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Sample records for tractor laboratory manual

  1. Laboratory biosafety manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    This book is in three sections; basic standards of laboratory design and equipment; procedures for safe laboratory practice; and the selection and use of essential biosafety equipment. The intention is that the guidance given in the book should have a broad basis and international application, and that it should be a source from which manuals applicable to local and special conditions can be usefully derived.

  2. Aquatic Microbiology Laboratory Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Robert C.; And Others

    This laboratory manual presents information and techniques dealing with aquatic microbiology as it relates to environmental health science, sanitary engineering, and environmental microbiology. The contents are divided into three categories: (1) ecological and physiological considerations; (2) public health aspects; and (3)microbiology of water…

  3. Nuclear electronics laboratory manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    The Nuclear Electronics Laboratory Manual is a joint product of several electronics experts who have been associated with IAEA activity in this field for many years. The manual does not include experiments of a basic nature, such as characteristics of different active electronics components. It starts by introducing small electronics blocks, employing one or more active components. The most demanding exercises instruct a student in the design and construction of complete circuits, as used in commercial nuclear instruments. It is expected that a student who completes all the experiments in the manual should be in a position to design nuclear electronics units and also to understand the functions of advanced commercial instruments which need to be repaired or maintained. The future tasks of nuclear electronics engineers will be increasingly oriented towards designing and building the interfaces between a nuclear experiment and a computer. The manual pays tribute to this development by introducing a number of experiments which illustrate the principles and the technology of interfacing

  4. Chemistry laboratory safety manual available

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsbrock, R. G.

    1968-01-01

    Chemistry laboratory safety manual outlines safe practices for handling hazardous chemicals and chemistry laboratory equipment. Included are discussions of chemical hazards relating to fire, health, explosion, safety equipment and procedures for certain laboratory techniques and manipulations involving glassware, vacuum equipment, acids, bases, and volatile solvents.

  5. Kinesiology Workbook and Laboratory Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ruth W.

    This manual is written for students in anatomy, kinesiology, or introductory biomechanics courses. The book is divided into two sections, a kinesiology workbook and a laboratory manual. The two sections parallel each other in content and format. Each is divided into three corresponding sections: (1) Anatomical bases for movement description; (2)…

  6. Pollution Microbiology, A Laboratory Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finstein, Melvin S.

    This manual is designed for use in the laboratory phase of courses dealing with microbial aspects of pollution. It attempts to cover the subject area broadly in four major categories: (1) microorganisms in clean and polluted waters, (2) carbonaceous pollutants, (3) nitrogen, phosphorus, iron, and sulfur as pollutants, and (4) sanitary…

  7. Techniques in cancer research: a laboratory manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deo, M.G.; Seshadri, R.; Mulherkar, R.; Mukhopadhyaya, R.

    1995-01-01

    Cancer Research Institute (CRI) works on all facets of cancer using the latest biomedical tools. For this purpose, it has established modern laboratories in different branches of cancer biology such as cell and molecular biology, biochemistry, immunology, chemical and viral oncogenesis, genetics of cancer including genetic engineering, tissue culture, cancer chemotherapy, neurooncology and comparative oncology. This manual describes the protocols used in these laboratories. There is also a chapter on handling and care of laboratory animals, an essential component of any modern cancer biology laboratory. It is hoped that the manual will be useful to biomedical laboratories, specially those interested in cancer research. refs., tabs., figs

  8. Laboratory Waste Disposal Manual. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, F. G., Ed.

    This manual is designed to provide laboratory personnel with information about chemical hazards and ways of disposing of chemical wastes with minimum contamination of the environment. The manual contains a reference chart section which has alphabetical listings of some 1200 chemical substances with information on the health, fire and reactivity…

  9. Transportable Xenon Laboratory (TXL-1) Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Robert C.; Stewart, Timothy L.; Willett, Jesse A.; Woods, Vincent T.

    2011-03-07

    The Transportable Xenon Laboratory Operations Manual is a guide to set up and shut down TXL, a fully contained laboratory made up of instruments to identify and measure concentrations of the radioactive isotopes of xenon by taking air samples and analyzing them. The TXL is housed in a standard-sized shipping container. TXL can be shipped to and function in any country in the world.

  10. Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) procedures manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chieco, N.A.; Bogen, D.C.; Knutson, E.O.

    1990-11-01

    Volume 1 of this manual documents the procedures and existing technology that are currently used by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory. A section devoted to quality assurance has been included. These procedures have been updated and revised and new procedures have been added. They include: sampling; radiation measurements; analytical chemistry; radionuclide data; special facilities; and specifications. 228 refs., 62 figs., 37 tabs. (FL)

  11. H. W. Laboratory manual: 100 Area section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1950-07-01

    The purpose of this manual is to present a Hazard Breakdown of all jobs normally encountered in the laboratory work of the three sections comprising the Analytic Section, Metallurgy and Control Division of the Technical Department. A Hazard Breakdown is a careful analysis of any job in which the source of possible dangers is clearly indicated for each particular step. The analysis is prepared by individuals who are thoroughly familiar with the specific job or procedure. It is felt that if the hazards herein outlined are recognized by the Laboratory personnel and the suggested safety cautions followed, the chance for injury will be minimized and the worker will become generally more safety conscious. The manual, which is prefaced by the general safety rules applying to all the laboratories, is divided into three main sections, one for each of the three sections into which the Laboratories Division is divided. These sections are as follows: Section 1 -- 200 Area Control; Section 2 -- 100 Area Control; Section 3 -- 300 Area Control, Essential Materials, and Methods Improvement.

  12. Laboratory rock mechanics testing manual. Public draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuri, F S; Cooper, J D; Hamill, M L

    1981-10-01

    Standardized laboratory rock mechanics testing procedures have been prepared for use in the National Terminal Waste Storage Program. The procedures emphasize equipment performance specifications, documentation and reporting, and Quality Assurance acceptance criteria. Sufficient theoretical background is included to allow the user to perform the necessary data reduction. These procedures incorporate existing standards when possible, otherwise they represent the current state-of-the-art. Maximum flexibility in equipment design has been incorporated to allow use of this manual by existing groups and to encourage future improvements.

  13. Microbial ecology laboratory procedures manual NASA/MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Timothy L.

    1990-01-01

    An essential part of the efficient operation of any microbiology laboratory involved in sample analysis is a standard procedures manual. The purpose of this manual is to provide concise and well defined instructions on routine technical procedures involving sample analysis and methods for monitoring and maintaining quality control within the laboratory. Of equal importance is the safe operation of the laboratory. This manual outlines detailed procedures to be followed in the microbial ecology laboratory to assure safety, analytical control, and validity of results.

  14. Quality manual for Laboratories of the Nuclear Materials Characterization Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabato, S.F.

    1991-05-01

    This publication presents the first Quality Manual for the Laboratories at the Nuclear Materials Characterization Division. The Manual describes the laboratories, its organization structure, fields of activities, personnel records, equipments, maintenance and calibration. The main aspects concerning quality assurance in the analysis were discussed. The whole system of receiving, identifying and processing analysis of the samples is shown. Since there are many information to be contained in several subjects of the Quality Manual, there were produced separate documents that are cross referenced in the manual. (author)

  15. Nuclear electronics laboratory manual 1989 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    This manual is a joint product of several electronics experts who have been associated with IAEA activity in this field for many years. It is based on the experience of conducting twenty-three training courses on nuclear electronics. Compared with the first edition, published 1984, this edition contains many new experiments, mainly on the advanced technical level. The total number of experiments and special projects is 58. Tabs and figs

  16. State of laboratory manual instruction in California community college introductory (non-majors) biology laboratory instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Michelle

    College students must complete a life science course prior to graduation for a bachelor's degree. Generally, the course has lecture and laboratory components. It is in the laboratory where there are exceptional opportunities for exploration, challenge and application of the material learned. Optimally, this would utilize the best of inquiry based approaches. Most community colleges are using a home-grown or self written laboratory manual for the direction of work in the laboratory period. Little was known about the motivation, development and adaptation of use. It was also not known about the future of the laboratory manuals in light of the recent learning reform in California Community Colleges, Student Learning Outcomes. Extensive interviews were conducted with laboratory manual authors to determine the motivation, process of development, who was involved and learning framework used in the creation of the manuals. It was further asked of manual authors their ideas about the future of the manual, the development of staff and faculty and finally, the role Student Learning Outcomes would play in the manual. Science faculty currently teaching the non-majors biology laboratories for at least two semesters were surveyed on-line about actual practice of the manual, assessment, manual flexibility, faculty training and incorporation of Student Learning Outcomes. Finally, an evaluation of the laboratory manual was done using an established Laboratory Task Analysis Instrument. Laboratory manuals were evaluated on a variety of categories to determine the level of inquiry instruction done by students in the laboratory section. The results were that the development of homegrown laboratory manuals was done by community colleges in the Los Angeles and Orange Counties in an effort to minimize the cost of the manual to the students, to utilize all the exercises in a particular lab and to effectively utilize the materials already owned by the department. Further, schools wanted to

  17. Solar Simulation Laboratory Description and Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    2000 was sent back to Cyborg Corp. three times over a five month period for repairs. The solar lab is presently using a loaner from Cyborg Corp. The IBM...PC/XT is connected to the ISAAC 2000 by a RS232 connection. All programs were written in advanced basic ("BASICA"). BASICA was used because Cyborg ...2067 CH/P Temperature.Control Bath TechnicalManual, November. 1980. A 30. Cyborg Corporation, Version 1.2, IS..AC.....Co..mpiut.er.liz e.d Data

  18. XML Syntax for Clinical Laboratory Procedure Manuals

    OpenAIRE

    Saadawi, Gilan; Harrison, James H.

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a document type description (DTD) in Extensable Markup Language (XML)1 for clinical laboratory procedures. Our XML syntax can adequately structure a variety of procedure types across different laboratories and is compatible with current procedure standards. The combination of this format with an XML content management system and appropriate style sheets will allow efficient procedure maintenance, distributed access, customized display and effective searching across a large b...

  19. Decontamination manual of RI handling laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadachi, Yoshiki

    2004-01-01

    Based on experiences in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), the essential and practical knowledge of radioactive contamination and its decontamination, and the method and procedure of floor decontamination are described for researcher and managing person in charge of handling radioisotopes (RI) in RI handling laboratories. Essential knowledge concerns the uniqueness of solid surface contamination derived from RI half lives and quantities, surface contamination density limit, and mode/mechanism of contamination. The principle of decontamination is a single conduct with recognition of chemical form of the RI under use. As the practical knowledge, there are physical and chemical methods of solid surface decontamination. The latter involves use of inorganic acids, chelaters and surfactants. Removal and replacement of contaminated solid like floor material are often effective. Distribution mapping of surface contamination can be done by measuring the radioactivity in possibly contaminated areas, and is useful for planning of effective decontamination. Floor surface decontamination is for the partial and spread areas of the floor. It is essential to conduct the decontamination with reagent from the highly to less contaminated areas. Skin decontamination with either neutral detergent or titanium oxide is also described. (N.I.)

  20. Effluent-Monitoring Procedures: Basic Laboratory Skills. Student Reference Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, William T.; And Others

    This is one of several short-term courses developed to assist in the training of waste water treatment plant operational personnel in the tests, measurements, and report preparation required for compliance with their NPDES Permits. This Student Reference Manual provides a review of basic mathematics as it applies to the chemical laboratory. The…

  1. Sandia National Laboratories, California Environmental Management System program manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Barbara L.

    2013-04-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Environmental Management System (EMS) Program Manual documents the elements of the site EMS Program. The SNL/CA EMS Program conforms to the International Standard on Environmental Management Systems, ISO 14001:2004 and Department of Energy (DOE) Order 436.1.

  2. Sandia National Laboratories, California Environmental Management System program manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Barbara L.

    2014-04-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Environmental Management System (EMS) Program Manual documents the elements of the site EMS Program. The SNL/CA EMS Program conforms to the International Standard on Environmental Management Systems, ISO 14001:2004 and Department of Energy (DOE) Order 436.1.

  3. Manual of analytical methods for the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greulich, K.A.; Gray, C.E. (comp.)

    1991-08-01

    This Manual is compiled from techniques used in the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The procedures are similar to those used in other laboratories devoted to industrial hygiene practices. Some of the methods are standard; some, modified to suit our needs; and still others, developed at Sandia. The authors have attempted to present all methods in a simple and concise manner but in sufficient detail to make them readily usable. It is not to be inferred that these methods are universal for any type of sample, but they have been found very reliable for the types of samples mentioned.

  4. Manual of analytical methods for the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greulich, K.A.; Gray, C.E.

    1991-08-01

    This Manual is compiled from techniques used in the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The procedures are similar to those used in other laboratories devoted to industrial hygiene practices. Some of the methods are standard; some, modified to suit our needs; and still others, developed at Sandia. The authors have attempted to present all methods in a simple and concise manner but in sufficient detail to make them readily usable. It is not to be inferred that these methods are universal for any type of sample, but they have been found very reliable for the types of samples mentioned

  5. Manual on laboratory testing for uranium ore processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Laboratory testing of uranium ores is an essential step in the economic evaluation of uranium occurrences and in the development of a project for the production of uranium concentrates. Although these tests represent only a small proportion of the total cost of a project, their proper planning, execution and interpretation are of crucial importance. The main purposes of this manual are to discuss the objectives of metallurgical laboratory ore testing, to show the specific role of these tests in the development of a project, and to provide practical instructions for performing the tests and for interpreting their results. Guidelines on the design of a metallurgical laboratory, on the equipment required to perform the tests and on laboratory safety are also given. This manual is part of a series of Technical Reports on uranium ore processing being prepared by the IAEA's Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management. A report on the Significance of Mineralogy in the Development of Flowsheets for Processing Uranium Ores (Technical Reports Series No. 196, 1980) and an instruction manual on Methods for the Estimation of Uranium Ore Reserves (No. 255, 1985) have already been published. 17 refs, 40 figs, 17 tabs

  6. Laboratory training manual on radioimmunoassay in animal reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Reproduction must always be regarded as one of the major limiting factors in animal production and many of the modern methods for improving reproduction rely heavily on the ability to measure hormone levels in blood and milk. This has produced a world-wide demand for laboratory facilities to carry out hormone assays and the need for specialist training to allow these assays to be undertaken. The need to measure nanogram and picogram quantities and the use of radionuclides require a good deal of skill and care and this Manual has been prepared to aid training and provide the sort of information that rarely appears in scientific papers. It represents a further step in the Joint FAO/IAEA Division's series of Laboratory Training Manuals, and has been designed to aid training programmes of the type carried out during the Joint FAO/IAEA Interregional Training Course on Radioimmunoassay and its Application in Research on Animal Reproduction at Cornell University in July 1982. Many of the laboratory exercises described in this Manual are based on those conducted during the course

  7. Laboratory manual for salt mixing test in rod bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, H.U.R.; Chiu, C.; Todreas, N.

    1978-10-01

    This report is a Laboratory Manual dealing with the procedure employed during Salt Tracer Experiments, which are used for evaluating the hydraulic characteristics of a rod bundle. A description of the standard equipment used is given together with details of manufacture of non-standard items i.e., probes used for detecting the salt-concentration. Details of bundle construction have not been included as they are available in the references cited. An attempt has also been made to point out potential trouble areas and procedures

  8. Nuclear and related techniques in parasitology: A laboratory manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayunga, E.G.; Stek, M. Jr. (eds.)

    1986-01-01

    The course, entitled ''Atomic Energy Applications in Parasitology'', was offered by the Division of Tropical Public Health, Department of Preventive Medicine, and Biometrics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland. It was an intensive 3-week endeavor during which students attended lectures and acquired practical hands-on experience with the most recent laboratory tools. The course began with an exhaustive introduction to radiation physics, then encompassed a variety of practical applications including irradiation attenuation, radioisotope labeling, tracer techniques and radioimmunoassays. This laboratory manual was written by the faculty in an attempt to document the learning experience of the training course and to provide a detailed description of state-of-the-art technology with up-to-date references. Clearly, the manual has value as a historical document. However, the chapters were written with the explicit intention that they be useful to future investigators who wish to apply these methods to their particular research problem.

  9. Handbook of laboratory techniques; Manual de tecnicas de laboratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Authority in Argentina have laboratories of support to regulations functions on radiological and nuclear safety, safeguards and physical protection, that have a surface of 2950 m{sup 2} in the Ezeiza Atomic Center. The manual describes in seven chapters the different techniques developed and applied in the laboratories along four decades of existence. The chapter 1: Dedicated to the treatment of environmental samples, described the procedures associated with the different types of samples: deposits, waters, sediments, vegetables, milk, fish and diet. The chapter 2: Details 48 radiochemical techniques associated to the measurements of americium 241, carbon 16, strontium 90, iodine 129, plutonium, radium 226, radon, uranium, nickel and actinides. The chapter 3: Describes the measurements techniques of alpha and gamma spectrometry. The different techniques of biological and physical dosimetry are described in the chapters 5 and 6 respectively. The final chapter is dedicated the techniques of external and internal contamination. It s important to emphasize that this manual contains the standardized technologies that the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina submits regularly to international comparisons.

  10. Sandia National Laboratories, California Environmental Management System Program Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-04-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Environmental Management System (EMS) Program Manual documents the elements of the site EMS Program. The SNL/CA EMS Program conforms to the International Standard on Environmental Management Systems, ISO 14001:2004 and Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1. Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) has maintained functional environmental programs to assist with regulatory compliance for more than 30 years. During 2005, these existing programs were rolled into a formal environmental management system (EMS) that expands beyond the traditional compliance focus to managing and improving environmental performance and stewardship practices for all site activities. An EMS is a set of inter-related elements that represent a continuing cycle of planning, implementing, evaluating, and improving processes and actions undertaken to achieve environmental policy and goals. The SNL/CA EMS Program conforms to the International Standard for Environmental Management Systems, ISO 14001:2004 (ISO 2004). The site received ISO 14001 certification in September 2006. SNL/CA's EMS Program is applicable to the Sandia, Livermore site only. Although SNL/CA operates as one organizational division of the overall Sandia National Laboratories, the EMS Program is site-specific, with site-specific objectives and targets. SNL/CA (Division 8000) benefits from the organizational structure as it provides corporate level policies, procedures, and standards, and established processes that connect to and support elements of the SNL/CA EMS Program. Additionally, SNL/CA's EMS Program benefits from two corporate functional programs (Facilities Energy Management and Fleet Services Environmental programs) that maintain responsibility for energy management and fleet services for all Sandia locations. Each EMS element is further enhanced with site-specific processes and standards. Division 8000 has several groups operating at Sandia

  11. Sandia National Laboratories, California Environmental Management System program manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Barbara L.

    2012-03-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Environmental Management System (EMS) Program Manual documents the elements of the site EMS Program. The SNL/CA EMS Program conforms to the International Standard on Environmental Management Systems, ISO 14001:2004and Department of Energy (DOE) Order 436.1. Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) has maintained functional environmental programs to assist with regulatory compliance for more than 30 years. During 2005, these existing programs were rolled into a formal environmental management system (EMS) that expands beyond the traditional compliance focus to managing and improving environmental performance and stewardship practices for all site activities. An EMS is a set of inter-related elements that represent a continuing cycle of planning, implementing, evaluating, and improving processes and actions undertaken to achieve environmental policy and goals. The SNL/CA EMS Program conforms to the International Standard for Environmental Management Systems, ISO 14001:2004 (ISO 2004). The site first received ISO 14001 certification in September 2006 and recertification in 2009. SNL/CA's EMS Program is applicable to the Sandia, Livermore site only. Although SNL/CA operates as one organizational division of the overall Sandia National Laboratories, the EMS Program is site-specific, with site-specific objectives and targets. SNL/CA (Division 8000) benefits from the organizational structure as it provides corporate level policies, procedures, and standards, and established processes that connect to and support elements of the SNL/CA EMS Program. Additionally, SNL/CA's EMS Program benefits from two corporate functional programs (Facilities Energy and Water Resource Management and Fleet Services programs) that maintain responsibility for energy management and fleet services for all Sandia locations. Each EMS element is further enhanced with site-specific processes and standards. Division 8000 has

  12. Sandia National Laboratories, California Environmental Management System Program Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Barbara L.

    2011-04-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Environmental Management System (EMS) Program Manual documents the elements of the site EMS Program. The SNL/CA EMS Program conforms to the International Standard on Environmental Management Systems, ISO 14001:2004and Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1. Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) has maintained functional environmental programs to assist with regulatory compliance for more than 30 years. During 2005, these existing programs were rolled into a formal environmental management system (EMS) that expands beyond the traditional compliance focus to managing and improving environmental performance and stewardship practices for all site activities. An EMS is a set of inter-related elements that represent a continuing cycle of planning, implementing, evaluating, and improving processes and actions undertaken to achieve environmental policy and goals. The SNL/CA EMS Program conforms to the International Standard for Environmental Management Systems, ISO 14001:2004 (ISO 2004). The site received ISO 14001 certification in September 2006. SNL/CA's EMS Program is applicable to the Sandia, Livermore site only. Although SNL/CA operates as one organizational division of the overall Sandia National Laboratories, the EMS Program is site-specific, with site-specific objectives and targets. SNL/CA (Division 8000) benefits from the organizational structure as it provides corporate level policies, procedures, and standards, and established processes that connect to and support elements of the SNL/CA EMS Program. Additionally, SNL/CA's EMS Program benefits from two corporate functional programs (Facilities Energy Management and Fleet Services programs) that maintain responsibility for energy management and fleet services for all Sandia locations. Each EMS element is further enhanced with site-specific processes and standards. Division 8000 has several groups operating at Sandia National Laboratories

  13. Understanding and Using the New Guided-Inquiry AP Chemistry Laboratory Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Kristen L.

    2014-01-01

    To support teaching and learning in the advanced placement (AP) chemistry laboratory, the College Board published a laboratory manual, "AP Chemistry Guided-Inquiry Experiments: Applying the Science Practices," in 2013 as part of the redesigned course. This article provides a discussion of the rationale for the existence of the manual as…

  14. Development and Evaluation of an Interactive Electronic Laboratory Manual for Cooperative Learning of Medical Histology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed K.; Kirkley, Debbie L.; Kibble, Jonathan D.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the development of an interactive computer-based laboratory manual, created to facilitate the teaching and learning of medical histology. The overarching goal of developing the manual is to facilitate self-directed group interactivities that actively engage students during laboratory sessions. The design of the manual…

  15. A Content Analysis of General Chemistry Laboratory Manuals for Evidence of Higher-Order Cognitive Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domin, Daniel S.

    1999-01-01

    The science laboratory instructional environment is ideal for fostering the development of problem-solving, manipulative, and higher-order thinking skills: the skills needed by today's learner to compete in an ever increasing technology-based society. This paper reports the results of a content analysis of ten general chemistry laboratory manuals. Three experiments from each manual were examined for evidence of higher-order cognitive activities. Analysis was based upon the six major cognitive categories of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. The results of this study show that the overwhelming majority of general chemistry laboratory manuals provide tasks that require the use of only the lower-order cognitive skills: knowledge, comprehension, and application. Two of the laboratory manuals were disparate in having activities that utilized higher-order cognition. I describe the instructional strategies used within these manuals to foster higher-order cognitive development.

  16. Tractor Safety. Unit A-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luft, Vernon D.; Backlund, Paul

    This document is a teacher's guide for a unit in tractor and machinery safety for college freshmen. It is intended to be used for 10 hours of instruction for freshmen who are intending to work on or around machinery. Safety hazards directly and indirectly related to many types of machinery are covered in addition to tractors. The objectives of the…

  17. Development of an in vitro laboratory manual for nuclear medicine technology students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, A.

    1989-01-01

    This study evaluated existing in vitro education materials in qualitative and quantitative parameters that currently exist to educate potential clinicians of nationally accredited nuclear medicine programs. A review of over 300 articles, texts, and manuals pertaining to in vitro nuclear medicine procedures clearly demonstrated that no in vitro laboratory manual for undergraduate students presently exited. Every nuclear medicine program director in the United States was surveyed. They were asked for their overall philosophy in terms of developing an in vitro manual and requested to evaluate the significant of 22 general principles/concepts and 34 specific laboratory testing procedures. From the response to the survey, an in vitro nuclear medicine manual was created and appended to the study. The manual consists of lecture and study material, chapter reviews, and laboratory assignments and exercises

  18. Field manual for ground water reconnaissance. Savannah River Laboratory National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, R.B.; Price, V.; Baucom, E.I.

    1977-01-01

    A manual is presented that is intended to direct and coordinate field operations, site selection, groundwater sample collection, and information codes for the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) contribution to the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. The manual provides public relations information for field sampling teams as well as technical direction

  19. A Manual of Simplified Laboratory Methods for Operators of Wastewater Treatment Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhold, Arnold F., Ed.; Bennett, Ernest C., Ed.

    This manual is designed to provide the small wastewater treatment plant operator, as well as the new or inexperienced operator, with simplified methods for laboratory analysis of water and wastewater. It is emphasized that this manual is not a replacement for standard methods but a guide for plants with insufficient equipment to perform analyses…

  20. Field manual for stream sediment reconnaissance. Savannah River Laboratory National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, R.B.; Price, V.; Baucom, E.I.

    1976-07-01

    A manual is presented that is intended to direct and coordinate field operations, site selection, stream sediment sample collection, water sample collection, and information codes for the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) contribution to the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. The manual provides public relations information for field sampling teams as well as technical direction

  1. Matter-Wave Tractor Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorlach, Alexey A.; Gorlach, Maxim A.; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2017-01-01

    Optical and acoustic tractor beams are currently the focus of intense research due to their counterintuitive property of exerting a pulling force on small scattering objects. In this Letter we propose a matter-wave tractor beam and utilize the de Broglie waves of nonrelativistic matter particles...... are compared, and the matter-wave pulling force is found to have exclusive properties of dragging slow particles in short-range potentials. We envisage that the use of tractor beams could lead to the unprecedented precision in manipulation with atomic-scale quantum objects....

  2. Sandia National Laboratories Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (Rev 4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goke, Sarah Hayes [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Elliott, Nathan Ryan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories’ Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual is intended to provide extended technical discussion and justification of the internal dosimetry program at SNL. It serves to record the approach to evaluating internal doses from radiobioassay data, and where appropriate, from workplace monitoring data per the Department of Energy Internal Dosimetry Program Guide DOE G 441.1C. The discussion contained herein is directed primarily to current and future SNL internal dosimetrists. In an effort to conserve space in the TBM and avoid duplication, it contains numerous references providing an entry point into the internal dosimetry literature relevant to this program. The TBM is not intended to act as a policy or procedure statement, but will supplement the information normally found in procedures or policy documents. The internal dosimetry program outlined in this manual is intended to meet the requirements of Federal Rule 10CFR835 for monitoring the workplace and for assessing internal radiation doses to workers.

  3. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory x-ray survey manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsher, R.H.

    1980-02-01

    A manual has been developed by the Health Physics Group to establish procedures for routine testing of industrial and analytical x-ray equipment for compliance with applicable LASL administrative requirements and technical bulletins. Radiation protection survey procedures were developed for the following types of equipment: x-ray diffraction and fluorescence analysis systems, industrial cabinet x-ray systems, industrial noncabinet x-ray systems, and electron microscopes

  4. Water Quality & Pollutant Source Monitoring: Field and Laboratory Procedures. Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This training manual presents material on techniques and instrumentation used to develop data in field monitoring programs and related laboratory operations concerned with water quality and pollution monitoring. Topics include: collection and handling of samples; bacteriological, biological, and chemical field and laboratory methods; field…

  5. Development and evaluation of an interactive electronic laboratory manual for cooperative learning of medical histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed K; Kirkley, Debbie L; Kibble, Jonathan D

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the development of an interactive computer-based laboratory manual, created to facilitate the teaching and learning of medical histology. The overarching goal of developing the manual is to facilitate self-directed group interactivities that actively engage students during laboratory sessions. The design of the manual includes guided instruction for students to navigate virtual slides, exercises for students to monitor learning, and cases to provide clinical relevance. At the end of the laboratory activities, student groups can generate a laboratory report that may be used to provide formative feedback. The instructional value of the manual was evaluated by a questionnaire containing both closed-ended and open-ended items. Closed-ended items using a five-point Likert-scale assessed the format and navigation, instructional contents, group process, and learning process. Open-ended items assessed student's perception on the effectiveness of the manual in facilitating their learning. After implementation for two consecutive years, student evaluation of the manual was highly positive and indicated that it facilitated their learning by reinforcing and clarifying classroom sessions, improved their understanding, facilitated active and cooperative learning, and supported self-monitoring of their learning. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  6. Manual of analytical methods for the Environmental Health Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, C.E.

    1975-06-01

    The manual contains four sections: absorption spectrophotometry; general radiochemical procedures; instrumental analysis; and calibration of field instruments. Included in the individual analyses using absorption spectrophotometry is one for total iodine in oil. Radiochemical procedures are given for: actinides in urine and water; 137 Cs in soil and vegetation; 137 Cs in soil, urine, vegetation, and water; enriched uranium in urine; gross beta activity in soil, urine, vegetation, and water; plutonium in urine and soil; 210 Po in urine and water; 24 Na in air, blood, urine, and water; 90 Sr in soil, vegetation, and water; tritium in urine, water, and on swipes; and total uranium on fallout trays and in soil, urine, and water. Among the individual instrumental analyses is a spectrographic method for determining beryllium in air samples and swipes. (U.S.)

  7. Laboratory Safety Manual for Alabama Schools. Bulletin 1975. No. 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery.

    This document presents the Alabama State Department of Education guidelines for science laboratory safety, equipment, storage, chemical safety, rocket safety, electrical safety, safety with radioisotopes, and safety with biologicals. Also included is a brief bibliography, a teacher's checklist, a listing of laser facts and regulations, and a…

  8. Manual on Safety Aspects of the Design and Equipment of Hot Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    With the development of atomic energy application and research, hot laboratories are now being constructed in a number of countries. The present publication describes and discusses experience in several countries in designing equipment for these laboratories. The safe handling of highly radioactive substances is the main purpose of hot laboratory design and equipment. The manual aims at helping those persons, particularly in the developing countries, who plan to design and construct a new hot laboratory or modify an existing one. It does not deal in great detail with the engineering design of protective and handling equipment; these matters can be found in the comprehensive list of references. The manual itself covers only basic ideas and different approaches in the design of laboratory building, hot cells, shielded and glove boxes, fume cupboards, and handling and viewing equipment. Systems for transferring materials and main services are also discussed.

  9. Laboratory training manual on the use of nuclear techniques in pesticide research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This is a laboratory training manual on the use of nuclear techniques, and in particular radioisotopes in pesticide research. It is designed to give the scientists involved in pesticide research the basic terms and principles for understanding ionizing radiation: detection and measurement its hazards and safety measures, and some of the more common applications. Laboratory exercises representing the types of experiments that are valuable in pesticide research programmes and field tests which demonstrate the use of radiolabelled pesticides are included

  10. Manual Laboratorio de Microbiologia. Documento de trabajo Programa de Educacion en Ocupaciones de Salud (Microbiology Laboratory Manual. Curriculum Document. Program of Education in Health Occupations).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, Hato Rey. Area for Vocational and Technical Education.

    This laboratory manual on microbiology begins with an introduction relating the study of microorganisms to health occupations education and stressing the importance of teaching critical thinking. The introduction is followed by general instructions for the use of the manual and an illustration of hand washing procedures. The 13 laboratory…

  11. Laboratory training manual on the use of nuclear techniques in animal research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The manual is designed to give the animal science researcher the basic terms and principles necessary for understanding radiation, its detection and measurement, its associated hazards, and some of the more common applications. Basic laboratory exercises to illustrate this purpose are included

  12. The procedures manual of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory. Volume 1, 28. edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chieco, N.A. [ed.

    1997-02-01

    This manual covers procedures and technology currently in use at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory. An attempt is made to be sure that all work carried out will be of the highest quality. Attention is focused on the following areas: quality assurance; sampling; radiation measurements; analytical chemistry; radionuclide data; special facilities; and specifications.

  13. The procedures manual of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory. Volume 1, 28. edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chieco, N.A.

    1997-02-01

    This manual covers procedures and technology currently in use at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory. An attempt is made to be sure that all work carried out will be of the highest quality. Attention is focused on the following areas: quality assurance; sampling; radiation measurements; analytical chemistry; radionuclide data; special facilities; and specifications

  14. IMPROVEMENT OF ROAD-HOLDING ABILITY FOR “BELARUS” TRACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Boikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of new efficient braking systems for energy-packed tractors is of great importance for agricultural production. Foreign tractor manufacturing companies are implementing brake systems and in addition to their main function they fulfil function for holding of the given driving direction. The paper considers achievements in the field of electronic systems for tractor road-holding ability. A diagram on proportion of high-power tractors in total export volume of tractors and machinery manufactured in Belarus in the period of 2007–2010 has been drawn in the paper. The paper also proposes a comparative diagram on tractor speeds of international manufacturers which can serve as indicators of speed and road-holding ability of tractors with special electronic systems and without them. The paper contains an analysis of various braking mechanisms of planetary gears and detailed description of their design. A scheme of a laboratory facility for investigation of planetary gear usage as a breaking mechanism while changing conditions of jamming has been presented in the paper. The paper provides description on graph dependencies of current strength and voltage on as a function of the braking torque which is applied to a planetary gear. Nowadays energy-packed “Belarus”-tractors of Class 5 do not have a separate braking for each of four wheels. Therefore, it is proposed to use planetary gearbox of the rear-axle drive being available in every wheel as the basis of a service brake with the purpose to implement the described design. Using such scheme it is possible to execute an introduction of electronic systems for road-holding ability. A generalized scheme of an electronic system for tractor road-holding ability which can ensure separate breaking of all tractor wheels has been drawn out on the basis of the existing automotive electronic systems.

  15. Use of the Multi-Agency Radiological Laboratory Analytical Protocols Manual (MARLAP) for site cleanup activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griggs, J.

    1999-01-01

    MARLAP is being developed as a multi-agency guidance manual for project managers and radioanalytical laboratories. The document uses a performance based approach and will provide guidance and a framework to assure that laboratory radioanalytical data meets the specific project or program needs and requirements. MARLAP supports a wide range of data collection activities including site characterization and compliance demonstration activities. Current participants include: US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), US Department of Energy (DOE), US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), US Department of Defense (DoD), US National Institutes of Standards and Technology (NIST), US Geologic Survey (USGS), US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Commonwealth of Kentucky, and the State of California. MARLAP is the radioanalytical laboratory counterpart to the Multi-Agency Radiological Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM). MARLAP is currently in a preliminary draft stage. (author)

  16. Conformal superalgebras via tractor calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lischewski, Andree

    2015-01-01

    We use the manifestly conformally invariant description of a Lorentzian conformal structure in terms of a parabolic Cartan geometry in order to introduce a superalgebra structure on the space of twistor spinors and normal conformal vector fields formulated in purely algebraic terms on parallel sections in tractor bundles. Via a fixed metric in the conformal class, one reproduces a conformal superalgebra structure that has been considered in the literature before. The tractor approach, however, makes clear that the failure of this object to be a Lie superalgebra in certain cases is due to purely algebraic identities on the spinor module and to special properties of the conformal holonomy representation. Moreover, it naturally generalizes to higher signatures. This yields new formulas for constructing new twistor spinors and higher order normal conformal Killing forms out of existing ones, generalizing the well-known spinorial Lie derivative. Moreover, we derive restrictions on the possible dimension of the space of twistor spinors in any metric signature.

  17. Optical tractor Bessel polarized beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F. G.; Li, R. X.; Guo, L. X.; Ding, C. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Axial and transverse radiation force cross-sections of optical tractor Bessel polarized beams are theoretically investigated for a dielectric sphere with particular emphasis on the beam topological charge (or order), half-cone angle and polarization. The angular spectrum decomposition method (ASDM) is used to derive the non-paraxial electromagnetic (EM) field components of the Bessel beams. The multipole expansion method using vector spherical harmonics is utilized and appropriate beam-shape coefficients are derived in order to compute the radiation force cross-sections. The analysis has no limitation to a particular range of frequencies such that the Rayleigh, Mie or geometrical optics regimes can all be considered effectively using the present rigorous formalism. The focus of this investigation is to identify some of the tractor beam conditions so as to achieve retrograde motion of a dielectric sphere located arbitrarily in space. Numerical computations for the axial and transverse radiation force cross-sections are presented for linear, right-circular, radial, azimuthal and mixed polarizations of the individual plane waves forming the Bessel beams of zeroth- and first-order (with positive or negative helicity), respectively. As the sphere shifts off the beam's axis, the axial pulling (tractor) force is weakened. Moreover, the transverse radiation force cross-section field changes with the sphere's size factor ka (where k is the wavenumber and a is the sphere radius). Both stable and unstable equilibrium regions around the beam's axis are found, depending on the choice of ka and the half-cone angle α0. These results are particularly important in the development of emergent technologies for the photophoretic assembly of optically-engineered (meta)materials with designed properties using optical tractor (vortex) beams, particle manipulation, levitation and positioning, and other applications.

  18. Non-Diffractive Tractor Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Gao, Dongliang; Gorlach, Alexey A.

    2017-01-01

    Pulling optical force discovered recently in the theory and experiment has drawn great attention owing to its counterintuitive nature and promising applications. Pulling force originates from the enhanced forward light scattering that in accordance with the momentum conservation conveys light...... demonstrate how to ease the conditions required in experiment for realization of the optical tractor beams using the cylindrical objects. We pay a particular attention to the case of the pulling optical force due to the interaction of magnetic dipole and quadrupole moments....

  19. Laboratory training manual on the use of nuclear and associated techniques in pesticide research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Most laboratories studying pesticide metabolism or other aspects of pesticides use isotope techniques. This manual is aimed at scientists who use or intended to use radioisotopes in pesticide research. It contains a theoretical introduction on the properties of radionuclides and radiation, a description of radioactivity measuring instruments, guidelines for radiation protection and general recommendations on experimental design and performance. A large part of the manual is devoted to laboratory exercises in which detailed protocols for applications of isotope techniques in pesticide research are presented. These are intended to demonstrate concepts or denote representative means of conducting particular types of experiment, and it is hoped that the information gained through the performance of the exercises will serve as a basis for modifications to suit other specialized needs. 36 figs

  20. Laboratory manual for salt-mixing test in 37- and 217-pin bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Y.N.; Todreas, N.E.

    1980-08-01

    This laboratory manual deals with the procedure employed during salt tracer experiments used in evaluating the hydraulic characteristics of a rod bundle. A description of the standard equipment used is given together with the details of manufacture of probes used for detecting the salt concentration. Details of the bundle construction have been excluded as they are availble in the reference cited. An attempt has been made to point out potential trouble areas and procedures

  1. Optical tractor Bessel polarized beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitri, F.G.; Li, R.X.; Guo, L.X.; Ding, C.Y.

    2017-01-01

    Axial and transverse radiation force cross-sections of optical tractor Bessel polarized beams are theoretically investigated for a dielectric sphere with particular emphasis on the beam topological charge (or order), half-cone angle and polarization. The angular spectrum decomposition method (ASDM) is used to derive the non-paraxial electromagnetic (EM) field components of the Bessel beams. The multipole expansion method using vector spherical harmonics is utilized and appropriate beam-shape coefficients are derived in order to compute the radiation force cross-sections. The analysis has no limitation to a particular range of frequencies such that the Rayleigh, Mie or geometrical optics regimes can all be considered effectively using the present rigorous formalism. The focus of this investigation is to identify some of the tractor beam conditions so as to achieve retrograde motion of a dielectric sphere located arbitrarily in space. Numerical computations for the axial and transverse radiation force cross-sections are presented for linear, right-circular, radial, azimuthal and mixed polarizations of the individual plane waves forming the Bessel beams of zeroth- and first-order (with positive or negative helicity), respectively. As the sphere shifts off the beam's axis, the axial pulling (tractor) force is weakened. Moreover, the transverse radiation force cross-section field changes with the sphere's size factor ka (where k is the wavenumber and a is the sphere radius). Both stable and unstable equilibrium regions around the beam's axis are found, depending on the choice of ka and the half-cone angle α_0. These results are particularly important in the development of emergent technologies for the photophoretic assembly of optically-engineered (meta)materials with designed properties using optical tractor (vortex) beams, particle manipulation, levitation and positioning, and other applications. - Highlights: • Optical tractor Bessel polarized beams are

  2. Laboratory training manual on the use of isotopes and radiation in soil-plant relations research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in co-operation with local authorities in various countries have jointly sponsored international laboratory training courses on the use of isotopes and radiation in specialized fields of agriculture. Outstanding scientists from various countries have given lectures and devised and conducted the laboratory exercises; research workers from all over the world have attended these courses. In addition, under the United Nations Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance the IAEA in co-operation with host governments has conducted similar regional courses. This laboratory manual is a natural outgrowth of these activities. The contents represents the efforts not only of the IAEA and FAO Secretariats but also of the various instructors who have participated in the courses, a Special Consultant, Victor Middelboe, and a panel of scientists who met in Vienna from 3 to 7 September 1962 and revised the initial version assembled by Hans Broeshart and Chai Moo Cho of the IAEA Secretariat. The present manual consists of two parts: a basic part which contains general information and laboratory exercises on the properties of radiation and the principles of use of radioactive tracers, and a second part which contains a series of detailed laboratory exercises in the field of soil-plant relationships. It is intended to publish at least four additional parts on the subjects of the use of isotopes and radiation in animal science, agricultural biochemistry, entomology and plant pathology. This manual, dealing with an important aspect of the peaceful application and use of atomic energy, should prove helpful not only to those working with the IAEA and FAO training programmes but to other research scientists dealing with the development and use of new information in agricultural science all over the world

  3. Tractor accelerated test on test rig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mattetti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The experimental tests performed to validate a tractor prototype before its production, need a substantial financial and time commitment. The tests could be reduced using accelerated tests able to reproduce on the structural part of the tractor, the same damage produced on the tractor during real life in a reduced time. These tests were usually performed reproducing a particular harsh condition a defined number of times, as for example using a bumpy road on track to carry out the test in any weather condition. Using these procedures the loads applied on the tractor structure are different with respect to those obtained during the real use, with the risk to apply loads hard to find in reality. Recently it has been demonstrated how, using the methodologies designed for cars, it is possible to also expedite the structural tests for tractors. In particular, automotive proving grounds were recently successfully used with tractors to perform accelerated structural tests able to reproduce the real use of the machine with an acceleration factor higher than that obtained with the traditional methods. However, the acceleration factor obtained with a tractor on proving grounds is in any case reduced due to the reduced speed of the tractors with respect to cars. In this context, the goal of the paper is to show the development of a methodology to perform an accelerated structural test on a medium power tractor using a 4 post test rig. In particular, several proving ground testing conditions have been performed to measure the loads on the tractor. The loads obtained were then edited to remove the not damaging portion of signals, and finally the loads obtained were reproduced in a 4 post test rig. The methodology proposed could be a valid alternative to the use of a proving ground to reproduce accelerated structural tests on tractors.

  4. ROBUST CONTROL OF OSCILLATIONS IN AGRICULTURAL TRACTORS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T. O.; Hansen, M. R.; Conrad, Finn

    2003-01-01

    for agricultural tractors equiped with hicth and implements. A control strategy is developed to make the implement counteract the movement of the tractor and thereby reducing the pitching oscillation. The control strategy is based on a linear plant model with constant or slowly varying parameters. Using...

  5. A gender analysis of secondary school physics textbooks and laboratory manuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostas, Nancy Ann

    Secondary school physics textbooks and laboratory manuals were evaluated for gender balance. The textbooks and manuals evaluated were all current editions available at the time of the study with copyrights of 1988 to 1992. Illustrations, drawings and photographs were judged gender balanced based on the number of men and women, boys and girls shown in both active and passive roles. Illustrations, drawings and photographs were also evaluated by the number of male and female scientists identified by name. The curricular content of the textbooks was analyzed for gender balance by three criteria: the number of named male and female scientists whose accomplishments were described in the text; the number of careers assigned to men and women; and the number of verbal analogies assigned to girls interests, boys interests or neutral interests. The laboratory activities in the manuals were categorized as demonstrations, experiments and observations. Three of each of these types of activities from each manual were analyzed for skills and motivating factors important to girls as identified by Potter and Rosser (1992). Data were analyzed by use of descriptive statistics of frequencies, means and chi-square goodness of fit. The.05 level of significance was applied to all analyses based upon an expected frequency of 50 - 50 percentage of men and women and a 4.5 percent for women scientists to 95.5 percent for men scientists. The findings were as follows. None of the textbooks had a balance of men/women, boys/girls in the illustrations, drawings and photographs. The Hewitt (Scott-Foresman, 1989) textbook was the only textbook with no significant difference. Using the expected frequency for male and female scientists, two textbooks were gender balanced for illustrations, drawings and photographs while all textbooks were gender balanced for described accomplishments of scientists. The Hewitt (Scott Foresman, 1989) textbook had the only gender balanced representation of careers

  6. Design and management of hot-laboratories. [Manual]. Hottorabo no sekkei to kanri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-09-01

    This document is a manual for the design and management of hot-laboratories. It is composed of three parts. The first part is devoted to the design of hot-laboratories. Items included here are; conceptual design; many regulations which must be considered at design stage; design of cave and its shielding; and the design of building, ventilation, and draining. Many examples of specific designs are presented by figures and photographs. The second part is concerned with the methods of operation management. Organizational structure, scheduling of operation, process management, and regulatory problems are discussed with some examples. Technological problems associated with the operation of a hot laboratory (e.g., manipulator, transfer machine, maintenance, and decontamination) are also discussed based on the authors' experiences. An example of the operation manual is presented for reference. The third part is devoted to the safety management and the training of personnel. The regulations by law are briefly explained. Most of this part is devoted to the problem of monitoring radio-activity. Monitoring of control areas, radio-active wastes, and personal dosage is discussed together with many other specific monitoring problems. As for training, the purpose and the present status are explained.

  7. SRC-I demonstration plant analytical laboratory methods manual. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klusaritz, M.L.; Tewari, K.C.; Tiedge, W.F.; Skinner, R.W.; Znaimer, S.

    1983-03-01

    This manual is a compilation of analytical procedures required for operation of a Solvent-Refined Coal (SRC-I) demonstration or commercial plant. Each method reproduced in full includes a detailed procedure, a list of equipment and reagents, safety precautions, and, where possible, a precision statement. Procedures for the laboratory's environmental and industrial hygiene modules are not included. Required American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) methods are cited, and ICRC's suggested modifications to these methods for handling coal-derived products are provided.

  8. Laboratory training manual on the use of nuclear techniques in animal parasitology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The Manual is designed for specialist training in the use of nuclear techniques in animal parasitology. The theoretical part contains a general introduction to experimental work in this field. Laboratory exercises are divided into Basic Exercises (17) and Applied Exercises (25) oriented to research in the immunology and pathogenesis of host-parasite interactions using radioisotopic methods and to disease management through the use of radiation-attenuated vaccines. The closing part contains a number of practical guidelines and data for work with radioisotopes in general and for the use of radioisotopic methods in animal parasitology

  9. Effect of using GPS autosteer guidance systems on the eye-glance behavior and posture of tractor operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, D; Henry, J; Mann, D D

    2012-10-01

    Tractor operators are prone to neck and back discomfort and disorders. It is well known that awkward posture is a major contributor to this problem. Previous studies have investigated the prevalence of awkward posture and the resulting discomfort and disorders among tractor operators. They have also suggested various ways to mitigate this problem. With the introduction of new autosteer guidance systems, the tractor operator is relieved from the task of steering the tractor for most of the time during field work. Therefore, it is expected that the operator's posture will change. The goal of this study was to investigate the changes in the eye-glance behavior and posture of tractor operators as a result of using autosteer guidance systems. An eye-tracking system and a camcorder were used to record the eye-glance behavior and posture of 13 tractor operators as they performed seeding operations. The experiment with each operator consisted of two sessions. In one session, the operator used an autosteer system, while in the other session the operator steered the tractor manually. Analysis of the data showed that the eye-glance behavior and posture of the operators were significantly different between the autosteer and manual steering sessions. With the autosteer system, the operators spent less time in an awkward posture, and they changed their posture less frequently. However, even with the autosteer system, the operators spent 1/3 of their time in an awkward posture. Subjective feedback from the operators indicated that more than half of them experienced back or neck/shoulder discomfort during or after seeding. It is essential that the recommendations of the previous studies, such as using large rear-view mirrors or a rotating tractor seat, be evaluated when the operator is using an autosteer system. Other tools, such as video cameras that show the attached equipment, should also be tested to evaluate their effectiveness in reducing the operator's exposure to awkward

  10. Manual on safety aspects of the design and equipment of hot laboratories. 1981 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This manual covers the general principles of planning and design of areas inside laboratories according to the varying potential radiation and contamination hazards; enclosures for radioactive material containment; viewing and lighting systems and various types of manipulators; transfer and transport of radioactive materials within the laboratories; air cleaning and ventilation systems, with particular reference to IAEA Safety Series No.17; techniques for controlling air pollution from the operation of nuclear facilities; various radioactive waste disposal systems; criticality control; fire protection; personnel monitoring, including changing-room monitoring and protective clothing; standardization and automation; and administrative controls. Although alpha, beta, gamma technologies have developed separately, equipment used in radioactive work is common to many operations. There is a step change in technology between work with uranium and plutonium and between work with plutonium and other transuranics; with plutonium one enters the field of alpha, beta, gamma technology. This manual reports the basic requirements and gives reference to more sophisticated techniques available. It is not concerned with work on a commercial scale. Other publications of interest in this context, for instance IAEA Safety Series No.39, are referenced for more detailed information.

  11. Sandia National Laboratories environmental fluid dynamics code. Marine Hydrokinetic Module User's Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Scott Carlton; Roberts, Jesse D

    2014-03-01

    This document describes the marine hydrokinetic (MHK) input file and subroutines for the Sandia National Laboratories Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (SNL-EFDC), which is a combined hydrodynamic, sediment transport, and water quality model based on the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) developed by John Hamrick [1], formerly sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and now maintained by Tetra Tech, Inc. SNL-EFDC has been previously enhanced with the incorporation of the SEDZLJ sediment dynamics model developed by Ziegler, Lick, and Jones [2-4]. SNL-EFDC has also been upgraded to more accurately simulate algae growth with specific application to optimizing biomass in an open-channel raceway for biofuels production [5]. A detailed description of the input file containing data describing the MHK device/array is provided, along with a description of the MHK FORTRAN routine. Both a theoretical description of the MHK dynamics as incorporated into SNL-EFDC and an explanation of the source code are provided. This user manual is meant to be used in conjunction with the original EFDC [6] and sediment dynamics SNL-EFDC manuals [7]. Through this document, the authors provide information for users who wish to model the effects of an MHK device (or array of devices) on a flow system with EFDC and who also seek a clear understanding of the source code, which is available from staff in the Water Power Technologies Department at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  12. A manual for a Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) for light stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplen, Tyler B.

    1998-01-01

    The reliability and accuracy of isotopic data can be improved by utilizing database software to (i) store information about samples, (ii) store the results of mass spectrometric isotope-ratio analyses of samples, (iii) calculate analytical results using standardized algorithms stored in a database, (iv) normalize stable isotopic data to international scales using isotopic reference materials, and (v) generate multi-sheet paper templates for convenient sample loading of automated mass-spectrometer sample preparation manifolds. Such a database program is presented herein. Major benefits of this system include (i) an increase in laboratory efficiency, (ii) reduction in the use of paper, (iii) reduction in workload due to the elimination or reduction of retyping of data by laboratory personnel, and (iv) decreased errors in data reported to sample submitters. Such a database provides a complete record of when and how often laboratory reference materials have been analyzed and provides a record of what correction factors have been used through time. It provides an audit trail for stable isotope laboratories. Since the original publication of the manual for LIMS for Light Stable Isotopes, the isotopes 3 H, 3 He, and 14 C, and the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113, have been added to this program.

  13. Laboratory training manual on the use of nuclear techniques in insect research and control. 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Isotopes are commonly used in agricultural research in developed countries, but because of a lack of both training and equipment isotopic techniques are not frequently used in developing countries. This manual has been prepared with the aim of helping entomologists and others responsible for the control of insects in developing countries become familiar with the potential uses of isotopes and radiation in solving some of their research and insect control problems. After chapters dealing with radiation safety, the general properties of radiation and isotopes (especially those used by entomologists), and radiation detection and assay of radioactivity, two further chapters discuss applications to entomological problems and the sterile insect technique. Numerous case studies are described, and the final chapter also includes a description of eight laboratory exercises to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation and chemosterilants on insects. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Manually-Operated Crate Dismantlement System for Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laffitte, John; Lagos, Leo; Morales, Miguel

    2002-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory currently possesses between 500 and 800 fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates that contain hazardous materials that need to be decontaminated. To access the hazardous material, a system is needed to dismantle the crate. Currently, crates are dismantled by workers using hand-held tools. This technique has numerous disadvantages. One disadvantage is that it is difficult for a worker to hold the tool for an extended period of time in the awkward angles and positions necessary to fully size-reduce the crate. Other disadvantages of using hand tools include managing power cords and vacuum hoses, which become entangled or can act as tripping hazards. In order to improve the crate opening and size-reduction task, Florida International University's Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) is developing a manually operated crate dismantlement system. This versatile system is expected to greatly increase worker efficiency while decreasing fatigue and the possibility of accidents. (authors)

  15. Laboratory training manual on the use of isotopes and radiation in entomology. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The revised manual, which incorporates changes particularly regarding applied aspects, consists of 7 parts. Part 1 is divided into separate chapters on the properties of radionuclides and radiations; radiation detection and assay of radioactivity; radiation protection; tracer methodology; 15 N determination; and neutron moderation and γ-ray attentuation techniques. Part 2 is concerned with radiobiology. References and a bibliography are supplied with each part. Part 3 contains 17 mental exercises, part 4 laboratory exercises on a GM counter; a scintillation counter; contamination and decontamination; and exercises on basic utilization principles. Part 5 considers radioisotope uptake and excretion paths through the insect organism; principles of internal and external tagging; with emphasis on insect physiology and ecology; various experiments on insects, and insect sterilization using 60 Co and chemosterilants. Eight Appendices and a Glossary of some basic terms and concepts constitute parts 6 and 7, respectively

  16. Costs of Tractor Ownership under Different Management Systems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Costs of Tractor Ownership under Different Management Systems in Nigeria. ... It requires high initial capital investment. ... making management plans and decisions especially in comparing different tractor types and models thereby assisting ...

  17. Advanced CNC and CAM Series. Educational Resources for the Machine Tool Industry. Course Syllabi, Instructor's Handbook [and] Student Laboratory Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas State Technical Coll. System, Waco.

    This package consists of course syllabi, an instructor's handbook, and student laboratory manual for a 1-year vocational training program to prepare students for entry-level positions as advanced computer numerical control (CNC) and computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM) technicians.. The program was developed through a modification of the DACUM…

  18. Inter-laboratory variation in in vitro gas production profiles of some selected feeds, using both manual and automated methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rymer, C.; Williams, B.A.; Brooks, A.E.; Davies, D.R.; Givens, D.I.

    2005-01-01

    A study was conducted to estimate variation among laboratories and between manual and automated techniques of measuring pressure on the resulting gas production profiles (GPP). Eight feeds (molassed sugarbeet feed, grass silage, maize silage, soyabean hulls, maize gluten feed, whole crop wheat

  19. Innovative strategy for effective critical laboratory result management: end-to-end process using automation and manual call centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ti, Lian Kah; Ang, Sophia Bee Leng; Saw, Sharon; Sethi, Sunil Kumar; Yip, James W L

    2012-08-01

    Timely reporting and acknowledgement are crucial steps in critical laboratory results (CLR) management. The authors previously showed that an automated pathway incorporating short messaging system (SMS) texts, auto-escalation, and manual telephone back-up improved the rate and speed of physician acknowledgement compared with manual telephone calling alone. This study investigated if it also improved the rate and speed of physician intervention to CLR and whether utilising the manual back-up affected intervention rates. Data from seven audits between November 2007 and January 2011 were analysed. These audits were carried out to assess the robustness of CLR reporting process in the authors' institution. Comparisons were made in the rate and speed of acknowledgement and intervention between the audits performed before and after automation. Using the automation audits, the authors compared intervention data between communication with SMS only and when manual intervention was required. 1680 CLR were reported during the audit periods. Automation improved the rate (100% vs 84.2%; pautomation audits, the use of SMS only did not improve physician intervention rates. The automated communication pathway improved physician intervention rate and time in tandem with improved acknowledgement rate and time when compared with manual telephone calling. The use of manual intervention to augment automation did not adversely affect physician intervention rate, implying that an end-to-end pathway was more important than automation alone.

  20. Design of a Novel Electro-hydraulic Drive Downhole Tractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Delei; Shang, Jianzhong; Yang, Junhong; Wang, Zhuo; Wu, Wei

    2018-02-01

    In order to improve the traction ability and the work efficiency of downhole tractor in oil field, a novel electro-hydraulic drive downhole tractor was designed. The tractor’s supporting mechanism and moving mechanism were analyzed based on the tractor mechanical structure. Through the introduction of hydraulic system, the hydraulic drive mechanism and the implementation process were researched. Based on software, analysis of tractor hydraulic drive characteristic and movement performance were simulated, which provide theoretical basis for the development of tractor prototype.

  1. ENHANCEMENT OF DURABILITY OF TRACTOR SUSPENSION AXLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Doshchechkina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The ‘soft’ nitriding of the suspension axle surface of the T150K tractor at the depth of 0.08 mm enables us to enhance its constructive strength, to increase its service life by 25 % and have a considerable economic effect.

  2. A mission planner for an autonomous tractor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochtis, Dionysis; Vougioukas, S.G.; Griepentrog, Hans W.

    2009-01-01

    . Using the tree hierarchy of the mission file, several actions are determined, including the sequence of points the tractor has to follow, the type of motion between successive points (e.g.,straight motion or maneuvering), the type of predefined turning routine used in maneuvering, and the actions...

  3. The use of fuzzy logic in quality control testing of automotive and tractor equipment

    OpenAIRE

    Korobko А.; Mykhailova О.; Nazarko О.; Radchenko Yu.

    2016-01-01

    The article analyzes the relevance of the research topics, defines goals and objectives, subject and object of research. On the basis of the literature analysis, the following eduction was made: not all the test methods in road and agricultural vehicles (tractors) contribute to the effective implementation of the requirements of normative documents including international, inter-laboratory comparative tests. The approach in laboratory testing to the synthesis adaptive system of metrological a...

  4. Sandia National Laboratories Facilities Management and Operations Center Design Standards Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fattor, Steven [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The manual contains general requirements that apply to nonnuclear and nonexplosive facilities. For design and construction requirements for modifications to nuclear or explosive facilities, see the project-specific design requirements noted in the Design Criteria.

  5. Sandia National Laboratories Facilities Management and Operations Center Design Standards Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Timothy L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    At Sandia National Laboratories in New Mexico (SNL/NM), the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of facilities is guided by industry standards, a graded approach, and the systematic analysis of life cycle benefits received for costs incurred. The design of the physical plant must ensure that the facilities are "fit for use," and provide conditions that effectively, efficiently, and safely support current and future mission needs. In addition, SNL/NM applies sustainable design principles, using an integrated whole-building design approach, from site planning to facility design, construction, and operation to ensure building resource efficiency and the health and productivity of occupants. The safety and health of the workforce and the public, any possible effects on the environment, and compliance with building codes take precedence over project issues, such as performance, cost, and schedule. These design standards generally apply to all disciplines on all SNL/NM projects. Architectural and engineering design must be both functional and cost-effective. Facility design must be tailored to fit its intended function, while emphasizing low-maintenance, energy-efficient, and energy-conscious design. Design facilities that can be maintained easily, with readily accessible equipment areas, low maintenance, and quality systems. To promote an orderly and efficient appearance, architectural features of new facilities must complement and enhance the existing architecture at the site. As an Architectural and Engineering (A/E) professional, you must advise the Project Manager when this approach is prohibitively expensive. You are encouraged to use professional judgment and ingenuity to produce a coordinated interdisciplinary design that is cost-effective, easily contractible or buildable, high-performing, aesthetically pleasing, and compliant with applicable building codes. Close coordination and development of civil, landscape, structural, architectural, fire

  6. A fuel cell driven aircraft baggage tractor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterkenburg, Stefan van [HAN Univ. of Applied Sciences (Netherlands); Rijs, Aart van; Hupkens, Huib [Silent Motor Company, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    Silent Motor Company and the HAN University of Applied Science collaborate in the development of an aircraft baggage tractor. The baggage tractor is equipped with an 8kW fuel cell stack connected to a 26kWh battery-pack. The control system implemented minimizes the start-up time of the fuel cell system, protects the fuel cell against overload and underload and controls the State of Charge (SOC) of the battery to its optimum value. A practical SOC-determination method is implemented which does not need detailed knowledge about the batteries applied. This paper presents a description of the fuel cell system, its energy management system and SOC-determination method and the results of first test measurements. (orig.)

  7. Laboratory manual for pulse-width modulated DC-DC power converters

    CERN Document Server

    Kazimierczuk, Marian K

    2015-01-01

    Designed to complement a range of power electronics study resources, this unique lab manual helps students to gain a deep understanding of the operation, modeling, analysis, design, and performance of pulse-width modulated (PWM) DC-DC power converters.  Exercises focus on three essential areas of power electronics: open-loop power stages; small-signal modeling, design of feedback loops and PWM DC-DC converter control schemes; and semiconductor devices such as silicon, silicon carbide and gallium nitride. Meeting the standards required by industrial employers, the lab manual combines program

  8. Research and Implementation of Tractor Power Shift Clutch Control System

    OpenAIRE

    Li Chengjun; Ke Meicong; Wu Youyu

    2018-01-01

    Applying power shift control technology on tractor can improve the power, economy and driving comfort of tractor. The separation and engagement control of clutch in tractor power shift transmission system is the key factor to optimize the quality of shift. Through many experiments and tests, an electronic control unit based on MC9S12 was developed, and an effective clutch control strategy was put forward, which improved the jerk of power shift and shortened the gear shift time.

  9. Special study for the manual transfer of process samples from CPP [Chemical Processing Plant] 601 to RAL [Remote Analytical Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marts, D.J.

    1987-05-01

    A study of alternate methods to manually transport radioactive samples from their glove boxes to the Remote Analytical Laboratory (RAL) was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The study was performed to mitigate the effects of a potential loss of sampling capabilities that could take place if a malfunction in the Pneumatic Transfer System (PTS) occurred. Samples are required to be taken from the cell glove boxes and analyzed at the RAL regardless of the operational status of the PTS. This paper documents the conclusions of the study and how a decision was reached that determined the best handling scenarios for manually transporting 15 mL vials of liquid process samples from the K, W, U, WG, or WH cell glove boxes in the Chemical Processing Plant (CPP) 601 to the RAL. This study of methods to manually remove the samples from the glove boxes, package them for safe shipment, transport them by the safest route, receive them at the RAL, and safely unload them was conducted by EG and G Idaho, Inc., for Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company as part of the Glove Box Sampling and Transfer System Project for the Fuel Processing Facilities Upgrade, Task 10, Subtask 2. The study focused on the safest and most reliable scenarios that could be implemented using existing equipment. Hardware modifications and new hardware proposals were identified, and their impact on the handling scenario has been evaluated. A conclusion was reached that by utilizing the existing facility hardware, these samples can be safely transported manually from the sample stations in CPP 601 to the RAL, and that additional hardware could facilitate the transportation process even further

  10. The use of fuzzy logic in quality control testing of automotive and tractor equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobko А.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the relevance of the research topics, defines goals and objectives, subject and object of research. On the basis of the literature analysis, the following eduction was made: not all the test methods in road and agricultural vehicles (tractors contribute to the effective implementation of the requirements of normative documents including international, inter-laboratory comparative tests. The approach in laboratory testing to the synthesis adaptive system of metrological assurance the use of fuzzy logic is proposed. These labs conduct testing of automotive and tractor equipment. The decision is under risk. The scheme of metrological assurance system covers all parties to ensure the necessary accuracy of measurements and tests; the necessary normative-technical documentation is provided; availability of measuring instruments and test equipment, standards and reference measures; availability of qualified personnel; the assurance that test results are accurate (correct and precision; provides effective decisions based on objective information.

  11. Laboratory training manual on the use of nuclear techniques in animal nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This Manual is planned to introduce the basic principles of work with radiotracers in a logical order. Each principle is then illustrated by means of practical exercises, which are described in detail so that students can perform them with little tutorial supervision

  12. Photovoltaic: Instructional Manual. The North Dakota High Technology Mobile Laboratory Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Herbert J.

    This instructional manual contains 11 learning activity packets for use in a workshop on photovoltaic converters. The lessons cover the following topics: introduction; solar radiation--input for photovoltaic converters; photovoltaic cells; solar electric generator systems; characteristics of silicon cells; photovoltaic module source resistance;…

  13. Laser & Fiber Optics: Instructional Manual. The North Dakota High Technology Mobile Laboratory Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickhoff, Luvern R.

    This instructional manual contains 20 learning activity packets for use in a workshop on lasers and fiber optics. The lessons cover the following topics: what a laser; coherent light; setting up the laser; characteristics of the laser beam; scattering of light; laser beam divergence, intensity, color, ophthalmology, and reflections; directivity of…

  14. Operating manual for the emission spectrometer NOI-6e for laboratory use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albornoz G, M.P.

    1993-08-01

    This manual describes graphically and specifically how to operate the Emission Spectrometer NOI-6e. Detailed instructions are given for everything form turning on the equipment, quality control of several parameters, calibration, sample analysis; measurements and obtaining final results form the microprocessors. (author)

  15. Developing Basic Math Skills for Marketing. Student Manual and Laboratory Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klewer, Edwin D.

    Field tested with students in grades 10-12, this manual is designed to teach students in marketing courses basic mathematical concepts. The instructional booklet contains seven student assignments covering the following topics: why basic mathematics is so important, whole numbers, fractions, decimals, percentages, weights and measures, and dollars…

  16. Enhanced Gravity Tractor Technique for Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Reeves, David M.; Hopkins, Joshua B.; Wade, Darren W.; Tantardini, Marco; Shen, Haijun

    2015-01-01

    Given sufficient warning time, Earth-impacting asteroids and comets can be deflected with a variety of different "slow push/pull" techniques. The gravity tractor is one technique that uses the gravitational attraction of a rendezvous spacecraft to the impactor and a low-thrust, high-efficiency propulsion system to provide a gradual velocity change and alter its trajectory. An innovation to this technique, known as the Enhanced Gravity Tractor (EGT), uses mass collected in-situ to augment the mass of the spacecraft, thereby greatly increasing the gravitational force between the objects. The collected material can be a single boulder, multiple boulders, regolith or a combination of different sources. The collected mass would likely range from tens to hundreds of metric tons depending on the size of the impactor and warning time available. Depending on the propulsion system's capability and the mass collected, the EGT approach can reduce the deflection times by a factor of 10 to 50 or more, thus reducing the deflection times of several decades to years or less and overcoming the main criticism of the traditional gravity tractor approach. Additionally, multiple spacecraft can orbit the target in formation to provide the necessary velocity change and further reduce the time needed by the EGT technique to divert hazardous asteroids and comets. The robotic segment of NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) will collect a multi-ton boulder from the surface of a large Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) and will provide the first ever demonstration of the EGT technique and validate one method of collecting in-situ mass on an asteroid of hazardous size.

  17. 30 CFR 77.409 - Shovels, draglines, and tractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shovels, draglines, and tractors. 77.409... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.409 Shovels, draglines, and tractors. (a) Shovels... the operator prior to starting operation. (b) Shovels and draglines shall be equipped with handrails...

  18. Agricultural Tractor Safety on Public Roads and Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation, Washington, DC.

    This study investigated the extent, causes, and means of preventing agricultural tractor accidents. The report includes an estimate of annual tractor-related deaths, an identification of the primary causes of such accidents with consideration of the major hazards causing death or injury, and recommendations or means for preventing the occurrence…

  19. Quality Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Michael

    The quality manual is the “heart” of every management system related to quality. Quality assurance in analytical laboratories is most frequently linked with ISO/IEC 17025, which lists the standard requirements for a quality manual. In this chapter examples are used to demonstrate, how these requirements can be met. But, certainly, there are many other ways to do this.

  20. Realization of compact tractor beams using acoustic delay-lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzo, A.; Ghobrial, A.; Cox, L.; Caleap, M.; Croxford, A.; Drinkwater, B. W.

    2017-01-01

    A method for generating stable ultrasonic levitation of physical matter in air using single beams (also known as tractor beams) is demonstrated. The method encodes the required phase modulation in passive unit cells into which the ultrasonic sources are mounted. These unit cells use waveguides such as straight and coiled tubes to act as delay-lines. It is shown that a static tractor beam can be generated using a single electrical driving signal, and a tractor beam with one-dimensional movement along the propagation direction can be created with two signals. Acoustic tractor beams capable of holding millimeter-sized polymer particles of density 1.25 g/cm3 and fruit-flies (Drosophila) are demonstrated. Based on these design concepts, we show that portable tractor beams can be constructed with simple components that are readily available and easily assembled, enabling applications in industrial contactless manipulation and biophysics.

  1. Filtration Systems Design for Universal Oils in Agricultural Tractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Majdan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Three filtration systems using the tractor hydraulic circuit were proposed and verified during the tractors operation. Using the tractor-implement hydraulic system and filter body with accessories the universally useful filtration systems were designed. The designed filtration systems are the second stage of universal oil filtration whereas the first stage is the standard tractor filter. The decrease in the content of iron reached the values 25.53 %, 32.95 % and 41.55 % and the average decrease in oil contamination characterized by average value of decrease in content of iron, copper and silicium reached values 24.3 %, 24.7 % and 35.53 % in dependence on the filtration system and an oil contamination level. The decrease in contamination level verified the ability of designed filtration systems for agricultural tractors.

  2. Coca-Cola Refreshments Class 8 Diesel Electric Hybrid Tractor Evaluation: 13-Month Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkowicz, K.; Lammert, M.; Curran, P.

    2012-08-01

    This 13-month evaluation used five Kenworth T370 hybrid tractors and five Freightliner M2106 standard diesel tractors at a Coca Cola Refreshments facility in Miami, Florida. The primary objective was to evaluate the fuel economy, emissions, and operational field performance of hybrid electric vehicles when compared to similar-use conventional diesel vehicles. A random dispatch system ensures the vehicles are used in a similar manner. GPS logging, fueling, and maintenance records and laboratory dynamometer testing are used to evaluate the performance of these hybrid tractors. Both groups drive similar duty cycles with similar kinetic intensity (0.95 vs. 0.69), average speed (20.6 vs. 24.3 mph), and stops per mile (1.9 vs. 1.5). The study demonstrated the hybrid group had a 13.7% fuel economy improvement over the diesel group. Laboratory fuel economy and field fuel economy study showed similar trends along the range of KI and stops per mile. Hybrid maintenance costs were 51% lower per mile; hybrid fuel costs per mile were 12% less than for the diesels; and hybrid vehicle total cost of operation per mile was 24% less than the cost of operation for the diesel group.

  3. PROBLEMS OF FORMATION OF RUSSIAN INNOVATIVE AGRICULTURAL TRACTORS FLEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Kryazhkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation of tractors park and its perspective development are carried out on the basis of realization and improvement of the scientifically based types range constructed on a traction classification sign which conforms to requirements of agricultural production when performing two main conditions: full meeting the requirements for various standard sizes of tractors applicable to conditions of the corresponding zones of Russia and continuous reproduction and development of tractor fleet, both by quantity of efficient machinery and its structure. The developed types range practically runs the gamut of organizational and economic and climatic conditions, and also all range of forms of the organizations using machinery, beginning from individual consumers, small and large rent and contract collectives and finishing large-scale enterprises and their associations. Federal Service of State Statistics (Rosstat information about a steady tendency of fleet reduction was used for studying of regularities of development of tractor fleet. This information was added by analytical synthesis of data about the annual brand purchases in the Russian market of agricultural tractors. The developed database shows a share of the tractors in fleets of agricultural organizations, which are used over depreciation term, and also minimum necessary number of new machines introduction for formation of volume of tractors with limit age and the total quantity of tractors necessary for minimization of set of expenses. It was established that it is possible to estimate visually the developed quantitative and age structure of tractors fleet and to predict its development on prospect by worked out database representing set of annual tractors brand lines purchasing.

  4. Laboratory Training Manual on the Use of Isotopes and Radiation in Entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria).

    This publication should be useful for those who are interested in the theory and application of isotopes and radiation in agriculture and entomology. There are two main parts in the publication. Part I, entitled Basic Part, includes topics which an individual should know about radioisotopes and radiation. There are laboratory exercises included in…

  5. The procedures manual of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory. Volume 2, 28. edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chieco, N.A. [ed.

    1997-02-01

    This report contains environmental sampling and analytical chemistry procedures that are performed by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory. The purpose of environmental sampling and analysis is to obtain data that describe a particular site at a specific point in time from which an evaluation can be made as a basis for possible action.

  6. Quality assurance manual for the Department of Energy laboratory accreditation program for personnel dosimetry systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    The overall purpose of this document is to establish a uniform approach to quality assurance. This will ensure that uniform, high-quality personnel dosimetry practices are followed by the participating testing laboratories. The document presents guidelines for calibrating and maintaining measurement and test equipment (M and TE), calibrating radiation fields, and subsequently irradiating and handling personnel dosimeters in laboratories involved in the DOE dosimetry systems testing program. Radiation energies for which the test procedures apply are photons with approximately 15 keV to 2 MeV, beta particles above 0.3 MeV, neutrons with approximately 1 keV to 2 MeV. 12 refs., 4 tabs

  7. Ergonomic assessment of some commonly used tractors in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A Rostami

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Different models of tractors have been imported from foreign countries or assembled in Iran for many years. Consistency of foreign manufactured products with native specifications and the improvement of locally manufactured tractors are important problems that must be considered. Moreover, tractor dimensions, sitting space and some other important factors such as the ability of Iranian users to operate them must be taken into consideration. In this study, we surveyed the proper proportion of tractors dimension, location of control tools and driver’s work space, with Iranian users’ anthropometric data of drivers from five provinces. Human factors are of paramount importance in developing farm machinery given that these machines will often be operated by persons with minimum skills. Therefore, farm machinery should be made simple to operate and as free from hazards as possible. Materials and methods: Firstly, the anthropometric data for 250 users 20-60 years old was calculated. The drivers were selected randomly. Then the specifications of 4 tractors including: Ferguson 285, Ferguson 399, Valtra and New Holland were compared with the anthropometric data of user in 5th and 95th percentile value and their adaptation was studied. Anthropometric Data of subjects consisted of: standing height, full hand length, popliteal length, seat pan width, seat pan depth, elbow height, seat back support height, hand pan width, hand grip and full-leg length. Getting on the tractor is the first contact of an operator with a tractor. In assessing the suitability of the provision made for getting on the tractor, an experiment was arranged in which operators tried to get on 3 tractors. The mode of getting on the tractors, the agony on the operator’s face, the muscular reactions and individual opinion on the difficulties or comfort while undertaking the task were observed and recorded. The specifications of tractors compared with Anthropometric Data

  8. The evaluations regarding tractor usage in farms in Eskişehir province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neşe ALTINTAŞ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Farmers’ demand of tractor, buying attitudes and satisfaction of tractor use are very important determinant for the decision makers in the sector. It is necessary that to be research of conditions of tractor use in farms and to be achieved certain data for efficient use of tractor in agricultural production. The survey forms which were prepared for this purpose have been filled in 2013 with 122 farmers which tractor owner and have been evaluated.

  9. Steering a Tractor by Means of an EMG-Based Human-Machine Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Alonso-Garcia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An electromiographic (EMG-based human-machine interface (HMI is a communication pathway between a human and a machine that operates by means of the acquisition and processing of EMG signals. This article explores the use of EMG-based HMIs in the steering of farm tractors. An EPOC, a low-cost human-computer interface (HCI from the Emotiv Company, was employed. This device, by means of 14 saline sensors, measures and processes EMG and electroencephalographic (EEG signals from the scalp of the driver. In our tests, the HMI took into account only the detection of four trained muscular events on the driver’s scalp: eyes looking to the right and jaw opened, eyes looking to the right and jaw closed, eyes looking to the left and jaw opened, and eyes looking to the left and jaw closed. The EMG-based HMI guidance was compared with manual guidance and with autonomous GPS guidance. A driver tested these three guidance systems along three different trajectories: a straight line, a step, and a circumference. The accuracy of the EMG-based HMI guidance was lower than the accuracy obtained by manual guidance, which was lower in turn than the accuracy obtained by the autonomous GPS guidance; the computed standard deviations of error to the desired trajectory in the straight line were 16 cm, 9 cm, and 4 cm, respectively. Since the standard deviation between the manual guidance and the EMG-based HMI guidance differed only 7 cm, and this difference is not relevant in agricultural steering, it can be concluded that it is possible to steer a tractor by an EMG-based HMI with almost the same accuracy as with manual steering.

  10. Tractor performance monitor based on a single-chip microcomputer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedri, A.R.; Marley, S.J.; Buchelle, W.F.; Smay, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    A tractor performance monitor based on a single-chip microcomputer was developed to measure ground speed, slip, fuel consumption (rate and total), total area, theoretical time, and total time. Transducers used are presented in detail. 5 refs.

  11. performance (assessment) of two- wheel tractors for small holder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHIKA

    and easy operation and maintenance; reasonably rugged ... whole the professional two- wheel tractor is expected to have ... in order to achieve reasonable productivity in developing .... producers of both food and cash crops in. Nigeria, power ...

  12. A SURVEY OF FARM TRACTOR MANAGEMENT IN ZAMFARA STATE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... farm tractor, maintenance, management, mechanization, survey study. 1. Introduction ... demand for agricultural operations, there is an ever .... 3rd Ed., AVI Publishing. Company, Inc., Westport, Connecticut, 1978. 8. Apollos ...

  13. Pulling cylindrical particles using a soft-nonparaxial tractor beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Ding, Weiqiang; Wang, Maoyan

    2017-01-01

    In order to pull objects towards the light source a single tractor beam inevitably needs to be strongly nonparaxial. This stringent requirement makes such a tractor beam somewhat hypothetical. Here we reveal that the cylindrical shape of dielectric particles can effectively mitigate the nonparaxi......In order to pull objects towards the light source a single tractor beam inevitably needs to be strongly nonparaxial. This stringent requirement makes such a tractor beam somewhat hypothetical. Here we reveal that the cylindrical shape of dielectric particles can effectively mitigate...... the nonparaxiality requirements, reducing the incidence angle of the partial plane waves of the light beam down to 45 degrees and even to 30 degrees for respectively dipole and dipole-quadrupole objects. The optical pulling force attributed to the interaction of magnetic dipole and magnetic quadrupole moments...... and sorting of targeted particles....

  14. Operating manual for the emission spectrometer NOI-6e for laboratory use; Manual de operacion de manejo del espectrometro de emision NOI-6e para uso de laboratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albornoz G, M P

    1993-08-01

    This manual describes graphically and specifically how to operate the Emission Spectrometer NOI-6e. Detailed instructions are given for everything form turning on the equipment, quality control of several parameters, calibration, sample analysis; measurements and obtaining final results form the microprocessors. (author).

  15. An experimental investigation of exhaust emission from agricultural tractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gholami, Rashid; Rabbani, Hekmat; Lorestani, Ali Nejat; Javadikia, Payam; Jaliliantabar, Farzad [Mechanics of Agricultural Machinery Department, Razi University of Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Agricultural machinery is an important source of emission of air pollutant in rural locations. Emissions of a specific tractor engine mainly depend on engine speed. Various driving methods and use of implements with different work capacities can affect the engine load. This study deals with the effects of types of tractors and operation conditions on engine emission. In this study two types of agricultural tractors (MF285 and U650) and some tillage implements such as centrifugal type spreader, boom type sprayer and rotary tiller were employed. Some of the exhausted gases from both tractors in each condition were measured such as, hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), oxygen (O2) and nitrogen oxide (NO). Engine oil temperature was measured at every step for both types of tractors. Difference between steady-state condition and operation conditions was evaluated. The results showed all exhaust gases that measured and engine oil temperature at every operation conditions are higher than steady-state condition. A general conclusion of the work was that, using various implements and employing different types of tractors effect on engine emissions. The results of variance analysis showed all exhausted gases had a significant relationship with types of implements used at 1%. Also, all exhausted gases except CO had a significant relationship with types of tractors. A further conclusion was that NO emission increased as engine oil temperature increased. The final conclusion was about the difference between MF285 and U650; using U650 at operation conditions is better than MF285 in terms of pollution.

  16. The Influence of Tractor-Seat Height above the Ground on Lateral Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Gomez-Gil

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Farmers experience whole-body vibrations when they drive tractors. Among the various factors that influence the vibrations to which the driver is exposed are terrain roughness, tractor speed, tire type and pressure, rear axle width, and tractor seat height above the ground. In this paper the influence of tractor seat height above the ground on the lateral vibrations to which the tractor driver is exposed is studied by means of a geometrical and an experimental analysis. Both analyses show that: (i lateral vibrations experienced by a tractor driver increase linearly with tractor-seat height above the ground; (ii lateral vibrations to which the tractor driver is exposed can equal or exceed vertical vibrations; (iii in medium-size tractors, a feasible 30 cm reduction in the height of the tractor seat, which represents only 15% of its current height, will reduce the lateral vibrations by around 20%; and (iv vertical vibrations are scarcely influenced by tractor-seat height above the ground. The results suggest that manufacturers could increase the comfort of tractors by lowering tractor-seat height above the ground, which will reduce lateral vibrations.

  17. Waste characterization data manual for the inactive liquid low-level waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This Waste Characterization Data Manual contains the results of an analysis of the contents of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks that have been removed from service in accordance with the requirements of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Federal Facility Agreement (FFA), Sect. IX.G.1. This manual contains the results of sampling activities that were conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1988. Thirty-three tanks were sampled and analyzed at that time. Sampling of the remaining inactive tanks is currently underway, and data from these tanks will be added to this manual as they become available. Data are presented from analysis of volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, radiochemical compounds, and inorganic compounds

  18. Waste characterization data manual for the inactive liquid low-level waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    This Waste Characterization Data Manual contains the results of an analysis of the contents of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks that have been removed from service in accordance with the requirements of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Federal Facility Agreement (FFA), Sect. IX.G.1. This manual contains the results of sampling activities that were conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1988. Thirty-three tanks were sampled and analyzed at that time. Sampling of the remaining inactive tanks is currently underway, and data from these tanks will be added to this manual as they become available. Data are presented from analysis of volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, radiochemical compounds, and inorganic compounds.

  19. Waste characterization data manual for the inactive liquid low-level waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    This Waste Characterization Data Manual contains the results of an analysis of the contents of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks that have been removed from service in accordance with the requirements of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Federal Facility Agreement (FFA), Sect. IX.G.1. This manual contains the results of sampling activities that were conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1988. Thirty-three tanks were sampled and analyzed at that time. Sampling of the remaining inactive tanks is currently underway, and data from these tanks will be added to this manual as they become available. Data are presented from analysis of volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, radiochemical compounds, and inorganic compounds.

  20. PARAMETER MATCHING OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND ELECTROMECHANICAL POWER TRAIN OF WHEEL TRACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kliuchnikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers stepless electromechanical power train of a wheel tractor. Methodology for parameter matching of electromechanical transmission and internal combustion engine for their optimum performance as part of a power wheel tractor unit. 

  1. Wireline tractor production logging experience in Australian horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Local, E.; Searight, T. L.

    1998-12-31

    Australian experiences with the development of new wireline tractor technology and its successful application to deploy production logging tools in horizontal wells was discussed. Dynamics of the tractor operations have been modelled and the model was validated with field data. The field data was also used to quantify borehole friction coefficients. Successful application in the field indicates that the tough tubing capability of the tractor, combined with its capacity to drive in large casing sizes, makes wireline deployment possible in a wide range of well completions. Work on a number of new applications such as the capability to negotiate complex downhole hardware, and to intervene in completions with widely differing tubing diameters, is in progress. 5 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  2. The Tractor and Semitrailer Routing Considering Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqi Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of the minimization of carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions in the VRP is important to logistics companies. The paper deals with the tractor and semitrailer routing problem with full truckload between any two depots of the network; an integer programming model with the objective of minimizing CO2 emissions per ton-kilometer is proposed. A two-stage approach with the same core steps of the simulated annealing (SA in both stages is designed. The number of tractors is provided in the first stage and the CO2 emissions per ton-kilometer are then optimized in the second stage. Computational experiments on small-scale randomly generated instances supported the feasibility and validity of the heuristic algorithm. To a practical-scale problem, the SA algorithm can provide advice on the number of tractors, the routes, and the location of the central depot to realize CO2 emissions decrease.

  3. 49 CFR 399.207 - Truck and truck-tractor access requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Exception. If air and electrical connections necessary to couple or uncouple a truck-tractor from a trailer... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Truck and truck-tractor access requirements. 399... Vehicles § 399.207 Truck and truck-tractor access requirements. (a) General rule. Any person entering or...

  4. Endophytic Fungi of Various Medicinal Plants Collected From Evergreen Forest Baluran National Park and Its Potential as Laboratory Manual for Mycology Course

    OpenAIRE

    Murdiyah, Siti

    2017-01-01

    Endophytic fungi found on a variety of medicinal plants may express particular benefit. These fungi provide an alternative to overcome the progressive microbial resistance and as an effort to combat infectious diseases that became one of the leading causes of mortality. The main objective of this study was to isolate endophytic fungi from leaf samples of five medicinal plants species collected from evergreen forests Baluran National Park and its use as laboratory manual for Micology. Research...

  5. A spatial cluster analysis of tractor overturns in Kentucky from 1960 to 2002.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M Saman

    Full Text Available Agricultural tractor overturns without rollover protective structures are the leading cause of farm fatalities in the United States. To our knowledge, no studies have incorporated the spatial scan statistic in identifying high-risk areas for tractor overturns. The aim of this study was to determine whether tractor overturns cluster in certain parts of Kentucky and identify factors associated with tractor overturns.A spatial statistical analysis using Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic was performed to identify county clusters at greatest risk for tractor overturns. A regression analysis was then performed to identify factors associated with tractor overturns.The spatial analysis revealed a cluster of higher than expected tractor overturns in four counties in northern Kentucky (RR = 2.55 and 10 counties in eastern Kentucky (RR = 1.97. Higher rates of tractor overturns were associated with steeper average percent slope of pasture land by county (p = 0.0002 and a greater percent of total tractors with less than 40 horsepower by county (p<0.0001.This study reveals that geographic hotspots of tractor overturns exist in Kentucky and identifies factors associated with overturns. This study provides policymakers a guide to targeted county-level interventions (e.g., roll-over protective structures promotion interventions with the intention of reducing tractor overturns in the highest risk counties in Kentucky.

  6. Effect of Tractor Forward Speed on Sandy Loam Soil Physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results indicate significant differences in soil physical conditions arising from different levels of tractor forward speed. A forward speed of approximately 7km/h resulted in appreciable amelioration of soil structure as reflected in improvements in the soil strength properties and maximum reduction in clod mean weight ...

  7. SmartWay Mark Signature Page: Tractors & Trailers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SmartWay agreement is for companies and organizations who wish to comply with the SmartWay Graphic Standards and Usage Guide guidelines and requirements for using the SmartWay logos on SmartWay designated Tractors and Trailers.

  8. Assay in engine of agricultural tractor with biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Reny Adilmar Prestes; Meyer, Wagner [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (DEA/CCA/UEM), Cidade Gaucha, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: raplopes@uem.br; Pinheiro Neto, Raimundo; Pinheiro, Andreia Cristina [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (DAG/CCA/UEM), PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Agronomia; Laurindo, Jose Carlos [Instituto de Tecnologia do Parana (CERBIO/TECPAR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Brasileiro de Referencia em Biocombustiveis; Biazzono, Sergio Luis [Instituto de Tecnologia do Parana (TECPAR), Maringa, PR (Brazil). Inspecao Veicular

    2008-07-01

    The use of biofuel in tractors of diesel engines and agricultural harvester, in the operations of soil preparation and harvest, is a good option of fuel economy for the agriculturist. For a good performance of the machine a good regulation is necessary. The experiment was carried through in the Experimental Farm Iguatemi of the State University of Maringa, Maringa - PR. A tractor Massey Ferguson MF275 was used for the assay connected to be even grating. It carried through if the assays of consumption of diesel (100%) and biofuel (diesel 80% + vegetable oil 20%). To carry through the assay tractor + grating with three openings and without load was used to be even set. The rotation without load and of work was of 1900 rpm and mean speed of 6 km h{sup -1}. The hourly consumption was verified by a test tube and a fluxgate OVAL Flow mate M III - LSF 45L0-M2 connected to data logger CR23X. The hourly consumption was express in L h{sup -1}. The engine of the tractor presented similar behavior of fuel consumption for diesel and biofuel. The mean values of consumption had been inside of the specified one for the manufacturer. Mixture 80% diesel + 20% vegetable oil can be used as biofuel in the engine in study. (author)

  9. Agricultural Tractor Selection: A Hybrid and Multi-Attribute Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L. García-Alcaraz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Usually, agricultural tractor investments are assessed using traditional economic techniques that only involve financial attributes, resulting in reductionist evaluations. However, tractors have qualitative and quantitative attributes that must be simultaneously integrated into the evaluation process. This article reports a hybrid and multi-attribute approach to assessing a set of agricultural tractors based on AHP-TOPSIS. To identify the attributes in the model, a survey including eighteen attributes was given to agricultural machinery salesmen and farmers for determining their importance. The list of attributes was presented to a decision group for a case of study, and their importance was estimated using AHP and integrated into the TOPSIS technique. In this case, one tractor was selected from a set of six alternatives, integrating six attributes in the model: initial cost, annual maintenance cost, liters of diesel per hour, safety of the operator, maintainability and after-sale customer service offered by the supplier. Based on the results obtained, the model can be considered easy to apply and to have good acceptance among farmers and salesmen, as there are no special software requirements for the application.

  10. Waste Characterization Data Manual for the inactive liquid low-level waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This Waste Characterization Data Manual contains the results of an analysis of the contents of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks that have been removed from service in accordance with the requirements of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Federal Facility Agreement (FFA), Section IX.G.1. Section IX.G.1 of the FFA requires waste characterizations be conducted and provided to EPA and TDEC for all LLLW tanks that are removed from service. These waste characterizations shall include the results of sampling and analysis of the tank contents, including wastes, liquids, and sludges. This manual was first issued as ORNL/ER-80 in June 1992. The waste characterization data were extracted from ORNL reports that described tank sampling and analysis conducted in 1988 for 32 out-of-service tanks. This revision of the manual contains waste characterization data for 54 tanks, including the 32 tanks from the 1988 sampling campaign (Sects. 2.1 through 2.32) and the 22 additional tanks from a subsequent sampling campaign in 1992 and 1993 (Sects. 2.33 through 2.54). Data are presented from analyses of volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, radiochemical compounds, and inorganic compounds. As additional data resulting from analyses of out-of-service tank samples become available, they will be added to this manual

  11. Biosafety Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Bruce W.

    2010-05-18

    Work with or potential exposure to biological materials in the course of performing research or other work activities at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) must be conducted in a safe, ethical, environmentally sound, and compliant manner. Work must be conducted in accordance with established biosafety standards, the principles and functions of Integrated Safety Management (ISM), this Biosafety Manual, Chapter 26 (Biosafety) of the Health and Safety Manual (PUB-3000), and applicable standards and LBNL policies. The purpose of the Biosafety Program is to protect workers, the public, agriculture, and the environment from exposure to biological agents or materials that may cause disease or other detrimental effects in humans, animals, or plants. This manual provides workers; line management; Environment, Health, and Safety (EH&S) Division staff; Institutional Biosafety Committee (IBC) members; and others with a comprehensive overview of biosafety principles, requirements from biosafety standards, and measures needed to control biological risks in work activities and facilities at LBNL.

  12. Computational Flow Modeling of a Simplified Integrated Tractor-Trailer Geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salari, K.; McWherter-Payne, M.

    2003-01-01

    For several years, Sandia National Laboratories and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have been part of a consortium funded by the Department of Energy to improve fuel efficiency of heavy vehicles such as Class 8 trucks through aerodynamic drag reduction. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of using the steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach to predict the flow field around heavy vehicles, with special emphasis on the base region of the trailer, and to compute the aerodynamic forces. In particular, Sandia's computational fluid dynamics code, SACCARA, was used to simulate the flow on a simplified model of a tractor-trailer vehicle. The results are presented and compared with NASA Ames experimental data to assess the predictive capability of RANS to model the flow field and predict the aerodynamic forces

  13. Endophytic Fungi of Various Medicinal Plants Collected From Evergreen Forest Baluran National Park and Its Potential as Laboratory Manual for Mycology Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Murdiyah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi found on a variety of medicinal plants may express particular benefit. These fungi provide an alternative to overcome the progressive microbial resistance and as an effort to combat infectious diseases that became one of the leading causes of mortality. The main objective of this study was to isolate endophytic fungi from leaf samples of five medicinal plants species collected from evergreen forests Baluran National Park and its use as laboratory manual for Micology. Research findings showed there were 3 isolates of endophytic fungi isolated from 2 medicinal plants namely Kesambi (Schleicera oleosa and Ketapang (Terminalia catappa. All three isolates formed sporangiophores as asexual reproductive structures, while the structure of sexual still undiscovered therefore its classification has not been determined. The validity tests also showed that the lab manual is feasible for use with the percentage achievement 85.37% and 88.56%.

  14. Design, development, and evaluation of an automatic guidance system for tractor tracking along the contour line on inclined surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Dehghani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Automatic guidance of tractors in the mechanized farming practice has taken the attention of agricultural engineers in the last two decades. For this to be truly practical on the farm, it should be economical, simple to operate and entirely contained on the vehicle. Different types of steering systems such as leader- cable, laser- controlled, radio- operated and contactor- type have been developed for automatic guidance. The automatic leveling system is used on hillside machines to keep the separator level when operating on hillsides. This system has three parts: fluid level system, electrical system and hydraulic system. The fluid level system consists of fluid reservoir and a leveling control switch box. The fluid level system actuates the electrical system of the leveling unit. The electrical system which actuated by the fluid system consist of four micro switches in the leveling control switch box, two micro switches in the limit control box, a solenoid in the hydraulic control level, manual leveling control switch, and a leveling limit warning light. The hydraulic system maintains the level of the separator when the machine is operating on a hillside. The present study was aimed to develop a reliable, versatile and easy to maintain system to fit our economy and low technology level of farmers for hillside- range development or fallow farming. The automatic guidance system has been implemented successfully on agricultural vehicles on the basis of three components, i.e. sensors, processors and actuator elements. The study site (N, latitude; E, longitude; and 1810 m above sea level was located at the Agricultural Research Center, Shiraz University, 15 km northwest of Shiraz, Fars Province, Iran. MF-399 agricultural tractor manufactured by ITMCO, Tabriz, Iran was used for doing the experiments. Materials and Methods:The Level Sensing System: The biaxial tilt industrial sensor (ZCT245AL- China with digital output can be connected

  15. Monitoring of the tractor working parameters from the CAN-Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovannni Molari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the tractor mission profile is one of the main objectives for tractor manufacturers. The mission profile has usually been estimated through the use of questionnaires submitted to consumers. This procedure is time-consuming and not totally reliable due to the trustworthiness in the questionnaire compilation. In all the high power tractors numerous transducers are fitted to monitor some parameters to optimise the operation of the machines. All of these transducers are connected to an electronic central unit or with the tractor CAN-Bus. In this context, a system able to monitor the working parameters of the machines capitalising the existing transducers could represent the optimal solution for monitoring tractors distributed in different regions. The high number of signals are in any case difficult to memorise without a high quantity of memory. The goal of the paper is to define a methodology to memorise the operation parameters useful to define the mission profile of a tractor using a small memory. A tractor of a nominal power of 230 kW was selected and a system able to measure the signals acquired by the transducers fitted on the tractor was connected to the CAN Bus of the tractor. After a detailed analysis of the parameters measured on the tractor, the useful parameters were defined and acquired in different working conditions. The analysis of the parameters stored in the memory has allowed a detailed analysis of the operational parameters of the tractor in different applications. These parameters could be used by engineers to design tractors with a higher quality and reliability and also to define predictive maintenance criteria and reduce unexpected tractor failures.

  16. Performance of an agricultural tractor in no tillage as a function of displacement speed and the seeders' tire inflation pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furlani, Carlos Eduardo Angeli; Cortez, Jorge Wilson; Silva, Rouverson Pereira da; Grotta, Danilo Cesar Checchio; Toledo, Anderson de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: furlani@fcav.unesp.br

    2008-07-01

    The performance of an agricultural tractor under field conditions results from the tire wheel interaction together with its displacement speed. This work was developed to assess the performance of an agricultural tractor under the (75, 70, and 60 psi) tire inflation pressure conditions of a seeder and in two different gears providing speeds of 3.0 and 6.0 km h{sup -1}. The experiment took place at Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), at the Jaboticabal Campus, and was conducted by Laboratory of Machines and Agricultural Mechanization (LAMMA) at the Department of Rural Engineering. The delineation used was entirely randomized in a 2-factor factorial scheme (3 x 2) with 4 repetitions. We also observed that fuel consumption was influenced only by the tractor gear. Energy consumption was greater as speed increased, caused by gear shifting. The displacement speed was greater for the 75-psi pressure due to a lesser slippage in the seeder when under this pressure. Tractor slippage and initial stand did not change with the tested factors. (author)

  17. TractoR: Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Tractography with R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris A. Clark

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Statistical techniques play a major role in contemporary methods for analyzing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data. In addition to the central role that classical statistical methods play in research using MRI, statistical modeling and machine learning techniques are key to many modern data analysis pipelines. Applications for these techniques cover a broad spectrum of research, including many preclinical and clinical studies, and in some cases these methods are working their way into widespread routine use. In this manuscript we describe a software tool called TractoR (for “Tractography with R”, a collection of packages for the R language and environment, along with additional infrastructure for straightforwardly performing common image processing tasks. TractoR provides general purpose functions for reading, writing and manipulating MR images, as well as more specific code for fitting signal models to diffusion MRI data and performing tractography, a technique for visualizing neural connectivity.

  18. Ergonomic assessment of drivers in MF285 and MF399 tractors during clutching using algometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Fallahi

    2016-03-01

    The results showed that the clutching forces for MF285 and MF399 tractors were 340 N and 290 N, respectively. The knee angle of the drivers of the two tractors was statistically different at the one percent level of significance. The reduction of pain threshold after 30 and 60 s clutching and also 60 s rest after clutching in MF285 tractor, for all three muscles, were more than those of MF399 tractor. The impact of clutching on the average decreases of pain threshold, for all drivers and all clutching periods, during and after clutching, in the Quadratus lumborum muscle was more than the other two muscles, in both tractors. In order to reduce the clutching force for MF285 tractor some modifications is suggested. In this regard the force transfer joint between the pedal and the clutch release linkage may be replaced with one made of cast iron.

  19. Manual versus automated streaking system in clinical microbiology laboratory: Performance evaluation of Previ Isola for blood culture and body fluid samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Qute; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Jong Wan; Kwon, Gye Cheol; Koo, Sun Hoe

    2018-01-04

    The process of plate streaking has been automated to improve routine workflow of clinical microbiology laboratories. Although there were many evaluation reports about the inoculation of various body fluid samples, few evaluations have been reported for blood. In this study, we evaluated the performance of automated inoculating system, Previ Isola for various routine clinical samples including blood. Blood culture, body fluid, and urine samples were collected. All samples were inoculated on both sheep blood agar plate (BAP) and MacConkey agar plate (MCK) using Previ Isola and manual method. We compared two methods in aspect of quality and quantity of cultures, and sample processing time. To ensure objective colony counting, an enumeration reading reference was made through a preliminary experiment. A total of 377 nonduplicate samples (102 blood culture, 203 urine, 72 body fluid) were collected and inoculated. The concordance rate of quality was 100%, 97.0%, and 98.6% in blood, urine, and other body fluids, respectively. In quantitative aspect, it was 98.0%, 97.0%, and 95.8%, respectively. The Previ Isola took a little longer to inoculate the specimen than manual method, but the hands-on time decreased dramatically. The shortened hands-on time using Previ Isola was about 6 minutes per 10 samples. We demonstrated that the Previ Isola showed high concordance with the manual method in the inoculation of various body fluids, especially in blood culture sample. The use of Previ Isola in clinical microbiology laboratories is expected to save considerable time and human resources. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Ergonomic assessment of drivers in MF285 and MF399 tractors during clutching using algometer

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Fallahi; Mohammad Hossein Abbaspour-Fard; Amin Azhari; Mehdi Khojastehpour; Amin Nikkhah

    2016-01-01

    Tractor as one of the most widely used agricultural machinery should be considered from different aspects. The frequent application of clutch and brake pedals and also the steering wheel within farms, along with the unfavorable working conditions, cause negative effects on the occupational health of the tractor drivers. Thus, in this research, the imposed forces on three engaged muscles including: Gastrocnemius, Trapezius and Quadrate’s lumborum of the tractor drivers during clutching have be...

  1. Accidents with tractors and agricultural machinery in public transport of Republic of Serbia without provinces

    OpenAIRE

    Gliogrevic, Kosta; Oljaca, Mico; Ruzicic, Lazar; Dimitrovski, Zoran

    2012-01-01

    Working processes in agriculture nowadays cannot be imagined without the use of modern agricultural mechanization, especially primary power unit, tractor. Along with the tractor unit development and the benefits induced by its application, according to the author’s research, these machines are one of the main causes of accidents with different types of violations of the participants, and the tragic consequences. The great number of those accidents with tractors and other agricultural machiner...

  2. A Wide Span Tractor concept developed for efficient and environmental friendly farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hans Henrik; Grøn Sørensen, Claus; Oudshoorn, Frank W

    2013-01-01

    agricultural machines a new Wide Span (WS) tractor concept has been designed and a prototype tractor with a span of 9.6 m (wheel centre to wheel centre) has been built. It is designed to optimise the Controlled Traffic Farming (CTF) system that is already in place on the vegetable farm where it is being tested....... The tractor is designed to carry out all operations during vegetable production including harvest. Using the tractor means that less than 10% of the field area is affected by compaction due to field traffic. The economical and environmental effects of such a wide span CTF growing system will be assessed....

  3. Social and Individual Influences on Tractor Operating Practices of Young Adult Agricultural Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolphi, Josie M; Campo, Shelly; Gerr, Fred; Rohlman, Diane S

    2018-05-01

    Tractor-related incidents are the leading cause of agricultural-related fatalities in the United States. Injuries from rollovers can be prevented by equipping tractors with rollover protective structures (ROPS, an engineering approach) and by using seatbelts (a behavior-based approach). While adult farmers report low seatbelt use and frequent use of tractors without ROPS, it is unknown whether the young adult population has adopted similar tractor driving practices. This study was designed to identify tractor operating practices among young adult agricultural workers and the influence of supervisors, peers, and parents on their safety behaviors. An online survey was conducted among college students enrolled in agricultural science classes in four Midwestern colleges and universities. Participants answered questions about their tractor operating practices, the influence of supervisors, peers, parents, and individual risk taking tendencies on their workplace practices. A tractor operation safety score was estimated from participants' responses. Linear regression was used to examine the association of these influences and the tractor operation safety score. Of the 193 respondents, most (78.8%) reported that they never or rarely wear a seatbelt when operating a tractor with a ROPS. Supervisory influences, such as being negatively evaluated by a supervisor, were found to be more strongly associated with tractor operating behaviors than peer or parent influence. Young adult agricultural workers frequently reported unsafe tractor operating behaviors. Supervisors were found to have the most influence over reported behaviors of young adult agricultural workers. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. User manual for EXCALIBUR: A FE-BI numerical laboratory for cavity-backed antennas in a circular cylinder, version 1.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempel, Leo C.

    1994-01-01

    The Finite Element-Boundary Integral (FE-BI) technique was used to analyze the scattering and radiation properties of cavity-backed patch antennas recessed in a metallic groundplane. A program, CAVITY3D, was written and found to yield accurate results for large arrays without the usual high memory and computational demand associated with competing formulations. Recently, the FE-BI approach was extended to cavity-backed antennas recessed in an infinite, metallic circular cylinder. EXCALIBUR is a computer program written in the Radiation Laboratory of the University of Michigan which implements this formulation. This user manual gives a brief introduction to EXCALIBUR and some hints as to its proper use. As with all computational electromagnetics programs (especially finite element programs), skilled use and best performance are only obtained through experience. However, several important aspects of the program such as portability, geometry generation, interpretation of results, and custom modification are addressed.

  5. Risk characterization data manual for Category D inactive liquid low-level waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    This manual reports the results of a risk characterization of Category D inactive liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The risk characterization is required by the Federal Facility Agreement between the Department of Energy-Oak Ridge Operations Office, the Environmental Protection Agency-Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. The intent of the risk characterization is to determine relative priorities for assessment and remediation. When the scores for all tanks had been weighted and summed, the tanks were ranked in descending order on the basis of their total scores. The highest possible score for a tank is 30. The descending order represents the recommended priorities for evaluation: the higher the score, the higher the priority for evaluation

  6. Artificial neural network applying for justification of tractors undercarriages parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Kuz’Min

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important properties that determine undercarriage layout on design stage is the soil compaction effect. Existing domestic standards of undercarriages impact to soil do not meet modern agricultural requirements completely. The authors justify the need for analysis of traction and transportation machines travel systems and recommendations for these parameters applied to machines that are on design or modernization stage. The database of crawler agricultural tractors particularly in such parameters as traction class and basic operational weight, engine power rating, average ground pressure, square of track basic branch surface area was modeled. Meanwhile the considered machines were divided into two groups by producing countries: Europe/North America and Russian Federation/CIS. The main graphical dependences for every group of machines are plotted, and the conforming analytical dependences within the ranges with greatest concentration of machines are generated. To make the procedure of obtaining parameters of the soil panning by tractors easier it is expedient to use the program tool - artificial neural network (or perceptron. It is necessary to apply to the solution of this task multilayered perceptron - neutron network of direct distribution of signals (without feedback. To carry out the analysis of parameters of running systems taking into account parameters of the soil panning by them and to recommend the choice of these parameters for newly created machines. The program code of artificial neural network is developed. On the basis of the created base of tractors the artificial neural network was created and tested. Accumulated error was not more than 5 percent. These data indicate the results accuracy and tool reliability. It is possible by operating initial design-data base and using the designed artificial neural network to define missing parameters.

  7. A Tractor or an Automobile? A 1920s Farm Family Faces a Decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, Joel P.

    1991-01-01

    Outlines a lesson plan in which students role play a 1920s farm family deciding whether to buy an automobile or a tractor. Other students act as automobile and tractor sales groups. Explains how the lesson illuminates relationships between technological advance and social history. Includes handouts identifying benefits of purchasing cars or…

  8. Evaluation of Massey Ferguson Model 165 Tractor Drivers exposed to whole-body vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Nassiri

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: This study shows that the need to provide intervention , controlling and managing measures to eliminate or reduce exposure to whole body vibration among tractor drivers its necessary. And, preventing main disorder Including musculoskeletal disorders, discomfort and early fatigue is of circular importance. More studies are also necessary to identify the sources of vibration among various of tractors.

  9. Vibration analysis on driver’s seat of agricultural tractors during tillage tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gialamas, T.; Gravalos, I.; Kateris, D.; Xyradakis, P.; Dimitriadis, C.

    2016-01-01

    The vibration of the driver’s seat of agricultural tractors was investigated during three alternative tillage operations. Three tractors including a range of specifications were considered, at a range of forward speeds. The interactions between the tractors, implements and speeds were examined using the SPSS program and the GLM-ANOVA method. The results analysis indicated that the tractors played the first major role in vibration development in the lateral axis and was followed by the implements. In contrast, the implements played the first major role in the development of vibration in the horizontal axis and are followed by factor tractors. The statistically significant effect in vertical and horizontal axes shows the factor implements. In addition, the statistically significant effect in the vertical and lateral axes shows again the implements to be the most significant factor. Of the implements, the plough shows the highest vibration and displays statistically significant difference in comparison with the other implements.

  10. Design and implementation of a GPS guidance system for agricultural tractors using augmented reality technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana-Fernández, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; del-Pozo-San-Cirilo, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Current commercial tractor guidance systems present to the driver information to perform agricultural tasks in the best way. This information generally includes a treated zones map referenced to the tractor's position. Unlike actual guidance systems where the tractor driver must mentally associate treated zone maps and the plot layout, this paper presents a guidance system that using Augmented Reality (AR) technology, allows the tractor driver to see the real plot though eye monitor glasses with the treated zones in a different color. The paper includes a description of the system hardware and software, a real test done with image captures seen by the tractor driver, and a discussion predicting that the historical evolution of guidance systems could involve the use of AR technology in the agricultural guidance and monitoring systems.

  11. Parameters for assay in engines of agricultural tractor for biofuel use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Reny Adilmar Prestes; Meyer, Wagner [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (DEA/CCA/UEM), Cidade Gaucha, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: raplopes@uem.br; Pinheiro Neto, Raimundo; Pinheiro, Andreia Cristina [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (DAG/CCA/UEM), PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Agronomia; Laurindo, Jose Carlos [Instituto de Tecnologia do Parana (CERBIO/TECPAR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Brasileiro de Referencia em Biocombustiveis; Biazzono, Sergio Luis [Instituto de Tecnologia do Parana (TECPAR), Maringa, PR (Brazil). Inspecao Veicular

    2008-07-01

    The use of biofuel in tractors of diesel engines and agricultural harvester, in the operations of preparation of soil and harvest, is a good option of economy for the agriculturist. For a good performance of the machine, regulation and maintenance is necessary. This paper has the objective to prepare the agricultural tractors engine for the use of biofuel. The experiment was carried through State University of Maringa. One used for the assays three Massey Ferguson tractors engines. The smoke assays and opacity had shown that both the tractors had presented problems of regulations. The assays demonstrate the necessity of periodically to carry through the correct maintenance of the machines, as well as the training of the operators. The regulations allow adjusting the engines of the tractors to operate in situations recommended for the manufacturers. The regulations allow the correct functioning and better accompaniment of the useful life of the engine using biofuel in operations of soil preparation, sowing and harvest. (author)

  12. Mechanical Design of Downhole Tractor Based on Two-Way Self-locking Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Delei; Shang, Jianzhong; Luo, Zirong; Wu, Guoheng; Liu, Yiying

    2018-03-01

    Based on the technology of horizontal well tractor, a kind of downhole tractor was developed which can realize Two-Way self-locking function. Aiming at the needs of horizontal well logging to realize the target of small size, high traction and high reliability, the tractor selects unique heart-shaped CAM as the locking mechanism. The motion principle of telescopic downhole tractor, the design of mechanical structure and locking principle of the locking mechanism are all analyzed. The mathematical expressions of traction are obtained by mechanical analysis of parallel support rod in the locking mechanism. The force analysis and contour design of the heart-shaped CAM are performed, which can lay the foundation for the development of tractor prototype.

  13. Vibration analysis on driver’s seat of agricultural tractors during tillage tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gialamas, T.; Gravalos, I.; Kateris, D.; Xyradakis, P.; Dimitriadis, C.

    2016-07-01

    The vibration of the driver’s seat of agricultural tractors was investigated during three alternative tillage operations. Three tractors including a range of specifications were considered, at a range of forward speeds. The interactions between the tractors, implements and speeds were examined using the SPSS program and the GLM-ANOVA method. The results analysis indicated that the tractors played the first major role in vibration development in the lateral axis and was followed by the implements. In contrast, the implements played the first major role in the development of vibration in the horizontal axis and are followed by factor tractors. The statistically significant effect in vertical and horizontal axes shows the factor implements. In addition, the statistically significant effect in the vertical and lateral axes shows again the implements to be the most significant factor. Of the implements, the plough shows the highest vibration and displays statistically significant difference in comparison with the other implements.

  14. Radiological Control Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This manual has been prepared by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to provide guidance for site-specific additions, supplements, and clarifications to the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The guidance provided in this manual is based on the requirements given in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 835, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers, DOE Order 5480.11, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers, and the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The topics covered are (1) excellence in radiological control, (2) radiological standards, (3) conduct of radiological work, (4) radioactive materials, (5) radiological health support operations, (6) training and qualification, and (7) radiological records.

  15. EMSL Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Nancy S.

    2009-06-18

    This manual is a general resource tool to assist EMSL users and Laboratory staff within EMSL locate official policy, practice and subject matter experts. It is not intended to replace or amend any formal Battelle policy or practice. Users of this manual should rely only on Battelle’s Standard Based Management System (SBMS) for official policy. No contractual commitment or right of any kind is created by this manual. Battelle management reserves the right to alter, change, or delete any information contained within this manual without prior notice.

  16. EMSL Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Nancy S.

    2009-03-25

    This manual is a general resource tool to assist EMSL users and Laboratory staff within EMSL locate official policy, practice and subject matter experts. It is not intended to replace or amend any formal Battelle policy or practice. Users of this manual should rely only on Battelle’s Standard Based Management System (SBMS) for official policy. No contractual commitment or right of any kind is created by this manual. Battelle management reserves the right to alter, change, or delete any information contained within this manual without prior notice.

  17. Radiological Control Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    This manual has been prepared by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to provide guidance for site-specific additions, supplements, and clarifications to the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The guidance provided in this manual is based on the requirements given in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 835, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers, DOE Order 5480.11, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers, and the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The topics covered are (1) excellence in radiological control, (2) radiological standards, (3) conduct of radiological work, (4) radioactive materials, (5) radiological health support operations, (6) training and qualification, and (7) radiological records

  18. Characteristics of paddy operations with biodiesel fuelled tractor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y.; Park, S.H.; Kim, C.K.; Im, D.H.; Kim, H.J.; Chung, S.C. [National Academy of Agricultural Science, Seodundong, Suwon (Korea, Democratic People' s Republic of); Kim, S.S. [Daedong Industrial Co., Chang Nyong-Kun, Kyungnam (Korea, Democratic People' s Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study in which biofuels were tested for their power and competitiveness in various paddy operations, such as plowing and rotary tilling of paddy fields. The study considered the use of diesel fuel as well as 20 per cent biodiesel (BD20) and 100 per cent biodiesel (BD100) as an alternative fuel for tractors. Ignition problems or abrupt stopping were not monitored during operations of plowing, rotary tilling and travelling on the road. According to tractor power take-off (PTO) test codes, there was no considerable power difference between the 3 fuels. However, fuel consumption rates were quite different between the biodiesels and diesel fuel in the paddy works. Fuel consumption increased when biodiesel content increased. Approximately 35 to 40 per cent more fuel was needed for rotary tilling operations than plowing operations. Within the operations, the maximum difference occurred during the rotary tilling of wet paddy fields. This difference was as high as 20 per cent , between BD100 and diesel fuel. In terms of exhaust gases, more carbon dioxide was discharged from diesel fuel than biodiesels, but more nitrous oxide was discharged with biodiesels. It was difficult to differentiate quantities of carbon monoxide between the 3 different fuels.

  19. Retrofitting tractors with rollover protective structures: perspective of equipment dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonelli, S M; Donham, K J; Leedom-Larson, K; Sanderson, W; Purschwitz, M

    2009-10-01

    This study was one of a cluster of studies that originated via requests for proposals from the NIOSH National Agricultural Tractor Safety Initiative. The present study design consisted of several steps: (1) formation of an advisory group, (2) development and testing of a standard paper self-responding survey instrument, (3) sample selection of farm equipment dealers, (4) administration of the survey, (5) assessment and analysis of the survey, and (6) in-person response panel of dealers (n = 80) to review results of the questionnaire for further definition and sharpening of the recommendations from the survey. A key finding is that most dealers do not currently sell or install ROPS retrofit kits. Barriers cited by dealers included (1) actual or perceived lack of farmer demand, (2) injury liability, (3) expensive freight for ordering ROPS, (4) lack of dealer awareness of the magnitude of deaths from tractor overturns and the high life-protective factor of ROPS, and (5) difficulty and incursion of non-recoverable expenses in locating and obtaining specific ROPS. Despite not currently selling or installing ROPS, dealers responded favorably about their future potential role in ROPS promotion and sales. Dealers were willing to further promote, sell, and install ROPS if there was demand from farmers. Recommendations include establishing a ROPS "clearing house" that dealers could contact to facilitate locating and obtaining ROPS orders from customers. Additional recommendations include education and social marketing targeting farm machinery dealers as well farmers, manufacturers, and policy makers.

  20. Process Approach for Modeling of Machine and Tractor Fleet Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokin, B. D.; Aletdinova, A. A.; Kravchenko, M. S.; Tsybina, Y. S.

    2018-05-01

    The existing software complexes on modelling of the machine and tractor fleet structure are mostly aimed at solving the task of optimization. However, the creators, choosing only one optimization criterion and incorporating it in their software, provide grounds on why it is the best without giving a decision maker the opportunity to choose it for their enterprise. To analyze “bottlenecks” of machine and tractor fleet modelling, the authors of this article created a process model, in which they included adjustment to the plan of using machinery based on searching through alternative technologies. As a result, the following recommendations for software complex development have been worked out: the introduction of a database of alternative technologies; the possibility for a user to change the timing of the operations even beyond the allowable limits and in that case the calculation of the incurred loss; the possibility to rule out the solution of an optimization task, and if there is a necessity in it - the possibility to choose an optimization criterion; introducing graphical display of an annual complex of works, which could be enough for the development and adjustment of a business strategy.

  1. Field Operations Procedures Manual for environmental monitoring in Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses meteorological monitoring activities that will be conducted in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-burial land disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the US Department of Energy and managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Meteorological monitoring of various climatological parameters (e.g., temperature, wind speed, humidity) will be collected by instruments installed at WAG 6. Data will be recorded electronically at frequencies varying from 5-min intervals to 1-h intervals, dependent upon parameter. The data will be downloaded every 2 weeks, evaluated, compressed, and uploaded into a WAG 6 data base for subsequent use. The meteorological data will be used in water balance calculations in support of the WAG 6 hydrogeological model

  2. Risk characterization data manual for Category D inactive liquid low-level waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This manual reports the results of a risk characterization of Category D inactive liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) underground storage tanks (Uses) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The risk characterization is required by the Federal Facility Agreement between the Department of Energy-Oak Ridge Operations Office, the Environmental Protection Agency-Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. The intent of the risk characterization is to determine relative priorities for assessment and remediation. A total of 55 FFA Category D inactive LLLW tanks are discussed in this manual. Of the 39 tanks at ORNL that have been accepted into the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program, all have been sampled for preliminary characterization, except for 5 tanks that were found to be empty plus I that was found not to exist. The remaining 16 tanks are in the Waste Management (WM) Program. Twelve were sampled for preliminary characterization, and four were found empty. Each sampled tank was scored on a scale of I to 5 on the basis of three criteria: (1) leak characteristics, (2) location, and (3) toxicological characteristics of residual sludges and liquids. Each criterion was assigned a weighing factor based on perceived importance. The criterion score multiplied by the weighting factor equaled the tank's total score for that criterion. The three weighted criterion scores for each tank were then summed for a total score for that tank. When the scores for all tanks had been weighted and summed, the tanks were ranked in descending order on the basis of their total scores. The highest possible score for a tank is 30. The descending rank order represents the recommended priorities for evaluation: the higher the score, the higher the priority for evaluation. Of the 54 tanks sampled in the risk characterization, 23 tanks scored 16 or higher, 11 scored between 10 and 15, 5 scored between 4 and 9, and 15 scored 3 or less

  3. Risk characterization data manual for Category D inactive liquid low-level waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    This manual reports the results of a risk characterization of Category D inactive liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) underground storage tanks (USTs) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The risk characterization is required by the Federal Facility Agreement between the Department of Energy-Oak Ridge Operations Office, the Environmental Protection Agency-Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. The intent of the risk characterization is to determine relative priorities for assessment and remediation. A total of 55 FFA Category D inactive LLLW tanks are discussed in this manual. Of the 39 tanks at ORNL that have been accepted into the Environmental Restoration (ER) Pregrain, all have been sampled for preliminary characterization, except for 5 tanks that were found to be empty plus 1 that was found not to exist. The remaining 16 tanks are in the Waste Management (WM) Program. Twelve were sampled for preliminary characterization, and four were found empty. Each sampled tank was scored on a scale of I to 5 on the basis of three criteria: (1) leak characteristics, (2) location, and (3) toxicological characteristics of residual sludges and liquids. Each criterion was assigned a weighing factor based on perceived importance. The criterion score multiplied by the weighting factor equaled the tank's total score for that criterion. The three weighted criterion scores for each tank were then summed for a total score for that tank. When the scores for all tanks had been weighted and summed, the tanks were ranked in descending order on the basis of their total scores. The highest possible score for a tank is 30. The descending rank order represents the recommended priorities for evaluation: the higher the score, the higher the priority for evaluation. Of the 54 tanks sampled in the risk characterization, 23 tanks scored 16 or higher, 11 scored between 10 and 15, 5 scored between 4 and 9, and 15 scored 3 or less

  4. Parental knowledge of child development and the assignment of tractor work to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, William; Marlenga, Barbara; Berg, Richard L

    2003-07-01

    Many childhood farm tractor injuries occur during the performance of work that was assigned by parents, and some tractor work is beyond the developmental capabilities of children. This has been highlighted recently by a policy statement authored by the American Academy of Pediatrics. The objective of this study was 1) to assess child development knowledge of farm parents who received a new resource, the North American Guidelines for Children's Agricultural Tasks (NAGCAT), and 2) to determine whether this knowledge was associated with use of NAGCAT in the assignment of tractor jobs and with compliance with 2 aspects of the NAGCAT tractor guideline. Secondary analysis of data collected during a randomized controlled trial that involved 450 farms in the United States and Canada was conducted. Variables assessed included 1) parental knowledge of child development across several age groups and 3 domains of child development (physical, cognitive, and psychosocial), 2) documentation of the most common tractor jobs assigned to each child, and 3) a report of whether NAGCAT was used in assigning these tractor jobs. High parental knowledge of child development was associated with enhanced use of NAGCAT and fewer violations when assigning tractor work to children. However, even in the presence of high knowledge, some farm parents still assigned to their children work that was in violation of NAGCAT. Educational interventions by themselves are not sufficient to remove many farm children from known occupational hazards. These findings are discussed in light of the recent policy statement on agricultural injuries from the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Action Learning: A New Method to Increase Tractor Rollover Protective Structure (ROPS) Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Elyce Anne; Keane, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    Action Learning is a problem-solving process that is used in various industries to address difficult problems. This project applied Action Learning to a leading problem in agricultural safety. Tractor overturns are the leading cause of fatal injury to farmworkers. This cause of injury is preventable using rollover protective structures (ROPS), protective equipment that functions as a roll bar structure to protect the operator in the event of an overturn. For agricultural tractors manufactured after 1976 and employee operated, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulation requires employers to equip them with ROPS and seat belts. By the mid-1980s, US tractor manufacturers began adding ROPS on all farm tractors over 20 horsepower sold in the United States (http://www.nasdonline.org/document/113/d001656/rollover-protection-for-farm-tractor-operators.html). However, many older tractors remain in use without ROPS, putting tractor operators at continued risk for traumatic injury and fatality. For many older tractor models ROPS are available for retrofit, but for a variety of reasons, tractor owners have not chosen to retrofit those ROPS. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) attempted various means to ameliorate this occupational safety risk, including the manufacture of a low-cost ROPS for self-assembly. Other approaches address barriers to adoption. An Action Learning approach to increasing adoption of ROPS was followed in Virginia and New York, with mixed results. Virginia took action to increase the manufacturing and adoption of ROPS, but New York saw problems that would be insurmountable. Increased focus on team composition might be needed to establish effective Action Learning teams to address this problem. PMID:22994641

  6. Involving fathers in teaching youth about farm tractor seatbelt safety--a randomized control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinnah, Hamida Amirali; Stoneman, Zolinda; Rains, Glen

    2014-03-01

    Farm youth continue to experience high rates of injury and deaths as a result of agricultural activities. Farm machinery, especially tractors, is the most common cause of casualties to youth. A Roll-Over Protection Structure (ROPS) along with a fastened seatbelt can prevent almost all injuries and fatalities from tractor overturns. Despite this knowledge, the use of seatbelts by farmers on ROPS tractors remains low. This study treats farm safety as a family issue and builds on the central role of parents as teachers and role models of farm safety for youth. This research study used a longitudinal, repeated-measures, randomized-control design in which youth 10-19 years of age were randomly assigned to either of two intervention groups (parent-led group and staff-led group) or the control group. Fathers in the parent-led group were less likely to operate ROPS tractors without a seatbelt compared with other groups. They were more likely to have communicated with youth about the importance of wearing seatbelts on ROPS tractors. Consequently, youth in the parent-led group were less likely to operate a ROPS tractor without a seatbelt than the control group at post-test. This randomized control trial supports the effectiveness of a home-based, father-led farm safety intervention as a promising strategy for reducing youth as well as father-unsafe behaviors (related to tractor seatbelts) on the farm. This intervention appealed to fathers' strong motivation to practice tractor safety for the sake of their youth. Involving fathers helped change both father as well as youth unsafe tractor-seatbelt behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Palm biodiesel: performance of a agricultural tractor in function of differents storage periods; Biodiesel de dende: desempenho de trator agricola em funcao de diferentes periodos de armazenamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Afonso; Oliveira, Melina C.J. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCAV/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Engenharia Rural], email: fonso@fcav.unesp.br; Lima, Leomar P. [Instituto Federal do Triangulo Mineiro (IFTM), Uberlandia, MG (Brazil); Camara, Felipe P. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Cariri, CE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The use of biofuel for replacement of oil in internal combustion engines is an alternative to seek the reduction of harmful effects that the use of these fuels question to the environment. The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of a tractor in the light of storage time of the biodiesel of palm oil. The experiment was conducted in the Laboratory of machinery and agricultural mechanization of Rural Engineering Department of UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP. In this study, -if a tractor Valtra BM 110 4x2 TDA 74 kW (100 cv) in engine 2.350 rpm. The experimental design was completely randomized, in factorial scheme 5x3, with 3 repetitions. The first factor represents 5 proportions of mixing biodiesel for diesel (B0, B5, B25, B 50 and B100, that the number indicates the percentage of biodiesel for diesel) and three storage times in condition storage environment in a rural property (0, 3 and 6 months). The mixtures were prepared hours before the test. The results showed that the storage time did not influence the performance of the tractor, occurring biodiesel specific increase in consumption from the proportion of 25% (B25) mixture of biodiesel for diesel. (author)

  8. The WHO/PEPFAR collaboration to prepare an operations manual for HIV prevention, care, and treatment at primary health centers in high-prevalence, resource-constrained settings: defining laboratory services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spira, Thomas; Lindegren, Mary Lou; Ferris, Robert; Habiyambere, Vincent; Ellerbrock, Tedd

    2009-06-01

    The expansion of HIV/AIDS care and treatment in resource-constrained countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, has generally developed in a top-down manner. Further expansion will involve primary health centers where human and other resources are limited. This article describes the World Health Organization/President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief collaboration formed to help scale up HIV services in primary health centers in high-prevalence, resource-constrained settings. It reviews the contents of the Operations Manual developed, with emphasis on the Laboratory Services chapter, which discusses essential laboratory services, both at the center and the district hospital level, laboratory safety, laboratory testing, specimen transport, how to set up a laboratory, human resources, equipment maintenance, training materials, and references. The chapter provides specific information on essential tests and generic job aids for them. It also includes annexes containing a list of laboratory supplies for the health center and sample forms.

  9. The influence of the tire inflation on pull properties of agriculture tractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Katrenčík

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural tractors are robust and versatile machines, which must comply with the basic requirements of users under various conditions. The main requirements include economical and reliable operation and high performance. Fuel economy could be improved using multiple methods, for example a well trained operator, adequate farming conditions and optimal tire inflation. Tractor tires transmit engine power to the surface and as such they are crucial to tractor operation. In the first part of the field measurement, all tires were inflated to 180kPa, while in the second part of the field measurements the tire pressure was set to 75kPa in front tires and to 65 kPa in rear tires. The results of the field measurement of the John Deere 6920S tractor with different tire inflation shows that pull performance increased by 9.9% and wheel slip decreased by 9.7%.

  10. Quantum coherent tractor beam effect for atoms trapped near a nanowaveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadgrove, Mark; Wimberger, Sandro; Nic Chormaic, Síle

    2016-01-01

    We propose several schemes to realize a tractor beam effect for ultracold atoms in the vicinity of a few-mode nanowaveguide. Atoms trapped near the waveguide are transported in a direction opposite to the guided mode propagation direction. We analyse three specific examples for ultracold 23Na atoms trapped near a specific nanowaveguide (i.e. an optical nanofibre): (i) a conveyor belt-type tractor beam effect, (ii) an accelerator tractor beam effect, and (iii) a quantum coherent tractor beam effect, all of which can effectively pull atoms along the nanofibre toward the light source. This technique provides a new tool for controlling the motion of particles near nanowaveguides with potential applications in the study of particle transport and binding as well as atom interferometry. PMID:27440516

  11. Design and Implementation of a GPS Guidance System for Agricultural Tractors Using Augmented Reality Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura del-Pozo-San-Cirilo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Current commercial tractor guidance systems present to the driver information to perform agricultural tasks in the best way. This information generally includes a treated zones map referenced to the tractor’s position. Unlike actual guidance systems where the tractor driver must mentally associate treated zone maps and the plot layout, this paper presents a guidance system that using Augmented Reality (AR technology, allows the tractor driver to see the real plot though eye monitor glasses with the treated zones in a different color. The paper includes a description of the system hardware and software, a real test done with image captures seen by the tractor driver, and a discussion predicting that the historical evolution of guidance systems could involve the use of AR technology in the agricultural guidance and monitoring systems.

  12. EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS OF ENERGY ACCUMULATING MECHANISM FOR TRACTOR WITH ELECTROMECHANICAL TRANSMISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. I. Zhdanovich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dependence of tractor wheel torque on theoretical tractor motion speed has been used for comparison of tractor operation with electromechanical transmission with installation of energy accumulating mechanism and without its installation. In this case a traction asynchronous electric motor is operating under nominal and limit conditions. The paper also considers dependence diagrams of actual input power for the traction asynchronous electric motor and its losses due to theoretical tractor motion speed. Tractor wheel torque is limited during the operation of the traction asynchronous electric motor with energy accumulating mechanisms by the following factors: maximum electric motor torque at the given frequency of supply voltage; maximum value of internal combustion motor output which can be transferred to the traction asynchronous electric motor; grip of the wheels. During the operation of the traction asynchronous electric motor with energy accumulating mechanisms there is a possibility for short power consumption without regard to the second limitation because it is possible to use power not only of internal combustion motor but also the power which is stored in the energy accumulating mechanisms. Comparison of characteristics has been made when a tractor is operating at high gear and when it is operating at all gears (that is two gears. Operation of the 5th class tractors has been analyzed for all possible cases (operation with energy accumulating mechanisms and without the mechanisms while being operated at all gears and various types of work: tilling, sowing, cultivation, bulldozing work, transport mode. In this case equipment has been used which is aggregated with the 5th class tractor

  13. Implementation of Virtual Reality in the Conceptual Design of a Tractor Trailer

    OpenAIRE

    Arunesh Chandra; Pankaj Chandna

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) is a rapidly emerging computer interface that attempts to immerse the user completely within an experimental recreation; thereby, greatly enhancing the overall impact and providing a much more intuitive link between the computer and the human participants. The main objective of this study is to design tractor trailer capable of meeting the customers’ requirements and suitable for rough conditions to be used in combination with a farm tractor in India....

  14. Investigation of Tractor Base Bleeding for Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, J; Salari, K; Storms, B

    2007-10-25

    One of the main contributors to the aerodynamic drag of a heavy vehicle is tractor-trailer gap drag, which arises when the vehicle operates within a crosswind. Under this operating condition, freestream flow is entrained into the tractor-trailer gap, imparting a momentum exchange to the vehicle and subsequently increasing the aerodynamic drag. While a number of add-on devices, including side extenders, splitter plates, vortex stabilizers, and gap sealers, have been previously tested to alleviate this source of drag, side extenders remain the primary add-on device of choice for reducing tractor-trailer gap drag. However, side extenders are not without maintenance and operational issues. When a heavy vehicle pivots sharply with respect to the trailer, as can occur during loading or unloading operations, the side extenders can become crushed against the trailer. Consequently, fleet operators are forced to incur additional costs to cover the repair or replacement of the damaged side extenders. This issue can be overcome by either shortening the side extenders or by devising an alternative drag reduction concept that can perform just as effectively as side extenders. To explore such a concept, we investigate tractor base bleeding as a means of reducing gap drag. Wind tunnel measurements are made on a 1:20 scale heavy vehicle model at a vehicle width-based Reynolds number of 420,000. The tractor bleeding flow, which is delivered through a porous material embedded within the tractor base, is introduced into the tractor-trailer gap at bleeding coefficients ranging from 0.0-0.018. To determine the performance of tractor base bleeding under more realistic operating conditions, computational fluid dynamics simulations are performed on a full-scale heavy vehicle within a crosswind for bleeding coefficients ranging from 0.0-0.13.

  15. System automated for evaluation of the consuption of biodiesel in agricola tractor

    OpenAIRE

    Ivair Marchetti

    2006-01-01

    This work had as objective the assembly of a system automated for evaluation of the consumption of fuel in agricultural tractors, in the utilization of biodiesel in diverse mixtures diesel/biodiesel for the accomplishment of testing, without the utilization of the tank of the tractor. The system was projected and mounted on the UNIOESTE Cascavel - PR in partnership with the UTFPR Medianeira â PR. The system is composed for two auxiliary tanks confectioned in stainless steel ...

  16. Fire Protection Program Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, J A

    2012-05-18

    This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.

  17. Field Tests of a Tractor Rollover Detection and Emergency Notification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B; Koc, A B

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the feasibility of a rollover detection and emergency notification system for farm tractors using field tests. The emergency notification system was developed based on a tractor stability model and implemented on a mobile electronic device with the iOS operating system. A complementary filter was implemented to combine the data from the accelerometer and gyroscope sensors to improve their accuracies in calculating the roll and pitch angles and the roll and pitch rates. The system estimates a stability index value during tractor operation, displays feedback messages when the stability index is lower than a preset threshold value, and transmits emergency notification messages when an overturn happens. Ten tractor rollover tests were conducted on a field track. The developed system successfully monitored the stability of the tractor during all of the tests. The iOS application was able to detect rollover accidents and transmit emergency notifications in the form of a phone call and email when an accident was detected. The system can be a useful tool for training and education in safe tractor operation. The system also has potential for stability monitoring and emergency notification of other on-road and off-road motorized vehicles.

  18. Simulated stability tests of a small articulated tractor designed for extreme-sloped vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mazzetto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A new reversible wheeled articulated tractor, designed to work in terraced vineyards trained with “pergola” system, common in mountain areas, is here described in its latest version and analysed through numerical simulations. This tractor has small dimensions, necessary to operate in that environment, and its central articulation has two rotational degrees-offreedom. The described features are surely strong design points but could be critical for vehicle’s stability, as affecting the supporting base’s dimensions and shape. Therefore, the tractor was equipped with a new automatic safety system: a self-locking articulation activated by contact sensors on the wheels. This device makes the vehicle partially-rigid in case of lateral unbalancing, so that rollover can happen only by overcoming the whole vehicle mass. A mathematical description of vehicle-ground interactions was implemented to deeply inquiry the tractor behaviour in different configurations (straight, angled at increasing values of ground slope; roll and pitch stability indexes were then computed and used for comparisons with conventional tractors. Thanks to the low centre-of-gravity, the resulting rollover angle with the vehicle in straight configuration is promising (43.8°→96%: it is greater than the maximum lateral (20°→36% and frontal (38°→78% slope angle ever recorded on terraced vineyards. The same rollover angle is lower when the tractor turns.

  19. EML procedures manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volchok, H.L.; de Planque, G.

    1982-01-01

    This manual contains the procedures that are used currently by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory of the US Department of Energy. In addition a number of analytical methods from other laboratories have been included. These were tested for reliability at the Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory under contract with the Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research of the AEC. These methods are clearly distinguished. The manual is prepared in loose leaf form to facilitate revision of the procedures and inclusion of additional procedures or data sheets. Anyone receiving the manual through EML should receive this additional material automatically. The contents are as follows: (1) general; (2) sampling; (3) field measurements; (4) general analytical chemistry; (5) chemical procedures; (6) data section; (7) specifications

  20. Regulations and Procedures Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Lydia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-09-30

    The purpose of the Regulations and Procedures Manual (RPM) is to provide Laboratory personnel with a reference to University and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory policies and regulations by outlining the normal practices and answering most policy questions that arise in the day-to-day operations of Laboratory departments. Much of the information in this manual has been condensed from detail provided in Laboratory procedure manuals, Department of Energy (DOE) directives, and Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231. This manual is not intended, however, to replace any of those documents. The sections on personnel apply only to employees who are not represented by unions. Personnel policies pertaining to employees represented by unions may be found in their labor agreements. Questions concerning policy interpretation should be directed to the department responsible for the particular policy. A link to the Managers Responsible for RPM Sections is available on the RPM home page. If it is not clear which department should be called, please contact the Associate Laboratory Director of Operations.

  1. Risk exposure to vibration and noise in the use of agricultural track-laying tractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Vallone

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to mechanical vibration may represent a significant risk factor for exposed workers in the agricultural sector. Also, noise in agriculture is one of the risk factors to be taken into account in the evaluation of workers’ health and safety. One of the major sources of discomfort for the workers operating a tractors is the noise to which they are exposed during work. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of exposure to whole-body vibration for the operator driving track-laying tractors in vineyard orchard and the noise level. The experimental tests were performed with six different track-laying tractors coupled with the same rototilling machine. The results showed that the vibration values of track-laying tractors coupled to rototilling machine, referred to the 8-hour working day, were always higher than 0.5 m s -2 , the daily exposure action value established by Directive 2002/44/EC of the European Parliament. The daily noise exposure levels always exceeded the exposure limit value of 87 dB(A established by Directive 2003/10/EC of the European Parliament. The ANOVA repeated measures model showed that the factor ‘site’, namely, the soil characteristics, did not influence the vibration level on the X and Y-axes of the tractors measured, regardless of their age. In the Z-axis, the vibration level was enhanced as the soil structure increased. As tractor age increased, the influence of soil characteristics was less important. In term of the age of the tractor and the number of hours worked, it was possible to identify three risk classes, which were up to 3,000 hours worked and offered a low risk; from 3,000 – 6,000 hours worked with a medium risk, and over 6,000 hours with a high risk level.

  2. Risk exposure to vibration and noise in the use of agricultural track-laying tractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallone, Mariangela; Bono, Filippa; Quendler, Elisabeth; Febo, Pierluigi; Catania, Pietro

    2016-12-23

    Human exposure to mechanical vibration may represent a significant risk factor for exposed workers in the agricultural sector. Also, noise in agriculture is one of the risk factors to be taken into account in the evaluation of workers' health and safety. One of the major sources of discomfort for the workers operating a tractors is the noise to which they are exposed during work. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of exposure to whole-body vibration for the operator driving track-laying tractors in vineyard orchard and the noise level. The experimental tests were performed with six different track-laying tractors coupled with the same rototilling machine. The results showed that the vibration values of track-laying tractors coupled to rototilling machine, referred to the 8-hour working day, were always higher than 0.5 m s -2 , the daily exposure action value established by Directive 2002/44/EC of the European Parliament. The daily noise exposure levels always exceeded the exposure limit value of 87 dB(A) established by Directive 2003/10/EC of the European Parliament. The ANOVA repeated measures model showed that the factor 'site', namely, the soil characteristics, did not influence the vibration level on the X and Y-axes of the tractors measured, regardless of their age. In the Z-axis, the vibration level was enhanced as the soil structure increased. As tractor age increased, the influence of soil characteristics was less important. In term of the age of the tractor and the number of hours worked, it was possible to identify three risk classes, which were up to 3,000 hours worked and offered a low risk; from 3,000 - 6,000 hours worked with a medium risk, and over 6,000 hours with a high risk level.

  3. Evaluation of a Commercial Tractor Safety Monitoring System Using a Reverse Engineering Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Camilla; Martelli, Roberta; Rondelli, Valda

    2016-10-17

    There is a high rate of work-related deaths in agriculture. In Italy, despite the obligato-ry installation of ROPS, fatal accidents involving tractors represent more than 40% of work-related deaths in agriculture. As death is often due to an overturn that the driver is incapable of predicting, driver assistance devices that can signal critical stability conditions have been studied and marketed to prevent accidents. These devices measure the working parameters of the tractor through sensors and elaborate the values using an algorithm that, taking into account the geometric characteristics of the tractor, pro-vides a risk index based on models elaborated on a theoretical basis. This research aimed to verify one of these stability indexes in the field, using a commercial driver as-sistance device to monitor five tractors on the University of Bologna experimental farm. The setup of the device involved determining the coordinates of the center of gravity of the tractor and the implement mounted on the tractor. The analysis of the stability in-dex, limited to events with a significant risk level, revealed a clear separation into two groups: events with high values of roll or pitch and low speeds, typical of a tractor when working, and events with low values of roll and pitch and high steering angle and forward speed, typical of travel on the road. The equation for calculating the critical speed when turning provided a significant contribution only for events that were typi-cal of travel rather than field work, suggesting a diversified calculation approach ac-cording to the work phase. Copyright© by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers.

  4. A Kalman Filter Implementation for Precision Improvement in Low-Cost GPS Positioning of Tractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Gil, Jaime; Ruiz-Gonzalez, Ruben; Alonso-Garcia, Sergio; Gomez-Gil, Francisco Javier

    2013-01-01

    Low-cost GPS receivers provide geodetic positioning information using the NMEA protocol, usually with eight digits for latitude and nine digits for longitude. When these geodetic coordinates are converted into Cartesian coordinates, the positions fit in a quantization grid of some decimeters in size, the dimensions of which vary depending on the point of the terrestrial surface. The aim of this study is to reduce the quantization errors of some low-cost GPS receivers by using a Kalman filter. Kinematic tractor model equations were employed to particularize the filter, which was tuned by applying Monte Carlo techniques to eighteen straight trajectories, to select the covariance matrices that produced the lowest Root Mean Square Error in these trajectories. Filter performance was tested by using straight tractor paths, which were either simulated or real trajectories acquired by a GPS receiver. The results show that the filter can reduce the quantization error in distance by around 43%. Moreover, it reduces the standard deviation of the heading by 75%. Data suggest that the proposed filter can satisfactorily preprocess the low-cost GPS receiver data when used in an assistance guidance GPS system for tractors. It could also be useful to smooth tractor GPS trajectories that are sharpened when the tractor moves over rough terrain. PMID:24217355

  5. Bifurcation of Lane Change and Control on Highway for Tractor-Semitrailer under Rainy Weather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Peng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method is proposed for analyzing the nonlinear dynamics and stability in lane changes on highways for tractor-semitrailer under rainy weather. Unlike most of the literature associated with a simulated linear dynamic model for tractor-semitrailers steady steering on dry road, a verified 5DOF mechanical model with nonlinear tire based on vehicle test was used in the lane change simulation on low adhesion coefficient road. According to Jacobian matrix eigenvalues of the vehicle model, bifurcations of steady steering and sinusoidal steering on highways under rainy weather were investigated using a numerical method. Furthermore, based on feedback linearization theory, taking the tractor yaw rate and joint angle as control objects, a feedback linearization controller combined with AFS and DYC was established. The numerical simulation results reveal that Hopf bifurcations are identified in steady and sinusoidal steering conditions, which translate into an oscillatory behavior leading to instability. And simulations of urgent step and single-lane change in high velocity show that the designed controller has good effects on eliminating bifurcations and improving lateral stability of tractor-semitrailer, during lane changing on highway under rainy weather. It is a valuable reference for safety design of tractor-semitrailers to improve the traffic safety with driver-vehicle-road closed-loop system.

  6. Fuzzy Logic Based Control of the Lateral Stability of Tractor Semitrailer Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujian Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel control scheme is proposed to improve the yaw stability of a tractor semitrailer vehicle in critical situations. The control scheme is a two-layer structure consisting of an upper yaw moment controller and a lower brake force distributor. The tractor and the trailer are, respectively, stabilized by two independent fuzzy logic based yaw moment controllers. The controllers for the tractor and the trailer are, respectively, designed to track the reference yaw rate of the tractor and the hitch angle between the tractor and the trailer while considering the variation of the hitch angular rate at the same time. The corrective yaw moments determined by the corresponding upper fuzzy yaw moment controllers are realized by active wheel braking. The performance of the proposed control scheme is evaluated by simulations on a nonlinear vehicle model. The results demonstrate that the proposed control scheme is robust and effective in stabilizing the severe instabilities such as jackknife and trailer oscillation in the chosen simulation scenarios. It is believed that this control scheme is robust to the variation of road adhesion conditions.

  7. Pulsed Nonlinear Automatic Control System for Guidance of a Caterpillar Tractor Unit in Vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The automatic guidance systems of tractors for soil cultivation in vineyards have attracted the attention of researchers since the second half of the twentieth century. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the driving quality of an automatic guidance system (AGS for a caterpillar tractor unit (CTU consisting of a crawler tractor and a vineyard plow and having the orientation system by grapes stamps. Compared with the known works (in which GPS, LIDAR, and video cameras are used for orientation, the proposed system is the least expensive. For this, the existence of stability of the AGS as a whole in the range of operating speeds of the unit was proved. The dynamic model of the vineyard plow was verified on a three-point hitching system of the tractor, field tests of the AGS were carried out, which confirmed the results of theoretical studies, and suggested directions for further research. The shape and parameters of the modulation characteristic (MC of the pulse-width modulator (PWM of the AGS control system, the rational values of the hydraulic drive speeds of the sequential control mechanism of the clutch of the turn and the crawler tractor belt brake, were established, depending on the slope angle and the speed of the unit, ensuring agrotechnical requirements for driving. New solutions, in comparison with the known ones, are the ways of forming the MC of PWM using a new design probe and the associated driver MC of PWM.

  8. Manual Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Hakgüder, Aral; Kokino, Siranuş

    2002-01-01

    Manual therapy has been used in the treatment of pain and dysfunction of spinal and peripheral joints for more than a hundred years. Manual medicine includes manipulation, mobilization, and postisometric relaxation techniques. The aim of manual therapy is to enhance restricted movement caused by blockage of joints keeping postural balance, restore function and maintain optimal body mechanics. Anatomic, biomechanical, and neurophysiological evaluations of the leucomotor system is essential for...

  9. Dental Chairside Technique. Student's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfel, Maura; Weaver, Trudy Karlene

    This manual is part of a series dealing with skills and information needed by students in dental assisting. The individualized student materials are suitable for classroom, laboratory, or cooperative training programs. This student manual contains four units covering the following topics: local anesthesia; dental office emergencies; oral hygiene;…

  10. The development and validation of an ergonomics index for assessing tractor operator work place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Paulo Barbieri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to develop and validate an ergonomics index for the operator workplace assessment of agricultural tractors sold in the Brazilian market. To develop the ergonomics index, the operator work places were assessed for compliance with current, national and international, safety and ergonomics standards. The following standards were analyzed to develop ergonomics index: ISO 15077 (1996, which regulates the position of operator controls; ABNT NBR ISO 4254-1(2015 and ABNT NBR ISO 4252 (2011, which regulate the access to operator workplaces; and NR 12 (2010, which determines the mandatory items of operator workplaces.Thirty-four operator work places of 152 models of new agricultural tractors sold in the Brazilian market were analyzed in this study. Ergonomics index was developed and validated using these standards, and the findings enabled the ranking of agricultural tractors. Therefore, the proposed ergonomics index proved feasible and may be applied to other agricultural machines.

  11. Structures manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This manual was written as a guide for use by design personnel in the Vermont Agency of Transportation Structures Section. This manual covers the design responsibilities of the Section. It does not cover other functions that are a part of the Structu...

  12. IMPACT OF THE REPEATED TRACTOR PASSES ON SOME PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SILTY LOAM SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravko Filipović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to quantify soil compaction induced by tractor traffic on untilled wet silty loam soil (Mollic Fluvisol. Changes in penetration resistance, bulk density and total porosity were measured for detecting the soil compaction. Treatments include ten passes of a four-wheel drive tractor with the engine power of 54.0 kW and weight of 3560 kg (1580 kg on the front axle and 1980 kg on the rear axle, 2.41 m distance between axles. The tyres on the tractor were cross-ply, front 11.2-24 and rear 16.9-30, with the inflation pressure of 160 kPa and 100 kPa, respectively. The speed of tractor during passes over experimental plots was 5.0 km h-1. In comparison to control, each tractor pass induced an increase in soil penetration resistance at all depths, and the average increment ratios, determined as the average of all layers, were 9.8, 18.5 and 26.1% after one, five and ten passes, respectively. The bulk density also increased with number of tractor passes, but with less percentage increasing. The increment ratios comparison to the control were 3.6, 9.5 and 12.9% after one, five and ten passes, respectively. The total porosity decreased with the number of passes, and the decrement ratios were 4.5, 16.5 and 20.8% after one, five and ten passes, respectively.

  13. Sex differences in principal farm operators' tractor driving safety beliefs and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, H P; Westneat, S C; Browning, S R; Piercy, L R; Struttmann, T

    2000-01-01

    To examine the widely accepted hypothesis that farm women are more concerned with safety issues and behaviors than their male counterparts are. A telephone survey was administered to a random sample of Kentucky principal farm operators, 90 of whom were women. Participants were questioned about their tractor safety beliefs and practices. No significant sex differences in tractor safety perceptions and behavior were observed. Socialization of women to the role of principal farm operator may override their typically greater sensitivity to safety issues, an important consideration when designing safety campaigns for this population.

  14. Towing Asteroids with Gravity Tractors Enhanced by Tethers and Solar Sails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Haijun; Roithmayr, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Material collected from an asteroid's surface can be used to increase gravitational attraction between the asteroid and a Gravity Tractor (GT); the spacecraft therefore operates more effectively and is referred to as an Enhanced Gravity Tractor (EGT). The use of tethers and solar sails to further improve effectiveness and simplify operations is investigated. By employing a tether, the asteroidal material can be placed close to the asteroid while the spacecraft is stationed farther away, resulting in a better safety margin and improved thruster efficiency. A solar sail on a spacecraft can naturally provide radial offset and inter-spacecraft separation required for multiple EGTs.

  15. Smoke opacity of agricultural tractor using biodiesel in function of weather conditions in the time of testing; Opacidade da fumaca de trator agricola utilizando biodiesel em funcao das condicoes climaticas no horario de execucao do ensaio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Afonso; Camara, Felipe T. da; Oliveira, Melina Cais Jejcic de; Furlani, Carlos E.A.; Silva, Rouverson Pereira da; Mello Junior, Jose G.S. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Engenharia Rural], E-mail: afonso@fcav.unesp.br

    2009-07-01

    The biodiesel highlights as an alternative fuel to petroleum diesel, due its similar diesel properties, allowing the biodiesel replace the diesel without engine's alterations. The present work aimed measure the tractor's smoke opacity running with biodiesel in three proportions (B0, B50, and B100), in function of environment temperature and moisture in eight times (1h, 4h, 7h, 10h, 13h, 16h, 19h, and 22h). The experiment was conducted in the Rural Engineering Department of UNESP, Jaboticabal, Brazil, it was used a Valtra BM100 4x2 TDA (74kW - 100 cv) tractor, in the engine at 2350 rpm, and a soybean's distillated ethylic Biodiesel produced by USP - Laboratory of Development of Clean Technologies, in Ribeirao Preto, Brazil. The results evidence smoke opacity reduction in order to environment temperature reduction and when increased the moisture. (author)

  16. Diagnóstico laboratorial da anemia hemolítica auto-imune: características do teste manual direto do PolybreneÒ Laboratory diagnosis of auto-immune hemolytic anemia: characteristics of the manual direct test of PolybreneTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.W. Braga

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available O teste manual direto do PolybreneÒ (TDP e o teste de Coombs direto (TCD foram utilizados para a detecção de IgG na superfície de hemácias de pacientes com diagnóstico clínico e laboratorial de anemia hemolítica auto-imune (AHAI. OBJETIVO: Comparar a sensibilidade e especificidade do TPD e do TCD no diagnóstico da AHAI. MÉTODO: Foram estudados 18 pacientes com diagnóstico clínico-laboratorial de AHAI. Como indivíduos controles, foram testados 20 doadores de sangue assintomáticos e 20 pacientes com anemia falciforme. RESULTADOS: O TCD foi positivo em 14 pacientes e negativo em quatro indivíduos, enquanto o TDP foi positivo em 17 pacientes e negativo em um indivíduo que apresentava TCD positivo devido a fixação de complemento (C3d nas hemácias. Todos os eluatos positivos realizados com a técnica de diclorometano revelaram anticorpos quentes com especificidade "anti-Rh". A sensibilidade do TDP (94% para detectar fixação de IgG in vivo foi significantemente maior (pThe direct manual PolybreneTM test (DPT and the direct antiglobulin tests (DAT were employed to detect antibody sensitizing red blood cell (RCB in patients with clinical and laboratorial findings of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA. PURPOSE: To compare the sensitivity and specificity of DPT and DAT in the diagnosis of AIHA. METHODS: Eighteen consecutive patients with diagnosis of AIHA were evaluated. The control group consisted of 20 normal volunteers blood donors and 20 patients with sickle cell anemia. All patients and controls were submitted to DPT and DAT. All DAT positive samples were further tested using monospecific reagents ( anti-IgG heavy chain and anti-C3d. Positive samples for either DPT or DAT were evaluated by eluate technique using. The dichloromethane (DCM. RESULTS: The DAT was positive in 14 patients and negative in 4 subjects, while the DPT was positive in 17 patients and negative in 1 individual who had a positive DAT owing to complement (C3d. All

  17. Regulations and Procedures Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Lydia J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-07-25

    The purpose of the Regulations and Procedures Manual (RPM) is to provide LBNL personnel with a reference to University and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL or Laboratory) policies and regulations by outlining normal practices and answering most policy questions that arise in the day-to-day operations of Laboratory organizations. Much of the information in this manual has been condensed from detail provided in LBNL procedure manuals, Department of Energy (DOE) directives, and Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231. This manual is not intended, however, to replace any of those documents. RPM sections on personnel apply only to employees who are not represented by unions. Personnel policies pertaining to employees represented by unions may be found in their labor agreements. Questions concerning policy interpretation should be directed to the LBNL organization responsible for the particular policy. A link to the Managers Responsible for RPM Sections is available on the RPM home page. If it is not clear which organization is responsible for a policy, please contact Requirements Manager Lydia Young or the RPM Editor.

  18. Radiological control manual. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloepping, R.

    1996-05-01

    This Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Radiological Control Manual (LBNL RCM) has been prepared to provide guidance for site-specific additions, supplements and interpretation of the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The guidance provided in this manual is one methodology to implement the requirements given in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 835 (10 CFR 835) and the DOE Radiological Control Manual. Information given in this manual is also intended to provide demonstration of compliance to specific requirements in 10 CFR 835. The LBNL RCM (Publication 3113) and LBNL Health and Safety Manual Publication-3000 form the technical basis for the LBNL RPP and will be revised as necessary to ensure that current requirements from Rules and Orders are represented. The LBNL RCM will form the standard for excellence in the implementation of the LBNL RPP.

  19. Radiological control manual. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloepping, R.

    1996-05-01

    This Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Radiological Control Manual (LBNL RCM) has been prepared to provide guidance for site-specific additions, supplements and interpretation of the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The guidance provided in this manual is one methodology to implement the requirements given in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 835 (10 CFR 835) and the DOE Radiological Control Manual. Information given in this manual is also intended to provide demonstration of compliance to specific requirements in 10 CFR 835. The LBNL RCM (Publication 3113) and LBNL Health and Safety Manual Publication-3000 form the technical basis for the LBNL RPP and will be revised as necessary to ensure that current requirements from Rules and Orders are represented. The LBNL RCM will form the standard for excellence in the implementation of the LBNL RPP

  20. From tectonics to tractors: New insight into Earth's changing surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, I. J.

    2017-12-01

    Weathering and erosion of rock and the transport of sediment continually modify Earth's surface. The transformation and transfer of material by both natural and anthropogenic processes drives global cycles and influences the habitability of our planet. By quantitatively linking erosional and depositional landforms to the processes that form them, we better understand how Earth's surface will evolve in the future, and gain the ability to look into the past to recognize how planetary surfaces evolved when environments were drastically different than today. Many of the recent advances in our understanding of the processes that influence landscape evolution have been driven by the development and application of tools such as cosmogenic nuclides, computational models, and digital topographic data. Here I present results gleaned from applying these tools to a diverse set of landscapes, where erosion is driven by factors ranging from tectonics to tractors, to provide insight into the mechanics, chemistry, and history of Earth's changing surface. I will first examine the landslide response of hillslopes in the Himalaya to spatial gradients in tectonic forcing to assess the paradigm of threshold hillslopes. Second, I will present soil production and chemical weathering rates measured in the Southern Alps of New Zealand to determine the relationship between physical erosion and chemical weathering in one of Earth's most rapidly uplifting landscapes, and discuss the implications for proposed links between mountain uplift and global climate. Third, I will discuss results from numerical flood simulations used to explore the interplay between outburst flood hydraulics and canyon incision in the Channeled Scablands of eastern Washington, and explore the implications for reconstructing discharge in flood-carved canyons on Earth and Mars. Finally, I will present new work that couples high resolution spectral and topographic data to estimate the spatial extent of agriculturally

  1. Procedures of Exercise Physiology Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Phillip A.; Fortney, Suzanne; Greenisen, Michael; Siconolfi, Steven F.; Bamman, Marcas M.; Moore, Alan D., Jr.; Squires, William

    1998-01-01

    This manual describes the laboratory methods used to collect flight crew physiological performance data at the Johnson Space Center. The Exercise Countermeasures Project Laboratory is a standard physiology laboratory; only the application to the study of human physiological adaptations to spaceflight is unique. In the absence of any other recently published laboratory manual, this manual should be a useful document staffs and students of other laboratories.

  2. Effect of poultry fat oil biodiesel on tractor engine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bavafa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Depletion of fossil fuels and environmental degradation are two major problems faced by the world. Today fossil fuels take up to 80% of the primary energy consumed in the world, of which 58% is consumed by the transport sector alone (Mard et al., 2012. The combustion products cause global warming, which is caused of emissions like carbon monoxide (CO, sulfur dioxide (SO2 and nitrogen oxides (NOX. Thus it is essential that low emission alternative fuels to be developed for useing in diesel engines. Many researchers have concluded that biodiesel holds promise as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. Biodiesel is oxygenated, biodegradable, non-toxic, and environmentally friendly (Qi et al., 2010. Materials and Methods: In this study transesterification method was used to produce biodiesel, because of its simplicity in biodiesel production process and holding the highest conversion efficiency. Transesterification of poultry fat oil and the properties of the fuels: Fatty acid methyl ester of poultry fat oil was prepared by transesterification of oil with methanol in the presence of KOH as catalyst. The fuel properties of poultry fat oil methyl ester and diesel fuel were determined. These properties are presented in Table 1. Tests of engine performance and emissions: After securing the qualitative characteristics of produced biodiesel, different biodiesel fuels of 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% blended with diesel fuel were prepared. A schematic diagram of the engine setup is shown in Fig.1. The MF-399 tractor engine was used in the tests. The basic specifications of the engine are shown in Table 3. The engine was loaded with an electromagnetic dynamometer. The Σ5 model dynamometer manufactured by NJ-FROMENT was used to measure the power and the torque of the tractor engine. The speed range and capacity of this device are shown in Table 2. A FTO Flow Meter, manufactured by American FLOWTECH Company, was used to measure the fuel consumption

  3. Nuclear material operations manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, R.P.

    1981-02-01

    This manual provides a concise and comprehensive documentation of the operating procedures currently practiced at Sandia National Laboratories with regard to the management, control, and accountability of nuclear materials. The manual is divided into chapters which are devoted to the separate functions performed in nuclear material operations-management, control, accountability, and safeguards, and the final two chapters comprise a document which is also issued separately to provide a summary of the information and operating procedures relevant to custodians and users of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual also contains samples of the forms utilized in carrying out nuclear material activities. To enhance the clarity of presentation, operating procedures are presented in the form of playscripts in which the responsible organizations and necessary actions are clearly delineated in a chronological fashion from the initiation of a transaction to its completion

  4. Nuclear material operations manuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, R.P.

    1979-06-01

    This manual is intended to provide a concise and comprehensive documentation of the operating procedures currently practiced at Sandia Laboratories with regard to the management, control, and accountability of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual is divided into chapters which are devoted to the separate functions performed in nuclear material operations-management, control, accountability, and safeguards, and the final two chapters comprise a document which is also issued separately to provide a summary of the information and operating procedures relevant to custodians and users of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual also contains samples of the forms utilized in carrying out nuclear material activities. To enhance the clarity of presentation, operating procedures are presented in the form of playscripts in which the responsible organizations and necessary actions are clearly delineated in a chronological fashion from the initiation of a transaction to its completion

  5. Nuclear material operations manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, R.P.; Gassman, L.D.

    1978-04-01

    This manual is intended to provide a concise and comprehensive documentation of the operating procedures currently practiced at Sandia Laboratories with regard to the management, control, and accountability of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual is divided into chapters which are devoted to the separate functions performed in nuclear material operations--management, control, accountability, and safeguards, and the final two chapters comprise a document which is also issued separately to provide a summary of the information and operating procedures relevant to custodians and users of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual also contains samples of the forms utilized in carrying out nuclear material activities. To enhance the clarity of presentation, operating procedures are presented in the form of ''play-scripts'' in which the responsible organizations and necessary actions are clearly delineated in a chronological fashion from the initiation of a transaction to its completion

  6. A History of the Caterpillar Tractor Company's Use of Motion Pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeder, Gerry A.

    Film historians have tended to overlook the industrial film even though it has been widely used as a sales tool since early in this century. The Caterpillar Tractor Company was one of the first to adopt this medium as a means of demonstrating what its machines could do in a variety of situations. While other types of films have been made by…

  7. Performance of Single Axle Tractors in the Semi-Arid Central Part of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    Performance evaluation of three single axle tractors namely Dongfeng15 hp and 12 hp ... On average the agricultural sector accounts for 42.9% gross domestic product and ..... a and b are constant(coefficient) with (+) or (-) sign shown table ...

  8. Emission and operating performance of a biomethane tractor with dual fuel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mautner, Sebastian; Emberger, Peter; Thuneke, Klaus; Remmele, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    The use of biomethane as fuel for agricultural machinery with dual fuel technology is contributing to climate protection and ensures safe fuel supply. So far, hardly any documented operational experiences are known. The aim of the project, funded by the Bavarian Ministry of Economic Affairs and Media, Energy and Technology, was to investigate practicability for daily use and the emission behaviour of a Valtra N101 prototype tractor (exhaust stage IIIA). The retrofitted dual-fuel technology of the former conventional diesel tractor simultaneously uses biomethane or natural gas and diesel as ignition fuel. During the field test over 590 working hours, the tractor showed overall high reliability. On average the operating range in dual-fuel mode with one complete filling of the gas tanks was about 11.5 hours. On the tractor test bench a significant improvement of the exhaust emissions could be observed, since the gas ECU had been optimized and changed by the manufacturer. For dual-fuel operation, nitrogen oxides (NO x ) are lower, whereas carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and particulate matter emissions (PM) are higher compared to solely diesel operation. In particular, HC emissions exceed the proposed limiting value, submitted by the European Commission. This is due to incomplete gas combustion and insufficient conversion by the exhaust after-treatment-system (methane slip). A big potential for optimization is expected by adjusting the operating point-specific gasdiesel ratio and improving the exhaust gas aftertreatment system.

  9. High voltage electrification of tractor and agricultural machinery – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreda, G.P.; Muñoz-García, M.A.; Barreiro, P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • CO_2 emission reduction calls for energy-efficient mobile work machines. • Energy recovery could be possible in some agricultural machinery operations. • Owning and operating costs of electrified tractor-implement pairs should be analyzed. • Plug-in hybrid electric tractors running along tramlines make sense. • Electrification allows for precise speed control, noise reduction and flexible design. - Abstract: Reduction of both pollutant emissions and fossil fuel dependency is an objective of energy policies worldwide. In many countries, governments promote the use of efficient vehicles like the hybrid electric vehicle. Incorporation of electric drives in tractor and agricultural machinery presents advantages in terms of increased energy efficiency and expanded functionalities. Higher efficiency means reduction in fuel consumption and subsequent decrease in CO_2 emission. New functionalities improve work quality and increase operator comfort. Tractor electrification takes advantage of decoupling loads and drives from the engine, which allows operating the latter at its highest efficiency point. Major advantages of machinery electrification are torque and speed control, noise reduction, and a more flexible design. In this paper, a review of the state-of-the-art of agricultural machinery high voltage electrification is presented.

  10. Analysis of swirl recovery vanes for increased propulsive efficiency in tractor propeller aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, L.L.M.; Stokkermans, T.C.A.; Sinnige, T.; Eitelberg, G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we address a preliminary assessment of the performance effects of swirl recovery vanes (SRVs) in a installed and uninstalled tractor propeller arrangement. A numerical analysis was performed on a propeller and a propeller-wing configuration after the SRVs were optimized first in a

  11. INTEGRAL ASSESSMENT OF EFFICIENCY OF A FLEET OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY AND TRACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Korotchenya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An indicator for an integral assessment of efficiency of a fleet of agricultural machinery and tractors is proposed. Its calculating consists in multiplying partial efficiencies together: technical and price efficiency of agricultural production, and eco-efficiency of a fleet of agricultural machinery and tractors. Using an axiomatic method, the concept of efficiency of fleet was studied within broader category of productivity and in wider scales - within agriculture. The most general and obvious statements according to which efficiency of machine and tractor fleet is considered as indirectly settlement size counted proceeding from efficiency of agricultural production, were accepted as axioms. In general, efficiency is a ratio between productivity of an object in question and that of the theoretical ideal or an object with maximum productivity efficiency of which is accepted equal to unity or 100%. Technical efficiency of agricultural production characterizes the ability of an agricultural sector to produce the technically maximum output of agricultural produce obtained from the available resources (land, labor, machines, etc.. Price efficiency evaluates the ability of an agricultural sector to produce output of agricultural produce with regard to employing the optimal mix of resources given their prices. Because the theoretical ideal does not exist, efficiency of an agricultural sector, e.g. in Russia and of its fleet of agricultural machinery and tractors, is measured against agriculture of another country with maximum productivity efficiency of which is accepted as equal to unity or 100 percent. The calculation can be made on the basis of the Data Envelopment Analysis method. It is possible to calculate price and economic efficiency of Russian agriculture (fleet of agricultural machinery and tractors due to use its domestic prices.

  12. Analysis of fatal accidents with tractors in the Centre of Portugal: Ten years analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Soraia M; Cordeiro, Cristina; Teixeira, Helena M

    2018-06-01

    Tractors have been described as one of the deadliest farming implements concerning agricultural activity. In Portugal, the scientific investigations about this problem are practically non-existent, with only statistical studies performed by entities related to road traffic safety, not in accordance to the study now performed, pinpointing the possibility of an underreporting of these accidents. This work aims to characterize the fatal tractor accidents in Portugal, autopsied at the Forensic Pathology Department of the Centre Branch of the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences of Portugal, analysing several variables: gender, age, occupation, survival time, the victim position in the tractor, cause of death, toxicological and histological exams, year/month/day of the week, type of agricultural machine, existence of rollover protective structures (ROPS), type of accident, ground conditions, circumstantial information and geographic distribution of the accidents. All the autopsies between 2005 and 2014 were analysed. The victim profile corresponded to a man (89.5%), between 61 and 70 years old (33.3%), retired (43.9%), being the tractor driver (45.6%). In most of the cases, death occurred in less than 24h after the accident. These fatalities arose mainly in May and October. Rollover in sloping land was the most common type of accident, and cranioencephalic, thoracic and abdominal traumatic injuries were the main cause of death. In 16.2% of the cases, blood alcohol concentration was above the lower limit established in our road traffic law (accidents, and the corresponding circumstances that contributed to the death. Many barriers remain about this matter, but the Portuguese government begin to design several laws to prevent this type of accidents. Future investigations should be performed to understand the real dimension of tractor accidents in Portugal, and to comprehend the efficiency of laws implemented by the government. Copyright © 2018

  13. GRACE manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, T.; Kawabata, S.; Shimizu, Y.; Kaneko, T.; Kato, K.; Tanaka, H.

    1993-02-01

    This manual is composed of three kinds of objects, theoretical background for calculating the cross section of elementary process, usage and technical details of the GRACE system. Throughout this manual we take the tree level process e + e - → W + W - γ as an example, including the e ± -scalar boson interactions. The real FORTRAN source code for this process is attached in the relevant sections as well as the results of calculation, which might be a great help for understanding the practical use of the system. (J.P.N.)

  14. Non-ionizing radiation protection training manual for radiation control. Lectures, demonstrations, laboratories and tours on the course on non-ionizing radiations. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, K.Z.; Burkhart, R.L.

    1976-03-01

    In late 1974, consultation with the National Training Coordination Committee of the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors determined that State personnel needed training in order to fulfill their responsibility with respect to the growing number of non-ionizing radiation sources. A contract was awarded to the Georgia Institute of Technology to develop materials for a training program on non-ionizing radiation protection, pilot test these materials in a two-week presentation for Federal, State, and local government health personnel, and revise the materials as needed to produce a self-contained training manual. The materials were pilot-tested in March 1976, and then revised to provide the final manual. The course consists of three parts (1) general discussions of basic principles, properties, propagation and behavior of all types of non-ionizing radiations (2) an indepth study of all types and applications of coherent (laser) radiations, and (3) a study of ultraviolet, infrared, microwave, r.f., longwave and mechanical radiations as they may be used to have applications in hospitals and other medical institutions

  15. Ergonomic assessment of brake and accelerator mechanisms of MF285 and MF399 tractors using electromyography method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nikkhah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Too many people are working in the agricultural sector and therefore, pay more attention to the safety and health at work in the agricultural sector is important. This issue is more important in developing industrial countries where the level of the ergonomic working condition is less than that of developed countries. Attention to ergonomic condition of agricultural machinery drivers is one of the goals of agricultural mechanization. Therefore, in this study the ergonomic conditions of brake and accelerator mechanisms for MF285 and MF399 tractor's drivers were investigated using a new method. Materials and Methods: 25 people were selected for experiment. The electrical activity of Medialis gastrocnemius, Lateralis gastrocnemius, Vastus medialis, Vastus lateralis, Quadratus Lumborum and Trapezius muscles of drivers before and during pressing the pedal and after rest time were recorded using Biovision device. Measurements were performed for each person on each muscle 30 seconds before pressing the pedal, 60 seconds after pressing the pedal and after 60 seconds of rest. For all drivers, the muscles on the right side (brake and accelerator side have been selected and tested. The measurements were performed in compliance with appropriate time intervals between the measurements. Results and Discussion: Ergonomic assessment of brake pedal: The results showed that the RMS electrical activity of muscles of Vastus medialis and Medial gastrocnemius, during 60 seconds braking were 2.47 and 1.97. So, Vastus medialis and Medial gastrocnemius had the highest stress during pressing the MF399 tractor's brake pedal. Moreover, the Medial gastrocnemius and Lateral gastrocnemius with RMS electrical activity ratio of 2.47 and 1.74 had the highest RMS electrical activity ratio respectively, during 60 seconds braking compared to before braking of MF285 tractor. The comparison of results showed that the Vastus medialis and Trapezius had the higher stress

  16. Optical pulling force on a magneto-dielectric Rayleigh sphere in Bessel tractor polarized beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitri, F.G.; Li, R.X.; Yang, R.P.; Guo, L.X.; Ding, C.Y.

    2016-01-01

    The optical radiation force induced by Bessel (vortex) beams on a magneto-dielectric subwavelength sphere is investigated with particular emphasis on the beam polarization and order l (or topological charge). The analysis is focused on identifying the regions and some of the conditions to achieve retrograde motion of the sphere centered on the axis of wave propagation of the incident beam, or shifted off-axially. Exact non-paraxial analytical solutions are established, and computations for linear, circular, radial, azimuthal and mixed polarizations of the individual plane wave components forming the Bessel (vortex) beams by means of the angular spectrum decomposition method (ASDM) illustrate the theory with particular emphasis on the tractor (i.e. reversal) behavior of the force. This effect results in the pulling of the magneto-dielectric sphere against the forward linear momentum density flux associated with the incoming waves. Should some conditions related to the choice of the beam parameters as well as the permittivity and permeability of the sphere be met, the optical force vanishes and reverses sign. Moreover, the beam polarization is shown to affect differently the axial negative pulling force for either the zeroth- or the first-order Bessel beam. When the sphere is centered on the beam′s axis, the axial force component is always negative for the zeroth-order Bessel beam except for the radial and azimuthal polarization configurations. Nonetheless, for the first-order Bessel beam, the axial force is negative for the radial polarization case only. Additional tractor beam effects arise when the sphere departs from the center of the beam. It is also demonstrated that the tractor beam effect arises from the force component originating from the cross-interaction between the electric and magnetic dipoles. Potential applications are in particle manipulation, optical levitation, tractor beam tweezers, and other emergent technologies using polarized Bessel beams on

  17. DETERMINATION OF TRANSMISSION GEAR RATIO IN MECHANICAL PART OF TRACTOR ELECTRO-MECHANICAL TRANSMISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. I. Zhdanovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A methodology has been developed for selection of gear number and transmission gear ratios in mechanical part of a wheel-type tractor with electro-mechanical transmission containing a propulsion asynchronous electric motor with variablefrequency control. The paper proposes to determine a transmission gear ratio on the basis of the following: provision of wheel torque dependence on tractor speed which is the best one for a traction process and during transfer from one gear to the other; provision of nominal operational mode of the electric motor for all tractor operations where it is working for a long period of time; provision of minimum possible number of gears; complete realization of internal combustion engine power on the tractor wheels at limit operational mode of the electric motor. As a characteristic of the asynchronous electric motor with variable-frequency control contains various portions which can be used either completely or partially due to operating conditions, the gear number is determined in the process of transmission gear ration finding but not prior to this. A wheel torque of the tractor with electro-mechanical transmission can be limited according to the following factors: grip of wheel with supporting surface; maximum power of an internal combustion engine which can be transferred to the wheels and a torque which is developed by a propulsion electric motor. It is not proposed to exceed nominal operational mode of the propulsion electric motor for all the operations of the tractor if it is working for a long period of time because in the case of significant excess of the nominal operational mode of the asynchronous electric motor its rather long operation leads to low efficiency and high losses in power, large heat liberation and consequently requires to develop more complicated system for electric motor cooling. An excess of nominal electric motor torque can be justified for short-term operational modes because in this case

  18. Whole-Body Vibration in Farming: Background Document for Creating a Simplified Procedure to Determine Agricultural Tractor Vibration Comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Cutini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Operator exposure to high levels of whole-body vibration (WBV presents risks to health and safety and it is reported to worsen or even cause back injuries. Work activities resulting in operator exposure to whole-body vibration have a common onset in off-road work such as farming. Despite the wide variability of agricultural surface profiles, studies have shown that with changing soil profile and tractor speed, the accelerations resulting from ground input present similar spectral trends. While on the one hand such studies confirmed that tractor WBV emission levels are very dependent upon the nature of the operation performed, on the other, irrespective of the wide range of conditions characterizing agricultural operations, they led researchers to set up a possible and realistic simplification and standardization of tractor driver comfort testing activities. The studies presented herewith indicate the usefulness, and the possibility, of developing simplified procedures to determine agricultural tractor vibration comfort. The results obtained could be used effectively to compare tractors of the same category or a given tractor when equipped with different seats, suspension, tyres, etc.

  19. Truck Rollover Characterization for Class-8 Tractor-Trailers Utilizing Standard Dual Tires and New-Generation Single Tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capps, Gary [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Transportation Research Center; Knee, Bill [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Transportation Research Center; Franzese, Oscar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Transportation Research Center; Pollock, Paul [Dana Corporation, Kalamazoo, MI (United States). Commercial Vehicle Systems Division; Coleman, Daniel [Dana Corporation, Kalamazoo, MI (United States). Commercial Vehicle Systems Division; Janajreh, Ibrahim [Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation, Greenville, SC (United States); Haas, Steven [Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation, Greenville, SC (United States); Frey, Norm [Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation, Greenville, SC (United States); Law, Harry [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Fluor Daniel Engineering Innovation Building; Johnson, Eric [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Fluor Daniel Engineering Innovation Building; Lawson, Robert [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Fluor Daniel Engineering Innovation Building; Petrolino, Joe [National Transportation Research Center, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Rice, Dave [National Transportation Research Center, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2005-07-30

    The Heavy Truck Rollover Characterization Project is a major research effort conducted by the National Transportation Research Center, Inc. (NTRCI) in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Dana Corporation (Dana), Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation (Michelin) and Clemson University (Clemson), under the NTRCIs Heavy Vehicle Safety Research Center (HVSRC) for the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). ORNL provided the day-to-day management of the project. The expertise mix of this team coupled with complementary research needs and interests, and a positive can-do attitude provided an extremely positive experimental research opportunity for all involved. Furthermore, this team supplied significant and valuable resources that provided a strong positive benchmark regarding the ability to conduct research within a public-private partnership. The work conducted by this team focused on initial efforts to generate data and information on heavy truck rollover not currently available in the industry. It reflects efforts within Phases 1 and 2 of a longer-term four-phase research program. A 1999 Peterbilt 379 class-8 tractor and 2004 Wabash dry freight van trailer were the test vehicles utilized in this effort. Both were instrumented with a number of sensors to capture the dynamics of the tractor and trailer as it engaged in various testing maneuvers that included: an evasive maneuver, swept sine, constant radius, and a run-off-the-road maneuver. The run-off-the-road maneuver was discontinued because the test track could not safety accommodate such a maneuver. These maneuvers were carried out utilizing both standard dual tires and new-generation dual tires in six test series. Two test series also included the use of a wider-slider suspension. Outriggers were placed on the test vehicle to assure that an actual rollover would not occur, however, the tests were designed to generate lift-off of tires during the tests. One of the main objectives

  20. Waste Management Technical Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckingham, J.S. [ed.

    1967-08-31

    This Manual has been prepared to provide a documented compendium of the technical bases and general physical features of Isochem Incorporated`s Waste Management Program. The manual is intended to be used as a means of training and as a reference handbook for use by personnel responsible for executing the Waste Management Program. The material in this manual was assembled by members of Isochem`s Chemical Processing Division, Battelle Northwest Laboratory, and Hanford Engineering Services between September 1965 and March 1967. The manual is divided into the following parts: Introduction, contains a summary of the overall Waste Management Program. It is written to provide the reader with a synoptic view and as an aid in understanding the subsequent parts; Feed Material, contains detailed discussion of the type and sources of feed material used in the Waste Management Program, including a chapter on nuclear reactions and the formation of fission products; Waste Fractionization Plant Processing, contains detailed discussions of the processes used in the Waste Fractionization Plant with supporting data and documentation of the technology employed; Waste Fractionization Plant Product and Waste Effluent Handling, contains detailed discussions of the methods of handling the product and waste material generated by the Waste Fractionization Plant; Plant and Equipment, describes the layout of the Waste Management facilities, arrangement of equipment, and individual equipment pieces; Process Control, describes the instruments and analytical methods used for process control; and Safety describes process hazards and the methods used to safeguard against them.

  1. Lubricant flow analysis for effective lubrication of tractor forward/reverse clutch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daekyung Noh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the high power requirements of tractors, their low-power transmission gears often experience durability problems such as burning of the clutch. The operation of tractors under high load conditions also causes clutch slip, with the consequent longer operation duration exacerbating the burning of the friction plate. Solving this problem requires effective lubricant distribution. This was achieved in the present study by the development of an analysis model for predicting the lubricant flow rate. The reliability of the model was verified by comparing its predictions for various operation conditions with experimental measurements. Using the model, it was determined that effective distribution of the lubricant could be achieved without significant modification of the system, by only adjusting the gaps between the clutch piston and the housing, and between the separation plates and the case. Keywords: Mechanical engineering

  2. [Accident prevention in agriculture in the ASL1 Abruzzo Local Health Service: protection facilities for tractors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompei, Domenico; Rossi, Roberta; Vecchiola, Rita; Angelone, Anna Maria; Fabiani, Leila

    2015-07-08

    The ASL1 workplace prevention and safety service in Abruzzo has been conducting workplace inspections on agricultural and livestock farms in the province of L'Aquila since 2011, mainly in the areas of Avezzano, Sulmona and L'Aquila. The agricultural sector in Abruzzo is characterized by high rates of accidents and the ratio of fatal injuries/total injuries is higher than the industry and services sector. To evaluate the presence or absence of safety devices , i.e. compliance or otherwise with regulations for tractors, and of any variable factor that could be associated with the safety of the vehicle. Between 2011 and 2013, 98 farms in the province of L'Aquila were inspected. The data resulting from the inspections was collected by the use of a checklist. An univariate logistic regression analysis was conducted in which the vehicles that complied with regulations were considered as the dependant variable, and the age of the tractor owner, the acres of worked land and the type of farm were considered as explanatory variables. Statistical elaboration was carried out using the Stata 12 programme. Out of a total of 298 tractors that were checked, 64.8% did not comply with regulations due to absence or unsuitability of one or more safety devices such as: a protective device in case of overturning; retention system of the driver; mounting and dismounting from the vehicle; protection of moving parts and hot parts; PTO (Power Take Off) protection device. A significant association between non-compliance of vehicles and the age of the owner and acres worked was observed, whereas no statistical significance was observed for the association with the farm type variable. Our study showed that farms where the owner's age is between 50 and 64 years and where more acres of land are worked are those where the agricultural or forestry tractors had lower levels of compliance with regulations.

  3. The development and validation of an ergonomics index for assessing tractor operator work place

    OpenAIRE

    Barbieri, Juan Paulo; Schlosser, José Fernando; Farias, Marcelo Silveira de; Negri, Giácomo Müller; Oliveira, Luis Fernando Vargas de

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to develop and validate an ergonomics index for the operator workplace assessment of agricultural tractors sold in the Brazilian market. To develop the ergonomics index, the operator work places were assessed for compliance with current, national and international, safety and ergonomics standards. The following standards were analyzed to develop ergonomics index: ISO 15077 (1996), which regulates the position of operator controls; ABNT NBR ISO 4254-1(2015) and ABNT ...

  4. Noise levels of a track-laying tractor during field operations in the vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Catania

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Noise in agriculture is one of the risk factors to be taken into account in the assessment of the health and safety of workers; in particular, it is known that the tractor is a source of high noise. The Italian Low Decree 81/2008 defined the requirements for assessing and managing noise risk identifying a number of procedures to be adopted at different noise levels to limit workers exposure. This paper concerns the analysis of the noise risk arising from the use of a tracklaying tractor during field operations carried out in the vineyard. The objective of this study was to evaluate the noise level that comes close to the ear of the operator driving the tractor measuring the values of equivalent sound level (Leq(A and peak sound pressure (LCpk. We considered four options related to the same tractor coupled with the following tools to perform some farming operations: rototilling, chisel plough, flail mowers and vibro farmer. We considered three test conditions: T1 in flat (slope 0%, T2 uphill and T3 downhill (both 30% slope. The instrument used for the measurements is a precision integrating portable sound level meter, class 1, model HD2110L by Delta OHM, Italy. Each survey lasted 2 minutes, with an interval of measurement equal to 0.5 s. The tests were performed in compliance with the standards ISO 9612 and ISO 9432. The results show that the measured sound levels exceed the limits allowed by the regulations in almost all the test conditions; values exceeding the threshold limit of 80 dB(A were recorded coming up to a maximum value of 92.8 dB(A for flail mowers in test T1. When limits imposed by the regulations are exceeded, the operator is obliged to wear the appropriate Personal Protective Equipment.

  5. Design and Development of A Three-Point Auto Hitch Dynamometer for An Agricultural Tractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Kheiralla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design, development and calibration of a three-point auto hitch dynamometer for measuring the horizontal and vertical forces that existed at the three-point hitch of an agricultural tractor.  The design concept of the dynamometer was based on an instrumented inverted U frame assembly that was mounted between tractor links and implement. The design incorporates for both lower point hitch spread and mast height adjustments, and quick hitch capability in accordance with category 1 and II three-point hitch system.  The force sensing elements were comprised of three steel extended octagonal ring transducers that were located between the inverted U frame and hook brackets.  Electrical resistance strain gauges were mounted on the extended octagonal ring transducer at strain angle nodes to independently monitor strains that were proportional to the horizontal and vertical forces at the ring center. Each transducer was designed for maximum horizontal and vertical forces of 25 kN and 10 kN at measurement mean sensitivities of 25.19 µStrain/kN and 25.60 µStrain/kN, respectively. However, the complete dynamometer has been designed to measure the maximum resultant horizontal and vertical forces of 50 kN and 20 kN, respectively.  Field demonstration tests on the dynamometer and data acquisition system showed that they were able to function effectively as intended.  The data acquisition system was able to successfully scan and record the dynamometer signals as programmed.  This dynamometer was part of the complete instrumentation system to be developed onboard a Massey Ferguson 3060 tractor for the generation of a comprehensive database on the power and energy requirements of the tractor and its working implement in the field.

  6. Vibration energy absorption in the whole-body system of a tractor operator

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Szczepaniak; Wojciech Tanaś; Jacek Kromulski

    2014-01-01

    Many people are exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV) in their occupational lives, especially drivers of vehicles such as tractor and trucks. The main categories of effects from WBV are perception degraded comfort interference with activities-impaired health and occurrence of motion sickness. Absorbed power is defined as the power dissipated in a mechanical system as a result of an applied force. The vibration-induced injuries or disorders in a substructure of the human system are primari...

  7. Metrication manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, A.F.A.; Digby, R.B.; Thong, S.P.; Lacey, F.

    1978-04-01

    In April 1978 a meeting of senior metrication officers convened by the Commonwealth Science Council of the Commonwealth Secretariat, was held in London. The participants were drawn from Australia, Bangladesh, Britain, Canada, Ghana, Guyana, India, Jamaica, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Trinidad and Tobago. Among other things, the meeting resolved to develop a set of guidelines to assist countries to change to SI and to compile such guidelines in the form of a working manual

  8. Life-cycle assessment of a Solar Assist Plug-in Hybrid electric Tractor (SAPHT) in comparison with a conventional tractor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousazadeh, Hossein; Keyhani, Alireza; Javadi, Arzhang; Mobli, Hossein; Abrinia, Karen; Sharifi, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    The most well-known reason of global warming is equivalent carbon dioxide (CO 2equ ) emitted from fossil fuels combustion in on-road and off-road vehicles. An appreciable portion of off-road pollution is allocated to farm implements. All cited studies have shown that renewable based electric vehicles (EVs) decrease petroleum consumption and consequently reduce criteria emissions under nearly all circumstances. Considering this, a Solar Assist Plug-in Hybrid electric Tractor (SAPHT) was designed, constructed and evaluated. This research evaluated the life cycle analysis of SAPHT project and compared the results with that of an internal combustion engine tractor (ICET). The life cycle was analyzed based on economical cost and environmental emissions. The externality of environmental pollutions was calculated to derive the life-cycle costs (LCC). The results showed that substituting each ICET by SAPHT can prevent 14 ton CO 2equ emission to atmosphere annually. Also it prevents a high volume of other emissions such as CO, NO x and PM 10 entering the atmosphere. LCC assessment emphasizes on economical effectiveness of SAPHT rather than ICET at any diesel fuel price, therefore, increasing fuel unit prices leads to more effectiveness. It is concluded that levelized cost of energy (LCE) in Euro /kW h for ICET is almost twice as that of SAPHT. Some of these advantages for SAPHT are offset in part by high purchase costs, heavy and massive batteries and low operating range.

  9. A novel design procedure for tractor clutch fingers by using optimization and response surface methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, Oguz; Karpat, Fatih; Yuce, Celalettin; Kaya, Necmettin; Yavuz, Nurettin [Uludag University, Gorukle (Turkmenistan); Sen, Hasan [Valeo A. S., Bursa (Turkmenistan)

    2016-06-15

    This paper presents a methodology for re-designing a failed tractor transmission component subjected to cyclic loading. Unlike other vehicles, tractors cope with tough working conditions. Thus, it is necessary to re-design components by using modern optimization techniques. To extend their service life, we present a design methodology for a failed tractor clutch power take-off finger. The finger was completely re-designed using topology and shape optimization approach. Stress-life based fatigue analyses were performed. Shape optimization and response surface methodology were conducted to obtain optimum dimensions of the finger. Two design parameters were selected for the design of experiment method and 15 cases were analyzed. By using design of the experiment method, three responses were obtained: Maximum stresses, mass, and displacement depending on the selected the design parameters. After solving the optimization problem, we achieved a maximum stress and mass reduction of 14% and 6%, respectively. The stiffness was improved up to 31.6% compared to the initial design.

  10. Gravity, two times, tractors, Weyl invariance, and six-dimensional quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonezzi, R.; Latini, E.; Waldron, A.

    2010-01-01

    Fefferman and Graham showed some time ago that four-dimensional conformal geometries could be analyzed in terms of six-dimensional, ambient, Riemannian geometries admitting a closed homothety. Recently, it was shown how conformal geometry provides a description of physics manifestly invariant under local choices of unit systems. Strikingly, Einstein's equations are then equivalent to the existence of a parallel scale tractor (a six-component vector subject to a certain first order covariant constancy condition at every point in four-dimensional spacetime). These results suggest a six-dimensional description of four-dimensional physics, a viewpoint promulgated by the 2 times physics program of Bars. The Fefferman-Graham construction relies on a triplet of operators corresponding, respectively, to a curved six-dimensional light cone, the dilation generator and the Laplacian. These form an sp(2) algebra which Bars employs as a first class algebra of constraints in a six-dimensional gauge theory. In this article four-dimensional gravity is recast in terms of six-dimensional quantum mechanics by melding the 2 times and tractor approaches. This parent formulation of gravity is built from an infinite set of six-dimensional fields. Successively integrating out these fields yields various novel descriptions of gravity including a new four-dimensional one built from a scalar doublet, a tractor-vector multiplet and a conformal class of metrics.

  11. Comparison between ISO 5008 and field whole body vibration tractor values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Deboli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The exposure to whole body vibration (WBV of tractor drivers during field operations is a problem that has never been solved. WBV values are quite difficult to predict because of the high number of variables, such as mass and geometry of the vehicle, forward speed, tire pressure, type of ground, operation cycle, and environmental factors. The use of an artificial track is useful to limit the variability of some field parameters, such as the path followed, fluctuations in speed, weather, temperature, and soil conditions. For comparative purposes, these variables need to be maintained as constant as possible in order to obtain the most useful data. An analysis of the literature provoked the question: Is there a lower forward speed on artificial track that can generate the same vibration response on tractors working in the same field? In this paper, we analyze the available literature and provide some WBV values and frequency analysis of acceleration measured on agricultural tractors traveling on an artificial test track and on different types of ground.

  12. Manual for Cyclic Triaxial Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shajarati, Amir; Sørensen, Kris Wessel; Nielsen, Søren Kjær

    This manual describes the different steps that is included in the procedure for conducting a cyclic triaxial test at the geotechnical Laboratory at Aalborg University. Furthermore it contains a chapter concerning some of the background theory for the static triaxial tests. The cyclic/dynamic tria......This manual describes the different steps that is included in the procedure for conducting a cyclic triaxial test at the geotechnical Laboratory at Aalborg University. Furthermore it contains a chapter concerning some of the background theory for the static triaxial tests. The cyclic...

  13. Manual on decontamination of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The manual is intended for those who are responsible for the organization and implementation of decontamination programmes for facilities where radioactive materials are handled mainly on a laboratory scale. It contains information and guidelines on practical methods for decontaminating working spaces, equipment, laboratory benches and protective clothing. Useful information is also provided on the removal of loose skin contamination from personnel by mild, non-medical processes. Methods of removing skin contamination needing medical supervision, or of internal decontamination, which is entirely a medical process, are not covered in this manual. Large-scale decontamination of big nuclear facilities is also considered as outside its scope

  14. Quality management manual. National EU air quality reference laboratory of the Federal Environmental Agency; Qualitaetsmanagementhandbuch. Nationales EU-Luftqualitaets-Referenzlabor im Umweltbundesamt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    The 'Air' Department of the Federal Environmental Agency initiated a quality management system according to DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025 in order to carry out its tasks as a EU reference laboratory for air pollution monitoring. Harmonisation of measurements is attempted not only in the Federal Republic of Germany but world-wide. This is to be achieved by standardising the activities of reference laboratories on the basis of the DIN EN standards. The quality management system comprises complex organisational, technical and staff-oriented measures to ensure quality-relevant procedures and to control the interdependences between the individual processes. The specifications contained in this report are to ensure that quality requirements are met, and that the QM system will be updated continuously in order to ensure constant improvement.

  15. Large Hadron Collider manual

    CERN Document Server

    Lavender, Gemma

    2018-01-01

    What is the universe made of? How did it start? This Manual tells the story of how physicists are seeking answers to these questions using the world’s largest particle smasher – the Large Hadron Collider – at the CERN laboratory on the Franco-Swiss border. Beginning with the first tentative steps taken to build the machine, the digestible text, supported by color photographs of the hardware involved, along with annotated schematic diagrams of the physics experiments, covers the particle accelerator’s greatest discoveries – from both the perspective of the writer and the scientists who work there. The Large Hadron Collider Manual is a full, comprehensive guide to the most famous, record-breaking physics experiment in the world, which continues to capture the public imagination as it provides new insight into the fundamental laws of nature.

  16. Levels of vibration transmitted to the operator of the tractor equipped with front axle suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Pochi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the comfort and the preservation of the health of the operators became central issues in the evolution of agricultural machinery and led to the introduction of devices aimed at improving working conditions. Thereby, for instance, the presence of air conditioner, soundproof cab and driver seat suspension became normal on agricultural tractors. The vibrations are one of the most complex issues to deal with, being determined by the characteristics and interaction of elements such as tyres, axles, mainframe, cab and seat suspension. In this respect, manufacturers are trying to improve their products, even integrating these elements with new devices such as the suspension on the front axle of the tractor, aimed at reducing the level of vibrations during the transfers at high speed. One of these underwent tests at CRA-ING. Since its purpose is to reduce the level of vibration transmitted to the driver, their measurements in different points of the tractor and in different operating conditions, were compared in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the device, expressed as time of exposure. The suspension system of the front axle is designed to absorb the oscillations (especially pitching determined by irregularities in the road surface, allowing an increased control of the vehicle at high speed, as demonstrated by the test results and confirmed by the driving impressions outlined by the operator. The action of the device under these conditions results in an increase of the exposure time, important fact because of the relevance of the road transfer operations of tractors with mounted implements or trailers to tow and of the tendency to increase the speed limit for the road tractors (in Germany were brought to 50 km h–1 for several years. The action just described is less evident with increasing irregularity of the road surface and with the decrease of the travel speed. Nevertheless, in such conditions, the device appears to

  17. Investigation of UK Farmer Go/No-Go Decisions in Response to Tractor-Based Risk Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Amy; Poots, Jill

    2018-01-01

    Tractors are a source of injury and fatality in agriculture. Despite this farmers continue to engage in risk-taking behaviors, including operating tractors without appropriate equipment. In order to change behaviors and attitudes toward safety, it is important to understand how farmers approach different types of risk relevant to tractor use. The current study used a qualitative approach to investigate farmer perception of four types of tractor-based risk related to self, equipment, lack of safety features, and environment. A sample of 148 farmers from the United Kingdom and Ireland was recruited from farming forums to take part in an online scenario-based qualitative study. Participants were presented with 12 tractor-based scenarios, three from each category of risk, and asked to indicate if they would proceed to use the tractor (go) or not (no-go), then report their reasoning. Thematic analysis was used to identify data patterns. Farmers appeared to assess the consequences of risk in broader terms than the risk of injury to themselves; they also evaluated risk in terms of potential costs (e.g., repair bill) and losses (e.g., delay). Analysis indicated that financial risk was considered with more caution than personal risk in many cases. Farmers also considered usability, such as the functionality of tractor seat belts, indicating the importance of ensuring all safety equipment is fit for purpose. The management of agricultural risk should consider farmer priorities (such as financial costs) in order to develop effective messaging that focuses on those priorities, with the aim of reducing risk-taking behaviors.

  18. Health physics instrument manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupton, E.D.

    1978-08-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide apprentice health physics surveyors and other operating groups not directly concerned with radiation detection instruments a working knowledge of the radiation detection and measuring instruments in use at the Laboratory. The characteristics and applications of the instruments are given. Portable instruments, stationary instruments, personnel monitoring instruments, sample counters, and miscellaneous instruments are described. Also, information sheets on calibration sources, procedures, and devices are included. Gamma sources, beta sources, alpha sources, neutron sources, special sources, a gamma calibration device for badge dosimeters, and a calibration device for ionization chambers are described

  19. PNNL Hoisting and Rigging Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynie, Todd O.; Fullmer, Michael W.

    2008-12-29

    This manual describes the safe and cost effective operation, inspection, maintenance, and repair requirements for cranes, hoists, fork trucks, slings, rigging hardware, and hoisting equipment. It is intended to be a user's guide to requirements, codes, laws, regulations, standards, and practices that apply to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and its subcontractors.

  20. SES2D user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.D.; Lyon, S.P.

    1982-04-01

    SES2D is an interactive graphics code designed to generate plots of equation of state data from the Los Alamos National Laboratory Group T-4 computer libraries. This manual discusses the capabilities of the code. It describes the prompts and commands and illustrates their use with a sample run

  1. Quality assurance manual: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oijala, J.E.

    1988-06-01

    Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is a DOE-supported research facility that carries out experimental and theoretical research in high energy physics and developmental work in new techniques for particle acceleration and experimental instrumentation. The purpose of this manual is to describe SLAC quality assurance policies and practices in various parts of the Laboratory

  2. Eddy current manual, volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecco, V.S.; Van Drunen, G.; Sharp, F.L.

    1984-09-01

    This report on eddy current testing is divided into three sections: (a) Demonstration of Basic Principles, (b) Practical (Laboratory) Tests and, (c) Typical Certification Questions. It is intended to be used as a supplement to ΣEddy Current Manual, Volume 1Σ (AECL-7523) during CSNDT Foundation Level II and III courses

  3. The mathematical model for the investigation of different influence factors on the economic and ecological indicators of a wheel tractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharchuk V.I.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem of oil deficit and reduce emissions of harmful substances from exhaust gases of vehicles alternative motor fuels, including biodiesel may by used. Most of wheel tractors are used as technological transport in agriculture, industry and municipal services. The article aims to clarify the mathematical model to determine the effect of the type of fuel used wheeled tractors on its performance. The mathematical model of the system "operator-wheel tractor-road" for the design research impact type of fuel on harmful emissions and fuel consumption wheeled tractor, is used as technological transport during its movement for driving cycle. Driving cycle showed main modes of motion there are acceleration, motion with constant speed and deceleration. The mathematical model allows to accurately consider peculiarities of the wheel tractor as the vehicle and engine describing its characteristics by polinomial dependencies. In mathematical models specified polynomial dependences that describe the fuel supply cycle indicated torque, fuel consumption and concentrations of main harmful substances in the exhaust gases of diesel during operation on diesel and biodiesel.

  4. Sodium safety manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.J.; Gardiner, R.L.

    1980-09-01

    The sodium safety manual is based upon more than a decade of experience with liquid sodium at Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories (BNL). It draws particularly from the expertise and experience developed in the course of research work into sodium fires and sodium water reactions. It draws also on information obtained from the UKAEA and other sodium users. Many of the broad principles will apply to other Establishments but much of the detail is specific to BNL and as a consequence its application at other sites may well be limited. Accidents with sodium are at best unpleasant and at worst lethal in an extremely painful way. The object of this manual is to help prevent sodium accidents. It is not intended to give detailed advice on specific precautions for particular situations, but rather to set out the overall strategy which will ensure that sodium activities will be pursued safely. More detail is generally conveyed to staff by the use of local instructions known as Sodium Working Procedures (SWP's) which are not reproduced in this manual although a list of current SWP's is included. Much attention is properly given to the safe design and operation of larger facilities; nevertheless evidence suggests that sodium accidents most frequently occur in small-scale work particularly in operations associated with sodium cleaning and special care is needed in all such cases. (U.K.)

  5. First evaluation of automated specimen inoculation for wound swab samples by use of the Previ Isola system compared to manual inoculation in a routine laboratory: finding a cost-effective and accurate approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischnik, Alexander; Mieth, Markus; Busch, Cornelius J; Hofer, Stefan; Zimmermann, Stefan

    2012-08-01

    Automation of plate streaking is ongoing in clinical microbiological laboratories, but evaluation for routine use is mostly open. In the present study, the recovery of microorganisms from the Previ Isola system plated polyurethane (PU) swab samples is compared to manually plated control viscose swab samples from wounds according to the CLSI procedure M40-A (quality control of microbiological transport systems). One hundred twelve paired samples (224 swabs) were analyzed. In 80/112 samples (71%), concordant culture results were obtained with the two methods. In 32/112 samples (29%), CFU recovery of microorganisms from the two methods was discordant. In 24 (75%) of the 32 paired samples with a discordant result, Previ Isola plated PU swabs were superior. In 8 (25%) of the 32 paired samples with a discordant result, control viscose swabs were superior. The quality of colony growth on culture media for further investigations was superior with Previ Isola inoculated plates compared to manual plating techniques. Gram stain results were concordant between the two methods in 62/112 samples (55%). In 50/112 samples (45%), the results of Gram staining were discordant between the two methods. In 34 (68%) of the 50 paired samples with discordant results, Gram staining of PU swabs was superior to that of control viscose swabs. In 16 (32%) of the 50 paired samples, Gram staining of control viscose swabs was superior to that of PU swabs. We report the first clinical evaluation of Previ Isola automated specimen inoculation for wound swab samples. This study suggests that use of an automated specimen inoculation system has good results with regard to CFU recovery, quality of Gram staining, and accuracy of diagnosis.

  6. Manual for soil physical measurements; Version 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolte, J.

    1997-01-01

    Manuals are given for several laboratory methods for determining hydraulic conductivity, water retention and shrinkage characteristics of soil. Measurement techniques described are: the constant-head and falling-head methods for saturated conductivitythe drip infiltrometer for unsaturated

  7. Pdap Manual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Mølgaard; Larsen, Torben J.

    Pdap, Python Data Analysis Program, is a program for post processing, analysis, visualization and presentation of data e.g. simulation results and measurements. It is intended but not limited to the domain of wind turbines. It combines an intuitive graphical user interface with python scripting...... that allows automation and implementation of custom functions. This manual gives a short introduction to the graphical user interface, describes the mathematical background for some of the functions, describes the scripting API and finally a few examples on how automate analysis via scripting is presented....... The newest version, and more documentation and help on how to used, extend and automate Pdap can be found at the webpage www.hawc2.dk...

  8. A New Skid Trail Pattern Design for Farm Tractors Using Linear Programing and Geographical Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk Gumus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Farm tractor skidding is one of the common methods of timber extraction in Turkey. However, the absence of an optimal skidding plan covering the entire production area can result in time loss and negative environmental impacts. In this study, the timber extraction by farm tractors was analyzed, and a new skid trail pattern design was developed using Linear Programming (LP and Geographical Information Systems (GIS. First, a sample skidding operation was evaluated with a time study, and an optimum skidding model was generated with LP. Then, the new skidding pattern was developed by an optimum skidding model and GIS analysis. At the end of the study, the developed new skid trail pattern was implemented in the study area and tested by running a time study. Using the newly developed “Direct Skid Trail Pattern (DSTP” model, a 16.84% increase in working time performance was observed when the products were extracted by farm tractors compared to the existing practices. On the other hand, the average soil compaction value measured in the study area at depths of 0–5 cm and 5–10 cm was found to be greater in the sample area skid trails than in the control points. The average density of the skid trails was 281 m/ha, while it decreased to 187 m/ha by using the developed pattern. It was also found that 44,829 ton/ha of soil losses were prevented by using the DSTP model; therefore, environmental damages were decreased.

  9. Repair and maintenance costs of 4WD tractors and self propelled combine harvesters in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Calcante

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purchasing and maintaining tractors and operating machines are two of the most considerable costs of the agricultural sector, which includes farm equipment manufacturers, farm contractors and farms. In this context, repair and maintenance costs (R&M costs generally constitute 10-15% of the total costs related to agricultural equipment and tend to increase with the age of the equipment; hence, an important consideration in farm management is the optimal time for equipment replacement. Classical, R&M cost estimation models, calculated as a function of accumulated working hours, are usually developed by ASAE/ASABE for the United States operating conditions. However, R&M costs are strongly influenced by farming practices, operative conditions, crop and soil type, climatic conditions, etc. which can be specific for individual countries. In this study, R&M cost model parameters were recalculated for the current Italian situation. For this purpose, data related to the R&M costs of 100 4WD tractors with engine power ranging from 59 to 198 kW, and of 20 SP combine harvesters (10 straw walkers combines and 10 axial flow combines with engine power ranging from 159 to 368 kW working in Italy were collected. According to the model, which was obtained by interpolating the data through a two-parameter power function (proposed by ASAE/ASABE, the R&M cost incidence on the list price of Italian tractors at 12,000 working hours (estimated life of the machines was 48.6%, as compared with 43.2% calculated through the most recent U.S. model while, for self propelled combine harvesters, the R&M cost incidence at 3,000 working hours was 23.1 % as compared with 40.2% calculated through the same U.S. model.

  10. Evaluation of the agricultural tractor using biofuel and diesel oil; Avaliacao de um trator agricola utilizando biocombustivel e oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Reny Adilmar Prestes; Pinheiro Neto, Raimundo; Meyer, Wagner; Mendonca, Elton Costa de; Roberti, Marcelo [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)], Emails: raplopes@uem.br, rpneto@uem.br

    2009-07-01

    Test with alternative fuels is essential to evaluate the performance of machines and engines. In this paper, the performance of a tractor in chiseling operation was evaluated using oil diesel and biofuel (oil diesel + soybean vegetable oil mixture). Speed of displacement, slip wheels, force traction bar and fuel consumption was evaluated in areas under tillage and no-tillage. The speed of displacement of the set presented similar behavior in tillage and no-tillage. Bigger values mean force in the bar of traction, slip and fuel consumptions had been observed for no-tillage with the tractor operating with diesel. Bigger values mean consumption the biofuel had been observed in areas under tillage. The coverings of the soil had influenced in the values of force bar traction, slip wheels, speed of displacement and fuel consumption. In the studied conditions, the tests demonstrate that the mixture oil diesel + soybean vegetable oil had not influenced in the performance of the tractor. (author)

  11. Radiological Control Manual. Revision 0, January 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This manual has been prepared by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to provide guidance for site-specific additions, supplements, and clarifications to the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The guidance provided in this manual is based on the requirements given in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 835, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers, DOE Order 5480.11, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers, and the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The topics covered are (1) excellence in radiological control, (2) radiological standards, (3) conduct of radiological work, (4) radioactive materials, (5) radiological health support operations, (6) training and qualification, and (7) radiological records.

  12. Determination of the curves, torque harnesses of performance of an agricultural tractor Massey Ferguson MF 275

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Vanderson Rabelo de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz; Silva, Breno Alves; Santos, Thiago Castro Vidal dos; Porto, Rodrigo Padovani; Volpato, Carlos Eduardo Silva; Barbosa, Jackson Antonio [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The globalization of the economy has approached the markets and one of the consequences of this approach is the entrance of new equipment and highly competitive machines in cost terms. This is the same reality of the Brazilian agricultural sector that today counts on new options of machines and very interesting implements of the point of view of the acquisition cost. In this context, this work aimed at the dynamometric assay of an agricultural tractor for attainment of its curves of torque, power using the B100 soybean fuels, B100 olive, B100 diesel. (author)

  13. Operational performance of agricultural tractor in function of interior and metropolitano diesel mixture in mamona biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabile, Rubens Andre [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EESC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Lopes, Afonso; Toledo, Anderson de; Reis, Gustavo Naves dos; Silva, Rouverson Pereira da [Universidade Estadual Paulista (DER/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Rural

    2008-07-01

    The great demand for energy sources by production systems allied to scarcity of fossil fuels has motivated the development and production of biodiesel, this is a fuel produced from renewable sources. Given that, the objective of this study was to compare the operating performance of an agricultural tractor, operating with interior and metropolitano diesel mixed to mamona biodiesel, in seven proportions. The tests were conducted in the Departamento de Engenharia Rural of UNESP/Jaboticabal - SP. The results showed that the kind of diesel did influence fuel consumption, and diesel metropolitano showed best quality. It was also observed that as biodiesel proportion increased, fuel consumption increased as well. (author)

  14. Depreciation Rates for Australian Tractors and Headers - Is Machinery Depreciation a Fixed or Variable Cost?

    OpenAIRE

    Tozer, Peter R.

    2005-01-01

    Seven different remaining value functions for tractors and harvesters were estimated using data from advertised prices for used farm equipment. The generalised Box-Cox model was used to nest six of the seven functions. The more complex Box- Cox function explained the data better, but simpler models such as the sum-of-theyears- digits, or double-square root models were no different and were easier to manipulate to estimate depreciation rates and costs. There were up to three components of depr...

  15. Laboratory Handbook Electronics

    CERN Multimedia

    1966-01-01

    Laboratory manual 1966 format A3 with the list of equipment cables, electronic tubes, chassis, diodes transistors etc. One of CERN's first material catalogue for construction components for mechanical and electronic chassis.

  16. Chores at Times of Fatal or Serious Injuries Associated with Tractor Overturns with and without Rollover Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry P. Cole

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study describes chores when farmers were either fatally or seriously injured and required emergency medical treatment as a result of overturns of tractors with or without rollover protective structures (ROPS. Data from the 2002 Kentucky Farm Tractor Overturn Survey were used for this study. The data were collected by a telephone survey of a population-based random sample of 6063 (7.98% of Kentucky’s 76,017 farm operators as listed in the Kentucky Agricultural Statistics Service database. Of farm operators interviewed, 551 (9.1% reported 603 overturns and 5512 (90.9% reported no overturns in the history of their farm, covering a period from 1925 to February 2002. Only the latest overturn was considered to improve recall accuracy. In addition, since the 1925 to 1959 time period had only 49 (8.1% of the overturns reported, (14 farmers did not provide the year of most recent overturn; only data from the 1960 to 2002 period (approximately 41 years were used. After making these adjustments, incidents evaluated included 25 cases (one fatal and four serious nonfatal injuries that involved ROPS-equipped tractor overturns and 88 cases (24 fatal and 64 serious nonfatal injuries that involved non-ROPS tractor overturns. Chores at highest risk for tractor overturns were identified for which educational and ROPS retrofit interventions could be emphasized. The highest frequency of overturn-related fatalities and nonfatal injuries were associated with hay harvesting, rotary mowing, and on-farm travel chores. These three chores represented 68.2% of fatal events and 50.0% of permanent and 56.6% of temporary disability overturn incidents. Tragically, in countries such as India and China with emerging mechanization, a large majority of tractors are produced without ROPS that can be expected to result in the same overturn-related epidemic of deaths experienced in highly mechanized countries, despite evidence of the protection provided by ROPS.

  17. La normalización y certificación de tractores agrícolas en México

    OpenAIRE

    Alma Velia Ayala Garay; Rocío Cervantes Osornio; Marco Antonio Audelo Benítez; Noé Velázquez López; José Manuel Vargas Sállago

    2013-01-01

    El tractor agrícola es la principal fuente de potencia dentro de una unidad de producción. Por lo tanto para los usuarios de maquinaria agrícola, resulta una prioridad contar con mecanismos que permitan dar seguridad al usuario final o productor agrícola en el funcionamiento y calidad de los tractores, para esto el objetivo del presente es dar a conocer la evolución de la normalización y certificación de la maquinaria agrícola en México, sus impactos y tendencias, por medio de una descripción...

  18. Caltrans : construction manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Caltrans intends this manual as a resource for all personnel engaged in contract administration. The manual establishes policies and procedures for the construction phase of Caltrans projects. However, this manual is not a contract document. It impos...

  19. Piezoelectric-based actuators for improved tractor-trailer performance (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menicovich, David; Amitay, Michael; Gallardo, Daniele

    2017-04-01

    The application of piezo-electrically-driven synthetic-jet-based active flow control to reduce drag on tractor-trailers and to improve thermal mixing in refrigerated trailers was explored on full-scale tests. The active flow control technique that is being used relies on a modular system comprised of distributed, small, highly efficient actuators. These actuators, called synthetic jets, are jets that are synthesized at the edge of an orifice by a periodic motion of a piezoelectric diaphragm(s) mounted on one (or more) walls of a sealed cavity. The synthetic jet is zero net mass flux (ZNMF), but it allows momentum transfer to flow. It is typically driven near diaphragm and/or cavity resonance, and therefore, small electric input [O(10W)] is required. Another advantage of this actuator is that no plumbing is required. The system doesn't require changes to the body of the truck, can be easily reconfigured to various types of vehicles, and consumes small amounts of electrical power from the existing electrical system of the truck. The actuators are operated in a closed feedback loop based on inputs received from the tractor's electronic control unit, various system components and environmental sensors. The data are collected and processed on-board and transmitted to a cloud-based data management platform for further big data analytics and diagnostics. The system functions as a smart connected product through the interchange of data between the physical truck-mounted system and its cloud platform.

  20. Evaluating tractor performance and exhaust gas emissions using biodiesel from cotton seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-lwayzy, Saddam H; Yusaf, Talal; Jensen, Troy

    2012-01-01

    Alternative fuels for diesel engines, such as biodiesel, have attracted much attention recently due to increasing fuel prices and the imperative to reduce emissions. The exhaust gas emissions from tractors and other agricultural machinery make a significant contribution to these emissions. The use of biodiesel in internal combustion engines (ICE) has been reported to give comparable performance to conventional diesel (CD), but with generally lower emissions. There is however, contradictory evidence of NO emissions being both higher and lower from the use of biodiesel. In this work, agriculture tractor engine performance and its emission using both CD and biodiesel from cotton seed oil (CSO-B20) mixed at a 20% blend ration has been evaluated and compared. The PTO test results showed comparable exhaust emissions between CD and CSO-B20. However, the use of CSO-B20 led to reductions in the thermal efficiency and exhaust temperature and an increase in the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), when compared to CD.

  1. Influence of biofuels usage in internal combustion engines of agricultural tractors on output parametrs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Šmerda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of alternative fuels brings the social benefits in terms of reducing dependence on oil industry and its products as well as decreasing of damage of the environment together with using of na­tu­ral resources, especially in field of renewable energy resources. The use of biofuels is the most important part of energy strategy in European Union, whose member states have agreed the content of biofuels will achieve 5.75% of the total energy sum of fuel for transport purposes in 2010. Operation of internal combustion engine fueled by RME brings environmental benefits as described several authors in analysis of the life cycle. The contribution deals with technical difficulties of the RME usage in internal combustion engine used in agricultural tractors. Different fuel causes different process of combustion which means changes in output power and pollution. The aim of this experiment was to determine these effects. Experimental work was divided into two parts according to various fuel systems. The first tractor was equipped with mechanical injection system, the second one was provided with common-rail fuel system. The test procedures consisted of measurement of power- torque curves where the engine load was created by Eddy current dynamometer. Exhaust gas analyzer sampled the pollution of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons as the most important indicators of combustion process.

  2. Design Issues and in Field Tests of the New Sustainable Tractor LOCOSTRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Elisa Cepolina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a robotized small tractor designed to perform humanitarian demining operations and agricultural operations when demining is accomplished. This dual use makes this system unique. The focus is on the design of the machine, including the modeling for design and control, the characteristics of the tools operated by the machine, the motion control at tele-operated, and semi-autonomous levels. The mechatronic design process applied uses sustainable design strategies. Technical contributions are in the tractor architecture, designed to make automation easier, and in the control functions implemented on this architecture. Extensive field tests were performed in different sites; first, in Italy, focusing on the agricultural application of the machine, in natural scenarios with different ground and vegetation; then, in two real mine fields in Jordan focusing on the performance for technical survey in humanitarian demining. The tests have confirmed the performance for both task categories (agricultural and demining, confirming the correctness of the statement. For the demining application, the machine has been assessed by professional users confirming the acceptance to field use and the novelty of the concept.

  3. Development and Evaluation of a Wide-Bed Former for Vegetable Cultivation in Controlled Tractor Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Anoop; Khurana, Rohinish; Verma, Aseem; Singh, Arshdeep; Manes, G. S.

    2018-05-01

    India is the second largest producer of vegetables in the world. For vegetable cultivation, a good seed bed preparation is an important task which involves 6-10 different operations. To tackle the issue of multiple operations, a prototype of tractor operated wide bed former was developed and evaluated. The machine comprises of a rotary tiller and a bed forming setup. It forms bed of 1000 mm top width which is suitable as per the track width of an average sized tractor in India. The height of the beds formed is 130 mm whereas the top and bottom width of channel formed on both sides of the bed is 330 and 40 mm respectively at soil moisture content of 12.5-16% (db). The forward speed of 2.75 km/h was observed to be suitable for proper bed formation. The average fuel consumption of the machine was 5.9 l/h. The average bulk density of soil before and after the bed formation was 1.46 and 1.63 g/cc respectively. Field capacity of the machine was found to be 0.31 ha/h. The machine resulted in 93.8% labour saving and 80.4% saving in cost of bed preparation as compared to conventional farmer practice. Overall performance of wide-bed former was found to be satisfactory.

  4. Generating a stationary infinite range tractor force via a multimode optical fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebongue, C. A.; Holzmann, D.; Ostermann, S.; Ritsch, H.

    2017-06-01

    Optical fibres confine and guide light almost unattenuated and thus convey light forces to polarizable nano-particles over very long distances. Radiation pressure forces arise from scattering of guided photons into free space while gradient forces are based on coherent scattering between different fibre modes or propagation directions. Interestingly, even scattering between co-propagating modes induces longitudinal forces as the transverse confinement of the light modes creates mode dependent longitudinal wave-vectors and photon momenta. We generalize a proven scattering matrix based approach to calculate single as well as inter-particle forces to include several forward and backward propagating modes. We show that an injection of the higher order mode only in a two mode fibre will induce a stationary tractor force against the injection direction, when the mode coupling to the lower order mode dominates against backscattering and free space losses. Generically this arises for non-absorbing particles at the centre of a waveguide. The model also gives improved predictions for inter-particle forces in evanescent nanofibre fields as experimentally observed recently. Surprisingly strong tractor forces can also act on whole optically bound arrays.

  5. Modelling and Simulation of a Hydrostatic Steering System for Agricultural Tractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Zardin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The steering system of a vehicle impacts on the vehicle performance, safety and on the driver’s comfort. Moreover, in off-road vehicles using hydrostatic steering systems, the energy dissipation also becomes a critical issue. These aspects push and motivate innovation, research and analysis in the field of agricultural tractors. This paper proposes the modelling and analysis of a hydrostatic steering system for an agricultural tractor to calculate the performance of the system and determine the influence of its main design parameters. The focus here is on the driver’s steering feel, which can improve the driver’s behavior reducing unnecessary steering corrections during the working conditions. The hydrostatic steering system is quite complex and involves a hydraulic circuit and a mechanical mechanism to transmit the steering to the vehicle tires. The detailed lumped parameters model here proposed allows to simulate the dynamic behavior of the steering system and to both enhance the understanding of the system and to improve the design through parameters sensitivity analysis.

  6. Auxiliary brakes for trucks : research into the behaviour of a tractor-semi-trailer combination during emergency breaking.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijks, A. Blijswijk, W.A.M. van Genugten, J. van Meeke, G.J.M. & Schlösser, L.H.M.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to obtain an insight into various secondary braking systems for goods vehicles. Practical tests were carried out with a tractor- semi-trailer combination. The performance of various split braking systems as well as spring brake actuators are shown. With nearly all of

  7. Compaction of loamy soils due to tractor traffic in vineyards and orchards and its effect on infiltration in southern France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijck, van S.J.E.; Asch, van T.W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Viticulture and fruit culture in Mediterranean areas demand frequent tractor traffic in vineyards and orchards for tillage and for the application of herbicides and pesticides, resulting in soil compaction. The aim of this study was to investigate theextent of soil compaction and its effect on

  8. Organizational and technological compatibility of the technological processes of second and third line maintenance of KhTZ-3522 tractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzminskyj Roman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to systematic substantiation of productivity, production structure and specialization of service stations of KhTZ-3522 tractors. Based on the technical and economic comparative analysis of the results of the technological processes modeling of the second and third line maintenance of KhTZ-3522 tractors, the parametrical series of production structures of service stations both mono- and polytechnological specialization, which can work effectively in a wide range of the general annual program of orders, and in the conditions of seasonal fluctuations of orders for the maintenance of these tractors, are found. The results of calculations of the indicators system for organizational and technological compatibility of technological processes of the second and third line maintenance of KhTZ-3522 tractors in the joint technological flow are presented. The dependencies of these indicators on the total annual program of orders for service stations of different productivity are analyzed. According to the results of the analysis, the polytechnological specialization of such service stations is substantiated.

  9. A method to evaluate the perceived ease of use of human-machine interface in agricultural tractors equipped with Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffaro, F.; Bisaglia, C.; Cutini, M.; Cremasco, M.M.; Cavallo, E.

    2017-01-01

    At the end of the 20th century the adoption of the Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) was one of the disruptive technological advances in agricultural tractors. Several changes in the Human Machine Interface (HMI) of the tractor cab have been introduced to accommodate this technology. HMIs are known to raise issues about their ease of use; however, this topic has been under-investigated in the agricultural sector. The present study introduces a method to investigate the perceived ease of use of the HMI of agricultural tractors equipped with technological innovations. The HMI required to manage a CVT tractor was evaluated by sixteen tractor drivers (8 novices and 8 experts). During the first contact with the machine and after having performed two targeted tasks with the tractor, participants filled in a questionnaire about the ease of use of the controls and of the touch-screen display, and evaluated the general perception of ease of use, safety, quality and solidity of the machine. The trial pointed out some significant differences between novices and experts, thus confirming the validity of the proposed method. In particular, novice users showed some difficulties when interacting for the first time with the HMI of the CVT tractor working station, whereas experts did not report similar difficulties. Thus, expertise seems to play a role in determining the quality of the interaction with the HMI. Training interventions should be designed to help novices in increasing their expertise effectively, avoiding effort and errors and improving user’s comfort and system performance.

  10. A method to evaluate the perceived ease of use of human-machine interface in agricultural tractors equipped with Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caffaro, F.; Bisaglia, C.; Cutini, M.; Cremasco, M.M.; Cavallo, E.

    2017-07-01

    At the end of the 20th century the adoption of the Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) was one of the disruptive technological advances in agricultural tractors. Several changes in the Human Machine Interface (HMI) of the tractor cab have been introduced to accommodate this technology. HMIs are known to raise issues about their ease of use; however, this topic has been under-investigated in the agricultural sector. The present study introduces a method to investigate the perceived ease of use of the HMI of agricultural tractors equipped with technological innovations. The HMI required to manage a CVT tractor was evaluated by sixteen tractor drivers (8 novices and 8 experts). During the first contact with the machine and after having performed two targeted tasks with the tractor, participants filled in a questionnaire about the ease of use of the controls and of the touch-screen display, and evaluated the general perception of ease of use, safety, quality and solidity of the machine. The trial pointed out some significant differences between novices and experts, thus confirming the validity of the proposed method. In particular, novice users showed some difficulties when interacting for the first time with the HMI of the CVT tractor working station, whereas experts did not report similar difficulties. Thus, expertise seems to play a role in determining the quality of the interaction with the HMI. Training interventions should be designed to help novices in increasing their expertise effectively, avoiding effort and errors and improving user’s comfort and system performance.

  11. MELCOR computer code manuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, R.M.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Stuart, D.S.; Thompson, S.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hodge, S.A.; Hyman, C.R.; Sanders, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the Source Term Code Package. A broad spectrum of severe accident phenomena in both boiling and pressurized water reactors is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework. These include: thermal-hydraulic response in the reactor coolant system, reactor cavity, containment, and confinement buildings; core heatup, degradation, and relocation; core-concrete attack; hydrogen production, transport, and combustion; fission product release and transport; and the impact of engineered safety features on thermal-hydraulic and radionuclide behavior. Current uses of MELCOR include estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. This publication of the MELCOR computer code manuals corresponds to MELCOR 1.8.3, released to users in August, 1994. Volume 1 contains a primer that describes MELCOR`s phenomenological scope, organization (by package), and documentation. The remainder of Volume 1 contains the MELCOR Users Guides, which provide the input instructions and guidelines for each package. Volume 2 contains the MELCOR Reference Manuals, which describe the phenomenological models that have been implemented in each package.

  12. CTF Theory Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avramova, Maria N. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Salko, Robert K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-05-25

    Coolant-Boiling in Rod Arrays|Two Fluids (COBRA-TF) is a thermal/ hydraulic (T/H) simulation code designed for light water reactor (LWR) vessel analysis. It uses a two-fluid, three-field (i.e. fluid film, fluid drops, and vapor) modeling approach. Both sub-channel and 3D Cartesian forms of 9 conservation equations are available for LWR modeling. The code was originally developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory in 1980 and had been used and modified by several institutions over the last few decades. COBRA-TF also found use at the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) by the Reactor Dynamics and Fuel Management Group (RDFMG) and has been improved, updated, and subsequently re-branded as CTF. As part of the improvement process, it was necessary to generate sufficient documentation for the open-source code which had lacked such material upon being adopted by RDFMG. This document serves mainly as a theory manual for CTF, detailing the many two-phase heat transfer, drag, and important accident scenario models contained in the code as well as the numerical solution process utilized. Coding of the models is also discussed, all with consideration for updates that have been made when transitioning from COBRA-TF to CTF. Further documentation outside of this manual is also available at RDFMG which focus on code input deck generation and source code global variable and module listings.

  13. MELCOR computer code manuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, R.M.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Stuart, D.S.; Thompson, S.L.; Hodge, S.A.; Hyman, C.R.; Sanders, R.L.

    1995-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the Source Term Code Package. A broad spectrum of severe accident phenomena in both boiling and pressurized water reactors is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework. These include: thermal-hydraulic response in the reactor coolant system, reactor cavity, containment, and confinement buildings; core heatup, degradation, and relocation; core-concrete attack; hydrogen production, transport, and combustion; fission product release and transport; and the impact of engineered safety features on thermal-hydraulic and radionuclide behavior. Current uses of MELCOR include estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. This publication of the MELCOR computer code manuals corresponds to MELCOR 1.8.3, released to users in August, 1994. Volume 1 contains a primer that describes MELCOR's phenomenological scope, organization (by package), and documentation. The remainder of Volume 1 contains the MELCOR Users Guides, which provide the input instructions and guidelines for each package. Volume 2 contains the MELCOR Reference Manuals, which describe the phenomenological models that have been implemented in each package

  14. Electronic Commerce user manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-10

    This User Manual supports the Electronic Commerce Standard System. The Electronic Commerce Standard System is being developed for the Department of Defense of the Technology Information Systems Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy. The Electronic Commerce Standard System, or EC as it is known, provides the capability for organizations to conduct business electronically instead of through paper transactions. Electronic Commerce and Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support, are two major projects under the DoD`s Corporate Information Management program, whose objective is to make DoD business transactions faster and less costly by using computer networks instead of paper forms and postage. EC runs on computers that use the UNIX operating system and provides a standard set of applications and tools that are bound together by a common command and menu system. These applications and tools may vary according to the requirements of the customer or location and may be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization. Local applications can be integrated into the menu system under the Special Databases & Applications option on the EC main menu. These local applications will be documented in the appendices of this manual. This integration capability provides users with a common environment of standard and customized applications.

  15. Electronic Commerce user manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-10

    This User Manual supports the Electronic Commerce Standard System. The Electronic Commerce Standard System is being developed for the Department of Defense of the Technology Information Systems Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy. The Electronic Commerce Standard System, or EC as it is known, provides the capability for organizations to conduct business electronically instead of through paper transactions. Electronic Commerce and Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support, are two major projects under the DoD's Corporate Information Management program, whose objective is to make DoD business transactions faster and less costly by using computer networks instead of paper forms and postage. EC runs on computers that use the UNIX operating system and provides a standard set of applications and tools that are bound together by a common command and menu system. These applications and tools may vary according to the requirements of the customer or location and may be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization. Local applications can be integrated into the menu system under the Special Databases Applications option on the EC main menu. These local applications will be documented in the appendices of this manual. This integration capability provides users with a common environment of standard and customized applications.

  16. Identifying and prioritizing customer requirements from tractor production by QFD method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Taghizadeh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Discovering and understanding customer needs and expectations are considered as important factors on customer satisfaction and play vital role to maintain the current activity among its competitors, proceeding and obtaining customer satisfaction which are critical factors to design a successful production; thus the successful organizations must meet their needs containing the quality of the products or services to customers. Quality Function Deployment (QFD is a technique for studying demands and needs of customers which is going to give more emphasis to the customer's interests in this way. The QFD method in general implemented various tools and methods for reaching qualitative goals; but the most important and the main tool of this method is the house of quality diagrams. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP is a famous and common MADM method based on pair wise comparisons used for determining the priority of understudied factors in various studies until now. With considering effectiveness of QFD method to explicating customer's demands and obtaining customer satisfaction, generally, the researchers followed this question's suite and scientific answer: how can QFD explicate real demands and requirements of customers from tractor final production and what is the prioritization of these demands and requirements in view of customers. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to identify and prioritize the customer requirements of Massey Ferguson (MF 285 tractor production in Iran tractor manufacturing company with t- student statistical test, AHP and QFD methods. Materials and Methods Research method was descriptive and statistical population included all of the tractor customers of Tractor Manufacturing Company in Iran from March 2011 to March 2015. The statistical sample size was 171 which are determined with Cochran index. Moreover, 20 experts' opinion has been considered for determining product's technical requirements. Literature

  17. Presentation of the Well Tractor Concept and practical experience in extreme conditions; Vorstellung des Well Tractor Konzepts mit Erfahrungen bei Einsaetzen unter Extrembedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kater, H.; Preiss, F. [Preussag Wireline- und Messservice, Edemissen (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    So-called extended reach boreholes with horizontal sections of more than 2000 m, short radius drilling, multilaterals and other variations are common enough. Problems occur when this type of borehole needs to be surveyed or modified. The contribution describes the newly developed ``Well Tracotor{sup circledR}`` technology and outlines its potential. (orig.) [Deutsch] Sogenannte Extended Reach Bohrungen mit Horizontalsektionen von mehr als 2.000 Meter Laenge, Short Radius Drilling, Multilaterals und andere Variationen sind bohrtechnisch einwandfrei durchfuehrbar und gehoeren zum gaengigen Repertoire der Bohrfirmen. Grosse Probleme entstehen jedoch wenn dieser Bohrungstyp vermessen, komplettiert oder aufgewaeltigt werden soll. Insbesondere Bohrlochmessfirmen haben es in den letzten ca. 20 Jahren versaeumt Innovationen zwecks oekonomischen Einsatzes ihrer Technologie in diesen Bohrungen bereitzustellen. Die Durchfuehrung von Perforationen und Bohrlochmessungen, das Setzen von Stopfen, Schneiden von Rohren und auch einfachste Slickline-Operationen sind bei einer Bohrlochneigung beginnend bei ca. 60 bis 80 nur unter Anwendung von kosten- und zeitintensiven Verfahren moeglich. Eine guenstige Alternative zu diesen Verfahren bietet der Well Tractor. Diese Technologie ermoeglicht das Einfahren von Geraeten, die ueblicherweise am Kabel oder Draht eingesetzt werden, in Horizontalbohrungen. Im Folgenden werden das technische Konzept, ein Vergleich mit alternativen Verfahren, und verschiedene Referenzen des Well Tracotors {sup trademark} dargestellt. Weiterhin wird auf die Modifikationen eingegangen, die noetig waren, um dieses Geraet den Gegebenheiten in tiefen, heissen Gasbohrungen anzupassen. Abschliessend soll durch einen Ausblick auf zum Teil schon im Feldtest befindliche Weiterentwicklungen das weitere Potential dieser Technologie aufgezeichnet werden. (orig.)

  18. Biodiesel of palm oil in tractor agricultural: opacity of smoke in the light of storage time; Biodiesel de dende em trator agricola: opacidade da fumaca em funcao do tempo de armazenamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Leomar P. [Instituto Federal do Triangulo Mineiro (IFTM), Uberlandia, MG (Brazil)], email: leomaragro@yahoo.com.br; Lopes, Afonso; Oliveira, Melina C.J. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCAV/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Engenharia Rural; Camara, Felipe T. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Cariri, CE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The scenario of atmospheric emissions world characterized-if, in recent years, due to a series of technical factors, economic and political, by the need to reduce the consumption of petroleum. The objective of this work was to evaluate the opacity of smoke of a motor of a tractor agricultural operating with biodiesel of palm oil with different periods of storage. The experiment was conducted in the Laboratory of machinery and agricultural mechanization of Rural Engineering Department of UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP. In this study,-if a tractor Valtra BM 110 4x2 TDA 73,6 kW (100 cv) in engine 2.350 rpm. The experimental design was completely randomized, in factorial scheme 5x3, with 3 repetitions. The combinations of factors were five proportions of mixing biodiesel for diesel (B0, B5, B25, B 50 and B100, that the number indicates the percentage of biodiesel for diesel) and three storage times in condition environment (0, 3 and 6 months). The results showed that in relation to B0, when used biodiesel in the proportion of B100, the opacity of smoke reduced in 50.4% and the time of storage of biodiesel not committed the opacity of smoke from combustion of the engine. (author)

  19. Estimation of rumen microbial protein production from purine derivatives in urine. A laboratory manual for the FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research programme on development, standardization and validation of nuclear based technologies for measuring microbial protein supply in ruminant livestock for improving productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    This laboratory manual contains the methodologies used in the standardization and validation of the urine purine derivative technique for estimating microbial protein supply to the rumen. It includes descriptions of methods that involve both radioactive and stable isotopes as well as non isotopic techniques such as chemical assays, since it has been recognised that while isotopic trace techniques provide a powerful tool for nutrition research they can not and should not be used in isolation. Refs, figs, tabs

  20. Harvesting pulpwood and firewood using a tractor-mounted single-grip harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihonen, M.

    1998-01-01

    The TTS-Institute's Department of Forestry conducted a work study on the AM 240 felling-delimbing-cross-cutting -device. The timber was prepared into pulp- and fuelwood. The tops of the pulpwood stems and stems smaller than pulpwood were made into fuelwood. The base machine used was an agricultural tractor. The study is part of a research project titled Forest Owners' Energy-Wood Harvesting Technology. The combined productivity of preparing pulpwood and fuelwood varied between 2.8-4.1 m 3 per effective hour. Thus, the productivity achieved was of the same order as that reported in an earlier TTS-Institute study on the devices AM 200 model. The outturns on the sample strips included a fair amount of crooked hardwood timber, which iced to reduced productivity. During the work study the felling device functioned reliably. (author) 3 refs

  1. C-Based Design Methodology and Topological Change for an Indian Agricultural Tractor Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Anil Kumar; Raju, D. Ranga; Suman, K. N. S.; Kranthi, A. S.

    2018-06-01

    The failure of tractor components and their replacement has now become very common in India because of re-cycling, re-sale, and duplication. To over come the problem of failure we propose a design methodology for topological change co-simulating with software's. In the proposed Design methodology, the designer checks Paxial, Pcr, Pfailue, τ by hand calculations, from which refined topological changes of R.S.Arm are formed. We explained several techniques employed in the component for reduction, removal of rib material to change center of gravity and centroid point by using system C for mixed level simulation and faster topological changes. The design process in system C can be compiled and executed with software, TURBO C7. The modified component is developed in proE and analyzed in ANSYS. The topologically changed component with slot 120 × 4.75 × 32.5 mm at the center showed greater effectiveness than the original component.

  2. A statistical description of the types and severities of accidents involving tractor semi-trailers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, D.B.; Wilson, R.K.; Blower, D.F.; Campbell, K.L.

    1994-06-01

    This report provides a statistical description of the types and severities of tractor semi-trailer accidents involving at least one fatality. The data were developed for use in risk assessments of hazardous materials transportation. Several accident databases were reviewed to determine their suitability to the task. The TIFA (Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents) database created at the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute was extensively utilized. Supplementary data on collision and fire severity, which was not available in the TIFA database, were obtained by reviewing police reports for selected TIFA accidents. The results are described in terms of frequencies of different accident types and cumulative distribution functions for the peak contact velocity, rollover skid distance, fire temperature, fire size, fire separation, and fire duration

  3. Fuel efficiency of conventional design tractors diesel engines in relation to new design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevtić Jeremija

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Total consumption of all types of energies is rather high nowadays with constant tendency of increasing. Transport section is one of the highest consumers of energy obtained from fossil fuels. It is absolutely clear that the reduction of energy consumption and the protection of environment - exhaust emission reduction, i. e. cleaner air, will be one of the main tasks of automotive industry in the first decades of the 21st century. In spite of its superiority over the petrol engine in respect of the fuel consumption, a diesel engine "suffers" from the increased exhaust emission, particles and NOx first of all and also from the noise and vibrations. The paper gives a review of fuel efficiency of conventional design tractors diesel engines in relation to new design. .

  4. System-wide electrification and appropriate functions of tractor and implement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Tetzlaff

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of electric drive technology in industrial applications have been known for a long time. In addition to the flexibility and variability for the system integration, the very good controllability and the overload capacity should be mentioned. To increase the effectiveness of agricultural machinery and equipment crucially, the different electrical/electronic systems, drives and functions have to be interconnected machine internally and also externally, based on a system-wide approach. Thereby single machinery, machinery combinations and finally complete harvest chains can be used in a smarter and more efficient way. Using the example of a tractor-swather combination the suitability of electric drives itself and of the hybrid and interface concept is proven. Newly developed functions for overload protection and prediction of the working process are presented and their integration into the machine overarching energy and operational management is described. The transferability of the results and solutions to cognate applications is ensured. Keywords

  5. The Effects of the Tractor and Semitrailer Routing Problem on Mitigation of Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqi Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of CO2 emissions minimization in the vehicle routing problem (VRP is of critical importance to enterprise practice. Focusing on the tractor and semitrailer routing problem with full truckloads between any two terminals of the network, this paper proposes a mathematical programming model with the objective of minimizing CO2 emissions per ton-kilometer. A simulated annealing (SA algorithm is given to solve practical-scale problems. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, a lower bound is developed. Computational experiments on various problems generated randomly and a realistic instance are conducted. The results show that the proposed methods are effective and the algorithm can provide reasonable solutions within an acceptable computational time.

  6. C-Based Design Methodology and Topological Change for an Indian Agricultural Tractor Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Anil Kumar; Raju, D. Ranga; Suman, K. N. S.; Kranthi, A. S.

    2018-02-01

    The failure of tractor components and their replacement has now become very common in India because of re-cycling, re-sale, and duplication. To over come the problem of failure we propose a design methodology for topological change co-simulating with software's. In the proposed Design methodology, the designer checks Paxial, Pcr, Pfailue, τ by hand calculations, from which refined topological changes of R.S.Arm are formed. We explained several techniques employed in the component for reduction, removal of rib material to change center of gravity and centroid point by using system C for mixed level simulation and faster topological changes. The design process in system C can be compiled and executed with software, TURBO C7. The modified component is developed in proE and analyzed in ANSYS. The topologically changed component with slot 120 × 4.75 × 32.5 mm at the center showed greater effectiveness than the original component.

  7. Smoke opacity in agricultural tractor in function of interior and metropolitano diesel mixture in mamona biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabile, Rubens Andre [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EESC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Lopes, Afonso; Camara, Felipe Thomas da; Grotta, Danilo Cesar Checchio; Furlani, Carlos Eduardo Angeli [Universidade Estadual Paulista (DER/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Rural

    2008-07-01

    The great demand for energy sources by production systems allied to scarcity of fossil fuels has motivated the development and production of biodiesel, which is a fuel produced from renewable sources. Given that, the aim of this study was to compare smoke opacity of an agricultural tractor engine, working with metropolitano and interior diesel mixed to mamona biodiesel, in seven proportions. The tests were conducted in the Departamento de Engenharia Rural of UNESP/Jaboticabal - SP. The results showed that the diesel type did influence opacity of smoke, and metropolitano diesel showed best quality. It was also observed that, as biodiesel proportion increased, smoke opacity decreased until B75, turning to increase to B100. (author)

  8. Operational comparison of two types of tractor sprayers (microner and boom-type against wheat crop weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hamid

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays, the tractor mounted boom sprayer is used in many agricultural fields. These sprayers have many advantages compared to other sprayers, but in Iran, their field efficiency is much lower than that of the developed countries, because the tank volume and consumption of pesticides per hectare is often so highthat spraying per hectare takesa long time for handling the solutions and transporting the sprayers. Also spray droplet size is ordinarily high and its distribution is unknot uniform. So, often spraying and dropping top parts of plants on the earth is inevitable. According to studies carried out in the country during the years 2005-2008 in the agricultural research centers in several provinces such as Khuzestan, four types of sprayers including tractor mounted sprayer, atomizer, microner, and electrostatic atomizer were studied and some of the results obtained include the following. From the point of view of percentage of crash crop, tractor mounted sprayer has the highest percentage, but microner sprayer had the lowest. From the point of view of the solution of consumption amount and spraying cost per hectare, the operation of the tractor mounted sprayer and electrostatic sprayer had the highest and the lowest ranks, respectively. Atomizer sprayer had the highest effect on the percentage amount of weed control, but it requires a high amount of water consumption, high drift and low operation (Safari and Lovaimi, 2010. Materials and Methods: The experiment was carried out during 2012-2013 in the field of agricultural research located in the Mollasani city located 20 km near Ahvaz. In this study, tractor mounted spinning disk sprayer (mounted microner sprayer was evaluated in comparison with conventional boom sprayer on weeds control. The treatments included medium (3500 rpm and low (2000 rpm speed rotation disk sprayer and two types of nozzle in conventional boom sprayer. One of them was an Italian tee jet nozzle and the

  9. MATHEMATICAL MODEL AND METHODOLOGY FOR CALCULATION OF MINIMIZATION ON TURNING RADIUS OF TRACTOR UNIT WITH REPLACEABLE SUPPORTING AND MANEUVERING DEVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Zeleniy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Smooth plowing with the help of reversible plows has replaced an enclosure method of soil treatment. The method may cause a formation of back ridges or open furrows. Due to this fact turnings of a tractor unit with a minimum radius required in order to ensure shuttle movements each time in the furrow of the preceding operating stroke have become a dominant type of turnings. Non-productive shift time is directly dependent on them and it is on the average 10–12 %, and it is up to 40 % in small contour areas with short run. Large non-productive time is connected with the desire to reduce headland width at field edges, and then a turning is made in several stages while using a complicated maneuvering. Therefore, an increase in efficiency of a plowing unit by means of minimization on its turning radius and execution of turning at one stage in the shortest possible time are considered as relevant objectives. In such a case it is necessary to take into account the fact that potential capabilities of universal tractors having established time-proved designs in respect of reduction of turning radius are practically at the end. So it is expedient to solve the matter at the expense of additional removable devices that ensure transformation of tractor wheel formula at the run end in order to reorient its position. Finally high quality plowing ensured by future-oriented reversible plows will be accompanied not only by output increase per shift, but also by decrease in headland width, their compaction and abrasion due to suspension systems and increase in productivity. The developed design having a novelty which proved by an invention patent and representing an additional supporting and maneuvering device significantly minimizes all the above-mentioned disadvantages and does not require any changes in tractor production design. Investigations have been carried on the following topic: “Minimization of turning radius for universal tractors by transformation

  10. Simulação da estabilidade de tratores agrícolas 4x2 Simulation of the stability of 2wd agricultural tractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Kalil Khoury Junior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi simular computacionalmente a estabilidade de tratores agrícolas 4x2. Experimentos de simulação foram realizados visando analisar o comportamento dinâmico de um trator agrícola 4x2 trabalhando em diferentes condições de operação e de terreno. Nas simulações em que se variaram as posições do trator sobre uma pista inclinada até o tombamento lateral, o ângulo de posição igual a 60º foi o de pior situação, o que corresponde ao trator descer por uma diagonal em pista inclinada para a esquerda. A bitola e a localização do centro de gravidade na vertical foram os fatores que mais afetaram a estabilidade do trator em tombamentos laterais. Já, a localização do centro de gravidade na longitudinal e a distância entre eixos afetaram mais a estabilidade do trator em tombamentos para trás. O trator deslizou os rodados do lado do tombamento ou perdeu a dirigibilidade dos pneus frontais com ângulos inferiores aos limites de estabilidade para tombamento.The objective of this work was to predict the loss of 2WD tractors stability. Simulations were done to analyze the dynamic behavior of an agricultural tractor working in different operation and surface conditions. Simulating different tractor positions on an inclined track until its side overturn, the tractor angle position of 60º presented the worst situation, what represented a tractor moving diagonally down on a left inclined track. Changing the tractor geometry and weight in the simulations, the vertical position of tractor central mass and its tread width were the parameters that most affected the tractor stability to side overturn. The longitudinal position of tractor central mass and the distance between its axes influenced on the tractor stability to rearward overturning. The tractor either slip the wheels at the side overturning or lost the front tire controlling at angles less than the overturning limits.

  11. Manual of radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    The Manual of Radioisotope Production has been compiled primarily to help small reactor establishments which need a modest programme of radioisotope production for local requirements. It is not comprehensive, but gives guidance on essential preliminary considerations and problems that may be met in the early stages of production. References are included as an aid to the reader who wishes to seek further in the extensive literature on the subject. In preparing the Manual, which is in two parts, the Agency consulted several Member States which already have long experience in radioisotope production. An attempt has been made to condense this experience, firstly, by setting out the technical and economic considerations which govern the planning and execution of an isotope programme and, secondly, by providing experimental details of isotope production processes. Part I covers topics common to all radioisotope processing, namely, laboratory design, handling and dispensing of radioactive solutions, quality control, measurement and radiological safety. Part II contains information on the fifteen radioisotopes in most common use. These are bromine-82, cobalt-58, chromium-51, copper-64, fluorine-18, gold-198, iodine-131, iron-59, magnesium-28, potassium-42, sodium-24, phosphorus-32, sulphur-35, yttrium-90 and zinc-65. Their nuclear properties are described, references to typical applications are given and published methods of production are reviewed; also included are descriptions in detail of the production processes used at several national atomic energy organizations. No attempt has been made to distinguish the best values for nuclear data or to comment on the relative merits of production processes. Each process is presented essentially as it was described by the contributor on the understanding that critical comparisons are not necessary for processes which have been well tried in practical production for many years. The information is presented as a guide to enable

  12. A Manual of Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln.

    This "Manual of Style" is offered as a guide to assist Nebraska State employees in producing quality written communications and in presenting a consistently professional image of government documents. The manual is not designed to be all-inclusive. Sections of the manual discuss formatting documents, memorandums, letters, mailing…

  13. An agricultural tractor test with different proportions of biodiesel; Ensaio de um trator agricola com diferentes proporcoes de biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Breno Alves; Castro, Douglas Lourenco de Souza; Volpato, Carlos Eduardo Silva; Barbosa, Jackson Antonio [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The globalization of the economy bring as consequence the entry of new equipment and machinery highly competitive in terms of cost. This is the same reality of the Brazilian agricultural sector which today has new options for machines and implements very interesting from the standpoint of cost of acquisition. However, such equipment, due to its recent inclusion in the market, yet do not have parameters that relate to reliability. This work aimed to demonstrated the dynamometer test of an agricultural tractor, recently introduced in the market, to obtain their torque curves and specific fuel consumption using the fuel B{sub 2}, B{sub 5}, B{sub 2}0 and B{sub 1}00. The results showed that the tractor had satisfactory performance for all motor fuels, presenting the best performance with the use of B{sub 5} fuel. (author)

  14. Analisis dan Perancangan Aplikasi Pendukung Erp Sap R/3 Modul Sales And Distribution PT. United Tractors, Tbk

    OpenAIRE

    Johan, Johan; Susanto, Yokie; Joe, Yusmin; Robby, Robby

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyse sales process having been implementing Sales and Distribution module of ERP SAP R/3 and also to design a supporting application for sales process at PT United Tractor, Tbk. The benefit of this application is to help sales person and customer in doing inquiries, quotation and sales order also material information through short message. The method of this research is data capturing, literature review, object oriented analysis and design and Rational Un...

  15. Manual for environmental radiological surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumiya, Shuichi; Matsuura, Kenichi; Nakano, Masanao; Takeyasu, Masanori; Morisawa, Masato; Onuma, Toshimitsu; Fujita, Hiroki; Mizutani, Tomoko; Watanabe, Hajime; Sugai, Masamitsu

    2010-03-01

    Environmental radiation monitoring around the Tokai Reprocessing Plant has been conducted by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories, based on 'Safety Regulations for the Reprocessing Plant of JAEA, Chapter IV - Environmental monitoring' and Environmental Radiation Monitoring Program decided by the Ibaraki prefectural government. The radiation monitoring installations and equipments were also prepared for emergency. This manual describes; (1) the installations of radiological measurement, (2) the installations of meteorological observation, and (3) environmental data processing system for executing the terrestrial environmental monitoring by Environmental Protection Section, Radiation Protection Department. The environmental monitoring has been operated through the manual published in 1993 (PNC TN8520 93-001). Then the whole articles were revised because the partially of installations and equipments having been updated in recent years. (author)

  16. HERMES II experimenters' manual (revised)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, R.L.

    1977-04-01

    The HERMES II is a high-intensity laboratory photon source for gamma-ray radiation effects experiments as well as a high-energy pulsed electron beam generator for a variety of potential applications. The purpose of this manual is to serve as a basic source of information for prospective users of HERMES. Included is a brief discussion of the design and operation of the accelerator system as well as a summary of environmental data for x-ray operation and output characteristics for electron beam modes. The manual also contains a description of the HERMES experimental facilities, including geometry of the test cell, instrumentation and data collection capabilities, and services and support available to experimenters

  17. Automatic sample changers maintenance manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, T.A.

    1978-10-01

    This manual describes and provides trouble-shooting aids for the Automatic Sample Changer electronics on the automatic beta counting system, developed by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Group CNC-11. The output of a gas detector is shaped by a preamplifier, then is coupled to an amplifier. Amplifier output is discriminated and is the input to a scaler. An identification number is associated with each sample. At a predetermined count length, the identification number, scaler data plus other information is punched out on a data card. The next sample to be counted is automatically selected. The beta counter uses the same electronics as the prior count did, the only difference being the sample identification number and sample itself. This manual is intended as a step-by-step aid in trouble-shooting the electronics associated with positioning the sample, counting the sample, and getting the needed data punched on an 80-column data card

  18. Manual for reactor produced radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Radioisotopes find extensive applications in several fields including medicine, industry, agriculture and research. Radioisotope production to service different sectors of economic significance constitutes an important ongoing activity of many national nuclear programmes. Radioisotopes, formed by nuclear reactions on targets in a reactor or cyclotron, require further processing in almost all cases to obtain them in a form suitable for use. Specifications for final products and testing procedures for ensuring quality are also an essential part of a radioisotope production programme. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has compiled and published such information before for the benefit of laboratories of Member States. The first compilation, entitled Manual of Radioisotope Production, was published in 1966 (Technical Reports Series No. 63). A more elaborate and comprehensive compilation, entitled Radioisotope Production and Quality Control, was published in 1971 (Technical Reports Series No. 128). Both served as useful reference sources for scientists working in radioisotope production worldwide. The 1971 publication has been out of print for quite some time. The IAEA convened a consultants meeting to consider the need for compiling an updated manual. The consultants recommended the publication of an updated manual taking the following into consideration: significant changes have taken place since 1971 in many aspects of radioisotope production; many radioisotopes have been newly introduced while many others have become gradually obsolete; considerable experience and knowledge have been gained in production of important radioisotopes over the years, which can be preserved through compilation of the manual; there is still a need for a comprehensive manual on radioisotope production methods for new entrants to the field, and as a reference. It was also felt that updating all the subjects covered in the 1971 manual at a time may not be practical considering the

  19. Evaluation of the use of low-cost GPS receivers in the autonomous guidance of agricultural tractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso-Garcia, S.; Gomez-Gil, J.; Arribas, J. I.

    2011-07-01

    This paper evaluates the use of low-cost global positioning system (GPS) receivers in the autonomous guidance of agricultural tractors. An autonomous guidance system was installed in a 6400 John Deere agricultural tractor. A low cost GPS receiver was used as positioning sensor. Three different control laws were implemented in order to evaluate the autonomous guidance of the tractor with the low-cost receiver. The guidance was experimentally tested with the tracking of straight trajectories and with the step response. The total guidance error was obtained from the receiver accuracy and from the guidance error. For the evaluation of the receivers accuracy, positioning data from several low cost receivers were recorded and analyzed. For the evaluation of the guidance error, tests were performed with each control law at three different speeds. The conclusions obtained were that relative accuracy of low-cost receivers decreases with the time; that for an interval lower than 15 min, the error usually remains below 1 m; that all the control laws have a similar behavior and it is conditioned by the control law adjustment; that automatic guidance with low cost receivers is possible with speeds that went up to 9 km h{sup -}1; and finally, that the total error in the guidance is mainly determined by the receivers accuracy. (Author) 46 refs.

  20. Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Brake Testing: Five-Axle Combination Tractor-Flatbed Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL

    2013-10-01

    The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, in coordination with the Federal Highway Administration, sponsored the Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Brake Testing (HOVBT) program in order to provide information about the effect of gross vehicle weight (GVW) on braking performance. Because the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations limit the number of braking system defects that may exist for a vehicle to be allowed to operate on the roadways, the examination of the effect of brake defects on brake performance for increased loads is also relevant. The HOVBT program seeks to provide relevant information to policy makers responsible for establishing load limits, beginning with providing test data for a combination tractor/trailer. This testing was conducted on a five-axle combination vehicle with tractor brakes meeting the Reduced Stopping Distance requirement rulemaking. This report provides a summary of the testing activities, the results of various analyses of the data, and recommendations for future research. Following a complete brake rebuild, instrumentation, and brake burnish, stopping tests were performed from 20 and 40 mph with various brake application pressures (15 psi, 25 psi, 35 psi, 45 psi, 55 psi, and full system pressure). These tests were conducted for various brake conditions at the following GVWs: 60,000, 80,000, 91,000, 97,000, 106,000, and 116,000 lb. The 80,000-lb GVWs included both balanced and unbalanced loads. The condition of the braking system was also varied. To introduce these defects, brakes (none, forward drive axle, or rear trailer axle) were made inoperative. In addition to the stopping tests, performance-based brake tests were conducted for the various loading and brake conditions. Analysis of the stopping test data showed the stopping distance to increase with load (as expected) and also showed that more braking force was generated by the drive axle brakes than the trailer axle brakes. The constant-pressure stopping test data

  1. Analytical evaluation of the protection offered by sealed tractor cabins during crop pulverization with fenitrothion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcellos, Michelle; Faletti, Milena Michele; Madureira, Luiz Augusto Dos Santos; Bauer, Fernando Cesar

    2016-12-01

    The practice of large-scale agriculture requires the use of pesticides in order to maximize production. This activity has gained increasing attention in recent years, especially from rural workers, due to the risks associated with long-term exposure to pesticides. To minimize these risks, personal protection equipment (e.g., covers, gloves, and goggles) and collective protection equipment (e.g., agricultural tractors with sealed cabins) have been developed. In general, these approaches are intended to reduce the contact of farmers and agricultural machinery operators with the more toxic and stable compounds, an example of which is fenitrothion. In this study, fenitrothion was used as a marker to evaluate the protection afforded inside a sealed tractor cabin. To simulate the pesticide exposure, tests were performed using artificial cotton targets as passive adsorptive agents inside the cabin during the pesticide application. Samples were extracted according to the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) procedure using ultrasonic extraction and as proposed by the Brazilian Standard for Solid Waste Classification (NBR 10004). The extracts were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). The chromatographic method was optimized using a factorial design. The combined results indicated that the best conditions were achieved using a mobile phase with a water/acetonitrile ratio of 35:65, a column temperature of 40 °C, and a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, with a total analysis time of <10 min. The method was evaluated in the linear range of 0.50 to 2.01 mg/kg, with a determination coefficient of 0.9886. The precision was evaluated on different days and the relative standard deviations were between 0.17 and 3.41 %. In relation to the accuracy, recovery values of 95 to 104 % were obtained. The detection and quantification limits were 0.18 and 0.50 mg/kg, respectively. None of the target cottons showed concentrations of

  2. Procedures For Microbial-Ecology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Timothy L.

    1993-01-01

    Microbial Ecology Laboratory Procedures Manual provides concise and well-defined instructions on routine technical procedures to be followed in microbiological laboratory to ensure safety, analytical control, and validity of results.

  3. IAEA safeguards technical manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    Part F of the Safeguards Technical Manual is being issued in three volumes. Volume 1 was published in 1977 and revised slightly in 1979. Volume 1 discusses basic probability concepts, statistical inference, models and measurement errors, estimation of measurement variances, and calibration. These topics of general interest in a number of application areas, are presented with examples drawn from nuclear materials safeguards. The final two chapters in Volume 1 deal with problem areas unique to safeguards: calculating the variance of MUF and of D respectively. Volume 2 continues where Volume 1 left off with a presentation of topics of specific interest to Agency safeguards. These topics include inspection planning from a design and effectiveness evaluation viewpoint, on-facility site inspection activities, variables data analysis as applied to inspection data, preparation of inspection reports with respect to statistical aspects of the inspection, and the distribution of inspection samples to more than one analytical laboratory. Volume 3 covers generally the same material as Volumes 1 and 2 but with much greater unity and cohesiveness. Further, the cook-book style of the previous two volumes has been replaced by one that makes use of equations and formulas as opposed to computational steps, and that also provides the bases for the statistical procedures discussed. Hopefully, this will help minimize the frequency of misapplications of the techniques

  4. Biodiesel of distilled hydrogenated fat and biodiesel of distilled residual oil: fuel consumption in agricultural tractor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camara, Felipe Thomaz da; Lopes, Afonso; Silva, Rouverson Pereira da; Oliveira, Melina Cais Jejcic; Furlani, Carlos Eduardo Angeli [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil); Dabdoub, Miguel Joaquim [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Great part of the world-wide oil production is used in fry process; however, after using, such product becomes an undesirable residue, and the usual methods of discarding of these residues, generally contaminate the environment, mainly the rivers. In function of this, using oil and residual fat for manufacturing biodiesel, besides preventing ambient contamination, turning up an undesirable residue in to fuel. The present work had as objective to evaluate the fuel consumption of a Valtra BM100 4x2 TDA tractor functioning with methylic biodiesel from distilled hydrogenated fat and methylic biodiesel from distilled residual oil, in seven blends into diesel. The work was conducted at the Department of Agricultural Engineering, at UNESP - Jaboticabal, in an entirely randomized block statistical design, factorial array of 2 x 7, with three repetitions. The factors combinations were two types of methylic distilled biodiesel (residual oil and hydrogenated fat) and seven blends (B{sub 0}, B{sub 5}, B{sub 1}5, B{sub 2}5, B{sub 5}0, B{sub 7}5 and B{sub 1}00). The results had evidenced that additioning 15% of biodiesel into diesel, the specific consumption was similar, and biodiesel of residual oil provided less consumption than biodiesel from hydrogenated fat. (author)

  5. On the Modeling of a MEMS Based Capacitive Accelerometer for Measurement of Tractor Seat Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alidoost

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Drivers of heavy vehicles often face with higher amplitudes of frequencies range between 1-80 Hz. Hence, this range of frequency results in temporary or even sometimes permanent damages to the health of drivers. Examples for these problems are damages to the vertebral column and early tiredness, which both reduce the driver’s performance significantly. One solution to this problem is to decrease the imposed vibration to the driver’s seat by developing an active seat system. These systems require an online measuring unit to sense vibrations transferred to the seat. The measuring unit can include a capacitive micro-accelerometer on the basis of MEMS which measure online vibrations on the seat. In this study, the mechanical behavior of a capacitive micro-accelerometer for the vibration range applied to a tractor seat has been simulated. The accelerometer is capable to measure step, impact and harmonic external excitations applied to the system. The results of the study indicate that, with increasing the applied voltage, the system sensitivity also increases, but the measuring range of vibrations decreases and vice versa. The modeled accelerometer, at damping ratio of 0.67 is capable to measure accelerations within the frequency range of lower than 130 Hz.

  6. Enhanced fuel efficiency on tractor-trailers using synthetic jet-based active flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitay, Michael; Menicovich, David; Gallardo, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    The application of piezo-electrically-driven synthetic-jet-based active flow control to reduce drag on tractor-trailers was explored experimentally in wind tunnel testing as well as full-scale road tests. Aerodynamic drag accounts for more than 50% of the usable energy at highway speeds, a problem that applies primarily to trailer trucks. Therefore, a reduction in aerodynamic drag results in large saving of fuel and reduction in CO2 emissions. The active flow control technique that is being used relies on a modular system comprised of distributed, small, highly efficient actuators. These actuators, called synthetic jets, are jets that are synthesized at the edge of an orifice by a periodic motion of a piezoelectric diaphragm(s) mounted on one (or more) walls of a sealed cavity. The synthetic jet is zero net mass flux (ZNMF), but it allows momentum transfer to flow. It is typically driven near diaphragm and/or cavity resonance, and therefore, small electric input [O(10W)] is required. Another advantage of this actuator is that no plumbing is required. The system doesn't require changes to the body of the truck, can be easily reconfigured to various types of vehicles, and consumes small amounts of electrical power from the existing electrical system of the truck. Preliminary wind tunnel results showed up to 18% reduction in fuel consumption, whereas road tests also showed very promising results.

  7. Space Weather Influence on Relative Motion Control using the Touchless Electrostatic Tractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Erik A.; Schaub, Hanspeter

    2016-09-01

    With recent interest in the use of electrostatic forces for contactless tugging and attitude control of noncooperative objects for orbital servicing and active debris mitigation, the need for a method of remote charge control arises. In this paper, the use of a directed electron beam for remote charge control is considered in conjunction with the relative motion control. A tug vehicle emits an electron beam onto a deputy object, charging it negatively. At the same time, the tug is charged positively due to beam emission, resulting in an attractive electrostatic force. The relative position feedback control between the tug and the passive debris object is studied subject to the charging being created through an electron beam. Employing the nominal variations of the GEO space weather conditions across longitude slots, two electrostatic tugging strategies are considered. First, the electron beam current is adjusted throughout the orbit in order to maximize this resulting electrostatic force. This open-loop control strategy compensates for changes in the nominally expected local space weather environment in the GEO region to adjust for fluctuations in the local plasma return currents. Second, the performance impact of using a fixed electron beam current on the electrostatic tractor is studied if the same natural space weather variations are assumed. The fixed electron beam current shows a minor performance penalty (<5 %) while providing a much simpler implementation that does not require any knowledge of local space weather conditions.

  8. Tractor-mounted, GPS-based spot fumigation system manages Prunus replant disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Udompetaikul

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Our research goal was to use recent advances in global positioning system (GPS and computer technology to apply just the right amount of fumigant where it is most needed (i.e., in a small target treatment zone in and around each tree replanting site to control Prunus replant disease (PRD. We developed and confirmed the function of (1 GPS-based software that can be used on cleared orchard land to flexibly plan and map all of an orchard's future tree sites and associated spot fumigation treatment zones and 2 a tractor-based GPS-controlled spot fumigation system to quickly and safely treat the targeted tree site treatment zones. In trials in two almond orchards and one peach orchard, our evaluations of the composite mapping and application system, which examined spatial accuracy of the spot treatments, delivery rate accuracy of the spot treatments, and tree growth responses to the spot treatments, all indicated that GPS spot fumigation has excellent potential to greatly reduce fumigant usage while adequately managing the PRD complex.

  9. A method to evaluate the perceived ease of use of human-machine interface in agricultural tractors equipped with Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Caffaro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the 20th century the adoption of the Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT was one of the disruptive technological advances in agricultural tractors. Several changes in the Human Machine Interface (HMI of the tractor cab have been introduced to accommodate this technology. HMIs are known to raise issues about their ease of use; however, this topic has been under-investigated in the agricultural sector. The present study introduces a method to investigate the perceived ease of use of the HMI of agricultural tractors equipped with technological innovations. The HMI required to manage a CVT tractor was evaluated by sixteen tractor drivers (8 novices and 8 experts. During the first contact with the machine and after having performed two targeted tasks with the tractor, participants filled in a questionnaire about the ease of use of the controls and of the touch-screen display, and evaluated the general perception of ease of use, safety, quality and solidity of the machine. The trial pointed out some significant differences between novices and experts, thus confirming the validity of the proposed method. In particular, novice users showed some difficulties when interacting for the first time with the HMI of the CVT tractor working station, whereas experts did not report similar difficulties. Thus, expertise seems to play a role in determining the quality of the interaction with the HMI. Training interventions should be designed to help novices in increasing their expertise effectively, avoiding effort and errors and improving user’s comfort and system performance.

  10. Data collection system. Volume 1, Overview and operators manual; Volume 2, Maintenance manual; Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caudell, R.B.; Bauder, M.E.; Boyer, W.B.; French, R.E.; Isidoro, R.J.; Kaestner, P.C.; Perkins, W.G.

    1993-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Instrumentation Development Department was tasked by the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) to record data on Tektronix RTD720 Digitizers on the HUNTERS TROPHY field test conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) on September 18, 1992. This report contains a overview and description of the computer hardware and software that was used to acquire, reduce, and display the data. The document is divided into two volumes: an overview and operators manual (Volume 1) and a maintenance manual (Volume 2).

  11. CSTEM User Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartle, M.; McKnight, R. L.

    2000-01-01

    This manual is a combination of a user manual, theory manual, and programmer manual. The reader is assumed to have some previous exposure to the finite element method. This manual is written with the idea that the CSTEM (Coupled Structural Thermal Electromagnetic-Computer Code) user needs to have a basic understanding of what the code is actually doing in order to properly use the code. For that reason, the underlying theory and methods used in the code are described to a basic level of detail. The manual gives an overview of the CSTEM code: how the code came into existence, a basic description of what the code does, and the order in which it happens (a flowchart). Appendices provide a listing and very brief description of every file used by the CSTEM code, including the type of file it is, what routine regularly accesses the file, and what routine opens the file, as well as special features included in CSTEM.

  12. HASL procedures manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, J.H.

    1977-08-01

    Additions and corrections to the following sections of the HASL Procedures Manual are provided: General, Sampling, Field Measurements; General Analytical Chemistry, Chemical Procedures, Data Section, and Specifications

  13. PCs The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Karp, David

    2005-01-01

    Your vacuum comes with one. Even your blender comes with one. But your PC--something that costs a whole lot more and is likely to be used daily and for tasks of far greater importance and complexity--doesn't come with a printed manual. Thankfully, that's not a problem any longer: PCs: The Missing Manual explains everything you need to know about PCs, both inside and out, and how to keep them running smoothly and working the way you want them to work. A complete PC manual for both beginners and power users, PCs: The Missing Manual has something for everyone. PC novices will appreciate the una

  14. Microscopic Analysis of Activated Sludge. Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This training manual presents material on the use of a compound microscope to analyze microscope communities, present in wastewater treatment processes, for operational control. Course topics include: sampling techniques, sample handling, laboratory analysis, identification of organisms, data interpretation, and use of the compound microscope.…

  15. TA-55 change control manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, T.W.; Selvage, R.D.; Courtney, K.H.

    1997-11-01

    This manual is the guide for initiating change at the Plutonium Facility, which handles the processing of plutonium as well as research on plutonium metallurgy. It describes the change and work control processes employed at TA-55 to ensure that all proposed changes are properly identified, reviewed, approved, implemented, tested, and documented so that operations are maintained within the approved safety envelope. All Laboratory groups, their contractors, and subcontractors doing work at TA-55 follow requirements set forth herein. This manual applies to all new and modified processes and experiments inside the TA-55 Plutonium Facility; general plant project (GPP) and line item funded construction projects at TA-55; temporary and permanent changes that directly or indirectly affect structures, systems, or components (SSCs) as described in the safety analysis, including Facility Control System (FCS) software; and major modifications to procedures. This manual does not apply to maintenance performed on process equipment or facility SSCs or the replacement of SSCs or equipment with documented approved equivalents

  16. Dynamic-energetic balance of agricultural tractors: active systems for the measurement of the power requirements in static tests and under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Pochi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern tractors are characterized by the introduction of devices designed to increase the operative performances of the machines, such as systems for monitoring and controlling various functions (through a massive use of electronics and hydraulics, or deputed to improve the comfort of the driver (paying more attention to ergonomics, air-conditioning, noise and vibration. Such devices need energy to be operated, affecting the energetic balance of the tractor. In this context, the availability of suitable methodologies and instrumental systems could be useful to provide objective, accurate and reliable measurements of the performances of the tractors under different conditions, also considering the power requirements from ancillary services and/or simulating the coupling with operating machines. The tests on the performances of tractors are now made using different methods, including the trial codes issued by the OECD Codes. Beyond their undoubted validity, they fix standard test conditions that often do not adequately represent the operative reality, so that, much remains to investigate on the actual performances provided by the tractors. From this point of view and with reference to fixed point tests, a test bench was developed for the measurement of the power required by various devices, such as transmission and air conditioning. It was used in experimental tests on a tracked tractor and on a wheeled tractor, aimed at validating the test device, measuring the power absorption related to the rotational speed of the organs of propulsion and to the characteristics curves, in order to quantify the power drawn by the transmission and by the air conditioning and assess the residual power for other tractor functions. As to field conditions, a study is being conducted at CRA-ING, within the project PTO (Mi.P.A.A.F., to develop a mobile test bench aimed at evaluating the power required by different operations, such as self displacement, traction, use of

  17. Design, Construction and Evaluation of an Interchangeable Digital System to Measure Slip and Ground Speed of Existing 2WD Tractors in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Khosravi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The majority of existing tractors in Iran are not equipped with any tools to measure and display slip and ground speed. This is mainly due to the lack of national standards for measuring tools and instruments of tractors. In current research, an interchangeable system for two wheel drive tractors has been designed. Furthermore, it has been assessed after construction. To measure actual and theoretical ground speed, four rotary encoders for sensing the rotation of front and rear wheels have been utilized. Slip and ground speed were measured by means of software which has been developed in an ATmega16PU microprocessor. The measured slip and speed are digitally displayed on tractor dashboard. To evaluate the performance of the system, the measured values of ground speed and slip were compared with their calculated values obtained from conventional method. The Micro-controller has been programmed in such a way that the effect of front wheel sliding on slip is eliminated. In all evaluation conditions (in field and on asphalt, the maximum difference between system measurements for slip and speed and calculated slip and speed via conventional method was 2.4% and 0.2 km h-1, respectively. With slight alteration this system can be fitted on any kind of exiting two wheel drive tractors in the country.

  18. Regional Test Center Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burnham, Laurie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Christian Birk [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    The U.S. DOE Regional Test Center for Solar Technologies program was established to validate photovoltaic (PV) technologies installed in a range of different climates. The program is funded by the Energy Department's SunShot Initiative. The initiative seeks to make solar energy cost competitive with other forms of electricity by the end of the decade. Sandia National Laboratory currently manages four different sites across the country. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory manages a fifth site in Colorado. The entire PV portfolio currently includes 20 industry partners and almost 500 kW of installed systems. The program follows a defined process that outlines tasks, milestones, agreements, and deliverables. The process is broken out into four main parts: 1) planning and design, 2) installation, 3) operations, and 4) decommissioning. This operations manual defines the various elements of each part.

  19. Oil Spill Response Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marieke Zeinstra; Sandra Heins; Wierd Koops

    2014-01-01

    A two year programme has been carried out by the NHL University of Applied Sciences together with private companies in the field of oil and chemical spill response to finalize these manuals on oil and chemical spill response. These manuals give a good overview of all aspects of oil and chemical

  20. Technical Manual. The ACT®

    Science.gov (United States)

    ACT, Inc., 2014

    2014-01-01

    This manual contains technical information about the ACT® college readiness assessment. The principal purpose of this manual is to document the technical characteristics of the ACT in light of its intended purposes. ACT regularly conducts research as part of the ongoing formative evaluation of its programs. The research is intended to ensure that…

  1. Eco-Innovation Manual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Hare, Jamie Alexander; McAloone, Tim C.; Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi

    Aim of this manual is to introduce a methodology for the implementation of eco‐innovation within small and medium sized companies in developing and emerging economies. The intended audience of this manual is organizations that provide professional services to guide and support manufacturing compa...... companies to improve their sustainability performance....

  2. Marketing Research. Instructor's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration, Washington, DC.

    Prepared for the Administrative Management Course Program, this instructor's manual was developed to serve small-business management needs. The sections of the manual are as follows: (1) Lesson Plan--an outline of material covered, which may be used as a teaching guide, presented in two columns: the presentation, and a step-by-step indication of…

  3. Indoor Air Quality Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin Union Free School District, NY.

    This manual identifies ways to improve a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) and discusses practical actions that can be carried out by school staff in managing air quality. The manual includes discussions of the many sources contributing to school indoor air pollution and the preventive planning for each including renovation and repair work,…

  4. GERTS GQ User's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, Y.; And Others

    This user's manual for the simulation program Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERT) GQ contains sections on nodes, branches, program input description and format, and program output, as well as examples. Also included is a programmer's manual which contains information on scheduling, subroutine descriptions, COMMON Variables, and…

  5. CRISP instrument manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucknall, D.G.; Langridge, Sean

    1997-05-01

    This document is a user manual for CRISP, one of the two neutron reflectomers at ISIS. CRISP is highly automated allowing precision reproducible measurements. The manual provides detailed instructions for the setting-up and running of the instrument and advice on data analysis. (UK)

  6. MARS CODE MANUAL VOLUME III - Programmer's Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Bub Dong; Hwang, Moon Kyu; Jeong, Jae Jun; Kim, Kyung Doo; Bae, Sung Won; Lee, Young Jin; Lee, Won Jae

    2010-02-01

    Korea Advanced Energy Research Institute (KAERI) conceived and started the development of MARS code with the main objective of producing a state-of-the-art realistic thermal hydraulic systems analysis code with multi-dimensional analysis capability. MARS achieves this objective by very tightly integrating the one dimensional RELAP5/MOD3 with the multi-dimensional COBRA-TF codes. The method of integration of the two codes is based on the dynamic link library techniques, and the system pressure equation matrices of both codes are implicitly integrated and solved simultaneously. In addition, the Equation-Of-State (EOS) for the light water was unified by replacing the EOS of COBRA-TF by that of the RELAP5. This programmer's manual provides a complete list of overall information of code structure and input/output function of MARS. In addition, brief descriptions for each subroutine and major variables used in MARS are also included in this report, so that this report would be very useful for the code maintenance. The overall structure of the manual is modeled on the structure of the RELAP5 and as such the layout of the manual is very similar to that of the RELAP. This similitude to RELAP5 input is intentional as this input scheme will allow minimum modification between the inputs of RELAP5 and MARS3.1. MARS3.1 development team would like to express its appreciation to the RELAP5 Development Team and the USNRC for making this manual possible

  7. A method for handlebars ballast calculation in order to reduce vibrations transmissibility in walk behind tractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Fabbri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Walk behind tractors have some advantages over other agricultural machines, such as the cheapness and the easy to use, however the driver is exposed to high level of vibrations transmitted from handles to hand-arm system and to shoulders. The vibrations induce discomfort and early fatigue to the operator. In order to control the vibration transmissibility, a ballast mass may be added to the handles. Even if the determination of the appropriate ballast mass is a critical point in the handle design. The aim of this research was to study the influence of the handle mass modification, on the dynamic structure behaviour. Modal frequencies and subsequent transmissibility calculated by using an analytical approach and a finite elements model, were compared. A good agreement between the results obtained by the two methods was found (average percentage difference calculated on natural frequencies equal to 5.8±3.8%. Power tillers are made generally by small or medium-small size manufacturers that have difficulties in dealing with finite element codes or modal analysis techniques. As a consequence, the proposed analytical method could be used to find the optimal ballast mass in a simple and economic way, without experimental tests or complex finite element codes. A specific and very simple software or spreadsheet, developed on the base of the analytical method here discussed, could effectively to help the manufacturers in the handlebar design phase. The choice of the correct elastic mount, the dimensioning of the guide members and the ballast mass could be considerably simplified.

  8. A numerical study of scale effects on performance of a tractor type podded propeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Jung-Kyu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the scale effect on the performance of the podded propeller of tractor type is investigated. Turbulent flow computations are carried out for Reynolds numbers increasing progressively from model scale to full scale using the CFD analysis. The result of the flow calculation for model scale Reynolds numbers agrees well with that of the experiment of a large cavitation tunnel. The existing numerical analysis indicates that the performance of the podded propeller blades is mainly influenced by the advance coefficient and relatively little by the Reynolds number. However, the drag of pod housing with propeller in operation is different from that of pod housing without propeller due to the acceleration and swirl of propeller slipstream which is altered by propeller loading as well as the pressure recovery and friction according to Reynolds number, which suggests that the pod housing drag under the condition of propeller in operation is the key factor of the scale effect on the performance between model and full scale podded propellers. The so called ‘drag ratio’, which is the ratio of pod housing drag to total thrust of podded propeller, increases as the advance coefficient increases due to accelerated flow in the slipstream of the podded propeller. However, the increasing rate of the drag ratio reduces continuously as the Reynolds number increases from model to full scale progressively. The contribution of hydrodynamic forces, which acts on the parts composed of the pod housing with propeller operating in various loading conditions, to the thrust and the torque of the total propeller unit are presented for a range of Reynolds numbers from model to full scales.

  9. Vibration energy absorption in the whole-body system of a tractor operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepaniak, Jan; Tanaś, Wojciech; Kromulski, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Many people are exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV) in their occupational lives, especially drivers of vehicles such as tractor and trucks. The main categories of effects from WBV are perception degraded comfort interference with activities-impaired health and occurrence of motion sickness. Absorbed power is defined as the power dissipated in a mechanical system as a result of an applied force. The vibration-induced injuries or disorders in a substructure of the human system are primarily associated with the vibration power absorption distributed in that substructure. The vibration power absorbed by the exposed body is a measure that combines both the vibration hazard and the biodynamic response of the body. The article presents measurement method for determining vibration power dissipated in the human whole body system called Vibration Energy Absorption (VEA). The vibration power is calculated from the real part of the force-velocity cross-spectrum. The absorbed power in the frequency domain can be obtained from the cross-spectrum of the force and velocity. In the context of the vibration energy transferred to a seated human body, the real component reflects the energy dissipated in the biological structure per unit of time, whereas the imaginary component reflects the energy stored/released by the system. The seated human is modeled as a series/parallel 4-DOF dynamic models. After introduction of the excitation, the response in particular segments of the model can be analyzed. As an example, the vibration power dissipated in an operator has been determined as a function of the agricultural combination operating speed 1.39 - 4.16 ms(-1).

  10. Vibration energy absorption in the whole-body system of a tractor operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Szczepaniak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many people are exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV in their occupational lives, especially drivers of vehicles such as tractor and trucks. The main categories of effects from WBV are perception degraded comfort interference with activities-impaired health and occurrence of motion sickness. Absorbed power is defined as the power dissipated in a mechanical system as a result of an applied force. The vibration-induced injuries or disorders in a substructure of the human system are primarily associated with the vibration power absorption distributed in that substructure. The vibration power absorbed by the exposed body is a measure that combines both the vibration hazard and the biodynamic response of the body. The article presents measurement method for determining vibration power dissipated in the human whole body system called Vibration Energy Absorption (VEA. The vibration power is calculated from the real part of the force-velocity cross-spectrum. The absorbed power in the frequency domain can be obtained from the cross-spectrum of the force and velocity. In the context of the vibration energy transferred to a seated human body, the real component reflects the energy dissipated in the biological structure per unit of time, whereas the imaginary component reflects the energy stored/released by the system. The seated human is modeled as a series/parallel 4-DOF dynamic models. After introduction of the excitation, the response in particular segments of the model can be analyzed. As an example, the vibration power dissipated in an operator has been determined as a function of the agricultural combination operating speed 1.39 – 4.16 ms[sup] -1 [/sup].

  11. Egyptian Mythological Manuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jens Kristoffer Blach

    From the hands of Greek mythographers a great number of myths have survived along with philosophical discussions of their meaning and relevance for the Greeks. It is little known that something similar existed in ancient Egypt where temple libraries and archives held scholarly literature used...... by the native priesthood, much of which has only been published in recent years. As part of this corpus of texts, the ancient Egyptian mythological manuals offer a unique perspective on how the Egyptian priesthood structured and interpreted Egyptian myths. The thesis looks at the different interpretative...... techniques used in the Tebtunis Mythological Manual (Second century CE) and the Mythological Manual of the Delta (Sixth century BCE) and the place of these manuals within the larger corpus of priestly scholarly literature from ancient Egypt. To organize the wealth of local myths the manuals use model...

  12. Fuel Element Technical Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burley, H.H. [ed.

    1956-08-01

    It is the purpose of the Fuel Element Technical Manual to Provide a single document describing the fabrication processes used in the manufacture of the fuel element as well as the technical bases for these processes. The manual will be instrumental in the indoctrination of personnel new to the field and will provide a single data reference for all personnel involved in the design or manufacture of the fuel element. The material contained in this manual was assembled by members of the Engineering Department and the Manufacturing Department at the Hanford Atomic Products Operation between the dates October, 1955 and June, 1956. Arrangement of the manual. The manual is divided into six parts: Part I--introduction; Part II--technical bases; Part III--process; Part IV--plant and equipment; Part V--process control and improvement; and VI--safety.

  13. The comparison of automated urine analyzers with manual microscopic examination for urinalysis automated urine analyzers and manual urinalysis

    OpenAIRE

    ?nce, Fatma Demet; Ellida?, Hamit Ya?ar; Koseo?lu, Mehmet; ?im?ek, Ne?e; Yal??n, H?lya; Zengin, Mustafa Osman

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Urinalysis is one of the most commonly performed tests in the clinical laboratory. However, manual microscopic sediment examination is labor-intensive, time-consuming, and lacks standardization in high-volume laboratories. In this study, the concordance of analyses between manual microscopic examination and two different automatic urine sediment analyzers has been evaluated. Design and methods: 209 urine samples were analyzed by the Iris iQ200 ELITE (Ä°ris Diagnostics, USA), Dirui...

  14. SAM Theory Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Rui [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The System Analysis Module (SAM) is an advanced and modern system analysis tool being developed at Argonne National Laboratory under the U.S. DOE Office of Nuclear Energy’s Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program. SAM development aims for advances in physical modeling, numerical methods, and software engineering to enhance its user experience and usability for reactor transient analyses. To facilitate the code development, SAM utilizes an object-oriented application framework (MOOSE), and its underlying meshing and finite-element library (libMesh) and linear and non-linear solvers (PETSc), to leverage modern advanced software environments and numerical methods. SAM focuses on modeling advanced reactor concepts such as SFRs (sodium fast reactors), LFRs (lead-cooled fast reactors), and FHRs (fluoride-salt-cooled high temperature reactors) or MSRs (molten salt reactors). These advanced concepts are distinguished from light-water reactors in their use of single-phase, low-pressure, high-temperature, and low Prandtl number (sodium and lead) coolants. As a new code development, the initial effort has been focused on modeling and simulation capabilities of heat transfer and single-phase fluid dynamics responses in Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) systems. The system-level simulation capabilities of fluid flow and heat transfer in general engineering systems and typical SFRs have been verified and validated. This document provides the theoretical and technical basis of the code to help users understand the underlying physical models (such as governing equations, closure models, and component models), system modeling approaches, numerical discretization and solution methods, and the overall capabilities in SAM. As the code is still under ongoing development, this SAM Theory Manual will be updated periodically to keep it consistent with the state of the development.

  15. Balance de potencia del conjunto formado por el tractor New Holland 6610s y la sembradora v-20

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro R. Mayans-Céspedes; José R. Soca-Cabrera; Gilberto López Canteñs

    2009-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se reflejan los resultados de la prueba de tracción y potencia a la toma de fuerza de la sembradora V-204, formando conjunto con el tractor New Holland 6610s4. Para las pruebas se contó con los instrumentos, medios de medición e instalaciones del Centro Nacional de Estandarización de Maquinaria Agrícola, utilizándose la NMX "Método de evaluación de sembradoras y/o fertilizadoras de tracción mecánica con dosificador de disco" y la NC Máquinas agropecuarias y forestales, ...

  16. First investigation on the applicability of an active noise control system on a tracked tractor without cab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Pochi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In last years, several research teams pointed their attention on the application of active noise control systems (ANC inside the cabs of agricultural tractor, with the purpose of reducing the driver exposition to noise, that is only partially controlled by the frame of the cab. This paper reports the results of a first experience that aimed at verifying the applicability of an ANC on a medium-high power, tracked tractor without cab. The tested tractor was a Fiat Allis 150 A, equipped with rear power take off, used in the execution of deep primary tillage in compact soils. It is a tracked tractor without cab, with maximum power of 108.8 kW at 1840 min–1 of the engine. The ANC consists of a control unit box based on a digital signal processor (DPS, two microphones, two speakers and a power amplifier. The instrumentation used in noise data collecting and processing consisted of a multichannel signal analyzer (Sinus - Soundbook, a ½” microphone capsule and an acoustic calibrator, both Bruel & Kjaer. The study aimed at evaluating the behaviour of the ANC by means of tests carried out under repeatable conditions, characterized by pre-defined engine speed values. Three replications have been made for each engine speed. The sampling time was 30 s. Two series of tests were performed in order to compare the results observed with the ANC on and off. The engine speed adopted in the study ranged from 600 min– 1, up to 2000 min–1 (maximum speed with steps of 100 min–1. The ANC proved to be effective in the interval of speed between 1400 and 1700 min–1, where the samplings have been intensified, adopting steps of 50 min–1. In such an interval, the attenuation observed with the ANC system on appeared evident both as weighed A sound pressure level (from 1.29 up to 2.46 dB(A and linear (from 4.54 up to 8.53 dB. The best performance has been observed at the engine speed of 1550 min–1, with attenuations, respectively of 2.46 dB(A and 7.67 d

  17. How 2 HAWC2, the user's manual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben J.; Hansen, Anders Melchior

    The report contains the user's manual for the aeroleastic code HAWC2. The code is intended for calculating wind turbine response in time domain and has a structural formulation based on multi-body dynamics. The aerodynamic part of the code is based on the blade element momentum theory, but extended...... from the classic approach to handle dynamic inflow, dynamic stall, skew inflow, shear effects on the induction and effects from large deflections. It has been developed within the years 2003-2006 at the aeroelastic design research programme at Risoe, National laboratory Denmark. This manual is updated...

  18. Salinas : theory manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Timothy Francis; Reese, Garth M.; Bhardwaj, Manoj Kumar

    2004-08-01

    This manual describes the theory behind many of the constructs in Salinas. For a more detailed description of how to use Salinas , we refer the reader to Salinas, User's Notes. Many of the constructs in Salinas are pulled directly from published material. Where possible, these materials are referenced herein. However, certain functions in Salinas are specific to our implementation. We try to be far more complete in those areas. The theory manual was developed from several sources including general notes, a programer-notes manual, the user's notes and of course the material in the open literature.

  19. HASL procedures manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    Addition and corrections to the following sections of the HASL Procedures Manual are provided: Table of Contents; Bibliography; Fallout Collection Methods; Wet/Dry Fallout Collection; Fluoride in Soil and Sediment; Strontium-90; Natural Series; Alpha Emitters; and Gamma Emitters

  20. SEVERO code - user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacramento, A.M. do.

    1989-01-01

    This user's manual contains all the necessary information concerning the use of SEVERO code. This computer code is related to the statistics of extremes = extreme winds, extreme precipitation and flooding hazard risk analysis. (A.C.A.S.)

  1. The organizational measurement manual

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wealleans, David

    2001-01-01

    ... Relationship of process to strategic measurements Summary 37 36Contents 19/10/2000 1:23 pm Page vi vi THE ORGANIZATIONAL MEASUREMENT MANUAL 4 PART 2 ESTABLISHING A PROCESS MEASUREMENT PROGRAMME...

  2. Geochemical engineering reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, L.B.; Michels, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    The following topics are included in this manual: physical and chemical properties of geothermal brine and steam, scale and solids control, processing spent brine for reinjection, control of noncondensable gas emissions, and goethermal mineral recovery. (MHR)

  3. NCDC Archive Documentation Manuals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Climatic Data Center Tape Deck Documentation library is a collection of over 400 manuals describing NCDC's digital holdings (both historic and current)....

  4. EMAP Users Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotz, Arnold; Redondo, Rory

    Presented is the user's manual for the Educational Manpower Information Sources Project (EMAP), an information file containing approximately 325 document abstracts related to the field of educational planning. (The EMAP file is described in document SP 006 747.) (JB)

  5. FINAS. Example manual. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Koji; Tsukimori, Kazuyuki; Ueno, Mutsuo

    2003-12-01

    FINAS is a general purpose structural analysis computer program which was developed by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute for the analysis of static, dynamic and thermal responses of elastic and inelastic structures by the finite element method. This manual contains typical analysis examples that illustrate applications of FINAS to a variety of structural engineering problems. The first part of this manual presents fundamental examples in which numerical solutions by FINAS are compared with some analytical reference solutions, and the second part of this manual presents more complex examples intended for practical application. All the input data images and principal results for each problem are included in this manual for beginners' convenience. All the analyses are performed by using the FINAS Version 13.0. (author)

  6. Effect of the load of drive axles and high of the curtain on stress-strain properties of the tractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Šmerda

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the experimental measurement was determination of relation among weight load of the tractor together, hitch height changes and drawbar characteristic. The measurement was realized on chassis dynamometer at MUAF in Brno. The first step consisted of rated speed characteristics measurement in conformity with OECD demands. The drawbar characteristic was measured under two selected gears. Adding 980 kg to the nominal wight of the tractor brought increasing maximal drawbar power and drawbar force together with decreasing of slip. The highest differences were observed during the mesurement of fifth gear shifted. The drawbar force grew up to 18.9% as well as the maximal drawbar power (15.2%. The maximal drawbar power at ninth gear gave 62.8 kW. The hitch height was setting to 0.54 m; 0.64 m and 0.74 m. When the hitch height was set from 0.54 m to 0.74 m the drawbar force an power on front axle was lower by reason of load reduction. As can be noticed from the final drawbar characteristics, both curves are identical up to border of maximal drawbar power. Small differences in the area of the highest slips can be ascribed to the rolling resistance.

  7. Peace Corps Aquaculture Training Manual. Training Manual T0057.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    This Peace Corps training manual was developed from two existing manuals to provide a comprehensive training program in fish production for Peace Corps volunteers. The manual encompasses the essential elements of the University of Oklahoma program that has been training volunteers in aquaculture for 25 years. The 22 chapters of the manual are…

  8. Utilização de um sistema de aquisição automática de dados para avaliação dos níveis de ruído de um trator agrícola de pneus Utilization of a data automatic acquisition system for noise level evaluation of an agricultural tractor with tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando dos Santos Filho

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado na Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratinguetá (FEG-UNESP, SP, no Laboratório de Vibração e Acústica, e numa área experimental localizada no município de Guaratinguetá, com os objetivos de determinar os níveis de ruído emitidos por um trator agrícola executando a operação de gradagem em diferentes velocidades de trabalho e analisar o conforto do operador, comparando os níveis obtidos com os recomendados pelas principais normas vigentes. Na avaliação dos níveis de ruído, utilizaram-se um trator de pneus de 55,2 kW (75 cv e uma grade destorroadora-niveladora "off-set" de 28 discos. O sistema de aquisição de dados foi constituído por sensores de ruído, condicionadores e amplificadores e um conversor analógico-digital instalados em um microcomputador e embarcados no trator ensaiado. Posteriormente, os dados foram tratados pelo Programa ORIGIN 50. Com base nos resultados, concluiu-se que o sistema trator-implemento emitiu níveis de ruído acima dos limites estipulados pelas normas, em todas as velocidades testadas.A study was carried out at the Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratinguetá -FEG-UNESP, SP, in the acoustics and vibration laboratory as well as in an experimental area located in Guaratinguetá county. The objectives were to determine the noise levels emitted by an agricultural tire tractor during harrowing operation at different speeds and analyze the operator's comfort, by comparing the actual levels with the main effective norms. When evaluating noise levels, a 55.2 kW (75 hp tire tractor and an off-set 28-disk harrow were used. The data acquisition system consisted of some noise sensors, conditioners, amplifiers, and a digital-analogical converter plugged to a microcomputer and connected to the tractor tested. Later, the software ORIGIN 50 treated the data. Based on the obtained results, it was concluded that the noise levels emitted by the tractor-implement system exceeded the limits

  9. Tracer manual on crops and soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The manual serves as a reference for agricultural scientists planning to use nuclear techniques. Training courses are held at various locations with different staff. The existence of a laboratory training manual is helpful to organizers, visiting lecturers, demonstrators and participants. It was primarily written for soil scientists from developing countries participating in training courses on the use of isotopes and radiation in soil-water-plant relations research. The training courses are designed to give soil scientists the basic terms and principles necessary for understanding ionizing radiation, its detection and measurement, its associated hazards and most of the more common applications. Due consideration is also given to the detection of stable isotopes and providing a clear understanding of their potential in research on crops and soils. Each experiment included this revised and updated manual (see IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 29: The Laboratory Training Manual on the Use of Isotopes and Radiation in Soil-Plant Relations Research, published in 1964) has been performed and tested for suitability in training courses. To facilitate the task of organizers in preparing for and planning the programmes of training courses, detailed information is provided on each experiment, indicating the time required for its performance and the necessary equipment, glassware, isotopes, chemicals, etc. A comprehensive glossary is included so that scientists may easily understand terms, units and expressions commonly used in this work. The glossary may also serve as an index since it includes the page number referring to the first mention of the term or expression

  10. SHARP User Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Y. Q. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Shemon, E. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Thomas, J. W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mahadevan, Vijay S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rahaman, Ronald O. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Solberg, Jerome [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-03-31

    SHARP is an advanced modeling and simulation toolkit for the analysis of nuclear reactors. It is comprised of several components including physical modeling tools, tools to integrate the physics codes for multi-physics analyses, and a set of tools to couple the codes within the MOAB framework. Physics modules currently include the neutronics code PROTEUS, the thermal-hydraulics code Nek5000, and the structural mechanics code Diablo. This manual focuses on performing multi-physics calculations with the SHARP ToolKit. Manuals for the three individual physics modules are available with the SHARP distribution to help the user to either carry out the primary multi-physics calculation with basic knowledge or perform further advanced development with in-depth knowledge of these codes. This manual provides step-by-step instructions on employing SHARP, including how to download and install the code, how to build the drivers for a test case, how to perform a calculation and how to visualize the results. Since SHARP has some specific library and environment dependencies, it is highly recommended that the user read this manual prior to installing SHARP. Verification tests cases are included to check proper installation of each module. It is suggested that the new user should first follow the step-by-step instructions provided for a test problem in this manual to understand the basic procedure of using SHARP before using SHARP for his/her own analysis. Both reference output and scripts are provided along with the test cases in order to verify correct installation and execution of the SHARP package. At the end of this manual, detailed instructions are provided on how to create a new test case so that user can perform novel multi-physics calculations with SHARP. Frequently asked questions are listed at the end of this manual to help the user to troubleshoot issues.

  11. SHARP User Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Y. Q.; Shemon, E. R.; Thomas, J. W.; Mahadevan, Vijay S.; Rahaman, Ronald O.; Solberg, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    SHARP is an advanced modeling and simulation toolkit for the analysis of nuclear reactors. It is comprised of several components including physical modeling tools, tools to integrate the physics codes for multi-physics analyses, and a set of tools to couple the codes within the MOAB framework. Physics modules currently include the neutronics code PROTEUS, the thermal-hydraulics code Nek5000, and the structural mechanics code Diablo. This manual focuses on performing multi-physics calculations with the SHARP ToolKit. Manuals for the three individual physics modules are available with the SHARP distribution to help the user to either carry out the primary multi-physics calculation with basic knowledge or perform further advanced development with in-depth knowledge of these codes. This manual provides step-by-step instructions on employing SHARP, including how to download and install the code, how to build the drivers for a test case, how to perform a calculation and how to visualize the results. Since SHARP has some specific library and environment dependencies, it is highly recommended that the user read this manual prior to installing SHARP. Verification tests cases are included to check proper installation of each module. It is suggested that the new user should first follow the step-by-step instructions provided for a test problem in this manual to understand the basic procedure of using SHARP before using SHARP for his/her own analysis. Both reference output and scripts are provided along with the test cases in order to verify correct installation and execution of the SHARP package. At the end of this manual, detailed instructions are provided on how to create a new test case so that user can perform novel multi-physics calculations with SHARP. Frequently asked questions are listed at the end of this manual to help the user to troubleshoot issues.

  12. Emission and operating performance of a biomethane tractor with dual fuel engine; Emissions- und Betriebsverhalten eines Biomethan-Traktors mit Zuendstrahlmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mautner, Sebastian [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum (TFZ), Straubing (Germany); Emberger, Peter; Thuneke, Klaus; Remmele, Edgar

    2016-08-01

    The use of biomethane as fuel for agricultural machinery with dual fuel technology is contributing to climate protection and ensures safe fuel supply. So far, hardly any documented operational experiences are known. The aim of the project, funded by the Bavarian Ministry of Economic Affairs and Media, Energy and Technology, was to investigate practicability for daily use and the emission behaviour of a Valtra N101 prototype tractor (exhaust stage IIIA). The retrofitted dual-fuel technology of the former conventional diesel tractor simultaneously uses biomethane or natural gas and diesel as ignition fuel. During the field test over 590 working hours, the tractor showed overall high reliability. On average the operating range in dual-fuel mode with one complete filling of the gas tanks was about 11.5 hours. On the tractor test bench a significant improvement of the exhaust emissions could be observed, since the gas ECU had been optimized and changed by the manufacturer. For dual-fuel operation, nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) are lower, whereas carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and particulate matter emissions (PM) are higher compared to solely diesel operation. In particular, HC emissions exceed the proposed limiting value, submitted by the European Commission. This is due to incomplete gas combustion and insufficient conversion by the exhaust after-treatment-system (methane slip). A big potential for optimization is expected by adjusting the operating point-specific gasdiesel ratio and improving the exhaust gas aftertreatment system.

  13. IMPROVEMENT OF WEAR-RESISTANCE AND SERVICE LIFE OF MULTI-DISK BRAKE MECHANISMS OF «BELARUS» TRACTOR BY LASER THERMAL HARDENING OF FAST WEARING PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Kobjakov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems concerning wear resistance improvement of «Belarus» tractor brake mechanism parts are considered in the paper. Properties of ВЧ-50-pig iron are investigated as a result of laser thermal hardening by various technological methods.

  14. Tests of Nacelle-Propeller Combinations in Various Positions with Reference to Wings V : Clark Y Biplane Cellule - NACA Cowled Nacelle - Tractor Propeller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, E Floyd

    1935-01-01

    This report is the fifth of a series giving the results obtained from wind tunnel tests on the interference drag and propulsive efficiency of nacelle-propeller-wing combinations. This report gives results of tests of an NACA cowled air-cooled engine nacelle with tractor propeller located in 12 positions with reference to a Clark Y biplane cellule.

  15. SRL process hazards review manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    The principal objective of the Process Hazards Management Program is to provide a regular, systematic review of each process at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to eliminate injuries and to minimize property damage resulting from process hazards of catastrophic potential. Management effort is directed, through the Du Pont Safety Program, toward those controls and practices that ensure this objective. The Process Hazards Management Program provides an additional dimension to further ensure the health and safety of employees and the public. Du Pont has concluded that an organized approach is essential to obtain an effective and efficient process hazards review. The intent of this manual is to provide guidance in creating such an organized approach to performing process hazards reviews on a continuing basis

  16. SNAP operating system reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabuda, J.D.; Polito, J.; Walker, J.L.; Grant, F.H. III.

    1982-03-01

    The SNAP Operating System (SOS) is a FORTRAN 77 program which provides assistance to the safeguards analyst who uses the Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation (SAFE) and the Safeguards Network Analysis Procedure (SNAP) techniques. Features offered by SOS are a data base system for storing a library of SNAP applications, computer graphics representation of SNAP models, a computer graphics editor to develop and modify SNAP models, a SAFE-to-SNAP interface, automatic generation of SNAP input data, and a computer graphic post-processor for SNAP. The SOS Reference Manual provides detailed application information concerning SOS as well as a detailed discussion of all SOS components and their associated command input formats. SOS was developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research and the US Naval Surface Weapons Center by Pritsker and Associates, Inc., under contract to Sandia National Laboratories

  17. Eficiência energética de tratores agrícolas fabricados no Brasil Energy efficiency of Brazilian agricultural tractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gastão M. da Silveira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, cresce o interesse global na economia de combustível fóssil e na redução das emissões de gases, por motivos econômicos e ecológicos. Neste trabalho se aplicou um método para classificação de tratores agrícolas, com base na sua eficiência energética, usando-se o consumo específico (em L kWh-1 como termo de comparação. O fator energético mais importante para essa máquina é o seu motor, seguido da transmissão. O trabalho se baseia no resultado dos ensaios de tratores realizados segundo normas brasileiras, tendo como modelo o código OECD, além de ser uma classificação de modelos de tratores fabricados no País. Os tratores movidos a álcool apresentaram consumo elevado de combustível. A metodologia permite a idéia de como os tratores se comportam, no que diz respeito à eficiência energética.Nowadays there is a growing global interest in saving fossil fuel and reducing gas emissions for economical and ecological reasons. This research applied a method of classification of agricultural tractors depending on their energy efficiency, using the specific fuel consumption (in L kWh-1 as a comparison. The most important energy factor in these machines is the engine, followed by the transmission. This research is based on results of the OECD tractor test and classifies tractor models, which have been principally sold in Brazil. The tractors fueled by ethanol presented a high level of fuel consumption. The methodology allows us to understand how tractors perform in terms of energy efficiency.

  18. Aircraft operations management manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA aircraft operations program is a multifaceted, highly diverse entity that directly supports the agency mission in aeronautical research and development, space science and applications, space flight, astronaut readiness training, and related activities through research and development, program support, and mission management aircraft operations flights. Users of the program are interagency, inter-government, international, and the business community. This manual provides guidelines to establish policy for the management of NASA aircraft resources, aircraft operations, and related matters. This policy is an integral part of and must be followed when establishing field installation policy and procedures covering the management of NASA aircraft operations. Each operating location will develop appropriate local procedures that conform with the requirements of this handbook. This manual should be used in conjunction with other governing instructions, handbooks, and manuals.

  19. Salinas : theory manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Timothy Francis; Reese, Garth M.; Bhardwaj, Manoj Kumar

    2011-11-01

    Salinas provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of structural systems. This manual describes the theory behind many of the constructs in Salinas. For a more detailed description of how to use Salinas, we refer the reader to Salinas, User's Notes. Many of the constructs in Salinas are pulled directly from published material. Where possible, these materials are referenced herein. However, certain functions in Salinas are specific to our implementation. We try to be far more complete in those areas. The theory manual was developed from several sources including general notes, a programmer notes manual, the user's notes and of course the material in the open literature.

  20. An approach for modeling the influence of wheel tractor loads and vibration frequencies on soil compaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verotti, M.; Servadio, P.; Belfiore, N. P.; Bergonzoli, S.

    2012-04-01

    Both soil compaction and ground vibration are forms of environmental degradation that may be understood in the context of the vehicle-soil interaction process considered (Hildebrand et al., 2008). The transit of tractors on agricultural soil is often the main cause of soil compaction increasing. As known, this can be a serious problems for tillage and sowing and therefore the influence of all the affecting factors have been extensively studied in the last decades in order to understand their impact on the biosystem. There are factors related to the climate, namely to the rainfalls and temperature, and many others. Hence, it is not simple to figure out a complete model for predicting an index of compaction, for a given situation. Soil compaction models are important tools for controlling soil compaction due to agricultural field traffic and they are potentially useful technique to provide information concerning correct soil management. By means of such models, strategies and recommendations for prevention of soil compaction may be developed and specific advice may be given to farmers and advisers. In order to predict field wheeled and tracked vehicle performance, some empirical methods, used for off-road vehicle, were applied by Servadio (2010) on agricultural soil. The empirical indexes included, besides the soil strength, the load carried by the tire or track, some technical characteristics of the tire or track of the vehicle (tire or track width, tire or track wheel diameter, unloaded tire section height, number of wheel station in one track, tire deflection, total length of the belt track, the track pitch) as well as the vehicle passes. They have been validated with the tests results of agricultural vehicles over a range of soil in central Italy. Among the parameters which affect soil compaction, the water content of the soil, the axle load and number of vehicle passes proved to be the most important ones. The present paper concerns mainly vehicle

  1. MANUAL LOGIC CONTROLLER (MLC)

    OpenAIRE

    Claude Ziad Bayeh

    2015-01-01

    The “Manual Logic Controller” also called MLC, is an electronic circuit invented and designed by the author in 2008, in order to replace the well known PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) in many applications for its advantages and its low cost of fabrication. The function of the MLC is somewhat similar to the well known PLC, but instead of doing it by inserting a written program into the PLC using a computer or specific software inside the PLC, it will be manually programmed in a manner to h...

  2. Beyond the Manual Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , the main focus there is on spoken languages in their written and spoken forms. This series of workshops, however, offers a forum for researchers focussing on sign languages. For the fourth time, the workshop had sign language corpora as its main topic. This time, the focus was on any aspect beyond...... the manual channel. Not surprisingly, most papers deal with non-manuals on the face. Once again, the papers at this workshop clearly identify the potentials of even closer cooperation between sign linguists and sign language engineers, and we think it is events like this that contribute a lot to a better...

  3. Radar and ARPA manual

    CERN Document Server

    Bole, A G

    2013-01-01

    Radar and ARPA Manual focuses on the theoretical and practical aspects of electronic navigation. The manual first discusses basic radar principles, including principles of range and bearing measurements and picture orientation and presentation. The text then looks at the operational principles of radar systems. Function of units; aerial, receiver, and display principles; transmitter principles; and sitting of units on board ships are discussed. The book also describes target detection, Automatic Radar Plotting Aids (ARPA), and operational controls of radar systems, and then discusses radar plo

  4. TRUBA User Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tereshchenko, M. A.; Castejon, F.; Cappa, A.

    2008-04-25

    The TRUBA (pipeline in Russian) code is a computational tool for studying the propagation of Gaussian-shaped microwave beams in a prescribed equilibrium plasma. This manual covers the basic material handed to use the implementation of TRUBA (version 3,4) interfaced with the numerical library of the TJ-II stellarator. The manual provides a concise theoretical background of the problem, specifications for setting up the input files and interpreting the output of the code, and some information useful in modifying TRUBA. (Author) 13 refs.

  5. TRUBA User Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tereshchenko, M. A.; Castejon, F.; Cappa, A.

    2008-01-01

    The TRUBA (pipeline in Russian) code is a computational tool for studying the propagation of Gaussian-shaped microwave beams in a prescribed equilibrium plasma. This manual covers the basic material handed to use the implementation of TRUBA (version 3,4) interfaced with the numerical library of the TJ-II stellarator. The manual provides a concise theoretical background of the problem, specifications for setting up the input files and interpreting the output of the code, and some information useful in modifying TRUBA. (Author) 13 refs

  6. Netbooks The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Biersdorfer, J

    2009-01-01

    Netbooks are the hot new thing in PCs -- small, inexpensive laptops designed for web browsing, email, and working with web-based programs. But chances are you don't know how to choose a netbook, let alone use one. Not to worry: with this Missing Manual, you'll learn which netbook is right for you and how to set it up and use it for everything from spreadsheets for work to hobbies like gaming and photo sharing. Netbooks: The Missing Manual provides easy-to-follow instructions and lots of advice to help you: Learn the basics for using a Windows- or Linux-based netbookConnect speakers, printe

  7. Security electronics circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    MARSTON, R M

    1998-01-01

    Security Electronics Circuits Manual is an invaluable guide for engineers and technicians in the security industry. It will also prove to be a useful guide for students and experimenters, as well as providing experienced amateurs and DIY enthusiasts with numerous ideas to protect their homes, businesses and properties.As with all Ray Marston's Circuits Manuals, the style is easy-to-read and non-mathematical, with the emphasis firmly on practical applications, circuits and design ideas. The ICs and other devices used in the practical circuits are modestly priced and readily available ty

  8. RELAP-7 Theory Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Ray Alden [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zou, Ling [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhao, Haihua [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, Hongbin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Peterson, John William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Martineau, Richard Charles [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kadioglu, Samet Yucel [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Andrs, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This document summarizes the physical models and mathematical formulations used in the RELAP-7 code. In summary, the MOOSE based RELAP-7 code development is an ongoing effort. The MOOSE framework enables rapid development of the RELAP-7 code. The developmental efforts and results demonstrate that the RELAP-7 project is on a path to success. This theory manual documents the main features implemented into the RELAP-7 code. Because the code is an ongoing development effort, this RELAP-7 Theory Manual will evolve with periodic updates to keep it current with the state of the development, implementation, and model additions/revisions.

  9. Analisis dan Perancangan Aplikasi Pendukung Erp Sap R/3 Modul Sales and Distribution PT. United Tractors, Tbk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Johan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyse sales process having been implementing Sales and Distribution module of ERP SAP R/3 and also to design a supporting application for sales process at PT United Tractor, Tbk. The benefit of this application is to help sales person and customer in doing inquiries, quotation and sales order also material information through short message. The method of this research is data capturing, literature review, object oriented analysis and design and Rational Unified process including UML ( Unified Modeling Language for application design. Based on the problem, we designed a web based and sms gateway application to support Sales and Distribution module ERP SAP R/3 to help customer and sales person in doing sales transaction and information inquiry. 

  10. Using value stream mapping technique through the lean production transformation process: An implementation in a large-scaled tractor company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Rıza Adalı

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Today’s world, manufacturing industries have to continue their development and continuity in more competitive environment via decreasing their costs. As a first step in the lean production process transformation is to analyze the value added activities and non-value adding activities. This study aims at applying the concepts of Value Stream Mapping (VSM in a large-scaled tractor company in Sakarya. Waste and process time are identified by mapping the current state in the production line of platform. The future state was suggested with improvements for elimination of waste and reduction of lead time, which went from 13,08 to 4,35 days. Analysis are made using current and future states to support the suggested improvements and cycle time of the production line of platform is improved 8%. Results showed that VSM is a good alternative in the decision-making for change in production process.

  11. Evaluation of the biological methane potential of various feedstock for the production of biogas to supply agricultural tractors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuszewska, Anna; Owczuk, Marlena; Zamojska-Jaroszewicz, Anna; Jakubiak-Lasocka, Joanna; Lasocki, Jakub; Orliński, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Biochemical methane potential for mixtures of whey, manures and silages was tested. • High impact of feedstock type on composition and yield of biogas was observed. • Simple mathematical model of methanogenic fermentation was proposed. • Exhaust emissions from dual fuel (biogas and diesel oil) engine were investigated. • Using biogas in engine reduces particulate matter and nitrogen oxides emissions. - Abstract: This work is divided into three parts. The first one presents results of biological methane potential of agriculture raw materials available in Poland. In the second part the simple mathematical model of methanogenic fermentation is proposed. The data for this model were obtained from experimental digestion process of chosen mixtures. Last part includes the results of research of exhaust emissions generated by dual dual-fuel engine of agricultural tractor powered by mixture of model biogas (60% and 70% of methane) and diesel oil. The obtained results revealed that there was a significant difference in chemical composition and yield of biogas between considered feedstock types. The highest biogas and methane production was obtained for mixtures in ratio of 6:4 for swine manure/maize silage and whey/grass silage. Due to agriculture conditions in Poland and obtain results, the maize silage and swine manure were chosen to development of mathematical model of fermentation process. It showed a satisfactory match to the experimental results. Results of emission tests on dual-fuel tractor engine supplied with biogas and diesel oil showed the higher concentrations of hydrocarbons and carbon oxide and lower concentrations of particulate matter in exhaust gases. Level of emission of particular components depends on the biogas composition.

  12. Technical Manual for the SAM Biomass Power Generation Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgenson, J.; Gilman, P.; Dobos, A.

    2011-09-01

    This technical manual provides context for the implementation of the biomass electric power generation performance model in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) System Advisor Model (SAM). Additionally, the report details the engineering and scientific principles behind the underlying calculations in the model. The framework established in this manual is designed to give users a complete understanding of behind-the-scenes calculations and the results generated.

  13. General Drafting. Technical Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Army, Washington, DC.

    The manual provides instructional guidance and reference material in the principles and procedures of general drafting and constitutes the primary study text for personnel in drafting as a military occupational specialty. Included is information on drafting equipment and its use; line weights, conventions and formats; lettering; engineering charts…

  14. Manual for subject analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series and also constitutes a part of the ETDE Procedures Manual. It presents the rules, guidelines and procedures to be adopted by centers submitting input to the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) or the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE). It is a manual for the subject analysis part of input preparation, meaning the selection, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing of relevant publications, and is to be used in conjunction with the Thesauruses, Subject Categories documents and the documents providing guidelines for the preparation of abstracts. The concept and structure of the new manual are intended to describe in a logical and efficient sequence all the steps comprising the subject analysis of documents to be reported to INIS or ETDE. The manual includes new chapters on preparatory analysis, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing, as well as rules, guidelines, procedures, examples and a special chapter on guidelines and examples for subject analysis in particular subject fields. (g.t.; a.n.)

  15. IAEA safeguards technical manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    The necessity for statistical inference procedures arises because of time and cost limitations imposed on inspection activities, and also because of inherent limitations of inspection measurement instruments and techniques. This manual produces statistical concepts and techniques in the field of nuclear material control

  16. Tokai densitometer manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Hsue, S.T.; Junck, K.

    1987-01-01

    In 1979, the Tokai densitometer was installed at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant in Tokai, Japan. It uses a nondestructive active technique (K-edge absorption densitometry) to assay solutions for plutonium content. The original hardware was upgraded in 1984 and 1985. This manual describes the instrument's operation after the upgrade. 2 refs

  17. Political Education Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    League of United Latin American Citizens, Washington, DC.

    Written to help Hispanics understand the electoral process more thoroughly and to encourage them to participate more actively in the political arena, this manual begins by describing the present status of the Hispanic electorate and then explains how laws are made, how Hispanics can influence legislation, and how to organize a voter registration…

  18. Coulometer operator's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criscuolo, A.L.

    1977-07-01

    The coulometer control system automates the titration of uranium and plutonium as performed by the CMB-1 group. The system consists of a printer, microcontroller, and coulometer, all of which are controlled by an algorithm stored in the microcontroller read-only memory. This manual describes the titration procedure using the coulometer control system, its theory and maintenance

  19. ABCC publication manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1959-01-01

    The reporting policy of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission is described in detail in this manual. Specific topics covered are: research project register; research publication policy; USA publication procedures; Japan publication procedures, report preparation instructions; and a glossary of institutions terms, phrases, and symbols. 15 figures. (DMC)

  20. Matematica 3. Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alu, Maria Jose Miranda de Sousa

    This teachers manual accompanies a mathematics textbook, written in Portuguese, for third graders. It closely follows the objectives and methodology of the major curricula used throughout the schools in the United States. The 11 chapters deal with: numeration (0-999,999); addition with and without regrouping; subtraction with and without…

  1. Manual on industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    This manual is intended as a source of educational material to personnel seeking certification as industrial radiographers, and as a guide and reference text for educational organizations that are providng courses in industrial radiography. It covers the basic principles of x-ray and gamma radiation, radiation safety, films and film processing, welding, casting and forging, aircraft structures and components, radiographic techniques, and records

  2. Idaho Safety Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This manual is intended to help teachers, administrators, and local school boards develop and institute effective safety education as a part of all vocational instruction in the public schools of Idaho. This guide is organized in 13 sections that cover the following topics: introduction to safety education, legislation, levels of responsibility,…

  3. Functional Assessment Inventory Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewe, Nancy M.; Athelstan, Gary T.

    This manual, which provides extensive new instructions for administering the Functional Assessment Inventory (FAI), is intended to enable counselors to begin using the inventory without undergoing any special training. The first two sections deal with the need for functional assessment and issues in the development and use of the inventory. The…

  4. Manual Hydraulic Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, W.F.; Voorendt, M.Z.

    This manual is the result of group work and origins in Dutch lecture notes that have been used since long time. Amongst the employees of the Hydraulic Engineering Department that contributed to this work are dr.ir. S. van Baars, ir.K.G.Bezuijen, ir.G.P.Bourguignon, prof.ir.A.Glerum,

  5. SNL Abuse Testing Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orendorff, Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lamb, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Steele, Leigh Anna Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report describes recommended abuse testing procedures for rechargeable energy storage systems (RESSs) for electric vehicles. This report serves as a revision to the FreedomCAR Electrical Energy Storage System Abuse Test Manual for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications (SAND2005-3123).

  6. Sexism in Parenting Manuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFrain, John D.

    1977-01-01

    Parental roles, as delineated in many of the popular parenting manuals on the market, are reviewed and assessed. It is concluded that the vast majority of authors of child-rearing guides implicity or explicitly endorse the traditional roles of father as the dominant breadwinner and mother as the nurturant caretaker. (Author)

  7. Rescue Manual. Module 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The sixth of 10 modules contains 4 chapters: (1) industrial rescue; (2) rescue from a confined space; (3) extrication from heavy equipment; and (4) rescue operations involving elevators. Key points, an introduction, and conclusion accompany…

  8. Manually operated coded switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnette, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure related to a manually operated recodable coded switch in which a code may be inserted, tried and used to actuate a lever controlling an external device. After attempting a code, the switch's code wheels must be returned to their zero positions before another try is made

  9. Southern Ductile Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery.

    This instructor's manual contains the materials required to conduct the competency-based workplace literacy program that was developed to help employees at a foundry that has evolved from a small, family-owned business into a major foundry group with several automated production systems. The workplace literacy program consists of 24 lessons in…

  10. NDS EXFOR Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.

    1979-06-01

    This manual contains the coding rules and formats and NDS internal compilation rules for the exchange format (EXFOR) for the transmission of nuclear reaction data between national and international nuclear data centres, and for the data storage and retrieval system of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section

  11. Consumer Decisions. Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This student manual covers five areas relating to consumer decisions. Titles of the five sections are Consumer Law, Consumer Decision Making, Buying a Car, Convenience Foods, and Books for Preschool Children. Each section may contain some or all of these materials: list of objectives, informative sections, questions on the information and answers,…

  12. NACS Store Planning Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    College Store Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Topics discussed by the NACS Store Planning/Renovation Committees in this updated version of the college store renovation manual include: short- and long-range planning, financial considerations, professional planning assistance, the store's image and business character, location considerations, building requirements, space requirements, fixtures,…

  13. Default Management Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Richard A.

    This manual is designed to instruct administrators of the Guaranteed Student Loan (GSL) Program in how to take every step possible to administer the program effectively and to minimize the program costs of serving the high risk student. It shows schools how to work with students throughout their time in school, create ownership of the loan(s) by…

  14. RRFC hardware operation manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abhold, M.E.; Hsue, S.T.; Menlove, H.O.; Walton, G.

    1996-05-01

    The Research Reactor Fuel Counter (RRFC) system was developed to assay the 235 U content in spent Material Test Reactor (MTR) type fuel elements underwater in a spent fuel pool. RRFC assays the 235 U content using active neutron coincidence counting and also incorporates an ion chamber for gross gamma-ray measurements. This manual describes RRFC hardware, including detectors, electronics, and performance characteristics

  15. CANAL user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faya, A.; Wolf, L.; Todreas, N.

    1979-11-01

    CANAL is a subchannel computer program for the steady-state and transient thermal hydraulic analysis of BWR fuel rod bundles. The purpose of this manual is to introduce the user into the mechanism of running the code by providing information about the input data and options

  16. AELIB user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, L.E.; Klawitter, G.L.

    1981-05-01

    This report is an updatable manual for users of AELIB, the AECL Library of FORTRAN-callable routines for the CRNL CDC 6600/CYBER 170 system. It provides general advice on the use of this library and detailed information on the selection and usage of particular library routines

  17. Water Quality Monitoring Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Fred J.; Houdart, Joseph F.

    This manual is designed for students involved in environmental education programs dealing with water pollution problems. By establishing a network of Environmental Monitoring Stations within the educational system, four steps toward the prevention, control, and abatement of water pollution are proposed. (1) Train students to recognize, monitor,…

  18. Health and Safety Procedures Manual for hazardous waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thate, J.E.

    1992-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Chemical Assessments Team (ORNL/CAT) has developed this Health and Safety Procedures Manual for the guidance, instruction, and protection of ORNL/CAT personnel expected to be involved in hazardous waste site assessments and remedial actions. This manual addresses general and site-specific concerns for protecting personnel, the general public, and the environment from any possible hazardous exposures. The components of this manual include: medical surveillance, guidance for determination and monitoring of hazards, personnel and training requirements, protective clothing and equipment requirements, procedures for controlling work functions, procedures for handling emergency response situations, decontamination procedures for personnel and equipment, associated legal requirements, and safe drilling practices.

  19. Bioassay Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Bioassay Laboratory is an accredited laboratory capable of conducting standardized and innovative environmental testing in the area of aquatic ecotoxicology. The...

  20. HYDROMECHANICS LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Naval Academy Hydromechanics LaboratoryThe Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory (NAHL) began operations in Rickover Hall in September 1976. The primary purpose of...

  1. Missouri Highway Safety Manual Recalibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-01

    The Highway Safety Manual (HSM) is a national manual for analyzing the highway safety of various facilities, including rural roads, urban arterials, freeways, and intersections. The HSM was first published in 2010, and a 2014 supplement addressed fre...

  2. Developing a Pupil Transportation Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Dave

    1987-01-01

    District-level pupil transportation manuals that contain clear, concise information about objectives, policies, and regulations are a must. These manuals should also specify procedures concerning evaluation processes, personnel recruitment and selection, and the driver training program. (MLH)

  3. Calibration of dosimeters used in radiotherapy. A manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The present manual is a revision of IAEA Technical Reports Series No.185, published in 1979. This manual is intended for use by the network of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) which was set up by the IAEA and the World Health Organization (WHO). The objectives of the SSDL network are to: calibrate radiation dosimeters and ancillary instruments; serve as a link between primary standard laboratories and radiation users; and provide advice and assistance in all aspects of radiation metrology. The various calibration procedures are described, their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed, and criteria are put forward to help an SSDL decide which procedure is the best to use in order to meet a particular requirement. The information in this manual should also be of value to other similar laboratories, usually associated with hospitals, which are not formally part of the IAEA/WHO network of SSDLs. 26 refs, 6 figs, 6 tabs

  4. Safety in laboratories: Indian scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Ajaz; Farooq, A Jan; Qadri, Gj; S A, Tabish

    2008-07-01

    Health and safety in clinical laboratories is becoming an increasingly important subject as a result of emergence of highly infectious diseases such as Hepatitis and HIV. A cross sectional study was carried out to study the safety measures being adopted in clinical laboratories of India. Heads of laboratories of teaching hospitals of India were subjected to a standardized, pretested questionnaire. Response rate was 44.8%. only 60% of laboratories had person in-charge of safety in laboratory. Seventy three percent of laboratories had safety education program regarding hazards. In 91% of laboratories staff is using protective clothing while working in laboratories. Hazardous material regulations are followed in 78% of laboratories. Regular health check ups are carried among laboratory staff in 43.4% of laboratories.Safety manual is available in 56.5% of laboratories. 73.9% of laboratories are equipped with fire extinguishers. Fume cupboards are provided in 34.7% of laboratories and they are regularly checked in 87.5% of these laboratories. In 78.26% of laboratories suitable measures are taken to minimize formation of aerosols.In 95.6% of laboratories waste is disposed off as per bio-medical waste management handling rules. Laboratory of one private medical college was accredited with NABL and safety parameters were better in that laboratory. Installing safety engineered devices apparently contributes to significant decrease in injuries in laboratories; laboratory safety has to be a part of overall quality assurance programme in hospitals. Accreditation has to be made necessary for all laboratories.

  5. NDS EXFOR manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.

    1996-01-01

    EXFOR is the agreed exchange format for the transmission of nuclear reaction data between national and international nuclear data centers for the benefit of nuclear data users in all countries. The IAEA Nuclear Data Section uses the EXFOR system not only for the center-to-center data exchange but also as its data storage and retrieval system. This NDS EXFOR MANUAL therefore contains the agreed EXFOR coding rules and format, supplemented by NDS internal compilation rules. The EXFOR system and the EXFOR nuclear data library with several million data records originate from the cooperation of an increasing number of data centers whose names and addresses can be found inside the Manual. Their contributions and cooperative efforts are gratefully acknowledged. (author)

  6. Radiation protection manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spang, A.

    1983-01-01

    According to the Radiation Protection Ordinance, radiation protection experts directing or supervising the handling of radioactive materials must have expert knowledge. The concept of expert knowledge has been clearly defined by the Fachverband e.V. in a catalogue of instruction goals. The manual follows the principles of this catalogue; it presents the expert knowledge required in a total of 15 subject groups. There is an index which helps the reader to find his specific subject group and the knowledge required of him in this subject group. However, the manual gives only an outline of the subject matter in many instances and should therefore not be regarded as a textbook in the proper sense. (orig./HP) [de

  7. REBA experimenters' manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, R.L.

    1977-04-01

    The REBA is a high-energy, pulsed electron beam or bremsstrahlung x-ray generator whose operational purpose is to provide an energy source of short duration for conducting experiments, primarily to determine material responses to rapid surface and in-depth deposition of energy. The purpose of this manual is to serve as a basic source of information for prospective users of REBA. Included is a brief discussion of the design and operation of the facility as well as a summary of output characteristics for electron beam modes and environmental data for x-ray operation. The manual also contains a description of the REBA experimental facilities, including geometry of the test cell, instrumentation and data collection capabilities, and services and support available to experimenters

  8. The environmental survey manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide guidance to the Survey and Sampling and Analysis teams that conduct the one-time Environmental Survey of the major US Department of Energy (DOE) operating facilities. This manual includes a discussion of DOE's policy on environmental issues, a review of statutory guidance as it applies to the Survey, the procedures and protocols to be used by the Survey teams, criteria for the use of the Survey teams in evaluating existing environmental data for the Survey effort, generic technical checklists used in every Survey, health and safety guidelines for the personnel conducting the Survey, including the identification of potential hazards, prescribed protective equipment, and emergency procedures, the required formats for the Survey reports, guidance on identifying environmental problems that need immediate attention by the Operations Office responsible for the particular facility, and procedures and protocols for the conduct of sampling and analysis

  9. NDS EXFOR manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.

    1985-08-01

    EXFOR is the agreed exchange format for the transmission of nuclear reaction data between national and international nuclear data centers for the benefit of nuclear data users in all countries. The IAEA Nuclear Data Section uses the EXFOR system not only for the center-to-center data exchange but also as its data storage and retrieval system. This NDS EXFOR MANUAL therefore contains the agreed EXFOR coding rules and format, supplemented by NDS internal compilation rules. The EXFOR system and the EXFOR nuclear data library with several million data records originate from the cooperation of an increasing number of data centers whose names and addresses can be found inside the Manual. Their contributions and cooperative efforts are gratefully acknowledged. (author)

  10. MINTEQ user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, S.R.; Hostetler, C.J.; Deutsch, W.J.; Cowan, C.E.

    1987-02-01

    This manual will aid the user in applying the MINTEQ geochemical computer code to model aqueous solutions and the interactions of aqueous solutions with hypothesized assemblages of solid phases. The manual will provide a basic understanding of how the MINTEQ computer code operates and the important principles that are incorporated into the code and instruct a user of the MINTEQ code on how to create input files to simulate a variety of geochemical problems. Chapters 2 through 8 are for the user who has some experience with or wishes to review the principles important to geochemical computer codes. These chapters include information on the methodology MINTEQ uses to incorporate these principles into the code. Chapters 9 through 11 are for the user who wants to know how to create input data files to model various types of problems. 35 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  11. Auxiliary mine ventilation manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Workplace Safety North

    2010-01-01

    An adequate ventilation system is needed for air quality and handling in a mine and is comprised of many different pieces of equipment for removing contaminated air and supplying fresh air and thereby provide a satisfactory working environment. This manual highlights auxiliary ventilation systems made up of small fans, ducts, tubes, air movers, deflectors and additional air flow controls which distribute fresh air delivered by the primary system to all areas. A review of auxiliary ventilation is provided. Design, operation and management issues are discussed and guidelines are furnished. This manual is limited to underground hard rock operations and does not address directly other, specific auxiliary systems, either in underground coal mines or uranium mines.

  12. Auxiliary mine ventilation manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Workplace Safety North

    2010-07-01

    An adequate ventilation system is needed for air quality and handling in a mine and is comprised of many different pieces of equipment for removing contaminated air and supplying fresh air and thereby provide a satisfactory working environment. This manual highlights auxiliary ventilation systems made up of small fans, ducts, tubes, air movers, deflectors and additional air flow controls which distribute fresh air delivered by the primary system to all areas. A review of auxiliary ventilation is provided. Design, operation and management issues are discussed and guidelines are furnished. This manual is limited to underground hard rock operations and does not address directly other, specific auxiliary systems, either in underground coal mines or uranium mines.

  13. Oil trading manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, D.

    1995-01-01

    This manual provides basic information on all aspects of oil trading. Topics reviewed in Part 1 include physical characteristics and refining and oil pricing arrangements. Part 2 on instruments and markets contains chapters on crude oil markets, product markets, forward and futures contracts, forward paper markets, oil future exchanges, options, swaps and long term oil markets. Part 3 deals with administration and has chapters on operations and logistics, credit control, accounting, taxation of oil trading, contracts and legal and regulatory issues. (UK)

  14. Manual of Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambini, D.J.; Granier, R.; Boisserie, G.

    1992-01-01

    This manual explains the principles and practice of radiation protection for those whose work in research, in the field of medicine or in the industry requires the use of radiation sources. It provides the information radiation users need to protect themselves and others and to understand and comply with international recommendations, regulations and legislation regarding the use of radionuclides and radiation machines. It is designed to teach a wide audience of doctors, biologists, research scientists, technicians, engineers, students and others

  15. IAC user manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, R. G.; Beste, D. L.; Gregg, J.

    1984-01-01

    The User Manual for the Integrated Analysis Capability (IAC) Level 1 system is presented. The IAC system currently supports the thermal, structures, controls and system dynamics technologies, and its development is influenced by the requirements for design/analysis of large space systems. The system has many features which make it applicable to general problems in engineering, and to management of data and software. Information includes basic IAC operation, executive commands, modules, solution paths, data organization and storage, IAC utilities, and module implementation.

  16. Program Management System manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The Program Management System (PMS), as detailed in this manual, consists of all the plans, policies, procedure, systems, and processes that, taken together, serve as a mechanism for managing the various subprograms and program elements in a cohesive, cost-effective manner. The PMS is consistent with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and the ''Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program'' (DOE/RW-0005). It is based on, but goes beyond, the Department of Energy (DOE) management policies and procedures applicable to all DOE programs by adapting these directives to the specific needs of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management program. This PMS Manual describes the hierarchy of plans required to develop and maintain the cost, schedule, and technical baselines at the various organizational levels of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. It also establishes the management policies and procedures used in the implementation of the Program. These include requirements for internal reports, data, and other information; systems engineering management; regulatory compliance; safety; quality assurance; and institutional affairs. Although expanded versions of many of these plans, policies, and procedures are found in separate documents, they are an integral part of this manual. The PMS provides the basis for the effective management that is needed to ensure that the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program fulfills the mandate of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. 5 figs., 2 tabs

  17. ETAP user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Norio; Higuchi, Suminori.

    1990-11-01

    The event tree analysis technique has been used in Probabilistic Safety Assessment for LWRs to delineate various accident scenarios leading to core melt or containment failure and to evaluate their frequencies. This technique often requires manual preparation of event trees with iterative process and time-consuming work in data handling. For the purpose of reducing manual efforts in event tree analysis, we developed a new software package named ETAP (Event Tree Analysis Supporting Program) for event tree analysis. ETAP is an interactive PC-based program which has the ability to construct, update, document, and quantify event trees. Because of its fast running capability to quantify event trees, use of the EATP program can make it easy to perform the sensitivity studies on a variety of system/containment performance issues. This report provides a user's manual for ETAP, which describes the structure, installation, and use of EATP. This software runs on NEC/PC-9800 or compatible PCs that have a 640 KB memory and MS-DOS 2.11 or higher. (author)

  18. OASIS User Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Bojtar, L

    2009-01-01

    The OASIS system has been operational for years now. After a long development the project has reached a state where the number of features it provides exceeds largely what most of its users knows about. The author felt it was time to write a user manual explaining all the functionality of the viewer application. This document is a user manual, concentrating on the functionality of the viewer from the user’s point of view. There are already documents available on the project’s web site about the technical aspects at http://project-oasis.web.cern.ch/project-oasis/presentations.htm . There was an attempt to produce a tutorial on the viewer, but it didn’t get much further than the table of contents, that however is well thought. The structure of this user manual follows the same principle, the basic and most often used features are grouped together. Advanced or less often used features are described in a separate chapter. There is a second organizational principle, features belong to different levels: chann...

  19. 11th GCC Closed Forum: cumulative stability; matrix stability; immunogenicity assays; laboratory manuals; biosimilars; chiral methods; hybrid LBA/LCMS assays; fit-for-purpose validation; China Food and Drug Administration bioanalytical method validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Rafiq; Briscoe, Chad; Bower, Joseph; Cape, Stephanie; Arnold, Mark; Hayes, Roger; Warren, Mark; Karnik, Shane; Stouffer, Bruce; Xiao, Yi Qun; van der Strate, Barry; Sikkema, Daniel; Fang, Xinping; Tudoroniu, Ariana; Tayyem, Rabab; Brant, Ashley; Spriggs, Franklin; Barry, Colin; Khan, Masood; Keyhani, Anahita; Zimmer, Jennifer; Caturla, Maria Cruz; Couerbe, Philippe; Khadang, Ardeshir; Bourdage, James; Datin, Jim; Zemo, Jennifer; Hughes, Nicola; Fatmi, Saadya; Sheldon, Curtis; Fountain, Scott; Satterwhite, Christina; Colletti, Kelly; Vija, Jenifer; Yu, Mathilde; Stamatopoulos, John; Lin, Jenny; Wilfahrt, Jim; Dinan, Andrew; Ohorodnik, Susan; Hulse, James; Patel, Vimal; Garofolo, Wei; Savoie, Natasha; Brown, Michael; Papac, Damon; Buonarati, Mike; Hristopoulos, George; Beaver, Chris; Boudreau, Nadine; Williard, Clark; Liu, Yansheng; Ray, Gene; Warrino, Dominic; Xu, Allan; Green, Rachel; Hayward-Sewell, Joanne; Marcelletti, John; Sanchez, Christina; Kennedy, Michael; Charles, Jessica St; Bouhajib, Mohammed; Nehls, Corey; Tabler, Edward; Tu, Jing; Joyce, Philip; Iordachescu, Adriana; DuBey, Ira; Lindsay, John; Yamashita, Jim; Wells, Edward

    2018-04-01

    The 11th Global CRO Council Closed Forum was held in Universal City, CA, USA on 3 April 2017. Representatives from international CRO members offering bioanalytical services were in attendance in order to discuss scientific and regulatory issues specific to bioanalysis. The second CRO-Pharma Scientific Interchange Meeting was held on 7 April 2017, which included Pharma representatives' sharing perspectives on the topics discussed earlier in the week with the CRO members. The issues discussed at the meetings included cumulative stability evaluations, matrix stability evaluations, the 2016 US FDA Immunogenicity Guidance and recent and unexpected FDA Form 483s on immunogenicity assays, the bioanalytical laboratory's role in writing PK sample collection instructions, biosimilars, CRO perspectives on the use of chiral versus achiral methods, hybrid LBA/LCMS assays, applications of fit-for-purpose validation and, at the Global CRO Council Closed Forum only, the status and trend of current regulated bioanalytical practice in China under CFDA's new BMV policy. Conclusions from discussions of these topics at both meetings are included in this report.

  20. Bigfoot Field Manual, Version 2.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.L.; Burrows, S.; Gower, S.T.; Cohen, W.B.

    1999-09-01

    The BigFoot Project is funded by the Earth Science Enterprise to collect and organize data to be used in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Earth Observing System (EOS) Validation Program. The data collected by the BigFoot Project are unique in being ground-based observations coincident with satellite overpasses. In addition to collecting data, the BigFoot project will develop and test new algorithms for scaling point measurements to the same spatial scales as the EOS satellite products. This BigFoot Field Manual will be used to achieve completeness and consistency of data collected at four initial BigFoot sites and at future sites that may collect similar validation data. Therefore, validation datasets submitted to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center that have been compiled in a manner consistent with the field manual will be especially valuable in the validation program.

  1. Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) is a consolidated set of automated resources that effectively manage the data gathered during environmental monitoring and restoration of the Hanford Site. The HEIS includes an integrated database that provides consistent and current data to all users and promotes sharing of data by the entire user community. Data stored in the HEIS are collected under several regulatory programs. Currently these include the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA); the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA); and the Ground-Water Environmental Surveillance Project, managed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The HEIS is an information system with an inclusive database. The manual, the HEIS User's Manual, describes the facilities available to the scientist, engineer, or manager who uses the system for environmental monitoring, assessment, and restoration planning; and to the regulator who is responsible for reviewing Hanford Site operations against regulatory requirements and guidelines

  2. Use of Liquefied Biomethane (LBM) as a Vehicle Fuel for Road Freight Transportation : A Case Study Evaluating Environmental Performance of Using LBM for Operation of Tractor Trailers

    OpenAIRE

    Shanmugam, Kavitha; Tysklind, Mats; Upadhyayula, Venkata K.K.

    2018-01-01

    The environmental performance of Liquefied Biomethane (LBM) and Diesel operated Tractor Trailer (TT) is compared using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study. In this study we consider, raw biogas produced from an anaerobic digestion process of a Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Umea, Sweden, which is then upgraded and liquefied to LBM and used as a fuel for TTs. Currently, the WWTP in Umea is utilizing biogas, produced onsite for cogeneration of heat and electricity, thereby meeting its e...

  3. Antropometria aplicada aos operadores de tratores agrícolas Anthropometrics applied to the agricultural tractors operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Schlosser

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o padrão antropométrico dos operadores de tratores agrícolas da Depressão Central do Rio Grande do Sul. Os operadores de tratores agrícolas foram medidos por meio de um painel constituído por duas chapas metálicas, permanecendo durante as medições em pé, eretos, com o mínimo de roupa possível e em contato com o painel. As variáveis medidas foram as seguintes: altura do corpo; altura ao nível dos olhos; altura ao nível dos olhos sentado; altura do cotovelo; alcance do braço; alcance da mão; distância pé-patela; apoio do assento. Os dados obtidos demonstram que há diferenças entre o biótipo do operador utilizado pela indústria de tratores agrícolas e o do operador da região, de forma que este último apresentou, para todas as medidas, à exceção do apoio do assento, uma média maior. Observa-se também que, para cada medida, os limites inferior e superior do intervalo onde se encontram 90% dos operadores avaliados foram, respectivamente, menores e maiores que o padrão utilizado pela indústria, caracterizando uma maior variação. Levando-se em consideração as diferenças existentes entre o perfil antropométrico dos operadores de tratores agrícolas da Depressão Central do Rio Grande do Sul e os parâmetros utilizados pela indústria, pode-se confirmar a hipótese de que os tratores agrícolas que se encontram atualmente em comercialização no Brasil podem não oferecer o conforto necessário ao operador desta região .The objective of this work was to evaluate the anthropometric measures of the agricultural tractor operators of the Central Region of Rio Grande do Sul State. The agricultural tractor operators were measured through a panel that was made of two metallic plates. During the measurement, they were standing, wearing the minimum amount clothes possible, and touching the panel. The measures body height, eyes level height (standing, eyes level height (sitting, elbow

  4. Plant Biotech Lab Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tant, Carl

    This book provides laboratory experiments to enhance any food science/botany curriculum. Chapter 1, "Introduction," presents a survey of the techniques used in plant biotechnology laboratory procedures. Chapter 2, "Micronutrition," discusses media and nutritional requirements for tissue culture studies. Chapter 3, "Sterile Seeds," focuses on the…

  5. Analisi delle vibrazioni su trattori agricoli in normali condizioni di lavoro e in condizioni predefinite - Vibration analysis on agricultural tractors in normal working conditions and in predetermined conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Peretti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Commentata la diffusione dei trattori agricoli in Italia e svolta una rassegna degli effetti delle vibrazioni sui trattoristi, sono riportati i valori delle accelerazioni riscontrati nel nostro Paese, nonché i livelli di esposizione degli operatori. Individuati i parametri che determinano le vibrazioni, sono illustrati gli interventi in grado di contenerle. Sono inoltre riportati i risultati di una ricerca su tre trattori agricoli: i rilievi delle vibrazioni triassiali sul piano e sul basamento del sedile e le misure del rumore in prossimità di ambedue gli orecchi dell’operatore sono stati eseguiti durante l’aratura, l’erpicatura e la traslazione su strada sterrata e asfaltata, a diverse velocità di avanzamento e a differenti valori di pressione di gonfiaggio degli pneumatici. ------ After the assessment of the agricultural tractors fleet characteristics in Italy and a review of the effects of vibration on tractor drivers, the typical acceleration values and consequent operators’ exposure levels in carrying out agricultural operations are reported. Once having ascertained the parameters that produce the vibrations, the actions more suitable to reduce the risk factors are shown. The results of a series of comparative tests on three used tractors of different age are then reported: the levels of tri-axial vibrations on the seat cushion and base and of the noise at both operator’s ears were recorded during ploughing, harrowing and driving on farm and paved roads, at different speeds and varying the tyres inflation pressure.

  6. INIS: Database manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the INIS Reference Series. It is intended for users of INIS (International Nuclear Information System) output data on various media (FTP file, CD-ROM, e-mail file, earlier magnetic tape, cartridge, etc.). This manual provides a description of each data element including information on contents, structure and usage as well as historical overview of additions, deletions and changes of data elements and their contents that have taken place over the years. Each record contains certain control data fields (001-009), one, two or three bibliographic levels, a set of descriptors, and zero, one or more abstracts, one in English and optionally one or more in another language. In order to facilitate the description of the system, the sequence of data elements is based on the input or, as it is internally called, worksheet format which differs from the exchange format described in the manual IAEA-INIS-7. A separate section is devoted to each data element and deviations from the exchange format are indicated whenever present. As the Record Leader and the Directory are sufficiently explained in Chapter 3.1 of IAEA-INIS-7, the contents of this manual are limited to control fields and data fields; the detailed explanations are intended to supplement the basic information given in Chapter 3.2 of IAEA-INIS-7. Bibliographic levels are used to identify component parts of a publication, i.e. chapters in a book, articles in a journal issue, conference papers in a proceedings volume. All bibliographic levels contained in a record are given in a control data field. Each bibliographic level identifier appears in the subdirectory with a pointer to its position in the record

  7. MAP user's manual copyright

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillsbury, R.D. Jr.

    1991-12-01

    The program MITMAP represents a set of general purpose, two- dimensional, finite element programs for the calculation of magnetic fields. It consists of the program MAP and MAP2DJ. The two programs are used to solve different electromagnetic problems, but they have a common set of subrountines for pre- and postprocessing. Originally separate programs, they have been combined to make modification easier. The manuals, however, will remain separate. The program MAP is described in this manual. MAP is applicable to the class of problems with two-dimensional-planar or axisymmetric - geometries, in which the current density and the magnetic vector potential have only a single nonvanishing component. The single component is associated with the direction that is perpendicular to the plane of the problem and is invariant with respect to that direction. Maxwell's equations can be reduced to a solver diffusion equation in terms of the single, nonvanishing component of the magnetic vector potential for planar problems and to a single component of a vector potential for planar problems and to a single component of a vector diffusion equation for axisymmetric problems. The magnetic permeability appears in the governing equation. The permeability may be a function of the magnetic flux density. In addition, any electrically conducting material present will have eddy currents induced by a time varying magnetic field. These eddy currents must be included in the solution process. This manual provides a description of the structure of the input data and output for the program. There are several example problems presented that illustrate the major program features. Appendices are included that contain a derivation of the governing equations and the application of the finite element method to the solution of the equations

  8. Modern TTL circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Modern TTL Circuits Manual provides an introduction to the basic principles of Transistor-Transistor Logic (TTL). This book outlines the major features of the 74 series of integrated circuits (ICs) and introduces the various sub-groups of the TTL family.Organized into seven chapters, this book begins with an overview of the basics of digital ICs. This text then examines the symbology and mathematics of digital logic. Other chapters consider a variety of topics, including waveform generator circuitry, clocked flip-flop and counter circuits, special counter/dividers, registers, data latches, com

  9. Manual of Decolonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gigone, Fabio

    2010-01-01

    During a residency in Bethlehem, Venice-based design and research studio Salottobuono formulated a 'strategy of subversion' for Israeli settlements in the West Bank. From this comes the elegant Manual of Decolonization; a generic but detailed resource for all post-occupation scenarios. Assessing...... how evacuated and imposed structures can be transformed in collaboration with local stakeholders, the book's plans, models and projections are divided into themes like 'De-parcelling', 'Re-combining' and 'Un-roofing'; landscape, nature and materials are considered at length. The outcome is an open...

  10. CMOS circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    1995-01-01

    CMOS Circuits Manual is a user's guide for CMOS. The book emphasizes the practical aspects of CMOS and provides circuits, tables, and graphs to further relate the fundamentals with the applications. The text first discusses the basic principles and characteristics of the CMOS devices. The succeeding chapters detail the types of CMOS IC, including simple inverter, gate and logic ICs and circuits, and complex counters and decoders. The last chapter presents a miscellaneous collection of two dozen useful CMOS circuits. The book will be useful to researchers and professionals who employ CMOS circu

  11. Coal marketing manual 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This manual provides information on the international coal market in tabulated format. Statistics are presented for the Australian coal industry, exports, currency movements, world coal production, coal and coke imports and exports. Detailed information is provided on the Australian coal industry including mine specific summaries. Pricing summaries for thermal and coking coal in 1987, coal quality standards and specifications, trends in coal prices and stocks. Imports and exports for World coal and coke, details of shipping, international ports and iron and steel production. An exporters index of Australian and overseas companies with industry and government contacts is included. 15 figs., 67 tabs.

  12. Optoelectronics circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Optoelectronics Circuits Manual covers the basic principles and characteristics of the best known types of optoelectronic devices, as well as the practical applications of many of these optoelectronic devices. The book describes LED display circuits and LED dot- and bar-graph circuits and discusses the applications of seven-segment displays, light-sensitive devices, optocouplers, and a variety of brightness control techniques. The text also tackles infrared light-beam alarms and multichannel remote control systems. The book provides practical user information and circuitry and illustrations.

  13. Timergenerator circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Timer/Generator Circuits Manual is an 11-chapter text that deals mainly with waveform generator techniques and circuits. Each chapter starts with an explanation of the basic principles of its subject followed by a wide range of practical circuit designs. This work presents a total of over 300 practical circuits, diagrams, and tables.Chapter 1 outlines the basic principles and the different types of generator. Chapters 2 to 9 deal with a specific type of waveform generator, including sine, square, triangular, sawtooth, and special waveform generators pulse. These chapters also include pulse gen

  14. IMAGE User Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehfest, E; De Waal, L; Oostenrijk, R.

    2010-09-15

    This user manual contains the basic information for running the simulation model IMAGE ('Integrated Model to Assess the Global Environment') of PBL. The motivation for this report was a substantial restructuring of the source code for IMAGE version 2.5. The document gives concise content information about the submodels, tells the user how to install the program, describes the directory structure of the run environment, shows how scenarios have to be prepared and run, and gives insight in the restart functionality.

  15. Radioanalytical methods manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, N.W.; Dean, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    This Radioanalytical Methods manual is comprised of 12 chapters. It includes a review of the pertinent literature up to the end of 1982 pertaining to the measurement of the radioactive species listed under the terms of the contract. Included is methodology recommended for the decompositions of soils, tailings, ores, biological samples and air filters. Detailed analytical methodology for the measurement of gross alpha, gross beta, gross gamma, uranium, radium-226, radium-228, lead-210, thorium-232, thorium-230, thorium-228, total thorium, radon-222, radon-220 and radon-219 is presented

  16. ASSERT-4 user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judd, R.A.; Tahir, A.; Carver, M.B.; Stewart, D.G.; Thibeault, P.R.; Rowe, D.S.

    1984-09-01

    ASSERT-4 is an advanced subchannel code being developed primarily to model single- and two-phase flow and heat transfer in horizontal rod bundles. This manual is intended to facilitate the application of this code to the analysis of flow in reactor fuel channels. It contains a brief description of the thermalhydraulic model and ASSERT-4 solution scheme, and other information required by users. This other information includes a detailed discussion of input data requirements, a sample problem and solution, and information describing how to access and run ASSERT-4 on the Chalk River computers

  17. Rural Gas Program manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-11-01

    The intent and purpose of this manual is to describe the various guideliness and administrative procedures associated with the Alberta Rural Gas Program and to consolidate and expand upon the legislation under which the Program has been developed. It is intended primarily for the use and information of rural gas distributors, their agents, and other private or government parties having an interest in the Rural Gas Program. Information is presented on: rural gas franchises, technical applications, contracts and tenders, determination of system capital costs for grant support, grants, Gas Alberta brokerage arrangements, insurance coverage, utility rights-of-way, and lien notes.

  18. Health and safety manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    The manual consists of the following chapters: general policies and administration; the Environmental Health and Safety Department; the Medical Services Department: biological hazards; chemical safety; confined space entry; cryogenic safety; electrical safety; emergency plans; engineering and construction; evacuations, trenching, and shoring; fire safety; gases, flammable and compressed; guarding, mechanical; ladders and scaffolds, work surfaces; laser safety; materials handling and storage; noise; personal protective equipment; pressure safety; radiation safety, ionizing and non-ionizing; sanitation; seismic safety; training, environmental health and safety; tools, power and hand-operated; traffic and transportation; and warning signs and devices

  19. Astronaut training manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, E. A.

    1980-01-01

    Scientific information from previous space flights, space medicine, exercise physiology, and sports medicine was used to prepare a physical fitness manual suitable for use by members of the NASA astronaut population. A variety of scientifically valid exercise programs and activities suitable for the development of physical fitness are provided. Programs, activities, and supportive scientific data are presented in a concise, easy to read format so as to permit the user to select his or her mode of training with confidence and devote time previously spent experimenting with training routines to preparation for space flight. The programs and activities included were tested and shown to be effective and enjoyable.

  20. RADTRAN 6 Technical Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiner, Ruth F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Neuhauser, Karen Sieglinde [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Heames, Terence John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); O' Donnell, Brandon M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dennis, Matthew L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This Technical Manual contains descriptions of the calculation models and mathematical and numerical methods used in the RADTRAN 6 computer code for transportation risk and consequence assessment. The RADTRAN 6 code combines user-supplied input data with values from an internal library of physical and radiological data to calculate the expected radiological consequences and risks associated with the transportation of radioactive material. Radiological consequences and risks are estimated with numerical models of exposure pathways, receptor populations, package behavior in accidents, and accident severity and probability.

  1. RADTRAN 6 technical manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiner, Ruth F.; Neuhauser, Karen Sieglinde; Heames, Terence John; O' Donnell, Brandon M.; Dennis, Matthew L.

    2014-01-01

    This Technical Manual contains descriptions of the calculation models and mathematical and numerical methods used in the RADTRAN 6 computer code for transportation risk and consequence assessment. The RADTRAN 6 code combines user-supplied input data with values from an internal library of physical and radiological data to calculate the expected radiological consequences and risks associated with the transportation of radioactive material. Radiological consequences and risks are estimated with numerical models of exposure pathways, receptor populations, package behavior in accidents, and accident severity and probability.

  2. FISPACT 97: user manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, R.A.; Sublet, J.-Ch.

    1997-05-01

    FISPACT is the inventory code included in the European Activation System (EASY). A new version of FISPACT: FISPACT-97 has been developed and this report is the User manual for the code. It explains the use of all the code words used in the input file to specify a FISPACT run and describes how all the data files are connected. A series of appendices cover the working of the code and the physical and mathematical details. Background information on the data files and extensive examples of input files suitable for various applications are included. (Author)

  3. Timber designers' manual

    CERN Document Server

    Ozelton, E C

    2008-01-01

    This major reference manual covers both overall and detail design of structural timber, including aspects such as shear deflection, creep, dynamic and lateral stability considerations for flexural members.Available for the first time in paperback, the Third Edition was substantially revised to take account of the many changes since the previous edition was published in 1984. It is based on British Standard BS 5268-2: 2002, which brought design concepts closer to European practice and Eurocode 5.Features of the Third Edition include:* information on bolt values including

  4. NASCAP programmer's reference manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, M. J.; Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.

    1993-05-01

    The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) is a computer program designed to model the electrostatic charging of complicated three-dimensional objects, both in a test tank and at geosynchronous altitudes. This document is a programmer's reference manual and user's guide. It is designed as a reference to experienced users of the code, as well as an introduction to its use for beginners. All of the many capabilities of NASCAP are covered in detail, together with examples of their use. These include the definition of objects, plasma environments, potential calculations, particle emission and detection simulations, and charging analysis.

  5. Percept User Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnes, Brian [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kennon, Stephen Ray [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This document is the main user guide for the Sierra/Percept capabilities including the mesh_adapt and mesh_transfer tools. Basic capabilities for uniform mesh refinement (UMR) and mesh transfers are discussed. Examples are used to provide illustration. Future versions of this manual will include more advanced features such as geometry and mesh smoothing. Additionally, all the options for the mesh_adapt code will be described in detail. Capabilities for local adaptivity in the context of offline adaptivity will also be included. This page intentionally left blank.

  6. Optoelectronics circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    1999-01-01

    This manual is a useful single-volume guide specifically aimed at the practical design engineer, technician, and experimenter, as well as the electronics student and amateur. It deals with the subject in an easy to read, down to earth, and non-mathematical yet comprehensive manner, explaining the basic principles and characteristics of the best known devices, and presenting the reader with many practical applications and over 200 circuits. Most of the ICs and other devices used are inexpensive and readily available types, with universally recognised type numbers.The second edition

  7. HTGR Cost Model Users' Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandrik, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The High Temperature Gas-Cooler Reactor (HTGR) Cost Model was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. The HTGR Cost Model calculates an estimate of the capital costs, annual operating and maintenance costs, and decommissioning costs for a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. The user can generate these costs for multiple reactor outlet temperatures; with and without power cycles, including either a Brayton or Rankine cycle; for the demonstration plant, first of a kind, or nth of a kind project phases; for a single or four-pack configuration; and for a reactor size of 350 or 600 MWt. This users manual contains the mathematical models and operating instructions for the HTGR Cost Model. Instructions, screenshots, and examples are provided to guide the user through the HTGR Cost Model. This model was design for users who are familiar with the HTGR design and Excel. Modification of the HTGR Cost Model should only be performed by users familiar with Excel and Visual Basic.

  8. Surface Environmental Surveillance Procedures Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanf, Robert W.; Poston, Ted M.

    2000-01-01

    Shows and explains certain procedures needed for surface environmental surveillance. Hanford Site environmental surveillance is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP). The basic requirements for site surveillance are set fourth in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program Requirements. Guidance for the SESP is provided in DOE Order 5484.1, Environmental Protection, Safety, and Health Protection Information Reporting Requirements and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment. Guidelines for environmental surveillance activities are provided in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance. An environmental monitoring plan for the Hanford Site is outlined in DOE/RL 91-50 Rev. 2, Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. Environmental surveillance data are used in assessing the impact of current and past site operations on human health and the environment, demonstrating compliance with applicable local, state, and federal environmental regulations, and verifying the adequacy of containment and effluent controls. SESP sampling schedules are reviewed, revised, and published each calendar year in the Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule. Environmental samples are collected by SESP staff in accordance with the approved sample collection procedures documented in this manual. Personnel training requirements are documented in SESP-TP-01 Rev.2, Surface Environmental Surveillance Project Training Program.

  9. Hanford whole body counting manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

    1990-06-01

    This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs

  10. Das Sprachlabor in der Schule (The Language Laboratory in Schools).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabus, Hans-Joachim; Freudenstein, Reinhold

    This technical manual for the use of language laboratories includes information on the following topics: (1) types of laboratories, (2) the tape, (3) the tape recorder, (4) other basic technical equipment, (5) the audio-active laboratory, the audio-active-compare laboratory, and an evaluation of the two, (6) possibilities for expanded use, (7)…

  11. BBC users manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ltterst, R.F.; Sutcliffe, W.G.; Warshaw, S.I.

    1977-11-01

    BBC is a two-dimensional, multifluid Eulerian hydro-radiation code based on KRAKEN and some subsequent ideas. It was developed in the explosion group in T-Division as a basic two-dimensional code to which various types of physics can be added. For this reason BBC is a FORTRAN (LRLTRAN) code. In order to gain the 2-to-1 to 4-to-1 speed advantage of the STACKLIB software on the 7600's and to be able to execute at high speed on the STAR, the vector extensions of LRLTRAN (STARTRAN) are used throughout the code. Either cylindrical- or slab-type problems can be run on BBC. The grid is bounded by a rectangular band of boundary zones. The interfaces between the regular and boundary zones can be selected to be either rigid or nonrigid. The setup for BBC problems is described in the KEG Manual and LEG Manual. The difference equations are described in BBC Hydrodynamics. Basic input and output for BBC are described

  12. SYVAC3 manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres, T.H.

    2000-01-01

    SYVAC3 (Systems Variability Analysis Code, generation 3) is a computer program that implements a method called systems variability analysis to analyze the behaviour of a system in the presence of uncertainty. This method is based on simulating the system many times to determine the variation in behaviour it can exhibit. SYVAC3 specializes in systems representing the transport of contaminants, and has several features to simplify the modelling of such systems. It provides a general tool for estimating environmental impacts from the dispersal of contaminants. This report describes the use and structure of SYVAC3. It is intended for modellers, programmers, operators and reviewers who deal with simulation codes based on SYVAC3. From this manual they can learn how to link a model with SYVAC3, how to set up an input file, and how to extract results from output files. The manual lists the subroutines of SYVAC3 that are available for use by models, and describes their argument lists. It also gives an overview of how routines in the File Reading Package, the Parameter Sampling Package and the Time Series Package can be used by programs outside of SYVAC3. (author)

  13. Energy statistics manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The Manual is written in a question-and-answer format. The points developed are introduced with a basic question, such as: What do people mean by 'fuels' and 'energy'? What units are used to express oil? How are energy data presented? Answers are given in simple terms and illustrated by graphs, charts and tables. More technical explanations are found in the annexes. The Manual contains seven chapters. The first one presents the fundamentals of energy statistics, five chapters deal with the five different fuels (electricity and heat; natural gas; oil; solid fuels and manufactured gases; renewables and waste) and the last chapter explains the energy balance. Three technical annexes and a glossary are also included. For the five chapters dedicated to the fuels, there are three levels of reading: the first one contains general information on the subject, the second one reviews issues which are specific to the joint IEA/OECD-Eurostat-UNECE questionnaires and the third one focuses on the essential elements of the subject. 43 figs., 22 tabs., 3 annexes.

  14. LCS Users Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redd, A.J.; Ignat, D.W.

    1998-01-01

    The Lower Hybrid Simulation Code (LSC) is a computational model of lower hybrid current drive in the presence of an electric field. Details of geometry, plasma profiles, and circuit equations are treated. Two-dimensional velocity space effects are approximated in a one-dimensional Fokker-Planck treatment. The LSC was originally written to be a module for lower hybrid current drive called by the Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC), which is a numerical model of an axisymmetric tokamak plasma and the associated control systems. The TSC simulates the time evolution of a free boundary plasma by solving the MHD equations on a rectangular computational grid. The MHD equations are coupled to the external circuits (representing poloidal field coils) through the boundary conditions. The code includes provisions for modeling the control system, external heating, and fusion heating. The LSC module can also be called by the TRANSP code. TRANSP represents the plasma with an axisymmetric, fixed-boundary model and focuses on calculation of plasma transport to determine transport coefficients from data on power inputs and parameters reached. This manual covers the basic material needed to use the LSC. If run in conjunction with TSC, the ''TSC Users Manual'' should be consulted. If run in conjunction with TRANSP, on-line documentation will be helpful. A theoretical background of the governing equations and numerical methods is given. Information on obtaining, compiling, and running the code is also provided

  15. ARDS User Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, David P.

    2001-01-01

    Personal computers (PCs) are now used extensively for engineering analysis. their capability exceeds that of mainframe computers of only a few years ago. Programs originally written for mainframes have been ported to PCs to make their use easier. One of these programs is ARDS (Analysis of Rotor Dynamic Systems) which was developed at Arizona State University (ASU) by Nelson et al. to quickly and accurately analyze rotor steady state and transient response using the method of component mode synthesis. The original ARDS program was ported to the PC in 1995. Several extensions were made at ASU to increase the capability of mainframe ARDS. These extensions have also been incorporated into the PC version of ARDS. Each mainframe extension had its own user manual generally covering only that extension. Thus to exploit the full capability of ARDS required a large set of user manuals. Moreover, necessary changes and enhancements for PC ARDS were undocumented. The present document is intended to remedy those problems by combining all pertinent information needed for the use of PC ARDS into one volume.

  16. SYVAC3 manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andres, T.H

    2000-07-01

    SYVAC3 (Systems Variability Analysis Code, generation 3) is a computer program that implements a method called systems variability analysis to analyze the behaviour of a system in the presence of uncertainty. This method is based on simulating the system many times to determine the variation in behaviour it can exhibit. SYVAC3 specializes in systems representing the transport of contaminants, and has several features to simplify the modelling of such systems. It provides a general tool for estimating environmental impacts from the dispersal of contaminants. This report describes the use and structure of SYVAC3. It is intended for modellers, programmers, operators and reviewers who deal with simulation codes based on SYVAC3. From this manual they can learn how to link a model with SYVAC3, how to set up an input file, and how to extract results from output files. The manual lists the subroutines of SYVAC3 that are available for use by models, and describes their argument lists. It also gives an overview of how routines in the File Reading Package, the Parameter Sampling Package and the Time Series Package can be used by programs outside of SYVAC3. (author)

  17. Analysis of tractor particulate emissions in a modified NRSC test after implementing a particulate filter in the exhaust system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siedlecki Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Retrofitting, which means retrofitting old generation engine systems with modern exhaust after treatment systems, is becoming increasingly popular, which allow vehicles to adhere to the newer and more stringent emission norms. This can save the operators of such vehicles money using older engineered designs without the need to design a new unit or buy an expensive new machine or vehicle. At present, there is a growing interest in emissions from off-road vehicles and the introduction of minimum limits for older vehicles that must be met in order to be able to allow for their operation. For the purposes of this article, the Stage IIIA farm tractor has been fitted with a particulate filter in the exhaust system. The study investigated the impact of the use of exhaust after treatment systems on particle emissions in terms of mass, size distribution and number using PEMS analyzers in the modified NRSC stationary test by engine loading, using a mobile engine dynamometer and comparison of test results.

  18. An investigation of drag reduction for tractor trailer vehicles with air deflector and boattail. [wind tunnel tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, V. U.

    1981-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was conducted to determine the influence of several physical variables on the aerodynamic drag of a trailer model. The physical variables included: a cab mounted wind deflector, boattail on trailer, flow vanes on trailer front, forced transition on trailer, and decreased gap between tractor and trailer. Tests were conducted at yaw angles (relative wind angles) of 0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 degrees and Reynolds numbers of 3.58 x 10 to the 5th power 6.12 x 10 to the 5th power based upon the equivalent diameter of the vehicles. The wind deflector on top of the cab produced a calculated reduction in fuel consumption of about 5 percent of the aerodynamic portion of the fuel budget for a wind speed of 15.3 km/hr (9.5 mph) over a wind angle range of 0 deg to 180 deg and for a vehicle speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). The boattail produced a calculated 7 percent to 8 percent reduction in fuel consumption under the same conditions. The decrease in gap reduced the calculated fuel consumption by about 5 percent of the aerodynamic portion of the fuel budget.

  19. Professional risk of developing diseases of the peripheral nervous system in tractor drivers – machine operators of agricultural production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Bezrukova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the results of the hygienic assessment of working conditions in the domestic agricultural machinery of old and new models when performing the main types of seasonal agricultural work during the annual production cycle and analysis of accumulated occupational diseases’ nosology structure in agricultural workers of the Saratov region over the period from 2004 to 2014, the estimation of professional risk diseases of the peripheral nervous system in tractor drivers – machine operators of agricultural production is given. Professional risk assessment carried out under the procedure set forth in P2.2.1766-03 has shown that the category of a priori risk to their health during an annual production cycle ranged from high to very high (unbearable. It was revealed that the most important factors shaping the harmful working conditions when working on agricultural machinery that can act as a trigger in the formation of vertebral diseases of the peripheral nervous system, are general and local vibration, adverse micro-climatic conditions, long uncomfortable static working posture and physical stress. The risk of diseases in the peripheral uneven system in machine operators of agriculture was attributed to the high risk category with an index of professional diseases (IPD equal to 0,5 %.

  20. Universal machine ''Shtrek'' and the tractor-lifter with pneumatic-equipment control. [Auxiliary multipurpose materials handling equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bal' bert, B M; Borumenskiy, V A; Lishenko, A P; Mitchenko, G A

    1982-01-01

    The machine ''Shtrek'' is described. It makes it possible to mechanize over 20 auxiliary operations: loading-unloading operations: extraction of old and deformed timbering; dissmantling of obstructions; erection of different types of timbering; making and restoring of drainage channels; laying and straightening of a drift and its leveling; assembly and disassembly of pipelines and mine equipment, etc. Depending on the type of operation, the machine has the corresponding suspended equipment. The elementary variant has a limited area of application at mines of the central region of the Dunbass. Currently a pneumatic variant of the machine ''Shtrek'' has been developed. The electric motor and the starter of the pumping equipment of the machine have been replaced by a pneumatic motor and pneumatically controlled valve KTM-50. In this case there was significant reduction in the weight of the pumping equipment and in its overall dimensions; the electric drive of the hydraulic distributors for controlling the mechanisms were replaced by simpler pneumatic ones; the logical circuit of the control system was constructed on the USEPPA elements. A specialized tractor-lifter designed for moving suspended loads is described for auxiliary operations in the near-face zone of the preparatory drifts. The machine also lifts and lowers the boom, rotates the boom by 270/sup 0/ and additionally lifts and lowers the weight-lifting hook.

  1. Evaluation Of Onion Production On Sandy Soils By Use Of Reduced Tillage And Controlled Traffic Farming With Wide Span Tractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen Hans Henrik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Growing of vegetables is often characterised by intensive field traffic and use of heavy machines. By implementing controlled traffic farming (CTF, compaction of the growth zone can be avoided. An experiment was established in an onion field on a coarse sandy loam. Treatments were applied in the field that for five years had been managed by seasonal CTF (SCTF, where harvest is performed by random traffic due to lack of suitable harvest machines. The main treatment was compaction with a fully loaded potato harvester. The split treatment in the crossed split plot design was mechanical loosening. Bulk density, macroporosity, penetration resistance, water retention characteristics and yield were measured. Mechanical loosening caused improvements in the physical soil measurements and more roots were found in the upper soil layers. The highest yield was however found in the CTF simulation plots (19% higher than in the SCTF simulated plots. Using wide span tractors as a harvest platform will enable CTF in vegetable production. Avoidance of compaction will enable reduced tillage intensity and productivity can be improved both through higher yield of the area that is cropped and by a larger percentage of fields can be cropped area as less area will be needed for tracks.

  2. Investigating the engine vibration in MF285 tractor effected by different blends of biodiesel fuel using statistical methods and ANFIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Safrangian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Vibrations include a wide range of engineering sciences and discuss from different aspects. One of the aspects is related to various types of engines vibrations, which are often used as power sources in agriculture. The created vibrations can cause lack of comfort and reduce effective work and have bad influence on the health and safety. One of the important parameters of the diesel engine that has the ability to create vibration and knocking is the type of fuel. In this study, the effects of different blends of biodiesel, bioethanol and diesel on the engine vibration were investigated. As a result, a blend of fuels such as synthetic fuel that creates less vibration engine can be identified and introduced. Materials and Methods In this study, canola oil and methanol alcohol with purity of 99.99% and the molar ratio of 6:1 and sodium hydroxide catalyst with 1% by weight of oil were used for biodiesel production. Reactor configurations include: maintaining the temperature at 50 ° C, the reaction time of 5 minutes and the intensity of mixing (8000 rpm, and pump flow, 0.83 liters per minute. A Massey Ferguson (MF 285 tractor with single differential (2WD, built in 2012 at Tractor factory of Iran was used for the experiment. To measure the engine vibration signals, an oscillator with model of VM120 British MONITRAN was used. Vibration signals were measured at three levels of engine speed (2000, 1600, 1000 rpm in three directions (X, Y, Z. The analysis performed by two methods in this study: statistical data analysis and data analysis using Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS. Statistical analysis of data: a factorial experiment of 10×3 based on completely randomized design with three replications was used in each direction of X, Y and Z that conducted separately. Data were compiled and analyzed by SPSS 19 software. Ten levels of fuel were including of biodiesel (5, 15 and 25% and bioethanol (2, 4 and 6%, and diesel fuel. Data

  3. Photometrics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Photometrics Laboratory provides the capability to measure, analyze and characterize radiometric and photometric properties of light sources and filters,...

  4. Blackroom Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Enables evaluation and characterization of materials ranging from the ultraviolet to the longwave infrared (LWIR).DESCRIPTION: The Blackroom Laboratory is...

  5. Operation and Maintenance Manual for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norm Stanley

    2011-02-01

    This Operation and Maintenance Manual lists operator and management responsibilities, permit standards, general operating procedures, maintenance requirements and monitoring methods for the Sewage Treatment Plant at the Central Facilities Area at the Idaho National Laboratory. The manual is required by the Municipal Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000141-03) the sewage treatment plant.

  6. SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Barbara L.

    2005-09-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Environmental Management System (EMS) Program Manual documents the elements of the site EMS Program. The SNL/CA EMS Program was developed in accordance with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1 and incorporates the elements of the International Standard on Environmental Management Systems, ISO 14001.

  7. PROTEUS-SN User Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemon, Emily R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Smith, Micheal A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lee, Changho [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-02-16

    PROTEUS-SN is a three-dimensional, highly scalable, high-fidelity neutron transport code developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The code is applicable to all spectrum reactor transport calculations, particularly those in which a high degree of fidelity is needed either to represent spatial detail or to resolve solution gradients. PROTEUS-SN solves the second order formulation of the transport equation using the continuous Galerkin finite element method in space, the discrete ordinates approximation in angle, and the multigroup approximation in energy. PROTEUS-SN’s parallel methodology permits the efficient decomposition of the problem by both space and angle, permitting large problems to run efficiently on hundreds of thousands of cores. PROTEUS-SN can also be used in serial or on smaller compute clusters (10’s to 100’s of cores) for smaller homogenized problems, although it is generally more computationally expensive than traditional homogenized methodology codes. PROTEUS-SN has been used to model partially homogenized systems, where regions of interest are represented explicitly and other regions are homogenized to reduce the problem size and required computational resources. PROTEUS-SN solves forward and adjoint eigenvalue problems and permits both neutron upscattering and downscattering. An adiabatic kinetics option has recently been included for performing simple time-dependent calculations in addition to standard steady state calculations. PROTEUS-SN handles void and reflective boundary conditions. Multigroup cross sections can be generated externally using the MC2-3 fast reactor multigroup cross section generation code or internally using the cross section application programming interface (API) which can treat the subgroup or resonance table libraries. PROTEUS-SN is written in Fortran 90 and also includes C preprocessor definitions. The code links against the PETSc, METIS, HDF5, and MPICH libraries. It optionally links against the MOAB library and

  8. Sandia SWiFT Wind Turbine Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Jonathan; LeBlanc, Bruce Philip; Berg, Jonathan Charles; Bryant, Joshua; Johnson, Wesley D.; Paquette, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    The Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) facility, operated by Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind and Water Power Program, is a wind energy research site with multiple wind turbines scaled for the experimental study of wake dynamics, advanced rotor development, turbine control, and advanced sensing for production-scale wind farms. The SWiFT site currently includes three variable-speed, pitch-regulated, three-bladed wind turbines. The six volumes of this manual provide a detailed description of the SWiFT wind turbines, including their operation and user interfaces, electrical and mechanical systems, assembly and commissioning procedures, and safety systems. Further dissemination only as authorized to U.S. Government agencies and their contractors; other requests shall be approved by the originating facility or higher DOE programmatic authority. 111 UNCLASSIFIED UNLIMITED RELEASE Sandia SWiFT Wind Turbine Manual (SAND2016-0746 ) approved by: Department Manager SWiFT Site Lead Dave Minster (6121) Date Jonathan White (6121) Date SWiFT Site Supervisor Dave Mitchell (6121) Date Note: Document revision logs are found after the title page of each volume of this manual. iv

  9. FTMP (Fault Tolerant Multiprocessor) programmer's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feather, F. E.; Liceaga, C. A.; Padilla, P. A.

    1986-01-01

    The Fault Tolerant Multiprocessor (FTMP) computer system was constructed using the Rockwell/Collins CAPS-6 processor. It is installed in the Avionics Integration Research Laboratory (AIRLAB) of NASA Langley Research Center. It is hosted by AIRLAB's System 10, a VAX 11/750, for the loading of programs and experimentation. The FTMP support software includes a cross compiler for a high level language called Automated Engineering Design (AED) System, an assembler for the CAPS-6 processor assembly language, and a linker. Access to this support software is through an automated remote access facility on the VAX which relieves the user of the burden of learning how to use the IBM 4381. This manual is a compilation of information about the FTMP support environment. It explains the FTMP software and support environment along many of the finer points of running programs on FTMP. This will be helpful to the researcher trying to run an experiment on FTMP and even to the person probing FTMP with fault injections. Much of the information in this manual can be found in other sources; we are only attempting to bring together the basic points in a single source. If the reader should need points clarified, there is a list of support documentation in the back of this manual.

  10. Manual for implementing residual radioactivity guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Eckerman, K.F.; Hansen, W.R.; Healy, J.W.; Kennedy, W.E.; Napier, B.A.; Solday, J.K.

    1986-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recently issued guidelines for residual radioactivity at Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) and remote Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP) sites. A manual for implementing these guidelines has been prepared jointly by four DOE laboratories (ANL, LANL, ORNL, and PNL) and is being issued as a supplement to the guidelines. The manual presents procedures and tables for deriving site-specific guidelines for levels of residual radionuclide concentrations in soil that must not be exceeded if a site is to be released for unrestricted use. Guidance for implementing DOE ALARA policy for remedial actions is also included. The concentration factor method is used in the pathway analysis for deriving soil guidelines. The analysis has been structured in a manner that explicitly identifies all of the factors involved. Tables are provided for dose-conversion factors and pathway factors from which environmental transport factors for each radionuclide and pathway may be calculated. The scenarios used for deriving the environmental transport factors and dose conversion factors, and the manner in which the information provided in the manual is used to derive site-specific soil guidelines will be presented

  11. Ciencias 2. Manual do Professor (Science Teacher's Manual).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Lucilia

    This is the teacher's manual for Ciencias 2, the second in a series of elementary science textbooks for Portuguese-speaking students. The student textbook contains 10 chapters and 57 activities. The teacher's manual presents an explanation of the educational goals and the organization of the content, Topics included are environment, the human,…

  12. Camp Health Aide Manual = Manual para trabajadores de salud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, June Grube; And Others

    This bilingual manual serves as a textbook for migrant Camp Health Aides. Camp Health Aides are members of migrant labor camps enlisted to provide information about health and social services to migrant workers and their families. The manual is divided into 12 tabbed sections representing lessons. Teaching notes printed on contrasting paper…

  13. GANDALF: users' manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strout, R.E. II; Beach, J.L.

    1977-01-01

    The GANDALF computer code was written to calculate neutron dose equivalent given the pulse-height data obtained by using a Linear Energy Transfer (LET) proportional counter. The code also uses pre- and/or post-calibration spectra, from an alpha source, to determine a calibration factor in keV/μ/channel. Output from the code consists of the effective radius of the detection chamber in microns, a calibration factor in keV/μ/channel, and the total dose and dose equivalent in rad or rem between any two LET energies by using the equations by Attix and Roesch [Radiation Dosimetry, 1, 71 (1968)]. This report is a user's manual and is not intended as anything else, and assumes that the user has a basic knowledge of the LLL Octopus timesharing system. However, a very brief description of how the code operates is included

  14. Coal marketing manual 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This manual presents information for the use of marketers, consumers, analysts and investors. The information is presented in a series of tables and figures. Statistics are given for: Australian export tonnages and average export values for 1978-1985; international pig iron production 1976 to 1985; and international crude steel production 1979 to 1985. Trends in Australian export tonnages and prices of coal are reviewed. Details of international loading and discharge ports are given, together with a historical summary of shipping freight-rates since 1982. Long term contract prices for thermal and coking coal to Japan are tabulated. A review of coal and standards is given, together with Australian standards for coal and coke. A section on coal quality is included containing information on consumer coal quality preferences and Australian and Overseas coal brands and qualities. Finally an index is given of contact details of Australian and Overseas exporting companies, government departments, and the Australian Coal Association.

  15. FRMAC Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, K.

    2010-05-01

    In the event of a major radiological incident, the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) will coordinate the federal agencies that have various statutory responsibilities. The FRMAC is responsible for coordinating all environmental radiological monitoring, sampling, and assessment activities for the response. This manual describes the FRMAC’s response activities in a radiological incident. It also outlines how FRMAC fits in the National Incident Management System (NIMS) under the National Response Framework (NRF) and describes the federal assets and subsequent operational activities which provide federal radiological monitoring and assessment of the affected areas. In the event of a potential or existing major radiological incident, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is responsible for establishing and managing the FRMAC during the initial phases.

  16. New Oxford style manual

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The New Oxford Style Manual brings together two essential reference works in a single volume: New Hart's Rules and the New Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors. New Hart's Rules, Oxford's definitive guide to style, consists of 20 chapters that provide authoritative and expert advice on how to prepare copy for publication. Topics covered include how to use italic, roman, and other type treatments, numbers and dates, law and legal references, illustrations, notes and references, and bibliographies. The guidelines are complemented by the New Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors, which features 25,000 alphabetically arranged entries giving authoritative advice on those words and names which raise questions time and time again because of spelling, capitalization, hyphenation, or cultural and historical context. Entries give full coverage of recommended spellings, variant forms, confusable words, hyphenation, capitalization, foreign and specialist terms, proper names, and abbreviations. The dictionary a...

  17. CALENDF-2010: user manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sublet, Jean-Christophe; Ribon, Pierre; Coste-Delclaux, Mireille

    2011-09-01

    CALENDF-2010 represents a Fortran-95 update of the 1994, 2001 then 2005 code distribution with emphasise on programming quality and standards, physics and usage improvements. Devised to process multigroup cross-sections it relies on Gauss quadrature mathematical principle and strength. The followings processes can be handled by the code: moment probability table and effective cross-section calculation; pointwise cross section, probability table and effective cross-section regrouping; probability table condensation; probability table mix for several isotopes; probability table interpolation; effective cross section based probability table calculations; probability table calculations from effective cross-sections; cross-section comparison, complete energy pointwise cross-section processing and thickness dependent averaged transmission sample calculation. The CALENDF user manual, after having listed all principal code functions, describes sequentially each of them and gives comments on their associated output streams. Installation procedures, test cases and running time platform comparisons are given in the appendix. (authors)

  18. Google The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Milstein, Sarah; Dornfest, Rael; MacDonald, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Google.com is one of the most popular sites on the Internet and is used around the world by millions of people every day. Sure, you know how to "Google it" when you're searching for something--anything!--on the Web. It's plenty fast and easy to use. But did you know how much more you could achieve with the world's best search engine by clicking beyond the "Google Search" button? While you can interface with Google in 97 languages and glean results in 35, you can't find any kind of instruction manual from Google. Lucky for you, our fully updated and greatly expanded second edition to the best

  19. WISDAAM software programmer's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.R.

    1992-10-01

    The WISDAAM system was developed to provide quality control over test data associated with in situ testing at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Assurance of data quality is of critical importance as these tests supply the information which will be used for development and verification of the technology required for repository implementation. The amount of data collected from the tests, which are some of the largest ever fielded in an underground facility, prompted the undertaking of a major project task to address data processing. The goal was to create a conceptual umbrella under which all of the activities associated with processing WIPP data (i.e., data reduction, archiving, retrieval, etc.) could be grouped. The WISDAAM system was the product of this task. The overall system covers electronic as well as manual data processing; however, this document deals primarily with those operations implemented by software running on a VAX computer

  20. Pressure vessel design manual

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, Dennis R

    2013-01-01

    Pressure vessels are closed containers designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure. They have a variety of applications in industry, including in oil refineries, nuclear reactors, vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and more. The pressure differential with such vessels is dangerous, and due to the risk of accident and fatality around their use, the design, manufacture, operation and inspection of pressure vessels is regulated by engineering authorities and guided by legal codes and standards. Pressure Vessel Design Manual is a solutions-focused guide to the many problems and technical challenges involved in the design of pressure vessels to match stringent standards and codes. It brings together otherwise scattered information and explanations into one easy-to-use resource to minimize research and take readers from problem to solution in the most direct manner possible. * Covers almost all problems that a working pressure vessel designer can expect to face, with ...

  1. OSH technical reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    In an evaluation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Occupational Safety and Health programs for government-owned contractor-operated (GOCO) activities, the Department of Labor`s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recommended a technical information exchange program. The intent was to share written safety and health programs, plans, training manuals, and materials within the entire DOE community. The OSH Technical Reference (OTR) helps support the secretary`s response to the OSHA finding by providing a one-stop resource and referral for technical information that relates to safe operations and practice. It also serves as a technical information exchange tool to reference DOE-wide materials pertinent to specific safety topics and, with some modification, as a training aid. The OTR bridges the gap between general safety documents and very specific requirements documents. It is tailored to the DOE community and incorporates DOE field experience.

  2. STAIRS User's Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadjokov, V; Dragulev, V; Gove, N; Schmid, H

    1976-10-15

    The STorage And Information Retrieval System (STAIRS) of IBM is described from the user's point of view. The description is based on the experimental use of STAIRS at the IAEA computer, with INIS and AGRIS data bases, from June 1975 to May 1976. Special attention is paid to what may be termed the hierarchical approach to retrieval in STAIRS. Such an approach allows for better use of the intrinsic data-base structure and, hence, contributes to higher recall and/or relevance ratios in retrieval. The functions carried out by STAIRS are explained and the communication language between the user and the system outlined. Details are given of the specific structure of the INIS and AGRIS data bases for STAIRS. The manual should enable an inexperienced user to start his first on-line dialogues by means of a CRT or teletype terminal. (author)

  3. Wikipedia the missing manual

    CERN Document Server

    Broughton, John

    2008-01-01

    Want to be part of the largest group-writing project in human history? Learn how to contribute to Wikipedia, the user-generated online reference for the 21st century. Considered more popular than eBay, Microsoft.com, and Amazon.com, Wikipedia servers respond to approximately 30,000 requests per second, or about 2.5 billion per day. It's become the first point of reference for people the world over who need a fact fast.If you want to jump on board and add to the content, Wikipedia: The Missing Manual is your first-class ticket. Wikipedia has more than 9 million entries in 250 languages, over 2

  4. STAIRS User's Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadjokov, V.; Dragulev, V.; Gove, N.; Schmid, H.

    1976-10-01

    The STorage And Information Retrieval System (STAIRS) of IBM is described from the user's point of view. The description is based on the experimental use of STAIRS at the IAEA computer, with INIS and AGRIS data bases, from June 1975 to May 1976. Special attention is paid to what may be termed the hierarchical approach to retrieval in STAIRS. Such an approach allows for better use of the intrinsic data-base structure and, hence, contributes to higher recall and/or relevance ratios in retrieval. The functions carried out by STAIRS are explained and the communication language between the user and the system outlined. Details are given of the specific structure of the INIS and AGRIS data bases for STAIRS. The manual should enable an inexperienced user to start his first on-line dialogues by means of a CRT or teletype terminal. (author)

  5. GRSAC Users Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, S.J.; Nypaver, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    An interactive workstation-based simulation code (GRSAC) for studying postulated severe accidents in gas-cooled reactors has been developed to accommodate user-generated input with ''smart front-end'' checking. Code features includes on- and off-line plotting, on-line help and documentation, and an automated sensitivity study option. The code and its predecessors have been validated using comparisons with a variety of experimental data and similar codes. GRSAC model features include a three-dimensional representation of the core thermal hydraulics, and optional ATWS (anticipated transients without scram) capabilities. The user manual includes a detailed description of the code features, and includes four case studies which guide the user through four different examples of the major uses of GRSAC: an accident case; an initial conditions setup and run; a sensitivity study; and the setup of a new reactor model

  6. GRSAC Users Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, S.J.; Nypaver, D.J.

    1999-02-01

    An interactive workstation-based simulation code (GRSAC) for studying postulated severe accidents in gas-cooled reactors has been developed to accommodate user-generated input with ''smart front-end'' checking. Code features includes on- and off-line plotting, on-line help and documentation, and an automated sensitivity study option. The code and its predecessors have been validated using comparisons with a variety of experimental data and similar codes. GRSAC model features include a three-dimensional representation of the core thermal hydraulics, and optional ATWS (anticipated transients without scram) capabilities. The user manual includes a detailed description of the code features, and includes four case studies which guide the user through four different examples of the major uses of GRSAC: an accident case; an initial conditions setup and run; a sensitivity study; and the setup of a new reactor model.

  7. Nuclear medicine resources manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-02-01

    Over the past decade many IAEA programmes have significantly enhanced the capabilities of numerous Member States in the field of nuclear medicine. Functional imaging using nuclear medicine procedures has become an indispensable tool for the diagnosis, treatment planning and management of patients. However, due to the heterogeneous growth and development of nuclear medicine in the IAEA's Member States, the operating standards of practice vary considerably from country to country and region to region. This publication is the result of the work of over 30 international professionals who have assisted the IAEA in the process of standardization and harmonization. This manual sets out the prerequisites for the establishment of a nuclear medicine service, including basic infrastructure, suitable premises, reliable supply of electricity, maintenance of a steady temperature, dust exclusion for gamma cameras and radiopharmacy dispensaries. It offers clear guidance on human resources and training needs for medical doctors, technologists, radiopharmaceutical scientists, physicists and specialist nurses in the practice of nuclear medicine. The manual describes the requirements for safe preparation and quality control of radiopharmaceuticals. In addition, it contains essential requirements for maintenance of facilities and instruments, for radiation hygiene and for optimization of nuclear medicine operational performance with the use of working clinical protocols. The result is a comprehensive guide at an international level that contains practical suggestions based on the experience of professionals around the globe. This publication will be of interest to nuclear medicine physicians, radiologists, medical educationalists, diagnostic centre managers, medical physicists, medical technologists, radiopharmacists, specialist nurses, clinical scientists and those engaged in quality assurance and control systems in public health in both developed and developing countries

  8. Site security personnel training manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    As required by 10 CFR Part 73, this training manual provides guidance to assist licensees in the development of security personnel training and qualifications programs. The information contained in the manual typifies the level and scope of training for personnel assigned to perform security related tasks and job duties associated with the protection of nuclear fuel cycle facilities and nuclear power reactors

  9. Managerial Accounting. Course Administrative Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Central Michigan Univ., Mount Pleasant. Inst. for Personal and Career Development.

    This manual is part of the materials for a college-level programmed course in managerial accounting and intended to aid instructors in helping students to work their way through the self-instructional study guide around which the course is organized. The manual describes the various materials and components used in the self-instructional sequence…

  10. Manual on internal dose computation and reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawant, Pramilla D.; Sawant, Jyoti V.; Gurg, R.P.; Rudran, Kamala; Gupta, V.K.; Abani, M.C.

    1999-05-01

    Whole body counting and bioassay measurement are carried out for estimation of radioactivity content in the whole body or in a particular organ/tissue of interest. These measurements are routinely carried out for occupational workers at nuclear power plants, reprocessing plants, radiochemical laboratories, radioisotope laboratories and radioactive waste management facilities to evaluate individual internal dose due to 3 H, 60 Co, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, transuranics and other isotopes of interest. This manual is prepared to provide guidelines for computation of intake, committed equivalent dose and committed effective dose from direct measurement of tissue and/or body content of radioactivity for 60 Co, 131 I, and 137 Cs employing in-vivo monitoring procedures and/or bioassay measurements only. Bioassay measurements are used for determination of 90 Sr in the body since it is a pure beta emitter. This manual can be used as a ready reckoner for assessment of radiation dose due to internal contamination of occupational workers as estimated using above techniques in the middle and back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle operations. The methodology used in computation of dose is based on the principles and biokinetic models given by ICRP. Recording level recommended in the manual is 0.6 mSv for both, routine as well as special monitoring, which is lower than 1 mSv recommended by ICRP (ICRP-75, 1997) for individual routine monitoring and 0.66 mSv for special monitoring. The Annual Limit on Intake is taken equivalent to Annual Effective Dose Limit of 20 mSv as prescribed by the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB), India. (author)

  11. The operation and maintenance manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoll, A.; Krotil, H.; Klein, W.

    1976-01-01

    The operating manual is one of many technical documents which the nuclear power plant operator needs for ensuring safe operation. For the operating staff, however, there is only one document, namely the operating manual. The operating manual is an essential element in bringing man and machine in harmony. This is necessary for safe and, as far as possible, uninterrupted operation of the power plant. The operating manual is the only document containing binding instructions for plant operation. All the tasks of plant operation which are carried out by plant staff are described in the operating manual in a form which is as clear and comprehensible as possible. A considerable number of these tasks can only be carried out by man, namely: 1) tasks concerning operational organization, 2) all non-automated areas of plant operation. (orig./TK) [de

  12. PAGOSA physics manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weseloh, Wayne N.; Clancy, Sean P.; Painter, James W.

    2010-08-01

    PAGOSA is a computational fluid dynamics computer program developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for the study of high-speed compressible flow and high-rate material deformation. PAGOSA is a three-dimensional Eulerian finite difference code, solving problems with a wide variety of equations of state (EOSs), material strength, and explosive modeling options.

  13. Manual of best practices of quality management in forestry laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Ugarte Oliva; José Camero Jiménez; Jessica Moscoso Guerrero

    2015-01-01

    Actualmente, debido a la globalización, las relaciones comerciales crecen rápidamente, las cuales son más exigentes día a día; dicho desafío requiere que las organizaciones mejoren sus procesos y productos permitiendo realizar transacciones con un alto grado de confiabilidad, con el debido respaldo de la calidad de los productos y/o servicios que se comercializan....

  14. Manual of best practices of technical requirements for forestry laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Ugarte Oliva; José Camero Jiménez; Jessica Moscoso Guerrero

    2015-01-01

    Actualmente el comercio mundial se realiza a gran escala, estableciéndose requisitos cada día más exigentes, donde los productores y consumidores requieren realizar transacciones comerciales con unamayor de confiabilidad, y donde la calidad de los productos y servicioses un aspecto crítico en las actividades comerciales.

  15. An analog integrated circuit design laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Mondragon-Torres, A.F.; Mayhugh, Jr.; Pineda de Gyvez, J.; Silva-Martinez, J.; Sanchez-Sinencio, E.

    2003-01-01

    We present the structure of an analog integrated circuit design laboratory to instruct at both, senior undergraduate and entry graduate levels. The teaching material includes: a laboratory manual with analog circuit design theory, pre-laboratory exercises and circuit design specifications; a reference web page with step by step instructions and examples; the use of mathematical tools for automation and analysis; and state of the art CAD design tools in use by industry. Upon completion of the ...

  16. The comparison of automated urine analyzers with manual microscopic examination for urinalysis automated urine analyzers and manual urinalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Demet Ä°nce

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Urinalysis is one of the most commonly performed tests in the clinical laboratory. However, manual microscopic sediment examination is labor-intensive, time-consuming, and lacks standardization in high-volume laboratories. In this study, the concordance of analyses between manual microscopic examination and two different automatic urine sediment analyzers has been evaluated. Design and methods: 209 urine samples were analyzed by the Iris iQ200 ELITE (Ä°ris Diagnostics, USA, Dirui FUS-200 (DIRUI Industrial Co., China automatic urine sediment analyzers and by manual microscopic examination. The degree of concordance (Kappa coefficient and the rates within the same grading were evaluated. Results: For erythrocytes, leukocytes, epithelial cells, bacteria, crystals and yeasts, the degree of concordance between the two instruments was better than the degree of concordance between the manual microscopic method and the individual devices. There was no concordance between all methods for casts. Conclusion: The results from the automated analyzers for erythrocytes, leukocytes and epithelial cells were similar to the result of microscopic examination. However, in order to avoid any error or uncertainty, some images (particularly: dysmorphic cells, bacteria, yeasts, casts and crystals have to be analyzed by manual microscopic examination by trained staff. Therefore, the software programs which are used in automatic urine sediment analysers need further development to recognize urinary shaped elements more accurately. Automated systems are important in terms of time saving and standardization. Keywords: Urinalysis, Autoanalysis, Microscopy

  17. The comparison of automated urine analyzers with manual microscopic examination for urinalysis automated urine analyzers and manual urinalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İnce, Fatma Demet; Ellidağ, Hamit Yaşar; Koseoğlu, Mehmet; Şimşek, Neşe; Yalçın, Hülya; Zengin, Mustafa Osman

    2016-08-01

    Urinalysis is one of the most commonly performed tests in the clinical laboratory. However, manual microscopic sediment examination is labor-intensive, time-consuming, and lacks standardization in high-volume laboratories. In this study, the concordance of analyses between manual microscopic examination and two different automatic urine sediment analyzers has been evaluated. 209 urine samples were analyzed by the Iris iQ200 ELITE (İris Diagnostics, USA), Dirui FUS-200 (DIRUI Industrial Co., China) automatic urine sediment analyzers and by manual microscopic examination. The degree of concordance (Kappa coefficient) and the rates within the same grading were evaluated. For erythrocytes, leukocytes, epithelial cells, bacteria, crystals and yeasts, the degree of concordance between the two instruments was better than the degree of concordance between the manual microscopic method and the individual devices. There was no concordance between all methods for casts. The results from the automated analyzers for erythrocytes, leukocytes and epithelial cells were similar to the result of microscopic examination. However, in order to avoid any error or uncertainty, some images (particularly: dysmorphic cells, bacteria, yeasts, casts and crystals) have to be analyzed by manual microscopic examination by trained staff. Therefore, the software programs which are used in automatic urine sediment analysers need further development to recognize urinary shaped elements more accurately. Automated systems are important in terms of time saving and standardization.

  18. Manual on radiation haematology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    Studies of the biological effects of ionizing radiation have led to the introduction of various measures to protect both the public and personnel engaged in occupations where they could be exposed to such radiations. Many recent studies deal with the basic mechanism of radiation injuries and with their treatment, and some of these investigations have been sponsored by the World Health Organization and the International Atomic Energy Agency. Fundamental studies of the blood-forming tissue have provided the information necessary for formulating recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Heinecke in 1903 was the first to note damage to the haemato-poietic tissue after whole-body irradiation. Since that time we have learned much of the functions of the various components of the blood. Many studies have been undertaken to understand the proliferative capacities of the various 'stem' cells involved in the haematopoietic processes and the extent to which these processes can be interfered with by ionizing radiations. We now understand which are the reliable criteria by which radiation damage can be assessed from its effects on the haematopoietic system. In addition, much work has been done to determine how radiation injury to the hematopoietic system may be offset by therapy. In developing countries radiation is being increasingly applied in medical work and many other fields, and there is an immediate need to disseminate information relevant to radiation hazards. This Manual on Radiation Haematology is an attempt at a synthesis of much that is relevant to these matters. As the Contents List shows, many experts have contributed to the book. Their styles have been changed as little as possible. A certain amount of duplication of information could not be avoided; where an editorial decision to remove a passage would have resulted in losing the exact concept that the author wished to express, this passage has been retained. Information from

  19. New highway accident location manual for Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The Missouri HAL manual is used to identify, analyze, and correct high crash locations, and has not been updated since : 1999. This new edition brings the manual up to date, while incorporating the methodology of the national Highway Safety : Manual ...

  20. ARS-Media for excel instruction manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARS-Media for Excel Instruction Manual is the instruction manual that explains how to use the Excel spreadsheet ARS-Media for Excel application. ARS-Media for Excel Instruction Manual is provided as a pdf file....