WorldWideScience

Sample records for trade agreements affect

  1. Trade Agreements PTI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The objective of the Trade Agreements PTI is to advance CBP’s mission by working with internal and external stakeholders to facilitate legitimate trade and address...

  2. Institutional Arrangements that Affect Free Trade Agreements: Economic Rationality Versus Interest Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. del Pilar Londoño (María)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation presents a time motion study of what actually happens at the busiest U.S-Mexican border crossing at Laredo. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) assumes seamless border crossings without detailing however how this would be achieved particularly in the case of

  3. Why are Trade Agreements Regional?

    OpenAIRE

    Zissimos, Ben

    2007-01-01

    This paper shows how distance may be used to coordinate on a unique equilibrium in which trade agreements are regional. Trade agreement formation is modeled as coalition formation. In a standard trade model with no distance between countries, a familiar problem of coordination failure arises giving rise to multiple equilibria; any one of many possible trade agreements can form. With distance between countries, and through strategic interaction in tariff setting, regional trade agreements gene...

  4. Regional Trade Agreement and Agricultural Trade in East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intra-EAC trade is very low, that is, at 9 per cent of the total regional trade, but it is on upward trend. Agricultural trade accounts for over 40 per cent of the intra-EAC trade. This study investigated the effect of EAC regional trade agreement on the regions agricultural trade by analyzing the degree of trade creation and ...

  5. The ASEAN Free Trade Agreement: impact on trade flows and external trade barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Hector Calvo-Pardo; Caroline Freund; Emanuel Ornelas

    2009-01-01

    Using detailed data on trade and tariffs from 1992-2007, the authors examine how the ASEAN Free Trade Agreement has affected trade with nonmembers and external tariffs facing nonmembers. First, the paper examines the effect of preferential and external tariff reduction on import growth from ASEAN insiders and outsiders across HS 6-digit industries. The analysis finds no evidence that prefe...

  6. Analysis of international negotiations and trade agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Górriz Gonzalo, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to analyze international trade agreements and negotiations. For that purpose, two agreements made by the United States are chosen to be analyzed. In the first place, the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) agreement, that was signed by the United States, Canada and Mexico in 1994 in order to create a free trade area. In addition, the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) will be analyze, an agreement that is still being negotiated between the United Stat...

  7. 48 CFR 225.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. 225.403 Section 225.403 Federal Acquisition... FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 225.403 World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and... Government Procurement Agreement, acquire only U.S.-made, qualifying country, or designated country end...

  8. Opening the Black Box of Trade Agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohl, Tristan; De Lombaerde, Philippe; Saucedo Accosta, Edgar J.

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter the author presents a coding methodology to capture the heterogeneity of trade agreements and to facilitate quantitative analysis departing from qualitative legal differences in trade agreements. The coding is based on whether the provisions of the World Trade Organization (WTO) are

  9. 48 CFR 25.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. 25.403 Section 25.403 Federal Acquisition... 25.403 World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. (a... in 25.402(a)(1). The WTO GPA and FTAs specify procurement procedures designed to ensure fairness (see...

  10. 48 CFR 18.118 - Trade agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trade agreements. 18.118 Section 18.118 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities 18.118 Trade agreements...

  11. Hubs and spokes in Regional Trade Agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaal, A. de

    2017-01-01

    In the plethora of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) some countries are involved in much more RTAs than others. Furthermore, some countries take in a position as a hub: they have trade agreements with many other countries, while their partner countries are much less involved in RTA relations. Even

  12. The political economy of services trade agreements

    OpenAIRE

    FIORINI, Matteo; LEBRAND, Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    Why do governments sign services trade agreements? This paper focuses on the role of international agreements in the context of trade in services when services are used as intermediate inputs in downstream industries. Compared to goods, services inputs are mostly non-tradable and complementary to other factors of production. We build a theoretical trade policy framework in which firms use foreign investment to contest foreign markets in services sectors and governments can restrict the entry ...

  13. Exploring hubness in Regional Trade Agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaal, A. de

    2016-01-01

    In the plethora of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) some countries take in a more central position than others in the sense that some countries are much more engaged with other countries through RTAs. Furthermore, the position of some countries is that of a hub: they have (many) trade

  14. The Kyoto Agreement: Trade and Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    The Kyoto Agreement from 1997 allows trade of CO2 emission quotas between the 38 industrialized countries which have committed themselves to an emission ceiling. However, it does not define how this potential trade system should be designed. The intention was to clarify these matters during the 1...

  15. World Trade Organisation (WTO): Trade rules/agreements and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The GATT (General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs) rules of 1947 were seen as prejudicial to the economic and development concerns of developing countries. With the coming into effect of World Trade Organization (WTO), it was expected that some of the concerns of the developing countries will be addressed.

  16. Plurilateral Trade Deals: An Alternative for Multilateral Trade Agreements?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Ghibuțiu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available While multilateral trade negotiations under the World Trade Organization (WTO continue to be in impasse, plurilateral trade negotiations – i.e. among a group of WTO members – have intensified in recent years, and also recorded a series of concrete results in liberalizing specific sectors of international trade. Hence, there is a widely shared view that plurilateral trade negotiations could be an alternative for the multilateral ones. This paper aims to answer the following questions: What are plurilateral trade agreements? Which are the reasons behind the surge in plurilateral negotiations in recent years? What are the main achievements in liberalizing trade at the plurilateral level? What are the advantages of plurilateral negotiations relative to multilateral ones, and why are they considered an attractive alternative for negotiations at the multilateral level?

  17. Trade creation and trade diversion in the Canada - United States Free Trade Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Kimberly A. Clausing

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the changes in trade patterns introduced by the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement are examined. Variation in the extent of tariff liberalization under the agreement is used to identify the impact of tariff liberalization on the growth of trade both with member countries and non-member countries. Data at the commodity level are used, and the results indicate that the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement had substantial trade creation effects, with little evidence of ...

  18. International trade agreements: hazards to health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Ellen R; Brenner, Joseph E

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1980s, neoliberal policies have prescribed reducing the role of governments, relying on market forces to organize and provide health care and other vital human services. In this context, international trade agreements increasingly serve as mechanisms to enforce the privatization, deregulation, and decentralization of health care and other services, with important implications for democracy as well as for health. Critics contend that social austerity and "free" trade agreements contribute to the rise in global poverty and economic inequality and instability, and therefore to increased preventable illness and death. Under new agreements through the World Trade Organization that cover vital human services such as health care, water, education, and energy, unaccountable, secret trade tribunals could overrule decisions by democratically elected officials on public financing for national health care systems, licensing and training standards for health professionals, patient safety and quality regulations, occupational safety and health, control of hazardous substances such as tobacco and alcohol, the environment, and affordable access to safe water and sanitation. International negotiations in 2003 in Cancun and in Miami suggested that countervailing views are developing momentum. A concerned health care community has begun to call for a moratorium on trade negotiations on health care and water, and to reinvigorate an alternative vision of universal access to vital services.

  19. Making Education Markets through Global Trade Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Susan L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper uses the global trade negotiations and agreements, which include education sectors as potentially tradable services, to show the complex processes at work in making global education markets. Drawing on the work of Jens Beckert and others, I focus on the micro-processes of making capitalist orders and the challenges at hand in bringing…

  20. International Environmental Agreements: Emissions Trade, Safety Valves and Escape Clauses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, Larry; Zhao, Jinhua

    2010-01-01

    We explain how the structure of multi-national or multi-regional environmental agreements affect their chance of success. Trade in emissions permits has ambiguous and in some cases surprising effects on both the equilibrium level of abatement, and on the ability to persuade nations or regions to participate in environmental agreements. An escape clause policy and a safety valve policy have essentially the same properties when membership in environmental agreement is pre-determined, but they create markedly different effects on the incentives to join such an agreement. The two policies lead to a qualitative difference in the leverage that a potential member of the agreement exercises on other members

  1. Do we really know that trade agreements increase trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohl, T.

    This study surveys the empirical literature in which the gravity equation has been used to study the effect of economic integration agreements (EIAs) on international trade flows. We show that most studies either focus on improving the methodology to assess regionalism’s overall impact, or on a

  2. 77 FR 59064 - United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ...-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... Trade Promotion Agreement entered into by the United States and the Republic of Colombia. DATES: Interim...-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement (``CTPA'' or ``Agreement''), and on June 28, 2007, the Parties signed a...

  3. 76 FR 65365 - United States-OMAN Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... Free Trade Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... other customs-related provisions of the United States--Oman Free Trade Agreement entered into by the... the U.S.-Oman Free Trade Agreement (``OFTA'' or ``Agreement''). The provisions of the OFTA were...

  4. 78 FR 32356 - United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ...-Korea Free Trade Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... treatment and other customs-related provisions of the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement entered into...-Korea Free Trade Agreement (hereinafter ``UKFTA'' or the ``Agreement''). On December 3, 2010, the United...

  5. A Comparative Analysis of Trade Facilitation in Selected Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Institute for International Trade

    2006-01-01

    This study compared the treatment of trade facilitation in four selected regional trade agreements, AFTA, APEC, SAFRA and PACER, and in one bilateral free trade agreement being the Australia-Singapore Free Trade Agreement (ASFTA), with a view to determining model trade facilitation principles and measures which may be instructive for developing country negotiations and policy makers.

  6. 48 CFR 27.204 - Patented technology under trade agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patented technology under trade agreements. 27.204 Section 27.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Patented technology under trade agreements. ...

  7. 45 CFR 162.915 - Trading partner agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trading partner agreements. 162.915 Section 162... REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS General Provisions for Transactions § 162.915 Trading partner agreements. A covered entity must not enter into a trading partner agreement that would do any of the...

  8. 78 FR 60191 - United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... tariff treatment and other customs-related provisions of the United States- Colombia Trade Promotion... States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement (``CTPA'' or ``Agreement''), and on June 28, 2007, the Parties...

  9. 77 FR 64031 - United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... tariff treatment and other customs-related provisions of the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement... other customs-related provisions of the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement (PTPA). Please...

  10. 78 FR 63052 - United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ...-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... Trade Promotion Agreement entered into by the United States and the Republic of Panama. DATES: Interim... and the Republic of Panama (the ``Parties'') signed the United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement...

  11. 48 CFR 52.225-6 - Trade Agreements Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trade Agreements....225-6 Trade Agreements Certificate. As prescribed in 25.1101(c)(2), insert the following provision: Trade Agreements Certificate (JAN 2005) (a) The offeror certifies that each end product, except those...

  12. 48 CFR 252.225-7020 - Trade Agreements Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trade Agreements... of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7020 Trade Agreements Certificate. As prescribed in 225.1101(5), use the following provision: Trade Agreements Certificate (JAN 2005) (a) Definitions. Designated...

  13. Policy space for health and trade and investment agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivusalo, Meri

    2014-06-01

    New trade agreements affect how governments can regulate for health both within health systems and in addressing health protection, promotion and social determinants of health in other policies. It is essential that those responsible for health understand the impacts of these trade negotiations and agreements on policy space for health at a national and local level. While we know more about implications from negotiations concerning intellectual property rights and trade in goods, this paper provides a screening checklist for less-discussed areas of domestic regulation, services, investment and government procurement. As implications are likely to differ on the basis of the organization and structures of national health systems and policy priorities, the emphasis is on finding out key provisions as well as on how exemptions and exclusions can be used to ensure policy space for health. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. India’s Participation In The Regional Trade Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Baronov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the proposed study is to identify the specifics of India’s participation in the regional trade agreements (RTAs, a comparative analysis of the main provisions of the RTAs and the impact of membership in the integration agreements on the country’s foreign trade relations. In the world economic literature there is no unity of opinions on the economic effect of the participation of states in RTAs. The author’s thesis is that the final effect of membership in the RTAs depends on the amount of customs duties on the date of signing the agreement (the higher they are, the greater the effect of trade creation, and also on the place of the partner country in the trade of another participating state (the greater is mutual turnover, the greater effect of trade creation. Of course, other factors affect, such as geographical proximity, transportation and other transaction costs. India’s participation in the regional trade agreements (RTA was one of the tasks of implementing the policy “Look East”, which was approved in 1991. The countries of Southeast Asia have been identified as a regional priority, which was caused by the geo-strategic and economic reasons. Later, regional coverage has been extended to the countries of Northeast and South Asia because of increasing the role of China in the world economy and politics, which has become a strategic challenge and economic opportunities for the Indian economy. India is a participant of 13 RTAs, the majority of which are bilateral. In India’s integration practice, one of four types of RTAs is applied: (1 agreement on comprehensive economic partnership, which differ in the widest scope of mutual economic relations; (2 agreement on comprehensive economic cooperation; (3 free trade agreement; (4 preferential trade agreement. Most often, there is used classical integration model (of preferential or free trade area.Initially, the Indian policy of RTA dominated the political factor

  15. The General Agreement on Trade in Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francina Esteve García

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available The conclusion of GATS and its inclusion as an annex in the constitutive Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO responds to the need for disposing of a stable juridical instrument which, given the current economic interdependence between States, can be applied to the international trade in services.One of the main new features of this agreement is its field of application given that it includes all service sectors (except those provided for in the name of governmental authorities and the four forms of carrying out trade in services and, as regards the principle of market access and that of national treatment, will be regulated according to those respective obligations which the Members have assumed.In exchange for not accepting the exclusion of any service sector, the negotiations concerning some fundamental sectors could not be totally closed and deadlines were extended in order to unblock the most controversial themes.One of the fundamental principles of the GATS is the most favoured nation clause of inconditional character but its consecration has been attenuated by the possibility of maintaining important exceptions in its application. The principle of transparency is also essential in the field of services, given that this sector is characterised by large public interventionism in access regulation and the exercise of the different economic activities which form it.The balance of the GATS is globally positive given that it includes a multilateral framework of principles and disciplines which is administered in the headquarters of the WTO, which have been accepted by a great majority of States within the international community and which remain subject to the WTO’s mechanism for the solution of differences.However, the opening of the market and the suppression of restrictions which derive from internal regulations have not been achieved given that, orientating itself around the objectives of national politics, liberalization is

  16. The future of human rights impact assessments of trade agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    The Future of Human Rights Impact Assessments of Trade Agreements develops a methodology for human rights impact assessments of trade agreements and considers whether there is any value in using the methodology on a sustained basis to ensure that the human dimensions of international trade are taken

  17. Introduction To U.S. Free Trade Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gantz David A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This introduction explores the historical changes in the trade policies of the United States (U.S., namely, the shift from the support of multilateral rules to the embracement of regional trade agreements and provides an overview of the political and economic considerations behind the conclusion of the major U.S. free trade agreements.

  18. Regional trade agreements & procurement rules : facilitators or hindrances?

    OpenAIRE

    ANDERSON, Robert D.; MÜLLER, Anna Caroline; PELLETIER, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    This Working Paper considers the significance of government procurement chapters in regional trade agreements (RTAs), both in their own right and vis-à-vis the WTO Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA). The paper finds, inter alia, that: (i) a strong complementarity exists between government procurement trade commitments and general goods and services trade commitments, making integration of procurement commitments in a more general system such as the WTO Agreements desirable; (ii) govern...

  19. Implications of the New Regional Trade Agreements for the World Trading System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Ghibuțiu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The year 2013 witnessed an outstanding rise in the pace and scale of negotiations on regional trade agreements (RTAs. While RTAs are not a new phenomenon, current negotiations involve multiple parties and/or major trading countries that have a significant combined economic weight, i.e. mega-RTAs. This paper looks at the recent surge in trade regionalism and addresses some of the key issues related to the potential impact of mega-RTAs upon the world trading system and global trade patterns. It examines the peculiarities of the new mega-RTAs and the factors underlying their proliferation, and discusses the main concerns raised by their foreseeable impact on excluded countries and the wider trading system. The paper finds that, if successfully concluded, mega-RTAs are likely to have far-reaching implications for the world trading regime, affecting its transparency and coherence. Nevertheless, the adverse effects could be cushioned through a revival of trading nations’ interest in the multilateral Doha Round talks.

  20. 75 FR 68808 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Free Trade Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ...: Free trade agreements are established to reduce and eliminate barriers, strengthen and develop economic... information collection: Chile, Singapore, Australia, Morocco, Bahrain, Jordan, Oman, and Peru. These...

  1. The Impacts of U.S. Agricultural and Trade Policy on Trade Liberalization and Integation via a U.S.-Central American Free Trade Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Dale E. Hathaway

    2003-01-01

    This study looks at several major legislative actions in 2002 that will substantially affect trade negotiations with the United States, and examines the US import protection for agricultural products that will be critical in trade negotiations with Central American countries. The two important legislative actions were the passage of the 2002 Farm Bill and the passage of Trade Promotion Authority, which provides for "fast track" treatment of trade agreements. The 2002 farm bill was widely deno...

  2. 76 FR 14570 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Trade Agreements Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... application of the World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and the Free Trade Agreements, as... Parts 22, 25, and 52 Government procurement. Dated: March 4, 2011. Millisa Gary, Acting Director, Office... INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Cecelia L. Davis, Procurement Analyst, at (202) 219-0202, for clarification of...

  3. International trade agreements challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Donald W

    2006-11-01

    This report reviews aspects of trade agreements that challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies. Trade agreements reduce barriers, increase competition, lower prices and promote consumption. Conversely, tobacco and alcohol control measures seek to reduce access and consumption, raise prices and restrict advertising and promotion in order to reduce health and social problems. However, under current and pending international agreements, negotiated by trade experts without public health input, governments and corporations may challenge these protections as constraints on trade. Advocates must recognise the inherent conflicts between free trade and public health and work to exclude alcohol and tobacco from trade agreements. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control has potential to protect tobacco policies and serve as a model for alcohol control.

  4. Are Preferential Trade Agreements with Non-trade Objectives a Stumbling Block for Multilateral Liberalization?

    OpenAIRE

    Nuno Limão

    2007-01-01

    In many preferential trade agreements (PTAs), countries exchange not only reductions in trade barriers but also cooperation in non-trade issues such as labour and environmental standards, intellectual property, etc. We provide a model of PTAs motivated by cooperation in non-trade issues and analyse its implications for global free trade and welfare. We find that such PTAs increase the cost of multilateral tariff reductions and thus cause a stumbling block to global free trade. This occurs bec...

  5. 78 FR 42084 - Cooperative Agreement to Support the World Trade Organization's Standards and Trade Development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ...] Cooperative Agreement to Support the World Trade Organization's Standards and Trade Development Facility... The STDF is a unique global partnership established by the Food and Agriculture Organization, World... cooperative agreement in fiscal year 2013 (FY 2013) to the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Standards and...

  6. 76 FR 48145 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904; Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free-Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') established a..., United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of...

  7. Is there reciprocity in preferential trade agreements on services?

    OpenAIRE

    Marchetti, Juan; Roy, Martin; Zoratto, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Are market access commitments on services in Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs) reciprocal or simply unilateral? If reciprocal, do concessions granted in services depend on concessions received from the trading partner in other services or in non-services areas as well? In this paper we investigate the presence of reciprocity in bilateral services agreements, by sub-sector, mode of supply and type of agreement (North-North, South-North, South-South). To do so, we use a database of concessio...

  8. Trade agreements and access to drugs in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Llamoza, Javier; Químico Farmacéutico, Acción Internacional para la Salud, Lima, Perú.

    2009-01-01

    Through Free Trade Agreements, the economies of the United States of America (USA) and the European Union (EU) have been achieving a higher standard of protection of the intellectual property rights. This increases unduly the monopolist rights of the industry, restricting competition and limiting the access of new generic drugs. Peru has not been the exception to this process, subscribing a free trade agreement with the USA called Agreement of Commercial Promotion (APC) that involved the ...

  9. THE TPP AND TTIP TRADE AGREEMENTS: THE INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana GUTU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Free trade is one of the ultimate purposes of the free trade agreements currently negotiated over the world. Two of these trials are represented by the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP. The common feature of these two trade deals is represented by the United States, a global actor that is making sure that it will be able to trade in best conditions on both of its geographical shores: on the Pacific and on The Atlantic. The negotiations are still ongoing, but results are expected on both sides. An important issue for the third parties, but not only, is represented by the secrecy of the negotiations undertaken and the lack of transparency shown by the negotiating Governments. If the agreements are concluded, a major global impact on trade and investments is expected, with significant positive implications for the TPP and TTIP negotiating states.

  10. Malaysia Economic Monitor, June 2016 : Leveraging Trade Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2016-01-01

    The MEM is the World Bank's biannual flagship publication on Malaysia. It provides analysis of recent economic developments and the near-term outlook for Malaysia. Each publication also focuses on a special topic related to Malaysia's transformation into a high-income economy. Malaysia is at the forefront of a "new generation" of trade agreements that will shape trade and investment over t...

  11. Trade agreements, domestic environmental regulation, and transboundary pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Yu-Bong; Hu, Chia-Hsien [Department of Public Finance, National Taipei University (China)

    2008-05-15

    This paper investigates a second-best trade agreement between two countries that takes the distortion arising from their non-coordinated environmental policies into consideration. In a reciprocal-markets model with bidirectional transboundary pollution, we find that if the transboundary pollution is sufficiently strong, the second-best trade agreement requires that both countries subsidize the imported goods whose consumption gives rise to pollution. We also find that a bilateral tariff reduction is beneficial to the global environment. (author)

  12. Trade agreements, domestic environmental regulation, and transboundary pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Yu-Bong; Hu, Chia-Hsien

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates a second-best trade agreement between two countries that takes the distortion arising from their non-coordinated environmental policies into consideration. In a reciprocal-markets model with bidirectional transboundary pollution, we find that if the transboundary pollution is sufficiently strong, the second-best trade agreement requires that both countries subsidize the imported goods whose consumption gives rise to pollution. We also find that a bilateral tariff reduction is beneficial to the global environment. (author)

  13. International trade agreements: a threat to tobacco control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, E R; Brenner, J E; Houston, T P

    2005-08-01

    International covenants establish a role for governments in ensuring the conditions for human health and wellbeing, which has been recognised as a central human right. International trade agreements, conversely, prioritize the rights of corporations over health and human rights. International trade agreements are threatening existing tobacco control policies and restrict the possibility of implementing new controls. This situation is unrecognised by many tobacco control advocates in signatory nations, especially those in developing countries. Recent agreements on eliminating various trade restrictions, including those on tobacco, have expanded far beyond simply international movement of goods to include internal tobacco distribution regulations and intellectual property rules regulating advertising and labelling. Our analysis shows that to the extent trade agreements protect the tobacco industry, in itself a deadly enterprise, they erode human rights principles and contribute to ill health. The tobacco industry has used trade policy to undermine effective barriers to tobacco importation. Trade negotiations provide an unwarranted opportunity for the tobacco industry to assert its interests without public scrutiny. Trade agreements provide the industry with additional tools to obstruct control policies in both developed and developing countries and at every level. The health community should become involved in reversing these trends, and help promote additional measures to protect public health.

  14. Heterogeneous trade agreements, WTO membership and international trade : an analysis using matching econometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohl, Tristan; Trojanowska, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the heterogeneous effects of trade agreements (TAs) and World Trade Organization (WTO) membership on the volume of international trade. We extend Baier and Bergstrand’s (2009a) application of matching econometrics by distinguishing between different types of TAs and WTO

  15. Agricultural Trade Barriers 10 years later Uruguay Round Trade Agreement Signature

    OpenAIRE

    Mahia, R.; Arce, Rafael de; Escribano, Gonzalo

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, an analysis of current state of agricultural trade barriers is carried out alter ten years of Uruguay Round Agricultural Trade Agreement Signature The descriptive analysis showed that small advances in trade barriers removing have been taken out. About the heterogeneity in tariff applications, tariff progresivity and peak tariffs, the same situation is pointed out.

  16. 78 FR 45181 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement..., (202) 482-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free Trade Agreement... Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: On...

  17. The Outlier Sectors: Areas of Non-Free Trade in the North American Free Trade Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Eric T. Miller

    2002-01-01

    Since its entry into force, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has been enormously influential as a model for trade liberalization. While trade in goods among Canada, the United States and Mexico has been liberalized to a significant degree, this most famous of agreements nonetheless contains areas of recalcitrant protectionism. The first part of this paper identifies these "outlier sectors" and classifies them by primary source advocating protectionism, i.e., producer interests ...

  18. Monitoring the impacts of trade agreements on food environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, S; Hattersley, L; Snowdon, W; Thow, A-M; Lobstein, T; Sanders, D; Barquera, S; Mohan, S; Hawkes, C; Kelly, B; Kumanyika, S; L'Abbe, M; Lee, A; Ma, J; Macmullan, J; Monteiro, C; Neal, B; Rayner, M; Sacks, G; Swinburn, B; Vandevijvere, S; Walker, C

    2013-10-01

    The liberalization of international trade and foreign direct investment through multilateral, regional and bilateral agreements has had profound implications for the structure and nature of food systems, and therefore, for the availability, nutritional quality, accessibility, price and promotion of foods in different locations. Public health attention has only relatively recently turned to the links between trade and investment agreements, diets and health, and there is currently no systematic monitoring of this area. This paper reviews the available evidence on the links between trade agreements, food environments and diets from an obesity and non-communicable disease (NCD) perspective. Based on the key issues identified through the review, the paper outlines an approach for monitoring the potential impact of trade agreements on food environments and obesity/NCD risks. The proposed monitoring approach encompasses a set of guiding principles, recommended procedures for data collection and analysis, and quantifiable 'minimal', 'expanded' and 'optimal' measurement indicators to be tailored to national priorities, capacity and resources. Formal risk assessment processes of existing and evolving trade and investment agreements, which focus on their impacts on food environments will help inform the development of healthy trade policy, strengthen domestic nutrition and health policy space and ultimately protect population nutrition. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  19. 76 FR 24026 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Trade Agreements Certificate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ...; Information Collection; Trade Agreements Certificate AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... approved information collection requirement concerning trade agreements certificate. Public comments are...-mail [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. Purpose Under the Trade Agreements Act of...

  20. 75 FR 3179 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements-Costa Rica and Peru (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ...-AG31 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements--Costa Rica and Peru (DFARS... respect to Costa Rica, and the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement. The trade agreements waive... States Free Trade Agreement with respect to Costa Rica and the United States-Peru Trade Promotion...

  1. Free Trade Regional Agreements and Human Rights: the case of TPP and its impact in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Lara

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The negotiation and signature of free trade agreements has been a policy implemented by governments of many countries with economies open to international trade. Chile has been part of that trend, with a recent example in the signature of the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement. However, the content of such agreements is not exclusively related to conditions of trade between countries. In fact, this kind of agreement include progressively normative content of local nature, which are discussed and negotiated under much different conditions that local law or agreements signed in international forums. This implies consequences not only in the content of fundamental rights affected by the rules set in the agreements, but also in the shape that such rights are recognised and configured by democratic States.

  2. Negotiating a Plurilateral Agreement on Trade in Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Ghibuțiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the ongoing plurilateral negotiations for a new Agreement on Trade in Services. Its aim is to answer to the following set of questions: (1 What are the motivations behind these negotiations as well as the objectives of the new plurilateral trade in services agreement? How will the architecture of the new agreement look like? (2 What are the interests involved in negotiating this new plurilateral agreement on trade in services? and (3 How will it fit into the multilateral trading system revolving around the WTO? According to the findings of the paper, the new deal that is promoted by 23 like-minded WTO Members, including the EU, is a policy response to disappointment over the protracted multilateral talks and the very impasse of the Doha Round. Yet, the stakes on negotiating an ambitious market opening for services are quite high, given the importance of services in international trade and particularly their crucial role in global production networks, that dominate nowadays global production, trade and investments.

  3. Leveraging Trade Agreements to Meet U.S. Security Aims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-08

    President George H.W. Bush sought means to influence the policies of Latin American states more effectively. Mexico , particularly in the post-Cold War era...security goals. A review of the U.S. trade policy, and its nesting with the National Security Strategy, demonstrates how President Barack Obama’s... President Barack Obama’s strategic “pivot to Asia,” and the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) trade agreement facilitate U.S. enduring national

  4. 77 FR 43081 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ...; Information Collection; Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements--Israeli Trade Act Certificate AGENCIES... approved information collection requirement concerning the Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements--Israeli..., Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements--Israeli Trade Act Certificate, by any of the following...

  5. Non-conventional provisions in regional trade agreements : do they enhance international trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Hayakawa, Kazunobu; Kimura, Fukunari; Nabeshima, Kaoru

    2011-01-01

    The scope of recent regional trade agreements (RTAs) is becoming much wider in terms of including several provisions such as competition policy or intellectual property. This paper empirically examines how far advanced, non-conventional provisions in RTAs increase trade values among RTA member countries, by estimating the gravity equation with more disaggregated indicators for RTAs. As a result, we find that the provision on competition policy has the largest impacts on trade values, followin...

  6. Stumbling Forward on Trade: The Doha Round, Free Trade Agreements, and Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew B. Adler

    2008-01-01

    Before continuing a headlong rush to form free trade agreements with partners around the globe, Ottawa should pause to consider the effects of a web of FTAs. Matthew B. Adler argues that FTAs tend to interfere with multilateral trade negotiations, which potentially would deliver broader benefits.

  7. 77 FR 10479 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews; First Request for Panel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement... Section of the NAFTA Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement... American Free Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') established a mechanism to replace domestic judicial review...

  8. 78 FR 18877 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Free Trade Agreement With Colombia (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Free Trade Agreement With Colombia (DFARS Case 2012-D032... Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to implement the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement. This Trade Promotion Agreement is a free trade agreement that provides for mutually non-discriminatory treatment of...

  9. ASEAN’s Preferential Trade Agreements (PTA Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanyi Leu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a diversification explanation in order understand the development of PTAs in Southeast Asia. I argue that an important reason why ASEAN states participate in PTAs has been to diversify existing trade ties and to reduce overdependence on a narrow range of export markets. Southeast Asian countries have formed PTAs with markets with which they had weak or unexplored economic relations, as demonstrated by three case analyses: the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA, the ASEAN-China Free Trade Agreement (ACFTA and the ASEAN-Japan Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (AJCEP. To maximise the economic gains and the diversification effects of PTA participation, ASEAN countries have pursued a strategy of strengthening economic unity while keeping external economic linkages as diversified as possible. Although East Asia, and especially China, was an important alternative market to reduce ASEAN’s dependence on trade with America, ASEAN countries have also pursued PTAs with a number of other trading partners. This paper explains how PTAs have helped ASEAN states to develop more policy autonomy in their trading environment.

  10. U.S.-Peru Economic Relations and the U.S.-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Villarreal, M. A

    2007-01-01

    .... A free trade agreement with Peru is one of several bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs) negotiated or being considered by the United States with Latin American countries in its effort to advance free trade throughout the region...

  11. EU-India free trade agreement : a quantitative assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbosch, T.J.; Kuiper, M.H.; Roza, P.

    2008-01-01

    This report analyses the effects of a regional trade agreement (FTA) between the EU and India, for which negotiations are underway. The study starts with abrief overview of the key insights from the existing literature on FTAs and their relationship with multilateral negotiations. The remainder of

  12. 76 FR 23286 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement... Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice... International Trade Commission, in the matter of Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube from Mexico, Secretariat...

  13. Revenue, welfare and trade effects of European Union Free Trade Agreement on South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kore M.A. Guei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Using the partial equilibrium WITS-SMART Simulation model to assess the impact of liberalisation under the Trade Development and Cooperation Agreement (TDCA of a free trade area between the European Union and South Africa. The identification of the impact of such agreement allows for trade policy negotiation adjustment that can be beneficial for South Africa. Aim: The aim of the study is to estimate and discuss the impact of a Free Trade Agreement (FTA with the European Union and South Africa. More specifically, the study intends to estimate the impact of revenue, welfare, imports, exports, trade creation and to come up with policies options for South Africa that can be used in negotiations and policy formulations. Setting: The study used international trade data (2012 available in the WITS-SMART model to assess bilateral trade agreement between the European Union and South Africa. Methods: To identify the impact on revenue, welfare, imports, exports and trade creation, the study simulated an FTA (0% tariff rate for all goods exchanged between the European Union and South Africa. Also, the elasticity of substitution used for the simulation model was 99%. Results: The findings of the study reveal that total trade effects in South Africa are likely to surge by US$ 1.036 billion with a total welfare valued at US$ 134 million. Dismantling tariffs on all European Union (EU goods would be beneficial to consumers through net trade creation. Total trade creation would be US$ 782 million. However, South African producers are likely to contribute a trade diversion of US$ 254 million which has a negative impact on consumer welfare. The country might also experience a revenue loss amounting to US$ 562 million because of the removal of tariffs. In trade, the country’s exports and imports to the EU are expected to increase by US$ 12.419 million and US$ 1.266 million, respectively. Conclusion: The European Union–South Africa FTA would

  14. Trading in Education: The "Agreement on Internal Trade," Labour Mobility and Teacher Certification in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Dick; Young, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Canada's provincial and territorial governments are committed to implement the Labour Mobility chapter of the "Agreement on Internal Trade" (AIT) in 2009. This article examines the implications of this agreement for teacher certification and teacher education programs. It argues that the full impact of AIT will not be immediately…

  15. Disentangling regional trade agreements, trade flows and tobacco affordability in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appau, Adriana; Drope, Jeffrey; Labonté, Ronald; Stoklosa, Michal; Lencucha, Raphael

    2017-11-14

    In principle, trade and investment agreements are meant to boost economic growth. However, the removal of trade barriers and the provision of investment incentives to attract foreign direct investments may facilitate increased trade in and/or more efficient production of commodities considered harmful to health such as tobacco. We analyze existing evidence on trade and investment liberalization and its relationship to tobacco trade in Sub-Saharan African countries. We compare tobacco trading patterns to foreign direct investments made by tobacco companies. We estimate and compare changes in the Konjunkturforschungsstelle (KOF) Economic Globalization measure, relative price measure and cigarette prices. Preferential regional trade agreements appear to have encouraged the consolidation of cigarette production, which has shaped trading patterns of tobacco leaf. Since 2002, British American Tobacco has invested in tobacco manufacturing facilities in Nigeria, Kenya and South Africa strategically located to serve different regions in Africa. Following this, British America Tobacco closed factories in Ghana, Rwanda, Uganda, Mauritius and Angola. At the same time, Malawi and Tanzania exported a large percentage of tobacco leaf to European countries. After 2010, there was an increase in tobacco exports from Malawi and Zambia to China, which may be a result of preferential trade agreements the EU and China have with these countries. Economic liberalization has been accompanied by greater cigarette affordability for the countries included in our analysis. However, only excise taxes and income have an effect on cigarette prices within the region. These results suggest that the changing economic structures of international trade and investment are likely heightening the efficiency and effectiveness of the tobacco industry. As tobacco control advocates consider supply-side tobacco control interventions, they must consider carefully the effects of these economic agreements and

  16. Energy and the NAFTA [North American Free Trade Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plourde, A.

    1993-01-01

    A review is presented of the implications of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) for the energy industry. This agreement expands the coverage accorded to energy in the Canada-US Free Trade Agreement (FTA), and is of limited significance with respect to Canada-US relations, but is quite important to these two countries' energy trade with Mexico. With respect to Canada-US trade, the most important departure from the FTA is that NAFTA tends to ensure a greater degree of respect for the terms of negotiated contracts, in particular by requiring the parties to make efforts to secure compliance with the national treatment provisions of the NAFTA by subfederal regulatory entities. Mexico's constitution severely restricts foreign participation in the activities of its energy industries, including basic petrochemicals. While NAFTA accomodates these restrictions, Canadian and US companies will have opportunities to bid on contracts for goods and services and construction in the Mexican energy sector on an equal footing with their Mexican counterparts. NAFTA also provides expanded opportunities for foreign investment and control in electricity generation for own-use, cogeneration and public service purposes. The parties are explicitly allowed to extend activity incentives to their respective oil and gas industries. 9 refs

  17. Services in Regioanl Trade Agreements: Implications for India

    OpenAIRE

    Nag, Biswajit; De, Debdeep

    2008-01-01

    Service sector has emerged as the largest and fastest-growing sector in the global economy in the last two decades, providing more than 60 per cent of global output and, in many countries, an even larger share of employment. The growth in services has also been accompanied by the rising share of services in world transactions. In fact trade in services has grown as fast as trade in goods in the period 1990- 2003 (6% per annum). In recent years the number of international agreements aiming to ...

  18. 48 CFR 52.225-3 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements-Israeli Trade Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Trade Agreements-Israeli Trade Act. 52.225-3 Section 52.225-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.225-3 Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Israeli Trade Act. As prescribed in 25.1101(b)(1)(i), insert the following clause: Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Israeli...

  19. 48 CFR 52.225-4 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreement-Israeli Trade Act Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Trade Agreement-Israeli Trade Act Certificate. 52.225-4 Section 52.225-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.225-4 Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreement—Israeli Trade Act... Agreement—Israeli Trade Act Certificate (JUN 2009) (a) The offeror certifies that each end product, except...

  20. 15 CFR Appendix A to Chapter Xx - Administration of the Trade Agreements Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration of the Trade Agreements Program A Appendix A to Chapter XX Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Ch. XX, App. A Appendix A to Chapter XX...

  1. The bilateral trade agreements and export performance of South Asian nations with special reference to India Sri Lanka Free Trade Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail P

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The regional trade agreements (RTA have been one of the important developments in the world trading system in 1990s. There are number of studies on the effects trade agreements in different contexts. This study is an attempt to analyse the effects of bilateral trade agreements in the intraregional trade in the SAARC region with special reference to the Free Trade Agreements (FTA between India Sri Lanka. The study uses a panel regression analysis by using balance panel data. The study concludes that the FTA between India and Sri Lanka has brought positive results in the trade between these two nations by improving the bilateral trade in goods. The results of the study are important in the context of looking for the prospects of a free trade area in the region by member nations.

  2. WHAT COMES NEXT? A GLOBAL TRADE WAR OR THE RENEGOTIATION OF US TRADE AGREEMENTS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Câmpeanu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In March 2018, the US President announced additional tariffs on steel and aluminum imports to be applied to all exporters in the US market. The main reason behind these protectionist measures is the threat to national security caused by the US balance of trade, as reflected by annual losses of hundreds of billions of dollars. Strengthening of the US steel and aluminum industries, job creation and, hence, the consolidation of the US economy appear to be among the benefits of the new tariffs. This article aims to analyze US trade and issues related to the major trading partners, as well as the new protectionist measures initiated by president Trump, alongside the domestic and international responses. Finally, the article highlights the immediate and foreseeable consequences of these measures and concludes that rather than triggering a global trade war, the Trump administration is preparing the means to exert pressure to renegotiate the US trade agreements.

  3. 78 FR 6188 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Free Trade Agreement-Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... Promotion Agreement. This Trade Promotion Agreement is a free trade agreement (FTA) that provides for... 77 FR 27548 on May 10, 2012, to implement the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement... and safety effects, distributive impacts, and equity). E.O. 13563 emphasizes the importance of...

  4. International Standards: Past Free Trade Agreements and the Prospects in the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasson Leif Johan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership represents a strategic vision of transatlantic relations, including job creation, global leadership, and establishing high international standards. This paper discusses how three recent bi-lateral and regional agreements, along with positions adopted in transatlantic negotiations, convey respective side's acceptable parameters, and how international standards are emerging from and disseminated through agreements involving the European Union and the United States

  5. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and Mexican nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Allison

    2011-03-01

    In the context of nurse migration, experts view trade agreements as either vehicles for facilitating migration or as contributing to brain-drain phenomena. Using a case study design, this study explored the effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on the development of Mexican nursing. Drawing results from a general thematic analysis of 48 interviews with Mexican nurses and 410 primary and secondary sources, findings show that NAFTA changed the relationship between the State and Mexican nursing. The changed relationship improved the infrastructure capable of producing and monitoring nursing human resources in Mexico. It did not lead to the mass migration of Mexican nurses to the United States and Canada. At the same time, the economic instability provoked by the peso crisis of 1995 slowed the implementation of planned advances. Subsequent neoliberal reforms decreased nurses' security as workers by minimizing access to full-time positions with benefits, and decreased wages. This article discusses the linkages of these events and the effects on Mexican nurses and the development of the profession. The findings have implications for nursing human resources policy-making and trade in services.

  6. The high price of "free" trade: U.S. trade agreements and access to medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopert, Ruth; Gleeson, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    The United States' pursuit of increasingly TRIPS-Plus levels of intellectual property protection for medicines in bilateral and regional trade agreements is well recognized. Less so, however, are U.S. efforts through these agreements to influence and constrain the pharmaceutical coverage programs of its trading partners. Although arguably unsuccessful in the Australia- U.S. Free Trade Agreement (AUSFTA), the U.S. nevertheless succeeded in its bilateral FTA with South Korea (KORUS) in establishing prescriptive provisions pertaining to the operation of coverage and reimbursement programs for medicines and medical devices, which have the potential to adversely impact future access in that country. More recently, draft texts leaked from the current Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA) negotiations show that U.S. objectives include not only AUSFTA-Plus and KORUS-Plus IP provisions but also ambitious inroads into the domestic health programs of its TPPA partners. This highlights the apparent conflict between trade goals - pursued through multilateral legal instruments to promote economic "health"- and public health objectives, such as the development of treatments for neglected diseases, the pursuit of efficiency and equity in priority setting, and the procurement of medicines at prices that reflect their therapeutic value and facilitate affordable access. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  7. The economic impact of the Australia-United States free trade agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Shiro Armstrong

    2015-01-01

    The Australia–United States free trade agreement (AUSFTA) came into effect in 2005. It was the second preferential trade agreement that Australia signed, after its agreement with Singapore, and marked a departure from the primacy of Australia’s previous trade policy of unilateral and multilateral trade liberalisation towards preferential liberalisation. This paper assesses the economic effects of AUSFTA by applying the Productivity Commission’s gravity model of trade from its Bilateral ...

  8. 75 FR 79069 - Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement: Request for Comments From the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... proposed agreement to strengthen international cooperation, enforcement practices and legal frameworks for... international cooperation and to promote strong enforcement practices. Together these provisions will help to... OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement: Request for...

  9. Trade Agreements and Direct-to-Consumer Advertising of Pharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Gleeson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available There is growing international concern about the risks posed by direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA of prescription pharmaceuticals, including via the internet. Recent trade agreements negotiated by the United States, however, incorporate provisions that may constrain national regulation of DTCA. Some provisions explicitly mention DTCA; others enable foreign investors to seek compensation if new regulations are seen to harm their investments. These provisions may thus prevent countries from restricting DTCA or put them at risk of expensive legal action from companies seeking damages due to restrictions on advertising. While the most recent example, the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP, collapsed following US withdrawal in January 2017, early indications of the Trump Administration’s trade policy agenda signal an even more aggressive approach on the part of the United States in negotiating advantages for American businesses. Furthermore, the eleven remaining TPP countries may decide to proceed with the agreement in the absence of the United States, with most of the original text (including the provisions relevant to DTCA intact.

  10. Trade Agreements and Direct-to-Consumer Advertising of Pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Deborah; Menkes, David B

    2017-10-16

    There is growing international concern about the risks posed by direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription pharmaceuticals, including via the internet. Recent trade agreements negotiated by the United States, however, incorporate provisions that may constrain national regulation of DTCA. Some provisions explicitly mention DTCA; others enable foreign investors to seek compensation if new regulations are seen to harm their investments. These provisions may thus prevent countries from restricting DTCA or put them at risk of expensive legal action from companies seeking damages due to restrictions on advertising. While the most recent example, the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP), collapsed following US withdrawal in January 2017, early indications of the Trump Administration's trade policy agenda signal an even more aggressive approach on the part of the United States in negotiating advantages for American businesses. Furthermore, the eleven remaining TPP countries may decide to proceed with the agreement in the absence of the United States, with most of the original text (including the provisions relevant to DTCA) intact. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  11. Chile-EU Trade Agreement: What Can We Learn from Trade Statistics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime de Pablo Valenciano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An Association Agreement concluded between the European Union and Chile in 2002 included a comprehensive Free Trade Agreement (FTA that entered into force in February 2003. Our purpose is to analyse some of the economic consequences of the agricultural part of this agreement focusing in the fruit and vegetable market. Our finding is that market concentration has significantly decreased since the beginning of previous decade and has been reinforced in both markets. This has been an advantage for both Chilean producers and European consumers of fruits and vegetables.

  12. MULTILATERAL ENVIRONMENTAL AGREEMENTS AND THE TRADE MEASURES CONTAINED IN THESE AGREEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Timbur

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The environmental problems which the society is facing, ozone depletion, biodiversity loss, the spread of persistent organic pollutants, are a result of human activity with a worldwide impact, requiring immediate resolution. In this context, negotiation, signing and implementation of several multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs are one of the best solutions, affordable and reliable. The aim of this study is to analyze the commercial measures, which to some extent, ensure stability, security, and expansion of MEAs. The paper discusses, also, the efficiency, necessity and the influences of trade measures in MEAs and the WTO role in signing these agreements.

  13. Social Debate on Free Trade Agreements: Illusions Versus Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Dzialo; Bogna Gawronska-Nowak; Jaroslaw Jura

    2017-01-01

    The paper reflects the problem of Free Trade Agreements (FTA) that recently have been raising vivid public discussion. The main focus of our study is to analyse the social debate on the FTA and to confront the social perception concerning the FTA with the so-called “expert knowledge”. This may contribute both to better understanding of the controversies on the FTA and to proper indicating the possible sources of social conflicts. The results obtained seem to prove that the mismatch between so...

  14. 48 CFR 252.225-7045 - Balance of Payments Program-Construction Material Under Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Designated country means— (1) A World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement (WTO GPA) country... another country, has been substantially transformed in a Free Trade Agreement country into a new and... Program-Construction Material Under Trade Agreements. 252.225-7045 Section 252.225-7045 Federal...

  15. 75 FR 28059 - Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... Trade Agreements with Chile, Australia, and Singapore. DATES: July 15, 2010: Deadline for filing written... effects of the free trade agreements (FTAs) concluded with Chile, Singapore, and Australia. In its report...

  16. 75 FR 78726 - Agency Information Collection Activities: North American Free Trade Agreement Duty Deferral

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... Activities: North American Free Trade Agreement Duty Deferral AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP... collection requirement concerning the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Duty Deferral. This request...: 1651-0071. Abstract: The provisions of North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) were adopted by the...

  17. 77 FR 14303 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; New Designated Country (Armenia) and Other Trade Agreements Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ..., the thirty-fourth line from the top of the page is amended to read: ``TRADE AGREEMENTS (MAR 2012). 8... read: ``BUY AMERICAN ACT-- CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS UNDER TRADE AGREEMENTS (MAR 2012)'' 10. On page 12937...--CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS UNDER TRADE AGREEMENTS (MAR 2012)'' [FR Doc. C1-2012-4495 Filed 3-8-12; 8:45 am] BILLING...

  18. 48 CFR 252.225-7022 - Trade agreements certificate-inclusion of Iraqi end products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trade agreements... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7022 Trade agreements certificate—inclusion of Iraqi end products. As prescribed in 225.1101(7), use the following provision: Trade Agreements...

  19. Transatlantic Cooperation in Space: Eu-Canada Free Trade Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luise Weber-Steinhaus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available National governments are keenly aware of the need for investment in space. Canada, as a formal cooperating state in the European Space Agency (ESA, and Germany, as a leading member state of ESA, are interlinked in Europe’s space endeavours. Beyond ESA, Germany and Canada additionally have a strong history of bilateral cooperation on a range of space projects. This paper discusses the novel interdependencies between clear national and now supranational space policies, using the examples of the Canada-European Union (EU Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA. The agreement covers most aspects of the EU-Canada bilateral economic relationship and includes space. The paper focuses on international space policies, strategic bilateral co-operation, and technical accomplishments. It takes a closer look at German-Canadian collaboration in space programs and offers some reflection on the effect of both the EU and ESA’S transatlantic involvement in space.

  20. The Politics of Global Value Chains: Import-dependent Firms and EU-Asia Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Jappe; Poletti, Arlo

    2016-01-01

    In 2006, the European Commission released its Global Europe Communication, in which it announced a shift from a multilateral to a bilateral trade strategy. One of the key pillars of this new strategy was to strengthen the bilateral trade relations with key Asian countries. In contrast to existing analyses that focus on European Union (EU) decision makers' agency, we propose an explanation for this notable shift in the EU's trade policy that stresses the political role of import-dependent firms. In light of the increasing integration of such firms into global value chains, the article argues that a plausible case can be made, both theoretically and empirically, that import-dependent firms had a clear stake in the signing of preferential trade agreements between the EU and Asian countries and that their lobbying efforts significantly affected the EU's decision to start negotiations with South Korea, India and Vietnam.

  1. The Politics of Global Value Chains: Import-dependent Firms and EU–Asia Trade Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Jappe; Poletti, Arlo

    2015-01-01

    In 2006, the European Commission released its Global Europe Communication, in which it announced a shift from a multilateral to a bilateral trade strategy. One of the key pillars of this new strategy was to strengthen the bilateral trade relations with key Asian countries. In contrast to existing analyses that focus on European Union (EU) decision makers’ agency, we propose an explanation for this notable shift in the EU’s trade policy that stresses the political role of import-dependent firms. In light of the increasing integration of such firms into global value chains, the article argues that a plausible case can be made, both theoretically and empirically, that import-dependent firms had a clear stake in the signing of preferential trade agreements between the EU and Asian countries and that their lobbying efforts significantly affected the EU’s decision to start negotiations with South Korea, India and Vietnam. PMID:28018131

  2. Free Trade Agreements and Firm-Product Markups in Chilean Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamorgese, A.R.; Linarello, A.; Warzynski, Frederic Michel Patrick

    In this paper, we use detailed information about firms' product portfolio to study how trade liberalization affects prices, markups and productivity. We document these effects using firm product level data in Chilean manufacturing following two major trade agreements with the EU and the US....... The dataset provides information about the value and quantity of each good produced by the firm, as well as the amount of exports. One additional and unique characteristic of our dataset is that it provides a firm-product level measure of the unit average cost. We use this information to compute a firm...

  3. 76 FR 76808 - Procurement Thresholds for Implementation of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... Organization (WTO) Agreement on Government Procurement, Chapter 15 of the United States-Australia Free Trade... out U.S. trade agreement obligations under the WTO Agreement on Government Procurement, Chapter 15 of... Agreement on Government Procurement A. Central Government Entities Listed in U.S. Annex 1 (1) Procurement of...

  4. Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA 2006 - Opportunities, Trade Relation and Evolution of Macedonian Economic Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krum Efremov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Main activity in the foreign trade policy of the Republic of Macedonia during the past 10 years was the integration of the country on the Central European Free Trade Agreement – (CEFTA. The reason for this is the expectation that the membership of the Republic of Macedonia in CEFTA will significantly contribute to the continual efforts for strengthening the regional trade cooperation, further liberalisation of foreign trade exchange, and continuation of activities for harmonisation of trade rules with international standards. Additionally, CEFTA 2006 provides a much more comprehensive framework for development of mutual relations and economic cooperation among the countries of South Easte Europe. We will explain the concept of development of economic diplomacy in the Republic of Macedonia as a tool for supporting Macedonian economy. The purpose of these activities is to present the Republic of Macedonia as an attractive destination for foreign investments through the promotion of business advantages, and giving incentive to Macedonian export, as well as through strengthening of the country’s position as a attractive touristic destination.

  5. Improving regulatory capacity to manage risks associated with trade agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Helen L; Smith, Richard D; Drahos, Peter

    2015-03-21

    Modern trade negotiations have delivered a plethora of bilateral and regional preferential trade agreements (PTAs), which involve considerable risk to public health, thus placing demands on governments to strengthen administrative regulatory capacities in regard to the negotiation, implementation and on-going management of PTAs. In terms of risk management, the administrative regulatory capacity requisite for appropriate negotiation of PTAs is different to that for the implementation or on-going management of PTAs, but at all stages the capacity needed is expensive, skill-intensive and requires considerable infrastructure, which smaller and poorer states especially struggle to find. It is also a task generally underestimated. If states do not find ways to increase their capacities then PTAs are likely to become much greater drivers of health inequities. Developing countries especially struggle to find this capacity. In this article we set out the importance of administrative regulatory capacity and coordination to manage the risks to public health associated with PTAs, and suggest ways countries can improve their capacity.

  6. 78 FR 65221 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Free Trade Agreement-Panama (DFARS Case...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... Supplement (DFARS) to implement the United States--Panama Trade Promotion Agreement. This Trade Promotion...--Panama Trade Promotion Agreement. No respondents submitted public comments in response to the interim... effects, distributive impacts, and equity). E.O. 13563 emphasizes the importance of quantifying both costs...

  7. 78 FR 57838 - North American Free Trade Agreement Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Secretariat File No. USA-MEX-2011- 1904-02] North American Free Trade Agreement Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United... Decision and Order of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Binational Panel dated August 6, 2013...

  8. Prospects of an EU-Mercosur trade agreement for the Dutch agrifood sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkum, van S.

    2015-01-01

    This report provides insights into the current trade relations between the EU and Mercosur and assesses impacts of a comprehensive trade agreement between the two blocs on the Dutch agrifood sector. Trade opportunities of Dutch fruit & vegetables and dairy products would expand if an agreement

  9. Korea’s Trade Strategies for Mega Free Trade Agreements in Regional and Global Economic Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Chul Park

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Korea has developed rapidly since the 1960s. It is one of the four Asian tiger economies and a good model for developing countries. Korea shows the world how a developing country can develop its economy rapidly and become industrialized. Its development strategy has mainly been an export-oriented trade policy. As a result, its trade volume grew from $1 billion in 1966 to $1 trillion in 2011, which is a 1,000-fold increase within five decades. Since 2011, Korea has become one of seven countries with a trade volume over $1 trillion. However, the Korean economy has experienced turbulence as well as positive growth. It underwent severe economic crises such as the Asian financial crisis in 1997 and the global financial crisis in 2008. Its economy has been extremely vulnerable to the external economic environment, although it has improved and strengthened, particularly since the global financial crisis. During those two crises, the government carried out an appropriate trade policy with a strategic approach to upgrade its industrial structure and competitiveness in global markets. This article comprehensively discusses Korean trade policy and strategy over the last five decades, and how its national economy has developed rapidly. It also explores how the government sets its strategic targets in Asia and the Asia Pacific region. It considers two mega free trade agreements (FTAs — the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership and the Trans-Pacific Partnership — as new opportunities for further development. Therefore, it is wise to analyze these regional mega FTAs in order to maximize the national interest.

  10. REGIONAL TRADE AGREEMENTS AND COMPETITION POLICY. CASE STUDY: EU, ASEAN AND NAFTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fora Andreea-Florina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The large number of regional trade agreements notified to the World Trade Organization (WTO significantly influenced the flow of world trade. By April 2014 there had been notified 583 regional trade agreements to the WTO, of which only 379 are in force. The objective of this paper is to highlight the importance of regional trade agreements in world trade, especially the importance of establishing a regional competition policy in these agreements. The research methodology used is the analysis of legislation governing preferential trade agreements at the level of WTO, the collection and interpretation of statistical data provided by the WTO Secretariat, the case study, namely the study of literature. The paper is structured in three parts. The first part of the paper examines the basic laws based on which regional trade agreements are notified to the WTO and the evolution of these agreements in the period 1958-2013. The second part of the paper is devoted to the analysis of competition policy in regional trade agreements. In this part of the paper, to highlight the patterns of competition policy adopted under these agreements was analyzed by three case studies of competition policy in the EU, ASEAN and NAFTA. The three case studies have revealed that the three preferential trade agreements present regional competition policies with varying degrees of integration. The most complex form of competition policy is found in the European Union, because we are talking about a centralized model of competition policy. ASEAN presents a partially decentralized model, while NAFTA scrolls with a decentralized model of competition policy. The last part of the paper presents the characteristics of the four models of competition policy identified in the preferential trade agreements in force. It should be emphasized that if the initial preferential trade agreements have not put a great emphasis on the rules of competition policy, practice has shown the importance

  11. 77 FR 72325 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement... Free Trade Agreement. Panel Review was requested of the Final resolution of the Countervailing Duty... 19 of the North American Free-Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') established a mechanism to replace...

  12. 77 FR 26252 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; First Request for Panel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement... the North American Free Trade Agreement. On April 25, 2012, an additional Request was filed on behalf... INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') established a mechanism to...

  13. 76 FR 16728 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement... American Free Trade Agreement. Panel Review was requested of the U.S. Department of Commerce's final... INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') established a mechanism to...

  14. 76 FR 10005 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement... Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Panel Review was requested of...-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free Trade Agreement (``Agreement...

  15. 77 FR 66798 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement... Trade Agreement. Panel Review was requested of the Final Results of the Antidumping Administrative... INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free-Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') established a mechanism to...

  16. 76 FR 42115 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement... Free Trade Agreement. Panel Review was requested of the Final Results of the 2008- 2009 and 2009-2010.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') established a...

  17. Draft Public Health Statement on the U.S.-Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. is rapidly negotiating a raft of new regional and bilateral trade agreements. The most recent agreement, with Central America, [was to] come before Congress for a vote as soon as late May. There is growing concern that international trade agreements threaten health care and the health of communities. . . . The Draft Public Health Statement on the U.S.-Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA), developed by CPATH which planned a campaign around the issues, analyzes key provisions from the perspective of public health and suggests reframing the trade debate in terms of health.

  18. Effects of Free Trade Agreements on Foreign Trade: Predictions for Puerto Rico in the face of CAFTA-DR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. Signoret

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of regional free trade agreements on international trade activity. The analysis estimates gravity models of trade that serve to assess the likely impact of CAFTA-DR on Puerto Rico and United States’ foreign trade. The estimated effects of CAFTA-DR on the US are invariably modest. For the case of Puerto Rico, the effects are of considerably larger importance, albeit still somewhat small. The inclusion of the Dominican Republic into the Agreement, however, is critical for these latter results.

  19. The Free Trade Agreement and the Mexican health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurell, A C; Ortega, M E

    1992-01-01

    This article presents a discussion of the probable implications for the Mexican health sector of the Free Trade Agreement (FTA) between the United States, Canada, and Mexico. The authors argue that the FTA should be seen as part of neoliberal policies adopted by the Mexican government in 1983 that are based on large-scale privatization and deregulation of labor relations. In this general context the health sector, which traditionally has been dominated by public institutions, is undergoing a deep restructuring. The main trends are the decapitalization of the public sector and a selective process of privatization that tends to constitute the private health sector in a field of capital accumulation. The FTA is likely to force a change in Mexican health legislation, which includes health services in the public social security system and recognizes the right to health, and to accelerate selective privatization. The U.S. insurance industry and hospital corporations are interested in promoting these changes in order to gain access to the Mexican market, estimated at 20 to 25 million persons. This would lead to further deterioration of the public institutions, increasing inequalities in health and strengthening the private sector. The historical trend toward the integration of a National Health Service in Mexico would be interrupted in favor of formation of a dual private-public system.

  20. The Impact of the Canada-Korea Free Trade Agreement as Negotiated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Ciuriak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the impact of the Canada-Korea Free Trade Agreement on the basis of the published text and agreed schedule of commitments. We find that the Agreement reinforces existing patterns of comparative advantage between Canada (agriculture and resource-based sectors and Korea (autos and other industries. The sensitive sectors that held up the deal for years - autos into Canada and beef into Korea - witness major trade gains, but are not unduly disrupted. In both economies, the major output gains otherwise come in non-traded services sectors, driven by income effects. We find that trade diversion effects are quite significant; this lends support for the domino theory of major free trade agreements - since the Korea-EU agreement broke the ice, the pressure has intensified on third parties to re-level playing fields by striking their own deals. The study breaks new ground in modelling services trade by developing policy impacts based on the extent to which the text of the Agreement modifies Korea's and Canada's scores on the OECD's Services Trade Restrictiveness Index and by providing estimates of Mode 3 Services trade impacts. The analysis of the Agreement as negotiated, the present study, in our view, is a step forward in understanding the impact of modern free trade agreements.

  1. 78 FR 76700 - Procurement Thresholds for Implementation of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... International Procurement Policy, Office of the United States Trade Representative, (202) 395-9646 or scott... the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on Government Procurement, Chapter 15 of the United... OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Procurement Thresholds for Implementation of the...

  2. The Proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA): Provisions and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-17

    U.S.-South Korea Merchandise Trade, Selected Years ......................................7 The Proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS...Research Service 7 Table 1. Annual U.S.-South Korea Merchandise Trade, Selected Years (Billions of U.S. Dollars) Year U.S. Exports U.S. Imports...household meat purchases, particularly on reducing beef consumption in restaurants . 157

  3. 22 CFR 41.59 - Professionals under the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professionals under the North American Free Trade Agreement. 41.59 Section 41.59 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF... Professionals under the North American Free Trade Agreement. (a) Requirements for classification as a NAFTA...

  4. 48 CFR 3027.208 - Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreements. 3027.208 Section 3027.208 Federal Acquisition... American Free Trade Agreements. (f) Contracting officers shall ensure compliance. ...

  5. 19 CFR 102.25 - Textile or apparel products under the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Textile or apparel products under the North American Free Trade Agreement. 102.25 Section 102.25 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... or apparel products under the North American Free Trade Agreement. In connection with a claim for...

  6. 48 CFR 18.119 - Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... under the North American Free Trade Agreement. 18.119 Section 18.119 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Available Acquisition Flexibilities 18.119 Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreement. Requirement to obtain authorization prior to use of patented technology may be waived in...

  7. The impact of the CEFTA trade agreement on economic development in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Leonora Vranja

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the fact that Kosovo was in a difficult economic situation, it became a member of CEFTA, so that domestic producers could export their goods, benefit from free trade, attract foreign investors, and also it was seen as an opportunity for integration into the European Union (EU. After the signing of this agreement, eventhough expectations were optimistic about economic development, the agreement was not fully implemented. Kosovo, compared to other SouthEast European countries that are also members of this agreement, has been discriminated against in terms of export of domestic products and the number of foreign investors has decreased. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of this agreement on Kosovo's economic development. For analyzing the macroeconomic indicators affected by this agreement, analytical methods were used, and interviews were conducted with a local producer as well as with an economic expert. The results of this research show that the CEFTA 2006 agreement did not have the expected positive impact on the development of the economy in Kosovo.

  8. 75 FR 13421 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2008-036, Trade Agreements-Costa Rica, Oman, and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... 9000-AL23 Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2008-036, Trade Agreements--Costa Rica, Oman, and... United States-Oman Free Trade Agreement, and the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement. DATES... interim rule. The interim rule added Costa Rica, Oman, and Peru to the definition of ``Free Trade...

  9. 77 FR 66441 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; First Request for Panel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement... North American Free Trade Agreement. Panel Review was requested of the U.S. Department of Commerce's..., (202) 482-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free Trade Agreement...

  10. 76 FR 72677 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement... Trade Agreement. Panel review was requested of the final determination of the effective examination and... 20230, (202) 482-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free-Trade Agreement...

  11. Estimating the Impact of the Indo-ASEAN FreeTrade Agreement on India’s Balance of Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Ranajoy Bhattacharyya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available India signed a Free Trade Agreement with ASEAN on 13th August, 2009. In this paper we analyze one aspect of the possible impacts of the FTA: that on India’s Balance of Trade. It is found that the impact of the agreement on India’s balance of trade is expected to be negative. India’s imports will rise significantly, however there will be no commensurate rise in India’s export to these countries except to Indonesia.

  12. No fracking way: how the EU-US trade agreement risks expanding fracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-03-01

    A major trade deal currently being negotiated between the European Union (EU) and the United States (US) threatens the power of governments to protect communities, citizens and the environment from risky new technologies such as fracking. The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) covers a huge range of issues and sectors, including food safety, genetically modified products, toxic chemicals, highly polluting fuels and data protection. The talks threaten to weaken or roll-back democratically agreed safeguards put in place to protect the environment and citizens - for the sake of corporate profits. The talks are likely to favour safeguards for corporate investments over safeguards for citizens and the environment, allowing companies to seek compensation when government decisions affect their profits. This could benefit companies seeking to exploit natural resources through hazardous technologies whose activities may be affected by environmental or health regulations. Fracking - or high-volume hydraulic fracturing - is used to extract hard-to-access unconventional fossil fuels, such as shale gas and oil, tight gas and coal bed methane. Fracking will increase available gas supplies, locking us into fossil fuel dependency for several decades. There is growing evidence of huge health and environmental risks and impacts from fracking and this is leading to widespread public opposition at the community level, both in the EU and the US. This brief analyses how the TTIP could limit governments' ability to regulate the development and expansion of fracking. It argues that the TTIP could dangerously thwart government efforts to address climate change and to protect citizens; could expand fracking by removing the ability of governments to control natural gas exports; and could mean that states would be forced to pay millions in compensation to corporations for profits lost to regulation. It calls on the EU and the US to exclude investor-state dispute settlement

  13. Monitoring the impact of trade agreements on national food environments: trade imports and population nutrition risks in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravuvu, Amerita; Friel, Sharon; Thow, Anne-Marie; Snowdon, Wendy; Wate, Jillian

    2017-06-13

    Trade agreements are increasingly recognised as playing an influential role in shaping national food environments and the availability and nutritional quality of the food supply. Global monitoring of food environments and trade policies can strengthen the evidence base for the impact of trade policy on nutrition, and support improved policy coherence. Using the INFORMAS trade monitoring protocol, we reviewed available food supply data to understand associations between Fiji's commitments under WTO trade agreements and food import volume trends. First, a desk review was conducted to map and record in one place Fiji's commitments to relevant existing trade agreements that have implications for Fiji's national food environment under the domains of the INFORMAS trade monitoring protocol. An excel database was developed to document the agreements and their provisions. The second aspect of the research focused on data extraction. We began with identifying food import volumes into Fiji by country of origin, with a particular focus on a select number of 'healthy and unhealthy' foods. We also developed a detailed listing of transnational food corporations currently operating in Fiji. The study suggests that Fiji's WTO membership, in conjunction with associated economic and agricultural policy changes have contributed to increased availability of both healthy and less healthy imported foods. In systematically monitoring the import volume trends of these two categories of food, the study highlights an increase in healthy foods such as fresh fruits and vegetables and whole-grain refined cereals. The study also shows that there has been an increase in less healthy foods including fats and oils; meat; processed dairy products; energy-dense beverages; and processed and packaged foods. By monitoring the trends of imported foods at country level from the perspective of trade agreements, we are able to develop appropriate and targeted interventions to improve diets and health. This

  14. The prospects for the World Trade Organisation Agreement on Government Procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Arwel

    2000-01-01

    This thesis questions the prospects for the World Trade Organisation, Agreement on Government Procurement. This is the most important international agreement seeking to promote cross-border trade in hitherto closed national procurement markets. For the above threshold goods, services and construction services contracts which it covers, the Agreement's principal objective is to require the non-discriminatory treatment of foreign suppliers. It is because of this general insistence on non-discri...

  15. The European Window: Challenges in the Negotiation of Mexico's Free Trade Agreement with the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Gómez Lora; Jaime Zabludovsky

    2005-01-01

    On 1 July 2000 regulations to liberalize trade flows between Mexico and the European Union came into force, after more than six years of diplomatic work and complex negotiations. These regulations are part of the ¿Tratado de Libre Comercio (TLCUEM), which is also one of the components of the Agreement on Economic Association, Political Concertation and Cooperation (¿Global Agreement¿). The Global Agreement through its three components ¿ political dialogue, trade liberalization and cooperation...

  16. THE UTILITY OF THE BARTER AGREEMENT IN INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA RĂVAŞ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to explain how barter, as an economic institution, can help deal with the problem of contract enforcement across national borders in international trade and within borders in transition economies.

  17. International R&D collaboration networks and free trade agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Hua Sheng

    2006-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the analysis of optimal industrial and strategic trade policy in the presence of oligopoly and other forms of imperfect competition, so as to make contact with important empirical regularities and policy concerns, such as international R&D collaboration, unionization and free trade. First, in the context of international competition in which R&D plays an important role, we study the consequences of allowing governments to subsidize R&D and coalition devi...

  18. Trade Facilitation Provisions in Regional Trade Agreements: Discriminatory or Non-discriminatory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innwon Park

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The RTAs with trade facilitation provisions have been expected to generate a larger net trade-creating effect and complement the discriminatory feature of RTAs but have yet to be empirically proven. Recognizing the limitations of existing studies, we conducted a quantitative analysis on the effects of RTAs with and without trade facilitation provisions on both intra- and extra-bloc trade by using a modified gravity equation. We applied the Poisson Pseudo-Maximum Likelihood (PPML estimation with time varying exporter and importer fixed effect method to panel data consisting of 45,770 country pairs covering 170 countries for 2000-2010. We found that the trade facilitation provisions in existing RTAs are non-discriminatory by generating more intra- and extra-bloc trade in general. In particular, we found that the trade effects of RTAs in the APEC region are much stronger than the general case covering all RTAs in the world. In addition, as we control the trade effect of a country's trade facilitation, which is ranked by the World Bank's logistic performance index, RTAs consisting of trade facilitation provisions are discriminatory for trade in final goods and non-discriminatory for trade in intermediate goods. Overall, we endeavor to "explain," instead of "hypothesizing," why most of the recent RTAs contain trade facilitation provisions, especially in light of the deepening regional interdependence through trade in parts and components under global value chains and support the necessity of multilateralizing RTAs by implementing non-discriminatory trade facilitation provisions.

  19. Fears and Strategies: The EU, China and their Free Trade Agreements in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Garcia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The stalemate at the WTO Doha Round sparked a new wave of bilateral preferential and free trade agreements (FTAs. Nowhere has this been more evident than in the Asia Pacific region. Whilst there are economic reasons for FTAs, these are less efficient and more complex than multilateral agreements and most have had fairly small economic impacts. This paper compares the strategies of a newcomer to the FTA arena, China, and the actor with the most cumulative FTAs, the EU. It ponders on the different reasons informing their strategies and on how these may be affecting each other. It also considers the role of competitive fears and competitive diffusion in the formulation of their policies.

  20. Protocol to monitor trade agreement food-related aspects: the Fiji case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravuvu, Amerita; Friel, Sharon; Thow, Anne Marie; Snowdon, Wendy; Wate, Jillian

    2017-04-26

    Despite the growing rates of obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases, globally, public health attention has only relatively recently turned to the links between trade agreements and the nutritional risks associated with it. Specific trade agreements appear to have played an influential role in the volume and types of foods entering different countries, yet there is currently no systematic and objective monitoring of trade agreements for their impacts on food environments. Recently, INFORMAS was set up to monitor and benchmark food environments, government policies and private sector actions within countries and globally. One of its projects/modules focuses on trade policy and in particular the food-related aspects of trade agreements. This paper describes the INFORMAS trade protocol, an approach to collecting food-related information about four domains of trade: trade in goods; trade in services and foreign direct investment; domestic supports, and policy space. Specifically, the protocol is tested in Fiji. The development and testing of this protocol in Fiji represents the first effort to set out a framework and process for objectively monitoring trade agreements and their impacts on national food supply and the wider food environment. It has shown that entry into WTO trade agreements contributed to the nutrition transition in Fiji through the increased availability of imported foods with varying nutritional quality. We observed an increase in imports of both healthy and less healthy foods. The application of the monitoring protocol also highlights challenges for data collection associated with each trade domain that should be considered for future data collection and analysis in other low and middle income countries. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The impact of TTIP agreement on the European Union-United States coal trade potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olkuski Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to assess the impact of currently negotiated TTIP agreement (Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership on the use of hard coal in the EU and the US. Hard coal is the most important fuel in global electricity generation. This also applies to the United States, a leading manufacturer and exporter of this energy source. The US coal is exported to the EU market. The article presents the estimated exports of hard coal from the US to the EU. Due to the fact that price has a major impact on the size of exports, the paper presents the estimated prices, including freight costs, of power coal for the analyzed scenarios. According to one scenario, the US and European prices will be equalized (including freight costs by 2020, while from 2025 on the comparative advantage and competitiveness of the US hard coal will decrease. Taking into account the fact that the export of coal from the United States is free from customs duties, the acceptance of TIPP should not affect the currently existing trade between the two continents and the amount of exported coal. Nevertheless, the question of hard coal economy cannot be separated from other sectors of the energy market, which can be significantly affected by the future agreement.

  2. Trade Mark Coexistence Agreements: What is all the (lack of) fuss about?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew J.

    2008-01-01

    time and space is allocated to trade mark coexistence agreements. Despite a shortage of authoritative rulings, it is not immediately clear why, especially as they may be having a profound impact on the use of product markers. Coexistence agreements commonly exist between parties with at least similar...... trade marks who decide to formally coexist, often in the wake of legal skirmishes. In the busy European market, where Community-wide protection is available, an up-front contract may be an attractive way to avoid trade mark conflict. When these contracts work, trade mark law is effectively pre...

  3. The welfare impact of a free trade agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron; Vink, Nick

    2012-01-01

    The African market has become increasingly important to South Africa’s agricultural trade. Exports have been increasing rapidly, although imports have not kept pace. This pattern is also evident in the general trade in manufactured goods. The purpose of this article is to look at the best estimate...... conditiuons that will prevail with respect to trade in agricultural and manufactured goods between South Africa (SACU) and the member countries of SADC, the East African Comminuity and COMESA. The analysis is conducted using the GTAP database and its associated general equilibrium model. The results show...... that South Africa benefits from integration in SADC and from the integration of the entire region, but not from integration with the EAC and COMESA. However, the latter steps are necessary to reap the benefits of integration in the entire region....

  4. Europe’s Preferential Trade Agreements: Status, Content, and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    Access to the EU, HNMINT, February 4, 2010. 56 Business Standard, “India, EU to resume FTA talks next week,” January 22, 2010. 57 Factiva, Accord Fintech ...much in value terms ($3.4 trillion versus $0.52 trillion) than U.S. PTAs. These numbers can be used to support the argument that U.S. firms may face...multilateral trade liberalization.3 If PTAs, on balance, create more trade (by allowing production to shift to the more competitive producers in the

  5. Are Competitors' Free Trade Agreements Putting U.S. Agricultural Exporters at a Disadvantage?

    OpenAIRE

    Wainio, John; Dyck, John H.; Gehlhar, Mark J.; Vollrath, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    The growing number of free trade agreements among U.S. competitors has prompted questions about whether U.S. agricultural exporters may lose a share of the global market. ERS research shows that the recently created ASEAN-China and ASEANAustralia/ New Zealand free trade agreements are likely to have modest adverse impacts on U.S. agricultural exports. The Mercosur-Colombia free trade agreement has reduced U.S. agricultural exports to Colombia; U.S. grain sellers face increasingly stiff compet...

  6. 76 FR 697 - United States-Oman Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... comments may also be inspected during regular business days between the hours of 9 a.m. and 4:30 p.m. at... corruption in international trade and investment; fostering creativity and innovation by improving technology... preference or other rights or benefits under the OFTA and the Act. The likely respondents are business...

  7. 48 CFR 52.225-5 - Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Basin Trade Partnership Act of 2000. (3) Section XXII, Chapter 98, Subchapter II, Articles Exported and..., Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea..., Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru...

  8. Trade Liberalisation, Regional Agreements and Implications for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Management and Policy, 2006

    2006-01-01

    According to the OECD, the value of global annual trade in 1999 in higher education has been estimated at USD 30 billion. Australia is a major participant in international education: it is the third-largest international student destination in the English-speaking world behind the United States and the United Kingdom. In recent times, the…

  9. The European Union’s Trade Strategy and Its Reflections on Turkey: an Evaluation from the Perspective of Free Trade Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sait AKMAN

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to assess implications, of European Union’s (EU new trade strategy and its Free Trade Agreements (FTAs with third countries, on Turkey-EU relations. It analyses critics raised in the context of FTAs and puts forward that the sustainability of the relations is contingent to the satisfaction of a set of criteria.The EU shifted its trade policy from sole reliance on multilateral trade negotiations towards initiatives for bilateral and preferential agreements (PTAs under its ‘Global Europe’ strategy which was adopted in 2006, to propose its trade policy agenda and priorities in accordance with its Lisbon Strategy. WTO Doha Round is currently in deadlock and it is improbable that it will be concluded in the near future. Partly for this reason, the EU tends to implement its policy objectives constantly through a set of FTAs. Turkey has to align its trade policy to the EU’s preferential regimes, pursuant to its obligations arising from the Customs Union (CU. Hence, it has concluded so far sixteen FTAs with relevant countries. On the other hand, the intensification of critics about the FTAs process and the CU brings impediments for Turkey to commit itself to its CU obligations in the next period. Two main motives can be cited as a reason: First, the EU trade strategy obviously considers the global context within which the EU rests; and the Member States’ interests, which are subsequently reflected into its FTAs. Nevertheless, a harmonious action by Turkey becomes onerous as long as EU trade priorities diverge from Turkey’s long term trade strategy. Second reason, aside from technical aspects of the CU, can be attributed to the ‘political uncertainty’ converged around the ‘open-endedness’ of the membership process, which in turn affects the CU, Turkey’s most vital linkage to the EU, and the commitments there from.

  10. 75 FR 66680 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements-New Thresholds (DFARS 2009-D040)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and the Free Trade Agreements, as determined by the... of Subjects in 48 CFR Part 225 Government procurement. Ynette R. Shelkin, Editor, Defense Acquisition...

  11. 75 FR 13494 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement... Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Panel Review was requested of... Section, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of First Request for...

  12. The Proposed U.S.-Panama Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    Agreement ( TIEA ), which provides greater tax transparency in support of curbing illicit financial transactions associated with money laundering activities...Exchange Agreement ( TIEA ) with the United States, and took other measures necessary to be removed from the OECD “Gray List,” including implementing tax...resolution on the tax transparency issue on November 30, 2010, when they signed a TIEA . The TIEA permits either country to request information on most types

  13. The Proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA): Provisions and Implications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooper, William H; Manyin, Mark E; Jones, Vivian C; Cooney, Stephen; Jurenas, Remy

    2008-01-01

    ....-South Korean Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA) for their respective countries. If approved, the KORUS FTA would be the largest FTA that South Korea has signed to date and would be the second largest...

  14. 48 CFR 3025.7002-3 - Specific application of trade agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-discriminatory treatment under the World Trade Organization Agreement on Government Procurement (WTO GPA), or any... the WTO GPA, or any FTA listed in (FAR) 48 CFR subpart 25.4, apply the restrictions of (HSAR) 48 CFR...

  15. Proposed EU-India free trade agreement could impede manufacture of generic HIV drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Sandra Ka Hon

    2011-04-01

    Medical experts are warning that an international trade agreement being brokered between the European Union (EU) and India could greatly restrict the access of people living with HIV in the developing world to life-saving antiretroviral medication.

  16. Tinjauan Yuridis Terhadap Asean-China Free Trade Agreement (ACFTA) Dan Implikasinya Terhadap Pengaturan Penanaman Modal

    OpenAIRE

    NAINGGOLAN, SUSPIM GP; GINTING, BUDIMAN; SIREGAR, MAHMUL

    2013-01-01

    ASEAN-China Free Trade Agreement (ACFTA) is a free agreement which is formed the member countries of ASEAN with China. ACFTA is one of the free Trade Agreement that has been agreed since 2001, and are formed based on the basic of International law, namely the Framework Agreement and Comprehensive Economic Co-operation between ASEAN and The People's Republic of China, which is signed on 4 November 2002 in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, by the heads of government from ASEAN countries and The People's of...

  17. 76 FR 5825 - U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Passenger Vehicle Sector Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ...: Passenger Vehicle Sector Update AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of...) instituted investigation No. 332-523, U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Passenger Vehicle Sector Update. DATES... concluded negotiations to modify the FTA, including certain provisions relating to the passenger vehicle...

  18. Transition problems in economic reform: agriculture in the North American free trade agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.

    1995-01-01

    Investigates the effecto of the North American Free Trade Agreement on agriculture in Mexico. Implications on policy design for the absence of efficient capital markets, on the welfare costs of reforming gradually, on incentive problems created by trade adjustement policies and on the redistribution

  19. 77 FR 74174 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section.... Therefore, on the basis of the Panel Order and Rule 80 of the Article 1904 Panel Rules, the Panel Review was...

  20. 78 FR 5778 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... the Panel Order and Rule 80 of the Article 1904 Panel Rules, the Panel Review was completed and the...

  1. 78 FR 17639 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... Order and Rule 80 of the Article 1904 Panel Rules, the Panel Review was completed and the panelists were...

  2. 78 FR 10600 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... Order and Rule 80 of the Article 1904 Panel Rules, the Panel Review was completed and the panelists were...

  3. 78 FR 11627 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... Order and Rule 80 of the Article 1904 Panel Rules, the Panel Review was completed and the panelists were...

  4. 77 FR 72325 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... Order and Rule 80 of the Article 1904 Panel Rules, the Panel Review was completed and the panelists were...

  5. 76 FR 71617 - Request for Comments Concerning Compliance With Telecommunications Trade Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... Government Procurement. (2) Whether Canada or Mexico has failed to comply with its telecommunications... the United States: The World Trade Organization (``WTO'') General Agreement on Trade in Services; The... telecommunications products and services. For the current review, the USTR seeks comments on: (1) Whether any WTO...

  6. 77 FR 30355 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... already a designated country under the WTO GPA. Although the rule now opens up Government procurement to... Korea is already party to the World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement. DATES... note)). The Republic of Korea is already party to the World Trade Organization Government Procurement...

  7. 78 FR 20137 - Probable Economic Effect of Certain Modifications to the North American Free Trade Agreement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. TA-103-027] Probable Economic Effect of Certain... investigation No. TA-103-027, Probable Economic Effect of Certain Modifications to the North American Free Trade... reached agreement in principle with representatives of the governments of Canada and Mexico on proposed...

  8. 77 FR 37948 - Free Trade Agreements; Invitation for Applications for Inclusion on Dispute Settlement Lists for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ..., Colombia, Korea, Morocco, and Singapore AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative (``USTR...-Singapore Free Trade Agreement (``USSFTA''). USTR is inviting interested persons to apply to be on one or...-9483 to arrange for an alternative method of transmission. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For...

  9. The U.S.-Singapore Free Trade Agreement: Effects After Five Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    U.S. service providers in Singapore under the FTA , Citibank has been able to expand its operations there (it has 50% of the credit card market...failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 26 MAR 2010 2. REPORT...U.S.-Singapore Free Trade Agreement: Effects After Five Years Congressional Research Service Summary The U.S.-Singapore Free Trade Agreement ( FTA

  10. The 2030 Architecture of Association of Southeast Asian Nations Free Trade Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Suthiphand Chirathivat; Piti Srisangnam

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates and analyzes the present status, potential, and prospects of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) free trade agreements (FTAs). It begins with a review of the historical evolution of ASEAN FTAs, which captures the achievements of the ASEAN Free Trade Agreement (AFTA) and the efforts meant to lead to a further step of deeper integration, i.e., the realization of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) by 2015. The paper then offers a view on how the grouping adopte...

  11. 77 FR 13153 - National Advisory Committee for Labor Provisions of U.S. Free Trade Agreements; Notice of Open...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ....S. Free Trade Agreements; Notice of Open Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S... meeting is to discuss the implementation of the labor provisions of the Free Trade Agreements, technical... of Free Trade Agreements (FTAs), a brief presentation on USDOL technical assistance efforts in FTA...

  12. 78 FR 13088 - National Advisory Committee for Labor Provisions of U.S. Free Trade Agreements; Notice of Open...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ....S. Free Trade Agreements; Notice of Open Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S... meeting is to discuss the implementation of the labor provisions of Free Trade Agreements, as well as a... implementation of the labor provisions of Free Trade Agreements, and a review and discussion by the full...

  13. 48 CFR 27.204-1 - Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... under the North American Free Trade Agreement. 27.204-1 Section 27.204-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Patents and Copyrights 27.204-1 Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreement... the patent holder is from a country that is a party to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA...

  14. 48 CFR 52.225-12 - Notice of Buy American Act Requirement-Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Requirement-Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements. 52.225-12 Section 52.225-12 Federal Acquisition...—Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements. As prescribed in 25.1102(d)(1), insert the following provision: Notice of Buy American Act Requirement—Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements (FEB 2009) (a...

  15. THE ROLE OF REGIONAL TRADE AGREEMENTS IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRINA GABRIELA RADULESCU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Regional and sub-regional groups having an integrative character appeared after the war and they aimed at harmonizing their economic policies, and, at the same time, they ensured, in accordance with the agreed degree of integration, free turnover of goods, products, services, capitals and labor force. By setting up these international economic organizations, the states of the world and especially developing countries wanted to improve their efforts for a sustained economic growth, to counteract the effects of the unequal external affairs and to eliminate underdevelopment. Some of the regional agreements that represent the new regionalism have been motivated politically and they were stimulated by the conviction that good agreements do not necessarily stand for good neighbors. Such agreements consolidate good diplomatic practices and their objective is to reduce the inevitable confrontation that may appear as a result of com

  16. Leveraging Trade Agreements to Meet U.S. Security Aims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-08

    market , accounting for $24.9 billion in exports . An estimated 800,000 U.S. jobs are tied to trade with China .6 President Nixon’s 1972 goal of bringing...pursued a foreign policy initiative referred to as the “North American Accord,” explaining, A developing closeness among Canada, Mexico , and the United...framework to facilitate better cooperation with their powerful southern neighbor.9 Reagan’s North American Accord with Mexico took longer to evolve

  17. 45 CFR 650.7 - Awards affected by international agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Awards affected by international agreements. 650.7 Section 650.7 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE... research performer such rights in any subject invention as are contemplated in the international agreement...

  18. Jane Kelsey, Serving Whose Interests? The Political Economy of Trade in Services Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Irish

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Serving Whose Interests is an examination of the General Agreement on Trade in Services [GATS] since its inception in 1995, with several case studies that discuss services trade in specific applications around the world. The scholarship i s extensive and detailed. Jane Kelsey, law professor at the University of Auckland, has criticized the pro-market services trade regime i n her role as a political activist. In this book, her goals are to make the technicalities of trade rules accessible and to show their effects on people and communities.

  19. 78 FR 18876 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... Agreement. The Republic of Korea is already party to the World Trade Organization Government Procurement...) Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA). Although the rule now opens up Government procurement to the... 48 CFR Parts 225 and 252 Government procurement. Kortnee Stewart, Editor, Defense Acquisition...

  20. Multilateral aspects of advanced regulatory cooperation: considerations for a Canada-EU Comprehensive Trade Agreement (CETA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathis, J.

    2012-01-01

    This article considers equivalency recognition for goods and for services in the context of the applicable WTO agreements and provisions. The discussion of equivalency arises from certain elements presented by the Canada-EU Comprehensive Trade Agreement (CETA), in which economically developed

  1. "Trade creep" and implications of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership Agreement for the United Kingdom National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivusalo, Meri; Tritter, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    The ambitious and comprehensive Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership Agreement (TTIP/TAFTA) agreement between the European Union and United States is now being negotiated and may have far-reaching consequences for health services. The agreement extends to government procurement, investment, and further regulatory cooperation. In this article, we focus on the United Kingdom National Health Service and how these negotiations can limit policy space to change policies and to regulate in relation to health services, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and health industries. The negotiation of TTIP/TAFTA has the potential to "harmonize" more corporate-friendly regulation, resulting in higher costs and loss of policy space, an example of "trade creep" that potentially compromises health equity, public health, and safety concerns across the Atlantic.

  2. Bilateral agreements in the field of nuclear trade and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Primio, J.C.

    1989-03-01

    This report analyses the evolution of the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the non-proliferation regime since the nineteen sixties from the angle of an interdisciplinary approach. The medium- and long-term issues of non-proliferation are identified and discussed in connection with the NPT revisional conference to be held in 1990, and the NPT extension conference in 1995. The major subjects under review include: the international safeguards system; NP aspects of new technologies; bilateral agreements on cooperation in nuclear energy; developments on the international nuclear market; arms control issues of relevance to the NPT; the non-proliferation interests of the Federal Republic of Germany. Looking ahead to the conferences in 1990 and 1995, the report reveals some major aspects and recommendations for consideration in decisions on the future line of non-proliferation policy pursued by the Federal German government. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Effect of the International Agreement on Government Procurement and the Government Procurement Chapter of the North American Free Trade Agreement on public contracting opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Heldreth, Steven E.

    1994-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This paper explores the specific legal content of the 1979 and 1993 Agreements on Government Procurement as well as the North American Free Trade Agreement's Chapter Ten (Government Procurement). One chapter addresses the use of free trade agreements, associated problems, and how the agreements have been applied to the public sector. The content of each of the primary documents is an...

  4. 78 FR 23954 - U.S.-EU Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership Agreement: Advice on the Probable Economic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. TA-131-037 and TA-2104-029] U.S.-EU Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership Agreement: Advice on the Probable Economic Effect of Providing.... TA-131-037 and TA-2104-029, U.S.-EU Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership Agreement: Advice...

  5. 77 FR 56233 - National Advisory Committee for Labor Provisions of U.S. Free Trade Agreements; Notice of Open...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ....S. Free Trade Agreements; Notice of Open Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S... meeting is to discuss the implementation of the labor provisions of Free Trade Agreements (FTAs... Advisory Committee Act (FACA), as amended, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, the Office of Trade and Labor Affairs (OTLA...

  6. Implications of the Central America-Dominican Republic-Free Trade Agreement for the nutrition transition in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna; Thow, Anne Marie

    2008-11-01

    To identify potential impacts of the Central America-Dominican Republic-Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) on food consumption patterns associated with the nutrition transition, obesity, and diet-related chronic diseases. Examination of CAFTA-DR agreement to identify measures that have the potential to affect food availability and retail prices. CAFTA-DR includes agreements on tariffs, tariff-rate quotas (TRQs), and sanitary and phytosanitary regulations with direct implications for the availability and prices of various foods. Agreements on investment, services, and intellectual property rights (IPR) are also relevant because they create a business climate more conducive to long-term investment by the transnational food industry. Trade liberalization under CAFTA-DR is likely to increase availability and lower relative prices of two food groups associated with the nutrition transition: meat and processed foods. These outcomes are expected to occur as the direct result of increased imports from the United States and increased production by U.S. companies based in Central America, and the indirect result of increased domestic meat production (due to increased availability of cheaper animal feed) and increased production of processed foods by domestic companies (due to a more competitive market environment). CAFTA-DR is likely to further the nutrition transition in Central America by increasing the consumption of meat; highly processed foods; and new, non-traditional foods. The public health community should be more aware of the implications of trade agreements for dietary health. Governments and related stakeholders should assess the coherence between changes fostered by specific trade agreements with national policies on diet and nutrition.

  7. THE FREE TRADE AGREEMENTS BETWEEN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND LATIN AMERICA. THE PERUVIAN AND MEXICAN CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Manrique de LUNA BARRIOS

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Union has signed a number of free trade agreements with different countries in Latin America because it is aware of the great importance that this region has gained as a destination for its exports and investments. Furthermore, the European Union wishes to reaffirm its ties with countries in the region because it hopes to consolidate its political and economic position as an international player with its presence in those markets. In this paper we will discuss the free trade agreements that the EU has signed with Mexico and later with Peru, because they are two examples where Latin American countries have achieved significant economic growth and where the trade has generated significant benefits. Additionally they are two major trading partners of the European Union and they have allowed the EU to continue to expand its zone of influence in Latin America.

  8. Health preemption behind closed doors: trade agreements and fast-track authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Eric; Gonzalez, Mariaelena; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-09-01

    Noncommunicable diseases result from consuming unhealthy products, including tobacco, which are promoted by transnational corporations. The tobacco industry uses preemption to block or reverse tobacco control policies. Preemption removes authority from jurisdictions where tobacco companies' influence is weak and transfers it to jurisdictions where they have an advantage. International trade agreements relocate decisions about tobacco control policy to venues where there is little opportunity for public scrutiny, participation, and debate. Tobacco companies are using these agreements to preempt domestic authority over tobacco policy. Other transnational corporations that profit by promoting unhealthy foods could do the same. "Fast-track authority," in which Congress cedes ongoing oversight authority to the President, further distances the public from the debate. With international agreements binding governments to prioritize trade over health, transparency and public oversight of the trade negotiation process is necessary to safeguard public health interests.

  9. Health Preemption Behind Closed Doors: Trade Agreements and Fast-Track Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Eric; Gonzalez, Mariaelena

    2014-01-01

    Noncommunicable diseases result from consuming unhealthy products, including tobacco, which are promoted by transnational corporations. The tobacco industry uses preemption to block or reverse tobacco control policies. Preemption removes authority from jurisdictions where tobacco companies’ influence is weak and transfers it to jurisdictions where they have an advantage. International trade agreements relocate decisions about tobacco control policy to venues where there is little opportunity for public scrutiny, participation, and debate. Tobacco companies are using these agreements to preempt domestic authority over tobacco policy. Other transnational corporations that profit by promoting unhealthy foods could do the same. “Fast-track authority,” in which Congress cedes ongoing oversight authority to the President, further distances the public from the debate. With international agreements binding governments to prioritize trade over health, transparency and public oversight of the trade negotiation process is necessary to safeguard public health interests. PMID:25033124

  10. Long-run Effects of the Korea-China Free-Trade Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunghyun Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses a 53-country 15-industry computable general equilibrium model of trade to analyze the effects of the Korea-China free trade agreement on the Korean economy, the manufacturing sector in particular. The model is based on Yaylaci and Shikher (2014 which uses the Eaton-Kortum methodology to explain intra-industry trade. The model predicts that the Korea-China FTA will increase Korea-China manufacturing trade by 56%, manufacturing employment in Korea by 5.7% and China by 0.55%. The model also predicts significant reallocation of employment across industries with the Food industry in Korea losing jobs and other industries there gaining jobs, with the Medical equipment industry gaining the most. There will be some trade diversion from the ASEAN countries, as well as Japan and the United States.

  11. Emissions Trading Regimes and Incentives to Participate in International Climate Agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchner, B.; Carraro, C.

    2003-11-01

    This paper analyses whether different emissions trading regimes provide different incentives to participate in a cooperative climate agreement. Different incentive structures are discussed for those countries, namely the US, Russia and China, that are most important in the climate negotiation process. Our analysis confirms the conjecture that, by appropriately designing the emission trading regime, it is possible to enhance the incentives to participate in a climate agreement. Therefore, participation and optimal policy should be jointly analysed. Moreover, our results show that the US, Russia and China have different most preferred climate coalitions and therefore adopt conflicting negotiation strategies

  12. Pengaruh Kebijakan Agreement on Agriculture (Aoa) Oleh World Trade Organization (WTO) Terhadap Kenaikan Impor Kopi Indonesia Tahun 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Jamaan, Ahmad; Parapat, Johan Kristo

    2015-01-01

    This research describes and proves the influence of policy AgreementOn Agriculture (AoA) by the World Trade Organization (WTO) for theIndonesian coffee. AoA policy is a policy of international trade in agricultureby WTO.This research uses perspective of pluralism. Pluralist assumes that stateis not unitary actor. This study also uses international trade and internationalorganizations theory.Agreement On Agriculture (AoA) is an international treaty on trade inagriculture in the WTO context. Ao...

  13. 76 FR 13436 - National Advisory Committee for Labor Provisions of U.S. Free Trade Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... point of contact for the NAALC and the Labor Provisions of U.S. Free Trade Agreements. The committee is... Labor Affairs serves as the U.S. point of contact under the FTAs listed above. The committee shall... Committee. Members of the Committee will not be compensated for their services or reimbursed for travel...

  14. The Impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement on the Water Resources of Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Light, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    .... As trade surges along the US-Mexico border region, population growth and increased demand has stressed both water quality and quantity in this already water-stressed region. This paper examines NAFTA in light of these water resources issues, and the effectiveness of the Environmental Side Agreements to find solutions.

  15. United States versus Mexican Perceptions of the Impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Joel D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Surveys U.S. and Mexican managerial attitudes concerning the impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) process on the United States. Discusses differences in Mexican and U.S. attitudes concerning NAFTA and a number of socioeconomic concerns. (SR)

  16. Commercial Trucking: Safety and Infrastructure Issues Under the North American Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-02-29

    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) provided for the U.S.-Mexican border to be opened for increased commercial truck traffic within the respective border states-four in the United States (Arizona, California, New Mexico, and Texas) and si...

  17. Language Learning for the 21st Century: Challenges for the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, G. Richard

    1993-01-01

    The American phenomenon of pervasive monolingualism is considered, and potential implications of the North American Free Trade Agreement are described. Five second-language learning/teaching areas are projected: language for specific purposes; obligatory language study; exchange programs; technological advances; and information resources.…

  18. The Fast Track Trade Agreement: Help or Hurt for the U.S.-Mexico Border Environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lynda

    1992-01-01

    Reviews the environmental and labor problems associated with the proposed North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) between the United States, Mexico, and Canada. A joint environmental plan between the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and SEDUE (Mexico's EPA equivalent) does not adequately address the problems. Offers recommendations for…

  19. Agriculture in Pending U.S. Free Trade Agreements with Colombia, Panama, and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    Panama, and South Korea Remy Jurenas Specialist in Agricultural Policy February 4, 2010 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov...Free Trade Agreement: Labor Issues. Author Contact Information Remy Jurenas Specialist in Agricultural Policy rjurenas@crs.loc.gov, 7-7281 .

  20. What will a Mexican trade agreement mean to the US energy industry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the effects that a free trade agreement with Mexico will have on the American energy sector in the fuel supply or electricity generating side of the industry. Topics are oil and gas areas available to US enterprise, the import and export of electricity, schedule for completion of negotiations, and the protection of domestic US oil and gas resources

  1. Managing Regional Collaboration in Higher Education: The Case of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Manuel

    2000-01-01

    Describes accomplishments in increasing collaboration in higher education within the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Analyzes procedures for determining equivalencies of courses and degrees and for improving transnational mobility of students and professors. Also discusses the role of the private sector in research, education and…

  2. 78 FR 66899 - International Trade Administration, North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came into force on January 1, 1994, the Government of the United States, the Government of Canada and the Government of Mexico established Rules of Procedure for Article...

  3. Protecting the autonomy of states to enact tobacco control measures under trade and investment agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew; Sheargold, Elizabeth

    2015-06-01

    Since the adoption of the WHO's WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, governments have been pursuing progressively stronger and more wide-reaching tobacco control measures. In response, tobacco companies are frequently using international trade and investment agreements as tools to challenge domestic tobacco control measures. Several significant new trade and investment agreements that some fear may provide new legal avenues to the tobacco industry to challenge health measures are currently under negotiation, including the Trans-Pacific Partnership (a 12 party agreement of Asia-Pacific regional countries) and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (an agreement between the USA and the European Union). This commentary examines different options for treaty provisions that the parties could employ in these agreements to minimise legal risks relating to tobacco control measures. It recommends that parties take a comprehensive approach, combining provisions that minimise the potential costs of litigation with provisions that increase the likelihood of a state successfully defending tobacco control measures in such litigation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. The gravity model specification for modeling international trade flows and free trade agreement effects: a 10-year review of empirical studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kepaptsoglou, Konstantinos; Karlaftis, Matthew G.; Tsamboulas, Dimitrios

    2010-01-01

    The gravity model has been extensively used in international trade research for the last 40 years because of its considerable empirical robustness and explanatory power. Since their introduction in the 1960's, gravity models have been used for assessing trade policy implications and, particularly recently, for analyzing the effects of Free Trade Agreements on international trade. The objective of this paper is to review the recent empirical literature on gravity models, highlight best practic...

  5. Trade and health: how World Trade Organization (WTO) law affects alcohol and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumberg, Ben; Anderson, Peter

    2008-12-01

    The alcohol field is becoming more aware of the consequences of world trade law for alcohol policies. However, there is a need for greater clarity about the different effects of trade on alcohol-related harm. A comprehensive review of all literature on alcohol and world trade [including World Trade Organization (WTO) disputes on alcohol], supported by a more selective review of other relevant cases, academic reports and the grey literature on trade and health. The burden of WTO law on alcohol policies depends upon the type of policy in question. Purely protectionist policies are likely to be struck down, which may lead to increases in alcohol-related harm. Partly protectionist and partly health-motivated policies are also at risk of being struck down. However, purely health-motivated policies are likely to be defended by the WTO-and to the extent that policy makers misunderstand this, they are needlessly avoiding effective ways of reducing alcohol-related harm. WTO agreements contain genuine and substantial risks to alcohol policies, and various ways of minimizing future risks are suggested. However, the 'chilling effect' of mistakenly overestimating these constraints should be avoided. Health policy makers should decide on which policies to pursue based primarily on considerations of effectiveness, ethics and politics rather than legality. As long as any effect of these policies on trade is minimized, they are overwhelmingly likely to win any challenges at the WTO.

  6. An Assessment of the China-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Implementation Outcome and Influencing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiling Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available China-Korea Free Trade Agreement tops the list of trade volume covered by 14 FTAs China has signed with its signatory counterparts. In principle, 100 days of China-Korea Free Trade Agreement (ChKFTA into effect as of December 20, 2015, through two stages of tariff reduction and/or elimination, can result in substantial benefits for Chinese imports and/or exports firms. The paper is a pilot questionnaire study assessing the enforcement outcome of ChKFTA, based on the responding firms’ perceived observations and views of the impact of ChKFTA on their trading activities in the first quarter of 2016, and the role of related rule of origin (RoO. Such an inquiry of the relationship between rule of origin and trade in goods aims at yielding evidence for decision-making on how to optimize the outcome of ChKFTA and China’s increasing number of FTAs as well.

  7. Rights, Free Trade, and Politics: The Strategic Use of a Rights Discourse in the Negotiation of Free Trade Agreements (FTAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Rettberg

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to describe the strategic use of a rights discourse by domestic and international actors involved in the negotiation and ratification processes of free trade agreements between Colombia, the United States, and the European Union. We suggest that some of the differences between both FTAs and the processes leading up to their approval and ratification can be attributed to the ability of relevant actors to build and disseminate rights-based arguments in order to develop like-minded political coalitions, and other institutional and contextual characteristics.

  8. Agreement on technology? Exploring the political feasibility of technology-oriented agreements and their compatibility with cap-and-trade approaches to address climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Coninck, H.C.; Bakker, S.; Van der Zwaan, B.; Junginger, M.; Kuik, O.; Massey, E.

    2007-11-01

    Climate change has been on the international policy agenda since the UNFCCC was agreed in 1992. The Kyoto Protocol was the UNFCCC's answer to the call for measures and has been effective in establishing an international carbon market and reducing emissions in some countries and regions. A follow-up of the Kyoto Protocol is currently under discussion. In theory, the economically most efficient form of a global agreement is a global cap-and-trade agreement. It remains highly uncertain whether an effective global climate regime fully founded on another cap-and-trade type of agreement is politically feasible. In addition, it has been suggested that a new agreement would have to be more effective in promoting technology development and diffusion. This report explores the compatibility of a cap-and trade regime with a different form of international agreements to address climate change: technology-oriented agreements (TOAs)

  9. 48 CFR 252.225-7036 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program. 252.225-7036 Section 252.225-7036 Federal Acquisition... Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program. As prescribed in 225.1101(11)(i), use the following clause: Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program (JUL 2009) (a) Definitions. As used...

  10. 48 CFR 252.225-7035 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program Certificate. 252.225-7035 Section 252.225-7035 Federal... Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program Certificate. As prescribed in 225.1101(10), use the following provision: Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program Certificate (DEC...

  11. 75 FR 68153 - To Adjust the Rules of Origin Under the United States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement, Implement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ...-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement, Implement Modifications to the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act, and... Adjust the Rules of Origin Under the United States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement, Implement Modifications to the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act, and for Other Purposes By the President of the United...

  12. Globalisation and Exploitation in Peru. Strategic Selectivities and the Defeat of Labour in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, J.B.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the socio-economic implications of the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement for the governance of Peruvian labour relations. It is argued that the trade agreement aims to lock-in the neoliberal market reforms carried out since the 1990s, which have given rise to an export-oriented

  13. 77 FR 47880 - U.S.-Trans-Pacific Partnership Free Trade Agreement Including Canada and Mexico: Advice on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ....S.-Trans-Pacific Partnership Free Trade Agreement Including Malaysia: Advice on Probable Economic... Partnership Free Trade Agreement Including Canada and Mexico: Advice on the Probable Economic Effect of... Mexico: Advice on the Probable Economic Effect of Providing Duty-Free Treatment for Imports. DATES...

  14. 75 FR 65031 - U.S.-Trans-Pacific Partnership Free Trade Agreement Including Malaysia: Advice on the Probable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... Partnership Free Trade Agreement Including Malaysia: Advice on the Probable Economic Effect of Providing Duty...-2104-027, U.S.-Trans-Pacific Partnership Free Trade Agreement Including Malaysia: Advice on the Probable Economic Effect of Providing Duty-Free Treatment for Imports. DATES: November 10, 2010: Deadline...

  15. 48 CFR 752.225-9 - Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 752.225-9 Buy American Act—Trade Agreements Act—Balance of... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program. 752.225-9 Section 752.225-9 Federal Acquisition Regulations...

  16. Potential Economic Impacts of the Vietnam-Korea Free Trade Agreement on Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Hoan Phan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an assessment of the potential economic impacts of the Vietnam-Korea free trade agreement on Vietnam, by using general equilibrium modeling. The results show that Vietnam-Korea FTA will increase aggregate welfare for both countries in the long run. The most important gains accrue from better allocation of resources consequent to trade liberalization. All the sectoral differences and changes are consistent with the trade profiles of the two countries, and the long-run results are more pronounced than those of the short-run. In comparison with other ASEAN countries, the CGE analysis suggests that Vietnam's agriculture exports to Korea would especially rise in the long run. However, there will be strong competition in this sector among ASEAN members. Thus, an earlier conclusion of a comprehensive FTA with Korea is expected to be a good strategy for Vietnam, so as to avoid the direct competition with ASEAN members in the future.

  17. Proposed U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Background and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    exports. China is the second-leading supplier of Colombia’s imports, after the United States, accounting for 13% of total imports, followed by Mexico...which accounted for 9% of Colombia’s imports in 2010. China also ranks second among Colombia’s export markets, accounting for 5.0% of total...Postura Institucional, April 12, 2007. CUT, TLC: Todos Limosnearemos Comida , April 2008. Proposed U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Background and

  18. The Proposed U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Economic and Political Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    2008. 50 Ibid, p. 2. 51 Colombia’s Observatorio del Programa Presidencial de DDHH y DIH, Vicepresidencia de la República, April 2008. 52 See CRS...on the yarn-forward standard to encourage production and economic integration. A “ de minimis” provision would allow limited amounts of specified...agreement on May 10, 2007 on a new bipartisan trade framework that calls for the inclusion of core labor and environmental standards in the text of

  19. The U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Economic and Political Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    a Colombia, Anuncia el Presidente de Colombia en Entrevista a Caracol Radio,” May 3, 2007. 48 Colombia’s Observatorio del Programa Presidencial de ...forward standard to encourage production and economic integration. A “ de minimis” provision would allow limited amounts of specified third-country...negotiation, Congress and the Administration reached an agreement on May 10, 2007 on a new bipartisan trade framework that calls for the inclusion of

  20. Democratic discussion in newspaper reporting of the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Robbie

    2008-10-01

    This article presents a Habermasian analysis of newspaper reporting of the debate surrounding the effect of the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement (the FTA) on access to medicines through Australian patent law. Habermas's concept of the public sphere is utilised in determining whether discussion within the print media adequately conveyed complex legal issues to the public and facilitated democratic discussion. It was found that newspaper reporting generally failed to meet this standard.

  1. Preferential Trade Agreements and the Law and Politics of GATT Article XXIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alavi, Amin

    2010-01-01

    The tasks Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs) perform are expressed in their scope and covered issues, thus in order to be WTO compatible these aspects of PTAs should comply with the relevant WTO rules. This paper examines which aspects of PTAs can violate these rules and therefore can be challe...... be challenged before the WTO Dis-pute Settlement Body, who may initiate such cases and why there hasn´t been more cases dealing with this im-portant issue....

  2. How do international trade obligations affect policy options for obesity prevention? Lessons from recent developments in trade and tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Tigerstrom, Barbara

    2013-06-01

    Regulatory measures, including taxes and subsidies on food and beverage products, food labelling requirements, regulation of food content and regulation of food marketing, have been proposed to encourage healthier eating and prevent obesity. The objective of this article is to explore the extent to which international trade agreements affect governments' choices to use such regulatory measures. It reviews key provisions of relevant World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements and their implications. Some insights can be gained by examining 2 recent developments in the WTO regarding tobacco control: a current dispute involving Australia's plain packaging law and its effect on trademarks, and a recent decision involving the United States law banning flavoured cigarettes. This decision said that the ban did not restrict trade more than necessary to fulfil its legitimate health objective, but it was discriminatory because it banned imported products (clove cigarettes) while exempting domestic products (menthol cigarettes) with similar characteristics. The conclusion we can draw from this decision is that WTO member states probably enjoy a significant degree of latitude in developing food regulations as part of an obesity prevention strategy, so long as those do not disproportionately affect imported products and therefore raise questions of discrimination. The approach taken in this case encourages the adoption of public health policies that are consistent with strong scientific evidence, but may restrict governments' ability to make political compromises, which could frustrate some proposals. The ongoing development of WTO law will continue to affect policy choices in public health. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Rights of Private Economic Actors Under the World Trade Organization Agreements in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Soeparna

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Nothing in the Uruguay Round mentions directly about rights of private economic actors. It seems that the relationship to private economic actors (or may be individual does not exist within the WTO Agreements, because as a general rule, private parties are not legal subjects of the international legal order. However, this article will prevail upon this situation, by looking closer at the essence of the WTO Agreements to discern the rights of private economic actors that derive from the WTO. The main question of this article is to what extent then Indonesia is dealing with the rights of private economic actors under the WTO Agreements? The background of this questionis because four years after ratifying the WTO Agreements, Indonesia has been facing what is arguably the most serious multidimensional crisis in 1997, some difficult situations have arisen from the crisis; therefore, the society hesitated to accept the open world trading system. The society seemed look askance to the implementation of the WTO Agreements. But Indonesian Government took major step to reduce the skepticism of society toward liberalization, by readjusting its national laws conform to the WTO Agreements with the intention to support the rights of national economic actors under the WTO Agreements in order to achieve total benefits of the WTO rules.

  4. The health impact of trade and investment agreements: a quantitative systematic review and network co-citation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Pepita; McKee, Martin; Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David

    2017-03-08

    Regional trade agreements are major international policy instruments that shape macro-economic and political systems. There is widespread debate as to whether and how these agreements pose risks to public health. Here we perform a comprehensive systematic review of quantitative studies of the health impact of trade and investment agreements. We identified studies from searches in PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Global Health Online. Research articles were eligible for inclusion if they were quantitative studies of the health impacts of trade and investment agreements or policy. We systematically reviewed study findings, evaluated quality using the Quality Assessment Tool from the Effective Public Health Practice Project, and performed network citation analysis to study disciplinary siloes. Seventeen quantitative studies met our inclusion criteria. There was consistent evidence that implementing trade agreements was associated with increased consumption of processed foods and sugar-sweetened beverages. Granting import licenses for patented drugs was associated with increased access to pharmaceuticals. Implementing trade agreements and associated policies was also correlated with higher cardiovascular disease incidence and higher Body Mass Index (BMI), whilst correlations with tobacco consumption, under-five mortality, maternal mortality, and life expectancy were inconclusive. Overall, the quality of studies is weak or moderately weak, and co-citation analysis revealed a relative isolation of public health from economics. We identified limitations in existing studies which preclude definitive conclusions of the health impacts of regional trade and investment agreements. Few address unobserved confounding, and many possible consequences and mechanisms linking trade and investment agreements to health remain poorly understood. Results from our co-citation analysis suggest scope for greater interdisciplinary collaboration. Notwithstanding these limitations, our

  5. How Do Professional Mutual Recognition Agreements Affect Higher Education? Examining Regional Policy in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Creso; Gaviria, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Professional mutual recognition agreements (MRAs) are one of the policy instruments employed in global and regional trade agreements to facilitate the mobility of skilled labour. While such agreements have been noted in the literature examining cross-border academic mobility, little is known about how they impact higher education. This paper…

  6. The Impact of U.S. Free Trade Agreements on Calorie Availability and Obesity: A Natural Experiment in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Pepita; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2018-05-01

    Globalization via free trade and investment agreements is often implicated in the obesity pandemic. Concerns center on how free trade and investment agreements increase population exposure to unhealthy, high-calorie diets, but existing studies preclude causal conclusions. Few studies of free trade and investment agreements and diets isolated their impact from confounding changes, and none examined any effect on caloric intake, despite its critical role in the etiology of obesity. This study addresses these limitations by analyzing a unique natural experiment arising from the exceptional circumstances surrounding the implementation of the 1989 Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement. Data from the UN (2017) were analyzed using fixed-effects regression models and the synthetic control method to estimate the impact of the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement on calorie availability in Canada, 1978-2006, and coinciding increases in U.S. exports and investment in Canada's food and beverage sector. The impact of changes to calorie availability on body weights was then modeled. Calorie availability increased by ≅170 kilocalories per capita per day in Canada after the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement. There was a coinciding rise in U.S. trade and investment in the Canadian food and beverage sector. This rise in calorie availability is estimated to account for an average weight gain of between 1.8 kg and 12.2 kg in the Canadian population, depending on sex and physical activity levels. The Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement was associated with a substantial rise in calorie availability in Canada. U.S. free trade and investment agreements can contribute to rising obesity and related diseases by pushing up caloric intake. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Canada and the North American Free Trade Agreement: Between globalization and regional integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina García Segura

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to analize, from Canada’s perspective, the choice regarding the model of state as well as of economic and commercial policy which the decision to participate in the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA implies. The debatewhich NAFTA provoked in Canada expresses in concrete terms that debate which, in much larger terms, takes place at the international level regarding the multilateralization and/or the regionalization of commercial exchanges. It is a reflection of the tension between theintegrating forces (process of globalization and the fragmenting ones (processes of regionalization which characterize the dynamics of the contemporary international system. The hypothesis of this work is that in spite of being a commercial agreement, the Canadian government’s decision to participate in NAFTA was a decision of a political nature which was not determined exclusively by the reality of the existing commercial exchanges between Canada and Mexico or by the perspectives of improving them inthe short term. The immediate objective of Canada was to avoid that a possible bilateral agreement between its prinicipal economic member, the United States, and Mexico would empty out the contents of the existing Free Trade Agreement (FTA between Canada and the United States. In this sense, NAFTA was the possible remedy to an unwanted situation (the negotiation of a US-Mexico bilateral agreement. The objective in the medium and long term is use the platform of regional integration as a trampoline from where the Canadian economy can be reorientated and driven in order to attain international competitiveness. In this sense, Canada’s true option had already beenrealised with the FTA.

  8. Capacity-Building Programs Under the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States signed the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) in August 2004 with five Central American countries (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua) and the Dominican Republic.

  9. The role of trade agreements in regional and subregional integration in the caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano Caballero, Enriqueta

    2016-01-01

    Esta comunicación tiene como objetivo analizar el papel de los acuerdos comerciales que han firmado la Comunidad del Caribe (en adelante CARICOM) y la Organización de Estados del Caribe Oriental (en adelante OECO), y ver si han influido en el fortalecimiento y en la reconfiguración de los procesos de integración regional y subregional en el Caribe. This communication aims to analyze the role that trade agreements it has signed the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and the Organisation of Easte...

  10. 48 CFR 27.204-2 - Use of patented technology under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of patented technology... Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND... and Trade (GATT). Article 31 of Annex 1C, Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property...

  11. Free Trade Agreements With The United States: 8 Lessons For Prospective Parties From Australia’s Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Tully Stephen R.

    2016-01-01

    This article identifies 8 key lessons for those States contemplating a free trade agreement with the United States (U.S.) arising from Australia’s experience. The standards of intellectual property protection under the Australia-U.S. Free Trade Agreement and their impact on pharmaceutical prices in Australia are a particular focus. Prospective parties must first conduct a national interest self-assessment which reviews the desired strength of intellectual property protection under national la...

  12. An Analysis of the New Trade Regime for State-Owned Enterprises under the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikyung Yun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the new discipline on state-owned enterprises contained in the recently concluded Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement, and evaluates various factors that influenced the shaping of its specific rules. The new discipline consolidates and strengthens related provisions in current trade regimes, reflects various aspects of trade disputes between China and the US, and adopts, as its general underlying rationale, the principle of competitive neutrality. The new discipline contains elements that may challenge the multilateral trade regime, and may serve as a role model in regulating state-owned enterprises, including subsidies in services trade in other on-going trade negotiations. The new regime makes us think hard about fundamental issues regarding enforcement of competition policy against state-owned enterprises, treatment of non-market economies, and how to deal with effects of subsidies in international trade, bringing competition issues back on the trade agenda.

  13. Is health impact assessment useful in the context of trade negotiations? A case study of the Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirono, Katherine; Haigh, Fiona; Gleeson, Deborah; Harris, Patrick; Thow, Anne Marie; Friel, Sharon

    2016-04-04

    The Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) is a recently concluded free trade agreement involving Australia and 11 other Pacific-rim nations, which has the potential for far-reaching impacts on public health. A health impact assessment (HIA) was carried out during the negotiations to determine the potential future public health impact in Australia and to provide recommendations to mitigate potential harms. This paper explores the findings and outcomes of the HIA, and how this approach can be used to provide evidence for public health advocacy. A modified version of the standard HIA process was followed. The HIA was led by technical experts in HIA, trade policy, and health policy, in collaboration with advocacy organisations concerned with the TPP and health. The HIA reviewed the provisions in leaked TPP text in order to determine their potential impact on future health policy. As part of this process, researchers developed policy scenarios in order to examine how TPP provisions may affect health policies and their subsequent impact to health for both the general and vulnerable populations. The four policy areas assessed were the cost of medicines, tobacco control, alcohol control and food labelling. In all areas assessed, the HIA found that proposed TPP provisions were likely to adversely affect health. These provisions are also likely to more adversely affect the health of vulnerable populations. The HIA produced relevant evidence that was useful in advocacy efforts by stakeholders, and engaging the public through various media platforms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. A new generation of trade policy: potential risks to diet-related health from the trans pacific partnership agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Trade poses risks and opportunities to public health nutrition. This paper discusses the potential food-related public health risks of a radical new kind of trade agreement: the Trans Pacific Partnership agreement (TPP). Under negotiation since 2010, the TPP involves Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, the USA, and Vietnam. Here, we review the international evidence on the relationships between trade agreements and diet-related health and, where available, documents and leaked text from the TPP negotiations. Similar to other recent bilateral or regional trade agreements, we find that the TPP would propose tariffs reductions, foreign investment liberalisation and intellectual property protection that extend beyond provisions in the multilateral World Trade Organization agreements. The TPP is also likely to include strong investor protections, introducing major changes to domestic regulatory regimes to enable greater industry involvement in policy making and new avenues for appeal. Transnational food corporations would be able to sue governments if they try to introduce health policies that food companies claim violate their privileges in the TPP; even the potential threat of litigation could greatly curb governments’ ability to protect public health. Hence, we find that the TPP, emblematic of a new generation of 21st century trade policy, could potentially yield greater risks to health than prior trade agreements. Because the text of the TPP is secret until the countries involved commit to the agreement, it is essential for public health concerns to be articulated during the negotiation process. Unless the potential health consequences of each part of the text are fully examined and taken into account, and binding language is incorporated in the TPP to safeguard regulatory policy space for health, the TPP could be detrimental to public health nutrition. Health advocates and health-related policymakers must be

  15. A new generation of trade policy: potential risks to diet-related health from the trans pacific partnership agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Gleeson, Deborah; Thow, Anne-Marie; Labonte, Ronald; Stuckler, David; Kay, Adrian; Snowdon, Wendy

    2013-10-16

    Trade poses risks and opportunities to public health nutrition. This paper discusses the potential food-related public health risks of a radical new kind of trade agreement: the Trans Pacific Partnership agreement (TPP). Under negotiation since 2010, the TPP involves Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, the USA, and Vietnam. Here, we review the international evidence on the relationships between trade agreements and diet-related health and, where available, documents and leaked text from the TPP negotiations. Similar to other recent bilateral or regional trade agreements, we find that the TPP would propose tariffs reductions, foreign investment liberalisation and intellectual property protection that extend beyond provisions in the multilateral World Trade Organization agreements. The TPP is also likely to include strong investor protections, introducing major changes to domestic regulatory regimes to enable greater industry involvement in policy making and new avenues for appeal. Transnational food corporations would be able to sue governments if they try to introduce health policies that food companies claim violate their privileges in the TPP; even the potential threat of litigation could greatly curb governments' ability to protect public health. Hence, we find that the TPP, emblematic of a new generation of 21st century trade policy, could potentially yield greater risks to health than prior trade agreements. Because the text of the TPP is secret until the countries involved commit to the agreement, it is essential for public health concerns to be articulated during the negotiation process. Unless the potential health consequences of each part of the text are fully examined and taken into account, and binding language is incorporated in the TPP to safeguard regulatory policy space for health, the TPP could be detrimental to public health nutrition. Health advocates and health-related policymakers must be

  16. Past, present and future of pharmaceutical patents under Korea-US Trade Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yoon Suk

    2016-07-01

    The introduction of substance patents in 1987 was viewed with apprehension as it was believed that the system would only reinforce the domination of the technology of advanced countries based on the trade agreement between Korea and the USA. However, substance patents provided the Korean pharmaceutical industry with the driving force required to develop new substances, and the Korean pharmaceutical industry has been constantly improving its research and development capability. The patent-approval linkage system was implemented according to the Korea-US Free Trade Agreement in 2015. The system comprises the following: registering the drugs in the Green List, notifying the listed patent and marketing approval holders about the application for generic marketing approval, patent holder's request for staying generic sales and first generic exclusivity. Korean generic companies are expected to have opportunities that enable them to challenge the global market by accumulating experience of designing of generic products, making patent challenges and strategically developing of new drugs or incrementally modified drugs through the linkage system.

  17. Impact of India-ASEAN Free Trade Agreement: A cross-country analysis using applied general equilibrium modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrima Sikdar; Biswajit Nag

    2011-01-01

    The India-ASEAN Free Trade Agreement (AIFTA) came into effect on 1 January 2010 with regard to Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. For the remaining ASEAN members it will come into force after they have completed their internal requirements. With this background, the present study analyses the impact of this free trade agreement (FTA) on India and the ASEAN members. The study also attempted to analyse the long-term effects of the FTA on India. It is argued that after full trade liberalization, ...

  18. Oil's role in free trade agreement crux of Mexico's petroleum sector dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Mexico's president Salinas' efforts at privatization have not yet touched Mexico's most valuable industry, oil. That remains under control of state owned Petroleos Mexicanos. Pemex and Mexico's huge oil union have come under increasing criticism for alleged abuses of power. In addition, controversy rages as to the true extent of Mexican oil resources and whether Pemex has the wherewithal to meet domestic demand and sustain oil exports. Critics also contend opening Mexico's oil sector to foreign participation would introduce new efficiencies and cost cutting measures in the cash strapped state oil industry. This paper reports that at the center of the controversy is the proposed Free Trade Agreement among Mexico, the U.S., and Canada, pushed strongly by Salinas. Oil's role in the FTA may prove the pact's main sticking point

  19. An Experimental Study on Internal and External Negotiation for Trade Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hankyoung Sung

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper experimentally studies the performance of negotiation considering individual and party, like a country, share of benefit over the best ones. It experiments two-stage bargaining games, internal and external negotiations. From the experimental results, this paper shows strong tendency to select fair allocation in the internal negotiations, but the tendency would be weaker with attractive outside option. In addition, the outside option may claim difference in individual benefit. From the regressions on individual performance in the negotiations, being a proposing party would matter to enhance the performance. However, relative individual performance within party fairness matters. Still attractive no-agreement options happen to break the tendency. As policy implication for trade negotiation, this paper warns that possible loss in individual benefit from not active participation to the external negotiations, no active role of proposer in case that players stick to internal allocations, and deviation of advantageous sector due to attractive outside options.

  20. Trade agreements with side-effects? : European Union and United States to negotiate Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership

    OpenAIRE

    Mildner, Stormy-Annika; Schmucker, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    "At the G8 summit in Northern Ireland on June 17, the European Union and the United States kicked off the negotiations for a comprehensive Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) to reduce tariffs and non-tariff trade barriers. While the expected economic benefits for both sides would be more than welcome in an era of gloomy growth forecasts, a TTIP is not entirely without risks for global trade and the multilateral trading system. The talks could tie up a considerable portion o...

  1. Multi-membership and the effectiveness of regional trade agreements in Western and Southern Africa : A comparative study of ECOWAS and SADC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.K. Afesorgbor (Sylvanus Kwaku); P.A.G. van Bergeijk (Peter)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractUsing a gravity model for 35 countries and the years 1995-2006 we estimate the impact of regional trade agreements in Africa (in particular ECOWAS and SADC) and compare this to the a benchmark of North South trade integration (Europe’s preferential trade agreement). We find that •

  2. Law [Review of: World trade report 2011: the WTO and preferential trade agreements: from co-existence to coherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathis, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    The World Trade Review asked distinguished scholars from the three different fields of economics (Pravin Krishna), political science (Edward D. Mansfield) and law (James H. Mathis) to independently review the WTO's annual World Trade Report for 2011, the theme of which is The WTO and Preferential

  3. Trade liberalisation and financial compensation : the BLNS states in the wake of the EU-South African trade and development agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staak, van der S.

    2006-01-01

    This study discusses the fate of Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia and Swaziland (BLNS) following the 1999 free trade agreement between the European Union and South Africa. As members - with South Africa - of the Southern African Customs Union (SACU), the BLNS countries are now effectively locked into

  4. Will the next generation of preferential trade and investment agreements undermine prevention of noncommunicable diseases? A prospective policy analysis of the Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; Snowdon, Wendy; Labonté, Ronald; Gleeson, Deborah; Stuckler, David; Hattersley, Libby; Schram, Ashley; Kay, Adrian; Friel, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    The Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA) is one of a new generation of 'deep' preferential trade and investment agreements that will extend many of the provisions seen in previous agreements. This paper presents a prospective policy analysis of the likely text of the TPPA, with reference to nutrition policy space. Specifically, we analyse how the TPPA may constrain governments' policy space to implement the 'policy options for promoting a healthy diet' in the World Health Organization's Global Action Plan for Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases (NCDs) 2013-2020. This policy analysis suggests that if certain binding commitments are made under the TPPA, they could constrain the ability of governments to protect nutrition policy from the influence of vested interests, reduce the range of interventions available to actively discourage consumption of less healthy food (and to promote healthy food) and limit governments' capacity to implement these interventions, and reduce resources available for nutrition education initiatives. There is scope to protect policy space by including specific exclusions and/or exceptions during negotiation of trade and investment agreements like the TPPA, and by strengthening global health frameworks for nutrition to enable them to be used as reference during disputes in trade fora. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 78 FR 19566 - Request for Comments Concerning Proposed Transatlantic Trade and Investment Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    .... International Trade Commission (ITC) regarding the probable economic effect on U.S. industries and consumers of... disciplines addressing emerging challenges in international trade that should be pursued in the negotiations and that would benefit U.S.-EU trade as well as strengthen the multilateral rules-based trading system...

  6. Free Trade Agreements With The United States: 8 Lessons For Prospective Parties From Australia’s Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tully Stephen R.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article identifies 8 key lessons for those States contemplating a free trade agreement with the United States (U.S. arising from Australia’s experience. The standards of intellectual property protection under the Australia-U.S. Free Trade Agreement and their impact on pharmaceutical prices in Australia are a particular focus. Prospective parties must first conduct a national interest self-assessment which reviews the desired strength of intellectual property protection under national law and their preference for using flexibilities available to them under the existing international intellectual property rights framework. The United States negotiates free trade agreements in light of previous ones, negotiating outcomes obtained in other fora and the decisions of international trade tribunals. Negotiations typically occur behind closed doors, which is a process having adverse implications for transparent decision-making, public consultation periods and contributions from interested non-governmental actors. A concluded agreement will build on prior treaties and influence the course of future international arrangements. But the impact of a United States free trade agreement is not always clear, including because of a lack of reliable data, and the extent of national legal change is a contested issue given existing reform agendas and external influences. The United States seek to redesign national health care systems in its own image and had little success in Australia’s case. National legal systems need not be harmonised: although there can be some convergence in intellectual property rights regimes, significant differences may also remain. Negotiators must reconcile competing cultures, philosophies and perspectives between States for a free trade agreement to be worthwhile.

  7. A New Leader in Asian Free Trade Agreements? Chinese Style Global Trade: New Rules, No Labor Protections

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Ronald C.

    2017-01-01

    In 2017, after the election of Donald Trump and his subsequent language and actions surrounding global trade, Chinese President Xi Jinping took the world stage at the World Economic Forum’s Annual Meeting in a moment that led many to say he assumed the mantle of world leader on globalism and global trade, particularly in Asia. Previously, President Obama noted that the TPP presented an opportunity for the U.S., along with its partners, to write the rules of international trade with Asia-Pacif...

  8. Agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    These columns summarize the different bilateral and multilateral agreements concluded recently between the different OECD countries and concerning the nuclear energy domain: Argentina - Australia: Agreement concerning Co-operation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy (2001). Argentina - Brazil: Joint Declaration regarding the Creation of the Argentinean-Brazilian Agency for Nuclear Energy Applications (2001). Australia - Czech Republic / Australia - Hungary: Agreements on Co-operation in Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy and the Transfer of Nuclear Material (2001). Australia - Indonesia: Arrangement Concerning Co-operation on Nuclear Safeguards and Related Matters (2001). Austria - Switzerland: Agreement on the Early Exchange of Information in the Field of Nuclear Safety and Radiation. Brazil - United States: Extension of the Agreement concerning Research and Development in Nuclear Material Control, Accountancy, Verification, Physical Protection, and Advanced Containment and Surveillance Technologies for International Safeguards Applications (2001). Czech Republic - Republic of Korea: Agreement for Co-operation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy (2001). European Union- Russian Federation: Agreements on Nuclear Safety and Controlled Nuclear Fusion (2001). France - United States: Agreement for Co-operation in Advanced Nuclear Reactor Science and Technology (2001). Japan - United Kingdom: Co-operation Agreement on Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle, Fast Breeder Reactor and Other Related Technologies (2001). Republic OF Korea - United States: Annex IV Joint Project on Cintichem Technology (2000). Morocco - United States: Protocol amending the Co-operation Agreement on the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy (2001). Multilateral Agreements: Agreement for Information Exchange on Radiological Surveillance in Northern Europe (2001). Status of Conventions in the Field of Nuclear Energy. (author)

  9. 78 FR 28623 - U.S.-Trans-Pacific Partnership Free Trade Agreement Including Japan: Advice on the Probable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... Probable Economic Effect of Providing Duty-Free Treatment for Imports after Malaysia joined the... Partnership Free Trade Agreement Including Japan: Advice on the Probable Economic Effect of Providing Duty... Economic Effect of Providing Duty-Free Treatment for Imports. DATES: May 28, 2013: Deadline for filing...

  10. Accreditation in Western Europe: adequate reactions to Bologna declaration and the General Agreement on Trade in Services?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerheijden, Donald F.

    2003-01-01

    Challenged by globalization (especially the General Agreement on Trade in Services [GATS]) and by European developments (the Bologna process), the Netherlands will introduce program accreditation as a new form of quality assurance. Other, sometimes similar initiatives are found in other countries

  11. Towards a Continental Energy Market: From the Energy Crisis to the Free Trade Agreement, 1970-88.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul W.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the impact the 1973 oil embargo and resulting energy crisis had on Canadian energy policies, which eventually led in 1987 to the enactment of the Free Trade Agreement between Canada and the United States. Includes excerpts of three documents which reveal much about the shift in Canadian policy toward a continental energy market. (LS)

  12. 78 FR 29779 - Labor Affairs Council of the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement; Notice of Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... Trade Promotion Agreement; Notice of Public Session Meeting AGENCY: International Labor Affairs Bureau... Labor Affairs Bureau (ILAB) of the U.S. Department of Labor gives notice of the public session of the meeting of the Labor Affairs Council (``Council'' or ``LAC''). The LAC public session has been rescheduled...

  13. 46 CFR 280.8 - Certain ODS agreement provisions not affected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certain ODS agreement provisions not affected. 280.8 Section 280.8 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING... LINER OPERATORS § 280.8 Certain ODS agreement provisions not affected. The provisions of this part are...

  14. International conventions and agreements in the ecological area: In light of modern civilization and international trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A large number of authors examine the problem of environmental protection in their papers. The concept of sustainable development and intensive use of modern technology in order to overcome the environmental problems of modern civilization becomes an imperative. Theoretical engagement in ecological issues is not enough. It is necessary to implement ecological measures in practice and to spread environmental awareness. Modern science and social practice have interdependence of economy and ecology in their focus. The main direction of social change is movement from economic to ecological paradigm that involves an ethical responsibility to the current and future generations. There is a need to establish effective programs to protect the environment at the national and supranational level. Active international cooperation in the field of ecology has resulted in the formulation of a number of documents on environmental protection. This paper illustrates the importance of environmental protection and the necessity of implementing international conventions and agreements in the environmental field, with focus on their impact on international trade.

  15. EU-Mercosur Trade Agreement: Potential Impacts on Rural Livelihoods and Gender (with Focus on Bio-fuels Feedstock Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonith Hinojosa

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The trade-sustainable impact assessment of the European Union-Mercosur trade agreement found that the economic impact of the trade liberalisation scenario could be positive in the agricultural sectors of Mercosur countries. However, it also found that the social and environmental impacts would be mixed and potentially detrimental. This paper addresses the likely effects on the livelihoods of vulnerable rural populations. It argues that the potential impacts can be analysed within a diversified livelihood strategies framework, which is expanded to include institutional and policy factors. It concludes that the negative expected impact responds to the highly uneven access to capital assets. On the other hand, the effects are not generalised to all Mercosur countries, nor to all regions in each of the member countries. Enhancing or mitigating measures refer to the importance of sequencing and regulation to improve disadvantaged groups‘ abilities to participate in trade-led agricultural intensification or industrialisation processes.

  16. The role of veterinary epidemiology and veterinary services in complying with the World Trade Organization SPS agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda, C; Salman, M; Thiermann, A; Kellar, J; Rojas, H; Willeberg, P

    2005-02-01

    The agreement on the application of sanitary and phytosanitary measures (SPS agreement) was one of the major products of the GATT's Uruguay round of multilateral trade negotiations, signed in Marrakesh on 15 April 1994. This agreement and others are part of the treaty that established the World Trade Organization (WTO). The WTO superseded the GATT as the umbrella organization for international trade (WTO, 1998a). The SPS agreement's main intent is to provide guidelines and provisions to member countries to facilitate trade while taking measures to protect human, animal or plant life or health. The agreement dictates that all sanitary measures must be scientifically based and not more restrictive than required to avoid the risk identified. The agreement recommends the use of international standards from the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), Codex Alimentarius (CAC) and the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) as the basis for import requirements. If a country chooses to apply more restrictive measures than those in the international standards, it has to justify its position through a risk analysis, thus avoiding the use of sanitary and phytosanitary measures as unjustified barriers to trade. More than ever, veterinary services worldwide are faced with having to fulfill a crucial role in protecting their country's animal health status, provide sound surveillance information on the occurrence of diseases within their territories, and conduct scientifically valid risk analyses to establish justified import requirements. During the past two decades, most countries have experienced resource reduction in their veterinary services. The effect of these policies has been severe, in many cases leading to an inability of veterinary services to conduct their disease prevention and control duties. There is a clear inconsistency between the demands placed on veterinary services and the current level of funding and support they are receiving, particularly in

  17. Health Impacts from Corn Production Pre-and Post-NAFTA Trade Agreement (1986–2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Cano, Oliver; Sánchez-Piña, Ramón Alberto; González-Ibarra, Álvaro Jesús; Murillo-Zamora, Efrén; Nava-Garibaldi, Cynthia Monique

    2016-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a powerful methodology for the study of health impacts and public policies. We performed this study to quantitatively explain the potential health impacts on disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of corn produced in Mexico and imported from the United States of America (U.S.) from 1984 until 2014. The processes are hybrid and organic corn production. The functional unit was defined as 1 ton of corn production. Results indicate a total value of 178,431, 244,175, and 283,426 DALYs of three decades: 1984–1993, 1994–2003, and 2004–2013, of Mexican production; the U.S. production and transport were also calculated, showing values of 29,815, 65,837, and 107,729 for the same three decades. Additionally, DALYs were obtained for the category of human health and climate change by functional unit: 802.31 (1984–1993), 802.67 (1994–2003), and 803.92 (2004–2013), and for imported corn transported to Mexico from the U.S., 859.12 (1984–2013). DALYs on human toxicity were obtained: 99.05 (1984–1993), 99.05 (1994–2003), and 99.04 (2004–2013), and for the corn imported and transported to Mexico from the U.S., 116.25 (1984–2013). Conclusions: Environmental and health impacts in terms of DALYs are higher when corn is imported versus the corn produced in Mexico. Environmental health and nominal corn cultivation and transport impacts have increased as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Mexico needs to redefine its public policies to suffer less of an environmental burden from corn to ensure global environmental health and food security. PMID:27420088

  18. Health Impacts from Corn Production Pre-and Post-NAFTA Trade Agreement (1986-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Cano, Oliver; Sánchez-Piña, Ramón Alberto; González-Ibarra, Álvaro Jesús; Murillo-Zamora, Efrén; Nava-Garibaldi, Cynthia Monique

    2016-07-13

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a powerful methodology for the study of health impacts and public policies. We performed this study to quantitatively explain the potential health impacts on disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of corn produced in Mexico and imported from the United States of America (U.S.) from 1984 until 2014. The processes are hybrid and organic corn production. The functional unit was defined as 1 ton of corn production. Results indicate a total value of 178,431, 244,175, and 283,426 DALYs of three decades: 1984-1993, 1994-2003, and 2004-2013, of Mexican production; the U.S. production and transport were also calculated, showing values of 29,815, 65,837, and 107,729 for the same three decades. Additionally, DALYs were obtained for the category of human health and climate change by functional unit: 802.31 (1984-1993), 802.67 (1994-2003), and 803.92 (2004-2013), and for imported corn transported to Mexico from the U.S., 859.12 (1984-2013). DALYs on human toxicity were obtained: 99.05 (1984-1993), 99.05 (1994-2003), and 99.04 (2004-2013), and for the corn imported and transported to Mexico from the U.S., 116.25 (1984-2013). Environmental and health impacts in terms of DALYs are higher when corn is imported versus the corn produced in Mexico. Environmental health and nominal corn cultivation and transport impacts have increased as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Mexico needs to redefine its public policies to suffer less of an environmental burden from corn to ensure global environmental health and food security.

  19. Does trade openness affect CO2 emissions: evidence from ten newly industrialized countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shun; Liu, Xuyi; Bae, Junghan

    2017-07-01

    This paper examines whether the hypothetical environmental Kuznet curve (EKC) exists or not and investigates how trade openness affects CO 2 emissions, together with real GDP and total primary energy consumption. The study sample comprises ten newly industrialized countries (NICs-10) from 1971 to 2013. The results support the existence of hypothetical EKC and indicate that trade openness negatively and significantly affects emissions, while real GDP and energy do positive effects of emissions. Moreover, the empirical results of short-run causalities indicate feedback hypothetical linkage of real GDP and trade, unidirectional linkages from energy to emissions, and from trade to energy. The error correction terms (ECTs) reveal in the long run, feedback linkages of emissions, real GDP, and trade openness, while energy Granger causes emissions, real GDP, and trade, respectively. The study recommendations are that our policymakers should encourage and expand the trade openness in these countries, not only to restrain CO 2 emissions but also to boost their growth.

  20. FTA Corpus: a parallel corpus of English and Spanish Free Trade Agreements for the study of specialized collocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Patiño García

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Corpus of Free Trade Agreements (henceforth FTA, a specialized parallel corpus in English and Spanish from Europe and America and a smaller subcorpus in English-Norwegian and Spanish-Norwegian that was prepared and then aligned with Translation Corpus Aligner 2 (Hofland & Johansson, 1998. The data was taken from Free Trade Agreements. These agreements are specialized texts officially signed and ratified by several countries and blocks of countries in the last twenty years. Thus, FTAs are a rich repository for terminology and phraseology that is used in different fields of business activity throughout the world. The corpus contains around 1.37 million words in the English section and 1.48 million words in its Spanish counterpart, plus 60,000 words each in the Spanish-Norwegian and English-Norwegian subcorpus. The corpus is being used primarily to study the terms and specialized collocations that include these terms in this kind of specialized texts.Keywords: specialized collocation, specialized parallel corpus, corpus linguistics, Free Trade Agreement

  1. Impact of the EU-Ukraine Free trade Agreement on the Dutch Economy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomes, N.; Appelman, R.; Witteman, J.

    2017-01-01

    We predict the impact of the EU-Ukraine DCFTA on the Dutch economy using an international trade model. We find that, in the long run, the DCFTA could nearly triple Dutch exports to Ukraine and nearly double Dutch imports from Ukraine. These effects are not yet clearly visible in recent trade

  2. THE FREE TRADE AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE EAEU AND VIETNAM AS A FACTOR OF RUSSIAN-VIETNAMESE RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Fedorov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the infl uence of the free trade agreement between the Eurasian Economic Union and Vietnam on  Russian-Vietnamese relations. The author considers preconditions for expansion of the EAEU, main steps of negotiations, special features  of the agreement, and results, achieved by present time. The author  pays special attention to evolution of Russian-Vietnamese relations  and also to key factors of Vietnam’s foreign policy. Russian- Vietnamese relations have been developing on the base of the USSR- Vietnam partnership in the Cold War. They were marked by stability  and high level of political contacts, but at the same time scales of economic cooperation were relatively low. Established interaction  between two states was a foundation for the dialogue for the  involvement of Vietnam in Eurasian integration. Vietnam, in turn,  tried to conduct multilateral foreign policy (including the expansion of network of free trade agreements and so it had positive attitude  for cooperation with Russia in a sphere of Eurasian integration. For  Russia, the EAEU – Vietnam free trade agreement has both political  (expansion of Eurasian integration beyond the Post-Soviet space and rise of prestige of the EAEU and economic (impact on trade and investment cooperation with the SRV signifi cance. The agreement entered into force in October 2016 and under its realization some  results have already been made. At the same time the agreement is of compromise and “test” sort. So it’s rather able to make an  immediate breakthrough in Russian-Vietnamese trade and Russian  policy in the Asia-Pacifi c in whole. But this agreement can be an  additional factor for attraction to Vietnam in Russia and enlargement of cooperation with Vietnamese counterparts.

  3. Assessing the impact of the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement on Australian and global medicines policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Searles Andrew

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract On 1 January 2005, a controversial trade agreement entered into force between Australia and the United States. Though heralded by the parties as facilitating the removal of barriers to free trade (in ways not achievable in multilateral fora, it also contained many trade-restricting intellectual property provisions and others uniquely related to altering pharmaceutical regulation and public health policy in Australia. The latter appear to have particularly focused on the world-respected process of federal government reimbursement after expert cost-effectiveness evaluation, popularly known as the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme ('PBS'. It remains uncertain what sort of impacts – if any – the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement ('AUSFTA' will have on PBS processes such as reference pricing and their important role in facilitating equitable and affordable access to essential medicines. This is now the field of inquiry for a major three year Australian Research Council ('ARC'-funded study bringing together a team of senior researchers in regulatory theory from the Australian National University and pharmacoeconomics from the University of Newcastle. The project proposes to monitor, assess and analyse the real and potential impacts of the AUSFTA in this area, providing Australian policy-makers with continuing expertise and options. To the extent that the AUSFTA medicines provisions may represent animportant precedent in a global strategy by industry oncost-effectiveness evaluation of pharmaceuticals, the study will also beof great interest to policy makers in other jurisdictions.

  4. 75 FR 4607 - Free Trade Agreements; Invitation for Applications for Inclusion on Dispute Settlement Rosters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... roster under a particular agreement are appointed by consensus of the parties to the agreement... appoint persons to the rosters. False Statements False statements by an applicant regarding his or her...

  5. Does human migration affect international trade? A complex-network perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Fagiolo

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationships between international human migration and merchandise trade, using a complex-network approach. We firstly compare the topological structure of worldwide networks of human migration and bilateral trade over the period 1960-2000. Next, we ask whether the position of any pair of countries in the migration network affects their bilateral trade flows. We show that: (i both weighted and binary versions of the networks of international migration and trade are strongly correlated; (ii such correlations can be mostly explained by country economic/demographic size and geographical distance; and (iii pairs of countries that are more central in the international-migration network trade more. Our findings suggest that bilateral trade between any two countries is not only affected by the presence of migrants from either countries but also by their relative embeddedness in the complex web of corridors making up the network of international human migration.

  6. Does human migration affect international trade? A complex-network perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagiolo, Giorgio; Mastrorillo, Marina

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the relationships between international human migration and merchandise trade, using a complex-network approach. We firstly compare the topological structure of worldwide networks of human migration and bilateral trade over the period 1960-2000. Next, we ask whether the position of any pair of countries in the migration network affects their bilateral trade flows. We show that: (i) both weighted and binary versions of the networks of international migration and trade are strongly correlated; (ii) such correlations can be mostly explained by country economic/demographic size and geographical distance; and (iii) pairs of countries that are more central in the international-migration network trade more. Our findings suggest that bilateral trade between any two countries is not only affected by the presence of migrants from either countries but also by their relative embeddedness in the complex web of corridors making up the network of international human migration.

  7. Trade Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Murray Gibbs

    2007-01-01

    In an otherwise insightful and thoughtful article, Sebastian Pfotenhauer (Trade Policy Is Science Policy,” Issues, Fall 2013) might better have entitled his contribution “Trade Policy Needs to Be Reconciled with Science Policy.” The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the agreements administered by the World Trade Organization, particularly the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), were adopted to promote international trade and i...

  8. Improved price transparency : how electronic trading is affecting natural gas prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gault, G.

    2002-01-01

    New electronic trading platforms can be categorized as: (1) proprietary or marketplace systems owned by the market maker or liquidity provider, (2) matching systems for brokerage systems where counter parties are matched and electronically executed through bilateral trading agreements, and (3) cleared exchanges which have traditional characteristics such as neutrality, anonymity, and clearing. The Calgary-based Natural Gas Exchange (NGX) is an independent electronic energy exchange. It is owned by OM in Stockholm, Sweden and operates under an order from the Alberta Securities Commission. Its main objective is to provide electronic energy trading and clearing services to participants in the the North American energy market. NGX has transacted more than 270,000 trades with zero default. The services at NGX include: centralized and anonymous electronic trading; centralized risk management and netting; centralized collateral management; transaction facilitation; pipeline title transfer coordination; and, real time price index generation. This paper described the impact of the many different types of trading platforms on liquidity and volatility in the marketplace. It also addresses the future of online energy trading and their respective platforms. Supply and demand of natural gas, storage, and weather are the basic market fundamentals, but trading platforms have an impact of volatility of natural gas because of market fragmentation, transparency, and market systems. As online energy exchanges evolve, we will see a consolidation of online energy exchanges that will thin a shrinking pool of players, and appropriately capitalized and centralized clearinghouses will become the backbone of all major online energy trading operations

  9. How E-Commerce Affects The Trading System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Albinsaad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce is a commercial activity through computer systems and networks. E-commerce is not limited to selling but extends to include business operations electronic data interchange and point of sale systems. Also the associated growth of e-commerce relies on the growth techniques and security of financial transactions. This paper will help to show how e-commerce impacted the trading system by indication to some of its benefits and limitations.

  10. Environmental impacts of a free trade agreement between China and Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauchald, Ole Kristian; Vennemo, Haakon

    2012-11-01

    The report assesses the likely impacts of the FTA for environmental policies, regulations and the physical environment. The analysis covers the main parts of the FTA: Trade in goods, trade in services and investments, and is limited to those parts of the FTA that are assumed to have the greatest effects. The analysis is based on scenarios setting out possible results of the negotiations. These scenarios build on existing obligations in the WTO seen in conjunction with the public documents that the negotiations are based upon. The report contains the following core elements: 1. The details of a baseline scenario. 2. Two scenarios based on possible outcomes of the negotiations - a free trade scenario and a green trade scenario. 3. Screening and scoping in light of input from consultations with public authorities, non-governmental organizations and the team of Chinese researchers. 4. Five case studies that focus on effects of the FTA on trade and investment between Norway and China, and the resulting environmental consequences. 5. Five regulatory studies that focus on effects of the FTA for environmental rules and policy.(auth)

  11. CETA and pharmaceuticals: impact of the trade agreement between Europe and Canada on the costs of prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexchin, Joel; Gagnon, Marc-André

    2014-05-06

    On a per capita basis, Canadian drug costs are already the second highest in the world after the United States and are among the fastest rising in the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development. The Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) between the European Union (EU) and Canada will further exacerbate the rise in costs by:  Committing Canada to creating a new system of patent term restoration thereby delaying entry of generic medicines by up to two years; Locking in Canada's current term of data protection, and creating barriers for future governments wanting to reverse it;  Implementing a new right of appeal under the patent linkage system that will create further delays for the entry of generics.CETA will only affect intellectual property rights in Canada-not the EU. This analysis estimates that CETA's provisions will increase Canadian drug costs by between 6.2% and 12.9% starting in 2023. The Canadian government committed to compensating provinces for the rise in costs for their public drug plans. Importantly, this means that people paying out-of-pocket for their drugs or receiving them through private insurance, will be charged twice: once through higher drug costs and once more through their federal taxes.As drug costs continue to grow, there are limited options available for provincial/territorial governments: restrict the choice of medicines in public drug plans; transfer costs to patients who typically are either elderly or sick; or take money from other places in the health system, and threaten the viability of Canada's single payer system. CETA will therefore negatively impact the ability of Canada to offer quality health care.

  12. 78 FR 9938 - U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Effects on U.S. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises; Institution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... Trade Agreement on U.S. small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) since entry into force of the... effects of the agreement on the production, distribution, and export strategy of U.S. SMEs, as identified by those SMEs, and describing how U.S. SMEs have benefited from specific provisions of the agreement...

  13. Cooperative Agreements to Support Communities Affected by the BP Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    The environmental justice cooperative agreements are designed to support communities in Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas that are directly affected by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.

  14. A conceptual framework for investigating the impacts of international trade and investment agreements on noncommunicable disease risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Ashley; Ruckert, Arne; VanDuzer, J Anthony; Friel, Sharon; Gleeson, Deborah; Thow, Anne-Marie; Stuckler, David; Labonte, Ronald

    2018-01-01

    We developed a conceptual framework exploring pathways between trade and investment and noncommunicable disease (NCD) outcomes. Despite increased knowledge of the relevance of social and structural determinants of health, the discourse on NCD prevention has been dominated by individualizing paradigms targeted at lifestyle interventions. We situate individual risk factors, alongside key social determinants of health, as being conditioned and constrained by trade and investment policy, with the aim of creating a more comprehensive approach to investigations of the health impacts of trade and investment agreements, and to encourage upstream approaches to combating rising rates of NCDs. To develop the framework we employed causal chain analysis, a technique which sequences the immediate causes, underlying causes, and root causes of an outcome; and realist review, a type of literature review focussed on explaining the underlying mechanisms connecting two events. The results explore how facilitating trade in goods can increase flows of affordable unhealthy imports; while potentially altering revenues for public service provision and reshaping domestic economies and labour markets-both of which distribute and redistribute resources for healthy lifestyles. The facilitation of cross-border trade in services and investment can drive foreign investment in unhealthy commodities, which in turn, influences consumption of these products; while altering accessibility to pharmaceuticals that may mediate NCDs outcomes that result from increased consumption. Furthermore, trade and investment provisions that influence the policy-making process, set international standards, and restrict policy-space, may alter a state's propensity for regulating unhealthy commodities and the efficacy of those regulations. It is the hope that the development of this conceptual framework will encourage capacity and inclination among a greater number of researchers to investigate a more comprehensive

  15. The Proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA): Provisions and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    the agreement soon. Lee’s Grand National Party controls a majority in the unicameral National Assembly, and most observers believe the agreement...the unicameral National Assembly to take effect. The Assembly is controlled by President Lee Myung Bak’s Grand National Party, which officially

  16. Testing the effectiveness of an international conservation agreement: marketplace forensics and CITES caviar trade regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaedra Doukakis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The international wildlife trade is a key threat to biodiversity. Temporal genetic marketplace monitoring can determine if wildlife trade regulation efforts such as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES are succeeding. Protected under CITES effective 1997, sturgeons and paddlefishes, the producers of black caviar, are flagship CITES species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We test whether CITES has limited the amount of fraudulent black caviar reaching the marketplace. Using mitochondrial DNA-based methods, we compare mislabeling in caviar and meat purchased in the New York City area pre and post CITES listing. Our recent sampling of this market reveals a decrease in mislabeled caviar (2006-2008; 10%; n = 90 compared to pre-CITES implementation (1995-1996; 19%; n = 95. Mislabeled caviar was found only in online purchase (n = 49 online/41 retail. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Stricter controls on importing and exporting as per CITES policies may be having a positive conservation effect by limiting the amount of fraudulent caviar reaching the marketplace. Sturgeons and paddlefishes remain a conservation priority, however, due to continued overfishing and habitat degradation. Other marine and aquatic species stand to benefit from the international trade regulation that can result from CITES listing.

  17. Testing the effectiveness of an international conservation agreement: marketplace forensics and CITES caviar trade regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukakis, Phaedra; Pikitch, Ellen K; Rothschild, Anna; DeSalle, Rob; Amato, George; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis

    2012-01-01

    The international wildlife trade is a key threat to biodiversity. Temporal genetic marketplace monitoring can determine if wildlife trade regulation efforts such as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) are succeeding. Protected under CITES effective 1997, sturgeons and paddlefishes, the producers of black caviar, are flagship CITES species. We test whether CITES has limited the amount of fraudulent black caviar reaching the marketplace. Using mitochondrial DNA-based methods, we compare mislabeling in caviar and meat purchased in the New York City area pre and post CITES listing. Our recent sampling of this market reveals a decrease in mislabeled caviar (2006-2008; 10%; n = 90) compared to pre-CITES implementation (1995-1996; 19%; n = 95). Mislabeled caviar was found only in online purchase (n = 49 online/41 retail). Stricter controls on importing and exporting as per CITES policies may be having a positive conservation effect by limiting the amount of fraudulent caviar reaching the marketplace. Sturgeons and paddlefishes remain a conservation priority, however, due to continued overfishing and habitat degradation. Other marine and aquatic species stand to benefit from the international trade regulation that can result from CITES listing.

  18. Free Trade Agreements in East Asian Countries: What Has Been Done and What Needs to Be Done?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JungTaik Hyun

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we attempt to make a critical assessment of East Asia's free trIn this paper, we attempt to make a critical assessment of East Asia's free trade agreements (FTAs and suggest future steps of action. The FTAs of three Northeast Asian countries and five ASEAN countries are examined. We find that the concluded and currently negotiated FTAs of East Asia have produced a fairly limited impact on trade and welfare. The limitation came from the fact that the selection of FTA partners was not based on economic gains but on an ad hoc basis or a defensive purpose. Therefore, we suggest that East Asian countries concentrate FTA activities on trade partners with large trade volumes. In this regard, the successful conclusion of the ongoing Korea-Japan FTA negotiation is crucial, and the two governments need to dissociate social and historical concerns with economic considerations. The FTAs between China, Korea, Japan and the U.S. should immediately follow the Korea-Japan FTA to realize the potentials and to prevent biased specialization. The FTAs of East Asia allowed a wide range of exemptions to protect inefficient sectors such as agriculture. The proper approach, we suggest, is not to avoid the problem but to proceed with comprehensive agreements and thus maximize the gains of FTAs. Restructuring industries and reallocating resources to the sectors with comparative advantage, while providing adequate assistance programs, is required. We also note that East Asian countries should utilize existing unilateral, regional and multilateral methods of liberalization as well as bilateral FTAs.

  19. PRINSIP-PRINSIP GATS (GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TRADE IN SERVICES TERHADAP PERDAGANGAN JASA PENDIDIKAN TINGGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberta Hartiana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available International trade in higher education belongs to the more complex reality in the international trade in services, become global trends and reform in system of higher education all over the world. This research is aimed at finding out both modes of supply and principles of GATS regarding international trade in services. The main objective of the GATS is creating a credible and reliable system of international trade rules; ensuring fair and equitable treatment of all members; stimulating economic activity through guaranteed policy bindings and promoting trade and development through progressive liberalization. This study used normative research. The method used for collecting data was the statute approach. Primary legal sources derived from WTO Trade in Services Division regarding GATS obligations and the principles of the international trade in services. The result of this study, it was found that, there were four modes of supply trade in education under GATS (article 1:2 such as: cross-border supply; consumption abroad; commercial presence and delivery abroad; and the principles of GATS divided into two categories; Firstly, unconditionally obligations, such as the Most-Favoured Nation (article II GATS and Transparency (article III GATS apply directly and automatically to all WTO members and services sector regardless of whether WTO member schedule commitment or not; Secondly, conditionally obligations such as: National Treatment (article XVII and Market Access (article XVI  and only applies to commitment listed in national schedules. Perdagangan internasional dalam pendidikan tinggi milik realitas yang lebih kompleks dalam perdagangan internasional di bidang jasa, menjadi tren global dan reformasi dalam sistem pendidikan tinggi di seluruh dunia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui model-model pasokan dan prinsip-prinsip GATS mengenai perdagangan internasional di bidang jasa. Tujuan utama dari GATS adalah menciptakan sistem yang kredibel

  20. Benchmarking and the allocation of emission rights. European Parliament agreement on CO2 emission trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmsen, H.

    2003-01-01

    July 2, 2003, the Parliament of the European Union approved the directive for CO2 emission trade, which means that the energy-intensive industry and businesses in Europe have to deal with cost for CO2 emission from 2005 onwards. It is estimated that the Dutch government will have to distribute circa 90 million ton of CO2 emission rights (1.8 billion euro at a price of 20 euro per ton CO2). In order to realize a fair and transparent distribution of the rights use can be made of the Covenant Benchmarking for Energy Efficiency [nl

  1. 77 FR 70527 - Request for Comments Concerning Compliance With Telecommunications Trade Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Australia, Bahrain, Chile, Colombia, Korea, Morocco, Oman, Panama, Peru, and Singapore; the Dominican... Paper on Pro-Competitive Regulatory Principles; the WTO Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing... CAFTA-DR; (4) Whether Australia, Bahrain, Chile, Colombia, Korea, Morocco, Oman, Panama, Peru, or...

  2. 78 FR 73583 - Request for Comments Concerning Compliance With Telecommunications Trade Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Australia, Bahrain, Chile, Colombia, Korea, Morocco, Oman, Panama, Peru, and Singapore; the Dominican... Paper on Pro-Competitive Regulatory Principles; the WTO Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing... CAFTA-DR; (4) Whether Australia, Bahrain, Chile, Colombia, Korea, Morocco, Oman, Panama, Peru, or...

  3. 75 FR 20567 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came into force on January 1, 1994, the Government of the United States, the Government of Canada and the Government of Mexico established Rules of Procedure for Article...

  4. 77 FR 65864 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... law of the country that made the determination. Under Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came into... Government of Mexico established Rules of Procedure for Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews (``Rules...

  5. 76 FR 56156 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came into force on January 1, 1994, the Government of the United States, the Government of Canada and the Government of Mexico established Rules of Procedure for Article...

  6. 77 FR 74174 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... duty law of the country that made the determination. Under Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came... Government of Mexico established Rules of Procedure for Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews (``Rules...

  7. 78 FR 51708 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... determination. Under Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came into force on January 1, 1994, the Government of... Procedure for Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews (``Rules''). These Rules were published in the Federal...

  8. 75 FR 74686 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... determination. Under Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came into force on January 1, 1994, the Government of... Procedure for Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews (``Rules''). These Rules were published in the Federal...

  9. 76 FR 4633 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... duty law of the country that made the determination. Under Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came... Government of Mexico established Rules of Procedure for Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews (``Rules...

  10. 76 FR 14917 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... that made the determination. Under Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came into force on January 1... established Rules of Procedure for Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews (``Rules''). These Rules were...

  11. 76 FR 56404 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... law of the country that made the determination. Under Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came into... Government of Mexico established Rules of Procedure for Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews (``Rules...

  12. 77 FR 29965 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... determination. Under Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came into force on January 1, 1994, the Government of... Procedure for Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews (``Rules''). These Rules were published in the Federal...

  13. 75 FR 70770 - Request for Comments Concerning Compliance With Telecommunications Trade Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... inconsistent with the terms of such agreement or otherwise denies U.S. firms, within the context of the terms... Submission Comments in response to this notice must be written in English, must identify (on the first page... electronically by 5 p.m. on December 17, 2010. Reply comments must also be in English and must be submitted by 5...

  14. Negative affect improves the quality of memories: trading capacity for precision in sensory and working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spachtholz, Philipp; Kuhbandner, Christof; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2014-08-01

    Research has shown that negative affect reduces working memory capacity. Commonly, this effect has been attributed to an allocation of resources to task-irrelevant thoughts, suggesting that negative affect has detrimental consequences for working memory performance. However, rather than simply being a detrimental effect, the affect-induced capacity reduction may reflect a trading of capacity for precision of stored representations. To test this hypothesis, we induced neutral or negative affect and concurrently measured the number and precision of representations stored in sensory and working memory. Compared with neutral affect, negative affect reduced the capacity of both sensory and working memory. However, in both memory systems, this decrease in capacity was accompanied by an increase in precision. These findings demonstrate that observers unintentionally trade capacity for precision as a function of affective state and indicate that negative affect can be beneficial for the quality of memories. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Opportunities of Trade in Services between the EU and Ukraine: the Case of Telecommunications Services under the GATS and the Association Agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batura, Olga; Kretova, Olga A.

    This working paper studies the legal and regulatory conditions for trade in ser- vices between the European Union (EU) and Ukraine on the example of tele- communications services that are important carrier services for various busi- ness activities in the cross-border trade. The paper outlines...... the general frame- work for trade in services under the GATS as expressed in the commitments undertaken by Ukraine and examines the detailed provisions of the EU- Ukraine Association Agreement on trade liberalisation and regulatory approx- imation that is a WTO-extra agreement. It also provides an overview...... – the internal mar- ket treatment – is difficult to reach due to unclear and complicated rules on regulatory approximation. Key words: EU, Ukraine, trade in services, telecommunications services, liber- alisation, regulatory approximation...

  16. Does Family Control Affect Trade Performance? Evidence for Italian Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Giorgio Barba Navaretti; Riccardo Faini; Alessandra Tucci

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines whether the export decision of firms is affected by their ownership structure, specifically it looks at whether family control is an obstacle to entering foreign markets. The underlying assumption is that family firms are risk averse. Risk aversion may be an obstacle to entering foreign markets, as far as these are perceived as more volatile and risky than the domestic one, particularly when such choice entices bearing relatively high sunk costs. We develop an illustrative...

  17. Services and investment in the EU-South Korea free-trade area: implications of a new approach for GATS V agreements and for bilateral investment treaties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathis, J.; Laurenza, E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the services and investment features of the recently concluded free trade agreement between the European Union and its Member States, of the one part, and the Republic of Korea, of the other part. This agreement is an early example of a new scheduling approach adopted by the

  18. CHALLENGE FOR ASEAN-CHINA FREE TRADE AGREEMENT ON INDONESIA EMPLOYMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Riswati

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the challenges for Indonesian economy towards the implementation ofASEAN-China Free Trade Area (ACFTA especially on employment opportunity in Indonesia.Using regression technique, the labour cost and change in fix capital are statistically significant ininfluencing the employment opportunity. This result implies that ACFTA will challenge the Indonesiancompetitiveness due to increasing labour cost, while ACFTA also potentially increases capitalflow from China which has ambiguous impacts on labour absorption. The SWOT (Strength,Weakness, Opportunity and Threat analysis recommends for Indonesian government to improvecomprehensive strategy of national industry to be more competitive to China products.Keywords: ACFTA, employment opportunity, structural equation modelJEL classification numbers: F13, F14, F15, F42

  19. The Impact of Free Trade Agreements on Foreign Direct Investment: The Case of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chankwon Bae

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to empirically identify the effects of FTAs on outward and inward FDIs in Korea. Considering the income differences between Korea and its FTA partners, we hypothesize that FTAs have a positive effect on outward FDI to developing countries and inward FDI from developed countries. An underlying source of the hypothesis is the Knowledge-Capital model, addressing the positive (negative relationship between trade costs and horizontal (vertical FDI. We test for the hypothesis using data on Korea's FTAs and FDI over the period 2000-2010. We find that our empirical results support the hypothesis, and additionally, FTAs in general encourage FDI by creating an FDI-friendly environment.

  20. Analysis Of Agricultural Productivity And Growth On Safta (South Asian Free Trade Agreement And Its Imact On Economy Of Pakistan By Using CGE Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazir Ahmed GOPANG

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This research explore the opportunities and analyzing the cost andbenefit on Pak-India trade on South Asian Free Trade Agreement (SAFTAand its possible impact on the welfare of both countries. Pak-India trade on SAFTA create opportunities for the both countries in export Laid growth. In First Scenario when normal trading relation will be restores and given MFN(Most Favored Nations status given to each other to attack the trade between two countries. The Global trade analysis GTAP model is used to analyze the possible impact of SAFTA on Pakistan in a multi country, multi sector applied General equilibrium frame work. After employing the simplified static analysis framework, the analysis based on simulations revealsthat current demand for Pakistani Basmati Rice and other consumer items like leather and cotton-made garments will expand after the FTA and consumer surplus will increase. The export of Rice, leather and cotton-made garments may be conducted by two scenarios, i.e. when normal trading relations between Pakistan and India will be restored and when there will be a free trade between Pakistan and India in the presence of South Asian Free Trade Agreement (SAFTA. Results based on this research reveal that on SAFTA, grounds, there will be net export benefi ts in Pakistan’s economy.

  1. Impact of the trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights (TRIPS) agreement on India as a supplier of generic antiretrovirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babovic, Sonja; Wasan, Kishor M

    2011-03-01

    This is a commentary on how the trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights (TRIPS) agreement has impacted India as a supplier of generic antiretrovirals (ARVs). We provide a systematic review of the issues related to the TRIPS agreement that affects India. This includes discussion around (a) the legal landscape underpinning India as a supplier of generic ARVs; (b) supply of second-line ARVs; and (c) the future of generic drug production in India. The proclamation into force of TRIPS-compliant intellectual property law in India is likely to affect its position as a supplier of affordable ARVs, especially drugs brought to market after 2005. Currently, mechanisms exist for the generic production of almost all ARVs in India, including second-line drugs; however, the manufacture of these drugs by generic pharmaceutical companies may require additional market incentives. Compulsory licensing may emerge as an additional mechanism by which India can provide affordable versions of patented drugs to Least Developed Countries (LDCs). Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Inter-regional transmission and power trading opportunities : making operating agreements work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DesRosiers, D.

    2001-01-01

    International electric power transmission issues were the focus of this power point presentation which included a corporate profile of the Detroit Edison and International Transmission Company (ITC) and an overview of the midwest U.S. market and the Michigan-Ontario interconnections. ITC owns the transmission assets of its parent company Detroit Edison. It has a commitment with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to be independent of all market participants within 18 months. ITC's peak load is 11,000 MW with 3 interconnections with Hydro One in Ontario, Consumers Energy in Michigan and First Energy in Ohio. The Ontario-Michigan interface includes four tie lines, 3 near Sarnia and 1 near Windsor, with a total capacity of 1,400 MW into Ontario and 2,000 MW out of Ontario. However, the amount of commercially available power is significantly inhibited by a phenomenon called loopflow, which is the difference between the scheduled and actual power flow. The problems and solutions to loopflow were also outlined. This presentation also briefly discussed the agreement reached between the Alliance RTO and the Midwest ISO that will allow the two to co-exist in the Midwest. tabs., figs

  3. Sectoral agreements and competitive distortions - a Swedish perspective; Effects of EU Emissions Trading System for European industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zetterberg, Lars; Holmgren, Kristina

    2009-03-15

    sector approaches to be discussed under the Ad-hoc Working Group on future commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP): i) Sector CDM - a CDM crediting mechanism with a previously established baseline ii) Sectoral no-lose mechanism - Sectoral crediting against a previously established no-lose target iii) Sectoral emission trading based on a sector emissions cap Based on these three sectoral models, we have analysed what parameters are important for reducing competition distortion for Swedish industry. We have assumed that these sector agreements are implemented in a developing country (DC). We conclude that if sector agreements are to reduce distortions on competition, it is important that the sector agreements create a real carbon price in the DC, i.e. that emissions of carbon dioxide are associated with a cost for the emitter. All three sector agreement-models suggested by the EU can potentially create a carbon price. The driver for emission reductions are in all three cases the international demand for offsets. As a potentially large buyer of off-sets, the EU demand for off-sets is likely to increase the carbon price in the DC sector. The choice of EU policy with respect to imports of off-set will therefore have great importance. Other buyers, such as other countries, emission trading systems or the voluntary credit market will of course also be important. Moreover, imports of off-sets may reduce the price on EU ETS allowances, thus further narrowing the carbon price gap between the two markets. If an important objective of a sectoral agreement is to reduce competition distortion it should be implemented in sectors where the corresponding Swedish industry has significant carbon related costs and where there is significant trade intensity between Sweden and regions outside the EU. Our preliminary analysis indicates that Swedish sectors with potentially high maximum value at stake are Refineries; Pulp and Paper; Iron and Steel; Cement and Lime; and

  4. The Rise of the Spirit of National Interest and the Existence of World Trade Organization Agreement: A Case Study of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ngurah Parikesit

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There has been an anxiety over the rise of the spirit of national interest on the existence of World Trade Organization. This spirit that has been reflected from domestic trade policy, to some extent, has undermined trade negotiation process under the WTO as shown by the failure of the Doha Round to conclude significant trade deals. Countries also started concluding bilateral and regional trade agreements instead of the WTO. This article aimed to analyze whether the rise of the spirit of national interest has threaten the existence of the WTO agreements, putting Indonesia as a case study. This article is a normative research, analyzing the dynamics development of the national interest under the WTO, especially Indonesia, and how the judicial body has responded the rise of this spirit in its decisions. This article argues that the spirit of national interest will not threaten the existence of WTO as this spirit has been exist from the early establishment of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade in 1947 to the latest WTO negotiation. Moreover, the existence of the WTO judicial body will secure the existence of the WTO, especially because it has successfully controlled the overwhelming spirit of national interest of its members through its decisions.

  5. Review of the impact of the Ukraine-EU free trade agreement on manufacturing industries (mechanical engineering, chemical and light industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Usenko

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a definition to the concept of ‘deep integration’ taken by the Ukrainian Government as a framework concept for the establishment of a Ukraine-EU free trade area. The paper uses the term ‘deep free trade’ or ‘free trade area +’. It offers a review of the Ukrainian economy and its readiness to open such industries as mechanical engineering, chemical and light industry to free trade with the EU. It examines which cooperative steps might be taken in the sectors in question in the framework of a free trade area by identifying specific features of those sectors in Ukraine and the EU through SWOT analysis and review of certain provisions in relevant agreements between the EU and other countries. It proposes to forecast the possible impact of a free trade area on stakeholders’ position regarding the agreement by using the ‘stakeholder approach’ (identifying and classifying interest groups and the European Commission’s method of ‘impact assessment’. Based on the results of this research, conclusions are made concerning the fundamental negotiation principles for talks between Ukraine and the EU as to the economic and trade component of the new ‘enhanced agreement.

  6. Adapting veterinary infrastructures to meet the challenges of globalisation and the requirements of the World Trade Organization Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiermann, A

    2004-04-01

    To maximise the benefits of globalisation, countries and their stakeholders must become familiar with and adhere to the rights and obligations set out by the World Trade Organization under the Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures. Furthermore, for trade in animals and animal products, they must adhere to the standards, guidelines and recommendations established by the OIE (World organisation for animal health), which also encourages participation of countries in the standard-setting process. Only after implementing these requirements and strengthening veterinary infrastructures and surveillance and monitoring systems, will countries be able to fully benefit from the new international trade rules.

  7. Affect influences feature binding in memory: Trading between richness and strength of memory representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spachtholz, Philipp; Kuhbandner, Christof; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2016-10-01

    Research has shown that long-term memory representations of objects are formed as a natural product of perception even without any intentional memorization. It is not known, however, how rich these representations are in terms of the number of bound object features. In particular, because feature binding rests on resource-limited processes, there may be a context-dependent trade-off between the quantity of stored features and their memory strength. The authors examined whether affective state may bring about such a trade-off. Participants incidentally encoded pictures of real-world objects while experiencing positive or negative affect, and the authors later measured memory for 2 features. Results showed that participants traded between richness and strength of memory representations as a function of affect, with positive affect tuning memory formation toward richness and negative affect tuning memory formation toward strength. These findings demonstrate that memory binding is a flexible process that is modulated by affective state. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Legislative, executive branch, regulatory and judicial developments in the USA affecting trade in uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasgow, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    International commerce in uranium continues to be dominated by a complex network of trade barriers and nuclear non-proliferation controls. Nowhere are these barriers and controls more complex than in the United States, or more subject to frequent change. Many in the uranium and utility industries had hoped that the major uranium trade related uncertainties in the United States would be resolved during the summer of 1988. As of mid July 1988, this hope had faded as a much-heralded legislative compromise crumbled and the US Supreme Court's long awaited decision in the Western Nuclear case resolved some issues but opened new avenues of judicial inquiry. This paper distills the main unresolved trade issues and assesses the major ways in which they could be resolved. Pending legislation is reviewed at the outset, followed by a discussion of implications of the USA-Canada Free Trade Agreement and its implementing legislation. The uncertainties remaining after the Supreme Court's decision in the Western Nuclear case are next evaluated. Finally, this paper surveys pending proposals for US governmental controls over some types of national origin and obligation transfers, sometimes referred to as 'flag swaps'. (author)

  9. Moving on from NAFTA to the FTAA?: the impact of trade agreements on social and health conditions in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel San Sebastián

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Gracias a los tratados comerciales internacionales, el comercio mundial y la inversión extranjera se han incrementado vertiginosamente en los últimos 25 años. Es preciso, entonces, examinar las pruebas acumuladas de que el comercio tiene un efecto sobre la salud e incorporarlas en el proceso de formulación de políticas. Uno de los acuerdos en actual proceso de negociación es el Área de Libre Comercio de las Américas (Free Trade Agreement of the Americas,o ALCA. Con el fin de ayudar a evaluar las posibles consecuencias sanitarias de este acuerdo en el Hemisferio Occidental, este artículo examina los 10 años de experiencia que han tenido Canadá, México y los Estados Unidos de América con el Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte (North American Free Trade Agreement,o TLCAN. Aunque los tres países han visto una expansión macroeconómica, las ganancias prometidas en lo referente a mayores fuentes de empleo, mayores ingresos y menos desigualdad y pobreza no se han producido. El TLCAN también ha tenido un gran impacto en la agricultura, los servicios públicos y el grado de soberanía ejercido por los tres gobiernos en lo que respecta a la adopción de políticas en pro de los intereses del público. Se espera que el ALCA sea el régimen de comercio e inversión más completo del mundo. Representa un mayor peligro que el TLCAN debido a la vulnerabilidad de la mayoría de los países de las Américas y a la propuesta de que se incorporen al ALCA nuevos reglamentos muy estrictos encaminados a extender la injerencia del tratado hacia nuevos sectores que el TLCAN no abarca. Las organizaciones de salud pública deben participar en la polémica en torno al ALCA y los gobiernos de los países de las Américas deben darle mayor prioridad a la salud que al comercio si se han de evitar riesgos innecesarios para la salud de los pueblos americanos.

  10. How does the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) affect Central America?

    OpenAIRE

    Leamer, Edward E.; Guerra, Alfonso; Kaufman, Martin; Segura, Boris

    1995-01-01

    Most Central American economies experienced slower growth in the 1980s than in the 1960s and 1970s, trailing far behind the Asian Tigers. Contributing to slow growth were severe external shocks, sizable macroeconomic disturbances, and widespread political instability. The challenges Central America faces now may be even greater, conclude the authors, because of Mexican liberalization, continuing instability of the real exchange rate, low savings rates, and, finally, the North American Free Tr...

  11. Impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement on transportation in the border areas of the United States : with emphasis on the California-Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-08-01

    This report identifies impacts of the North ?American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on transportation in the U.S. border areas. Emphasis is on the California-Baja California border zone. Focus is on the identification of recommendations to the Califor...

  12. Where Symbolism Prospers : An Analysis of the Impact on Enabling Rights of Labour Standards Provisions in Trade Agreements with South Korea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Roozendaal, Gerda

    2017-01-01

    Can trade agreements be used as a tool for improving the conditions under which people work? The evidence from this study suggests this is not the case, even if the country in question—in this instance South Korea—is a well-developed and democratic country. While over the past six years South Korea

  13. Trade in goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2006-01-01

    An analysis of the rules governing trade in goods under the GATT agreement and the Agreement on Safeguards......An analysis of the rules governing trade in goods under the GATT agreement and the Agreement on Safeguards...

  14. Where Symbolism Prospers: An Analysis of the Impact on Enabling Rights of Labour Standards Provisions in Trade Agreements with South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Van Roozendaal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Can trade agreements be used as a tool for improving the conditions under which people work? The evidence from this study suggests this is not the case, even if the country in question—in this instance South Korea—is a well-developed and democratic country. While over the past six years South Korea has taken part in a number of Free Trade Agreements containing labour provisions, the impact of these on enabling rights has been rather low. This would suggest that without the willingness to enforce these parts of the agreements, or without the willingness to implement them on the Korean side, the inclusion of such provisions remains a fairly symbolic undertaking.

  15. Evaluation of the European Union-United States oil and petroleum-based fuels trade potential in the context of the negotiated TTIP agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olkuski Tadeusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article evaluates the European Union-United States oil and petroleum-based fuels trade potential. The planned trade structure and balance according to IEA (International Energy Agency and IHS (IHS CERA www.ihs.com scenarios, the projected volume of imports and exports, and differences in price levels and costs are presented. The projected potential of the trade volume, taking into account the possible impact of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP, is also presented. The analysis has shown that the elimination of trade barriers between the European Union and the United States would be more beneficial to US refineries. Due to the higher import tariffs to the EU, the potential benefits of US exporters are higher than those of the EU exporters to the US. This confirms the fears of European negotiators that some aspects of the agreement will have a negative impact on European businesses. However, in the case of petroleum products the TTIP agreement will have a negligible impact on increasing the export volume.

  16. Impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement on high-fructose corn syrup supply in Canada: a natural experiment using synthetic control methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Pepita; McKee, Martin; Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David

    2017-07-04

    Critics of free trade agreements have argued that they threaten public health, as they eliminate barriers to trade in potentially harmful products, such as sugar. Here we analyze the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), testing the hypothesis that lowering tariffs on food and beverage syrups that contain high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) increased its use in foods consumed in Canada. We used supply data from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to assess changes in supply of caloric sweeteners including HFCS after NAFTA. We estimate the impact of NAFTA on supply of HFCS in Canada using an innovative, quasi-experimental methodology - synthetic control methods - that creates a control group with which to compare Canada's outcomes. Additional robustness tests were performed for sample, control groups and model specification. Tariff reductions in NAFTA coincided with a 41.6 (95% confidence interval 25.1 to 58.2) kilocalorie per capita daily increase in the supply of caloric sweeteners including HFCS. This change was not observed in the control groups, including Australia and the United Kingdom, as well as a composite control of 16 countries. Results were robust to placebo tests and additional sensitivity analyses. NAFTA was strongly associated with a marked rise in HFCS supply and likely consumption in Canada. Our study provides evidence that even a seemingly modest change to product tariffs in free trade agreements can substantially alter population-wide dietary behaviour and exposure to risk factors. © 2017 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  17. Affective Policy Performance Evaluation Model: A Case of an International Trade Policy Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inwon Kang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Firms often superficially adopt policies because of governmental rules and regulations, so as to avoid penalties or to gain benefits. However, the evaluation and characterization of those kinds of adoptions as policy performance distorts the true level of policy performance: social sustainability. This study proposes an affective policy performance evaluation model. The attitudes of employees toward adopting a policy are characterized into genuine and superficial compliance. Their behaviors are explained through voluntary and opportunistic adoptions. In order to validate the proposed model, a survey was conducted on an international trade policy target group (n = 216 for the Strategic Trade Control System (STCS, in order to understand their attitudes toward adopting the policy. The survey data was analyzed by a structural equation modeling method. The measures of the factors in the proposed model are adopted and modified from existing studies. The most effective resources of policy implementation on the firms’ genuine and superficial compliance and ultimately on the firms’ voluntary policy adoption are revealed through the analysis. Based on the results, this study presents a strategy for allocating and managing policy implementation resources to exclusively encourage firms’ trade policy adoptions.

  18. TRADE, REVENUE AND WELFARE EFFECTS UNDER AN ECONOMIC PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT BETWEEN BURKINA FASO AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.O. Onogwu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates the impact on Burkina Faso of eliminating tariffs on imports from the EU under EPAs, considering trade, revenue and welfare effects. At complete elimination of tariffs on all products imports from trade classification sections (TDC 01-13 from the EU. Burkina Faso is likely to experience both welfare gains and losses depending on the values of imports of each trade classification section in question. The overall welfare effect relative to GDP tends to be very small and positive, but potential tariff revenue losses are enormous even when the country has up to fifteen - twenty-five years in which to implement the tariff reductions, unless with scope for tax substitution. EPAs effects are concentrated on those product sections where trade creation outweighs trade diversion such as Animal products, Vegetable products, Animal/Veg. products, Mineral products, and Textiles products. Besides, product sections with the greatest market opportunities for EU suppliers to displace any of the other suppliers, ECOWAS and/or ROW include sections where trade diversion outweighs trade creation effects, such as prepared foodstuffs, product of chemicals, plastics, raw hides & skin, etc. The sensitive products (SPs to be excluded from tariff removal should include sections in which ECOWAS member nations are suppliers to regional importers so that excluding them as SPs would improve the welfare gain compared to estimates where tariff are removed from those products in which ECOWAS have zero potential. The results at this level of aggregation will provide useful information to the on-going negotiations between ECOWAS and the EU in determining Burkinabe's products to be exempted from tariff removal during EPAs based on the severity of the effects on varied trade classification (TDC sections, among other considerations.

  19. Trade Liberalization and Pollution Havens

    OpenAIRE

    Josh Ederington; Arik Levinson; Jenny Minier

    2004-01-01

    U.S. Presidential Executive Order 13141 commits the United States to a careful assessment and consideration of the environmental impacts of trade agreements.' The most direct mechanism through which trade liberalization would affect environmental quality in the U.S. is through changes in the composition of industries. Freer trade means greater specialization, increasing the concentration of polluting industries in some countries and decreasing it in others. Indeed, in this paper we predict a ...

  20. Trade Liberalization and Pollution Havens

    OpenAIRE

    Josh Ederington, Arik Levinson, and Jenny Minier

    2004-01-01

    U.S. Presidential Executive Order 13141 commits the United States to a "careful assessment and consideration of the environmental impacts of trade agreements." The most direct mechanism through which trade liberalization would affect environmental quality in the U.S. is through changes in the composition of industries. Freer trade means greater specialization, increasing the concentration of polluting industries in some countries and decreasing it in others. Indeed, in this paper we predict a...

  1. The potential impact of the World Trade Organization's general agreement on trade in services on health system reform and regulation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skala, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    The collapse of the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Doha Round of talks without achieving new health services liberalization presents an important opportunity to evaluate the wisdom of granting further concessions to international investors in the health sector. The continuing deterioration of the U.S. health system and the primacy of reform as an issue in the 2008 presidential campaign make clear the need for a full range of policy options for addressing the national health crisis. Yet few commentators or policymakers realize that existing WTO health care commitments may already significantly constrain domestic policy options. This article illustrates these constraints through an evaluation of the potential effects of current WTO law and jurisprudence on the implementation of a single-payer national health insurance system in the United States, proposed incremental national and state health system reforms, the privatization of Medicare, and other prominent health system issues. The author concludes with some recommendations to the U.S. Trade Representative to suspend existing liberalization commitments in the health sector and to interpret current and future international trade treaties in a manner consistent with civilized notions of health care as a universal human right.

  2. Gastrointestinal helminths may affect host susceptibility to anthrax through seasonal immune trade-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizauskas, Carrie A; Turner, Wendy C; Wagner, Bettina; Küsters, Martina; Vance, Russell E; Getz, Wayne M

    2014-11-12

    , and that these trade-offs may render hosts less capable of concurrently mounting effective Th1-type immune responses against anthrax. This study is one of the first to examine laboratory-demonstrated Th1-Th2 trade-offs in a natural system. It provides evidence that seasonally bound pathogens may affect, through immunology, transmission dynamics of pathogens that might otherwise not be seasonally distributed. It suggests that, by manipulating the internal host ecosystem, GI parasites may influence the external ecosystem by affecting the dynamics of another environmentally transmitted pathogen.

  3. Global warming agreements, international trade and energy/carbon embodiments: an input-output approach to the Italian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongelli, I.; Tassielli, G.; Notarnicola, B.

    2006-01-01

    In the Kyoto Protocol the absence of Green House Gases (GHGs) commitments of developing countries (non-Annex I) and the more flexible terms of implementation which are allowed to countries shifting toward a market economy (transition economies) naturally lead to the absence or to less constraining national measures and policies of reduction of the GHGs emissions which, in turn, may determine a comparative advantage in the production of the highest energy/carbon intensive commodities for these countries. These arguments are valid also considering the future implementation of the European Emission Allowance Trading Scheme (EATS). Thus, developing countries may become a haven for the production of not environmental-friendly commodities; in this case, the so-called Pollution Haven Hypothesis, stating that due to freer international trade the comparative advantage may change the economic structure and consequently the trade patterns of the countries linked by trade relationships, could occur. This would lead to the increase of the transfers of energy and carbon embodied in traded commodities from developing countries and transition economies toward Kyoto or EATS constrained countries. The aim of this paper is to verify if for Italy, as a Kyoto and EATS complying country, evidence of a change in the trade patterns, occurred on the basis of the Pollution Haven Hypothesis, does exist and to estimate the magnitude of the under-estimation of the carbon actually emitted: the carbon leakage. The Input-Output model has been used to calculate the intensities of energy consumption and the related Green House Gases emission, for each Italian economic sector

  4. Trade policy and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Townsend, Ruth

    2015-03-18

    Twenty-first-century trade policy is complex and affects society and population health in direct and indirect ways. Without doubt, trade policy influences the distribution of power, money, and resources between and within countries, which in turn affects the natural environment; people's daily living conditions; and the local availability, quality, affordability, and desirability of products (e.g., food, tobacco, alcohol, and health care); it also affects individuals' enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health. In this article, we provide an overview of the modern global trade environment, illustrate the pathways between trade and health, and explore the emerging twenty-first-century trade policy landscape and its implications for health and health equity. We conclude with a call for more interdisciplinary research that embraces complexity theory and systems science as well as the political economy of health and that includes monitoring and evaluation of the impact of trade agreements on health.

  5. Ethical principles in international nuclear trade and the role of international treaties and agreements in their implementation. Reflections on the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalanti, C. de A.

    1992-01-01

    The growing importance of nuclear energy (on the threshold of the twenty-first century) and of its ethical uses is considered, including major political events in recent years, their social and economic consequences in the world scene. International Nuclear Law is seen as the most adequate instrument to promote the ethical uses of nuclear energy on a worldwide basis, so that mankind can benefit safely and properly and improving their living conditions in general. Problems associated with access to nuclear technology, plants, equipments and materials are addressed. Basic principles of international agreements ruling nuclear trade, ethical aspects are also covered. The different markets involved in international nuclear trade and their specific requirements are described. Certain international treaties on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy are discussed such as the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Tlatelolco Treaty as are international conventions on matters related to the use of nuclear energy, such as the environment and protection of personnel. The author concludes by debating whether ethical uses of nuclear energy are a possible reality or merely utopia. Prospects on the future of international nuclear trade are considered. (author)

  6. Evolving trade policy and the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement: does it threaten Vietnam's access to medicine and its progress towards scaling up HIV prevention, treatment and care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linh, Nguyen Nhat; Huong, Nguyen Thanh; Thuy, Hua Thanh

    2015-01-01

    The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) has undergone 18 rounds of secretive negotiation between the USA and 11 Asia-Pacific countries. Aiming at a free trade area, this multilateral trade proposal covers all aspects of commercial relations among the countries involved. Despite some anticipated positive impacts in trade, specific articles in this proposal's intellectual property and transparency chapters might negatively impact access to medicine, in general, and to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs, in particular, in Vietnam. Drawing on a desk review and qualitative in-depth interviews with 20 key informants from government, academia, hospitals and civil society, we analyse various provisions of the proposal being negotiated leaked after the 14th round of negotiations in September 2012. Findings suggest that the TPP could lead to increased monopoly protection and could limit technological advancements within the local pharmaceutical manufacturing industry, resulting in higher medicine prices in Vietnam. This outcome would have a significant impact on Vietnam's ability to achieve goals for HIV prevention, treatment and care, and create barriers to universal health-care coverage. This research provides unique evidence for Vietnam to advocate for more equitable pharmaceutical provisions in and to raise awareness of the implications of the TPP among the pharmaceutical stakeholder community in Vietnam.

  7. KOREA-CHILE FREE TRADE AGREEMENT – A CASE STUDY FROM THE CHILEAN SIDE TO ANALYZE HOW IT CAN BE IMPROVED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe Maldaner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Trade in the global market is one of the most important ways to achieve economic growth. Some countries sell raw materials and others sell value added products. Innovation is the key issue in this competition and, in a sense, it makes a big difference in trade balance worldwide. FTA (Free Trade Agreement is one of the means to gain different markets. The Korea-Chile FTA is a good example of success in terms of trade agreement. Korea sells value added products to Chile, and Chile sells raw materials to Korea, mainly copper. Korea and Chile can improve their Free Trade Agreement to the higher level, which is to produce conductors and semi-conductors in Chile through Korea’s investment. Korea has technology and Chile can offer tax advantages to Korean companies which are interested to invest in Chile. For Chile, it is possible to achieve a huge market in North and Latin America. This is one way to improve the successful Korea-Chile FTA. Keywords: Free Trade Agreement. Innovation. Government Strategy. Results and Improvement.     TRATADO DE LIVRE COMÉRCIO ENTRE COREIA DO SUL E CHILE – UM ESTUDO DE CASO DO PONTO DE VISTA CHILENO PARA ANALISAR COMO ESTE PODE SER AMPLIADO RESUMO O comércio no mercado global é um dos mais importantes caminhos para obter crescimento econômico. Alguns países vendem matérias-primas e outros vendem produtos com valor agregado. Inovação é um ponto-chave nessa competição e, em certo sentido, faz uma grande diferença na balança comercial mundial. Tratado de livre comércio é um dos caminhos para atingir diferentes mercados. O Tratado de Livre Comércio (TLC entre Coreia do Sul e Chile é um bom exemplo de sucesso, tratando-se de acordos comerciais. Coreia do Sul vende produtos de valor agregado para o Chile e o Chile vende matérias-primas para a Coreia, principalmente cobre. Coreia e Chile podem ampliar o seu tratado de livre comércio para um nível mais elevado, qual seja, produzir condutores e

  8. Commerce in health services in North America within the context of the North American Free Trade Agreement El comercio de servicios de salud en América del Norte en el contexto del Tratado de Libre Comercio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Gómez-Dantés

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the future of commercial trade in personal health services in North America within the context of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA and the latter's potential influence on health care for the Mexican people. It begins by defining concepts related to international trade of services, particularly health services, and then proceeds to analyze elements of NAFTA that affect the delivery, regulation, and financing of such services, as well as their future trade within the NAFTA area. It concludes with some recommendations directed at helping Mexico's national health care system confront the risks posed while taking advantage of the opportunities offered by the Mexican economy's entry into a broader market.El presente artículo discute el futuro del intercambio comercial de servicios personales de salud en América del Norte en el contexto del Tratado de Libre Comercio (TLC y la posible influencia de este último sobre la atención de salud de la población mexicana. En la primera parte se definen conceptos relacionados con el intercambio internacional de servicios en general y de servicios de salud en particular y se analizan los componentes del TLC que afectan a la prestación, regulación y financiamiento de estos servicios, así como a su futuro intercambio en la zona del TLC. Al final del artículo se hacen recomendaciones dirigidas a ayudar al sistema nacional de salud de México a enfrentar los riesgos y aprovechar las oportunidades que brinda la incorporación de la economía mexicana a un mercado más amplio.

  9. Understanding Canada's International Trade Policy. "Understanding Economics" Series No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Peter M.

    Written for secondary school Canadian students, the document examines Canada's international trade policy. It is arranged in three sections. Part I discusses the affect of Canada's trade policy on the individual citizen. Tariffs and non-tariff barriers to trade such as import licenses, preferential purchasing agreements, health and safety…

  10. 78 FR 66950 - Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... report that catalogs trade barriers that U.S. small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) perceive as... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-541] Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the European Union; Rescheduling of Washington...

  11. 47 CFR 73.23 - AM broadcast station applications affected by international agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... consistency with international relationships and as to which no final decision has been rendered, whenever action under this section becomes appropriate because of inconsistency with international relationships... international agreements. 73.23 Section 73.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED...

  12. An Investigation into the Effects Which Aerospace Industry Offset Trade Agreements Have on United States Air Force Mission Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    technology transfer, and countertrade (see the glossary at the end of this chapter for a definition of each of these terms). After WW II, the U.S...manufacturers. 17 COUNTERTRADE - various types of commercial agreements which include at least one of the following: BARTER - a one time transaction... countertrade , accounted for the remaining 53 percent (38:21). 37 atls 1. Value of Military Export Sales Contracts and Associated Offset Obligations by

  13. Contractual stability and its relationship with the political process of law-making: An analysis of Peru’s public procurement and the principles of the Agreement on Government Procurement with the World Trade Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Zegarra Pinto, José; Peche Loayza, Luwing

    2017-01-01

    This paper develops an analysis of the impacts of the Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA) Principles and Rules on the Peruvian Public Procurement regulation, and Peruvian participation in the process of international standardisation of public procurement through signing different kinds of free trade agreements (FTAs).

  14. Access to generic antiretrovirals: inequality, intellectual property law, and international trade agreements Acceso a antirretrovirales genéricos: desigualdad, derecho de propiedad intelectual y acuerdos comerciales internacionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arachu Castro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The governments of numerous low- and middle-income countries are currently instituting rules that strengthen changes in domestic intellectual property legislation, often made to conform to the mandates of "free" trade agreements signed with the United States. These measures frequently include intellectual property provisions that extend beyond the patent law standards agreed upon in recent World Trade Organization negotiations, which promised to balance the exigencies of public health and patent holders. In this paper, we analyze the concern that this augmentation of patent law standards will curtail access to essential medicines, particularly as they relate to the AIDS pandemic. We critically examine the potential threats posed by trade agreements vis-à-vis efforts to provide universal access to antiretroviral medications and contend that the conditioning of economic development upon the strengthening of intellectual property law demands careful attention when public health is at stake. Finally, we examine advocacy successes in challenging patent law and conclude that greater advocacy and policy strategies are needed to ensure the protection of global health in trade negotiations.Actualmente diversos países de renta media y baja están creando leyes de propiedad intelectual más rígidas, muchas veces para adaptarse a las exigencias de los tratados de "libre" comercio con los Estados Unidos. Tales medidas suelen incluir dispositivos que transcienden las normas sobre patentes negociadas recientemente en la Organización Mundial del Comercio, que prometían equilibrar las exigencias de la salud pública y las de patentes. Este artículo analiza la preocupación de que este endurecimiento restrinja el acceso a medicamentos esenciales, en particular en el contexto de la pandemia de SIDA. El artículo examina las amenazas potenciales creadas por los tratados comerciales contra los esfuerzos dirigidos para el acceso universal a los

  15. Conflicting Perspectives in Trade and Environmental Negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchner, B.K.; Roson, R.

    2002-09-01

    International trade negotiations have recently tackled the issue of possible free trade restrictions, justified - among others - on the basis of environmental concerns. Also, some analyses of international environmental agreements (especially in the field of climate change) have highlighted the key role played by changes in the terms of trade in determining the cost of environmental policies. Yet, secondary effects of international trade remain disregarded in many environmental policies, whereas the introduction of environmental trade barriers has been resisted, arguing that this may hide a Trojan horse of a renewed protectionism. This paper reviews the debate on trade and the environment in the two fields of environmental and trade negotiations, highlighting the different and somewhat conflicting approach adopted in the two cases. A numerical general equilibrium model is used to illustrate how different 'perceptions' (translated in terms of alternative model closures) affect the use of instruments, the distributional impact of the various policies, and the strategic interplay between negotiators in international agreements

  16. El Proceso de Negociacion del TLC entre Colombia y Estados Unidos / The Negotiation Process of the Colombia-United States Free Trade Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cristina Silva.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the negotiation process of the Free Trade Agreement between Colombia and the USA. It analyzes the actions and tactics developed by the actors (members of the Government and the Congress, entrepreneurs, civil society, as well as the political context, in order to identify the Colombian negotiation strategy and study its effectiveness. This means evaluating how well the government manage to reconcile the negotiation with the counterpart and with the domestic actors. The conclusion shows that, although President Alvaro Uribe got enough support from Colombian Congress and entrepreneurs, his diplomatic strategy was not efficient because it ignored not only the USA domestic policy, but also Ecuador’s and Peru’s. The analysis is supported on the “two-level games” model, which explains the connections between domestic policy and diplomacy in international negotiations.

  17. Assessing the environmental consequences of global climate and economic changes in Venezuela: Impacts of the greenhouse effect and of free trade agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo, M.F.; Harwell, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    The ecological resources of most Latin American countries are subject to intense pressures for economic and industrial development which need to be balanced with local and global concerns about the long term sustainability of that resource base. Global issues and their potential long term effects should not be ignored when environmental policy strategies at the national level are elaborated. In this paper, the potential environmental consequences of two important global changes are examined, by taking Venezuela as a country case study: changes in climate, temperature, precipitation and radiation, generated by the greenhouse effect and changes in environmental stresses originating from shifts in local economic activity due to changing global trade, specifically free trade agreements. Both assessments are conducted using scenario-consequence approaches and expert judgment. The first analysis reported here is an example of the application of simulation models of global climate and local ecosystems, whereas the second analysis demonstrates the application of screening methodology which relies on processing of qualitative information. The approaches illustrated here are generic and can be applied to other Latin American countries

  18. Trait-fitness relationships determine how trade-off shapes affect species coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Elias; Becks, Lutz; Gaedke, Ursula

    2017-12-01

    Trade-offs between functional traits are ubiquitous in nature and can promote species coexistence depending on their shape. Classic theory predicts that convex trade-offs facilitate coexistence of specialized species with extreme trait values (extreme species) while concave trade-offs promote species with intermediate trait values (intermediate species). We show here that this prediction becomes insufficient when the traits translate non-linearly into fitness which frequently occurs in nature, e.g., an increasing length of spines reduces grazing losses only up to a certain threshold resulting in a saturating or sigmoid trait-fitness function. We present a novel, general approach to evaluate the effect of different trade-off shapes on species coexistence. We compare the trade-off curve to the invasion boundary of an intermediate species invading the two extreme species. At this boundary, the invasion fitness is zero. Thus, it separates trait combinations where invasion is or is not possible. The invasion boundary is calculated based on measurable trait-fitness relationships. If at least one of these relationships is not linear, the invasion boundary becomes non-linear, implying that convex and concave trade-offs not necessarily lead to different coexistence patterns. Therefore, we suggest a new ecological classification of trade-offs into extreme-favoring and intermediate-favoring which differs from a purely mathematical description of their shape. We apply our approach to a well-established model of an empirical predator-prey system with competing prey types facing a trade-off between edibility and half-saturation constant for nutrient uptake. We show that the survival of the intermediate prey depends on the convexity of the trade-off. Overall, our approach provides a general tool to make a priori predictions on the outcome of competition among species facing a common trade-off in dependence of the shape of the trade-off and the shape of the trait

  19. Addressing legal and political barriers to global pharmaceutical access: options for remedying the impact of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and the imposition of TRIPS-plus standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Kohler, Jillian Clare; Forman, Lisa; Lipkus, Nathaniel

    2008-07-01

    Despite myriad programs aimed at increasing access to essential medicines in the developing world, the global drug gap persists. This paper focuses on the major legal and political constraints preventing implementation of coordinated global policy solutions - particularly, the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and bilateral and regional free trade agreements. We argue that several policy and research routes should be taken to mitigate the restrictive impact of TRIPS and TRIPS-plus rules, including greater use of TRIPS flexibilities, advancement of human rights, and an ethical framework for essential medicines distribution, and a broader campaign that debates the legitimacy of TRIPS and TRIPS-plus standards themselves.

  20. The Interaction of Cognition and Affect: The Issue of Free Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Fred A.

    In determining whether an increase in student cognitions in the content area of international trade is correlated with an attitudinal change toward policy issues surrounding that subject, a microeconomics principles class at Riverside City College was used to test the hypothesis that a change in the cognitive component will cause a change in the…

  1. Medicine procurement and the use of flexibilities in the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, 2001–2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veraldi, Jacquelyn; Toebes, Brigit; Hogerzeil, Hans V

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Millions of people, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, lack access to effective pharmaceuticals, often because they are unaffordable. The 2001 Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization (WTO) adopted the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS (Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights) Agreement and Public Health. The declaration recognized the implications of intellectual property rights for both new medicine development and the price of medicines. The declaration outlined measures, known as TRIPS flexibilities, that WTO Members can take to ensure access to medicines for all. These measures include compulsory licensing of medicines patents and the least-developed countries pharmaceutical transition measure. The aim of this study was to document the use of TRIPS flexibilities to access lower-priced generic medicines between 2001 and 2016. Overall, 176 instances of the possible use of TRIPS flexibilities by 89 countries were identified: 100 (56.8%) involved compulsory licences or public noncommercial use licences and 40 (22.7%) involved the least-developed countries pharmaceutical transition measure. The remainder were: 1 case of parallel importation; 3 research exceptions; and 32 non-patent-related measures. Of the 176 instances, 152 (86.4%) were implemented. They covered products for treating 14 different diseases. However, 137 (77.8%) concerned medicines for human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome or related diseases. The use of TRIPS flexibilities was found to be more frequent than is commonly assumed. Given the problems faced by countries today in procuring high-priced, patented medicines, the practical, legal pathway provided by TRIPS flexibilities for accessing lower-cost generic equivalents is increasingly important. PMID:29531417

  2. Medicine procurement and the use of flexibilities in the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, 2001-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    't Hoen, Ellen Fm; Veraldi, Jacquelyn; Toebes, Brigit; Hogerzeil, Hans V

    2018-03-01

    Millions of people, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, lack access to effective pharmaceuticals, often because they are unaffordable. The 2001 Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization (WTO) adopted the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS (Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights) Agreement and Public Health. The declaration recognized the implications of intellectual property rights for both new medicine development and the price of medicines. The declaration outlined measures, known as TRIPS flexibilities, that WTO Members can take to ensure access to medicines for all. These measures include compulsory licensing of medicines patents and the least-developed countries pharmaceutical transition measure. The aim of this study was to document the use of TRIPS flexibilities to access lower-priced generic medicines between 2001 and 2016. Overall, 176 instances of the possible use of TRIPS flexibilities by 89 countries were identified: 100 (56.8%) involved compulsory licences or public noncommercial use licences and 40 (22.7%) involved the least-developed countries pharmaceutical transition measure. The remainder were: 1 case of parallel importation; 3 research exceptions; and 32 non-patent-related measures. Of the 176 instances, 152 (86.4%) were implemented. They covered products for treating 14 different diseases. However, 137 (77.8%) concerned medicines for human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome or related diseases. The use of TRIPS flexibilities was found to be more frequent than is commonly assumed. Given the problems faced by countries today in procuring high-priced, patented medicines, the practical, legal pathway provided by TRIPS flexibilities for accessing lower-cost generic equivalents is increasingly important.

  3. Relative intensity of bilateral trade flows, regional integration, and trade performance: the case of Brazil, 1984-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Valquiria da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to identify the component of trade that results specifically from bilateral relations and evaluate how the creation of trading blocs affects trade relations between countries. The trirapport coefficient of the relative intensity of bilateral agricultural sector trade flows between Brazil and other countries from 1984 and 1998 is used in the evaluation. In general, the results show that relative trade intensity between Brazil and its non-MERCOSUL trade partners fell after their entry into regional trade agreements (extra-bloc effect. The intra-bloc effect (trade expansion is reflected by changes in trade intensity between Brazil and the other MERCOSUL members and changes in trade intensity between NAFTA members Mexico, Canada, and the United States.

  4. Neutral genetic variation in adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) affects brain-to-body trade-off and brain laterality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Daniel D.; Higgs, Dennis M.

    2017-01-01

    Low levels of heterozygosity can have detrimental effects on life history and growth characteristics of organisms but more subtle effects such as those on trade-offs of expensive tissues and morphological laterality, especially of the brain, have not been explicitly tested. The objective of the current study was to investigate how estimated differences in heterozygosity may potentially affect brain-to-body trade-offs and to explore how these heterozygosity differences may affect differential brain growth, focusing on directional asymmetry in adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) using the laterality and absolute laterality indices. Level of inbreeding was estimated as mean microsatellite heterozygosity resulting in four ‘inbreeding level groups’ (Very High, High, Medium, Low). A higher inbreeding level corresponded with a decreased brain-to-body ratio, thus a decrease in investment in brain tissue, and also showed a decrease in the laterality index for the cerebellum, where the left hemisphere was larger than the right across all groups. These results begin to show the role that differences in heterozygosity may play in differential tissue investment and in morphological laterality, and may be useful in two ways. Firstly, the results may be valuable for restocking programmes that wish to emphasize brain or body growth when crossing adults to generate individuals for release, as we show that genetic variation does affect these trade-offs. Secondly, this study is one of the first examinations to test the hypothesized relationship between genetic variation and laterality, finding that in Chinook salmon there is potential for an effect of inbreeding on lateralized morphology, but not in the expected direction. PMID:29308240

  5. The hidden hyperbolic geometry of international trade: World Trade Atlas 1870-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Guillermo; Boguñá, Marián; Allard, Antoine; Serrano, M Ángeles

    2016-09-16

    Here, we present the World Trade Atlas 1870-2013, a collection of annual world trade maps in which distance combines economic size and the different dimensions that affect international trade beyond mere geography. Trade distances, based on a gravity model predicting the existence of significant trade channels, are such that the closer countries are in trade space, the greater their chance of becoming connected. The atlas provides us with information regarding the long-term evolution of the international trade system and demonstrates that, in terms of trade, the world is not flat but hyperbolic, as a reflection of its complex architecture. The departure from flatness has been increasing since World War I, meaning that differences in trade distances are growing and trade networks are becoming more hierarchical. Smaller-scale economies are moving away from other countries except for the largest economies; meanwhile those large economies are increasing their chances of becoming connected worldwide. At the same time, Preferential Trade Agreements do not fit in perfectly with natural communities within the trade space and have not necessarily reduced internal trade barriers. We discuss an interpretation in terms of globalization, hierarchization, and localization; three simultaneous forces that shape the international trade system.

  6. The hidden hyperbolic geometry of international trade: World Trade Atlas 1870–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Guillermo; Boguñá, Marián; Allard, Antoine; Serrano, M. Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the World Trade Atlas 1870–2013, a collection of annual world trade maps in which distance combines economic size and the different dimensions that affect international trade beyond mere geography. Trade distances, based on a gravity model predicting the existence of significant trade channels, are such that the closer countries are in trade space, the greater their chance of becoming connected. The atlas provides us with information regarding the long-term evolution of the international trade system and demonstrates that, in terms of trade, the world is not flat but hyperbolic, as a reflection of its complex architecture. The departure from flatness has been increasing since World War I, meaning that differences in trade distances are growing and trade networks are becoming more hierarchical. Smaller-scale economies are moving away from other countries except for the largest economies; meanwhile those large economies are increasing their chances of becoming connected worldwide. At the same time, Preferential Trade Agreements do not fit in perfectly with natural communities within the trade space and have not necessarily reduced internal trade barriers. We discuss an interpretation in terms of globalization, hierarchization, and localization; three simultaneous forces that shape the international trade system. PMID:27633649

  7. Clutch frequency affects the offspring size-number trade-off in lizards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of lizards have shown that offspring size cannot be altered by manipulating clutch size in species with a high clutch frequency. This raises a question of whether clutch frequency has a key role in influencing the offspring size-number trade-off in lizards.To test the hypothesis that females reproducing more frequently are less likely to tradeoff offspring size against offspring number, we applied the follicle ablation technique to female Eremias argus (Lacertidae from Handan (HD and Gonghe (GH, the two populations that differ in clutch frequency. Follicle ablation resulted in enlargement of egg size in GH females, but not in HD females. GH females switched from producing a larger number of smaller eggs in the first clutch to a smaller number of larger eggs in the second clutch; HD females showed a similar pattern of seasonal shifts in egg size, but kept clutch size constant between the first two clutches. Thus, the egg size-number trade-off was evident in GH females, but not in HD females.As HD females (mean  = 3.1 clutches per year reproduce more frequently than do GH females (mean  = 1.6 clutches per year, our data therefore validate the hypothesis tested. Our data also provide an inference that maximization of maternal fitness could be achieved in females by diverting a large enough, rather than a higher-than-usual, fraction of the available energy to individual offspring in a given reproductive episode.

  8. Partisan embedding of liberalism: how trade, investment, and immigration affect party support for the welfare state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgoon, B.

    2012-01-01

    Political scientists have long debated how economic globalization influences national social policies, but they have so far not explored the political demands of political parties implicitly underlying such influence. This article explores such demands to see how globalization affects

  9. Medicine procurement and the use of flexibilities in the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, 2001–2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    't Hoen, Ellen F. M.; Veraldi, Jacquelyn; Toebes, Brigit; Hogerzeil, Hendrik

    Millions of people, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, lack access to effective pharmaceuticals, often because they are unaffordable. The 2001 Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization (WTO) adopted the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS (Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual

  10. How does trade-mediated technology transfer affect interregional and intersectoral competition? Exploring multi-sectoral effects in a global trade model

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Gouranga

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, all technology transfers are embodied in trade flows within a three-region, six-tradedcommodity version of the GTAP model. 4% Hicks-Neutral technical progress in heavy manufacturing in one region has uneven impacts on productivity elsewhere. Why? Destination regions’ ability to harness new technology depends on their absorptive capacity and on the structural congruence of the source and destination. Together with trade volume, these two factors determine the recipi...

  11. Treatment of Anti-Dumping Policies Within the Framework of the wto and Free Trades Agreements Signed and Ratified by Colombia with Canada, Republic Of Korea and The United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Pineda Cely

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Free Trade Agreements (FTA have become an important tool for the comercial and social development of the nations, that promotes the reduction of taxes, production and promotion of economic growth, and also opens the door to generate economies of scale, specialization of domestic production and increases domestic trade. That´s why today is particularly important the study of the regulatory framekwork of such Agreements, which includes different and varied aspects. This document will try to focus in just one of them, which is the norms and policies directed to correct and eliminate the negative effects that dumpin practices may cause in the country and the national companies development.

  12. The Impact of Factors Affecting Environmental Pollution with Emphasis on Trade Openness in Different Countries (Case study CO2 emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hosein mohammadi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization, population growth and moving from traditional manufacturing industry to accelerate the process of economic development and parallel, significant environmental impacts are left. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of different variables such as trade openness, comparative advantage, production levels and other important variables affecting the emission of carbon dioxide gas in various countries of the world. Stata11 software was used to estimate the panel data model of 77 countries over the years 2010-1980. The results indicate that propagation environment, and in particular CO2, in all four groups of countries are associated with prior emission, with a per capita income direct link but with the square of it correlates inversely and have direct link with the ratio of capital to labor and with the square of it correlates inversely and trade openness in high-income countries and moderate negative effect in low-income and middle-income countries is directly related to the bottom.

  13. Interactions between Climate and Trade Policies. A Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeotti, M.; Kemfert, C.

    2004-05-01

    Economic globalization affects the environment and sustainable development in several ways and through various channels. The purpose of this paper is to review the key links between globalization and the environment. The paper intends to consider the major issues in multilateral economic agreements in trade and finance that affect environmental sustainability. Major policy issues addressed by these agreements are considered from the perspective of trade liberalization, international investment and finance, and technology diffusion. The concept of trade reflected here is thus broader than international exchange of goods and services

  14. Trade and health: an agenda for action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard D; Lee, Kelley; Drager, Nick

    2009-01-01

    The processes of contemporary globalisation are creating ever-closer ties between individuals and populations across different countries. The health of a population, and the systems in place to deliver health care, are affected increasingly by factors beyond the population and health system. The Lancet’s Series on trade and health has provided an overview of these links between international trade, trade liberalisation, and health, and raised the key issues that face the health community. In this final paper in the Series, we call for a substantial and sustained effort by those within the health profession to engage with issues of trade, to strengthen institutional capacity in this area, and to place health higher on the agenda of trade negotiations. The rapid rise of trade agreements and treaties, as well as trade that occurs beyond these institutional boundaries, means that further action is required by a range of actors, including WHO, the World Bank, the World Trade Organization (WTO), regional agencies, foundations, national governments, civil society, non-governmental organisations, and academics. The stewardship of a domestic health system in the 21st century requires a sophisticated understanding of how trade affects, and will affect, a country’s health system and policy, to optimise opportunities to benefit health and health care while minimising the risks posed though the assertion of health goals in trade policy. To acheive this will place a premium on all those engaged in health to understand the importance of trade and to engage with their counterparts involved in trade and trade policy. We hope that this Series has prompted the reader to become involved in these efforts. PMID:19167056

  15. Trade and health: an agenda for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard D; Lee, Kelley; Drager, Nick

    2009-02-28

    The processes of contemporary globalisation are creating ever-closer ties between individuals and populations across different countries. The health of a population, and the systems in place to deliver health care, are affected increasingly by factors beyond the population and health system. The Lancet's Series on trade and health has provided an overview of these links between international trade, trade liberalisation, and health, and raised the key issues that face the health community. In this final paper in the Series, we call for a substantial and sustained effort by those within the health profession to engage with issues of trade, to strengthen institutional capacity in this area, and to place health higher on the agenda of trade negotiations. The rapid rise of trade agreements and treaties, as well as trade that occurs beyond these institutional boundaries, means that further action is required by a range of actors, including WHO, the World Bank, the World Trade Organization (WTO), regional agencies, foundations, national governments, civil society, non-governmental organisations, and academics. The stewardship of a domestic health system in the 21st century requires a sophisticated understanding of how trade affects, and will affect, a country's health system and policy, to optimise opportunities to benefit health and health care while minimising the risks posed though the assertion of health goals in trade policy. To acheive this will place a premium on all those engaged in health to understand the importance of trade and to engage with their counterparts involved in trade and trade policy. We hope that this Series has prompted the reader to become involved in these efforts.

  16. New affective models of knowledge transmission: The Medialab-Prado as a trading zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gámez-Pérez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the Medialab-Prado cultural space, located in Madrid, which is developing a project involving arts, scientific dissemination, and transmission of knowledge through digital networks and collective culture. It is conceived as a great citizens’ laboratory. The article demonstrates that this new model of sociocultural organization has changed the ways in which knowledge is transmitted through technology. It has also modified the Medialab’s actors’ access to information. In order to do so, I will use the sociological theories of Bruno Latour and the study of the transmission of knowledge in transdisciplinary environments carried out by Peter Galison on the history of science, as well as some epistemological notions and aspects of affective atmospheres.

  17. States’ regulatory autonomy to protect societal values by legitimate regulatory distinctions : Finding the balance in the WTO Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade through adjudication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prévost, Denise; Choukroune, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Trade disputes in which public policy regulation is challenged have been among the most difficult and controversial of those before the adjudicatory bodies of the WTO. They have showcased the crucial role of adjudication in achieving an appropriate balance between the sovereign autonomy of States to

  18. Interrater agreement for the schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia epidemiological version for school-age children (K-SADS-E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polanczyk Guilherme V

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVE: The main objective of this study was to assess the interrater agreement for the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia Epidemiological version for School-Age Children (K-SADS-E. METHODS: Four interviewers being trained with the K-SADS-E scored independently 29 videotaped interviews performed with psychiatric outpatients in the ADHD Outpatient Clinic at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Interrater agreement analysis was performed using the kappa coefficient (k. RESULTS: Kappa coefficients were .93 (p<.001 for affective disorders, .9 (p<.001 for anxiety disorders, .94 (p<.001 for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders and disruptive behavior disorders. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest an excellent interrater agreement for the diagnosis of several mental disorders in childhood and adolescence by the Brazilian Portuguese version of the K-SADS-E.

  19. International standards and agreements in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide

  20. International standards and agreements in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.

    2004-01-01

    The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide international

  1. Agreement on trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights and access to medication: does Egypt have sufficient safeguards against potential public health implications of the agreement / Heba Wanis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wanis, Heba

    2010-01-01

    Intellektuaalomandi Õiguste Kaubandusaspektide Lepingust (TRIPS Agreement) ja selle mõjust ravimitele juurdepääsule Egiptuses. Ülevaade ravimitööstusest, ravimitele juurdepääsu põhiteguritest ning ravimite ja tervishoiu olukorrast

  2. Managing the Trade-Public Health Linkage in Defence of Trade Liberalisation and National Sovereignty: An Appraisal of United States-Measures Affecting the Production and Sale of Clove Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapiwa Victor Warikandwa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Under the legal framework of the World Trade Organisation (WTO, countries have great flexibility to unilaterally adopt environmental regulations that have effect within their territories only. However, the same discretion does not apply to measures that adversely affect imports or exports. An absence of clear guidelines on how to address some of the attendant issues poses challenges to the effectiveness of a trade-environment linkage. Not surprisingly, attempts to link the environment and trade have resulted in a number of jurisprudentially significant cases in which the WTO's Panel and Appellate Body have tried to address critical questions about the Organisation's capacity to address or manage legal or quasi-legal subjects falling outside the scope of its legal framework. In this regard the Panel and Appellate Body reports in the case of United States - Measures Affecting the Production and Sale of Clove Cigarettes (US-Clove Cigarettes have re-ignited the debate on the Organisation's existential challenge of balancing the rights of the sovereign to freely regulate matters pertaining to health or the environment within its domestic domain with the need to maintain the sanctity of the multilateral trade order. This article demonstrates that in the US-Clove Cigarettes case the WTO Panel and Appellate Body, whilst managing to successfully defend the integrity of WTO Member States' treaty commitments and the overarching importance of trade liberalisation within the organisation's policy foundations even in the context of public health-related regulations, failed to provide any substantive affirmation of the development-related challenges facing developing countries that are part of the WTO family.

  3. Acordos bilaterais de comércio como estratégia de inserção regional e internacional do Chile Bilateral trade agreements as Chile's strategy for regional and international insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Rossetto Lopes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho analisa a mudança na estratégia de inserção regional e internacional do Chile no começo dos anos 1990, com ênfase em acordos comerciais bilaterais, depois de ter praticado a abertura comercial generalizada desde meados da década de 1970. A opção por acordos bilaterais foi adotada pelo primeiro governo democrático, como parte da orientação de manter e aprofundar a abertura externa empreendida pela ditadura, e conseguiu ampliar as vendas externas e diversificar produtos e destinos. As exportações têm papel decisivo na economia chilena, aberta e pequena, e os 24 acordos bilaterais de comércio com diferentes países e regiões, além de outros em negociação, podem ser explicados pelo esgotamento das possibilidades de ampliar o comércio por meio de reduções adicionais da tarifa externa unilateral, hoje em 6% para quase todos os produtos. A formação de uma rede de acordos bilaterais ampla e diversificada, contudo, tem também interesses políticos, estratégicos e de segurança em relação a vizinhos e a países próximos, além de evitar que o Chile precise se integrar, como membro pleno, a blocos regionais para garantir seus interesses, o que amplia as possibilidades de lidar com diferentes e importantes parceiros no âmbito internacional.The paper analysis the change of Chile's regional and international strategy of insertion through bilateral trade agreements in the beginning of the 90s, after a generalized trade opening since the middle of the 70s. The bilateral trade agreements strategy was set up by the democratic governments as part of the direction of maintaining and deepening the unilateral trade liberalization undertaken by the dictatorship, enlarging exports and diversifying products and markets. Exports have a decisive role in Chile's economy, open and small. The 24 bilateral trade agreements already signed with different countries and regions (besides others under negotiation can be explained by the

  4. Comparative study on current trading system and online trading: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative study on current trading system and online trading: the case of ... of online trading and factors affecting its feasibility of implementation in ECX. ... The study found that there is significant capacity problem with major skills gap with ...

  5. Conflicting Perspectives in Trade and Environmental Negotiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchner, B.K. [Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei FEEM, Milan (Italy); Roson, R. [Economics Department, Ca' Foscari University, Venice (Italy)

    2002-09-01

    International trade negotiations have recently tackled the issue of possible free trade restrictions, justified - among others - on the basis of environmental concerns. Also, some analyses of international environmental agreements (especially in the field of climate change) have highlighted the key role played by changes in the terms of trade in determining the cost of environmental policies. Yet, secondary effects of international trade remain disregarded in many environmental policies, whereas the introduction of environmental trade barriers has been resisted, arguing that this may hide a Trojan horse of a renewed protectionism. This paper reviews the debate on trade and the environment in the two fields of environmental and trade negotiations, highlighting the different and somewhat conflicting approach adopted in the two cases. A numerical general equilibrium model is used to illustrate how different 'perceptions' (translated in terms of alternative model closures) affect the use of instruments, the distributional impact of the various policies, and the strategic interplay between negotiators in international agreements.

  6. Beyond Gender Stereotypes in Language Comprehension: Self Sex-Role Descriptions Affect the Brain's Potentials Associated with Agreement Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal, Paolo; Garnham, Alan; Oakhill, Jane

    2015-01-01

    We recorded Event-Related Potentials to investigate differences in the use of gender information during the processing of reflexive pronouns. Pronouns either matched the gender provided by role nouns (such as "king" or "engineer") or did not. We compared two types of gender information, definitional information, which is semantic in nature (a mother is female), or stereotypical (a nurse is likely to be female). When they followed definitional role-nouns, gender-mismatching pronouns elicited a P600 effect reflecting a failure in the agreement process. When instead the gender violation occurred after stereotypical role-nouns the Event Related Potential response was biphasic, being positive in parietal electrodes and negative in anterior left electrodes. The use of a correlational approach showed that those participants with more "feminine" or "expressive" self sex-role descriptions showed a P600 response for stereotype violations, suggesting that they experienced the mismatch as an agreement violation; whereas less "expressive" participants showed an Nref effect, indicating more effort spent in linking the pronouns with the possible, although less likely, counter-stereotypical referent.

  7. Beyond gender stereotypes in language comprehension: self sex-role descriptions affect the brain's potentials associated with agreement processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo eCanal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We recorded Event-Related Potentials to investigate differences in the use of gender information during the processing of reflexive pronouns. Pronouns either matched the gender provided by role nouns (such as king or engineer or did not. We compared two types of gender information, definitional information, which is semantic in nature (a mother is female, or stereotypical (a nurse is likely to be female. When they followed definitional role-nouns, gender-mismatching pronouns elicited a P600 effect reflecting a failure in the agreement process. When instead the gender violation occurred after stereotypical role-nouns the ERP response was biphasic, being positive in parietal electrodes and negative in anterior left electrodes. The use of a correlational approach showed that those participants with more feminine or expressive self sex-role descriptions showed a P600 response for stereotype violations, suggesting that they experienced the mismatch as an agreement violation; whereas less expressive participants showed an Nref effect, indicating more effort spent in linking the pronouns with the possible, although less likely, counter-stereotypical referent.

  8. Coverage of the WTO's Agreement on Government Procurement: Challenges of Integrating China and other Countries with a Large State Sector into the Global Trading System

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Ping

    2007-01-01

    The WTO's plurilateral Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA) is a significant WTO instrument to develop disciplines regulating government procurement. A recent major review of the GPA has led to a revised text, likely to enter into force in 2007. In the meanwhile, China, a country with a large state sector, has promised to initiate GPA accession negotiations by the end of 2007.The article provides a critical assessment of the extent to which the recent review of the coverage of the GPA ha...

  9. The Emergence of the Table Dance Within the Context of the North American Free Trade Agreement in Mexico: Symbolic Impact and the Deconstruction of Erotic Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto López Villagrán

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing qualitative methodology, as well as indirect documentary sources, this article aims to deconstruct the table dance erotic industry in Mexico, taking into account the context of free trade and the expectations it exploded. The explanation takes into account context, symbols and institutions. The article further analyses the conceptual aspects of the signification of the body and pornotopia and posits the category of poliperformatividad as an aggregate of performative acts in order to understand the semiotics of the table dance. Using the stories as its basis, this serves to measure the problem of social stigma within the collective of erotic dancers in Mexico.

  10. Southern African Development Community (SADC) trade legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Article XXIV of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) lays down the legal principles with which regional trade agreements have to conform. Based on these principles, WTO members have the mandate to determine the legality of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) under the GATT. Article XXIV permits both ...

  11. Emission Trading System in the SER Energy Agreement for Sustainable Growth. Macro-economic calculation by means of WorldScan; ETS in het SER Energieakkoord. Macro-economische doorrekening met WorldScan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brink, C. [Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2013-09-01

    The Dutch National Energy Agreement for Sustainable Growth aims at strengthening the European system for emissions trading by a more strict emission ceiling. Also, the agreement aims at guarantee the competitiveness of global energy intensive businesses by adjusting the allocation method for emission rights. In the calculations for the energy agreement this is reflected in the adjustment of the ETS pricing path. In this memo the calculations with the equilibrium model WordlScan are described and presented [Dutch] Het Nationaal Energieakkoord voor Duurzame Groei zet in op een versterking van het Europees systeem voor emissiehandel (ETS) door aanscherpen van het emissieplafond. Verder wil het akkoord de concurrentiepositie van het mondiaal opererende energie-intensieve bedrijfsleven borgen door aanpassing van de allocatiemethode voor emissierechten. In de doorrekening van het Energieakkoord is deze inzet tot uitdrukking gebracht in een aanpassing van het ETS-prijspad. Deze notitie beschrijft de berekeningen met het algemeen evenwichtsmodel WorldScan waar deze aanpassing van het ETS-prijspad op is gebaseerd.

  12. Trade and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Bentzen, Jeanet; Tarp, Finn

    2009-01-01

    History, not predictions of CGE models or cross-country growth studies, shows a strong relationship between trade and development. Vietnam's experience with bilateral trade agreements, comparing actual outcomes with predictions from existing models, demonstrates this and the limitations of research...

  13. Investigation of Economic Impacts of Economic Partnership Agreements between Sub-Saharan Africa and European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Pişkin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study tries to quantify the economic effects of Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs which have been negotiating between sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and European Union (EU. The study addresses the following questions:  How are African countries likely to gain or lose from a bilateral trade liberalisation between Africa and the EU?, what are the welfare implications for the African countries from the EPAs?, how will the formation of EPAs affect trade expansion through trade creation and trade diversion effects?, what are the potential fiscal implications of the EPAs. Even though the full reciprocity principle appears to be trade expanding (singularly infavour of EU, this study indicates that it will pose serious implications for deepening of regional integration in Africa because of trade diversion effect between African countries.  Another key finding is welfare effect through the way of trade expantion between EU and SSA.

  14. Why Does Emissions Trading under the EU ETS Not Affect Firms' Competitiveness? Empirical Findings from the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Joltreau, Eugénie; Sommerfeld, Katrin

    2017-01-01

    Environmental policies may have important consequences for firms’ competitiveness or profitability. However, the empirical literature shows that hardly any statistically significant effects on firms can be detected for the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS). On the basis of existing literature, we focus on potential explanations for why the empirical literature finds hardly any significant competitiveness effects on firms, least not during the first two phases of the scheme (...

  15. Individual heterogeneity and offspring sex affect the growth-reproduction trade-off in a mammal with indeterminate growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gélin, Uriel; Wilson, Michelle E; Cripps, Jemma; Coulson, Graeme; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Reproduction can lead to a trade-off with growth, particularly when individuals reproduce before completing body growth. Kangaroos have indeterminate growth and may always face this trade-off. We combined an experimental manipulation of reproductive effort and multi-year monitoring of a large sample size of marked individuals in two populations of eastern grey kangaroos to test the predictions (1) that reproduction decreases skeletal growth and mass gain and (2) that mass loss leads to reproductive failure. We also tested if sex-allocation strategies influenced these trade-offs. Experimental reproductive suppression revealed negative effects of reproduction on mass gain and leg growth from 1 year to the next. Unmanipulated females, however, showed a positive correlation between number of days lactating and leg growth over periods of 2 years and longer, suggesting that over the long term, reproductive costs were masked by individual heterogeneity in resource acquisition. Mass gain was necessary for reproductive success the subsequent year. Although mothers of daughters generally lost more mass than females nursing sons, mothers in poor condition experienced greater mass gain and arm growth if they had daughters than if they had sons. The strong links between individual mass changes and reproduction suggest that reproductive tactics are strongly resource-dependent.

  16. Asia-Pacific Research and Training Network on Trade (ARTNET ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    During Phase II, ARTNET will continue its training and capacity building efforts, focusing on trade facilitation, preferential trade agreements (PTAs) and other trade agreements. Given the complexity of the trade and investment environment in the region, ARTNET will explore the interaction between trade, investment, ...

  17. TILMA: The Impact of Domestic Trade Pacts on Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, Caelie

    2008-01-01

    When U.S. presidential hopeful Barack Obama suggested he would reopen the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) for negotiation, the ensuing debate demonstrated that international trade agreements are controversial. A new interprovincial trade agreement between British Columbia and Alberta, the Trade, Investment and Labour Mobility Agreement…

  18. International trade. Multinational aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Y

    2000-01-01

    Of numerous regional economic agreements, the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), South American Common Market (MERCOSUR), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Agreement are examples that are actively pursuing regional integration for freer trade of animals and animal products. The World Trade Organization (WTO) believes that regional and multinational integration initiatives are complements rather than alternatives in the pursuit of more open trade. In the efforts to harmonize SPS standards among multilateral trading nations, it is recommended that national requirements meet the standards developed by the OIE and the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission as the minimum requirements rather than adopting the standards of the lowest common denominator. Regional grouping may hinder multilateral or bilateral trade between the countries of a group and those of the other groups. How to eliminate such non-tariff barriers as traditional trade custom remains to be examined. Ongoing activities of VICH (Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medical Products) may pave the way for more open trade in pharmaceutical products between multilateral regional groups.

  19. 76 FR 72408 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    .... Synopsis: The amendment adds Korea to the geographic scope of the agreement and removes some historical... agreement authorizes the parties to exchange space in the trade between China, Singapore, Vietnam and the U...

  20. Question marks concerning CO2 trade after 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellander, Dag

    2006-01-01

    Different aspects of the Kyoto protocol are discussed, from the (in)significance of the Kyoto protocol, the inefficiency of the CO 2 trade system, to questions about how electricity prices will be affected in the EU, and what will be the solution in the future when the Kyoto agreement ends in 2012

  1. Is Free Trade Out of Date?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dwight R.

    2009-01-01

    During the recent presidential campaign, some prominent politicians called for a "time out" in negotiating new agreements to expand international trade, and others wanted to reduce it by canceling existing trade agreements. The stated concern is that trade with countries with low labor costs forces American workers to either accept lower…

  2. Free Trade Agreement in Educational Leadership?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringler, Marjorie C.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to explore the role and purpose of school administrators in international schools and obtain data helpful in redesigning principal preparation programs. An ethnographic case study was designed to obtain perceptions of issues related to leadership, curriculum, teachers, students, and parents in two U.S. accredited…

  3. Molecular trade-offs in RNA ligases affected the modular emergence of complex ribozymes at the origin of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Nisha; Weinberg, Marc S.; Michod, Richard E.; Durand, Pierre M.

    2017-09-01

    In the RNA world hypothesis complex, self-replicating ribozymes were essential. For the emergence of an RNA world, less is known about the early processes that accounted for the formation of complex, long catalysts from small passively formed molecules. The functional role of small sequences has not been fully explored and, here, a possible role for smaller ligases is demonstrated. An established RNA polymerase model, the R18, was truncated from the 3' end to generate smaller molecules. All the molecules were investigated for self-ligation functions with a set of oligonucleotide substrates without predesigned base pairing. The smallest molecule that exhibited self-ligation activity was a 40-nucleotide RNA. It also demonstrated the greatest functional flexibility as it was more general in the kinds of substrates it ligated to itself although its catalytic efficiency was the lowest. The largest ribozyme (R18) ligated substrates more selectively and with greatest efficiency. With increase in size and predicted structural stability, self-ligation efficiency improved, while functional flexibility decreased. These findings reveal that molecular size could have increased from the activity of small ligases joining oligonucleotides to their own end. In addition, there is a size-associated molecular-level trade-off that could have impacted the evolution of RNA-based life.

  4. Molecular trade-offs in RNA ligases affected the modular emergence of complex ribozymes at the origin of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Marc S.; Michod, Richard E.

    2017-01-01

    In the RNA world hypothesis complex, self-replicating ribozymes were essential. For the emergence of an RNA world, less is known about the early processes that accounted for the formation of complex, long catalysts from small passively formed molecules. The functional role of small sequences has not been fully explored and, here, a possible role for smaller ligases is demonstrated. An established RNA polymerase model, the R18, was truncated from the 3′ end to generate smaller molecules. All the molecules were investigated for self-ligation functions with a set of oligonucleotide substrates without predesigned base pairing. The smallest molecule that exhibited self-ligation activity was a 40-nucleotide RNA. It also demonstrated the greatest functional flexibility as it was more general in the kinds of substrates it ligated to itself although its catalytic efficiency was the lowest. The largest ribozyme (R18) ligated substrates more selectively and with greatest efficiency. With increase in size and predicted structural stability, self-ligation efficiency improved, while functional flexibility decreased. These findings reveal that molecular size could have increased from the activity of small ligases joining oligonucleotides to their own end. In addition, there is a size-associated molecular-level trade-off that could have impacted the evolution of RNA-based life. PMID:28989747

  5. Trade liberalisation as facilitated through trade agreements within ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2000-06-21

    Jun 21, 2000 ... realisation of socio~economic rights~ is a process requiring the government ... ern Africa must be based on the need to ensure real improvement in the .... Imports: apparel surpasses unwrought plaLinum as the second largest ...... ties for SOULh African companies in sectors such as textiles and clothing,.

  6. Taenia solium Cysticercosis in the Democratic Republic of Congo: How Does Pork Trade Affect the Transmission of the Parasite?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabwe, Constantin; Maketa, Vivi; Lukanu, Philippe; Lutumba, Pascal; Polman, Katja; Matondo, Peter; Speybroeck, Niko; Dorny, Pierre; Sumbu, Julienne

    2010-01-01

    Background Taenia solium, a zoonotic parasite that is endemic in most developing countries where pork is consumed, is recognised as the main cause of acquired epilepsy in these regions. T. solium has been reported in almost all of the neighboring countries of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) but data on the current prevalence of the disease in the country itself are lacking. This study, focusing on porcine cysticercosis (CC), makes part of a first initiative to assess whether cysticercosis is indeed actually present in DRC. Methods An epidemiological study on porcine CC was conducted (1) on urban markets of Kinshasa where pork is sold and (2) in villages in Bas-Congo province where pigs are traditionally reared. Tongue inspection and ELISA for the detection of circulating antigen of the larval stage of T. solium were used to assess the prevalence of active CC in both study sites. Findings The overall prevalence of pigs with active cysticercosis did not significantly differ between the market and the village study sites (38.8 [CI95%: 34–43] versus 41.2% [CI95%: 33–49], respectively). However, tongue cysticercosis was only found in the village study site together with a significantly higher intensity of infection (detected by ELISA). Interpretation Pigs reared at village level are sold for consumption on Kinshasa markets, but it seems that highly infected animals are excluded at a certain level in the pig trade chain. Indeed, preliminary informal surveys on common practices conducted in parallel revealed that pig farmers and/or buyers select the low infected animals and exclude those who are positive by tongue inspection at village level. This study provides the only recent evidence of CC presence in DRC and gives the first estimates to fill an important gap on the African taeniasis/cysticercosis distribution map. PMID:20838646

  7. Taenia solium cysticercosis in the Democratic Republic of Congo: how does pork trade affect the transmission of the parasite?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Praet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Taenia solium, a zoonotic parasite that is endemic in most developing countries where pork is consumed, is recognised as the main cause of acquired epilepsy in these regions. T. solium has been reported in almost all of the neighboring countries of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC but data on the current prevalence of the disease in the country itself are lacking. This study, focusing on porcine cysticercosis (CC, makes part of a first initiative to assess whether cysticercosis is indeed actually present in DRC. METHODS: An epidemiological study on porcine CC was conducted (1 on urban markets of Kinshasa where pork is sold and (2 in villages in Bas-Congo province where pigs are traditionally reared. Tongue inspection and ELISA for the detection of circulating antigen of the larval stage of T. solium were used to assess the prevalence of active CC in both study sites. FINDINGS: The overall prevalence of pigs with active cysticercosis did not significantly differ between the market and the village study sites (38.8 [CI 95%: 34-43] versus 41.2% [CI 95%: 33-49], respectively. However, tongue cysticercosis was only found in the village study site together with a significantly higher intensity of infection (detected by ELISA. INTERPRETATION: Pigs reared at village level are sold for consumption on Kinshasa markets, but it seems that highly infected animals are excluded at a certain level in the pig trade chain. Indeed, preliminary informal surveys on common practices conducted in parallel revealed that pig farmers and/or buyers select the low infected animals and exclude those who are positive by tongue inspection at village level. This study provides the only recent evidence of CC presence in DRC and gives the first estimates to fill an important gap on the African taeniasis/cysticercosis distribution map.

  8. Regional Trade Integration and Conflict Resolution

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    9 Trading across the Straits: will a free trade agreement between China and Taiwan .... Moeed Yusuf is a consultant on Economic Policy at the SDPI, Islamabad, ...... In the tourism sector, joint marketing and management strategies could bring ...

  9. Trade in health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Rupa

    2002-01-01

    In light of the increasing globalization of the health sector, this article examines ways in which health services can be traded, using the mode-wise characterization of trade defined in the General Agreement on Trade in Services. The trade modes include cross- border delivery of health services via physical and electronic means, and cross-border movement of consumers, professionals, and capital. An examination of the positive and negative implications of trade in health services for equity, efficiency, quality, and access to health care indicates that health services trade has brought mixed benefits and that there is a clear role for policy measures to mitigate the adverse consequences and facilitate the gains. Some policy measures and priority areas for action are outlined, including steps to address the "brain drain"; increasing investment in the health sector and prioritizing this investment better; and promoting linkages between private and public health care services to ensure equity. Data collection, measures, and studies on health services trade all need to be improved, to assess better the magnitude and potential implications of this trade. In this context, the potential costs and benefits of trade in health services are shaped by the underlying structural conditions and existing regulatory, policy, and infrastructure in the health sector. Thus, appropriate policies and safeguard measures are required to take advantage of globalization in health services. PMID:11953795

  10. Trade, Gender and Equity in Latin America : Knowledge for Political ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will analyze the complex trade liberalization-gender equity nexus, focusing ... Interface of research on gender and trade with the negotiations of trade agreements ... IDRC invites applications for the IDRC Doctoral Research Awards.

  11. The role of regional economic integrations for trade margins: A case of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Zajc Kejžar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this investigation is to research the development of intensive and extensive trade margins on product-country level data for Croatia during the period 2000–2012. Hypothesis of our paper is that RTAs-induced trade liberalization will have heterogeneous effects on particular product groups with indirect implications on national welfare. Static and dynamic gravity trade models are used on panel data accounting for over 90% of total trade during the observed period. Estimations of the trade gravity model and trade margins showed that while SAA and CEFTA arrangements positively affected different measures of intensive and extensive trade margins, specially exports and imports of consumption products, effects on trade in intermediate and capital goods were relatively subdued. This suggests a tendency for market-seeking rather than efficiency-seeking behaviour of Croatia’s trade sector. When comparing the results for two trade agreements using dynamic model, we find that SAA primarily affected trade in consumption goods while effects of CEFTA are more evenly dispersed across different product groups. Main conclusion of the paper is that Croatia’s policy makers should try to keep the preferential status of Croatia within the CEFTA market in the medium term, focusing on the Croatian economy.

  12. Permit trading and credit trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan-Tjeerd; R. Dijstra, Bouwe

    This paper compares emissions trading based on a cap on total emissions (permit trading) and on relative standards per unit of output (credit trading). Two types of market structure are considered: perfect competition and Cournot oligopoly. We find that output, abatement costs and the number...... of firms are higher under credit trading. Allowing trade between permit-trading and credit-trading sectors may increase in welfare. With perfect competition, permit trading always leads to higher welfare than credit trading. With imperfect competition, credit trading may outperform permit trading....... Environmental policy can lead to exit, but also to entry of firms. Entry and exit have a profound impact on the performance of the schemes, especially under imperfect competition. We find that it may be impossible to implement certain levels of total industry emissions. Under credit trading several levels...

  13. Organic farmers may gain from Green House Gas trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2009-01-01

    Farmers may earn money from participating in the ongoing greenhouse gas (GHG) trade system under the Kyoto agreement.......Farmers may earn money from participating in the ongoing greenhouse gas (GHG) trade system under the Kyoto agreement....

  14. REGIONALIZATION AND INTRA-INDUSTRY TRADE. AN ANALYSIS OF AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY TRADE IN NAFTA

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvie MONTOUT; Jean-Louis MUCCHIELLI; Soledad ZIGNAGO

    2002-01-01

    As was shown in some previous studies, the creation of the North American Free Trade American (NAFTA) has significantly increased trade and investment flows between member countries. Consequently, it seems appropriate to analyze the incidences of the free trade agreement on the nature of trade. In this paper, we study the intra-industry trade in the automobile industry within the NAFTA area. Our results highlight an increase in intra-industry trade since the beginning of the 1990s. The import...

  15. Bilateral agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Ten bilateral agreements are presented. These are: 1) Co-operation agreement relating to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy between Argentina and EURATOM (1996); 2) Agreement on co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy between Argentina and Greece (1997); 3) Implementing arrangement for technical exchange and co-operation in the area of peaceful uses of nuclear energy between Argentina and the United States (1997); 4) Agreement concerning co-operation in nuclear science and technology between Australia and Indonesia (1997); 5) Implementation of the 1985 Agreement for co-operation concerning the peaceful uses of nuclear energy between the People's Republic of China and the United States (1998); 6) Protocol of co-operation between France and Lithuania (1997); 7) Agreement on co-operation in energy research, science and technology, and development between Germany and the United States (1998); 8) Agreement on early notification of a nuclear accident and exchange of information on nuclear facilities between Greece and Romania (1997); 9) Agreement on early notification of nuclear accidents and co-operation in the field of nuclear safety between Hungary and the Ukraine (1997); 10) Agreement in the field of radioactive waste management between Switzerland and the United States (1997). (K.A.)

  16. 78 FR 51746 - Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... United States, in the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) negotiations with the European Union (EU), is seeking to strengthen the participation of SMEs in transatlantic trade and to... participation in transatlantic trade might be strengthened. Public Hearing: The additional hearing will be held...

  17. 78 FR 45969 - Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... States, in the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) negotiations, will seek to strengthen U.S.-European Union (EU) cooperation to enhance the participation of SMEs in transatlantic trade....-EU cooperation to enhance the participation of SMEs in transatlantic trade. As requested by the USTR...

  18. Challenges to the Multilateral Trading System

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Sutherland

    2007-01-01

    Ever since the GATT was established in 1948, the growth in international trade and economic growth has been remarkable. The traditional mercantilism of trade relations is less and less appropriate for the global economy. Bilateral trade deals make the business environment more complex and unpredictable. Preferential trading agreements erode the principle of non-discrimination. They distort trade away from the underlying comparative advantage; create rents which are appropriated by special pro...

  19. Implications of the Central America-Dominican Republic-Free Trade Agreement for the nutrition transition in Central America Implicaciones del Tratado de Libre Comercio entre Centroamérica y República Dominicana sobre la transición alimentaria en Centroamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Hawkes

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To identify potential impacts of the Central America-Dominican Republic-Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR on food consumption patterns associated with the nutrition transition, obesity, and diet-related chronic diseases. METHODS: Examination of CAFTA-DR agreement to identify measures that have the potential to affect food availability and retail prices. RESULTS: CAFTA-DR includes agreements on tariffs, tariff-rate quotas (TRQs, and sanitary and phytosanitary regulations with direct implications for the availability and prices of various foods. Agreements on investment, services, and intellectual property rights (IPR are also relevant because they create a business climate more conducive to long-term investment by the transnational food industry. Trade liberalization under CAFTA-DR is likely to increase availability and lower relative prices of two food groups associated with the nutrition transition: meat and processed foods. These outcomes are expected to occur as the direct result of increased imports from the United States and increased production by U.S. companies based in Central America, and the indirect result of increased domestic meat production (due to increased availability of cheaper animal feed and increased production of processed foods by domestic companies (due to a more competitive market environment. CONCLUSIONS: CAFTA-DR is likely to further the nutrition transition in Central America by increasing the consumption of meat; highly processed foods; and new, non-traditional foods. The public health community should be more aware of the implications of trade agreements for dietary health. Governments and related stakeholders should assess the coherence between changes fostered by specific trade agreements with national policies on diet and nutrition.OBJETIVOS: Identificar el posible impacto del Tratado de Libre Comercio entre Centroamérica y República Dominicana (TLCCA-RD sobre el patrón de consumo de alimentos

  20. Affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cetinic, M.; Diamanti, J.; Szeman, I.; Blacker, S.; Sully, J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter historicizes four divergent but historically contemporaneous genres of affect theory – romantic, realist, speculative, and materialist. While critics credited with the turn to affect in the 1990s wrote largely in the wake of poststructuralism from the perspective of gender and queer

  1. “INTERNATIONAL TRADE – ENVIRONMENT” RELATIONSHIP IN THE CONTEXT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Timbur

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The overall aim of this paper lies on presenting a short pragmatic image of the main aspects concerning the impact of international trade on the environment, on the one hand, and the impact of environmental policies and regulations on the international trade, on the other hand. Also, this article examines the multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs focused on the use of environmental trade measures. In the same context, we discuss about the most important international institution with the regulatory powers in international trade – environment relationship which is considered to be GATT/WTO.Although, the international trade-environment relationship is a very debated internationally, in Romania it is not sufficiently addressed either theoretical or practical. Taking into account the transition period and the consequences of the global economic crisis which still will affect Romania a period of time; our country promotes simultaneous strengthening and optimizing of trade and environmental policies in sustainable development framework.

  2. Improving U.S. Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentsen, Lloyd

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the need to formulate a coherent trade policy in response to international economic realities. The author argues against a return to trade protectionism and supports efforts to establish workable reciprocity agreements. Increasing import tariffs on high technology products would control access to American markets. (AM)

  3. INDONESIAN TRADE UNDER CHINA FREE TRADE AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavi Supriana

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the implementation of CAFTA (China-Asean Free Trade Area on the international trade flows across Indonesia, China and the rest of ASEAN using a gravitation model. It finds the evidence that the influence of diversion and creation effects on China are significant, while the influence of both effects on Indonesia are not significant. It also finds that the diversion effect, which leads to a decrease in society’s wealth, is greater than that of the creation effect. As a consequence, the gap across countries involved in the trade agreement is wider. Keywords: CAFTA, gravitation model, diversion effect, creation effectJEL classification numbers: F13, F14, F15

  4. 75 FR 78245 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... Mexico, Panama, Jamaica, Colombia, and the Far East, including China, Hong Kong, and Korea. Agreement No.../CSAV Slot Swap Agreement. Parties: China Shipping Container Lines Co. Ltd., China Shipping Container... trade between United States ports and ports in China and Vietnam. Agreement No.: 201208-001. Title...

  5. 75 FR 14159 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... parties to exchange slots in the trade between U.S. East Coast ports and ports in Turkey. Agreement No.: 201048-005. Title: Lease and Operating Agreement between Philadelphia Regional Port Authority and... FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Notice of Agreements Filed The Commission hereby gives notice of the...

  6. Bilateral agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    The bilateral agreements concern Brazil with United States relative to the co operation in nuclear energy, Germany with Russian Federation relative to the elimination and disposal of nuclear weapons; The multilateral agreements concerns the signature of the Protocols to amend the Paris and Brussels Conventions, the multilateral nuclear environmental programme in the Russian Federation, the status of Conventions in the field of nuclear energy. (N.C.)

  7. The Russian Trade-Remedy System : peculiarities and future prospects / Sherzod Shadikhodjaev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Shadikhodjaev, Sherzod

    2010-01-01

    Venemaa kaubanduse parandusmeetmete süsteemi iseärasused võrreldes WTO reeglitega. Agreement on Implementation of Article VI of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (1994, Marrakesh Agreement). Russian Trade-Remedy Law (2003)

  8. International trade law perspectives on paperless trade and inclusive digital trade

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Andrew D.; Mishra, Neha

    2017-01-01

    Cross-border paperless trade is increasingly important to generate economic gains in a digitalised economy. Several developing and least developed countries will need to modernise their domestic laws and regulations to facilitate cross-border electronic transmissions, particularly to promote cloud computing and electronic payments. In recent trade agreements, trading partners have committed to deeper and more comprehensive provisions on electronic commerce, including adopting domestic laws on...

  9. Subsidy Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Kyle Bagwell; Robert W. Staiger

    2004-01-01

    International disputes over subsidies are increasingly disrupting the world trading system. The creation of the WTO was nearly prevented by disputes in the Uruguay Round of GATT negotiations over the issue of negotiating disciplines on agricultural subsidies, an issue which continues to plague the ongoing Doha Round of WTO negotiations. Ongoing disputes over subsidies that violate existing WTO rules have led to the largest amount of authorized retaliation in GATT/WTO history. Yet the internat...

  10. Culture as a Determinant of Competitive Advantage in Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dekuwmini Mornah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Culture plays a role in international trade much as it does in any other human activity. Attitudes and ways of life do matter even when a lucrative business opportunity exists, especially across national borders. This paper examines which aspects of culture give countries competitive edge in terms of bilateral trade performances. Specifically, do relatively higher scores in certain cultural dimensions have a deterministic effect on bilateral trade performance (terms of trade or bilateral trade balance? Methodology: We adopt empirical econometric estimation methods on trade data covering 59 countries and 29 years combined with the nine "Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE" culture dimensions, Our estimations were based on Robust Regression Analysis and Ordinary Least Squares methods. Findings: We find that indeed, certain aspects of culture enhance bilateral trade performance/competitiveness. Performance Orientation, Future Orientation, Institutional Collectivism, Gender Egalitarianism, Power Distance and Uncertainty Avoidance improve bilateral trade performance while Assertiveness, Humane Orientation and In-Group Collectivism impair it. Research limitations: Direct measures of international competitiveness are not readily available. So we had to adopt proxies for measuring international competitiveness. Implications: Many countries want to boost international competitiveness. However, in the current world order with multilateral trade agreements under the WTO and increased transferability of technology, governments are clipped in terms of available trade policy options. By understanding which aspects of culture promote bilateral competitiveness and performance, governments could take steps to maximize their competitiveness. For instance, when negotiating trade treaties, policy makers may benefit from the knowledge of culture's impact on competitive advantage when selecting partners. Originality/value: To

  11. Free trade or just trade? The world trade organisation, human rights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The author critically examines the role of the World Trade Organisation (WTO). In recent years, it is noted, the organisation's agenda of trade liberalisation, its perceived lack of accountability and insensitivity to human rights have attracted intense criticism. It has been asserted that provisions of WTO agreements concerning ...

  12. Insider trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslechko, W.S.

    1998-01-01

    The policy arguments for and against prohibiting insider trading within the petroleum industry are discussed. Legal definitions of all relevant terms (e.g. 'special relationship' 'tippees', 'material facts', material changes' 'generally disclosed' information', 'necessary course of business') are provided. Enforcement of insider trading/tipping prohibitions are also defined. The recommended practice is: do not trade; do not tell or advise; encourage timely disclosure; do not speculate; implement a corporate disclosure and trading policy

  13. Energy trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glachant, J.M.; Kimman, R.; Schweickardt, H.E.

    2001-05-01

    This document brings together 18 testimonies of experts about energy trading: 1 - the energy trading experience on European deregulated markets: structure of deregulated energy markets in Europe, case study: a two years experience of a power exchange in western Europe, case study: European energy exchanges (experience of spot and future trading), case study: risk management on energy deregulated markets; 2 - the trading activity environment and realities in France: the French electrical law and the purchase for resale, experience feedback: status after 3 months of trading in France (the first experience of a French producer), the access to the power transportation network, which legal constraints for trading in France, the access of eligible clients to the French power market, conditions of implementation of a power exchange market in France, which real trading possibilities in France for producers and self-producers in the legal frame, case study: the role of trading in the company (main part or link to process), convergence of gas and electricity markets, gas-electricity trading: which pricing models; 3 - risk management and use of new technologies potentiality, the results outside the French borders: case study: what differences between the European and US markets, prices volatility and commodity risk management: towards the on-line trading, role and developments of E-business in energy trading, how to simplify trade in a liberalized market. (J.S.)

  14. Honey and honey-based sugars partially affect reproductive trade-offs in parasitoids exhibiting different life-history and reproductive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Jeffrey A; Essens, Tijl A; Las, Rutger A; van Veen, Cindy; Visser, Bertanne; Ellers, Jacintha; Heinen, Robin; Gols, Rieta

    2017-04-01

    Adult dietary regimes in insects may affect egg production, fecundity and ultimately fitness. This is especially relevant in parasitoid wasps where many species serve as important biological control agents of agricultural pests. Here, we tested the effect of honey and sugar diets on daily fecundity schedules, lifetime reproductive success and longevity in four species of parasitoid wasps when reared on their respective hosts. The parasitoid species were selected based on dichotomies in host usage strategies and reproductive traits. Gelis agilis and G. areator are idiobiont ecto-parasitoids that develop in non-growing hosts, feed on protein-rich host fluids to maximize reproduction as adults and produce small numbers of large eggs. Meteorus pulchricornis and Microplitis mediator are koinobiont endoparasitoids that develop inside the bodies of growing hosts, do not host-feed, and produce greater numbers of small eggs. Parasitoids were reared on diets of either pure honey (containing trace amounts of proteins), heated honey (with denatured proteins) and a honey-mimic containing sugars only. We hypothesized that the benefits of proteins in honey would enhance reproduction in the ectoparasitoids due to their high metabolic investment per egg, but not in the koinobionts. Pure honey diet resulted in higher lifetime fecundity in G. agilis compared with the honey-mimic, whereas in both koinobionts, reproductive success did not vary significantly with diet. Longevity was less affected by diet in all of the parasitoids, although there were variable trade-offs between host access and longevity in the four species. We argue that there are both trait-based and association-specific effects of supplementary nutrients in honey on reproductive investment and success in parasitoid wasps. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. North American trade growth continued in 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Trade between the United States and its North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) partnersCanada and Mexicohas more than doubled in dollar value since the inception of NAFTA in 1994. In 2007, U.S. trade with Canada and Mexico reached $909 bil...

  16. 78 FR 30729 - World Trade Week, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... ways we can do that is by boosting manufacturing and expanding trade that allows us to sell more of our..., high-standard trade agreement: the Trans-Pacific Partnership. Once realized, the deal would boost our... creates jobs and grows our economy. During World Trade Week, we recognize workers, growers, and...

  17. 7 CFR 987.11 - Trade demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trade demand. 987.11 Section 987.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 987.11 Trade demand. Trade demand means...

  18. 7 CFR 981.21 - Trade demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trade demand. 981.21 Section 981.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.21 Trade demand. Trade demand means the quantity of almonds...

  19. 78 FR 21364 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... the trade between Vietnam, China (including Hong Kong), Singapore, Spain, and Sri Lanka, on the one... Line Space Charter, Sailing and Cooperative Working Agreement Asia to USEC and PNW-Suez/PNW & Panama...

  20. 76 FR 64944 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ..., DC 20006-4007. Synopsis: The amendment would delete Venezuela from the geographic scope of the... slots in the trades between Vietnam, China, and the United States. Agreement No.: 201165-001. Title...

  1. 75 FR 366 - Notice of Agreement Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ...) 523-5793 or [email protected] . Agreement No.: 012088. Title: Hanjin and WHS Transpacific Vessel... vessel space in the trade between the U.S. ports and ports in Malaysia, Vietnam, Japan, Korea, People's...

  2. THE EU’S NEIGHBOURHOOD TRADE ARRANGEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila BORTA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The elusive outcome of the Doha Round has increased the importance of the preferential trade agreements worldwide. Currently, the EU`s trade policy is driven by preferential negotiations. European bilateralism is important and extremely challenging. This union aims to conclude a significant number of deep and comprehensive free trade agreements, particularly by eliminating tariffs, and also by facilitating the trade of services, investments, procurement and regulatory matters. The EU has granted unilateral preferences to developing countries through tariff free access to the EU market, thereby helping them to eradicate poverty and promote sustainable development. Based on the primary motives of Europe’s preferential trade agreements, we have analysed the trade agreements negotiated with geographically close neighbours to which the EU is prepared to offer commercial accession or some slightly less ambitious type of relationship.

  3. Climate change policy and international trade. Policy considerations in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Christopher L.; Peters, Glen P.

    2009-01-01

    Significant recent attention, in both research and policy realms, has been given to the intersection of international trade and global climate change. Trade presents challenges to climate policy through carbon leakage and competitiveness concerns, but also potential solutions through the use of cooperative trade agreements, technology transfer, or carbon tariffs against recalcitrant nations. This study examines how trade may affect climate policy in the US and specifically examines the use of carbon tariffs as suggested by recent bills before the US Congress. We argue that even if such actions are legal at the World Trade Organization, they are probably not necessary to protect industrial competitiveness in the traditional sense, could cover only a small proportion of total embodied emissions in trade, and may in fact be counterproductive at a moment when global cooperation is desperately needed. While political agreement may necessitate at least the threat of carbon tariffs, cooperative agreements such as global sectoral agreements, technology sharing, etc. could be more productive in the short term. (author)

  4. The Algerian Foreign Trade between the Multilateral Trading System and the Regionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khayreddine Belaaze

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This contribution aims at highlighting a major challenge facing global trade and trade in developing countries. Indeed, regional and preferential trade agreements are now more than ever inconsistent and incoherent and one of the principles of the World Trade Organization, the clause of the most favored nation requiring eliminated all forms of discrimination between trading parties, but what we see in regional trade agreements that the preferential tariffs based on a principle of discrimination. All regional trade agreements granting preferential tariffs between member countries, these preferences do not include the remains of non-member countries (rest of world. On the other hand, preferential tariffs are lower than MFN rates. Meanwhile, the number of regional agreements has doubled since 1995 date creation of the WTO, and Algeria like other developing countries considered one of countries which have not benefit a lot from this situation.

  5. 77 FR 13604 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ...: Maersk Line/New World Alliance Slot Exchange Agreement. Parties: A.P. Moller-Maersk A/S trading under the... exchange space on their respective services in the trade between the U.S. Atlantic Coast and ports in Panama, the United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands and Mediterranean ports in France, Italy and Spain...

  6. Agreement on Agriculture in the Uruguay Round of GATT, The

    OpenAIRE

    Zuhair A. Hassan

    1994-01-01

    The Uruguay Round is the eighth round of multilateral trade negotiations (MTN) under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). The previous seven rounds produced significant reductions in tariffs on manufactured goods, but little or no progress was made in opening international markets for agricultural trade (see Appendix A0. However, the distortions in international agricultural trade and domestic agricultural production and the increasing budgetary outlays prompted trade ministers ...

  7. What Prospects for the World Trading System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Ghibuțiu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available New developments and dramatic changes are under way in the world trading system. This paper aims to take stock of the latest and most relevant developments and highlight the prospects for global trade governance. The focus is on three major issues, i.e. : (1 the outcome of the Ninth WTO Ministerial Conference in December 2013 in Bali (Indonesia and especially its significance for enhancing the multilateral trading system; (2 the accelerated pace and scale of negotiations on regional trade agreements (RTAs and their wider impact; and (3 the positive results of continued unilateral trade liberalization efforts, in contrast with the pervasiveness of crisis-related protectionist measures. The paper concludes that, despite improved prospects for multilateral trade liberalization following the last WTO Ministerial Conference, the world trading system is becoming more fragmented and less coherent, and also more uncertain, being increasingly driven by RTAs and a variable geometry approach to WTO trade agreements.

  8. Trade networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    To date, most of the literature on trade networks in West Africa has considered networks in a metaphorical way. The aim of this paper is to go one step further by showing how social network analysis may be applied to the study of regional trade in West Africa. After a brief review of the literature......, this exploratory paper investigates two main issues related to regional trade. We start by discussing how recent developments in regional trade in West Africa have contributed to challenging the social structure of traders. We then discuss the changes that have affected the spatiality of regional trade by looking...

  9. The World Trade Organization and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, P.K.

    2000-09-01

    This book explains the role and limitations of liberalized international trade on the global environment and sustainable development. A distinguishing feature of this book is an integration of trade, environment and development perspectives for operationally meaningful policy purposes. The topics explored include an analysis of the global trade regimes, their interrelationships with the existing multilateral environmental agreements, institutional mechanisms governed by the World Trade Organization, and a framework for pragmatic reforms. (author)

  10. World Trade Organization activity for health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Clémence

    2012-01-01

    Since the establishment of a multilateral trading system and the increasing mobility of professionals and consumers of health services, it seems strongly necessary that the World Trade Organization (WTO) undertakes negotiations within the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), and that WTO's members attempt to reach commitments for health-related trade in services. How important is the GATS for health policy and how does the GATS refer to health services? What are the current negotiations and member's commitments?

  11. Energy trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmann, K.; Schroeter, S.

    2009-01-01

    Two brief articles and two interviews deal with the subject of energy trading. Power and gas exchanges in Europe multiply, but, experts say, we are nowhere near a mature, integrated European energy market as yet. Trading regulations need to be improved and harmonised and interconnections expanded. European Energy Review assesses the state of energy trading in Europe and interviews the ceo's of NordPool (the Nordic power exchange) and APX (Amsterdam Power Exchange)

  12. Economic growth: trade, public finance, and the paradox of thrift

    OpenAIRE

    John Smithin

    2014-01-01

    The classical argument for free trade stressed the possibilities of economic growth by exploiting the gains from trade. A trade surplus per se was not the main objective; presumably the argument was that trade would be balanced at the new higher growth rate. Moreover, the arguments for free trade were made against the background of an assumed hard peg (the gold standard) which would enforce balance of payments equilibrium. This means that contemporary free trade agreements (FTAs), with floati...

  13. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  14. Multilateral and bilateral agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koponen, H.

    1993-01-01

    Finland has made both multilateral and bilateral agreements on the exchange of information related to radiation safety. The first arrangements for international agreements and exchange of information were made after the Chernobyl accident. In 1987, Finland joined the convention on early notification of a nuclear power accident coordinated by International Atomic Energy Agency. The convention is applied to accidents that cause of may cause emissions of radioactive substances that might affect the radiation safety of another country. Besides the convention on early notification, some other individual agreements have also been made. These include the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) system and power companies own information exchange systems. Finland has conducted bilateral agreements with the Nordic countries and the Soviet Union on the notification of accidents and exchange of nuclear power plant information. Today, Russia answers for the Soviet Union's contractual obligations. (orig.)

  15. Unilateral Measures addressing Non-Trade Concerns. A Study on WTO Consistency, Relevance of other International Agreements, Economic Effectiveness and Impact on Developing Countries of Measures concerning Non-Product-Related Processes and Production Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Bossche, P.; Schrijver, N.; Faber, G.

    2007-01-01

    Over the last two years, the debate in the Netherlands on trade measures addressing non-trade concerns has focused on two important and politically sensitive issues, namely: (1) the sustainability of the large-scale production of biomass as an alternative source of energy; and (2) the production of livestock products in a manner that is consistent with animal welfare requirements. In February 2007 a report was issued on the 'Toetsingskader voor Duurzame Biomassa', the so-called Cramer Report. This report discusses the risks associated with large-scale biomass production and establishes a list of criteria for the sustainable production of biomass. These criteria reflect a broad range of non-trade concerns, including environmental protection, global warming, food security, biodiversity, economic prosperity and social welfare. The report recognizes that the implementation of the criteria (including the establishment of a certification system) will require careful consideration of the obligations of the Netherlands under EU and WTO law. Governments called upon to address non-trade concerns may do so by using different types of measures. Prominent among these are measures concerning processes and production methods of products. In the present study, these issues are examined primarily with regard to existing, proposed or still purely hypothetical measures for implementing the Cramer criteria for the sustainable production of biomass. Several other, non-energy-related issues are discussed in this report

  16. International nuclear trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biad, A.; Cormis, F. de; Kerever, A.

    1998-01-01

    This third part is relative to the international nuclear trade it includes: the 1996 EURATOM/Usa Agreement on the peaceful Uses of nuclear energy: EURATOM Strengthened, a case study on IVO Power engineering Oy as a supplier to Russia, lessons learned from the Us/EURATOM Agreement for Cooperation, negotiating the parameters of nuclear regulation: lessons from South Africa, Good and new business in Brazil's nuclear energy field, cooperation between Russia and european union in the nuclear field: the legal basis, present status and future prospects, the industrial implications of the non proliferation policy. (N.C.)

  17. Emissions Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Backhaus, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Emissions trading is a market-based instrument to achieve environmental targets in a cost-effective way by allowing legal entities to buy and sell emission rights. The current international dissemination and intended linking of emissions trading schemes underlines the growing relevance of this

  18. Organ Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.E. Ambagtsheer (Frederike)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractOrgan trade constitutes the sale and purchase of organs for financial or material gain. Although prohibited since the 1980s, an increasing number of reports indicate its proliferation across the globe. Yet, many knowledge gaps exist on organ trade, in particular on the demand -and

  19. 48 CFR 25.406 - Israeli Trade Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Israeli Trade Act. 25.406... PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 25.406 Israeli Trade Act. Acquisitions of supplies by most agencies are covered by the Israeli Trade Act, if the estimated value of the acquisition is $50,000 or more...

  20. 48 CFR 25.405 - Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Initiative. 25.405 Section 25.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 25.405 Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative. Under the Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative, the United States Trade Representative has determined that, for...

  1. 75 FR 40837 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... filing of the following agreements under the Shipping Act of 1984. Interested parties may submit comments... & Construction Co., Ltd. and Discovery Sun Partnership Space Agreement. Parties: Discovery Sun Partnership and... Discovery Sun Partnership to provide space to Tropical Shipping & Construction Co., Ltd. in the trade...

  2. The Development Standard Agreement Influences on National and International Business Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindawati Cindawati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly growing business traffic either nationally or internationally forces the business practices to establish a standard agreement to secure the products and to protect the buyer from any risks. The standard agreement successfully meets the demand of international trade which urgently need the high speed and the accuracy. The objective of this research is to find out how does the development of agreement affect to the commerce practices and what are the requirements of standard agreement in accordance with the right and obligation. A qualitative method is applied in searching data of business practices. This study uses a normative research which guides the rule of law or determines some business standards and norms. The finding of this study show that the development of agreement strongly affects to the commerce practices, and standar agreement is urgently needed by business practices as a guideline to perform business traffic as smooth as buyer and seller expect, then both seller and buyer should know the three alternative way used as the procedures of standard agreement, namely; contract signing, notification document agreement, and notification by bulletin board. At last, a standard agreement could be accepted as legal agreement corresponding to willingness and trustworthy.

  3. Sustainable Production and Trade Discrimination: An Analysis of the WTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra Calle Saldarriaga

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to examine the legality of trade measures addressing environmental conditions of production (PPMs in the context of non-discrimination provisions under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT  and the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT Agreement.  It shows that the notion of de facto discrimination is still a sensitive subject in the analysis of origin-neutral measures, including those based on environmental PPMs. Much of the discussion regarding PPMs focuses on the issue of ‘like products’. The interpretation of ‘likeness’ has also served to classify PPMs into the two categories of product related and non-product related. Such distinction rests on how the PPM affects the final product. However, it is important to analyse to what extent these measures can accord less favourable treatment to like products. The author argues that this requires a competition analysis. This article also elucidates how depending upon the applicable law (the TBT Agreement or the GATT PPMs are likely to face different legal challenges, particularly in terms of less favourable treatment. The author also assesses the possibility of transposing concepts such as ‘legitimate regulatory distinctions’ stemming from the TBT jurisprudence into GATT cases involving PPMs, and whether there will be an additional ‘test’ for PPMs characterised as TBT measures. This article is based on an extensive literature review and doctrinal legal research

  4. Trade policy and obesity prevention: challenges and innovation in the Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, W; Thow, A M

    2013-11-01

    The Pacific Island countries experience some of the highest rates of obesity in the world in part due to substantial dietary changes that mirror changes in the food supply in the region. Economic and political ties, donor aid, and trade links are key drivers of the changing availability and accessibility of processed and imported foods. Pacific Island countries have been innovative in developing trade-related policy approaches to create a less obesogenic food environment. Taxation-based approaches that affect pricing in the region include increased import and excise tariffs on sugared beverages and other high-sugar products, monosodium glutamate, and palm oil and lowered tariffs on fruits and vegetables. Other approaches highlight some higher-fat products through labeling and controlling the supply of high-fat meats. The bans on high-fat turkey tails and mutton flaps highlight the politics, trade agreements and donor influences that can be significant barriers to the pursuit of policy options. Countries that are not signatories to trade agreements may have more policy space for innovative action. However, potential effectiveness and practicality require consideration. The health sector's active engagement in the negotiation of trade agreements is a key way to support healthier trade in the region. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  5. ASEAN - China Free Trade Area : A quantitative study of Trade diversion and Trade creation effects on ASEAN - China trade flows

    OpenAIRE

    Duong Xuan, Vinh

    2011-01-01

    The Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) and China have a long history of trading with each other. They are economic partners as well as competitors for many years. In order to push their economic relationship to a higher level, in November 2002, ASEAN and China signed the initial framework agreement, determined on establishing the ASEAN - China Free Trade Area (ACFTA) among the eleven countries by 2010 for the ASEAN-6 (Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand)...

  6. The Return of the Cultural Exception and its Impact on International Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Bartsch

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the influence of the French concept of the “cultural exception” on European media policy and international agreements. After briefly reviewing the historical background of the cultural exception in France, the essay describes how demands for the cultural exception and those for diversity affect inter-/transnational agreements within the European Union and around the world. Special focus is placed on the current secret EU/US Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership Agreement (TTIP negotiations that nearly failed because of France’s insistence that media and culture be exempted. The author argues that the concept of the “cultural exception” has been revived in recent years. However, due to the dual character of media (which is both a cultural and economic good, and the lack of a global media policy, the culture and trade debate will continue.

  7. Assessing the potential for Gulf Coast NAFTA maritime trade corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was enacted in 1994 with the expressed intent of : reducing barriers to trade. Since that time, however, transborder congestion and delays between the United : States (US) and Mexico threaten achievemen...

  8. [An Investigation of Factors Associated with Emotional Exhaustion among Hospital Nurses: Adherence to "Maternal Affection" and Agreement with Stereotypical Gender Roles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Rei; Nomura, Kyoko; Hiraike, Haruko; Murakami, Aya; Tanabe, Ayumi; Tsuchiya, Akiko; Okinaga, Hiroko

    2018-01-01

    To investigate factors including adherence to "maternal affection" and stereotypical gender roles associated with emotional exhaustion among hospital nurses. In 2014, among 2,690 workers recruited for this study, 891 participated with written informed consent. Of these, we investigated 464 hospital nurses. Adherence to maternal affection and emotional exhaustion were measured using valid and reliable scales developed by Egami (2005, 12 items) and Kubo (1992, 5 items), respectively. Stereotypical gender role was measured by asking "how much do you agree with the idea that women should stay home and men should work?". Workfamily conflict was measured in terms of the discrepancy in priority in life (i.e., a work or a private life) between the participant's ideal and the real world. The majority of our participants were women (86%), aged 39 or younger (80%), and single (70%). About one-quarter had workfamily conflict (26%) and agreed with the stereotypical gender role (28%). The mean scores of emotional exhaustion and adherence to maternal affection were 17.2 (out of 25) and 30.8 (out of 48), respectively. A stepwise multivariable model showed that being a woman (p=0.028), being young (p=0.022), being single (p=0.007), and having workfamily conflict (pgender role were not significantly associated with emotional exhaustion. This study demonstrated that adherence to "maternal affection" and stereotypical gender roles were not associated with psychological burnout. Special attention should be paid to hospital nurses who are women, young, or single, or who have workfamily conflict.

  9. Foreign Trade

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Foreign Trade database has monthly volume and value information for US imports, exports, and re-exports of fishery or fishery derived products. Data is...

  10. World Trade Organization: U.S. Experience in Dispute Settlement System: The First Five Years

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    ... of multilateral trade rules. In addition, the Uruguay Round agreements established a new dispute settlement system, replacing that under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, the predecessor to the WTO...

  11. Physicians and Insider Trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselheim, Aaron S; Sinha, Michael S; Joffe, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Although insider trading is illegal, recent high-profile cases have involved physicians and scientists who are part of corporate governance or who have access to information about clinical trials of investigational products. Insider trading occurs when a person in possession of information that might affect the share price of a company's stock uses that information to buy or sell securities--or supplies that information to others who buy or sell--when the person is expected to keep such information confidential. The input that physicians and scientists provide to business leaders can serve legitimate social functions, but insider trading threatens to undermine any positive outcomes of these relationships. We review insider-trading rules and consider approaches to securities fraud in the health care field. Given the magnitude of the potential financial rewards, the ease of concealing illegal conduct, and the absence of identifiable victims, the temptation for physicians and scientists to engage in insider trading will always be present. Minimizing the occurrence of insider trading will require robust education, strictly enforced contractual provisions, and selective prohibitions against high-risk conduct, such as participation in expert consulting networks and online physician forums, by those individuals with access to valuable inside information.

  12. INTERACTION OF TRADE AND FINANCIAL LINKAGES IN THE FREE TRADE ZONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shevchenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Different models of free trade agreements (FTA and free trade zones (FTZ are considered in the article, argued the complex approach to their structures and results under unstable global economic environment. The typology of the free trade zones models and financial linkages types between countries have been developed. Approaches to the results of the free trade zones have been argued. It has been discovered that for the free trade zones of transitional countries the prevailing are tarde flows concentration whereas financial and investment linkages are acting with developed countries. The main directions of increasing of the financial linkages results in the free trade zones have been discovered.

  13. Trade Integration Effects in ASEAN Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Valeryevna Dyomina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines evolution of trade integration process in ASEAN. The author employs three methods in order to evaluate the degree of ASEAN‘s trade integration that has been achieved over two decades since the signing of the Association of South-East Asian Nations Free Trade Area Agreement (AFTA in 1992. The high degree of trade integration among member states allows moving to the next stage of international economic integration (ASEAN countries are going to form ASEAN Community (the Common Market by the 1st of January 2016. So the study assesses the ASEAN’s preparedness to the Common Market by determining the share of mutual (intraregional trade, regional trade intensity index (RTII and trade integration effects (trade creation and trade diversion effects for each member state, 2 groups of ASEAN countries (ASEAN-6 and ASEAN-4 and the Association as a whole. The paper shows that despite the increase in the share of intraregional trade during the years of the AFTA functioning, the member states of ASEAN still demonstrate low levels of trade integration: a 75% of the Association’s external trade focuses on extra regional partners; b ASEAN as a whole has the low volume of RTII and among its member states only Singapore has the high one; c trade diversion effect prevails over trade creation one

  14. Multilateral agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    I. Status of conventions in the field of nuclear energy as of December 2012: Non-proliferation and nuclear security (Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty); Nuclear safety and emergency response (Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency, Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident, Convention on Nuclear Safety, Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management); Liability and compensation for nuclear damage (Paris Convention on Nuclear Third Party Liability, Brussels Supplementary Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, Protocol to Amend the Paris Convention on Nuclear Third Party Liability, Protocol to Amend the Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention, Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, Joint Protocol relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention, Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage). II. Status of conventions in the field of environmental protection/assessment which affect nuclear energy use as of December 2012: Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters (Aarhus Convention), Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context (Espoo Convention), Protocol on Strategic Environmental Assessment (Kiev Protocol), Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR). III. OECD member country participation in the nuclear energy treaties/conventions and in the

  15. Making it work: Kyoto, trade and politics : Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urquhar, I.

    2002-11-01

    In this document, the author examines the constraints that would be placed on policy makers in the event of the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol, and how it would affect trade agreements and federalism in Canada. A description of the Protocol and the concessions (carbon sinks and international emissions trading) gained by Canada are presented at the beginning of the document. The author offers several conclusions that could disturb both proponents and opponents of the Kyoto Protocol. It is said that the implementation of Kyoto can take a route other than that of drastic domestic emissions reductions, and this position is explored in the second section. The author indicates that corporate competitiveness could be boosted by strict environmental regulations. A range of policies that could be adopted by Canada, as proposed by numerous organizations, are highlighted in the third section of the document. The point of the World Trade Organization and the constraints imposed are not necessarily preventing all types of actions. However, the author is of the opinion that the North America Free Trade Agreement represents a real threat to the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. Finally, it is indicated that Canada requires a national electricity policy, where big hydro utilities and public investment have major roles to play.

  16. Multilateral agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    I. Status of treaties and conventions in the field of nuclear energy as of November 2013: Non-proliferation and nuclear security (Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty); Nuclear safety and emergency response (Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency, Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident, Convention on Nuclear Safety, Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management); Liability and compensation for nuclear damage (Paris Convention on Nuclear Third Party Liability, Brussels Supplementary Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, Protocol to Amend the Paris Convention on Nuclear Third Party Liability, Protocol to Amend the Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention, Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, Joint Protocol relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention); Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage; II. Status of conventions in the field of environmental protection/assessment which affect nuclear energy use as of December 2011: Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters - Aarhus Convention (Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context (Espoo Convention), Protocol on Strategic Environmental Assessment to the Espoo Convention (Kiev Protocol), Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR)); III. Participation in the nuclear energy treaties

  17. ETHIOPIA'S ACCESSION TO THE WORLD TRADE ORGANISATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    which could be relevant to Ethiopia to devise successful strategies and avoid ... Acronyms. GATS General Agreement on Trade in Services .... services; v. preparation of indigenous traditional medicines; vi. ..... Tourism/ travel services. 66.73.

  18. 77 FR 31151 - World Trade Week, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... entrepreneurs, and productive workers, we have met a global demand for goods and services designed and produced... signed legislation to implement three trade agreements that will make it easier for American companies...

  19. Managing the trade-public health linkage in defence of trade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Managing the trade-public health linkage in defence of trade liberalisation and ... of United States-measures affecting the production and sale of clove cigarettes. ... Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad.

  20. INNOVATIONS OF THE TRADE MARKETING IN LATVIA

    OpenAIRE

    Spīča, Inese; Spīčs, Ernests

    2010-01-01

    In the rapidly changing environment contemporary marketing activities affects educational programms. The paper analyze the marketing and sales current events in Latvia. In this paper given a substantive explanation of trade marketing and trade marketing development opportunities for Latvia, trade marketing new development areas and to clarify their learning opportunities in Latvia.

  1. International Trade and Labor Market Discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Chisik (Richard); J.E. Namini (Julian Emami)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe embed a competitive search model with labor market discrimination, or nepotism, into a two-sector, two-country framework in order to analyze how labor market discrimination impacts the pattern of international trade and also how trade trade affects discrimination. Discrimination, or

  2. Pacific Rim log trade: determinants and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald F. Flora; Andrea L. Anderson; Wendy J. McGinnls

    1991-01-01

    Pacific Rim trade in softwood logs amounts to about $3 billion annually, of which the U.S. share is about $2 billion. Log exporting is a significant part of the forest economy in the Pacific Northwest. The 10 major Pacific Rim log-trading client and competitor countries differ widely in their roles in trade and in their policies affecting the industry.

  3. International trade and climate change policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brack, D.; Grubb, M.; Windram, C.

    2000-01-01

    Can the World Trade Organisation deal with climate change? Can a world of liberalised trade implement the Kyoto Protocol? As trade and environment head for a global collision, this book provides an essential guide to one of the key confrontations. It analyzes the conflicts now intensifying. How will climate change policies, including energy and carbon taxation and the removal of energy subsidies, affect overall trade structures and volumes? Will countries tackling climate change become less competitive? What of taxing international aviation and marine fuels? Will the 'flexibility mechanisms' of the Kyoto Protocol, such as emissions trading, fall under WTO disciplines? Can trade restrictions be applied to enforce the Kyoto Protocol? (Author)

  4. 7 CFR 984.22 - Trade demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trade demand. 984.22 Section 984.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.22 Trade demand. (a) Inshell. The quantity of merchantable inshell...

  5. Modelling trading networks and the role of trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrio, Rafael A.; Govezensky, Tzipe; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Élfego; Kaski, Kimmo K.

    2017-04-01

    We present a simple dynamical model for describing trading interactions between agents in a social network by considering only two dynamical variables, namely money and goods or services, that are assumed conserved over the whole time span of the agents' trading transactions. A key feature of the model is that agent-to-agent transactions are governed by the price in units of money per goods, which is dynamically changing, and by a trust variable, which is related to the trading history of each agent. All agents are able to sell or buy, and the decision to do either has to do with the level of trust the buyer has in the seller, the price of the goods and the amount of money and goods at the disposal of the buyer. Here we show the results of extensive numerical calculations under various initial conditions in a random network of agents and compare the results with the available related data. In most cases the agreement between the model results and real data turns out to be fairly good, which allow us to draw some general conclusions as how different trading strategies could affect the distribution of wealth in different kinds of societies. Our calculations reveal the striking effects of trust in commercial relations, namely that trust makes trading links more robust and the wealth distribution more even as well as allows for the existence of a healthy middle class.

  6. Construct validity and parent-child agreement of the six new or modified disorders included in the Spanish version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia present and Lifetime Version DSM-5 (K-SADS-PL-5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña, Francisco R; Rosetti, Marcos F; Rodríguez-Delgado, Andrés; Villavicencio, Lino R; Palacio, Juan D; Montiel, Cecilia; Mayer, Pablo A; Félix, Fernando J; Larraguibel, Marcela; Viola, Laura; Ortiz, Silvia; Fernández, Sofía; Jaímes, Aurora; Feria, Miriam; Sosa, Liz; Palacios-Cruz, Lino; Ulloa, Rosa E

    2018-06-01

    Changes to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fifth edition (DSM-5) incorporate the inclusion or modification of six disorders: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Social Anxiety Disorder, Intermittent Explosive Disorder, Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder, Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder and Binge Eating Disorder. The objectives of this study were to assess the construct validity and parent-child agreement of these six disorders in the Spanish language Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL-5) in a clinical population of children and adolescents from Latin America. The Spanish version of the K-SADS-PL was modified to integrate changes made to the DSM-5. Clinicians received training in the K-SADS-PL-5 and 90% agreement between raters was obtained. A total of 80 patients were recruited in four different countries in Latin America. All items from each of the six disorders were included in a factor analysis. Parent-child agreement was calculated for every item of the six disorders, including the effect of sex and age. The factor analysis revealed 6 factors separately grouping the items defining each of the new or modified disorders, with Eigenvalues greater than 2. Very good parent-child agreements (r>0.8) were found for the large majority of the items (93%), even when considering the sex or age of the patient. This independent grouping of disorders suggests that the manner in which the disorders were included into the K-SADS-PL-5 reflects robustly the DSM-5 constructs and displayed a significant inter-informant reliability. These findings support the use of K-SADS-PL-5 as a clinical and research tool to evaluate these new or modified diagnoses. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Has airline efficiency affected by the inclusion of aviation into European Union Emission Trading Scheme? Evidences from 22 airlines during 2008–2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ye; Wang, Yan-zhang; Cui, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the impacts of including aviation into European Union Emission Trading Scheme on airline efficiency since 2008. Airline efficiency is divided into three stages: Operations Stage, Services Stage and Sales Stage, and Greenhouse Gases Emission is treated as an undesirable output of Services Stage. Two models, Network Slacks-Based Measure with weak disposability and Network Slacks-Based Measure with strong disposability, are established to evaluate the efficiencies of 22 international airlines from 2008 to 2012. The results show that: (1) Most airlines' efficiencies have increased in the period. (2) The average efficiency of European airlines is much higher than that of non-European airlines. (3) The model with weak disposability is more reasonable in distinguishing the airline efficiency while strong disposability is a more reasonable way in treating undesirable outputs. - Highlights: • A new theoretical model of airlines efficiency is built. • Network Slacks-Based Measure models with weak disposability and strong disposability are proposed. • The efficiencies of 22 airlines from 2008 to 2012 are evaluated. • The impacts of including airlines into European Union Emission Trading Scheme are analyzed.

  8. Global Agricultural Trade and Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Aksoy, M. Ataman; Beghin, John C.

    2005-01-01

    Global Agricultural Trade and Developing Countries explores the outstanding issues in global agricultural trade policy and evolving world production and trade patterns. This book presents research findings based on a series of commodity studies of significant economic importance to developing countries. Setting the stage with background chapters and investigations of cross-cutting issues, the authors describe trade and domestic policy regimes affecting agricultural and food markets and analyz...

  9. Does AFTA Create More Trade for Thailand? An Investigation of Some Key Trade Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piriya Pholphirul

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines whether the ASEAN Free Trade Agreement (AFTA creates trade for Thailand or actually diverts it away from the country. It does this by analyzing various trade indicators: the Export Similarity Index, the Intra-Industry Trade Index, and Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA rank correlation. By examining the patterns of trade between Thailand and other members of ASEAN, it reveals a high degree of similarity regarding the trade structure between Thailand and AFTA, which indicates that there will be fewer trade-creation benefits from AFTA and a greater likelihood of trade diversion once the AFTA scheme has been fully implemented. This similarity pattern explains the reasons for future collaboration among member countries and supportive arguments for the future extension of ASEAN ("ASEAN+". Market-penetration and development strategies should be employed by Thai exporters when accessing the ASEAN market.

  10. Does a trade-off between current reproductive success and survival affect the honesty of male signalling in species with male parental care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, N B; Alonzo, S H

    2010-11-01

    Recent theory predicted that male advertisement will reliably signal investment in paternal care in species where offspring survival requires paternal care and males allocate resources between advertisement and care. However, the predicted relationship between care and advertisement depended on the marginal gains from investment in current reproductive traits. Life history theory suggests that these fitness gains are also subject to a trade-off between current and future reproduction. Here, we investigate whether male signalling remains a reliable indicator of parental care when males allocate resources between current advertisement, paternal care and survival to future reproduction. We find that advertisement is predicted to remain a reliable signal of male care but that advertisement may cease to reliably indicate male quality because low-quality males are predicted to invest in current reproduction, whereas higher-quality males are able to invest in both current reproduction and survival to future reproduction. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  11. Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP: The Devil in Disguise or a Golden Opportunity to Build a Transatlantic Marketplace?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitschas Christian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU and the United States are currently negotiating a free-trade agreement, the so-called Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP. These negotiations have to be seen in perspective, since a number of other - bilateral and plurilateral - trade deals are being pursued at the same time. All these negotiations point to a worrisome aspect: the World Trade Organisation’s failure to come to a meaningful agreement in the Doha-round negotiations, in terms of market access, new rules and development. Like the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP, TTIP would stand out among the crowd of trade agreements because of the sheer volume of trade and investment flows across the Atlantic and the declared intention to boost regulatory cooperation and compatibility which is expected to bring the bulk of TTIP’s economic benefits. However, the prospect of concluding such a transatlantic agreement raises many concerns; the public in the European Union and the United States fears that TTIP could undermine existing levels of protection in areas such as health and the environment and impinge on either side’s “right to regulate”. Moreover, questions are being posed as to what TTIP would mean for the multilateral trading system and how it would affect third countries, especially developing countries. Against this backdrop, this article addresses the following issues in relation to TTIP: the vision underlying the negotiations; the European Commission’s negotiating mandate; the structure of the negotiations and their state of play; the Union’s competence for concluding TTIP and whether it is shared with EU Member States; and finally TTIP’s impact on the multilateral trading system and developing countries.

  12. Assessment the Impact of Asean Free Trade Area (AFTA on Exports of Indonesian Agricultural Commodity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heri Akhmadi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on investigation whether Indonesian membership on ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA increased export of agriculture commodity. The panel augmented gravity model data from 33 major partner countries over the period of 2000-2014 has been applied to analyze the factors affected Indonesian agricultural exports. The overall finding showed that Indonesian agricultural exports were positively correlated with the size of economy and partner countries population, while they are negatively correlated with the appreciation of currency exchange rate and the enrollment on free trade agreement. Moreover, the Indonesian membership on AFTA does not gave significant impact and profitable on Indonesian agricultural exports.

  13. Emissions trading and the climate change levy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connett, Richard

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the flexible mechanisms established in the Kyoto Protocol of the UN Framework on Climate Change focussing on the mechanism whereby countries achieving their target for reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases can trade their excess to countries having difficulty achieving their target. UK measures to meet their commitment, the UK government's proposed climate change levy on the use of energy, negotiated agreements, emissions trading, and the nature, supply and trading of permits are examined. Compatibility with international agreements and the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Directive, monitoring, and penalties are considered

  14. U.S. International Trade: Trends and Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-26

    Agreements: Impact on U.S. Trade and Implications for U.S. Trade Policy, by William H. Cooper;CRS Report RL32371, Trade Remedies: A Primer, by Vivian C...initial public offering of the Blackstone Group, a U.S. private equity group. Morgan Stanley research estimates that such sovereign wealth funds could

  15. Trade treaties and alcohol advertising policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Ellen

    2005-09-01

    Restrictions on alcohol advertising are vulnerable to challenge under international trade agreements. As countries negotiate new trade treaties and expand the scope of existing ones, the risk of such a challenge increases. While alcohol advertising restrictions normally do not distinguish between foreign and domestic products, this neutral character does not protect them from being challenged under trade rules. The article analyzes four provisions of trade agreements--expropriation, de facto discrimination, market access, and necessity--in relation to the jeopardy they pose for alcohol advertising restrictions. Key cases are reviewed to illustrate how these provisions have been used to either overturn existing advertising restrictions or prevent new ones from coming into force. The article also reports on the mixed results governments have had in trying to justify their regulations to trade panels and the stringent criteria imposed for proving that a regulation is "necessary."

  16. The implications of trade liberalization for diet and health: a case study from Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-07-28

    Central America has undergone extensive trade liberalization over the past two decades, and has recently signed a Free Trade Agreement with the United States. The region is also experiencing a dual burden of malnutrition with the growth of dietary patterns associated with the global 'nutrition transition'. This study describes the relationship between trade liberalization policies and food imports and availability, and draws implications for diet and health, using Central America as a case study region. Changes in tariff and non-tariff barriers for each country were documented, and compared with time-series graphs of import, production and availability data to show the outcome of changes in trade policy in relation to food imports and food availability. Changes in trade policy in Central America have directly affected food imports and availability via three avenues. First, the lowering of trade barriers has promoted availability by facilitating higher imports of a wide range of foods. Second, trade liberalization has affected food availability through promoting domestic meat production. Third, reductions in barriers to investment appear to be critical in expansion of processed food markets. This suggests that changes in trade policies have facilitated rising availability and consumption of meat, dairy products, processed foods and temperate (imported fruits) in Central America. This study indicates that the policies of trade liberalization in Central American countries over the past two decades, particularly in relation to the United States, have implications for health in the region. Specifically, they have been a factor in facilitating the "nutrition transition", which is associated with rising rates of obesity and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Given the significant cost of chronic disease for the health care system, individuals and the wider community, it is critical that preventive health measures address such upstream determinants

  17. The implications of trade liberalization for diet and health: a case study from Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawkes Corinna

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Central America has undergone extensive trade liberalization over the past two decades, and has recently signed a Free Trade Agreement with the United States. The region is also experiencing a dual burden of malnutrition with the growth of dietary patterns associated with the global 'nutrition transition'. This study describes the relationship between trade liberalization policies and food imports and availability, and draws implications for diet and health, using Central America as a case study region. Methods Changes in tariff and non-tariff barriers for each country were documented, and compared with time-series graphs of import, production and availability data to show the outcome of changes in trade policy in relation to food imports and food availability. Results Changes in trade policy in Central America have directly affected food imports and availability via three avenues. First, the lowering of trade barriers has promoted availability by facilitating higher imports of a wide range of foods. Second, trade liberalization has affected food availability through promoting domestic meat production. Third, reductions in barriers to investment appear to be critical in expansion of processed food markets. This suggests that changes in trade policies have facilitated rising availability and consumption of meat, dairy products, processed foods and temperate (imported fruits in Central America. Conclusion This study indicates that the policies of trade liberalization in Central American countries over the past two decades, particularly in relation to the United States, have implications for health in the region. Specifically, they have been a factor in facilitating the "nutrition transition", which is associated with rising rates of obesity and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Given the significant cost of chronic disease for the health care system, individuals and the wider community, it is critical

  18. Multilateral, regional and bilateral energy trade governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal-Arcas, Rafael; Grasso, Costantino; Rios, Juan Alemany (Queen Mary Univ. of London (United Kingdom))

    2014-12-01

    The current international energy trade governance system is fragmented and multi-layered. Streamlining it for greater legal cohesiveness and international political and economic cooperation would promote global energy security. The current article explores three levels of energy trade governance: multilateral, regional and bilateral. Most energy-rich countries are part of the multilateral trading system, which is institutionalized by the World Trade Organization (WTO). The article analyzes the multilateral energy trade governance system by focusing on the WTO and energy transportation issues. Regionally, the article focuses on five major regional agreements and their energy-related aspects and examines the various causes that explain the proliferation of regional trade agreements, their compatibility with WTO law, and then provides several examples of regional energy trade governance throughout the world. When it comes to bilateral energy trade governance, this article only addresses the European Union’s (EU) bilateral energy trade relations. The article explores ways in which gaps could be filled and overlaps eliminated whilst remaining true to the high-level normative framework, concentrating on those measures that would enhance EU energy security.

  19. Examination of forest products trade between Turkey and European ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The success of getting in the foreign trade forms one of the basic stones of economic development for countries. The current and potential trading volume among countries and determining the main factors affecting trade are quite important. The trade currents of the European Union (EU) countries and Turkey in the forest ...

  20. 78 FR 68444 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ...; Oceania Cruises; Paul Gauguin Cruises; Pearl Seas Cruises; Princess Cruises; Regent Seven Seas Cruises.... Agreement No.: 012232. Title: MSC/CMA CGM North West European Continent-US East Coast Service Space Charter... authorizes MSC to charter space to CMA CGM in the trade between the North West European Continent and the U.S...

  1. 76 FR 17653 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ...: CSCL/ELJSA Vessel Sharing Agreement-Asia and Mexico, US East Coast Service. Parties: China Shipping Container Lines Co., Ltd.; China Shipping Container Lines (Hong Kong) Co., Ltd.; and Evergreen Lines Joint... coordinate sailings in the trades between Japan, China, and the Pacific coast of the United States. By Order...

  2. 78 FR 53455 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    .... Parties: Zim Integrated Shipping Services, Ltd.; China Shipping Container Line Co., Ltd. and China Shipping Container Lines (Hong Kong) Co., Ltd. (acting as a single party). Filing Party: Mark E. Newcomb.... Synopsis: The agreement authorizes Hamburg Sud to charter space to Hapag-Lloyd in the trade between the U.S...

  3. The OECD Anti-Bribery Convention: Changing the Currents of Trade

    OpenAIRE

    D'Souza, Anna

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how criminalizing the act of bribing a foreign public official affects international trade flows using a watershed global anti-corruption initiative – the 1997 OECD Anti-Bribery Convention. This multilateral agreement criminalized foreign bribery (previously illegal only for U.S. firms) in countries that represent over 75% of world exports. I exploit temporal variation in the implementation of the Convention along with variation in the level of corruption of importing coun...

  4. Trade Liberalization and Organizational Change

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Conconi; Patrick Legros; Andrew F. Newman

    2008-01-01

    We embed a simple incomplete-contracts model of organization design in a standard two-country perfectly-competitive trade model to examine how the liberalization of product and factor markets affects the ownership structure of firms. In our model, managers decide whether or not to integrate their firms, trading off the pecuniary benefits of coordinating production decisions with the private benefits of operating in their preferred ways. The price of output is a crucial determinant of this cho...

  5. Trading stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied ...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  6. The Trading Potential of Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhen Kun; Winters, L. Alan

    1991-01-01

    This paper fits a gravity model to the trade of 76 market economies. It then applies the model to data on East European economies to estimate what their trading potential might have been, had behaved like market economies in the mid-1980s. At existing levels of national income, the liberalization of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union is unlikely to affect their mutual trade and trade with developing countries, but it will increase trade with industrial counties by factors of three to thirty....

  7. To Trade or Not to Trade: Firm-Level Analysis of Emissions Trading in Santiago, Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coria, Jessica; Loefgren, Aasa; Sterner, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Whether tradable permits are appropriate for use in transition and developing economies - given special social and cultural circumstances, such as the lack of institutions and lack of expertise with market-based policies - is much debated. We conducted interviews and surveyed a sample of firms subject to emissions trading programs in Santiago, Chile, one of the first cities outside the OECD that has implemented such trading. The information gathered allow us to study what factors affect the performance of the trading programs in practice and the challenges and advantages of applying tradable permits in less developed countries

  8. Anonymous electronic trading versus floor trading

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Günter; Hess, Dieter

    1995-01-01

    This paper compares the attractiveness of floor trading and anonymous electronic trading systems. It is argued that in times of low information intensity the insight into the order book of the electronic trading system provides more valuable information than floor trading, but in times of high information intensity the reverse is true. Thus, the electronic system's market share in trading activity should decline in times of high information intensity. This hypothesis is tested by data on BUND...

  9. Trading volume and the number of trades

    OpenAIRE

    Marwan Izzeldin

    2007-01-01

    Trading volume and the number of trades are both used as proxies for market activity, with disagreement as to which is the better proxy for market activity. This paper investigates this issue using high frequency data for Cisco and Intel in 1997. A number of econometric methods are used, including GARCH augmented with lagged trading volume and number of trades, tests based on moment restrictions, regression analysis of volatility on volume and trades, normality of returns when standardized by...

  10. Consequences of the trans-Atlantic slave trade on medicinal plant selection: plant use for cultural bound syndromes affecting children in Suriname and Western Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Vossen

    Full Text Available Folk perceptions of health and illness include cultural bound syndromes (CBS, ailments generally confined to certain cultural groups or geographic regions and often treated with medicinal plants. Our aim was to compare definitions and plant use for CBS regarding child health in the context of the largest migration in recent human history: the trans-Atlantic slave trade. We compared definitions of four CBS (walk early, evil eye, atita and fontanels and associated plant use among three Afro-Surinamese populations and their African ancestor groups in Ghana, Bénin and Gabon. We expected plant use to be similar on species level, and assumed the majority to be weedy or domesticated species, as these occur on both continents and were probably recognized by enslaved Africans. Data were obtained by identifying plants mentioned during interviews with local women from the six different populations. To analyse differences and similarities in plant use we used Detrended Component Analysis (DCA and a Wald Chi-square test. Definitions of the four cultural bound syndromes were roughly the same on both continents. In total, 324 plant species were used. There was little overlap between Suriname and Africa: 15 species were used on two continents, of which seven species were used for the same CBS. Correspondence on family level was much higher. Surinamese populations used significantly more weedy species than Africans, but equal percentages of domesticated plants. Our data indicate that Afro-Surinamers have searched for similar plants to treat their CBS as they remembered from Africa. In some cases, they have found the same species, but they had to reinvent the largest part of their herbal pharmacopeia to treat their CBS using known plant families or trying out new species. Ideas on health and illness appear to be more resilient than the use of plants to treat them.

  11. Consequences of the trans-Atlantic slave trade on medicinal plant selection: plant use for cultural bound syndromes affecting children in Suriname and Western Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossen, Tessa; Towns, Alexandra; Ruysschaert, Sofie; Quiroz, Diana; van Andel, Tinde

    2014-01-01

    Folk perceptions of health and illness include cultural bound syndromes (CBS), ailments generally confined to certain cultural groups or geographic regions and often treated with medicinal plants. Our aim was to compare definitions and plant use for CBS regarding child health in the context of the largest migration in recent human history: the trans-Atlantic slave trade. We compared definitions of four CBS (walk early, evil eye, atita and fontanels) and associated plant use among three Afro-Surinamese populations and their African ancestor groups in Ghana, Bénin and Gabon. We expected plant use to be similar on species level, and assumed the majority to be weedy or domesticated species, as these occur on both continents and were probably recognized by enslaved Africans. Data were obtained by identifying plants mentioned during interviews with local women from the six different populations. To analyse differences and similarities in plant use we used Detrended Component Analysis (DCA) and a Wald Chi-square test. Definitions of the four cultural bound syndromes were roughly the same on both continents. In total, 324 plant species were used. There was little overlap between Suriname and Africa: 15 species were used on two continents, of which seven species were used for the same CBS. Correspondence on family level was much higher. Surinamese populations used significantly more weedy species than Africans, but equal percentages of domesticated plants. Our data indicate that Afro-Surinamers have searched for similar plants to treat their CBS as they remembered from Africa. In some cases, they have found the same species, but they had to reinvent the largest part of their herbal pharmacopeia to treat their CBS using known plant families or trying out new species. Ideas on health and illness appear to be more resilient than the use of plants to treat them.

  12. Government Procurement : Market Access, Transparency, and Multilateral Trade Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Evenett, Simon J.; Hoekman, Bernard M.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examine the effects on national welfare and market access of two public procurement practices-discrimination against foreign suppliers of goods and services and nontransparency of the procedures used to allocate government contracts to firms. Both types of policies have become prominent in international trade negotiations, including the Doha Round of the World Trade Organization (WTO) trade talks. Traditionally, the focus of international trade agreements has been on market access...

  13. THE URUGUAY ROUND AGREEMENT ON AGRICULTURE: AN EVALUATION

    OpenAIRE

    Josling, Timothy E.; Honma, Masayoshi; Lee, Jaeok; MacLaren, Donald; Miner, William M.; Sumner, Daniel A.; Tangermann, Stefan; Valdes, Alberto

    1994-01-01

    Contact for this paper: Laura Bipes/University of Minnesota/Department of Applied Economics/ 1994 Buford Avenue./ St. Paul, MN 55108 USA. From the start, agriculture played a central role in the Uruguay Round of GATT trade negotiations. The Punta del Este Declaration called for a solution to the problems facing agricultural trade through modified trade rules and an agreement to lower protection levels. It was recognized that such an improvement implied negotiations on the national farm polici...

  14. Honey and honey-based sugars partially affect reproductive trade-offs in parasitoids exhibiting different life-history and reproductive strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, Jeffrey A.; Essens, Tijl A.; Las, Rutger A.; Veen, van Cindy; Visser, B.; Ellers, J.; Heinen, R.; Gols, R.

    2017-01-01

    Adult dietary regimes in insects may affect egg production, fecundity and ultimately fitness. This is especially relevant in parasitoid wasps where many species serve as important biological control agents of agricultural pests. Here, we tested the effect of honey and sugar diets on daily fecundity

  15. The Southern African Development Community Trade Legal Instruments Compliance with Certain Criteria of GATT Article XXIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Saurombe

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Article XXIV of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT lays down the legal principles with which regional trade agreements have to conform. Based on these principles, WTO members have the mandate to determine the legality of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs under the GATT. Article XXIV permits both regional and bilateral preferential trade agreements leading to the formation of customs unions and free trade areas, and seeks to integrate them in the multilateral trading system envisioned for the world. SADC is an RTA created under this Article. Notwithstanding the controversies surrounding the provisions and interpretation of Article XXIV, this paper seeks to establish the extent to which the SADC Protocol on Trade and free trade area comply with WTO rules. An analysis of selected Article XXIV provisions and the SADC Trade Protocol provisions will be undertaken in trying to establish this compliance.

  16. Maritime Security – The Need for a Global Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Dinos Stasinopoulos

    2003-01-01

    This note reviews US maritime security measures, outlines work carried out by international organisations and then frames maritime security within the wider context of maritime trade. Finally, it suggests the development of a Global Agreement linking security and other maritime trade-related issues. The initiative for such an agreement should be undertaken by the EU only if current International Maritime Organisation (IMO) efforts fail to produce a maritime security framework with binding req...

  17. 75 FR 1110 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Certain Measures Affecting Imports of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE [Docket No. WTO/DS399] WTO Dispute Settlement... Organization (``WTO Agreement'') concerning certain measures affecting imports of certain passenger vehicle and light truck tires from China. The request may be found at http://www.wto.org in document WT/DS399/2...

  18. THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO FREE TRADE WITHIN FAIR TRADE CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ya’kub Aiyub Kadir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Free trade and fair trade are considered an ambiguous term with relative meanings of identification. Objectively, free and fair trade does not mean completely free and fair, but it means trade under binding rules obeyed by member countries as a consequence of their commitment after signing and ratification of the WTO agreements. Hence, this paper aims at exploring the issue and does an effort to harmonise between free trade and fair trade within the WTO system. Perdagangan bebas dan perdagangan yang adil adalah dua istilah yang ambigu maknanya. Secara obyektif, perdagangan bebas tidak bermakna bebas dan adil seluruhnya, tetapi bermakna sebuah perdagangan di bawah aturan-aturan mengikat setelah negara anggota menandatangani dan meratifikasi kesepakatan WTO. Tetapi dalam realitas kebanyakan Negara, terutama negara berkembang tidak mampu untuk membuka pasar dan menurunkan tarif secara keseluruhan. Persoalan tidak berimbangnya kekuatan, kurang demokrasi, krisis legitimasi dan dobel standar dalam WTO sistem merupakan sebuah tantangan yang masih berlanjut. Paper ini akan mengkaji persoalan ini dan berupaya mengharmonisasikan antara perdagangan bebas dan adil dalam sistem WTO.

  19. THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO FREE TRADE WITHIN FAIR TRADE CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ya’kub Aiyub Kadir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Free trade and fair trade are considered an ambiguous term with relative meanings of identification. Objectively, free and fair trade does not mean completely free and fair, but it means trade under binding rules obeyed by member countries as a consequence of their commitment after signing and ratification of the WTO agreements. Hence, this paper aims at exploring the issue and does an effort to harmonise between free trade and fair trade within the WTO system.   Perdagangan bebas dan perdagangan yang adil adalah dua istilah yang ambigu maknanya. Secara obyektif, perdagangan bebas tidak bermakna bebas dan adil seluruhnya, tetapi bermakna sebuah perdagangan di bawah aturan-aturan mengikat setelah negara anggota menandatangani dan meratifikasi kesepakatan WTO. Tetapi dalam realitas kebanyakan Negara, terutama negara berkembang tidak mampu untuk membuka pasar dan menurunkan tarif secara keseluruhan. Persoalan tidak berimbangnya kekuatan, kurang demokrasi, krisis legitimasi dan dobel standar dalam WTO sistem merupakan sebuah tantangan yang masih berlanjut. Paper ini akan mengkaji persoalan ini dan berupaya mengharmonisasikan antara perdagangan bebas dan adil dalam sistem WTO.

  20. Agreement Workflow Tool (AWT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Agreement Workflow Tool (AWT) is a role-based Intranet application used for processing SSA's Reimbursable Agreements according to SSA's standards. AWT provides...