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hatchell, Brian K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-12-26

    This summary report examines an in-vessel optical access concept intended to support standoff optical instrumentation, control and human-machine interface (ICHMI) systems for future advanced small modular reactor (AdvSMR) applications. Optical-based measurement and sensing systems for AdvSMR applications have several key benefits over traditional instrumentation and control systems used to monitor reactor process parameters, such as temperature, flow rate, pressure, and coolant chemistry (Anheier et al. 2013). Direct and continuous visualization of the in-vessel components can be maintained using external cameras. Many optical sensing techniques can be performed remotely using open optical beam path configurations. Not only are in-vessel cables eliminated by these configurations, but also sensitive optical monitoring components (e.g., electronics, lasers, detectors, and cameras) can be placed outside the reactor vessel in the instrument vault, containment building, or other locations where temperatures and radiation levels are much lower. However, the extreme AdvSMR environment present challenges for optical access designs and optical materials. Optical access is not provided in any commercial nuclear power plant or featured in any reactor design, although successful implementation of optical access has been demonstrated in test reactors (Arkani and Gharib 2009). This report outlines the key engineering considerations for an AdvSMR optical access concept. Strict American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) construction codes must be followed for any U.S. nuclear facility component (ASME 2013); however, the scope of this study is to evaluate the preliminary engineering issues for this concept, rather than developing a nuclear-qualified design. In addition, this study does not consider accident design requirements. In-vessel optical access using a standpipe viewport concept serves as a test case to explore the engineering challenges and performance requirements

  2. Preliminary design report for the prototypical fuel rod consolidation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    This report documents NUTECH's preliminary design of a dry, spent fuel rod consolidation system. This preliminary design is the result of Phase I of a planned four phase project. The present report on this project provides a considerable amount of detail for a preliminary design effort. The design and all of its details are described in this Preliminary Design Report (PDR). The NUTECH dry rod consolidation system described herein is remotely operated. It provides for automatic operation, but with operator hold points between key steps in the process. The operator has the ability to switch to a manual operation mode at any point in the process. The system is directed by the operator using an executive computer which controls and coordinates the operation of the in-cell equipment. The operator monitors the process using an in-cell closed circuit television (CCTV) system with audio output and equipment status displays on the computer monitor. The in-cell mechanical equipment consists of the following: (1) two overhead cranes with manipulators; (2) a multi-degree of freedom fuel handling table and its clamping equipment; (3) a fuel assembly end fitting removal station and its tools; (4) a consolidator (which pulls rods, assembles the consolidated bundle and loads the canister); (5) a canister end cap welder and weld inspection system; (6) decontamination systems; and (7) the CCTV and microphone systems

  3. Porosity and Health: Perspective of Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafazoli, Vahid; Nimrouzi, Majid; Daneshfard, Babak

    2016-05-01

    The authors of this manuscript aimed to show the importance of porosity and condensation in health according to traditional Persian medicine (TPM) with consideration of new evidence in conventional medicine. Cardinal traditional medical and pharmacological texts were searched for the traditional terms of takhalkhol (porosity) and takassof (condensity) focused on preventive methods. The findings were classified and compared with new medical findings. According to traditional Persian medicine, porosity and condensity are the two crucial items that contribute to human health. Somatotype is a taxonomy based on embryonic development, which may be considered in parallel with porosity and condensation. However, these terms are not completely the same. There are many causes for acquired porosity comprising hot weather, too much intercourse, rage, starvation, and heavy exercises. In general, porosity increases the risk of diseases as it makes the body organs vulnerable to external hot and cold weather. On the other hand, the porose organs are more susceptible to accumulation of morbid matters because the cellular wastes cannot be evacuated in the normal way. There are some common points between traditional and conventional medicine in the context of porosity and condensity. The relation between diet and somatotype is an example. Condensity and porosity are the two basic items cited in the TPM resources and contribute to health maintenance and disease prevention of body organs. Creating a balance between these two states in different body organs, strongly contributes to disease prevention, treatment and diminishing chronic diseases period. Choosing proper modality including diet, drug therapy, and manual therapy depends on the amount porosity and stiffness of the considered organ and the preferred porosity of the affected organ keeping in a normal healthy state.

  4. POTENCY OF KIPO, A TRADITIONAL FOOD FROM KOTAGEDE – YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Supartono

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Kipo is a traditional food from Kotagede Region – Yogyakarta, which is produced from glutinous rice. It was processed through some steps such as weighing, mixing, melting, roasting and packing. This traditional food is not popular like other traditional foods such as gudeg or yangko. Problems concerning this situation were, the information of kipo was not well delivered to the consumers and people who were doing business with kipo were very limited and only in Kotagede.This research was aimed to disclosure the potency of kipo, if it was developed as industrial foods. The aspects of market, technical and financial were conducted and analyzed. These aspects were used for giving considerations, if this product could be developed in the future. The results depicted, that from the market aspect, value kipoconsumer’s attitude index was good (3.8845 from 5. The technical aspect showed, that this industry was quite small scale with processing capacity only 19 kg product per day, used 5 menpower and 60 m2 area.Based on the financial aspect at actual capacity, the results showed Net Present Value was Rp. 70,180,679; Payback Period 1.21 years; Profitability Index 5.51;Internal Rate of Return 98.5% and Break Even Point was Rp. 505,414 or 212,693 kipo. This industry was very sensitive to the increase of interest level, total cost and decrease of price product. Some challenged aspects of kipo were, it was produced from naural sources such as glutinous rice, coconut, brown sugar and also natural food colouring agent. The traditional process was still kept and the people could enjoy how it was produced. This is the challenge to develop the traditional food as part of culinary or historical tour.

  5. Study Of Lampungnese Traditional Home Garden Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, R. A.; Gunawan

    2017-10-01

    Lampung is one area in Indonesia which has a traditional culture that comes from two groups of descents, they are ulun Lampung Pepadun and ulun Lampung Saibatin. Lampungnese traditional culture has been well-known by Indonesian people for its traditional dances, traditional clothing, or traditional home architecture. However, Lampungnese traditional home garden recently may not yet been described. Information related to Lampungnese traditional home garden is still very limited and it does not yet represented the culture based design concept. This research was directed to identify the elements of the home garden and map it into design concept of the Lampungnese traditional home garden based on information of Lampungnese traditional culture. The study was conducted by using descriptive approach through literature review, interviews and cultural exploration, as well as field observation. The study was able to identify the elements forming the Lampungnese traditional home garden, namely gakhang hadap, walai, outdoor kitchenette, firewood place, outdoor kitchen, livestock barns, as well as plants. Space layout of the home garden comprises front yard (tengahbah/terambah/beruan), side yard (kebik/kakebik), and backyard (kudan/juyu/kebon). Each element of the garden is located in the right place of the space layout.

  6. Taste-active compounds in a traditional Italian food: 'lampascioni'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgonovo, Gigliola; Caimi, Sara; Morini, Gabriella; Scaglioni, Leonardo; Bassoli, Angela

    2008-06-01

    Nature is a rich source of taste-active compounds, in particular of plant origin, many of which have unusual tastes. Many of these are found in traditional food, where spontaneous plants are used as ingredients. Some taste-active compounds were identified in the bulbs of Muscari comosum, a spontaneous plant belonging to the family of the Liliaceae, very common in the Mediterranean area, and used in traditional gastronomy (called 'lampascioni' in South Italy). The bulbs were extracted with a series of solvents of different polarity. The different fractions were submitted to a preliminary sensory evaluation, and the most interesting ones, characterized by a strong bitter taste and some chemestetic properties, were submitted to further purification and structural analysis. From the ethereal extract, several 3-benzyl-4-chromanones and one stilbene derivative were isolated. Pure compounds were examined for their taste activity by means of sensory evaluation, and proved to be responsible for the characteristic taste of this food. Some of these compounds have been synthesized de novo to confirm their structure.

  7. Statistical considerations on safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, L.; Makai, M.

    2004-01-01

    The authors have investigated the statistical methods applied to safety analysis of nuclear reactors and arrived at alarming conclusions: a series of calculations with the generally appreciated safety code ATHLET were carried out to ascertain the stability of the results against input uncertainties in a simple experimental situation. Scrutinizing those calculations, we came to the conclusion that the ATHLET results may exhibit chaotic behavior. A further conclusion is that the technological limits are incorrectly set when the output variables are correlated. Another formerly unnoticed conclusion of the previous ATHLET calculations that certain innocent looking parameters (like wall roughness factor, the number of bubbles per unit volume, the number of droplets per unit volume) can influence considerably such output parameters as water levels. The authors are concerned with the statistical foundation of present day safety analysis practices and can only hope that their own misjudgment will be dispelled. Until then, the authors suggest applying correct statistical methods in safety analysis even if it makes the analysis more expensive. It would be desirable to continue exploring the role of internal parameters (wall roughness factor, steam-water surface in thermal hydraulics codes, homogenization methods in neutronics codes) in system safety codes and to study their effects on the analysis. In the validation and verification process of a code one carries out a series of computations. The input data are not precisely determined because measured data have an error, calculated data are often obtained from a more or less accurate model. Some users of large codes are content with comparing the nominal output obtained from the nominal input, whereas all the possible inputs should be taken into account when judging safety. At the same time, any statement concerning safety must be aleatory, and its merit can be judged only when the probability is known with which the

  8. Palliative care. Some organisational considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welshman, A

    2005-01-01

    consideration. Another important issue faced daily by palliative care physicians is the broad number of chronic conditions which could make use of opioids. Severe cancer pain is the most obvious example of an appropriate use of opioids, but hardly the only one. The North American Chronic Pain Association of Canada (NACPAC) advocates the use of opioids for a wide range of conditions causing severe chronic pain, including lower back pain, inflammatory bowel disease, migraines, AIDS, multiple sclerosis and arthritis. Concerns regarding under treatment of chronic pain have captured the attention of patient advocacy groups, policy makers and scientific organisations. Misconceptions of opioid laws, negative social stigma and lack of valid prescribing alternatives to overcome this, together with paucity of formal provider education confound the issue. Much education needs to be done before opioids will be seen as a safe and reasonable treatment for chronic pain here in Italy.

  9. Standpoints of traditional Persian physicians on geriatric nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Morteza; Nazarinia, Mohammad Ali; Rezaeizadeh, Hussein; Zarshenas, Mohammad M

    2014-10-01

    The present article aimed to compile information on the nutritional management for geriatric people. Popular textbooks of Persian medicine from 10th to 18th century were studied to derive relative viewpoints and considerations. The temperament, which is defined as the combination of 4 main elements (fire, air, water, and soil) and 4 humors made subsequently (black bile, yellow bile, phlegm, and blood), changes during age periods. Imbalance in proportional amounts of humors in elderly should be corrected with food and medicaments having opposite nature to the current condition. Traditional foods included mostly well-cooked soups, pottages, and porridges containing fresh sheep or chicken meat. Mono-ingredient foods were also administered according to their medical properties. Nutritional recommendations were also concerned with geriatrics' physiological conditions such as constipation, sleep disorders, and memory deficits. Many of traditional geriatric nutritional requirements are relevant in the present day. However, there are still notes that may be beneficial for consideration. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Algumas considerações sobre a utilização de modalidades terapêuticas não tradicionais pelo enfermeiro na assistência de enfermagem psiquiátrica Algunas consideraciones sobre la utilización de modalidades terapeúticas no tradicionales por el enfermero en la atención de enfermería psiquiátrica Some considerations about nurses' use of non traditional therapies in psychiatric nursing care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubia Laine de Paula Andrade

    2005-10-01

    ansiedad y la irritabilidad, promueve relajación y un mayor sentimiento de auto-dominio. Toda la actividad debe ser integrada a un plan terapéutico global para cada usuario y hacer parte de la programación diaria del servicio.In this work, a revision of the literature was carried out to identify articles that described non traditional therapeutic modalities psychiatric nurses can use in their daily practice. The described modalities were Music, Motor Activity, Therapeutic Accompaniment and Yoga. Music is able to reconstruct identities, integrate people, reduce anxiety and provide the construction of positive self-esteem. Motor Activity increases self-esteem, reduces inactivity and increases the participation of the psychiatric patient in other activities. In Therapeutic Accompaniment, nurses follow patients in daily routine with a view to their reintegration in the different situations they have to face. Yoga allows for improved memory, reduces emotional tension, depression, anxiety and irritability, and promotes relaxation and a greater feeling of self-control. All activities should be integrated in a global therapeutic plan for each user and be part of daily service programming.

  11. Menorrhagia Management in Iranian Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansaz, Mojgan; Memarzadehzavareh, Hajar; Qaraaty, Marzieh; Eftekhar, Tahereh; Tabarrai, Malihe; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Menorrhagia is a common problem. Medical management for menorrhagia includes hormonal and nonhormonal treatments. These treatments have different side effects, which reduce quality of life. Complementary and traditional medicines have been used to handle menorrhagia for centuries in many cultures. There is a lot of information and data in Iranian traditional documents or books about medicinal herbs that are used by Iranian traditional medicine scientists for the treatment of menorrhagia. The aim of this study was to review the approaches to menorrhagia in Iranian traditional medicine texts. In this study, some main Iranian traditional medicine manuscripts including Canon of Medicine and Al-Havi of Rhazes were studied to extract important information about menorrhagia management. Iranian traditional medicine physicians have relied on an organized system of etiological theories and treatments for menorrhagia. Their methods for menorrhagia management may be able to convince the desire of many women to preserve their uterus and avoid hormonal therapy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Student Application for Special Consideration for Examination Performance Following a Natural Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collings, David; Garrill, Ashley; Johnston, Lucy

    2018-01-01

    Universities have a long-established tradition of granting students special consideration when circumstances beyond their control negatively affect performance in assessments. Typically, such situations affect only one student (e.g. medical emergencies) but we consider the impact of a natural disaster that led to all students being eligible for…

  13. Considerations of Dance Transmission Processes: Adapting Bharata Natyam in a Singapore Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Chee Hoo; Gonda, Donn Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative case study has, for its purpose, an examination of the pedagogies and practices of a master Bharata Natyam dance instructor working within a Singapore primary school context. It explores the instructor's adaptation within an after-school weekly activity of the South Indian traditional classical dance form. Considerations of dance…

  14. The quest for knowledge transfer efficacy: blended teaching, online and in-class, with consideration of learning typologies for non-traditional and traditional students

    OpenAIRE

    Van Doorn, Judy R.; Van Doorn, John D.

    2014-01-01

    The pedagogical paradigm shift in higher education to 24-hour learning environments composed of teaching delivery methods of online courses, blended/hybrid formats, and face-to-face (f2f) classes is increasing access to global, lifelong learning. Online degrees have been offered at 62.4% of 2,800 colleges and universities. Students can now design flexible, life-balanced course schedules. Higher knowledge transfer rates may exist with blended course formats with online quizzes and valuable cl...

  15. Traditional Market Accounting: Management or Financial Accounting?

    OpenAIRE

    Wiyarni, Wiyarni

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the area of accounting in traditional market. There are two areas of accounting: management and financial accounting. Some of traditional market traders have prepared financial notes, whereas some of them do not. Their financial notes usually consist of receivables, payables, customer orders, inventories, sales and cost price, and salary expenses. The purpose of these financial notes is usually for decision making. It is very rare for the traditional ma...

  16. Traditional marketing vs. Internet marketing. A comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Varfan, Mona; Shima, Alfa

    2008-01-01

    Title: Traditional marketing vs. Internet marketing: A comparison Problem: Marketing is an important strategy for businesses and it contains numerous effective tools. Traditional marketing has been in use for many years and nowadays Internet has brought new ways of doing business for companies and that has affected marketing. What are the main differences between Internet marketing and traditional marketing? Which one of the two approaches contains the most used and effective marketing tools ...

  17. Main Puteri Traditional Malay Healing Ceremony

    OpenAIRE

    M. G. Nasuruddin; S. Ishak

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the traditional Malay healing ritualistic ceremony known as Main Puteri. This non-invasive intervention uses the vehicle of performance to administer the healing process. It employs the performance elements of Makyung, that is, music, movements/dance and dramatic dialogue to heal psychosomatic maladies. There are two perspectives to this therapeutic healing process, one traditional and the other scientific. From the traditional perspective, the psychosomatic illness is a...

  18. Wedding in Thailand: Traditional and Business

    OpenAIRE

    Kingkan Pongsiri

    2014-01-01

    This study is purely qualitative. The objectives of this study can be identified as two main factors: traditionally explanation and economically studying. The study of weddings, both in traditional beauty and the aggressively strong competitive in the wedding business market has limited population of the study only Thailand internal wedding consumers. Focus group with the new marriage couple and in-depth interview with fully experiences wedding businessman were used. Traditionally, Thai weddi...

  19. Preliminary treatment of MSW fly ash as a way of improving electrodialytic remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Célia Maria Dias; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2008-01-01

    . Remediation time was also considerably reduced. Additionally, preliminary washing reduces energy consumption during EDR, since electric current is not wasted in the transport of soluble salts. Sequential extraction was performed in the untreated and treated samples to help identify how metals are bond...

  20. Preliminary Validation of a New Clinical Tool for Identifying Problem Video Game Playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel Luke; Delfabbro, Paul H.; Zajac, Ian T.

    2011-01-01

    Research has estimated that between 6 to 13% of individuals who play video games do so excessively. However, the methods and definitions used to identify "problem" video game players often vary considerably. This research presents preliminary validation data for a new measure of problematic video game play called the Problem Video Game…

  1. Preliminary design analysis of the ALT-II limiter for TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.; Boyd, R.D.; Kempka, S.M.; Romig, A.D. Jr.; Smith, M.F.; Watson, R.D.; Whitley, J.B.; Conn, R.W.; Grotz, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    Installation of a large toroidal belt pump limiter, Advanced Limiter Test II (ALT-II), on the TEXTOR tokamak at Juelich, FRG is anticipated for early 1986. This paper discusses the preliminary mechanical design and materials considerations undertaken as part of the feasibility study phase for ALT-II

  2. Environmental considerations in Vietnam's energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui, X.H.

    2007-01-01

    Energy conservation is at the centre of an environmental debate in Vietnam, whose rapidly growing economy in recent years has resulted in rising energy consumption and environmental degradation. This article reviewed the actual state of Vietnam's energy system, with consideration of the country's energy policies and their impact on the environment. Vietnam's energy resources consist of a vast network of rivers that hold potential for hydroelectric power; reserves that are proven to have oil, natural gas and coal; and, other renewable energy sources such as wind and solar energy. The energy sector plays a major role in the economic and social aspects of the country. Since its economic reform, coal and crude oil exports have brought in foreign money to the national revenue. Vietnam exploits four commercial types of energy, namely coal, oil, natural gas and hydroelectricity. These traditional energy sources play a major role in providing energy for the rural and mountainous regions in the country. The increase in energy demand in Vietnam is currently greater than that of its gross national product. The energy intensity in Vietnam is 1.5 times greater than that of Thailand, and twice the average world consumption. Energy demands are increasing at a regular rate due to a low rate of energy efficiency and to growth in industrialization and modernization. In addition, the government provides subsidies to the already low price of energy. It was concluded that although Vietnam has a low rate of energy consumption compared to other regions of the world, there exists a serious imbalance between energy use and economic and social growth. This imbalance could have a negative impact on fossil resources and the environment, especially if the high demand for energy is maintained. Presently, all negative impacts on the environment are related to the energy sector. An environmental assessment and strategic proposals to manage this problem locally and globally, have constituted the

  3. Churchill and the european tradition of liberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Espada

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Churchill believed in the existence of a specific political tradition of the English-speaking peoples. But he also clearly believed that tradition to be part of the European and Western tradition of liberty. This article tries to identify some of the crucial ingredients that Churchill attributed to the Anglo-American political culture and to its contribution to the broader European tradition. It also recalls Churchill’s political evolution – from the Conservatives to the Liberals in 1904 and back to the Conservatives twenty years later – trying to identify some of the main features of his political philosophy.

  4. Beyond product innovation; improving innovation policy support for SMEs in traditional industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wintjes, R.J.M.; Douglas, D.; Fairburn, J.; Hollanders, H.J.G.M.; Pugh, G.

    2014-01-01

    Innovation support measures in the EU are mostly designed to support product innovation in R&D intensive sectors. To increase the still considerable contribution to regional employment and competitiveness from SMEs in traditional manufacturing industries a broader innovation (policy) mix is more

  5. Islam as a Lived Tradition: Ethical Constellations of Muslim Food Practice in Mumbai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tayob, Shaheed

    2017-01-01

    This thesis argues for the notion of Islam as a lived tradition as a theoretical and methodological contribution to the anthropology of Islam. The argument departs from the literature on Islam on piety towards a consideration of Muslim practice outside of the mosque and prayer group. Focusing on

  6. The African traditional religious landscape: An examination of the role of traditional leaders in the fight against HIV and AIDS in Chipinge, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Marashe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the role of traditional leaders, as custodians of culture, in the fight against infection with the HI virus and the AIDS pandemic in the Chipinge District of Zimbabwe. The research aims to assess traditional leaders� knowledge of HIV and AIDS and its causes. It also examines some traditional practices to determine whether they expose people to HIV and AIDS, and it evaluates the traditional leaders� roles in curbing the pandemic. From a phenomenological standpoint � and grounded in the African traditional religious landscape � the study uses a survey research design. A convenient sample of 18 participants for the study consisted of 3 chiefs and 5 headmen who completed a questionnaire as well as 5 village heads and 5 elders who were interviewed and involved in four focus-group discussions (FGDs that provided a variety of insightful information. The study identifies promiscuity as a major cause of HIV infection in communities. The results show that traditional leaders discourage barika and kuputsa as being harmful traditional marriage practices. Furthermore, the study indicates that traditional leaders encourage behavioural change amongst the youth and adults alike to curb the spread of HIV and that the pandemic could possibly be contained if government fully empowered the traditional leaders. The research has value in attempting to minimise the spread of HIV if communities discontinue harmful cultural practices. Therefore, donor agencies involved in intervention projects concerning the HIV and AIDS pandemic and government should work closely with traditional leaders who wield considerable power in areas under their jurisdiction to arrest the spread of the HIV and AIDS pandemic in the Chipinge district in Zimbabwe.

  7. Ethical issues in radiology: Perspectives from the Christian tradition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, L.

    2009-01-01

    The Christian ethical tradition introduces a number of key values into the clinical context. Moreover, although some denominational differences exist, these are essentially differences of emphasis rather than of substance. Among the central values which the Christian tradition promotes are: the dignity of the person, the individual as embodied spirit and the importance of the common good. Within the evolving discourse, social justice considerations have come to the fore as a critical concern within bio-ethics. In radiology, like most fields of clinical practice, practitioners frequently encounter conflicts and tensions of an ethical nature. Moreover, the manner in which these conflicts are articulated, conceptualised and ultimately resolved will depend, not only on how the scientific data are analysed and interpreted, but also on how different ethical frameworks are invoked in these disputes. The concern in this brief paper is to discuss the Christian ethical tradition as it is expressed in Roman Catholic and 'Protestant' denominations in the western church, considering the values and norms that underlie Christian ethical engagements with applied questions. (authors)

  8. Technetium removal: preliminary flowsheet options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eager, K.M.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the results of a preliminary investigation into options for preliminary flowsheets for 99Tc removal from Hanford Site tank waste. A model is created to show the path of 99Tc through pretreatment to disposal. The Tank Waste Remediation (TWRS) flowsheet (Orme 1995) is used as a baseline. Ranges of important inputs to the model are developed, such as 99Tc inventory in the tanks and important splits through the TWRS flowsheet. Several technetium removal options are discussed along with sensitivities of the removal schemes to important model parameters

  9. MALAYSIAN TRADITIONAL AS A TREATMENT AND COMPLEM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-11-10

    Nov 10, 2017 ... Malaysia is one of the countries in Asia in which the practice of utilizing traditional and complementary medicine is growing rapidly. In addition, India and China are considered to be countries that have historically practiced the usage of plants for producing therapeutic remedies. In India, traditional medicine ...

  10. Sensory Properties of Traditionally-Fermented Buttermilk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation was carried out to test the hypothesis that the main problems of traditionally-fermented milk products processed in the rural setup are based on variable sensory quality, hygiene and unattractive presentation to consumers. Sensory evaluation scores of 9 samples of traditional fermented buttermilk and control ...

  11. Malawi's Traditional Leadership and Democracy Consolidation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is that the tendency to brand traditional leadership as undemocratic masks debate on its great potential for the promotion of democracy. The article contends that efforts towards democracy consolidation require foregoing harmonious power relations and linkages between traditional leaders and elected local governments; ...

  12. Traditional Healers' Views On Fertility | Mashamba | Indilinga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infertility is one of the major problems facing families, both in the public and private health sectors. This article reports on findings of a study that investigated the traditional perspectives regarding infertility. The study was conducted using qualitative research methods with five traditional healers who were selected through ...

  13. Emotional Problems in Traditional and Cyber Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjursø, Ida Risanger; Fandrem, Hildegunn; Roland, Erling

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies show an association between traditional and cyber victimization. However, there seem to be differences in how these forms of being bullied relates to emotional problems in the victims. Few studies focus on symptoms of general anxiety and depression as separate variables when comparing traditional and cyber victimization.…

  14. Application of isotopes in traditional Chinese medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Ling; Liu Ning; Yang Yuanyou; Mo Shangwu

    2006-01-01

    Modernization of traditional Chinese medicine necessitates many new or advanced methods. Among these methods, isotopes are considered to be a convenient, fast and feasible method. The recent advance of isotope's application to traditional Chinese medicine is reviewed. In addition, their present status, problems and prospect are discussed. (authors)

  15. Backpacking with a Prayer: Tradition and Modernity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovitch, Nitza

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the phenomenon of Israeli backpacking as a function of traditional, observant, and secular population segments. We explored whether and to what degree backpacking features are related to the affinity of backpackers with the Jewish tradition and faith. Our study was based on a sample of 120 Israeli backpackers who had returned…

  16. Chinese Traditional Philosophy and Indigenous Management Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on three key notions of Chinese traditional philosophy, i.e., Zhongyong, Yin Yang, and Wu, pointing out the possible mistakes in Prof. Peter Ping Li's arguments as well as some questions that are often neglected and taken for granted. The author posits, Chinese traditional phil...

  17. Traditional healers and pulmonary tuberculosis in Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, J. A.; Boeree, M. J.; Kager, P.; Varkevisser, C. M.; Harries, A. D.

    1998-01-01

    Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH) and Blantyre district, Malawi. To investigate the use that tuberculosis (TB) patients in Malawi make of traditional healers and traditional medicine. A questionnaire study was carried out on 89 smear-positive pulmonary TB patients admitted to QECH. Seven

  18. Vygotsky, Consciousness, and the German Psycholinguistic Tradition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitch, David G.

    2011-01-01

    This article argues that Vygotsky's choice of word meaning as the basic unit of analysis for cultural psychology connects him to a German psycholinguistic tradition--exemplified in the work of G. W. F. Hegel and J. G. Herder--distinct from the Marxist tradition. While later commentators criticize Vygotsky's reliance on word meaning, arguing that…

  19. Personal Constructs of Modern and Traditional Xhosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPreez, Peter; Ward, D. G.

    1970-01-01

    Modern Xhosa showed greater homogeneity in self concept, used more permeable constructs which covered wider ranges of events, and had the self and ideal self more closely related than traditional Xhosa. It is inferred that the traditional Xhosa group is falling apart. (Author/DB)

  20. Adherence to traditional Indian customs surrounding birth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Customs traditionally followed by Indian women during pregnancy, birth and early parenthood have been documented. An exploratory investigation of the extent to which some of these traditional beliefs, customs and practices are currently adhered to was undertaken by interviewing Indian mothers living in Johannesburg ...

  1. Instructional Design Processes and Traditional Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasser, Nichole

    2010-01-01

    Traditional colleges who have implemented distance education programs would benefit from using instructional design processes to develop their courses. Instructional design processes provide the framework for designing and delivering quality online learning programs in a highly-competitive educational market. Traditional college leaders play a…

  2. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the wound healing activity of extract of bark part of Mimusops elengi. It is well-known plant in Indian traditional medicines. On the basis of traditional use and literature references, this plant was selected for wound healing potential. A methanolic extract of bark parts of Mimusops ...

  3. African Traditional Knowledge Systems and Biodiversity Management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a link between African Traditional Knowledge Systems and the management of Biodiversity. These have been passed over from one generation to the next through oral tradition. The lack of documentation of these systems of managing biodiversity has led to the existence of a gap between the scientifi cally based ...

  4. Ethnobotany of pru, a traditional Cuban refreshment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volpato, G.; Godínez, D.

    2004-01-01

    Gouania polygama (Jacq.) Urban, Smilax domingensis Willd., and Pimenta dioica Merr., are three species widely used within Cuban ethnobotanical traditions and practices. Pru is a traditional refreshment and medicinal drink produced by their decoction and fermentation with sugar. It is claimed to have

  5. Property rights and traditional knowledge | Cross | Potchefstroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For the past several decades, there has been a push to provide some sort of right akin to an intellectual property right in traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expression. This push has encountered staunch resistance from a number of different quarters. Many of the objections are practical. However, underlying ...

  6. Optimal Stand Management: Traditional and Neotraditional Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen Lee Abt; Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2003-01-01

    The traditional Faustmann (1849) model has served as the foundation of economic theory of the firm for the forestry production process. Since its introduction over 150 years ago, many variations of the Faustmann have been developed which relax certain assumptions of the traditional model, including constant prices, risk neutrality, zero production and management costs...

  7. Traditional medicine use and the anaesthetist

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GD Nethathe

    This review considers traditional medicine, with an emphasis on traditional African medicine and its influence on perioperative care. Western and Eastern herbal remedies are widely used. The paucity of good quality evidence concerning these medicinal products has led to only some of the effects of these medicines being ...

  8. Why Breast Cancer Patients Seek Traditional Healers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazanah Muhamad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional healing is a common practice in low and middle income countries such as Malaysia. Eighty percent of Malaysians consult traditional healers or “bomoh” at some time in their life for health-related issues. The purpose of our study was to explore why breast cancer patients visit traditional healers. This is a qualitative study utilizing in-depth interviews with 11 cancer survivors who sought both traditional and Western medicine. The findings revealed the following reasons for which patients seek traditional healers: (1 recommendation from family and friends, (2 sanction from family, (3 perceived benefit and compatibility, (4 healer credibility, and (5 reservation with Western medicine and system delay. These factors work together and are strongly influenced by the Malaysian cultural context. The issue with the Western health system is common in a developing country with limited health facilities.

  9. Why Breast Cancer Patients Seek Traditional Healers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamad, M.; Merriam, Sh.; Merriam, Sh.; Suhami, N.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional healing is a common practice in low and middle income countries such as Malaysia. Eighty percent of Malaysians consult traditional healers or bomoh at some time in their life for health-related issues. The purpose of our study was to explore why breast cancer patients visit traditional healers. This is a qualitative study utilizing in-depth interviews with 11 cancer survivors who sought both traditional and Western medicine. The findings revealed the following reasons for which patients seek traditional healers: (1) recommendation from family and friends, (2) sanction from family, (3) perceived benefit and compatibility, (4) healer credibility, and (5) reservation with Western medicine and system delay. These factors work together and are strongly influenced by the Malaysian cultural context. The issue with the Western health system is common in a developing country with limited health facilities

  10. Reduce conflicts in traditional merariq traditions through the long tradition of the tribal people of sasak lombok

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmini; Nadiroh, Ulin; Saeun Fahmi, Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    Marriage is a container for framing the inner-to-heart relationship, the bond of love and affection between a man and woman to nurture a joy of happiness. This study aims to find out how the process and stages in traditional merariq traditions in the Sasak people, conflicts arising from merariq traditions, and reduce conflict through the tradition of selabar. The method used in this research is qualitative analysis method. In the process, merariq tradition is done by kidnapping the bride without the knowledge of the parents or the family of the women. There are several stages that must be passed by the bride and groom in the tradition merariq, namely: besejati, nyelabar, bait wali, sorong serah dan nyongkolang. Conflict that often arises, for internal family, merariq often become a place of coercion against the female family. For society, merariq impact on disruption of harmony of social life. In order to reduce the conflicts done selabar tradition, the tragedy is regarded as an alternative problem solving in the form of negotiations between the bride and groom’s family and the bride-to-be relating to ajikrame and pisuke transactions.

  11. Maintenance considerations of the STARFIRE commercial tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trachsel, C.A.; Zahn, H.S.; Field, R.E.; Stevens, H.C.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the maintenance approach, the commercial tokamak design features that enhance maintenance and preliminary repair time and required mean-time-between-failures for major subsystems. Reactor hall building and maintenance equipment requirements including hot cells, coil rewinding, and cranes are discussed

  12. Ethical Values and Biological Diversity: A Preliminary Assessment Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel I. Cohen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There have been five major extinction events over geological time. However, the current rate of extinction or reduction of species and their habitats is directly related to anthropomorphic causes. For seventh grade students, biodiversity and its ethical considerations were introduced in a life sciences curriculum, following lessons on evolution, natural selection, and decent from common ancestry. This paper takes a preliminary look at the approach used in this unit, the ethical survey developed, and improvements to be made in subsequent years.

  13. 15 CFR 1160.4 - Antitrust considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... research activities would violate any of the antitrust laws. ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Antitrust considerations. 1160.4... Private Sector Industrial Technology Partnerships § 1160.4 Antitrust considerations. The Department of...

  14. 7 CFR 1735.92 - Accounting considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting considerations. 1735.92 Section 1735.92... All Acquisitions and Mergers § 1735.92 Accounting considerations. (a) Proper accounting shall be... in the absence of such a commission, as required by RUS based on Generally Accepted Accounting...

  15. ACCOUNTING FOR CONTINGENT CONSIDERATIONS IN BUSINESS COMBINATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurgen KALASHYAN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available According to IFRS 3 Business Combinations contingent considerations must be included in the total consideration given for the acquired entity along with cash, other assets, ordinary or preference equity instruments, options, warrants. The contingent consideration is the determined amount which acquiring entity has to pay to acquired entity provided, that certain conditions will be fulfilled in the future. In case the provisions are not satisfied, we will get the situation when the amount of contingent consideration has been included in the total consideration given in the business combination, but in fact, the acquirer has not paid that amount. In its turn, the acquired entity will recognize the contingent consideration as a financial asset according to IFRS 9 Financial Instruments. In that case, it would be appropriately to recognize the contingent consideration as a contingent asset applying IAS 37. In the Article the author will explore the challenges of contingent consideration accounting and suggest the ways of solving the above mentioned problems.

  16. 40 CFR 152.408 - Special considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special considerations. 152.408 Section 152.408 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Registration Fees § 152.408 Special considerations. (a...

  17. Insurance considerations associated with radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boylan, F.X.

    1979-01-01

    Comments are made on nuclear insurance experience in the United States. The subject is discussed in more detail under the headings: direct physical damage insurance; workers' compensation insurance; third party liability (premises and operations considerations; products considerations); possible alternatives to the existing arrangement. (U.K.)

  18. 32 CFR 643.104 - Consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Consideration. 643.104 Section 643.104 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Permits § 643.104 Consideration. (a) Permits are usually granted on a rent-free basis. (b) The Army is...

  19. Technical specification improvement through safety margin considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, R.C.; Jansen, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Westinghouse has developed an approach for utilizing safety analysis margin considerations to improve plant operability through technical specification revision. This approach relies on the identification and use of parameter interrelations and sensitivities to identify acceptable operating envelopes. This paper summarizes technical specification activities to date and presents the use of safety margin considerations as another viable method to obtain technical specification improvement

  20. 29 CFR 1614.305 - Consideration procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consideration procedures. 1614.305 Section 1614.305 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION FEDERAL SECTOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Related Processes § 1614.305 Consideration procedures. (a) Once a petition is filed...

  1. 48 CFR 226.7104 - Other considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Businesses 226.7104 Other considerations. When planning for contracts for services related to base closure activities at a military installation affected by a closure or realignment under a base closure law... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other considerations. 226...

  2. 7 CFR 1703.310 - Environmental considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 1703.310 Environmental considerations. Prospective recipients of funds received from the deferment of loan payments are encouraged to consider the potential environmental impact of their proposed projects... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental considerations. 1703.310 Section 1703...

  3. Intelligence in Construction between Contemporary and Traditional Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid abdul wahab

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The authentic traditional architecture proved that it is very convenient to the environmental and social regulations where it appeared and lasted for hundred of years. This traditional architecture got the intelligence in providing thermal comfort for their occupants by the intelligent usage of the building materials and the intelligent planning and designs which took in consideration the climatic condition and the aerodynamics of the whole city as one ecological system starting from the cold breeze passing through its narrow streets till it enters the dwelling units and glides out through the wind catchers. This architecture had been neglected and replaced by modern imported architecture which had collapsed within few decades not in our region only but all over the world. Now a days the increasing awareness of the global environmental crisis the green or sustainable architecture appeared as a new type of architecture by the eighties of the last century. Today these types of buildings began to enter Arab countries in general and Arabian Gulf countries especially like Masdar city, where smart building can be seen with inelegant treatments which will replace the modern high rise towers with its glass facades. This will lead to the general research problem which concerns the shortage of knowledge about the inelegance in design and planning used in the traditional architecture, and the special research problem concerning the shortage of knowledge concerning the ability to use the inelegant traditional architectural and planning concepts as a base for the future sustainable modern buildings and cites as the aim of this research.

  4. Traditional games are recovered from generation to generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Morera Castro

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Communities, neighborhoods, and other environments are currently immersed in a series of situations and problems that have favored the deterioration of social, cultural and spiritual values, which are essential for harmony with oneself, others, and the environment. Stereotypes have captured minds and settings have been reduced to indoor spaces, hemmed in by security bars and protective devices.  Peace, fraternity and happiness are diminishing.  It is at this point that the social, spiritual and professional work of specialists in the recreational field contributes to rescue and restructure society. Traditional games and singing games are then the tools used to facilitate relationships, contribute to the learning process, and exhibit skills.  They are fundamental in a person’s life since they are a social and cultural expression of how humans have adapted to their environment (Maestro, 2005.  They do not take ethnicity, age, sex or social conditions into considerationTraditional games are also a way of promoting health, improving motor, cognitive and emotional skills and a means of encouraging creativity and imagination and developing a sense of rhythm.  Their goal is to attain a state of personal well-being.  They are a way to release tension and accumulated energy and to get away from the daily routine.  They represent a bridge to learn about oneself, the environment, values, habits, and traditions. In this document, readers will learn how traditional games are transmitted, what their characteristics are, why they are an important tool in today’s society, how they are prepared, and how they can be revived and preserved.

  5. Grassland communities of traditional orchards in the Western Carpathians (Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Zarnovican

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional orchards are a valuable feature of the rural landscape and they are specific for regions with scattered settlement such as the Myjava hilly land and White Carpathians. Here, the permanent species-rich grasslands beneath trees were regularly managed in the traditional manner until some were replaced in the 1970’s and 80’s by intensively managed orchards, some of which were abandoned in the early 1990’s. Our 2011–2015 phytosociological research followed the standard Braun-Blanquet approach. We classified 178 phytosociological relevés recorded in orchard meadows (156 relevés, former intensively managed orchards (16 relevés, and two relevés from a semi-intensively grazed orchard. Traditionally managed orchard meadows were classified in the following five units: (i Pastinaco sativae-Arrhenatheretum elatioris – thermophilous variant, (ii Pastinaco sativae-Arrhenatheretum elatioris – transitional variant to Alchemillo-Arrhenatheretum elatioris, (iii Ranunculo bulbosi-Arrhenatheretum elatioris, (iv Onobrychido viciifoliae-Brometum erecti, and (v Brachypodio pinnati-Molinietum arundinaceae. Formerly intensively managed large-scale orchards were classified as Pastinaco sativae-Arrhenatheretum elatioris association and the semi-intensively grazed orchard as Lolio perennis-Cynosuretum cristati association. The species composition varies considerably due to tree-shading and different management treatments applied in the orchards, so the relevés of the delimited syntaxonomic units are not typical and have transitional character. Moisture, soil nutrients, and soil reaction were identified as the main environmental gradients influencing species composition. We tested four management treatments in direct gradient analysis and found that abandonment has the strongest effect on species composition. Comparison of grassland vegetation in the studied traditional orchards with that described in Germany reveals differences in species

  6. An exploration of the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of Xhosa men concerning traditional circumcision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froneman, Salome; Kapp, Paul A

    2017-10-13

    The practice of traditional circumcision is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, yet there is a paucity of literature that provides an understanding of the cultural values that influence men to choose traditional rather than medical circumcision.The aim of this study was to better understand the culture surrounding traditional circumcision, with a view to addressing morbidity and mortality rates associated with the Xhosa male initiation rituals.We explored Xhosa men's perceptions regarding the need for the risks and the social pressure to undergo traditional circumcision, the impact of non-initiation or failed initiation and the perceived barriers to obtaining medical help for the complications of traditional circumcisions. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 10 purposively sampled teenagers and adult men. The interviews were recorded, translated, transcribed and analysed using the framework method. Traditional circumcision was seen as essential to Xhosa culture. Participants rationalised many reasons for participating, including personal growth and development, family and peer pressure, independence and knowledge gained, a connection with ancestors and initiation into manhood. Despite publicity of the dangers of traditional circumcision and the hardships they have to endure, most young men still saw this process as necessary and worthwhile. Traditional initiation and circumcision are here to stay. The majority of boys still trust the elders and supernatural processes to guide them. However, some participants welcomed government initiatives to reduce human error causing unnecessary death and suffering. Current systems to prevent morbidity and mortality are insufficient and should be prioritised.

  7. Traditional Medicines and Kidney Disease in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Opportunities and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanifer, John W; Kilonzo, Kajiru; Wang, Daphne; Su, Guobin; Mao, Wei; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, La; Nayak-Rao, Shobhana; Miranda, J Jaime

    2017-05-01

    Traditional medicines are a principal form of health care for many populations, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, and they have gained attention as an important means of health care coverage globally. In the context of kidney diseases, the challenges and opportunities presented by traditional medicine practices are among the most important considerations for developing effective and sustainable public health strategies. However, little is known about the practices of traditional medicines in relation to kidney diseases, especially concerning benefits and harms. Kidney diseases may be caused, treated, prevented, improved, or worsened by traditional medicines depending on the setting, the person, and the types, modes, and frequencies of traditional medicine use. Given the profound knowledge gaps, nephrology practitioners and researchers may be uniquely positioned to facilitate more optimal public health strategies through recognition and careful investigation of traditional medicine practices. Effective implementation of such strategies also will require local partnerships, including engaging practitioners and users of traditional medicines. As such, practitioners and researchers investigating kidney diseases may be uniquely positioned to bridge the cultural, social, historical, and biologic differences between biomedicine and traditional medicine, and they have opportunities to lead efforts in developing public health strategies that are sensitive to these differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Preliminary investigations of Agrobacterium -mediated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary steps in the genetic transformation of indica rice MR219 was investigated in the plant- Agrobacterium tumefaciens interaction. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA 4404 carrying a binary vector pCAMBIA 1305.2 harboring the modified GUS gene driven by the CaMV 35S promoter was used. Various ...

  9. Evidence from the Cochrane Collaboration for Traditional Chinese Medicine Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, Susan; Kimbrough, Elizabeth; Cheng, Ker; Berman, Brian M.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The Cochrane Collaboration, an international not-for-profit organization that prepares and maintains systematic reviews of randomized trials of health care therapies, has produced reviews summarizing much of the evidence on Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Our objective was to review the evidence base according to Cochrane systematic reviews. Methods In order to detect reviews focusing on TCM, we searched the titles and abstracts of all reviews in Issue 4, 2008 of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. For each review, we extracted data on the number of trials included and the total number of participants. We provided an indication of the strength of the review findings by assessing the reviewers' abstract conclusions statement. We supplemented our assessment of the abstract conclusions statements with a listing of the comparisons and outcomes showing statistically significant meta-analyses results. Results We identified 70 Cochrane systematic reviews of TCM, primarily acupuncture (n = 26) and Chinese herbal medicine (n = 42), and 1 each of moxibustion and t'ai chi. Nineteen (19) of 26 acupuncture reviews and 22/42 herbal medicine reviews concluded that there was not enough good quality trial evidence to make any conclusion about the efficacy of the evaluated treatment, while the remaining 7 acupuncture and 20 herbal medicine reviews and each of the moxibustion and t'ai chi reviews indicated a suggestion of benefit, which was qualified by a caveat about the poor quality and quantity of studies. Most reviews included many distinct interventions, controls, outcomes, and populations, and a large number of different comparisons were made, each with a distinct forest plot. Conclusions Most Cochrane systematic reviews of TCM are inconclusive, due specifically to the poor methodology and heterogeneity of the studies reviewed. Some systematic reviews provide preliminary evidence of Chinese medicine's benefits to certain patient populations

  10. Effects of Interannual Climate Variability on Water Availability and Productivity in Capoeira and Crops Under Traditional and Alternative Shifting Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guild, Liane S.; Sa, Tatiana D. A.; Carvalho, Claudio J. R.; Potter, Christopher S.; Wickel, Albert J.; Brienza, Silvio, Jr.; Kato, Maria doSocorro A.; Kato, Osvaldo; Brass, James (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Regenerating forests play an important role in long-term carbon sequestration and sustainable landuse as they act as potentially important carbon and nutrient sinks during the shifting agriculture fallow period. The long-term functioning of capoeira. is increasingly threatened by a shortening fallow period during shifting cultivation due to demographic pressures and associated increased vulnerability to severe climatic events. Declining productivity and functioning of fallow forests of shifting cultivation combined with progressive loss of nutrients by successive burning and cropping activities has resulted in declining agricultural productivity. In addition to the effects of intense land use practices, droughts associated with El Nino events are becoming more frequent and severe in moist tropical forests and negative effects on capoeira productivity could be considerable. In Igarape-Acu (near Belem, Para), we hypothesize that experimental alternative landuse/clearing practices (mulching and fallow vegetation improvement by planting with fast-growing leguminous tree species) may make capoeira and agriculture more resilient to the effects of agricultural pressures and drought through (1) increased biomass, soil organic matter and associated increase in soil water storage, and nutrient retention and (2) greater rooting depth of trees planted for fallow improvement. This experimental practice (moto mechanized chop-and-mulch with fallow improvement) has resulted increased soil moisture during the cropping phase, reduced loss of nutrients and organic matter, and higher rates of secondary-forest biomass accumulation. We present preliminary data on water relations during the dry season of 2001 in capoeira and crops for both traditional slash-and-burn and alternative chop-and-mulch practices. These data will be used to test IKONOS data for the detection of moisture status differences. The principal goal of the research is to determine the extent to which capoeira and

  11. Traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine: Focusing on research into traditional Tibetan medicine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peipei; Xia, Jufeng; Rezeng, Caidan; Tong, Li; Tang, Wei

    2016-07-19

    As a form of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine (TCAM), traditional Tibetan medicine has developed into a mainstay of medical care in Tibet and has spread from there to China and then to the rest of the world. Thus far, research on traditional Tibetan medicine has focused on the study of the plant and animal sources of traditional medicines, study of the histology of those plants and animals, chemical analysis of traditional medicines, pharmacological study of those medicines, and evaluation of the clinical efficacy of those medicines. A number of papers on traditional Tibetan medicines have been published, providing some evidence of the efficacy of traditional Tibetan medicine. However, many traditional Tibetan medicines have unknown active ingredients, hampering the establishment of drug quality standards, the development of new medicines, commercial production of medicines, and market availability of those medicines. Traditional Tibetan medicine must take several steps to modernize and spread to the rest of the world: the pharmacodynamics of traditional Tibetan medicines need to be determined, the clinical efficacy of those medicines needs to be verified, criteria to evaluate the efficacy of those medicines need to be established in order to guide their clinical use, and efficacious medicines need to be acknowledged by the pharmaceutical market. The components of traditional Tibetan medicine should be studied, traditional Tibetan medicines should be screened for their active ingredients, and techniques should be devised to prepare and manufacture those medicines.

  12. 45 CFR 150.217 - Preliminary determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preliminary determination. 150.217 Section 150.217... Are Failing To Substantially Enforce HIPAA Requirements § 150.217 Preliminary determination. If, at... designees). (b) Notifies the State of CMS's preliminary determination that the State has failed to...

  13. 19 CFR 4.8 - Preliminary entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary entry. 4.8 Section 4.8 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.8 Preliminary entry. (a) Generally. Preliminary entry allows a U.S. or foreign vessel arriving under circumstances that require it to formally...

  14. 29 CFR 1955.31 - Preliminary conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preliminary conference. 1955.31 Section 1955.31 Labor... (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR WITHDRAWAL OF APPROVAL OF STATE PLANS Preliminary Conference and Discovery § 1955.31 Preliminary conference. (a) Upon his own motion, or the motion of a party, the administrative law...

  15. Chinese Traditional Philosophy and Indigenous Management Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on three key notions of Chinese traditional philosophy, i.e., Zhongyong, Yin Yang, and Wu, pointing out the possible mistakes in Prof. Peter Ping Li's arguments as well as some questions that are often neglected and taken for granted. The author posits, Chinese traditional...... philosophy is a system of thought distinct from the Western philosophy; while the Western philosophy is mainly concerned about the True, i.e., the objective knowledge of the world, the aim of Chinese traditional philosophy is the pursuit of the Good, i.e., the unification of heaven and human....

  16. Comet and meteorite traditions of Aboriginal Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2014-06-01

    This research contributes to the disciplines of cultural astronomy (the academic study of how past and present cultures understand and utilise celestial objects and phenomena) and geomythology (the study of geological events and the formation of geological features described in oral traditions). Of the hundreds of distinct Aboriginal cultures of Australia, many have oral traditions rich in descriptions and explanations of comets, meteors, meteorites, airbursts, impact events, and impact craters. These views generally attribute these phenomena to spirits, death, and bad omens. There are also many traditions that describe the formation of meteorite craters as well as impact events that are not known to Western science.

  17. Mongolians’ Devotion to Gurus /Traditional and Contemporary/

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burnee Dorjsuren

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available From ancient times, Mongolians traditionally devoted themselves to their teachers. Could Mongolians still keep this tradition until today? Do they devote themselves to their teachers? If not, what are the causes and factors? This article aims to respond to these questions within the frame of sutras and books. This article is divided into two parts: the first part tells in detail about the guru devotion using the proverbs on guru devotion, one Mongolian folk oral monument, and other written monuments whereas the other one narrates how the process of today’s globalization affects the tradition of Mongolians’ devotion to gurus.

  18. Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment - Preliminary Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, Garill A.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Brothers, Alan J.; Thompson, Sandra E.

    2009-06-01

    This Preliminary Assessment draft report will present the results of a literature search and preliminary assessment of the body of research, analysis methods, models and data deemed to be relevant to the Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment research. This report will provide: 1) a description of the problem space and the kinds of information pertinent to the problem space, 2) a discussion of key relevant or representative literature, 3) a discussion of models and modeling approaches judged to be potentially useful to the research, and 4) the next steps of this research that will be pursued based on this preliminary assessment. This draft report represents a technical deliverable for the NA-22 Simulations, Algorithms, and Modeling (SAM) program. Specifically this draft report is the Task 1 deliverable for project PL09-UtilSocial-PD06, Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment. This project investigates non-traditional use of social and cultural information to improve nuclear proliferation assessment, including nonproliferation assessment, proliferation resistance assessments, safeguards assessments and other related studies. These assessments often use and create technical information about the State’s posture towards proliferation, the vulnerability of a nuclear energy system to an undesired event, and the effectiveness of safeguards. This project will find and fuse social and technical information by explicitly considering the role of cultural, social and behavioral factors relevant to proliferation. The aim of this research is to describe and demonstrate if and how social science modeling has utility in proliferation assessment.

  19. PRELIMINARY SELECTION OF MGR DESIGN BASIS EVENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappes, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify the preliminary design basis events (DBEs) for consideration in the design of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). For external events and natural phenomena (e.g., earthquake), the objective is to identify those initiating events that the MGR will be designed to withstand. Design criteria will ensure that radiological release scenarios resulting from these initiating events are beyond design basis (i.e., have a scenario frequency less than once per million years). For internal (i.e., human-induced and random equipment failures) events, the objective is to identify credible event sequences that result in bounding radiological releases. These sequences will be used to establish the design basis criteria for MGR structures, systems, and components (SSCs) design basis criteria in order to prevent or mitigate radiological releases. The safety strategy presented in this analysis for preventing or mitigating DBEs is based on the preclosure safety strategy outlined in ''Strategy to Mitigate Preclosure Offsite Exposure'' (CRWMS M andO 1998f). DBE analysis is necessary to provide feedback and requirements to the design process, and also to demonstrate compliance with proposed 10 CFR 63 (Dyer 1999b) requirements. DBE analysis is also required to identify and classify the SSCs that are important to safety (ITS)

  20. National uranium resource evaluation, preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-06-01

    The results of the initial phase of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) are reported. NURE is a comprehensive nationwide program to evaluate uranium resources and to identify areas favorable for uranium exploration. Part I presents estimates of uranium ore reserves and potential resources available at costs (not prices) of $10, $15, and $30 per pound U 3 O 8 (uranium oxide). These estimates comprise the national uranium resource position. They are, however, preliminary because limitations of time and available geologic data prevented adequate assessment of some areas that may be favorable for potential resources. Part II presents the potential uranium resources for each of 13 regions, whose boundaries have been drawn chiefly on geologic considerations. The general geology is summarized, and the types of uranium deposits are described. Although limited geologic reconnaissance was done in various parts of the country, the report is based primarily on the compilation and evaluation of data in ERDA files. Mining companies furnished a substantial amount of information on exploration results, development, production, and future plans. Published, manuscript, and open-file reports by government agencies, universities, and research organizations were reviewed. In addition, many individuals affiliated with universities and with state and federal agencies provided supplemental geologic information. This was particularly helpful in the eastern and central states and in Alaska, where information on uranium occurrences is limited

  1. PRELIMINARY SELECTION OF MGR DESIGN BASIS EVENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. Kappes

    1999-09-16

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify the preliminary design basis events (DBEs) for consideration in the design of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). For external events and natural phenomena (e.g., earthquake), the objective is to identify those initiating events that the MGR will be designed to withstand. Design criteria will ensure that radiological release scenarios resulting from these initiating events are beyond design basis (i.e., have a scenario frequency less than once per million years). For internal (i.e., human-induced and random equipment failures) events, the objective is to identify credible event sequences that result in bounding radiological releases. These sequences will be used to establish the design basis criteria for MGR structures, systems, and components (SSCs) design basis criteria in order to prevent or mitigate radiological releases. The safety strategy presented in this analysis for preventing or mitigating DBEs is based on the preclosure safety strategy outlined in ''Strategy to Mitigate Preclosure Offsite Exposure'' (CRWMS M&O 1998f). DBE analysis is necessary to provide feedback and requirements to the design process, and also to demonstrate compliance with proposed 10 CFR 63 (Dyer 1999b) requirements. DBE analysis is also required to identify and classify the SSCs that are important to safety (ITS).

  2. Microenvironmental Regulation of Tumor Angiogenesis: Biological and Engineering Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infanger, David W.; Pathi, Siddharth P.; Fischbach, Claudia

    Tumor angiogenesis is fundamental to tumor growth and metastasis, and antiangiogenic therapies have been developed to target this process. However, the clinical success of these treatments has been limited, which may be due, in part, to an incomplete understanding of cell-microenvironment interactions and their role in tumor angiogenesis. Traditionally, two-dimensional (2D) culture approaches have been used to study tumor progression in vitro, but these systems fail to faithfully recreate tumor microenvironmental conditions contributing to tumor angiogenesis in vivo. By integrating cancer biology with tissue engineering and drug delivery approaches, the development of biologically inspired tumor models has emerged. Such 3D model systems allow studying the specific role of soluble factor signaling, cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions, cell-cell interactions, mechanical cues, and metabolic stress. This chapter discusses specific biological and engineering design considerations for tissue-engineered tumor models and highlights their application for defining the underpinnings of tumor angiogenesis.

  3. Lumbar puncture during spaceflight: operational considerations, constraints, concerns, and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Yael R

    2014-12-01

    Lumbar puncture (LP) is a commonly performed low-risk procedure terrestrially, used diagnostically for evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure as well as for collection of CSF for analysis. NASA is investigating noninvasive means for measurement of intracranial pressure (ICP) to assess the potential contribution of elevated intracranial pressures to recently reported changes in astronauts' visual acuity and eye anatomy, known collectively as the Visual Impairment/Intracranial Pressure risk. However, many of these noninvasive technologies are still under development, have limited clinical validation, are several years away from being ready for in-flight use, or only provide qualitative rather than quantitative ICP values. Therefore, performance of in-flight LPs, as part of crewmember evaluation, has also been considered by NASA. This manuscript summarizes the unique operational considerations, constraints, concerns, and limitations of using traditional LP as an adjunct or as an alternative to noninvasive ICP measurements during spaceflight.

  4. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajtcam, an independent network committed to ensuring peer-reviewed ethnomedicinal ... Traditional medicine practitioners must be trained, an essential component of the training being standardization for safety and quality; The DRPU has been ...

  5. Intrusions of Modernity on a Traditional Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Anne Horsfall

    1991-01-01

    Presents a teacher's impressions of India, gathered during a Fulbright-sponsored study tour. Examines modernizing influences in the midst of traditional culture, religious cultural groups and potential religious conflict, women's status, and problems due to overpopulation. (CH)

  6. The Reformed tradition as public theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuyani S. Vellem

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is a South African perspective of a Black African reflection on the publicity of Reformed faith. Whilst the notion of public theology is fairly new, the article argues, it is important to define the ‘public’ of the type of public theology to which Reformed faith and tradition could be linked. As a confessional tradition, Reformed faith is intrinsically public, the article demonstrates. The publicity of this tradition is however ambivalent and tainted. I attempt to show this by discussing two important tenets of the Reformed Tradition: sola scriptura and sola fide, within the festering wounds of Black African colonialism, apartheid and the hegemony of the neoliberal paradigm in the 21st century.

  7. Fluency First: Reversing the Traditional ESL Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGowan-Gilhooly, Adele

    1991-01-01

    Describes an ESL department's whole language approach to writing and reading, replacing its traditional grammar-based ESL instructional sequence. Reports the positive quantitative and qualitative results of the first three years of using the new approach. (KEH)

  8. Fungal decay of traditional fishing craft

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gupta, R.

    The artisanal fishermen land major portion of fish caught in India, employing traditional fishing craft and methods. These craft are built of indigenous wood and undergo rapid biodeterioration causing great economic loss. Soft-rot fungi...

  9. Protecting traditional knowledge from the grassroots up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arugomedo, Alejandro [ANDES Association (Peru); Pant, Ruchi [Ecoserve (India); Vedavathy, S. [Herbal Folklore Reseach Centre (India); Munyi, Peter [International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (Kenya); Mutta, Doris [Kenya Forestry Research Institute (Kenya); Herrera, Heracilo [Dobbo Yala Foundation (Panama); Song, Yinching; Li, Jingsong [Centre of Chinese Agricultural Policy (China); Swiderska, Krystyna

    2009-06-15

    For indigenous peoples round the world, traditional knowledge based on natural resources such as medicinal herbs forms the core of culture and identity. But this wealth of knowledge is under pressure. Indigenous communities are increasingly vulnerable to eviction, environmental degradation and outside interests eager to monopolise control over their traditional resources. Intellectual property rights such as patents, however, sit uneasily with traditional knowledge. Their commercial focus wars with fundamental indigenous principles such as resource access and sharing. Local customary law offers a better fit, and findings in China, India, Kenya, Panama and Peru show how this pairing can work in practice. The research has identified common elements, and key differences, in customary law that should be informing policy on traditional knowledge and genetic resources.

  10. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These observations could be explained by some qualitative and /or quantitative differences observed between the constituents of the two essential oils studied. Keywords: Cymbopogon nardus, Essential oil, Chemistry, Analgesic, Comparison, Benin, Congo. African Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine Vol.

  11. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. The African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative medicines (AJTCAM) provides rapid publication of papers on ethnomedicines and veterinary ethnomedicines. The Journal welcomes the submission of manuscripts that meet the general criteria of significance and scientific excellence.

  12. Challenging traditional learning approaches in ecohealth | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Graduate education should challenge traditional modes of learning and create new knowledge. In the field of ecohealth, however, that doesn't always happen, says Mathieu Feagan, a 2014 IDRC Research Award recipient.

  13. Traditional medicine for the rich and knowledgeable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Rikke Stamp; Pouliot, Mariéve

    2016-01-01

    Traditional medicine is commonly assumed to be a crucial health care option for poor households in developing countries. However, little research has been done in Asia to quantify the reliance on traditional medicine and its determinants. This research contributes to filling in this knowledge gap...... show that traditional medicine, and especially self-treatment with medicinal plants, prevail as treatment options in both rural and peri-urban populations. Contrarily to what is commonly assumed, high income is an important determinant of use of traditional medicine. Likewise, knowledge of medicinal...... plants, age, education, gender and illness chronicity were also significant determinants. The importance of self-treatment with medicinal plants should inform the development of health policy tailored to people’s treatment-seeking behaviour....

  14. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM), a new broad-based journal, is founded on two key tenets: To publish exciting research in all areas of applied medicinal plants, Traditional medicines, Complementary Alternative Medicines, food and agricultural technologies, and ...

  15. Bioclimatic architecture and Traditional Houses in Diyarbakir

    OpenAIRE

    Can Tuncay Akin

    2006-01-01

    Today although a contemporary house or apartment is built with new materials according to technology and regulations to provide a satisfactory microclimate within the building, it is difficult to say they are successful comparing with a house that is constructed with traditional methods and materials even built by a non-architect. In this paper microclimatic elements of traditional Diyarbakýr houses are determined systemically comparing with the typology, design features that makes a house su...

  16. Introduction to complementary, alternative, and traditional therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramlich, Debra

    2014-12-01

    The use of complementary, alternative, and traditional therapies is increasing in the United States, and patients and their families are bringing these practices into the acute care setting. Acute and critical care nurses are in a unique and trusted position to advocate for their patients and to promote safe incorporation of complementary, alternative, and traditional therapies into the plan of care. ©2014 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  17. Does Online Marketing Truly Replace Traditional Marketing?

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawan, Emilia Margareth

    2013-01-01

    This review explains the way how online marketing has been replacing traditional marketing in terms of marketing mix. This replacement might happen, because online marketing can give advantages, i.e., offering on-time delivery, increasing effectiveness of two way interactions between buyer and seller, and creating online communities (Szmigin, et al, 2005). The transition of atoms to bits format reflects that tangible products in traditional marketing is being digitalized. The marketing strate...

  18. Milk-based traditional Turkish desserts

    OpenAIRE

    Akpinar-Bayizit, Arzu; Ozcan, Tulay; Yilmaz-Ersan, Lutfiye

    2009-01-01

    Traditional foods are the reflection of cultural inheritance and affect the lifestyle habits. Culture can be viewed as a system of socially transmitted patterns of behaviour that characterises a particular group. Despite the fact of globalisation, these are key elements to accurately estimate a population’s dietary patterns and how these have been shaped through time. In Turkey, a meal with family or friends traditionally ends with a dessert, which is a testimony to the hosts’ hospitality or ...

  19. A systems approach to traditional oriental medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Ryu, Jae Yong; Lee, Jong Ok

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing structural similarities between compounds derived from traditional oriental medicine and human metabolites is a systems-based approach that can help identify mechanisms of action and suggest approaches to reduce toxicity.......Analyzing structural similarities between compounds derived from traditional oriental medicine and human metabolites is a systems-based approach that can help identify mechanisms of action and suggest approaches to reduce toxicity....

  20. Safety considerations for compressed hydrogen storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleason, D.

    2006-01-01

    An overview of the safety considerations for various hydrogen storage options, including stationary, vehicle storage, and mobile refueling technologies. Indications of some of the challenges facing the industry as the demand for hydrogen fuel storage systems increases. (author)

  1. Health physics considerations in decontamination and decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    These proceedings contain papers on legal considerations, environmental aspects, decommissioning equipment and methods, instrumentation, applied health physics, waste classification and disposal, and project experience. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers

  2. Creating Library Interiors: Planning and Design Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Plummer Alston, Jr.; Barton, Phillip K.

    1997-01-01

    Examines design considerations for public library interiors: access; acoustical treatment; assignable and nonassignable space; building interiors: ceilings, clocks, color, control, drinking fountains; exhibit space: slotwall display, floor coverings, floor loading, furniture, lighting, mechanical systems, public address, copying machines,…

  3. 32 CFR 643.83 - Consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... consideration in an amount equal to the fair market value as established by recognized appraisal practices. As... thereof, will not require fair market value when the purpose of the easement is to serve the public...

  4. Merging Traditional Technique Vocabularies with Democratic Teaching Perspectives in Dance Education: A Consideration of Aesthetic Values and Their Sociopolitical Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Becky

    2009-01-01

    This article suggests how movement analysis from a socially contextualized perspective can inform understanding about the significance of sociopolitical contexts and aesthetic values in Western dance training. Perspectives of movement analysis provide groundwork for discussing perceivable ways to address discrepancies between democratic and…

  5. Tradition, Culture and Identity in the Reform of Teachers' Work in Scotland and England: Some Methodological Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menter, Ian

    2008-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore how we may best understand the relationship between teacher identity and national culture. Using Raymond Williams' concept of 'structure of feeling' as a starting point, it is suggested that creative cultural forms of representation of teachers may complement social scientific studies to give a more complete and richer…

  6. Generic considerations of LMFBR hypothetical accident energetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauske, H.K.; Cho, D.H.; Epstein, M.; Grolmes, M.A.; Henry, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    The paper provides a preliminary assessment of generic accident energetics issues associated with alternatives relative to the reference (U,Pu) oxide fuel in liquid metal fast breeder reactors. The alternatives considered include thorium- and uranium-based oxide, carbide and metal fuel types. This assessment is made within the context of low probability, but potentially large consequence accidents, e.g., core-disruptive accidents.

  7. Gadamers verständnis der tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojčić Saša

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (nemački In diesem Aufsatz man Gadamers Verständnis der wichtigen hermeneutischen Begriffe des Vorurteils, der Autorität und der Tradition erörtet. Der Vollzug des Verstehens, in dem die Vorurteile unvermeidlich sind, wird als Prozeß ihre ununterbrechende Korrektion bestimmt. Die positive Auswertung des begrifflichen Paar Autorität-Tradition ist ein karakteristischen Motiv der philosophischen Hermeneutik, für die die Autorität kein negativen Mitklang hat, sondern auf freie und rationelle Annahmung begründet ist. Der Zusammenhang des Verstehens und der Tradition ist eine dynamische Beziehung, in die weder Tradition noch das Subjekt des Verstehens ungeändert bleiben. Daraus führt man zwei Implikationen aus: daß der Sinn eines Textes kann man nie ausschöpfen, und seines Verstehen ein unendlichen Prozeß ist; und daß die Suspension der Vorurteilen nur gelingt, wo die Tradition sie sozusagen 'filtriert'. Der Author stellt eine Spannung aus, zwischen Gadamers Verständnis der hermeneutischen Produktivität der Tradition und des zeitlichen Abstand als Instanz die dem Verstehen beiträgt.

  8. Some considerations on the Tlatelolco Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, N.M. de; Goes Fischer, M.D. de

    1981-01-01

    Some considerations related to the Tlatelolco Treaty are focused and so are the role and the position of Brazil in view of the Treaty. Short historical remarks are presented in order to show the commitments of Brazil with the Treaty. Finally, considerations concerned with the validity of the Treaty as the legal instrument to contribute to the security and peace in the World. (Author) [pt

  9. Exploratory shaft facility preliminary designs - Permian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    The purpose of the Preliminary Design Report, Permian Basin, is to provide a description of the preliminary design for an Exploratory Shaft Facility in the Permian Basin, Texas. This issue of the report describes the preliminary design for constructing the exploratory shaft using the Large Hole Drilling method of construction and outlines the preliminary design and estimates of probable construction cost. The Preliminary Design Report is prepared to complement and summarize other documents that comprise the design at the preliminary stage of completion, December 1982. Other design documents include drawings, cost estimates and schedules. The preliminary design drawing package, which includes the construction schedule drawing, depicts the descriptions in this report. For reference, a list of the drawing titles and corresponding numbers are included in the Appendix. The report is divided into three principal sections: Design Basis, Facility Description, and Construction Cost Estimate. 30 references, 13 tables

  10. Preliminary parameter assessments of a spiral FFAG accelerator for proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, V.L.; Azaryan, N.S.; Vorozhtsov, S.B.

    2013-01-01

    Fixed-Field Alternating-Gradient (FFAG) accelerator was invented in the 1950-60s but never progressed beyond the model stage. Starting from 2000, new interest in this type of accelerator arose. Given advantages of the FFAG over the synchrotron, cyclotron and linac, there are many possible applications of the accelerator. Among them, we are mostly interested in acceleration of protons and light ions for hadron therapy. In this connection a preliminary set of parameters of the facility was estimated and, in particular, the magnetic sector shape and corresponding dynamical properties of the magnetic field of the accelerator were calculated. In addition, preliminary considerations about the RF system design are given.

  11. Preliminary planning study for safety relief valve experiments in a Mark III BWR pressure suppression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, E.W.; Holman, G.S.

    1980-01-01

    In response to a request from the Water Reactor Safety Research Division of the US NRC, a preliminary study is provided which identifies key features and consideration involved in planning a comprehensive in-plant Safety Relief Valve experimental program for a Mark III containment design. The report provides identification of program objectives, measurement system requirements, and some details quantifying expected system response. In addition, a preliminary test matrix is outlined which involves a supporting philosophy intended to enhance the usefulness of the experimental results for all members of the program team: experimentalists, analysts, and plant operator

  12. The integrated analyses of digital field mapping techniques and traditional field methods: implications from the Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone, SW Turkey as a case-study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitez, İrem; Yaltırak, Cenk; Zabcı, Cengiz; Şahin, Murat

    2015-04-01

    The precise geological mapping is one of the most important issues in geological studies. Documenting the spatial distribution of geological bodies and their contacts play a crucial role on interpreting the tectonic evolution of any region. Although the traditional field techniques are still accepted to be the most fundamental tools in construction of geological maps, we suggest that the integration of digital technologies to the classical methods significantly increases the resolution and the quality of such products. We simply follow the following steps in integration of the digital data with the traditional field observations. First, we create the digital elevation model (DEM) of the region of interest by interpolating the digital contours of 1:25000 scale topographic maps to 10 m of ground pixel resolution. The non-commercial Google Earth satellite imagery and geological maps of previous studies are draped over the interpolated DEMs in the second stage. The integration of all spatial data is done by using the market leading GIS software, ESRI ArcGIS. We make the preliminary interpretation of major structures as tectonic lineaments and stratigraphic contacts. These preliminary maps are controlled and precisely coordinated during the field studies by using mobile tablets and/or phablets with GPS receivers. The same devices are also used in measuring and recording the geologic structures of the study region. Finally, all digitally collected measurements and observations are added to the GIS database and we finalise our geological map with all available information. We applied this integrated method to map the Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone (BFSZ) in the southwest Turkey. The BFSZ is an active sinistral 60-to-90 km-wide shear zone, which prolongs about 300 km-long between Suhut-Cay in the northeast and Köyceğiz Lake-Kalkan in the southwest on land. The numerous studies suggest contradictory models not only about the evolution but also about the fault geometry of this

  13. Preliminary results from APE-100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoloni, A.; Battista, C.; Cabasino, S.; Marzano, F.; Paolucci, P.S.; Pech, J.; Rapuano, F.; Sarno, R.; Todesco, G.M.; Torelli, M.; Tross, W.; Vicini, P.; Tripiccione, R.; Cabibbo, N.; Salina, G.; Fucci, A.; Lubicz, V.; Maiani, L.; Martinelli, G.; Vladikas, A.

    1993-01-01

    We present the preliminary results obtained on the 6 Gigaflop prototype which is the building block of the APE-100 computer. Results are presented for pseudoscalar and vector mesons for the Wilson and the improved action with a statistics of about 100 configurations. Static heavy-light meson propagator have also been studied for different smeared operators. We find that large smearing (≥ 9) are bad projectors on the lightest pseudoscalar states. (orig.)

  14. Traditional food availability and consumption in remote Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Megan; Brown, Clare; Georga, Claire; Miles, Edward; Wilson, Alyce; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2017-06-01

    To explore availability, variety and frequency consumption of traditional foods and their role in alleviating food insecurity in remote Aboriginal Australia. Availability was assessed through repeated semi-structured interviews and consumption via a survey. Quantitative data were described and qualitative data classified. Aboriginal and non-Indigenous key informants (n=30 in 2013; n=19 in 2014) from 20 Northern Territory (NT) communities participated in interviews. Aboriginal primary household shoppers (n=73 in 2014) in five of these communities participated in a survey. Traditional foods were reported to be available year-round in all 20 communities. Most participants (89%) reported consuming a variety of traditional foods at least fortnightly and 71% at least weekly. Seventy-six per cent reported being food insecure, with 40% obtaining traditional food during these times. Traditional food is consumed frequently by Aboriginal people living in remote NT. Implications for public health: Quantifying dietary contribution of traditional food would complement estimated population dietary intake. It would contribute evidence of nutrition transition and differences in intakes across age groups and inform dietary, environmental and social interventions and policy. Designing and conducting assessment of traditional food intake in conjunction with Aboriginal leaders warrants consideration. © 2017 The Authors.

  15. Mems Electromagnetic Micro Relays Overview and Design Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuraini Dahari, Thurai Vinay and Dinesh Sood

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Miniature electromagnetic relay matrices capable of switching currents up to one ampere range are  widely used in commercial applications such as instrumentation and telecommunication. Traditionally these devices have been fabricated from a number of discrete components, however in recent years the emergence of Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS technology has opened up the possibility for batch fabrication of microrelays at much reduced unit cost. While several electromagnetic microrelay designs have been successfully developed and commercialized for use as individual units, development work on electromagnetic microrelay matrices where individual relays can be selectively switched on and off have been fewer and less successful. Due to inherent limitations of the micromachining processes, significant dimensional and material property variations occur among individual relays in a matrix. These variations severely limit the tolerance window and hence the reliability of operation of the device. After reviewing existing designs of electromagnetic microrelays, a set of desirable design features that would make the electromagnetic microrelay more robust are identified.  A novel design incorporating these features is proposed and preliminary results of ANSYS1 simulation studies are presented.Keywords: MEMS, microrelay and electromagnetic

  16. Considerations in implementing integrated biomass energy systems in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perlack, R.D.; Ranney, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Biomass energy is emerging as a real option for satisfying power needs in developing countries. Experience has shown improvements in GDP are directly linked to increased consumption of energy. Biomass energy can also be environmentally and developmentally beneficial where it will be both grown and used. Biomass production can offset deforestation, reduce soil erosion, increase rural employment, and stimulate development. Moreover, when biomass is grown renewably there is no net buildup of atmospheric carbon. Issues and barriers associated with implementing integrated biomass energy systems in developing countries are discussed. An integrated biomass energy system is dependent on sustainably grown and managed energy crops, supportive of rural development, and environmentally beneficial, adapted to local conditions; takes advantage of by- and co-products and uses conversion technologies that have been optimized for biomass. A preliminary evaluation of a biomass to electricity project relying on plantation grown feedstocks in Southwest China indicates that biomass could be grown and converted to electricity at costs lower than alternatives and yield an internal rate of return of about 15%. The IRR based on a social and environmental benefits are substantial and investment in the facility is well-justified. However, assessing biomass energy systems is exceedingly complex. Considerations are grouped into biomass production, biomass logistics and transport, and biomass conversion. Implementation requires considerations of energy and economics, institutional and social issues, and environmental issues. The conclusion that such a project would be viable in rural China is shadowed by many site-specific circumstances and highlights the need for systematic and integrated appraisal

  17. Important considerations related to the construction of observation wells in radiation facilities sites: A review research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, S. A.; Salem, W. M.; Atta, E. R.

    2012-01-01

    Observation wells in radiation facility sites are considered the main sources of the required subsurface geologic and hydrogeologic data. They are the most important means to detect the radioactive and/or chemical contaminants within the ground water. Also, they are used to observe the groundwater level fluctuations and perform the different aquifer tests to understand the hydraulic properties of aquifers and the behavior of contaminants transportation. This research reviews the necessary considerations and available techniques for constructing the observation wells properly. The review process depends on the international guidelines presented in the literature and the field experience. The proper well completion is essential for the well efficiency and longevity. Three main important topics are considered and discussed briefly in this review. They are the preliminary considerations, the drilling program and the well protection procedures. The preliminary considerations included are the collection of the available geologic and hydrogeologic data and information, selection of drilling method and the legal requirements. The drilling program comprises the site preparation, drilling processes, sampling, well logging, well design, casing components and materials, gravel pack and well development. The well protection procedures include well grout, concrete slab and others requirements. Observation wells should be constructed to a high standard and should be properly maintained and protected to ensure ongoing and reliable data collection

  18. Relationship between orthodox and traditional medical practitioners in the transmission of traditional medical knowledge in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekannbi, Janet O

    2018-01-18

    The problem of incomplete transmission of traditional medical knowledge to the younger generation is of concern to information professionals especially in developing countries where most rural communities depend on traditional medicine for primary health care. The purpose of this study was to investigate the collaboration between orthodox and traditional medical practitioners as well as the implication of the collaboration for transmission of traditional medical knowledge in Nigeria. Eighteen communities were purposively selected from six states in south-western Nigeria. Snowball technique was used in selecting 110 traditional medical practitioners. Three key informant interviews and two focus group discussion sessions were conducted in each state. Data were analysed thematically. Results showed the existence of a low level of collaboration mainly in the form of patient referrals which were not performed officially and mostly one sided. This was attributed to the negative perception of traditional medicine by orthodox practitioners and the failure of government to give traditional medicine its due recognition. This was reportedly responsible for the lack of interest by children of traditional medical practitioners to acquire traditional medical knowledge. The study recommends inclusion of traditional medicine in the health policy and educational curriculum from the basic level. © 2018 Health Libraries Group.

  19. The plant world in Romanian traditions. Symbols and uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Micu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The plant world has always been a base for the Romanian culture, both for material culture (practical uses and for the spiritual one (myth and symbols. Authors who wrote on ethnographic subjects chose to talk only about a certain side or branch of the vast subject of nature/vegetation. After studying the subject it became obvious that every research on the practical aspects of using plants can not detach itself from the spiritual component, from the myth, which in the popular Romanian tradition is omnipresent, regardless of time and space. Research (in the office and on the field demonstrates that in the Romanian village myth merges with reality. Nevertheless, we still don’t have a complete paper which talks about the plant world in the traditional Romanian culture in a global way, integrating various uses and ways of interpreting its meanings, tracing a clear classification, which comprises all elements. This paper is a trial of „sketching” such classification, taking into consideration main features – for a better understanding of all the sides of this strong and complex relationship between the Romanian peasant and nature.

  20. After science: has the tradition been broken?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2010-04-01

    The majority of professional scientists make use of the artefacts of science but lack understanding of what these mean; raising the question: has the tradition of science been broken? Explicit knowledge is only a selective summary but practical capability derives from implicit, traditional or 'tacit' knowledge that is handed on between- and across-generations by slow, assimilative processes requiring extended human contact through a wide range of situations. This was achieved mainly by prolonged apprenticeship to a Master. Such methods recognize the gulf between being able to do something and knowing how you have done it; and the further gap between knowing how you have done something and being able to teach it by explicit instructions. Yet the 'Master-apprentice' model of education has been almost discarded from science over recent decades and replaced with bureaucratic regulation. The main reason is probably that scientific manpower has expanded so rapidly and over such a long period as to overwhelm the slow, sure and thorough traditional methods. In their innocence of scientific culture, the younger generation of scientists are like children who have been raised by wolves; they do not talk science but spout bureaucratic procedures. It has now become accepted among the mass of professional 'scientists' that the decisions which matter most in science are those imposed upon science by outside forces: for example by employers, funders, publishers, regulators, and the law courts. It is these bureaucratic mechanisms that now constitute the 'bottom line' for scientific practice. Most of modern science is therefore apparently in the post-holocaust situation described in A canticle for Liebowitz and After Virtue, but the catastrophe was bureaucratic, rather than violent. So, the tradition has indeed been broken. However, for as long as the fact is known that the tradition has been broken, and living representatives of the tradition are still alive and active, there still

  1. Design Considerations of Very Low Profile Coupled Inductors for Flexible Photovoltaic Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouyang, Ziwei; Acanski, M; Popovic, J

    2012-01-01

    important design issues for the sandwich core structure including self-inductance, leakage inductance, eddy current effect and core loss are analyzed in-depth in this work. Since the non-uniform flux is distributed in the core plates, the parameters calculation and the design considerations are completely...... different with the traditional magnetic approaches. Accordingly, this paper enables original design considerations as a guideline for sandwiched coupled inductor. In order to reduce the high frequency eddy current effect in sandwich core structure, section III initiates a discussion with adjustable core...

  2. Neurobiological considerations in understanding behavioral treatments for pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potenza, Marc N; Balodis, Iris M; Franco, Christine A; Bullock, Scott; Xu, Jiansong; Chung, Tammy; Grant, Jon E

    2013-06-01

    Pathological gambling (PG), a disorder currently categorized as an impulse-control disorder but being considered as a nonsubstance addiction in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.) discussions, represents a significant public health concern. Over the past decade, considerable advances have been made with respect to understanding the biological underpinnings of PG. Research has also demonstrated the efficacies of multiple treatments, particularly behavioral therapies, for treating PG. Despite these advances, relatively little is known regarding how biological measures, particularly those assessing brain function, relate to treatments for PG. In this article, we present a conceptual review focusing on the neurobiology of behavioral therapies for PG. To illustrate issues related to study design, we present proof-of-concept preliminary data that link Stroop-related brain activations prior to treatment onset to treatment outcome in individuals with PG receiving a cognitive-behavioral treatment incorporating aspects of imaginal desensitization and motivational interviewing. We conclude with recommendations about current and future directions regarding how to incorporate and translate biological findings into improved therapies for individuals with nonsubstance and substance addictions. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  3. Neurobiological considerations in understanding behavioral treatments for pathological gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potenza, Marc N.; Balodis, Iris M.; Franco, Christine A.; Bullock, Scott; Xu, Jiansong; Chung, Tammy; Grant, Jon E.

    2013-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG), a disorder currently categorized as an impulse-control disorder but being considered as a non-substance addiction in DSM-5 discussions, represents a significant public health concern. Over the past decade, considerable advances have been made with respect to understanding the biological underpinnings of PG. Research has also demonstrated the efficacies of multiple treatments, particularly behavioral therapies, for treating PG. Despite these advances, relatively little is known regarding how biological measures, particularly those assessing brain function, relate to treatments for PG. In this article, we present a conceptual review focusing on the neurobiology of behavioral therapies for PG. To illustrate issues related to study design, we present proof-of-concept preliminary data that link Stroop-related brain activations prior to treatment onset to treatment outcome in individuals with PG receiving a cognitive behavioral treatment incorporating aspects of imaginal desensitization and motivational interviewing. We conclude with recommendations about current and future directions regarding how to incorporate and translate biological findings into improved therapies for individuals with non-substance and substance addictions. PMID:23586456

  4. Preliminary geological suitability assessment for LILW disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomse, P.; Mele, I.

    2001-01-01

    Due to the growing need for a final disposal of LILW, the final solution for the short-lived LILW is the key issue of radioactive waste management in Slovenia at the moment. ARAO - the Slovenian Agency for Radwaste Management - is intensely involved in the re-initiated site selection process for a LILW repository. In this new process we are trying to combine as best as possible the technical, geologically-led and the advocacy-site selection processes. By a combination of technical and volunteer approach to the site selection we wish to guarantee high public involvement and sufficient flexibility of the process to adapt to specific conditions or new circumstances while the project is ongoing. In the technical phase, our tendency is to retain a larger number of potential areas/sites. We also keep open the possibility of choosing the type of repository. The decision between the surface and underground option will be made only once the site has been defined. In accordance with the IAEA recommendations the site selection process is divided into four stages: the conceptual and planning stage, area survey stage, site characterisation stage and site confirmation stage. Last year the area survey stage was started. In the preliminary geological suitability assessment the required natural predisposition of Slovene territory was assessed in order to locate geologically suitable formations. The assessment of natural conditions of the system was based on consideration of the main geological, hydro-geological and seismotectonic conditions. It was performed with ARC/INFO technology. The results are compiled in a map, showing potential areas for underground and surface disposal of LILW in Slovenia. It has been established that there is a potential suitability for both surface and underground disposal on about 10 000 km 2 of the Slovenian territory, which represents almost half of the entire Slovenian territory. These preliminary results are now being carefully re-examined. As an

  5. French, English or Kanak Languages? Can Traditional Languages and Cultures Be Sustained in New Caledonia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Bissoonauth

    2017-10-01

    Preliminary results from the study show a difference in the language habits between older and younger generations on New Caledonians of Melanesian descent. Although French is perceived as the lingua franca by all, English is more valued than ancestral Melanesian languages by the younger generations. In terms of cultural representations and links with family history, there seems to be a discrepancy between the younger and the older generations. Whilst the older generations perceive the Centre Culturel Tjibaou as a traditional space for Melanesian art and culture their younger counterparts on the contrary view it as a place associated with contemporary art and music performances.

  6. Perinatal Practices & Traditions Among Asian Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Deepika

    2016-01-01

    As the population in the United States grows more diverse, nurses caring for childbearing women must be aware of the many cultural traditions and customs unique to their patients. This knowledge and insight supports women and their families with the appropriate care, information, and resources. A supportive relationship builds trust, offers guidance, and allows for the new family to integrate information from nurses and other healthcare providers with the practice of certain perinatal cultural traditions. The Asian Indian culture is rich in tradition, specifically during the perinatal period. To support the cultural beliefs and practices of Asian Indian women during this time, nurses need to be aware of and consider multiple factors. Many women are navigating the new role of motherhood while making sense of and incorporating important cultural rituals. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of perinatal cultural practices and traditions specific to the Asian Indian culture that perinatal nurses may observe in the clinical setting. Cultural traditions and practices specific to the pregnancy and postpartum period are described together with symbolism and implications for nursing practice. It is important to note that information regarding perinatal customs is provided in an effort to promote culturally sensitive nursing care and may not pertain to all Asian Indian women living in the United States.

  7. Traditional foods vs. manufactured baby foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Elaine L; Darmon, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    The provision of nutrient-dense complementary foods is essential to ensure an infant's nutrient requirements are met. Yet often, relative to recommendations, traditional complementary foods have low levels of nutrients, suggesting a role, for fortified manufactured baby foods, in ensuring dietary adequacy. In this review, the potential benefits and safety of using fortified manufactured baby foods versus traditional foods alone are evaluated based on evidence from food composition data, diet modeling and intervention studies. Results from the food composition data and diet modeling suggest that ensuring a nutritionally adequate complementary feeding diet based on traditional foods alone is difficult. Conversely, except for biochemical iron status, intervention trials do not show consistent benefits, for growth or biochemical zinc or riboflavin status, with the use of fortified manufactured baby foods versus traditional foods alone. The safety of manufactured baby foods will depend on food preparation practices and the presence of effective governmental regulatory infrastructures. Hence, in environments where fortified manufactured baby foods are expensive, unavailable or where there is an absence of effective governmental regulatory infrastructures, the use of traditional foods is advised. Conversely, where affordable manufactured baby foods are available, marketed safely and fortified appropriately, their use is likely to result in improved nutrient intakes and infant biochemical iron status. In all environments, the promotion of breastfeeding, active feeding and high levels of hygiene is essential to ensure optimal nutritional status.

  8. Do not fear the supernatural! : the relevance of ritual plant use for traditional culture, nature conservation, and human health in western Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quiroz, D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary

    Plants still play an overriding role in African traditional medicine, as large sectors of the continent’s population prefer or considerably rely on herbal treatments as their primary source of health care. Traditional medicine, which is defined as the sum of

  9. Modification of a traditional Korean food product (Gochujang) to enhance its consumer acceptability as an ethnic food

    OpenAIRE

    Burgess, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study provides development guidance to manufacturers of gochujang to optimize its appeal among UK consumers. Preliminary studies focused on consumer attitudes toward the traditional product and decided on the development of a new ethnic product concept. It was concluded that the modified product should be positioned in the narrow speciality/oriental accompaniments retail category as a distinctive, premium, and regionally authentic table sauce. A structured approach to consume...

  10. Research on the Reform of the Preliminary Course of Architectural Design Based on Innovation & Practice Ability Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuping, Cai; Shuang, Liang

    2017-01-01

    The traditional undergraduate education mode of architecture has been unable to adapt to the rapid development of society. Taking the junior professional course of architecture--the preliminary course of architectural design as an example, this paper analyzes the problems existing in the current professional courses of lower grades, puts forward…

  11. The traditional knowledge and the intellectual property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calle Vasquez, Rosangela

    1999-01-01

    This article seeks to describe the state of the art in the international context of the traditional knowledge, its content, its recognition, and its valuation. The prosperous results of the biotechnical industry in the scientific and commercial field, has had a great impact in the valuation of the intellectual property, in the context of the globalization of the market. Traditionally the ancestral knowledge of the ethnic communities in the relative thing to the appropriation of the nature for their survival, it has not been considered neither valued in the same terms that the scientific knowledge and therefore, neither it has been analyzed as intellectual property, just as the western right it has structured this special form of property. The convention of the biodiversity, put in undoubtedly the traditional knowledge should be protected and valued, for this reason starting from 1992, the commercial agreements consecrate and they recognize this theme

  12. Retort process modelling for Indian traditional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, S V; Lele, S S

    2014-11-01

    Indian traditional staple and snack food is typically a heterogeneous recipe that incorporates varieties of vegetables, lentils and other ingredients. Modelling the retorting process of multilayer pouch packed Indian food was achieved using lumped-parameter approach. A unified model is proposed to estimate cold point temperature. Initial process conditions, retort temperature and % solid content were the significantly affecting independent variables. A model was developed using combination of vegetable solids and water, which was then validated using four traditional Indian vegetarian products: Pulav (steamed rice with vegetables), Sambar (south Indian style curry containing mixed vegetables and lentils), Gajar Halawa (carrot based sweet product) and Upama (wheat based snack product). The predicted and experimental values of temperature profile matched with ±10 % error which is a good match considering the food was a multi component system. Thus the model will be useful as a tool to reduce number of trials required to optimize retorting of various Indian traditional vegetarian foods.

  13. Ethical considerations of therapeutic hypnosis and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzrodt, Christine M

    2013-04-01

    Historically, therapeutic hypnosis has been met with skepticism within some fields, although acceptance has expanded in recent decades. Development and application of ethical standards and principles has contributed to increased acceptance of hypnosis with children. The Ethics Code of the American Psychological Association (APA, 2002) and the Code of Conduct of the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis (ASCH, 2000) serve as guides to ethical considerations when treating children. From a developmental and practical perspective, children have limited decision-making capacities, therefore special attention should be paid to their rights and welfare. Important ethical considerations relevant to children and hypnosis have emerged, including competence, supervision, informed consent, confidentiality, and boundaries. Considerations are reviewed from a normal and abnormal child development perspective.

  14. Consideration of Climate Impact on Used Colors in Residential Architecture of Humid and Hot Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mehrabi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Consideration of architecture in humid and hot climate shows a beautiful and efficient intelligence in the back of architecture body. Fine arts would be considered from different perspectives in the issue of their color choice. Consideration of climate impact on used colors in residential architecture of humid and hot regions is the purpose of this writing. Descriptive approaches are used to understand theoretical history of the investigated subject in traditional architecture by applying objective observations. In addition, reasons of color choice on residential buildings in humid and hot environments are elaborated. While each color values next to other colors, companionship of different colors creates beautiful colorful contrast in little area with relative wide cob materials (middle brown. In addition, pacifying colors also are another reason for this mater. The results suggest that the beauty concept has the most important impact on traditional settlements of humid and hot regions.

  15. [Introduction of traditional medicinal plants in Kyrgyzstan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Qiang; Huang, Lu-Qi; Xie, Dong-Mei

    2014-02-01

    Kyrgyzstan is a mountainous country in the northeastern part of Central Asia which shares borders to the southeast with China. Due to their extreme environment and climate, there are a diverse range of species of plants. Many of the plants used in Kyrgyz folk medicine have not been studied using modern scientific techniques. This paper introduced the basic situation of medicinal herbs in Kyrgyzstan by comparing the differences traditional use between China and Kyrgyzstan, and looked for traditional medicinal plant research to provide basis for the development and cooperation of China and Kyrgyzstan.

  16. Pseudepigraphy and the Petrine school: Spirit and tradition in 1 and 2 Peter and Jude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Chatelion Counet

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This article identifies four “patterns of religion” (E P Sanders in the pseudepigraphic letters of Peter and Jude in order to support the hypothesis of a “Petrine school” (J H Elliott. The first pattern that connects the letters is a Geisttradition (K Aland, guaranteeing continuity of tradition. The second is the interrelationship between faith and ethics (fides quae and fides qua. The combination of sanctification and eschatology is a third pattern connecting the three documents. Finally, two florilegia can be identified (one from the Old Testament and apocrypha, and one from the chokmatic tradition, suggesting a fourth pattern: a warning against ungodliness and infidelity. The existence of a Petrine group could represent a preliminary stage of subsequent Early Catholicism.

  17. Deer antler base as a traditional Chinese medicine: a review of its traditional uses, chemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feifei; Li, Huaqiang; Jin, Liji; Li, Xiaoyu; Ma, Yongsheng; You, Jiansong; Li, Shuying; Xu, Yongping

    2013-01-30

    base has emerged as a good source of traditional medicine. However, further investigations are needed to explore individual bioactive compounds responsible for these in vitro and in vivo pharmacological effects and its mechanism of actions. Further safety assessments and clinical trials in humans need to be performed before it can be integrated into medicinal practices. The present review has provided preliminary information for further studies and commercial exploitations of deer antler base. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Review: Biological imprinting: Some genetic considerations | Saad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic imprinting represents one of the most puzzling, still unexplained, phenomena in genetics. Changing some agreed upon concepts and redefinition of some common traditional terms in classical genetics seems imperative for understanding the nature of imprinting, as well as for interpretation of possible mechanisms ...

  19. Preliminary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desde el Jardín de Freud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el Jardín de Freud is indexed in the IBN-Publindex (Colciencias in category C, and the following databases and catalogs: EBSCO, ProQuest, Google Scholar, CLASE, Latindex, Dialnet, Rebiun, Doaj, e-revistas and Library Luis Angel Arango virtual.

  20. Preliminary Hydrogeochemical Site Description SFR (version 0.2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Ann-Chatrin; Tullborg, Eva-Lena; Smellie, John

    2010-05-01

    in accordance with the chemistry of Fe, Mn, S and U, it is concluded that mildly reducing conditions (.140 to .190 mV) generally prevail in the investigated groundwaters. This is in line with measured Eh values in brackish marine waters of Littorina type from the site investigations in Forsmark and Laxemar (PLU). Hydrogeochemical observations together with palaeoclimatic considerations were used to differentiate the groundwaters into four major types; 1) local Baltic Sea water type, 2) Littorina type water with a glacial component, 3) brackish glacial water type, and 4) mixed brackish water (transition type). Explorative analyses using traditional geochemical approaches have been performed to describe groundwater conditions (origin and evolution) and other properties (mixing and reactions) in more detail. The division into groundwater types has facilitated interaction and integration with the hydrogeological models making it possible to construct a hydrogeochemical site descriptive model for the SFR site. The distribution of the different groundwater types shows that the major deformation zones have served as important groundwater flow pathways over long periods of geological time while single fractures in rock volumes between zones generally contain older and more isolated groundwater. Presently, the steeply dipping structures in particular have facilitated the drawdown of modern Baltic Sea water which has been observed since excavation and construction of the SFR some twenty years ago. Understanding the evolution of the groundwater system over time, i.e. since the last glaciation and more recently since excavation and construction of the SFR repository, shows that: 1) present-day hydraulic conditions have preserved groundwater patterns which replicate to a large extent what will occur during the next deglaciation (long-term perspective), and 2) the future impact of extended excavations and underground construction on groundwater chemistry can be predicted from past

  1. Preliminary Hydrogeochemical Site Description SFR (version 0.2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Ann-Chatrin (Geosigma AB, Uppaala (Sweden)); Tullborg, Eva-Lena (Terralogica AB, Graabo (Sweden)); Smellie, John (Conterra AB, Partille (Sweden))

    2010-05-15

    in accordance with the chemistry of Fe, Mn, S and U, it is concluded that mildly reducing conditions (.140 to .190 mV) generally prevail in the investigated groundwaters. This is in line with measured Eh values in brackish marine waters of Littorina type from the site investigations in Forsmark and Laxemar (PLU). Hydrogeochemical observations together with palaeoclimatic considerations were used to differentiate the groundwaters into four major types; 1) local Baltic Sea water type, 2) Littorina type water with a glacial component, 3) brackish glacial water type, and 4) mixed brackish water (transition type). Explorative analyses using traditional geochemical approaches have been performed to describe groundwater conditions (origin and evolution) and other properties (mixing and reactions) in more detail. The division into groundwater types has facilitated interaction and integration with the hydrogeological models making it possible to construct a hydrogeochemical site descriptive model for the SFR site. The distribution of the different groundwater types shows that the major deformation zones have served as important groundwater flow pathways over long periods of geological time while single fractures in rock volumes between zones generally contain older and more isolated groundwater. Presently, the steeply dipping structures in particular have facilitated the drawdown of modern Baltic Sea water which has been observed since excavation and construction of the SFR some twenty years ago. Understanding the evolution of the groundwater system over time, i.e. since the last glaciation and more recently since excavation and construction of the SFR repository, shows that: 1) present-day hydraulic conditions have preserved groundwater patterns which replicate to a large extent what will occur during the next deglaciation (long-term perspective), and 2) the future impact of extended excavations and underground construction on groundwater chemistry can be predicted from past

  2. TCA High Lift Preliminary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, G. H.; Polito, R. C.; Yeh, D. T.; Elzey, M. E.; Tran, J. T.; Meredith, Paul T.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a TCA (Technology Concept Airplane) High lift Preliminary Assessment. The topics discussed are: 1) Model Description; 2) Data Repeatability; 3) Effect of Inboard L.E. (Leading Edge) Flap Span; 4) Comparison of 14'x22' TCA-1 With NTF (National Transonic Facility) Modified Ref. H; 5) Comparison of 14'x22' and NTF Ref. H Results; 6) Effect of Outboard Sealed Slat on TCA; 7) TCA Full Scale Build-ups; 8) Full Scale L/D Comparisons; 9) TCA Full Scale; and 10) Touchdown Lift Curves. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  3. Preliminary ECLSS waste water model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Donald L.; Holder, Donald W., Jr.; Alexander, Kevin; Shaw, R. G.; Hayase, John K.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary waste water model for input to the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Water Processor (WP) has been generated for design purposes. Data have been compiled from various ECLSS tests and flight sample analyses. A discussion of the characterization of the waste streams comprising the model is presented, along with a discussion of the waste water model and the rationale for the inclusion of contaminants in their respective concentrations. The major objective is to establish a methodology for the development of a waste water model and to present the current state of that model.

  4. Binding and preclusive effect of part-construction permits and preliminary licenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarass, H.D.

    1983-01-01

    This contribution discusses the binding and preclusive effect of part-construction permits and preliminary licenses granted in accordance with the laws on air pollution abatement and the Atomic Energy Act. The author states that the granting of a part-construction permit must be based on a final decision over the entire project and must include a preliminary judgement and evaluation of the entire project, also covering site selection and design concept approval. The binding effort and preclusive effect of part-permits are examined in great detail, namely their definition, basic principles, extent, coming into force and term of validity and, (for the preclusive effect), its prerequisites, consequences, considerations regarding immediate execution). The author concludes by stating that there is no difference in regard to binding or preclusive effect between part-construction permits and a preliminary licence. (HP) [de

  5. Human machine interface. Tradition or challenge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craeghs, V.; Brouns, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    In a preliminary phase of the installation of a new operational management system the Dutch public utility MEGA Limburg used the opportunity to adjust the management style at the same time. A change was made from conventional control to a more dynamic way of managing the grid. A critical factor for success was the involvement of the operators in the process. In particular attention is paid to the presentation of the process on the computer screen. The results of the automation project are briefly discussed. 6 figs

  6. Testing Algorithmic Skills in Traditional and Non-Traditional Programming Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernoch, Mária; Biró, Piroska; Máth, János; Abari, Kálmán

    2015-01-01

    The Testing Algorithmic and Application Skills (TAaAS) project was launched in the 2011/2012 academic year to test first year students of Informatics, focusing on their algorithmic skills in traditional and non-traditional programming environments, and on the transference of their knowledge of Informatics from secondary to tertiary education. The…

  7. A Comparative Study of the Liberal Arts Tradition and Confucian Tradition in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Baoyan

    2017-01-01

    In contrast to the continued decline and bleak future of liberal arts education and liberal arts colleges in Europe and America, there has been a revival of the liberal arts model in Asian countries in recent years. This paper compares the liberal arts tradition of education in the West and Confucian tradition of education in the East, in the…

  8. Bioactive peptides derived from traditional Chinese medicine and traditional Chinese food: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Wang, Yunpu; Liu, Yuhuan; Ruan, Roger

    2016-11-01

    There is an urgent treat of numerous chronic diseases including heart disease, stroke, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes, which have a significant influence on the health of people worldwide. In addition to numerous preventive and therapeutic drug treatments, important advances have been achieved in the identification of bioactive peptides that may contribute to long-term health. Although bioactive peptides with various biological activities received unprecedented attention, as a new source of bioactive peptides, the significant role of bioactive peptides from traditional Chinese medicine and traditional Chinese food has not fully appreciated compared to other bioactive components. Hence, identification and bioactivity assessment of these peptides could benefit the pharmaceutical and food industry. Furthermore, the functional properties of bioactive peptides help to demystify drug properties and health benefits of traditional Chinese medicine and traditional Chinese food. This paper reviews the generation and biofunctional properties of various bioactive peptides derived from traditional Chinese medicine and traditional Chinese food. Mechanisms of digestion, bioavailability of bioactive peptides and interactions between traditional Chinese medicine and traditional Chinese food are also summarized in this review. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Traditional Arts Knowledge, Traditional Ecological Lore: The Intersection of Art Education and Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bequette, James W.

    2007-01-01

    Teaching about Native artworks as part of school arts curriculum can serve to pass on traditional ecological knowledge while also contextualizing colonialism's influence on traditional and contemporary Native arts practices. This article explores how schools can actively engage in community arts partnerships with American Indians who have…

  10. When Traditions Become Innovations and Innovations Become Traditions in Everyday Food Pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benny, Helen

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the way learning to cook remains important for the maintenance of "ethnic" food traditions and how sharing food knowledge plays a role in intercultural exchanges. Ethnographic data from an ongoing study in Melbourne is presented to highlight how, in everyday practices, both tradition and innovation are involved in…

  11. Decision support system for collaborative freight transportation management: a tool for mixing traditional and green logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Rosano, Mariangela; Perboli, Guido; Gobbato, Luca

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, freight transportation emerged as a key factor in the development and dynamicity of countries, although it has a considerably impact on urban areas, due to the environmental issues. In this context, several stakeholders have implemented City Logistics solutions in order to make transportation more sustainable and efficient. This paper proposes a case study concerning the collaborative transportation system involving traditional and green couriers, in the city of Turin. This f...

  12. The evaluation of metabolizable energy in traditional Korean food for protein sources

    OpenAIRE

    Eunmi Kim; Jinho Choi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The validity of energy data in the composition table of Korean food has been in question due to possible differences in its chemical composition from that of western food. Traditional Korean food involves a diverse range of food ingredients so there has been considerable doubt regarding the accuracy of the energy level derived from chemical analysis and energy conversion factors. Methods: This study was undertaken to determine the metabolizable energy of Korean food by animal t...

  13. The Microfloras of Traditional Greek Cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litopoulou-Tzanetaki, Evanthia; Tzanetakis, Nikolaos

    2014-02-01

    Many traditional cheeses are made in Greece. Some of them are, in fact, types of the same cheese variety, whether or not they have different cheesemaking technologies, but are known by different local names. Twenty of them have been granted protected designation of origin status. In the 8th century BCE, Homer described a cheese thought to be the ancestor of feta, the main cheese manufactured in Greece from the ancient times until today. Meanwhile, various cheese types evolved through the centuries, and almost every area in Greece has its own cheesemaking tradition. Some cheese varieties are local, handcrafted products whose production has been handed down from generation to generation, and without interest in their continued production, these varieties will disappear. Other local varieties are made at small factories from pasteurized milk and commercial rennet and starter and are very different from the traditional versions. However, some milk producers still make their cheeses at home or at small dairies from raw milk, without any starter, or sometimes from thermized milk, with traditional yogurt as the starter. Their cheeses are the basis for the information presented in this review.

  14. Quality characteristics of Lanhouin: A traditional processed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality characteristics of Lanhouin: A traditional processed fermented fish product in the Republic of Benin. ... Samples of lanhouin processed from cassava croaker /cassava fish (Speudotolithus sp.) ... The microbiological status was investigated according to the Nordic Committee on Food Analysis standard methods.

  15. Academic Medicine Meets Traditional African Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindow, Megan

    2008-01-01

    Cyril Naidoo, who directs the department of family medicine at the University of KwaZulu-Natal's Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, conducts workshops to traditional healers on how to help patients with AIDS and HIV. In Dr. Naidoo's workshop, the group discusses how to counsel patients about HIV and AIDS, how to refer them for testing, and then…

  16. Evaluation of French Guiana traditional antimalarial remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertani, S; Bourdy, G; Landau, I; Robinson, J C; Esterre, Ph; Deharo, E

    2005-04-08

    In order to evaluate the antimalarial potential of traditional remedies used in French Guiana, 35 remedies were prepared in their traditional form and screened for blood schizonticidal activity in vitro on Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine re4sistant strain (W2). Some of these extracts were screened in vivo against Plasmodium yoelii rodent malaria. Ferriprotoporphyrin inhibition test was also performed. Four remedies, widely used among the population as preventives, were able to inhibit more than 50% of the parasite growth in vivo at around 100 mg/kg: Irlbachia alata (Gentiananceae), Picrolemma pseudocoffea (Simaroubaceae), Quassia amara (Simaroubaceae), Tinospora crispa (Menispermaceae) and Zanthoxylum rhoifolium (Rutaceae). Five remedies displayed an IC50 in vitro < 10 microg/ml: Picrolemma pseudocoffea, Pseudoxandra cuspidata (Annonaceae) and Quassia amara leaves and stem, together with a multi-ingredient recipe. Two remedies were more active than a Cinchona preparation on the ferriprotoporphyrin inhibition test: Picrolemma pseudocoffea and Quassia amara. We also showed that a traditional preventive remedy, made from Geissospermum argenteum bark macerated in rum, was able to impair the intrahepatic cycle of the parasite. For the first time, traditional remedies from French Guiana have been directly tested on malarial pharmacological assays and some have been shown to be active.

  17. The Watergate Seminar: Non-Traditional College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Joseph

    1977-01-01

    Empire State College, a non-traditional unit of the State University of New York, conducted a series of seminars related to the Watergate Affair, at which 23 students took part in this intensive exploration of a Watergate. It provided tremendous opportunity for insight into the concept of seminars within a college. (Author)

  18. Uterine inversion complicating traditional termination of pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abortion services remain cladenstine and unsafe in most parts of Africa. This is a case of a mid-trimester abortion induced by traditional methods which resulted in uterine inversion, a previously unreported complication of induced abortion. Until abortion services are accessible and safe on the continent, morbidity and ...

  19. 169 DIFFERENT RITUAL SYMBOLS IN IGBO TRADITIONAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Moslem) fixed feasts in relation to the appearance of the moon. It is very important because it was the moon that guided Mohammed to carry out his job. Without the history and full knowledge of Traditional religion, all the objects of worship such as 'ofo', Amadioha etc will become meaningless. b. Symbols are meaningful ...

  20. Some Tax Implications of Traditional Knowledge Under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New Win User

    or any tribe as defined in. Section 1 of the aforesaid Act, might be more applicable for income received from traditional knowledge by the National Trust Fund. In addition to the specific provisions in Section10, the National Trust Fund may be exempt if it qualifies as a "public benefit organisation" in terms of Section 10(1)(cN).

  1. Psychotherapeutic Function of the Kazakh Traditional Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakerimova, Zere S.; Nussupova, Aizada S.; Burambaeva, Maryam N.; Yermanov, Zhanat R.; Emreyeva, Akmaral E.; Janseitova, Sveta S.

    2016-01-01

    This article considers the psychotherapeutic parameters of traditional Kazakh music, best practices that were achieved in practical psychology. From the one hand, it allows us to see the music features in a new light, and from the other hand--to identify the ethnic psychology of the Kazakh nation. An important step in the study of the…

  2. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Interest in alternative transportation fuels (ATF`s) has increased in recent years due to the drives for cleaner air and less dependence upon foreign oil. This report, Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1996, provides information on ATFs, as well as the vehicles that consume them.

  3. TRADITIONAL REMEDIES IN CHILDREN AROUND EASTERN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-08-08

    Aug 8, 2003 ... remain largely unproven by the scientific method and the concern about adverse effects have led to closer scrutiny of these products (4). Whereas most traditional remedies are safe, the potential for adverse effects or intoxication exists, as does the possibility of interaction with conventional drugs (2, 5-8).

  4. Physicochemical characterization of traditional Ghanaian cooking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional vegetable oils derived from Egusi (Citrullus colocynthis) and Werewere (Cucumeropsis manni) could prove to be an important commodity for Ghanaians, serving as a potential alternative source of common cooking oils. This study measured several physicochemical properties of Egusi and Werewere oils to ...

  5. Exploring traditional and cyberbullying among Irish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Mary; Kelly, Colette; Molcho, Michal

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to explore the associations of traditional and cyberbullying victimisation with self-reported health and life satisfaction, and to examine whether involvement in risk behaviours contributes to these health outcomes. We asked questions on involvement in traditional and cyberbullying, risk behaviours, self-reported health and life satisfaction to school children. In total, 318 students aged from 15 to 18 years old in 8 post-primary schools in Ireland completed the survey. Children who were victims of bullying were more likely to report poor health, low life satisfaction and engaging in risky behaviours. Although not statistically significant, we found that cyber victimisation was positively associated with increased reporting of poor health and low life satisfaction. Traditional bullying is the most common type of bullying among school children in Ireland, and overall, seems to have a stronger association with poor health. However, a sizable proportion of children are victims of cyberbullying or of both cyberbullying and traditional bullying. It is, therefore, important to acknowledge, identify and address all types of bullying to improve the health outcomes of children.

  6. Traditional Fisheries of Antongil Bay, Madagascar | Doukakis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar's marine fisheries provide revenue and sustenance for the island nation. Antongil Bay, the largest shallow-water bay along Madagascar's eastern coast, harbors significant marine resources and is heavily utilized by traditional, artisanal (shark-fin) and industrial fisheries. Mean hourly catch rates are just under 1 ...

  7. African Tradition, Philosophy, and Modernization | Ikuenobe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I examine Wiredu's views that (1) ethnophilosophy cannot be considered a legitimate philosophy because it has the feature of authoritarianism, and that (2) this feature of African tradition will not allow modern philosophy to flourish because it prevents individuals from rationally and critically examining beliefs. The ability to ...

  8. Teaching Cultural Traditions: Art of Laos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Lynette

    2005-01-01

    In the fall of 2003 the Children's Art Workshop, the Program for Southeast Asian Studies and Hayden Library at Arizona State University (ASU), in cooperation with the Arizona Lao Association, had both the fascinating and occasionally difficult experience of teaching Lao art traditions to a group of 25 students from diverse communities in the…

  9. Mediation: One Alternative to Traditional Judicial Proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Merrily S.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a model of conflict resolution as an alternative, or in addition, to traditional disciplinary systems. Method relies on mediation and employs a "win/win" philosophy which allows and encourages students to peacefully resolve their own disputes. Believes that the program bolsters self-esteem and helps students resolve differences.…

  10. Gentrification, use conversion and traditional architecture in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... complete construction of new structures rather than refurbishment, remodelling or renovation. The location of displaced residents affected by the process is varied but is primarily dependent on income and average rents prevailing in various parts of the city. The link between gentrification and traditional architecture is also ...

  11. Corporate Web Sites in Traditional Print Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardun, Carol J.; Lamb, Larry

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Web presence in print advertisements to determine how marketers are creating bridges between traditional advertising and the Internet. Content analysis showed Web addresses in print ads; categories of advertisers most likely to link print ads with Web sites; and whether the Web site attempts to develop a database of potential…

  12. A reviewof the pharmacologicalmechanism of traditional Chinese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A reviewof the pharmacologicalmechanism of traditional Chinese medicine in the intervention of coronary heart disease and stroke. W Zhang, K Gao, K Gao, J Liu, J Liu, H Zhao, H Zhao, J Wang, J Wang, Y Li, Y Li, G Murtaza, G Murtaza, J Chen, J Chen, W Wang, W Wang ...

  13. Demographic characteristics associated with Isinuka Traditional Spa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Curortology – the science of natural therapy that combines the effects of climate, water and mud treatment and other forms of traditional healing practices – is enjoying a phenomenal comeback. Behind the re-emergence of curortology lies the current popular revolt against synthetic products and the demand for more natural ...

  14. Increasing the Value of Traditional Support Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, Marguerite M.

    2005-01-01

    Student affairs practitioners must reconceptualize traditional support services in order to use the resources allocated to them more effectively, meet the needs of today's students, and increase their value to community colleges. This chapter identifies student affairs programs that are vital to the community college's mission, describes best…

  15. Comparative Economic Analysis of Beekeeping Using Traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out in Tabora and Katavi regions in the miombo woodlands of Tanzania. The overall objective of the study was to undertake a comparative economic analysis of beekeeping using improved or traditional beehives. Data were collected from 198 beekeepers that were randomly selected from a sampling ...

  16. BETWEEN EGWU-OTA, TRADITIONAL POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    forms, namely, Egwu-Ota Isinabor, Egwu-Ota in music form and the most common, Egwu-Ota for Omenani (traditional) burials which can be referred to as classical form because of its sequences (2008). This division is based on their performance structure, which describes the order in which the actions are arranged or ...

  17. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes mellitus is a growing problem in South Africa and of concern to traditional African health practitioners in the Nelson Mandela Metropole, because they experience a high incidence of diabetic cases in their practices. A collaborative research project with these practitioners focused on the screening of Bulbine ...

  18. Hypoxis and Sutherlandia Potent African Traditional Medicines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional medicine (also known as indigenous or folk medicine) comprises medical knowledge systems that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine. 80% of the population in Sub Saharan Africa still relies on these complementary and alternative medicine for their primary ...

  19. Lore: Capturing Traditional Environmental Knowledge | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This remarkable setting brought practitioners of traditional knowledge and Western science together to discuss issues of pressing mutual concern. Lore, in presenting alternative approaches to these critical global concerns, is a timely and important book for all those interested in the health and, indeed, survival of our planet.

  20. Traditional media use in Forest Conservation Support ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the potential of forest conservation support communication along traditional media in use for agricultural information dissemination in and around two reserved sites: Old Oyo National Park, Oyo and Oluwa forest reserve in Ondo State. Results show that the reliability of Forest Conservation Support ...

  1. Physiochemical characteristics of honey obtained from traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted with the objective to determine the physiochemical characteristics of Tigray honey (n= 38) and to compare the quality honey of Tigray with those described in the Quality Standard Authority of Ethiopia, Codex Standard and European Honey Directive. Honey samples were collected from traditional ...

  2. Conservation of Biological Diversity and Indigenous Traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical countries are rich in biodiversity. For centuries, local/indigenous populations have used biodiversity as food, medicines, building materials and for other purposes. Traditional knowledge has been practised and passed on from one generation to another, and is intertwined with cultural and spiritual values. However ...

  3. Traditional ecological knowledge and restoration practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    René Senos; Frank K. Lake; Nancy Turner; Dennis Martinez

    2006-01-01

    Ecological restoration is a process, a directed action aimed at repairing damage to ecocultural systems for which humans are responsible. Environmental degradation has impaired the functioning of both ecological and cultural systems and disrupted traditional practices that maintained these systems over several millennia. Indigenous and local peoples who depend...

  4. A MISCELLANY ON INDIAN TRADITIONAL MUSIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauf Kerimov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Indian music has a very long, unbroken tradition and is an accumulated heritage of centuries. Music in India was popular among all the sections of society and intertwined in life and culture from birth to death. Indian music was formed with the evolution of ancient religious and secular music. The Indian culture absorbed all the best that was brought by other nations in the process of historical development. The Indian music is quite diverse: there are classical instrumental and vocal works and traditional singing of sacred hymns, folk songs and music of different nations. In contrast to the music scholarship, where typically image is a certain regularity, discipline and harmony, beauty of the traditional Indian music in the free improvisation, which is used by the performer. Listening carefully of this music, the man in a new world, a different sounds and explore a different idea of music for himself. The aim of the Indian music, unlike European musical culture define, explore, create and move depths to people's moods. And the Indian instruments is a miracle, that could reflect all these philosophical and aesthetic views. Along with the vocal art, this musical tradition has rich variety of melodic and rhythmic instruments.

  5. MacIntyre, Rival Traditions and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper critically discusses MacIntyre's thesis that education is essentially a contested concept. In order to contextualise my discussion, I discuss both whether rival educational traditions of education found in MacIntyre's work--which I refer to as instrumental and non-instrumental justifications of education--can be rationally resolved…

  6. Scrum in the Traditional Development Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Nis; Friis Sommer, Anita

    2015-01-01

    During the last couple of years, the application of Scrum as a project management framework has been broadened from initially belonging to the software domain. Now companies within the field of traditional product development are starting to implement Scrum in an attempt to improve...

  7. ATTRACTIVE ROLE OF TRADITIONAL BIRTH ATTENDANTS AI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of care during the later postpartum or postnatal period. PERSISTENT MISSION HOME DELIVERY IN IBADAN: ATTRACTIVE ROLE OF. TRADITIONAL BIRTH ATTENDANTS. ABSTRACT. Background and objective: One of the major factors responsible for high maternal and neonatal deaths in Nigeria and other developing.

  8. Milk-based traditional Turkish desserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulay Ozcan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional foods are the reflection of cultural inheritance and affect the lifestyle habits. Culture can be viewed as a system of socially transmitted patterns of behaviour that characterises a particular group. Despite the fact of globalisation, these are key elements to accurately estimate a population’s dietary patterns and how these have been shaped through time. In Turkey, a meal with family or friends traditionally ends with a dessert, which is a testimony to the hosts’ hospitality or to the housewife’s love and affection for her husband and children, since sweets and desserts are important elements of Turkish cuisine. However, the consciousnesses of nutrition and healthy eating, due to rapid change in popular life style and dietary patterns, has contributed to the increased interest in traditional foods with potential health benefits, with increased uncertainty for dessert consumption. Dairy desserts are extensively consumed due to their nutritive and sensoric characteristics. Some of traditional dairy desserts are Mustafakemalpasa, Gullac, Kazandibi, Hosmerim and Tavukgogsu, which are mainly made from milk or fresh cheese, and the current paper discusses their manufacturing processes and composition.

  9. Female genital mutilation: Tradition versus human rights

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A.E. Groeneveld

    www.sciencedirect.com. Opinion article. Female genital mutilation: Tradition versus human rights. A.E. Groeneveld. Department of Urology, Mbabane Clinic, Swaziland. Received 22 November 2012; received in revised form 1st December 2012; accepted 1st December 2012. 'All procedures that involve partial or complete ...

  10. Insights: The Myth of the Traditional Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Mariam

    2012-01-01

    According to the U.S. Census Bureau, more than half of marriages have ended in divorce since the mid-1970s. Nonetheless, schools and community organizations continue to be inclined to act as if nontraditional/neo-traditional families are an anomaly. Despite the reality of new family structures, popular television, movies, and books continue to…

  11. an Ethiopian Traditional Fermented Cereal Beverage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    an Ethiopian Traditional Fermented Cereal Beverage. >“Kebede Abegazliz, Thor Langsrud1 , Fekadu Beyene2 and Judith A. Narvhus1. 1 Department of Food Science, Agricultural University of Norway, ~. P.O.Box 5036, N-1432 As, Norway. 3 Awassa College of Agriculture, Debub University,. P.O.Box 5, Awassa, Ethiopia.

  12. Tradition and Renewal in Contemporary Orthodox Theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marios Begzos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This text presents the challenges that the modern world poses for the Orthodox Church. In every historical period, the Church has struggled with internal and external problems. While preserving its traditions and historical foundations, the theology of the Orthodox Church struggles with contemporary problems by showing the current, contemporary teaching about God, man and the world.

  13. Comparison of Traditional and Constructivist Teaching Approaches ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to compare constructivist and traditional teaching approaches in enhancing students' use of appropriate English language learning strategies. Quazi experimental research was employed. Out of 20 grade 11 sections, two sections (N=97) were selected randomly. The first section contained 50 ...

  14. An interrogation of the gospel tradition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Louis W. Ndekha. Abstract. The paper is an analysis of Jesus and human development in the gospel tradition. It argues that while human development is a modern term, Jesus' life and work, death and resurrection represented an embodiment of the term in all its totality. Through conscientisation Jesus was able to both ...

  15. Traditional media practitioners\\' perception of entertainment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated traditional media practitioners' perception of entertainment–education (EE) utilization for dissemination of agricultural information. One hundred and two respondents were sampled across music and theatre groups in south west Nigeria through multi – stage sampling technique. The result reveals that ...

  16. Enhancing the Lecture: Revitalizing the Traditional Format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonwell, Charles C.

    1996-01-01

    The traditional lecture format of college courses can be enhanced by including active learning designed to further course goals of learning knowledge, developing skills, or fostering attitudes. Techniques suggested include using pauses, short writing periods, think-pair-share activities, formative quizzes, lecture summaries, and several assessment…

  17. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 14, No 6 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. Errata | Adewunmi | African Journal of Traditional, Complementary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 14, No 6 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 14, No 4S (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  20. Traditional Felt in the Kazakhs Folk Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukenova, Zhazira D.; Soltanbaeva, Gulnar S.; Izhanov, Baikonir

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates the history of culture of Turkic nations and analyzes the traditions of making felt products. The literary sources devoted to the semantic meaning of images on felt products is analyzed. Special attention is paid to the symbolic meaning of images on Kazakh felt products. The technology of felt manufacturing and the…