WorldWideScience

Sample records for trade secrets confidential

  1. 40 CFR 370.64 - What information can I claim as trade secret or confidential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... secret or confidential? 370.64 Section 370.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... secret or confidential? (a) Trade secrets. You may be able to withhold the name of a specific chemical... trade secret. The requirements for withholding trade secret information are set forth in EPCRA section...

  2. Independent consultants : fiduciary duties, trade secrets and confidential information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, B.; Wilhelmson, M.

    1999-01-01

    Because of cutbacks and downsizing within the petroleum industry, it has become one of the largest users of contract personnel to provide services that were previously provided by senior levels of management. This paper explored the application of common law fiduciary duties and the duty of confidence to the independent workforce. It examined to what extent fiduciary duties apply to independent consultants and the best way for the employer to protect itself from the potential misuse of confidential information. Part 1 of the paper described fiduciary duties. A fiduciary relationship was described as one that possesses the following three characteristics: (1) the fiduciary has scope for the exercise of some discretion of power, (2) the fiduciary can unilaterally exercise that power to affect the beneficiary's practical interests, and (3) the beneficiary is peculiarly vulnerable to the fiduciary holding the discretion of power. Three examples of how the courts treated some arguments regarding fiduciaries were presented. Part 2 of this paper discussed how trade secrets and confidential information should be handled. It was explained, that regardless of fiduciary duties, the unauthorized use of confidential information by an independent contractor can give rise to liability and an award of damages by the courts. Some examples where the Supreme Court of Canada found breach of confidence by a party were presented. Information communicated from an employer to an employee can be divided into the following three categories: (1) publicly accessible and not confidential, (2) confidential and must be treated as such while an employee is employed, but if learned becomes part of the employees skill and knowledge, and (3) specific confidential trade secrets that cannot lawfully be used for anyone's benefit but the employer's. Issues regarding defining rights and obligations by contract were also discussed

  3. 42 CFR 405.215 - Confidential commercial and trade secret information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Confidential commercial and trade secret information. 405.215 Section 405.215 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF... trade secret information. To the extent that CMS relies on confidential commercial or trade secret...

  4. 18 CFR 401.75 - Protection of trade secrets; Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., confidential statistical data, amount or source of any income, profits, losses, or expenditures of any person... States Code which provides: Whoever, being an officer or employee of the United States or of any...

  5. 21 CFR 20.61 - Trade secrets and commercial or financial information which is privileged or confidential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Exemptions § 20.61 Trade..., preparing, compounding, or processing of trade commodities and that can be said to be the end product of either innovation or substantial effort. There must be a direct relationship between the trade secret and...

  6. 76 FR 26579 - Procedures for Submitting to the Department of Energy Trade Secrets and Commercial or Financial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... assistance can take the form of financial assistance (i.e., grants, cooperative agreements, and technology... Department of Energy Trade Secrets and Commercial or Financial Information That Is Privileged or Confidential... of trade secrets and commercial or financial information that is privileged or confidential, where...

  7. 29 CFR 1903.9 - Trade secrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INSPECTIONS, CITATIONS AND PROPOSED PENALTIES § 1903.9 Trade secrets. (a) Section 15 of the Act provides: “All... concerns or relates to the trade secrets, processes, operations, style of work, or apparatus, or to the...

  8. Some Economics of Trade Secret Law

    OpenAIRE

    David D. Friedman; William M. Landes; Richard A. Posner

    1991-01-01

    Despite the practical importance of trade secrets to the business community, the law of trade secrets is a neglected orphan in economic analysis. This paper sketches an approach to the economics of trade secret law that connects it more closely both to other areas of intellectual property and to broader issues in the positive economic theory of the common law.

  9. Can you keep a secret? Confidentiality in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younggren, Jeffrey N; Harris, Eric A

    2008-05-01

    Confidentiality is the secret-keeping duty that arises from the establishment of the professional relationship psychologists develop with their clients. It is a duty created by the professional relationship, it is set forth in the American Psychological Association's (2002) Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct, and it is codified in many state regulations. However, the difference between confidentiality and legal privilege; how, why, and when it can be violated; and the reasons for so doing are not well understood by many practitioners. While on the surface confidentiality might seem to be an easy concept to apply to professional practice, in fact it is quite complex and filled with exceptions that frequently differ from circumstance to circumstance and from state to state. A lack of respect for and a lack of familiarity with the significance of these exceptions could have dire professional consequences. This article reviews the ethical imperative of confidentiality and then provides examples of legal cases that help to better understand its complexity. Then, we offer strategies designed to help metal health practitioners when they are confronted with questions regarding confidentiality and privilege.

  10. 5 CFR 1312.26 - Control of secret and confidential material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control of secret and confidential... Accountability of Classified Information § 1312.26 Control of secret and confidential material. Classified... Document Control, will be used to establish accountability controls on all Secret material received or...

  11. The problem of using trade secrets in economic relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. О. Олефір

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Problem setting. In a market economy and increased competition between enterprises become increasingly important concepts such as business information, trade secrets, know-how, confidential information, the information with restricted access. Given the fact that only one patent protection is unable to meet the needs of researchers, in addition to formal public protection and secured legal means we would like to pay attention at private legal measures, particular, the mode of trade secrets. Recent research and publications analysis. Different aspects of the protection of trade secrets were investigated by specialists such as G. Androschuk, J. Berzhye, I. Davydov, O. Davydyuk, D. Zadyhaylo, P. Kraynov, G. Nikiforov, S. Nikiforov, V. Rubanov, E. Solovyov, L. Hoffman, V. Chaplygin, A. Cherniavsky and others. However, at present there is a lack of comprehensive research of this legal phenomenon, equally useful for innovators and businesses that actively protect corporate security. Paper objective. This article is planned to determine the legal characteristics, structural elements and mechanisms by which the use of trade secrets in business have a positive impact on innovation development and corporate security entities. Paper main body. On the basis of requirements of Art. 505 Civil Code of Ukraine and art. 39 of the TRIPS Agreement we formulated commercial information signs under which it receives legal protection as an object of intellectual property: (1 privacy (real or potential in the sense that it is as a whole or in a precise combination of aggregate and its components are not generally known or available to persons in the circles that normally deal with such information; (2 commercial value (not purely industrial or industrial, due to its secrecy; this information is unknown to others, which is a commercial interest; (3 the lawful holder of the information provides active special measures (technical, organizational, legal to preserve secrecy

  12. EPCRA Trade Secret Form Instructions (PDF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detail on what information is required for each section of the form. Only the specific chemical identity required to be disclosed in EPCRA sections 303, 311,312, and 313 submissions may be claimed trade secret on the EPCRA report.

  13. The Confidentiality of Medical Secrets of Patients by the Nursing Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalkias Theodoros

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article you will find a critical discussion about the significance of confidentiality of "medical secrets" (keeping the secrets of ill people by nurses. Special cases are mentioned regarding the need to keep, or reveal the secret.

  14. WTO confidential: the case of asbestos. World Trade Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleman, Barry

    2002-01-01

    The World Trade Organization (WTO), created in 1995, adjudicates "trade disputes" between member nations in cases with great human rights, cultural, environmental, and public health significance. Throughout the process of dispute resolution and even after a case is concluded, very little of what happens is made accessible to the public. However, it is one thing to criticize the WTO for its lack of transparency from outside the process, and another to critically examine what was withheld from disclosure and what dangers that presents. This is the inside story from a scientific adviser to one of the parties in a WTO case, analyzing what happened from a public health point of view. This analysis concludes that the public health justification of banning asbestos was accepted in the end by the economists at the WTO, despite the WTO's bias in favoring the party (Canada) making the free trade challenge (to public health legislation, in this case) in numerous stages of the process, despite the WTO's utter lack of expertise in science, medicine, engineering, and public health, and despite important erroneous statements made to the WTO under the cover of confidentiality. Despite its result, this case illustrates that the WTO's threat to national sovereignty could never withstand the light of day, that the people of the world would reject this dangerous free trade fundamentalism if the limitations and dangers of the process were open for all to see.

  15. Genetic secrets: Protecting privacy and confidentiality in the genetic era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothstein, M.A. [ed.

    1998-07-01

    Few developments are likely to affect human beings more profoundly in the long run than the discoveries resulting from advances in modern genetics. Although the developments in genetic technology promise to provide many additional benefits, their application to genetic screening poses ethical, social, and legal questions, many of which are rooted in issues of privacy and confidentiality. The ethical, practical, and legal ramifications of these and related questions are explored in depth. The broad range of topics includes: the privacy and confidentiality of genetic information; the challenges to privacy and confidentiality that may be projected to result from the emerging genetic technologies; the role of informed consent in protecting the confidentiality of genetic information in the clinical setting; the potential uses of genetic information by third parties; the implications of changes in the health care delivery system for privacy and confidentiality; relevant national and international developments in public policies, professional standards, and laws; recommendations; and the identification of research needs.

  16. Employees, Trade Secrets and Restrictive Covenants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamperman Sanders, Anselm; Heath, C.

    2017-01-01

    The book covers the protection of trade secrets and the law on post-contractual non-compete clauses (restrictive covenants) in an employment context. The topic is approached on an international and comparative level (chapters 1–3 and 10), and by way of country reports covering several European and

  17. A trade secret model for genomic biobanking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, John M; Mitchell, Robert; Cadigan, R Jean; Davis, Arlene M; Dobson, Allison W; Gladden, Ryan Q

    2012-01-01

    Genomic biobanks present ethical challenges that are qualitatively unique and quantitatively unprecedented. Many critics have questioned whether the current system of informed consent can be meaningfully applied to genomic biobanking. Proposals for reform have come from many directions, but have tended to involve incremental change in current informed consent practice. This paper reports on our efforts to seek new ideas and approaches from those whom informed consent is designed to protect: research subjects. Our model emerged from semi-structured interviews with healthy volunteers who had been recruited to join either of two biobanks (some joined, some did not), and whom we encouraged to explain their concerns and how they understood the relationship between specimen contributors and biobanks. These subjects spoke about their DNA and the information it contains in ways that were strikingly evocative of the legal concept of the trade secret. They then described the terms and conditions under which they might let others study their DNA, and there was a compelling analogy to the commonplace practice of trade secret licensing. We propose a novel biobanking model based on this trade secret concept, and argue that it would be a practical, legal, and ethical improvement on the status quo. © 2012 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  18. Trade Secrets in Life Science and Pharmaceutical Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nealey, Tara; Daignault, Ronald M.; Cai, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Trade secret protection arises under state common law and state statutes. In general, a trade secret is information that is not generally known to the public and is maintained as a secret, and it provides a competitive advantage or economic benefit to the trade secret holder. Trade secrets can be worth tens or hundreds of millions of dollars, and damage awards in trade secret litigation have been high; often, there is a lot at stake. Obtaining a trade secret through “improper means” is misappropriation. If the alleged trade secret, however, was developed independently, known publicly, or not maintained as a secret, then those defenses may successfully overcome a claim for trade secret misappropriation. With today’s interconnectedness in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical fields, more collaborations, joint ventures, and outsourcing arrangements among firms, and increased mobility of employees’ careers, life science companies need to not only understand how to protect their trade secrets, but also know how to defend against a claim for trade secret theft. PMID:25414378

  19. Trade secrets in life science and pharmaceutical companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nealey, Tara; Daignault, Ronald M; Cai, Yu

    2014-11-20

    Trade secret protection arises under state common law and state statutes. In general, a trade secret is information that is not generally known to the public and is maintained as a secret, and it provides a competitive advantage or economic benefit to the trade secret holder. Trade secrets can be worth tens or hundreds of millions of dollars, and damage awards in trade secret litigation have been high; often, there is a lot at stake. Obtaining a trade secret through "improper means" is misappropriation. If the alleged trade secret, however, was developed independently, known publicly, or not maintained as a secret, then those defenses may successfully overcome a claim for trade secret misappropriation. With today's interconnectedness in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical fields, more collaborations, joint ventures, and outsourcing arrangements among firms, and increased mobility of employees' careers, life science companies need to not only understand how to protect their trade secrets, but also know how to defend against a claim for trade secret theft. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  20. 32 CFR 147.30 - Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility for âLâ access authorization. 147.30 Section 147.30... Temporary Access § 147.30 Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and...

  1. 7 CFR 1425.5 - Confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COOPERATIVE MARKETING ASSOCIATIONS § 1425.5 Confidentiality. Information submitted to CCC related to trade secrets, financial or commercial operations, or the financial...

  2. 40 CFR 790.7 - Confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... words “confidential business information,” “trade secret,” or another appropriate phrase indicating its... competitor use such information? How substantial would the harmful effects be? What is the causal...

  3. EPCRA Trade Secret Forms and Instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    This form is required in order to substantiate claims of trade secrecy. You must be able to describe safeguarding measures and disclosure history for the specific chemical identity, and identify harm to your competitive position.

  4. 40 CFR 350.15 - Public petitions requesting disclosure of chemical identity claimed as trade secret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of chemical identity claimed as trade secret. 350.15 Section 350.15 Protection of Environment... TRADE SECRECY CLAIMS FOR EMERGENCY PLANNING AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW INFORMATION: AND TRADE SECRET... chemical identity claimed as trade secret. (a) The public may request the disclosure of chemical identity...

  5. 7 CFR 993.71 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 993.71 Section 993.71 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... information constituting a trade secret or disclosing of the trade position, financial condition, or business...

  6. 7 CFR 982.70 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 982.70 Section 982.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... trade secret or disclosing of the trade position, financial condition, or business operations of the...

  7. 7 CFR 930.73 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 930.73 Section 930.73 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... a trade secret or disclosing trade position, financial condition, or business operations of the...

  8. 77 FR 34037 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Trade Secret...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Trade Secret Claims for Emergency Planning and Community... Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (EPCRA). Title: Trade Secret Claims for Emergency Planning and...). Estimated total number of potential respondents: 481. Frequency of response: Trade secret claims are...

  9. Trade Secret Law and Information Systems: Can Your Students Keep a Secret?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Lorrie; Ford, Janet C.; White, Barbara Jo; Clapper, Danial L.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of intellectual property (IP) law on information systems (IS) professionals in business cannot be overstated. The IS 2010 model curriculum guidelines for undergraduate IS programs stress the importance of information security and knowledge about IP. While copyright and patents are the most well-known types of IP, another, trade secrets,…

  10. Genetic secrets: Protecting privacy and confidentiality in the genetic era. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothstein, M.A. [ed.

    1998-09-01

    Few developments are likely to affect human beings more profoundly in the long run than the discoveries resulting from advances in modern genetics. Although the developments in genetic technology promise to provide many additional benefits, their application to genetic screening poses ethical, social, and legal questions, many of which are rooted in issues of privacy and confidentiality. The ethical, practical, and legal ramifications of these and related questions are explored in depth. The broad range of topics includes: the privacy and confidentiality of genetic information; the challenges to privacy and confidentiality that may be projected to result from the emerging genetic technologies; the role of informed consent in protecting the confidentiality of genetic information in the clinical setting; the potential uses of genetic information by third parties; the implications of changes in the health care delivery system for privacy and confidentiality; relevant national and international developments in public policies, professional standards, and laws; recommendations; and the identification of research needs.

  11. Trade Secrets in the Legal Studies Curriculum--A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Trade secrets can be a valuable company asset because of their potential to last forever. Unfortunately, along with such a significant benefit, there is also a significant risk--the risk that the trade secret can be lost in an instant if it is not sufficiently protected. Companies must be vigilant in protecting these secrets. However, the law is…

  12. Trade secrets protection mode of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Bin

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyzes the legal environment in which nuclear power enterprises are stayed, and mainly discusses the business secret protection modes of China's nuclear power enterprises. It is expected to provide a revelation and help for these enterprises to protect their business secrets. Firstly, the paper briefly expounds the legal basis of business secret protection and China's legalization status in this regard. Then it mainly puts forward the business secret management framework and postulations for nuclear power enterprises, and key points in application and protection of nuclear power business secret. (author)

  13. Trading secrets: Jews and the early modern quest for clandestine knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jütte, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    This essay explores the significance and function of secrecy and secret sciences in Jewish-Christian relations and in Jewish culture in the early modern period. It shows how the trade in clandestine knowledge and the practice of secret sciences became a complex, sometimes hazardous space for contact between Jews and Christians. By examining this trade, the essay clarifies the role of secrecy in the early modern marketplace of knowledge. The attribution of secretiveness to Jews was a widespread topos in early modern European thought. However, relatively little is known about the implications of such beliefs in science or in daily life. The essay pays special attention to the fact that trade in secret knowledge frequently offered Jews a path to the center of power, especially at court. Furthermore, it becomes clear that the practice of secret sciences, the trade in clandestine knowledge, and a mercantile agenda were often inextricably interwoven. Special attention is paid to the Italian-Jewish alchemist, engineer, and entrepreneur Abramo Colorni (ca. 1544-1599), whose career illustrates the opportunities provided by the marketplace of secrets at that time. Much scholarly (and less scholarly) attention has been devoted to whether and what Jews "contributed" to what is commonly called the "Scientific Revolution." This essay argues that the question is misdirected and that, instead, we should pay more attention to the distinctive opportunities offered by the early modern economy of secrecy.

  14. 45 CFR 5.65 - Exemption four: Trade secrets and confidential commercial or financial information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... can be said to be the end product of either innovation or substantial effort. There must be a direct... commercial or financial information. 5.65 Section 5.65 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... attorney-client privilege or the work product privilege. Information may be privileged for this purpose...

  15. The trade secrets protection in U.S. and in Europe: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Gaido

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Only by deeply understanding the new laws that govern trade secrets protection in the United States and Europe, companies will be able to effectively protect their own trade secrets. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the similarities and differences between both regulations to give useful guidelines to international companies who deal in both geographical areas. Therefore, the paper will focus first on the economic value of trade secrets and the costs related to cybercrime and cyberespionage. Then, it will analyze the US and EU historical legal backgrounds that brought to the adoption of both laws. Finally, this article will make a comparative analysis of the provisions in each law. Hence, the paper makes potential suggestions for companies that deal in both regimes.

  16. 40 CFR 350.18 - Release of chemical identity determined to be non-trade secret; notice of intent to release...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... determined to be non-trade secret; notice of intent to release chemical identity. 350.18 Section 350.18... INFORMATION: AND TRADE SECRET DISCLOSURES TO HEALTH PROFESSIONALS Trade Secrecy Claims § 350.18 Release of chemical identity determined to be non-trade secret; notice of intent to release chemical identity. (a...

  17. The limitations of contractual clauses to determine the legal nature of information and to protect trade secrets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Remolina Angarita

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This text analyses the legal requirements for information to be considered a trade secret based on Colombian regulations and rulings issued by the Superintendencia de Industria y Comercio. A contractual clause, by itself, does not have the power to define the information that can be considered a trade secret because freedom of choice cannot disregard the legal nature of the information.

  18. Open Secrets

    OpenAIRE

    Madison, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The law of trade secrets is often conceptualized in bilateral terms, as creating and enforcing rights between trade secret owners, on the one hand, and misappropriators on the other hand. This paper, a chapter in a forthcoming collection on the law of trade secrets, argues that trade secrets and the law that guards them can serve structural and insitutional roles as well. Somewhat surprisingly, given the law’s focus on secrecy, among the institutional products of trade secrets law are commons...

  19. The Criminalization of the Theft of Trade Secrets:\\ud An Analysis of the Economic Espionage Act

    OpenAIRE

    Searle, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a law and economics assessment of how the elevation of the theft of trade secrets from civil malfeasance to a felony affects the incentives for both firms and potential thieves. The paper begins with theoretical analysis of the EEA and concludes with an empirical assessment of prosecutions under the EEA. In comparison to penalties used in civil cases, the new incentive of a criminal deterrent to trade secret theft introduces severe consequences, such as incarceration as a ...

  20. 15 CFR 806.5 - Confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidentiality. 806.5 Section 806.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DIRECT INVESTMENT SURVEYS § 806.5 Confidentiality. Information...

  1. Cigarette company trade secrets are not secret: an analysis of reverse engineering reports in internal tobacco industry documents released as a result of litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velicer, Clayton; Lempert, Lauren K; Glantz, Stanton

    2015-09-01

    Use previously secret tobacco industry documents to assess tobacco companies' routine claims of trade secret protection for information on cigarette ingredients, additives and construction made to regulatory agencies, as well as the companies' refusal to publicly disclose this information. We analysed previously secret tobacco industry documents available at (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) to identify 100 examples of seven major tobacco companies' reverse engineering of their competitors' brands between 1937 and 2001. These reverse engineering reports contain detailed data for 142 different measurements for at least two companies, including physical parameters of the cigarettes, tobacco types, humectants, additives, flavourings, and smoke constituents of competitors' cigarettes. These 100 documents were distributed to 564 employees, including top managers in domestic and foreign offices across multiple departments, including executive leadership, research and design, product development, marketing and legal. These documents reported new competitors' products, measured ingredient changes over time, and informed companies' decisions regarding ingredients in their own products. Because cigarette companies routinely analyse their competitors' cigarettes in great detail, this information is neither secret nor commercially valuable and, thus, does not meet the legal definition of a 'trade secret.' This information is only being kept 'secret' from the people consuming cigarettes and the scientific community. Public agencies should release this detailed information because it would provide valuable information about how ingredients affect addictiveness and toxicity, and would help the public health community and consumers better understand the impact of cigarette design on human health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. The constitutional protection of trade secrets and patents under the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Richard A

    2011-01-01

    The Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009 ("Biosimilars Act") is for the field of pharmaceutical products the single most important legislative development since passage of the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984 ("Hatch-Waxman Act"), on which portions of the Biosimilars Act are clearly patterned. Congress revised section 351 of the Public Health Service Act (PHSA) to create a pathway for FDA approval of "biosimilar" biological products. Each biosimilar applicant is required to cite in its application a "reference product" that was approved on the basis of a full application containing testing data and manufacturing information, which is owned and was submitted by another company and much of which constitutes trade secret information subject to constitutional protection. Because the Biosimilars Act authorizes biosimilar applicants to cite these previously approved applications, the implementation of the new legislative scheme raises critical issues under the Fifth Amendment of the Constitution, pursuant to which private property--trade secrets included--may not be taken for public use, without "just compensation." FDA must confront those issues as it implements the scheme set out in the Biosimilars Act. This article will discuss these issues, after providing a brief overview of the Biosimilars Act and a more detailed examination of the law of trade secrets.

  3. Analysis of the “Human Factor” as an Information Threat to Trade Secrets and Counteractions – Spying is in!

    OpenAIRE

    Marjanova Jovanov, Tamara

    2010-01-01

    “Economic espionage and trade secret theft threaten our nation’s national security and economic well being.” Since the 1970s brought the explosion of the Information Revolution and the rise of personal computers, we’ve become even more interested in the brain and how it works. We shouldn’t be aware of Artificial Intelligence and the smart machines of the 21st Century, but of the people in our surroundings and their ability to be corrupted from our competitors. How can we know who is rea...

  4. 15 CFR 718.3 - Disclosure of confidential business information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure of confidential business... (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS CONFIDENTIAL BUSINESS INFORMATION § 718.3 Disclosure of confidential business information. (a) General...

  5. 19 CFR 210.5 - Confidential business information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Confidential business information. 210.5 Section 210.5 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Rules of General Applicability § 210.5 Confidential...

  6. 15 CFR 718.2 - Identification of confidential business information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... business information. 718.2 Section 718.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS CONFIDENTIAL BUSINESS INFORMATION 718.2 Identification of confidential business...

  7. 15 CFR 325.16 - Protecting confidentiality of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protecting confidentiality of information. 325.16 Section 325.16 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS...

  8. Use and trade of bitumen in antiquity and prehistory: molecular archaeology reveals secrets of past civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connan, J.

    1999-01-01

    , shells, mother of pearl, on palm trees, cups, ostrich eggs, musical instruments (e.g. the Queen's lyre) and other items, such as rings, jewellery and games, have been excavated from the Royal tombs in Ur. They are on view in the British Museum. With a special enigmatic material, commonly referred to as 'bitumen mastic', the inhabitants of Susa sculpted masterpieces of art which are today exhibited in the Louvre Museum in Paris. This unique collection is presented in a book by Connan and Deschesne (1996). Last, bitumen was also considered as a powerful remedy in medical practice, especially as a disinfectant and insecticide, and was used by the ancient Egyptians to prepare mixtures to embalm the corpses of their dead. Modern analytical techniques, currently applied in the field of petroleum geochemistry, have been adapted to the study of numerous archaeological bituminous mixtures found in excavations. More than 700 bituminous samples have been analysed during the last decade, using gas chromatography alone and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and isotopic chemistry (carbon and hydrogen mainly). These powerful tools, focused on the detailed analysis of biomarkers in hydrocarbon fractions, were calibrated on various well-known natural sources of bitumen in Iraq, Syria, Iran, Bahrain and Kuwait. These reference studies have made it possible to establish the origins of bitumen from numerous archaeological sites and to document the bitumen trade routes in the Middle East and the Arabo-Persian Gulf. Using a well-documented case history, Tell el 'Oueili (5800 to 3500 BC) in South Mesopotamia, we will illustrate in this paper how these new molecular and isotopic tools can help us to recognize different sources of bitumen and to trace the ancient trade routes through time. These import routes were found to vary with major cultural and political changes in the area under study. A second example, referring to the prehistoric period, describes bitumen traces on

  9. 19 CFR 181.121 - Maintenance of confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 181.121 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Confidentiality of Business... possession of confidential business information collected pursuant to this part shall, in accordance with...

  10. CRAC : Confidentiality risk analysis and IT-architecture comparison of business networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morali, A.; Zambon, E.; Etalle, S.; Wieringa, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    The leakage of confidential information (e.g. industrial secrets, patient records and user credentials) is one of the risks that have to be accounted for and mitigated by organizations dealing with confidential data. Unfortunately, assessing confidentiality risk is challenging, particularly in the

  11. 7 CFR 984.79 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 984.79 Section 984.79 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... or disclosing the trade position, or financial condition or business operations of the handler shall...

  12. 7 CFR 932.63 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 932.63 Section 932.63 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... from such reports and records which might affect the trade position, financial condition, or business...

  13. Confidentiality and personal integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, A

    1994-06-01

    This paper uses the social theory of Erving Goffman in order to argue that confidentiality should be understood in relation to the mundane social skills by which individuals present and respect specific self-images of themselves and others during social interaction. The breaching of confidentiality is analysed in terms of one person's capacity to embarrass another, and so to expose that person as incompetent. Respecting confidentiality may at once serve to protect the vulnerable from an unjust society, and yet also protect the guilty from just accusation. Ethical reasoning about confidentiality must therefore recognize the dangers of prejudice and violence inherent in decisions to breach or to respect confidentiality. Case studies are used to illustrate the efficacy of this account, culminating with analyses of three examples from the UKCC document Confidentiality.

  14. Poultry Houses, WI Livestock Consortium Livestock Premises; confidentiality protected by law; use for animal health emergencies only; some aggregated county data, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Poultry Houses dataset current as of 2009. WI Livestock Consortium Livestock Premises; confidentiality protected by law; use for animal health emergencies only; some...

  15. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 718 - Confidential Business Information Declared or Reported *

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential Business Information... Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS CONFIDENTIAL BUSINESS INFORMATION Pt. 718, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part...

  16. Secret Sessions of Congress: A Brief Historical Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amer, Mildred

    2005-01-01

    "Secret" or "closed door" sessions of the House of Representatives and Senate are held periodically to discuss business, including impeachment deliberations, deemed to require confidentiality and secrecy...

  17. Secret Sessions of Congress: A Brief Historical Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amer, Mildred

    2004-01-01

    Secret or closed door sessions of the House of Representatives and Senate are held periodically to discuss business, including impeachment deliberations, deemed to require confidentiality and secrecy...

  18. 19 CFR 210.72 - Confidentiality of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Confidentiality of information. 210.72 Section 210.72 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Enforcement Procedures and Advisory Opinions § 210.72...

  19. 19 CFR 210.20 - Declassification of confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Declassification of confidential information. 210.20 Section 210.20 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Motions § 210.20 Declassification of...

  20. 7 CFR 926.19 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.19... data or information constituting a trade secret or disclosing the trade position or financial condition...

  1. Computer Security: Printing confidentially

    CERN Document Server

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2015-01-01

    Have you ever hesitated to print a confidential document using CERN printers? Or perhaps you have rushed quickly to the printer after hitting the “print” button in order to avoid someone else getting hold of and reading your document? These times are over now with the new printing infrastructure!   Indeed, many of us regularly print out confidential documents like our salary slips, MARS forms, tendering documents and drafts of preliminary papers. The upcoming CERN data protection policy will require all of us to respect the confidentiality of such documents and, as the word “confidential” implies, access to “confidential” or sensitive documents will be tightly controlled. What can we do about the public printers located in many buildings, floors and shared spaces - accessible not only to CERN staff and users but also to visitors and guests? Some printers are located in the vicinity of restaurants, cafeterias or close to paths taken b...

  2. Breaching confidentiality: medical mandatory reporting laws in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanifar, Alireza; Larijani, Bagher; Paykarzadeh, Parvaneh; Ashtari, Golanna; Mehdi Akhondi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Medical ethics is a realm where four important subjects of philosophy, medicine, theology and law are covered. Physicians and philosophers cooperation in this area will have great efficiency in the respective ethical rules formation. In addition to respect the autonomy of the patient, physician's obligation is to ensure that the medical intervention has benefit for the patient and the harm is minimal. There is an obvious conflict between duty of confidentiality and duty of mandatory reporting. Professional confidentiality is one of the basic components in building a constant physician-patient relationship which nowadays, beside the novelty, it is the subject of discussion. Legal obligation of confidentiality is not absolute. In physician-patient relationship, keeping patient's secrets and maintaining confidentiality is a legal and ethical duty, and disclosure of such secrets is mainly through specific statutes. Thus, there are a number of situations where breach of confidentiality is permitted in different legal systems. One of the situations where breaching confidentiality is permitted is the medical mandatory reporting to the relevant authority which is in accordance with many countries' legal systems. Some situations are considered in many countries legal systems' such as notification of births and deaths, infectious diseases, child abuse, sport and relevant events, medical errors, drug side effects and dangerous pregnancies. In this paper, we will examine and discuss medical mandatory reporting and its ethical and legal aspects in the judicial and legal system of Iran and few other countries. Finally we will suggest making Medical Mandatory Reporting Law in Iran.

  3. Ombuds’ corner: Confidentiality

    CERN Multimedia

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2011-01-01

    In this series, the Bulletin aims to explain the role of the Ombuds at CERN by presenting practical examples of misunderstandings that could have been resolved by the Ombuds if he had been contacted earlier. Please note that, in all the situations we present, the names are fictitious and used only to improve clarity.    Jane* came to the Ombuds to share her concerns about the actions of Mike*, one of her senior colleague supervisors, and insisted on the absolute confidentiality. The Ombuds promised to keep the information confidential following the terms of his mandate. During the discussion it appeared that the whole group was affected by the situation, spending a lot of time discussing how to resolve the problem instead of focusing on their main responsibilities. The risks for the Organization seemed very high and could possibly endanger the safety of the operations.  On one side, the Ombuds believed that it was essential to bring this matter to the attention of senior managem...

  4. Improving Individual Acceptance of Health Clouds through Confidentiality Assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakova, Tatiana; Fabian, Benjamin; Zarnekow, Rüdiger

    2016-10-26

    Cloud computing promises to essentially improve healthcare delivery performance. However, shifting sensitive medical records to third-party cloud providers could create an adoption hurdle because of security and privacy concerns. This study examines the effect of confidentiality assurance in a cloud-computing environment on individuals' willingness to accept the infrastructure for inter-organizational sharing of medical data. We empirically investigate our research question by a survey with over 260 full responses. For the setting with a high confidentiality assurance, we base on a recent multi-cloud architecture which provides very high confidentiality assurance through a secret-sharing mechanism: Health information is cryptographically encoded and distributed in a way that no single and no small group of cloud providers is able to decode it. Our results indicate the importance of confidentiality assurance in individuals' acceptance of health clouds for sensitive medical data. Specifically, this finding holds for a variety of practically relevant circumstances, i.e., in the absence and despite the presence of conventional offline alternatives and along with pseudonymization. On the other hand, we do not find support for the effect of confidentiality assurance in individuals' acceptance of health clouds for non-sensitive medical data. These results could support the process of privacy engineering for health-cloud solutions.

  5. Circles of Confidence in Correspondences. : Confidentiality in seventeenth-century knowledge exchange in networks of letters and drawings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, C.M.J.M.; Weingart, Scott B; Spelt, Nils; Nellen, H.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Science in the Early Modern World depended on the one hand on openness in scholarly communication, but on the other hand the competition in commerce and trade and the political and religious conflicts required secrecy and confidentiality. This papers analyzes these concepts of confidentiality and

  6. 19 CFR 210.39 - In camera treatment of confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false In camera treatment of confidential information. 210.39 Section 210.39 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Prehearing Conferences and Hearings § 210...

  7. Confidential Business Information under TSCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This website informs businesses, policymakers, and the public about the confidential business information (CBI) provisions of § 14 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), as amended by the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act.

  8. WTO confidential: the case of asbestos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleman, Barry

    2003-01-01

    The World Trade Organization (WTO), established in 1995, adjudicates "trade disputes" between member nations in cases with human rights, cultural, environmental, and public health significance. Throughout the resolution process and even after a case's conclusion, little of what happens is made accessible to the public. However, it is one thing to criticize the WTO for its lack of transparency from outside the process and another to critically examine what was withheld from disclosure and what dangers that presents. This is the inside story from a scientific adviser to one party in a WTO case, who analyzes what happened from a public health point of view. The analysis concludes that the public health justification for banning asbestos was accepted in the end by WTO economists, despite the WTO's bias in favor of the party (Canada) making the free trade challenge (to public health legislation), despite the WTO's lack of expertise in science, medicine, engineering, and public health, and despite important erroneous statements made to the WTO under the cover of confidentiality. The case nevertheless illustrates that the WTO's threat to national sovereignty could never withstand the light of day if the limitations and dangers of the process were open for all to see.

  9. [Confidentiality in medical oaths: (When the white crow becomes gray...)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelpi, R J; Pérez, M L; Rancich, A M; Mainetti, J A

    2000-01-01

    Confidentiality, together with the ethical principles of beneficence and non-maleficence, is the most important rule in Medical Oaths at the present time. However, the scientific-technical advances in medicine have made this rule one of the most controversial ones because of its exceptions. In consequence, the aim of the present paper is to comparatively analyze the rule of confidentiality in Medical Oaths of different places, times, origins and in different versions of the Hippocratic Oath in order to determine what should be kept a secret and with what degree of commitment (absolute or "prima facie"). Of the thirty six analyzed Oaths, twenty-seven manifest this rule and nine do not. No relation was found between the manifestation of this rule and the place, time, origin and different versions of the Hippocratic Oath. Most pledges suggest not to reveal what has been seen or heard during the medical act, the same as in the Hippocratic Oath. Seven texts point out that confidentiality should be absolute and four give exceptions in connection with beneficence and justice principles and the moral duty of causing no damage to third parties. Two pledges specify protection of privacy. In conclusion, today confidentiality is considered to be a moral duty for the benefit of the patient and out of consideration for his autonomy; however, at the present time in medicine the duty of keeping absolute secrecy is being reconsidered.

  10. Confidentiality and integrity in crowdsourcing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ranj Bar, Amin

    2014-01-01

    Confidentiality and Integrity in Crowdsourcing Systems focuses on identity, privacy, and security related issues in crowdsourcing systems and in particular the confidentiality and integrity of online data created via crowdsourcing. This book begins with an introduction to crowdsourcing and then covers the privacy and security challenges of Confidentiality. The book examines integrity in these systems and the management and control of crowdsourcing systems.

  11. The Psychological Competence of Police Officers in Confidential Cooperation with Citizens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uspanov, Zholdybai T.; Turabayeva, Dana S.; Ermolovich, Vladimir F.

    2016-01-01

    This research studied the psychological aspects of citizens' assistance to law enforcement agencies on a confidential basis. The comprehensive observance of the psychological norms of cooperation is determined by the professional ethics of police officers, the necessity of nondisclosure of investigation secrets by citizens, and the security of the…

  12. Combined model of 9x9 playfair and RSA for securing confidential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Combined model of 9x9 playfair and RSA for securing confidential information. Y.B. Zakariyau, L.J. Muhammad, A.M. Usman, A Garba. Abstract. No Abstract. Keywords: Cryptography, RSA, Playfair Cipher, Public and Secret Key. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  13. Data-protection standards and confidentiality of HIV/AIDS status in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, the article presents a preliminary assessment of the possible impact of professionalisation (and outsourcing) of workplace HIV/AIDS management on ... the development of law governing data protection and HIV/AIDS confidentiality in South Africa) and interviews conducted with workplace health managers and trade ...

  14. 19 CFR 201.19 - Notification regarding requests for confidential business information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... business information. 201.19 Section 201.19 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION Availability of Information to the Public Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552 § 201.19 Notification regarding requests for confidential business information. (a) In general. Business...

  15. 21 CFR 720.8 - Confidentiality of statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the ingredient is known outside petitioner's business; (2) The extent to which the identity of the ingredient is known by employees and others involved in petitioner's business; (3) The extent of measures... the identity of the claimed trade secret ingredient to the petitioner and to its competitors; (5) The...

  16. Confidentiality and the employee assistance program professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistretta, E F; Inlow, L B

    1991-02-01

    During the last two decades EAPs have offered employees confidential assessment, counseling, and referral. Many occupational health nurses have taken on the role of EAP professional or function as the liaison between the EAP counselor and the employee. The occupational health nurse involved in any EAP issue must adhere to the standards of confidentiality. The federal and state laws, company policy, and professional codes of ethics regarding these clients must be clearly understood, especially related to the issue of confidentiality.

  17. Confidentiality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jacobien

    essential to the professional ethics of med- ical practitioners. ... promise-keeping and utility (or welfare). Autonomy. Autonomous beings are those that are capable of controlling their own lives.They ... private medical information is lim- ited: the ...

  18. Physicians and Insider Trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselheim, Aaron S; Sinha, Michael S; Joffe, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Although insider trading is illegal, recent high-profile cases have involved physicians and scientists who are part of corporate governance or who have access to information about clinical trials of investigational products. Insider trading occurs when a person in possession of information that might affect the share price of a company's stock uses that information to buy or sell securities--or supplies that information to others who buy or sell--when the person is expected to keep such information confidential. The input that physicians and scientists provide to business leaders can serve legitimate social functions, but insider trading threatens to undermine any positive outcomes of these relationships. We review insider-trading rules and consider approaches to securities fraud in the health care field. Given the magnitude of the potential financial rewards, the ease of concealing illegal conduct, and the absence of identifiable victims, the temptation for physicians and scientists to engage in insider trading will always be present. Minimizing the occurrence of insider trading will require robust education, strictly enforced contractual provisions, and selective prohibitions against high-risk conduct, such as participation in expert consulting networks and online physician forums, by those individuals with access to valuable inside information.

  19. 7 CFR 1280.634 - Confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidentiality. 1280.634 Section 1280.634 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... persons voting in the referendum and ballots shall be confidential and the contents of the ballots shall...

  20. 7 CFR 1206.107 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 1206.107 Section 1206.107 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... INFORMATION Referendum Procedures. § 1206.107 Confidential information. The ballots and other information or...

  1. 7 CFR 1150.278 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Confidential treatment. 1150.278 Section 1150.278 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... of Milk Producer Organizations § 1150.278 Confidential treatment. All documents and other information...

  2. 7 CFR 1207.352 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1207.352 Section 1207.352 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Reports, Books, and Records § 1207.352 Confidential treatment...

  3. 7 CFR 1205.340 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1205.340 Section 1205.340 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Cotton Research and Promotion Order Reports, Books, and Records § 1205.340 Confidential treatment. All...

  4. 7 CFR 1220.243 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1220.243 Section 1220.243 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Confidential treatment. Except as otherwise provided in the Act, financial or commercial information that is...

  5. The Confidentiality of Interlibrary Loan Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Christopher W.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses potential problems for confidentiality within interlibrary loan requests, outlines legal issues related to confidentiality, and proposes guidelines intended to protect library users' rights to privacy. Interlibrary loan documentation procedures are considered; laws and professional standards are reviewed; and the disposition of…

  6. 40 CFR 716.55 - Confidentiality claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... confidential business information, health and safety studies of any substance or mixture that has been offered for commercial distribution (including for test marketing purposes and for use in research and... because disclosure would reveal a confidential process or quantitative mixture composition should briefly...

  7. 31 CFR 9.6 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 9.6 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury EFFECTS OF IMPORTED ARTICLES ON THE NATIONAL SECURITY § 9.6 Confidential information. Information submitted in confidence which... marked “Business Confidential.” [40 FR 50717, Oct. 31, 1975] ...

  8. 15 CFR 705.6 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... EFFECT OF IMPORTED ARTICLES ON THE NATIONAL SECURITY § 705.6 Confidential information. (a) Any... the investigation that would disclose national security classified information or business... Security Classified” or “Business Confidential,” as appropriate, marked at the top of each sheet. Any...

  9. A challenge to unqualified medical confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzo, Alexander

    2018-04-01

    Medical personnel sometimes face a seeming conflict between a duty to respect patient confidentiality and a duty to warn or protect endangered third parties. The conventional answer to dilemmas of this sort is that, in certain circumstances, medical professionals have an obligation to breach confidentiality. Kenneth Kipnis has argued, however, that the conventional wisdom on the nature of medical confidentiality is mistaken. Kipnis argues that the obligation to respect patient confidentiality is unqualified or absolute, since unqualified policies can save more lives in the long run. In this paper, I identify the form of Kipnis's argument and present a challenge to it. I conclude that, as matters stand now, a qualified confidentiality policy is the more rational choice. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. 77 FR 44224 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Eastern Research Group, Incorporated

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... landfilled. The methodology used in this report is a ``top-down'' materials flow approach to estimate the..., may be claimed by industry to contain trade secrets or CBI. In accordance with the provisions of 40...

  11. Sweet secrets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jacob

    This Working Paper presents a case study of sugar smuggling along the trade corridor between Kismayu in Somalia and Nairobi in Kenya. The trading and smuggling of sugar in the Kenya – Somalia borderlands is a dangerous, lucrative, and highly political business. The paper explores the involvement ...

  12. Nuclear exports. Parliamentary control and confidentiality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    With its decision taken on 21. October 2014 (Az.: 2 BvE 5/11) the Federal Constitutional Court (BVerfG) decided during court proceedings between administrative bodies on the scope and limits of the parliamentary right of information. Even though the proceeding did not deal with nuclear exports but arm exports, foreign trade law, however, does not only designate an export licence obligation for military weapons but also for so called dual-use goods meaning goods, which can be used both for friendly as well as for military purposes. The export of these goods requires according to the so-called Dual-Use Regulation (EG) 428/2009 a licence. Annex I category 0 of the regulation (EG) 428/2009 lists a variety of nuclear materials, plants and equipment items for which this licence applies. In the same manner as arm exports, also exports of nuclear dual-use goods are being discussed in a special cabinet committee, the Federal Security Council (BSR), which shall coordinate cross-departmentally the German security and defence policy under consideration of economic interests and which categorises its results, according to the rules of procedure, as confidential. Also legally not regulated but common ''preliminary enquiries'' at the responsible Federal Ministry or rather Federal Office of Economics and Export Control by companies which plan an export and want to affirm the general approval for their export business prior to conclusion of contract take not only place for arm exports but also for nuclear dual-use goods. The decision by the Federal Constitutional Court can be applied to consultations about the authorisation of nuclear dual-use goods.

  13. Confidentiality in psychological practice: a decrepit concept?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, M; Knowles, A D

    1995-11-01

    Although the principle of confidentiality in the relationship between psychologists and client has been vaunted, and is emphasised in the Australian Psychological Society's Code of Professional Conduct (the APS code; 1994), the confidentiality of this relationship is circumscribed by the absence of legal protections, the ethical beliefs of psychologists, institutional practices, and the provisions of the APS code itself. Lack of privilege in judicial proceedings, and statutory obligations to report certain types of behaviour, mandate breaches of confidentiality in some circumstances. Ethical beliefs of psychologists may support disclosure, especially where it is believed that there is danger of serious physical harm to the client or others. Multidisciplinary teams and institutional settings require the exchange of information for optimal delivery of services. Recent amendments to the APS code may require disclosure without the client's consent when a client is believed to be suicidal. Such developments, when considered at all, are typically regarded as exceptions to a general obligation of confidentiality. However, discussion of exceptions presupposes agreement on fundamental principle: the significance of, and rationale for, confidentiality in the psychologist-client relationship. It is argued in this paper that the obligation of confidentiality has been assumed rather than vigorously analysed and empirically explored. A critical examination of this obligation is the most appropriate starting point for the rehabilitation of contemporary principles of confidentiality in the psychologist-client relationship.

  14. Trade Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Murray Gibbs

    2007-01-01

    In an otherwise insightful and thoughtful article, Sebastian Pfotenhauer (Trade Policy Is Science Policy,” Issues, Fall 2013) might better have entitled his contribution “Trade Policy Needs to Be Reconciled with Science Policy.” The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the agreements administered by the World Trade Organization, particularly the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), were adopted to promote international trade and i...

  15. Law and ethics in conflict over confidentiality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, B M; Cook, R J

    2000-09-01

    Ethical principles that require the preservation of patients' confidential information are reinforced by principles found in several areas of law, such as law on contracts, negligence, defamation and fiduciary duty. However, laws sometimes compel disclosures of medical confidences, and more often may justify or excuse disclosures. Legally contentious issues concern patients' confidences regarding possible unlawful conduct, such as pregnancy termination, and the risk of spread of HIV and other infections. This article reviews the various legal bases of the duty of confidentiality, and legal challenges to the ethical obligation of non-disclosure. It addresses the justifications and limits of exchange of patients' health information among healthcare professionals and trainees, and considers legally recognized limits of confidential duties, and the scope of legitimate disclosure. An underlying theme is how to determine whether physicians are ethically justified in employing the discretion the law sometimes affords them to breach patients' expectations of confidentiality.

  16. Audit, Accountability and Confidential Enquiries into Maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Time for Action: Audit, Accountability and Confidential Enquiries ... provision of quality maternity services. Having such a ... services are more likely to be sustained if women can find ..... Donabedian A. An introduction to quality assurance in.

  17. 我國侵害營業秘密與競業禁止違約判決之量化研究 Quantitative Analysis of the ROC Court Decisions on Trade Secret Infringements and Violation of Non-Compete Clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    洪榮宗 Oliver Hung

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available 營業秘密法生效迄今十年,其對於營業秘密的保護是否已周延?實有待觀察。又離職後競業禁止約款之相關實務運作現況為何?亦為探討營業秘密保護議題時,無法切割之問題。 本文利用司法院之系統查詢我國地方法院自1999 年8 月1 日起至2006年6 月30 日止,侵害營業秘密或違反競業禁止約款之民事判決,並以量化分析方式探討司法實務之態度。 本文之量化分析顯示:營業秘密與競業禁止訴訟之勝率均偏低;主張違反競業禁止明顯比主張侵害營業秘密來得容易;兩類訴訟之平均審理時間恐無法因應其急迫性需求;未約定違反競業禁止約款之違約賠償罰則的敗訴機率極高;競業禁止約款之五原則在法院實務上並未被遵守等。本文希望透過上開發現與確認,能期待找出改善之道。 The ROC Trade Secret Act has come into force for 10 years. However, whether it has sufficiently protected the trade secrets remains unanswered. In addition, the current operation and practice of “Non-Compete Clauses after Employment Relationship” are also important issues while discussing the trade secrets issues. Through the database of the ROC Judicial Yuan, we reviewed all the cases in the ROC district courts in connection with infringements on trade secrets and breach of non-compete clauses from August 1, 1999 to June 30, 2006 and conducted quantitative analysis of the courts’ opinions in this regard. The results of our quantitative analysis show that: 1. most of the decisions related to trade secret infringements and breach of non-compete clauses are in favor of defendants; 2. it is easier to claim violation of the non-compete clauses than infringements on trade secrets; 3. the trial period is too long to protect the plaintiffs given that the time is of essence; 4. it is quite probable that plaintiffs will lose the lawsuits if no penalty clause for

  18. Secret Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Kerry

    1997-01-01

    Argues that children are as deep as the ocean, with secret places inside of them waiting to be opened. Notes that it is powerful for students to learn they can make sense of the world through words, and describes inviting them into poetry as they read poetry, create poetry packets, and write and revise poems. (SR)

  19. Permit trading and credit trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan-Tjeerd; R. Dijstra, Bouwe

    This paper compares emissions trading based on a cap on total emissions (permit trading) and on relative standards per unit of output (credit trading). Two types of market structure are considered: perfect competition and Cournot oligopoly. We find that output, abatement costs and the number...... of firms are higher under credit trading. Allowing trade between permit-trading and credit-trading sectors may increase in welfare. With perfect competition, permit trading always leads to higher welfare than credit trading. With imperfect competition, credit trading may outperform permit trading....... Environmental policy can lead to exit, but also to entry of firms. Entry and exit have a profound impact on the performance of the schemes, especially under imperfect competition. We find that it may be impossible to implement certain levels of total industry emissions. Under credit trading several levels...

  20. Doctor-patient confidentiality - right and duty of a doctor in law regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Jaroszyński

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Physician’s professional secrecy is one of the most important duties of a doctor and should be provided with confidentiality regarding his or her health. Generally speaking, there is no legal definition of "physician’s professional secrecy" in Poland, although this concept already appears in the oath of Hippocrates: ‘I will keep secret anything I see or hear professionally which ought not to be told’. The issue of medical confidentiality (physician’s professional secrecy has been regulated in several legal acts such as: The Patient Rights and Patients Ombudsman Act, The Constitution of the Republic of Poland, The Medical Profession Act, The Civil Code Act, The Criminal Code Act and Code of Medical Ethics which is not considered as a legal act. The patient has the right to require confidentiality of the information concerning him and the obligation to keep medical confidentiality will apply to every representative of the medical profession, who obtained certain information by various professional activities.

  1. Confidential benchmarking based on multiparty computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Damgård, Kasper Lyneborg; Nielsen, Kurt

    We report on the design and implementation of a system that uses multiparty computation to enable banks to benchmark their customers' confidential performance data against a large representative set of confidential performance data from a consultancy house. The system ensures that both the banks......' and the consultancy house's data stays confidential, the banks as clients learn nothing but the computed benchmarking score. In the concrete business application, the developed prototype help Danish banks to find the most efficient customers among a large and challenging group of agricultural customers with too much...... debt. We propose a model based on linear programming for doing the benchmarking and implement it using the SPDZ protocol by Damgård et al., which we modify using a new idea that allows clients to supply data and get output without having to participate in the preprocessing phase and without keeping...

  2. Secret Sharing of a Quantum State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, He; Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Luo-Kan; Li, Zheng-Da; Liu, Chang; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Ma, Xiongfeng; Chen, Yu-Ao; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-07-15

    Secret sharing of a quantum state, or quantum secret sharing, in which a dealer wants to share a certain amount of quantum information with a few players, has wide applications in quantum information. The critical criterion in a threshold secret sharing scheme is confidentiality: with less than the designated number of players, no information can be recovered. Furthermore, in a quantum scenario, one additional critical criterion exists: the capability of sharing entangled and unknown quantum information. Here, by employing a six-photon entangled state, we demonstrate a quantum threshold scheme, where the shared quantum secrecy can be efficiently reconstructed with a state fidelity as high as 93%. By observing that any one or two parties cannot recover the secrecy, we show that our scheme meets the confidentiality criterion. Meanwhile, we also demonstrate that entangled quantum information can be shared and recovered via our setting, which shows that our implemented scheme is fully quantum. Moreover, our experimental setup can be treated as a decoding circuit of the five-qubit quantum error-correcting code with two erasure errors.

  3. 7 CFR 1210.607 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 1210.607 Section 1210.607 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... contents and all other information or reports furnished to, compiled by, or in possession of, the...

  4. 7 CFR 1210.352 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1210.352 Section 1210.352 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... treatment. (a) All information obtained from the books, records, or reports required to be maintained under...

  5. ML Confidential : machine learning on encrypted data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graepel, T.; Lauter, K.; Naehrig, M.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate that by using a recently proposed somewhat homomorphic encryption (SHE) scheme it is possible to delegate the execution of a machine learning (ML) algorithm to a compute service while retaining confidentiality of the training and test data. Since the computational complexity of the

  6. 7 CFR 1150.173 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... reports of the number of persons subject to this subpart or statistical data collected therefrom, which... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Confidential treatment. 1150.173 Section 1150.173 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing...

  7. 7 CFR 1221.127 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... statistical data collected there from, which statements do not identify the information furnished by any... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1221.127 Section 1221.127 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING...

  8. 7 CFR 1160.403 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... statistical data collected from such sources, which statements do not identify the information furnished by... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Confidential treatment. 1160.403 Section 1160.403 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing...

  9. 7 CFR 1250.354 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... subject to this subpart or statistical data collected therefrom, which statements do not identify the... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1250.354 Section 1250.354 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING...

  10. 7 CFR 1212.72 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... statements based upon the reports of the number of persons subject to this subpart or statistical data... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1212.72 Section 1212.72 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING...

  11. 7 CFR 1260.203 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of persons subject to this subpart or statistical data collected therefrom, which statements do not... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1260.203 Section 1260.203 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING...

  12. 7 CFR 1216.62 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... this subpart or statistical data collected therefrom, which statements do not identify the information... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1216.62 Section 1216.62 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING...

  13. 7 CFR 1209.62 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... this subpart or statistical data collected therefrom, which statements do not identify the information... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1209.62 Section 1209.62 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING...

  14. 7 CFR 1206.62 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... statements based upon the reports of the number of persons subject to this subpart or statistical data... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1206.62 Section 1206.62 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING...

  15. 7 CFR 1218.62 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the number of persons subject to this subpart or statistical data collected therefrom, which... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1218.62 Section 1218.62 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING...

  16. 7 CFR 1215.62 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... persons subject to this part or statistical data collected therefrom, which statements do not identify the... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1215.62 Section 1215.62 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING...

  17. 7 CFR 1219.63 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... upon the reports of the number of persons subject to this subpart or statistical data collected from... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1219.63 Section 1219.63 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING...

  18. 7 CFR 1280.227 - Confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... statistical data collected therefrom, which statements do not identify the information furnished by any person... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidentiality. 1280.227 Section 1280.227 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING...

  19. 18 CFR 270.506 - Confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Confidentiality. 270.506 Section 270.506 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION...) through (9) of 5 U.S.C. 552(b). (b) Upon receipt of a request for disclosure of information treated as...

  20. 21 CFR 821.55 - Confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... permission to release, the patient's name, address, telephone number, and social security number, or other... MEDICAL DEVICE TRACKING REQUIREMENTS Records and Inspections § 821.55 Confidentiality. (a) Any patient... identify patient or research subjects shall not be available for public disclosure except as provided in...

  1. 7 CFR 900.309 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Conduct of Referenda To Determine Producer Approval of Milk Marketing Orders To Be Made Effective Pursuant to Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as Amended § 900.309 Confidential information. The... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing...

  2. 7 CFR 929.65 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 929.65 Section 929.65 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... position, financial condition, or business operations of the particular handler from whom received, shall...

  3. Confidentiality of Accounting Academics: Consequences of Nonconformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amponsah, Emmanuel B.; Boateng, Peter Agyekum; Onuoha, Luke N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examined ways by which nonconformity to confidentiality among accounting academics could lead to increased-recruitment-and-legal-costs to their employing universities in Ghana that offered accounting degree programmes. With a cross-sectional design, data collected from 1,225 accountants analysed via Cronbach's alpha,…

  4. 7 CFR 983.65 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 983.65 Section 983.65 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... the particular handler or their customers shall be received by, and at all times kept in the custody...

  5. 7 CFR 996.72 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 996.72 Section 996.72 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... condition, or business operations of the particular handlers or their customers shall be received by, and at...

  6. 31 CFR 129.5 - Confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confidentiality. 129.5 Section 129.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance PORTFOLIO INVESTMENT SURVEY... contain data aggregated in such a way that neither the person supplying the information nor the investor...

  7. 40 CFR 710.58 - Confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Any person submitting information under this subpart may assert a business confidentiality claim for... with reporting under this subpart? How could a competitor use such information? Would the effects of... that your competitors do not know it is being manufactured or imported for a commercial purpose by...

  8. 40 CFR 710.38 - Confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... submitting information under this part may assert a business confidentiality claim for the information. The... with reporting under this part? How could a competitor use such information? Would the effects of... that your competitors do not know it is being manufactured or imported for a commercial purpose by...

  9. 38 CFR 1.462 - Confidentiality restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Sickle Cell Anemia § 1.462 Confidentiality restrictions. (a) General. The patient records to which §§ 1..., infection with the HIV, or sickle cell anemia may be acknowledged only if the patient's written consent is... with the HIV, or sickle cell anemia. (2) Any answer to a request for a disclosure of patient records...

  10. 42 CFR 93.108 - Confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Confidentiality. 93.108 Section 93.108 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH...

  11. 22 CFR 130.15 - Confidential business information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., confidential business information means commercial or financial information which by law is entitled to... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Confidential business information. 130.15... CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.15 Confidential business information. (a) Any person who is required...

  12. Insider trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslechko, W.S.

    1998-01-01

    The policy arguments for and against prohibiting insider trading within the petroleum industry are discussed. Legal definitions of all relevant terms (e.g. 'special relationship' 'tippees', 'material facts', material changes' 'generally disclosed' information', 'necessary course of business') are provided. Enforcement of insider trading/tipping prohibitions are also defined. The recommended practice is: do not trade; do not tell or advise; encourage timely disclosure; do not speculate; implement a corporate disclosure and trading policy

  13. 77 FR 33630 - Residency Requirements for Aliens Acquiring Firearms (2011R-23P)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... material that is confidential under law (e.g., trade secrets, processes, etc.). Any portion of a comment... shall be prominently marked ``confidential'' at the top of each page. Confidential information will be...

  14. 75 FR 56489 - Separation Distances of Ammonium Nitrate and Blasting Agents From Explosives or Blasting Agents...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... comment that contains material that is confidential under law (e.g., trade secrets, processes, etc.). Any... of the comment and shall be prominently marked ``confidential'' at the top of each page. Confidential...

  15. 77 FR 5460 - Federal Firearms License Proceedings-Hearings (2008R-15P)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... material that is confidential under law (e.g., trade secrets, processes, etc.). Any portion of a comment... shall be prominently marked ``confidential'' at the top of each page. Confidential information will be...

  16. Energy trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glachant, J.M.; Kimman, R.; Schweickardt, H.E.

    2001-05-01

    This document brings together 18 testimonies of experts about energy trading: 1 - the energy trading experience on European deregulated markets: structure of deregulated energy markets in Europe, case study: a two years experience of a power exchange in western Europe, case study: European energy exchanges (experience of spot and future trading), case study: risk management on energy deregulated markets; 2 - the trading activity environment and realities in France: the French electrical law and the purchase for resale, experience feedback: status after 3 months of trading in France (the first experience of a French producer), the access to the power transportation network, which legal constraints for trading in France, the access of eligible clients to the French power market, conditions of implementation of a power exchange market in France, which real trading possibilities in France for producers and self-producers in the legal frame, case study: the role of trading in the company (main part or link to process), convergence of gas and electricity markets, gas-electricity trading: which pricing models; 3 - risk management and use of new technologies potentiality, the results outside the French borders: case study: what differences between the European and US markets, prices volatility and commodity risk management: towards the on-line trading, role and developments of E-business in energy trading, how to simplify trade in a liberalized market. (J.S.)

  17. 美國聯邦經濟間諜法之回顧與展望──兼論我國營業秘密法之刑罰化 Reviewing the U.S. Economic Espionage Act—With the Extending Comments on the 2013 Amendment of Taiwan’s Trade Secret Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    林志潔 Carol Chih-Chieh Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available 科技、經濟、國家安全,看似不相關的三個名詞,因營業秘密的存在而牢牢相扣。美國自1996 年起以聯邦層級的經濟間諜法來保護營業秘密,對於侵害營業秘密者課予刑事責任,並明確區分竊取營業秘密行為及經濟間諜行為,以嚇阻企業競爭對手竊取營業秘密,防止國家經濟、安全受到危害。然而,美國聯邦經濟間諜法施行至今已十九年,關於經濟間諜罪的案件,經法院判決確定有罪者卻為數不多,本文擬分析經濟間諜法實務上施行之困境,並提出改革建議。又,我國營業秘密法於2013 年增訂刑事規範第13 條之1至第13 條之4,主要參考自經濟間諜法,為分析比較,本文亦將一併檢討我國營業秘密法刑罰化後之問題。 “Technology, economic and national security,” these three words seem to be irrelevant on the surface; however, they are tightly bounded by the existence of the word—trade secret. The federal government of the U.S. passed the Economic Espionage Act in 1996 in an attempt to create a “comprehensive and systematic” approach to address trade secrecy misappropriation, drawing a clear line between economic espionage and theft of trade secrets through federal criminal justice system. It is established to prevent trade rivals from stealing other business’s most precious property—trade secret, and to protect the national economy, security from any harm. While the Economic Espionage Act has been implemented for 19 years, there are only few cases brought in a verdict of guilty, which seemingly contradicts to the legislative purposes. Therefore, this article aims to analyze the predicamentof the Act, and to give constructive propositions. Furthermore, the Trade Secret Act in Taiwan was revised in 2013. It mainly referred to the Economic Espionage, adding article 13-1 to 13-4. In order to compare and assay, this article will also probe into

  18. Safeguarding Confidentiality in Electronic Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Akhil; Appel, Jacob M

    2017-04-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) offer significant advantages over paper charts, such as ease of portability, facilitated communication, and a decreased risk of medical errors; however, important ethical concerns related to patient confidentiality remain. Although legal protections have been implemented, in practice, EHRs may be still prone to breaches that threaten patient privacy. Potential safeguards are essential, and have been implemented especially in sensitive areas such as mental illness, substance abuse, and sexual health. Features of one institutional model are described that may illustrate the efforts to both ensure adequate transparency and ensure patient confidentiality. Trust and the therapeutic alliance are critical to the provider-patient relationship and quality healthcare services. All of the benefits of an EHR are only possible if patients retain confidence in the security and accuracy of their medical records.

  19. A novel secret image sharing scheme based on chaotic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Abd El-Latif, Ahmed A.; Wang, Chuanjun; Li, Qiong; Niu, Xiamu

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a new secret image sharing scheme based on chaotic system and Shamir's method. The new scheme protects the shadow images with confidentiality and loss-tolerance simultaneously. In the new scheme, we generate the key sequence based on chaotic system and then encrypt the original image during the sharing phase. Experimental results and analysis of the proposed scheme demonstrate a better performance than other schemes and confirm a high probability to resist brute force attack.

  20. Improved Message Authentication and Confidentiality Checking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail Jabiullah, M.; Abdullah Al-Shamim, M.; Lutfar Rahman, M.

    2005-01-01

    The most confusing areas of the secured network communications are the message authentication and confidentiality checking. The attacks and the counter measures have become so convoluted that the users in this area begin to account for all contingencies. Two session-key generation techniques are used here to generate two separate session keys K 1 and K 2 ; and both the sender and the reveiver share these keys for higher degree of authentication and confidentiality. For this, the message is first encrypted by the key K 1 , and then the intermediary message authenticatin code (MAC) is generated by encrypting the encrypted message using the key K 2 . Then, the encrypted message and the intermediary MAC is again encrypted by using the K 2 and concatenated with the encrypted message and sent to the destination. At the receiving end, first, the received ciphertext is encrypted by using key K 2 and compared to the received MAC. The received ciphertext again is decrypted by the key K 2 and compared with the first decrypted MAC twice by the key K 2 . The plaintext is obtained by decrypting the received ciphertext first by K 2 and then by K 1 , using the corresponding decryption techniques respectively. The encryption techniques with key K 2 provides the authentication and with key K 1 provides the confidentiality checking of the transmitted message. The developed technique can be applied to both academic and commercial applications in online or offline electronic transactions for security.(authors)

  1. Practical State Machine Replication with Confidentiality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Sisi [ORNL; Zhang, Haibin [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

    2016-01-01

    We study how to enable arbitrary randomized algorithms in Byzantine fault-tolerant (BFT) settings. We formalize a randomized BFT protocol and provide a simple and efficient construction that can be built on any existing BFT protocols while adding practically no overhead. We go one step further to revisit a confidential BFT protocol (Yin et al., SOSP '03). We show that their scheme is potentially susceptible to safety and confidentiality attacks. We then present a new protocol that is secure in the stronger model we formalize, by extending the idea of a randomized BFT protocol. Our protocol uses only efficient symmetric cryptography, while Yin et al.'s uses costly threshold signatures. We implemented and evaluated our protocols on microbenchmarks and real-world use cases. We show that our randomized BFT protocol is as efficient as conventional BFT protocols, and our confidential BFT protocol is two to three orders of magnitude faster than Yin et al.'s, which is less secure than ours.

  2. Access control and confidentiality in radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noumeir, Rita; Chafik, Adil

    2005-04-01

    A medical record contains a large amount of data about the patient such as height, weight and blood pressure. It also contains sensitive information such as fertility, abortion, psychiatric data, sexually transmitted diseases and diagnostic results. Access to this information must be carefully controlled. Information technology has greatly improved patient care. The recent extensive deployment of digital medical images made diagnostic images promptly available to healthcare decision makers, regardless of their geographic location. Medical images are digitally archived, transferred on telecommunication networks, and visualized on computer screens. However, with the widespread use of computing and communication technologies in healthcare, the issue of data security has become increasingly important. Most of the work until now has focused on the security of data communication to ensure its integrity, authentication, confidentiality and user accountability. The mechanisms that have been proposed to achieve the security of data communication are not specific to healthcare. Data integrity can be achieved with data signature. Data authentication can be achieved with certificate exchange. Data confidentiality can be achieved with encryption. User accountability can be achieved with audits. Although these mechanisms are essential to ensure data security during its transfer on the network, access control is needed in order to ensure data confidentiality and privacy within the information system application. In this paper, we present and discuss an access control mechanism that takes into account the notion of a care process. Radiology information is categorized and a model to enforce data privacy is proposed.

  3. Energy trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmann, K.; Schroeter, S.

    2009-01-01

    Two brief articles and two interviews deal with the subject of energy trading. Power and gas exchanges in Europe multiply, but, experts say, we are nowhere near a mature, integrated European energy market as yet. Trading regulations need to be improved and harmonised and interconnections expanded. European Energy Review assesses the state of energy trading in Europe and interviews the ceo's of NordPool (the Nordic power exchange) and APX (Amsterdam Power Exchange)

  4. The Secret Driving Force Behind Mongolia’s Successful Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    the nation’s democracy movement its earliest stages. Courtesy of the Democratic Union of Mongolia PRISM 6, no. 1 FROM THE FIELD | 141 The Secret Driving...assistance and trade. Our state budget PRISM 6, no. 1 FROM THE FIELD | 143 THE SECRET DRIVING FORCE BEHIND MONGOLIA’S SUCCESSFUL DEMOCRACY collapsed; we...O yungerel Tsedevdam ba (2006) PRISM 6, no. 1 FROM THE FIELD | 145 THE SECRET DRIVING FORCE BEHIND MONGOLIA’S SUCCESSFUL DEMOCRACY significantly as

  5. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  6. 78 FR 16694 - Chemical Security Assessment Tool (CSAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... information provided. Comments that include trade secrets, confidential commercial or financial information... secrets, confidential commercial or financial information, CVI, SSI, or PCII should be appropriately... Department make the instruments (e.g., Top-Screen, Security Vulnerability Assessment [SVA]/ Alternative...

  7. Emissions Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Backhaus, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Emissions trading is a market-based instrument to achieve environmental targets in a cost-effective way by allowing legal entities to buy and sell emission rights. The current international dissemination and intended linking of emissions trading schemes underlines the growing relevance of this

  8. Organ Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.E. Ambagtsheer (Frederike)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractOrgan trade constitutes the sale and purchase of organs for financial or material gain. Although prohibited since the 1980s, an increasing number of reports indicate its proliferation across the globe. Yet, many knowledge gaps exist on organ trade, in particular on the demand -and

  9. 13 CFR 120.1060 - Confidentiality of Reports, Risk Ratings and related Confidential Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... other than SBA's Lender oversight and SBA's portfolio management purposes. An SBA Lender, Intermediary... conjunction with SBA's Lender Oversight Program and SBA's portfolio management (for purposes of this... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidentiality of Reports, Risk...

  10. Jana: Confidential Communications on Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-09

    consuming phone resources and privacy leakage ?” We address this challenge via an extensive user study. Next, we ask “How can we detect background apps...not support secret group communications. Furthermore, access to such social networks via mobile platforms raises a series of concerns like leakage of...not support secret group communications. Furthermore, access to such social networks via mobile platforms raises a series of concerns like leakage of

  11. Privacy, confidentiality and automated health information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuori, H

    1977-12-01

    Professor Vuori's paper, first presented at the fourth Medico-legal Conference in Prague in the spring of this year, deals with the problem of the maintenance of confidentiality in computerized health records. Although more and more information is required, the hardware of the computer systems is so sophisticated that it would be very expensive indeed to 'break in' and steal from a modern data bank. Those concerned with programming computers are becoming more aware of their responsibilities concerning confidentiality and privacy, to the extent that a legal code of ethics for programmers is being formulated. They are also aware that the most sensitive of all relationships--the doctor-patient relationship--could be in danger if they failed to maintain high standards of integrity. An area of danger is where administrative boundaries between systems must be crossed--say between those of health and employment. Protection of privacy must be ensured by releasing full information about the type of data being stored, and by maintaining democratic control over the establishment of information systems.

  12. Ombuds’ corner: Open door and confidentiality

    CERN Multimedia

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2013-01-01

    For the Open Days, CERN will be transparent for all visitors. It's also the occasion to remember that the Ombuds' door is fully open every day of the year for all persons working for or on behalf of CERN.   The door is open, but as soon as it's closed for a discussion, the office becomes a place where total confidentiality is preserved. This may appear as a contradiction, no? The Ombuds is available to help everyone in all circumstances, but his clause of confidentiality prevents him from acting without the consent of his “visitors”. How can he possibly resolve the in-house conflicts in groups, or units, if all the parties do not voluntarily participate in its resolution? The answer is clear: the job of the Ombuds is to help the parties resolve their conflict by themselves. He will provide a few rules of communication, a process of mutual respect, suggest some possibilities that the parties may want to follow, and mediate the dispute so that people...

  13. Confidential Declaration of Family Situation (CDFS)

    CERN Document Server

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    The Confidential Declaration of Family Situation (CDFS) becomes a new computerized EDH form from October 2005 In accordance with Article R IV 1.17 of the Staff Regulations, Staff Members and Fellows, married or separated, must notify any changes in their spouse's income or health insurance cover in writing to CERN, within 30 calendar days of the change. This is necessary for the Organization to determine if a supplementary contribution is payable to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) for the spouse's coverage and, if so, the amount. Until now a paper form called « Confidential Declaration of Family Situation » (CDFS) was used for that purpose.  From early October 2005 the CDFS will be computerized for the whole Organization. Henceforth, any changes in a spouse's income or health insurance cover must be notified using EDH (Electronic Document Handling). Additionally, annual updates of the declaration will be required and will be requested by automatic e-mail. Early October an email will be sent to...

  14. Confidential Declaration of Family Situation (CDFS)

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    The Confidential Declaration of Family Situation (CDFS) becomes a new computerized EDH form from October 2005 In accordance with Article R IV 1.17 of the Staff Regulations, Staff Members and Fellows, married or separated, must notify any changes in their spouse's income or health insurance cover in writing to CERN, within 30 calendar days of the change. This is necessary for the Organization to determine if a supplementary contribution is payable to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) for the spouse's coverage and, if so, the amount. Until now a paper form called « Confidential Declaration of Family Situation » (CDFS) was used for that purpose.  From early October 2005 the CDFS will be computerized for the whole Organization. Henceforth, any changes in a spouse's income or health insurance cover must be notified using EDH (Electronic Document Handling). Additionally, annual updates of the declaration will be required and will be requested by automatic e-mail. Early October an email will be...

  15. Foreign Trade

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Foreign Trade database has monthly volume and value information for US imports, exports, and re-exports of fishery or fishery derived products. Data is...

  16. 7 CFR 985.63 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE... trade position, financial condition, or business operations of the particular handler from whom received...

  17. 12 CFR 563g.13 - Public disclosure and confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public disclosure and confidential treatment. 563g.13 Section 563g.13 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERINGS § 563g.13 Public disclosure and confidential treatment. (a) Any offering circular...

  18. 7 CFR 1205.540 - Confidential books, records, and reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential books, records, and reports. 1205.540 Section 1205.540 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... Confidential books, records, and reports. All information obtained from the books, records, and reports of...

  19. Client confidentiality: Perspectives of students in a healthcare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This moral dilemma is difficult for students to circumvent and therefore this paper presents healthcare students' perspectives of confidentiality. Methods. We aimed to explore healthcare students' views and experiences of confidentiality as an ethical principle by adopting a qualitative explorative approach. Purposeful ...

  20. Library Records: A Review of Confidentiality Laws and Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Million, Angela C.; Fisher, Kim N.

    1986-01-01

    Cites the importance of having a state law, knowing what it says, and having a library policy statement regarding the confidentiality of patron records. Discussion covers writing and implementing a policy, the role of automation, existing laws, library records defined, exceptions to confidentiality, and legal liability. Thirty-seven references are…

  1. 29 CFR 4010.13 - Confidentiality of information submitted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS ANNUAL FINANCIAL AND ACTUARIAL INFORMATION REPORTING § 4010.13 Confidentiality of information submitted. In accordance with § 4901.21(a)(3) of this chapter and ERISA section... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confidentiality of information submitted. 4010.13 Section...

  2. 20 CFR 726.113 - Disclosure of confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... MINE OPERATOR'S INSURANCE Authorization of Self-Insurers § 726.113 Disclosure of confidential... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disclosure of confidential information. 726... authorized self-insurer or applicant for the authorization of self-insurance obtained by the Office shall be...

  3. 75 FR 75586 - Confidentiality of Suspicious Activity Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ...] RIN 1550-AC26 Confidentiality of Suspicious Activity Reports AGENCY: The Office of Thrift Supervision... implementing the Bank Secrecy Act (BSA) governing the confidentiality of a suspicious activity report (SAR) to... corporations regulated by the OTS, to keep certain records and make certain reports that have been determined...

  4. Confidentiality: From the Stacks to the Witness Stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Janis M.; Smith, G. Guy

    1988-01-01

    A library director describes her experience of safeguarding the confidentiality of the circulation records of a woman who went on a shooting rampage at a shopping mall. The lawyer who represented the library discusses the legal responsibility of public and school libraries concerning confidentiality. (CLB)

  5. 50 CFR 600.130 - Protection of confidentiality of statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... statistics. 600.130 Section 600.130 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... Fishery Management Councils § 600.130 Protection of confidentiality of statistics. Each Council must establish appropriate procedures for ensuring the confidentiality of the statistics that may be submitted to...

  6. 42 CFR 35.11 - Clinical records; confidential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT General § 35.11 Clinical records; confidential. A complete clinical record shall be maintained for each patient admitted to a station or hospital of the Service. Such... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clinical records; confidential. 35.11 Section 35.11...

  7. Transparency and secrets in the nuclear sector: report and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Based on several meetings, hearings of many actors involved in matters of transparency and secrets concerning the nuclear activity, and visits of ships carrying nuclear materials, this report aims at examining and analysing means to reconcile the transparency of nuclear information intended for the public with the confidentiality essential to transport security or nuclear activities. The authors also aim at a better understanding of these both notions of transparency and secret with respect to a legal and regulatory framework. In the following part of this report, the authors analyse recommendations which have been made in the past, and their consequences. They discuss possible appeal ways in front of a refusal to issue nuclear information because it is classified as secret. Remaining difficulties are identified as well as ways to overcome them

  8. Immunoglobins in mammary secretions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurley, W L; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2013-01-01

    Immunoglobulins secreted in colostrum and milk by the lactating mammal are major factors providing immune protection to the newborn. Immunoglobulins in mammary secretions represent the cumulative immune response of the lactating animal to exposure to antigenic stimulation that occurs through...... the immunoglobulins found in mammary secretions in the context of their diversity of structure, origin, mechanisms of transfer, and function....

  9. Data-protection standards and confidentiality of HIV/AIDS status in the workplace - a South African case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskat-Gorska, Zuzanna

    2008-11-01

    The article contextualises an emerging new regime for information privacy in South Africa (i.e. the draft Protection of Personal Information Bill). Subsequently, it discusses the possibility of successful implementation of international data-protection standards in an environment where there is an urgent need to balance HIV/AIDS confidentiality rights with public health requirements. Also, the article presents a preliminary assessment of the possible impact of professionalisation (and outsourcing) of workplace HIV/AIDS management on workplace data-protection practices, and it identifies some spaces for social dialogue on HIV/AIDS-data treatment in South Africa. The study methods comprise an analysis of legal documents (concerning international data-protection standards and the development of law governing data protection and HIV/AIDS confidentiality in South Africa) and interviews conducted with workplace health managers and trade union representatives, in Johannesburg, in 2007.

  10. Physician Knowledge and Attitudes around Confidential Care for Minor Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Margaret; Ahmed, Sana; Reed, Barbara D; Quint, Elisabeth H

    2015-08-01

    Minor adolescent patients have a legal right to access certain medical services confidentially without parental consent or notification. We sought to assess physicians' knowledge of these laws, attitudes around the provision of confidential care to minors, and barriers to providing confidential care. An anonymous online survey was sent to physicians in the Departments of Family Medicine, Internal Medicine-Pediatrics, Obstetrics/Gynecology, and Pediatrics at the University of Michigan. Response rate was 40% (259/650). The majority of physicians felt comfortable addressing sexual health, mental health, and substance use with adolescent patients. On average, physicians answered just over half of the legal knowledge questions correctly (mean 56.6% ± 16.7%). The majority of physicians approved of laws allowing minors to consent for confidential care (90.8% ± 1.7% approval), while substantially fewer (45.1% ± 4.5%) approved of laws allowing parental notification of this care at the physician's discretion. Most physicians agreed that assured access to confidential care should be a right for adolescents. After taking the survey most physicians (76.6%) felt they needed additional training on confidentiality laws. The provision of confidential care to minors was perceived to be most inhibited by insurance issues, parental concerns/relationships with the family, and issues with the electronic medical record. Physicians are comfortable discussing sensitive issues with adolescents and generally approve of minor consent laws, but lack knowledge about what services a minor can access confidentially. Further research is needed to assess best methods to educate physicians about minors' legal rights to confidential healthcare services. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 40 CFR 350.7 - Substantiating claims of trade secrecy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... publications or other information sources available to the public or your competitors (of which you are aware... of the chemical claimed as trade secret and explain why it is a secret of interest to competitors... competitors could deduce this use from disclosure of the chemical identity together with other information on...

  12. Protecting Privacy and Confidentiality in Environmental Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B

    2010-01-01

    Environmental health researchers often need to make difficult decisions on how to protect privacy and confidentiality when they conduct research in the home or workplace. These dilemmas are different from those normally encountered in clinical research. Although protecting privacy and confidentiality is one of the most important principles of research involving human subjects, it can be overridden to prevent imminent harm to individuals or if required by law. Investigators should carefully consider the facts and circumstances and use good judgment when deciding whether to breach privacy or confidentiality.

  13. Gravity Models of Trade-Based Money Laundering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferwerda, Joras|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314405526; Kattenberg, Marc|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357208986; Chang, Han-Hsin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357209370; Unger, Brigitte|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290994926; Groot, Loek|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073642398; Bikker, Jaap|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06912261X

    Several attempts have been made in the economics literature to measure money laundering. However, the adequacy of these models is difficult to assess, as money laundering takes place secretly and, hence, goes unobserved. An exception is trade-based money laundering (TBML), a special form of trade

  14. Ethics in health care: confidentiality and information technologies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    information could result in confidential patient data falling ... Before the advent of the new communication and information technologies (NCITs), patient care was sometimes delayed .... computer system intended to be used and the security.

  15. Novel approach to information security management of confidential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Novel approach to information security management of confidential and propriety information ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... valuable information by using steganography it can have a major impact security management.

  16. Privacy Perspectives for Online Searchers: Confidentiality with Confidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duberman, Josh; Beaudet, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Presents issues and questions involved in online privacy from the information professional's perspective. Topics include consumer concerns; query confidentiality; securing computers from intrusion; electronic mail; search engines; patents and intellectual property searches; government's role; Internet service providers; database mining; user…

  17. 7 CFR 983.9 - Confidential data or information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential data or information. 983.9 Section 983.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... customers. ...

  18. 40 CFR 86.615-84 - Treatment of confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Selective Enforcement Auditing of New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86... part 2, subpart B. (b) Any claim of confidentiality must accompany the information at the time it is...

  19. Building Trust and Confidentiality in Cloud computing Distributed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    new technology, this new way of doing business brings with it new challenges, ... In this paper, we looked at data security, described the current state of data ... has the potential to solve many threats concerning confidentiality and adoption of

  20. Confidentiality, disclosure and doping in sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, M; Phillips, N

    2011-03-01

    The manner in which healthcare and medical professionals serve their athlete patients is governed by a variety of relevant codes of conduct. A range of codified rules is presented that refer both the welfare of the patient and the maintaining of confidentiality, which is at the heart of trustworthy relations. The 2009 version of the World Anti-Doping Code (WADC), however, appears to oblige all healthcare professionals not to assist athletes if they are known to be engaged in doping behaviours under fear of removal from working with athletes from the respective sports. In contrast, serving the best interests of their athlete patients may oblige healthcare professionals to give advice and guidance, not least in terms of harm minimisation. In so far as the professional conduct of a healthcare professional is guided both by professional code and World Anti-Doping Code, they are obliged to fall foul of one or the other. We call for urgent and pressing inter-professional dialogue with the World Anti-Doping Agency to clarify this situation.

  1. Security without obscurity a guide to confidentiality, authentication, and integrity

    CERN Document Server

    Stapleton, JJ

    2014-01-01

    The traditional view of information security includes the three cornerstones: confidentiality, integrity, and availability; however the author asserts authentication is the third keystone. As the field continues to grow in complexity, novices and professionals need a reliable reference that clearly outlines the essentials. Security without Obscurity: A Guide to Confidentiality, Authentication, and Integrity fills this need. Rather than focusing on compliance or policies and procedures, this book takes a top-down approach. It shares the author's knowledge, insights, and observations about infor

  2. Analysis of LYSA-calculus with explicit confidentiality annotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Han; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2006-01-01

    Recently there has been an increased research interest in applying process calculi in the verification of cryptographic protocols due to their ability to formally model protocols. This work presents LYSA with explicit confidentiality annotations for indicating the expected behavior of target...... malicious activities performed by attackers as specified by the confidentiality annotations. The proposed analysis approach is fully automatic without the need of human intervention and has been applied successfully to a number of protocols....

  3. Protecting confidentiality rights: the need for an ethical practice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Mary Alice

    2008-01-01

    All psychologists must uphold the same ethical standards about confidentiality even though each state imposes different legal limits on their ability to protect clients' confidences. The resulting ethical-legal confusion is exacerbated by legally based confidentiality training that treats legal exceptions as if they were the rule and fosters the impression that attorneys are now the only real experts about this aspect of practice. This article provides an ethics-based confidentiality practice model that clarifies the ethical rule and puts its legal exceptions into ethical perspective. Like the Confidentiality section of the American Psychological Association's (2002) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, this outline would apply to all psychologists regardless of state laws, but the details of its implementation would vary according to role and setting. It can be used as a universal training outline, a consultation and supervision tool, a guide to professional practice, and a basis for clearer ongoing conversation about the ethics of "conditional confidentiality." Psychologists can use this practice model to regain their status as experts about the confidentiality ethics of their own profession. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Probabilistic Infinite Secret Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Csirmaz, László

    2013-01-01

    The study of probabilistic secret sharing schemes using arbitrary probability spaces and possibly infinite number of participants lets us investigate abstract properties of such schemes. It highlights important properties, explains why certain definitions work better than others, connects this topic to other branches of mathematics, and might yield new design paradigms. A probabilistic secret sharing scheme is a joint probability distribution of the shares and the secret together with a colle...

  5. Authentication Without Secrets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, Lyndon G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robertson, Perry J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This work examines a new approach to authentication, which is the most fundamental security primitive that underpins all cyber security protections. Current Internet authentication techniques require the protection of one or more secret keys along with the integrity protection of the algorithms/computations designed to prove possession of the secret without actually revealing it. Protecting a secret requires physical barriers or encryption with yet another secret key. The reason to strive for "Authentication without Secret Keys" is that protecting secrets (even small ones only kept in a small corner of a component or device) is much harder than protecting the integrity of information that is not secret. Promising methods are examined for authentication of components, data, programs, network transactions, and/or individuals. The successful development of authentication without secret keys will enable far more tractable system security engineering for high exposure, high consequence systems by eliminating the need for brittle protection mechanisms to protect secret keys (such as are now protected in smart cards, etc.). This paper is a re-release of SAND2009-7032 with new figures numerous edits.

  6. Confidential donation confirmation as an alternative to confidential unit exclusion: 15 months experience of the HEMOMINAS foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Cristine Martineli Loureiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Confidential unit exclusion remains a controversial strategy to reduce the residual risk of transfusion-transmitted infections. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze confidential unit exclusion from its development in a large institution in light of confidential donation confirmation. METHODS: Data of individuals who donated from October 1, 2008 to December 31, 2009 were analyzed in a case-control study. The serological results and sociodemographic characteristics of donors who did not confirm their donations were compared to those who did. Variables with p-values < 0.20 in univariate analysis were included in a logistic multivariate analysis. RESULTS: In the univariate analysis there was a statically significant association between positive serological results and response to confidential donation confirmation of "No". Donation type, (firsttime or return donor - OR 1.69, CI 1.37-2.09, gender (OR 1.66, CI 1.35-2.04, education level (OR 2.82, CI 2.30-3.47 and ethnic background (OR 0.67, CI 0.55-0.82 were included in the final logistic regression model. In all logistic regression models analyzed, the serological suitability and confidential donation confirmation were not found to be statistically associated. The adoption of new measures of clinical classification such as audiovisual touch-screen computer-assisted self-administered interviews might be more effective than confidential unit exclusion in the identification of donor risk behavior. The requirement that transfusion services continue to use confidential unit exclusion needs to be debated in countries where more specific and sensitive clinical and serological screening methods are available. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that there are not enough benefits to justify continued use of confidential donation confirmation in the analyzed institution.

  7. Evaluation in a competitive utility environment: the threat of confidentiality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vine, Edward

    1997-01-01

    Utilities have become concerned that their competitors will desire access to energy-related data--including energy-efficiency data collected by utilities from their energy- efficiency programs--that they may regard as proprietary or confidential. In the future, disputes about confidentiality may focus more on costs and market information (as well as energy use and load data) than on energy-efficiency data per se. So far, the discussion has been limited to ratepayer-funded data. Consequently, many utilities are now requesting that the data (including evaluation data) they submit to their utility regulatory commissions remain confidential. Withholding utility information from the public is likely to harm the evaluation community that depends on the free flow of information for improving the practice of evaluation as well as for disseminating the lessons learned from particular program evaluations. Confidentiality will also have significant policy implications. In response to these concerns, in late 1995 and early 1996, we conducted a survey of state public utility commissions (PUCs) in the U.S. to assess: (1) the relative importance of the issue of confidential data in the regulatory arena; (2) the regulatory response to utility requests for confidentiality (e.g., formal policies, guidelines, rules and procedures, and decisions); and (3) the type of data filed as confidential with PUCS. We focus on the first two objectives of this study. In addition to our interviews, we reviewed selected state statutes, judicial and PUC decisions, rules and procedures, protective orders, and interim policy documents. Evaluators need to understand the context of confidentiality as well as the response of the regulatory commissions to confidentiality, because evaluators will need to adapt to a new environment where energy-related data and information may be harder to obtain and distribute. We propose that regulators conduct the following activities as soon as possible: 1. Assess

  8. Dynamic quantum secret sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Heng-Yue; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Gao, Fei; Qin, Su-Juan; Guo, Fen-Zhuo

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter we consider quantum secret sharing (QSS) between a sender and a dynamic agent group, called dynamic quantum secret sharing (DQSS). In the DQSS, the change of the agent group is allowable during the procedure of sharing classical and quantum information. Two DQSS schemes are proposed based on a special kind of entangled state, starlike cluster states. Without redistributing all the shares, the changed agent group can reconstruct the sender's secret by their cooperation. Compared with the previous quantum secret sharing scheme, our schemes are more flexible and suitable for practical applications. -- Highlights: ► We consider quantum secret sharing between a sender and a dynamic agent group, called dynamic quantum secret sharing (DQSS). ► In the DQSS, the change of the agent group is allowable during the procedure of sharing classical and quantum information. ► Two DQSS schemes are proposed based on a special kind of entangled state, starlike cluster states. ► Without redistributing all the shares, the changed agent group can reconstruct the sender's secret by their cooperation. ► Compared with the previous quantum secret sharing scheme, our schemes are more flexible and suitable for practical applications.

  9. Trading stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied ...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  10. Anonymous electronic trading versus floor trading

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Günter; Hess, Dieter

    1995-01-01

    This paper compares the attractiveness of floor trading and anonymous electronic trading systems. It is argued that in times of low information intensity the insight into the order book of the electronic trading system provides more valuable information than floor trading, but in times of high information intensity the reverse is true. Thus, the electronic system's market share in trading activity should decline in times of high information intensity. This hypothesis is tested by data on BUND...

  11. Trading volume and the number of trades

    OpenAIRE

    Marwan Izzeldin

    2007-01-01

    Trading volume and the number of trades are both used as proxies for market activity, with disagreement as to which is the better proxy for market activity. This paper investigates this issue using high frequency data for Cisco and Intel in 1997. A number of econometric methods are used, including GARCH augmented with lagged trading volume and number of trades, tests based on moment restrictions, regression analysis of volatility on volume and trades, normality of returns when standardized by...

  12. 77 FR 28888 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Function, Integration, and...

  13. 75 FR 10293 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Initial Review Group, Function, Integration, and...

  14. 76 FR 30732 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Function, Integration, and...

  15. 76 FR 9586 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Function, Integration, and...

  16. 78 FR 13363 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Function, Integration, and...

  17. 77 FR 61418 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group Function, Integration, and...

  18. 76 FR 64092 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group, Function, Integration, and...

  19. 77 FR 12599 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Function, Integration, and...

  20. 75 FR 56118 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Function, Integration and...

  1. 78 FR 54664 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ...., as amended. The grant applications and the discussions could disclose confidential trade secrets or..., Functional and Cognitive Neuroscience Integrated Review Group; Sensorimotor Integration Study Section. Date...

  2. 10 CFR 1004.10 - Exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... by other statutes; confidential, commercial, and financial information; and matters involving....) are covered by this exemption; (4) Trade secrets and commercial or financial information obtained from... lawful national security intelligence investigation, information furnished by a confidential source, (v...

  3. Incretin secretion: direct mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balk-Møller, Emilie; Holst, Jens Juul; Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich

    2014-01-01

    The incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) are secreted from gastro-intestinal K- and L-cells, respectively, and play an important role in post-prandial blood glucose regulation. They do this by direct stimulation of the pancreatic β...... enzyme responsible for incretin degradation (dipeptidyl peptidase-4) is inhibited (drugs are already on the market) while the secretion of endogenous GLP-1 secretion is stimulated at the same time may prove particularly rewarding. In this section we review current knowledge on the mechanisms for direct...

  4. Fuel trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    A first part of this report proposes an overview of trends and predictions. After a synthesis on the sector changes and trends, it indicates and comments the most recent predictions for the consumption of refined oil products and for the turnover of the fuel wholesale market, reports the main highlights concerning the sector's life, and gives a dashboard of the sector activity. The second part proposes the annual report on trends and competition. It presents the main operator profiles and fuel categories, the main determining factors of the activity, the evolution of the sector context between 2005 and 2015 (consumptions, prices, temperature evolution). It analyses the evolution of the sector activity and indicators (sales, turnovers, prices, imports). Financial performances of enterprises are presented. The economic structure of the sector is described (evolution of the economic fabric, structural characteristics, French foreign trade). Actors are then presented and ranked in terms of turnover, of added value, and of result

  5. 16 CFR 14.12 - Use of secret coding in marketing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of secret coding in marketing research... STATEMENTS § 14.12 Use of secret coding in marketing research. (a) The Federal Trade Commission has determined to close its industry-wide investigation of marketing research firms that was initiated in...

  6. Computer Security: confidentiality is everybody’s business

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a zip file with confidential information was mistakenly made public on one of CERN’s websites. Although the file was only intended for members of an internal committee, when placing it onto the CERN website, someone made a mistake when setting the access permissions and, thus, made the file accessible to everyone visiting the site!   Unfortunately, this is but one example of such mistakes. We have seen other documents made accessible to a much wider audience than originally intended… CERN takes serious measures to ensure the confidentiality of data. Confidential or “sensitive” documents (following the nomenclature set out in the CERN Data Protection Policy) deserve professional handling and access protections given only to the people who really need to access them. As such, they must not be widely circulated as attachments in e-mails and, most definitely, must not be stored on random public websites for the sole purpose of shari...

  7. Secret quality of love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan-Hall, Elaine

    2016-09-01

    Many of us can recite three Donabedian dimensions of the quality of care of structure, process and outcome. Recently, I was introduced to another of Avedis Donabedian's quotes about the 'secret quality of love'.

  8. Six secrets of champagne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liger-Belair, Gérard

    2015-12-01

    Popping open a bottle of champagne is one of life's great delights, but how much do you really know about the science behind this greatest of wines? Gérard Liger-Belair reveals his six favourite champagne secrets.

  9. Enhanced Obfuscation Technique for Data Confidentiality in Public Cloud Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oli S. Arul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With an advent of cloud computing, data storage has become a boon in information technology. At the same time, data storage in remote places have become important issues. Lot of techniques are available to ensure protection of data confidentiality. These techniques do not completely serve the purpose in protecting data. The Obfuscation techniques come to rescue for protecting data from malicious attacks. This paper proposes an obfuscation technique to encrypt the desired data type on the cloud providing more protection from unknown hackers. The experimental results show that the time taken for obfuscation is low and the confidentiality percentage is high when compared with existing techniques.

  10. Copyright, Patent, and Trade Secret Protection of Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    programs, patent in- ment counts on the ground that Apple fringement, unfair competition, and misap- failed to comply with the procedural re- propriation...operation of appellants’ claimed in- khms: of art in the computer field and refers to mi. so £0w. lemnts. Fo a uber f haslie. s graum agenra-prpoe...cornmis- how to arrange the informatiors on each sion from plaintiff for sales he had facili- screen. It is the organization of the JMS Eated . During

  11. 78 FR 16298 - Comment Request for Information Collection: Confidentiality and Disclosure of State Unemployment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... Collection: Confidentiality and Disclosure of State Unemployment Compensation Information Final Rule and... about the regulatory requirements of the Confidentiality and Disclosure of State Unemployment... Administration, Office of Unemployment Insurance, 200 Constitution Avenue NW., Room S4524, Washington, DC 20210...

  12. 77 FR 1434 - Proposed Confidentiality Determinations for Data Elements Under the Mandatory Reporting of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... Fluorinated Gas Production....... 325120 Industrial gases manufacturing facilities. Electrical Equipment Use... Proposed Confidentiality Determinations for Data Elements Under the Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases...-proposes confidentiality determinations for the data elements under the Mandatory Greenhouse Gas Reporting...

  13. 77 FR 63537 - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Proposed Amendments and Confidentiality Determinations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Proposed Amendments and Confidentiality Determinations for Subpart I...-AR61 Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Proposed Amendments and Confidentiality Determinations for... Manufacturing, of the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule. Proposed changes include revising certain calculation...

  14. 18 CFR 706.410 - Confidentiality of statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... use of information on the statements shall be limited to that necessary to carry out the purposes of... EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Statements of Employment and Financial Interests § 706.410 Confidentiality of statements. Each statement of employment and financial interests, and each supplementary...

  15. Effective verification of confidentiality for multi-threaded programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo, Minh Tri; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette; Huisman, Marieke

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies how confidentiality properties of multi-threaded programs can be verified efficiently by a combination of newly developed and existing model checking algorithms. In particular, we study the verification of scheduler-specific observational determinism (SSOD), a property that

  16. 48 CFR 1415.207-71 - Confidentiality of proposal evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... THE INTERIOR CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Solicitation and... evaluators and advisors shall sign a Conflict of Interest Certificate and a Confidentiality Certificate in a... outside the Government shall take into consideration requirements for avoiding individual conflicts of...

  17. Absolutism on Access and Confidentiality: Principled or Irresponsible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheerin, William E.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses issues involved in public access to library materials and facilities and patron confidentiality. Topics discussed include children's access to adult materials; parents' right to know about their children's materials; First and Fourth Amendment protections; the Library Bill of Rights; and American Library Association (ALA) documents that…

  18. 40 CFR 303.31 - Assurance of claimant confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assurance of claimant confidentiality. 303.31 Section 303.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND... knowledge, shall be given access to the identity of, or information that would lead to the identity of, a...

  19. 18 CFR 1b.9 - Confidentiality of investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Confidentiality of investigations. 1b.9 Section 1b.9 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... pursuant to subpoena, and all investigative proceedings shall be treated as nonpublic by the Commission and...

  20. 22 CFR 1104.17 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. 1104.17 Section 1104.17 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND WATER COMMISSION, UNITED... of archaeological resource information. (a) The Commissioner shall not make available to the public...

  1. IT Confidentiality Risk Assessment for an Architecture-Based Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morali, A.; Zambon, Emmanuele; Etalle, Sandro; Overbeek, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Information systems require awareness of risks and a good understanding of vulnerabilities and their exploitations. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for the systematic assessment and analysis of confidentiality risks caused by disclosure of operational and functional information. The

  2. 12 CFR 19.181 - Confidentiality of formal investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidentiality of formal investigations. 19.181 Section 19.181 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES OF... only in accordance with the provisions of part 4 of this chapter. ...

  3. Zerber: r-Confidential Indexing for Distributed Documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zerr, Sergej; Demidova, Elena; Olmedilla, Daniel; Nejdl, Wolfgang; Winslett, Marianne; Mitra, Soumyadeb

    2008-01-01

    Zerr, S., Demidova, E., Olmedilla, D., Nejdl, W., Winslett, M., & Mitra, S. (2008). Zerber: r-Confidential Indexing for Distributed Documents. In J. Teubner (Eds.), Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Extending Database Technology (pp. 287-298). March, 25-29, 2008, Nantes, France.

  4. Meaningful Use of a Confidential Adolescent Patient Portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lindsay A; Martinko, Thomas; Budd, Pamela; Mercado, Rebeccah; Schentrup, Anzeela M

    2016-02-01

    To design and evaluate the usage of an adolescent patient portal specifically adapted for adolescent health care needs that also satisfied institutional meaningful use guidelines regarding electronic health records. Key stakeholders at one academic health care center adopted an online portal and opted to designate a patient portal specifically for adolescents to maximize confidentiality in compliance with state privacy laws. This study analyzed aggregate electronic health record data of adolescents' (ages 12-17.9 years) uptake, usage, and functionality of this portal and compared it to parent portal usage for younger children (ages 0-11 years). Differences in means were calculated using paired t tests. The portal was used similarly between parents of young children and adolescents, with almost 1,000 enrollees in each group from September 1, 2012 to March 31, 2015. There were no gender differences in enrollment. Adolescents were less likely than parents of younger children to review appointments (73% vs. 85%), laboratory tests (67% vs. 79%), problem lists (40% vs. 78%), or allergies (45% vs. 77%, all p values adolescents sent 1,397 confidential messages. Institutional decisions for implementing meaningful use requirements can align with goals of adolescent health. Patient portals can enhance adolescent health care quality and adolescents readily use a confidential portal. Implementation of meaningful use requirements should be checked against adolescent health care needs to maximize confidentiality and promote health communication. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 31 CFR 31.217 - Confidentiality of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confidentiality of information. 31.217 Section 31.217 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TROUBLED ASSET... from a source other than the retained entity. (b) Prohibitions. The retained entity shall not: (1...

  6. Decisions about Confidentiality in Medical Student Mental Health Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenthal, Jacob Jay; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examined responses of psychologists and psychiatrists in medical schools (N=59) to vignettes representing student problems. Results suggested practitioners were generally unwilling to break confidentiality in response to problems involving suicidal tendencies, sexual coercion/seduction, social transgressions, or falsifying data. Only suggestions…

  7. 75 FR 75576 - Confidentiality of Suspicious Activity Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ...-2010-0019] RIN 1557-AD17 Confidentiality of Suspicious Activity Reports AGENCY: The Office of the... suspicious activity report (SAR) to: clarify the scope of the statutory prohibition on the disclosure by a... institutions, including national banks regulated by the OCC, to keep certain records and make certain reports...

  8. Participants' safety versus confidentiality: A case study of HIV research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva-Moral, Juan Manuel; Feijoo-Cid, Maria

    2017-05-01

    Background When conducting qualitative research, participants usually share lots of personal and private information with the researcher. As researchers, we must preserve participants' identity and confidentiality of the data. Objective To critically analyze an ethical conflict encountered regarding confidentiality when doing qualitative research. Research design Case study. Findings and discussion one of the participants in a study aiming to explain the meaning of living with HIV verbalized his imminent intention to commit suicide because of stigma of other social problems arising from living with HIV. Given the life-threatening situation, the commitment related to not disclosing the participant's identity and/or the content of the interview had to be broken. To avoid or prevent suicide, the therapist in charge of the case was properly informed about the participant's intentions. One important question arises from this case: was it ethically appropriate to break the confidentiality commitment? Conclusion confidentiality could be broken if a life-threatening event is identified during data collection and participants must know that. This has to be clearly stated in the informed consent form.

  9. 12 CFR 404.7 - Confidential business information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential business information. 404.7 Section 404.7 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES INFORMATION DISCLOSURE Procedures... involved, a general description of the related U.S. exports, and the country to which such exports are...

  10. 49 CFR 805.735-21 - Confidentiality of statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT § 805.735-21 Confidentiality of statements. Subject to the provisions of § 805.735-24 concerning review of employee statements, each statement of... Personnel Officer is personally responsible for the retention of employee statements in confidence and may...

  11. 19 CFR 201.6 - Confidential business information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) of a type for which there is a clear and compelling need to withhold from disclosure. Special rules... the right to appeal to the Commission. (e) Appeals from denial of confidential treatment. (1) For good cause shown, the Commission may grant an appeal from a denial by the Secretary of a request for...

  12. Confidential data in a competitive utility environment: A regulatory perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, E.

    1996-08-01

    Historically, the electric utility industry has been regarded as one of the most open industries in the United States in sharing information but their reputation is being challenged by competitive energy providers, the general public, regulators, and other stakeholders. As the prospect of competition among electricity power providers has increased in recent years, many utilities have been requesting that the data they submit to their utility regulatory commissions remain confidential. Withholding utility information from the public is likely to have serious and significant policy implications with respect to: (1) consumer education, the pursuit of truth, mutual respect among parties, and social cooperation; (2) the creation of a fair market for competitive energy services; (3) the regulatory balance; (4) regional and national assessments of energy-savings opportunities; (5) research and development; and (6) evaluations of utility programs, plans, and policies. In a telephone survey of all public utility commissions (PUCs) that regulate electric and gas utilities in the U.S., we found that almost all PUCs have received requests from utility companies for data to be filed as confidential, and confidential data filings appear to have increased (both in scope and in frequency) in those states where utility restructuring is being actively discussed. The most common types of data submitted as confidential by utilities dealt with specific customer data, market data, avoided costs, and utility costs.

  13. 40 CFR 85.1415 - Treatment of confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treatment of confidential information. 85.1415 Section 85.1415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1415...

  14. Time for Action: Audit, Accountability and Confidential Enquiries into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improving the quality of care is essential for achieving reductions in maternal mortality. Audit is one of the methods which can be used to simultaneously assess as well as improve quality. This commentary discusses one type of audit – confidential enquiries into maternal death. We believe that the enthusiasm for ...

  15. 37 CFR 260.4 - Confidential information and statements of account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Confidential information and statements of account. (a) For purposes of this part, confidential information shall include statements of account and any information pertaining to the statements of account... included on the statement of account. (d) Access to the confidential information pertaining to the royalty...

  16. Entropy of international trades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Young; Lee, D.-S.

    2017-05-01

    The organization of international trades is highly complex under the collective efforts towards economic profits of participating countries given inhomogeneous resources for production. Considering the trade flux as the probability of exporting a product from a country to another, we evaluate the entropy of the world trades in the period 1950-2000. The trade entropy has increased with time, and we show that it is mainly due to the extension of trade partnership. For a given number of trade partners, the mean trade entropy is about 60% of the maximum possible entropy, independent of time, which can be regarded as a characteristic of the trade fluxes' heterogeneity and is shown to be derived from the scaling and functional behaviors of the universal trade-flux distribution. The correlation and time evolution of the individual countries' gross-domestic products and the number of trade partners show that most countries achieved their economic growth partly by extending their trade relationship.

  17. International Trade and Protectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit is designed to investigate the reasons for international trade and the issue of trade protectionism by focusing on the case study of the U.S. trade relationship with Taiwan. The unit begins with a simulation that highlights the concepts of global interdependence, the need for international trade, and the distribution of the world's…

  18. Type VI secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Dor; Orth, Kim

    2015-03-30

    Bacteria employ a variety of tools to survive in a competitive environment. Salomon and Orth describe one such tool-the Type 6 Secretion Systems used by bacteria to deliver a variety of toxins into competing cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  20. 'Secret' Shuttle payloads revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Joel W.

    1993-05-01

    A secret military payload carried by the orbiter Discovery launched on January 24 1985 is discussed. Secondary payloads on the military Shuttle flights are briefly reviewed. Most of the military middeck experiments were sponsored by the Space Test Program established at the Pentagon to oversee all Defense Department space research projects.

  1. Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-08

    Jun 8, 1974 ... with Addison's disease, diarrhoea or salt-losing nephritis. (asymptomatic hyponatraemia).~ Schwartz et al.3 stud;ed two patients with anaplastic bronchus carcinoma and hyponatraemia in 1957, and they suggested that there was an inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). It is now well ...

  2. Physiology of bile secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteller, Alejandro

    2008-10-07

    The formation of bile depends on the structural and functional integrity of the bile-secretory apparatus and its impairment, in different situations, results in the syndrome of cholestasis. The structural bases that permit bile secretion as well as various aspects related with its composition and flow rate in physiological conditions will first be reviewed. Canalicular bile is produced by polarized hepatocytes that hold transporters in their basolateral (sinusoidal) and apical (canalicular) plasma membrane. This review summarizes recent data on the molecular determinants of this primary bile formation. The major function of the biliary tree is modification of canalicular bile by secretory and reabsorptive processes in bile-duct epithelial cells (cholangiocytes) as bile passes through bile ducts. The mechanisms of fluid and solute transport in cholangiocytes will also be discussed. In contrast to hepatocytes where secretion is constant and poorly controlled, cholangiocyte secretion is regulated by hormones and nerves. A short section dedicated to these regulatory mechanisms of bile secretion has been included. The aim of this revision was to set the bases for other reviews in this series that will be devoted to specific issues related with biliary physiology and pathology.

  3. A Public Secret

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbæk, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    This article is based on anthropological fieldwork undertaken at two elite universities in Beijing. It addresses the paradoxical situation of the many instances of suicide among Chinese elite university students in Beijing, which constitute a public secret. The pressure of education weighs heavily...

  4. MONA Implementation Secrets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarlund, Nils; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2002-01-01

    a period of six years. Compared to the first naive version, the present tool is faster by several orders of magnitude. This speedup is obtained from many different contributions working on all levels of the compilation and execution of formulas. We present a selection of implementation "secrets" that have...

  5. Regional Trade Agreement and Agricultural Trade in East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intra-EAC trade is very low, that is, at 9 per cent of the total regional trade, but it is on upward trend. Agricultural trade accounts for over 40 per cent of the intra-EAC trade. This study investigated the effect of EAC regional trade agreement on the regions agricultural trade by analyzing the degree of trade creation and ...

  6. Sur les usages publics du secret : les archives du Service Secret Communiste Roumain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Mihalache

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available L’étude s’occupe des dossiers de l’ancienne police politique du régime communiste de Roumanie, la Securitate. Il a comme point de départ le fait que la mémoire sociale, le contexte politique et les débats publics actuels influencent la recherche historique, modifiant les perceptions sur le document d’archive. Ce dernier n’est plus vu seulement comme source principale de la recherche historique, devenant outil redoutable dans les disputes électorales, car, en base des informations extraites d’un dossier de la Securitate, l’on peut évincer un adversaire incommode. Se montrant utile à dénoncer la collaboration de quelqu’un sous le régime communiste, le document d’archive a acquis des mises symboliques imprévues, étant caché, protégé, volé, racheté, truqué, perdu et redécouvert à commande. Toutes ces pratiques compromettent de plus en plus les chances des historiens de reconstituer de manière crédible l’histoire récente des Roumains. On obtient difficilement l’accès aux dossiers de la Securitate, la patrimonialisation excessive des documents - en vérité leur trésorisation - étant conséquence directe du prestige idéologique et social que le secret détenait au temps communiste.This article focuses on the Securitate files as a political stake, but also as first rank sources for academic research, not from the current perspective of recent history, but from that of cultural history. In post-communist Romania, silence is the secret’s poor relative and confidentiality its respectable form. Ironically or not, we could state that in our country the secrets of communist repression are literally protected by law. The secret is an unbidden, illegitimate competence. In its ethics it does not matter what is good and what is bad, what is true and what is false. The main interest is what is said and what isn’t. The secret being a convention, a pact, the gesture of not saying seems to be more important than

  7. Trade, development and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    1994-01-01

    Mainstream economic theory argues that trade, and especially free trade, is beneficial to everyone involved. This fundamental idea ? which has the character of a dogma ? still plays an important role in international discussions on trade issues, notably in relation to development and environment...... be defended in all cases. Especially, the developing countries' benefits from trade have been very dubious. Furthermore, the trading system has contributed to environmental problems in several ways, e.g. generating undervaluation of natural resources, stimulating economic growth with environmental....... The purpose of this article is to critically assess the "free trade dogma" and to investigate the validity of widely used arguments concerning the relations between trade and development and between trade and environment. It is argued that the trading system is not something inherently good, which should...

  8. Medical confidentiality versus disclosure: Ethical and legal dilemmas.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Agyapong, V I O

    2009-02-01

    A case is described of a fifty year old single man who made disclosures about criminal sexual practices during a psychiatric assessment. In common practice with other professional men, a doctor is under a duty not to disclose, without the consent of his patient, information which he has gained in his professional capacity other than in exceptional circumstances. We discuss the ethical and legal considerations surrounding issues of medical confidentiality and the dilemma that sometimes face clinicians, when they feel obliged, in the public interest, to disclose information they have gained in confidence. Breach of confidences can have deleterious consequences; particularly for the doctor-patient relationship, but failure to disclose in some situations could have serious implications for the well-being of the wider society. Doctors should be aware of the basic principles of confidentiality and the ethical and legal framework around which they are built.

  9. Wrapped up in Covers: Preschoolers' Secrets and Secret Hiding Places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, Kimberly; Colwell, Malinda J.; Bell, Nancy J.; Trejos-Castillo, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In this qualitative study, interviews about children's secret hiding places were conducted with 3-5-year-olds (n?=?17) in a university sponsored preschool programme using art narratives. Since prior studies indicate that children understand the concept of a secret as early as five and that they associate secrets with hiding places, the purpose of…

  10. Confidentiality and its limits: some contributions from Christianity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, I R

    2003-02-01

    The issue is whether Christianity, of its nature, would seek to prevent a justifiable breach of confidentiality or could endorse it, under certain circumstances, as the act which is fundamentally more loving or more truthful. The individualistic nature of Western Christianity is noted. The Lutheran theologian Dietrich Bonhoeffer is used to show Christian support for dynamic rather than literal truth telling, and for awareness of the contexts and power relations within which persons stand.

  11. Enhanced Obfuscation Technique for Data Confidentiality in Public Cloud Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Oli S. Arul; Arockiam L.

    2016-01-01

    With an advent of cloud computing, data storage has become a boon in information technology. At the same time, data storage in remote places have become important issues. Lot of techniques are available to ensure protection of data confidentiality. These techniques do not completely serve the purpose in protecting data. The Obfuscation techniques come to rescue for protecting data from malicious attacks. This paper proposes an obfuscation technique to encrypt the desired data type on the clou...

  12. Security, privacy, and confidentiality issues on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Grant; McKenzie, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    We introduce the issues around protecting information about patients and related data sent via the Internet. We begin by reviewing three concepts necessary to any discussion about data security in a healthcare environment: privacy, confidentiality, and consent. We are giving some advice on how to protect local data. Authentication and privacy of e-mail via encryption is offered by Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) and Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME). The de facto Internet standa...

  13. Confidential patent application with an example of preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obrad T. Čabarkapa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order that the invention solving a technical problem receives a patent protection, it is necessary to file a patent application. For the protection of confidential inventions which are important for defense and national security, a confidential patent application[1] must be filed. A confidential patent application is an important and complex document, the parts of which are,  in principle, exposed in an established order. For the preparation of patent applications, it is necessary to engage experts with higher education, primarily in the technical field the invention relates to. The contents of the patent application is a basis for examining whether the application meets the requirements for patentability and whether the right to patent protection is achieved. Besides theoretical discussions on patent application, the paper gives a short version of an example of an application regarding a protected confidential invention. Introduction The basic condition for the exercise of patent protection is filing a patent application, the test procedure and, eventually, depending on the test results - the recognition or rejection of the patent. The paper gives a description of all parts of the patent application on an example of a confidential invention already patented. The content of the confidential patent application The confidential patent application for confidential invention protection consists of the following parts: The application for a patent; description of the invention; the claims (indication of what is new and what is required to be protected by patenting; abstract (short summary of the invention  and a draft of the invention (to which the description and the claims are referred. The application for a patent The application for patent is filed on Form P-1 and a request for the petty patent on Form MP-1. The data entered in the file is, for example: the applicant; the lawyer; the name of the invention in Serbian and English; the inventor

  14. Privacy, confidentiality and abortion statistics: a question of public interest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Jean V; Jones, June

    2012-01-01

    The precise nature and scope of healthcare confidentiality has long been the subject of debate. While the obligation of confidentiality is integral to professional ethical codes and is also safeguarded under English law through the equitable remedy of breach of confidence, underpinned by the right to privacy enshrined in Article 8 of the Human Rights Act 1998, it has never been regarded as absolute. But when can and should personal information be made available for statistical and research purposes and what if the information in question is highly sensitive information, such as that relating to the termination of pregnancy after 24 weeks? This article explores the case of In the Matter of an Appeal to the Information Tribunal under section 57 of the Freedom of Information Act 2000, concerning the decision of the Department of Health to withhold some statistical data from the publication of its annual abortion statistics. The specific data being withheld concerned the termination for serious fetal handicap under section 1(1)d of the Abortion Act 1967. The paper explores the implications of this case, which relate both to the nature and scope of personal privacy. It suggests that lessons can be drawn from this case about public interest and use of statistical information and also about general policy issues concerning the legal regulation of confidentiality and privacy in the future.

  15. The erosion of psychiatrist-patient confidentiality by subpoenas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, John; Galambos, Gary; Skarbek, Yvonne

    2014-08-01

    We explore the reasons for the prolific use of subpoenas to gain access to psychiatric records in Australia. We examine the applicable legal principles and practices at the New South Wales (NSW) and Commonwealth levels, aiming to develop recommendations for Australian Governments to curb the inappropriate and harmful use of subpoenas. Unfettered legal access to psychiatric records is inconsistent with professional ethical guidelines and risks undermining the provision of quality psychiatric care to the community. The existing legal provisions are failing to protect psychiatrist-patient confidentiality. In NSW, the onus is placed on the psychiatrist and/or patient to make a complicated application to the court, to direct that a subpoena be set aside on the grounds of "Professional Confidential Relationship Privilege." An absence of Commonwealth legislation to protect psychiatrist-patient confidentiality is used by some litigants in family law proceedings to disadvantage patients by stigmatising them, because they have consulted psychiatrists. We recommend that uniform legislation be implemented, giving effect to a primary rule of privilege with exceptions. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  16. Conflicting duties over confidentiality in Argentina and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Mercedes

    2011-02-01

    The medical duty of confidentiality represents a key element for the provision of reproductive and sexual health services. In some Latin American countries, such as Argentina and Peru, the legal systems impose—or are interpreted as imposing—on health professionals the duty of confidentiality, but also the duty to report the commission of a public order offense that they know about owing to the practicing of their profession. In these countries, the conflicting duties and the criminalization of abortion cause severe public health and human rights problems when health professionals assist their patients for post-abortion treatment. Typically, patients are deterred from seeking prompt medical care, and their privacy, autonomy, and dignity are violated. A 2010 ruling from the Supreme Court of Argentina and a 2004 ruling from the Inter-American Court of Human Rights emerge as important instruments that grant a more adequate protection of medical confidentiality. © 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Reconfiguring trade mark law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew James

    2013-01-01

    -border setting, with a particular focus on small business and consumers. The article's overall message is to call for a rethink of received wisdom suggesting that trade marks are effective trade-enabling devices. The case is made for reassessing how we think about European trade mark law.......First, this article argues that trade mark law should be approached in a supplementary way, called reconfiguration. Second, the article investigates such a reconfiguration of trade mark law by exploring the interplay of trade marks and service transactions in the Single Market, in the cross...

  18. Redirecting International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari; Söderlund, Bengt; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    2014-01-01

    The global financial crisis has contributed to the redirection of trade towards new markets outside the OECD area, where both demand patterns and the institutional environment differ from those in the OECD. This study provides an empirical examination of the consequences of this shift, based......-specific investments are particularly difficult to redirect towards markets with weak institutions....... on Swedish firm-level trade data. Results suggest that weak institutions hamper trade and reduce the length of trade relations, especially for small firms. Trade in industries that are characterized by a high frequency of trade conflicts and where transactions require extensive relationship...

  19. Redirecting International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari; Söderlund, Bengt; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    The global financial crisis has accelerated the redirection of trade towards new markets, outside the OECD area, where both demand patterns and the institutional environment differ from those in the OECD. This study provides an empirical examination of the consequences of this shift. Results...... difficult to redirect towards markets with weak institutions....... suggest that weak institutions hamper trade and reduces the length of trade relations, especially for small firms. Furthermore, trade in industries that are characterized by a high degree of trade conflicts and that requires extensive relationship specific investments for trade to occur are comparatively...

  20. Extracellular secretion of recombinant proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linger, Jeffrey G.; Darzins, Aldis

    2014-07-22

    Nucleic acids encoding secretion signals, expression vectors containing the nucleic acids, and host cells containing the expression vectors are disclosed. Also disclosed are polypeptides that contain the secretion signals and methods of producing polypeptides, including methods of directing the extracellular secretion of the polypeptides. Exemplary embodiments include cellulase proteins fused to secretion signals, methods to produce and isolate these polypeptides, and methods to degrade lignocellulosic biomass.

  1. 77 FR 74677 - Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... information provided. Special Instructions: Comments that include trade secrets, confidential commercial or.... Comments containing trade secrets, confidential commercial or financial information, CVI, SSI, or PCII.... Instrument: Notification of a New Top Screen. Frequency: On occasion/Other. Affected Public: Business or...

  2. 77 FR 74678 - Chemical Security Assessment Tool (CSAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... information provided. Special Instructions: Comments that include trade secrets, confidential commercial or.... Comments containing trade secrets, confidential commercial or financial information, CVI, SSI, or PCII... March 31, 2013. The Department's Methodology in Estimating the Burden for the Top- Screen Number of...

  3. 78 FR 16692 - Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... trade secrets, confidential commercial or financial information, Chemical-terrorism Vulnerability... from other comments in response to this notice. Comments containing trade secrets, confidential... Burden Cost (operating/maintaining): $3,977. Instrument: Notification of a New Top Screen. Frequency: On...

  4. Simulating cloud environment for HIS backup using secret sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Tomohiro; Kimura, Eizen; Matsumura, Yasushi; Yamashita, Yoshinori; Hiramatsu, Haruhiko; Kume, Naoto

    2013-01-01

    In the face of a disaster hospitals are expected to be able to continue providing efficient and high-quality care to patients. It is therefore crucial for hospitals to develop business continuity plans (BCPs) that identify their vulnerabilities, and prepare procedures to overcome them. A key aspect of most hospitals' BCPs is creating the backup of the hospital information system (HIS) data at multiple remote sites. However, the need to keep the data confidential dramatically increases the costs of making such backups. Secret sharing is a method to split an original secret message so that individual pieces are meaningless, but putting sufficient number of pieces together reveals the original message. It allows creation of pseudo-redundant arrays of independent disks for privacy-sensitive data over the Internet. We developed a secret sharing environment for StarBED, a large-scale network experiment environment, and evaluated its potential and performance during disaster recovery. Simulation results showed that the entire main HIS database of Kyoto University Hospital could be retrieved within three days even if one of the distributed storage systems crashed during a disaster.

  5. Pathophysiology of glucagon secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettger, J.; Pabst, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    Pathophysiology of glucagon secretion is reviewed in brief separating hyperglucagonemic from hypoclucagonemic states. Many questions concerning the role of glucagon in diabetes mellitus and in other diseases are still unresolved. The clucagon RIA is of clinical significance in a few diseases like glucagonoma, which may present without symptoms of the 'glucagonoma syndrome', the probably very rare hyperglucagonemia and some of the spontaneous hypoglycemias. Glucagon secretion may be evaluated by the determination of fasting immunoreactive glucagon (IRG) and by appropriate function tests as stimulation with i.v. arginine and suppression with oral glucose. However, the glucagon RIA at present is not a routine method, although commercial kits are available. Many pitfalls of radioimmunological glucagon determination still exist. (orig.) [de

  6. Bucarest, Strictement Secret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Mihai

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available L’émission Bucarest, strictement secret représente un documentaire organisésous la forme d’une série télé, qui dépeint le Bucarest à partir de deux perspectives: de l’histoire, de la conte et du lieu. La valeur d’une cité réside dans l’existence d’une mystique, d’un romantisme abscons, à part et des caractères empruntés de drames de Shakespeare, mystérieux, serrés d’angoisse et des secrets qui assombrissent leur existence. Par conséquence, le rôle du metteur en scène est de dévoiler leur vraie identité et de remettre en place, autant que possible, la vérité.

  7. Is patient confidentiality compromised with the electronic health record?: a position paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ilse M

    2015-02-01

    In order for electronic health records to fulfill their expected benefits, protection of privacy of patient information is key. Lack of trust in confidentiality can lead to reluctance in disclosing all relevant information, which could have grave consequences. This position paper contemplates whether patient confidentiality is compromised by electronic health records. The position that confidentiality is compromised was supported by the four bioethical principles and argued that despite laws and various safeguards to protect patients' confidentiality, numerous data breaches have occurred. The position that confidentiality is not compromised was supported by virtue ethics and a utilitarian viewpoint and argued that safeguards keep information confidential and the public feels relatively safe with the electronic health record. The article concludes with an ethically superior position that confidentiality is compromised with the electronic health record. Although organizational and governmental ways of enhancing the confidentiality of patient information within the electronic health record facilitate confidentiality, the ultimate responsibility of maintaining confidentiality rests with the individual end-users and their ethical code of conduct. The American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for nurses calls for nurses to be watchful with data security in electronic communications.

  8. Bile Formation and Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Bile is a unique and vital aqueous secretion of the liver that is formed by the hepatocyte and modified down stream by absorptive and secretory properties of the bile duct epithelium. Approximately 5% of bile consists of organic and inorganic solutes of considerable complexity. The bile-secretory unit consists of a canalicular network which is formed by the apical membrane of adjacent hepatocytes and sealed by tight junctions. The bile canaliculi (~1 μm in diameter) conduct the flow of bile countercurrent to the direction of portal blood flow and connect with the canal of Hering and bile ducts which progressively increase in diameter and complexity prior to the entry of bile into the gallbladder, common bile duct, and intestine. Canalicular bile secretion is determined by both bile salt-dependent and independent transport systems which are localized at the apical membrane of the hepatocyte and largely consist of a series of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transport proteins that function as export pumps for bile salts and other organic solutes. These transporters create osmotic gradients within the bile canalicular lumen that provide the driving force for movement of fluid into the lumen via aquaporins. Species vary with respect to the relative amounts of bile salt-dependent and independent canalicular flow and cholangiocyte secretion which is highly regulated by hormones, second messengers, and signal transduction pathways. Most determinants of bile secretion are now characterized at the molecular level in animal models and in man. Genetic mutations serve to illuminate many of their functions. PMID:23897680

  9. Lipids in airway secretions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaskar, K.R.; DeFeudis O'Sullivan, D.; Opaskar-Hincman, H.; Reid, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Lipids form a significant portion of airway mucus yet they have not received the same attention that epithelial glycoproteins have. We have analysed, by thin layer chromatography, lipids present in airway mucus under 'normal' and hypersecretory (pathological) conditions.The 'normals' included (1) bronchial lavage obtained from healthy human volunteers and from dogs and (2) secretions produced ''in vitro'' by human (bronchial) and canine (tracheal) explants. Hypersecretory mucus samples included (1) lavage from dogs made bronchitic by exposure to SO 2 , (2) bronchial aspirates from acute and chronic tracheostomy patients, (3) sputum from patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic bronchitis and (4) postmortem secretions from patients who died from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) or from status asthmaticus. Cholesterol was found to be the predominant lipid in 'normal' mucus with lesser amounts of phospholipids. No glycolipids were detected. In the hypersecretory mucus, in addition to neutral and phospholipids, glycolipids were present in appreciable amounts, often the predominant species, suggesting that these may be useful as markers of disease. Radioactive precursors 14 C acetate and 14 C palmitate were incorporated into lipids secreted ''in vitro'' by canine tracheal explants indicating that they are synthesised by the airway. (author)

  10. Catechin secretion and phytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Shail

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that the invasiveness of Centaurea stoebe is attributed to the stronger allelopathic effects on the native North American species than on the related European species, which is one of the unquestionable aspects of the “novel weapons hypothesis (NWH).” Studies originating from controlled to field conditions have shown that C. stoebe utilizes its biochemical potential to exert its invasiveness. The roots of C. stoebe secrete a potent phytotoxin, catechin, which has a detrimental effect on the surrounding plant species. Although, studies on catechin secretion and phytotoxicity represent one of the most well studied systems describing negative plant-plant interactions, it has also sparked controversies lately due to its phytotoxicity dosages and secretion effluxes. Previous reports negate the phytotoxic and pro-oxidant nature of catechin.1–3 In our recent study we have shown that catechin is highly phytotoxic against Arabidopsis thaliana and Festuca idahoensis. We also show that (±) catechin applied to roots of A. thaliana induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) confirming the pro-oxidant nature of catechin. In addition, activation of signature cell death genes such as acd2 and cad1 post catechin treatment in A. thaliana ascertains the phytotoxic nature of catechin. PMID:21057643

  11. Trade in goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2006-01-01

    An analysis of the rules governing trade in goods under the GATT agreement and the Agreement on Safeguards......An analysis of the rules governing trade in goods under the GATT agreement and the Agreement on Safeguards...

  12. Emissions Trading Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about emissions trading programs, also known as cap and trade programs, which are market-based policy tools for protecting human health and the environment by controlling emissions from a group of sources.

  13. Trade Agreements PTI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The objective of the Trade Agreements PTI is to advance CBP’s mission by working with internal and external stakeholders to facilitate legitimate trade and address...

  14. A secure data outsourcing scheme based on Asmuth-Bloom secret sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris Muhammad, Yusuf; Kaiiali, Mustafa; Habbal, Adib; Wazan, A. S.; Sani Ilyasu, Auwal

    2016-11-01

    Data outsourcing is an emerging paradigm for data management in which a database is provided as a service by third-party service providers. One of the major benefits of offering database as a service is to provide organisations, which are unable to purchase expensive hardware and software to host their databases, with efficient data storage accessible online at a cheap rate. Despite that, several issues of data confidentiality, integrity, availability and efficient indexing of users' queries at the server side have to be addressed in the data outsourcing paradigm. Service providers have to guarantee that their clients' data are secured against internal (insider) and external attacks. This paper briefly analyses the existing indexing schemes in data outsourcing and highlights their advantages and disadvantages. Then, this paper proposes a secure data outsourcing scheme based on Asmuth-Bloom secret sharing which tries to address the issues in data outsourcing such as data confidentiality, availability and order preservation for efficient indexing.

  15. 26 CFR 1.971-1 - Definitions with respect to export trade corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., copyrights, secret processes and formulas, goodwill, trademarks, trade brands, franchises, and other like... trade income, the anticipated future needs of the business will be taken into account to the extent that... determination date; anticipated future needs relating to a later period will not be taken into account unless it...

  16. Trade, Labor, Legitimacy

    OpenAIRE

    Guzman, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between international trade and labor standards is one of several controversial issues facing the WTO. Proponents of a trade-labor link argue that labor is a human rights issue and that trade sanctions represent a critical tool in the effort to improve international working conditions. Opponents argue that a link between trade and labor would open the door to protectionist measures that would target low wage countries and harm the very workers the policy is intended to help. ...

  17. Dynamic secrets in communication security

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Sheng; Towsley, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic secrets are constantly generated and updated from messages exchanged between two communication users. When dynamic secrets are used as a complement to existing secure communication systems, a stolen key or password can be quickly and automatically reverted to its secret status without disrupting communication. 'Dynamic Secrets in Communication Security' presents unique security properties and application studies for this technology. Password theft and key theft no longer pose serious security threats when parties frequently use dynamic secrets. This book also illustrates that a dynamic

  18. DLP system and the secret of personal correspondence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavrinskaya T.V.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available according to the authors, every day a number of threats to information security increases, and this requires an increase in resources (systems of information protection of organizations and enterprises. There are many information security tools with different functionality, but the main mean of preventing information leakage is the Date Loss Prevention (DLP system. If you need to establish control over the leak of confidential information there appear a number of questions of conformity of decisions with the legislation and regulations. This article describes the issue of compliance functionality of a DLP system the provisions and requirements of the legislation in the sphere of protection of family and personal secrets, as well as compliance with the Constitutional right of citizens to privacy of correspondence.

  19. Gravity Models of Trade-based Money Laundering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferwerda, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314405526; Kattenberg, M.A.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357208986; Chang, H.-S.; Unger, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290994926; Groot, L.F.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073642398; Bikker, J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06912261X

    2011-01-01

    Several attempts have been made in the economics literature to measure money laundering. However, the adequacy of these models is difficult to assess, as money laundering takes place secretly and, hence, goes unobserved. An exception is tradebased money laundering (TBML), a special form of trade

  20. Clandestine Bushmeat Trade in Cross River State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper surveyed the herp species traded in secret bush meat markets of Cross River State, with the view of assessing their conservation status and uses they are put to. The study mainly focused on six selected communities in Akamkpa Local Government Area (LGA) of Cross Rivers State, Nigeria – the host LGA of ...

  1. Individual Attitudes Towards Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Smolka, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Using the 2007 wave of the Pew Global Attitudes Project, this paper finds statistically significant and economically large Stolper-Samuelson effects in individuals’ preference formation towards trade policy. High-skilled individuals are substantially more pro-trade than low-skilled individuals......-Ohlin model in shaping free trade attitudes, relative to existing literature....

  2. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2006-01-01

    The United States and many of its trading partners use laws known as trade remedies to mitigate the adverse impact of various trade practices on domestic industries and workers. U.S. antidumping laws (19 U.S.C. 1673 et seq...

  3. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2007-01-01

    The United States and many of its trading partners use laws known as trade remedies to mitigate the adverse impact of various trade practices on domestic industries and workers. U.S. antidumping (AD) laws (19 U.S.C. 1673 et seq...

  4. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2008-01-01

    The United States and many of its trading partners use laws known as trade remedies to mitigate the adverse impact of various trade practices on domestic industries and workers. U.S. antidumping (AD) laws (19 U.S.C. 1673 et seq...

  5. Banking and Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2016-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term arm’s length activities of banks, called trading. We show that a bank can use the franchise value of its relationships to expand the scale of trading, but may allocate too much capital to trading ex post , compromising its ability

  6. International trade agreements: hazards to health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Ellen R; Brenner, Joseph E

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1980s, neoliberal policies have prescribed reducing the role of governments, relying on market forces to organize and provide health care and other vital human services. In this context, international trade agreements increasingly serve as mechanisms to enforce the privatization, deregulation, and decentralization of health care and other services, with important implications for democracy as well as for health. Critics contend that social austerity and "free" trade agreements contribute to the rise in global poverty and economic inequality and instability, and therefore to increased preventable illness and death. Under new agreements through the World Trade Organization that cover vital human services such as health care, water, education, and energy, unaccountable, secret trade tribunals could overrule decisions by democratically elected officials on public financing for national health care systems, licensing and training standards for health professionals, patient safety and quality regulations, occupational safety and health, control of hazardous substances such as tobacco and alcohol, the environment, and affordable access to safe water and sanitation. International negotiations in 2003 in Cancun and in Miami suggested that countervailing views are developing momentum. A concerned health care community has begun to call for a moratorium on trade negotiations on health care and water, and to reinvigorate an alternative vision of universal access to vital services.

  7. Windows 8 secrets

    CERN Document Server

    Thurrott, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Tips, tricks, treats, and secrets revealed on Windows 8 Microsoft is introducing a major new release of its Windows operating system, Windows 8, and what better way to learn all its ins and outs than from two internationally recognized Windows experts and Microsoft insiders, authors Paul Thurrott and Rafael Rivera? They cut through the hype to get at useful information you'll not find anywhere else, including what role this new OS plays in a mobile and tablet world. Regardless of your level of knowledge, you'll discover little-known facts about how things work, what's new and different, and h

  8. THE INFORMATION CONFIDENTIALITY AND CYBER SECURITY IN MEDICAL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SABAU-POPA CLAUDIA DIANA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The information confidentiality and cyber security risk affects the right to confidentiality and privacy of the patient, as regulated in Romania by the Law 46/2002. The manifestation of the cyber security risk event affects the reputation of the healthcare institution and is becoming more and more complex and often due to the: development of network technology, the medical equipment connected to wifi and the electronic databases. The databases containing medical records were implemented due to automation. Thus, transforming data into medical knowledge contribute to a better understanding of the disease. Due to these factors, the measures taken by the hospital management for this type of risk are adapted to the cyber changes. The hospital objectives aim: the implementation of a robust information system, the early threats identifications and the incident reporting. Neglecting this type of risk can generate financial loss, inability to continue providing health care services for a certain period of time, providing an erroneous diagnosis, medical equipment errors etc. Thus, in a digital age the appropriate risk management for the information security and cyber risk represent a necessity. The main concern of hospitals worldwide is to align with international requirements and obtain credentials in terms of data security from the International Organisation for Standardization, which regulates the management of this type of risk. Romania is at the beginning in terms of concerns regarding the management, avoidance and mitigation of information security, the health system being most highly exposed to its manifestation. The present paper examines the concerns of the health system to the confidentiality of information and cyber security risk and its management arrangements. Thus, a set of key risk indicators is implemented and monitored for 2011-2013, using a user interface, a Dashboard, which acts as an early warning system of the manifestation of the

  9. Gossip, stories and friendship: confidentiality in midwifery practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, S

    1995-12-01

    Women often seek midwifery care as an alternative to the maternity services that are readily available within the insured health care system in Alberta. Some aspects of community-based, primary care midwifery in Alberta that characterize this alternative are the use of story-telling as a form of knowledge, the development of social connections among women seeking midwifery care, and nonauthoritarian relationships between midwives and women. In this paper, the concept of confidentiality, as it relates to these aspects of midwifery practice, is explored, using traditional, caring and feminist models of ethics.

  10. Teaching Confidentiality through Comics at One Spanish Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalanda, Mónica; Altisent, Rogelio; Delgado-Marroquín, Maria Teresa

    2018-02-01

    At the University of Zaragoza in Spain we developed an innovative way to teach the concept of confidentiality to medical students, which we tested by comparing the use of customized comics with more traditional methods. We proved that using comics is more attractive to students than lectures and class discussions, that it increases class participation and students' self-awareness of learning, and that it maintains the same academic results. We share our experience visually in a two-page comic. © 2018 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  11. On Converting Secret Sharing Scheme to Visual Secret Sharing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Daoshun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional Secret Sharing (SS schemes reconstruct secret exactly the same as the original one but involve complex computation. Visual Secret Sharing (VSS schemes decode the secret without computation, but each share is m times as big as the original and the quality of the reconstructed secret image is reduced. Probabilistic visual secret sharing (Prob.VSS schemes for a binary image use only one subpixel to share the secret image; however the probability of white pixels in a white area is higher than that in a black area in the reconstructed secret image. SS schemes, VSS schemes, and Prob. VSS schemes have various construction methods and advantages. This paper first presents an approach to convert (transform a -SS scheme to a -VSS scheme for greyscale images. The generation of the shadow images (shares is based on Boolean XOR operation. The secret image can be reconstructed directly by performing Boolean OR operation, as in most conventional VSS schemes. Its pixel expansion is significantly smaller than that of VSS schemes. The quality of the reconstructed images, measured by average contrast, is the same as VSS schemes. Then a novel matrix-concatenation approach is used to extend the greyscale -SS scheme to a more general case of greyscale -VSS scheme.

  12. RSA-Based Secret Handshakes

    OpenAIRE

    Vergnaud , Damien

    2006-01-01

    A secret handshake mechanism allows two entities, members of a same group, to authenticate each other secretly. This primitive was introduced recently by Balfanz, Durfee, Shankar, Smetters, Staddon and Wong and, so far, all the schemes proposed are based on discrete log systems. This paper proposes three new secret handshake protocols secure against active impersonator and detector adversaries. Inspired by two RSA-based key agreement protocols introduced by Okamoto and Tanaka in 1989 and Gira...

  13. Salmonella-secreted Virulence Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffron, Fred; Niemann, George; Yoon, Hyunjin; Kidwai, Afshan S.; Brown, Roslyn N.; McDermott, Jason E.; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2011-05-01

    In this short review we discuss secreted virulence factors of Salmonella, which directly affect Salmonella interaction with its host. Salmonella secretes protein to subvert host defenses but also, as discussed, to reduce virulence thereby permitting the bacteria to persist longer and more successfully disperse. The type III secretion system (TTSS) is the best known and well studied of the mechanisms that enable secretion from the bacterial cytoplasm to the host cell cytoplasm. Other secretion systems include outer membrane vesicles, which are present in all Gram-negative bacteria examined to date, two-partner secretion, and type VI secretion will also be addressed. Excellent reviews of Salmonella secreted effectors have focused on themes such as actin rearrangements, vesicular trafficking, ubiquitination, and the activities of the virulence factors themselves. This short review is based on S. Typhimurium infection of mice because it is a model of typhoid like disease in humans. We have organized effectors in terms of events that happen during the infection cycle and how secreted effectors may be involved.

  14. Quantum key based burst confidentiality in optical burst switched networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, A M; Sivasubramanian, A

    2014-01-01

    The optical burst switching (OBS) is an emergent result to the technology concern that could achieve a feasible network in future. They are endowed with the ability to meet the bandwidth requirement of those applications that require intensive bandwidth. There are more domains opening up in the OBS that evidently shows their advantages and their capability to face the future network traffic. However, the concept of OBS is still far from perfection facing issues in case of security threat. The transfer of optical switching paradigm to optical burst switching faces serious downfall in the fields of burst aggregation, routing, authentication, dispute resolution, and quality of service (QoS). This paper deals with employing RC4 (stream cipher) to encrypt and decrypt bursts thereby ensuring the confidentiality of the burst. Although the use of AES algorithm has already been proposed for the same issue, by contrasting the two algorithms under the parameters of burst encryption and decryption time, end-to-end delay, it was found that RC4 provided better results. This paper looks to provide a better solution for the confidentiality of the burst in OBS networks.

  15. Quantum Key Based Burst Confidentiality in Optical Burst Switched Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Balamurugan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The optical burst switching (OBS is an emergent result to the technology concern that could achieve a feasible network in future. They are endowed with the ability to meet the bandwidth requirement of those applications that require intensive bandwidth. There are more domains opening up in the OBS that evidently shows their advantages and their capability to face the future network traffic. However, the concept of OBS is still far from perfection facing issues in case of security threat. The transfer of optical switching paradigm to optical burst switching faces serious downfall in the fields of burst aggregation, routing, authentication, dispute resolution, and quality of service (QoS. This paper deals with employing RC4 (stream cipher to encrypt and decrypt bursts thereby ensuring the confidentiality of the burst. Although the use of AES algorithm has already been proposed for the same issue, by contrasting the two algorithms under the parameters of burst encryption and decryption time, end-to-end delay, it was found that RC4 provided better results. This paper looks to provide a better solution for the confidentiality of the burst in OBS networks.

  16. HIPAA-protecting patient confidentiality or covering something else?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A case of a physician fired from the Veterans Administration (VA for violation of the Health Care Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA illustrates a problem with both the law and the VA. Anil Parikh, a VA physician at the Jesse Brown VA in Chicago, was dismissed on a charge of making unauthorized disclosures of confidential patient information on October 19, 2007. On January 3, 2011 the Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB reversed Dr. Parikh’s removal. Dr. Parikh's initially made disclosures to the VA Office of Inspector General and to Senator Barack Obama and Congressman Luis Gutierrez, in whose district the Jesse Brown VA lies. Dr. Parikh alleged that there were systematic problems within the Jesse Brown VA that resulted in untimely and inadequate patient care. The confidential patient information Parikh disclosed included examples of the misdiagnoses and misdirection of patients within the hospital. Specifically, Dr. Parikh alleged that …

  17. Research Participants' Understanding of and Reactions to Certificates of Confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beskow, Laura M; Check, Devon K; Ammarell, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Certificates of Confidentiality are intended to facilitate participation in critical public health research by protecting against forced disclosure of identifying data in legal proceedings, but little is known about the effect of Certificate descriptions in consent forms. To gain preliminary insights, we conducted qualitative interviews with 50 HIV-positive individuals in Durham, North Carolina to explore their subjective understanding of Certificate descriptions and whether their reactions differed based on receiving a standard versus simplified description. Most interviewees were neither reassured nor alarmed by Certificate information, and most said it would not influence their willingness to participate or provide truthful information. However, compared with those receiving the simplified description, more who read the standard description said it raised new concerns, that their likelihood of participating would be lower, and that they might be less forthcoming. Most interviewees said they found the Certificate description clear, but standard-group participants often found particular words and phrases confusing, while simplified-group participants more often questioned the information's substance. Valid informed consent requires comprehension and voluntariness. Our findings highlight the importance of developing consent descriptions of Certificates and other confidentiality protections that are simple and accurate. These qualitative results provide rich detail to inform a larger, quantitative study that would permit further rigorous comparisons.

  18. BP's emissions trading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor, David G.; House, Joshua C.

    2006-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2001, BP reduced its emissions of greenhouse gases by more than 10%. BP's success in cutting emissions is often equated with its use of an apparently market-based emissions trading program. However no independent study has ever examined the rules and operation of BP's system and the incentives acting on managers to reduce emissions. We use interviews with key managers and with traders in several critical business units to explore the bound of BP's success with emissions trading. No money actually changed hands when permits were traded, and the main effect of the program was to create awareness of money-saving emission controls rather than strong price incentives. We show that the trading system did not operate like a 'textbook' cap and trade scheme. Rather, the BP system operated much like a 'safety valve' trading system, where managers let the market function until the cost of doing so surpassed what the company was willing to tolerate

  19. Greenhouse gas trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drazilov, P. [Natsource-Tullett Emissions Brokerage, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Natsource-Tullett Emissions Brokerage is a market leader in natural gas, electricity, coal, and weather, emissions with a total of more than $2 billion by volume in emissions transactions in the United States, Canada, Australia, Japan, and Europe. This power point presentation addressed issues dealing with global warming, the Kyoto Protocol, and explained where we are in terms of reaching commitments for the first compliance period between 2008-2012. The paper focused on international emissions trading (IET), joint implementation (JI) and the clean development mechanism (CDM) and explained how greenhouse gases are traded. Emissions trading refers to the trade of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxides, perfluoro-carbons, hydrofluorocarbons, and sulphur hexafluorides. The motivational drivers for trading were outlined in terms of liability for buyers and assets for sellers. To date, trading activity is nearly 120 transactions with nearly 70 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent. tabs., figs.

  20. Secret and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André PETITAT

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The postures of secrecy and revelation maintain our common relational dynamics between sharing and not sharing. Science, which has become the dominant form of knowledge, is a rational and empirical knowledge sharing. For this purpose, the knowledge articulates languages, if possible unambiguous, spaces of rational deliberation, technical devices and resources of the imagination. This activity meets other logics called power, prestige, status, profit, customer, blind adherence and revealed truth, in which the postures of secret invite themselves massively. The codes of ethics attempt to regulate this mix of contradictory logics by setting standards of scientific exchanges, recalling the person rights and particularly the subjects observed rights, protecting the working conditions of the researcher, preserving its autonomy from funders and policy makers, and ensuring the dissemination of its results.

  1. Bitcoin trading system

    OpenAIRE

    Turšič, Samo

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis an information solution was developed that enables the implementation of different trading strategies and backtesting over cryptocurrency Bitcoin trading data. Supported exchanges are Bitstamp, BTC-e and MtGox. In the field of technical analysis there already exist various solutions for Bitcoin that help traders to trade and advise them on basis of technical indicators and patterns. However, each has its own drawbacks, which we are aiming to fix. A web application was developed...

  2. Bitcoin trading system

    OpenAIRE

    Turšič, Samo

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis an information solution was developed that enables the implementation of different trading strategies and backtesting over cryptocurrency Bitcoin trading data. Supported exchanges are Bitstamp, BTC-e and MtGox. In the field of technical analysis there already exist various solutions for Bitcoin that help traders to trade and advise them on basis of technical indicators and patterns. However, each has its own drawbacks, which we are aiming to fix. A web application was developed...

  3. International trade and inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Urata, Sh¯ujir¯o; Narjoko, Dionisius A.

    2017-01-01

    The impact of globalization on equality has become a serious concern for many countries. More evidence that challenges the theoretical prediction of positive impact of international trade on income distribution has increasingly become available recently. This paper addresses this subject, surveying the empirical findings on the impact of international trade on inequalities from various perspectives. The survey reveals that an increase in trade openness by developing countries appears to have ...

  4. International Organizations and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Antras, Pol

    2010-01-01

    The three central primitives of international trade theory are consumer preferences, factor endowments, and the production technologies that allow firms to transform factors of production into consumer goods. A limitation of traditional trade theory, however, is that the specification of technology treats the mapping between factors of production and final goods as a black box. In practice, the decisions of agents in organizations determine this mapping. Recently, international trade economis...

  5. Racial Trade Barriers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jacob Halvas

    . This paper analyzes the racial policies pursued in the foreign trade and argues that we need to recognize Aryanization as a world-wide policy in order to fully understand its character and possible consequences. I focus on the pre-war period and analyze the case of Denmark from three different perspectives......: perpetrators, victims and bystanders. The analysis will show that race, economy and foreign trade were combined in an attempt to raise racial trade barriers. This forced the question of German racial policies on the Danish government, Danish-Jewish businesses, and German companies involved in foreign trade...

  6. International emissions trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan Tjeerd

    This thesis discusses the design and political acceptability of international emissions trading. It is shown that there are several designs options for emissions trading at the national level that have a different impact on output and thereby related factors such as employment and consumer prices....... The differences in impact of the design make that governments may prefer different designs of emissions trading in different situations. The thesis furthermore establishes that international emissions trading may lead to higher overall emissions, which may make it a less attractive instrument....

  7. Trade Analysis and Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelus, R.; Schot, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    In order to verify compliance with safeguards and draw conclusions on the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) collects and analyses trade information that it receives from open sources as well as from Member States. Although the IAEA does not intervene in national export controls, it has to monitor the trade of dual use items. Trade analysis helps the IAEA to evaluate global proliferation threats, to understand States' ability to report exports according to additional protocols but also to compare against State declarations. Consequently, the IAEA has explored sources of trade-related information and has developed analysis methodologies beyond its traditional safeguards approaches. (author)

  8. Trade in health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Rupa

    2002-01-01

    In light of the increasing globalization of the health sector, this article examines ways in which health services can be traded, using the mode-wise characterization of trade defined in the General Agreement on Trade in Services. The trade modes include cross- border delivery of health services via physical and electronic means, and cross-border movement of consumers, professionals, and capital. An examination of the positive and negative implications of trade in health services for equity, efficiency, quality, and access to health care indicates that health services trade has brought mixed benefits and that there is a clear role for policy measures to mitigate the adverse consequences and facilitate the gains. Some policy measures and priority areas for action are outlined, including steps to address the "brain drain"; increasing investment in the health sector and prioritizing this investment better; and promoting linkages between private and public health care services to ensure equity. Data collection, measures, and studies on health services trade all need to be improved, to assess better the magnitude and potential implications of this trade. In this context, the potential costs and benefits of trade in health services are shaped by the underlying structural conditions and existing regulatory, policy, and infrastructure in the health sector. Thus, appropriate policies and safeguard measures are required to take advantage of globalization in health services. PMID:11953795

  9. Privacy and Confidentiality in Exchange of Information Procedures : Some Uncertainties, Many Issues, but Few Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debelva, F.; Mosquera, Valderrama I.J.

    2017-01-01

    The overall aim of this article is to analyse the taxpayers’ rights to confidentiality and privacy in exchange of information including the new global standard of automatic exchange of information. Section 2 will analyse the state of the art regarding the right to privacy and confidentiality in

  10. 5 CFR 2634.901 - Policies of confidential financial disclosure reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (a) The confidential financial reporting system set forth in this subpart is designed to complement... Government duties involve the exercise of significant discretion in certain sensitive areas, report their... apparent conflicts of interest. The confidential financial disclosure system promotes that goal, with...

  11. 41 CFR 105-60.405 - Processing requests for confidential commercial information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MATERIALS 60.4-Described Records § 105-60.405 Processing requests for confidential commercial information... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Processing requests for confidential commercial information. 105-60.405 Section 105-60.405 Public Contracts and Property Management...

  12. Attitude of Lithuanian residents to confidentiality of adolescent sexual and reproductive health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; Lazarus, Jeff; Zaborskis, Apolinaras

    2011-01-01

    To assess the attitudes of Lithuanian residents towards the protection of confidentiality in the sexual and reproductive health care of adolescents.......To assess the attitudes of Lithuanian residents towards the protection of confidentiality in the sexual and reproductive health care of adolescents....

  13. University Student Expectations of Confidentiality When Disclosing Information to Their Professors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Gregory E.; Dalton, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore university students' expectations of confidentiality when they make disclosures to their university professors. A secondary purpose was to consider if students have a higher expectation of confidentiality when talking with Psychology professors versus professors in other disciplines. Students were asked to…

  14. 40 CFR 260.2 - Availability of information; confidentiality of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of information; confidentiality of information. 260.2 Section 260.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: GENERAL General § 260.2 Availability of information; confidentiality of...

  15. Privacy and Confidentiality Practices In Adolescent Family Planning Care At Federally Qualified Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeson, Tishra; Mead, Katherine H; Wood, Susan; Goldberg, Debora Goetz; Shin, Peter; Rosenbaum, Sara

    2016-03-01

    The confidentiality of family planning services remains a high priority to adolescents, but barriers to implementing confidentiality and privacy practices exist in settings designed for teenagers who are medically underserved, including federally qualified health centers (FQHCs). A sample of 423 FQHCs surveyed in 2011 provided information on their use of five selected privacy and confidentiality practices, which were examined separately and combined into an index. Regression modeling was used to assess whether various state policies and organizational characteristics were associated with FQHCs' scores on the index. In-depth case studies of six FQHCs were conducted to provide additional contextual information. Among FQHCs reporting on confidentiality, most reported providing written or verbal information regarding adolescents' rights to confidential care (81%) and limiting access to family planning and medical records to protect adolescents' confidentiality (84%). Far fewer reported maintaining separate medical records for family planning (10%), using a security block on electronic medical records to prevent disclosures (43%) or using separate contact information for communications regarding family planning services (50%). Index scores were higher among FQHCs that received Title X funding than among those that did not (coefficient, 0.70) and among FQHCs with the largest patient volumes than among those with the smallest caseloads (0.43). Case studies highlighted how a lack of guidelines and providers' confusion over relevant laws present a challenge in offering confidential care to adolescents. The organizational practices used to ensure adolescent family planning confidentiality in FQHCs are varied across organizations. Copyright © 2016 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  16. 45 CFR 307.13 - Security and confidentiality for computerized support enforcement systems in operation after...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.13 Security and confidentiality for computerized support enforcement systems in... systems in operation after October 1, 1997. (a) Information integrity and security. Have safeguards... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security and confidentiality for computerized...

  17. 6 CFR 25.10 - Confidentiality and protection of Intellectual Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidentiality and protection of Intellectual Property. 25.10 Section 25.10 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY REGULATIONS TO SUPPORT ANTI-TERRORISM BY FOSTERING EFFECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 25.10 Confidentiality and...

  18. 40 CFR 725.15 - Determining applicability when microorganism identity or use is confidential or uncertain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW... appear on the public version of the Inventory, in § 725.239 or in subpart M of this part. Instead, it is contained in a confidential version held in EPA's Confidential Business Information Center (CBIC). The...

  19. 16 CFR 312.8 - Confidentiality, security, and integrity of personal information collected from children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidentiality, security, and integrity of... COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CHILDREN'S ONLINE PRIVACY PROTECTION RULE § 312.8 Confidentiality, security, and integrity of personal information collected from children. The operator must...

  20. 77 FR 48072 - Final Confidentiality Determinations for Regulations Under the Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... Final Confidentiality Determinations for Regulations Under the Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases... confidentiality determinations for certain data elements in regulations under the Mandatory Greenhouse Gas... Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program Web site at http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/ghgrulemaking.html...

  1. 17 CFR 200.83 - Confidential treatment procedures under the Freedom of Information Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Information... first received by the Commission (i) it is supplied segregated from information for which confidential..., 100 F Street, NE., Washington, DC 20549. The person requesting confidential treatment may supply...

  2. Having Confidence in Therapeutic Work with Young People: Constraints and Challenges to Confidentiality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Confidentiality presents particular challenges to practitioners working with young people, on account of the latter's vulnerability and emotional immaturity. Ethical codes place a key importance on confidentiality, from deontological and teleological perspectives. However, young clients may rely on a more pragmatic approach in deciding whether to…

  3. 42 CFR 2.1 - Statutory authority for confidentiality of drug abuse patient records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.1 Statutory authority for confidentiality of drug abuse patient records. The restrictions of these regulations upon the disclosure and use of drug abuse patient records were initially authorized by section 408...

  4. 30 CFR 210.40 - Will MMS keep the information I provide confidential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Will MMS keep the information I provide... MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT FORMS AND REPORTS General Provisions § 210.40 Will MMS keep the information I provide confidential? The MMS will treat information obtained under this part as confidential to the...

  5. 30 CFR 291.111 - How does MMS treat the confidential information I provide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does MMS treat the confidential information... SHELF LANDS ACT § 291.111 How does MMS treat the confidential information I provide? (a) Any person who provides documents under this part in response to a request by MMS to inform a decision on whether open...

  6. 48 CFR 1552.235-71 - Treatment of confidential business information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... business information. 1552.235-71 Section 1552.235-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL... Clauses 1552.235-71 Treatment of confidential business information. As prescribed in 1535.007-70(b... determined that in the performance of a contract, EPA may furnish confidential business information to the...

  7. 48 CFR 1552.235-80 - Access to confidential business information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... business information. 1552.235-80 Section 1552.235-80 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL... Clauses 1552.235-80 Access to confidential business information. As prescribed in 1535.007-70(g), insert the following clause. Access to Confidential Business Information (OCT 2000) It is not anticipated...

  8. 48 CFR 1552.235-76 - Treatment of Confidential Business Information (APR 1996).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Business Information (APR 1996). 1552.235-76 Section 1552.235-76 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Provisions and Clauses 1552.235-76 Treatment of Confidential Business Information (APR 1996). As prescribed in 1535.007-70(c), insert the following clause: Treatment of Confidential Business Information (TSCA...

  9. 48 CFR 1552.235-70 - Screening business information for claims of confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Screening business... Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1552.235-70 Screening business information for claims of confidentiality... proprietary or confidential by the business that has the right to the information. The following clause...

  10. Confidentiality with Minors: The Need for Policy To Promote and Protect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Carolyn; Isaacs, Madelyn L.

    2003-01-01

    Investigated school counselors' attitudes toward breaching confidentiality before and after the 1999 Columbine High School shootings. Surveys of demographically similar counselors indicated that the Columbine shootings affected counselors' predictions about their attitudes and behavior regarding confidentiality. Counselors were more reluctant to…

  11. 22 CFR 1101.5 - Security, confidentiality and protection of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Security, confidentiality and protection of... Bureau of Standard's booklet “Computer Security Guidelines for Implementing the Privacy Act of 1974” (May... STATES AND MEXICO, UNITED STATES SECTION PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1101.5 Security, confidentiality and...

  12. International provision of trade services, trade, and fragmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Deardorff, Alan V.

    2001-01-01

    The author examines the special role that trade liberalization in services industries can play in stimulating trade in both services, and goods. International trade in goods requires inputs from such trade services as transportation, insurance, and finance, for example. Restrictions on services across borders, and within foreign countries add costs, and barriers to international trade. Lib...

  13. INDONESIAN TRADE UNDER CHINA FREE TRADE AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavi Supriana

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the implementation of CAFTA (China-Asean Free Trade Area on the international trade flows across Indonesia, China and the rest of ASEAN using a gravitation model. It finds the evidence that the influence of diversion and creation effects on China are significant, while the influence of both effects on Indonesia are not significant. It also finds that the diversion effect, which leads to a decrease in society’s wealth, is greater than that of the creation effect. As a consequence, the gap across countries involved in the trade agreement is wider. Keywords: CAFTA, gravitation model, diversion effect, creation effectJEL classification numbers: F13, F14, F15

  14. Public expectations concerning confidentiality protection of adolescents' sexual and reproductive health care in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Lazarus, Jeffrey Victor

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: An adolescent's right to confidential healthcare is protected by international law and professional consensus. However, parental and social support for confidential sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services, in particular, varies greatly. This study documents Lithuanian residents......' expectations with regard to confidentiality protection for adolescents in this domain, and explores the factors related to the diversity of these expectations. METHODS: Two national surveys of Lithuanian residents completed in 2005 and 2012 using anonymous questionnaires. Participants rated their expectations...... for confidentiality using a five-point Likert scale for eight types of SRH consultations. RESULTS: Public anticipation for confidentiality depended on whether issues related to sexual behaviour or to its consequences were addressed during adolescent consultation. Only younger respondents had higher expectations...

  15. Biological trade and markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstein, Peter; Noë, Ronald

    2016-02-05

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other 'commodities'. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten 'terms of contract' that 'self-stabilize' trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models-often called 'Walrasian' markets-are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying 'principal-agent' problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists studying cooperation but need

  16. How fair is fair trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, Robbert; Vaal, Albert de

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed ‘fair’. This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost

  17. Introduction to International Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intercom, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Focusing mainly on United States-Japan relations, this issue provides 11 lesson plans and student handouts dealing with international trade topics such as protective tariffs, currency exchange rates, unofficial trade barriers, causes of unemployment, the balance of payments and the internationalization of the automobile industry. (JDH)

  18. Trade and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Bentzen, Jeanet; Tarp, Finn

    2009-01-01

    History, not predictions of CGE models or cross-country growth studies, shows a strong relationship between trade and development. Vietnam's experience with bilateral trade agreements, comparing actual outcomes with predictions from existing models, demonstrates this and the limitations of research...

  19. Expatriates and trade

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konečný, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2012), s. 83-98 ISSN 1488-3473 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : migration * trade * informal trade barriers Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  20. Expatriates and trade

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konečný, Tomáš

    -, č. 387 (2009), s. 1-29 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 118909 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : international trade * migration * informal trade barriers Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp387.pdf

  1. Banking and trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2013-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term, scalable arm’s length finance which we call trading. Relationship banking is not scalable, has high franchise value, is long-term oriented and low risk. Trading is transaction-based: scalable, with lower margins (capital

  2. A trade balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Kay, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of the World Trade Organization (WTO) has been widely accepted as representing the legalisation of world trading rules. However, it is important to reflect on the limits of this legalisation thesis in terms of the interface between international and domestic policy processes. By...

  3. International trade. Multinational aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Y

    2000-01-01

    Of numerous regional economic agreements, the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), South American Common Market (MERCOSUR), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Agreement are examples that are actively pursuing regional integration for freer trade of animals and animal products. The World Trade Organization (WTO) believes that regional and multinational integration initiatives are complements rather than alternatives in the pursuit of more open trade. In the efforts to harmonize SPS standards among multilateral trading nations, it is recommended that national requirements meet the standards developed by the OIE and the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission as the minimum requirements rather than adopting the standards of the lowest common denominator. Regional grouping may hinder multilateral or bilateral trade between the countries of a group and those of the other groups. How to eliminate such non-tariff barriers as traditional trade custom remains to be examined. Ongoing activities of VICH (Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medical Products) may pave the way for more open trade in pharmaceutical products between multilateral regional groups.

  4. Comparative study on current trading system and online trading: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative study on current trading system and online trading: the case of ... of online trading and factors affecting its feasibility of implementation in ECX. ... The study found that there is significant capacity problem with major skills gap with ...

  5. 48 CFR 1552.235-73 - Access to Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Confidential Business Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Confidential Business Information (APR 1996). 1552.235-73 Section... Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Confidential Business Information (APR 1996). As prescribed in... Act Confidential Business Information (APR 1996) In order to perform duties under the contract, the...

  6. 48 CFR 1552.235-75 - Access to Toxic Substances Control Act Confidential Business Information (APR 1996).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Control Act Confidential Business Information (APR 1996). 1552.235-75 Section 1552.235-75 Federal... Confidential Business Information (APR 1996). As prescribed in 1535.007(b), insert the following provision: Access to Toxic Substances Control Act Confidential Business Information (APR 1996) In order to perform...

  7. Environmentally damaging electricity trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billette de Villemeur, Etienne; Pineau, Pierre-Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Electricity trade across regions is often considered welfare enhancing. We show in this paper that this should be reconsidered if environmental externalities are taken into account. We consider two cases where trade is beneficial, before accounting for environmental damages: first, when two regions with the same technology display some demand heterogeneity; second when one region endowed with hydropower arbitrages with its 'thermal' neighbor. Our results show that under reasonable demand and supply elasticities, trade comes with an additional environmental cost. This calls for integrating environmental externalities into market reforms when redesigning the electricity sector. Two North American applications illustrate our results: trade between Pennsylvania and New York, and trade between hydro-rich Quebec and New York.

  8. Online stock trading platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion LUNGU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is the perfect tool that can assure the market’s transparency for any user who wants to trade on the stock market. The investor can have access to the market news, financial calendar or the press releases of the issuers. A good online trading platform also provides real-time intraday quotes, trading history and technical analysis giving the investor a clearer view of the supply and demand in the market. All this information provides the investor a good image of the market and encourages him to trade. This paper wishes to draft the pieces of an online trading platform and to analyze the impact of developing and implementing one in a brokerage firm.

  9. Environmentally damaging electricity trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billette de Villemeur, Etienne [Toulouse School of Economics (IDEI and GREMAQ) (France); Pineau, Pierre-Olivier [HEC Montreal (Canada)

    2010-03-15

    Electricity trade across regions is often considered welfare enhancing. We show in this paper that this should be reconsidered if environmental externalities are taken into account. We consider two cases where trade is beneficial, before accounting for environmental damages: first, when two regions with the same technology display some demand heterogeneity; second when one region endowed with hydropower arbitrages with its ''thermal'' neighbor. Our results show that under reasonable demand and supply elasticities, trade comes with an additional environmental cost. This calls for integrating environmental externalities into market reforms when redesigning the electricity sector. Two North American applications illustrate our results: trade between Pennsylvania and New York, and trade between hydro-rich Quebec and New York. (author)

  10. Confidentiality in participatory research: Challenges from one study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Elmira; Dewing, Jan; Camilleri, Michelle

    2016-06-01

    This article presents key ethical challenges that were encountered when conducting a participatory qualitative research project with a very specific, small group of nurses, in this case with practice development nurses in Malta. With the small number of nurses employed in practice development roles in Malta, there are numerous difficulties of maintaining confidentiality. Poorly constructed interventions by the researcher could have resulted in detrimental effects to research participants and the overall trustworthiness of the research. Generally, ethical guidelines for research exist to reinforce validity of research; however, there is not an established consensus on how these strategies can be utilised in some types of qualitative field work. The researcher used an exploratory case study methodology. The sample consisted of 10 participants who were interviewed twice using face-to-face interviews, over a period of 2 months. The study was ethically reviewed by the University Research Ethics Committee and the Faculty Research Ethics Committee, University of Malta. The participants referred to in this article have been given adequate information about the study and their consent has been obtained. Numerous strategies for ensuring confidentiality during recruitment of the participants, during data collection, during transcription and data analysis and during dissemination of research results assisted the researcher in responding to potential and actual ethical issues. This article emphasises the main strategies that can be used to respond to ethical challenges when researching with a small easily identifiable group. The learning discussed here may be relevant to or even transferable to other similar research studies or research contexts. These methods fostered a greater credibility throughout the research process and predisposed the participants to greater trust, and thus, they disclosed their experiences and speak more freely, thus enhancing the quality of the study

  11. Pheochromocytomas and secreting paragangliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gimenez-Roqueplo Anne-Paule

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Catecholamine-producing tumors may arise in the adrenal medulla (pheochromocytomas or in extraadrenal chromaffin cells (secreting paragangliomas. Their prevalence is about 0.1% in patients with hypertension and 4% in patients with a fortuitously discovered adrenal mass. An increase in the production of catecholamines causes symptoms (mainly headaches, palpitations and excess sweating and signs (mainly hypertension, weight loss and diabetes reflecting the effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine on α- and β-adrenergic receptors. Catecholamine-producing tumors mimic paroxysmal conditions with hypertension and/or cardiac rhythm disorders, including panic attacks, in which sympathetic activation linked to anxiety reproduces the same signs and symptoms. These tumors may be sporadic or part of any of several genetic diseases: familial pheochromocytoma-paraganglioma syndromes, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, neurofibromatosis 1 and von Hippel-Lindau disease. Familial cases are diagnosed earlier and are more frequently bilateral and recurring than sporadic cases. The most specific and sensitive diagnostic test for the tumor is the determination of plasma or urinary metanephrines. The tumor can be located by computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy. Treatment requires resection of the tumor, generally by laparoscopic surgery. About 10% of tumors are malignant either at first operation or during follow-up, malignancy being diagnosed by the presence of lymph node, visceral or bone metastases. Recurrences and malignancy are more frequent in cases with large or extraadrenal tumors. Patients, especially those with familial or extraadrenal tumors, should be followed-up indefinitely.

  12. The Secret of Future Victories

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-01

    Copy S of 320 copies AD--A25 0 718 IDA PAPER P-265 3 THE SECRET OF FUTURE VICTORIES Paul F. Gormnan General, USA (Retired) DTIC 05M February 1992 NAY...TYPE AND DATES COVERED IFebruary 1992 Final--June 1991-January 1992 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS The Secret of Future Victories C -MDA...8 2N0-102 IDA PAPER P-2653 THE SECRET OF FUTURE VICTORIES Paul F. Gorman General. LUSA (Retired) February 1992 Approved for public release

  13. Privacy and confidentiality: perspectives of mental health consumers and carers in pharmacy settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattingh, Hendrika Laetitia; Knox, Kathy; Fejzic, Jasmina; McConnell, Denise; Fowler, Jane L; Mey, Amary; Kelly, Fiona; Wheeler, Amanda J

    2015-02-01

    The study aims to explore within the community pharmacy practice context the views of mental health stakeholders on: (1) current and past experiences of privacy, confidentiality and support; and (2) expectations and needs in relation to privacy and confidentiality. In-depth interviews and focus groups were conducted in three states in Australia, namely Queensland, the northern region of New South Wales and Western Australia, between December 2011 and March 2012. There were 98 participants consisting of consumers and carers (n = 74), health professionals (n = 13) and representatives from consumer organisations (n = 11). Participants highlighted a need for improved staff awareness. Consumers indicated a desire to receive information in a way that respects their privacy and confidentiality, in an appropriate space. Areas identified that require improved protection of privacy and confidentiality during pharmacy interactions were the number of staff having access to sensitive information, workflow models causing information exposure and pharmacies' layout not facilitating private discussions. Challenges experienced by carers created feelings of isolation which could impact on care. This study explored mental health stakeholders' experiences and expectations regarding privacy and confidentiality in the Australian community pharmacy context. A need for better pharmacy staff training about the importance of privacy and confidentiality and strategies to enhance compliance with national pharmacy practice requirements was identified. Findings provided insight into privacy and confidentiality needs and will assist in the development of pharmacy staff training material to better support consumers with sensitive conditions. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  14. Trade and Sectoral Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Fadinger, Harald; Fleiss, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    Even though differences in sectoral total factor productivity are at the heart of Ricardian trade theory and many models of growth and development, very little is known about their size and their form. In this paper we try to fill this gap by using a Hybrid-Ricardo-Heckscher-Ohlin trade model and bilateral sectoral trade data to overcome the data problem that has limited previous studies, which have used input and output data to back out productivities, to a small number of OECD economies. We...

  15. Carbon Trading. Literature Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerste, M.; Weda, J.; Rosenboom, N.

    2010-12-01

    From Pigou and Coase to the Kyoto Protocol, carbon trading has resulted in pricing of the negative externalities emanating from pollution. This report highlights leading literature and empirical findings on carbon trading, amongst others addressing the relevant carbon and related markets, the (lack of) success of carbon trading so far and room for improvement as well as its impact on investments in emission reduction. This report is part of a set of SEO-reports on finance and sustainability. The other reports deal with: Financing the Transition to Sustainable Energy; Innovations in financing environmental and social sustainability; and Sustainable investment.

  16. Integration, Trade Policy and European Footwear Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Winters, L. Alan

    1992-01-01

    This paper constructs a simulation model of the EC footwear market with which to consider the effects of EC trade policies. It examines the Southern enlargement of the EC, the quotas imposed on Korean and Taiwanese sales - initially in France and Italy and subsequently, in line with the `1992' programme, EC-wide - and the liberalization of imports from Eastern Europe. Import restrictions are shown to be costly - especially those against Eastern Europe.

  17. Secret Key Agreement: Fundamental Limits and Practical Challenges

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2017-02-15

    Despite the tremendous progress made toward establishing PLS as a new paradigm to guarantee security of communication systems at the physical layerthere is a common belief among researchers and industrials that there are many practical challenges that prevent PLS from flourishing at the industrial scale. Most secure message transmission constructions available to date are tied to strong assumptions on CSI, consider simple channel models and undermine eavesdropping capabilities; thus compromising their practical interest to a big extent. Perhaps arguably, the most likely reasonable way to leverage PLS potential in securing modern wireless communication systems is via secret-key agreement. In the latter setting, the legitimate parties try to agree on a key exploiting availability of a public channel with high capacity which is also accessible to the eavesdropper. Once a key is shared by the legitimate parties, they may use it in a one-time pad encryption, for instance. In this article, we investigate two performance limits of secret-key agreement communications; namely, the secret-key diversity-multiplexing trade-off and the effect of transmit correlation on the secretkey capacity. We show via examples how secretkey agreement offers more flexibility than secure message transmissions. Finally, we explore a few challenges of secret-key agreement concept and propose a few guidelines to overturn them.

  18. Nonlinear secret image sharing scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sang-Ho; Lee, Gil-Je; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, most of secret image sharing schemes have been proposed by using Shamir's technique. It is based on a linear combination polynomial arithmetic. Although Shamir's technique based secret image sharing schemes are efficient and scalable for various environments, there exists a security threat such as Tompa-Woll attack. Renvall and Ding proposed a new secret sharing technique based on nonlinear combination polynomial arithmetic in order to solve this threat. It is hard to apply to the secret image sharing. In this paper, we propose a (t, n)-threshold nonlinear secret image sharing scheme with steganography concept. In order to achieve a suitable and secure secret image sharing scheme, we adapt a modified LSB embedding technique with XOR Boolean algebra operation, define a new variable m, and change a range of prime p in sharing procedure. In order to evaluate efficiency and security of proposed scheme, we use the embedding capacity and PSNR. As a result of it, average value of PSNR and embedding capacity are 44.78 (dB) and 1.74t⌈log2 m⌉ bit-per-pixel (bpp), respectively.

  19. Environment, Trade, and Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environment, trade, and investment are fundamentally linked as the environment provides many basic inputs of economic activity – forests, fisheries, metals, minerals – as well as the energy used to process those materials.

  20. International trade and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posada L, Luis Guillermo

    2000-01-01

    Topics are presented as economic theory and theory of the international trade, international dimension of the environmental problems, economic prosperity, environmental quality and lineament are given for an alternative, among others

  1. World Trade Center

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Esilinastus katastroofifilm "World Trade Center" : stsenarist Andrea Berloff : režissöör Oliver Stone : kunstnik Jan Roelfs : osades Nicholas Cage, Michael Pena, Stephen Dorff jpt : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2006. Ka filmi prototüüpidest

  2. What Is Emissions Trading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn the basics about how emissions trading uses a market-based policy tool used to control large amounts of pollution emissions from a group of sources in order to protect human health and the environment.

  3. Trading forest carbon - OSU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issues associate with trading carbon sequestered in forests are discussed. Scientific uncertainties associated with carbon measurement are discussed with respect to proposed accounting procedures. Major issues include: (1) Establishing baselines. (2) Determining additivity from f...

  4. International Trade. International Business

    OpenAIRE

    Мохнюк, А. М.; Mokhniuk, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Work programme of the study course “International Trade. International Business” was prepared in accordance with educational and vocational training program for bachelors of training direction 6.030601 “Management”.

  5. Oil trading manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, D.

    1995-01-01

    This manual provides basic information on all aspects of oil trading. Topics reviewed in Part 1 include physical characteristics and refining and oil pricing arrangements. Part 2 on instruments and markets contains chapters on crude oil markets, product markets, forward and futures contracts, forward paper markets, oil future exchanges, options, swaps and long term oil markets. Part 3 deals with administration and has chapters on operations and logistics, credit control, accounting, taxation of oil trading, contracts and legal and regulatory issues. (UK)

  6. International Trade Students’ Stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Kamila Matysová

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the present paper is to detect stereotypes of students studying International Trade at the University of Economics Prague and, if need be, propose didactic measures for intercultural education at the university. In our study, 293 International Trade students described six ethnic and national groups (Roma, Ukrainians, Vietnamese, Russians, Germans and Czechs) in terms of explicit stereotypes. The following hypothesis was formulated in the study: On the one hand, stereotypes of the ...

  7. Trade and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamiotti, L.; Teh, R.; Kulacoglu, V. (World Trade Organization (WTO), Geneva (Switzerland)); Olhoff, A.; Simmons, B.; Abaza, H. (United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) (Denmark))

    2009-06-15

    The Report aims to improve understanding about the linkages between trade and climate change. It shows that trade intersects with climate change in a multitude of ways. For example, governments may introduce a variety of policies, such as regulatory measures and economic incentives, to address climate change. This complex web of measures may have an impact on international trade and the multilateral trading system. The Report begins with a summary of the current state of scientific knowledge on climate change and on the options available for responding to the challenge of climate change. The scientific review is followed by a part on the economic aspects of the link between trade and climate change, and these two parts set the context for the subsequent parts of the Report, which looks at the policies introduced at both the international and national level to address climate change. The part on international policy responses to climate change describes multilateral efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt to the effects of climate change, and also discusses the role of the current trade and environment negotiations in promoting trade in technologies that aim to mitigate climate change. The final part of the Report gives an overview of a range of national policies and measures that have been used in a number of countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to increase energy efficiency. It presents key features in the design and implementation of these policies, in order to draw a clearer picture of their overall effect and potential impact on environmental protection, sustainable development and trade. It also gives, where appropriate, an overview of the WTO rules that may be relevant to such measures. (author)

  8. Additive versus multiplicative trade costs and the gains from trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan

    This paper addresses welfare effects from trade liberalization in a heterogeneous-fi…rms trade model including the empirically important per-unit (i.e. additive) trade costs in addition to the conventional iceberg (i.e. multiplicative) and fi…xed trade costs. The novel contribution of the paper...... is the result that the welfare gain for a given increase in trade openness is higher for reductions in per-unit (additive) trade costs than for reductions in iceberg (multiplicative) trade costs. The ranking derives from differences in intra-industry reallocations and in particular from dissimilar impacts...

  9. Gravity Models of Trade-Based Money Laundering

    OpenAIRE

    Ferwerda, Joras; Kattenberg, Marc; Chang, Han-Hsin; Unger, Brigitte; Groot, Loek; Bikker, Jaap

    2011-01-01

    Several attempts have been made in the economics literature to measure money laundering. However, the adequacy of these models is difficult to assess, as money laundering takes place secretly and, hence, goes unobserved. An exception is tradebased money laundering (TBML), a special form of trade abuse that has been discovered only recently. TBML refers to criminal proceeds that are transferred around the world using fake invoices that under- or overvalue imports and exports. This article is a...

  10. Estimating the elasticity of trade: the trade share approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Lanati

    2013-01-01

    Recent theoretical work on international trade emphasizes the importance of trade elasticity as the fundamental statistic needed to conduct welfare analysis. Eaton and Kortum (2002) proposed a two-step method to estimate this parameter, where exporter fixed effects are regressed on proxies for technology and wages. Within the same Ricardian model of trade, the trade share provides an alternative source of identication for the elasticity of trade. Following Santos Silva and Tenreyro (2006) bot...

  11. 75 FR 56096 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Industrial Economics Incorporated

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPPT-2003-0004; FRL-8845-1] Access to Confidential Business Information by Industrial Economics Incorporated AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has authorized contractor, Industrial Economics Incorporated (IEI) of...

  12. 75 FR 78238 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Science Applications International Corporation and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... Business Information by Science Applications International Corporation and Its Identified Subcontractors..., Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) of San Diego, CA, and Its Identified Subcontractors... Control Act (TSCA). Some of the information may be claimed or determined to be Confidential Business...

  13. Genetic privacy and confidentiality: why they are so hard to protect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, M A

    1998-01-01

    Author notes that widespread concerns have been raised about protecting genetic privacy and confidentiality in insurance and employment. He argues that effective protections are difficult because complicated issues, such as the right of access to health care, are invariably implicated.

  14. Developing an effective corrective action process : lessons learned from operating a confidential close call reporting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    In 2007, the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) launched : C3RS, the Confidential Close Call Reporting System, as a : demonstration project to learn how to facilitate the effective : reporting and implementation of corrective actions, and assess t...

  15. 7 CFR 981.75 - Confidential nature of records and reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 981.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS..., financial condition, or business operations of any handler shall be considered as confidential information...

  16. Confidentiality Enhancement of Highly Sensitive Nuclear Data Using Steganography with Chaotic Encryption over OFDM Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, S.; Ayad, N.; Elsayed, F.; Elbendary, M.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Due to the widespread usage of the internet and other wired and wireless communication methods, the security of the transmitted data has become a major requirement. Nuclear knowledge is mainly built upon the exchange of nuclear information which is considered highly sensitive information, so its security has to be enhanced by using high level security mechanisms. Data confidentiality is concerned with the achievement of higher protection for confidential information from unauthorized disclosure or access. Cryptography and steganography are famous and widely used techniques that process information in order to achieve its confidentiality, but sometimes, when used individually, they don’t satisfy a required level of security for highly sensitive data. In this paper, cryptography is accompanied with steganography for constituting a multilayer security techniques that can strengthen the level of security of highly confidential nuclear data that are archived or transmitted through different channel types and noise conditions. (author)

  17. 77 FR 12284 - Access to Confidential Business Information; Protection Strategies Incorporated

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... Business Information; Protection Strategies Incorporated AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has authorized its contractor, Protection Strategies Incorporated (PSI) of... Business Information (CBI). DATES: Access to the confidential data occurred on or about February 16, 2012...

  18. 75 FR 57768 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Eastern Research Group and Its Identified...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... Business Information by Eastern Research Group and Its Identified Subcontractor AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has authorized its contractor, Eastern Research Group... the information may be claimed or determined to be Confidential Business Information (CBI). DATES...

  19. Privacy Act System of Records: Confidential Business Information Tracking System, EPA-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the Confidential Business Information Tracking System, including who is covered in the system, the purpose of data collection, routine uses for the system's records, and other security procedures.

  20. 78 FR 54889 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Confidentiality Rules (Renewal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... received will be included in the public docket without change including any personal information provided, unless the comment includes profanity, threats, or information claimed to be Confidential Business... of appropriate automated electronic, mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or...

  1. 75 FR 8330 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Eastern Research Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPPT-2003-0004; FRL-8812-4] Access to Confidential Business Information by Eastern Research Group AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. [[Page 8331

  2. 12 CFR 261.20 - Confidential supervisory information made available to supervised financial institutions and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... available to supervised financial institutions and financial institution supervisory agencies. 261.20... Supervised Institutions, Financial Institution Supervisory Agencies, Law Enforcement Agencies, and Others in... institutions and financial institution supervisory agencies. (a) Disclosure of confidential supervisory...

  3. On alternative approach for verifiable secret sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Kulesza, Kamil; Kotulski, Zbigniew; Pieprzyk, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    Secret sharing allows split/distributed control over the secret (e.g. master key). Verifiable secret sharing (VSS) is the secret sharing extended by verification capacity. Usually verification comes at the price. We propose "free lunch", the approach that allows to overcome this inconvenience.

  4. When security and medicine missions conflict: confidentiality in prison settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Scott A; Aburabi, Raed

    2016-06-13

    Purpose - It is a simple fact that prisons cannot exist - practically, legally, ethically or morally - without the support of physicians and other health professionals. Access to adequate healthcare is one of the fundamental measures of the legitimacy of a jail or prison. At the same time, there is a fundamental tension in the missions of the prison and doctor. The primary mission of the prison is security and often punishment. Reform and rehabilitation have intermittently been stated goals of prisons in the last century, but in practice those humane goals have rarely governed prison administrative culture. The primary mission of the physician is to promote the health and welfare of his or her patient. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach - At times, what is required to serve the patient's best interest is at odds with the interests of security. Much of the work of the prison physician does not conflict with the operation of security. Indeed, much of the work of the prison physician is allowed to proceed without much interference from the security regime. But given the fundamental discord in the legitimate missions of security vs medicine, conflict between the doctor and the warden is inevitable. Findings - In this paper, the authors consider the example of patient confidentiality to illustrate this conflict, using case examples inspired by real cases from the experience of the authors. Originality/value - The authors provide an ethical and practical framework for health professionals to employ when confronting these inevitable conflicts in correctional settings.

  5. RESPECTING THE CONFIDENTIALITY AND ANONYMITY IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN SOCIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria OPREA

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethics, a philosophical discipline, formulates a set of principles that must be followed, in respect of good and truth, fundamental values of humanity. The world of scientific research, of all kinds, also obeys moral imperatives and principles and is called upon to answer to society not only in relation to the discoveries themselves but, above all, in relation to the possible destructive effects on man or his life environment. The researcher in the sphere of social sciences is more involved in the act of responsibility, the more the topic subject of the study is the individual, the social group, the social environment. He must rigorously follow the principles and requirements of fair, honest, objective studies that do not harm the dignity of the human being. In line with the ethical rigors of scientific research, the article aims to highlight some aspects of respecting the principle of confidentiality and anonymity in qualitative research in the field of sociology, with reference to the study of vulnerable groups in Arad County.

  6. Confidentiality Protection of Digital Health Records in Cloud Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shyh-Wei; Chiang, Dai Lun; Liu, Chia-Hui; Chen, Tzer-Shyong; Lai, Feipei; Wang, Huihui; Wei, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Electronic medical records containing confidential information were uploaded to the cloud. The cloud allows medical crews to access and manage the data and integration of medical records easily. This data system provides relevant information to medical personnel and facilitates and improve electronic medical record management and data transmission. A structure of cloud-based and patient-centered personal health record (PHR) is proposed in this study. This technique helps patients to manage their health information, such as appointment date with doctor, health reports, and a completed understanding of their own health conditions. It will create patients a positive attitudes to maintain the health. The patients make decision on their own for those whom has access to their records over a specific span of time specified by the patients. Storing data in the cloud environment can reduce costs and enhance the share of information, but the potential threat of information security should be taken into consideration. This study is proposing the cloud-based secure transmission mechanism is suitable for multiple users (like nurse aides, patients, and family members).

  7. Security, privacy, and confidentiality issues on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Grant; McKenzie, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    We introduce the issues around protecting information about patients and related data sent via the Internet. We begin by reviewing three concepts necessary to any discussion about data security in a healthcare environment: privacy, confidentiality, and consent. We are giving some advice on how to protect local data. Authentication and privacy of e-mail via encryption is offered by Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) and Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME). The de facto Internet standard for encrypting Web-based information interchanges is Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), more recently known as Transport Layer Security or TLS. There is a public key infrastructure process to `sign' a message whereby the private key of an individual can be used to `hash' the message. This can then be verified against the sender's public key. This ensures the data's authenticity and origin without conferring privacy, and is called a `digital signature'. The best protection against viruses is not opening e-mails from unknown sources or those containing unusual message headers. PMID:12554559

  8. Security, privacy, and confidentiality issues on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Grant; McKenzie, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    We introduce the issues around protecting information about patients and related data sent via the Internet. We begin by reviewing three concepts necessary to any discussion about data security in a healthcare environment: privacy, confidentiality, and consent. We are giving some advice on how to protect local data. Authentication and privacy of e-mail via encryption is offered by Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) and Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME). The de facto Internet standard for encrypting Web-based information interchanges is Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), more recently known as Transport Layer Security or TLS. There is a public key infrastructure process to 'sign' a message whereby the private key of an individual can be used to 'hash' the message. This can then be verified against the sender's public key. This ensures the data's authenticity and origin without conferring privacy, and is called a 'digital signature'. The best protection against viruses is not opening e-mails from unknown sources or those containing unusual message headers.

  9. Nursing Students' Perceptions of Confidentiality, Accountability, and E-Professionalism in Relation to Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnable, Alexia; Cunning, Glenda; Parcon, Mariel

    This study examined nursing students' perceptions of confidentiality, accountability, and e-professionalism in relation to Facebook. All of the students were aware that posting patients' names and pictures of patients constituted a confidentiality breach. When comparing students based on educational status, there were differing opinions on whether employers should use Facebook profile information for hiring decisions. Nursing programs should provide current education, including clear and up-to-date policies, about social media use.

  10. THE POSSIBLE CONFIDENTIALITY: THE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AS PARTY IN THE ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto de Salles

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article debates the tension that exists between confidentiality, usual in ADRs, and the publicity principle, that rules the Public Administration in Brazil. As a solution points that the parameter of confidentiality when Public Administration is a party must be the preservation of accountability of the involved agencies, what means, the capacity to answer to its own goals and to obey the public control.

  11. Quantum strongly secure ramp secret sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Paul; Matsumoto, Rytaro Yamashita

    2015-01-01

    Quantum secret sharing is a scheme for encoding a quantum state (the secret) into multiple shares and distributing them among several participants. If a sufficient number of shares are put together, then the secret can be fully reconstructed. If an insufficient number of shares are put together...... however, no information about the secret can be revealed. In quantum ramp secret sharing, partial information about the secret is allowed to leak to a set of participants, called an unqualified set, that cannot fully reconstruct the secret. By allowing this, the size of a share can be drastically reduced....... This paper introduces a quantum analog of classical strong security in ramp secret sharing schemes. While the ramp secret sharing scheme still leaks partial information about the secret to unqualified sets of participants, the strong security condition ensures that qudits with critical information can...

  12. Attitudes toward medical and genetic confidentiality in the Saudi research biobank: An exploratory survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahmad, Ghiath; Hifnawy, Tamer; Abbasi, Badaruddin; Dierickx, Kris

    2016-03-01

    Achieving a balance between giving access to information and respecting donors' confidentiality is a crucial issue for any biobank, with its large number of samples and associated information. Despite the existence of much empirical literature on confidentiality, there are too few surveys in the Middle East about the topic, particularly in the Saudi context. A survey was conducted of 200 respondents at King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, among 5 groups of equal size, comprised of researchers, physicians, medical students, donors and laypersons, respectively. The majority of participants agreed that confidentiality is an important issue and that it is well protected in the Saudi biobank. All 5 groups showed different attitudes toward disclosing information to various third parties. They were in favor of allowing treating physicians, and to a certain extent family members, to have access to medical and genetic results from research. No significant differences were found between views on medical and genetic confidentiality. The majority of respondents agreed that confidentiality might be breached in cases with specific justified reasons. Even considering differences in religion, culture and other factors, the results of the study were consistent with those reported in the literature and research conducted in other countries. We therefore place emphasis on the importance of protecting and promoting patient/donor confidentiality and privacy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Why are Trade Agreements Regional?

    OpenAIRE

    Zissimos, Ben

    2007-01-01

    This paper shows how distance may be used to coordinate on a unique equilibrium in which trade agreements are regional. Trade agreement formation is modeled as coalition formation. In a standard trade model with no distance between countries, a familiar problem of coordination failure arises giving rise to multiple equilibria; any one of many possible trade agreements can form. With distance between countries, and through strategic interaction in tariff setting, regional trade agreements gene...

  14. Histaminergic regulation of prolactin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, U P

    1990-01-01

    Histamine (HA), which acts as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, participates in the neuroendocrine regulation of prolactin (PRL) secretion. HA has a predominant stimulatory effect which is mediated via H2-receptors following central administration and via H1-receptors following...... systemic infusion of the amine. In addition, HA seems to exert a minor inhibitory effect on PRL secretion, an effect unmasked only during blockade of the receptor mediating the stimulatory effect. Following central administration the inhibitory effect is mediated via H1-receptors, while following systemic...... administration this effect is mediated via H2-receptors. In accordance with these findings, the H2-receptor antagonist cimetidine (CIM) has an inhibitory (following central administration) or stimulatory (following systemic administration) effect on PRL secretion. However, high doses of CIM possess an additional...

  15. Trade creation and trade diversion in the Canada - United States Free Trade Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Kimberly A. Clausing

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the changes in trade patterns introduced by the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement are examined. Variation in the extent of tariff liberalization under the agreement is used to identify the impact of tariff liberalization on the growth of trade both with member countries and non-member countries. Data at the commodity level are used, and the results indicate that the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement had substantial trade creation effects, with little evidence of ...

  16. KEWENANGAN OTORITAS JASA KEUANGAN MENGENAI PERLINDUNGAN HUKUM BAGI INVESTOR TERHADAP TINDAKAN TIPPEE YANG MELAKUKAN INSIDER TRADING DALAM PERDAGANGAN SAHAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Dwi Juliana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One type of a criminal in the capital market is the practice of  insider trading. Insider trading is an act that involves a group of insider in the capital market who deliberately exploit information that has not been released to investors with the advantages. In insider trading there are two actors such as party directly as an insider who works in the company or indirect as tippee party who obtain confidential information from an insider. Tippee is the party who receives confidential information from an insider either passively or actively against the law or not against the law for personal gain in the stock trading. This is very detrimental to the investors in the stock trading. Because of that if needs the protection for investors against the actions of the Tippee.  This study discusses two (2 problem first about the subject matter of the action form Tippee in insider trading to the stock at Indonesia and the second about OJK authority on legal protection for investors in case of insider trading by the Tippee in capital market activities. This research is a normative law. The Method approach is the approach of legislation, conceptual approach and comparative approach. Legal materials used are primary and secondary legal materials. Mechanical collection of legal materials is through the study of literature that further uses analysis techniques that description techniques and interpretation. The results shows that this form of action Tippee can be done actively and passively. Actively to perform an unlawful act such as stealing information. In is not trying to fight the law, but to obtain inside information and legal safeguards for investors to act with regard to insider trading Tippee do give legal certainty through legislation and legal certainty by the OJK through law enforcement

  17. Trading green electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, M.

    1997-01-01

    A study has been carried out into the feasibility of developing an electricity trading mechanism which would allow consumers to purchase electricity which has been derived from renewable energy resources. This study was part funded by the European Commission (ALTENER), the Department of Trade and Industry and a number of private sector companies. The trading mechanism is known as the Green Pool. As a result of the findings of this study discussions are being held with potential generators and suppliers to establish a Green Pool plc. The aim is to encourage the development of new renewable energy projects outside the NFFO and SRO schemes. The Green Pool plc will be owned by the generators and its main objective will be to market the electricity produced by its members. (Author)

  18. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...... outside of tariffs. Impressive results were forecast by simulating both a 50% reduction in what can be considered traditional non-tariff barriers and a modest 20% reduction in the costs associated with transit time delays at customs, terminals and internal land transportation. Gains from tariff...... elimination, non-tariff barrier reductions and time in transit cost reductions are likely to be cumulative and would generate very large gains to Africa. The policy implications are clear: while cooperation will enhance the gains, much of the benefits will result from unilateral actions and regional...

  19. Impaired Follistatin Secretion in Cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinnov, Anders Rasmussen; Plomgaard, Peter; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2016-01-01

    compared to healthy control participants. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: To experimentally increase the glucagon-insulin ratio (mimicking the hormonal effect of exercise), we infused glucagon/somatostatin (to inhibit insulin secretion) and compared the acute follistatin increase in eight male cirrhosis...... controls (27.6 ± 3.8 vs 34.5 ± 2.9%, respectively; P = .001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with cirrhosis show impaired capacity to acutely secrete follistatin. The decrease in acute follistatin release may contribute to the loss of muscle mass in liver cirrhosis....

  20. Secrets and Disclosures: How Young Children Handle Secrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostaki, Lida; Wright, Michael J.; Papathanasiou, Athanasia

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the influence of content and verbal cues on young children's understanding of secret information and of its disclosure. Participants were 209 5- and 6-year-old children in an experiment where a puppet, named Zinc, was the protagonist. Children were asked to whom Zinc would disclose a list of pieces of information, some of…

  1. NOx trade. Case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, J.

    2002-01-01

    Some of the questions with respect to the trade of nitrogen oxides that businesses in the Netherlands have to deal with are dealt with: should a business buy or sell rights for NOx emission; which measures must be taken to reduce NOx emission; how much must be invested; and how to deal with uncertainties with regard to prices. Simulations were carried out with the MOSES model to find the answers to those questions. Results of some case studies are presented, focusing on the chemical sector in the Netherlands. Finally, the financial (dis)advantages of NOx trade and the related uncertainties for a single enterprise are discussed [nl

  2. THE PRINCIPLE OF CONFIDENTIALITY IN ARBITRATION. APPLICATION AND LIMITATIONS OF THE PRINCIPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazil Oglindă

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, arbitration has grown to be the preferred means of dispute resolution by commercial entities. One of the benefits that build the attraction for this system of dispute resolution was the principle of confidentiality. One issue that needs to be analyzed is about the reasons why confidentiality is so important in business. Confidentiality is a principle largely embraced in arbitration, but, as we will see, the principle is not an absolute one. There are a set of questions that needs to be answer to, like: Who is bound by the duty of confidentiality? Does this refer only to the parties or does it expands to other actors involved in the arbitral proceedings? What happens with the obligation of confidentiality when issues are brought before a court, taking in account the principle of open justice? We will see that in some countries are procedural laws allowing the courts to order an arbitration claim to be heard in public or in private. Another important aspect that has arisen in the last period is regarding the public policy and the protection of public interest as a limitation to confidentiality of arbitration. This is a sensitive matter especially when one of the parties is a state or a state entity. This study aims to explore the principle of confidentiality in arbitration by focusing on its domain and on its limits, both from the comparative approach and from the Romanian approach. Knowing all this aspects, we will realize the importance of having professional counseling when drafting an arbitration clause and how this can be the missing puzzle piece of your business.

  3. The Supply of Trade Credit by Brazilian Publicly Traded Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Felipe Schiozer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the determinants of trade credit supply by Brazilian publicly traded companies between the years of 2005 and 2008. International literature (both theoretical and empirical documents that the main determinants of trade credit supply are the size of the firm and the size of its debt. Both indicate that the availability of resources to the firm is an important factor for the supply of trade credit. In addition, the literature confirms strategic uses of trade credit such as those for price discrimination purposes. The results obtained using a sample of 157 Brazilian companies do not support that size and indebtedness are relevant determinants for trade credit supply, but they confirm the supply of trade credit as a strategic tool for the firms. Additionally we observed a significant decrease in trade credit supply in 2008, the year in which a severe international financial crisis took place.

  4. Raspberry Pi for secret agents

    CERN Document Server

    Sjogelid, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This book is an easy-to-follow guide with practical examples in each chapter. Suitable for the novice and expert alike, each topic provides a fast and easy way to get started with exciting applications and also guides you through setting up the Raspberry Pi as a secret agent toolbox.

  5. Unraveling the Wnt secretion pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harterink, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Wnt family of signaling proteins has essential functions in development and adult tissue homeostasis throughout the animal kingdom. Although signaling cascades triggered by Wnt proteins have been extensively studied, much remains to be learned about how Wnts are produced and secreted and how

  6. VIP secreting tumours in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, R.P.; Slavotinek, J.P.; Dorney, S.F.A.

    1990-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) secreting neural crest tumours are an uncommon but important treatable cause of intractable childhood diarrhoea. The radiological appearances of two cases are presented with a review of radiological findings in childhood VIP secreting neural crest tumours. Twenty eight cases of childhood VIP secreting neural crest tumours were reviewed. Nineteen (68%) were ganglioneuroblastomas and nine (32%) were ganglioneuromas. The majority of tumours (66%) were in a paravertebral location in the abdomen indicating that a search for such a tumour should be initiated at this site. Eighteen of the twenty eight cases reviewed discussed relevant radiological investigations. Calcification was detected in 50% of abdominal radiographs. Gut dilatation was often a prominent feature. A mass was detected in 5 of 5 cases where ultrasound findings were reported, and seven of seven cases with CT findings reported. Prior to the availability of CT and ultrasound the most useful investigation was IVU which demonstrated evidence of a mass in 5 of 9 cases. The presence of paravertebral calcification and gut dilatation on the plain radiograph of a child with intractable diarrhoea suggests the presence of a VIP secreting neural crest tumour. If an abdominal tumour is not found in the appropriate clinical setting and VIP levels are elevated, a widespread search of the paravertebral region is indicated. (orig.)

  7. Rekonstruksi Pengaturan Confidential Principle bagi Komunikasi pada Mediasi Sengketa Perdata di Indonesia: Studi Perbandingan dengan Praktik di Amerika Serikat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ngurah Parikesit

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Peran mediasi sebagai penyelesaian sengketa alternatif untuk sengketa perdata yang semakin populer digunakan pada praktiknya belum berjalan maksimal. Salah satu penyebabnya adalah kekaburan pengaturan prinsip kerahasiaan confidential principle bagi komunikasi yang terjadi pada proses mediasi. Aturan hukum di Indonesia hanya menjelaskan bahwa mediasi dilangsungkan berdasarkan pada asas tertutup dan mediator berkewajiban menjaga kerahasiaan, baik dalam bentuk perkataan maupun catatan, yang terungkap pada mediasi. Sebagai perbandingan, aturan hukum di Amerika Serikat sudah diatur bahwa segala bentuk komunikasi yang terjadi dan berhubungan dengan pelaksanaan mediasi tunduk pada confidential principle, sehingga proses komunikasi mendapatkan hak istimewa (privilege dengan tidak dapat dijadikan barang bukti dan seluruh pihak yang terlibat dalam mediasi tidak dapat dijadikan saksi pada persidangan berikutnya. Dengan demikian, dibutuhkan rekonstruksi pengaturan terkait ruang lingkup komunikasi pada proses mediasi yang terkualifikasi sebagai confidential principle pengaturan terkait pelepasan hak istimewa komunikasi dari confidential principle; dan pengaturan terkait pengecualian terhadap komunikasi yang terkualifikasi sebagai confidential principle Abstract Although being popular, the role of mediation in resolving civil disputes is yet to be maximalized. One of the reasons is the the vague regulation concerning the confidential principle for communication in mediation. The existing regulation in Indonesia only explains that mediation is undertaken based on closed principle and the mediator is obliged to maintain confidentiality the confidentiality of any communication, either in oral or written forms, revealed during mediation. Whereas in comparison, the regulation in the United States of America stipulates that all forms of communications occured during mediation or is made for purposes of conducting or participating in mediation are subjects to the

  8. Lithuanian general practitioners' knowledge of confidentiality laws in adolescent sexual and reproductive healthcare: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Jaruseviciene, Lina; Liljestrand, Jerker

    2008-01-01

    In Lithuania, the legislation addressing confidentiality in adolescent healthcare is contradictory and vague. Previous studies have also revealed that medico-legal knowledge among physicians is poor, and attitudes play a correspondingly greater role than legal knowledge in ensuring the confidenti......In Lithuania, the legislation addressing confidentiality in adolescent healthcare is contradictory and vague. Previous studies have also revealed that medico-legal knowledge among physicians is poor, and attitudes play a correspondingly greater role than legal knowledge in ensuring...

  9. Syllabus in Trade Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    The syllabus outlines material for a course two academic years in length (minimum two and one-half hours daily experience) leading to entry-level occupational ability in several welding trade areas. Fourteen units covering are welding, gas welding, oxyacetylene welding, cutting, nonfusion processes, inert gas shielded-arc welding, welding cast…

  10. Scoin Trading (Pty)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2 Scoin Trading (Pty) Ltd v Bernstein 2011 2 SA 118 (SCA). ... Literature on the law of contract in South Africa have over the years tended to hold that fault ..... who was suddenly compelled to be absent on public business was not held to be in.

  11. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2008-01-01

    ....) authorize the imposition of duties if (1) the International Trade Administration (ITA) of the Department of Commerce determines that foreign merchandise is being, or likely to be sold in the United States at less than fair value, and (2) the U.S...

  12. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2007-01-01

    ....) authorize the imposition of duties if (1) the International Trade Administration (ITA) of the Department of Commerce determines that foreign merchandise is being, or likely to be sold in the United States at less than fair value, and (2) the U.S...

  13. Trading fund opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The paper concerns the operation of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) as a trading fund. The changes and anticipated effects of this role are discussed, including the financial arrangements, UKAEA skills, customers, Department of Energy sponsorship and new business opportunities. (U.K.)

  14. Trading forest carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nature of carbon in forests is discussed from the perspective of carbon trading. Carbon inventories, specifically in the area of land use and forestry are reviewed for the Pacific Northwest. Carbon turnover in forests is discussed as it relates to carbon sequestration. Scient...

  15. Carbon trading: Literature overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerste, M.; Weda, J.; Rosenboom, N.

    2010-01-01

    From Pigou and Coase to the Kyoto Protocol, carbon trading has resulted in pricing of the negative externalities emanating from pollution. At the request of Duisenberg school of finance, this report highlights leading literature and empirical findings on ‘carbon trading’, amongst others addressing

  16. Introduction to International Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crummett, Dan M.; Crummett, Jerrie

    This set of student and teacher guides is intended for use in a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in such occupational areas in international trade as business/finance, communications, logistics, and marketing. The following topics are covered in the course's five instructional units: introduction to careers in international…

  17. Transparency for international trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. R. Lakin; G. A. Fowler; W. D. Bailey; J. Cavey; P. Lehtonen

    2003-01-01

    U.S. Department of Agriculture - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service - Plant Protection and Quarantine (USDA-APHIS-PPQ) has developed a Regulated Plant Pest List (RPPL). This provides trading partners with an official list of plant pests of concern to the U.S., along with providing greater transparency of Agency actions.

  18. Globalization and world trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Joseph Buongiorno

    2007-01-01

    This chapter discusses economic globalization and world trade in relation to forest sector modeling for the US/North American region. It discusses drivers of economic globalization and related structural changes in US forest product markets, including currency exchange rates and differences in manufacturing costs that have contributed to the displacement of global...

  19. Trade Facilitation in Ethiopia:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tilahun_EK

    so doing, it attempts to examine how Ethiopia's WTO Accession and trade facilitation ... the more expensive imports, exports and production becomes rendering. Ethiopian ..... can reserve the right to refuse requests of importers for the fifth valuation method to ..... units may find it easier to deal with post clearance audit. In the ...

  20. Traits traded off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rueffler, Claus

    2006-01-01

    The course of evolution is restricted by constraints. A special type of constraint is a trade-off where different traits are negatively correlated. In this situation a mutant type that shows an improvement in one trait suffers from a decreased performance through another trait. In a fixed fitness

  1. Maintenance Trades Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, Theodore J.

    2008-01-01

    In 2002, APPA published "Maintenance Staffing Guidelines for Educational Facilities," the first building maintenance trades staffing guideline designed to assist educational facilities professionals with their staffing needs. addresses how facilities professionals can determine the appropriate size and mix of their organization. Contents…

  2. Trading network predicts stock price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-16

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices.

  3. METHODS FOR ASSESSING SECURITY THREATS CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION FOR THE INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Belokurova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the different approaches to assessing the safety of confidential information-term for information and telecommunication systems of various pre-appreciable destination in the presence of internal and external threats to its integrity and availability. The difficulty of ensuring the security of confidential information from exposure to information and telecommunication systems of external and internal threats at the present time, is of particular relevance. This problem is confirmed by the analysis of available statistical information on the impact of threats on the security circulating in the information and telecommunications system. Leak confidential information, intellectual property, information, know-how is the result of significant material and moral damage caused to the owner of the restricted information. The paper presents the structure of the indicators and criteria shows that the most promising are analytical criteria. However, their use to assess the level of security of confidential information is difficult due to the lack of appropriate mathematical models. The complexity of the problem is that existing traditional mathematical models are not always appropriate for the stated objectives. Therefore, it is necessary to develop mathematical models designed to assess the security of confidential information and its impact on information and telecommunication system threats.

  4. Tamper-proof secret image-sharing scheme for identifying cheated secret keys and shared images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chang; Liu, Chong-An

    2013-01-01

    A (t,n) secret image-sharing scheme shares a secret image to n participants, and the t users recover the image. During the recovery procedure of a conventional secret image-sharing scheme, cheaters may use counterfeit secret keys or modified shared images to cheat other users' secret keys and shared images. A cheated secret key or shared image leads to an incorrect secret image. Unfortunately, the cheater cannot be identified. We present an exponent and modulus-based scheme to provide a tamper-proof secret image-sharing scheme for identifying cheaters on secret keys or shared images. The proposed scheme allows users to securely select their secret key. This assignment can be performed over networks. Modulus results of each shared image is calculated to recognize cheaters of a shared image. Experimental results indicate that the proposed scheme is excellent at identifying cheated secret keys and shared images.

  5. Wireless Physical Layer Security: On the Performance Limit of Secret-Key Agreement

    KAUST Repository

    Zorgui, Marwen

    2015-05-01

    Physical layer security (PLS) is a new paradigm aiming at securing communications between legitimate parties at the physical layer. Conventionally, achieving confidentiality in communication networks relies on cryptographic techniques such as public-key cryptography, secret-key distribution and symmetric encryption. Such techniques are deemed secure based on the assumption of limited computational abilities of a wiretapper. Given the relentless progress in computational capacities and the dynamic topology and proliferation of modern wireless networks, the relevance of the previous techniques in securing communications is more and more questionable and less and less reliable. In contrast to this paradigm, PLS does not assume a specific computational power at any eavesdropper, its premise to guarantee provable security via employing channel coding techniques at the physical layer exploiting the inherent randomness in most communication systems. In this dissertation, we investigate a particular aspect of PLS, which is secret-key agreement, also known as secret-sharing. In this setup, two legitimate parties try to distill a secret-key via the observation of correlated signals through a noisy wireless channel, in the presence of an eavesdropper who must be kept ignorant of the secret-key. Additionally, a noiseless public channel is made available to the legitimate parties to exchange public messages that are also accessible to the eavesdropper. Recall that key agreement is an important aspect toward realizing secure communications in the sense that the key can be used in a one-time pad scheme to send the confidential message. In the first part, our focus is on secret-sharing over Rayleigh fading quasi-static channels. We study the fundamental relationship relating the probability of error and a given target secret-key rate in the high power regime. This is characterized through the diversity multiplexing tradeoff (DMT) concept, that we define for our model and then

  6. Pituitary-hormone secretion by thyrotropinomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Kok, Simon; Kok, Petra; Pereira, Alberto M.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Smit, Jan W.; Frolich, Marijke; Keenan, Daniel M.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2009-01-01

    Hormone secretion by somatotropinomas, corticotropinomas and prolactinomas exhibits increased pulse frequency, basal and pulsatile secretion, accompanied by greater disorderliness. Increased concentrations of growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL) are observed in about 30% of thyrotropinomas leading

  7. 40 CFR 350.5 - Assertion of claims of trade secrecy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... deleted, and the generic class or category of the chemical identity or identities inserted in its place... place of the specific chemical identity claimed as trade secret, the generic class or category of the... the specific chemical identity of an extremely hazardous substance under sections 303 (d)(2) and (d)(3...

  8. International Trade In Forest Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Joseph Buongiomo; David N. Wear; Jacek P. Siry

    2003-01-01

    The 21st century continues a trend of rapid growth in both international trade of forest products and a concern for forests. These two trends are connected. Forces causing trade growth are linked to the loss of native forest resources in some countries and the accumulation of nonnative forest resources in other countries. Factors increasing trade...

  9. Life History Trade-offs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, I.M.; Kliman, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    Trade-offs play a central role in life history theory. This article explains why they exist, how they arise, how they can be measured, and briefly discusses their evolution. Three important trade-offs are discussed in detail: the trade-off between current reproduction and survival, between current

  10. Plurilateral Trade Deals: An Alternative for Multilateral Trade Agreements?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Ghibuțiu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available While multilateral trade negotiations under the World Trade Organization (WTO continue to be in impasse, plurilateral trade negotiations – i.e. among a group of WTO members – have intensified in recent years, and also recorded a series of concrete results in liberalizing specific sectors of international trade. Hence, there is a widely shared view that plurilateral trade negotiations could be an alternative for the multilateral ones. This paper aims to answer the following questions: What are plurilateral trade agreements? Which are the reasons behind the surge in plurilateral negotiations in recent years? What are the main achievements in liberalizing trade at the plurilateral level? What are the advantages of plurilateral negotiations relative to multilateral ones, and why are they considered an attractive alternative for negotiations at the multilateral level?

  11. Pancreatic bicarbonate secretion involves two proton pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana; Wang, Jing; Henriksen, Katrine L.

    2011-01-01

    Pancreas secretes fluid rich in digestive enzymes and bicarbonate. The alkaline secretion is important in buffering of acid chyme entering duodenum and for activation of enzymes. This secretion is formed in pancreatic ducts, and studies to date show that plasma membranes of duct epithelium expres...

  12. 5 CFR 2421.15 - Secret ballot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secret ballot. 2421.15 Section 2421.15... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY MEANING OF TERMS AS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 2421.15 Secret ballot. Secret ballot means the expression by ballot, voting machine or otherwise, but in no event by proxy, of a...

  13. 29 CFR 452.97 - Secret ballot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secret ballot. 452.97 Section 452.97 Labor Regulations... OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.97 Secret ballot. (a) A prime requisite of elections regulated by title IV is that they be held by secret ballot among the members or in appropriate...

  14. 29 CFR 401.11 - Secret ballot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secret ballot. 401.11 Section 401.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.11 Secret ballot. Secret ballot means the expression by...

  15. 22 CFR 1421.15 - Secret ballot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Secret ballot. 1421.15 Section 1421.15 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY; GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE... THIS SUBCHAPTER § 1421.15 Secret ballot. Secret ballot means the expression by ballot, voting machine...

  16. 29 CFR 1202.4 - Secret ballot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secret ballot. 1202.4 Section 1202.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.4 Secret ballot. In conducting such investigation, the Board is authorized to take a secret ballot of the employees involved, or...

  17. [Consent and confidentiality in occupational health practice: balance between legal requirements and ethical values].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Erika; Franco, G

    2010-01-01

    The recently introduced Italian law on the protection of workers' health states that the occupational health physician (competent physician) is required to act according to the Code of Ethics of the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH). This paper aims at examining the articles of legislative decree 81/2008 dealing with informed consent and confidentiality compared with the corresponding points of the ICOH Ethics Code. Analysis of the relationship between articles 25 and 39 (informed consent) and 18, 20 and 39 (confidentiality) of the decree shows that there are some points of disagreement between the legal requirements and the Code of Ethics, in particular concerning prescribed health surveillance, consent based on appropriate information (points 8, 10 and 12 of the Code) and some aspects of confidentiality (points 10, 20, 21, 22 and 23 of the Code). Although the competent physician is required to act according to the law, the decisional process could lead to a violation of workers' autonomy.

  18. Confidentiality and parental involvement in adolescent sexual and reproductive health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; Lazarus, Jeff; Zaborskis, Apolinaras

    2011-01-01

    AIM: We surveyed Lithuanian general practitioners' (GPs) views on the importance of confidentiality for adolescents and on their practices in informing parents about sexual and reproductive health consultations with this age group. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a 41-item questionnaire...... was sent to a random sample of 607 Lithuanian GPs. The purpose of this questionnaire was to gain knowledge about current practices of GPs in informing parents on the importance of confidentiality as well as in protecting the privacy of minors. GPs' knowledge of the current legal age limit...... consulting on general sexual issues, more than 70% stated that they would guarantee their minor patients confidentiality. However, when cases involved sexually transmitted infections or pregnancy, nearly the same percentage said they would inform the parents. 62.3% of GPs incorrectly believed that the law...

  19. Denying a patient's final will: public safety vs. medical confidentiality and patient autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, Jan; Vent, Julia; Greinwald, Ralf; Rothschild, Markus A; Ostgathe, Christoph; Kessel, Rene; Voltz, Raymond

    2011-12-01

    Especially when caring for patients approaching the end of life, physicians and nursing staff feel committed to fulfilling as many patient desires as possible. However, sometimes a patient's "final will" may threaten public safety. This can lead to severe conflicts, outweighing the physician's obligation and dedication to care for the patient and to respect his autonomy. Yet, public safety can be threatened if confidentiality is not broken. This article provides a concise summary of the medicolegal and ethical fundamentals concerning this difficult situation. If the patient's and others' health and safety are at risk, physicians may (and in some countries must) break medical confidentiality and disclose confidential patient information to the police and other authorities. Physicians should be able to professionally deal with such a conflict in all patients, not only in patients with advanced illness. Copyright © 2011 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Confidentiality, 'no blame culture' and whistleblowing, non-physician practice and accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Stuart M

    2006-12-01

    Confidentiality is a core tenet of medical professionalism, which enables the maintenance of trust in a doctor-patient relationship. However, both the amount of personal data stored and the number of third parties who might access this data have increased dramatically in the digital age, necessitating the introduction of various national data protection acts. Paradoxically, the Freedom of Information Act 2000 allows United Kingdom citizens to access information held by public bodies, including hospitals. Furthermore, the Public Interest Disclosure Act 1998 actively protects physicians who breach their duty of confidentiality in the name of public interest ('whistleblowing'). This article explores the evolution of the law and ethics in this area, and draws attention to the difficulties in balancing confidentiality against freedom of information. In addition, the role and responsibilities of the non-physician anaesthetist are examined.

  1. [Confidentiality in HIV-infection/AIDS--a comment on the Communicable Disease Control Act].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frich, J C

    1995-05-10

    The new Communicable Diseases Control Act has come into force in Norway. It makes it compulsory for a physician to warn a third party if it is obvious that a HIV-positive patient, with a high degree of certainty, puts the third party at risk of being infected with HIV. Some philosophers characterize medical confidentiality as an intransigent and absolute obligation, others as a prima facie duty. This article supports the latter view, but the author still argues that strict conditions have to be fulfilled before a physician should consider breaking medical confidentiality: The doctor must try repeatedly to gain the consent or co-operation of the patient involved. Possible negative long-term consequences for the preventive HIV-work support strict medical confidentiality.

  2. Secreted factors as synaptic organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Venkatesh, Erin M; Umemori, Hisashi

    2010-07-01

    A critical step in synaptic development is the differentiation of presynaptic and postsynaptic compartments. This complex process is regulated by a variety of secreted factors that serve as synaptic organizers. Specifically, fibroblast growth factors, Wnts, neurotrophic factors and various other intercellular signaling molecules are proposed to regulate presynaptic and/or postsynaptic differentiation. Many of these factors appear to function at both the neuromuscular junction and in the central nervous system, although the specific function of the molecules differs between the two. Here we review secreted molecules that organize the synaptic compartments and discuss how these molecules shape synaptic development, focusing on mammalian in vivo systems. Their critical role in shaping a functional neural circuit is underscored by their possible link to a wide range of neurological and psychiatric disorders both in animal models and by mutations identified in human patients. © The Authors (2010). Journal Compilation © Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Weegee’s City Secrets

    OpenAIRE

    TRACHTENBERG, Alan

    2011-01-01

    En tant que photographe indépendant de meurtres, d’accidents, d’incendies, mais aussi de moments de loisirs dans la ville — de scènes de violence et de plaisir — Weegee travaillait essentiellement la nuit et utilisait un flash puissant associé à son appareil-photo de presse. Ses « secrets pour réaliser des photographies avec un flash » consistent à donner des conseils pratiques et techniques pour débutants. Mais au cœur de la rhétorique de ses « secrets » se trouvent des réflexions subtiles e...

  4. Trade in tourism services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla; Zhang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    The article addresses two questions related with tourism as a service trade. Can tourism be explained as other export activities? Does service liberalisation have a positive or negative impact on tourism receipts in destination countries? Previous research has either focused on the demand side...... factors (i.e. factors of demand in the origin countries) or on tourism as a long-run factor of economic growth. The research shows that a complementary perspective such as that offered by trade in a supply side perspective can render additional insights towards understanding tourism. This approach can...... explain why countries have absolute and comparative advantage. Another finding is that tourism as an export can be explained by some of the same destination factors that explain other service exports. Using different panel estimators the importance of supply side factors that are to some extent exclusive...

  5. Tariffs on power trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Water, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    For optimal use of power systems, transmission services must be independent from production. Moreover the costs of electrical energy transmission should be well known and be paid according to a tariff system approximating to the real network costs. These two conditions for power trading will lead to an optimal power system. In a competitive power production market, the transmission and distribution companies will remain monopolistic because they are the only facilitators of power trading. The pricing signals of the transmission and distribution costs determine the playing field for the competitors. These are production offers and bidders. The transmission pricing must for that reason be simple, correct and based on marginal costs to make optimal use of the system

  6. Worlds Apart Trading Together

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evers, Kasper Grønlund

    This study sets out to replace the out-dated notion of ‘Indo-Roman trade’ with a more informed perspective integrating the new findings of the last 30 years.In order to accomplish this, a perspective focusing on concrete demand from the ground up is adopted, also shedding light on the role...... of the market in long-distance exchange. Accordingly, the analysis conducted demonstrates that an economically highly substantial trade took place between the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean in the 1st–6th century CE, altering patterns of consumption and modes of production in India andSouth Arabia as well...... as the Roman Empire.Significantly, it can be documented that this trade was organised at the centres of demand and supply, in Rome and India, respectively, by comparable urban associations, the transport in-between being handled by equally well-organised groups of seagoing merchants.Consequently, this study...

  7. Trade union revitalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Tapia, Maite

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we review and assess research on the role of trade unions in labour markets and society, the current decline of unions and union revitalisation. The review shows three main trends. First, trade unions are converging into similar strategies of revitalisation. The ‘organising model...... their traditional strongholds of collective bargaining and corporatist policy-making. Second, research has shown that used strategies are not a panacea for success for unions in countries that pearheaded revitalisation. This finding points to the importance of supportive institutional frameworks if unions...... in adverse institutional contexts, can be effective when they reinvent their repertoires of contention, through political action or campaigning along global value chains....

  8. The Carbon Trading Game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouquet, Roger

    2003-12-01

    In response to the Kyoto Protocol, an international market for carbon dioxide tradable permits is likely to be created. Two of the key issues involved are explaining the concepts of tradable permits to industrialists, policy-makers and the man on the street, and anticipating how the market will evolve. A simple game of the market for carbon dioxide tradable permits has been developed and used that can help deal with both issues. As a pedagogical tool, this game benefits from simplicity (just a few pieces of paper are needed) and enables students to grasp the concepts and remember them through the intensity and fun of a trading 'pit'. The experiences also provide substantial insights into the evolution of the carbon dioxide permit market, particularly related to the evolution of trade volume, permit prices and country strategies

  9. Gender Inequality and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Busse, Matthias; Spielmann, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The paper empirically explores the international linkages between gender inequality and trade flows of a sample of 92 developed and developing countries. The focus is on comparative advantage in labour-intensive manufactured goods. The results indicate that gender wage inequality is positively associated with comparative advantage in labour-intensive goods, that is, countries with a larger gender wage gap have higher exports of these goods. Also, gender inequality in labour force activity rat...

  10. International Trade Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Popa Diana

    2011-01-01

    This article captures a brief history of the negotiations of the Doha Development Agenda (DDA), analyzes its deadlock and offers some suggestions for a successful Doha deal. First, this study shows that the nearly decade-long negotiation stalemate is caused by the opposite perceptions between industrialized countries and developing ones on agriculture, as well as by the influences of economic crisis on the world trade. Subsequently, some proposals are presented to solve the current crisis fro...

  11. Trading sulfur dioxide allowances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldburg, C.B.; Lave, L.B.

    1992-01-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act is aimed at generators larger than 25 MW, as these are the largest polluters. Market incentives give each source an emissions allocation but also flexibility. If a plant has lower emissions than the target, it can sell the 'surplus' emissions as allowances to plants that fail to meet the target. Only a few trades have occurred to date. Market-based incentives should lower the costs of improving environmental quality significantly. However, currently institutional dificulties hamper implementation

  12. Trading as Entertainment?

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Dorn; Paul Sengmueller

    2009-01-01

    Among 1,000 German brokerage clients for whom both survey responses and actual trading records are available, investors who report enjoying investing or gambling turn over their portfolio at twice the rate of their peers. Including entertainment attributes as additional explanatory variables in cross-sectional regressions of portfolio turnover on objective investor attributes more than doubles the fraction of the total variation of portfolio turnover that can be explained. The results are rob...

  13. Firms, Technology and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Caldera Sanchez, Aida

    2010-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation studies the effect of economic integration on the performance of firms. The ongoing process of global economic integration has been characterized by dismantling of trade barriers and openness to foreign direct investments (FDI). These changes have not only brought opportunities to firms in terms of market access and the possibility to learn about foreign technologies brought in by foreign counterparts. The new economic environment has also posed new challenges throu...

  14. Paternalistic breaches of confidentiality in prison: mental health professionals' attitudes and justifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elger, Bernice Simone; Handtke, Violet; Wangmo, Tenzin

    2015-06-01

    This manuscript presents mental health practitioners' (MHPs) practice, attitudes and justifications for breaching confidentiality when imprisoned patients disclose suicidal thoughts or abuse by others. 24 MHPs working in Swiss prisons shared their experiences regarding confidentiality practices. The data were analysed qualitatively and MHPs' attitudes and course of action were identified. Analysis revealed paternalistic breaches of confidentiality. When patients reported suicidal thoughts and abuse, MHPs believed that forgoing confidentiality is necessary to protect patients, providing several justifications for it. Patients were informed that such information will be transmitted without their consent to medical and non-medical prison personnel. With reference to suicidal attempts, MHPs resorted to methods that may reduce suicidal attempts such as transfer to hospital or internal changes in living arrangements, which would require provision of certain information to prison guards. In cases of abuse, some MHPs convinced patients to accept intervention or sometimes overrode competent patients' refusals to report. Also in the case of abuse, provision of limited information to other prison personnel was seen as an acceptable method to protect patients from further harm. Breaches of confidentiality, whether limited or full, remain unethical, when used for competent patients based solely on paternalistic justifications. Institutionalising ethical and legal procedures to address suicidal and abuse situations would be helpful. Education and training to help both medical and prison personnel to respond to such situations in an appropriate manner that ensures confidentiality and protects patients from suicide and abuse are necessary. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Confidentiality, anonymity and amnesty for midwives in distress seeking online support - Ethical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezaro, Sally; Clyne, Wendy; Gerada, Clare

    2018-06-01

    Midwife health is intrinsically linked to the quality of safe patient care. To ensure safe patient care, there is a need to deliver emotional support to midwives. One option that midwives may turn to may be a confidential online intervention, instead of localised, face-to-face support. Following the Realist And MEta-narrative Evidence Syntheses: Evolving Standards publication standards, this realist synthesis approach explores the ethical considerations in permitting confidentiality, anonymity and amnesty in online interventions to support midwives in work-related psychological distress. An iterative search methodology was used to select nine papers for review. To assimilate information, papers were examined for ideas relating to ethical dimensions of online interventions to support midwives in work-related psychological distress. This review takes a narrative approach. Online interventions can support the development of insight, help seeking and open discussion. Additionally, Internet support groups can become morally persuasive in nature. Anonymity and confidentiality are both effective and therapeutic features of online interventions when used in collaboration with effective online moderation. Yet, ethical dilemmas remain where users cannot be identified. Confidentiality and anonymity remain key components of successful online interventions. However, sanctioning the corollary component of amnesty may provoke moral discomfort for those seeking immediate accountability. For others, amnesty is seen as essential for open disclosure and help seeking. Ultimately, the needs of midwives must be balanced with the requirement to protect the public and the professional reputation of midwifery. In supporting midwives online, the principles of anonymity, confidentiality and amnesty may evoke some resistance on ethical grounds. However, without offering identity protection, it may not be possible to create effective online support services for midwives. The authors of this

  16. International trade and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posada, Luis Guillermo

    1998-01-01

    The international trade conventional theory not only continues being supported upon the classic principle of comparative advantage, but also, in response to the rationality inherent to the traditional economic system, al so neglects considering the biophysical conditions under which transable goods are produced. The linkage of environment to trade is a recent concern, and it is explained on the basis that the first one has become a barrier for the second one. The environmental cause defenders, so as the free market advocates, are exposing their arguments in a context in which not necessarily to build viable solutions to the conflict is possible. The world economy behavior and tendencies do not offer the conditions needed so as that the official thesis in which the GATT - Rio - WTO thought can be summarized and the positive linkage towards the environmental quality, explicitly claimed by that thesis, becomes reality. Form these considerations, it is argument in this article in the direction of establishing a new international trade pattern and also some ideas are presented as to its characterization ecological economic view

  17. INTERNATIONAL TRADE WHITH RAPESEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Lucian PÂNZARU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study takes into consideration the international trade situation of rapeseed worldwide. To highlight the situation are analyzed sequentially imports and exports in five units continents: Africa, America, Asia, Europe and Oceania. Applicability and interest increased for trade with this product is emphasized by references from Romania. The study takes into consideration 2008-2010. In terms of world imports and their structure is noted preponderance Europe and Asia in the quantities imported - 87.38% (both, the weights low enough for Oceania and Africa - 0.04 together. If we analyze the situation of exports is apparent fact that Europe remains, as in the case of imports, the main player on the market (48.11%, but not followed by Asia, but of America with a very close relative weight (44 , 45%. Oceania owns more than 5% of world quantitatively of exports, while Asia and Africa have shares almost insignificant - 0.36 and 0.05% respectively. Regarding the situation of global trade balance exchanges for rapeseed can be seen a globally deficient character.

  18. INTERNATIONAL TRADE WITH ONIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Lucian PÂNZARU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to the global trade situation with onion, 2008-2010. Besides presenting the existing situation of the five units continents (Africa, America, Asia, Europe and Oceania study shows worldwide level of imports and exports, as well as its contribution to the performing acts of international exchange. Quantitative aspects of trade are filled with values data, that allowed the preparation of trade exchanges for this product. The main importer (in quantitative terms is represented by Asia, followed by Europe and at greater distance by the America, while the value of imports was dominated by operations performed in Europe, Asia and America - weights of 39.7 , 38.1 and 18.6% respective (of the world total. Concerning the quantity, the major players on the market exports are represented by Asia and Europe. They have dominated the world market, achieving 45.6 and respective 30.8% of world exports. America ranks third with a share of 17.4%. In terms of value, world exports were dominated by Asia, Europe and America (33.5, 32.7 and respective 26.7%, with a downward trend in the share of Asia and increasing European weights and American (compared to the specific situation of the quantities exported

  19. Transporter-mediated biofuel secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Rupak; Nguyen, Tuan; Chang, Geoffrey

    2013-05-07

    Engineering microorganisms to produce biofuels is currently among the most promising strategies in renewable energy. However, harvesting these organisms for extracting biofuels is energy- and cost-intensive, limiting the commercial feasibility of large-scale production. Here, we demonstrate the use of a class of transport proteins of pharmacological interest to circumvent the need to harvest biomass during biofuel production. We show that membrane-embedded transporters, better known to efflux lipids and drugs, can be used to mediate the secretion of intracellularly synthesized model isoprenoid biofuel compounds to the extracellular milieu. Transporter-mediated biofuel secretion sustainably maintained an approximate three- to fivefold boost in biofuel production in our Escherichia coli test system. Because the transporters used in this study belong to the ubiquitous ATP-binding cassette protein family, we propose their use as "plug-and-play" biofuel-secreting systems in a variety of bacteria, cyanobacteria, diatoms, yeast, and algae used for biofuel production. This investigation showcases the potential of expressing desired membrane transport proteins in cell factories to achieve the export or import of substances of economic, environmental, or therapeutic importance.

  20. Trade networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    To date, most of the literature on trade networks in West Africa has considered networks in a metaphorical way. The aim of this paper is to go one step further by showing how social network analysis may be applied to the study of regional trade in West Africa. After a brief review of the literature......, this exploratory paper investigates two main issues related to regional trade. We start by discussing how recent developments in regional trade in West Africa have contributed to challenging the social structure of traders. We then discuss the changes that have affected the spatiality of regional trade by looking...

  1. THE LEGAL CAPACITY TO TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-01-01

    Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities t...

  2. International Trade of Biofuels (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, the production and trade of biofuels has increased to meet global demand for renewable fuels. Ethanol and biodiesel contribute much of this trade because they are the most established biofuels. Their growth has been aided through a variety of policies, especially in the European Union, Brazil, and the United States, but ethanol trade and production have faced more targeted policies and tariffs than biodiesel. This fact sheet contains a summary of the trade of biofuels among nations, including historical data on production, consumption, and trade.

  3. THE LEGAL CAPACITY TO TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities that can be reflected and analysed by obtaining and maintain the sole trader status.

  4. The ASEAN Free Trade Agreement: impact on trade flows and external trade barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Hector Calvo-Pardo; Caroline Freund; Emanuel Ornelas

    2009-01-01

    Using detailed data on trade and tariffs from 1992-2007, the authors examine how the ASEAN Free Trade Agreement has affected trade with nonmembers and external tariffs facing nonmembers. First, the paper examines the effect of preferential and external tariff reduction on import growth from ASEAN insiders and outsiders across HS 6-digit industries. The analysis finds no evidence that prefe...

  5. 78 FR 29375 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and... Group; Function, Integration, and Rehabilitation Sciences Subcommittee. Date: June 3, 2013. Time: 8:30 a...

  6. 77 FR 40364 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for Million Hearts TM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... disclosure by the Sponsor and/or Administrator of the intellectual property, trade secrets, or confidential... top of the Challenge site. Amount of the Prize Three winners will be selected. The first place winner...

  7. 78 FR 20931 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... attendance limited to space available. Individuals who plan to attend and need special assistance, such as... applications and the discussions could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as...

  8. 78 FR 26642 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ...., as amended. The grant applications and the discussions could disclose confidential trade secrets or... Review Group; Sensorimotor Integration Study Section. Date: June 4, 2013. Time: 8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m...

  9. 78 FR 73867 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ...., as amended. The grant applications and the discussions could disclose confidential trade secrets or...: Integration and Analysis of Diverse HIV- Associated Data (R03). Date: December 16, 2013. Time: 8:00 a.m. to 5...

  10. 77 FR 26021 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and personal information... Integration Support Contract (BISC).'' Date: May 25, 2012. Time: 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and...

  11. 75 FR 29774 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group Function, Integration, and Rehabilitation Sciences Subcommittee; Function, Integration and Rehabilitation Sciences Subcommittee. Date: June...

  12. 76 FR 7569 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... scientific and technological advances; examine diverse perspectives and possibilities for useful... ethical issues involving genetics, neuroscience, and neuroimaging used for research, diagnosis, risk... any personally identifiable or confidential business information that they contain. Trade secrets...

  13. 77 FR 74685 - Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical-Terrorism Vulnerability Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY [Docket No. DHS-2012-0057] Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical- Terrorism Vulnerability Information (CVI) AGENCY: National Protection and...: Comments that include trade secrets, confidential commercial or financial information, Chemical-terrorism...

  14. 78 FR 5467 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and personal information... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; ``OMICS'' Technologies for Predictive Modeling of Infectious... applications. Place: Sheraton Silver Spring Hotel, 8777 Georgia Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20910. Contact Person...

  15. 5 CFR 2413.4 - Closing of meetings; reasons therefor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... otherwise involving a determination on the record after opportunity for a hearing, or any court proceedings... confidential trade secrets and commercial or financial information); (c)(5) (matters of alleged criminal...

  16. 22 CFR 1413.4 - Closing of meetings; reasons therefor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... or otherwise involving a determination on the record after opportunity for a hearing, or any court...) (privileged or confidential trade secrets and commercial or financial information); (c)(5) (matters of alleged...

  17. Assessing subject privacy and data confidentiality in an emerging region for clinical trials: United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Satish Chandrasekhar; Ibrahim, Halah

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceutical sponsored clinical trials, formerly conducted predominantly in the United States and Europe, have expanded to emerging regions, including the Middle East. Our study explores factors influencing clinical trial privacy and confidentiality in the United Arab Emirates. Factors including concept familiarity, informed consent compliance, data access, and preservation, were analyzed to assess current practices in the Arab world. As the UAE is an emerging region for clinical trials, there is a growing need for regulations related to data confidentiality and subject privacy. Informational and decisional privacy should be viewed within the realms of Arab culture and religious background.

  18. Gravity with Intermediate Goods Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujin Jang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper derives the gravity equation with intermediate goods trade. We extend a standard monopolistic competition model to incorporate intermediate goods trade, and show that the gravity equation with intermediates trade is identical to the one without it except in that gross output should be used as the output measure instead of value added. We also show that the output elasticity of trade is significantly underestimated when value added is used as the output measure. This implies that with the conventional gravity equation, the contribution of output growth can be substantially underestimated and the role of trade costs reduction can be exaggerated in explaining trade expansion, as we demonstrate for the case of Korea's trade growth between 1995 and 2007.

  19. International red meat trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  20. 15 CFR 400.45 - Retail trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retail trade. 400.45 Section 400.45 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REGULATIONS OF THE FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD Zone Operations and...

  1. Secret Forwarding of Events over Distributed Publish/Subscribe Overlay Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Yoon

    Full Text Available Publish/subscribe is a communication paradigm where loosely-coupled clients communicate in an asynchronous fashion. Publish/subscribe supports the flexible development of large-scale, event-driven and ubiquitous systems. Publish/subscribe is prevalent in a number of application domains such as social networking, distributed business processes and real-time mission-critical systems. Many publish/subscribe applications are sensitive to message loss and violation of privacy. To overcome such issues, we propose a novel method of using secret sharing and replication techniques. This is to reliably and confidentially deliver decryption keys along with encrypted publications even under the presence of several Byzantine brokers across publish/subscribe overlay networks. We also propose a framework for dynamically and strategically allocating broker replicas based on flexibly definable criteria for reliability and performance. Moreover, a thorough evaluation is done through a case study on social networks using the real trace of interactions among Facebook users.

  2. Secret Forwarding of Events over Distributed Publish/Subscribe Overlay Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Young; Kim, Beom Heyn

    2016-01-01

    Publish/subscribe is a communication paradigm where loosely-coupled clients communicate in an asynchronous fashion. Publish/subscribe supports the flexible development of large-scale, event-driven and ubiquitous systems. Publish/subscribe is prevalent in a number of application domains such as social networking, distributed business processes and real-time mission-critical systems. Many publish/subscribe applications are sensitive to message loss and violation of privacy. To overcome such issues, we propose a novel method of using secret sharing and replication techniques. This is to reliably and confidentially deliver decryption keys along with encrypted publications even under the presence of several Byzantine brokers across publish/subscribe overlay networks. We also propose a framework for dynamically and strategically allocating broker replicas based on flexibly definable criteria for reliability and performance. Moreover, a thorough evaluation is done through a case study on social networks using the real trace of interactions among Facebook users.

  3. 49 CFR 40.321 - What is the general confidentiality rule for drug and alcohol test information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Confidentiality and Release of Information § 40.321 What is the general confidentiality rule for drug and alcohol test... DOT drug or alcohol testing process, you are prohibited from releasing individual test results or...

  4. 48 CFR 1552.235-78 - Data Security for Toxic Substances Control Act Confidential Business Information (DEC 1997).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: Data Security for Toxic Substances Control Act Confidential Business Information (DEC 1997) The... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Data Security for Toxic Substances Control Act Confidential Business Information (DEC 1997). 1552.235-78 Section 1552.235-78 Federal...

  5. Confidentiality Protection of User Data and Adaptive Resource Allocation for Managing Multiple Workflow Performance in Service-Based Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ho

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, two interrelated problems of service-based systems (SBS) are addressed: protecting users' data confidentiality from service providers, and managing performance of multiple workflows in SBS. Current SBSs pose serious limitations to protecting users' data confidentiality. Since users' sensitive data is sent in…

  6. 37 CFR 201.29 - Access to, and confidentiality of, Statements of Account, Verification Auditor's Reports, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... confidentiality of, Statements of Account, Verification Auditor's Reports, and other verification information... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 201.29 Access to, and confidentiality of, Statements of Account, Verification Auditor... Account, including the Primary Auditor's Reports, filed under 17 U.S.C. 1003(c) and access to a Verifying...

  7. Semiquantum secret sharing using entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qin; Chan, W. H.; Long Dongyang

    2010-01-01

    Secret sharing is a procedure for sharing a secret among a number of participants such that only the qualified subsets of participants have the ability to reconstruct the secret. Even in the presence of eavesdropping, secret sharing can be achieved when all the members are quantum. So what happens if not all the members are quantum? In this paper, we propose two semiquantum secret sharing protocols by using maximally entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type states in which quantum Alice shares a secret with two classical parties, Bob and Charlie, in a way that both parties are sufficient to obtain the secret, but one of them cannot. The presented protocols are also shown to be secure against eavesdropping.

  8. LcrG secretion is not required for blocking of Yops secretion in Yersinia pestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matson Jyl S

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background LcrG, a negative regulator of the Yersinia type III secretion apparatus has been shown to be primarily a cytoplasmic protein, but is secreted at least in Y. pestis. LcrG secretion has not been functionally analyzed and the relevance of LcrG secretion on LcrG function is unknown. Results An LcrG-GAL4AD chimera, originally constructed for two-hybrid analyses to analyze LcrG protein interactions, appeared to be not secreted but the LcrG-GAL4AD chimera retained the ability to regulate Yops secretion. This result led to further investigation to determine the significance of LcrG secretion on LcrG function. Additional analyses including deletion and substitution mutations of amino acids 2–6 in the N-terminus of LcrG were constructed to analyze LcrG secretion and LcrG's ability to control secretion. Some changes to the N-terminus of LcrG were found to not affect LcrG's secretion or LcrG's secretion-controlling activity. However, substitution of poly-isoleucine in the N-terminus of LcrG did eliminate LcrG secretion but did not affect LcrG's secretion controlling activity. Conclusion These results indicate that secretion of LcrG, while observable and T3SS mediated, is not relevant for LcrG's ability to control secretion.

  9. Trade Policy Preferences and the Factor Content of Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Smolka, Marcel

    demonstrate that the factor price changes induced by trade policy are negatively correlated with the factor content of free trade (and therefore factor abundance). Using large-scale international survey data, we test whether these predicted distributional effects are reflected in the trade policy preferences...... of workers with different labor market skills. In order to isolate the effects of factor abundance from other skill-related confounding factors, we employ a within-skill-group estimator that exploits the cross-country variation in the factor content of free trade. In line with theory, the data show......This paper provides a theoretical and empirical analysis of public opinion towards free trade, investigating cleavages both between and within countries. We study the distributional effects of trade policy in a neoclassical economy with not just two, but many input factors in production. We...

  10. Application Actuation Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    32 RCA PRICE-L Podel Calculated 0 & S Values 138 33 RCA PRICE LCC Summery - Typical LRU 139 34 Airplane Actuation Trade Study LCC Summary 140 35...results achieved can be duplicated by a user. The RCA PRICE Podel calculates the RDTSE. Production cost, and creates the YiDF file for use in the PCA...PR ICE L). Some of the basic program ground rules for this study were as follows: RCA - PRICE Cost Podel RCA - PRICE L Model Prototype Hardware 10

  11. Trading health for money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajslev, Jeppe Zielinski Nguyen; Møller, Jeppe Lykke; Persson, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Construction work is physically demanding and often associated with bodily pain. This article presents a study of construction workers’ practices of using and relating to their bodies at work through an agential realist framework for analysing the (re)configuration of the workers’ embodied...... subjectivity. The analysis draws on interviews with 32 Danish construction workers as well as brief observations. The article shows how ‘trading health for money’ becomes a mode for maintaining positive social, occupational and masculine identity among construction workers. Furthermore, it shows how the agency...

  12. International trade in uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two reports are presented; one has been prepared by the Uranium Institute and is submitted by the United Kingdom delegation, the other by the United States delegation. The report of the Uranium Institute deals with the influence of the government on international trade in uranium. This influence becomes apparent predominantly by export and import restrictions, as well as by price controls. The contribution submitted by the United States is a uranium market trend analysis, with pricing methods and contracting modes as well as the effect of government policies being investigated in the light of recent developments

  13. International nuclear trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biad, A.; Cormis, F. de; Kerever, A.

    1998-01-01

    This third part is relative to the international nuclear trade it includes: the 1996 EURATOM/Usa Agreement on the peaceful Uses of nuclear energy: EURATOM Strengthened, a case study on IVO Power engineering Oy as a supplier to Russia, lessons learned from the Us/EURATOM Agreement for Cooperation, negotiating the parameters of nuclear regulation: lessons from South Africa, Good and new business in Brazil's nuclear energy field, cooperation between Russia and european union in the nuclear field: the legal basis, present status and future prospects, the industrial implications of the non proliferation policy. (N.C.)

  14. Passive-Aggressive Trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Susan E. K.; Keim, Donald B.; Musto, David K.

    Fund managers can demand liquidity for their trading ideas or provide liquidity for others’ ideas. We identify the roles of these motives using a database of the individual transactions by Canadian equity funds. Both the cost and subsequent performance of their buys decline after strong inflows......, indicating the depletion of ideas and substitution into liquidity provision as funds put new money to work. Sales show little of this substitution, consistent with funds’ narrower latitude to provide liquidity to buyers. In general, the option to provide liquidity makes fund returns positive...

  15. Act locally, trade globally. Emissions trading for climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    2005-07-01

    Climate policy raises a number of challenges for the energy sector, the most significant being the transition from a high to a low-CO2 energy path in a few decades. Emissions trading has become the instrument of choice to help manage the cost of this transition, whether used at international or at domestic level. Act Locally, Trade Globally, offers an overview of existing trading systems, their mechanisms, and looks into the future of the instrument for limiting greenhouse gas emissions. Are current markets likely to be as efficient as the theory predicts? What is, if any, the role of governments in these markets? Can domestic emissions trading systems be broadened to activities other than large stationary energy uses? Can international emissions trading accommodate potentially diverse types of emissions targets and widely different energy realities across countries? Are there hurdles to linking emissions trading systems based on various design features? Can emissions trading carry the entire burden of climate policy, or will other policy instruments remain necessary? In answering these questions, Act Locally, Trade Globally seeks to provide a complete picture of the future role of emissions trading in climate policy and the energy sector.

  16. Native Small Airways Secrete Bicarbonate

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsuddin, A. K. M.; Quinton, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of Cl− impermeability in cystic fibrosis (CF) and the cloning of the responsible channel, CF pathology has been widely attributed to a defect in epithelial Cl− transport. However, loss of bicarbonate (HCO3−) transport also plays a major, possibly more critical role in CF pathogenesis. Even though HCO3− transport is severely affected in the native pancreas, liver, and intestines in CF, we know very little about HCO3− secretion in small airways, the principle site of morbidi...

  17. Secret sharing via quantum entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillery, M.; Buzek, V.

    1999-01-01

    Secret sharing is a procedure for splitting a message into several parts so that no single part is sufficient to read the message, but the entire set is. This procedure can be implemented using either GHZ states or two-particle entangled states. In the quantum case the presence of an eavesdropper will introduce errors so that her presence can be detected. We also discuss how quantum information can be split into parts so that the message can be reconstructed from a sufficiently large subset of the parts. (Authors)

  18. Weegee’s City Secrets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan TRACHTENBERG

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available En tant que photographe indépendant de meurtres, d’accidents, d’incendies, mais aussi de moments de loisirs dans la ville — de scènes de violence et de plaisir — Weegee travaillait essentiellement la nuit et utilisait un flash puissant associé à son appareil-photo de presse. Ses « secrets pour réaliser des photographies avec un flash » consistent à donner des conseils pratiques et techniques pour débutants. Mais au cœur de la rhétorique de ses « secrets » se trouvent des réflexions subtiles et convaincantes révélant la relation entre la lumière et l’obscurité, et plus particulièrement la manière dont la lumière du flash permet de rendre visible l’obscurité. Dans le récit de Weegee, le flash confère à la photographie le pouvoir d’écrire — d’écrire avec la lumière, un mode de représentation singulièrement approprié pour enregistrer des instants de vie dans les rues nocturnes de la ville.As a freelance photographer of crime, accidents, fires, and also of the recreational life of the city—scenes of violence and of pleasure—Weegee worked mainly at night and employed a powerful photoflash attachment to his press camera. His "secrets of shooting with photoflash" consist of practical technical advice for beginners. But within the rhetoric of his "secrets" there lie cogent and subtle reflections on the relation of light to darkness, especially on the way the flash of light makes darkness visible. In Weegee’s account, the photoflash gives photography the power of writing—writing with light, a mode of picturing uniquely suited to recording instants of life on city streets at night.

  19. 17 CFR 145.9 - Petition for confidential treatment of information submitted to the Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... may summarily reject the submitter's request for confidential treatment with leave to the submitter to... treatment of information submitted to the Commission. 145.9 Section 145.9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... treatment of information submitted to the Commission. (a) Purpose. This section provides a procedure by...

  20. 21 CFR 1316.23 - Confidentiality of identity of research subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Confidentiality of identity of research subjects. 1316.23 Section 1316.23 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS, PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES Protection of Researchers and Research Subjects § 1316.23...