WorldWideScience

Sample records for trade treaty obligations

  1. UK ignores treaty obligations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, P.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed critique is offered of United Kingdom (UK) political policy with respect to the Non-Proliferation Treaty, an interim agreement valid while nuclear disarmament was supposed to occur, by a representative of Greenpeace, the anti-nuclear campaigning group. The author argues that the civil and military nuclear programmes are still firmly linked, and emphasises his opinions by quoting examples of how UK politicians have broken treaty obligations in order to pursue their own political, and in some cases financial, goals. It is argued that the treaty has failed to force nuclear countries to disarm because of its promoted civil nuclear power programmes. (U.K.)

  2. Trade treaties and alcohol advertising policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Ellen

    2005-09-01

    Restrictions on alcohol advertising are vulnerable to challenge under international trade agreements. As countries negotiate new trade treaties and expand the scope of existing ones, the risk of such a challenge increases. While alcohol advertising restrictions normally do not distinguish between foreign and domestic products, this neutral character does not protect them from being challenged under trade rules. The article analyzes four provisions of trade agreements--expropriation, de facto discrimination, market access, and necessity--in relation to the jeopardy they pose for alcohol advertising restrictions. Key cases are reviewed to illustrate how these provisions have been used to either overturn existing advertising restrictions or prevent new ones from coming into force. The article also reports on the mixed results governments have had in trying to justify their regulations to trade panels and the stringent criteria imposed for proving that a regulation is "necessary."

  3. 76 FR 72245 - Implementation of Defense Trade Cooperation Treaties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... equipment sold under a contract in the amount of $25,000,000 or more (currently required for amounts of $14... equipment sold under a contract in the amount in the amount of $25,000,000 or more, or for defense articles... the Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty between the United States and Australia and the Defense Trade...

  4. The Status of Thailand's Implementation of International Treaty Obligations Regarding Linguistic Human Rights in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, John

    2013-01-01

    Given the recent consideration by the Thai government of a national language policy, this article considers the status of Thailand's treaty obligations regarding linguistic human rights in education. It presents a general background, a brief linguistic profile of Thailand, a concise summary of the concept and importance of linguicide, and a…

  5. The Arms Trade Treaty Opens New Possibilities at the UN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Scales Avery

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available On 2 April, 2013, the Arms Trade Treaty, which had been blocked for ten years in the consensus-bound Conference on Disarmament in Geneva, was put directly before the United Nations General Assembly, and was passed by a massive majority. This historic victory opens new possibilities for progress on other seemingly intractable issues. In particular, it gives hope that a Nuclear Weapons Convention might be adopted by a direct vote on the floor of the General Assembly. The adoption of the NWC, even if achieved against the bitter opposition of the nuclear weapon states, would make it clear that the world’s peoples consider the threat of an all-destroying thermonuclear war to be completely unacceptable.Other precedents can be found in the International Criminal Court and the Ottawa Land Mine Treaty, both of which were adopted despite the vehement opposition of militarily powerful states. The Arms Trade Treaty, the ICC and the Land Mine Treaty all represent great steps forward. Although they may function imperfectly because of powerful opposition, they make the question of legality clear. In time, world public opinion will force aggressor states to follow international law.

  6. 78 FR 32362 - Implementation of the Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty Between the United States and Australia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... the Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty Between the United States and Australia; Announcement of... Government of the United States of America and the Government of Australia Concerning Defense Trade... Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty Between the United States and Australia,'' published on April 11, 2013...

  7. The competences of European Union institutions in the trade policy (Lisbon Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Timbur

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is the best known at the world’s leading trade power and the common trade policy is the core of EU external relations. The events of the last years and the extension of the EU to 27 member proved that the functioning system could no longer continue and was requiring a new institutional framework. The Lisbon Treaty was the right solution. It purposes are to bring changes for the citizens, institutions, external relations foe the consolidation of democracy in EU. This paper attempts to provide an overview of the major revisions introduced by the Treaty of Lisbon regarding the trade policy. Also, it analyses the extension and clarification of EU competence, the greater role of the European Parliament and the inclusion of investment policy in trade policy, the voting rules in trade area and the international negotiation of trade agreements. The study describes, as well, the impact of Lisbon Treaty implementation on the MS which are independent nations, but without power of decision in the common trade policy.

  8. 77 FR 16591 - Implementation of the Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty Between the United States and the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... the amount of $25,000,000 or more, or for defense articles and defense services sold under a contract... Australia will be published later in the year once that treaty enters into force. Additionally, the... Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty between the United States and Australia, and to identify, via a...

  9. Understanding the Public Service Obligation in the Electricity Sector. Lessons for the Contracting Parties of the Energy Community Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karova, R. [Energy Community Secretariat, Vienna (Austria)

    2012-01-15

    The paper underlines that the EU energy acquis does not simply require the Contracting Parties to the Energy Community Treaty to liberalize their electricity markets, but it also provides for a 'safety net' to ensure the available of public services through the imposition of Public Service Obligations (PSO). Nevertheless, the paper points out that the present understanding of the PSOs in the Contracting Parties is not in compliance with the conditions provided byArtide 3 of the Electricity Directive. Therefore, it includes some policy recommendations and a proposal for introducing a duty of notification, which should be instructive for the Contracting Parties to improve their understanding of PSO in line with EU law, by thus effectively safeguarding the availability of public services in the electricity sector to their citizens without jeopardizing the effective electricity market liberalization.

  10. Swiss legislation on radioactive waste management. Obligations under the state treaty; national legal regulations; roles of the players

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehlmann, W.

    2008-01-01

    On December 23, 1959, the Swiss Parliament adopted the ''Federal Act on Atomic Energy and Radiation Protection.'' The Nuclear Power Act of March 21, 2003 constitutes a comprehensive legal regime on radioactive waste. The article outlines the obligations incurred by Switzerland under the state treaty in the ''Joint Agreement on the Safety of Management of Spent Fuel Elements and the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management'' as well as their practical implementation. For the management of radioactive waste, the Nuclear Power Act envisages the concept of underground geologic storage to be transferred into a repository after a phase of observation. The underground geologic store requires a framework permit to be issued by the Federal Council and approved by Parliament. In Switzerland, framework permits are subject to facultative referenda, i.e., there is the possibility of a plebiscite. Article 5 of the Nuclear Power Ordinance regulates the competences in the procedure to build a repository: ''The Federation, in a substantive plan, lays down the objectives and criteria for storing radioactive waste in underground geologic stores in a way binding on the authorities.'' The structure and the duties and obligations of the players involved as set out in the ''Underground Geologic Storage'' plan establish a credible basis of the ongoing site selection procedure and further steps to be taken in building an underground store in Switzerland. (orig.)

  11. The European Union’s external trade policy after the Treaty of Lisbon: a neo-gramscian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilko Ihor

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies neo-Gramscian theory to analyze the European Union’s external trade policy after the ratification of the Treaty of Lisbon in 2009. It argues that despite the claim that procedural and institutional changes which took place as a result of the ratification of the Treaty serve the general interest of the EU citizens, they were in fact orchestrated by the European transnational capitalist class and serve primarily interests of this group. Paper starts by outlining key institutional and procedural changes introduced by the Treaty of Lisbon, briefly outlining their implications for the EU. Further on, rationale for these changes is explained by focusing on socio-economic developments that took place in the EU during the past couple of decades. After outlining how the current hegemonic bloc was established, paper proceeds with explaining why the implemented changes were so important for the dominant in the EU social forces.

  12. 78 FR 36108 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Trade Cooperation Treaties With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... and for foreign firms in their supply chains. The U.S. concluded the DTC Treaties with Australia and... respondent commended the Defense Acquisition Regulations (DAR) Council on recognizing the importance of the... established a Management Board to resolve such issues, adopted a detailed management plan, and conducted...

  13. 77 FR 33089 - Announcement of Entry Into Force of the Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty Between the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ..., 2012, the United States and the United Kingdom exchanged diplomatic notes bringing the Treaty between... of the rule published on March 21, 2012, implementing the Treaty and making other updates to the... 16592) implementing the Treaty and making other updates to the ITAR. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  14. The Outer Space Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Negotiated at the United Nations and in force since 1967, the Outer Space Treaty has been ratified by over 100 countries and is the most important and foundational source of space law. The treaty, whose full title is "Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies," governs all of humankind's activities in outer space, including activities on other celestial bodies and many activities on Earth related to outer space. All space exploration and human spaceflight, planetary sciences, and commercial uses of space—such as the global telecommunications industry and the use of space technologies such as position, navigation, and timing (PNT), take place against the backdrop of the general regulatory framework established in the Outer Space Treaty. A treaty is an international legal instrument which balances rights and obligations between states, and exists as a kind of mutual contract of shared understandings, rights, and responsibilities between them. Negotiated and drafted during the Cold War era of heightened political tensions, the Outer Space Treaty is largely the product of efforts by the United States and the USSR to agree on certain minimum standards and obligations to govern their competition in "conquering" space. Additionally, the Outer Space Treaty is similar to other treaties, including treaties governing the high seas, international airspace, and the Antarctic, all of which govern the behavior of states outside of their national borders. The treaty is brief in nature and only contains 17 articles, and is not comprehensive in addressing and regulating every possible scenario. The negotiating states knew that the Outer Space Treaty could only establish certain foundational concepts such as freedom of access, state responsibility and liability, non-weaponization of space, the treatment of astronauts in distress, and the prohibition of non-appropriation of

  15. Ethical principles in international nuclear trade and the role of international treaties and agreements in their implementation. Reflections on the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalanti, C. de A.

    1992-01-01

    The growing importance of nuclear energy (on the threshold of the twenty-first century) and of its ethical uses is considered, including major political events in recent years, their social and economic consequences in the world scene. International Nuclear Law is seen as the most adequate instrument to promote the ethical uses of nuclear energy on a worldwide basis, so that mankind can benefit safely and properly and improving their living conditions in general. Problems associated with access to nuclear technology, plants, equipments and materials are addressed. Basic principles of international agreements ruling nuclear trade, ethical aspects are also covered. The different markets involved in international nuclear trade and their specific requirements are described. Certain international treaties on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy are discussed such as the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Tlatelolco Treaty as are international conventions on matters related to the use of nuclear energy, such as the environment and protection of personnel. The author concludes by debating whether ethical uses of nuclear energy are a possible reality or merely utopia. Prospects on the future of international nuclear trade are considered. (author)

  16. Trade, Tarsands and Treaties: The Political Economy Context of Community Energy in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie L. MacArthur

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Governments today are increasingly looking to non-state and bottom up community actors to help achieve climate change mitigation targets. Canada is a resource rich state with one of the highest per capita greenhouse gas footprints in the world. It is also a state where issues of political will, geographic scale and incumbent industries contribute to a challenging context for broad community participation. Despite this, a long history of co-operative and municipal activity exists in the energy sector, exhibited in diverse ways across its provinces and territories. Provincial variation in energy sources and actors illustrates a far more nuanced picture than exists at the national level, providing a case rich with both promising and cautionary tales for the community energy sector. This article examines the emergence of community energy in the context of broader energy sector moves towards increasingly powerful trade agreements, privatization, and conflicts over Indigenous rights in Canada. It argues that significant potential exists to strengthen the role of local actors in Canadian energy governance, but that macro-level political and economic developments have also created significant challenges for widespread community energy transitions.

  17. Treaty implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper touches on three aspects of the relationship between intelligence and treaty implementation, a two-way association. First the author discusses the role of intelligence as a basis for compliance monitoring and treaty verification. Second the authors discusses payoffs of intelligence gathering and the intelligence process of treaty implementation, in particular on-site inspection. Third, the author goes in another direction and discusses some of the tensions between the intelligence gathering and treaty-implementation processes, especially with regard to extensive use of on-site inspection, such as we are likely to see in monitoring compliance of future arms control treaties

  18. How do international trade obligations affect policy options for obesity prevention? Lessons from recent developments in trade and tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Tigerstrom, Barbara

    2013-06-01

    Regulatory measures, including taxes and subsidies on food and beverage products, food labelling requirements, regulation of food content and regulation of food marketing, have been proposed to encourage healthier eating and prevent obesity. The objective of this article is to explore the extent to which international trade agreements affect governments' choices to use such regulatory measures. It reviews key provisions of relevant World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements and their implications. Some insights can be gained by examining 2 recent developments in the WTO regarding tobacco control: a current dispute involving Australia's plain packaging law and its effect on trademarks, and a recent decision involving the United States law banning flavoured cigarettes. This decision said that the ban did not restrict trade more than necessary to fulfil its legitimate health objective, but it was discriminatory because it banned imported products (clove cigarettes) while exempting domestic products (menthol cigarettes) with similar characteristics. The conclusion we can draw from this decision is that WTO member states probably enjoy a significant degree of latitude in developing food regulations as part of an obesity prevention strategy, so long as those do not disproportionately affect imported products and therefore raise questions of discrimination. The approach taken in this case encourages the adoption of public health policies that are consistent with strong scientific evidence, but may restrict governments' ability to make political compromises, which could frustrate some proposals. The ongoing development of WTO law will continue to affect policy choices in public health. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Obsolete treaties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionov, S.

    1999-01-01

    The proliferation of ballistic missile technologies (as opposed to nuclear ones) is not limited actually by any international treaty, there are no treaties of that kind. It is hardly imaginable that the international community could succeed in getting any agreements in the near future that would ban (or seriously limit) missile technology proliferation, similar to Non-proliferation Treaty or CTBT. An optimum option would permit the declared nuclear powers to have intercontinental ballistic missiles until the transition to a nuclear-weapon-free world, while any space activity would be under strict international control

  20. The European Energy Charter Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boege, U.

    1995-01-01

    The scope of the treaty is highlighted. The treaty consists of a preamble and 50 articles and is divided into 8 parts and supplemented with 14 annexes. The parts of the treaty deal with the following: (i) definitions and purpose of the treaty; (ii) general topics such as trading, competition, transit, technology transfer and access to capital markets; (iii) support and protection of investments; (iv) list of regulations; (v) resolution of disputes; (vi) provisional clauses governing trade with GATT non-member states; (vii) structural and institutional provisions concerning the execution and function of the protocol, tasks of the Charter conference and secretariat including their equipment, rules of conduct and financing; and (viii) final provisions. (J.B.)

  1. 31 CFR 585.509 - Trading in certain pre-sanctions obligations of debtors in the Republics of Slovenia, Croatia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading in certain pre-sanctions... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 585.509 Trading in..., and Macedonia authorized. (a) All transactions by U.S. persons involving secondary market trading in...

  2. How to strengthen the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eklund, S.

    1975-01-01

    NPT consists of a complex set of undertakings and obligations, each of which represents in its own right a highly desirable objective that should be pursued whether or not the Treaty itself existed, and irrespective of the success (or lack of it) achieved in pursuit of the other objectives. These objectives are: (a) to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons to countries other than the five that possessed them at the end of 1966. Obviously, this is the main purpose of the Treaty. It provides the substance of the first three articles and gives the Treaty its name (Arts. I, II, III); (b) to promote international co-operation in developing the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and particularly to help developing countries in this regard (Art. IV); (c) to afford all parties whatever benefits may be derived from the peaceful uses of nuclear explosions (Art. V); (d) to pursue negotiations towards the cessation of the arms race, nuclear disarmament and eventually a treaty on general and complete disarmament, 'under strict and effective international control'. Although this is not actually said in the relevant article (Article VI), it is generally considered that this obligation falls particularly upon those parties of the Treaty that are 'Nuclear Weapon States'. (Art. VI) The preambular paragraph regarding the 'determination expressed' by the parties to the Moscow Test Ban Treaty to seek a complete and perpetual discontinuance of all test explosions of nuclear weapons, is also relevant to the objective of arms control and disarmament. (Art. VI) Since consummation of each of these objectives is 'devoutly to be wished', in Hamlet's words, there should be no question of bargaining or horse-trading between them. Despite some specious arguments to the contrary, history shows that the possession of superior weapons has never prevented war and a further spread of nuclear weapons must inevitably increase, perhaps in geometrical progression, the likelihood of a nuclear conflict

  3. Treaty Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canty, M.; Jasani, B.; Lingenfelder, I.

    2009-01-01

    of remote sensing technologies. The book therefore comprises management aspects (issues and priorities of security research, crisis response), applied methodologies and process chains (treaty monitoring, estimation of population densities and characteristics, border permeability models, damage assessment...... companies, national research institutions and international organizations, all of whom were brought together under the aegis of the European research project GMOSS (Global Monitoring for Security and Stability). This book is tailored for the scientific community that deals with the application of EO data...... of civil security. Written for: Scientists, researchers in spatial sciences as well as practitioners, politicians, decision makers at NGO's in the field of security, crisis management, risk assessment and vulnerability....

  4. Kajian Perbandingan Tax Treaty Model: OECD, UN, dan US

    OpenAIRE

    Rachmawati, Dyna

    2003-01-01

    The needs of tax treaty arise as International trade growth rapidly due to advancement of information technology. Taxa imposed on income derived from International trade are double. Tax treaty or tax convention is bilateral agreement for the avoidance of double taxation. This agreement arranges taxation rights. There are 3 (three) tax treaty model, which is used as reference to make bilateral agreement for the avoidance of double taxation. The first one is OECD Model made by The OECD...

  5. Interactions: Trade Policy and Healthcare Reform After Chaoulli v. Quebec: Is it time for Canada to acknowledge the fragile boundary between health and trade policies and strengthen the separation between private and public health insurance?

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The insulation of Canada’s healthcare system from trade treaty obligations is crucial to the legitimacy of Canada’s trade policy. Legal analysis has suggested, however, that competitive and for-profit delivery of the kind contemplated by the Kirby Report and some provinces may make healthcare more vulnerable to challenges under NAFTA and GATS. The Government of Canada has tried to counter this interpretation by stressing the importance of public financing as the principal criterion for exempt...

  6. The Non-Proliferation Treaty increases security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahiluoto, K.

    1995-01-01

    Extension of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty indefinitely was a historic decision. The Treaty is the most extensive international agreement on security policy to date; now its obligations have become a permanent part of international justice. Moreover, the NPT represents a political and moral obligation. Through the NPT, the international community has made a permanent commitment to restrict the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Increasing pressures will be applied to the few countries still outside the NPT, making it more likely that these countries will eventually change their views. The likelihood of regional bans on nuclear weapons in the Middle East and in Asia, too, will increase. The Treaty promotes the establishment of new nuclear-free zones. The nuclear-free zone in Latin America - the countries covered by the Tlatelolco Treaty - is already very close to its full implementation. Finland is firmly committed to the obligations of the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The NPT Conference of 1995 was among the first international meetings in which Finland participated, and took an active role, as a Member State of the European Union. (orig.)

  7. The Treaty of Lisbon

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvia Gloggnitzer

    2008-01-01

    The Treaty of Lisbon is the EU’s new legal framework. The EU heads of state or government have agreed on a new EU treaty conceived to ensure that the enlarged EU consisting of 27 Member States functions more efficiently than under the Treaty of Nice, which is currently in place. The Treaty of Lisbon was signed by EU heads of state or government on December 13, 2007, in Lisbon. The Treaty of Lisbon is to replace the EU Constitutional Treaty rejected in national referendums in France and the Ne...

  8. Nuclear weapons non proliferation treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    Taking into account the devastation that a nuclear war would inflict upon mankind, and the resulting need to do all that is in our power to keep such a tragedy from occuring, as well as to implement measures to safeguard all the peoples' safety, each State that owns nuclear weapons and that is a part of the Treaty pledges not to trade nuclear weapons, other explosive devices nor the control over such instruments to any other entity whatsoever, wether directly or indirectly. Likewise, all States that does not posses any nuclear weaponry and that are part of the Treaty, in turn pledge not to receive from any other entity nuclear weaponry or other explosive devices in trade, wether directly or indirectly; not to manufacture or otherwise acquire this fashion of weaponry and not to request or accept any help whatsoever in the manufacturing of nuclear weaponry or related devices. The present Treaty remains open to the subscription of other countries, on July 26, 1968, with Mexico as one of the signatory countries

  9. Material obligations: Forms and content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper includes a detailed legal framework of the IAEA safeguards agreements, namely basic articles of the IAEA Statute, Treaty and Supply Agreement obligations and basic documents concerning decisions and practices of the Board of Governors. It describes as well the initiation process of the negotiation of safeguards agreements, contents comparison and implementation of the safeguards agreements, protocols to safeguards agreements, subsidiary arrangements, amendments and renegotiation documents

  10. The European Energy Charter Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.

    1996-01-01

    The history, purpose, scope and the main topics of the treaty are highlighted. Special attention is paid on problems of trading, competition, transit, technology transfer and access to capital markets; support and protection of investments; resolution of disputes; provisional clauses governing trade with GATT non-member states; structural and institutional provisions concerning the execution and function of the protocol, tasks of the Charter conference and secretariat including their equipment, rules of conduct and financing. The Charter is setting up a framework for co-operation, trade and investment in energy products and services with countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, based on principles of free-markets and non-discrimination

  11. The economic and environmental impact of trade in forest reserve obligations: a simulation analysis of options for dealing with habitat heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth M. Chomitz

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A tradeable development rights (TDR program focusing on biodiversity conservation faces a crucial problem: defining which areas of habitat should be considered equivalent. Restricting the trading scope to a narrow area could boost the range of biodiversity conserved but could increase the opportunity cost of conservation. The issue is relevant to Brazil, where TDR-like policies are emerging. Long-standing laws require each rural property to maintain a legal forest reserve (reserva legal of at least 20%, but emerging policies allow some tradeability of this obligation. This paper uses a simple, spatially explicit model to simulate a hypothetical state-level program. We find that wider trading scopes drastically reduce landholder costs of complying with this regulation and result in environmentally preferable landscapes.Programas que tenham por objetivo desenvolver um mercado de Direitos Especiais de Propriedade (DEP enfrentam um problema fundamental, qual seja a definição de áreas de preservação equivalentes. Caso a definição seja por um conceito muito restritivo, poderá ocorrer uma maior conservação da biodiversidade, porém com um aumento do custo de oportunidade da preservação ambiental. O assunto é relevante para o Brasil onde programas semelhantes aos DEP estão surgindo. A legislação exige que cada propriedade rural mantenha pelo menos 20% de sua área na forma de florestas (reserva legal, porém algumas políticas nascentes já permitem tipo de negociação de Direitos. Este trabalho usa um modelo espacial simples para simular o efeito de um programa hipotético implantado em um estado. O principal resultado é que uma política menos restritiva para a comercialização dos DEP reduz de forma expressiva, para os produtores rurais, os custos de cumprir a legislação e leva a soluções preferíveis sob o ponto de vista ambiental.

  12. Interactions: trade policy and healthcare reform after Chaoulli v. Quebec: is it time for Canada to acknowledge the fragile boundary between health and trade policies and strengthen the separation between private and public health insurance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The insulation of Canada's healthcare system from trade treaty obligations is crucial to the legitimacy of Canada's trade policy. Legal analysis has suggested, however, that competitive and for-profit delivery of the kind contemplated by the Kirby Report and some provinces may make healthcare more vulnerable to challenges under NAFTA and GATS. The Government of Canada has tried to counter this interpretation by stressing the importance of public financing as the principal criterion for exemption of healthcare from trade treaties, but now the potential for private financing of essential medical services indicated by the Supreme Court's decision in Chaoulli v. Quebec has made that line of argument look risky as well. It is apparent that Canada failed to anticipate the possible interactions of domestic, international and constitutional law when it made commitments in the area of private health insurance at the WTO in 1997. Accordingly, the time has come to acknowledge the fragility of the boundary between health and trade policies, to take the risks and costs associated with trade treaty obligations fully into account when undertaking healthcare reform and to strengthen the separation between private and public health insurance.

  13. Services and investment in the EU-South Korea free-trade area: implications of a new approach for GATS V agreements and for bilateral investment treaties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathis, J.; Laurenza, E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the services and investment features of the recently concluded free trade agreement between the European Union and its Member States, of the one part, and the Republic of Korea, of the other part. This agreement is an early example of a new scheduling approach adopted by the

  14. The impact of endogenous tax treaties on foreign direct investment: theory and evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Egger; Mario Larch; Michael Pfaffermayr; Hannes Winner

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of tax treaties on bilateral stocks of outward FDI. For this purpose we employ a numerically solvable general equilibrium model of trade and multinational firms to study the impact of tax treaties on both welfare and outward FDI. The model indicates under which factor endowment configurations countries gain in welfare when implementing a tax treaty. This motivates an empirical specification of the endogenous selection into implementing new tax treaties. Usin...

  15. Obliging children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Barry

    2011-01-01

    Children may sometimes undergo healthcare procedures that are not intended to improve their health status. Such interventions might include the use of young children as bone marrow donors or their enrolment in non-therapeutic research. One of the justifications used to legitimise these interventions is the premise that children have obligations to others; to their family in the case of related bone marrow transplantation, and to wider society in the case of non-therapeutic research. However, this 'obligation model' (the notion that children possess positive obligations to advance the health status of others) fails as a justificatory paradigm because it is based upon a confusion, identified by Hart, between two notions; that of 'being under an obligation to do something' and that of 'being obliged to do something'. Instead the 'obligation model' is a device employed to put a justificatory gloss upon a consequentialist decision-making process; removing the legitimising gloss allows for a more transparent look at the conflict between parental rights and an individual child's right to bodily integrity.

  16. Institutional obligation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowan, S.S.; Berwager, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    The institutional obligation is to act to meet primary responsibilities in the face of risks. There are risks involved in taking action, both of a quantifiable and unquantifiable nature. This paper explores weighing the risks, choosing approaches that balance primary obligations with broader ones, and presenting ethical philosophies upon which policies and strategies are based. Federal government organizations and utilities--and Bonneville Power Administration qualifies as both--have a variety of responsibilities to the public they serve. The common responsibility is that of service; for Bonneville the primary responsibility is to serve the energy related needs. It is this primary institutional obligation, as it relates to other responsibilities--and the resulting strategy for handling indoor air quality in Bonneville's new homes program--that this paper examines

  17. Ocean Dumping: International Treaties

    Science.gov (United States)

    The London Convention and London Protocol are global treaties to protect the marine environment from pollution caused by the ocean dumping of wastes. The Marine, Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act implements the requirements of the LC.

  18. The INF Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S.-Soviet agreement to eliminate intermediate-range (500-5,000 kilometers) nuclear weapons, known as the INF Treaty, was signed on December 8, 1987, and ratified by the Senate on May 27, 1988. Although the actual negotiation of the agreement has a long and fractious history, its ratification was swift and won the support of all but five members of the U.S. Senate. As the first agreement between the two sides to eliminate --- rather than simply reduce or constrain --- an entire class of weapons, the INF Treaty is popularly believed to be a major arms control success story. It was the first U.S.-Soviet arms control treaty to be ratified by the Senate since 1972, when the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty was approved. This paper discusses the INF Treaty which owes its genesis to a decision taken by the NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) alliance in the last months of the Carter administration to deploy new nuclear weapons in Europe

  19. International trade versus public health during the FCTC negotiations, 1999-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamudu, Hadii M; Hammond, Ross; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-01-01

    To examine why the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control did not include an explicit trade provision and delineate the central arguments in the debate over trade provision during the negotiations. Triangulate interviews with participants in the FCTC negotiations, the FCTC negotiations documents, and tobacco industry documents. An explicit FCTC trade provision on relation between international trade and public health became a contentious issue during the negotiations. As a result, two conflicting positions, health-over-trade and opposition to health-over-trade emerged. Opposition to explicit trade language giving health priority was by both tobacco industry and countries that generally supported strong FCTC provisions because of concerns over 'disguised protectionism' and setting a precedent whereby governments could forfeit their obligations under pre-existing treaties. Owing to lack of consensus among political actors involved in the negotiations, a compromise position eliminating any mention of trade emerged, which was predicated on belief among some in the public health community that public health would prevail in future trade versus health conflicts. The absence of an explicit FCTC trade provision was due to a political compromise rather than the impact of international trade agreements and decisions on public health and lack of consensus among health advocates. This failure to include an explicit trade provision in the FCTC suggests that the public health community should become more involved in trade and health issues at all levels of governance and press the FCTC Conference of the Parties for clarification of this critical issue.

  20. Tax Treaties and EC Law : Development, Problems and Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Muren, Gustaf; Krohn, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Double taxation treaties play a vital part in the international relations between states regarding taxation matters. Since double taxation can occur as soon as a person has income in more than one state, it is very important that there can be effective remedies to the problems that can occur in these situations. Double taxation treaties are necessary in most situations created by international trade and they are even more important in such a free flowing economic co-operation such as the EU, ...

  1. Treaty aids 'detensioning of southern Africa'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumpf, W.

    1991-01-01

    South Africa's accession to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is a significant step forward in trading non-weapons related nuclear technology with other world powers. In an interview with Dr Waldo Stumpf, chief executive officer of the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa, the impact of this decision on the Corporation and the whole of southern Africa is discussed

  2. Columbia River Treaty 2014/2024 Review • Phase 1 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-07-01

    Under the Columbia River Treaty (Treaty or CRT) of 1964, Canada and the United States (U.S.) jointly regulate and manage the Columbia River as it flows from British Columbia into the U.S. The Treaty has provided substantial flood control and power generation benefits to both nations. The Treaty established Canadian and U.S. Entities as implementing agents for each government. British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority (BC Hydro) was designated as the Canadian Entity. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Administrator and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) Division Engineer, Northwestern Division, were designated as the U.S. Entity. The Canadian and U.S. Entities are empowered by their respective governments with broad discretion to implement the existing Columbia River Treaty. They are not, however, authorized to terminate, renegotiate, or otherwise modify the Treaty. In the U.S., authority over international treaties rests with the President, assisted in foreign relations and international negotiations by the Department of State and subject in certain cases to the advice and consent of the U.S. Senate. In Canada, international treaties are within the prerogative of the executive branch of the federal government. Under current policy, treaties are tabled in the House of Commons, and are subject to a waiting period before the executive branch brings the treaty into effect. In the case of the Columbia River Treaty, Canada has assigned certain rights and obligations relating to the Treaty to British Columbia pursuant to the Canada-B.C. Agreement. The Phase 1 report is provided to those respective governmental bodies to support possible independent and/or joint decisions that may be made with respect to the future of the Treaty. The Treaty contains two important provisions that take effect on and after September 16, 2024, that could impact the current power and flood control benefits: 1. Canadian flood control obligations automatically change from a pre

  3. Beneficial Ownership Provisions In Tax Treaties Between Developed And Developing Countries: The Canada/South Africa Example

    OpenAIRE

    Lee-Ann Steenkamp

    2013-01-01

    In the years since the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) adopted its first draft tax treaty in 1963, the world has experienced an astonishing surge in international trade and investment. The tax treatment of these cross-border transactions is affected by double tax agreements. As tax treaty networks will likely continue to expand, concerns about tax treaty abuse might be expected to grow. The extent to which a countrys tax treaty policy favours developing countries ...

  4. Who's bound by the former Soviet Union's arms control treaties?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhinelander, J.B.; Bunn, G.

    1991-01-01

    A crucial issue raised by the disintegration of the Soviet central government is what happens to Soviet arms control obligations. As the Soviet government transforms or collapses in the wake of the failed August coup, which of the resulting entities will be bound by the treaties the Soviet Union entered into? Under international law, the obligations of a state are not affected by even such dramatic changes in government. No one yet knows, however, what the end result of the ongoing devolution of power in the erstwhile Soviet Union will be. As illustrations of what could happen to Soviet arms control obligations - not predictions of the future - the authors pose two alternative scenarios. In the first, they assume that most of the current 12 republics, including all of the big four where substantial nuclear forces and the largest conventional forces are located (Russia, Ukraine, Khazakhstan, and Belarus), ultimately form a loose confederation with sufficient central authority to be called a nation-state and to carry out the essence of Soviet obligations under major arms control treaties. In the second, they assume that the union disintegrates further, with these four key republics seceding entirely and recognizing one another as independent states - a step which is apparently one of the US criteria for granting its own recognition. In this scenario, the Russian republic maintains its basic territory and replaces the central government as the power center for military and foreign affairs. In each of these cases, they will describe the general issues affecting the Soviet Union's international obligations, and consider specifically the two most important arms control agreements now in force - the multilateral nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) and the bilateral Antiballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty

  5. The positive side of Lisbon Treaty

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Bonciu

    2007-01-01

    The Lisbon Treaty or Reform Treaty represent in brief the current position of the European Union member states towards the idea of European economic integration. One important characteristic of this Lisbon Treaty is the fact that it amends at the same time two previous treaties, namely the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty establishing the European Communities.

  6. THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONCEPTS OF THE REFORM TREATY (THE LISBON TREATY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian Ciongaru

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lisbon Treaty also known as the Reform Treaty provides only an amendment of the treaties considered as fundamental, namely the Treaty on the European Union and the Treaty on the functioning of the European Union and is the result of the constitutional process triggered by the Laeken Declaration adopted by the European Council. The Lisbon Treaty is still built on the content of the European Constitution from which they eliminated the most controversial provisions, first of all the title of Constitution that might produce concern and panic among the European Union population through the symbolic power it contained, and for Romania this new treaty was the first it signed in quality of a Union member state. Even if does not bear the name of European Constitution, the Lisbon Treaty is a European Constitution for the following reasons: first it is a Constitution because it gathers together most of the fundamental elements of the Constitutional Treaty, even if it does not have the structure or the name thereof, and second the treaties after the Lisbon reform have become small constitutions from the operational viewpoint, they develop the functions of a constitution, limit power and organize the operation of the organization.

  7. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty Act 1986 - No. 140 of 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this Act is to give effect to Australia's obligations as a Party to the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty of 6 August 1985. The Act is supplemented by the provisions of the Environment Protection (Sea Dumping) Act 1981 as amended in 1986 as regards dumping of radioactive material into the sea. The Act repeats the substantive provisions of the Treaty and lays down prohibitions in relation to nuclear explosive devices. (NEA) [fr

  8. TLATELOLCO treaty today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instituto Matias Romero de Estudios Diplomaticos.

    1996-01-01

    The 30 th. Anniversary of the opening to sign of Tlatelolco Treaty it is reached in an undeniable fact: the benefit and full standing upon a free nuclear weapons zone in Latin America and the Carib. The Instituto Matias Romero de Estudios Diplomaticos (IMRED) convoked an expertise group in safety affairs and disarmament, mexicans and foreigners, diplomatics and academics, to think over the present importance of Tlatelolco Treaty. The assays included in this number of the Revista Mexicana de Politica Exterior to bring out the transcendency of the such legal instrument and the way to fortify the regime created by itself, the relevance of integration attempts for the free nuclear weapons zones and the obstacles that its confronts, as soon as, the possibilities and the potential of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy

  9. Law as Treaties?: The Constitutionality of Congressional-Executive Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, John C.

    2000-01-01

    This article seeks to resolve the debate over the use of a statutory method for approving international agreements in place of the supermajority process required by the Constitution's Treaty Clause. These "congressional-executive agreements," which require only simple majorities in Congress and presidential signature, have become the instrument of choice for entry into some of the nation's most significant international obligations, such as the WTO and NAFTA. Some, such as Bruce Ackerman and ...

  10. Tracing the Origins of the Netherlands’ Tax Treaty Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Evers (Maikel)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis contribution identifies the main determinants and key persons that constituted the tax treaty policy of the Netherlands. This policy is rooted in the political chess games in 19th century mainland Europe. In this century, European states gained experience in negotiating trade and

  11. Present status of the Treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netchaev, B.

    1976-01-01

    The Treaty for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons plays an important role in enhancing the security of all States. It is essential to maintain in the implementation of the Treaty an acceptable balance of the mutual responsibilities and obligations of all the countries Party to the Treaty wether or not nuclear weapon States. These questions were discussed during the Conference on the operation of the Treaty held in Geneva in May 1975. It was emphasized at the Conference that the first five years of application of the Treaty had shown a consistent increase in the number of ratifications and in the safeguards agreements concluded on the basis of the Agreement. (N.E.A.) [fr

  12. Where to place the saving obligation: Energy end-users or suppliers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertoldi, Paolo; Labanca, Nicola; Rezessy, Silvia; Steuwer, Sibyl; Oikonomou, Vlasis

    2013-01-01

    Obligations to save energy differentiate, among other features, by obliged parties. These are obligations on energy suppliers and energy end-users. Supplier obligations have been introduced in North America, Europe and Australia. Under supplier obligations energy suppliers have to comply with mandatory energy saving targets and thus they implement (directly or via third parties) energy efficiency projects on their clients’ premises, or they decide to trade certified project savings if this option is envisaged by their obligation scheme. In several emerging schemes such as the UK Carbon Reduction Commitment (CRC) Energy Efficiency Scheme, the Tokyo Emission Trading Scheme or the Perform Achieve and Trade (PAT) Scheme in India, the obligation to reduce energy consumption is placed on large end-users directly and end-users are allowed to trade emissions allowances or energy saving certificates. The paper starts with presenting these two conceptually different ways for introducing energy saving obligations. Then it analyses advantages and disadvantages of end-users obligations compared to suppliers obligations. The preliminary conclusion of the paper is that supplier obligations seem to be well-suited for the residential sector, but end-user saving obligations may offer advantages when it comes to the industrial and commercial sectors. - Highlights: • We present different ways for introducing energy saving obligations. • We analyse energy end-users obligations vs. supplier obligations. • Supplier obligations seem to be well-suited for the residential sector. • End-user obligations offer advantages in the industrial and commercial sectors

  13. The role of SADC institutions in implementing SADC treaty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Without some level of institutionalisation or other means of enforcement, national commitment to regional trade integration is bound to face some challenges. Accordingly, transnational trade is obviously inhibited when the validity and enforcement of contracts, obligation and rules cannot be guaranteed beyond the term of ...

  14. Intelligence and treaty ratification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sojka, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    What did the intelligence community and the Intelligence Committee di poorly in regard to the treaty ratification process for arms control? We failed to solve the compartmentalization problem/ This is a second-order problem, and, in general, analysts try to be very open; but there are problems nevertheless. There are very few, if any, people within the intelligence community who are cleared for everything relevant to our monitoring capability emdash short of probably the Director of Central Intelligence and the president emdash and this is a major problem. The formal monitoring estimates are drawn up by individuals who do not have access to all the information to make the monitoring judgements. This paper reports that the intelligence community did not present a formal document on either Soviet incentives of disincentives to cheat or on the possibility of cheating scenarios, and that was a mistake. However, the intelligence community was very responsive in producing those types of estimates, and, ultimately, the evidence behind them in response to questions. Nevertheless, the author thinks the intelligence community would do well to address this issue up front before a treaty is submitted to the Senate for advice and consent

  15. Tax Treaty Interpretation in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Soler Roch, María Teresa; Ribes Ribes, Aurora

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides insight in the interpretation of Spanish double taxation conventions. Taking as a premise the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties and the wording of Article 3(2) OECD Model Convention, the authors explore the relevance of mutual agreements, tax authority practice and foreign court decisions on the tax treaty interpretation.

  16. The Samson Cree Nation v. the Crown : a microcosm of treaty, trust, and self-determination conflicts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Reilly, J.A. [O' Reilly and Associates (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    A review of legal proceedings of the Samson Cree Nation v. the Crown was presented. Proceedings were instituted in 1989 and relate to breaches by the Federal Crown of its treaty, trust, obligations and duties to the Samson Cree Nation. Legal proceedings are based on the treaty, as well as on the inherent and Aboriginal rights of the Samson Cree Nation. The historical and money management phases of the proceedings have now been completed. Issues raised by the proceedings include respect for the inherent right of self determination, proper interpretation and implementation of Treaty No. 6, and an appropriate consideration of the trust obligations assumed by the Crown as part of the constitutional compact. The Samson plaintiffs sought judicial recognition of their reserve lands, including the rights to oil and gas reserves and royalty proceeds. The proceeding identified breaches by the Crown of Samson treaty rights and breaches concerning management by the Crown of Samson royalty and other trust moneys. The case showed that the Crown retained and borrowed Samson Cree trust moneys and failed to prudently invest the Samson Cree Nation moneys or pay interest at a rate commensurate with prudent investment. The proceedings raised issues concerning the nature and scope of Treaty No. 6 and treaty rights of Treaty No. 6 Indians in relation to reserves, reserve resources and reserve assets. It was concluded that the case is a significant constitutional benchmark deriving from a strong recent recognition by the Supreme Court of Canada of the juridical force of treaties with Indian Nations.

  17. The Samson Cree Nation v. the Crown : a microcosm of treaty, trust, and self-determination conflicts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Reilly, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    A review of legal proceedings of the Samson Cree Nation v. the Crown was presented. Proceedings were instituted in 1989 and relate to breaches by the Federal Crown of its treaty, trust, obligations and duties to the Samson Cree Nation. Legal proceedings are based on the treaty, as well as on the inherent and Aboriginal rights of the Samson Cree Nation. The historical and money management phases of the proceedings have now been completed. Issues raised by the proceedings include respect for the inherent right of self determination, proper interpretation and implementation of Treaty No. 6, and an appropriate consideration of the trust obligations assumed by the Crown as part of the constitutional compact. The Samson plaintiffs sought judicial recognition of their reserve lands, including the rights to oil and gas reserves and royalty proceeds. The proceeding identified breaches by the Crown of Samson treaty rights and breaches concerning management by the Crown of Samson royalty and other trust moneys. The case showed that the Crown retained and borrowed Samson Cree trust moneys and failed to prudently invest the Samson Cree Nation moneys or pay interest at a rate commensurate with prudent investment. The proceedings raised issues concerning the nature and scope of Treaty No. 6 and treaty rights of Treaty No. 6 Indians in relation to reserves, reserve resources and reserve assets. It was concluded that the case is a significant constitutional benchmark deriving from a strong recent recognition by the Supreme Court of Canada of the juridical force of treaties with Indian Nations

  18. The Salt II Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, D.

    1991-01-01

    The first strategic arms limitation talks resulted in two agreements: the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and the Interim Agreement to Limit Strategic Offensive Arms. Senator Henry M. (Scoop) Jackson (D-Wa.) was concerned about the numerical advantage granted to the USSR by the Latter agreement and proposed an amendment that would prohibit future negotiators from granting the Soviet Union similar terms. This paper discusses the second round of SALT negotiations which opened in November 1972 and continued under presidents Richard M. Nixon, Gerald Ford, and Jimmy Carter. As the negotiators met, U.S. and Soviet scientists and engineers continued their work to develop new nuclear weapons and launchers. Particularly problematic were modern, large ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, and the Soviet Backfire bomber

  19. The nonproliferation treaty and peaceful uses of nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, Thomas

    1970-01-01

    In the past, nuclear arms control and peaceful uses of nuclear explosives were seen by many proponents of each as competing - if not opposing - interests. At one extreme, some viewed peaceful uses as an annoying irritant on the way to general and complete disarmament. At the other extreme, some considered arms-control arrangements - particularly those limiting nuclear testing - as bothersome barriers to realizing the full benefits of peaceful nuclear explosions. Most people found themselves somewhere between those extremes. But most also felt a continuing tension between essentially opposing forces. This polarity has been significantly altered by the 1968 Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons. It is believed that the future use of nuclear explosives for peaceful purposes will depend in large measure on the international arrangements worked out under the treaty. I also believe that the success of the treaty in checking proliferation of nuclear weapons is contingent, in substantial part, on those peaceful-uses arrangements. In the areas covered by the treaty, therefore, one could view an active development of peaceful uses for nuclear explosives as complementing rather than conflicting with nuclear arms control. The treaty is primarily a security agreement. It is aimed at reducing the risk of nuclear war by establishing permanency in the current separation of nuclear-weapon and non-nuclear-weapon nations. By its terms, each nuclear-weapon state agrees not to transfer nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices to any recipient, and each non-nuclear-weapon state agrees not to receive such weapons or devices. The non-nuclear- weapon parties are also obligated to negotiate safeguards agreements with the International Atomic Energy Agency covering peaceful-uses activities. And all signatories agree not to transfer fissionable material to those parties unless they are subject to such agreements. These provisions are all part of a scheme to limit the

  20. The nonproliferation treaty and peaceful uses of nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrlich, Thomas [School of Law, Stanford University, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    In the past, nuclear arms control and peaceful uses of nuclear explosives were seen by many proponents of each as competing - if not opposing - interests. At one extreme, some viewed peaceful uses as an annoying irritant on the way to general and complete disarmament. At the other extreme, some considered arms-control arrangements - particularly those limiting nuclear testing - as bothersome barriers to realizing the full benefits of peaceful nuclear explosions. Most people found themselves somewhere between those extremes. But most also felt a continuing tension between essentially opposing forces. This polarity has been significantly altered by the 1968 Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons. It is believed that the future use of nuclear explosives for peaceful purposes will depend in large measure on the international arrangements worked out under the treaty. I also believe that the success of the treaty in checking proliferation of nuclear weapons is contingent, in substantial part, on those peaceful-uses arrangements. In the areas covered by the treaty, therefore, one could view an active development of peaceful uses for nuclear explosives as complementing rather than conflicting with nuclear arms control. The treaty is primarily a security agreement. It is aimed at reducing the risk of nuclear war by establishing permanency in the current separation of nuclear-weapon and non-nuclear-weapon nations. By its terms, each nuclear-weapon state agrees not to transfer nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices to any recipient, and each non-nuclear-weapon state agrees not to receive such weapons or devices. The non-nuclear- weapon parties are also obligated to negotiate safeguards agreements with the International Atomic Energy Agency covering peaceful-uses activities. And all signatories agree not to transfer fissionable material to those parties unless they are subject to such agreements. These provisions are all part of a scheme to limit the

  1. 15 CFR 711.4 - Assistance in determining your obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assistance in determining your obligations. 711.4 Section 711.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS...

  2. Accounting and international relations:Britain, Spain and the Asiento treaty

    OpenAIRE

    Carmona, S.; Donoso, R.; Walker, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    The boundaries between accounting and law are contingent on time-space intersections. Here, these margins are explored in the realm of international relations by focusing on the Asiento, an 18th century treaty granting Britain the monopoly to trade slaves with the Spanish American colonies. Although a relatively minor concern of treaty-makers, noncompliance with provisions of the Asiento by the South Sea Company placed accounting centre stage in conflicts between Britain and Spain. In combina...

  3. 19 CFR 4.94 - Yacht privileges and obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yacht privileges and obligations. 4.94 Section 4... THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES General § 4.94 Yacht privileges and obligations...) A cruising license may be issued to a yacht of a foreign country only if it has been made to appear...

  4. NCI & Division Obligations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Displays obligations for grants, contracts, training fellowships, intramural research, and management and support, including the number of grant awards, funding amounts, and percent of the total NCI budget.

  5. The New START Treaty: a necessary or obsolete treaty?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekovich, Steven

    2012-01-01

    In a first part, the author evokes the discussions between the Republicans and the Democrats about the fact that President Obama said to President Medvedev he would have more flexibility to negotiate with Russia after the elections of 2012, whereas there is some controversy about the importance of US antimissile defence in terms of national security when Russia keeps on supporting dangerous states like Syria, North Korea and Iran. In a second part, he briefly recalls the objectives and content of the previous START treaties, outlines that START II is already obsolete, that which lead to a new approach called New START by the White House. Then, while noticing critics and evoking other treaties, he discusses the arguments for or against such a new treaty which is perceived as either only cosmetic or decisive. He comments ambiguities, ulterior motives, perceptions and strategic approaches of the different actors whether they are Russians or Americans. He finally outlines some measures of this New Treaty which may jeopardize positive expectations regarding the reduction of strategic weapons and the antimissile defence

  6. South Pacific nuclear free zone treaty (Treaty of Rarotonga)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The Treaty of Rarotonga creates a ''nuclear-free'', rather than a ''nuclear-weapon-free'', zone. The former term was chosen for a number of reasons. It was the intention of the signatories to the Treaty to keep the region free of the stationing of nuclear weapons, nuclear testing and environmental pollution by radioactive waste. Moreover, they wished to prohibit all types of nuclear explosions. Accordingly, the operative articles of the Treaty refer consistently to ''nuclear explosive devices'', a term which is interpreted to cover all such devices, irrespective of the purpose (military or peaceful) stated for their use. The Final Document of the first special session of the General Assembly devoted to disarmament, unanimously adopted by the Assembly in 1978, states that nuclear-weapon-free zones should be established on the basis of arrangements freely arrived at among the States of the region concerned and taking into account the region's characteristics, and that the process of establishing such zones in different parts of the world should be encouraged with the ultimate objective of achieving a world entirely free of nuclear weapons. The members of the South Pacific Forum concluded the Treaty of Rarotonga as a step in that process

  7. Some considerations on the Tlatelolco Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, N.M. de; Goes Fischer, M.D. de

    1981-01-01

    Some considerations related to the Tlatelolco Treaty are focused and so are the role and the position of Brazil in view of the Treaty. Short historical remarks are presented in order to show the commitments of Brazil with the Treaty. Finally, considerations concerned with the validity of the Treaty as the legal instrument to contribute to the security and peace in the World. (Author) [pt

  8. Verification of a Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT): The Potential Role of the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Jin Ho

    2016-01-01

    The objective of a future verification of a FMCT(Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty) is to deter and detect non-compliance with treaty obligations in a timely and non-discriminatory manner with regard to banning the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons or other nuclear devices. Since the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has already established the IAEA safeguards as a verification system mainly for Non -Nuclear Weapon States (NNWSs), it is expected that the IAEA's experience and expertise in this field will make a significant contribution to setting up a future treaty's verification regime. This paper is designed to explore the potential role of the IAEA in verifying the future treaty by analyzing verification abilities of the Agency in terms of treaty verification and expected challenges. Furthermore, the concept of multilateral verification that could be facilitated by the IAEA will be examined as a measure of providing a credible assurance of compliance with a future treaty. In this circumstance, it is necessary for the IAEA to be prepared for playing a leading role in FMCT verifications as a form of multilateral verification by taking advantage of its existing verification concepts, methods, and tools. Also, several challenges that the Agency faces today need to be overcome, including dealing with sensitive and proliferative information, attribution of fissile materials, lack of verification experience in military fuel cycle facilities, and different attitude and culture towards verification between NWSs and NNWSs

  9. Verification of a Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT): The Potential Role of the IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Jin Ho [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The objective of a future verification of a FMCT(Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty) is to deter and detect non-compliance with treaty obligations in a timely and non-discriminatory manner with regard to banning the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons or other nuclear devices. Since the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has already established the IAEA safeguards as a verification system mainly for Non -Nuclear Weapon States (NNWSs), it is expected that the IAEA's experience and expertise in this field will make a significant contribution to setting up a future treaty's verification regime. This paper is designed to explore the potential role of the IAEA in verifying the future treaty by analyzing verification abilities of the Agency in terms of treaty verification and expected challenges. Furthermore, the concept of multilateral verification that could be facilitated by the IAEA will be examined as a measure of providing a credible assurance of compliance with a future treaty. In this circumstance, it is necessary for the IAEA to be prepared for playing a leading role in FMCT verifications as a form of multilateral verification by taking advantage of its existing verification concepts, methods, and tools. Also, several challenges that the Agency faces today need to be overcome, including dealing with sensitive and proliferative information, attribution of fissile materials, lack of verification experience in military fuel cycle facilities, and different attitude and culture towards verification between NWSs and NNWSs.

  10. Comprehensive Nuclear Test-ban Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty was adopted by the General Assembly on 10 September 1996 (Res/50/245) and was open for signature by all states on 24 September 1996. It will enter into force 180 days after the date of deposit of the instruments of ratification by all states listed in Annex 2 to the Treaty. This document reproduces the text of the Treaty and the Protocol to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Protocol to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty

  11. Comprehensive Nuclear Test-ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty was adopted by the General Assembly on 10 September 1996 (Res/50/245) and was open for signature by all states on 24 September 1996. It will enter into force 180 days after the date of deposit of the instruments of ratification by all states listed in Annex 2 to the Treaty. This document reproduces the text of the Treaty and the Protocol to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Protocol to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty. 4 tabs.

  12. Australia: Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Model Treaty text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The scope of the proposed Treaty includes the following: Each State Party undertakes not to carry out any nuclear weapon test explosion, and to prohibit and prevent any such nuclear explosion at any place under its jurisdiction or control; each State Party undertakes, furthermore, to refrain from causing, encouraging, or in any way participating in the carrying out of any nuclear weapon tests explosion or any other nuclear explosion

  13. Defense Treaty Inspection Readiness Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronin, J.J.; Kohen, M.D.; Rivers, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Defense Treaty Inspection Readiness Program (DTIRP) was established by the Department of Defense in 1990 to assist defense facilities in preparing for treaty verification activities. Led by the On-Site Inspection Agency (OSIA), an element of the Department of Defense, DTIRP''s membership includes representatives from other Department of Defense agencies, the Department of Energy (DOE), the Central Intelligence Agency, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Department of Commerce, and others. The Office of Safeguards and Security has a significant interest in this program, due to the number of national defense facilities within its purview that are candidates for future inspections. As a result, the Office of Safeguards and Security has taken a very active role in DTIRP. This paper discusses the Office of Safeguards and Security''s increasing involvement in various elements of the DTIRP, ranging from facility assessments to training development and implementation

  14. European constitution and EURATOM treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2003-01-01

    The European Council held in Laeken in December 2001 had decided to call a convention preparing the next conference of the heads of state and government which, among other topics, was to deliberate the question of a fully formulated European constitution. Under the presidency of Giscard d'Estaing, all delegates to the European Convention on July 10, 2003 signed the draft treaty for a European constitution. This final document is the basis of the conference of the heads of state and government to begin in October 2003. On this occasion, the draft of a separate chapter on energy could well come up again for examination. This chapter had been introduced only at the end of the deliberations of the convention and adds to the competences of the EU institutions. Also the Euratom Treaty was a topic of the convention preparing the constitution. As the presidency felt that no specific issues had been raised in the Laeken declaration, it is proposed to adapt the Euratom Treaty to the new provisions of the constitution by adding a protocol. This would mean that the European Atomic Energy Community, for the time being, would retain its independent legal status. The contents would have to be examined at some later date. Consequently, the real discussion of the Euratom Treaty is yet to come. Also, the speedy completion of the single market for electricity would make it desirable for the Community to adopt a uniform, positive stance in the use of nuclear power at the best possible safety standards so as to ensure a level playing field. Current events entailing power failures in the United States and the United Kingdom have alerted the public to the problem of the continuity of power supply. This could well be the beginning of a new, unbiased, balanced energy discussion in a bigger Europe. (orig.)

  15. Citizenship of the European Union under the Treaty of Lisbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Nely MILITARU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is structured in two parts. The first part covers history, "Union citizenship, according to previous Treaties Lisbon Treaty, and the second refers to the privileges which they have as citizens of the Union Treaty as a result of reforming the European Union, referring to documents on which this Treaty adhere it recognizes as having the same legal force, treaties, (Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.

  16. Agreement of 3 May 1996 between the government of the commonwealth of Dominica and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty of the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Exchange of Letters with the Commonwealth of Dominica in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and Caribbean, which constitutes an agreement confirming that the Safeguards Agreement of 3 May 1996 (IAEA-INFCIRC-513) concluded between the Government of the Commonwealth of Dominica (Dominica) and the IAEA pursuant to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) satisfies the obligation of Dominica under Article 13 of the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and Caribbean (the Tlatelolco Treaty) to conclude a safeguards agreement with the IAEA

  17. The Limited Test Ban Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeb, B.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the Limited Test Ban Treaty which came at the end of nearly five years of frustrated efforts to obtain a comprehensive test ban. Negotiations toward that end had begun in October 1958. At the same time a voluntary, informal moratorium on tests was initiated. The negotiations soon stalled over the Soviet Union's resistance to internationally supervised inspections on its soil. In April 1959 a phased ban that was to be limited at first to atmospheric tests conducted below an altitude of 50 kilometers. Such tests were thought to be easily verifiable. The Soviets rejected this idea and continued to insist that a complete test ban need not require numerous inspections. The two sides nevertheless appeared to be nearing agreement on a treaty to ban all but relatively small underground tests when, in May 1960, an U.S. U-2 reconnaissance plane was shot down over Soviet territory. After a thorough review of the U.S. position, the Kennedy administration proposed in April 1961 a draft treaty that made several concessions toward the Soviet position. Nevertheless, the Soviets, still disagreeing with the provisions for verification and with the makeup of the control organization, rejected it

  18. 77 FR 30584 - Notice of Termination of United States-Bolivia Bilateral Investment Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... of Termination of United States--Bolivia Bilateral Investment Treaty AGENCY: Department of State and Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Government of Bolivia has...-9580. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Bolivia delivered notice on June 10, 2011, that it was terminating the...

  19. Toward a treaty on safety and cost-effectiveness of pharmaceuticals and medical devices: enhancing an endangered global public good

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faunce Thomas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract • Expert evaluations of the safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness of pharmaceutical and medical devices, prior to marketing approval or reimbursement listing, collectively represent a globally important public good. The scientific processes involved play a major role in protecting the public from product risks such as unintended or adverse events, sub-standard production and unnecessary burdens on individual and governmental healthcare budgets. • Most States now have an increasing policy interest in this area, though institutional arrangements, particularly in the area of cost-effectiveness analysis of medical devices, are not uniformly advanced and are fragile in the face of opposing multinational industry pressure to recoup investment and maintain profit margins. • This paper examines the possibility, in this context, of States commencing negotiations toward bilateral trade agreement provisions, and ultimately perhaps a multilateral Treaty, on safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness analysis of pharmaceuticals and medical devices. Such obligations may robustly facilitate a conceptually interlinked, but endangered, global public good, without compromising the capacity of intellectual property laws to facilitate local product innovations.

  20. US Investment Treaties and Labor Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwan-Ho Kim

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Korea and the United States declared the start of negotiations for the establishment of a free trade agreement. The FTA will include investment chapter. That means the Korea-US BIT (Bilateral Investment Treaty talk, which has been deadlocked since 1998, resumes as a part of FTA negotiations. The FTA investment chapter will be based on the US model BIT, which has been updated in 2004. The updated BIT version includes labor clause which provides that parties should not weaken labor standards in an effort to attract foreign investment. This clause is grounded on the criticism raised by labor groups which asserts that competition among countries to attract foreign investment leads to bidding wars in labor standards. No solid evidence is found in support of the hypothesis that foreign investors favor countries with lower labor standards. Nonetheless, some countries have offered special incentives to investors that limit labor rights in the belief that doing so would help attract foreign investment, especially in export processing or special economic zones. In this regard, the Korea's Act on free economic zones which provides exceptional labor standards to foreign invested enterprise in those zones may become an issue in reaching the FTA. This article contemplates the "not lowering labor standards" provision in the US BIT model and its implications on the FTA talks with the US.

  1. Offset drilling obligations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, K.D.; Kalmakoff, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the 'offset well' clause found in freehold and Crown natural gas and petroleum leases was presented. The objective was to provide lessors and lessees with a clear understanding of the rights and obligations associated with offset wells. It was noted that offset well obligations vary according to the form of lease used, the type of offsetting well, the regulatory regime and the geophysical characteristics of the producing formation. Some suggestions were made as to how current versions of the offset well clause can be amended to overcome some of the problems encountered in applying the clause to an offset horizontal well that has been drilled on adjoining lands. Failure to resolve the new issues presented by horizontal drilling technology in terms of documentation, which records respective rights and obligations on the basis of generally accepted principles, will result in large numbers of conflicts and unnecessary litigation. 144 refs., 1 fig

  2. Slovenia and Kyoto Obligation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirsek, A.; Jevsek, F.; Plavcak, V.-P.

    1998-01-01

    The paper gives the possibilities of emission reduction as an obligation from Kyoto Protocol. The Slovenia environmental and energy strategies are regulated to implement the agreement to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases by 8% to the year 2012 as regard the basic year 1986 in energy, transportation, industrial and other sectors, especially focused on electric power sector. (author)

  3. Confluence of climate change policies and international trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vickery, R.E. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    The paper summarizes market information on energy conservation and renewable energy industries in the U.S., and highlights activities of the International Trade Administration. International treaties agreements on environmental issues are examined with respect to their influence on U.S. trade promotion and job creation. A sectoral analysis of the economic impact of greenhouse gas emissions reductions on industries is very briefly summarized. Finally, the need for a climate change treaty in spite of possible adverse impacts is discussed. 1 tab.

  4. The politics of arms control treaty ratification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krepon, M.; Caldwell, D.

    1991-01-01

    This book presents a critical examination of executive-congressional relations and the domestic politics of arms control treaty ratification within the United States during the twentieth century. The staring point of this study is the hypothesis that the politics of treaty ratification can be as important as the negotiations leading up to agreements. Benefits to international peace and security sought in years of painstaking diplomatic effort can be lost without Senate consent, as was the case with the Treaty of Versailles and the second treaty arising from the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT II). The authors of the case studies were requested to present first a brief, historical introduction to the case indicating why the case was important, the background concerning the origins of the treaty, and the treaty's major provisions. The purpose of the introduction to the case was not to provide a complete picture of the negotiating record but to set the stage for a more in-depth discussion of the events that followed after the treaty was signed. The authors address five substantive areas: the international political context of the treaty, the domestic political context, the role of the president, executive-congressional relations, and public opinion and the role of interest groups. The questions and issues concerning each of these areas are briefly summarized

  5. Learning from the EU Constitutional Treaty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crum, B.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    The negative results of referenda on the European Union (EU) Constitutional Treaty in France and the Netherlands, and subsequent low-key adoption of the Treaty of Lisbon raise complex questions about the possible democratization of international organisations. This book provides a full analysis of

  6. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    The document contains the 3 Protocols to the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty (INFCIRC-331) adopted by the South Pacific Forum at its 17th session in Suva on 8 August 1986. The treaty entered into force on 11 December 1986

  7. Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) Treaty Status Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Socioeconomic Data and Application Center (SEDAC) Treaty Status Dataset contains comprehensive treaty information for multilateral environmental agreements,...

  8. Energy supplier obligations and white certificate schemes: Comparative analysis of experiences in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertoldi, Paolo; Rezessy, Silvia; Lees, Eoin; Baudry, Paul; Jeandel, Alexandre; Labanca, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    A number of Member States of the European Union (EU) have introduced market-based policy portfolios based on quantified energy savings obligations on energy distributors or suppliers, possibly coupled with certification of project-based energy savings (via white certificates), and the option to trade the certificates or obligations. The paper provides an up-to-date review and analysis of results to date of white certificate schemes in the EU. In the EU supplier obligations and white certificate schemes have delivered larger savings than originally expected with obliged companies exceeding targets and, in some cases, at cost below what policy makers have anticipated. Supplier obligations foster the uptake of standardised energy efficiency actions often targeting smaller energy users (residential sector), lowering the transaction costs and contributing to market transformation. The role of certificate trading is more ambiguous. Trading can bring benefits where the target is set sufficiently high with respect to the energy-saving potential in the sectors covered. Theoretically trading may be better suited for broader systems with comprehensive coverage, but even in smaller schemes trading may reduce the transaction costs of compliance for obliged actors without sufficient expertise on end-use energy efficiency. Yet, trading increases the administrative cost ratio of energy-saving obligations.

  9. Energy supplier obligations and white certificate schemes: Comparative analysis of experiences in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertoldi, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.bertoldi@ec.europa.e [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy, Via E. Fermi 1, TP 450, 21027 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy); Rezessy, Silvia, E-mail: silvia.rezessy@ec.europa.e [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy, Via E. Fermi 1, TP 450, 21027 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy); Lees, Eoin, E-mail: eoin@eoinleesenergy.co [Eoin Lees Energy, 4 Silver Lane, West Challow, Wantage, Oxon OX12 9TX (United Kingdom); Baudry, Paul, E-mail: paul.baudry@edf.f [EDF R and D, Centre des Renardieres, 77818 Moret sur Loing (France); Jeandel, Alexandre, E-mail: alexandre.jeandel@gdfsuez.co [GDF SUEZ, 16, rue Ville L' Eveque, 75008 Paris (France); Labanca, Nicola, E-mail: nicola.labanca@polimi.i [eERG, Politecnico di Milano, Via Lambruschini n. 4, 20156 Milano (Italy)

    2010-03-15

    A number of Member States of the European Union (EU) have introduced market-based policy portfolios based on quantified energy savings obligations on energy distributors or suppliers, possibly coupled with certification of project-based energy savings (via white certificates), and the option to trade the certificates or obligations. The paper provides an up-to-date review and analysis of results to date of white certificate schemes in the EU. In the EU supplier obligations and white certificate schemes have delivered larger savings than originally expected with obliged companies exceeding targets and, in some cases, at cost below what policy makers have anticipated. Supplier obligations foster the uptake of standardised energy efficiency actions often targeting smaller energy users (residential sector), lowering the transaction costs and contributing to market transformation. The role of certificate trading is more ambiguous. Trading can bring benefits where the target is set sufficiently high with respect to the energy-saving potential in the sectors covered. Theoretically trading may be better suited for broader systems with comprehensive coverage, but even in smaller schemes trading may reduce the transaction costs of compliance for obliged actors without sufficient expertise on end-use energy efficiency. Yet, trading increases the administrative cost ratio of energy-saving obligations.

  10. Family Obligations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch-Nielsen, Inger

    How is the balance in obligations between the Family and the Danish Welfare State? Can we observe a trend to shift the responsibility back to the family? This booklet intends to sketch the legal framework around the division of responsibilities between the Family and the state and to analyse...... to what extent and where the unit of rights and obliagations is the individual and where it is the family or household....

  11. THE LEGAL CAPACITY TO TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-01-01

    Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities t...

  12. THE LEGAL CAPACITY TO TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities that can be reflected and analysed by obtaining and maintain the sole trader status.

  13. EUROATOM-treaty and intergovernmental conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.

    2007-01-01

    On June 26, 2007 the European Council decided under the chairmanship of the Head of State of the German Government, Angela Merkel, to work out a ''Reform Treaty'' for the European Union. The current version of the ''Reform Treaty'' and the Intergovernmental Conference are a successful result of the German and French policy for Europe. The process will be continued under the Portuguese chairmanship of the European Union. The ''Reform Treaty'' includes a special separate energy chapter. The chapter includes targets for an EU-energy policy as well as targets for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Furthermore special technical topics of a revision of the EURATOM-Treaty are mentioned. General revisions of the EURATOM-Treaty or a special Intergovernmental Conference on the EURATOM-Treaty are not expected. Maybe, the European Parliament will get more competence in some parts of decision making processes. Due to the differing views on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in the EU member states a revision of the EUROATOM-Treaty is more unlikely expected. (orig.)

  14. TOWARDS FULFILLMENT OF FUNDAMENTAL RULES OF HUMANITARIAN LAW IN THE CONTEXT OF THE NUCLEAR NON-PROLIFERATION TREATY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    s. Bagheri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT is an international treaty that should be implemented during both peace and wartime. However, the obligations included in the treaty are dependent upon states' attitudes regarding other issues. Non-use of nuclear weapons is directly related to negotiations done for the purpose of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, non-production or accumulation by other means and disarmament. In our day, prevention of the proliferation of nuclear weapons has been one of the issues of international law.The present study is of crucial significance due to its endeavor to clarify the general principles of Humanitarian Law in a relationship to the threat of nuclear weapons' up to now, a special norm; significantly limiting or completely prohibiting the use of nuclear weapons, has not been accepted in international law. However, customary international humanitarian law regarding the use of nuclear weapons holds great value because of its purpose in eliminating nuclear weapons as a means of war through ascertaining their non-use and also appeasing the importance of nuclear ascendancy. In this respect, the NPT regime and its relationship with international humanitarian law will be discussed. Firstly, the NPT background, formation, main objectives and principles will be analyzed. In order to evaluate the relationship between the NPT and humanitarian law, the humanitarian obligations in general, humanitarian obligations in the context of the NPT and fulfillmen t of these obligations under the NPT should be studied. One of the main parts of the study is nuclear disarmament obligation included in the NPT. In this section, nuclear disarmament obligation in the context of the NPT and the legal framework of possible, general and comprehensive disarmament will be examined.

  15. The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platt, A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that in late May 1972 former President Richard M. Nixon went to Moscow and signed, among other documents, a Treaty to Limit Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Systems. Under this agreement, both the United States and the Soviet Union made a commitment not to build nationwide ABM defenses against the other's intercontinental and submarine-launched ballistic missiles. They agreed to limit ABM deployments to a maximum of two sites, with no more than 100 launchers per site. Thirteen of the treaty's sixteen articles are intended to prevent any deviation from this. In addition, a joint Standing Consultative Commission to monitor compliance was created. National technical means --- sophisticated monitoring devices on land, sea, and in space --- were to be the primary instruments used to monitor compliance with the treaty. The ABM Treaty was signed in conjunction with an Interim Agreement to Limit Strategic Offensive Arms

  16. Ballistic Missile Defense and ABM Treaty Limitations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robinson, Brian

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. must critically evaluate our current ballistic missile defense (BMD) strategy. In today's geostrategic context, is it sound strategy to continue to impose 1972 ABM Treaty restrictions on BMD systems development...

  17. International Treaties Tax Law in Brazilian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Zampieri Sellmann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available International agreements are the primary source of obligations internationally, whi- ch generate reflections in national law. They have been extremely used in tax harvest because they avoid double taxation and reduce tax burden in international trade. They are formal sources of tax law, which the legislature is expressly recognized in Article 96 of the National Tax Code to set the “tax legislation” expression. Article 98 of the Code determines the supremacy of international tax agreements over national law. Against the odds, international tax agreements do not revoke or modify the national legislation, just limit the effectiveness of national law incompatible with them, with supra-legal hierarchy and infra-constitution. They are above national law, either after or before it is created, and are below the Federal Constitution, so agreements incompatible with it should not be approved by Congress and, if so, they will be subject to declaration of unconstitutionality by the Supreme Court. It is a reporting case the international agreement’s unconstitutio- nality after it is celebrated.

  18. Analysis of the Interactions between Treaties

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    PROVISIONS Assist ana protect against chemical weapons UIVERSALITY Research, share/exchange chemi- cals, equipment, information rela. Not applicable ting...liability in the event of injury to a Soviet inspector. U.S. escorts maintain the right to prevent Soviet inspectors from undertaking life ...updated continually through notifications for the life of the Treaty and in total at periodic intervals. The START Treaty requires a myriad of

  19. Trade and transport of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The guide specifies the obligations pertaining to the trade in and transport of radiation sources and other matters to be taken into account in safety supervision. It also specifies obligations and procedures relating to transfrontier movements of radioactive waste contained in the EU Council Directive 92/3/Euratom. (7 refs.)

  20. Collateralized debt obligations (CDOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragosavac Miloš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Collateralized debt obligations (CDOs were issued in 1987 by bankers at Drexel Burnham Lambert Inc. A decade later, CDOs became the leading power on the credit derivative markets, on which the value of derivative assets was derived from the value of other assets. However, unlike options and credit swamps, CDOs are not real, which means that they are constructed, and sometimes even the construction of their construction. CDOs were made to satisfy different types of investors, at one end, there is low-risk with low-income, and at the other, high-risk with high-income. By 2007, following the bubble burst on the US real estate market, losses on the CDO market started to expand. By 2008, the crisis on the CDO market turned into what we call today 'the global financial crisis.' CDOs are 'in the heart' of the crisis, and even wider. Our attempt is to reveal the mechanism of collateralized debt obligations (CDOs and the way in which CDOs expanded the negative effects of the present global financial crisis.

  1. The Treaty of Tordesillas and the (reInvention of International Law in the Age of Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Waisberg

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate some of the main features of sixteenth century international law in order to challenge traditional international law foundations. By exploring concrete cases, and indicating situations in which state and non-state actors resorted to international norms in order to promote trade and celebrate peace treaties, it is inquired whether some pre-Westphalia international trade and warfare practices may be defined as the beginning of “modern” international law.

  2. INCOME TAX TREATIES, WITH PARTICULAR REGARD FOR THE CONVENTION BETWEEN U.S. AND ITALY

    OpenAIRE

    De Girolamo, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Double taxation has a detrimental effect on the movement of capital, technology and persons and on the exchange of goods and services. Tax conventions, when properly applied, remove the obstacles of double taxation, thereby promoting the development and flow of international trade and investment. Hence, one of the most important roles of double income treaties is to remove the double taxation and to beat these obstacles for cross-border economic transactions. The globalization of fina...

  3. The treaty on the South-East Asia nuclear-weapon-free zone (the Bangkok treaty)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganapathy, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Bangkok Treaty was signed in 1995 during the Fifth ASEAN Summit by the 10 South-East Asian countries. It represents a commitment on the part of the signatories to the Treaty to maintain peace and stability in the region in the spirit of peaceful coexistence, mutual understanding and cooperation

  4. The Euratom Treaty v. Treaties of the European Union: limits of competence and interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ptasekaite, Rasa

    2011-07-15

    The main aim of this research was to analyse the interaction between the Euratom Treaty and the TFEU in certain specific fields - environmental nuclear liability, transport of radioactive substances and common market (free movement of goods, competition law and state aid). However, before doing that, certain introduction to regulation of the Euratom Treaty, its special features and the changes made by the Lisbon Treaty seemed beneficial. Therefore, the research consists of two parts - the introduction to the Euratom Treaty and the assessment of the relation between the Euratom Treaty and the TFEU in the areas mentioned above. The conclusions related to each of the areas are presented in the end of each chapter while the general conclusions of the research are provided in the end. The literature used in the research include legislative and non-legislative acts of the Euratom Community and the European Union, Judgements of the Court of Justice of the European Union, publications of various researchers and internet resources.

  5. The Euratom Treaty v. Treaties of the European Union: limits of competence and interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ptasekaite, Rasa

    2011-07-01

    The main aim of this research was to analyse the interaction between the Euratom Treaty and the TFEU in certain specific fields - environmental nuclear liability, transport of radioactive substances and common market (free movement of goods, competition law and state aid). However, before doing that, certain introduction to regulation of the Euratom Treaty, its special features and the changes made by the Lisbon Treaty seemed beneficial. Therefore, the research consists of two parts - the introduction to the Euratom Treaty and the assessment of the relation between the Euratom Treaty and the TFEU in the areas mentioned above. The conclusions related to each of the areas are presented in the end of each chapter while the general conclusions of the research are provided in the end. The literature used in the research include legislative and non-legislative acts of the Euratom Community and the European Union, Judgements of the Court of Justice of the European Union, publications of various researchers and internet resources

  6. Agreement between the Republic of Panama and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America. An agreement by exchange of letters of 6 November 1995 and 17 November 2003 with the Republic of Panama in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The text of the Exchange of Letters is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. This Exchange of Letters constitutes an agreement confirming that: the Safeguards Agreement of 23 March 1984, concluded between the Republic of Panama and the IAEA, pursuant to the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (the Tlatelolco Treaty), also satisfies the obligation of Panama under Article III of the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) to conclude a safeguards agreement with the IAEA; the safeguards set forth in the Safeguards Agreement shall also apply, as regards Panama, in connection with the NPT; the provisions of the Safeguards Agreement shall apply as long as Panama is party to the NPT or the Tlatelolco Treaty or both. The agreement reflected in the Exchange of Letters was approved by the Board of Governors on 20 November 2003, and pursuant to its terms, entered into force on that date

  7. The Emergence of Denmark’s Tax Treaty Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Peter Koerver

    2018-01-01

    This contribution analyzes the origin and creation of Denmark’s tax treaty network in a historical perspective. The development of the Danish treaty network is studied through an international perspective and by discussing a number of milestone events. It is concluded that the general tendency has...... pointed toward a continuously growing Danish treaty network and also that the question on abuse of the treaties has become of greater concern during the past decades. Moreover, it is argued that the growing number and importance of Denmark’s tax treaties over time created a need for the Danish parliament...... to be more directly involved in the conclusion of new tax treaties...

  8. Conditions applying to Australian uranium exports - safeguards obligations under NPT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotsey, W.B.

    1975-08-01

    The Australian Government's expressed desire to inhibit the spread of nuclear weapons and its wish to prevent Australia's uranium exports being used for manufacture of nuclear explosives are underwritten by Australia's formal international obligations. Australia is not free to export its material without paying due regard to supra-national requirements. This paper defines two safeguards regimes, one applying to countries such as Australia which are party to the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the other to those which are not parties. The application of safeguards and the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are briefly explained. Australia's obligations under the NPT and those stemming from specific undertakings to the IAEA are stated. The latter require Australia to ensure that Non-Nuclear Weapons States not party to the NPT give assurances that Australian uranium will not be used for the manufacture of nuclear explosives and that they will permit verification by the IAEA. These obligations give rise to a set of minimum conditions applying to exports of Australian uranium which vary according to the NPT status of the importing countries. (author)

  9. 16 CFR 240.11 - Wholesaler or third party performance of seller's obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wholesaler or third party performance of seller's obligations. 240.11 Section 240.11 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES...

  10. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    On 8 August 1986 the Protocols to the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty were adopted by the South Pacific Forum at its 17 th session, in Suva. The attached texts of the Protocols were formally communicated to the Director General by the Director of the South Pacific Bureau for Economic Co-operation (SPEC) and are herewith being circulated to all Member States for their information pursuant to a request made by the Director of SPEC. Following the deposit of the eighth instrument of ratification, the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty entered into force on 11 December 1986 [es

  11. Impending revision of the euratom treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahl, G.

    1979-01-01

    The decision by the European Court of Justice in the matter of the EEC's participation in international negotiations on safety problems of the nuclear fuel cycle is of basic importance, beyond the case to which it referred, in the interpretation of the respective provisions of the Euratom Treaty in the nuclear fuel sector. The reasoning of the European Court of Justice, which constitutes a reinforcement and advancement of the responsibilities and rights of the EEC, has made France ask for a revision of the Treaty. (orig.) [de

  12. 50 CFR 23.20 - What CITES documents are required for international trade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... international trade? 23.20 Section 23.20 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN... CITES documents are required for international trade? (a) Purpose. Articles III, IV, and V of the Treaty...

  13. Gradualism in Tax Treaties with Irreversible Foreign Direct Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Chisik; Ronald B. Davies

    2010-01-01

    Bilateral international tax treaties govern the host country taxation for the vast majority of the world’s foreign direct investment (FDI). Of particular interest is the fact that the tax rates used under these treaties are gradually falling although the treaties themselves do not specify any such reductions. Since there is no outside governing agency to redress treaty violations, such reductions must be both mutually beneficial and self-enforcing. Furthermore, the optimal tax rates must be l...

  14. The Asian countries and the non-proliferation treaty prorogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, N.

    1995-01-01

    This work deals with the non-proliferation treaty prorogation of Asia. The position of the asian countries under the old non-proliferation treaty is given. It includes the 1968 non-proliferation treaty signatories, the calling in question again and the criticisms revealed by the asian countries. The positions and the open forecasts expressed on the non-proliferation treaty prorogation and the article on the elimination of the nuclear weapons are also given. (O.L.)

  15. Treaty implementation applied to conventions on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montjoie, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Given that safety is the number one priority for the nuclear industry, it would seem normal that procedures exist to ensure the effective implementation of the provisions of the conventions on nuclear safety, as already exist for numerous international treaties. Unfortunately, these procedures are either weak or even nonexistent. Therefore, consideration must be given to whether this weakness represents a genuine deficiency in ensuring the main objective of these conventions, which is to achieve a high level of nuclear safety worldwide. But, before one can even address that issue, a prior question must be answered: does the specific nature of the international legal framework on nuclear safety automatically result in a lack of non-compliance procedures in international conventions on the subject? If so, the lack of procedures is justified, despite the drawbacks. The specific nature of the international law on nuclear safety, which in 1994 shaped the content of the CNS by notably not 'allowing' (even today) the incorporation of precise international rules have been taken into account. The next step is to examine whether the absence of non-compliance procedures (which could have been integrated into the text) is a hindrance in ensuring the objectives of the conventions on nuclear safety, and to examine the procedures that could have been used, based on existing provisions in other areas of international law (environmental law, financial law, disarmament law, human rights, etc.). International environmental law will be the main source of this study, as it has certain similarities with the international law on nuclear safety due to the sometimes vague nature of its obligations and irrespective of the fact that one of the purposes of nuclear safety is in particular to protect the environment from radiological hazards. Indeed, the provisions of the law on nuclear safety are mainly technical and designed to guarantee the normal operation of nuclear facilities

  16. Digital Storytelling for Historical Understanding: Treaty Education for Reconciliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Katia; Lewis, Patrick; Kreuger, Claire; Naytowhow, Joseph; Tupper, Jennifer; Couros, Alec; Montgomery, Ken

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a research project that sought to interrogate the possibilities of digital storytelling as a pathway towards a more complete understanding of treaties and the treaty relationship in western Canada. This research is situated in the province of Saskatchewan, where treaty education (that is, education about the…

  17. Twenty years of the Non-proliferation Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldblat, Jozef.

    1990-01-01

    The report assesses the achievements of the Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) and discusses ways in which the non-proliferation regime could be strenghtened. It recommends a series of measures to be taken by the parties of the Treaty, both nuclear and non-nuclear weapons states, with a view to reinforcing the Treaty and achieving its universality. 198 refs

  18. 78 FR 62367 - Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-21

    ... Office 37 CFR Parts 1, 3 and 11 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal... 0651-AC85 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Patent Law Treaties Implementation Act of 2012 (PLTIA) amends...

  19. 78 FR 21787 - Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... Trademark Office 37 CFR Parts 1 and 3 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty; Proposed Rule #0;#0...-0007] RIN 0651-AC85 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Patent Law Treaties...

  20. The treaty for the prohibition of nuclear weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (Tlatelolco Treaty)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In a letter of 28 January 1994, the Director General was informed that on 18 January 1994, the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin American and the Caribbean entered into force for the Argentine Republic

  1. Treaty for the prohibition of nuclear weapons in Latin America (Treaty of Tlatelolco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Treaty of Tlatelolco enhances the security of the countries of the region by reducing the risk of a nuclear-arms race among them, with all the danger and cost that it would entail, and, as a contribution to the world-wide nuclear non-proliferation regime, it constitutes an important confidence-building measure by ensuring, through its control and verification system, that parties to the Treaty do not posses and will not acquire nuclear weapons. List of parties to the Treaty of Tlatelolco as of 31 July 1989: Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Bolivia, Brazil (not full party), Chile (not full party), Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay and Venezuela. (Argentina and Dominica have signed the Treaty)

  2. Amendments to the treaty for the prohibition of nuclear weapons in Latin America (Tlatelolco Treaty)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The document reproduces the amendments to the Tlatelolco Treaty approved on 26 August 1992 by the Special Session of the General Conference of the Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean

  3. The contradictions in nuclear trade law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    1988-01-01

    International law applicable to trade in nuclear materials, equipment and technology still lacks homogeneity and its implementation gives rise to some controversy. This is explained by the fact that this law, whose pivot is the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, reflects several contradictions: the need to restrict communication of sensitive information and the will to encourage international cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy; acknowledgement of the differences in the status of the countries concerned and the principle of non-discrimination established by the Treaty; a selective policy for imports and the aim to achieve free access to nuclear technology. (NEA) [fr

  4. Enhanced Cooperation under the Lisbon Treaty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, Nico

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced cooperation is often regarded as being a way out of EU decision-making deadlock and as a major possibility of proceeding with European integration in selected areas. Although the mechanism has been in place since the Treaty of Amsterdam, enhanced cooperation has only recently become a

  5. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    The full text of the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty with its Annexes endorsed on 6 August 1985 by the South Pacific Forum (a body comprising the independent and self-governing countries of the South Pacific, namely Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Nive, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Western Samoa) is presented

  6. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    On 6 August 1985 the South Pacific Forum, a body comprising the independent and self-governing countries of the South Pacific (Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Western Samoa), endorsed the text of the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty and opened it for signature [es

  7. Incomplete Contracting Theory and EU Treaty Provisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele; Jensen, Mads Dagnis

    , the paper utilises an automated text analysis approach to measure the ambiguity of Treaty provisions on a number of indicators. Empirically, the analysis demonstrates a significant association between the indicators of article ambiguity and the number of laws and court rulings. It thus provides support...

  8. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    On 6 August 1985 the South Pacific Forum, a body comprising the independent and self-governing countries of the South Pacific (Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Western Samoa), endorsed the text of the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty and opened it for signature [ru

  9. Tax treaty entitlement issues concerning dual residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanghavi, D.

    2014-01-01

    The question whether a dual resident taxpayer is entitled to tax treaties concluded by each residence state with a third state has been controversial. Since 2008, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Commentary on Article 4(1) of the OECD Model states that such a

  10. 78 FR 7759 - Patent Cooperation Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Patent and Trademark Office Patent Cooperation Treaty ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its... States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450. Federal Rulemaking Portal...

  11. The Energy Charter Treaty and Related Documents. A Legal Framework for International Energy Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Energy Charter Treaty is a unique instrument for the promotion of international cooperation in the energy sector. Following its entry into force on 16 April 1998, the Treaty, together with the related documents contained in this booklet, provides an important legal basis for the creation of an open international energy market. The Charter process includes the countries of the enlarged European Union, Central and Eastern Europe, the Russian Federation, Central Asia and the Caucasus, as well as Japan, Australia and Mongolia. The Treaty remains open for accession by all countries committed to observance of its principles. It is very positive in this regard that states such as China, Iran, South Korea and the countries of ASEAN are taking a close interest in the Charter process, thus opening up the prospect of a further extension of its geographical scope. The primary challenge facing the constituent members of the Energy Charter process in the coming years will be that of ensuring full implementation of the Treaty's commitments. This will entail increased focus on multilateral cooperation over transit, trade, investments, environmental protection and energy efficiency. By continuing to build on its existing work in these areas, the Charter process stands ready to play a key role in translating the aim of a truly open non-discriminatory energy market into reality. This publication reproduces the text of the following documents: Final Act of the European Energy Charter Conference with all Annexes thereto, as opened for signature in Lisbon on 17 December 1994 and corrected by the Protocol of Correction of 2 August 1996; the Chairman's Statement at Adoption Session on 17 December 1994, as reported in the Note from the Secretariat 42/94 CONF 115; the Joint Memorandum of the Delegations of the Russian Federation and the European Communities on Nuclear Trade, as reported in the Note from the Secretariat 42/94 CONF 115; the Concluding Document of the Hague Conference on

  12. Trade Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Murray Gibbs

    2007-01-01

    In an otherwise insightful and thoughtful article, Sebastian Pfotenhauer (Trade Policy Is Science Policy,” Issues, Fall 2013) might better have entitled his contribution “Trade Policy Needs to Be Reconciled with Science Policy.” The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the agreements administered by the World Trade Organization, particularly the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), were adopted to promote international trade and i...

  13. The legal compatibility of the German Act for mandatory use of electricity from renewables (Stromeinspeisungsgesetz) with the Treaty of Rome; Die Vereinbarkeit des Stromeinspeisungsgesetzes mit dem EG-Vertrag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iro, S.P.

    1998-04-01

    In force since 1990, the German Stromeinspeisungsgesetz (obliging electric utilities to purchase at mandatory prices electricity from renewable energy sources) still is an issue of debates about legal justification under German law and compatibility with legislation on the European Internal Market for elctricity. The contribution analyses the points of friction with the Treaty of Rome, in particular the European regulations governing subsidization of national industries or undertakings by their government, aspects of freedom of trade within the EU and restrictive trade practices law. The conclusion of the legal analysis is that the German act is compatible with the subsidy regulations of the EU, but calls for amendment to correct infringements of the principles of free trade and competition within the EU in the provisions excluding electricity from renewables generated in other EU Member States. (CB) [Deutsch] Es ist schon seit 1990 in Kraft, und das Stromeinspeisungsgesetz bietet nach wie vor Anlass zu Diskussionen, sowohl aus dem Blickwinkel des deutschen Rechts wie auch vom Standpunkt des EGV. Der Beitrag konzentriert sich auf die rechtlichen Reibungspunkte mit europaeischem Recht, konkret die Regelungen ueber erlaubte staatliche Beihilfen an nationale Unternehmen, deren Abgrenzung zu allgemein wirtschaftspolitischen Massnahmen eines Staates und Aspekte der Warenverkehrsfreiheit und des Wettbewerbs auf dem europaeischen Binnenmarkt. Das Ergebnis der rechtlichen Analyse des Beitrags sieht in der Subventionierung der Stromerzeugung aus erneuerbaren Energien eine politische Entscheidung, die mit EG-Interessen und EG-Recht vereinbar ist. Das Gesetz verstosse jedoch gegen die Warenverkehrsfreieheit auf dem Binnenmarkt in den Regelungen, wo es entsprechend erzeugten Strom aus anderen Mitgliedslaendern von der Subventionierung ausnimmt. (orig./CB)

  14. Rome, Saguntum and the Ebro Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Eckstein

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available Pol. III 14, 9-10 makes it possible to argue that Rome's amicitia with Saguntum may have antedated the death of Hamilcar Barca, and so was no provocative innovation of the late 220's B. C. It is also unlikely that Rome's ties with Saguntum were affected by the terms of the Ebro Treaty of ca. 226, while Rome's right to such ties had a legal basis in the «Spanish terms» of the Roman-Punic Treaty of 348. It thus appears that in the late 220's it was Hannibal (not Rome who was seeking to change the existing status quo south of the Ebro.

  15. Agreements Provided for in the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Declarations Received from Bulgaria, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, Hungary and Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    The Director General has received from the Governments of Bulgaria, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, Hungary and Poland declarations in which they express their readiness, in conformity with the obligations they have assumed under Article III of the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, to begin negotiation of safeguards agreements with the Agency. The texts of these declarations are reproduced below for the information of all Members

  16. Agreements Provided for in the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Declarations Received from Bulgaria, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, Hungary and Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1970-06-11

    The Director General has received from the Governments of Bulgaria, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, Hungary and Poland declarations in which they express their readiness, in conformity with the obligations they have assumed under Article III of the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, to begin negotiation of safeguards agreements with the Agency. The texts of these declarations are reproduced below for the information of all Members.

  17. Obligation of the host state to act transparently towards the foreign investor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đundić Petar M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Provisions on obligation of a host state to act transparently towards foreign investors increasingly often find their way into bilateral investment treaties. Their goal is to provide the investor with all information concerning the investment's legal framework and which he needs in order to make an informed decision with regard to his investment. Certain provisions on transparency are so broad in their scope that they demand from the host state to provide an investor with a possibility to participate in the process of adoption of a state measure that could affect his interest. On the other hand, in arbitral practice the obligation to act transparently is traditionally seen as one of the elements of the fair and equitable treatment standard, although the practice has not so far provided a clear answer as to what is the exact role of this element and what is its relationship with other elements of the standard. The paper contains an analysis of transparency provisions from bilateral investment treaties concluded by the Republic of Serbia. The second part of the paper is dedicated to analysis of arbitral awards in which tribunals considered the transparency obligation as a part of the fair and equitable treatment standard.

  18. Sustainable Markets Investment Briefings: Investment Treaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2007-08-15

    This is the second of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 2 explains how investment treaties between states work to protect and promote foreign investment.

  19. Obligation target for sustainable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lensink, S.M.; Hekkenberg, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation asked ECN several questions about the development of a supplier's obligation. These questions addressed the volume of the certificates market. The questions are worded as follows by ECN: What is a realistic level to be set for the obligation for sustainable energy or for renewable electricity (in percentage of delivered electricity or TWh/year)? How far into the future should these obligations minimally be set? Is it desirable to limit the certificate issuance time to for example the economic life of an installation? This memo addresses the questions, knowing that the entire policy development process will still take considerable time. At the time of publication of this memo, large uncertainties still existed about the eventual shaping of future policy. [nl

  20. Flaws in the Non-Proliferation Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leventhal, P.

    1986-01-01

    The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nucler Weapons has the twin objectives of stopping the further spread of nuclear weapons and ending the nuclear arms race on the one hand, and promoting peaceful uses of atomic energy on the other. In quantitative and symbolic terms the NPT is a huge success. More than two-thirds of the world's nations have signed on, making this the most popular arms control agreement on earth. Not a single nation has declared itself to be a nuclear-weapons state beyond the original five members of the ''nuclear club'' who qualified for weapons status under the terms of the Treaty itself: the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, France, and China. No party to the Treaty has exercised the permitted option to drop out, and none has been found by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to have diverted nuclear material from civil to weapons purposes. Nor has any party been known to have violated NPT prohibitions on developing or assisting other nations to develop nuclear weapons

  1. 75 FR 11556 - Conference of the Parties to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... international treaty designed to control and regulate international trade in certain animal and plant species that are now or potentially may become threatened with extinction. These species are listed in...

  2. Human Rights Treaties Are an Important Part of the "International Health Instrumentariam" Comment on "The Legal Strength of International Health Instruments - What It Brings to Global Health Governance?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Lisa

    2017-10-02

    In their commentary, Haik Nikogosian and Ilona Kickbusch argue for the necessity of new binding international legal instruments for health to address complex health determinants and offer a cogent analysis of the implications of such treaties for future global health governance. Yet in doing so they pay no attention to the existing instrumentarium of international legally binding treaties relevant to health, in the form of human rights treaties. International human rights law has entrenched individual entitlements and state obligations in relation to individual and public health through iterative human rights treaties since 1946. These treaties offer normative specificity, institutional monitoring and the possibility of enforcement and accountability. If we are to build a new 'international health instrumentariam' we should not ignore existing and important tools that can assist in this endeavor. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  3. Permit trading and credit trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan-Tjeerd; R. Dijstra, Bouwe

    This paper compares emissions trading based on a cap on total emissions (permit trading) and on relative standards per unit of output (credit trading). Two types of market structure are considered: perfect competition and Cournot oligopoly. We find that output, abatement costs and the number...... of firms are higher under credit trading. Allowing trade between permit-trading and credit-trading sectors may increase in welfare. With perfect competition, permit trading always leads to higher welfare than credit trading. With imperfect competition, credit trading may outperform permit trading....... Environmental policy can lead to exit, but also to entry of firms. Entry and exit have a profound impact on the performance of the schemes, especially under imperfect competition. We find that it may be impossible to implement certain levels of total industry emissions. Under credit trading several levels...

  4. On International Trade in Educational Services: An Interpretation of the Regulations and China's WTO Commitments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xi-bin

    2006-01-01

    The "General Agreement on Trade in Services" (GATS) of the World Trade Organization (WTO) covers educational trade services. Hence, all the regulations of the GATS have to be followed in the international trade of educational services. Having acceded to the WTO, China is starting to fulfill the rights and obligations as a member by…

  5. Does Investment Treaty Affect the Improvement on FDI?

    OpenAIRE

    Eunsook Seo

    2008-01-01

    The paper analyzes how investment treaty affects investment creation. Analysis results show that investment treaty could not directly affect the increase in investment with the form of investment agreement contradicting and the opening of investment treaty countries have increased a great deal of investment. Contracting the investment agreement means to ultimately improve the investment environment such as policy transparency, simplification of administration, and the simplification or the cl...

  6. Experience in non-proliferation verification: The Treaty of Raratonga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    The verification provisions of the Treaty of Raratonga are subdivided into two categories: those performed by IAEA and those performed by other entities. A final provision of the Treaty of Raratonga is relevant to IAEA safeguards according to support of the continued effectiveness of the international non-proliferation system based on the Non-proliferation Treaty and the IAEA safeguards system. The non-IAEA verification process is described as well

  7. Treaty-Port English in Nineteenth-Century Shanghai: Speakers, Voices, and Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Si

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the introduction of English to the treaty port of Shanghai and the speech communities that developed there as a result. English became a sociocultural phenomenon rather than an academic subject when it entered Shanghai in the 1840s, gradually generating various social activities of local Chinese people who lived in the treaty port. Ordinary people picked up a rudimentary knowledge of English along trading streets and through glossary references, and went to private schools to improve their linguistic skills. They used English to communicate with foreigners and as a means to explore a foreign presence dominated by Western material culture. Although those who learned English gained small-scale social mobility in the late nineteenth century, the images of English-speaking Chinese were repeatedly criticized by the literati and official scholars. This paper explores Westerners’ travel accounts, as well as various sources written by the new elite Chinese, including official records and vernacular poems, to demonstrate how English language acquisition brought changes to local people’s daily lives. I argue that treaty-port English in nineteenth-century Shanghai was not only a linguistic medium but, more importantly, a cultural agent of urban transformation. It gradually molded a new linguistic landscape, which at the same time contributed to the shaping of modern Shanghai culture.

  8. Innovation in Justice and Security by Treaty of Lisbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myzafer ELEZI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Lisbon Treaty is a legal package which includes previous treaties, starting from the year 1957, following the Treaty of Rome and the Treaty of Nice in 2001, summarized in a single text that introduces a number of changes of the way how the European Union works, in order to make it more efficient for its citizens. This Treaty converts the European Union for the first time in a single entity, unifying pillars of its activities which are as follows: the European Communities, Common Foreign and Security Policy, and Judicial Cooperation in Criminal Matters, which so far only the European Communities had the status of judicial person. It modifies the Treaty of European Union, created by the European Union and the Treaty created by the European Community, which is in power, but do not replace them. The new Treaty gives the EU the legal framework, and necessary tools to face the future challenges and to respond to its citizen’s perspectives. The Conference will introduce all the innovations that the Treaty of Lisbon brings not only in the field of security and foreign policy of the EU, but also in those related to police and judicial cooperation regarding criminal matters.

  9. Framing international trade and chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonté, Ronald; Mohindra, Katia S; Lencucha, Raphael

    2011-07-04

    There is an emerging evidence base that global trade is linked with the rise of chronic disease in many low and middle-income countries (LMICs). This linkage is associated, in part, with the global diffusion of unhealthy lifestyles and health damaging products posing a particular challenge to countries still facing high burdens of communicable disease. We developed a generic framework which depicts the determinants and pathways connecting global trade with chronic disease. We then applied this framework to three key risk factors for chronic disease: unhealthy diets, alcohol, and tobacco. This led to specific 'product pathways', which can be further refined and used by health policy-makers to engage with their country's trade policy-makers around health impacts of ongoing trade treaty negotiations, and by researchers to continue refining an evidence base on how global trade is affecting patterns of chronic disease. The prevention and treatment of chronic diseases is now rising on global policy agendas, highlighted by the UN Summit on Noncommunicable Diseases (September 2011). Briefs and declarations leading up to this Summit reference the role of globalization and trade in the spread of risk factors for these diseases, but emphasis is placed on interventions to change health behaviours and on voluntary corporate responsibility. The findings summarized in this article imply the need for a more concerted approach to regulate trade-related risk factors and thus more engagement between health and trade policy sectors within and between nations. An explicit recognition of the role of trade policies in the spread of noncommunicable disease risk factors should be a minimum outcome of the September 2011 Summit, with a commitment to ensure that future trade treaties do not increase such risks.

  10. Framing international trade and chronic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    There is an emerging evidence base that global trade is linked with the rise of chronic disease in many low and middle-income countries (LMICs). This linkage is associated, in part, with the global diffusion of unhealthy lifestyles and health damaging products posing a particular challenge to countries still facing high burdens of communicable disease. We developed a generic framework which depicts the determinants and pathways connecting global trade with chronic disease. We then applied this framework to three key risk factors for chronic disease: unhealthy diets, alcohol, and tobacco. This led to specific 'product pathways', which can be further refined and used by health policy-makers to engage with their country's trade policy-makers around health impacts of ongoing trade treaty negotiations, and by researchers to continue refining an evidence base on how global trade is affecting patterns of chronic disease. The prevention and treatment of chronic diseases is now rising on global policy agendas, highlighted by the UN Summit on Noncommunicable Diseases (September 2011). Briefs and declarations leading up to this Summit reference the role of globalization and trade in the spread of risk factors for these diseases, but emphasis is placed on interventions to change health behaviours and on voluntary corporate responsibility. The findings summarized in this article imply the need for a more concerted approach to regulate trade-related risk factors and thus more engagement between health and trade policy sectors within and between nations. An explicit recognition of the role of trade policies in the spread of noncommunicable disease risk factors should be a minimum outcome of the September 2011 Summit, with a commitment to ensure that future trade treaties do not increase such risks. PMID:21726434

  11. Framing international trade and chronic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohindra Katia S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is an emerging evidence base that global trade is linked with the rise of chronic disease in many low and middle-income countries (LMICs. This linkage is associated, in part, with the global diffusion of unhealthy lifestyles and health damaging products posing a particular challenge to countries still facing high burdens of communicable disease. We developed a generic framework which depicts the determinants and pathways connecting global trade with chronic disease. We then applied this framework to three key risk factors for chronic disease: unhealthy diets, alcohol, and tobacco. This led to specific 'product pathways', which can be further refined and used by health policy-makers to engage with their country's trade policy-makers around health impacts of ongoing trade treaty negotiations, and by researchers to continue refining an evidence base on how global trade is affecting patterns of chronic disease. The prevention and treatment of chronic diseases is now rising on global policy agendas, highlighted by the UN Summit on Noncommunicable Diseases (September 2011. Briefs and declarations leading up to this Summit reference the role of globalization and trade in the spread of risk factors for these diseases, but emphasis is placed on interventions to change health behaviours and on voluntary corporate responsibility. The findings summarized in this article imply the need for a more concerted approach to regulate trade-related risk factors and thus more engagement between health and trade policy sectors within and between nations. An explicit recognition of the role of trade policies in the spread of noncommunicable disease risk factors should be a minimum outcome of the September 2011 Summit, with a commitment to ensure that future trade treaties do not increase such risks.

  12. Cancer Moonshot Funding Obligations FY 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI reports Cancer Moonshot obligations by funding mechanism. See obligations for Moonshot grants, intramural research, and contracts, including the number of grant awards, funding amounts, and percentages by mechanism of the total Cancer Moonshot budget.

  13. The Treaty of Maastricht and energy law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tettinger, P.J.; Pielow, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    In December 1993 a German-Spanish colloquy on topical questions of community law as well as national and supra-national energy law was held at the Institute of Mining and Energy Law at Bochum. Discussions centered around the constitutional issues surrounding the treaty establishing the European Union of 7th February 1992, which came into force on 1st November 1993, and its implications for the national regulatory systems in the energy economy. Against this background the most recent developments in energy law and energy policy in Spain and the Federal Republic of Germany were described. (orig./HP) [de

  14. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty and Its Relevance for the Global Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dáša ADAŠKOVÁ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT is one of important international nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament measures. One of its pillars is the verification mechanism that has been built as an international system of nuclear testing detection to enable the control of observance of the obligations anchored in the CTBT. Despite the great relevance to the global non-proliferation and disarmament efforts, the CTBT is still not in force. The main aim of the article is to summarize the importance of the CTBT and its entry into force not only from the international relations perspective but also from the perspective of the technical implementation of the monitoring system.

  15. 77 FR 14199 - Revision of Regulations Implementing the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES); Updates Following the Fifteenth Meeting of... Fauna and Flora (CITES); Updates Following the Fifteenth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to... International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES or Treaty or Convention) by...

  16. Prevention Obligations in International Environmental Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plakokefalos, I.

    2013-01-01

    The paper seeks to examine the content and nature of prevention obligations in international environmental law. Despite their frequent reference to these obligations in practice and in the literature their exact content remains ill-defined. Similarly, the exact nature of these obligations has not

  17. Opportunities and challenges for a sustainable energy policy in SE Europe: SE European Energy Community Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihajlov, Andjelka

    2010-01-01

    Energy demand continues to increase in turn raising concerns about energy supply. In this paper, the author has tried to systematize the role of the energy sector in South Eastern (SE) Europe in the context of the European energy policy process. This should make the energy sector in SE Europe more visible and open to substantial activities and appropriate funding. This is important to assure its full alignment with the European energy policy process, and in so doing, make it less fragile. According to the SE European Energy Community Treaty, parties to the Treaty are obliged to implement reforms in the energy and environmental sector in accordance with the European Union's respective policy. This paper raises awareness of the environmental requirements that have been set, of renewable energy and its implementation, at the same time pointing out that the response in SE Europe has been at a low level. It is believed that this paper could draw attention to the existing problems and could contribute to the establishment of a common integrated energy market in SE Europe and the EU. (author)

  18. The South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty: a critical assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel-Green, Michael.

    1990-01-01

    The study commences with a brief analysis of the nuclear free zone concept (NFZ) as it has evolved internationally, particularly in the UN context. The historical development, internationally-perceived objectives, definition, and key attributes of the regional NFZ concept, are discussed with the aim of developing a systematic framework and departure point for analysing the provisions and features of the Rarotonga Treaty. The Rarotonga Treaty is then analysed according to five key NFZ attributes: scope, domain, control system, implementation, and relation to collateral measures. It is argued that the treaty is highly selective in its scope, limited in its geographical application, less stringent in its control system than the Tlatelolco Treaty, and rigid in its amendment provisions, and that the implementation process does not envisage follow-on stages or collateral measures oriented to further denuclearization of the region. The ensuing chapters examine the motivation of the Australian Government in initiating and negotiating the treaty, and the nature of the United States, Soviet Union and regional state responses to it. The final chapter critically examines the various claims made for the treaty's contribution to regional and global security, argues that the treaty represented a regional consolidation of US and ANZUS nuclear interests at a time of strategic expansion in the Pacific, and considers some of the consequences and implications of the treaty, regionally and globally. 545 refs

  19. 32 CFR 1630.46 - Class 4-T: Treaty alien.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Class 4-T: Treaty alien. 1630.46 Section 1630.46 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.46 Class 4-T: Treaty alien. In Class 4-T shall be placed any registrant who is an alien who...

  20. Meaning and repercussions of the Tlatelolco Treaty for Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schriefer, D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper addresses the meaning and repercussions of the TLATELOLCO Treaty for Latin America and the caribbean, as part of the major efforts regarding . A nuclear weapons-free zone, It also describes the role of the OPANAL and that of the IAEA article 13 of the treaty, as well as regional and international safeguards are also highlighted

  1. The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-ban Treaty : an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty ushers in the post-nuclear testing era. The Treaty is the result of many years of intensive international negotiation, and is an impressive document of some 48 pages plus 15 pages of annexes which, by April 1997, 143 nations including New Zealand had signed. New Zealand has consistently maintained a strong opposition to the testing of nuclear weapons and has had a long involvement in negotiations towards this Treaty. This is the first of a series of articles on the Treaty, its enforcement, and its implications for New Zealand, and provides an overview of the treaty by means of a quick tour through its main provisions. (author)

  2. The CFE Treaty and changed conditions in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allentuck, J.

    1994-08-01

    The Treaty on Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) was signed in November 1990 by sixteen nations, members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and six nations, members of the Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO). It was resigned to prevent a major surprise attack in Europe by the conventional forces of one Treaty Organization against those of the other and was the first major arms control treaty to address conventional weapons. This paper focuses on how CFE adapted to changes in the military-political situation in Europe which occurred after 1990 and failed to adapt to others. Suggestions are offered on how it might be changed to make it more relevant under these changed conditions.

  3. Why we should let the Lisbon treaty rest in peace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beach, Derek

    2008-01-01

    Should the Irish be forced to vote again on the recently rejected Lisbon Treaty in a second referendum? The diplomatic signals coming from Brussels suggest that the Irish will be asked to solve the problem themselves using the Danish/Irish model of sending the same treaty with some clarifications...... on sensitive issues to a second vote. EU governments must therefore seriously consider in the coming days whether the Lisbon Treaty is really worth the risk of continuing the ratification process and forcing the Irish to vote again.  Given the modest nature of the reforms in the Treaty and evidence showing...... that the EU-27 actually is able to function under the current rules, governments should back away from talk of a serious crisis facing the EU in the event of non-ratification of the Lisbon Treaty. If they choose to press forward ratification and force the Irish to vote again on the more-or-less the same...

  4. Law 16.597 approve correction to Treaty for the proscription of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America (Tlatelolco Treaty)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Approve it the amendments to the Treaty for the Proscription of the Nuclear Weapons in the Latin America (Treaty of TLATELOLCO), adopted for the General Conference of the Organism for the Proscription of the Nuclear Weapons in the Latin America and the Caribbean in their seventh extraordinary period of Sessions, in Mexico D:F., August of 1992, resolution 26 Not. 290(VII) [es

  5. Insider trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslechko, W.S.

    1998-01-01

    The policy arguments for and against prohibiting insider trading within the petroleum industry are discussed. Legal definitions of all relevant terms (e.g. 'special relationship' 'tippees', 'material facts', material changes' 'generally disclosed' information', 'necessary course of business') are provided. Enforcement of insider trading/tipping prohibitions are also defined. The recommended practice is: do not trade; do not tell or advise; encourage timely disclosure; do not speculate; implement a corporate disclosure and trading policy

  6. Energy trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glachant, J.M.; Kimman, R.; Schweickardt, H.E.

    2001-05-01

    This document brings together 18 testimonies of experts about energy trading: 1 - the energy trading experience on European deregulated markets: structure of deregulated energy markets in Europe, case study: a two years experience of a power exchange in western Europe, case study: European energy exchanges (experience of spot and future trading), case study: risk management on energy deregulated markets; 2 - the trading activity environment and realities in France: the French electrical law and the purchase for resale, experience feedback: status after 3 months of trading in France (the first experience of a French producer), the access to the power transportation network, which legal constraints for trading in France, the access of eligible clients to the French power market, conditions of implementation of a power exchange market in France, which real trading possibilities in France for producers and self-producers in the legal frame, case study: the role of trading in the company (main part or link to process), convergence of gas and electricity markets, gas-electricity trading: which pricing models; 3 - risk management and use of new technologies potentiality, the results outside the French borders: case study: what differences between the European and US markets, prices volatility and commodity risk management: towards the on-line trading, role and developments of E-business in energy trading, how to simplify trade in a liberalized market. (J.S.)

  7. The Treaty for the prohibition of nuclear weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (Tlatelolco Treaty)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In a note verbale of 10 June 1994, the Agency was informed that, on 30 May 1994, the instruments necessary to bring the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin American and the Caribbean into force for the Federative Republic of Brazil had been deposited. As requested by the Permanent Mission of Brazil to the International Organizations in Vienna, the text of the note is attached hereto for the information of Member States

  8. World status: the Climate Change Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Last month, 153 countries signed a legally binding treaty to stabilise atmospheric emissions at 1990 levels, at various target dates. The USA refused to put a time limit on its stabilisation period, but nonetheless the fact that so many nations signed was regarded as one of the triumphs of Rio conference. Yet for all the apparent over-kill, Rio had one very important message for energy producers: controlling emissions is going to dominate the global agenda for the next twenty years. The rearguard action being waged by many producers to the effect that global warming does not exist, or is not as bad as we thought, is not going to kill the fundamental legislative effort that has now started. (Author)

  9. Pengaruh Kebijakan Agreement on Agriculture (Aoa) Oleh World Trade Organization (WTO) Terhadap Kenaikan Impor Kopi Indonesia Tahun 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Jamaan, Ahmad; Parapat, Johan Kristo

    2015-01-01

    This research describes and proves the influence of policy AgreementOn Agriculture (AoA) by the World Trade Organization (WTO) for theIndonesian coffee. AoA policy is a policy of international trade in agricultureby WTO.This research uses perspective of pluralism. Pluralist assumes that stateis not unitary actor. This study also uses international trade and internationalorganizations theory.Agreement On Agriculture (AoA) is an international treaty on trade inagriculture in the WTO context. Ao...

  10. Ancillary obligations as an additional obligation of a limited liability company's member

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanski Vladimir Ž.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ancillary obligation can be defined as an obligation of a limited liability company's member undertaken through the instrument of incorporation, which can take the form of monetary or non-monetary obligation (usually it is an obligation of a non-monetary character, which has a certain financial value and can be the object of a legally valid obligation. Ancillary obligations, as a contribution to activities of the company, are not regulated in the Law on Companies. The legal nature of this obligation is different from the obligation to make a contribution in money or in kind to a company's assets, to make additional pay-ins or from the landing of funds to the company. Ancillary obligation is an optional and additional obligation of a limited liability company's member and the obligation itself and its contents is defined in the instrument of incorporation. When a limited liability company's member undertakes an ancillary obligation this creates a distinctive relationship between the member and the company, concerning their respective obligations and the legal status of the company, as well as certain consequences derived from those obligations.

  11. Mitigation incentives with climate finance and treaty options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Future greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation action of current non-climate-policy (NP) countries is considered to take two alternative forms: 1) “climate finance” payments received in return for future reductions in its GHG emissions below a defined “baseline”; and 2) join a “climate treaty” whereby the required emissions reductions are formally binding. It is assumed that baselines defining climate finance payments, and required emissions reductions under a treaty, depend positively on current emissions. It is then shown that making such future options available reduces current GHG mitigation in NP countries, leading to higher emissions in the short run. This effect is stronger when future climate finance payments are higher; the required relative emissions reductions under a treaty are greater; when commitments under a treaty are longer-lasting; and mitigation targets depend more on current emissions. Such short-run increases in emissions can (sometimes, more than) fully eliminate the effect of the subsequent policy. When climate finance and treaties are both future alternatives, more generous climate finance can make it harder and more expensive to induce the country to join a climate treaty. - Highlights: • A good future climate finance arrangement can increase GHG emissions today. • The same can be the case with a future and restrictive climate treaty. • These can be problems when costs under such solutions are reduced by higher emissions today. • Better climate finance also tends to make joining a climate treaty less attractive.

  12. Trade and health: an agenda for action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard D; Lee, Kelley; Drager, Nick

    2009-01-01

    The processes of contemporary globalisation are creating ever-closer ties between individuals and populations across different countries. The health of a population, and the systems in place to deliver health care, are affected increasingly by factors beyond the population and health system. The Lancet’s Series on trade and health has provided an overview of these links between international trade, trade liberalisation, and health, and raised the key issues that face the health community. In this final paper in the Series, we call for a substantial and sustained effort by those within the health profession to engage with issues of trade, to strengthen institutional capacity in this area, and to place health higher on the agenda of trade negotiations. The rapid rise of trade agreements and treaties, as well as trade that occurs beyond these institutional boundaries, means that further action is required by a range of actors, including WHO, the World Bank, the World Trade Organization (WTO), regional agencies, foundations, national governments, civil society, non-governmental organisations, and academics. The stewardship of a domestic health system in the 21st century requires a sophisticated understanding of how trade affects, and will affect, a country’s health system and policy, to optimise opportunities to benefit health and health care while minimising the risks posed though the assertion of health goals in trade policy. To acheive this will place a premium on all those engaged in health to understand the importance of trade and to engage with their counterparts involved in trade and trade policy. We hope that this Series has prompted the reader to become involved in these efforts. PMID:19167056

  13. Trade and health: an agenda for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard D; Lee, Kelley; Drager, Nick

    2009-02-28

    The processes of contemporary globalisation are creating ever-closer ties between individuals and populations across different countries. The health of a population, and the systems in place to deliver health care, are affected increasingly by factors beyond the population and health system. The Lancet's Series on trade and health has provided an overview of these links between international trade, trade liberalisation, and health, and raised the key issues that face the health community. In this final paper in the Series, we call for a substantial and sustained effort by those within the health profession to engage with issues of trade, to strengthen institutional capacity in this area, and to place health higher on the agenda of trade negotiations. The rapid rise of trade agreements and treaties, as well as trade that occurs beyond these institutional boundaries, means that further action is required by a range of actors, including WHO, the World Bank, the World Trade Organization (WTO), regional agencies, foundations, national governments, civil society, non-governmental organisations, and academics. The stewardship of a domestic health system in the 21st century requires a sophisticated understanding of how trade affects, and will affect, a country's health system and policy, to optimise opportunities to benefit health and health care while minimising the risks posed though the assertion of health goals in trade policy. To acheive this will place a premium on all those engaged in health to understand the importance of trade and to engage with their counterparts involved in trade and trade policy. We hope that this Series has prompted the reader to become involved in these efforts.

  14. THE LISBON TREATY- LINK BETWEEN PARTICIPATIVE DEMOCRACY AND ADMINISTRATIVE MODERNIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosie Irina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paperwork examines briefly, the implications it carries on the Lisbon Treaty, the organizational, institutional and decision-making level in the current context of the European Union, included in the reform process. It is important to mention that the European Union's desire is to assign a new role, upwards of national parliaments it is materialized with the new regulation of the Lisbon Treaty. This creates premises to develop a common foreign policy, providing Member States and Community institutions the chance to creatively use new opportunities. The Treaty encourages participative democracy and citizen participation with implications in decision-making efficiency gains.

  15. National security and the comprehensive test ban treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landauer, J.K.

    1980-08-01

    For nearly three years now, the US, UK, and USSR have been working on the draft of a treaty that would ban all nuclear explosions (both peaceful applications and weapon tests) and institute verification and monitoring provisions to ensure compliance with the treaty. The status of the draft treaty is summarized. The question, Is a CTBT really in the interest of US national security. is analyzed with arguments used by both proponents and opponents of the CTBT. It is concluded that there are arguments both for and against a CTBT, but, for those whose approach to national security can be expressed as peace through preparedness, the arguments against a CTBT appear persuasive

  16. The Efficacy of Water Treaties in the Eastern Nile Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuhibegezer Ferede

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to analyse the efficacy of the water treaties of the Nile in light of the principles of international law. The following critical examination of the treaties brings to light numerous legal defects associated with fraud, coercion, exclusivity and the deficiency of many of the precepts of the international law. Moreover, the lower riparian states’ advocacy for the succession of colonial treaties, which is branded as the re-affirmation of colonialism, is found to be incompatible with the principles of the clean-slate theory adopted by the upper riparian states. Therefore, the region lacks an efficacious regime that could address the interests of all riparian states.

  17. The Public Sector and Obligation to Contract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Karsten Naundrup; Indén, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    The paper concerns the situation where public sector bodies are forced to enter into contracts. These obligations to contract are analysed from two angles. First, the paper offers an analysis of the reasons for imposing such obligations to contract under Swedish and Danish law. Secondly the paper...... discusses some consequences of the public entities’ obligations to contract, more specific consequences for the use of rules that usually regulate contracts and the fact that obligations to contract imposed on public entities establish a new market and at the same time the obligations deprive the entities...... of the freedom to contract which is a fundamental to market behaviour. Finally attention is drawn to the fact that obligations to contract are also imposed on private entities. The paper takes Swedish and Danish regulations as a point of departure and provides an insight into regulations from these two countries...

  18. 78 FR 75251 - Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ...-2013-0007] RIN 0651-AC85 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty; Correction AGENCY: United States... Law Treaty (PLT) and provisions of the Patent Law Treaties Implementation Act of 2012 (PLTIA) that... practice in patent cases for consistency with the changes in the Patent Law Treaty (PLT) and provisions of...

  19. On the obligation to obey the law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekavica Radomir G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the question of a general obligation to obey the law. The author presents and analyzes the most significant views and arguments in support of the thesis that there is a general obligation to obey the law, as well as those understandings which are refuse this thesis. In concluding remarks the author presents a critical review of some key issues about general obligation to obey the law. In addition, the author outlines a hypothetical model of society and the legal system under which such an obligation is possible and has also asserted the basic assumptions and principles upon which it can be justified and reasonable. .

  20. Strengthening of Organizational Infrastructure for Meeting IAEA Nuclear Safeguards Obligations: Bangladesh Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollah, A.S.

    2010-01-01

    Safeguards are arrangements to account for and control the use of nuclear materials. This verification is a key element in the international system which ensures that uranium in particular is used only for peaceful purposes. The only nuclear reactor in Bangladesh achieved critically on September 14, 1986. Reactor Operation and Maintenance Unit routinely carries out certain international obligations which need to undertake as signatory of different treaties, agreements and protocols in the international safeguards regime. Pursuant to the relevant articles of these agreements/protocols, the reactor and associated facilities of Bangladesh (Facility code: BDA- and BDZ-) are physically inspected by the designated IAEA safeguards inspectors. The Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) has recently created a new division called 'Nuclear Safeguards and Security Division' for enhancing the safeguards activities as per international obligations. This division plays a leading role in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of the BAEC's nuclear safeguards and nuclear security activities. This division is actively working with USDOE, IAEA and EU to enhance the nuclear safeguards and security activities in the following areas: - Analysis of nuclear safeguards related reports of 3 MW TRIGA Mark-II research reactor; - Upgrading of physical protection system of 3 MW TRIGA Mark-II research reactor, gamma irradiation facilities, central radioactive storage and processing facility and different radiation oncology facilities of Bangladesh under GTRI programme; - Supervision for installation of radiation monitoring system of the Chittagong port under USDOE Megaports Initiative Programmes for detection of illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials; - Development of laboratory capabilities for analysis of nuclear safeguards related samples; - Planning for development of organizational infrastructure to carry out safeguards related activities under IAEA different

  1. Quotum for CO2. Trading system in preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Weijden, C.; Dingenen, S.

    2002-01-01

    CO2 emission rights trading is one of the most promising tools for limiting the release of CO2 in the short term. While development of a trading system continues at the European Union level, the Netherlands is working on a system of its own, which will differ from its European counterpart in various critical respects. Although the Netherlands is likely to be one of the main beneficiaries of emission trading, the nation nevertheless has an obligation to pursue technical innovation [nl

  2. Constant Proportion Debt Obligations (CPDOs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cont, Rama; Jessen, Cathrine

    2012-01-01

    be made arbitrarily small—and thus the credit rating arbitrarily high—by increasing leverage, but the ratings obtained strongly depend on assumptions on the credit environment (high spread or low spread). More importantly, CPDO loss distributions are found to exhibit a wide range of tail risk measures......Constant Proportion Debt Obligations (CPDOs) are structured credit derivatives that generate high coupon payments by dynamically leveraging a position in an underlying portfolio of investment-grade index default swaps. CPDO coupons and principal notes received high initial credit ratings from...... the major rating agencies, based on complex models for the joint transition of ratings and spreads for all names in the underlying portfolio. We propose a parsimonious model for analysing the performance of CPDO strategies using a top-down approach that captures the essential risk factors of the CPDO. Our...

  3. Nationality non-discrimination in Serbian tax treaty law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Svetislav V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the nationality non-discrimination provision in Serbian double taxation treaties. First the author analyses the historical development of the nationality non-discrimination clause found the in the OECD Model Tax Convention and illustrates the dilemmas related to its interpretation, particularly the relevance of residence of taxpayers for comparability purposes and the application of Art. 24.1 of the OECD Model Tax Convention. Subsequently, the author turns his attention to the solutions found in Serbian double taxation treaties which are methodologically divided into three groups. One of them stands out as the most notable, being unique in global terms: double taxation treaties which provide for a prohibition of discriminatory treatment based on residence. The author critically addresses the fundamental flaws of the Serbian double taxation treaty policy which are recognized thorough a detailed scrutiny of the relevant norms of these international agreements.

  4. Vessel Sewage Discharges: Statutes, Regulations, and Related Laws and Treaties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessel sewage discharges can be regulated under multiple statutes, regulations, and laws/treaties, including the Clean Water Act, Title XIV, MARPOL Annex IV and the Vessel General Permit. This page describes how these are applied to vessel sewage.

  5. Effects of Bilateralism and the MFN Clause on International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lampe, Markus

    2009-01-01

    manufactured goods. Gravity model estimates show that specific liberalizations increased exports of corresponding items, but not overall trade. Exporters from countries whose governments used bilateralism strategically to bring down partner tariffs benefitted most. Hence, the network in form and outcome......This study contributes to a revised picture of nineteenth-century bilateralism. Employing a new disaggregated data set, it argues that bilateral treaties did not implement general free trade, but instead reduced tariffs unevenly through commodity-specific preferences, especially favoring...... is more properly identified with reciprocal liberalization practiced by the French than with British free-trade ideology....

  6. Nuclear energy: considerations about nuclear trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goes Fischer, M.D. de.

    1988-01-01

    A general view of historical aspects of nuclear energy and the arrangements to assure its use for peaceful purposes are presented. Then the internal character of nuclear energy in a juride context is demonstrated; some consideration about the international organizations and conventions and the Brazilian Legislation in the nuclear area are examined. It also deals with the political aspects of nuclear trade and the function of IAEA in this are. Furthermore the restrictions imposed by Non-Proliferation Treaty-NPT, the objectures of the Tlatelolco Treaty and ''London Club'' guidelines. Afterwards the bilateral cooperation under taken by countries and its agreements are discussed. Besides some aspects of agreements made between United States, France Germany and Brazil are discussed [pt

  7. Energy trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmann, K.; Schroeter, S.

    2009-01-01

    Two brief articles and two interviews deal with the subject of energy trading. Power and gas exchanges in Europe multiply, but, experts say, we are nowhere near a mature, integrated European energy market as yet. Trading regulations need to be improved and harmonised and interconnections expanded. European Energy Review assesses the state of energy trading in Europe and interviews the ceo's of NordPool (the Nordic power exchange) and APX (Amsterdam Power Exchange)

  8. Source Taxation of Technological Services in Finnish Tax Treaties

    OpenAIRE

    Kiviranta, Tuomas

    2016-01-01

    In this study, I analyze the various means of source taxation of technological and other services permitted by Finnish double taxation conventions and the future of source taxation of technological and other services. I attempt to shed light on the various means of source taxation of technological services permitted by Finnish tax treaties and by tax treaties also more generally. I analyze 1) the taxation of technological services in the source country as the profits of a permanent establishm...

  9. Treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2000-01-01

    The document reproduces the statement of the Director General of the IAEA to the Review Conference of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, New York, 24 April 2000. The speech focus on the IAEA activities relevant to the implementation of the Treaty, namely: verification through the IAEA safeguards, peaceful nuclear co-operation in the field of human health, food and agriculture, water resources management, environmental pollution monitoring, training

  10. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  11. Committees and groups related to the EURATOM treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, F.R.

    1997-09-01

    The EURATOM Treaty has not been modified since its creation (Rome, 25 March 1957) but has simply been adapted to take account of the fusion of the executive bodies of the three original European Treaties and the enlargement with new Member States. The EURATOM Treaty is in existence simultaneously with the 1992 Maastricht Treaty. No changes in the EURATOM Treaty that influence the practical working conditions were brought about in the 1997 intergovernmental conference. This edition of the survey of groups related to the EURATOM Treaty is an update of earlier versions issued in Danish language. It is sponsored by the Nordic Committee for Nuclear Safety Research (NKS) in conjunction with the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI). The main purpose is to informally provide those circles in the Nordic countries who want to get acquainted with the groups involved in work related to EURATOM with a simplified overview. The present edition is not different from earlier issues in that it contains an outline without the intent to go into details, and without the ambition to be complete. It thus does not represent an official picture of the committees and groups. Nor should it be seen as an organisation chart of related Commission services. The information is mostly based on personal contacts with persons having knowledge from work with the groups in question. The author would be grateful for corrections and suggestions in order to improve the picture given

  12. Committees and groups related to the EURATOM treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, F.R. [comp.] [Nordic Nuclear Safety Research, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1997-09-01

    The EURATOM Treaty has not been modified since its creation (Rome, 25 March 1957) but has simply been adapted to take account of the fusion of the executive bodies of the three original European Treaties and the enlargement with new Member States. The EURATOM Treaty is in existence simultaneously with the 1992 Maastricht Treaty. No changes in the EURATOM Treaty that influence the practical working conditions were brought about in the 1997 intergovernmental conference. This edition of the survey of groups related to the EURATOM Treaty is an update of earlier versions issued in Danish language. It is sponsored by the Nordic Committee for Nuclear Safety Research (NKS) in conjunction with the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI). The main purpose is to informally provide those circles in the Nordic countries who want to get acquainted with the groups involved in work related to EURATOM with a simplified overview. The present edition is not different from earlier issues in that it contains an outline without the intent to go into details, and without the ambition to be complete. It thus does not represent an official picture of the committees and groups. Nor should it be seen as an organisation chart of related Commission services. The information is mostly based on personal contacts with persons having knowledge from work with the groups in question. The author would be grateful for corrections and suggestions in order to improve the picture given. 15 figs.

  13. 45 CFR 2400.65 - Teaching obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Special Conditions § 2400.65 Teaching obligation. Upon receiving a Master's degree, each Fellow must teach American history, American government, social studies, or... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Teaching obligation. 2400.65 Section 2400.65...

  14. Effectiveness of qualitative and quantitative security obligations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter; Padget, J.; Dechesne, F.; Dignum, V.; Aldewereld, H.

    Security policies in organisations typically take the form of obligations for the employees. However, it is often unclear what the purpose of such obligations is, and how these can be integrated in the operational processes of the organisation. This can result in policies that may be either too

  15. 47 CFR 27.1239 - Reimbursement obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reimbursement obligation. 27.1239 Section 27... Policies Governing the Transition of the 2500-2690 Mhz Band for Brs and Ebs § 27.1239 Reimbursement obligation. (a) A proponent may request reimbursement from BRS licensees and lessees, EBS lessees, and...

  16. International investment agreements and public health: neutralizing a threat through treaty drafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Bryan

    2014-07-01

    The high profile investment claims filed by Philip Morris challenging Uruguayan and Australian measures that restrict advertising and logos on tobacco packaging awakened the public health community to the existence and potential detrimental impact of international investment agreements (IIAs). More recently, Eli Lilly challenged Canada's invalidation of a pharmaceutical patent under an IIA. All of the cases claim that the intellectual property rights of the investor were infringed. As a result of these cases, many commentators and activists view IIAs as a threat to public health and have lobbied against their inclusion in ongoing trade negotiations. This article does not argue against IIAs. Instead, it seeks to demonstrate how more sophisticated treaty drafting can neutralize the threat to public health. In this regard, the article seeks to engage members of the public health community as campaigners not against IIAs but as advocates of better treaty drafting to ensure that IIAs do not infringe upon the right of a nation to take non-discriminatory measures for the promotion and protection of the health of their populations.

  17. Emissions Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Backhaus, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Emissions trading is a market-based instrument to achieve environmental targets in a cost-effective way by allowing legal entities to buy and sell emission rights. The current international dissemination and intended linking of emissions trading schemes underlines the growing relevance of this

  18. Organ Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.E. Ambagtsheer (Frederike)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractOrgan trade constitutes the sale and purchase of organs for financial or material gain. Although prohibited since the 1980s, an increasing number of reports indicate its proliferation across the globe. Yet, many knowledge gaps exist on organ trade, in particular on the demand -and

  19. Communication received from the Permanent Mission of Thailand regarding the Treaty on the Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone (Treaty of Bangkok)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-04

    The document reproduces the text of the Note Verbale dated 25 September 1997 received by the Agency from the Permanent Mission of Thailand to the Agency concerning the Treaty on the Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone (Treaty of Bangkok), and as attachment the text of the above mentioned Treaty

  20. Communication received from the Permanent Mission of Thailand regarding the Treaty on the Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone (Treaty of Bangkok)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Note Verbale dated 25 September 1997 received by the Agency from the Permanent Mission of Thailand to the Agency concerning the Treaty on the Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone (Treaty of Bangkok), and as attachment the text of the above mentioned Treaty

  1. Overview of contractual obligations of the know-how licensor under the Macedonian Law of obligations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nashkova Suzana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive analysis of a part of contractual obligations of the licensor of know-how and their regulation in the Macedonian legislation. Special emphasis will be placed on two obligations that contracting parties inevitably incorporate into their agreement: the licensor's obligation to transfer the know-how and to give the necessary instructions and information for its successful utilization, and the licensor's obligation to guarantee the material and legal properties of know-how. Thus, this paper is divided into two systematic sections, focusing on each of these obligations respectively and examining the solutions contained in the Macedonian Obligation Relations Act that are applicable in the regulation of these contractual obligations.

  2. Secretome of obligate intracellular Rickettsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Joseph J.; Kaur, Simran J.; Rahman, M. Sayeedur; Rennoll-Bankert, Kristen; Sears, Khandra T.; Beier-Sexton, Magda; Azad, Abdu F.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Rickettsia (Alphaproteobacteria, Rickettsiales, Rickettsiaceae) is comprised of obligate intracellular parasites, with virulent species of interest both as causes of emerging infectious diseases and for their potential deployment as bioterrorism agents. Currently, there are no effective commercially available vaccines, with treatment limited primarily to tetracycline antibiotics, although others (e.g. josamycin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, and azithromycin) are also effective. Much of the recent research geared toward understanding mechanisms underlying rickettsial pathogenicity has centered on characterization of secreted proteins that directly engage eukaryotic cells. Herein, we review all aspects of the Rickettsia secretome, including six secretion systems, 19 characterized secretory proteins, and potential moonlighting proteins identified on surfaces of multiple Rickettsia species. Employing bioinformatics and phylogenomics, we present novel structural and functional insight on each secretion system. Unexpectedly, our investigation revealed that the majority of characterized secretory proteins have not been assigned to their cognate secretion pathways. Furthermore, for most secretion pathways, the requisite signal sequences mediating translocation are poorly understood. As a blueprint for all known routes of protein translocation into host cells, this resource will assist research aimed at uniting characterized secreted proteins with their apposite secretion pathways. Furthermore, our work will help in the identification of novel secreted proteins involved in rickettsial ‘life on the inside’. PMID:25168200

  3. Disposition scenarios and safeguardability of fissile materials under START Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1993-01-01

    Under the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START-I) signed in 1991 and the Lisbon Protocol of 1992, a large inventory of fissile materials will be removed from the weapons fuel cycles of the United States and the Former Soviet Union (FSU). The Lisbon Protocol calls for Ukraine, Kazakstan, and Byelarus to become nonnuclear members of the treaty and for Russia to assume the responsibility of the treaty as a nuclear weapons state. In addition, the START-II Treaty, which was signed in 1993 by the United States and Russia, further reduces deployed nuclear warheads and adds to the inventory of excess special nuclear materials (SNM). Because storage of in-tact warheads has the potential for a open-quotes breakout,close quotes it would be desirable to dismantle the warheads and properly dispose of the SNMs under appropriate safeguards to prevent their reentry into the weapons fuel cycle. The SNM recovered from dismantled warheads can be disposed of in several ways, and the final choices may be up to the country having the title to the SNM. Current plans are to store them indefinitely, leaving serious safeguards concerns. Recognizing that the underlying objective of these treaties is to prevent the fissile materials from reentering the weapons fuel cycle, it is necessary to establish a verifiable disposal scheme that includes safeguards requirements. This paper identifies some realistic scenarios for the disposal of SNM from the weapons fuel cycle and examines the safeguardability of those scenarios

  4. Verification methods for treaties limiting and banning nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voloshin, N.P.

    1998-01-01

    Treaty on limitation of underground nuclear weapon tests and treaty on world banning of nuclear tests contribute to and accompany the process of nuclear disarmament. Test ban in three (Moscow treaty of 1963) as well as the Threshold Test Ban up to 1991 was controlled only with national means. But since 1991 nuclear test threshold of 150 kt has been measured with hydrodynamic and tele seismic methods and checked by the inspection. Distinctive feature of this control is that control is that it is bilateral. This conforms to Treaty on limitation of underground nuclear weapon tests signed by two countries - USA and USSR. The inspection at the place of tests requires monitoring of the test site of the party conducting a test and geological information of rock in the area of explosion. In the treaty of the World Nuclear Test Ban the following ways of international control are provided for: - seismologic measurements; - radionuclide measurements; - hydro-acoustics measurements; - infra-sound measurements; - inspection at the place of the tests conduction

  5. Rush-Bagot and the upkeep of arms treaties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, B.

    1991-01-01

    Signing an arms treaty after a long negotiation brings a great sense of completion, but that is only the beginning. Living under a treaty - implementing it, resolving different interpretations and compliance disputes, adapting it to changed times - is itself a continuing negotiating process. Handling this process poorly can greatly undermine the original agreement. But nurturing a treaty properly can strengthen it and keep it effective in new circumstances. The history of the Rush-Bagot Agreement of 1817, which limited warships on the Great Lakes, provides examples of many of the problems that can come up. It was violated, subjected to proportional responses, threatened with unilateral reinterpretation and abrogation, modified by executive agreement, and violated again. It proved hard to kill, but ultimately these successive traumas compromised its purpose and value. Indeed, continual threats and violations worsened the rancor between the US and Canada. Today, what influence the agreement still has on restraining armaments on the lakes flows mainly from its symbolism; although the agreement remains in force, none of its original provisions are currently observed. In many ways - violations, untenable reinterpretations, proposals for proportionate responses, claims of technological obsolescence - the Rush-Bagot experience foreshadowed the Antiballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty's troubles over the past decade. But the ABM Treaty's drafters built in provisions to deal with such problems. The Rush-Bagot experience offers lessons for managing today's accords - but largely lessons in what not to do

  6. Foreign Trade

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Foreign Trade database has monthly volume and value information for US imports, exports, and re-exports of fishery or fishery derived products. Data is...

  7. The economics of a landing obligation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peder; Ståhl, Lisa

    By 2015 The European Common Fisheries Policy Reform includes a landing obligation in some fisheries and over the next few years all EU fisheries will be facing the obligation to land all catches. In spite of that, there is a lack of theoretical as well as empirical analyses of the consequences...... of a landing obligation. The paper includes an empirical analysis of the landing obligation’s impact on the Danish fishery in the short run. In the first part of the paper, we survey the fisheries economics literature for theoretical findings regarding behavioural aspects of a discard ban and we exploring gaps...... things, the analysis shows that the fisheries will suffer economic losses under the landing obligation if quotas are not increased with the historical discard rate. With quota top-ups however fisheries can experience economic gains which increase with reduced minimum sizes or by increasing selectivity....

  8. USAID Dollars Obligated and Dollars Spent

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Displays obligations and disbursements by operating unit (OU) and sector, beginning with Fiscal Years 2009. The data was pulled from USAID's financial accounting...

  9. Effectiveness of Nigeria's international obligations in curbing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effectiveness of Nigeria's international obligations in curbing domestic violence. ... Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence ... This paper examines the issue of domestic violence in Nigeria to determine the ...

  10. 30 CFR 717.11 - General obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... construction, operation, and reclamation of shafts, adits, underground support facilities, underground mining... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS UNDERGROUND MINING GENERAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 717.11 General obligations. (a...

  11. The Principles of the Consumer Right Protection in Electronic Trade: A Comparative Law Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Anatolyevna Kirillova, Elena Anatolyevna Shergunova1, Elena Stepanovna Ustinovich, Nikolay Nikolaevich Nadezhin, Lyubov Borisovna Sitdikova

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the speci嘜cs of electronic trade and the issues of protecting the rights of online-consumers, considers their rights and obligations, since we all face a radically new phenomenon in the sphere of trade – An unprecedented boom of electronic trade (e-commerce), based on the use of the Internet for concluding transactions and operations in the systems of wholesale and retail trade. The means of electronic communication provide broad opportunities for direct co...

  12. Free trade area of the Americas a three level analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Clay G.

    2006-01-01

    The Free Trade Area of the Americas is a proposed treaty that would encompass the Western Hemisphere-800 million people and a 13 trillion dollar economy. It is a regional agreement that cannot be understood without the interrelated issues at both the international and domestic level. The single most important issue that resides at the nexus of all three of these levels is domestic subsidies on agriculture. FTAA cannot move forward at the regional level without reduction in the U.S. domest...

  13. Indonesia ratifies the treaty on non proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moendi Poernomo

    1979-01-01

    By Act no. 8 of 1978 Indonesia ratified the treaty on the non proliferation of nuclear weapons. This means that Indonesia became a party to the treaty. Ratification does not guarantee that Indonesia will automatically obtain assistance in developing its nuclear technology capability, but in this way at least Indonesia demonstrates its intention to promote world peace as clearly stated in the Main Guide Lines of State Policy. Development of nuclear technology can be achieved through international cooperation with advanced countries without being suspected of having intention other than peace. (author)

  14. Previewing the 2010 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomper, Miles A.

    2010-01-01

    Despite groundbreaking disarmament pledges and substantial effort, the Obama administration's hopes for a successful Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference may not be fully realised. Many developing countries are in no mood to grant new non-proliferation concessions, such as tightened rules on access to sensitive nuclear technologies, tougher inspection rules, or limits on withdrawing from the treaty. The non-nuclear weapon states (NNWS) remain angered by the failure to move forward on many disarmament commitments pledged at the 1995 and 2000 Conferences. Moreover, progress on disarmament measures under Obama has been slower than hoped, as he faces considerable scepticism in Washington about his strategy. (author)

  15. The New START Treaty: Central Limits and Key Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-27

    article-by-article analysis can be found at http://www.state.gov/t/ avc /newstart/c44126.htm. 2 For a brief summary of the original START Treaty, as...2014, http://www.state.gov/t/ avc /rls/224236.htm . The fact sheet does not display warhead subtotals for each delivery system; it only includes an...of Strategic Offensive Forces, Fact Sheet, Washington, DC, April 1, 2014, http://www.state.gov/t/ avc /rls/228652.htm. The New START Treaty: Central

  16. A climate treaty and the Norwegian economy: A CGE assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendemoen, A.; Vennemo, H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of an international climate treaty on a single country-Norway. A disaggregate computable general equilibrium (CGE) model is used. We discuss the treaty's effects on main macroeconomic indicators, economic growth, distributional impacts, the impact on pollutant emissions other than CO 2 , and the secondary benefits of this reduction. The results suggest that CO 2 emissions will decrease compared to the current level. The distributional impacts are modest. Increases in secondary benefits recoup almost one half of the loss in private consumption. We characterize the uncertainty of this estimate. 21 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  17. Transit of Natural Gas. Monitoring Report on the Implementation of the Transit Provisions of the Energy Charter Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-03-01

    Natural gas is transported over increasingly large distances from producers to consumers. Most of this transportation takes place by pipelines and often involves crossing multiple national borders. Recent events demonstrated that disputes over energy transit can quickly have multilateral implications for gas supply, demonstrating the need for a framework for reliable cross-border gas flows. The Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) provides a set of binding rules that cover the entire energy chain, including the terms to transport energy across various national jurisdictions. The transit provisions of the Treaty support the reliability of established flows and the creation of new transport capacity, thus contributing to the reliability of gas transit. The Energy Charter's Group on Trade and Transit monitors and assists in the implementation of the ECT and its instruments on trade and transit and suggests improvements of implementation. The present report monitors the implementation of the Energy Charter transit principles for natural gas by giving an analysis of its legislative and practical aspects in selected member countries of the ECT constituency

  18. The Promotion and Integration of Human Rights in EU External Trade Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Velluti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU has made the upholding of human rights an integral part of its external trade relations and requires that all trade, cooperation, partnership and association agreements with third countries, including unilateral trade instruments, contain with varying modalities and intensity a commitment to the respect for human rights. The paper discusses selected aspects of the EU’s promotion and integration of human rights in its external trade relations and assesses the impact of the changes introduced by the 2009 Treaty of Lisbon (ToL on EU practice.

  19. The Political Economy of Bilateralism and Multilateralism: Institutional Choice in Trade and Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Rixen, Thomas; Rohlfing, Ingo

    2005-01-01

    Trade relations are governed by the multilateral GATT, whereas the avoidance of international double taxation rests on a network of around 2000 bilateral treaties. Given the two regimes’ similar economic rationales this difference between bilateralism in international double tax avoidance and multilateralism in the trade regime poses an empirical puzzle. In this paper we develop an answer to this puzzle. Differentiating between different stages of international cooperation, we first describe ...

  20. Bill authorizing the ratification of the protocol amending the Protocol on transitional provisions annexed to the Treaty on European Union, to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union and to the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After an indication of the European Parliament composition, this text describes the transitional provisions adopted as the Lisbon Treaty did not come into effect before the European elections held in June 2009. The document also provides the protocol text signed by the Members States and which amended the protocol on transitional provisions annexed to the Treaty on the European Union, to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union and to the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community. The last part of the document discusses the administrative and legal consequences of this protocol. It also recalls the history of the negotiations and indicates the present status of signatures and ratifications

  1. 78 FR 24780 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Nonimmigrant Treaty Trader/Investor Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ...: Nonimmigrant Treaty Trader/Investor Application ACTION: Notice of request for public comment. SUMMARY: The... Information Collection: Nonimmigrant Treaty Trader/Investor Application. OMB Control Number: OMB-1405-0101... Number: DS-156E. Respondents: Nonimmigrant Treaty Trader/Investors. Estimated Number of Respondents: 17...

  2. A treaty banning nuclear weapons and its implications for the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güven, O.; van der Meer, S.

    2015-01-01

    International support for a new multilateral treaty banning nuclear weapons is increasing. What implications would such a treaty have for the Netherlands? This policy brief describes the legal and political context of such a treaty and examines the implications of two scenarios: one in which the

  3. The Lisbon Treaty and the role of the European Parliament in the European Atomic Energy Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.

    2008-01-01

    In June 2007, the European Council commissioned an intergovernmental conference to draft a 'treaty of reform' of the European Union. The wording of the treaty was signed by the heads of state and government of the member countries on December 13, 2007. The ongoing process of ratification in the 27 EU member countries is to be completed before the next elections to the European Parliament in June 2009. The treaty is now referred to as 'Lisbon Treaty'. The Lisbon Treaty (Treaty Amending the Treaty about the European Union and the Treaty Establishing the European Community) does not replace the European Treaties currently in force, but merely amends them. Also the 'Treaty Establishing the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM)' is amended in this way. On the basis of the contributions about 'The German Presidency Program of the Council Working Group on Nuclear Issues - an Interim Report' (W. Sandtner and S. Thomas) and 'Euratom Treaty and Intergovernmental Conference' (S. Thomas), current links to the Euratom Treaty with potential amendments are presented and commented upon. (orig.)

  4. Do Bilateral Investment Treaties Encourage FDI in the GCC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ... This paper empirically examines the short and long term FDI impact of Gulf Cooperation Countries (GCC) countries contracting of bilateral investment treaties and distinguishes it by the income level of the contracting partner. Using panel data for ...

  5. 50 CFR 660.518 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660.518 Section 660.518 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND...(s) and, insofar as possible, with tribal consensus. [66 FR 44987, Aug. 27, 2001] ...

  6. The comprehensive test ban treaty negotiations: a view from Geneva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, Michael.

    1995-01-01

    The United Kingdom- one of the alliance's three nuclear powers is fully and actively involved in the search for a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) which would play an important role in both non-proliferation and disarmament objectives. This article considers how the negotiations are proceeding and assesses the prospects in a number of key areas. (author)

  7. The Treaty of Lisbon and European Environmental Law and Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vedder, H.H.B.

    2010-01-01

    This contribution analyses the effects of the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon for European environmental law and policy. The central conclusion is that, apart from the new numbering and some new names for procedures and institutions, this does not entail any major changes. The new Energy

  8. Algorithms for the Network Analysis of Bilateral Tax Treaties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. Polak (Sven)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this thesis we conduct a network analysis of bilateral tax treaties. We are given tax data of 108 countries. Companies often send money from country to country via indirect routes, because then the tax that must be paid might be lower. In the thesis we will study the most important

  9. Bounded Rationality and the Diffusion of Modern Investment Treaties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard Poulsen, Lauge

    2014-01-01

    insights on cognitive heuristics. In line with recent work on policy diffusion, it suggests that a bounded rationality framework has considerable potential to explain why, and how, developing countries have adopted modern investment treaties. To illustrate the potential of this approach, the case of South...

  10. Leadership in politics and science within the Antarctic Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Dudeney

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available For over 50 years the Antarctic has been governed through the Antarctic Treaty, an international agreement now between 49 nations of whom 28 Consultative Parties (CPs undertake the management role. Ostensibly, these Parties have qualified for their position on scientific grounds, though diplomacy also plays a major role. This paper uses counts of policy papers and science publications to assess the political and scientific outputs of all CPs over the last 18 years. We show that a subset of the original 12 Treaty signatories, consisting of the seven claimant nations, the USA and Russia, not only set the political agenda for the continent but also provide most of the science, with those CPs producing the most science generally having the greatest political influence. None of the later signatories to the Treaty appear to play a major role in managing Antarctica compared with this group, with half of all CPs collectively producing only 7% of the policy papers. Although acceptance as a CP requires demonstration of a substantial scientific programme, the Treaty has no formal mechanism to review whether a CP continues to meet this criterion. As a first step to addressing this deficiency, we encourage the CPs collectively to resolve to hold regular international peer reviews of their individual science programmes and to make the results available to the other CPs.

  11. Overview of Major Issues of Tax Treaties Law in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedri Peci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze and find out the major issue of tax treaties law in Kosovo. In this analysis we have used the research method of case study. The results of research show that the legal framework for the elimination of double taxation, after 1999, initially started its establishment journey from the United Nations Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK. Taking into consideration the specifications of the political status, the process for the establishment of the unilateral and bilateral legal framework has been made with mistakes, slow and with delays. Following its declaration of independence, Kosovo has paid greater attention to tax treaties. Although double taxation relief in Kosovo may be obtained either unilaterally or under a tax treaty, there remains a lot of work to be done for the completion of the necessary framework for elimination of double taxation. The double taxation relief provided by a tax treaty prevails over the domestic relief. The study is of particular relevance to scholars, tax practitioners, expatriates who work and invest in Kosovo, etc

  12. The International Obligations of the European Union and its Member States with regard to Economic Relations with Israeli Settlements, CNCD, FIDH, 71 p.

    OpenAIRE

    Dubuisson, François

    2014-01-01

    The report will demonstrate that under existing international law the EU and its member states have the obligation to refrain from any form of trade or economic relations with Israeli companies established or conducting activities in Palestinian territories. This obligation arises from customary principles that govern States’ international responsibilities and set out the consequences, for third States, of serious breaches of peremptory norms of international law. We will first describe how t...

  13. Whistleblowing and the bioethicist's public obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, D Robert

    2014-10-01

    Bioethicists are sometimes thought to have heightened obligations by virtue of the fact that their professional role addresses ethics or morals. For this reason it has been argued that bioethicists ought to "whistleblow"--that is, publicly expose the wrongful or potentially harmful activities of their employer--more often than do other kinds of employees. This article argues that bioethicists do indeed have a heightened obligation to whistleblow, but not because bioethicists have heightened moral obligations in general. Rather, the special duties of bioethicists to act as whistleblowers are best understood by examining the nature of the ethical dilemma typically encountered by private employees and showing why bioethicists do not encounter this dilemma in the same way. Whistleblowing is usually understood as a moral dilemma involving conflicting duties to two parties: the public and a private employer. However, this article argues that this way of understanding whistleblowing has the implication that professions whose members identify their employer as the public-such as government employees or public servants--cannot consider whistleblowing a moral dilemma, because obligations are ultimately owed to only one party: the public. The article contends that bioethicists--even when privately employed--are similar to government employees in the sense that they do not have obligations to defer to the judgments of those with private interests. Consequently, bioethicists may be considered to have a special duty to whistleblow, although for different reasons than those usually cited.

  14. The Obligation to not Render Aid or Assistance so as to Maintain a Situation Created by the Breach of a Peremptory Norm of General International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamchid Momtaz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to prevent the consolidation of de facto authorities established in a territory following an unlawful use of force and/or contempt of the rights of the involved peoples to self-determination, international law imposes obligations on third States. Treaties entered into with the de facto authorities established on such territories on matters concerning them must ensure the interests of the people under their jurisdiction. Otherwise, these States must expect that these treaty relations will be criticized and eventually be denounced by national and international courts. Of the same concern is the origin of the distinction that international law establishes between the different acts of the de facto authorities administering these territories. Administrative acts issued to safeguard the civil rights of the people within their jurisdiction will not be null and void unlike those that seek to allow the population to enjoy the benefits of international cooperation. This is a difficult distinction to establish and implement.

  15. The obligation to contract in British law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Klappstein

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the obligation to contract is rarely looked upon. Without reason though, because it is neither outdated nor inoperable. Based on three common law doctrines the obligation to contract goes back to the Middle Ages. It has not lost its relevance, as it can still be found in modern statutory law, such as in the electricity and mail sector. What is more, it is a fundamental institution with a great impact. The analysis showed that the five chosen forms of obligations to contract bear analogical requirements but very similar rationales and economic consequences. It sets impaired market power right and it overstrikes irrational behaviour of market participants. As overall achievement it aligns the range of property, freedom of contract and freedom of competition.

  16. Mainstreaming Investment Treaty Jurisprudence: The Contribution of Investment Treaty Tribunals to the Consolidation and Development of General International Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schill, S.W.B.; Tvede, K.R.

    2015-01-01

    The use of internal and external precedent has been studied in relation to numerous international courts and tribunals. The participation of investment treaty tribunals in judicial dialogues or judicial cross-fertilization, by contrast, has remained underexplored. The present article closes this gap

  17. Service and obligations of public service in the electrical sector law; Servicio universal y obligaciones de servicio publico en la Ley del Sector Electrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuetara Martinez, J.M. de la; Gonzalez Sanfiel, A.

    1998-12-01

    Our article starts from the need of reconsidering the traditional public service concept; to this goal, the new categories universal service and public service obligations are useful instruments. After defining its notes, we identify them as different kinds of a common gender and separate then from other next categories, as are general interest services and policy obligations. Finally, we applied the obtained findings to the Electricity Sector, identifying an universal service in the supply of electrical energy to all the claimants and various concrete public service obligations in its principal sub sectors (production, transportation, distribution, trading and supply). (Author)

  18. Community liberalisation of the electric power market and public service obligations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristoforetti, Brice

    2008-06-01

    After an overview of original economic and social objectives at the basis of the creation of the European common market, the author examines whether the Community liberalisation of the European domestic electricity market has been an opportunity to acknowledge public service obligations in the European law, and more particularly examines the existence or relevance of the notion of electric power public service. This discussion addresses a period extending from the beginning of the 1960's to the Lisbon Treaty prepared in 2007. The author analyses rules of the European law, and the modalities and consequences of their adoption in the French law, as he considers that the evolution of French administrative legal evolution is the most relevant framework for this study on public service and electric power market. Thus, he first shows that the sector liberalisation, through the conflict between competition and defence of the general interest, actually allowed the existence of public service obligations for State members to be consecrated by the Community law. However, through the study of the electric power public service, the author shows that ambitions which had been initially put forward, are hardly compatible with some modalities of opening to competition

  19. State Succession in Int'l Transboundary Water Obligations: South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abiy Chelkeba

    7 International Crisis Group (2006), Sudan Comprehensive Peace ... the case of South Sudan has examined the theories of state succession and it reached at .... Case Study of the Nile Water Treaties, Published by Konrad Adenauer Foundation and ... The treaty is also reproduced in Office of Legal Affairs, cited above in this.

  20. North American free trade and the European situation compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, S

    1992-01-01

    The author analyzes and compares the trade situation in the European Community (EC) with the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). He finds that "while both the EC and NAFTA are designed to provide trade preferences to the member countries, the two groupings differ markedly in other respects. The Treaty of Rome, establishing what is now the EC, consciously used economic means to foster political cohesion in Western Europe; whereas, the NAFTA negotiations seek free trade rather than more comprehensive economic integration precisely to minimize political content. The EC contains many social provisions absent from the NAFTA discussions, the most important of which is the right of migration from one EC country to another." The effects of NAFTA on the economy of Mexico and on Mexican migration to the United States are also assessed. excerpt

  1. 27 CFR 10.54 - Criteria for determining trade buyer independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Exclusion § 10.54 Criteria... a particular practice between an industry member and an officer, employee, or representative of a... industry member obligates the trade buyer to participate in the promotion to obtain the industry member's...

  2. 76 FR 76808 - Procurement Thresholds for Implementation of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... Organization (WTO) Agreement on Government Procurement, Chapter 15 of the United States-Australia Free Trade... out U.S. trade agreement obligations under the WTO Agreement on Government Procurement, Chapter 15 of... Agreement on Government Procurement A. Central Government Entities Listed in U.S. Annex 1 (1) Procurement of...

  3. The Brazilian position during the final transactions the treaty for the proscriptions of nuclear weapons in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca Costa, C.E.S.C. da.

    1979-02-01

    The Brazilian position during the final transactions on the treaty for the proscription of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America is presented. An analysis of the main clauses of this treaty is given, well as a comparative study between the principle points of Tlatelolco Treaty and Non-Proliferation Treaty [pt

  4. The Lisbon Treaty and Changes in the Legal Rules on the Common Commercial Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janků Martin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The EU Lisbon Treaty 2007 (LT brings some changes for the common commercial policy (CCP and the decision-making processes related to it. CCP is newly included in the one area with all the external activities of the EU, with foreign and security policy, international environmental policy, development aid and economic, financial and technical cooperation with third countries. The fundamental areas of the CCP have been expanded to include foreign direct investment, services and trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights. The EU’s exclusive competence for external negotiation of agreements in areas of exclusive competence and internal CCP regarding their implementation were confirmed. The changes affect the role of the European Parliament and also the functioning of the European Council, the Council, and competences of the High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and the European External Action Service. Together with these changes, there will be also changes in procedures within the European Union. A number of aspects of the decision-making process are not yet entirely clarified, and only the practice of the participation of the EU Member States and the European Parliament in the formation of the common commercial policy will bring more meaningful conclusions. The changes brought by the LT will affect not only the extent of the influence of EU Member States on the common commercial policy, but they can also affect the position of the EU in the context of international trade, particularly in the area of negotiating commitments and rules of multilateral and bilateral trade and investment agreements.

  5. The duty to consult and legal obligations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, A.W. [Lawson Lundell Lawson and MacIntosh, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    Aboriginal law in Canada has been evolving and industry is beginning to engage in the change. This presentation describes the legal aspects regarding Aboriginal rights and the duty to consult First Nations regarding treaty rights. The implications for First Nations and industry are described. Aboriginal peoples of Canada include the Indian, Inuit and Metis populations. Aboriginal titles exist, therefore they are constitutionally protected. The paper describes recent decisions regarding the Mikisew Cree First Nation versus Canada, the Taku River Tlinget versus Ringstad, and the Haida Nation versus British Columbia and Weyerhaeuser.

  6. 77 FR 30361 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty With the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... challenging and time consuming for U.S. exporters and for foreign firms in their supply chains. The U.S..., public health and safety effects, distributive impacts, and equity). E.O. 13563 emphasizes the importance... that requires the approval of the Office of Management and Budget under 44 U.S.C. chapter 35, the net...

  7. 78 FR 21523 - Implementation of the Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty Between the United States and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ....16(h) with a diverse supply chain and requested clarification on the applicability of ITAR Sec. 123.9(e) to this exemption. The Department appreciates the diverse nature of global supply chains, but..., transfer, reexport, or retransfer). (6) No liability shall be incurred by or attributed to the U.S...

  8. The natural gas in the treaty of free trade-TLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murcia, Maria Fernanda; Garcia Molina, Mario

    2005-01-01

    The paper tries about the Colombian natural gas and the conditions to export it to the United States, the matrix of capacity and consumption of each country are analyzed, with the purpose of determining the capacity to supply their internal market and of exporting the energy and the opportunities given by the TLC for the market expansion

  9. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, the relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Thomas Jr. [7609 Glenbrook Rd., Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States)

    2014-05-09

    The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is the most important international security arrangement that we have that is protecting the world community and this has been true for many years. But it did not happen by accident, it is a strategic bargain in which 184 states gave up the right forever to acquire the most powerful weapon ever created in exchange for a commitment from the five states allowed to keep nuclear weapons under the NPT (U.S., U.K., Russia, France and China), to share peaceful nuclear technology and to engage in disarmament negotiations aimed at the ultimate elimination of their nuclear stockpiles. The most important part of this is the comprehensive nuclear test ban (CTBT); the thinking by the 184 NPT non-nuclear weapon states was and is that they understand that the elimination of nuclear weapon stockpiles is a long way off, but at least the NPT nuclear weapon states could stop testing the weapons. The CTBT has been ratified by 161 states but by its terms it can only come into force if 44 nuclear potential states ratify; 36 have of the 44 have ratified it, the remaining eight include the United States and seven others, most of whom are in effect waiting for the United States. No state has tested a nuclear weapon-except for complete outlier North Korea-in 15 years. There appears to be no chance that the U.S. Senate will approve the CTBT for ratification in the foreseeable future, but the NPT may not survive without it. Perhaps it is time to consider an interim measure, for the UN Security Council to declare that any future nuclear weapon test any time, anywhere is a 'threat to peace and security', in effect a violation of international law, which in today's world it clearly would be.

  10. On the efficiency gains of emissions trading when climate deals are non-cooperative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godal, Odd; Holtsmark, Bjart

    2011-07-15

    This paper studies, in a numerical environment, climate treaties with emissions trading when national quotas result from strategic individual choice. We find that the larger the number of parties to the deal, the smaller are the emissions reductions and the lower the welfare. If insisting on stability with respect to participation, climate treaties involve few parties and yield practically no emissions reductions. While these results contrast with some optimistic studies, our numerical example conforms established results if modelling the problem in the more traditional sense. (Author)

  11. Inability and Obligation in Moral Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckwalter, Wesley; Turri, John

    2015-01-01

    It is often thought that judgments about what we ought to do are limited by judgments about what we can do, or that “ought implies can.” We conducted eight experiments to test the link between a range of moral requirements and abilities in ordinary moral evaluations. Moral obligations were repeatedly attributed in tandem with inability, regardless of the type (Experiments 1–3), temporal duration (Experiment 5), or scope (Experiment 6) of inability. This pattern was consistently observed using a variety of moral vocabulary to probe moral judgments and was insensitive to different levels of seriousness for the consequences of inaction (Experiment 4). Judgments about moral obligation were no different for individuals who can or cannot perform physical actions, and these judgments differed from evaluations of a non-moral obligation (Experiment 7). Together these results demonstrate that commonsense morality rejects the “ought implies can” principle for moral requirements, and that judgments about moral obligation are made independently of considerations about ability. By contrast, judgments of blame were highly sensitive to considerations about ability (Experiment 8), which suggests that commonsense morality might accept a “blame implies can” principle. PMID:26296206

  12. Parental responses to child support obligations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossin-Slater, Maya; Wüst, Miriam

    find that larger obligations are associated with higher new-partner fertility among both parents. The maternal fertility response is consistent with a positive income-fertility relationship, while the paternal fertility response may reflect increased demand for new offspring as a result of reduced...

  13. The social ascription of obligations to engineers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busby, J.S.; Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Discovering obligations that are ascribed to them by others is potentially an important element in the development of the moral imagination of engineers. Moral imagination cannot reasonably be developed by contemplating oneself and one’s task alone: there must be some element of discovering the

  14. Proposal for revisions of the United Nations Moon Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Vera; Abreu, Neyda; Fritz, J.; Knapmeyer, Martin; Smeenk, Lisa; Ten Kate, Inge; Trüninger, Monica

    During this new 2010-decade, it will be imperative to reconsider the effectiveness of the current United Nations (U.N.) Moon Treaty (c.1979). Amendments are necessary to underline the mandatory human stewardship of this fragile planetary body of our Solar System, indispensible to life on Earth. After the very successful Apollo and Luna missions to the Moon (ending in 1976), which brought a wide array of data (samples, surface and orbital experiments), the Moon lost its exploratory attraction in favor of other programs, such as the International Space Station and potential human exploration of Mars. However, since the mid-90's, the enthusiasm for the Moon has been revived, which resulted in several space agencies worldwide (NASA, ESA, ISRO, JAXA, and the Chinese Space Agency) having made great efforts to re-start ex-ploratory and scientific campaigns even though budgetary changes may delay the process. As a result, a wide array of peoples and their interests are put together in each mission planned to reach the Moon (e.g., orbiters and landers). Up to now, mission plans focus on technical requirements and the desires of scientists and engineers, but hardly any other aspects. Field specialists on issues regarding the social, economic, political, cultural, ethical and environmen-tal impacts of Moon exploration and colonization have had little to no involvement in current and past lunar missions. However, these fields would provide different and essential points of view regarding the planning of lunar missions. Moreover, recent documents written by the scientific community, such as "The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon: Final Re-port" Committee on the Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon, National Research Council (2007), or the recent (summer 2009) White Papers for the National Research Council Planetary Science Decadal Survey 2011-2020, do not seem to leave space for a multidisciplinary approach regarding the future lunar exploration either

  15. Interactive image and text processing for nuclear treaty support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrie, G.M.; Rohay, A.C.; Wukelic, G.E.; Foote, H.P.

    1991-03-01

    The report covers experimentation with integrating a wide range of technologies and data sets with the principal goal of supporting treaty related activity. Scientists attempting to apply computer analysis tools to their problem sets often face several practical problems beyond the purely scientific ones. These include (1) the need to be proficient in several different computer operating systems with diverse characteristics, (2) the time wasted in dealing with software issues rather than problem solving and (3) the time required to master computer application software, which limits time available to explore new analysis techniques. In an attempt to mitigate these problems, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing a spatial-based data fusion system. Selected features of this system, involving advanced image and text processing schemes, have applicability to both technical and non-technical functions associated with increasing treaty-related information management requirements

  16. Act of 20 July 1978 establishing provisions enabling the International Atomic Energy Agency to undertake inspections and verifications on Belgian territory, in implementation of the International Agreement of 5 April 1973 made in application of 1 and 4 paragraphs of Article III of the Treaty of 1 July 1968 on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Under the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), Belgium concluded a safeguards agreement with the IAEA which enables the latter to verify the fulfilment of the obligations assumed by Belgium in accordance with the NPT, with a view to preventing diversion of nuclear energy from peaceful uses to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. All non-nuclear weapon States party to the NPT enter into such agreements. (NEA) [fr

  17. Leadership in politics and science within the Antarctic Treaty

    OpenAIRE

    John R. Dudeney; David W.H. Walton

    2012-01-01

    For over 50 years the Antarctic has been governed through the Antarctic Treaty, an international agreement now between 49 nations of whom 28 Consultative Parties (CPs) undertake the management role. Ostensibly, these Parties have qualified for their position on scientific grounds, though diplomacy also plays a major role. This paper uses counts of policy papers and science publications to assess the political and scientific outputs of all CPs over the last 18 years. We show that a subset of t...

  18. Nationality non-discrimination in Serbian tax treaty law

    OpenAIRE

    Kostić Svetislav V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the nationality non-discrimination provision in Serbian double taxation treaties. First the author analyses the historical development of the nationality non-discrimination clause found the in the OECD Model Tax Convention and illustrates the dilemmas related to its interpretation, particularly the relevance of residence of taxpayers for comparability purposes and the application of Art. 24.1 of the OECD Model Tax Convention. Subsequently, the author turns his attention ...

  19. Overview of Major Issues of Tax Treaties Law in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Bedri Peci

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to analyze and find out the major issue of tax treaties law in Kosovo. In this analysis we have used the research method of case study. The results of research show that the legal framework for the elimination of double taxation, after 1999, initially started its establishment journey from the United Nations Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK). Taking into consideration the specifications of the political status, the process for the establishment of the unilat...

  20. The legacy of the Treaty of Lausanne in the light of Greek-Turkish relations in the twentieth century: Greek perceptions of the Treaty of Lausanne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sfetas Spyridon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Treaty of Lausanne and the compulsory exchange of populations between Greece and Turkey became the basis both for the reorientation of their foreign policies and for the establishment of close relations of friendship and cooperation between the two countries. But the Cyprus question and the Aegean conflict affected bilateral relations. It had a negative impact on the Treaty of Lausanne.

  1. Analyses on the Possible Brexit through the Lisbon Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Teodora Andronic

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Europe is facing a social crisis like never before, and this comes just after an economical one. The huge flow of migrants that started crossing into Europe at the end of 2015 was just the straw that broke the camel for Great Britain, because the Brits were threatening to leave the EU for some time. Prime Minister David Cameron has warned his European counterparts that his country might leave if his demands are not met. He clearly affirmed that he wants to stay in the EU, but under different rules. He negotiated a package of reforms, demanding concessions from a frightened Brussels, that has seen almost inevitable the change in some EU treaty terms. The PM used the 2011 European Union Act at the negotiations, document which requires any EU treaty that passes new powers to Brussels to be put to an internal British referendum. On June 23rd there is set a referendum on the country’s membership to the EU. But this amount of uncertainty led to the fall of the pound (reaching its lowest level since 2009, to fear for the investors and furious debates between the political parties. We shall further analyze the Lisbon Treaty, in order to better understand the legislation behind this European-wide tension, and to explain the implications of such an event.

  2. Trading stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied ...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  3. On-site inspections under the INF Treaty. A post-mortem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.

    2001-01-01

    Midnight on 31 May 2001 marked the end of all on-site inspections (OSIs) under the Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty. Signed by the US and the Soviet Union in 1987, the treaty has now come of age and must survive for the rest of its indefinite duration without the security of regular OSIs. The ending of OSIs provides an opportunity to assess the success of this aspect of the verification regime and how the treaty is to be verified without them. The INF Treaty banned all ground-launched ballistic and cruise missiles with ranges between 500 and 5,500 kilometres. It was the first treaty to eliminate a whole class of nuclear weapons and the first nuclear arms control agreement to provide for OSIs. All 2,692 INF missiles were eliminated by May 1991, within the three-year time limit. A further 10 years of OSIs helped provide reassurance of continuing compliance. The treaty will continue to be verified by so-called national technical means, primarily satellites. The Special Verification Commission, set up under the treaty to resolve issues relating to treaty implementation and compliance, will continue to meet when requested by a treaty party. Universal opinion is that the treaty has been successfully verified to date. However, a number of problems were encountered and lessons learned from the experience. In particular, the treaty negotiators proved to have been overly cautious in envisaging how inspections would actually be conducted. One of the main achievements of OSIs under the INF Treaty has been to create a basic model and procedures for inspections which have been adopted in the more complex arms control and disarmament treaties that have followed

  4. Abatement Costs vs. Compliance Costs in Multi-Period Emissions Trading - The Firms' Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bode, Sven

    2003-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emission trading has become more and more important in the context of climate change. Recently, a discussion on trading on entity (i.e. company) level has started. Emitters likely to be obliged to participate have argued for an initial allocation of the emission rights free of charge. I analyse the implication of such an allocation based on historical emissions and on benchmarks in multi-period emission trading. Different allocation rules for successive periods are applied, nam...

  5. Anonymous electronic trading versus floor trading

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Günter; Hess, Dieter

    1995-01-01

    This paper compares the attractiveness of floor trading and anonymous electronic trading systems. It is argued that in times of low information intensity the insight into the order book of the electronic trading system provides more valuable information than floor trading, but in times of high information intensity the reverse is true. Thus, the electronic system's market share in trading activity should decline in times of high information intensity. This hypothesis is tested by data on BUND...

  6. Trading volume and the number of trades

    OpenAIRE

    Marwan Izzeldin

    2007-01-01

    Trading volume and the number of trades are both used as proxies for market activity, with disagreement as to which is the better proxy for market activity. This paper investigates this issue using high frequency data for Cisco and Intel in 1997. A number of econometric methods are used, including GARCH augmented with lagged trading volume and number of trades, tests based on moment restrictions, regression analysis of volatility on volume and trades, normality of returns when standardized by...

  7. Singer's Utilitarian Account of Cosmopolitan Obligations: A Critical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    based conception of cosmopolitan obligations. Singer's thesis, simply put, is that from the perspective of utilitarian and cosmopolitan considerations, the affluent owe a moral obligation to provide aid to the masses of the poor irrespective of whether ...

  8. 5 CFR 2635.809 - Just financial obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... obligations. Employees shall satisfy in good faith their obligations as citizens, including all just financial... employee or reduced to judgment by a court. In good faith means an honest intention to fulfill any just...

  9. The Obligations of States towards Refugees under International Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skordas, Achilles

    The main purpose of the current study is to discuss the obligations of States towards refugees under international law, and to argue that States have obligations towards refugees regardless of the ratification of the Geneva Convention....

  10. European Union’s integration issues after the rejection of the Constitutional Treaty. A Neo-Gramscian anaylsis (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Mădălina BONCILĂ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Through this paper we have tried to question the reality of EU’ s integration and to identify the factors that shaped it. The complexity of this process led to multiple perspectives of analyzing it. We believe that Neo- Gramscian theory of European integration, although not so well-known, can be considered the most appropriate methodological support in explaining the events that have redefined the European integration: the rejection of the Constitutional Treaty, the financial crisis and the emergence of the Lisbon Treaty. We started from the assumption that the EU has obvious neo-liberal connotations, which led to the emergence of functional obstacles difficult to overcome, especially when it comes to the social dimension of the EU. Therefore, we divided the work into two basic parts, the first explains the methodology used, the main concepts, what neo-liberalism is and which are the EU’ s neo-liberal expressions and in the second part we focused on the social dimension of the EU, talking about the lack of substance that we found in the rhetoric of Fundamental Rights. Using the trade unions we have exemplified the inability of the EU to cope with social challenges, especially since there are forms of skepticism focused strictly on social discontent. The conclusions confirm that the Neo-Gramscian theory is the most suitable methodological support in an attempt to capture the nuances of EU’ s neo-liberal expressions.

  11. Competition law and the obligation to supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergqvist, Christian

    2015-01-01

    While accepted in theory and practice that an obligation to supply, ser-vice or license can emerge under competition law, the scope of this is subject to many, if not lacunas, at least ambiguities, and no general ob-li¬gations of such nature can, no should, be identified. Further, and equally...... important, the narrow set of circumstances warranting inter-vention against refusals is defined by competition law in accordance with its underlying principles of a predominantly economic nature. Hence, competition law should not be relied upon as a corrective in-strument to lacunas in other areas of law, e.......g. compulsory licenses un-der IP law. Below, some considerations regarding the obligation to supply under competition law are offered for the purpose of correcting the misunderstandings....

  12. 29 CFR 500.100 - Vehicle safety obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... safety standards. Prima facie evidence that safety standards have been met will be shown by the presence... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle safety obligations. 500.100 Section 500.100 Labor... § 500.100 Vehicle safety obligations. (a) General obligations. Each farm labor contractor, agricultural...

  13. Bystander Obligations at the Domestic and International Level Compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, Otto|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328454559

    2014-01-01

    This article examines whether States have a legal obligation to assist victims of serious breaches of fundamental obligations owed to the international community as a whole. This so-called ‘bystander State responsibility’ is compared with a similar legal obligation to assist victims at the domestic

  14. 12 CFR 208.101 - Obligations concerning institutional customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obligations concerning institutional customers...) Interpretations § 208.101 Obligations concerning institutional customers. (a) As a result of broadened authority... on their suitability obligations when making recommendations to institutional customers. (b) The...

  15. 12 CFR 997.5 - Termination of the obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination of the obligation. 997.5 Section 997.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NON-BANK SYSTEM ENTITIES RESOLUTION FUNDING CORPORATION OBLIGATIONS OF THE BANKS § 997.5 Termination of the obligation. (a) Generally. The Banks...

  16. 47 CFR 27.1184 - Triggering a reimbursement obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Triggering a reimbursement obligation. 27.1184... reimbursement obligation. (a) The clearinghouse will apply the following test to determine when an AWS entity... paragraphs (a)(3)(i) and (ii) of this section, indicates that a reimbursement obligation exists, the...

  17. 47 CFR 27.1168 - Triggering a Reimbursement Obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Triggering a Reimbursement Obligation. 27.1168... a Reimbursement Obligation. (a) The clearinghouse will apply the following test to determine when an... reimbursement obligation exists, the clearinghouse will calculate the reimbursement amount in accordance with...

  18. 47 CFR 24.247 - Triggering a reimbursement obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Triggering a reimbursement obligation. 24.247... Mhz Band § 24.247 Triggering a reimbursement obligation. (a) Licensed PCS. The clearinghouse will... the Proximity Threshold test indicates that a reimbursement obligation exists, the clearinghouse will...

  19. 24 CFR 891.615 - Obligations of the family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obligations of the family. 891.615 Section 891.615 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... 8 Assistance § 891.615 Obligations of the family. The obligations of the family are provided in...

  20. 24 CFR 891.755 - Obligations of the family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obligations of the family. 891.755... the Elderly and Persons with Disabilities Section 202 Projects for the Nonelderly Handicapped Families and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance § 891.755 Obligations of the family. The obligations of the...

  1. Constitutional obligations of a person and a citizen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Yu. Ogurtsov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The constitution of the Russian Federation does not contain the list of obligations, but theoretically each legal right is supposed to correspond to a legal obligation. Such conformity is achieved by means of attaching obligations not only by Constitution, but by the branch legislation either.

  2. 7 CFR 400.167 - Limitations on Corporation's obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limitations on Corporation's obligations. 400.167... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Reinsurance Agreement... Corporation's obligations. The Agreement will include the following among the limitations on the obligations...

  3. 7 CFR 1724.71 - Borrower contractual obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Borrower contractual obligations. 1724.71 Section... Contract Forms § 1724.71 Borrower contractual obligations. (a) Loan agreement. As a condition of a loan or... obligation is contained in section 5.16 of the loan contract. To comply with the provisions of the loan...

  4. 24 CFR 266.415 - Mortgage lien and other obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... determine, that all contractual obligations in connection with the mortgage transaction, including the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage lien and other obligations... Mortgage and Closing Requirements; HUD Endorsement § 266.415 Mortgage lien and other obligations. (a) Liens...

  5. 7 CFR 1726.301 - Borrower contractual obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Borrower contractual obligations. 1726.301 Section... Borrower contractual obligations. (a) Loan agreement. As a condition of a loan or loan guarantee under the... obligation is contained in section 5.16 of the loan contract. To comply with the provisions of the loan...

  6. Informed consent: Enforcing pharmaceutical companies' obligations abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stacey B

    2010-06-15

    The past several years have seen an evolution in the obligations of pharmaceutical companies conducting clinical trials abroad. Key players, such as international human rights organizations, multinational pharmaceutical companies, the United States government and courts, and the media, have played a significant role in defining these obligations. This article examines how such obligations have developed through the lens of past, present, and future recommendations for informed consent protections. In doing so, this article suggests that, no matter how robust obligations appear, they will continue to fall short of providing meaningful protection until they are accompanied by a substantive enforcement mechanism that holds multinational pharmaceutical companies accountable for their conduct. Issues of national sovereignty, particularly in the United States, will continue to prevent meaningful enforcement by an international tribunal or through one universally adopted code of ethics. This article argues that, rather than continuing to pursue an untenable international approach, the Alien Torts Statute (ATS) offers a viable enforcement mechanism, at least for US-based pharmaceutical companies. Recent federal appellate court precedent interpreting the ATS provides the mechanism for granting victims redress and enforcing accountability of sponsors (usually pharmaceutical companies and research and academic institutions) for informed consent misconduct. Substantive human rights protections are vital in order to ensure that every person can realize the "right to health." This article concludes that by building on the federal appellate court's ATS analysis, which grants foreign trial participants the right to pursue claims of human rights violations in US courts, a mechanism can be created for enforcing not only substantive informed consent, but also human rights protections.

  7. Molecular genetic studies on obligate anaerobic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    Molecular genetic studies on obligate anaerobic bacteria have lagged behind similar studies in aerobes. However, the current interest in biotechnology, the involvement of anaerobes in disease and the emergence of antibioticresistant strains have focused attention on the genetics of anaerobes. This article reviews molecular genetic studies in Bacteroides spp., Clostridium spp. and methanogens. Certain genetic systems in some anaerobes differ from those in aerobes and illustrate the genetic diversity among bacteria

  8. Collateralised loan obligations (CLOs): A primer

    OpenAIRE

    Jobst, Andreas A.

    2002-01-01

    The following descriptive paper surveys the various types of loan securitisation and provides a working definition of so-called collateralised loan obligations (CLOs). Free of the common rhetoric and slogans, which sometimes substitute for understanding of the complex nature of structured finance, this paper describes the theoretical foundations of this specialised form of loan securitisation. Not only the distinctive properties of CLOs, but also the information economics inherent in the tran...

  9. Universalization or abandonment: which perspectives for the INF Treaty? Analysis note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornel, Pierre de

    2008-07-01

    The author discusses the future of the INF Treaty (Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces Treaty). This future is directly related to the evolutions of the strategic Russian-American relationship, but also to issues of ballistic proliferation and to related efforts to stem them, and to issues related to access to space. Thus, the author discusses the relationships between the INF Treaty and multilateral instruments of ballistic non proliferation. He discusses the possible perspective of a universalization of the INF Treaty, and the Russian initiative of universalization of the Treaty. He finally addresses the perspectives and stakes of future negotiations within a positive context of support of the USA to this initiative, and of French proposals on short range and medium range missiles. Issues will then concern the implementation of a control system, and of guarantees, the entry into force of the treaty. Obstacles on this way are evoked

  10. The Emergence of Denmark’s Tax Treaty Network — A Historical View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Peter Koerver

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This contribution analyzes the origin and creation of Denmark’s tax treaty network in a historical perspective. The development of the Danish treaty network is studied through an international perspective and by discussing a number of milestone events. It is concluded that the general tendency has pointed toward a continuously growing Danish treaty network and also that the question on abuse of the treaties has become of greater concern during the past decades. Moreover, it is argued that the growing number and importance of Denmark’s tax treaties over time created a need for the Danish parliament to be more directly involved in the conclusion of new tax treaties.

  11. ACCESSORIES OF FISCAL OBLIGATION. LEGAL REGIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADA POSTOLACHE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The interest – which is an institution typical to private law, has been taken over by the fiscal field and adapted to the specific features of fiscal obligation – being defined by its imperative legal regime, which has at the least the following characteristic elements: unitary character, imposed legal percentage, compulsory demand of interest, automatic application. In order to render responsible fiscal debtors, the lawmaker has reintroduced, as an accessory of fiscal obligation, delayed payment penalties, which have a distinct nature and legal regime, but without the principle non bis in idem being transgressed. Our study aims to establish the legal regime ofaccessories typical to fiscal obligation, from the perspective of special normative acts, but also of the common law within the field – Civil Code and Government Ordinance No. 13/2011 – by pointing out at the same time both the particular circumstances and procedural ones regulated by the Fiscal Procedure Code, shedding light upon the controversial legal nature of accessories.

  12. Value, obligation and the asymmetry question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooley, Michael

    1998-04-01

    Is there a prima facie obligation to produce additional individuals whose lives would be worth living? In his paper 'Is it good to make happy people?', Stuart Rachels argues not only that there is, but, also, that precisely as much weight should be assigned to the quality of life that would be enjoyed by such potential persons, if they were to be actualized, as to the quality of life enjoyed by actually existing persons. In response, I shall argue, first, that Rachels' view is exposed to very serious objections, and secondly, that his arguments in support of his position involve a crucial assumption, which cannot be sustained, concerning the relation between, on the one hand, propositions about good-making and bad-making properties, and, on the other, propositions about right-making and wrong-making ones. I shall then argue that there is a very plausible position concerning the conditions under which an action can be morally wrong which entails the following asymmetry: there is a prima facie obligation not to bring into existence individuals whose lives are not worth living, but there is no corresponding obligation to create additional individuals whose lives would be worth living.

  13. THE ROLE AND RATIONALE OF THE NUCLEAR NON-PROLIFERATION TREATY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom COPPEN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Much has been written about perceived weaknesses of the NPT and the challenges it has been facing over the last decades. Analysing the most important provisions of the NPT, this article demonstrates how the treaty has managed to maintain its central role in the non-proliferation regime since its conclusion, and how it retains enough flexibility within its review mechanism and its managerial approach to supervision to keep this position for the decades to come. The theoretical framework of the article is formed by theory of arms control law, relevant features of which are: a large influence of politics and national interests of states on the rule of law; its flexible yet treaty-based nature; and the distinctive role of supervision in order to ensure compliance with primary rules. The article analyses key NPT provisions. Based on Article VIII, the NPT Review Conferences have both an important political and legal function. They are the NPT’s mechanism for review, implementation and supervision; in legal terms, they enable the evolution of the NPT based on subsequent agreement and practice. The NPT articles on non-proliferation and disarmament illustrate how the NPT has evolved to close off loopholes (Articles I and II and retains its flexibility whilst providing a global platform for negotiations on nuclear disarmament (Article VI. Article III evolved and must be understood to oblige NPT states to sign an Additional Protocol (AP with the IAEA. Article IV sets the parameters for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, but leaves room for negotiation and conflict. The supervision of the NPT, illustrated by the case of Iran, is a complicated process involving international organisations such as the IAEA and the UNSC; while these may play important roles, however, the enforcement of the NPT is ultimately left to the NPT states themselves.

  14. Fuel trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    A first part of this report proposes an overview of trends and predictions. After a synthesis on the sector changes and trends, it indicates and comments the most recent predictions for the consumption of refined oil products and for the turnover of the fuel wholesale market, reports the main highlights concerning the sector's life, and gives a dashboard of the sector activity. The second part proposes the annual report on trends and competition. It presents the main operator profiles and fuel categories, the main determining factors of the activity, the evolution of the sector context between 2005 and 2015 (consumptions, prices, temperature evolution). It analyses the evolution of the sector activity and indicators (sales, turnovers, prices, imports). Financial performances of enterprises are presented. The economic structure of the sector is described (evolution of the economic fabric, structural characteristics, French foreign trade). Actors are then presented and ranked in terms of turnover, of added value, and of result

  15. INNOVATIONS AND CHANGES BROUGHT BY THE LISBON TREATY: THE SOCIAL ASPECT

    OpenAIRE

    Azizi, Abdulla

    2011-01-01

    The Lisbon Treaty is an attempt to overcome the difficulties faced in thefunctioning of previous treaties of the European Union. It aims, through itsprovisions, at offering better opportunities for action including the social scope,but the inter-governmental nature of decision-making continues to prevail.This paper focuses on provisions for social policyin the Lisbon Treaty andimportant changes that deal with reforms in this field. More co...

  16. Judicial Decision and Rethinking the Constitutional Principles Concerning Treaty Making Power and Process of Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Umpai, Kiarttiphorn

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the treaty making power and process in recent constitutional provisions reforms in Thailand. It aims to analyze whether the constitutional provision has affected the treaty-making crisis. This study relied on the theory of the sovereignty of state exercised by the executive branch in compliance with the treaty making power concept, the separation of powers, and the checks and balances doctrine. The findings revealed that Thailand’s constitutional amendment related t...

  17. A Legal and Economic Analysis of Austria's Double Tax Treaty Network with Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Julia; Fuentes Hernandez, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    To what degree developing countries gain from signing double tax treaties is being hotly debated. In this paper, we analyze the Austrian tax treaty policy. Combining legal and economic perspectives, we find that developing countries are likely to expect both positive and negative impacts from signing a double tax treaty (DTT) with Austria. On the one hand, the results of our econometric analysis suggest that middle-income countries that sign a DTT with Austria may expect an inc...

  18. Fuel poverty and energy efficiency obligations – A critical assessment of the supplier obligation in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenow, Jan; Platt, Reg; Flanagan, Brooke

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency obligations (or white certificates) are increasingly used to reduce carbon emissions. While the energy efficiency obligations were originally intended as carbon reduction and not fuel poverty policies, due to recognition of the potential for regressive outcomes they often include provisions for vulnerable and low-income customers. Intuitively, reducing carbon emissions and alleviating fuel poverty seem to be two sides of the same coin. There are, however, considerable tensions between the two when addressed through energy efficiency obligations, particularly arising from the potentially regressive impacts of rising energy prices resulting from such obligations, but also the complexity of targeting fuel poor households and the implications for deliverability. Despite those tensions, the UK government decided to use energy efficiency obligations, the supplier obligation, as the main policy for reducing fuel poverty. In light of the proposals, this paper provides an analysis of the main tensions between carbon reduction and fuel poverty alleviation within energy efficiency obligations, outlines the fuel poverty provisions of the British Supplier Obligation, assesses its rules for identifying the fuel poor, and provides a critical analysis of the planned policy changes. Based on this analysis, alternative approaches to targeting fuel poverty within future supplier obligations are proposed. - Highlights: • First comprehensive analysis of energy savings obligations and fuel poverty. • Systematic comparison of targeting efficiency of fuel poverty programmes. • Critical analysis of fuel poverty provisions in British supplier obligations. • Proposal of a new approach to targeting fuel poverty within energy savings obligations

  19. The Rarotonga treaty: regional approach to non-proliferation in the South Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadimitropulos, P.

    1988-01-01

    The regional approach to the problem of non-proliferation in the South-Pacific-the Rarotonga treaty - is discussed. The regional approach to the problem of non-proliferation is aimed in a wide sense at the assistance to detante in a certain region and the propagation of measures strengthening confidence there. On December 11, 1975 at the initiative of New Zealand and Fiji the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution on the nuclear-free zone in the South-Pacific. In compliance with the Rarotonga treaty a large nuclear-free zone is created. The participants of the Rarotonga Treaty assess the values of the Non-Proliferation Treaty

  20. The Subsidiarity of International Treaties Against Double Taxation Critical Analysis of French Jurisprudence

    OpenAIRE

    Marinho, Anapaula Trindade

    2016-01-01

    The application of tax treaties by national courts around the world is not uniform. Depending on the country where a given taxpayer raised a conflict between the provisions of the national tax rules and the regime provided by a tax treaty, the interpretation of the tax treaty might vary. The result can lead to a situation of double taxation, contrary to the aim of tax treaties. The contribution is about a particular principle of law that the Administrative French Supreme Court, i.e., the “Con...

  1. Rules-of-trade for international nuclear commerce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, W.R.

    1978-07-01

    The rules-of-trade are those treaties, laws, executive agreements, and implementing regulations that apply to international transfers of nuclear materials, equipment, technology, or skilled personnel. The rules-of-trade are a key element in assuring the international commerce that facilitates deployment of nuclear energy will not also facilitate the manufacture of nuclear explosive devices. But the rules must be pertinent, enforceable, and understandable. The two principal problems of current rules-of-trade concern their enforceability and their flexibility; these are discussed at some length. The following additional concerns are described briefly: fast breeder reactors, spent fuel management, nonconforming parties, eligibility for international financing, fair competition and equity, and pre-existing facilities

  2. NAFTA literature at the International Trade Commission library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Elizabeth A.

    1994-01-01

    Most of the US official materials regarding NAFTA originate in the Executive Office of the President, especially the Office of the United States Trade Representative. These materials can be purchased from the U.S.G.P.O. There were also numerous Congressional hearings; many of which are probably now out of print, government agencies and the public are welcome to make copies of the ones in the collections of the ITC libraries. One of the most important sources of materials available in electronic format is the National Trade Data Base, produced by the Department of Commerce. This is a collection of at least 120 separate files containing documents relating to trade. It includes several files specifically on NAFTA, including the text of the treaty. It is available as two CD-ROM's, issued monthly, or on Internet.

  3. The comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty eight years after the opening of the treaty for signature: what is the situation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Goff, G.; Rousseau, D.

    2004-01-01

    The International community has just celebrated the eight anniversary of the opening for signature, on 24 September 1996, of the Comprehensive Nuclear -test-Ban Treaty (C.T.B.T.). This event provides an opportunity to review briefly the current situation with regard to the Treaty and the international organisation responsible for preparing the various steps necessary for its implementation. The purpose of this paper is not to give once again a detailed description of the history of the Treaty, the issues at stake and its prospects. It is simply recalled that the major undertaking by States Parties to the Treaty is not to carry out any nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion, and to prohibit and prevent any such nuclear explosion at any place under its jurisdiction or control. It is also useful to note that the Treaty provides for a verification regime consisting of the following four elements: creation of a permanent International Monitoring system; consultation and clarification procedures to be followed by states in the event of a suspicious occurrence; on-site inspections, carried out at the request of a State Party; confidence-building measures. On the eve of important deadlines particularly during 2005 for disarmament and nonproliferation, it was useful to give a brief factual picture of the current Treaty situation and above all of the results obtained to date by the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization. (N.C.)

  4. Culture as a Determinant of Competitive Advantage in Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dekuwmini Mornah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Culture plays a role in international trade much as it does in any other human activity. Attitudes and ways of life do matter even when a lucrative business opportunity exists, especially across national borders. This paper examines which aspects of culture give countries competitive edge in terms of bilateral trade performances. Specifically, do relatively higher scores in certain cultural dimensions have a deterministic effect on bilateral trade performance (terms of trade or bilateral trade balance? Methodology: We adopt empirical econometric estimation methods on trade data covering 59 countries and 29 years combined with the nine "Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE" culture dimensions, Our estimations were based on Robust Regression Analysis and Ordinary Least Squares methods. Findings: We find that indeed, certain aspects of culture enhance bilateral trade performance/competitiveness. Performance Orientation, Future Orientation, Institutional Collectivism, Gender Egalitarianism, Power Distance and Uncertainty Avoidance improve bilateral trade performance while Assertiveness, Humane Orientation and In-Group Collectivism impair it. Research limitations: Direct measures of international competitiveness are not readily available. So we had to adopt proxies for measuring international competitiveness. Implications: Many countries want to boost international competitiveness. However, in the current world order with multilateral trade agreements under the WTO and increased transferability of technology, governments are clipped in terms of available trade policy options. By understanding which aspects of culture promote bilateral competitiveness and performance, governments could take steps to maximize their competitiveness. For instance, when negotiating trade treaties, policy makers may benefit from the knowledge of culture's impact on competitive advantage when selecting partners. Originality/value: To

  5. Canadian University Acknowledgment of Indigenous Lands, Treaties, and Peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Rima; Duong, Aaron; Kesler, Linc; Ramos, Howard

    2017-02-01

    At many Canadian universities it is now common to publicly acknowledge Indigenous lands, treaties, and peoples. Yet, this practice has yet to be considered as a subject of scholarly inquiry. How does this practice vary and why? In this paper we describe the content and practice of acknowledgment, linking this content to treaty relationships (or lack thereof). We show that acknowledgment tends to be one of five general types: of land and title (British Columbia), of specific treaties and political relationships (Prairies), of multiculturalism and heterogeneity (Ontario), of no practice (most of Quebec), and of people, territory, and openness to doing more (Atlantic). Based on these results, we conclude that the fluidity of acknowledgment as a practice, including changing meanings depending on the positionality of the acknowledger, need to be taken into account. Plusieurs universités Canadien pratique une reconnaissance des territoires, des traités, et des peoples autochtone en publique. Cette pratique, cependant, n'a jamais été considérée comme une enquête savante. Dans ce projet nous regardons comment les reconnaissances varie par institution et pourquoi. Nous trouvons qu'il y a un lien entre le contenu des reconnaissances et les relations traité. On démontre cinq forme des reconnaissances: territoire et titre (Colombie britannique); traité spécifique and les relations politiques (Prairies); multiculturalisme et hétérogénéité (Ontario); l'absence (la majorité du Québec); et des peoples, territoire et volonté a plus faire (Atlantique). Nous concluons que la fluidité de la reconnaissance, comme pratique, est fluide et doit prendre en considération la position de la personne qui le fait. © 2017 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  6. The Australia-Indonesia Zone of Cooperation Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitchens, Michael

    1994-01-01

    The Australia-Indonesia Zone of Cooperation Treaty heralded the birth of a regime to allow joint development of the petroleum resources in an area where the sea boundary is subject to competing claims. This regime consists of a ministerial council and a joint authority. Eleven production sharing contracts for area A were signed by February 1992. The contractors have committed themselves to an exploration expenditure of at least US$200 million for the period from 1992 to 1994, including the drilling of 23 wells. (author)

  7. The Indo-American Nuclear Treaty: Challenges and Controversies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutmann, Raphael

    2008-01-01

    In September 2008 India signed a co-operation agreement on civil nuclear energy with the United States. So doing, it got rid of an embargo that lasted for several decades, due to India's refusal to sign the NPT. This agreement has triggered many political debates in India and in the United States as well. Though the treaty is part of a new general design of the Indian diplomacy, it is very likely that it does not mean that New Delhi has radically changed its views on Washington

  8. The organisation of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopecky, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    The author presents the international control system implemented by the CTBT (Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty) organisation to permanently control the globe and to detect any indicator of a nuclear explosion from war or civil origin or seismic activities. He briefly indicates how many countries are members of this organisation, and positions of some others. He describes how a North-Korean explosion has been detected in January 2016. He evokes the existence of validation techniques, and comments the relationship between the European Union and this organisation. He outlines the role played by France, and outlines the need for a world-based control system

  9. The Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Withdrawal Clause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutherin, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Like any international agreement, the NPT includes a withdrawal clause. The North Korean withdrawal, which was announced in 1993 and became effective in 2003, shows how difficult it is to preserve this possibility, while guaranteeing compliance with signed agreements. To achieve this target, two conditions are required: first, enhancing the means by which the reasons for withdrawals can be made clear and second, to allow the Security Council to draw all the consequences of withdrawals that could imply that a treaty has been violated

  10. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty: options before nuclear Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattanaik, Smruti S.

    1998-01-01

    The post-nuclear period has rendered Pakistan's strategic calculations more vulnerable. The decision to go nuclear after seventeen days of debate have started proving costly to Pakistan. This is revealed by the economic crisis resulting out of the foreign currency shortage, leading the country to default on the payment of debts. The pressure imposed by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank and their patrons to sign the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) have exposed Pakistan's economic vulnerability. Under this growing pressure, many have started questioning the decision to go nuclear

  11. New Solutions for Renewable Energy Trading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysław Mielczarski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents one of the key problems in renewable energy trading. The support system for RES is operating on financial levels leaving to the RES producers decisions on the energy trade. However, the flawed legal regulations impose the obligations on Default Electricity Supplier (SzU1 to buy all RES production from the installations located in the areas of the SzU operation. Such legal provisions result in the additional burden on the SzU, which main duty is to provide electric energy to customers who do not want to enter competitive electricity markets. Additionally, over interpretation of the Energy Law provisions by the Energy Regulatory Authority (URE2, allowing the RES producers to trade a part of their production on electricity markets leaving the obligation on SzUs, has led to the speculative trade of renewable energy. Some RES producers sell the electricity produced in competitive markets during peak demand hours – usually working days from 7 a.m. to 8 p.m. – when the Power Exchange prices are significantly higher than the obligatory purchase price. When during off peak demand hours electricity prices in the Power Exchange are lower than the obligatory level, RES producers sell the electric energy to SzUs at the obligatory price, determined by the URE. Such an abuse of fair trade results in the additional income for the RES producers being burden on SzUs, which have to transfer such costs to energy endusers. The simulations, carried out for Poland indicate that the additional costs can count for about 200 mln zł per year.

  12. Policy recommendations for Canadian municipal greenhouse gas trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seskus, A.

    2002-01-01

    The municipal policies regarding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading from municipalities in developed countries outside of Canada were examined in an effort to help establish a position on municipal carbon trading in Canada. The main uncertainty regarding this new concept of GHG emissions trading is the fate of the Kyoto Protocol, when or if it will be ratified. It is premature for municipalities to have well-established polices about emissions trading because the country in which a municipality is located determines the position towards GHG emissions trading. For this study, an extensive literature search of municipal policies was conducted for both GHG trading and domestic national GHG trading. This was followed by a survey on emissions trading which was distributed to more than 350 member cities (including the United States, Europe and Australia) of the International Council for Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) Cities for Climate Protection (CCP) Campaign. The literature search revealed that municipalities outside of Canada have not yet formulated policies to address the issue of emissions trading. Only 7 per cent of the cities felt that they were informed about emissions trading, even in Europe and Australia where domestic emissions trading is closer to becoming a reality. This paper demonstrated that it is evident that more training is needed for municipalities regarding this issue. For the very few cities that had developed a GHG trading policy, each municipal policy supported municipal participation in emissions trading under conditions that included an environmental retirement, a do-no-harm clause, or an obligation to meet voluntary commitments before excess emissions can be traded. refs., tabs., figs

  13. 26 CFR 1.6050H-1T - Information reporting of mortgage interest received in a trade or business from individuals after...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... commercial loan because the proceeds were used to finance the payor's trade or business, the obligation is... is a mortgage shall be made without regard to the interest recipient's classification of that... classifies the obligation as a commercial loan because the proceeds are to be used to finance the payor's...

  14. The Treaty of Lisbon and the European Border Control Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Takle

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The question raised in the article is how the new provisions of the Lisbon Treaty and the Stockholm programme concerning the EU’s asylum and migration policy might consolidate existing trends within the European border control regime. The regime is defined by a combination of three features: (i a harmonisation of categories among the EU/Schengen member states, (ii a growing use of new technology in networked databases and (iii an increasing sorting of individuals based on security concerns. Although none of these features is new, the combination gives a new impetus to the European border control regime. The article concludes that the Lisbon Treaty and the Stockholm programme consolidate and strengthen existing trends. This implies that policies on border control, asylum, immigration, judicial cooperation and police cooperation are consolidated in a broader approach to border control, and that there is a strengthening of EU foreign policy within the European border control regime. The boundaries between previously dispersed policy areas are blurred. The combination of different aspects of security and various levels of authority requires coordination of policies with substantially different goals, and goes beyond mere border control.

  15. European Institutional Developments and Evolutions Post‑Lisbon Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Sorin Dumitrescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The current article aims at analysing the main difficulties the European institutions were confronted to and identifying the axes of urgent reforms of the European construction, which are claimed to be applied, immediately, after the recent parliamentary elections from 25 of May together with the installation of the new decision teams in Brussels. While the first part of the article examine the action of the various European institutions within the new constitutional architecture, the second part will cover some axes needed which could be followed by the Union starting with the new term. In the context of the economic and financial crisis, the first European institutional cycle under the terms of the Lisbon Treaty –2009-2014, became an important challenge for the application of the provisions concerning the functioning of the European institutions. An objective assessment of the ways regarding the practical implementation of the Treaty must take into consideration the negative influence of the economic crisis upon the decisions assumed by the high national and European responsibles.

  16. Entropy of international trades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Young; Lee, D.-S.

    2017-05-01

    The organization of international trades is highly complex under the collective efforts towards economic profits of participating countries given inhomogeneous resources for production. Considering the trade flux as the probability of exporting a product from a country to another, we evaluate the entropy of the world trades in the period 1950-2000. The trade entropy has increased with time, and we show that it is mainly due to the extension of trade partnership. For a given number of trade partners, the mean trade entropy is about 60% of the maximum possible entropy, independent of time, which can be regarded as a characteristic of the trade fluxes' heterogeneity and is shown to be derived from the scaling and functional behaviors of the universal trade-flux distribution. The correlation and time evolution of the individual countries' gross-domestic products and the number of trade partners show that most countries achieved their economic growth partly by extending their trade relationship.

  17. Extradition To and From the United States: Overview of the Law and Recent Treaties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    extradition treaty would unconstitutionally infringe upon the President’s treaty- making power. Id. at 258-259. However, the court avoided striking down...109 F.3d 165, 167-68 (3d Cir. 1997); Abbas v. Department of Homeland Sec., Civil Action No. 09-0169, 2009 WL 2512844, at *3-4 (U.S.W.D.La.,2009

  18. Role of sustainable development in Bilateral Investment Treaties : Recent trends and developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levashova, Y.

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, international investment law has undergone an explosive growth, which is characterized by the proliferation of Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs) and a growing number of investment-treaty arbitrations. The effect of BITs on developing countries (host states) can be

  19. Role of sustainable development in Bilateral Investment Treaties : Recent trends and developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levashova, Y.

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, international investment law has undergone an explosive growth, which is characterized by the proliferation of Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs) and a growing number of investment-treaty arbitrations. The effect of BITs on developing countries (host states) can be

  20. Political significance of the CTBT (History, status, relationship with the Pelindaba Treaty, etc.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onanga-Anyanga, P.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation deals with historical overview, negotiations on CTBT and its adoption, status and verification system of the Treaty, political significance of CTBT and its significance for States signatories in Africa. Separate chapters are devoted to the African region, CTBT Pelindaba Treaty and cooperative prospects and relevance of the CTBT for Africa

  1. The Irish 'no' to the Lisbon Treaty: Ireland's voice and Europe's exit?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtin, D.

    2009-01-01

    The "no" of the Irish electorate against the Treaty of Lisbon has hit the European elite hard. However, it was not directed against support for the EU as such but rather against a deliberately unintelligible Treaty. Lack of knowledge seems to have played a pivotal role in the voting behaviour, as

  2. 26 CFR 301.6114-1 - Treaty-based return positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... relating to elimination of double taxation; (vi) That a nondiscrimination provision of a treaty allows the... of an election under section 897(i); (2) That a treaty reduces or modifies the taxation of gain or...) A foreign person (other than an individual or a State, including a political subdivision or local...

  3. Opinion Polls and the Panama Canal Treaties of 1977: A Critical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ted J., III; Hogan, J. Michael

    Noting that 1977 public opinion polls concerning the new Panama Canal treaties were interpreted as showing increased support for the treaties, this paper contends that this interpretation was erroneous and that the major outcome of the extensive polling was misleading data. The paper is divided into three major analytical sections. The first…

  4. The European Parliament in the 2000 IGC and the Constitutional Treaty negotiations: from loser to winner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beach, Derek

    2007-01-01

      Abstract           Why did two rounds of EU constitutional reform held within a five year period yield very different results? The 2000 IGC resulted in the modest Treaty of Nice, whereas the 2002-04 round drafted the Constitutional Treaty, which although it did not involve major substantive cha...

  5. The LOB Provision in the New Japan-Netherlands Tax Treaty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potgens, F.P.G.; Hofland, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors review the comptability of the limitation on benefits provision of the Japan-Netherlands tax treaty with the OECD Model Tax Convention and the fundamental freedoms of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, and conclude that it is clearly in conflict with a

  6. Report on the 2016 conference Tax Treaty Case Law Around the Globe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulten, Mart; Jallai, Ave-Geidi

    2016-01-01

    Each year the international conference Tax Treaty Case Law Around the Globe provides a forum to discuss with outstanding experts of the relevant jurisdictions the most important and interesting tax treaty cases which recently have been decided all over the world. This article provides a report on

  7. The New Partnership Approach in the 2003 Belgium-Netherlands Tax Treaty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.K. Fibbe (Gijsbert); M. Isenbaert (Mathieu)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractSince 1 January 2003, a new double tax Treaty is applicable between Belgium and the Netherlands. The old Treaty of 1970 already included a specific provision relating to partnerships. Including three distinct provisions has now expanded the tradition and it is the objective of this

  8. 22 CFR 41.1 - Exemption by law or treaty from passport and visa requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Virgin Islands. An alien departing from Guam, Puerto Rico, or the Virgin Islands of the United States.... Personnel belonging to the armed services of a government which is a Party to the North Atlantic Treaty and which has ratified the Agreement Between the Parties to the North Atlantic Treaty Regarding the Status...

  9. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty: Regulating Nuclear Weapons around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Tiffany Willey

    2010-01-01

    In May 2010, scientists, national security experts, and state delegates from nations around the world will convene in New York for the 2010 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference. They will review current guidelines for nuclear testing and possession of nuclear weapons in accordance with the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty of 1968,…

  10. Ad hoc public disclosure obligations of public companies on the capital market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanski Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author gives a comprehensive analysis of the obligations of public companies regarding the provision of periodical (ad hoc information to the public on the capital market. Ad hoc disclosure is to achieve a number of aims. It is one of the devices to secure the market's functional abilities. By means of regularly fulfilling this obligation, the market is provided with all the relevant information necessary to form adequate prices of market materials - i.e. securities and other financial instruments (the function of market protection. Investors are thus being able to aptly respond to modified circumstances and deliver investment decisions whether to buy or sell market materials the price of which are being changed (the function of investor protection. Due to the fact that the duty of ad hoc disclosure encompasses the obligation to reveal insider information directly affecting the emitter, ad hoc disclosure serves as a preventive measure, i.e. as a protection against illicit trade with insider information (the function of prevention against the abuse of insider information.

  11. The Impact of the Lisbon Treaty on EU Competition Law: A Review of Recent Case Law of the EU Courts

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Van Rompuy

    2011-01-01

    Since the Lisbon Treaty came into force on December 1, 2009, there has been no Treaty provision proclaiming adherence to the principle of undistorted competition. Ben Van Rompuy (Georgetown Univ. Law Center)

  12. Nafta due to end most barriers to trade among U.S., Mexico, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that energy companies in the U.S. will benefit --- but not as much as they had hoped --- from the recently drafted North American Free Trade Agreement (Nafta) among the U.S., Mexico, and Canada. Nafta would remove most of the trade barriers between Mexico and the other two countries and supplement the U.S. - Canada Free Trade Agreement to create an open market in North America totaling $6 trillion/year in products and serving more than 360 million persons. Nafta was negotiated under a law that allows Congress to consider the pact for only 90 days, then vote on it without amendments. The pact marks the first time the U.S. has covered environmental concerns in a trade treaty, mainly pollution along the U.S.-Mexico border. The pact also is consistent with the international General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)

  13. The text of the Cairo declaration. Adopted on the occasion of the signing of the African Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty (the Treaty of Pelindaba) Cairo, 11 April 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    As requested by the Resident Representative of Egypt to the International Atomic Energy Agency, the document reproduces the text of the 'Cairo Declaration' which was adopted by the African States signatories of the African Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty (the Treaty of Pelindaba) on the occasion of the signature of the Treaty on 11 April 1996 in Cairo

  14. International Trade and Protectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit is designed to investigate the reasons for international trade and the issue of trade protectionism by focusing on the case study of the U.S. trade relationship with Taiwan. The unit begins with a simulation that highlights the concepts of global interdependence, the need for international trade, and the distribution of the world's…

  15. Is there a moral obligation not to infect others?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J; Holm, S

    1995-11-04

    The emergence of HIV infection and AIDS has refocused concern on the obligations surrounding the carrying and transmission of communicable diseases. This article asks three related questions: Is there a general duty not to spread contagion? Are there special obligations not to communicate disease in the workplace? And does the mode of transmission of the disease affect the ethics of transmission and, if so, how and to what extent? There seems to be a strong prima facie obligation not to harm others by making them ill where this is avoidable, and this obligation not to communicate disease applies as much to relatively trivial diseases like the common cold as it does to HIV disease. The reasonableness of expecting people to live up to this obligation, however, depends on society reciprocating the obligation in the form of providing protection and compensation.

  16. Revising Sangiovanni's reciprocity-based internationalism: towards international egalitarian obligations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor Heaney

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To whom do we owe obligations of socio-economic justice? How are such obligations generated? Internationalism denotes a range of approaches to these questions. This paper examines Andrea Sangiovanni's—an internationalist—response to these questions. Sangiovanni argues that we owe egalitarian obligations only to those in the state, and that egalitarian obligations are generated through relationships of ‘reciprocity’. His is a ‘reciprocity-based internationalism’ (RBI. RBI has two components—one normative and another empirical. In this paper, I will assume the normative component, but reject its empirical component. My rejection of the empirical component has normative implications for RBI, which generate egalitarian obligations beyond the state. In other words, my revision of RBI is an argument in favour of international egalitarian obligations not generated through cosmopolitanism, but through internationalism.

  17. Is there a moral obligation not to infect others?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J.; Holm, S.

    1995-01-01

    The emergence of HIV infection and AIDS has refocused concern on the obligations surrounding the carrying and transmission of communicable diseases. This article asks three related questions: Is there a general duty not to spread contagion? Are there special obligations not to communicate disease in the workplace? And does the mode of transmission of the disease affect the ethics of transmission and, if so, how and to what extent? There seems to be a strong prima facie obligation not to harm others by making them ill where this is avoidable, and this obligation not to communicate disease applies as much to relatively trivial diseases like the common cold as it does to HIV disease. The reasonableness of expecting people to live up to this obligation, however, depends on society reciprocating the obligation in the form of providing protection and compensation. Images p1216-a p1216-b p1217-a PMID:7488907

  18. Is there a moral obligation not to infect others?

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, J.; Holm, S.

    1995-01-01

    The emergence of HIV infection and AIDS has refocused concern on the obligations surrounding the carrying and transmission of communicable diseases. This article asks three related questions: Is there a general duty not to spread contagion? Are there special obligations not to communicate disease in the workplace? And does the mode of transmission of the disease affect the ethics of transmission and, if so, how and to what extent? There seems to be a strong prima facie obligation not to harm ...

  19. 75 FR 58012 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-156E Nonimmigrant Treaty Trader/Investor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... Information Collection: DS-156E Nonimmigrant Treaty Trader/Investor Application ACTION: Notice of request for... Collection: Nonimmigrant Treaty Trader/Investor Application. OMB Control Number: 1405-0101. Type of Request... State (CA/VO). Form Number: DS-156E. Respondents: Nonimmigrant treaty trader/investor visa applicants...

  20. 75 FR 25910 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-156E, Nonimmigrant Treaty Trader/Investor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ..., Nonimmigrant Treaty Trader/Investor Application, OMB Control Number 1405-0101 ACTION: Notice of request for...: Nonimmigrant Treaty Trader/Investor Application. OMB Control Number: 1405-0101. Type of Request: Extension of a...) Form Number: DS-156E. Respondents: Nonimmigrant treaty trader/investor visa applicants. Estimated...

  1. In the Nick of Time: Proactive Prevention of Obligation Violations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basin, David; Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We present a system model, an enforcement mechanism, and a policy language for the proactive enforcement of timed provisions and obligations. Our approach improves upon existing formalisms in two ways: (1) we exploit the target system's existing functionality to avert policy violations proactively...... declaratively express timed provisions and obligations as causal relationships between events, and DCR states explicitly represent pending obligations. As key technical results, we show that enforceability of DCR policies is decidable, we give a sufficient polynomial time verifiable condition for a policy...... to be enforceable, and we give an algorithm for determining from a DCR state a sequence of actions that discharge impending obligations....

  2. Obligation for renewable electricity in the Netherlands. Outline of options and preconditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tilburg, X.; Jansen, J.C.; Uyterlinde, M.A.; Lensink, S.M.

    2006-12-01

    In August 2006, the MEP feed-in system was suspended to prevent excess budget claims while the 2010 target is expected to be met. A number of politicians suggest the time is right to change the feed-in system to an obligation scheme. On assignment of the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs ECN has reviewed whether The Netherlands could be ready for a successful introduction of an obligation-based support scheme for renewable electricity in the Netherlands. This report is not a detailed study, but offers a survey of possibilities and preconditions. The question whether The Netherlands is ready for a successful introduction can be yes only when two conditions are met. Firstly, the government has to pursue a strategy of long term policy stability, essential for establishing a favourable investment climate. Secondly, a certificate market has to be set up that is able to function properly and efficiently (i.e. sufficient market liquidity). Excessive producers' surplus, under certain circumstances a side effect of an obligation based system, may be reduced using a hybrid approach combining direct subsidies and a quota obligation. This report describes that careful planning is required and hence a possible switch cannot be implemented before 2009 or 2010. The government plays an important role in establishing a.positive and stable investment climate. At the introduction of an obligation based scheme, the government should present an ambitious and broadly supported long term target. Commitment to maintain the obligation for at least fifteen to twenty years ahead is of key importance. In addition to a stable investment climate, it is also important to have a sufficiently transparent and liquid market for tradable green certificates. Whether this is achievable in the Netherlands remains open to investigation. The government has limited means at its disposal for providing sufficient market efficiency. Harmonisation of support schemes at the EU level is not to be expected in

  3. On A Recent Theory of 'Legal Obligation'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Leoni

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper, by the late Bruno Leoni, was originally published in the Italian journal Il Politico in 1966. In the article, Leoni reviews H.L.A. Hart’s The Concept of Law (1961. Hart first analyzes the concept of law by resorting to the classical concept of “obligation.” But he later tries a “fresh start” by resorting to the concept of “secondary rules.” In his review, Leoni argues that the former attempt is confronted with serious difficulties, and that the latter attempt (to which professor Hart possibly resorts in view of overcoming some of said difficulties is ultimately inconsistent with the former

  4. Modernizing international maintenance obligations in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordaš Bernadet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the modernization of private international law of maintenance in Serbia in the light of the two newest international instruments drawn up by the Hague Conference on Private International Law. As Serbia has ratified the Hague Protocol on the Law Applicable to Maintenance Obligations in January 2013 introducing modern rules to the legal system of Serbia, the issue of ratification of the Hague Convention on the International Recovery of Child Support and Other Forms of Family Maintenance has arisen, in order to modernize this aspect of the international maintenance as well. In order to establish a position on the issue, the paper presents and analyzes the essential provisions of the Convention (scope of application, administrative cooperation, recognition and enforcement of decisions, stricto sensu enforcement. Based on the analyses, the concluding remarks offers some elements on the bases of which the competent authorities could form an opinion on the necessity and desirability of the ratification of the Convention.

  5. Utilities' ''obligation to serve'' under deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    The utility no longer has protected status, and the traditional franchise concept is under attack. Exclusive rights once conveyed to the utilities are being denied and not just in the area of gas sales. Exclusive rights once conveyed to utilities will be denied in more areas. State by state, the utilities' franchise is being examined to see which, if any, of its provisions are necessary in a deregulated environment. Can the free market provide everything that's been provided for many years under monopolistic arrangements? Some of the most critical and difficult of these provisions concern the obligation to serve, which utilities, in most states, have assumed as part of their franchise agreement. Regulators, courts, utilities, marketers and others are busy sorting through these issues, but resolution could take years. The paper discusses deregulation, universal service fee, representation without taxation, suppliers and marketer restrictions

  6. [Facultative and obligate aerobic methylobacteria synthesize cytokinins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, E G; Doronina, N V; Shepeliakovskaia, A O; Laman, A G; Brovko, F A; Trotsenko, Iu A

    2000-01-01

    The presence and expression of genes controlling the synthesis and secretion of cytokinins by the pink-pigmented facultative methylotroph Methylobacterium mesophilicum VKM B-2143 with the serine pathway and nonpigmented obligate methylotroph Methylovorus mays VKM B-2221 with the ribulose monophosphate pathway of C1 metabolism were shown using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription-PCR methods. The presence of the corresponding mRNA in M. mesophilicum cells grown on methanol or succinate suggests that the expression of these genes is constitutive. The cytokinin activity of culture liquid and its fractions was determined by a biotest with Amarantus caudatus L. seedlings. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent analysis, we detected zeatin (riboside) in the culture liquid of both bacteria studied. The data obtained show that the aerobic methylobacteria are phytosymbionts that are able to utilize the single- and polycarbon compounds secreted by symbiotic plants and to synthesize cytokinins.

  7. Optimal imaging for treaty verification FY2014 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, Nathan R.; Johnson, William C.; Brubaker, Erik M.; Kupinski, Matthew Alan; MacGahan, Christopher Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    FY2014 technical report of our project funded by DNN R&D that leverages advanced inference methods developed for medical and adaptive imaging to address arms control applications. We seek a method to acquire and analyze imaging data of declared treaty-accountable items without creating an image of those objects or otherwise storing or revealing any classified information. Such a method would avoid the use of classified-information barriers. We present our progress on FY2014 tasks defined in our life-cycle plan. We also describe some future work that is part of the continuation of this project in FY2015 and beyond as part of a venture that joins ours with a related PNNL project.

  8. On reforming chapter VI of the Euratom Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandtner, W.

    1984-01-01

    The supply of uranium to the countries of the EC has been provided for in Chapter VI of the European Treaty. An Euratom Supply Agency was created, which enjoys a monopoly. However, this arrangement was hardly ever utilized in practice. For this reason, several attempts were made in the course of time to reform Chapter VI, most recently in 1979 on the initiative of France. The EC Commission now presented a ''new nuclear power strategy'' in early 1982, which was followed by a detailed report about the proposed changes in late 1982. Its main points as outlined and discussed in this article are these: defining the range of application; the unity of the market; international relations; solidarity measures; the future role of the Supply Agency. (orig.) [de

  9. Optimal imaging for treaty verification FY2014 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilton, Nathan R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Johnson, William C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Brubaker, Erik M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Kupinski, Matthew Alan [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); MacGahan, Christopher Jonathan [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2014-10-01

    FY2014 technical report of our project funded by DNN R&D that leverages advanced inference methods developed for medical and adaptive imaging to address arms control applications. We seek a method to acquire and analyze imaging data of declared treaty-accountable items without creating an image of those objects or otherwise storing or revealing any classified information. Such a method would avoid the use of classified-information barriers. We present our progress on FY2014 tasks defined in our life-cycle plan. We also describe some future work that is part of the continuation of this project in FY2015 and beyond as part of a venture that joins ours with a related PNNL project.

  10. Ethiopia before the United Nations Treaty Monitoring Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Brems

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the many human rights conventions adopted by the UN, seven are known — together with their additional protocols — as the core international human rights instruments: - The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination; - The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; - The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; - The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women; - The Convention against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment; - The Convention on the Rights of the Child;  - The International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of all Migrant Workers and Members of their Families.  The main international control mechanism under these conventions is what may be considered the standard mechanism in international human rights protection: state reporting before an international committee. An initial report is due usually one year after joining the treaty and afterwards, reports are due periodically (every four or five years. The international committees examine the reports submitted by the state parties. In the course of this examination they include information from other sources, such as the press, other United Nations materials or NGO information. They also hold a meeting with representatives of the state submitting the report. At the end of this process the committee issues 'concluding observations' or 'concluding comments'. This paper focuses on the experience of one state — Ethiopia - with the seven core human rights treaties. This should allow the reader to gain insights both into the human rights situation in Ethiopia and in the functioning of the United Nations human rights protection system. Key Words: United Nations, Human Rights Conventions, State Reporting, Human Rights Situation in Ethiopia

  11. Regional Trade Agreement and Agricultural Trade in East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intra-EAC trade is very low, that is, at 9 per cent of the total regional trade, but it is on upward trend. Agricultural trade accounts for over 40 per cent of the intra-EAC trade. This study investigated the effect of EAC regional trade agreement on the regions agricultural trade by analyzing the degree of trade creation and ...

  12. Dispute Settlement in the World Trade Organization (WTO): An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    given date, is prima facie inconsistent with Article 23 because in some cases it mandates a USTR determination—and statutorily reserves a right for...threat of violative determinations and consequently the prima facie inconsistency was removed because of U.S. undertakings, as set forth in the Uruguay...procedure for withdrawing trade sanctions imposed by a complaining Member where the defending Member believes it has fulfilled its WTO obligations . As a

  13. Trade, development and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    1994-01-01

    Mainstream economic theory argues that trade, and especially free trade, is beneficial to everyone involved. This fundamental idea ? which has the character of a dogma ? still plays an important role in international discussions on trade issues, notably in relation to development and environment...... be defended in all cases. Especially, the developing countries' benefits from trade have been very dubious. Furthermore, the trading system has contributed to environmental problems in several ways, e.g. generating undervaluation of natural resources, stimulating economic growth with environmental....... The purpose of this article is to critically assess the "free trade dogma" and to investigate the validity of widely used arguments concerning the relations between trade and development and between trade and environment. It is argued that the trading system is not something inherently good, which should...

  14. EUROATOM-treaty and intergovernmental conference; Euratom-Vertrag und Regierungskonferenz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, S. [Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Technologie Berlin/Bonn, Bonn (Germany). Referat III B 4

    2007-10-15

    On June 26, 2007 the European Council decided under the chairmanship of the Head of State of the German Government, Angela Merkel, to work out a ''Reform Treaty'' for the European Union. The current version of the ''Reform Treaty'' and the Intergovernmental Conference are a successful result of the German and French policy for Europe. The process will be continued under the Portuguese chairmanship of the European Union. The ''Reform Treaty'' includes a special separate energy chapter. The chapter includes targets for an EU-energy policy as well as targets for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Furthermore special technical topics of a revision of the EURATOM-Treaty are mentioned. General revisions of the EURATOM-Treaty or a special Intergovernmental Conference on the EURATOM-Treaty are not expected. Maybe, the European Parliament will get more competence in some parts of decision making processes. Due to the differing views on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in the EU member states a revision of the EUROATOM-Treaty is more unlikely expected. (orig.)

  15. The Fiscal Governance Treaty - the Recent Act in the European Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica SUSANU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The new paradigm that affects the current doctrine is particularly focused on building a strong community and it is also motivated by the intention of saving the Lisbon Treaty with its establishing the European Constitution. In the series of the numerous leading up steps required to achieve this goal, approaches the studies on the concept of sovereignty are necessary for clarification, given that in this way only the Union can be setup as a person - on the one hand, and - on the other hand, this is the basis of ensuring coherence between European political order and sovereignty / autonomy of national institutions. Bitter experiences of radical nationalism which culminated in the disasters of the Second World War led to the conceptual reconfiguration of the sovereignty, gradually replaced with a new expression, the super nationalism. Moreover, in order to hindering the possible future recurrence and the temptation to concentrate all the available powers at certain national governments’ disposal only, a comprehensive course of division of sovereignty was designed, as an optimal strategic alternative in ensuring the durability and sustainability of the European federalist model. In terms of economic integration and trade globalization, the taxation of a state has a rapid impact on another state, so that the rapprochement of the global tax policy, as well as the need to harmonize tax systems across countries are increasingly spoken about. Although that these measures can upset all tax systems deeply changing the approaches regarding both fiscal and political states’ sovereignty, in the current situation, such an unforeseen development is inherent. Therefore, each step meant to approach the full integration of the community raises special efforts for consensus actions and strongly motivated as well, by a very special interest at the highest level of the macroeconomic and political decision.

  16. Reconfiguring trade mark law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew James

    2013-01-01

    -border setting, with a particular focus on small business and consumers. The article's overall message is to call for a rethink of received wisdom suggesting that trade marks are effective trade-enabling devices. The case is made for reassessing how we think about European trade mark law.......First, this article argues that trade mark law should be approached in a supplementary way, called reconfiguration. Second, the article investigates such a reconfiguration of trade mark law by exploring the interplay of trade marks and service transactions in the Single Market, in the cross...

  17. Redirecting International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari; Söderlund, Bengt; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    2014-01-01

    The global financial crisis has contributed to the redirection of trade towards new markets outside the OECD area, where both demand patterns and the institutional environment differ from those in the OECD. This study provides an empirical examination of the consequences of this shift, based......-specific investments are particularly difficult to redirect towards markets with weak institutions....... on Swedish firm-level trade data. Results suggest that weak institutions hamper trade and reduce the length of trade relations, especially for small firms. Trade in industries that are characterized by a high frequency of trade conflicts and where transactions require extensive relationship...

  18. Redirecting International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari; Söderlund, Bengt; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    The global financial crisis has accelerated the redirection of trade towards new markets, outside the OECD area, where both demand patterns and the institutional environment differ from those in the OECD. This study provides an empirical examination of the consequences of this shift. Results...... difficult to redirect towards markets with weak institutions....... suggest that weak institutions hamper trade and reduces the length of trade relations, especially for small firms. Furthermore, trade in industries that are characterized by a high degree of trade conflicts and that requires extensive relationship specific investments for trade to occur are comparatively...

  19. The impact of regulatory obligations on fishers’ income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadjimichael, Maria; J. Kaiser, Michel; Edwards-Jones, Gareth

    2013-01-01

    as a marketing tool to identify fishers’ most and least preferred regulatory obligations in terms of the impact these obligations have on their income. Significant differences were identified in fishers’ preferences that depended on the regulatory measures fishers operated under at the time of the study (which...

  20. Deconfounding Distance Effects in Judgments of Moral Obligation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Jonas; Waldmann, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    A heavily disputed question of moral philosophy is whether spatial distance between agent and victim is normatively relevant for the degree of obligation to help strangers in need. In this research, we focus on the associated descriptive question whether increased distance does in fact reduce individuals' sense of helping obligation. One problem…

  1. 12 CFR 13.100 - Obligations concerning institutional customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obligations concerning institutional customers... GOVERNMENT SECURITIES SALES PRACTICES Interpretations § 13.100 Obligations concerning institutional customers... to institutional customers. (b) The OCC's suitability rule (§ 13.4) is fundamental to fair dealing...

  2. Engineering of obligate intracellular bacteria: progress, challenges and paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over twenty years have passed since the first report of genetic manipulation of an obligate intracellular bacterium. Through progress interspersed by bouts of stagnation, microbiologists and geneticists have developed approaches to genetically manipulate obligates. A brief overview of the current ge...

  3. 18 CFR 367.22 - Accounting for asset retirement obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accounting for asset... GAS ACT General Instructions § 367.22 Accounting for asset retirement obligations. (a) An asset... measurement changes to the initial liability for the legal obligation recorded in account 230, Asset...

  4. 16 CFR 436.2 - Obligation to furnish documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND PROHIBITIONS CONCERNING FRANCHISING Franchisors' Obligations § 436.2 Obligation to furnish documents. In connection with the offer or sale of a franchise to be located in the United States of America... to the address specified by the prospective franchisee by first-class United States mail at least...

  5. Displacement and gratitude: accounting for the political obligation of refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason D'Cruz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available On what basis, and to what extent, are refugees obligated to obey the laws of their host countries? Consideration of the specific case of asylum-seekers generates, I think, two competing intuitions: (1 the refugee has a prima facie obligation to obey the laws of her host country and (2 none of the popularly canvassed substrates of political obligation—consent, tacit consent, fairness, or social role—is at all apt to explain the presence of this obligation. I contend that the unfashionable gratitude account of political obligation does the best job of accounting for the intuitions. As has been noticed by other commentators, obligations of gratitude are difficult to specify and subject to numerous cancelling conditions. I analyze these conditions in detail and conclude that if one accepts that gratitude is the basis of the political obligation of the refugee, then one must face up to just how frangible the obligation is. In particular, the obligation is conditional on the fair and generous treatment of refugees that is consistent with their dignity as human beings.

  6. [Long-term storage of obligate anaerobic microorganisms in glycerol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briukhanov, A I; Netrusov, A I

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the possibility of storing the cultures of obligate anaerobic microorganisms (clostridia. acetogenic and sulfate-reducing bacteria, and methanogenic archaea) in 25% glycerol at -70 degrees C for a long time (up to 3 years). This method of storage is adequate to preserve cell viability in most obligate anaerobes.

  7. 7 CFR 400.166 - Obligations of the Corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obligations of the Corporation. 400.166 Section 400... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Reinsurance Agreement-Standards for... Corporation. The Agreement will include the following among the obligations of the Corporation. (a) The...

  8. 7 CFR 1755.27 - Borrower contractual obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Borrower contractual obligations. 1755.27 Section 1755.27 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE... CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.27 Borrower contractual obligations. (a) Loan agreement. As a condition of a loan or...

  9. 29 CFR 4.146 - Contract obligations after award, generally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Contract obligations after award, generally. 4.146 Section 4.146 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS Application of the McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act Period of Coverage § 4.146 Contract obligations after...

  10. 49 CFR 371.10 - Duties and obligations of brokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duties and obligations of brokers. 371.10 Section... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS BROKERS OF PROPERTY § 371.10 Duties and obligations of brokers. Where the broker acts on behalf of a person bound by...

  11. Nuclear disarmament. Options for the coming non-proliferation treaty surveillance cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Harald

    2011-01-01

    The report is aimed on the nuclear disarmament discussion with respect to the disagreement of nuclear weapon states and those without nuclear weapons, esp. the non-aligned movement (NAM) concerning the non-proliferation treaty. The report covers the following issues: The role of the non-proliferation treaty, nuclear disarmament in the last surveillance conference 2010, the different disarmament philosophies, the possibilities of bridging the disagreement, further disarmament options for the future non-proliferation treaty surveillance cycle, German options for the future surveillance cycle.

  12. SAVING KYOTO: Can the Kyoto Climate Treaty Be Saved From Itself?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, R A

    2000-11-03

    The climate treaty being hammered out this month at The Hague may be doomed to failure, as numerous observers say the United States simply won't ratify any treaty that requires such wrenching reductions in carbon emissions, and if the United States bails out, the protocol is in very deep trouble. Some policy analysts think that by tweaking the rules, the United States could eventually sign on, but if they are tweaked too much, other countries may balk. The key, some say, will be keeping the treaty going now and rethinking its controversial goals later.

  13. International tax planning & prevention of abuse under domestic tax law, tax treaties & EC-law

    OpenAIRE

    De Broe, Luc

    2007-01-01

    PART ONE:THE USE OF CONDUIT & BASE COMPANIES IN INTERNATIONAL TAX PLANNING 1 1. CONDUIT COMPANIES 1 1.1. Treaty shopping 1 1.1.1. Description of the term “Treaty shopping” in relation to conduit companies 1 1.1.2. Basic features of “Treaty Shopping” in relation to conduit companies 6 1.1.2.1. Form of the conduit: company or partnership ? 6 1.1.2.2. Tax considerations in setting up the conduit 8 1.2. Directive shopping 11 1.2.1. Description of the term ...

  14. The International Treaty on Global Warming: Is it Good or Bad for the Economy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xinyu; Bao, Wenbin

    2018-06-01

    Global warming is one of the hottest topics all over the world. International authorities have worked together to negotiate the Paris Agreement on global warming. This Agreement has its supporters and critics. The key question is whether on balance is the Paris Assignment good or bad for the United States economy. This paper begins with some background information leading up to the passage of the treaty. Next, I outline what is in treaty. I then critically analyze the arguments in support of and against the Assignment. Finally, I explain the basis for my opinion that in the long run the treaty will benefit the United States economy.

  15. The legal points at issue concerning the Non-proliferation Treaty and the verification agreement of EURATOM with the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zieger, G.

    1975-01-01

    An excellent and comprehensive but very juridicial contribution on: Development and content of the Non-proliferation Treaty, the problems which this Treaty poses for EURATOM (a common market, common supply, joint enterprises, Non-proliferation Treaty and France), the compatibility of the Non-proliferation Treaty with the EURATOM Treaty, verification agreement EURATOM - IAEA (the IAEA as the supervisory authority, the control system of the IAEA, guidelines elaborated by the IAEA to be used as the basis for negotiating safeguard agreements, national systems of accounting for and control of nuclear material IAEA supervision as a secondary control, principles of IAEA supervision, secrecy, conflict management), conclusion of the verification agreement, deviations from the guidelines elaborated by the IAEA to be used as the basis for negotiating safeguard agreements legal reflexions (verification agreement and Non-proliferation Treaty, reservations concerning the Non-proliferation Treaty, questions of competence between EURATOM and member states without nuclear weapons, problems of equal treatment). (HP/LN) [de

  16. Social categories as markers of intrinsic interpersonal obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Marjorie; Chalik, Lisa

    2013-06-01

    Social categorization is an early-developing feature of human social cognition, yet the role that social categories play in children's understanding of and predictions about human behavior has been unclear. In the studies reported here, we tested whether a foundational functional role of social categories is to mark people as intrinsically obligated to one another (e.g., obligated to protect rather than harm). In three studies, children (aged 3-9, N = 124) viewed only within-category harm as violating intrinsic obligations; in contrast, they viewed between-category harm as violating extrinsic obligations defined by explicit rules. These data indicate that children view social categories as marking patterns of intrinsic interpersonal obligations, suggesting that a key function of social categories is to support inferences about how people will relate to members of their own and other groups.

  17. Trade in goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2006-01-01

    An analysis of the rules governing trade in goods under the GATT agreement and the Agreement on Safeguards......An analysis of the rules governing trade in goods under the GATT agreement and the Agreement on Safeguards...

  18. Emissions Trading Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about emissions trading programs, also known as cap and trade programs, which are market-based policy tools for protecting human health and the environment by controlling emissions from a group of sources.

  19. Trade Agreements PTI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The objective of the Trade Agreements PTI is to advance CBP’s mission by working with internal and external stakeholders to facilitate legitimate trade and address...

  20. Trade, Labor, Legitimacy

    OpenAIRE

    Guzman, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between international trade and labor standards is one of several controversial issues facing the WTO. Proponents of a trade-labor link argue that labor is a human rights issue and that trade sanctions represent a critical tool in the effort to improve international working conditions. Opponents argue that a link between trade and labor would open the door to protectionist measures that would target low wage countries and harm the very workers the policy is intended to help. ...

  1. 77 FR 17328 - Commodity Pool Operators and Commodity Trading Advisors: Compliance Obligations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ..., for each such retail forex transaction, by calculating the value in U.S. Dollars for such transaction... forex transaction, by calculating the value in U.S. Dollars of such transaction, at the time the...

  2. 77 FR 11251 - Commodity Pool Operators and Commodity Trading Advisors: Compliance Obligations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... release, and in the Proposal, Congress enacted the Dodd-Frank Act in response to the financial crisis of... Letter''); comment letter from the Mutual Fund Directors Forum (April 12, 2011) (``MFDF Letter''). The...) (``Reed Smith Letter''); comment letter from AllianceBernstein Mutual Funds (April 12, 2011) (``Alliance...

  3. 76 FR 7975 - Commodity Pool Operators and Commodity Trading Advisors: Amendments to Compliance Obligations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... not disclose information regarding CPOs' use of stress testing or the tenor of fixed income assets... managers, custodians, auditors, and marketers. This information would enable the Commission to determine... would aid the Commission in examining large CPOs' roles as a source of liquidity in different asset...

  4. Review of International Experience with Renewable Energy Obligation Support Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.

    2005-06-01

    The main policy instruments currently used in the EU Member States to achieve the targets set for electricity produced from renewable energy sources are: (1) the quota obligation system; (2) the feed-in tariff system; and (3) the tendering system. The current study aims to review the experience gained with the quota obligation system. The report provides an overview of the regions where obligation systems have been implemented and contains a detailed evaluation of the performance of the obligation systems in the USA, the UK and in Sweden. The obligation systems in these countries have been evaluated based on the following criteria: Effectiveness; Market efficiency; Certainty for the renewable energy industry; Cost effectiveness; Stakeholder support for the obligation system; and Equity. The evaluation of international experiences with the obligation system gives rise to a mixed picture. Although an obligation in theory is effective and cost effective, it seems too early to conclude that the system delivers these promises in practice. On the one hand this is due to the limited period of implementation that makes it hard to distinguish between the direct effect of the system and some teething problems that will be solved in due time. On the other hand, the conclusion can be drawn that the obligation is a complex system, which will only function well if designed carefully. It does seem worthwhile, however, to continue monitoring the experiences with the obligation system abroad, because this will further reveal whether the system is indeed effective and cost effective in practice. In the longer term, e.g. beyond 2010, the introduction of an obligation system in the Netherlands could be considered. Finally, as the design of support schemes is being improved, it appears that the basic concepts of both the obligation system and the feed in system have been refined in such a way that the two systems are gradually converging. An important difference between the two systems

  5. Individual Attitudes Towards Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Smolka, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Using the 2007 wave of the Pew Global Attitudes Project, this paper finds statistically significant and economically large Stolper-Samuelson effects in individuals’ preference formation towards trade policy. High-skilled individuals are substantially more pro-trade than low-skilled individuals......-Ohlin model in shaping free trade attitudes, relative to existing literature....

  6. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2006-01-01

    The United States and many of its trading partners use laws known as trade remedies to mitigate the adverse impact of various trade practices on domestic industries and workers. U.S. antidumping laws (19 U.S.C. 1673 et seq...

  7. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2007-01-01

    The United States and many of its trading partners use laws known as trade remedies to mitigate the adverse impact of various trade practices on domestic industries and workers. U.S. antidumping (AD) laws (19 U.S.C. 1673 et seq...

  8. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2008-01-01

    The United States and many of its trading partners use laws known as trade remedies to mitigate the adverse impact of various trade practices on domestic industries and workers. U.S. antidumping (AD) laws (19 U.S.C. 1673 et seq...

  9. Banking and Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2016-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term arm’s length activities of banks, called trading. We show that a bank can use the franchise value of its relationships to expand the scale of trading, but may allocate too much capital to trading ex post , compromising its ability

  10. Safety Training: a right or an obligation?

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2014-01-01

    CERN’s Safety Training programme currently offers around 50 classroom courses and 17 e-learning courses. Although anyone can attend any of these courses, some are compulsory for everyone working at CERN. In particular, “CERN Safety Introduction” and “Safety during LS1” are compulsory for all new arrivals.   The "Self-Rescue Mask" training course. Photo: Christoph Balle. However, depending on the type of activities, the type of workstation, the role you have been assigned (TSO, project leader, etc.) and/or the area where you will be working (e.g. confined spaces), you might be required to follow additional safety training provided by CERN. In accordance with the provisions of the CERN Safety Policy, members of the personnel must keep themselves informed of their obligations in terms of safety training and of the actions they must take to keep up to date. Most training courses are valid for three years, and as they reach the ...

  11. Emissions trading and competitive positions. The European Proposal for a Directive establishing a Framework for Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading and Methods for the initial Allocation of Pollution Rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimeaud, D.; Peeters, M.

    2002-10-01

    The study on the intention to introduce emissions trading on a European Union level was conducted on the basis of the following three questions: Which methods can be used (by the Member States) to distribute the tradable emissions rights en which legal preconditions should be observed considering the EU-Treaty and the relevant directive proposal? Whenever necessary and possible international agreements on climate change and international trade law will be mentioned. Which safeguards are available for fair competition and which system of emissions trading is advisable in this perspective? How should the PSR (performance standard rate) system, which is preferred by industry, be valued? The structure of this study is as follows: in chapter 2 insight is given into the various methods that can be used to start an emissions trading system, i.e. the way tradable pollution rights are distributed (initial allocation). Chapter 3 will further examine the system of the initial allocation of pollution rights as it has been chosen in the proposal for the European directive. The aim is to give an exact qualification of the method of emissions trading, especially the method of initial allocation, that is used in the directive proposal. Chapter 4 examines whether safeguards are available to prevent competition distortions between firms that fall under the scope of the emissions trading scheme. Special attention will be given to conditions that result from the EU-Treaty in this context, such as the prohibition of state aid. In this chapter the international trade law will be dealt with as well. Chapter 5 will present an executive summary and the specific question whether the PSR-system is legally acceptable or maybe even recommendable, will be answered

  12. Mine seismicity and the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiappetta, F. [Blasting Analysis International, Allentown, PA (United States); Heuze, F.; Walter, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hopler, R. [Powderman Consulting Inc., Oxford, MD (United States); Hsu, V. [Air Force Technical Applications Center, Patrick AFB, FL (United States); Martin, B. [Thunder Basin Coal Co., Wright, WY (United States); Pearson, C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Stump, B. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Zipf, K. [Univ. of New South Wales (Australia)

    1998-12-09

    Surface and underground mining operations generate seismic ground motions which are created by chemical explosions and ground failures. It may come as a surprise to some that the ground failures (coal bumps, first caves, pillar collapses, rockbursts, etc.) can send signals whose magnitudes are as strong or stronger than those from any mining blast. A verification system that includes seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic and radionuclide sensors is being completed as part of the CTBT. The largest mine blasts and ground failures will be detected by this system and must be identified as distinct from signals generated by small nuclear explosions. Seismologists will analyze the seismic records and presumably should be able to separate them into earthquake-like and non earthquake-like categories, using a variety of so-called seismic discriminants. Non-earthquake essentially means explosion- or implosion-like. Such signals can be generated not only by mine blasts but also by a variety of ground failures. Because it is known that single-fired chemical explosions and nuclear explosion signals of the same yield give very similar seismic records, the non-earthquake signals will be of concern to the Treaty verification community. The magnitude of the mine-related events is in the range of seismicity created by smaller nuclear explosions or decoupled tests, which are of particular concern under the Treaty. It is conceivable that legitimate mining blasts or some mine-induced ground failures could occasionally be questioned. Information such as shot time, location and design parameters may be all that is necessary to resolve the event identity. In rare instances where the legitimate origin of the event could not be resolved by a consultation and clarification procedure, it might trigger on On-Site Inspection (OSI). Because there is uncertainty in the precise location of seismic event as determined by the International Monitoring System (IMS), the OSI can cover an area of up to 1

  13. The Non-Proliferation Treaty: Fifteen years after entry into force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The need to halt a wider spread of nuclear weapons grew out of the realization that the increase in the number of countries possessing such weapons would increase the threat to world security. As the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons clearly states in its preamble, the proliferation of nuclear weapons would seriously enhance the danger of nuclear war. The Treaty - also known as the non-proliferation Treaty - was concluded in 1968, at a time when there were already five nuclear-weapon Powers: the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, France and China. This fact sheet is intended to provide background material on the Treaty, including the events that led to its conclusion, an overview of its provisions and the developments at the two previously held Review Conferences

  14. Towards the fourth review conference of the Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This publication focuses on the background of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), its main provisions and some of the major issues discussed at the three conferences that have thus far been held to review the operation of the Treaty. A fourth conference to review the operation of the Treaty will be held at Geneva from 20 August to 14 September 1990. It will be the last regular review conference before the convening, in 1995, of a conference which will ''decide whether the Treaty shall continue in force indefinitely or shall be extended for an additional fixed period or periods'' (article X, para.2). A Preparatory Committee (open to all parties) for the Fourth Review Conference has been established by the parties to the NPT, and 95 parties attended the first session, held in New York from 1 to 5 May 1989

  15. The Non-Proliferation Treaty and the peaceful use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmshurst, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    The author discusses the reasons of criticism and even rejection of the Non-Proliferation Treaty of 1968, dealing in particular with the alledged discriminating nature of the Treaty and with the statement that the Treaty is not apt to prevent proliferation on a vertical plane. He further discusses the motives behind the efforts of potential nuclear weapons states to get nuclear weapons. The system of worldwide and bilateral safeguards and controls covering the transfer of nuclear technologies is explained. In conclusion the author suggests to pay more attention to article IV, sub-section (2) of the Non-Proliferation Treaty as this might offer a suitable approach to restricting the dissemination of nuclear explosives. (HP) [de

  16. INNOVATIONS AND CHANGES BROUGHT BY THE LISBON TREATY:THE SOCIAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Azizi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Lisbon Treaty is an attempt to overcome the difficulties faced in thefunctioning of previous treaties of the European Union. It aims, through itsprovisions, at offering better opportunities for action including the social scope,but the inter-governmental nature of decision-making continues to prevail.This paper focuses on provisions for social policyin the Lisbon Treaty andimportant changes that deal with reforms in this field. More concretely, theobjective of this paper is to emphasize the most important social aspects of theTreaty in question.Social policy has been qualified as a common competence of the EU and memberstates (article 4b. The EU has to undertake measures to assure the coordination ofemployment policies of member states and to initiate the coordination of socialpolicies of member states.This paper analyzes the provisions that deal with employment, social dialog,consultations between employees and employers, child protection, as well as othersegments of social policy.

  17. 26 CFR 301.7701(b)-7 - Coordination with income tax treaties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Coordination with income tax treaties. (a) Consistency requirement—(1) Application. The application of this... nonresidents the deduction for personal residence mortgage interest expense and generally limits them to only...

  18. Memorandum of Understanding Regarding Interagency Coordination and Collaboration for the Protection of Tribal Treaty Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interagency Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) affirming protection of tribal treaty rights and similar tribal rights relating to natural resources when federal action is taken. It will be updated as additional federal agencies become signatories.

  19. Assuring the success of the non-proliferation treaty extension conference. Excerpts from the panel discussions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This publication presents excerpts from a conference organized by the NGO Committee on Disarmament Inc., in cooperation with the United Nations Centre for Disarmament Affairs, and covers the following issues: status of the comprehensive test ban treaty negotiations, fissile cut-off and ending production of nuclear weapons, how should nuclear weapons states pursue disarmament under Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), NPT extension: problems and prospects

  20. Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Notification of the Entry into Force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1970-04-22

    By letters addressed to the Director General on 5, 6 and 20 March 1970 respectively, the Governments of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which are designated as the Depository Governments in Article IX. 2 of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, informed the Agency that the Treaty had entered into force on 5 March 1970.

  1. Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Notification of the Entry into Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    By letters addressed to the Director General on 5, 6 and 20 March 1970 respectively, the Governments of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which are designated as the Depository Governments in Article IX. 2 of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, informed the Agency that the Treaty had entered into force on 5 March 1970

  2. Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Notification of the Entry into Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    By letters addressed to the Director General on 5, 6 and 20 March 1970 respectively, the Governments of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which are designated as the Depository Governments in Article IX. 2 of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, informed the Agency that the Treaty had entered into force on 5 March 1970 [fr

  3. Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Notification of the Entry into Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    By letters addressed to the Director General on 5, 6 and 20 March 1970 respectively, the Governments of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which are designated as the Depositary Governments in Article IX. 2 of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, informed the Agency that the Treaty had entered into force on 5 March 1970 [ru

  4. Russia’s Treaties of Friendship and Co-Operation in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    two years. 13. Malaysia No treaty in the immediate future, but there exists the possibility of a non-socialist oriented treaty if Soviet- Malaysian ...health services, the press, radio, television, cinema , tourism, sport, and other fields. The two sides shall facilitate the expansion of cooperation...and contacts between them in the fields of science, art, literature, education, health care the press, radio, television, cinema , tourism and spirit

  5. Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Notification of the Entry into Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    By letters addressed to the Director General on 5, 6 and 20 March 1970 respectively, the Governments of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which are designated as the Depository Governments in Article IX. 2 of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, informed the Agency that the Treaty had entered into force on 5 March 1970

  6. Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Notification of the Entry into Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    By letters addressed to the Director General on 5, 6 and 20 March 1970 respectively, the Governments of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which are designated as the Depository Governments in Article IX. 2 of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, informed the Agency that the Treaty had entered into force on 5 March 1970 [es

  7. Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Notification of the Entry into Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-04-01

    By letters addressed to the Director General on 5, 6 and 20 March 1970 respectively, the Governments of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which are designated as the Depository Governments in Article IX. 2 of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, informed the Agency that the Treaty had entered into force on 5 March 1970

  8. A multilateral tax treaty: designing an instrument to modernise international tax law

    OpenAIRE

    Broekhuijsen, D.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this book, the author addresses the legal and political aspects of a multilateral tax treaty that fundamentally transforms the way states cooperate in the field of international taxation. Working from a normative and pragmatic view on international tax relations, he proposes a management-focused approach to multilateral cooperation in international taxation. The resulting managerial framework treaty is drawn up on the basis of insights from political science and legal philosophy and is ill...

  9. CO2 trade and market power in the EU electricity sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Vesterdal, Morten

    2002-01-01

    The EU commission is planning to launch an emission trading market for greenhouse gases within near future. This to meet its obligations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol. After a theoretical discussion on market power in such a market, we turn...

  10. Lisbon Treaty – the architect of a new European institutional structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria POPESCU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is today managed by the Lisbon Treaty, which stated, in his time, and rightly so, that is a step towards European integration, both at the institutional and human level, a treaty that succeed, despite difficulties, to move forward the European project that combined his account about half a century. The changes introduced by the Lisbon Treaty have a significant impact on EU governance. Treaty of Lisbon makes substantial changes in the management of the EU, especially with regard to the European Council, the Council of Ministers and the EU's rotating presidency. The main task of the research in this paper is the approach of the provisions of the EU Reform Treaty (Lisbon Treaty in terms of constitutional law. Research conducted prior to permit formulation of a general belief, namely that common European history of all its successes and difficulties demonstrates the viability of the European idea and the correct direction of institutional developments in the EU and the Member States.

  11. The de-nuclearization of Latin America: 40 years of the Tlatelolco Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ornstein, Roberto M.

    2007-01-01

    The 14 of February of 1967, in the Palace of Tlatelolco, the brand-new seat of the Mexican Ministry of Foreign Affairs, significantly located in the Square of the Three Cultures in Mexico City, was carried out the solemn approval and the opening to the signature of the 'Treaty for the De-nuclearization of Latin America' (later 'and of the Caribbean') known as the Treaty of Tlatelolco. The Treaty is the binding international legal instrument that created the first zone free of nuclear weapons in the world, with the exception of the inhabited Antarctica It is recognized for this reason by the international community as a milestone in the matter of non proliferation of nuclear weapons (it preceded the 'Non Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Treaty' or NPT) and has been the example and inspiration for the other de-nuclearized zones in the planet. The present paper tries to rescue the ups and downs of the arduous negotiation and to analyze the distinctive characteristics of the Treaty and their later evolution. The successive position assumed by our country in relation to the Treaty are also analyzed. (author) [es

  12. The migratory bird treaty and a century of waterfowl conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Michael G.; Alisauskas, Ray T.; Batt, Bruce D. J.; Blohm, Robert J.; Higgins, Kenneth F.; Perry, Matthew; Ringelman, James K.; Sedinger, James S.; Serie, Jerome R.; Sharp, David E.; Trauger, David L.; Williams, Christopher K.

    2018-01-01

    In the final decades of the nineteenth century, concern was building about the status of migratory bird populations in North America. In this literature review, we describe how that concern led to a landmark conservation agreement in 1916, between the United States and Great Britain (on behalf of Canada) to conserve migratory birds shared by Canada and the United States. Drawing on published literature and our personal experience, we describe how subsequent enabling acts in both countries gave rise to efforts to better estimate population sizes and distributions, assess harvest rates and demographic impacts, design and fund landscape-level habitat conservation initiatives, and organize necessary political and regulatory processes. Executing these steps required large-scale thinking, unprecedented regional and international cooperation, ingenuity, and a commitment to scientific rigor and adaptive management. We applaud the conservation efforts begun 100 years ago with the Migratory Bird Treaty Convention. The agreement helped build the field of wildlife ecology and conservation in the twentieth century but only partially prepares us for the ecological and social challenges ahead. 

  13. Physicians' strikes and the competing bases of physicians' moral obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, D Robert

    2013-09-01

    Many authors have addressed the morality of physicians' strikes on the assumption that medical practice is morally different from other kinds of occupations. This article analyzes three prominent theoretical accounts that attempt to ground such special moral obligations for physicians--practice-based accounts, utilitarian accounts, and social contract accounts--and assesses their applicability to the problem of the morality of strikes. After critiquing these views, it offers a fourth view grounding special moral obligations in voluntary commitments, and explains why this is a preferable basis for understanding physicians' moral obligations in general and especially as pertaining to strikes.

  14. Accountability for the human right to health through treaty monitoring: Human rights treaty bodies and the influence of concluding observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; De Milliano, Marlous; Chakrabarti, Averi; Kim, Yuna

    2017-11-04

    Employing novel coding methods to evaluate human rights monitoring, this article examines the influence of United Nations (UN) treaty bodies on national implementation of the human right to health. The advancement of the right to health in the UN human rights system has shifted over the past 20 years from the development of norms under international law to the implementation of those norms through national policy. Facilitating accountability for this rights-based policy implementation under the right to health, the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR) monitors state implementation by reviewing periodic reports from state parties, engaging in formal sessions of 'constructive dialogue' with state representatives, and issuing concluding observations for state response. These concluding observations recognise the positive steps taken by states and highlight the principal areas of CESCR concern, providing recommendations for implementing human rights and detailing issues to be addressed in the next state report. Through analytic coding of the normative indicators of the right to health in both state reports and concluding observations, this article provides an empirical basis to understand the policy effects of the CESCR monitoring process on state implementation of the right to health.

  15. Resolving Conflicts between Beliefs, Obligations, Intentions, and Desires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersen, J.M.; Dastani, M.M.; Torre, L. van der

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides a logical analysis of conflicts between informational, motivational and deliberative attitudes such as beliefs, obligations, intentions, and desires. The contributions are twofold. First, conflict resolutions are classi ed based on agent types, and formalized in an extension

  16. NSF Obligations for Top 200 Institutions by Fiscal Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Science Foundation — An text/xml file containing FY 2001 through FY 2015 National Science Foundation (NSF) obligations by institution for the top 200 recipients defined in terms of total...

  17. 47 CFR 76.56 - Signal carriage obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... qualified local NCE station affiliated with a State public television network shall not be required to carry... stations in fulfillment of these must-carry obligations may do so, subject to approval by the franchising...

  18. 18 CFR 154.315 - Asset retirement obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... retirement obligations that would impact the calculation of rate base, such as gas plant and related accumulated depreciation and accumulated deferred income taxes, may not be reflected in rates and must be...

  19. 18 CFR 346.3 - Asset retirement obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... related to asset retirement obligations that would impact the calculation of rate base, such as carrier property and related accumulated depreciation and accumulated deferred income taxes, may not be reflected...

  20. 18 CFR 35.18 - Asset retirement obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... related to asset retirement obligations that would impact the calculation of rate base, such as electric plant and related accumulated depreciation and accumulated deferred income taxes, may not be reflected...

  1. Foreign trade legislation, war weapons control legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hucko, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    The volume contains, in addition to an introduction into the matter, the texts of the Foreign Trade Act (FTA), the War Weapons Control Act and all relevant ordinances. Foreign trade transactions of the Federal Republic of Germany are essentially, but not exclusively, governed by the FTA. They are strongly influenced by the legislation of the European Communities which in the form of directives are immediately effective here, and in the form of guidelines oblige the German lawgiver or ordinance giver to translate them into practice, mostly by appropriate modifications of the foreign trade ordinance, the import and export lists. It is not the war weapons which are the problem, but the so-called dual-use goods, namely articles, technologies and knowledge which, as a rule, serve civil purposes, which, however, may be used also to produce weapons, in particular ABC weapons or rockets. Nowadays we are concerned about several third-world states which are obsessed by the wish to build their own atomic bomb. (orig./HSCH) [de

  2. ANALYSIS OF EUROPEAN UNION LEGISLATION ON TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRIBINCEA Lilia;

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available On June 27, 2014 there was signed an Association Agreement between the Republic of Moldova, on one hand and the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community and its Member States, on the other hand (hereinafter - the Association Agreement. The Association Agreement entered into force on 1 July 2016. The signing of the Association Agreement was as a result of the close ties between the parties established by the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement between the European Communities and their Member States, on the one hand, and the Republic of Moldova on the other hand, which develops within the European Neighborhood policy and the Eastern Partnership, as well as recognition of the shared desire of the parties to further develop, strengthen and expand their relationships. The Association Agreement contributes to the development of trade and economic relations between the parties. The Republic of Moldova is obliged to take necessary measures to ensure compliance with the objectives of Union's regulations and to follow the principles and practices set out in the relevant acquis of the Union. The Republic of Moldova will also gradually include relevant acquis of the Union in its legislation, in accordance with the provisions of the Association Agreement. The legislative background regulatory EU trade is subject studies only a small circle of researchers, approaches and sequential episodic in character, without being integrated into a systemic study, complex, integrated. The objectives of the research are to analyze the most important EU regulations on trade.

  3. Brazil's Market for Trading Forest Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Rajão, Raoni; Merry, Frank; Rodrigues, Hermann; Davis, Juliana; Lima, Letícia; Macedo, Marcia; Coe, Michael; Carneiro, Arnaldo; Santiago, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Brazil faces an enormous challenge to implement its revised Forest Code. Despite big losses for the environment, the law introduces new mechanisms to facilitate compliance and foster payment for ecosystem services (PES). The most promising of these is a market for trading forest certificates (CRAs) that allows landowners to offset their restoration obligations by paying for maintaining native vegetation elsewhere. We analyzed the economic potential for the emerging CRA market in Brazil and its implications for PES programs. Results indicate a potential market for trading 4.2 Mha of CRAs with a gross value of US$ 9.2±2.4 billion, with main regional markets forming in the states of Mato Grosso and São Paulo. This would be the largest market for trading forests in the world. Overall, the potential supply of CRAs in Brazilian states exceeds demand, creating an opportunity for additional PES programs to use the CRA market. This expanded market could provide not only monetary incentives to conserve native vegetation, but also environmental co-benefits by fostering PES programs focused on biodiversity, water conservation, and climate regulation. Effective implementation of the Forest Code will be vital to the success of this market and this hurdle brings uncertainty into the market. Long-term commitment, both within Brazil and abroad, will be essential to overcome the many challenges ahead.

  4. Brazil's Market for Trading Forest Certificates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britaldo Soares-Filho

    Full Text Available Brazil faces an enormous challenge to implement its revised Forest Code. Despite big losses for the environment, the law introduces new mechanisms to facilitate compliance and foster payment for ecosystem services (PES. The most promising of these is a market for trading forest certificates (CRAs that allows landowners to offset their restoration obligations by paying for maintaining native vegetation elsewhere. We analyzed the economic potential for the emerging CRA market in Brazil and its implications for PES programs. Results indicate a potential market for trading 4.2 Mha of CRAs with a gross value of US$ 9.2±2.4 billion, with main regional markets forming in the states of Mato Grosso and São Paulo. This would be the largest market for trading forests in the world. Overall, the potential supply of CRAs in Brazilian states exceeds demand, creating an opportunity for additional PES programs to use the CRA market. This expanded market could provide not only monetary incentives to conserve native vegetation, but also environmental co-benefits by fostering PES programs focused on biodiversity, water conservation, and climate regulation. Effective implementation of the Forest Code will be vital to the success of this market and this hurdle brings uncertainty into the market. Long-term commitment, both within Brazil and abroad, will be essential to overcome the many challenges ahead.

  5. Changing International ‘Subjectivity’ and Rights and Obligations under International Law – Status of Corporations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merja Pentikäinen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation, liberation of trade supported by institutions such as the WTO, the unprecedented internationalisation of companies' activities in the global market, the creation of even larger company entities (including multinational corporations and the ensuing growth of business power have radically restructured the equilibrium of companies' relations with state and society. In the contemporary world many companies are de facto stronger and more influential actors than states, and their activities have concrete effects on political, cultural and societal aspects in the countries where they operate or to which they have other business links. These developments have created new kinds of challenges, e.g. for the protection of human rights which may be undermined by business activities. In this situation corporations are increasingly expected to pay due regard to avoiding activities contributing to human rights violations. The doctrine of subjects of international law (international 'subjectivity' considers states as the primary subjects, in addition to which also some other actors have been granted the status as a subject, including even corporations. This article sheds light on the shifts that have taken place in the doctrine of international 'subjectivity' and the paradigm of rights and obligations under international law linked to this 'subjectivity'. Particular attention is paid to the position of corporations, and the exploration is conducted through the prism of the development of rights and obligations in the area of international human rights law.

  6. LEGAL SECURITY ON CELLPHONE TRADING THROUGH ELECTRONIC MEDIA IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aan Aswari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of technology development brings impact on human life related to its utilization. This article analyzes legal security through several components in a cellphone trading through electronic media. This study is a conceptual idea and shows that the implementation of legal security in several components should provide solution to any potential conflicts. A good intention component should be applied to form an ideal legal relation from the beginning to the end and realization in performing its obligation reflect the concrete aspect. Warranty provides protection security for related parties with some governing regulations during transaction. However, some other supporting components have not been effectively contribute to balance the utilization of technology in trading. Keywords: legal security, trading, cellphone, electronic media

  7. SDC Supplier Obligation project : household energy from 2011 : final report

    OpenAIRE

    Sustainable Development Commission

    2008-01-01

    This report is based on 'SDC Supplier Obligation engagement project : process plan'. Evaluation of the engagement process used in this report can be found in 'SDC Supplier Obligation project : an evaluation of the Sustainable Development Commission's stakeholder and public engagement process'. This report presents the findings of the Sustainable Development Commission’s stakeholder and public engagement process and informs the development of Department for Environment, Food and Rural Af...

  8. THE SELLER'S OBLIGATION TO DELIVER THE GOODS ACCORDING TO CISG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan VELICU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the seller's obligations under the Convention on International Sale of Goods (CISG and in particular the obligation to deliver the goods showing the main issues that arise in an international sale. We also wish to point the major innovations or improvements brought by the CISG in comparison to the European civil codes regulation and to conclude if the CSIG managed to revolutionize the tradition view on this issue.

  9. Novation as a method of termination of obligations

    OpenAIRE

    Perović Marko

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the issue of novation in contract law. Novation is a contract between the creditor and debtor in order to replace its existing obligation with a new one. Unlike the other methods of termination of obligations (e.g. fulfillment, compensation, remission of debt), novation extinguishes existing contractual relationship between the creditor and the debtor, so that among them arise a new contractual relationship, which in relation to the previous one, differs on t...

  10. Contractual and non-contractuall obligations in private international Law

    OpenAIRE

    Čejková, Martina

    2010-01-01

    67 8 Summary 8.1 Contractual and Non-contractual Obligations in Private International Law This thesis deals with the European international private law and discusses the current law-crash modification of contractual and non-contractual obligations. Characteristic of the European community is the absence of unification of the substantive law, which is compensated, by the unification of conflict standards. The unification of conflict standards, as an instrument of the international private law,...

  11. Treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons: Review conference of the States Parties Geneva 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The Third Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons will be held in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1985 with a view to assuring that the purposes and provisions of the Treaty are being realized. The Treaty, commonly referred to as the non-proliferation Treaty, is the fundamental instrument to avert the danger of proliferation of nuclear weapons and is, perhaps, the most important multilateral arms regulation agreement of our time. It was negotiated in the 1960s in the Eighteen-Nation Committee on Disarmament in Geneva and in the United Nations General Assembly. The Treaty was opened for signature in London, Moscow and Washington on July 1, 1968. On that date, it was signed by the three Depositary Governments - the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States - and by 58 other States. As of December 31, 1983 the number of States parties to the Treaty had risen to 119

  12. Lessee's obligations under the oil and gas lease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcolm, R.T.

    1998-01-01

    Obligations of a lessee under the present day freehold petroleum and natural gas lease are described. The effect of recent cases relating to fiduciary and good faith duties on the lessee's obligations are also examined. Every lease under the Canadian Association of Petroleum Landmen (CAPL) must specifically deal with rights to be granted, the obligations to drill, royalties, the length of the primary term, the amount of the rental rights, rights to pool, and offset obligations. In Alberta, the most accepted petroleum and natural gas lease form is the CAPL 91. This form is presently being revised to create the 1998 version. The contents of this discussion included: (1) historical lease interpretation, (2) fiduciary obligations, (3) the definition of the doctrine of good faith, (4) implied and express covenants, (5) application of the default clause and (6) force majeur provisions. Although Alberta law does not recognize the doctrine of good faith, nevertheless the court will review the obligations of the lessee and if they do not feel that the lessee has acted fairly with respect to the lessor and damages have resulted, the court will find for the lessor

  13. Towards a treaty instrument on marine genetic resources

    OpenAIRE

    Wehrli Judith; Cottier Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Marine genetic resources other than fish and mammals are of increasing commercial interest and importance in genetic engineering but fail being properly addressed in the law of the sea and in international economic law. The paper analyses the implication of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea the Convention on Biodiversity the WTO Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights and related instruments under the auspices of WIPO. The paper argues that the tri...

  14. The Substantive Scope of Double Tax Treaties - a Study of Article 2 of the OECD Model Conventions

    OpenAIRE

    Brandstetter, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Tax treaty protection from international double taxation only goes as far as the treaty's substantive scope. Nations worldwide have adopted the text of Article 2 of the OECD Model Double Taxation Conventions (headed Taxes covered) in concluding bilateral treaties to prevent double taxation in the area of taxes on income and capital and taxes on estates, inheritances, and on gifts. The wording and structure of Article 2 give rise to a host of ambiguities, creating uncertainty for taxpayers reg...

  15. ''Brexit means Brexit''. Also a British withdrawal of the EURATOM treaty?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    In a referendum on 23 June 2016, 51.9 % of the British voters decided to leave the EU. The question did not include explicitly the exit from the EURATOM Treaty (EAV). Since the 2009 Lisbon Treaty the Euratom Community is a supranational organisation of the new EU. This raises the question whether the exit of Britain from the EU also means an exit from the Euratom treaty.

  16. BP's emissions trading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor, David G.; House, Joshua C.

    2006-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2001, BP reduced its emissions of greenhouse gases by more than 10%. BP's success in cutting emissions is often equated with its use of an apparently market-based emissions trading program. However no independent study has ever examined the rules and operation of BP's system and the incentives acting on managers to reduce emissions. We use interviews with key managers and with traders in several critical business units to explore the bound of BP's success with emissions trading. No money actually changed hands when permits were traded, and the main effect of the program was to create awareness of money-saving emission controls rather than strong price incentives. We show that the trading system did not operate like a 'textbook' cap and trade scheme. Rather, the BP system operated much like a 'safety valve' trading system, where managers let the market function until the cost of doing so surpassed what the company was willing to tolerate

  17. Greenhouse gas trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drazilov, P. [Natsource-Tullett Emissions Brokerage, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Natsource-Tullett Emissions Brokerage is a market leader in natural gas, electricity, coal, and weather, emissions with a total of more than $2 billion by volume in emissions transactions in the United States, Canada, Australia, Japan, and Europe. This power point presentation addressed issues dealing with global warming, the Kyoto Protocol, and explained where we are in terms of reaching commitments for the first compliance period between 2008-2012. The paper focused on international emissions trading (IET), joint implementation (JI) and the clean development mechanism (CDM) and explained how greenhouse gases are traded. Emissions trading refers to the trade of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxides, perfluoro-carbons, hydrofluorocarbons, and sulphur hexafluorides. The motivational drivers for trading were outlined in terms of liability for buyers and assets for sellers. To date, trading activity is nearly 120 transactions with nearly 70 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent. tabs., figs.

  18. Protection of Non-Trade Values in WTO Appellate Body Jurisprudence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    of economic externality assessments in subsidy determinations. It is, however, still unsettled how other vital values, like those which can fall under peremptory norms, can be protected by the Appellate Body and whether its current approach provides the necessary tools for their protection.......The article suggests that the constitutional scope of the WTO leaves a wide space for the Appellate Body to protect non-trade values. That has, to some extent, materialized in Appellate Body practice; human health and environment are attaining general protection across the WTO treaties....... They are recognized as vital and important values and protected through the exceptions in the WTO treaties. However, the Appellate Body has also found ways to protect those values without resorting to the exceptions. Instead, they are part of an economic argument in national treatment analyses and they are part...

  19. A treaty on the cutoff of fissile material for nuclear weapons - What to cover? How to verify?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaper, A.

    1998-01-01

    Since 1946, a cutoff has been proposed. In 1993, the topic was placed on the agenda of the CD. The establishment of an Ad Hoc Committee in the CD with a mandate to negotiate a fissile material cutoff treaty struggled with difficulties for more than a year. The central dispute was whether the mandate should refer to existing un-safeguarded stockpiles. The underlying conflict of the CTBT negotiations can be summarized as nuclear disarmament versus nuclear nonproliferation The same conflict is now blocking progress with FMCT negotiations in the CD. At the center of technical proliferation concerns is direct use material that can be used for nuclear warheads without any further enrichment or reprocessing. Those materials are plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU). A broader category of materials is defined as all those containing any fissile isotopes, called special fissionable materials. In order ta verify that no direct use materials are abused for military purposes, also special fissionable materials must be controlled. An even broader category is simply called nuclear materials. Pu and HEU can be distinguished into the following categories of utilisation: 1. military direct use material in operational nuclear weapons and their logistics pipeline, 2. military direct use material held in reserve for military purposes, in assembled weapons or in other forms, 3. military direct use material withdrawn from dismantled weapons, 4. military direct use material considered excess and designated for transfer into civilian use, 5. military direct use material considered excess and declared for transfer into civilian use, 6. direct use material currently in reactors or their logistics pipelines and storages, and 7. irradiated Pu and HEU in spent fuel from reactors, or in vitrified form for final disposal. Large quantities of materials are neither inside weapons nor declared excess. So far, there are no legal obligations for NWS for limitations, declarations, or

  20. Bitcoin trading system

    OpenAIRE

    Turšič, Samo

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis an information solution was developed that enables the implementation of different trading strategies and backtesting over cryptocurrency Bitcoin trading data. Supported exchanges are Bitstamp, BTC-e and MtGox. In the field of technical analysis there already exist various solutions for Bitcoin that help traders to trade and advise them on basis of technical indicators and patterns. However, each has its own drawbacks, which we are aiming to fix. A web application was developed...

  1. Bitcoin trading system

    OpenAIRE

    Turšič, Samo

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis an information solution was developed that enables the implementation of different trading strategies and backtesting over cryptocurrency Bitcoin trading data. Supported exchanges are Bitstamp, BTC-e and MtGox. In the field of technical analysis there already exist various solutions for Bitcoin that help traders to trade and advise them on basis of technical indicators and patterns. However, each has its own drawbacks, which we are aiming to fix. A web application was developed...

  2. International trade and inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Urata, Sh¯ujir¯o; Narjoko, Dionisius A.

    2017-01-01

    The impact of globalization on equality has become a serious concern for many countries. More evidence that challenges the theoretical prediction of positive impact of international trade on income distribution has increasingly become available recently. This paper addresses this subject, surveying the empirical findings on the impact of international trade on inequalities from various perspectives. The survey reveals that an increase in trade openness by developing countries appears to have ...

  3. International Organizations and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Antras, Pol

    2010-01-01

    The three central primitives of international trade theory are consumer preferences, factor endowments, and the production technologies that allow firms to transform factors of production into consumer goods. A limitation of traditional trade theory, however, is that the specification of technology treats the mapping between factors of production and final goods as a black box. In practice, the decisions of agents in organizations determine this mapping. Recently, international trade economis...

  4. Racial Trade Barriers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jacob Halvas

    . This paper analyzes the racial policies pursued in the foreign trade and argues that we need to recognize Aryanization as a world-wide policy in order to fully understand its character and possible consequences. I focus on the pre-war period and analyze the case of Denmark from three different perspectives......: perpetrators, victims and bystanders. The analysis will show that race, economy and foreign trade were combined in an attempt to raise racial trade barriers. This forced the question of German racial policies on the Danish government, Danish-Jewish businesses, and German companies involved in foreign trade...

  5. International emissions trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan Tjeerd

    This thesis discusses the design and political acceptability of international emissions trading. It is shown that there are several designs options for emissions trading at the national level that have a different impact on output and thereby related factors such as employment and consumer prices....... The differences in impact of the design make that governments may prefer different designs of emissions trading in different situations. The thesis furthermore establishes that international emissions trading may lead to higher overall emissions, which may make it a less attractive instrument....

  6. Trade Analysis and Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelus, R.; Schot, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    In order to verify compliance with safeguards and draw conclusions on the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) collects and analyses trade information that it receives from open sources as well as from Member States. Although the IAEA does not intervene in national export controls, it has to monitor the trade of dual use items. Trade analysis helps the IAEA to evaluate global proliferation threats, to understand States' ability to report exports according to additional protocols but also to compare against State declarations. Consequently, the IAEA has explored sources of trade-related information and has developed analysis methodologies beyond its traditional safeguards approaches. (author)

  7. Trade in health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Rupa

    2002-01-01

    In light of the increasing globalization of the health sector, this article examines ways in which health services can be traded, using the mode-wise characterization of trade defined in the General Agreement on Trade in Services. The trade modes include cross- border delivery of health services via physical and electronic means, and cross-border movement of consumers, professionals, and capital. An examination of the positive and negative implications of trade in health services for equity, efficiency, quality, and access to health care indicates that health services trade has brought mixed benefits and that there is a clear role for policy measures to mitigate the adverse consequences and facilitate the gains. Some policy measures and priority areas for action are outlined, including steps to address the "brain drain"; increasing investment in the health sector and prioritizing this investment better; and promoting linkages between private and public health care services to ensure equity. Data collection, measures, and studies on health services trade all need to be improved, to assess better the magnitude and potential implications of this trade. In this context, the potential costs and benefits of trade in health services are shaped by the underlying structural conditions and existing regulatory, policy, and infrastructure in the health sector. Thus, appropriate policies and safeguard measures are required to take advantage of globalization in health services. PMID:11953795

  8. Journal of Contemporary European Research User You are logged in as... jcer_editor My Profile Log Out Subscribe... Sign up for issue alerts Follow JCER on Twitter Font Size Make font size smaller Make font size default Make font size larger Journal Content Search Search Scope Browse By Issue By Author By Title Information For Readers For Authors For Librarians Journal Help Keywords CFSP Communication ESDP EU EU enlargement EU trade policy Energy, EU, External Policy Europe European Commission European Parliament European Union European integration Europeanisation Euroscepticism First Enlargement Germany Liberty Lisbon Treaty Poland Russia Security The UACES Blog Power shift? The EU’s pivot to Asia 100 Books on Europe to be Remembered For a Global European Studies? EU Member State Building in the... Same aims, different approaches?... Open Journal Systems Home About User Home Search Current Archives Announcements UACES Home > Vol 9, No 4 (2013 > De Ville The Promise of Critical Historical Institutionalism for EU Trade Policy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdi de Ville

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to convince the reader of the potential of a critical version of historical institutionalism (HI as a theoretical perspective for EU trade policy analysis. It argues that critical HI sensitises the analyst to important but hitherto often neglected factors including: the influence of the past on EU trade policy; the complex, multiarena and multilevel nature of contemporary trade policy; and issues of distributional conflict. The core concept in critical HI is ‘reactive sequencing’, conceiving of policy evolution as a chain of events produced by reactions and counter-reactions. This paper demonstrates that this is invaluable to understand contemporary EU trade politics. Some examples of EU trade policy decisions and its general strategic evolution since the conclusion of the Uruguay Round are given to show the value of critical HI. Finally, the external dimension of “Europe 2020” as the latest trade policy strategy is analysed from a critical historical institutionalist angle.

  9. International provision of trade services, trade, and fragmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Deardorff, Alan V.

    2001-01-01

    The author examines the special role that trade liberalization in services industries can play in stimulating trade in both services, and goods. International trade in goods requires inputs from such trade services as transportation, insurance, and finance, for example. Restrictions on services across borders, and within foreign countries add costs, and barriers to international trade. Lib...

  10. INDONESIAN TRADE UNDER CHINA FREE TRADE AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavi Supriana

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the implementation of CAFTA (China-Asean Free Trade Area on the international trade flows across Indonesia, China and the rest of ASEAN using a gravitation model. It finds the evidence that the influence of diversion and creation effects on China are significant, while the influence of both effects on Indonesia are not significant. It also finds that the diversion effect, which leads to a decrease in society’s wealth, is greater than that of the creation effect. As a consequence, the gap across countries involved in the trade agreement is wider. Keywords: CAFTA, gravitation model, diversion effect, creation effectJEL classification numbers: F13, F14, F15

  11. Trading pollution is the way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, Eric

    1999-01-01

    At the UN Climate Change Meeting in Bonn in October 1999 it was expected that although more restraints might be placed on industry, this in turn creates opportunities for those in the business of emission control technology. Coal is a major contributor to enhanced global warming and since in excess of 40% of the world's electricity is likely to come from coal burning by 2010 there is scope for developing a cleaner coal burning technology. The Kyoto protocol permits countries to purchase emissions reductions from other countries and this reduces the amount and cost of action that would otherwise be required by the purchasing country to meet its obligations. The UK government would like to see a domestic pilot trading scheme for greenhouse gases. The government is also promoting pilot change levy where different levy levels would be set for different sectors of industry. Some countries wish to use their natural sinks for carbon dioxide to offset their emissions responsibilities. (UK)

  12. Treaties to avoid international double income taxation and their relation with investments involving Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jônatas de Pessoa Alburquerque Martins

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To fight against fiscal evasion and facilitate the investment flow, the countries close agreements to go against double income taxation. This study aims to investigate the impact of the treaties to avoid double income taxation on the direct foreign investment relations of Brazil. The analysis included 162 countries and jurisdictions with which investments transactions were closed that originated or were received in Brazil, between 2005 and 2011. The panel data analysis technique was applied through the selection of six independent variables, in order to verify the behavior of the double taxation treaties in view of the investments. Through the estimated model, it was verified that these treaties had a positive and statistically significant impact – when compared to earlier studies – on the direct foreign investment volume. When dividing the sample between the investments received and made in Brazil, a greater increase was identified in the direct foreign investments received (130.1% than in the investments made (76.9%, although this was the variable with the second largest positive impact in the model. In conclusion, exclusively in the Brazilian context, the international double income taxation is a relevant factor in the investment decision, as the presence of treaties to guarantee the investors in the receipt of revenues without double taxation substantially increases the investment flow. This study differs from earlier research by the sample that only contains treaties in force in Brazil.

  13. Tlatelolco treaty for the proscription of nuclear armaments in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espiell, H G

    1981-03-01

    The Tlateloco Treaty has established in Latin America the first and hitherto only zone free from nuclear armament existing in the inhabited world. This Latin American example guarantees not only the Continent's security from a future nuclear war, but it might also motivate the possible, though difficult, creation of other zones free from nuclear armament in other regions of the world. The Tlateloco system includes three instruments: a Treaty, open to signature and ratification by the Latin American States and two additional protocols. The Treaty includes regime of duties regarding military denuclearization, a control system, the creation of an organism (OPANAL) and the regime that governs pacific use of nuclear energy. The Treaty has been signed by 25 Latin American States (excepting Cuba, Guyana, Dominica and Santa Lucia), and ratified by 24 (excepting Argentine). There are 22 States members of OPANAL (all the rest, excepting Brazil and Chile). Additional Protocol I applies the military denuclearization regime to territories owned by non-Latin American States located in the Treaty zone. England and the Low Countries are Parts in the Additional Protocol I which has been signed, but not ratified, by the United States and France. Additional Protocol II establishes the duties of the powers possessing nuclear armaments with respect to the denuclearized Latin American zone. It has been signed and ratified by the United States, France, Great Britian, China, and the USSR.

  14. Biological trade and markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstein, Peter; Noë, Ronald

    2016-02-05

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other 'commodities'. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten 'terms of contract' that 'self-stabilize' trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models-often called 'Walrasian' markets-are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying 'principal-agent' problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists studying cooperation but need

  15. The Scope of State Aid and Public Service Obligation for Airports and Air Carriers in the Light of European Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Zajac

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Public aid is the kind of advantage granted directly or indirectly for private companies from State resources. The European Commission prerogative to control the transfer of public resources by the public authorities (national or local for the benefit of private undertakings, as a general rule, there is an obligation of notification, as provided for in article 108 (3 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU. It should be noted in the beginning that State aid given to undertakings conducting economic activity is, in principle, incompatible with the European Union’ law, as provided for in article. 107 (1 of the TFEU. There are certain situations that the granting of public funds will not constitute “public aid” within the meaning of article 107 of the TFEU and, therefore, will not violate European rules in this field. One of them are activities related to the exercise of the prerogatives of the public authority (security, safety, customs, air traffic control. The other is related to the exercise of services in general economic interest. This could be an example of public service obligation (PSO. This service can be applied in the light of the provisions of European law on two types of action on air routes, and on airport managing body. The imposition of a PSO to the specified route is the support given by the State to the outermost regions that due to their unfavourable geographical position cannot fully develop economically, and no carrier had not been interested in performing air services to that region due to the lack of cost effectiveness. Some activities at the airport may be considered as activities of general economic interest.

  16. How fair is fair trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, Robbert; Vaal, Albert de

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed ‘fair’. This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost

  17. Bridging the Implementation Gap In the Revised Treaty of Chaguaramas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm Francis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Although one may be disappointed with the progress made in the deepening of the integration progress, nevertheless, it should be acknowledged that criticism levelled against Caribbean leaders may to a large extent be unfair. Prior to the era of independence the British created a West Indian Federation without any significant input from West Indians and the experiment was short-lived. In spite of the degree of cynicism engendered by the demise of the Federation, Caribbean leaders took their own initiative at re-launching the Caribbean Free Trade Area.

  18. Introduction to International Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intercom, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Focusing mainly on United States-Japan relations, this issue provides 11 lesson plans and student handouts dealing with international trade topics such as protective tariffs, currency exchange rates, unofficial trade barriers, causes of unemployment, the balance of payments and the internationalization of the automobile industry. (JDH)

  19. Trade and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Bentzen, Jeanet; Tarp, Finn

    2009-01-01

    History, not predictions of CGE models or cross-country growth studies, shows a strong relationship between trade and development. Vietnam's experience with bilateral trade agreements, comparing actual outcomes with predictions from existing models, demonstrates this and the limitations of research...

  20. Expatriates and trade

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konečný, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2012), s. 83-98 ISSN 1488-3473 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : migration * trade * informal trade barriers Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  1. Expatriates and trade

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konečný, Tomáš

    -, č. 387 (2009), s. 1-29 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 118909 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : international trade * migration * informal trade barriers Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp387.pdf

  2. Banking and trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2013-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term, scalable arm’s length finance which we call trading. Relationship banking is not scalable, has high franchise value, is long-term oriented and low risk. Trading is transaction-based: scalable, with lower margins (capital

  3. A trade balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Kay, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of the World Trade Organization (WTO) has been widely accepted as representing the legalisation of world trading rules. However, it is important to reflect on the limits of this legalisation thesis in terms of the interface between international and domestic policy processes. By...

  4. International trade. Multinational aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Y

    2000-01-01

    Of numerous regional economic agreements, the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), South American Common Market (MERCOSUR), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Agreement are examples that are actively pursuing regional integration for freer trade of animals and animal products. The World Trade Organization (WTO) believes that regional and multinational integration initiatives are complements rather than alternatives in the pursuit of more open trade. In the efforts to harmonize SPS standards among multilateral trading nations, it is recommended that national requirements meet the standards developed by the OIE and the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission as the minimum requirements rather than adopting the standards of the lowest common denominator. Regional grouping may hinder multilateral or bilateral trade between the countries of a group and those of the other groups. How to eliminate such non-tariff barriers as traditional trade custom remains to be examined. Ongoing activities of VICH (Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medical Products) may pave the way for more open trade in pharmaceutical products between multilateral regional groups.

  5. Comparative study on current trading system and online trading: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative study on current trading system and online trading: the case of ... of online trading and factors affecting its feasibility of implementation in ECX. ... The study found that there is significant capacity problem with major skills gap with ...

  6. The Arms Trade and States' Duty to Ensure Respect for Humanitarian and Human Rights Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brehm, Maya

    2007-01-01

    transfers has traditionally been treated as a question of arms control law, but in the recent debate about legal restrictions on states' liberty to transfer arms, norms of international humanitarian and human rights law have frequently been invoked. This article surveys the existing international legal......The unregulated international trade in conventional arms, especially in small arms and light weapons, has come to be viewed as an exacerbating factor in armed conflict, violent crime and internal repression. Concern about the negative humanitarian, development and security impact of this trade has...... been growing over the last decade. Against this backdrop, the UN General Assembly invited states in December 2006 to consider the feasibility of an instrument establishing common international standards for conventional arms transfers-also known as the ‘Arms Trade Treaty' (ATT). The legality of arms...

  7. Environmentally damaging electricity trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billette de Villemeur, Etienne; Pineau, Pierre-Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Electricity trade across regions is often considered welfare enhancing. We show in this paper that this should be reconsidered if environmental externalities are taken into account. We consider two cases where trade is beneficial, before accounting for environmental damages: first, when two regions with the same technology display some demand heterogeneity; second when one region endowed with hydropower arbitrages with its 'thermal' neighbor. Our results show that under reasonable demand and supply elasticities, trade comes with an additional environmental cost. This calls for integrating environmental externalities into market reforms when redesigning the electricity sector. Two North American applications illustrate our results: trade between Pennsylvania and New York, and trade between hydro-rich Quebec and New York.

  8. Online stock trading platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion LUNGU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is the perfect tool that can assure the market’s transparency for any user who wants to trade on the stock market. The investor can have access to the market news, financial calendar or the press releases of the issuers. A good online trading platform also provides real-time intraday quotes, trading history and technical analysis giving the investor a clearer view of the supply and demand in the market. All this information provides the investor a good image of the market and encourages him to trade. This paper wishes to draft the pieces of an online trading platform and to analyze the impact of developing and implementing one in a brokerage firm.

  9. Environmentally damaging electricity trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billette de Villemeur, Etienne [Toulouse School of Economics (IDEI and GREMAQ) (France); Pineau, Pierre-Olivier [HEC Montreal (Canada)

    2010-03-15

    Electricity trade across regions is often considered welfare enhancing. We show in this paper that this should be reconsidered if environmental externalities are taken into account. We consider two cases where trade is beneficial, before accounting for environmental damages: first, when two regions with the same technology display some demand heterogeneity; second when one region endowed with hydropower arbitrages with its ''thermal'' neighbor. Our results show that under reasonable demand and supply elasticities, trade comes with an additional environmental cost. This calls for integrating environmental externalities into market reforms when redesigning the electricity sector. Two North American applications illustrate our results: trade between Pennsylvania and New York, and trade between hydro-rich Quebec and New York. (author)

  10. The European Union’s Trade Strategy and Its Reflections on Turkey: an Evaluation from the Perspective of Free Trade Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sait AKMAN

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to assess implications, of European Union’s (EU new trade strategy and its Free Trade Agreements (FTAs with third countries, on Turkey-EU relations. It analyses critics raised in the context of FTAs and puts forward that the sustainability of the relations is contingent to the satisfaction of a set of criteria.The EU shifted its trade policy from sole reliance on multilateral trade negotiations towards initiatives for bilateral and preferential agreements (PTAs under its ‘Global Europe’ strategy which was adopted in 2006, to propose its trade policy agenda and priorities in accordance with its Lisbon Strategy. WTO Doha Round is currently in deadlock and it is improbable that it will be concluded in the near future. Partly for this reason, the EU tends to implement its policy objectives constantly through a set of FTAs. Turkey has to align its trade policy to the EU’s preferential regimes, pursuant to its obligations arising from the Customs Union (CU. Hence, it has concluded so far sixteen FTAs with relevant countries. On the other hand, the intensification of critics about the FTAs process and the CU brings impediments for Turkey to commit itself to its CU obligations in the next period. Two main motives can be cited as a reason: First, the EU trade strategy obviously considers the global context within which the EU rests; and the Member States’ interests, which are subsequently reflected into its FTAs. Nevertheless, a harmonious action by Turkey becomes onerous as long as EU trade priorities diverge from Turkey’s long term trade strategy. Second reason, aside from technical aspects of the CU, can be attributed to the ‘political uncertainty’ converged around the ‘open-endedness’ of the membership process, which in turn affects the CU, Turkey’s most vital linkage to the EU, and the commitments there from.

  11. Advances in genetic manipulation of obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eBeare

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Infections by obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens result in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. These bacteria include Chlamydia spp., which causes millions of cases of sexually transmitted disease and blinding trachoma annually, and members of the α-proteobacterial genera Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Orientia and Rickettsia, agents of serious human illnesses including epidemic typhus. Coxiella burnetii, the agent of human Q fever, has also been considered a prototypical obligate intracellular bacterium, but recent host cell-free (axenic growth has rescued it from obligatism. The historic genetic intractability of obligate intracellular bacteria has severely limited molecular dissection of their unique lifestyles and virulence factors involved in pathogenesis. Host cell restricted growth is a significant barrier to genetic transformation that can make simple procedures for free-living bacteria, such as cloning, exceedingly difficult. Low transformation efficiency requiring long term culture in host cells to expand small transformant populations is another obstacle. Despite numerous technical limitations, the last decade has witnessed significant gains in genetic manipulation of obligate intracellular bacteria including allelic exchange. Continued development of genetic tools should soon enable routine mutation and complementation strategies for virulence factor discovery and stimulate renewed interest in these refractory pathogens. In this review, we discuss the technical challenges associated with genetic transformation of obligate intracellular bacteria and highlight advances made with individual genera.

  12. Regular periodical public disclosure obligations of public companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanski Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Public companies in the capacity of capital market participants have the obligation to inform the public on their legal and financial status, their general business operations, as well as on the issuance of securities and other financial instruments. Such obligations may be divided into two groups: The first group consists of regular periodical public disclosures, such as the publication of financial reports (annual, semi-annual and quarterly, and the management's reports on the public company's business operations. The second group comprises the obligation of occasional (ad hoc public disclosure. The thesis analyses the obligation of public companies to inform the public in course of their regular reporting. The new Capital Market Law based on two EU Directives (the Transparency Directive and the Directive on Public Disclosure of Inside Information and the Definition of Market Manipulation regulates such obligation of public companies in substantially more detail than the prior Law on the Market of Securities and Other Financial Instruments (hereinafter: ZTHV. Due to the above the ZTHV's provisions are compared to the new solutions within the domain of regular periodical disclosure of the Capital Market Law.

  13. Treaties against nuclear terrorism. The global legal framework can make a difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.D.

    2002-01-01

    Two international treaties, one being drafted and the other already on the books, specifically address nuclear terrorism. The first Treaty known as the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material was adopted in 1980 under auspices of the IAEA. The second Treaty for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism is being drafted as part of the UN global campaign against terrorism. Both could require that specific measures be taken worldwide to protect and secure nuclear facilities from terrorist attack and sabotage. But neither one does. Efforts to include such requirements, before the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, have not borne fruit. Now, in the wake of lessons learned, is the time to revive and support them

  14. Criminal law policy of Latvia in the context of European Union: The treaty of Lisbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilks A.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the content of EU Treaty of Lisbon, which deals with ensurance of freedom, security and justice in the joint European space. The Treaty of Lisbon describes the attempts of the European Union to ensure a high security level to prevent and fight crime, rasism and xenophobia, to develop particular measures of coordination and cooperation between police and judicial authorities and other competent authorities for their further development, as well as for the mutual recognition of judgements in criminal matters. Correspondingly, the implementation of the requirements of the Treaty of Lisbon identifies the need to form an adequate national criminal law policy in our country as well.

  15. Preserving the ABM treaty: a critique of the Reagan Strategic Defense Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drell, S.D.; Farley, P.J.; Holloway, D.

    1984-01-01

    President Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) proposal for long-term research and development on a leak-proof defense capability conflicts with the past 15 years of Soviet-American strategic relations and arms control negotiations. It represents a unilateral change, and will elicit a Soviet response based on how the Soviets think their own security may be affected. Whether the SDI transcends or enhances defense, it raises basic issues involving the US-Soviet strategic relationship. Emphasizing the central bearing of the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty of 1972 the author reviews these issues and questions about the technical and strategic grounds of the proposal. Three recommendations are to limit the SDI program to a search for scientific possibilities, to consult with the Soviets on the ABM Treaty, and to recognize that the ABM Treaty will enhance security more than the SDI. 58 references

  16. Unilateral US Withdrawal from the ABM Treaty of 1972 and its Global Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Sergeevich Butorov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the origins and reasons for the termination of the US operations of the Soviet-American ABM Treaty in 1972 based on a study in the Archives of the Russian Federation's foreign policy documents, as well as the US Congress materials, traced the evolutionary path of unilateral withdrawal from the American side agreements. The article notes that for three decades was carried out in relation to the Soviet-American agreements on limiting missile defense systems in 1972 a policy of double standards. Declaring in words their commitment to the fundamental principles of the treaty, in practice, the United States all these years set the stage for a unilateral withdrawal from the contract. Particularly emphasized that the denunciation of Washington in 2001 ABM Treaty is the cornerstone of strategic stability and security in the world, it became the starting point for the deployment of the US global missile defense system.

  17. Radionuclide observables during the Integrated Field Exercise of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Jonathan L; Miley, Harry S; Milbrath, Brian D

    2016-03-01

    In 2014 the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) undertook an Integrated Field Exercise (IFE14) in Jordan. The exercise consisted of a simulated 0.5-2 kT underground nuclear explosion triggering an On-site Inspection (OSI) to search for evidence of a Treaty violation. This research paper evaluates two of the OSI techniques used during the IFE14, laboratory-based gamma-spectrometry of soil samples and in-situ gamma-spectrometry, both of which were implemented to search for 17 OSI relevant particulate radionuclides indicative of nuclear explosions. The detection sensitivity is evaluated using real IFE and model data. It indicates that higher sensitivity laboratory measurements are the optimum technique during the IFE and within the Treaty/Protocol-specified OSI timeframes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Text of the Agreement between Mexico and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between Mexico and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members [es

  19. The Text of the Agreement between Mexico and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-12-13

    The text of the Agreement between Mexico and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 14 September 1973 pursuant to Article 25.

  20. The Text of the Agreement between Mexico and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between Mexico and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  1. The Text of the Agreement between Mexico and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between Mexico and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  2. The Text of the Agreement between Mexico and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between Mexico and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 14 September 1973 pursuant to Article 25.

  3. IAEA Director General welcomes Cuba's intention to join the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Full text: IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei welcomed Cuba's announcement to accede to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and to ratify the Treaty of Tlatelolco establishing a nuclear-weapon-free zone in Latin America and the Caribbean. He expressed the hope that Cuba will conclude soon a comprehensive safeguards agreement with the Agency, as required under Article III of the NPT. 'With Cuba's intention to become party to the NPT, we have come a step closer to a universal nuclear non-proliferation regime,' Mr. ElBaradei said. Only three countries worldwide with significant nuclear activities now remain outside the NPT. With 188 countries party to the Treaty, the NPT is the most adhered to international agreement after the United Nations Charter and the most widely adhered to multilateral arms control treaty. The NPT makes it mandatory that all non-nuclear-weapon States conclude comprehensive safeguards agreements with the IAEA, and thus put all of their nuclear material under IAEA safeguards. The Director General also welcomed Cuba's ratification of the Tlatelolco Treaty, which completes the process of having all countries in the region of Latin America and the Caribbean as members of the nuclear-weapon-free zone in that region. Mr. ElBaradei said that, 'the Tlatelolco Treaty provides a good model for other regional nuclear-weapon-free zones to follow'. He added that 'universal adherence of all countries in regions having nuclear-weapon-free zone arrangements is important to further strengthen the non-proliferation regime'. (IAEA)

  4. About the treaty of complete nuclear test ban: the USA between unilateralism and multilateralism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sur, S.

    2000-01-01

    This article analyses the possible reasons that have led the US Senate to reject the treaty of comprehensive nuclear test ban. Even if this decision did not retained the attention of the international public opinion, it appears as surprising because the USA have worked a lot for the elaboration of this treaty and were considered as the main beneficiaries of it. Three interpretations are proposed by the author: some purely internal disputes inside Clinton's administration, a real will of the USA to abandon the arms control policy, or an intermediate attitude which allows the USA to act on different levels and to get rid of common rules. (J.S.)

  5. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Science and Technology 2011 (S and T2011). Announcement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    To build and strengthen its relationship with the broader science community in support of the Treaty, the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) invites the community to a scientific conference CTBT: Science and Technology 2011 (S and T 2011), to be held from 8 to 10 June 2011 at the Hofburg Palace in Vienna, Austria. The conference goals are: Discuss advances in science and technology relevant to test ban verification; Explore scientific applications of the CTBT verification infrastructure; Encourage partnerships and knowledge exchange between the CTBTO and the broader scientific community.

  6. Reviews of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty and U.S. security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanloz, Raymond

    2017-11-01

    Reviews of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) by the National Academy of Sciences concluded that the United States has the technical expertise and physical means to i) maintain a safe, secure and reliable nuclear-weapons stockpile without nuclear-explosion testing, and ii) effectively monitor global compliance once the Treaty enters into force. Moreover, the CTBT is judged to help constrain proliferation of nuclear-weapons technology, so it is considered favorable to U.S. security. Review of developments since the studies were published, in 2002 and 2012, show that the study conclusions remain valid and that technical capabilities are better than anticipated.

  7. [Analysis of DNA-DNA homologies in obligate methylotrophic bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronina, N V; Govorukhina, N I; Lysenko, A M; Trotsenko, Iu A

    1988-01-01

    The genotypic affinity of 19 bacterial strains obligately dependent on methanol or methylamine as carbon and energy sources was studied by techniques of molecular DNA hybridization. The high homology level (35-88%) between motile strain Methylophilus methanolovorus V-1447D and nonmotile strain Methylobacillus sp. VSB-792 as well as other motile strains (Pseudomonas methanolica ATCC 21704, Methylomonas methanolica NRRL 5458, Pseudomonas sp. W6, strain A3) indicates that all of them belong to one genus. Rather high level of homology (62-63%) was found between Methylobacillus glycogenes ATCC 29475 and Pseudomonas insueta ATCC 21276 and strain G-10. The motile strain Methylophilus methylotrophus NCIB 10515 has a low homology (below 20%) to other of the studied obligate methylobacteria. Therefore, at least two genetically different genera of obligate methylobacteria can be distinguished, namely Methylophilus and Methylobacillus, the latter being represented by both motile and nonmotile forms.

  8. Benefits from an exchange of knowledge in the treaty-related science and technologies: A personal perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, P.D.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes benefits from an exchange of knowledge in the non-proliferation treaty related science and technologies concerning science and technology development. Benefits to State Parties are concerned with non-treaty uses of seismic, hydro acoustic, infrasound and radionuclides data, their evaluation and measuring techniques

  9. The rejection of the comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty by the US Senate: a reverse for the nuclear arms control?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitt, B.

    2000-01-01

    On October 13, 1999, after a hasty debate, the US Senate rejected the comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty (CTBT) signed 3 years ago. This article analyses this event with respect to the US domestic context (discussions at the Senate, reaction of the Presidency) and with respect to the international context (international reactions, future of the treaty, consequences on arms control policy). (J.S.)

  10. 28 CFR 0.109 - Implementation of the Treaty of Friendship and General Relations Between the United States and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Friendship and General Relations Between the United States and Spain. 0.109 Section 0.109 Judicial... Service § 0.109 Implementation of the Treaty of Friendship and General Relations Between the United States... States within the meaning of Article XXIV of the Treaty of Friendship and General Relations Between the...

  11. Taxation of Capital Gains in Spanish Tax Treaties: The Belgium-Spain Double Taxation Convention on Income and Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Ribes Ribes, Aurora

    2004-01-01

    This paper is intended to analyse the treatment of capital gains in Spanish tax treaties. In particular, the author focuses on the new provision on the taxation of capital gains as a consequence of the alienation of shares in the Belgium-Spain double tax treaty.

  12. Suggested treaty benefits approaches for collective investment vehicles (CIVs) and its investors under the OECD MTC 2010 update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, H.; Weber, D.; van Weeghel, S.

    2012-01-01

    Collective Investment Vehicles (CIVs) are specifically addressed in the 2010 update of the OECD Model Tax Convention (MTC) and the Commentary thereto. Attention is paid to the tax treaty position of CIVs in an international context. The main question is whether a CIV is treaty eligible and if not,

  13. Resolution establishing the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization. Adopted on 19 November 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Resolution on the Establishment of a Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization which was adopted on 19 November 1996 at a meeting of the States Signatories of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty

  14. Endosymbiosis In Statu Nascendi: Close Phylogenetic RelationshipBetween Obligately Endosymbiotic and Obligately Free-LivingPolynucleobacter Strains (Betaproteobacteria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vannini, Claudia; Pockl, Matthias; Petroni, Giulio; Wu, Qinglong; Lang, Elke; Stackebrandt, Erko; Schrallhammer, Martina; Richardson, PaulM.; Hahn, Martin W.

    2006-07-21

    Bacterial strains affiliated to the phylogenetically shallowsubcluster C (PnecC) of the 28 Polynucleobacter cluster, which ischaracterized by a minimal 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of approx.98.5 percent, have been reported to occur as obligate endosymbionts of 30ciliates (Euplotes spp.), as well as to occur as free-living cells in thepelagic zone of freshwater habitats. We investigated if these two groupsof closely related bacteria represent 32 strains fundamentally differingin lifestyle, or if they simply represent different stages of afacultative endosymbiotic lifestyle. The phylogenetic analysis of 16SrRNA gene and 16S34 23S ITS sequences of five endosymbiont strains fromtwo different Euplotes species and 40 pure culture strains demonstratedhost-species-specific clustering of the endosymbiont 36 sequences withinthe PnecC subcluster. The sequences of the endosymbionts showedcharacteristics indicating an obligate endosymbiotic lifestyle.Cultivation experiments 38 revealed fundamental differences inphysiological adaptations, and determination of the genome sizesindicated a slight size reduction in endosymbiotic strains. We concludethat the 40 two groups of PnecC bacteria represent obligately free-livingand obligately endosymbiotic strains, respectively, and do not representdifferent stages of the same complex lifecycle. 42 These closely relatedstrains occupy completely separated ecological niches. To our bestknowledge, this is the closest phylogenetic relationship between obligateendosymbionts and 44 obligately free-living bacteria everrevealed.

  15. Global Redistributive Obligations in the Face of Severe Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, David Vestergaard

    ? In the debate on global justice, a number of theorists argue that this discrepancy can indeed be justified (so-called anti-cosmopolitans). Thus, to bring us closer to answer regarding our redistributive obligations towards foreigners, I analyze and evaluate such arguments. My critical examination reveals...... comprehensive obligations to foreigners and compatriots simultaneously. Thus, even if we are duty-bound to redistribute comprehensively to compatriots, this does not entail that we could not also do so towards non-compatriots. Hence, their arguments are incomplete. Thirdly, I show that anti...

  16. The landing obligation in view of different management regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Hans Staby; Hoff, Ayoe

    2017-01-01

    The European Union adopted a landing obligation in 2015 implying that all catches of fish subject to quota management must be landed. We compare and contrast the economic consequences for fisheries of the landing obligation in view of the management system on which it is super-imposed. Four types...... the strongest influence on both industry profitability and catch of unwanted species in the case of management with shared non-transferable quotas. In addition, the move from management with shared quotas to individual transferable quotas (ITQ) increases industry profitability and reduces unwanted catches...

  17. U.S. industry perception on international trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    There is no doubt that the nuclear fuel market is a more international market today than 10 years. The author presents a US industry perception of international nuclear markets and discusses whether the markets are truly global. His opinion is that the nuclear market is global and international in some segments, in some countries, on certain occasions. This may sound somewhat facetious, but that is the way the nuclear markets work. If one looks at the type of markets in which the parties function as producers, vendors, brokers, agents and customers, it seems that the various segments of the markets range from global to partially protected to fully protected. The paper discusses differences by market type; international trade barriers, specifically, laws and regulators, treaties and agreements, and tariffs and duties and limits; entry or qualification cost barriers; nuclear waste disposal barriers; and a summary of global nuclear market considerations

  18. IBERINCO in the foreign trade: the integration experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, F. J.; Sanchez Mayoral, M. L.; Garcia, P. J.

    2002-01-01

    The universal tendencies show that nations integrate into large communities to strengthen each other and to share cultures and economies. The integration goes beyond free commerce treaties, opening of the import and export trade shaping unified policies on private sector and reaches into daily life and in the practice of organisations, generating substantial changes in the way of life of people. The companies that will survive in the X XI century will not operate in isolated mood but will have to be able to integrate products and services from other sources adding in the process the value obtained from their basic skills surrounding around their products others non specific of their business and offering to their customers products and services well defined that will make them more valuable and different from their competitions. (Author)

  19. Trade and Sectoral Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Fadinger, Harald; Fleiss, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    Even though differences in sectoral total factor productivity are at the heart of Ricardian trade theory and many models of growth and development, very little is known about their size and their form. In this paper we try to fill this gap by using a Hybrid-Ricardo-Heckscher-Ohlin trade model and bilateral sectoral trade data to overcome the data problem that has limited previous studies, which have used input and output data to back out productivities, to a small number of OECD economies. We...

  20. Carbon Trading. Literature Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerste, M.; Weda, J.; Rosenboom, N.

    2010-12-01

    From Pigou and Coase to the Kyoto Protocol, carbon trading has resulted in pricing of the negative externalities emanating from pollution. This report highlights leading literature and empirical findings on carbon trading, amongst others addressing the relevant carbon and related markets, the (lack of) success of carbon trading so far and room for improvement as well as its impact on investments in emission reduction. This report is part of a set of SEO-reports on finance and sustainability. The other reports deal with: Financing the Transition to Sustainable Energy; Innovations in financing environmental and social sustainability; and Sustainable investment.