WorldWideScience

Sample records for traction drive devices

  1. Creation of electromechanical device for electric vehicle traction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Денис Юрьевич Зубенко

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The problems of creation of electromechanical device for electric vehicle traction are considered in the article. The aim of creation this design are the replacement of the internal combustion engine on electromechanical device. For this electromechanical device are constructed model, which describe processes that occur in the electric drive of electromechanical device. Characteristics of the main modes of motion were recorded. The introduction of electromechanical device will reduce the level of emissions and reduce noise in the cities

  2. Development of Traction Drive Motors for the Toyota Hybrid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Munehiro

    Toyota Motor Corporation developed in 2005 a new hybrid system for a large SUV. This system included the new development of a high-speed traction drive motor achieving a significant increase in power weight ratio. This paper provides an overview of the hybrid system, discusses the characteristics required of a traction drive motor, and presents the technologies employed in the developed motor.

  3. Group traction drive as means to increase energy efficiency of lokomotives of open-pit transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipin, D. Ya; Izmerov, O. V.; Bishutin, S. G.; Kobishchanov, V. V.

    2017-10-01

    Questions of possible use of a group drive for locomotives of an open-pit transport are considered. The possibility of a significant reduction of traction costs in the case of a combination of a group traction drive with devices for the non-inertial regulation of the coefficient of friction between the wheel and the rail has been shown, and new patentable solutions have been proposed.

  4. An advanced pitch change mechanism incorporating a hybrid traction drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinetz, B. M.; Loewenthal, S. H.; Sargisson, D. F.; White, G.

    1984-01-01

    A design of a propeller pitch control mechanism is described that meets the demanding requirements of a high-power, advanced turboprop. In this application, blade twisting moment torque can be comparable to that of the main reduction gearbox output: precise pitch control, reliability and compactness are all at a premium. A key element in the design is a compact, high-ratio hybrid traction drive which offers low torque ripple and high torsional stiffness. The traction drive couples a high speed electric motor/alternator unit to a ball screw that actuates the blade control links. The technical merits of this arrangement and the performance characteristics of the traction drive are discussed.

  5. Adaptive control system of dump truck traction electric drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolshunova, O. M.; Korzhev, A. A.; Kamyshyan, A. M.

    2018-03-01

    The paper describes the operational factors that determine the accident rate of a quarry motor vehicle and assessment of their impact on the choice of the operation mode of the traction drive control system.

  6. Integral Sensor Fault Detection and Isolation for Railway Traction Drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garramiola, Fernando; Del Olmo, Jon; Poza, Javier; Madina, Patxi; Almandoz, Gaizka

    2018-05-13

    Due to the increasing importance of reliability and availability of electric traction drives in Railway applications, early detection of faults has become an important key for Railway traction drive manufacturers. Sensor faults are important sources of failures. Among the different fault diagnosis approaches, in this article an integral diagnosis strategy for sensors in traction drives is presented. Such strategy is composed of an observer-based approach for direct current (DC)-link voltage and catenary current sensors, a frequency analysis approach for motor current phase sensors and a hardware redundancy solution for speed sensors. None of them requires any hardware change requirement in the actual traction drive. All the fault detection and isolation approaches have been validated in a Hardware-in-the-loop platform comprising a Real Time Simulator and a commercial Traction Control Unit for a tram. In comparison to safety-critical systems in Aerospace applications, Railway applications do not need instantaneous detection, and the diagnosis is validated in a short time period for reliable decision. Combining the different approaches and existing hardware redundancy, an integral fault diagnosis solution is provided, to detect and isolate faults in all the sensors installed in the traction drive.

  7. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF CONVERTER STRUCTURES OF THE TRACTION DRIVE PROSPECTIVE MULTI-SYSTEM ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVES WITH DC TRACTION MOTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Muha

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the structured schemes of steady-state converter are offered for traction drive of promising multisystem electric locomotives with traction engines of direct current and their comparative analysis is conducted.

  8. LOADING OF MECHANICAL TRANSMISSION OF TROLLEYBUS TRACTION DRIVING GEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Safonov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes factors that determine dynamic loads of mechanical transmission of trolleybus traction driving gear. The paper proposes a methodology for determination of calculative moments of loading transmission elements. Results of the research are analyzed and recommendations on  dynamic reduction of trolleybus transmission are given in the paper. 

  9. The Simulation of the Traction Drive with Middle-Frequency Transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Drabek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research motivated by industrial demand for special traction drive topology devoted to minimization of traction transformer weight against topology with classical 50Hz traction transformer. The special traction drive topology for AC power systems consists of input high voltage trolley converter (single phase matrix converter –middle frequency transformer - output converter - traction motor has been described. The main attention has been given tothe control algorithm of the traction topology (inserting of NULL vector of matrix converter and Two-value control ofsecondary active rectifier.

  10. Model-based efficiency evaluation of combine harvester traction drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Häberle

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As part of the research the drive train of the combine harvesters is investigated in detail. The focus on load and power distribution, energy consumption and usage distribution are explicitly explored on two test machines. Based on the lessons learned during field operations, model-based studies of energy saving potential in the traction train of combine harvesters can now be quantified. Beyond that the virtual machine trial provides an opportunity to compare innovative drivetrain architectures and control solutions under reproducible conditions. As a result, an evaluation method is presented and generically used to draw comparisons under local representative operating conditions.

  11. Simple traction-immobilization device for CT scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.; Federle, M.P.

    1983-01-01

    Successful computed tomographic (CT) scanning of acutely ill or traumatized patients often requires immobilization or traction of the extremities. Existing medical appliances and external fixation devices often are cumbersome, produce technical artifacts, or are uncomfortable for patients. This paper describes a traction-immobilization device that overcomes many of these difficulties. The authors have used this device successfully in several hundred cases and found that it markedly facilitated patient comfort and throughput. Construction is simple and inexpensive, using materials available in most hardware stores

  12. Temperature control of power semiconductor devices in traction applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugachev, A. A.; Strekalov, N. N.

    2017-02-01

    The peculiarity of thermal management of traction frequency converters of a railway rolling stock is highlighted. The topology and the operation principle of the automatic temperature control system of power semiconductor modules of the traction frequency converter are designed and discussed. The features of semiconductors as an object of temperature control are considered; the equivalent circuit of thermal processes in the semiconductors is suggested, the power losses in the two-level voltage source inverters are evaluated and analyzed. The dynamic properties and characteristics of the cooling fan induction motor electric drive with the scalar control are presented. The results of simulation in Matlab are shown for the steady state of thermal processes.

  13. FreedomCAR Advanced Traction Drive Motor Development Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ley, Josh (UQM Technologies, Inc.); Lutz, Jon (UQM Technologies, Inc.)

    2006-09-01

    The overall objective of this program is to design and develop an advanced traction motor that will meet the FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) 2010 goals and the traction motor technical targets. The motor specifications are given in Section 1.3. Other goals of the program include providing a cost study to ensure the motor can be developed within the cost targets needed for the automotive industry. The program has focused on using materials that are both high performance and low costs such that the performance can be met and cost targets are achieved. In addition, the motor technologies and machine design features must be compatible with high volume manufacturing and able to provide high reliability, efficiency, and ruggedness while simultaneously reducing weight and volume. Weight and volume reduction will become a major factor in reducing cost, material cost being the most significant part of manufacturing cost at high volume. Many motor technology categories have been considered in the past and present for traction drive applications, including: brushed direct current (DC), PM (PM) brushless dc (BLDC), alternating current (AC) induction, switched reluctance and synchronous reluctance machines. Of these machine technologies, PM BLDC has consistently demonstrated an advantage in terms of power density and efficiency. As rare earth magnet cost has declined, total cost may also be reduced over the other technologies. Of the many different configurations of PM BLDC machines, those which incorporate power production utilizing both magnetic torque as well as reluctance torque appear to have the most promise for traction applications. There are many different PM BLDC machine configurations which employ both of these torque producing mechanisms; however, most would fall into one of two categories--some use weaker magnets and rely more heavily on reluctance torque (reluctance-dominant PM machines), others use strong PMs and supplement with reluctance torque

  14. Modular PM Motor Drives for Automotive Traction Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, G.J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents modular permanent magnet (PM) motor drives for automotive traction applications. A partially modularized drive system consisting of a single PM motor and multiple inverters is described. The motor has multiple three-phase stator winding sets and each winding set is driven with a separate three-phase inverter module. A truly modularized inverter and motor configuration based on an axial-gap PM motor is then introduced, in which identical PM motor modules are mounted on a common shaft and each motor module is powered by a separate inverter module. The advantages of the modular approach for both inverter and motor include: (1) power rating scalability-one design meets different power requirements by simply stacking an adequate number of modules, thus avoiding redesigning and reducing the development cost, (2) increased fault tolerance, and (3) easy repairing. A prototype was constructed by using two inverters and an axial-gap PM motor with two sets of three-phase stat or windings, and it is used to assist the diesel engine in a hybrid electric vehicle converted from a Chevrolet Suburban. The effect of different pulse-width-modulation strategies for both motoring and regenerative modes on current control is analyzed. Torque and regenerative control algorithms are implemented with a digital signal processor. Analytical and initial testing results are included in the paper

  15. A Study of Torque Vectoring and Traction Control for an All-Wheel Drive Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharun Mui’nuddin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Common vehicle always experience energy loss during cornering manoeuver. Thus, to ensure it did not happened especially at high speed, a study of torque vectoring and traction control need to be made since it can increase the traction control of tyres during cornering at high speed. The study of torque vectoring and traction control for an all-wheel drive electric vehicle was conducted by modelling an all-wheel drive electric vehicle (EV in ADAMS/Car software. In addition, an optimal control algorithm will be developed for best performance to minimize energy losses using MATLAB/Simulink software. Furthermore, to prove the effectiveness of the all-wheel drive electric, the torque and traction control simulation of the all-wheel drive electric vehicle will be compared with uncontrolled electric vehicle model. According to the result, torque vectoring and traction control of in-wheel motor in all wheel drive EV can help to increase the performance of the electric vehicle during cornering manoeuver. In conclusion, this study of torque vectoring and traction control for an all-wheel drive electric vehicle will help researchers to improve the design of the future electric vehicle in term of the vehicle performance during cornering manoeuvre.

  16. Performance Analysis of Permanent Magnet Motors for Electric Vehicles (EV Traction Considering Driving Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Anh Huynh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the electromagnetic and thermal performance of several traction motors for electric vehicles (EVs. Two different driving cycles are employed for the evaluation of the motors, one for urban and the other for highway driving. The electromagnetic performance to be assessed includes maximum motor torque output for vehicle acceleration and the flux weakening capability for wide operating range under current and voltage limits. Thermal analysis is performed to evaluate the health status of the magnets and windings for the prescribed driving cycles. Two types of traction motors are investigated: two interior permanent magnet motors and one permanent magnet-assisted synchronous reluctance motor. The analysis results demonstrate the benefits and disadvantages of these motors for EV traction and provide suggestions for traction motor design. Finally, experiments are conducted to validate the analysis.

  17. Parametric tests of a traction drive retrofitted to an automotive gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohn, D. A.; Lowenthal, S. H.; Anderson, N. E.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a test program to retrofit a high performance fixed ratio Nasvytis Multiroller Traction Drive in place of a helical gear set to a gas turbine engine are presented. Parametric tests up to a maximum engine power turbine speed of 45,500 rpm and to a power level of 11 kW were conducted. Comparisons were made to similar drives that were parametrically tested on a back-to-back test stand. The drive showed good compatibility with the gas turbine engine. Specific fuel consumption of the engine with the traction drive speed reducer installed was comparable to the original helical gearset equipped engine.

  18. Multiroller traction drive speed reducer: Evaluation for automotive gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohn, D. A.; Anderson, N. E.; Loewenthal, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    Tests were conducted on a nominal 14:1 fixed-ratio Nasvytis multiroller traction drive retrofitted as the speed reducer in an automotive gas turbine engine. Power turbine speeds of 45,000 rpm and a drive output power of 102 kW (137 hp) were reached. The drive operated under both variable roller loading (proportional to torque) and fixed roller loading (automatic loading mechanism locked). The drive operated smoothly and efficiently as the engine speed reducer. Engine specific fuel consumption with the traction speed reducer was comparable to that with the original helical gearset.

  19. Safety rod driving device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Kiyonobu; Kurosaki, Akira.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To rapidly insert safety rods for a criticality experiment device into a reactor core container to stop the criticality reaction thereby prevent reactivity accidents. Constitution: A cylinder device having a safety rod as a cylinder rod attached with a piston at one end is constituted. The piston is elevated by pressurized air and attracted and fixed by an electromagnet which is a stationary device disposed at the upper portion of the cylinder. If the current supply to the electromagnet is disconnected, the safety rod constituting the cylinder rod is fallen together with the piston to the lower portion of the cylinder. Since the cylinder rod driving device has neither electrical motor nor driving screw as in the conventional device, necessary space can be reduced and the weight is decreased. In addition, since the inside of the nuclear reactor can easily be shielded completely from the external atmosphere, leakage of radioactive materials can be prevented. (Horiuchi, T.)

  20. Long-Life, Lightweight, Multi-Roller Traction Drives for Planetary Vehicle Surface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Richard C.; Fusaro, Robert L.; Dimofte, Florin

    2012-01-01

    NASA s initiative for Lunar and Martian exploration will require long lived, robust drive systems for manned vehicles that must operate in hostile environments. The operation of these mechanical drives will pose a problem because of the existing extreme operating conditions. Some of these extreme conditions include operating at a very high or very cold temperature, operating over a wide range of temperatures, operating in very dusty environments, operating in a very high radiation environment, and operating in possibly corrosive environments. Current drive systems use gears with various configurations of teeth. These gears must be lubricated with oil (or grease) and must have some sort of a lubricant resupply system. For drive systems, oil poses problems such as evaporation, becoming too viscous and eventually freezing at cold temperatures, being too thin to lubricate at high temperatures, being degraded by the radiation environment, being contaminated by the regolith (soil), and if vaporized (and not sealed), it will contaminate the regolith. Thus, it may not be advisable or even possible to use oil because of these limitations. An oil-less, compact traction vehicle drive is a drive designed for use in hostile environments like those that will be encountered on planetary surfaces. Initially, traction roller tests in vacuum were conducted to obtain traction and endurance data needed for designing the drives. From that data, a traction drive was designed that would fit into a prototype lunar rover vehicle, and this design data was used to construct several traction drives. These drives were then tested in air to determine their performance characteristics, and if any final corrections to the designs were necessary. A limitation with current speed reducer systems such as planetary gears and harmonic drives is the high-contact stresses that occur at tooth engagement and in the harmonic drive wave generator interface. These high stresses induce high wear of solid

  1. Simulation of Trolleybus Traction Induction Drive With Supercapacitor Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazis, V.; Latkovskis, L.; Grigans, L.

    2010-01-01

    The article considers the possibilities of saving the regenerative braking energy in Škoda 24Tr type trolleybuses by installing the onboard supercapacitor energy storage system (ESS) and improving its performance with automated switching to the autonomous traction mode. Proposed is an ESS control system with constant DC bus voltage in the supercapacitor charging mode and supercapacitor current proportional to the AC drive current in the discharging mode. The authors investigate stability of the trolleybus ESS control system operating together with AC traction drive in various overhead voltage failure modes. The co-simulation of ESS operation was done by Matlab/Simulink AC drive and PSIM ESS continuous models.

  2. Brushless traction PM Machines using commercial drive technology, part I: Design methodology and motor design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kazmin, Evgeny; Lomonova, E.A.; Paulides, J.J.H.

    2008-01-01

    A concept design approach for the brushless PM traction motor, which has crucial constraints on volume envelope and on the drive, is presented. The considered motor drive is the three-phase DC/AC converter, which is commercially available on the modern market of the standard variable frequency

  3. Loss minimization control and efficiency determination of electric drives in traction applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windisch, Thomas; Hofmann, Wilfried [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Elektrische Maschinen und Antriebe

    2012-11-01

    High-power electric drives in automotive traction applications consume a large part of the disposable electric energy. For this reason the energy efficiency of the drives is of great importance for range and fuel consumption of the hybrid electric vehicle. The paper describes two possible drives with different electric motors from a control point of view. The electric power losses in the drive system are determined depending on the operating point of the machine. With these loss characteristics the control of the drives is optimized to produce minimal losses. Finally the energy efficiency for a realistic urban bus drive cycle is calculated to compare the two types. (orig.)

  4. Long-Life, Oil-Free Polymeric, Multi-Roller Traction Drives for Planetary Vehicle Surface Exploration, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Multi-roller traction drives have several advantages relative to geared units for aerospace and commercial drive applications. Among these are zero backlash, low...

  5. Performance Availability Assessment of Combined Multi Power Source Traction Drive Considering Real Operational Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frenkel Ilia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the vehicle’s traction electric drive, consisting of several various electric power sources. One of the main requirements for such systems are the safety and sustainable operations, achieved largely the implementation of an uninterrupted supply of the vehicle’s propulsion system with an electric power.

  6. Integrated Traction Control Strategy for Distributed Drive Electric Vehicles with Improvement of Economy and Longitudinal Driving Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an integrated traction control strategy (ITCS for distributed drive electric vehicles. The purpose of the proposed strategy is to improve vehicle economy and longitudinal driving stability. On high adhesion roads, economy optimization algorithm is applied to maximize motors efficiency by means of the optimized torque distribution. On low adhesion roads, a sliding mode control (SMC algorithm is implemented to guarantee the wheel slip ratio around the optimal slip ratio point to make full use of road adhesion capacity. In order to avoid the disturbance on slip ratio calculation due to the low vehicle speed, wheel rotational speed is taken as the control variable. Since the optimal slip ratio varies according to different road conditions, Bayesian hypothesis selection is utilized to estimate the road friction coefficient. Additionally, the ITCS is designed for combining the vehicle economy and stability control through three traction allocation cases: economy-based traction allocation, pedal self-correcting traction allocation and inter-axles traction allocation. Finally, simulations are conducted in CarSim and Matlab/Simulink environment. The results show that the proposed strategy effectively reduces vehicle energy consumption, suppresses wheels-skid and enhances the vehicle longitudinal stability and dynamic performance.

  7. A Traction Control Strategy with an Efficiency Model in a Distributed Driving Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Cheng; Cheng, Xingqun

    2014-01-01

    Both active safety and fuel economy are important issues for vehicles. This paper focuses on a traction control strategy with an efficiency model in a distributed driving electric vehicle. In emergency situation, a sliding mode control algorithm was employed to achieve antislip control through keeping the wheels' slip ratios below 20%. For general longitudinal driving cases, an efficiency model aiming at improving the fuel economy was built through an offline optimization stream within the tw...

  8. Integrated traction control strategy for distributed drive electric vehicles with improvement of economy and longitudinal driving stability

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xudong; Göhlich, Dietmar

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated traction control strategy (ITCS) for distributed drive electric vehicles. The purpose of the proposed strategy is to improve vehicle economy and longitudinal driving stability. On high adhesion roads, economy optimization algorithm is applied to maximize motors efficiency by means of the optimized torque distribution. On low adhesion roads, a sliding mode control (SMC) algorithm is implemented to guarantee the wheel slip ratio around the optimal slip ratio po...

  9. Solid-state transformer-based new traction drive system and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianghua; Shang, Jing; Zhang, Zhixue; Liu, Huadong; Huang, Zihao

    2017-11-01

    A new type of traction drive system consisting of solid-state traction transformer (SSTT), inverter unit, auxiliary inverter, traction motor and other key components is built in order to suit the demand of developing the next-generation electric traction system which will be efficient and lightweight, with high power density. For the purpose of reducing system volume and weight and improving efficiency and grid-side power quality, an efficient SSTT optimized topology combining high-voltage cascaded rectifiers with high-power high-frequency LLC resonant converter is proposed. On this basis, an integrated control strategy built upon synchronous rotating reference frame is presented to achieve unified control over fundamental active, reactive and harmonic components. The carrier-interleaving phase shift modulation strategy is proposed to improve the harmonic performance of cascaded rectifiers. In view of the secondary pulsating existing in a single-phase system, the mathematical model of secondary power transfer is built, and the mechanism of pulsating voltage resulting in beat frequency of LLC resonant converter is revealed, so as to design optimum matching of system parameters. Simulation and experimental results have verified that the traction system and control scheme mentioned in this paper are reasonable and superior and that they meet the future application requirements for rail transit.

  10. THE CALCULATION OF THE ENERGY RECOVERY ELECTRIFIED URBAN TRANSPORT DURING THE INSTALLATION DRIVE FOR TRACTION SUBSTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Sulim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At present a great attention is paid to increasing of energy efficiency at operated electrified urban transport. Perspective direction for increasing energy efficiency at that type of transport is the application of regenerative braking. For additional increasing of energy efficiency there were suggested the use of capacitive drive on tires of traction substation. One of the main task is the analysis of energy recovery application  with drive and without it.These analysis demonstrated that the calculation algorithms don’t allow in the full volume to carry out calculations of amount and cost of energy recovery without drive and with it. That is why we see the current interest to this topic. The purpose of work is to create methods of algorithms calculation for definite amount and cost of consumed, redundant and recovery energy of electrified urban transport due to definite regime of motion on wayside. There is algorithm developed, which allow to calculate amount and cost of consumed, redundant and recovery energy of electrified urban transport on wayside during the installation capacitive drive at traction substation. On the basis of developed algorithm for the definite regime of wagon motion of subway there were fulfilled the example of energy recovery amount and its cost calculation, among them with limited energy intensity drive, when there are 4 trains on wayside simultaneously.

  11. Integrated Cooling System for Induction Motor Traction Drives, CARAT Program Phase Two Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konrad, Charles E. [VPT, Inc., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2002-12-03

    This Program is directed toward improvements in electric vehicle/hybrid electric vehicle traction systems, and in particular, the development of a low cost, highly efficient, compact traction motor-controller system targeted for high volume automotive use. Because of the complex inter-relationships between the motor and the controller, the combination of motor and controller must be considered as a system in the design and evaluation of overall cost and performance. The induction motor is ideally suited for use as a traction motor because of its basic ruggedness, low cost, and high efficiency. As one can see in Figure 1.1, the induction motor traction drive has been continually evolving through a succession of programs spanning the past fifteen years. VPT marketed an induction motor-based traction drive system, the EV2000, which proved to be a reliable, high performance system that was used in a wide range of vehicles. The EV2000 drives evolved from the Modular Electric Vehicle Program (MEVP) and has been used in vehicles ranging in size from 3,000 lb. autos and utility vans, to 32,000 lb. city transit buses. Vehicles powered by the EV2000 induction motor powertrain have accumulated over 2 million miles of service. The EV2000 induction motor system represents 1993 state-of-the-art technology, and evolved from earlier induction motor programs that drove induction motor speeds up to 15,000 rpm to reduce the motor size and cost. It was recognized that the improvements in power density and motor cost sought in the PNGV program could only be achieved through increases in motor speed. Esson’s Rule for motor power clearly states that the power obtainable from a given motor design is the product of motor speed and volume. In order to meet the CARAT Program objectives, the maximum speed goal of the induction motor designed in this Program was increased from 15,000 rpm to 20,000 rpm while maintaining the efficiency and durability demonstrated by lower speed designs done in

  12. REACTIVE POWER DEVICES IN SYSTEMS OF ELECTRIC TRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Kostin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A comparative characteristic of different concepts and expressions for determination of reactive power in the circuits with non-sinusoidal electric values has been given. For the first Ukrainian electric locomotives of DE1 type with the system of DC electric traction, the values of reactive power after Budeany, Fryze, and also the differential, integral and generalized reactive powers have been determined. Some measures on reducing its consumption by the DC electric rolling stock have been suggested.

  13. A traction control strategy with an efficiency model in a distributed driving electric vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng; Cheng, Xingqun

    2014-01-01

    Both active safety and fuel economy are important issues for vehicles. This paper focuses on a traction control strategy with an efficiency model in a distributed driving electric vehicle. In emergency situation, a sliding mode control algorithm was employed to achieve antislip control through keeping the wheels' slip ratios below 20%. For general longitudinal driving cases, an efficiency model aiming at improving the fuel economy was built through an offline optimization stream within the two-dimensional design space composed of the acceleration pedal signal and the vehicle speed. The sliding mode control strategy for the joint roads and the efficiency model for the typical drive cycles were simulated. Simulation results show that the proposed driving control approach has the potential to apply to different road surfaces. It keeps the wheels' slip ratios within the stable zone and improves the fuel economy on the premise of tracking the driver's intention.

  14. A Traction Control Strategy with an Efficiency Model in a Distributed Driving Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Both active safety and fuel economy are important issues for vehicles. This paper focuses on a traction control strategy with an efficiency model in a distributed driving electric vehicle. In emergency situation, a sliding mode control algorithm was employed to achieve antislip control through keeping the wheels' slip ratios below 20%. For general longitudinal driving cases, an efficiency model aiming at improving the fuel economy was built through an offline optimization stream within the two-dimensional design space composed of the acceleration pedal signal and the vehicle speed. The sliding mode control strategy for the joint roads and the efficiency model for the typical drive cycles were simulated. Simulation results show that the proposed driving control approach has the potential to apply to different road surfaces. It keeps the wheels' slip ratios within the stable zone and improves the fuel economy on the premise of tracking the driver's intention. PMID:25197697

  15. Investigation of control system of traction electric drive with feedbacks on load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, N. K.; Iov, I. A.; Iov, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    In the article, by the example of a walking excavator, the results of a study of a control system of traction electric drive with a rigid and flexible feedback on the load are mentioned. Based on the analysis of known works, the calculation scheme has been chosen; the equations of motion of the electromechanical system have been obtained, taking into account the elasticity of the rope and feedbacks on the load in the elastic element. A simulation model of this system has been developed and mathematical modeling of the transient processes to evaluate the influence of feedback on the dynamic characteristics of the mechanism and its efficiency of work was carried out. It is shown that the use of rigid and flexible feedbacks makes it possible to reduce dynamic loads in the traction mechanism and to limit the elastic oscillation of the executive mechanism in transient operating modes in comparison with the standard control system; however, there is some decrease in productivity. It has been also established that the sign-variable of the loading of the electric drive, connected with the opening of the backlashes in the gearbox due to the action of feedbacks on the load in the elastic element, under certain conditions, can lead to undesirable phenomena in the operation of the drive and a decrease in the reliability of its operation.

  16. Systemic design of synchronous traction drives for large speed-range electric vehicle; Conception systemique de chaines de traction synchrones pour vehicule electrique a large gamme de vitesse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randi, S.A.

    2003-04-15

    The presented study deals with a systemic approach based design of permanent magnet brush-less actuators. The considered system is the electric vehicle motorized with this actuator on a large speed range. First, the review of vehicles architectures and general specifications put emphasis on the design problem complexity and the interest of a simultaneous design taking account of the whole traction chain driving cycle. Then the IPM plane and lumped parameter models are used to bring out the variables which characterizes the work beyond the base speed and the ability in flux weakening operation. The properties of machines with two rotor parts in such operation are studied. The new degrees of freedom available with these structures bring new solutions for drives with larger speed range. Then a model taking account each subsystem is presented and implemented in a global SABER simulator, involving sizing models of components. This tool enables to study the work of the traction chain over significant driving cycles and the performances evaluation. A last, this simulator is brought into work so as to perform a simultaneous design of the traction chain components as battery, inverter, machine, gear, thanks to an optimisation procedure based on genetic algorithm able to process continuous sizes variations and structure modifications, considering performance criteria on losses and cost. (author)

  17. Investigation of efficiency of electric drive control system of excavator traction mechanism based on feedback on load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, N. K.; Iov, I. A.; Iov, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    The article presents the results of a study of the efficiency of the electric drive control system of the traction mechanism of a dragline based on the use of feedback on load in the traction cable. The investigations were carried out using a refined electromechanical model of the traction mechanism, which took into account not only the elastic elements of the gearbox, the backlashes in it and the changes in the kinematic parameters of the mechanism during operation, but also the mechanical characteristics of the electric drive and the features of its control system. By mathematical modeling of the transient processes of the electromechanical system, it is shown that the introduction of feedback on the load in the elastic element allows one to reduce the dynamic loads in the traction mechanism and to limit the elastic oscillations of the actuating mechanism in comparison with the standard control system. Fixed as a general decrease in the dynamic load of the nodes of traction mechanism in the modes of loading and latching of the bucket, and a decrease the operating time of the mechanism at maximum load. At the same time, undesirable phenomena in the operation of the electric drive were also associated with the increase in the recovery time of the steady-state value of the speed of the actuating mechanism under certain operating conditions, which can lead to a decrease in the reliability of the mechanical part and the productivity of the traction mechanism.

  18. Maintenance of working capacity of movement mechanism of load trolley with linear traction electric drive of bridge type crane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, K. A.; Denisov, I. A.

    2017-10-01

    The article considers the influence of the air gap size between the linear motor elements on the stability of the traction drive of the movement mechanism of the trolley of the bridge type crane. The main factors affecting the air gap size and the causes of their occurrence are described. The technique of calculating the magnitude of air gap variation is described in relation to the general deformation of the crane metal structure. Recommendations on the need for installation of additional equipment for load trolleys of various designs are given. The optimal values of the length of the trolley base are proposed. Observance of these values ensures normal operation of the traction drive.

  19. Degree of Fault Tolerance as a Comprehensive Parameter for Reliability Evaluation of Fault Tolerant Electric Traction Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Bolvashenkov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new approach and methodology of quantitative assessment of the fault tolerance of electric power drive consisting of the multi-phase traction electric motor and multilevel electric inverter. It is suggested to consider such traction drive as a system with several degraded states. As a comprehensive parameter for evaluating of the fault tolerance, it is proposed to use the criterion of degree of the fault tolerance. For the approbation of the proposed method, the authors carried out research and obtained results of its practical application for evaluating the fault tolerance of the power train of an electrical helicopter.

  20. Ulnar nerve injury due to lateral traction device during shoulder arthroscopy: Was it avoidable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Pandey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the nerve injuries reported during shoulder arthroscopy in a beach chair, or lateral position is related to inappropriate patient positioning or excess traction. The lateral decubitus position is more vulnerable for traction-related neuropraxia. The present case serves as an important lesson from an avoidable situation of “having a one track mind” of the surgical team during the arthroscopic repair of shoulder instability performed in the lateral decubitus position. The operating surgeon must supervise the appropriate positioning of the patient on operation table and adequate padding of vulnerable bony points before beginning of shoulder arthroscopy to prevent any position-related nerve injuries. This is probably the first case to illustrate an unusual cause of ulnar nerve compression particularly related to the use of an additional traction device in the arthroscopic repair of shoulder instability performed in lateral decubitus position, which has not been previously defined.

  1. Traction-drive seven degrees-of-freedom telerobot arm: A concept for manipulation in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuban, D.P.; Williams, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    As man seeks to expand his dominion into new environments, the demand increases for machines that perform useful functions in remote locations. This new concept for manipulation in space is based on knowledge and experience gained from manipulator systems developed to meet the needs of remote nuclear applications. It merges the best characteristics of teleoperation and robotic technologies. This paper summarizes the report of a study performed for NASA Langley Research Center. The design goals for the telerobot, a mechanical description, and technology areas that must be addressed for successful implementation will be presented and discussed. The concept incorporates mechanical traction drives, redundant kinematics, and modular arm subelements to provide a backlash-free manipulator capable of obstacle avoidance. Further development of this arm is in progress at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  2. BACKGROUNDS OF EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY OF TRACTION ASYNCHRONOUS ELECTRIC DRIVES IN THE STRUCTURE OF DC TRACTION POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU. S. Bondarenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Application of physical modeling as a tool for research of any events or systems is becoming more widespread, including the field of railway transport. At the same time the adequacy of results that can be obtained, depends largely on the similarity degree of the physical model to real system. From the standpoint of the traction asynchronous electric drive (TAED research together with the traction power supply system research, the similarity can not be determined by the direct proportion of the parameters, because the processes nature accompanying the operation of these systems is non-linear. These features should be taken into account in the experimental setup, the basis for constructing of which is establishing of the system similarity that defines the purpose of this paper. Methodology. At the heart of the experimental setup creation laid reproduction of processes of energy transformation in the system of the DC traction power supply. Determination of the similarity degree of the proposed facility to the real system was carried out using the basic theorems of the similarity theory, their additional provisions on the complexity and nonlinear systems, as well as elements of mathematical analysis. Findings. According to the results of work: 1 The block diagram, the energy conversion mechanism of which is similar to the real system was received. This scheme is the basis of experimental setup, built in the future for the study of electromagnetic compatibility of TAED in the structure of DC traction electric power supply system. 2 Similarity of obtained structural scheme with the real system with the mechanism definition of calculating the scaling relations was established. Originality. In the process of establishing the similarity a simplified method for determining the scaling relations for nonlinear systems was suggested. They are identical in their structure components, but have different capacities. Practical value. Experimental

  3. Control rod drive hydraulic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takekawa, Toru.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention can reliably prevent a possible erroneous withdrawal of control rod driving mechanism when the pressure of a coolant line is increased by isolation operation of hydraulic control units upon periodical inspection for a BWR type reactor. That is, a coolant line is connected to the downstream of a hydraulic supply device. The coolant line is connected to a hydraulic control unit. A coolant hydraulic detection device and a pressure setting device are disposed to the coolant line. A closing signal line and a returning signal line are disposed, which connect the hydraulic supply device and a flow rate control valve for the hydraulic setting device. In the device of the present invention, even if pressure of supplied coolants is elevated due to isolation of hydraulic control units, the elevation of the hydraulic pressure can be prevented. Accordingly, reliability upon periodical reactor inspection can be improved. Further, the facility is simplified and the installation to an existent facility is easy. (I.S.)

  4. ELECTRODYNAMICS OF TRANSMISSION AND LOSSES OF POWER IN THE DEVICES OF ELECTRIC TRACTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Kostin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Theoretical justification of the "field" approach (based on electromagnetic field to the transmission and losses of power in the devices of traction power supply systems and electric rolling stock. Methodology. The methods of electromagnetic field theory and, in particular, the theory and practice of electromagnetic energy transmission based on the concept of the Poynting vector and elements of the theory of propagation, reflection and refraction of plane electromagnetic waves were used. Findings. Theoretical studies of electromagnetic energy transmission from the traction substation to the electric rolling stock through dielectric (air surrounding traction network: between the contact wire and the rail were carried out. It is proposed strategic designing "squat" (low types of electric rolling stock. The components of electric energy flow through the roof of electric rolling stock and its frontal part of the body were estimated. This allows reliable etimating active power losses in electric traction system. To compensate the reactive power consumed by electric rolling stock, which is conditioned by standing waves, it is proposed (for extinction of the the last to develop and put in front of electric rolling stock the layer of particular environment with the necessary parameters. Originality. The "field" principle of the power transmission analysis and its losses arising in electric traction system was first proposed. The laws of motion of electromagnetic energy flows through the roof and the frontal part of the body of electric rolling stock were established. Practical value. An expression of the absolute value of the Poynting vector in the points of dielectric (air between the contact wire and the rail was obtained. This allows assessing the highest density of energy, which is transferred to the time unit and predicting the main dimensions of the unit of electric rolling stock. The energy indices of the roof of electric rolling stock

  5. Mechanical Hybrid KERS Based on Toroidal Traction Drives: An Example of Smart Tribological Design to Improve Terrestrial Vehicle Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bottiglione

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyse in terms of efficiency and traction capabilities a recently patented traction drive, referred to as the double roller full-toroidal variator (DFTV. We compare its performance with the single roller full-toroidal variator (SFTV and the single roller half-toroidal variator (SHTV. Modeling of these variators involves challenging tribological issues; the traction and efficiency performances depend on tribological phenomena occurring at the interface between rollers and disks, where the lubricant undergoes very severe elastohydrodynamic lubrication regimes. Interestingly, the DFTV shows an improvement of the mechanical efficiency over a wide range of transmission ratios and in particular at the unit speed ratio as in such conditions in which the DFTV allows for zero-spin, thus strongly enhancing its traction capabilities. The very high mechanical efficiency and traction performances of the DFTV are exploited to investigate the performance of a flywheel-based Kinetic Energy Recovery System (KERS, where the efficiency of the variator plays an important role in determining the overall energy recovery performance. The energy boost capabilities and the round-trip efficiency are calculated for the three different variators considered in this study. The results suggest that the energy recovery potential of the mechanical KERS can be improved with a proper choice of the variator.

  6. Control rod driving hydraulic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, Hiroshi.

    1993-01-01

    In a control rod driving hydraulic device for an improved BWR type reactor, a bypass pipeline is disposed being branched from a scram pipeline, and a control orifice and a throttle valve are interposed to the bypass pipeline for restricting pressure. Upon occurrence of scram, about 1/2 of water quantity flowing from an accumulator of a hydraulic control unit to the lower surface of a piston of control rod drives by way of a scram pipeline is controlled by the restricting orifice and the throttle valve, by which the water is discharged to a pump suction pipeline or other pipelines by way of the bypass pipeline. With such procedures, a function capable of simultaneously conducting scram for two control rod drives can be attained by one hydraulic control unit. Further, an excessive peak pressure generated by a water hammer phenomenon in the scram pipeline or the control rod drives upon occurrence of scram can be reduced. Deformation and failure due to the excessive peak pressure can be prevented, as well as vibrations and degradation of performance of relevant portions can be prevented. (N.H.)

  7. Simulation of Induction Traction Drive with Supercapacitor Energy Storage System Test Bench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stana Girts

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the application of supercapacitor energy storage system for induction traction drive test bench that replaces a real electric public transport for performing testing and researches. The suitability and usage of such bench for research purposes is explained and the importance of the development of software mathematical model for performing simulations to be done before physical implementation measures is reasoned. The working principle of the bench and applied components are described. A virtual model of the bench was built and simulations were performed using Matlab/Simulink software. The basic topology of the virtual bench model is described as well. The calculations of this work show the scaling of supercapacitor energy storage system by setting different limits of working voltage range in order to adjust them to test bench parameters, whereas the modelling compares two simulation cases – the application of less supercapacitors and the application of more supercapacitors with the same common rated voltage. The autonomous mode simulations were also performed. Simulation results are analyzed and recommendations for the application of the supercapacitor energy storage system, with respect to initial supercapacitor circuit voltage, are given.

  8. Control rod selecting and driving device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobe, Hideo.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To simultaneously drive a predetermined number of control rods in a predetermined mode by the control of addresses for predetermined number of control rods and read or write of driving codified data to and from the memory by way of a memory controller. Constitution: The system comprises a control rod information selection device for selecting predetermined control rods from a plurality of control rods disposed in a reactor and outputting information for driving them in a predetermined mode, a control rod information output device for codifying the information outputted from the above device and outputting the addresses to the predetermined control rods and driving mode coded data, and a driving device for driving said predetermined control rods in a predetermined mode in accordance with the codified data outputted from the above device, said control rod infromation output device comprising a memory device capable of storing a predetermined number of the codified data and a memory control device for storing the predetermined number of data into the above memory device at a predetermined timing while successively outputting the thus stored predetermined number of data at a predetermined timing. (Seki, T.)

  9. Measuring device for control rod driving time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Hanabusa, Masatoshi.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention concerns a measuring device for control driving time having a function capable of measuring a selected control rod driving time and measuring an entire control rod driving time simultaneously. A calculation means and a store means for the selected rod control rod driving time, and a calculation means and a store means for the entire control rod driving time are disposed individually. Each of them measures the driving time and stores the data independent of each other based on a selected control rod insert ion signal and an entire control rod insertion signal. Even if insertion of selected and entire control rods overlaps, each of the control rod driving times can be measured reliably to provide an advantageous effect capable of more accurately conducting safety evaluation for the nuclear reactor based on the result of the measurement. (N.H.)

  10. Testing device for control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Toshifumi.

    1992-01-01

    A testing device for control rod drives comprises a logic measuring means for measuring an output signal from a control rod drive logic generation circuit, a control means for judging the operation state of a control rod and a man machine interface means for outputting the result of the judgement. A driving instruction outputted from the control rod operation device is always monitored by the control means, and if the operation instruction is stopped, a testing signal is outputted to the control rod control device to simulate a control rod operation. In this case, the output signal of the control rod drive logic generation circuit is held in a control rod drive memory means and intaken into a logic analysis means for measurement and an abnormality is judged by the control means. The stopping of the control rod drive instruction is monitored and the operation abnormality of the control rod is judged, to mitigate the burden of an operator. Further, the operation of the control rod drive logic generation circuit can be confirmed even during a nuclear plant operation by holding the control rod drive instruction thereby enabling to improve maintenance efficiency. (N.H.)

  11. Multiple incipient sensor faults diagnosis with application to high-speed railway traction devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunkai; Jiang, Bin; Lu, Ningyun; Yang, Hao; Zhou, Yang

    2017-03-01

    This paper deals with the problem of incipient fault diagnosis for a class of Lipschitz nonlinear systems with sensor biases and explores further results of total measurable fault information residual (ToMFIR). Firstly, state and output transformations are introduced to transform the original system into two subsystems. The first subsystem is subject to system disturbances and free from sensor faults, while the second subsystem contains sensor faults but without any system disturbances. Sensor faults in the second subsystem are then formed as actuator faults by using a pseudo-actuator based approach. Since the effects of system disturbances on the residual are completely decoupled, multiple incipient sensor faults can be detected by constructing ToMFIR, and the fault detectability condition is then derived for discriminating the detectable incipient sensor faults. Further, a sliding-mode observers (SMOs) based fault isolation scheme is designed to guarantee accurate isolation of multiple sensor faults. Finally, simulation results conducted on a CRH2 high-speed railway traction device are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of 48V rare-earth-free reluctance traction motor drives for mild hybrid powertrain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, J.; Boynov, K.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Wijnands, C.G.E. (Korneel); Lomonova, E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a comparative analysis of three types of electrical drives with rare-earth- free reluctance motors for next-generation 48V mild hybrid automotive applications. The drives with switched reluctance motors (SRM), variable flux reluctance motors (VFRM) and synchronous reluctance

  13. APPLIED PROBLEMS OF CURVILINEAR MOTION DYNAMICS OF ALL-WHEEL DRIVE TRACTION MEANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Gorin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental principles for hybrid theory on turning of an all-wheel drive system are given in the paper. The paper shows expediency of accounting longitudinal additional tangential reactions (parasitic forces in contacts of central and lateral wheels with foundation. Algorithms for calculating additional tangential reactions have been proposed in the paper. The paper presents calculation kinematics model for turning of steered and rigid bogie with inter-wheel differential at various axial drive.

  14. Device for lengthening of a musculotendinous unit by direct continuous traction in the sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zumstein Matthias A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retraction, atrophy and fatty infiltration are signs subsequent to chronic rotator cuff tendon tears. They are associated with an increased pennation angle and a shortening of the muscle fibers in series. These deleterious changes of the muscular architecture are not reversible with current repair techniques and are the main factors for failed rotator cuff tendon repair. Whereas fast stretching of the retracted musculotendinous unit results in proliferation of non-contractile fibrous tissue, slow stretching may lead to muscle regeneration in terms of sarcomerogenesis. To slowly stretch the retracted musculotendinous unit in a sheep model, two here described tensioning devices have been developed and mounted on the scapular spine of the sheep using an expandable threaded rod, which has been interposed between the retracted tendon end and the original insertion site at the humeral head. Traction is transmitted in line with the musculotendinous unit by sutures knotted on the expandable threaded rod. The threaded rod of the tensioner is driven within the body through a rotating axis, which enters the body on the opposite side. The tendon end, which was previously released (16 weeks prior from its insertion site with a bone chip, was elongated with a velocity of 1 mm/day. Results After several steps of technical improvements, the tensioner proved to be capable of actively stretching the retracted and degenerated muscle back to the original length and to withstand the external forces acting on it. Conclusion This technical report describes the experimental technique for continuous elongation of the musculotendinous unit and reversion of the length of chronically shortened muscle.

  15. A Soft-Switching Inverter for High-Temperature Advanced Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Motor Drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Jason [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Yu, Wensong [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Sun, Pengwei [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Leslie, Scott [Powerex, Inc., Harrison, OH (United States); Prusia, Duane [Powerex, Inc., Harrison, OH (United States); Arnet, Beat [Azure Dynamics, Oak Park, MI (United States); Smith, Chris [Azure Dynamics, Oak Park, MI (United States); Cogan, Art [Azure Dynamics, Oak Park, MI (United States)

    2012-03-31

    The state-of-the-art hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) require the inverter cooling system to have a separate loop to avoid power semiconductor junction over temperatures because the engine coolant temperature of 105°C does not allow for much temperature rise in silicon devices. The proposed work is to develop an advanced soft-switching inverter that will eliminate the device switching loss and cut down the power loss so that the inverter can operate at high-temperature conditions while operating at high switching frequencies with small current ripple in low inductance based permanent magnet motors. The proposed tasks also include high-temperature packaging and thermal modeling and simulation to ensure the packaged module can operate at the desired temperature. The developed module will be integrated with the motor and vehicle controller for dynamometer and in-vehicle testing to prove its superiority. This report will describe the detailed technical design of the soft-switching inverters and their test results. The experiments were conducted both in module level for the module conduction and switching characteristics and in inverter level for its efficiency under inductive and dynamometer load conditions. The performance will be compared with the DOE original specification.

  16. Prospects for the application of GaN power devices in hybrid electric vehicle drive systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Ming; Chen, Chingchi; Rajan, Siddharth

    2013-01-01

    GaN, a wide bandgap semiconductor successfully implemented in optical and high-speed electronic devices, has gained momentum in recent years for power electronics applications. Along with rapid progress in material and device processing technologies, high-voltage transistors over 600 V have been reported by a number of teams worldwide. These advances make GaN highly attractive for the growing market of electrified vehicles, which currently employ bipolar silicon devices in the 600–1200 V class for the traction inverter. However, to capture this billion-dollar power market, GaN has to compete with existing IGBT products and deliver higher performance at comparable or lower cost. This paper reviews key achievements made by the GaN semiconductor industry, requirements of the automotive electric drive system and remaining challenges for GaN power devices to fit in the inverter application of hybrid vehicles. (invited review)

  17. Prospects for the application of GaN power devices in hybrid electric vehicle drive systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ming; Chen, Chingchi; Rajan, Siddharth

    2013-07-01

    GaN, a wide bandgap semiconductor successfully implemented in optical and high-speed electronic devices, has gained momentum in recent years for power electronics applications. Along with rapid progress in material and device processing technologies, high-voltage transistors over 600 V have been reported by a number of teams worldwide. These advances make GaN highly attractive for the growing market of electrified vehicles, which currently employ bipolar silicon devices in the 600-1200 V class for the traction inverter. However, to capture this billion-dollar power market, GaN has to compete with existing IGBT products and deliver higher performance at comparable or lower cost. This paper reviews key achievements made by the GaN semiconductor industry, requirements of the automotive electric drive system and remaining challenges for GaN power devices to fit in the inverter application of hybrid vehicles.

  18. Elastic model of the traction behavior of two traction lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenthal, S. H.; Rohn, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    In the analysis of rolling-sliding concentrated contacts, such as gears, bearings and traction drives, the traction characteristics of the lubricant are of prime importance. The elastic shear modulus and limiting shear stress properties of the lubricant dictate the traction/slip characteristics and power loss associated with an EHD contact undergoing slip and/or spin. These properties can be deducted directly from the initial slope m and maximum traction coefficient micron of an experimental traction curve. In this investigation, correlation equations are presented to predict m and micron for two modern traction fluids based on the regression analysis of 334 separate traction disk machine experiments. The effects of contact pressure, temperature, surface velocity, ellipticity ratio are examined. Problems in deducing lubricant shear moduli from disk machine tests are discussed. Previously announced in STAR as N83-20116

  19. Control device for handling device of control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Toshiya

    1998-01-01

    A predetermined aimed portion of control rod drives disposed in a pedestal is photographed, and image data and camera data including the position of the camera are outputted. Edge cut out processing image data are formed based on the outputted image data, and aimed image data and aimed camera data obtained when previously positioning the handling device precisely to a predetermined aimed position are stored. The aimed image data are taken out from the aimed image data file to prepare computer graphic image data, and there is disposed an image superposing processing portion for comparing images based on the computer graphic image data and images based on the image data for edge cut out processing, as well as comparing the aimed camera data and the camera data, and displaying each of them to an image display portion. (I.S.)

  20. Subcontract Report: Final Report on Assessment of Motor Technologies for Traction Drives of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (Subcontract #4000080341)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fezzler, Raymond [BIZTEK Consulting, Inc.

    2011-03-01

    Currently, interior permanent magnet (IPM) motors with rare-earth (RE) magnets are almost universally used for hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs) because of their superior properties, particularly power density. However, there is now a distinct possibility of limited supply or very high cost of RE magnets that could make IPM motors unavailable or too expensive. Because development of electric motors is a critical part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Power Electronics and Motors activity, DOE needs to determine which options should be investigated and what barriers should be addressed. Therefore, in order to provide a basis for deciding which research topics should be pursued, an assessment of various motor technologies was conducted to determine which, if any, is potentially capable of meeting FreedomCAR 2015 and 2020 targets. Highest priority was given to IPM, surface mounted permanent magnet (SPM), induction, and switched reluctance (SR) motors. Also of interest, but with lesser emphasis, were wheel motors, multiple-rotor motors, motors with external excitation, and several others that emerged from the assessment. Cost and power density (from a design perspective, the power density criterion translates to torque density) are emerging as the two most important properties of motors for traction drives in hybrid and EVs, although efficiency and specific power also are very important. The primary approach for this assessment involved interviews with original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), their suppliers, and other technical experts. For each technology, the following issues were discussed: (1) The current state-of-the-art performance and cost; (2) Recent trends in the technology; (3) Inherent characteristics of the motor - which ones limit the ability of the technology to meet the targets and which ones aid in meeting the target; (4) What research and development (R&D) would be needed to meet the targets; and (5) The potential for the technology to

  1. Control rod driving hydraulic pressure device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Masahide.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention concerns a control rod driving hydraulic device of a BWR type reactor, and provides an improvement for a means for supplying mechanical seal flashing water of a pump. That is, a mechanical seal flashing pipeline is branched at the downstream of a pressure-reducing orifice and connected to a minimum flow pipeline. With such a constitution, the minimum flow pipeline is connected to a minimum flow pipeline of an auxiliary pump at the downstream of the pressure-reducing orifice and returned to a suction pipeline of the pump. Pressure at the downstream of the pressure-reducing orifice is set, in the orifice, to a pressure required for mechanical seal flashing. Accordingly, the mechanical seal flashing pipeline is connected and a part of minimum flow rate is utilized, thereby enabling to cool mechanical seals. As a result, flow rate of the mechanical flashing water which has been flown out can be saved. The exhaustion amount from the pump can be reduced, to decrease the shaft power and reduce the capacity of the motor. (I.S.)

  2. Control rod driving hydraulic pressure device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Kazuo.

    1990-01-01

    Discharged water after actuating control rod drives in a BWR type reactor is once discharged to a discharging header, then returned to a master control unit and, subsequently, discharged to a reactor by way of a cooling water header. The radioactive level in the discharging header and the master control unit is increased by the reactor water to increase the operator's exposure. In view of the above, a riser is disposed for connecting a hydraulic pressure control unit incorporating a directional control valve and the cooling water head. When a certain control rod is inserted, the pressurized driving water is supplied through a hydraulic pressure control unit to the control rod drives. The discharged water from the control rod drives is entered by way of the hydraulic pressure control unit into the cooling water header and then returned to the reactor by way of other hydraulic pressure control unit and the control rod drives. Thus, the reactor water is no more recycled to the master control unit to reduce the radioactive exposure. (N.H.)

  3. A tyre slip-based integrated chassis control of front/rear traction distribution and four-wheel independent brake from moderate driving to limit handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joa, Eunhyek; Park, Kwanwoo; Koh, Youngil; Yi, Kyongsu; Kim, Kilsoo

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a tyre slip-based integrated chassis control of front/rear traction distribution and four-wheel braking for enhanced performance from moderate driving to limit handling. The proposed algorithm adopted hierarchical structure: supervisor - desired motion tracking controller - optimisation-based control allocation. In the supervisor, by considering transient cornering characteristics, desired vehicle motion is calculated. In the desired motion tracking controller, in order to track desired vehicle motion, virtual control input is determined in the manner of sliding mode control. In the control allocation, virtual control input is allocated to minimise cost function. The cost function consists of two major parts. First part is a slip-based tyre friction utilisation quantification, which does not need a tyre force estimation. Second part is an allocation guideline, which guides optimally allocated inputs to predefined solution. The proposed algorithm has been investigated via simulation from moderate driving to limit handling scenario. Compared to Base and direct yaw moment control system, the proposed algorithm can effectively reduce tyre dissipation energy in the moderate driving situation. Moreover, the proposed algorithm enhances limit handling performance compared to Base and direct yaw moment control system. In addition to comparison with Base and direct yaw moment control, comparison the proposed algorithm with the control algorithm based on the known tyre force information has been conducted. The results show that the performance of the proposed algorithm is similar with that of the control algorithm with the known tyre force information.

  4. 21 CFR 882.5960 - Skull tongs for traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Skull tongs for traction. 882.5960 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5960 Skull tongs for traction. (a) Identification. Skull tongs for traction is an instrument used to immobilize a patient with a...

  5. Automatic exchange unit for control rod drive device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasu, Seiji; Sasaki, Masayoshi.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable automatic reoperation and continuation without external power interruption remedy device at the time of recovering the interrupted power soruce during automatic positioning operation. Constitution: In case of an automatic exchange unit for a control rod drive device of the control type for setting the deviation between the positioning target position and the present position of the device to zero, the position data of the drive device of the positioning target value of the device is automatically read, and an interlock of operation inhibit is applied to a control system until the data reading is completed and automatic operation start or restart conditions are sequentially confirmed. After the confirmation, the interlock is released to start the automatic operation or reoperation. Accordingly, the automatic operation can be safely restarted and continued. (Yoshihara, H.)

  6. Do in-car devices affect experienced users' driving performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allert S. Knapper

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Distracted driving is considered to be an important factor in road safety. To investigate how experienced user's driving behaviour is affected by in-vehicle technology, a fixed-base driving simulator was used. 20 participants drove twice in a rich simulated traffic environment while performing secondary, i.e. mobile phone and navigation system tasks. The results show that mean speed was lower in all experimental conditions, compared to baseline driving, while subjective effort increased. Lateral performance deteriorated only during visual–manual tasks, i.e. texting and destination entry, in which the participants glanced off the forward road for a substantial amount of time. Being experienced in manipulating in-car devices does not solve the problem of dual tasking when the primary task is a complex task like driving a moving vehicle. The results and discussion may shed some light on the current debate regarding phone use hazards.

  7. Matching of traction control systems for all-wheel devices by means of a virtual driver model; Abstimmung von Traktionsregelsystemen fuer Allradfahrzeuge mit Hilfe eines virtuellen Fahrermodells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vockenhuber, Mario [MAGNA Powertrain AG und Co. KG, Lannach (Austria); Fischer, Rainer [Magna Powertrain, Engineering Center Steyr, St. Valentin (Austria); Butz, Torsten; Ehmann, Martin [TESIS DYNAware GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Simulation of the full vehicle dynamics is an efficient means for function development and validation as well as calibration of traction control systems for four-wheel drive vehicles. Simulation models for vehicle, control systems and environment with a suitable level of detail are used to investigate different layout variants of the drivetrain on various tracks. This contribution outlines a driver model which enables considering the influence of different driving styles. Various human driver types are depicted by specific controller parameterization or definition of reference values for longitudinal and lateral vehicle guidance. Thus, apart from the calibration of control system electronics also realistic load spectra for durability computations of mechanical components can be determined via simulation. (orig.)

  8. Electric drive systems including smoothing capacitor cooling devices and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dede, Ercan Mehmet; Zhou, Feng

    2017-02-28

    An electric drive system includes a smoothing capacitor including at least one terminal, a bus bar electrically coupled to the at least one terminal, a thermoelectric device including a first side and a second side positioned opposite the first side, where the first side is thermally coupled to at least one of the at least one terminal and the bus bar, and a cooling element thermally coupled to the second side of the thermoelectric device, where the cooling element dissipates heat from the thermoelectric device.

  9. Phase II CRADA ORNL99-0568 Report : Developing Transmission-Less Inverter Drive Systems for Axial-Gap Permanent magnet Accessory and Traction Motors and Generators; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeever, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    Researchers of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNLs) Power Electronics and Electric Machine Research Center (PEEMRC) collaborated with Visual Computing Systems (VCS) to develop an electric axial-gap permanent magnet (PM) motor controlled by a self-sensing inverter for driving vehicle accessories such as power steering, air conditioning, and brakes. VCS designed an 8 kW motor based on their Segmented Electromagnetic Array (SEMA) technology. ORNL designed a 10 kW inverter to fit within the volume of a housing, which had been integrated with the motor. This modular design was pursued so that multiple modules could be used for higher power applications. ORNL built the first inverter under the cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) ORNL 98-0514 and drove a refurbished Delta motor with no load during the Merit Review at ORNL on Monday, May 17, 1999. Inverter circuitry and instructions for assembling the inverters were sent to VCS. A report was prepared and delivered during the Future Car Congress in April 2000, at Arlington, Virginia. Collaboration continued under CRADA ORNL 99-0568 as VCS designed and built a SEMA motor with a dual coil platter to be the traction motor for an electric truck. VCS and ORNL assembled two 45 kW inverters. Each inverter drove one coil, which was designed to deliver 15 kW continuous power and 45 kW peak power for 90 s. The vehicle was road tested as part of the Future Truck Competition. A report was prepared and delivered during the PCIM in October 2000, at Boston, Massachusetts

  10. Device and method of cooling control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togashi, Hidetoshi; Mase, Noriaki; Matsumura, Yuichi.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the generation of local temperature rise depending on the reactor core position of the control rod drives and control the temperature to an averaged state in BWR type reactors. Method: Control rod drives having a large charging length of the housing in the pressure vessel involve such a factor that the temperature of the control rod drives is increased by the synergistic effect due to the radiation heat from the reactor core and to the unevenness of the cooling water flow rate, which renders an appropriate temperature control difficult for the reactor core position. A cooling water flow rate controlling device having a restriction mechanism is disposed on the cooling water feed path for each of the hydraulic control units of the control rod drives, so that flow rate to the control rod drives is increased at the center of the reactor core and decreased at the periphery thereof. As a result, average temperature state can be set, temperature increase due to cloggings can be prevented and the thermal effect can be eliminated to thereby improve the reliability. (Moriyama, K.)

  11. Advanced Integrated Traction System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Smith; Charles Gough

    2011-08-31

    The United States Department of Energy elaborates the compelling need for a commercialized competitively priced electric traction drive system to proliferate the acceptance of HEVs, PHEVs, and FCVs in the market. The desired end result is a technically and commercially verified integrated ETS (Electric Traction System) product design that can be manufactured and distributed through a broad network of competitive suppliers to all auto manufacturers. The objectives of this FCVT program are to develop advanced technologies for an integrated ETS capable of 55kW peak power for 18 seconds and 30kW of continuous power. Additionally, to accommodate a variety of automotive platforms the ETS design should be scalable to 120kW peak power for 18 seconds and 65kW of continuous power. The ETS (exclusive of the DC/DC Converter) is to cost no more than $660 (55kW at $12/kW) to produce in quantities of 100,000 units per year, should have a total weight less than 46kg, and have a volume less than 16 liters. The cost target for the optional Bi-Directional DC/DC Converter is $375. The goal is to achieve these targets with the use of engine coolant at a nominal temperature of 105C. The system efficiency should exceed 90% at 20% of rated torque over 10% to 100% of maximum speed. The nominal operating system voltage is to be 325V, with consideration for higher voltages. This project investigated a wide range of technologies, including ETS topologies, components, and interconnects. Each technology and its validity for automotive use were verified and then these technologies were integrated into a high temperature ETS design that would support a wide variety of applications (fuel cell, hybrids, electrics, and plug-ins). This ETS met all the DOE 2010 objectives of cost, weight, volume and efficiency, and the specific power and power density 2015 objectives. Additionally a bi-directional converter was developed that provides charging and electric power take-off which is the first step

  12. Gas cooled traction drive inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan

    2013-10-08

    The present invention provides a modular circuit card configuration for distributing heat among a plurality of circuit cards. Each circuit card includes a housing adapted to dissipate heat in response to gas flow over the housing. In one aspect, a gas-cooled inverter includes a plurality of inverter circuit cards, and a plurality of circuit card housings, each of which encloses one of the plurality of inverter cards.

  13. Creating a driving profile for older adults using GPS devices and naturalistic driving methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babulal, Ganesh M; Traub, Cindy M; Webb, Mollie; Stout, Sarah H; Addison, Aaron; Carr, David B; Ott, Brian R; Morris, John C; Roe, Catherine M

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives : Road tests and driving simulators are most commonly used in research studies and clinical evaluations of older drivers. Our objective was to describe the process and associated challenges in adapting an existing, commercial, off-the-shelf (COTS), in-vehicle device for naturalistic, longitudinal research to better understand daily driving behavior in older drivers. Design : The Azuga G2 Tracking Device TM was installed in each participant's vehicle, and we collected data over 5 months (speed, latitude/longitude) every 30-seconds when the vehicle was driven.  Setting : The Knight Alzheimer's Disease Research Center at Washington University School of Medicine. Participants : Five individuals enrolled in a larger, longitudinal study assessing preclinical Alzheimer disease and driving performance.  Participants were aged 65+ years and had normal cognition. Measurements :  Spatial components included Primary Location(s), Driving Areas, Mean Centers and Unique Destinations.  Temporal components included number of trips taken during different times of the day.  Behavioral components included number of hard braking, speeding and sudden acceleration events. Methods :  Individual 30-second observations, each comprising one breadcrumb, and trip-level data were collected and analyzed in R and ArcGIS.  Results : Primary locations were confirmed to be 100% accurate when compared to known addresses.  Based on the locations of the breadcrumbs, we were able to successfully identify frequently visited locations and general travel patterns.  Based on the reported time from the breadcrumbs, we could assess number of trips driven in daylight vs. night.  Data on additional events while driving allowed us to compute the number of adverse driving alerts over the course of the 5-month period. Conclusions : Compared to cameras and highly instrumented vehicle in other naturalistic studies, the compact COTS device was quickly installed and transmitted high

  14. [Assessment of rehabilitation progress in patients with cervical radicular pain syndrome after application of high intensity laser therapy - HILT and Saunders traction device].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haładaj, Robert; Pingot, Julia; Pingot, Mariusz

    2015-07-01

    Osteoarthritis of the spine is a major global health problem, it is an epidemic of our times. It affects all parts of the spine, but the hardest to treat is its cervical region. The cervical spine is most mobile, delicate and sensitive to any load. It requires special care in conservative treatment. To date the selection of effective therapeutic approaches has been controversial. The aim of the study was to assess the progress of rehabilitation in patients with cervical radicular pain syndrome after using two different methods of treatment: HILT and spinal axial traction with the use of Saunders device. The randomized study included 150 patients (81 women and 69 men, aged 24-67 years, mean age 45.5) divided into two groups of 75 patients each with characteristic symptoms of radicular pain. The measurement of the range of cervical spine movement of the cervical spine, visual analog scale for pain - VAS and a NDI questionnaire (Neck Disability Index - Polish version) - an indicator of functional disorders - were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the two different therapies. The results obtained by Saunders method remained significantly higher than those obtained when HILT laser therapy was used for most of the examined parameters. A thorough analysis of the results showed greater analgesic efficacy, improved global mobility and reduced functional impairment in patients treated with Saunders method. Both therapeutic methods manifest analgesic effect and a positive impact on the improvement of range of cervical spine movement in patients with radicular pain in this spine region. HILT laser therapy and Saunders traction device reduce neck disability index in the treated patients. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  15. THE TRACTION ELECTRIC OPERATION AND ITS EXPLOITATION ABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bezruchenko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The possibilities of asynchronous traction electric motor drive are considered at the certain coupling mass taking into account the coupling restrictions. A variant of using the regulation law for electric motor drive allowing realizing traction force more rationally is offered. The possibility of reaching the speeds to 220 km/h for electric locomotive DS3 is shown

  16. Method for installing a control rod driving device in a reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Haruo; Watanabe, Masatoshi.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To install a device using a wire rope, including individually moving up and down a control rod and a control rod driving device thereby enabling to install them within a low house and to reduce time required for installing operation. Structure: The control rod is temporarily attached to a support structure for the control rod driving device, the control rod driving device is suspended on a crane positioned upwardly of the support structure, a rope connected to the control rod driving device is connected to the control rod, a sagged portion of the rope is then wound about a rotary cylinder, the control rod is disconnected from its temporary attachment, and the wound rope is wound back while the rotary cylinder is rotated to move down the control rod. After the rope has been released from the rotary cylinder, the control rod driving device is moved down by the crane. (Kamimura, M.)

  17. Do in-car devices affect experienced users' driving performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapper, A.S.; Hagenzieker, M.P.; Brookhuis, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Distracted driving is considered to be an important factor in road safety. To investigate how experienced user's driving behaviour is affected by in-vehicle technology, a fixed-base driving simulator was used. 20 participants drove twice in a rich simulated traffic environment while performing

  18. Do in-car devices affect experienced users' driving performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapper, A.S. Hagenzieker, M.P. & Brookhuis, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Distracted driving is considered to be an important factor in road safety. To investigate how experienced user's driving behaviour is affected by in-vehicle technology, a fixed-base driving simulator was used. 20 participants drove twice in a rich simulated traffic environment while performing

  19. Modeling of traction-coupling properties of wheel propulsor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhapov, R. L.; Nikolaeva, R. V.; Gatiyatullin, M. H.; Makhmutov, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    In conditions of operation of aggregates on soils with low bearing capacity, the main performance indicators of their operation are determined by the properties of retaining the functional qualities of the propulsor. Therefore, the parameters of the anti-skid device can not be calculated by only one criterion. The equipment of propellers with anti-skid devices, which allow to reduce the compaction effect of the propulsion device on the soil, seems to be a rational solution to the problem of increasing traction and coupling properties of the driving wheels. The mathematical model is based on the study of the interaction of the driving wheel with anti-skid devices and a deformable bearing surface, which takes into account the wheel diameter, skid coefficient, the parameters of the anti-skid device, the physical and mechanical properties of the soil. As a basic mathematical model that determines the dependence of the coupling properties on the wheel parameters, the model obtained as a result of integration and reflecting the process of soil deformation from the shear stress is adopted. The total value of the resistance forces will determine the force of the hitch pressure on the horizontal soil layers, and the value of its deformation is the degree of wheel slippage. When the anti-skid devices interact with the soil, the traction capacity of the wheel is composed of shear forces, soil shear and soil deformation forces with detachable hooks. As a result of the interaction of the hook with the soil, the latter presses against the walls of the hook with the force equal to the sum of the hook load and the resistance to movement. During operation, the linear dimensions of the hook will decrease, which is not taken into account by the safety factor. Abrasive wear of the thickness of the hook is approximately proportional to the work of friction caused by the movement of the hook when inserted into the soil and slipping the wheel.

  20. Alignment of displaced or impacted teeth with the traction chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Franz Martin; Sander, Christian; Sander, Franz Günter

    2006-07-01

    To align those teeth in the dental arch that cannot erupt or are displaced, they must be surgically exposed. After the traction device is attached, the tooth is again covered with the mucoperiosteal flap to protect the tissues involved. For this reason, the loss of this traction device must be absolutely avoided in order to prevent another surgical intervention. Here at the University of Ulm, we have developed and tested an optimized traction chain for that purpose. The chain is attached to the tooth with a laser-roughened pad applying the acid-etching technique. The chain links serve as fixation elements for traction devices such as elastic ligatures or piggyback archwires. At the same time, one can determine the distance covered by the tooth by the number of the erupting chain links. We demonstrate the clinical application of this traction device in two cases.

  1. Novel AC Servo Rotating and Linear Composite Driving Device for Plastic Forming Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jin-Tao; Zhao, Sheng-Dun; Li, Yong-Yi; Zhu, Mu-Zhi

    2017-07-01

    The existing plastic forming equipment are mostly driven by traditional AC motors with long transmission chains, low efficiency, large size, low precision and poor dynamic response are the common disadvantages. In order to realize high performance forming processes, the driving device should be improved, especially for complicated processing motions. Based on electric servo direct drive technology, a novel AC servo rotating and linear composite driving device is proposed, which features implementing both spindle rotation and feed motion without transmission, so that compact structure and precise control can be achieved. Flux switching topology is employed in the rotating drive component for strong robustness, and fractional slot is employed in the linear direct drive component for large force capability. Then the mechanical structure for compositing rotation and linear motion is designed. A device prototype is manufactured, machining of each component and the whole assembly are presented respectively. Commercial servo amplifiers are utilized to construct the control system of the proposed device. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed composite driving device, experimental study on the dynamic test benches are conducted. The results indicate that the output torque can attain to 420 N·m and the dynamic tracking errors are less than about 0.3 rad in the rotating drive. the dynamic tracking errors are less than about 1.6 mm in the linear feed. The proposed research provides a method to construct high efficiency and accuracy direct driving device in plastic forming equipment.

  2. Low cost electronic ultracapacitor interface technique to provide load leveling of a battery for pulsed load or motor traction drive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Robert Dean; DeDoncker, Rik Wivina Anna Adelson

    1998-01-01

    A battery load leveling arrangement for an electrically powered system in which battery loading is subject to intermittent high current loading utilizes a passive energy storage device and a diode connected in series with the storage device to conduct current from the storage device to the load when current demand forces a drop in battery voltage. A current limiting circuit is connected in parallel with the diode for recharging the passive energy storage device. The current limiting circuit functions to limit the average magnitude of recharge current supplied to the storage device. Various forms of current limiting circuits are disclosed, including a PTC resistor coupled in parallel with a fixed resistor. The current limit circuit may also include an SCR for switching regenerative braking current to the device when the system is connected to power an electric motor.

  3. Home Cervical Traction to Reduce Neck Pain in Fighter Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumbley, Eric M; O'Hair, Nicole; Stolfi, Adrienne; Lienesch, Christopher; McEachen, James C; Wright, Bruce A

    2016-12-01

    Most fighter pilots report cervical pain during their careers. Recommendations for remediation lack evidence. We sought to determine whether regular use of a home cervical traction device could decrease reported cervical pain in F-15C pilots. An institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant, controlled crossover study was undertaken with 21 male F-15C fighter pilots between February and June 2015. Of the 21 subjects, 12 completed 6 wk each of traction and control, while logging morning, postflying, and post-traction pain. Pain was compared with paired t-tests between the periods, from initial pain scores to postflying, and postflying to post-traction. In the traction phase, initial pain levels increased postflight, from 1.2 (0.7) to 1.6 (1.0) Subsequent post-traction pain levels decreased to 1.3 (0.9), with a corresponding linear decrease in pain relative to pain reported postflight. The difference in pain levels after traction compared to initial levels was not significant, indicating that cervical traction was effective in alleviating flying-related pain. Control pain increased postflight from 1.4 (0.9) to 1.9 (1.3). Daily traction phase pain was lower than the control, but insignificant. To our knowledge, this is the first study of home cervical traction to address fighter pilots' cervical pain. We found a small but meaningful improvement in daily pain rating when using cervical traction after flying. These results help inform countermeasure development for pilots flying high-performance aircraft. Further study should clarify the optimal traction dose and timing in relation to flying.Chumbley EM, O'Hair N, Stolfi A, Lienesch C, McEachen JC, Wright BA. Home cervical traction to reduce neck pain in fighter pilots. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016; 87(12):1010-1015.

  4. Regression analysis of traction characteristics of traction fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenthal, S. H.; Rohn, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Traction data for Santotrac 50 and TDF-88 over a wide range of operating conditions were analyzed. An eight term correlation equation to predict the maximum traction coefficient and a six term correlation equation to predict the initial slope of the traction curve were developed. The slope correlation was corrected for size effect considering the compliance of the disks. The effects of different operating conditions on the traction performance of each traction fluid were studied. Both fluids exhibited a loss in traction with increases in spin, but the losses with the TDF-88 fluid were not as severe as those with Santotrac 50. Overall, both fluids exhibited similar performance, showing an increase in traction with contact pressure up to about 2.0 GPa, and a reduction in traction with higher surface speeds up to about 100 m/sec. The apparent stiffness of the traction contact, that is, film disk combination, increases with contact pressure and decreases with speed.

  5. Evaluation of semiconductor devices for Electric and Hybrid Vehicle (EHV) ac-drive applications, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F. C.; Chen, D. Y.; Jovanovic, M.; Hopkins, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    The results of evaluation of power semiconductor devices for electric hybrid vehicle ac drive applications are summarized. Three types of power devices are evaluated in the effort: high power bipolar or Darlington transistors, power MOSFETs, and asymmetric silicon control rectifiers (ASCR). The Bipolar transistors, including discrete device and Darlington devices, range from 100 A to 400 A and from 400 V to 900 V. These devices are currently used as key switching elements inverters for ac motor drive applications. Power MOSFETs, on the other hand, are much smaller in current rating. For the 400 V device, the current rating is limited to 25 A. For the main drive of an electric vehicle, device paralleling is normally needed to achieve practical power level. For other electric vehicle (EV) related applications such as battery charger circuit, however, MOSFET is advantageous to other devices because of drive circuit simplicity and high frequency capability. Asymmetrical SCR is basically a SCR device and needs commutation circuit for turn off. However, the device poses several advantages, i.e., low conduction drop and low cost.

  6. Device for discharging drain in a control rod driving apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Tadasu; Ikuta, Takuzo; Yoshida, Tomiji; Tsukahara, Katsumi.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To efficiently and safely collect and discharge drain by a simple construction in which a drain cover and a drain tank in a control rod driving apparatus are integrally formed, and an overhauling wrench of said apparatus and a drain hose are mounted on the drain tank. Structure: When a mounting bolt is untightened by a torque wrench so as to be removed from a flange surface of the control rod driving apparatus in a nuclear reactor, axial movement of said apparatus is absorbed by a spring so that drain containing a radioactive material is discharged into a drain tank through the flange surface of said apparatus and is then guided into a collecting tank through a drain hose. (Kamimura, M.)

  7. Device for coupling a control rod and control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishioka, Kazuya.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To obtain simple and reliable coupling between a control rod and control rod drive by equipping the lower end of the control rod with an extension provided with lateral protuberances and forming the upper end of an index tube with a recess provided with lateral holes. Structure: The tapering central extension of the control rod is inserted into the recess by lowering the control rod, and then it is further inserted by causing frictional movement of the inclined surfaces of lateral protuberances in frictional contact with guide surfaces. When the lateral protuberances are brought into contact with a stepped portion, the control rod is rotated to fit the lateral protuberances into the lateral holes. In this way, the control rod is coupled to the index tube of the control rod drive. (Yoshino, Y.)

  8. Solar cell driving device. Taiyo denchi kudo sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, K [Shibaura Engineering Works Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-01-24

    In driving a motor by a solar cell, if the sun light is weak, the motor cannot be started because of the fact that the start-up current of the motor is more than the current needed for driving. In this invention, a current limiting circuit is placed between the solar cell and the load, whereby the current limitation by said limiting circuit is released when the detected voltage of the solar cell reached the value required for starting the load. The current limiting circuit uses a semiconductor element such as a thyrister and a transistor which general limits a current. Such a current limiting circuit is controlled by a voltage detecting circuit and is so constructed that the cell limitation is released when a specific preset volatge of the solar cell is reached. 2 figs.

  9. Traction sheave elevator, hoisting unit and machine space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakala, Harri; Mustalahti, Jorma; Aulanko, Esko

    2000-01-01

    Traction sheave elevator consisting of an elevator car moving along elevator guide rails, a counterweight moving along counterweight guide rails, a set of hoisting ropes (3) on which the elevator car and counterweight are suspended, and a drive machine unit (6) driving a traction sheave (7) acting on the hoisting ropes (3) and placed in the elevator shaft. The drive machine unit (6) is of a flat construction. A wall of the elevator shaft is provided with a machine space with its open side facing towards the shaft, the essential parts of the drive machine unit (6) being placed in the space. The hoisting unit (9) of the traction sheave elevator consists of a substantially discoidal drive machine unit (6) and an instrument panel (8) mounted on the frame (20) of the hoisting unit.

  10. Water pressure control device for control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hideyuki.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To minimize the fluctuations in the reactor water level upon occurrence of abnormality by inputting the level signal of the reactor to an arithmetic unit for controlling the pressure of control rod drive water to thereby enable effective reactor level control. Constitution: Signal from a flow rate transmitter is inputted into an arithmetic unit to perform constant flow rate control upon normal operation. While on the other hand, if abnormality occurs such as feedwater pump trips, the arithmetic unit is switched from the constant flow rate control to the reactor water level control. Reactor water level signal is inputted into the arithmetic unit and the control valve is most suitably controlled, whereby water is fed from CST to the reactor by way of control rod drive water system to secure the reactor water level if feedwater to the reactor is interrupted by loss of coolants on the feedwater system. Since this enables to minimize the fluctuations in the reactor water level upon abnormality, the reactor water level can be controlled most suitably by the reactor water level signal. (Moriyama, K.)

  11. Superconductor devices useful for disk drives and the like

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, F.S.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes an apparatus for exchanging information with a circular media and which includes a drive mechanism for radially positioning a head relative to the media with the head including structure for imparting information to the media, for detecting information on the media, or both, comprising: an arm having at least one head attached thereto wherein the head is capable of interchanging information with the media; and bearing means for suspending the arm, the bearing means including a superconductor layer element, a magnetic field source element and means mounting one of the elements on the arm and the other the element in interfacing relationship to the one of the elements so that the interfacing relationship is maintained throughout the radial travel of the arm. A drive for exchanging information between a circular media mounted on a spindle and a head comprising an elongated arm having the head attached thereto and a layer of superconductor material on one side thereof, the arm being radially positionable over the surface of the circular media, an annular magnet means in peripheral relation to the circular media and oriented to direct a magnetic field towards the arm superconductor layer for maintaining a relatively constant spacing between the arm and the media throughout the radial travel of the arm relative to the circular media

  12. Diagnostic device for failures in control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okutani, Tetsuro.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to concretely point out a failure position when a failure might occur by diagnosing the failure without affecting the variation to the state of a reactor core. Constitution: A frequency switching circuit is provided in an inverter for controlling the rotating speed of a motor for discharging and charging a control rod. Then, a voltage detector is provided at asemiconductor switch provided between the inverter and the motor. When a high frequency control signal is input to the inverter in diagnosing a failure, the switching speed of the switch is accelerated, a current hardly flows through the motor, and even if the inverter is operated, the motor will not rotate. Thus, the failure of a control rod drive can be diagnosed without affecting any influence to the state of a reactor core. (Kamimura, M.)

  13. An optoelectronic integrated device including a laser and its driving circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsueda, H.; Nakano, H.; Tanaka, T.P.

    1984-10-01

    A monolithic optoelectronic integrated circuit (OEIC) including a laser diode, photomonitor and driving and detecting circuits has been fabricated on a semi-insulating GaAs substrate. The OEIC has a horizontal integrating structure which is suitable for realising high-density multifunctional devices. The fabricating process and the static and dynamic characteristics of the optical and electronic elements are described. The preliminary results of the co-operative operation of the laser and its driving circuit are also presented.

  14. Open coil traction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibhute, Pavankumar Janardan

    2012-01-01

    Sliding mechanics have become a popular method for space closure, with the development of preadjusted edgewise appliances. Furthermore, various space closing auxiliaries have been developed and extensively evaluated for their clinical efficiency. Their effectiveness is enhanced with optimum force magnitude and low load deflection rate/force decay. With the advent of nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) springs in orthodontics, load deflection rates have been markedly reduced. To use Ni-Ti springs, clinicians have to depend upon prefabricated closed coil springs. The open coil traction system, or open coil retraction spring, is developed utilizing Ni-Ti open coil springs for orthodontic space closure. This article describes the fabrication and clinical application of the open coil traction system, which has a number of advantages. It sustains a low load deflection rate with optimum force magnitude, and its design is adjustable for a desired length and force level. It is fail-safe for both activation and deactivation (ie, it cannot be overactivated, and the decompression limit of the open coil is controlled by the operator). The open coil traction system can be offset from the mucosa to help reduce soft tissue impingement.

  15. Electromagnetic analysis of locking device for SMART control element drive mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Hyung; Kim, J. I.; Kim, J. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-09-01

    A numerical electromagnetic analysis was performed for the control rod locking device which is installed in the control element drive mechanism of integral reactor, SMART. A plunger model for the electromagnetic analysis of the locking device was developed and theoretical bases for the model were established. Design parameters related to plunger pushing force were identified, and the optimum design point was determined by analysing the trend of the plunger pushing force with finite element method. 8 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  16. Electromagnetic analysis of locking device for SMART control element drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, H.; Kim, J. I.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, Y. W.; Park, J. S.

    1998-01-01

    A numerical electromagnetic analysis was performed for the control rod locking device which is installed in the control element drive mechanism of integral reactor, SMART. A plunger model for the electromagnetic analysis of the locking device was developed and theoretical bases for the model were established. Design parameters related to plunger pushing force were identified, and the optimum design point was determined by analyzing the trend of the plunger pushing force with finite element method

  17. Mobile device use while driving--United States and seven European countries, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Road traffic crashes are a global public health problem, contributing to an estimated 1.3 million deaths annually. Known risk factors for road traffic crashes and related injuries and deaths include speed, alcohol, nonuse of restraints, and nonuse of helmets. More recently, driver distraction has become an emerging concern. To assess the prevalence of mobile device use while driving in Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, the United Kingdom (UK), and the United States, CDC analyzed data from the 2011 EuroPNStyles and HealthStyles surveys. Prevalence estimates for self-reported talking on a cell phone while driving and reading or sending text or e-mail messages while driving were calculated. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, among drivers ages 18-64 years, the prevalence of talking on a cell phone while driving at least once in the past 30 days ranged from 21% in the UK to 69% in the United States, and the prevalence of drivers who had read or sent text or e-mail messages while driving at least once in the past 30 days ranged from 15% in Spain to 31% in Portugal and the United States. Lessons learned from successful road safety efforts aimed at reducing other risky driving behaviors, such as seat belt nonuse and alcohol-impaired driving, could be helpful to the United States and other countries in addressing this issue. Strategies such as legislation combined with high-visibility enforcement and public education campaigns deserve further research to determine their effectiveness in reducing mobile device use while driving. Additionally, the role of emerging vehicle and mobile communication technologies in reducing distracted driving-related crashes should be explored.

  18. Sustainability Aspects of Energy Conversion in Modern High-Speed Trains with Traction Induction Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Some aspects are illustrated of energy conversion processes during the operation of electric railway vehicles with traction induction motors, in order to support transport systems’ sustainability. Increasing efforts are being expended to enhance the sustainability of transportation technologies and systems. Since electric drive systems are used with variable voltage variable frequency (VVVF inverters and traction induction motors, these machines with appropriate controls can realize both traction and electric braking regimes for electric traction vehicles. In line with this idea, this paper addresses the operation sustainability of electric railway vehicles highlighting the chain of interactions among the main electric equipment on an electrically driven railway system supplied from an a.c. contact line: The contact line-side converter, the machine-side converter and the traction induction motor. The paper supports the findings that electric traction drive systems using induction motors fed by network-side converters and VVVF inverters enhance the sustainable operation of railway trains.

  19. Coupling device of the control rod and of the drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savary, F.

    1986-01-01

    The invention proposes a coupling device removable in which the connection between the upper head of the control rod and the drive mechanism is a real rigid fixing, in the mechanical sense of the term, suppressing longitudinal play and allowing to restrict the momenta occurring when locating the control rods [fr

  20. Control rod driving mechanism of reactor, control device and operation method therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariyoshi, Masahiko; Matsumoto, Fujio; Matsumoto, Koji; Kinugasa, Kunihiko; Nara, Yoshihiko; Otama, Kiyomaro; Mikami, Takao

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a device for and a method of directly driving control rods of an FBR type reactor linearly by a cylinder type linear motor while having a driving shaft as an electric conductor. Namely, a linear induction motor drives a driving shaft connected with a control rod and vertically moving the control rod by electromagnetic force as an electric conductor. The position of the control rod is detected by a position detector. The driving shaft is hung by a wire by way of an electromagnet which is attachably/detachably held. With such a constitution, the driving shaft connected with the control rod can be vertically moved linearly, stopped or kept. Since they can be driven smoothly at a wide range speed, the responsibility and reliability of the reactor operation can be improved. In addition, since responsibility of the control rod operation is high, scram can be conducted by the linear motor. Since the driving mechanism can be simplified, maintenance and inspection operation can be mitigated. (I.S.)

  1. Leaked water detection device for control rod drive and BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Ken.

    1995-01-01

    The device of the present invention can specify a control rod drive causing great amount of water leakage among a large number of control rod drives. Namely, water leaked from the control rod drives is introduced to each of leaked water pipelines. Further, it is introduced from the leaked water pipelines to flow glasses at which leaked water can visually be recognized individually, and then discharged through a drain pipeline. With such procedures, the amount of leaked water from the leaked water pipelines can visually be recognized at the flow glasses. As a result, the control rod drives which cause a great amount of leakage can be specified among large number of control rod drives. Accordingly, an accurate inspection schedule for a shaft-sealing portion of the control rod drives can be formed. The shaft-sealing portion degradated in the sealing property can reliably be inspected and repaired. Purge water can be ensured to improve reliability of the operation of equipments. (I.S.)

  2. Low driving voltage simplified tandem organic light-emitting devices by using exciplex-forming hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dong-Ying; Cui, Lin-Song; Zhang, Ying-Jie; Liao, Liang-Sheng; Aziz, Hany

    2014-10-01

    Tandem organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs), i.e., OLEDs containing multiple electroluminescence (EL) units that are vertically stacked, are attracting significant interest because of their ability to realize high current efficiency and long operational lifetime. However, stacking multiple EL units in tandem OLEDs increases driving voltage and complicates fabrication process relative to their standard single unit counterparts. In this paper, we demonstrate low driving voltage tandem OLEDs via utilizing exciplex-forming hosts in the EL units instead of conventional host materials. The use of exciplex-forming hosts reduces the charge injection barriers and the trapping of charges on guest molecules, resulting in the lower driving voltage. The use of exciplex-forming hosts also allows using fewer layers, hence simpler EL configuration which is beneficial for reducing the fabrication complexity of tandem OLEDs.

  3. The risk of a safety-critical event associated with mobile device use in specific driving contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Gregory M; Hanowski, Richard J; Guo, Feng

    2015-01-01

    We explored drivers' mobile device use and its associated risk of a safety-critical event (SCE) in specific driving contexts. Our premise was that the SCE risk associated with mobile device use increases when the driving task becomes demanding. Data from naturalistic driving studies involving commercial motor vehicle drivers and light vehicle drivers were partitioned into subsets representative of specific driving contexts. The subsets were generated using data set attributes that included level of service and relation to junction. These attributes were selected based on exogenous factors known to alter driving task demands. The subsets were analyzed using a case-cohort approach, which was selected to complement previous investigations of mobile device SCE risk using naturalistic driving data. Both commercial motor vehicle and light vehicle drivers varied as to how much they conversed on a mobile device but did not vary their engagement in visual-manual subtasks. Furthermore, commercial motor vehicle drivers conversed less frequently as the driving task demands increased, whereas light vehicle drivers did not. The risk of an SCE associated with mobile device use was dependent on the subtask performed and the driving context. Only visual-manual subtasks were associated with an increased SCE risk, whereas conversing was associated with a decreased risk in some driving contexts. Drivers' engagement in mobile device subtasks varies by driving context. The SCE risk associated with mobile device use is dependent on the types of subtasks performed and the driving context. The findings of this exploratory study can be applied to the design of driver-vehicle interfaces that mitigate distraction by preventing visual-manual subtasks while driving.

  4. Traction Stresses Exerted by Adherent Cells: From Angiogenesis to Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart-King, Cynthia

    2010-03-01

    Cells exert traction stresses against their substrate that mediate their ability to sense the mechanical properties of their microenvironment. These same forces mediate cell adhesion, migration and the formation of stable cell-cell contacts during tissue formation. In this talk, I will present our data on the traction stresses generated by endothelial cells and metastatic breast cancer cells focused on understanding the processes of angiogenesis and metastasis, respectively. In the context of capillary formation, our data indicate that the mechanics of the substrate play a critical role in establishing endothelial cell-cell contacts. On more compliant substrates, endothelial cell shape and traction stresses polarize and promote the formation of stable cell-cell contacts. On stiffer substrates, traction stresses are less polarized and cell connectivity is disrupted. These data indicate that the mechanical properties of the microenvironment may drive cell connectivity and the formation of stable cell-cell contacts through the reorientation of traction stresses. In our studies of metastatic cell migration, we have found that traction stresses increase with increasing metastatic potential. We investigated three lines of varying metastatic potential (MCF10A, MCF7 and MDAMB231). MDAMB231, which are the most invasive, exert the most significant forces as measured by Traction Force Microscopy. These data present the possibility that cellular traction stress generation aids in the ability of metastatic cells to migrate through the matrix-dense tumor microenvironment. Such measurements are integral to link the mechanical and chemical microenvironment with the resulting response of the cell in health and disease.

  5. Orthodontic traction of a transmigrated mandibular canine using mini-implant: a case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Sonia Patricia

    2016-12-01

    The patient in this case is an 11-year-old girl, whose mandibular left canine was transmigrated. The traction to the arch was assisted by using a temporary skeletal anchorage device. After 5 months of poor response to traction, the biomechanics were re-adjusted, obtaining effective traction in to the arch in 12 months. After this period, the treatment was completed with fixed orthodontic appliances.

  6. Development of a compact wearable pneumatic drive unit for a ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Akihiko; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki; Tatsumi, Eisuke; Akagawa, Eiki; Lee, Hwansung; Nishinaka, Tomohiro; Takewa, Yoshiaki; Mizuno, Toshihide; Tsukiya, Tomonori; Kakuta, Yukihide; Katagiri, Nobumasa; Shimosaki, Isao; Hamada, Shigeru; Mukaibayashi, Hiroshi; Iwaoka, Wataru

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a compact wearable pneumatic drive unit for a ventricular assist device (VAD). This newly developed drive unit, 20 x 8.5 x 20 cm in size and weighing approximately 1.8 kg, consists of a brushless DC motor, noncircular gears, a crankshaft, a cylinder-piston, and air pressure regulation valves. The driving air pressure is generated by the reciprocating motion of the piston and is controlled by the air pressure regulation valves. The systolic ratio is determined by the noncircular gears, and so is fixed for a given configuration. As a result of an overflow-type mock circulation test, a drive unit with a 44% systolic ratio connected to a Toyobo VAD blood pump with a 70-ml stroke volume achieved a pump output of more than 7 l/min at 100 bpm against a 120 mmHg afterload. Long-term animal tests were also performed using drive units with systolic ratios of 45% and 53% in two Holstein calves weighing 62 kg and 74 kg; the tests were terminated on days 30 and 39, respectively, without any malfunction. The mean aortic pressure, bypass flow, and power consumption for the first calf were maintained at 90 x 13 mmHg, 3.9 x 0.9 l/min, and 12 x 1 W, and those for the second calf were maintained at 88 x 13 mmHg, 5.0 x 0.5 l/min, and 16 x 2 W, respectively. These results indicate that the newly developed drive unit may be used as a wearable pneumatic drive unit for the Toyobo VAD blood pump.

  7. A System of Driving Fatigue Detection Based on Machine Vision and Its Application on Smart Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanzeng Kong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Driving fatigue is one of the most important factors in traffic accidents. In this paper, we proposed an improved strategy and practical system to detect driving fatigue based on machine vision and Adaboost algorithm. Kinds of face and eye classifiers are well trained by Adaboost algorithm in advance. The proposed strategy firstly detects face efficiently by classifiers of front face and deflected face. Then, candidate region of eye is determined according to geometric distribution of facial organs. Finally, trained classifiers of open eyes and closed eyes are used to detect eyes in the candidate region quickly and accurately. The indexes which consist of PERCLOS and duration of closed-state are extracted in video frames real time. Moreover, the system is transplanted into smart device, that is, smartphone or tablet, due to its own camera and powerful calculation performance. Practical tests demonstrated that the proposed system can detect driver fatigue with real time and high accuracy. As the system has been planted into portable smart device, it could be widely used for driving fatigue detection in daily life.

  8. Introducing the inbed spinal traction kit for use on patients with low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Low backpain is a common malady in our environment. BODY: The in-bed spinal Traction kit is designed and assembled by the authors for use in treatment of Low Back Pain. The aim is to reduce cost, shorten period of Hospital stay and immobilization encountered when skin Traction Devices are used in ...

  9. Footwear traction and lower extremity noncontact injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannop, John W; Luo, Geng; Stefanyshyn, Darren J

    2013-11-01

    Football is the most popular high school sport; however, it has the highest rate of injury. Speculation has been prevalent that foot fixation due to high footwear traction contributes to injury risk. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to determine whether a relationship exists between the athlete's specific footwear traction (measured with their own shoes on the field of play) and lower extremity noncontact injury in high school football. For 3 yr, 555 high school football athletes had their footwear traction measured on the actual field of play at the start of the season, and any injury the athletes suffered during a game was recorded. Lower extremity noncontact injury rates, grouped based on the athlete's specific footwear traction (both translational and rotational), were compared. For translational traction, injury rate reached a peak of 23.3 injuries/1000 game exposures within the midrange of translational traction, before decreasing to 5.0 injuries/1000 game exposures in the high range of traction. For rotational traction, there was a steady increase in injury rate as footwear traction increased, starting at 4.2 injuries/1000 game exposures at low traction and reaching 19.2 injuries/1000 game exposures at high traction. A relationship exists between footwear traction and noncontact lower extremity injury, with increases in rotational traction leading to a greater injury rate and increases in translational traction leading to a decrease in injury. It is recommended that athletes consider selecting footwear with the lowest rotational traction values for which no detriment in performance results.

  10. Maximum Safety Regenerative Power Tracking for DC Traction Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guifu Du

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Direct current (DC traction power systems are widely used in metro transport systems, with running rails usually being used as return conductors. When traction current flows through the running rails, a potential voltage known as “rail potential” is generated between the rails and ground. Currently, abnormal rises of rail potential exist in many railway lines during the operation of railway systems. Excessively high rail potentials pose a threat to human life and to devices connected to the rails. In this paper, the effect of regenerative power distribution on rail potential is analyzed. Maximum safety regenerative power tracking is proposed for the control of maximum absolute rail potential and energy consumption during the operation of DC traction power systems. The dwell time of multiple trains at each station and the trigger voltage of the regenerative energy absorbing device (READ are optimized based on an improved particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm to manage the distribution of regenerative power. In this way, the maximum absolute rail potential and energy consumption of DC traction power systems can be reduced. The operation data of Guangzhou Metro Line 2 are used in the simulations, and the results show that the scheme can reduce the maximum absolute rail potential and energy consumption effectively and guarantee the safety in energy saving of DC traction power systems.

  11. Gripper driving device for moving a fuel up and down in a reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatakenaka, Hideo.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To use a rope in one system to effect upward and downward movement of the gripper and opening and closing operation of a gripper opening and closing pawl to make the device smaller and the mechanism simpler. Structure: The device comprises two rope winding drums synchronously driven by a driving source for upward and downward movement of a gripper, a guide pulley arranged upwardly of each rope winding drum and displaced in relatively up and down opposite direction by a pawl operating portion for opening and closing the gripper, a gripper provided with a double-arm oscillating lever for suspending and supporting a rope and operating the opening and closing pawl supported within the gripper body and an actuator for operating the opening and closing pawl interlocked and connected to said lever, and two ropes mounted on the double arm lever of the gripper passing over the guide pulleys from the winding drums. (Kamimura, M.)

  12. DEFINITION OF LOCOMOTIVE TRACTION FORCE WITH REGARD TO UNEVEN LOADING OF WHEEL-MOTOR BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ye. Bodnar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article describes the most common methods for determining the locomotive traction force. Solving the tasks of traction calculations involves determination of the forces influencing the train at every point of the way. When choosing a rational trajectory of the train motion and the development of operational regulations of train driving it is necessary to determine the actual value of the locomotive traction force. Considering various factors, power value of traction electric motor of locomotive may have significant differences. Advancement of the operational definition system of the locomotive traction force during the calculations by electrical parameters of traction electric motor with regard to uneven load of wheel-motor block is the purpose of the article. Methodology. The method of determining the traction force of locomotives and diesel locomotives with electric transmission, which is based on primary data acquisition of traction electric engines of direct current behavior, was proposed. Sensors and their integration into the electrical circuitry of the locomotive in order to get the data in digital form and for operational calculation of the each traction motor mode and the definition of locomotive traction force are presented. Findings. The experimental investigation of the system of locomotive traction force determination with the electric traction motor ED-105 was offered. A comparison of electrical and mechanical power of the electric motor was conducted. Originality. The system of locomotives power operational definition, which takes into account the variable electro-mechanical factors of wheel and motor blocks and increases the accuracy of the calculations, was proposed. Practical value. The system is a part of an onboard complex in definition of energy-efficient regimes for trains movement and provides the definition of accelerating and decelerating forces.

  13. Recycling temperature elevation device and temperature control method for control rod driving system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Hajime.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention concerns a device for and a method of controlling a recycling temperature control device for control rod drives (CRD) of a nuclear power plant, which can prevent occurrence of cavitation and keep the amount of cooling water to be transferred to a water source transfer pipeline thereby improving maintenanciability, operationability and reliability. Namely, a supply pipeline supplies cooling water required for the control rod drives from a water source. A CRD pump elevates the pressure of the cooling water. A recycling pipeline is branched from the downstream of the CRD pump of the supply pipeline and connected to the supply pipeline at the upstream of the CRD pump. A first pressure element and a restricting valve disposed at the upstream thereof are connected to the upstream of the CRD pump and the water source transfer pipeline. The water source transfer pipeline is branched from the recycling pipeline and connected to the water source. A second pressure element is disposed to a recycling pipeline at the downstream of the branched point from the water source transfer pipeline. (I.S.)

  14. Creating a driving profile for older adults using GPS devices and naturalistic driving methodology [version 1; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh M. Babulal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objectives: Road tests and driving simulators are most commonly used in research studies and clinical evaluations of older drivers. We adapted an existing, commercial, off-the-shelf, in-vehicle device for naturalistic, longitudinal research to better understand daily driving behavior in older drivers. Design: The Azuga G2 Tracking DeviceTM was installed in each participant’s vehicle, and we collected data over 5 months (speed, latitude/longitude every 30-seconds when the vehicle was driven.  Setting: The Knight Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center at Washington University School of Medicine. Participants: Five individuals enrolled in a larger, longitudinal study assessing preclinical Alzheimer disease and driving performance.  Participants were aged 65+ years and had normal cognition. Measurements:  Spatial components included Primary Location(s, Driving Areas, Mean Centers and Unique Destinations.  Temporal components included number of trips taken during different times of the day.  Behavioral components included number of hard braking, speeding and sudden acceleration events. Methods:  Individual 30-second observations, each comprising one breadcrumb, and trip-level data were collected and analyzed in R and ArcGIS.  Results: Primary locations were confirmed to be 100% accurate when compared to known addresses.  Based on the locations of the breadcrumbs, we were able to successfully identify frequently visited locations and general travel patterns.  Based on the reported time from the breadcrumbs, we could assess number of trips driven in daylight vs. night.  Data on additional events while driving allowed us to compute the number of adverse driving alerts over the course of the 5-month period. Conclusions: This pilot study indicated that Driving Profiles for older adults can be created and compared month-to-month or year-to-year, allowing researchers to identify changes in driving patterns that are unavailable in

  15. Creating a driving profile for older adults using GPS devices and naturalistic driving methodology [version 2; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh M. Babulal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objectives: Road tests and driving simulators are most commonly used in research studies and clinical evaluations of older drivers. Our objective was to describe the process and associated challenges in adapting an existing, commercial, off-the-shelf (COTS, in-vehicle device for naturalistic, longitudinal research to better understand daily driving behavior in older drivers. Design: The Azuga G2 Tracking DeviceTM was installed in each participant’s vehicle, and we collected data over 5 months (speed, latitude/longitude every 30-seconds when the vehicle was driven.  Setting: The Knight Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center at Washington University School of Medicine. Participants: Five individuals enrolled in a larger, longitudinal study assessing preclinical Alzheimer disease and driving performance.  Participants were aged 65+ years and had normal cognition. Measurements:  Spatial components included Primary Location(s, Driving Areas, Mean Centers and Unique Destinations.  Temporal components included number of trips taken during different times of the day.  Behavioral components included number of hard braking, speeding and sudden acceleration events. Methods:  Individual 30-second observations, each comprising one breadcrumb, and trip-level data were collected and analyzed in R and ArcGIS.  Results: Primary locations were confirmed to be 100% accurate when compared to known addresses.  Based on the locations of the breadcrumbs, we were able to successfully identify frequently visited locations and general travel patterns.  Based on the reported time from the breadcrumbs, we could assess number of trips driven in daylight vs. night.  Data on additional events while driving allowed us to compute the number of adverse driving alerts over the course of the 5-month period. Conclusions: Compared to cameras and highly instrumented vehicle in other naturalistic studies, the compact COTS device was quickly installed and

  16. Research of the multipolar induction traction frequency regulated motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ia. Bespalov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the application features of traction induction electric motors in transmissions of vehicles. It shows that one of important stages in their designing is to choose the number of poles. In traction electric drives engines with the raised number of poles without comprehensive assessment of such solution are often applied. The paper investigates dynamic and power characteristics of the multi-polar traction asynchronous engine (TAE designed and made for using in the individual electric drive of heavy-load wheeled cars. The basic functional elements of the model to simulate the electric drive in Matlab environment with the Simulink and SimPower Systems applications in the structure with vector control are described, and the simulation modeling results of its dynamic mechanical characteristics are provided. It is established that because of increased alternating frequency of currents of the multi-polar engine in the range of high speeds there is an excessive decrease in the torque and the requirement for constancy of the target capacity, corresponding to the specified traction characteristic is not fulfilled. It is a consequence of the waveform distortion of engine phase current in the range of high speeds because of incapability of the power source to compensate an increasing EMF of movement as the speed continues to grow.The paper studies the influence of increased current frequencies on the additional losses in the engine. The analysis of electromagnetic field penetration depth in the copper conductor of stator winding at high frequency allowed us to establish a significant skin – effect. The quantitative assessment is given to this phenomenon by results of numerical calculation of electromagnetic field distribution in a stator groove. Significant increase in additional losses in the engine is established, and estimates of flow loss extent because of damping actions of eddy currents in the laminated steel of stator at

  17. Sustainability Aspects of Energy Conversion in Modern High-Speed Trains with Traction Induction Motors

    OpenAIRE

    Marc A. Rosen; Doru A. Nicola; Cornelia A. Bulucea; Daniel C. Cismaru

    2015-01-01

    Some aspects are illustrated of energy conversion processes during the operation of electric railway vehicles with traction induction motors, in order to support transport systems’ sustainability. Increasing efforts are being expended to enhance the sustainability of transportation technologies and systems. Since electric drive systems are used with variable voltage variable frequency (VVVF) inverters and traction induction motors, these machines with appropriate controls can realize both tra...

  18. Counter traction makes endoscopic submucosal dissection easier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Tsuneo

    2012-11-01

    Poor counter traction and poor field of vision make endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) difficult. Good counter traction allows dissections to be performed more quickly and safely. Position change, which utilizes gravity, is the simplest method to create a clear field of vision. It is useful especially for esophageal and colon ESD. The second easiest method is clip with line method. Counter traction made by clip with line accomplishes the creation of a clear field of vision and suitable counter traction thereby making ESD more efficient and safe. The author published this method in 2002. The name ESD was not established in those days; the name cutting endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) or EMR with hook knife was used. The other traction methods such as external grasping forceps, internal traction, double channel scope, and double scopes method are introduced in this paper. A good strategy for creating counter traction makes ESD easier.

  19. Control device for a nuclear reactor with a multitude of control rods, extending into the reactor core from above, with linear drive mechanisms and additional gripper devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.

    1979-01-01

    The components of the additional gripper devices with magnetically operated finger-shaped latches are separated from the also magnetically operated latches of the linear drive mechanisms in order to avoid common-mode failures when fast shutdown is required. Only part of the safety rods are held by the additional gripping devices in the withdrawn position. There is provided for recording elements indicating positively which one of the safety locks is gearing with the control rods. At the upper end of each control rod there is a coupling head held by electromagnetically operated locking devices in the withdrawn position, if control power is available. (DG) [de

  20. Plica neuropathica causing traction alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Pavithran

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available A middle aged woman developed matting of the hairs of the scalp following use of a home made shampoo that contained leaves of Hibiscus rosasiensis. The entangled and matted hair mass in the occipital region pulled hairs of the vertex region of the scalp, resulting in a patch of traction alopecia. Release of tension on the hairs by cutting them with scissors prevented further extension of alopecia.

  1. Implementation of a map route analysis robot: combining an Android smart device and differential-drive robotic platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tseng Chi-Hung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an easy-to-implement and relatively low-cost robotic platform with capability to realize image identification, object tracking, and Google Map route planning and navigation. Based on the JAVA and Bluetooth communication architectures, the system demonstrates the integration of Android smart devices and a differential-drive robotic platform.

  2. Leak detection device for control rod drive and detection method therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imasaki, Yoshio.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a detection device for leak of cooling water from a sealed axial portion of control rod drives (CRD) disposed in a BWR type reactor and a monitoring method therefor. Namely, the CRD transfers rotation at the sealed axial portion and elevates/lowers a piston to insert/withdraw control rod into/from the reactor core. High pressure water is injected upon occurrence of scram to urge the piston upwardly thereby rapidly inserting the control rods. Leak detection pipelines are laid from the sealed axial portion. A flow glass is connected to the leak detection pipelines. Then, cooling water leaked from the sealed axial portion flows in the leak detection pipelines and flows into the flow glass. The flow rate of cooling water leaked from the sealed axial portion of the CRD can thus be detected by monitoring the flow glass. In addition, a flowmeter is connected to the leak detection pipelines, or the flowmeter and the flow glass are connected, and a flowmeter is connected downstream. Then, the flow rate of the leaked cooling water can be detected automatically. (I.S.)

  3. Proceedings of the Prop'Elec 2000 colloquium. Advances of electric drive in urban transportation systems; Actes du colloque Prop'Elec 2000. Progres de la traction electrique dans les transports urbains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This document is the proceedings of Prop'Elec 2000 colloquium on the advances in electric power drive in urban transportation systems. The colloquium comprises 5 sessions dealing with: 1 - public collective electric-powered transportation system: synthesis of urban guided systems (C. Soulas, INRETS), the fast travelator (A. Cote, RATP), the power supply system of METEOR automatic underground railway (P. Lagrange, W. Seiler, RATP); 2 - electrical drive in urban transportation systems: start-up of a thermal engine with super-capacitors (D. Bouquain (CREEBEL), H. Gualous, A. Djerdir, A. Berthon, J.M. Kauffmann (L2ES, IGE)), The LEV (light weight electric vehicle) project in Mendrisio (U. Schwegler, LEV/Suisse), prototype of electrical bike that use a wheel-engine (C. Espanet, F. Gustin, J.M. Kauffmann (IGE), S. Robert, M. Karmous (EICN)), TWIL: a new generation of small electrical bikes (E. Escallot, T. Bontems (EPMI)), thermal and magnetic analysis of a rectilinear movement actuator (J.C. Vannier, M. Kadiri (SUPELEC)), torque undulation and vibrations in automobile electrical drives (A.L. Bui-Van (Renault), A. Fonseca (LEG)); 3 - collective electric-powered transportation systems: STARS: autonomous transportation system with flywheel charging at the station (P. Gibard (Alstom Transport), K. Abuda, J.M. Vinassa (IXL Bordeaux)), Translhor tramway: presentation of the drive system (L. Verdier, LHOR); 4 - electric-powered and hybrid vehicles: batteries for electric-powered vehicles (J.F. Fauvarque, CNAM), Li-ion batteries and their application in automotive industry (T. Faugeras, SAFT), optimized drive systems for electric-powered vehicles (J. Saint-Michel, Leroy Somer), the Citroen Xsara Dynactive (S. Derou, PSA), 5 - electric-powered and hybrid vehicles: the electrical car in tomorrows' city (M. Parent, INRIA), the market of electric-powered vehicles in France and Europe (M. Valet, PSA). (J.S.)

  4. Proceedings of the Prop'Elec 2000 colloquium. Advances of electric drive in urban transportation systems; Actes du colloque Prop'Elec 2000. Progres de la traction electrique dans les transports urbains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This document is the proceedings of Prop'Elec 2000 colloquium on the advances in electric power drive in urban transportation systems. The colloquium comprises 5 sessions dealing with: 1 - public collective electric-powered transportation system: synthesis of urban guided systems (C. Soulas, INRETS), the fast travelator (A. Cote, RATP), the power supply system of METEOR automatic underground railway (P. Lagrange, W. Seiler, RATP); 2 - electrical drive in urban transportation systems: start-up of a thermal engine with super-capacitors (D. Bouquain (CREEBEL), H. Gualous, A. Djerdir, A. Berthon, J.M. Kauffmann (L2ES, IGE)), The LEV (light weight electric vehicle) project in Mendrisio (U. Schwegler, LEV/Suisse), prototype of electrical bike that use a wheel-engine (C. Espanet, F. Gustin, J.M. Kauffmann (IGE), S. Robert, M. Karmous (EICN)), TWIL: a new generation of small electrical bikes (E. Escallot, T. Bontems (EPMI)), thermal and magnetic analysis of a rectilinear movement actuator (J.C. Vannier, M. Kadiri (SUPELEC)), torque undulation and vibrations in automobile electrical drives (A.L. Bui-Van (Renault), A. Fonseca (LEG)); 3 - collective electric-powered transportation systems: STARS: autonomous transportation system with flywheel charging at the station (P. Gibard (Alstom Transport), K. Abuda, J.M. Vinassa (IXL Bordeaux)), Translhor tramway: presentation of the drive system (L. Verdier, LHOR); 4 - electric-powered and hybrid vehicles: batteries for electric-powered vehicles (J.F. Fauvarque, CNAM), Li-ion batteries and their application in automotive industry (T. Faugeras, SAFT), optimized drive systems for electric-powered vehicles (J. Saint-Michel, Leroy Somer), the Citroen Xsara Dynactive (S. Derou, PSA), 5 - electric-powered and hybrid vehicles: the electrical car in tomorrows' city (M. Parent, INRIA), the market of electric-powered vehicles in France and Europe (M. Valet, PSA). (J.S.)

  5. Counter Traction Makes Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection Easier

    OpenAIRE

    Oyama, Tsuneo

    2012-01-01

    Poor counter traction and poor field of vision make endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) difficult. Good counter traction allows dissections to be performed more quickly and safely. Position change, which utilizes gravity, is the simplest method to create a clear field of vision. It is useful especially for esophageal and colon ESD. The second easiest method is clip with line method. Counter traction made by clip with line accomplishes the creation of a clear field of vision and suitable co...

  6. CALCULATION OF A MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF ELECTRIC TRACTION MOTOR OF ELECTRIC VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong Le Ngo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The traction characteristic of an electric vehicle is the main characteristic of mechanical system that reflects its key performance indicators. Implementation of the traction characteristic is based on controlling angular speed and torque of electric traction motor in an automatic control system. The static mechanical characteristic of an electric traction motor in an automatic control system is the most important characteristic that determines weight, size and operating characteristics of an electric traction motor and serves as the basis for design. The most common variants of constructive implementation of a traction electric drive are analyzed, and a scheme is chosen for further design. Lagrange’s equation for electric mechanical system with one degree of freedom is written in generalized coordinates. In order to determine the generalized forces, elementary operation of all moments influencing on a moving car has been calculated. The resulting equation of motion of the electric vehicle corresponding to the design scheme, as well as the expressions for calculation of characteristic points of static mechanical characteristics of traction motor (i.e. the maximum and minimum time, minimum power are obtained. In order to determine the nominal values of the angular velocity and the power of electric traction motor, a method based on ensuring the movement of the vehicle in the standard cycle has been developed. The method makes it possible to calculate characteristic points of the mechanical characteristic with the lowest possible power rating. The algorithm for calculation of mechanical characteristics of the motor is presented. The method was applied to calculate static mechanical characteristic of an electric traction motor for a small urban electric truck.

  7. Study of lower hybrid current drive system in tokamak fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maebara, Sunao

    2001-01-01

    This report describes R and D of a high-power klystron, RF vacuum window, low-outgassing antenna and a front module for a plasma-facing antenna aiming the 5 GHz Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) system for the next Tokamak Fusion Device. 5 GHz klystron with a low-perveances of 0.7 μP is designed for a high-power and a high-efficiency, the output-power of 715 kW and the efficiency of 63%, which are beyond the conventional design scaling of 450 kW-45%, are performed using the prototype klystron which operates at the pulse duration of 15 μsec. A new pillbox window, which has an oversized length in both the axial and the radial direction, are designed to reduce the RF power density and the electric field strength at the ceramics. It is evaluated that the power capability by cooling edge of ceramics is 1 MW with continuous-wave operation. The antenna module using Dispersion Strengthened Copper which combines high mechanical property up to 500degC with high thermal conductivity, are developed for a low-outgassing antenna in a steady state operation. It is found that the outgassing rate is in the lower range of 4x10 -6 Pam 3 /sm 2 at the module temperature of 300degC, which requires no active vacuum pumping of the LHCD antenna. A front module using Carbon Fiber Composite (CFC) are fabricated and tested for a plasma facing antenna which has a high heat-resistive. Stationary operation of the CFC module with water cooling is performed at the RF power of 46 MWm -2 (about 2 times higher than the design value) during 1000 sec, it is found that the outgassing rate is less than 10 -5 Pam 3 /sm 2 which is low enough for an antenna material. (author)

  8. State laws restricting driver use of mobile communications devices distracted-driving provisions, 1992-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Jennifer K; Anderson, Evan D; Burris, Scott C; Wagenaar, Alexander C

    2011-06-01

    State laws limiting the use of mobile communications devices (MCDs) by drivers are being enacted at an accelerating pace. Public health law research is needed to test various legislative models and guide future legal innovation. To define the current state of the law, facilitate new multi-state evaluations, and demonstrate the utility of systematic, scientific legal research methods to improve public health services research. Westlaw and Lexis-Nexis were used to create a 50-state, open-source data set of laws restricting the use of any form of MCD while operating a motor vehicle that were in effect between January 1, 1992, and November 1, 2010. Using an iterative process, the search protocol included the following terms: cellphone, cell phone, cellular phone, wireless telephone, mobile telephone, text, hands-free, cell! and text! The text and citations of each law were collected and coded across 22 variables, and a protocol and code book were developed to facilitate future public use of the data set. Thirty-nine states and the District of Columbia have at least one form of restriction on the use of MCDs in effect. The laws vary in the types of communication activities and categories of driver regulated, as well as enforcement mechanisms and punishments. No state completely bans use of MCDs by all drivers. State distracted-driving policy is diverging from evidence on the risks of MCD use by drivers. An updatable data set of laws is now available to researchers conducting multistate evaluations of the impact of laws regulating MCDs by drivers. If this data set is shown to be useful for this public health problem, similar rigorously developed and regularly updated data sets might be developed for other public health issues that are subject to legislative interventions. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Traction Control System for Motorcycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardinale Pascal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Traction control is a widely used control system to increase stability and safety of four wheel vehicles. Automatic stability control is used in the BMW K1200R motorcycle and in motoGP competition, but not in other motorcycles. This paper presents an algorithm and a low-cost real-time hardware implementation for motorcycles. A prototype has been developed, applied on a commercial motorcycle, and tested in a real track. The control system that can be tuned by the driver during the race has been appreciated by the test driver.

  10. Talking on a Wireless Cellular Device While Driving: Improving the Validity of Crash Odds Ratio Estimates in the SHRP 2 Naturalistic Driving Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Young

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dingus and colleagues (Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2016, 113, 2636–2641 reported a crash odds ratio (OR estimate of 2.2 with a 95% confidence interval (CI from 1.6 to 3.1 for hand-held cell phone conversation (hereafter, “Talk” in the SHRP 2 naturalistic driving database. This estimate is substantially higher than the effect sizes near one in prior real-world and naturalistic driving studies of conversation on wireless cellular devices (whether hand-held, hands-free portable, or hands-free integrated. Two upward biases were discovered in the Dingus study. First, it selected many Talk-exposed drivers who simultaneously performed additional secondary tasks besides Talk but selected Talk-unexposed drivers with no secondary tasks. This “selection bias” was removed by: (1 filtering out records with additional tasks from the Talk-exposed group; or (2 adding records with other tasks to the Talk-unexposed group. Second, it included records with driver behavior errors, a confounding bias that was also removed by filtering out such records. After removing both biases, the Talk OR point estimates declined to below 1, now consistent with prior studies. Pooling the adjusted SHRP 2 Talk OR estimates with prior study effect size estimates to improve precision, the population effect size for wireless cellular conversation while driving is estimated as 0.72 (CI 0.60–0.88.

  11. Analysis methods of stochastic transient electro–magnetic processes in electric traction system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Mishchenko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The essence and basic characteristics of calculation methods of transient electromagnetic processes in the elements and devices of non–linear dynamic electric traction systems taking into account the stochastic changes of voltages and currents in traction networks of power supply subsystem and power circuits of electric rolling stock are developed. Methodology. Classical methods and the methods of non–linear electric engineering, as well as probability theory method, especially the methods of stationary ergodic and non–stationary stochastic processes application are used in the research. Findings. Using the above-mentioned methods an equivalent circuit and the system of nonlinear integra–differential equations for electromagnetic condition of the double–track inter-substation zone of alternating current electric traction system are drawn up. Calculations allow obtaining electric traction current distribution in the areas of feeder zones. Originality. First of all the paper is interesting and important from scientific point of view due to the methods, which allow taking into account probabilistic character of change for traction voltages and electric traction system currents. On the second hand the researches develop the most efficient methods of nonlinear circuits’ analysis. Practical value. The practical value of the research is presented in application of the methods to the analysis of electromagnetic and electric energy processes in the traction power supply system in the case of high-speed train traffic.

  12. The aspect of vector control using the asynchronous traction motor in locomotives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Liudvinavičius

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines curves controlling asynchronous traction motors increasingly used in locomotive electric drives the main task of which is to create a tractive effort-speed curve of an ideal locomotive Fk = f(v, including a hyperbolic area the curve of which will create conditions showing that energy created by the diesel engine of diesel locomotives (electric locomotives and in case of electric trains, electricity taken from the contact network over the entire range of locomotive speed is turned into efficient work. Mechanical power on wheel sets is constant Pk = Fkv = const, the power of the diesel engine is fully used over the entire range of locomotive speed. Tractive effort-speed curve Fk(v shows the dependency of locomotive traction power Fk on movement speed v. The article presents theoretical and practical aspects relevant to creating the structure of locomotive electric drive and selecting optimal control that is especially relevant to creating the structure of locomotive electric drive using ATM (asynchronous traction motor that gains special popularity in traction rolling stock replacing DC traction motors having low reliability. The frequency modes of asynchronous motor speed regulation are examined. To control ATM, the authors suggest the method of vector control presenting the structural schemes of a locomotive with ATM and control algorithm.

  13. Ways of Telecommunications Interaction Arrangement for Microprocessor Devices of Different Types in Composition of Multi-Motor Electric Drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpenst, V. A.; Vasiliev, B. Y.; Kalashnikov, O. V.; Oleynikova, A. M.

    2018-05-01

    The article covers a consideration of various state-of-the-art industrial data transfer protocols, e.g. Modbus, Profibus, Industrial Ethernet and CAN. Their pros and cons are analyzed and conclusions made on advisability of the use of each protocol. It is shown that for the arrangement of effective telecommunication interaction of microprocessor devices of different types in the composition of multi-motor electric drives, it is advisable to use highlevel CAN-protocols, such as CANopen and DeviceNet.

  14. Advanced dc-Traction-Motor Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittone, O.

    1985-01-01

    Motor-control concept for battery-powered vehicles includes stateof-the-art power-transistor switching and separate excitation of motor windings in traction and regenerative braking. Switching transistors and other components of power-conditioning subsystem operate under control of computer that coordinates traction, braking, and protective functions.

  15. Elastohydrodynamic Traction Properties of Seed Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The elastohydrodynamic traction coefficient (tc) properties of nine seed oils of varying chemical structures, PAO and hexadecane, were investigated using a ball-on disk traction apparatus. The seed oils were: castor oil, a triglyceride with hydroxyl functional group; jojoba, a monoglyceride; and s...

  16. Elastohydrodynamic (EHD) traction properties of seed oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The elastohydrodynamic traction coefficient (tc) properties of nine seed oils of varying chemical structures, PAO and hexadecane, were investigated using a ball-on disk traction apparatus. The seed oils were: castor oil, a triglyceride with hydroxyl functional group; jojoba, a monoglyceride; and sev...

  17. Study of lower hybrid current drive system in tokamak fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maebara, Sunao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-01-01

    This report describes R and D of a high-power klystron, RF vacuum window, low-outgassing antenna and a front module for a plasma-facing antenna aiming the 5 GHz Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) system for the next Tokamak Fusion Device. 5 GHz klystron with a low-perveances of 0.7 {mu}P is designed for a high-power and a high-efficiency, the output-power of 715 kW and the efficiency of 63%, which are beyond the conventional design scaling of 450 kW-45%, are performed using the prototype klystron which operates at the pulse duration of 15 {mu}sec. A new pillbox window, which has an oversized length in both the axial and the radial direction, are designed to reduce the RF power density and the electric field strength at the ceramics. It is evaluated that the power capability by cooling edge of ceramics is 1 MW with continuous-wave operation. The antenna module using Dispersion Strengthened Copper which combines high mechanical property up to 500degC with high thermal conductivity, are developed for a low-outgassing antenna in a steady state operation. It is found that the outgassing rate is in the lower range of 4x10{sup -6} Pam{sup 3}/sm{sup 2} at the module temperature of 300degC, which requires no active vacuum pumping of the LHCD antenna. A front module using Carbon Fiber Composite (CFC) are fabricated and tested for a plasma facing antenna which has a high heat-resistive. Stationary operation of the CFC module with water cooling is performed at the RF power of 46 MWm{sup -2} (about 2 times higher than the design value) during 1000 sec, it is found that the outgassing rate is less than 10{sup -5} Pam{sup 3}/sm{sup 2} which is low enough for an antenna material. (author)

  18. A gate drive circuit for gate-turn-off (GTO) devices in series stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despe, O.

    1999-01-01

    A gate-turn-off (GTO) switch is under development at the Advanced Photon Source as a replacement for a thyratron switch in high power pulsed application. The high voltage in the application requires multiple GTOs connected in series. One component that is critical to the success of GTO operation is the gate drive circuit. The gate drive circuit has to provide fast high-current pulses to the GTO gate for fast turn-on and turn-off. It also has to be able to operate while floating at high voltage. This paper describes a gate drive circuit that meets these requirements

  19. Optimal arm posture control and tendon traction forces of a coupled tendon-driven manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Shugen

    1997-01-01

    In this study, the optimum arm posture of a coupled tendon-driven multijoint manipulator arm (or CT Arm) at maximum payload output was derived and the corresponding tendon traction forces were also analyzed, during management of a heavy payload by the manipulator in a gravity environment. The CT Arm is special tendon traction transmission mechanism in which a pair of tendons used to drive a joint is pulled from base actuators via pulleys mounted on the base-side joints. This mechanism enables optimal utilization of the coupled drive function of tendon traction forces and thus enables the lightweight manipulator to exhibit large payload capability. The properties of the CT Arm mechanism are elucidated by the proposed optimal posture control scheme. Computer simulation was also executed to verify the validity of the proposed control scheme. (author)

  20. Traction calculation of band conveyors using the ''Nairi-2'' computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutlunin, V A; Livshis, A V; Pod' yemshchikov, A N

    1982-01-01

    An algorithm is described and a program is introduced for traction calculation of band conveyors using the ''Nairi-2'' computer. The calculation system of the conveyor is derived by means of dividing the closed loop of the band into straight sections, which are separated by drums. The number of sections depends on the number of drums, the bypass system of them by the band, the shape of the conveyor route and in each specific case, a specific number is chosen. The initial information for the computer is assigned by a matrix, each row of which consists of parameters of the corresponding section. As a result, the forces of the beginning and end of the sections are found, and the required output of the drive motors with observance of the conditions of non-slippage of the drive drums and limiting of the maximum slack of the band between rollers are also found. The program allows one to make traction calculations of band conveyors with any routing shape for any number and position of the drive drums.

  1. Traction Control Study for a Scaled Automated Robotic Car

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis presents the use of sliding mode control applied to a 1/10th scale robotic car to operate at a desired slip. Controlling the robot car at any desired slip has a direct relation to the amount of force that is applied to the driving wheels based on road surface conditions. For this model, the desired traction/slip is maintained for a specific surface which happens to be a Lego treadmill platform. How the platform evolved and the robot car was designed are also covered. To parame...

  2. Belt drive construction improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Yu. Khomenko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of the traction capacity increase of the belt drive TRK is examined. This was done for the purpose of air conditioning system of passenger car with double-generator system energy supplying. Belts XPC (made by the German firm «Continental ContiTech» testing were conducted. The results confirmed the possibility of their usage in order to improve belt drive TRK characteristics.

  3. Asymmetry of activation of lateral abdominal muscles during the neurodevelopmental traction technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogola, Anna; Gnat, Rafał; Zaborowska, Małgorzata; Dziub, Dorota; Gwóźdź, Michalina

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the symmetry and pattern of activation of lateral abdominal muscles (LAM) in response to neurodevelopmental traction technique. Measurements of LAM thickness were performed in four experimental conditions: during traction with the force of 5% body weight (5% traction): 1) in neutral position, 2) in 20° posterior trunk inclination; during traction with the force of 15% body weight (15% traction): 3) in neutral position, 4) in 20° posterior trunk inclination. Thirty-seven healthy children participated in the study. Not applicable. To evaluate LAM activation level ultrasound technology was employed (two Mindray DP660 devices (Mindray, Shenzhen, China) with 75L38EA linear probes). An experiment with repeated measurements of the dependent variables was conducted. Side-to-side LAM activation asymmetry showed relatively high magnitude, however, significant difference was found only in case of the obliquus externus (OE) during stronger traction (P muscle differences were most pronounced between the OE and TrA (P muscles showing less intense activation. In statistical terms, the only signs of side-to-side asymmetry of LAM activation are visible in case of the OE, however, the magnitude of asymmetry is relatively high. The results allow to identify patterns of activation of LAM in children showing typical development that will serve as a reference in future studies in children with neurological disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Traction-related problems after hip arthroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Lone; Lund, Bent; Grønbech Nielsen, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    . The questionnaire included questions on patients' perceptions of traction-related problems in the groin area, at the knee and ankle and how patients had coped with these problems. A total of 100 consecutive patients undergoing hip arthroscopy filled out the questionnaire. Primary findings of this study were that 74......% of patients reported some sort of traction-related problems after hip arthroscopy. About 32% of the patients had problems in the groin area and 49% of the patients complained of symptoms in the knee joint. A total of 37% of the patients had experienced problems from the traction boot in the ankle area....... The complications were found to be temporary and disappeared after 2-4 weeks. Five patients still had complaints after 3 months. All five patients had a pre-existing knee injury prior to undergoing hip arthroscopy. Traction-related problems after hip arthroscopy are a challenge and our study showed that 74...

  5. Traction-related problems after hip arthroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Bent; Grønbech Nielsen, Torsten; Lind, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Traction-related problems are poorly described in the existing literature. The purpose of this prospective study was to describe traction-related problems and how patients perceive these problems. The study was a descriptive cohort study and data were collected from questionnaires and patient files. The questionnaire included questions on patients’ perceptions of traction-related problems in the groin area, at the knee and ankle and how patients had coped with these problems. A total of 100 consecutive patients undergoing hip arthroscopy filled out the questionnaire. Primary findings of this study were that 74% of patients reported some sort of traction-related problems after hip arthroscopy. About 32% of the patients had problems in the groin area and 49% of the patients complained of symptoms in the knee joint. A total of 37% of the patients had experienced problems from the traction boot in the ankle area. The complications were found to be temporary and disappeared after 2–4 weeks. Five patients still had complaints after 3 months. All five patients had a pre-existing knee injury prior to undergoing hip arthroscopy. Traction-related problems after hip arthroscopy are a challenge and our study showed that 74% of the patients reported traction-related problems. This is significantly higher than previously reported. The present study found a high rate of complaints from the knee and ankle joints that have not previously been reported. The presented data suggest the need for more pre-surgery patient information about possible traction-related problems. PMID:28630721

  6. Anti-backlash drive systems for multi-degree freedom devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungwen Tsai; Sunlai Chang.

    1993-09-14

    A new and innovative concept is described for the control of backlash in gear-coupled transmission mechanisms. The concept utilizes redundant unidirectional drives to assure positive coupling of gear meshes at all times. Based on this concept, a methodology for the enumeration of admissible redundant-drive backlash-free robotic mechanisms has been established. Some typical two- and three-DOF mechanisms are disclosed. Furthermore, actuator torques have been derived as functions of either joint torques or end-effector dynamic performance requirements. A redundantly driven gear coupled transmission mechanism manipulator has a fail-safe advantage in that, except of the loss of backlash control, it can continue to function when one of its actuators fails. A two-DOF backlash-free arm has been reduced to practice to demonstrate the principle. 20 figures.

  7. 3D Viscoelastic Traction Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyjanova, Jennet; Hannen, Erin; Bar-Kochba, Eyal; Darling, Eric M.; Henann, David L.; Franck, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Native cell-material interactions occur on materials differing in their structural composition, chemistry, and physical compliance. While the last two decades have shown the importance of traction forces during cell-material interactions, they have been almost exclusively presented on purely elastic in-vitro materials. Yet, most bodily tissue materials exhibit some level of viscoelasticity, which could play an important role in how cells sense and transduce tractions. To expand the realm of cell traction measurements and to encompass all materials from elastic to viscoelastic, this paper presents a general, and comprehensive approach for quantifying 3D cell tractions in viscoelastic materials. This methodology includes the experimental characterization of the time-dependent material properties for any viscoelastic material with the subsequent mathematical implementation of the determined material model into a 3D traction force microscopy (3D TFM) framework. Utilizing this new 3D viscoelastic TFM (3D VTFM) approach, we quantify the influence of viscosity on the overall material traction calculations and quantify the error associated with omitting time-dependent material effects, as is the case for all other TFM formulations. We anticipate that the 3D VTFM technique will open up new avenues of cell-material investigations on even more physiologically relevant time-dependent materials including collagen and fibrin gels. PMID:25170569

  8. Syntegra: complete integration of traction, bogie and brake systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewenstein, L.; Wangelin, F. von [Siemens AG, Transportation Systems, Erlangen (Germany). Group Technology TS GT; Teichmann, M.; Hoffmann, T. [Siemens TS, Graz (Austria); Joeckel, A. [Siemens Automation and Drives, Nuernberg (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    With Syntegra {sup registered} technology, Siemens has developed an approach to the complete integration of traction, bogie and brake systems, and this has initially been put into practice for metro, underground and S-Bahn (urban regional express) trains. Syntegra constitutes a fundamentally new approach, achieving a greater intensity of integration compared with the types of drive system that have been in use up until now. With Syntegra, the bogie, transmission and brake components are all brought together as part of one and the same system. The integration and, more especially, the technological advances within the three named areas bring about numerous synergies. The new generation of powered bogie features a combination of high efficiency, low dead weight and reduced emissions. A Syntegra drive system achieves a performance which is markedly better than that of conventional systems. (orig.)

  9. Reverse bistable effect in ferroelectric liquid crystal devices with ultra-fast switching at low driving voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qi; Zhao, Xiaojin; Zhao, Huijie; Chigrinov, V G

    2015-05-15

    In this Letter, reverse bistable effect with deep-sub-millisecond switching time is first reported in ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) devices using a homogeneous photo-alignment technique. It is indicated by our experimental results that both the anchoring energy and the dielectric property of the FLC's alignment layer is critical for the existence of the reverse bistable effect. In addition, with the derived criteria of the reverse bistable effect, we quantitatively analyze the switching dynamics of the reverse bistable FLC and the transition condition between the traditional bistability and our presented reverse bistability. Moreover, the fabricated FLC device exhibits an ultra-fast switching of ∼160  μs and a high contrast ratio of 1000:1, both of which were measured at a low driving voltage of 11 V. The featured deep-sub-millisecond switching time is really advantageous for our presented reverse bistable FLC devices, which enables a significant quality improvement of the existing optical devices, as well as a wide range of new applications in photonics and display areas.

  10. [Magnetic helicity and current drive in fusion devices]. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The research program focused on two main themes: (i) magnetic helicity and (ii) current drive by low-frequency waves. At first these themes seemed unrelated, but as time progressed, they became interwoven, and ultimately closely connected. A sub-theme is that while the MHD model of a plasma stimulates many intriguing counter-intuitive ideas for creating and sustaining magnetic confinement configurations, usually the crux of these schemes involves some sort of breakdown of MHD, i.e., involves physics which transcends MHD

  11. A formula for efficiency of fast wave current drive in fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, S.C.; Harvey, R.W.; Karney, C.F.F.; Mau, T.K.

    1992-06-01

    Fast wave current drive (FWCD) is a principal candidate for non- inductive current drive schemes in reactors. Major experiments are in progress or planned on DIII-D, JET, and Tore-Supra. A theory for FWCD was presented by two of the authors and collaborators. To minimize computations required in transport simulations, and for analytical understanding, it is very useful to have a concise analytical efficiency formula. Fisch and Karney, and Ehst and Karney have obtained empirical formulae that fits numerical results for the Landau limit and Alfven limit; the latter fits results at 1 i ≤ 2. This paper extends a previous numerical study on FWCD at arbitrary frequencies and Z i . Analytical formulae for FWCD efficiency, valid for all frequencies and Z i , are derived using the adjoint technique in high and low phase velocity regions. A smooth patching between the two regions produces an analytical formula which is accurate for all frequencies, Z i , and phase velocities. Comparison with existing results will be discussed. A corollary of the present calculation is that a low phase velocities and in the Landau limit, the efficiency is the same as that calculated from the Lorentz model collision operator

  12. Recent Research Results in the Field of Electric Drives and Mechatronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vittek

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of research results achieved in the field of Electrical Drives and Mechatronics for the period of three years. The achieved outputs are formed into three individual parts. In the field of Electric Drives the most significant outputs have been achieved in the development of a new control algorithms for a.c. drives under general name 'Forced Dynamics Control' , in improvement of shaft sensorless control methods and in implementation of developed algorithms via digital signal processors. In the field of Electric Traction the most important results have been gained in optimization of power of traction vehicles andat development of diagnostic systems for evaluation of technical conditions of traction devices. In the field of Electric Machines the most important outputs have been achieved in the research of modern electronically commutated electrical machines, their performances in steady and transient states, new design method for their configuration and new methods for automatic parameters identification. In the end the list of the most important publications for all three parts is enclosed.

  13. Impact of aftertreatment devices and driving conditions on unregulated emissions for Euro 5 vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, Yao; LOUIS, Cédric; GORIAUX, Mathieu; CHAUMOND, Agnès; TASSEL, Patrick; PERRET, Pascal; ANDRE, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Road traffic is a major contributor of air pollution in urban areas and particularly passenger cars. To reduce regulated emissions, new aftertreatment devices and new technologies were developed (catalysed or additived Diesel particle filter, direct injected gasoline vehicle...). These new technologies induce modifications of unregulated emissions (VOC, BTEX, PAH, NO2, black carbon, metals, ultrafine particles). Unregulated pollutants might induce many health effects regarding their toxicity ...

  14. 3D printed Lego®-like modular microfluidic devices based on capillary driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jing; Gao, Qing; Qiu, Jing-Jiang; Sun, Miao; Liu, An; Shao, Lei; Fu, Jian-Zhong; Zhao, Peng; He, Yong

    2018-03-12

    The field of how to rapidly assemble microfluidics with modular components continuously attracts researchers' attention, however, extra efforts must be devoted to solving the problems of leaking and aligning between individual modules. This paper presents a novel type of modular microfluidic device, driven by capillary force. There is no necessity for a strict seal or special alignment, and its open structures make it easy to integrate various stents and reactants. The key rationale for this method is to print different functional modules with a low-cost three-dimensional (3D) printer, then fill the channels with capillary materials and assemble them with plugs like Lego ® bricks. This rapidly reconstructed modular microfluidic device consists of a variety of common functional modules and other personalized modules, each module having a unified standard interface for easy assembly. As it can be printed by a desktop 3D printer, the manufacturing process is simple and efficient, with controllable regulation of the flow channel scale. Through diverse combinations of different modules, a variety of different functions can be achieved, without duplicating the manufacturing process. A single module can also be taken out for testing and analysis. What's more, combined with basic circuit components, it can serve as a low-cost Lego ® -like modular microfluidic circuits. As a proof of concept, the modular microfluidic device has been successfully demonstrated and used for stent degradation and cell cultures, revealing the potential use of this method in both chemical and biological research.

  15. Skull traction for cervical spinal injury in Enugu: A 5‑year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-11-05

    Nov 5, 2015 ... Background: Treatment of cervical spine injury is the most challenging of all the injuries of the spine, and there is yet no agreement on the best method of care. Objective: We studied the complications and outcome of two skull traction devices used to treat cases of cervical spine injury in three centers in ...

  16. Illumination modelling of a mobile device environment for effective use in driving mobile apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhoubi, Asmaa H.; Saravi, Sara; Edirisinghe, Eran A.; Bez, Helmut E.

    2015-05-01

    The present generation of Ambient Light Sensors (ALS) of a mobile handheld device suffer from two practical shortcomings. The ALSs are narrow angle, i.e. they respond effectively only within a narrow angle of operation and there is a latency of operation. As a result mobile applications that operate based on the ALS readings could perform sub-optimally especially when operated in environments with non-uniform illumination. The applications will either adopt with unacceptable levels of latency or/and may demonstrate a discrete nature of operation. In this paper we propose a framework to predict the ambient illumination of an environment in which a mobile device is present. The predictions are based on an illumination model that is developed based on a small number of readings taken during an application calibration stage. We use a machine learning based approach in developing the models. Five different regression models were developed, implemented and compared based on Polynomial, Gaussian, Sum of Sine, Fourier and Smoothing Spline functions. Approaches to remove noisy data, missing values and outliers were used prior to the modelling stage to remove their negative effects on modelling. The prediction accuracy for all models were found to be above 0.99 when measured using R-Squared test with the best performance being from Smoothing Spline. In this paper we will discuss mathematical complexity of each model and investigate how to make compromises in finding the best model.

  17. Novel Transverse Flux Machine for Vehicle Traction Applications: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Z.; Ahmed, A.; Husain, I.; Muljadi, E.

    2015-04-02

    A novel transverse flux machine topology for electric vehicle traction applications using ferrite magnets is presented in this paper. The proposed transverse flux topology utilizes novel magnet arrangements in the rotor that are similar to the Halbach array to boost flux linkage; on the stator side, cores are alternately arranged around a pair of ring windings in each phase to make use of the entire rotor flux that eliminates end windings. Analytical design considerations and finite-element methods are used for an optimized design of a scooter in-wheel motor. Simulation results from finite element analysis (FEA) show that the motor achieved comparable torque density to conventional rare-earth permanent magnet (PM) machines. This machine is a viable candidate for direct-drive applications with low cost and high torque density.

  18. Traction control of an electric vehicle based on nonlinear observers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego A. Aligia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A traction control strategy for a four-wheel electric vehicle is proposed in this paper. The strategy is based on nonlinear observers which allows estimating the maximum force that can be transmitted to the road. Knowledge of the maximum force allows controlling the slip of the driving wheels, preventing the wheel’s slippage in low-grip surfaces. The proposed strategy also allows to avoid the undesired yaw moment in the vehicle which occurs when road conditions on either side of it are dierent. This improves the eciency and the control of the vehicle, avoiding possible losses of stability that can result in risks for its occupants. Both the proposed observer and the control strategy are designed based on a dynamic rotational model of the wheel and a brush force model. Simulation results are obtained based on a complete vehicle model on the Simulink/CarSim platform.

  19. Electron Cyclotron Current Drive Compensation of the Bootstrap Current in Quasi-symmetric Reactor Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margalet, S. D.; Cooper, W. A.; Volpe, F.; Castejon, F.

    2005-01-01

    In magnetic confinement devices, the inhomogeneity of the confining magnetic field along a magnetic field line generates the trapping of particles within local magnetic wells. One of the consequences of the trapped particles is the generation of a current, known as the bootstrap current (BC), whose direction depends on the nature of the magnetic trapping. The BC provides an extra contribution to the poloidal component of the confining magnetic field. The variation of the poloidal component produces the alteration of the winding of the magnetic field lines around the flux surfaces quantified by the rotational transform. When reaches low rational values, it can trigger the generation of ideal MHD instabilities. Therefore, the BC may be responsible for the destabilisation of the configuration [1]. Having established the potentially dangerous implication of the BC, principally, in reactor prototypes, a method to compensate its harmful effects is proposed. It consists of the modelling of the current driven by externally launched ECWs within the plasma to compensate the effects of the BC. This method is flexible enough to allow the identification of the appropriate scenarios in which to generate the required CD depending on the nature of the confining magnetic field and the specific plasma parameters of the configuration. Both the BC and the CD calculations are included in a self-consistent scheme which leads to the computation of a stable BC+CD-consistent MHD equilibrium. This procedure is applied in this paper to simulate the required CD to stabilise a QAS and a QHS reactor prototypes. The estimation of the input power required and the effect of the driven current on the final equilibrium of the system is performed for several relevant scenarios and wave polarisations providing various options of stabilising driven currents. (Author)

  20. Traction alopecia: A neglected entity in 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiana Oyinlola Akingbola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traction alopecia was first described in 1904 but is still a cause of scarring hair loss in young women worldwide. It is unique in being initially a reversible then an irreversible (scarring form of alopecia. Linked to tightly-pulled hairstyles, it is seen across all races. The pattern of hair loss depends on the style creating it but most commonly affects the frontotemporal hairline. There are some new examination findings associated with traction alopecia, which are traction folliculitis, the fringe sign and hair casts (pseudonits on dermatoscopy. These may prove key in prompting early specialist referral. The mainstay of current treatment is cessation of the contributing hairstyles. Camouflage, anti-inflammatory or growth-stimulating topical preparations are second line treatments. In later stages of severe traction alopecia hair transplantation may be the only effective treatment. The evidence basis for medical intervention with topical agents is anecdotal at best. Furthermore, additional research is required to clarify the pathogenesis of this biphasic alopecia. Until then, prompt diagnosis and identification of causative hairstyles are focus of current dermatological practice.

  1. Prediction of traction forces of motile cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Clément; Duperray, Alain; Laurent, Valérie M; Michel, Richard; Peschetola, Valentina; Verdier, Claude; Étienne, Jocelyn

    2016-10-06

    When crawling on a flat substrate, living cells exert forces on it via adhesive contacts, enabling them to build up tension within their cytoskeleton and to change shape. The measurement of these forces has been made possible by traction force microscopy (TFM), a technique which has allowed us to obtain time-resolved traction force maps during cell migration. This cell 'footprint' is, however, not sufficient to understand the details of the mechanics of migration, that is how cytoskeletal elements (respectively, adhesion complexes) are put under tension and reinforce or deform (respectively, mature and/or unbind) as a result. In a recent paper, we have validated a rheological model of actomyosin linking tension, deformation and myosin activity. Here, we complement this model with tentative models of the mechanics of adhesion and explore how closely these models can predict the traction forces that we recover from experimental measurements during cell migration. The resulting mathematical problem is a PDE set on the experimentally observed domain, which we solve using a finite-element approach. The four parameters of the model can then be adjusted by comparison with experimental results on a single frame of an experiment, and then used to test the predictive power of the model for following frames and other experiments. It is found that the basic pattern of traction forces is robustly predicted by the model and fixed parameters as a function of current geometry only.

  2. Traction alopecia: the root of the problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billero V

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Victoria Billero, Mariya MitevaDepartment of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USAAbstract: Traction alopecia (TA affects one-third of women of African descent who wear various forms of traumatic hairstyling for a prolonged period of time. The risk of TA is increased by the extent of pulling and duration of traction, as well as the use of chemical relaxation. The frequent use of tight buns or ponytails, the attachment of weaves or hair extensions, and tight braids (such as cornrows and dreadlocks are believed to be the highest risk hairstyles. TA can also occur in the setting of religious and occupational traumatic hairstyling. In its later stages, the disease may progress into an irreversible scarring alopecia if traumatic hairstyling continues without appropriate intervention. The most common clinical presentation includes marginal alopecia and non-marginal patchy alopecia. A clue to the clinical diagnosis is the preservation of the fringe sign as opposed to its loss in frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA. Dermoscopy can be helpful in the diagnosis and can detect the ongoing traction by the presence of hair casts. Histopathology can distinguish TA from alopecia areata, FFA, and patchy central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia. Currently, there is no cure. Therefore, it is imperative that clinicians educate high-risk populations about TA and those practices that may convey the risk of hair loss. Keywords: hair loss, alopecia, dermoscopy, trichoscopy, traction alopecia, African-American 

  3. Two wheel speed robust sliding mode control for electric vehicle drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfatah Nasri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the uses of electrical power resources are integrated in the modern vehicle motion traction chain so new technologies allow the development of electric vehicles (EV by means of static converters-related electric motors. All mechanical transmission devices are eliminated and vehicle wheel motion can be controlled by means of power electronics. The proposed propulsing system consists of two induction motors (IM that ensure the drive of the two back driving wheels. The proposed control structure-called independent machines- for speed control permit the achievement of an electronic differential. The electronic differential system ensures the robust control of the vehicle behavior on the road. It also allows controlling independently, every driving wheel to turn at different speeds in any curve. This paper presents the study and the sliding mode control strategy of the electric vehicle driving wheels.

  4. Traction for low-back pain with or without sciatica.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarke, J.A.; van Tulder, M.W.; Blomberg, S.E.; de Vet, H.C.W.; van der Heijden, G.J.; Bronfort, G.; Bouter, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Traction is used to treat low-back pain (LBP), often with other treatments. Objectives: To determine traction's effectiveness, compared to reference treatments, placebo, sham traction or no treatment for LBP. Search strategy: We searched CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2006, issue 4),

  5. The Determination of the Asynchronous Traction Motor Characteristics of Locomotive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Grigorievich Kolpakhchyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of the locomotive asynchronous traction motor control with the AC diesel-electric transmission. The limitations of the torque of the traction motor when powered by the inverter are determined. The recommendations to improve the use of asynchronous traction motor of locomotives with the AC diesel-electric transmission are given.

  6. Traction forces exerted by epithelial cell sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez, A; Anon, E; Ghibaudo, M; Di Meglio, J-M; Hersen, P; Ladoux, B; Du Roure, O; Silberzan, P; Buguin, A

    2010-01-01

    Whereas the adhesion and migration of individual cells have been well described in terms of physical forces, the mechanics of multicellular assemblies is still poorly understood. Here, we study the behavior of epithelial cells cultured on microfabricated substrates designed to measure cell-to-substrate interactions. These substrates are covered by a dense array of flexible micropillars whose deflection enables us to measure traction forces. They are obtained by lithography and soft replica molding. The pillar deflection is measured by video microscopy and images are analyzed with home-made multiple particle tracking software. First, we have characterized the temporal and spatial distributions of traction forces of cellular assemblies of various sizes. The mechanical force balance within epithelial cell sheets shows that the forces exerted by neighboring cells strongly depend on their relative position in the monolayer: the largest deformations are always localized at the edge of the islands of cells in the active areas of cell protrusions. The average traction stress rapidly decreases from its maximum value at the edge but remains much larger than the inherent noise due to the force resolution of our pillar tracking software, indicating an important mechanical activity inside epithelial cell islands. Moreover, these traction forces vary linearly with the rigidity of the substrate over about two decades, suggesting that cells exert a given amount of deformation rather than a force. Finally, we engineer micropatterned substrates supporting pillars with anisotropic stiffness. On such substrates cellular growth is aligned with respect to the stiffest direction in correlation with the magnitude of the applied traction forces.

  7. Intellectual Drive With Electric Engines On a Stock Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazhynov O.V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of installing smart electric drive, battery unit and control system of a stock car is presented. This work is devoted to AEM control law consisting of auto power plant, providing minimum current consumption for a given traction and speed mode. The practicability of AEM static model usage in the process of synthesis of optimal control of auto power plant with traction electric drives and also choice and substantiation of its basic parameters and characteristics is demonstrated.

  8. Orthodontic Traction of Impacted Canine Using Cantilever

    OpenAIRE

    Nakandakari, Cláudia; Gonçalves, João Roberto; Cassano, Daniel Serra; Raveli, Taísa Boamorte; Bianchi, Jonas; Raveli, Dirceu Barnabé

    2016-01-01

    The impaction of the maxillary canines causes relevant aesthetic and functional problems. The multidisciplinary approach to the proper planning and execution of orthodontic traction of the element in question is essential. Many strategies are cited in the literature; among them is the good biomechanical control in order to avoid possible side effects. The aim of this paper is to present a case report in which a superior canine impacted by palatine was pulled out with the aid of the cantilever...

  9. Digital Model of Railway Electric Traction Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rachana; Mahajan, Priya; Kumar, Parmod

    2017-08-01

    The characteristic impedance and propagation constant define the behavior of signal propagation over the transmission lines. The digital model for railway traction lines which includes railway tracks is developed, using curve fitting technique in MATLAB. The sensitivity of this model has been computed with respect to frequency. The digital sensitivity values are compared with the values of analog sensitivity. The developed model is useful for digital protection, integrated operation, control and planning of the system.

  10. Understanding the traction of tennis surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, James; Carré, Matt; Richardson, Andrea; Yang, Zhijun; Damm, Loic; Dixon, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    The traction provided by a footwear-surface interaction can have an impact on player safety, performance and overall enjoyment of sport. Mechanical test methods used for the testing and categorisation of safe playing surfaces do not tend to simulate loads occurring during participation on the surface, and thus are unlikely to predict human response to the surface. For example, the pendulum system routinely employed by the International Tennis Federation (I.T.F.) utilises a standard rubber ‘fo...

  11. Orthodontic Traction of Impacted Canine Using Cantilever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Nakandakari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The impaction of the maxillary canines causes relevant aesthetic and functional problems. The multidisciplinary approach to the proper planning and execution of orthodontic traction of the element in question is essential. Many strategies are cited in the literature; among them is the good biomechanical control in order to avoid possible side effects. The aim of this paper is to present a case report in which a superior canine impacted by palatine was pulled out with the aid of the cantilever on the Segmented Arch Technique (SAT concept. A 14.7-year-old female patient appeared at clinic complaining about the absence of the upper right permanent canine. The proposed treatment prioritized the traction of the upper right canine without changing the occlusion and aesthetics. For this, it only installed the upper fixed appliance (Roth with slot 0.018, opting for SAT in order to minimize unwanted side effects. The use of cantilever to the traction of the upper right canine has enabled an efficient and predictable outcome, because it is of statically determined mechanics.

  12. Traction alopecia: the root of the problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billero, Victoria; Miteva, Mariya

    2018-01-01

    Traction alopecia (TA) affects one-third of women of African descent who wear various forms of traumatic hairstyling for a prolonged period of time. The risk of TA is increased by the extent of pulling and duration of traction, as well as the use of chemical relaxation. The frequent use of tight buns or ponytails, the attachment of weaves or hair extensions, and tight braids (such as cornrows and dreadlocks) are believed to be the highest risk hairstyles. TA can also occur in the setting of religious and occupational traumatic hairstyling. In its later stages, the disease may progress into an irreversible scarring alopecia if traumatic hairstyling continues without appropriate intervention. The most common clinical presentation includes marginal alopecia and non-marginal patchy alopecia. A clue to the clinical diagnosis is the preservation of the fringe sign as opposed to its loss in frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA). Dermoscopy can be helpful in the diagnosis and can detect the ongoing traction by the presence of hair casts. Histopathology can distinguish TA from alopecia areata, FFA, and patchy central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia. Currently, there is no cure. Therefore, it is imperative that clinicians educate high-risk populations about TA and those practices that may convey the risk of hair loss.

  13. Monitoring driver fatigue using a single-channel electroencephalographic device: A validation study by gaze-based, driving performance, and subjective data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, José M; Díaz-Piedra, Carolina; Rieiro, Héctor; Roca-González, Joaquín; Romero, Samuel; Catena, Andrés; Fuentes, Luis J; Di Stasi, Leandro L

    2017-12-01

    Driver fatigue can impair performance as much as alcohol does. It is the most important road safety concern, causing thousands of accidents and fatalities every year. Thanks to technological developments, wearable, single-channel EEG devices are now getting considerable attention as fatigue monitors, as they could help drivers to assess their own levels of fatigue and, therefore, prevent the deterioration of performance. However, the few studies that have used single-channel EEG devices to investigate the physiological effects of driver fatigue have had inconsistent results, and the question of whether we can monitor driver fatigue reliably with these EEG devices remains open. Here, we assessed the validity of a single-channel EEG device (TGAM-based chip) to monitor changes in mental state (from alertness to fatigue). Fifteen drivers performed a 2-h simulated driving task while we recorded, simultaneously, their prefrontal brain activity and saccadic velocity. We used saccadic velocity as the reference index of fatigue. We also collected subjective ratings of alertness and fatigue, as well as driving performance. We found that the power spectra of the delta EEG band showed an inverted U-shaped quadratic trend (EEG power spectra increased for the first hour and half, and decreased during the last thirty minutes), while the power spectra of the beta band linearly increased as the driving session progressed. Coherently, saccadic velocity linearly decreased and speeding time increased, suggesting a clear effect of fatigue. Subjective data corroborated these conclusions. Overall, our results suggest that the TGAM-based chip EEG device is able to detect changes in mental state while performing a complex and dynamic everyday task as driving. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficient start–up energy management via nonlinear control for eco–traction systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becherif, M.; Ramadan, H.S.; Ayad, M.Y.; Hissel, D.; Desideri, U.; Antonelli, M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Renewable HPS for the train start-up within feeding durations. • Dynamic modelling of the modern HPS applied to traction systems. • Port-Controlled Hamiltonian (PCH) design for supercapacitors’ charge/discharge operation. • Experimental validation and applicability of HPSs for energy management in eco-tractions. - Abstract: Electrochemical capacitors, called supercapacitors (SCs) or ultracapacitors, are devices conveniently used for embedded electrical energy management owing to their huge capacitance, low internal resistance and flexible control through power electronic conversion. This paper proposes a main power supply of hybrid Wind Generator (WG)–SC within the train station for feeding the traction onboard SC through specified limited feeding transit durations. Onboard SCs provide the train with the requested start–up self–energy. The hybrid WG–SCs system is an environmental–friendly source that enables the independency on national grid and guarantees an efficient bidirectional power transfer for energy management with enhanced dynamic performance. Therefore, the dynamic modelling and the experimental analysis of the modern hybrid WG–SCs used for managing the charge/discharge operation of SCs at Unity Power Factor (UPF) mode are presented. For this purpose, the Port–Controlled Hamiltonian (PCH) methodology is deduced and explicitly presented. Simulation results, via MATLAB™, reveal that the proposed PCH control methodology can be successfully implemented to ensure acceptable system dynamic behavior. Numerical results are validated with experimental measurements to investigate the significance of the PCH approach for the energy management operation in eco-tractions.

  15. Regulation of unbalanced electromagnetic moment in mutual loading systems of electric machines of traction rolling stock and multiple unit of mainline and industrial transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Afanasov

    2014-12-01

    the mutual loading systems of electric machines of direct and pulse current. Analytical expressions for the unbalanced moment of mutually loaded electromagnetic electric machines were obtained. The requirements for automatic regulation systems of the mutual loading stands of the traction electric machines of direct and pulse current are formulated. Practical value. Using the results of the theoretical research will significantly simplify the development algorithms of the test stands management of the traction electric machines of rolling stock for mainline and industrial transport. Introduction of the proposed principles of mutual loading for traction electric machines will significantly reduce the costs for creating new stations and modernization of the existing ones for testing of traction electric machines. Automating the process of refit and acceptance tests of traction electric machines will significantly improve the test quality and reliability of the traction rolling stock and multiple unit with electric traction drive.

  16. Testing of marrow coal bed systems by hydraulic driving device for thin films of coal; Ensayo de un Sistema de Arranque con Cepillo mediante Accionamiento Hidraulico para Capas Estrechas de CArbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This researching project had the aim of: Testing a new mining system performance at narrow coal bed, which uses plough equipment with hydraulic driving devices. Minimising driving power group size to avoid problems regarding with the wall mining-heading transition, decreasing the needed room to house it and thus simplifying wall mining edge support The expected goals were: Take advantage of hydraulic driving devices to obtain a good efficiency with a variable and discontinuous load, bu t without loosing the electric driving devices advantages, consisting on increase driving torque, being the engine blocked Lengthen the mechanical equipment life (chains, driving sprockets, etc.) Reach and economic production rate Researching project was developed in El Bierzo basin (Leon, Spain), in Grupo Ampliacion, a mining group belonged to Viloria Hnos S. A.. (Author)

  17. Lower hybrid current drive: an overview of simulation models, benchmarking with experiment, and predictions for future devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonoli, P.T.; Barbato, E.; Imbeaux, F.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) simulation and modeling. We first discuss modules used for wave propagation, absorption, and current drive with particular emphasis placed on comparing exact numerical solutions of the Fokker Planck equation in 2-dimension with solution methods that employ 1-dimensional and adjoint approaches. We also survey model predictions for LHCD in past and present experiments showing detailed comparisons between simulated and observed current drive efficiencies and hard X-ray profiles. Finally we discuss several model predictions for lower hybrid current profile control in proposed next step reactor options. (authors)

  18. Effects of Different Angles of the Traction Table on Lumbar Spine Ligaments: A Finite Element Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajpour, Hekmat; Jamshidi, Nima

    2017-12-01

    The traction bed is a noninvasive device for treating lower back pain caused by herniated intervertebral discs. In this study, we investigated the impact of the traction bed on the lower back as a means of increasing the disc height and creating a gap between facet joints. Computed tomography (CT) images were obtained from a female volunteer and a three-dimensional (3D) model was created using software package MIMICs 17.0. Afterwards, the 3D model was analyzed in an analytical software (Abaqus 6.14). The study was conducted under the following traction loads: 25%, 45%, 55%, and 85% of the whole body weight in different angles. Results indicated that the loading angle in the L3-4 area had 36.8%, 57.4%, 55.32%, 49.8%, and 52.15% effect on the anterior longitudinal ligament, posterior longitudinal ligament, intertransverse ligament, interspinous ligament, and supraspinous ligament, respectively. The respective values for the L4-5 area were 32.3%, 10.6%, 53.4%, 56.58%, and 57.35%. Also, the body weight had 63.2%, 42.6%, 44.68%, 50.2%, and 47.85% effect on the anterior longitudinal ligament, posterior longitudinal ligament, intertransverse ligament, interspinous ligament, and supraspinous ligament, respectively. The respective values for the L4-5 area were 67.7%, 89.4%, 46.6%, 43.42% and 42.65%. The authenticity of results was checked by comparing with the experimental data. The results show that traction beds are highly effective for disc movement and lower back pain relief. Also, an optimal angle for traction can be obtained in a 3D model analysis using CT or magnetic resonance imaging images. The optimal angle would be different for different patients and thus should be determined based on the decreased height of the intervertebral disc, weight and height of patients.

  19. ANALYSIS OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF OPERATING MODES OF ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS WITH THE TRACTION LOADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Bondarenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Innovative scenarios of reliable energy supply of transportation process aimed at reducing the specific energy consumption and increase energy efficiency of the systems of electric traction. The paper suggests innovative energy saving directions in traction networks of railways and new circuit solutions accessing traction substations in energy systems networks, ensure energy security of the transportation process. To ensure the energy security of rail transport special schemes were developed to propose the concept of external power traction substations, which would increase the number of connections to the networks of 220 – 330 kV, as well as the creation of transport and energy corridors, development of its own supply of electric networks of 110 kV substations and mobile RP-110 kV of next generation. Therefore, the investment program of the structures owned by the Ukrainian Railways (Ukrzaliznytsia need to be synchronized in their technological characteristics, as well as the criteria of reliability and quality of power supply with the same external energy investment programs. It is found that without any load on left or right supplying arm one of two less loaded phases of traction transformer begins generating specific modes in the supplying three-phase line. Thus, modes of mobile substation cause leakage in one of the phases of the supply line of traction transformers of active-capacitive current, and as a result generating energy in the main power line of 154 kV, which is fixed and calculated by electricity meters. For these three phase mode supply network is necessary to use 1st algorithm, i.e. taking into account the amount of electricity as the energy in all phases. For effective application of reactive power compensation devices in the AC traction power supply systems it is proposed to develop regulatory documentation on necessity of application and the order of choice of parameters and placement of compensation systems taking into

  20. Cell origami: self-folding of three-dimensional cell-laden microstructures driven by cell traction force.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Kuribayashi-Shigetomi

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method of generating three-dimensional (3D cell-laden microstructures by applying the principle of origami folding technique and cell traction force (CTF. We harness the CTF as a biological driving force to fold the microstructures. Cells stretch and adhere across multiple microplates. Upon detaching the microplates from a substrate, CTF causes the plates to lift and fold according to a prescribed pattern. This self-folding technique using cells is highly biocompatible and does not involve special material requirements for the microplates and hinges to induce folding. We successfully produced various 3D cell-laden microstructures by just changing the geometry of the patterned 2D plates. We also achieved mass-production of the 3D cell-laden microstructures without causing damage to the cells. We believe that our methods will be useful for biotechnology applications that require analysis of cells in 3D configurations and for self-assembly of cell-based micro-medical devices.

  1. Cell origami: self-folding of three-dimensional cell-laden microstructures driven by cell traction force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuribayashi-Shigetomi, Kaori; Onoe, Hiroaki; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a method of generating three-dimensional (3D) cell-laden microstructures by applying the principle of origami folding technique and cell traction force (CTF). We harness the CTF as a biological driving force to fold the microstructures. Cells stretch and adhere across multiple microplates. Upon detaching the microplates from a substrate, CTF causes the plates to lift and fold according to a prescribed pattern. This self-folding technique using cells is highly biocompatible and does not involve special material requirements for the microplates and hinges to induce folding. We successfully produced various 3D cell-laden microstructures by just changing the geometry of the patterned 2D plates. We also achieved mass-production of the 3D cell-laden microstructures without causing damage to the cells. We believe that our methods will be useful for biotechnology applications that require analysis of cells in 3D configurations and for self-assembly of cell-based micro-medical devices.

  2. Skeletal traction and intramedullary nailing cost-effectiveness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the operative group 24 patients had union with one delayed union while in the traction group 12 patients had union, 9 with mal union and 4 delayed union. Conclusion: Intramedullary nailing is more cost-effective than skeletal traction. It met the dominant strategy, because it was significantly less costly than skeletal ...

  3. Traction for low-back pain with or without sciatica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegner, I.; Widyahehening, I.S.; van Tulder, M.W.; Blomberg, S.E.I.; de Vet, H.C.W.; Brønfort, G.; Bouter, L.M.; van der Heijden, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Traction has been used to treat low-back pain (LBP), often in combination with other treatments. We included both manual and machine-delivered traction in this review. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1995, and previously updated in 2006. Objectives To assess the

  4. Orthodontic traction of impacted canine using magnet: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Larry CF; Wong, Ricky WK; King, Nigel M

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: A 15 year and 1 month old Chinese female with palatally impacted upper left canine was successfully treated with an upper removable appliance with a magnet incorporated to provide orthodontic traction force. This case report indicates the possibility of using magnetic force as a safe, effective and comfortable way for orthodontic traction.

  5. Cost effectiveness of using surgery versus skeletal traction in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The financial cost benefit of surgery was further complimented by better functional outcomes. Conclusion: The data indicates a cost advantage of managing femoral shaft fracture by surgery compared to traction. Furthermore the longer hospital stay in the traction group is associated with more malunion, limb deformity and ...

  6. Electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikanek, Susan R.

    1995-01-01

    An antiskid braking and traction control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle having a regenerative braking system operatively connected to an electric traction motor, and a separate hydraulic braking system includes one or more sensors for monitoring present vehicle parameters and a processor, responsive to the sensors, for calculating vehicle parameters defining the vehicle behavior not directly measurable by the sensors and determining if regenerative antiskid braking control, requiring hydrualic braking control, or requiring traction control are required. The processor then employs a control strategy based on the determined vehicle state and provides command signals to a motor controller to control the operation of the electric traction motor and to a brake controller to control fluid pressure applied at each vehicle wheel to provide the appropriate regenerative antiskid braking control, hydraulic braking control, and traction control.

  7. Electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikanek, S.R.

    1995-09-12

    An antiskid braking and traction control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle having a regenerative braking system operatively connected to an electric traction motor, and a separate hydraulic braking system includes one or more sensors for monitoring present vehicle parameters and a processor, responsive to the sensors, for calculating vehicle parameters defining the vehicle behavior not directly measurable by the sensors and determining if regenerative antiskid braking control, requiring hydraulic braking control, or requiring traction control are required. The processor then employs a control strategy based on the determined vehicle state and provides command signals to a motor controller to control the operation of the electric traction motor and to a brake controller to control fluid pressure applied at each vehicle wheel to provide the appropriate regenerative antiskid braking control, hydraulic braking control, and traction control. 10 figs.

  8. Demagnetization monitoring and life extending control for permanent magnet-driven traction systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Gang; Liu, Senyi

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a novel scheme of demagnetization monitoring and life extending control for traction systems driven by permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs). Firstly, the offline training is carried to evaluate fatigue damage of insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) under different flux loss based on first-principle modeling. Then an optimal control law can be extracted by turning down the power distribution factor of the demagnetizing PMSM until all damages of IGBTs turn to balance. Next, the similarity-based empirical modeling is employed to online estimate remaining flux of PMSMs, which is used to update the power distribution factor by referring the optimal control law for the health-oriented autonomous control. The proposed strategy can be demonstrated by a case study of traction drive system coupled with dual-PMSMs. Compared with traditional control strategy, the results show that the novel scheme can not only guarantee traction performance but also extend remaining useful life (RUL) of the system after suffering demagnetization fault.

  9. Investigation of wear of insulation of traction engines of locomotives in operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nefedov Roman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes reliability of traction electric motors in operation. It is shown that the greatest number of failure falls on the winding of the armature. Investigation of the causes of increased wear of the armature winding insulation was carried out using the dynamic thermal model of the electric motor. The model is represented by 150 final elements and takes into account the conditions of thermal conductivity between the nodes and heat transfer to the cooling air. Verification of the model was carried out by comparison with the results of thermal tests of electric motors of the series HБ-406 and ЭД-118. The field of temperatures in the traction motor under various loads was investigated. It is shown that in stationary mode the temperature change along the armature winding can reach 60C. Modeling of thermal dynamic processes in the engine during its operation on the locomotive allowed to identify the most stressed nodes. It is shown that the resource of the electric motor is determined by the wear of the insulation of the frontal part of the armature winding on the side of the traction drive of the locomotive.

  10. Energy and wear optimisation of train longitudinal dynamics and of traction and braking systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, R.; Galardi, E.; Meli, E.; Nocciolini, D.; Pugi, L.; Rindi, A.

    2015-05-01

    Traction and braking systems deeply affect longitudinal train dynamics, especially when an extensive blending phase among different pneumatic, electric and magnetic devices is required. The energy and wear optimisation of longitudinal vehicle dynamics has a crucial economic impact and involves several engineering problems such as wear of braking friction components, energy efficiency, thermal load on components, level of safety under degraded or adhesion conditions (often constrained by the current regulation in force on signalling or other safety-related subsystem). In fact, the application of energy storage systems can lead to an efficiency improvement of at least 10% while, as regards the wear reduction, the improvement due to distributed traction systems and to optimised traction devices can be quantified in about 50%. In this work, an innovative integrated procedure is proposed by the authors to optimise longitudinal train dynamics and traction and braking manoeuvres in terms of both energy and wear. The new approach has been applied to existing test cases and validated with experimental data provided by Breda and, for some components and their homologation process, the results of experimental activities derive from cooperation performed with relevant industrial partners such as Trenitalia and Italcertifer. In particular, simulation results are referred to the simulation tests performed on a high-speed train (Ansaldo Breda Emu V250) and on a tram (Ansaldo Breda Sirio Tram). The proposed approach is based on a modular simulation platform in which the sub-models corresponding to different subsystems can be easily customised, depending on the considered application, on the availability of technical data and on the homologation process of different components.

  11. Using a smart wheelchair as a gaming device for floor-projected games: a mixed-reality environment for training powered-wheelchair driving skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secoli, R; Zondervan, D; Reinkensmeyer, D

    2012-01-01

    For children with a severe disability, such as can arise from cerebral palsy, becoming independent in mobility is a critical goal. Currently, however, driver's training for powered wheelchair use is labor intensive, requiring hand-over-hand assistance from a skilled therapist to keep the trainee safe. This paper describes the design of a mixed reality environment for semi-autonomous training of wheelchair driving skills. In this system, the wheelchair is used as the gaming input device, and users train driving skills by maneuvering through floor-projected games created with a multi-projector system and a multi-camera tracking system. A force feedback joystick assists in steering and enhances safety.

  12. Safety Assessment of Wearing the AN/PVS-14 Monocular Night Vision Device (MNVD) and AN/AVS-6 Aviators' Night Vision Imaging System (ANVIS) During 5-Ton and HMMWV Night Driving

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Redden, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    .... The Communications-Electronics Command Directorate for Safety Risk Management, Fort Monmouth, New Jersey, will use the results of the assessment to determine the suitability of both devices for driving...

  13. Wheel Slip Control for Improving Traction-Ability and Energy Efficiency of a Personal Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanghyun Nam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a robust wheel slip control system based on a sliding mode controller is proposed for improving traction-ability and reducing energy consumption during sudden acceleration for a personal electric vehicle. Sliding mode control techniques have been employed widely in the development of a robust wheel slip controller of conventional internal combustion engine vehicles due to their application effectiveness in nonlinear systems and robustness against model uncertainties and disturbances. A practical slip control system which takes advantage of the features of electric motors is proposed and an algorithm for vehicle velocity estimation is also introduced. The vehicle velocity estimator was designed based on rotational wheel dynamics, measurable motor torque, and wheel velocity as well as rule-based logic. The simulations and experiments were carried out using both CarSim software and an experimental electric vehicle equipped with in-wheel-motors. Through field tests, traction performance and effectiveness in terms of energy saving were all verified. Comparative experiments with variations of control variables proved the effectiveness and practicality of the proposed control design.

  14. THE MATHEMATIC STIMULATION OF TRANSIENT PROCESS IN A.C. – SYSTEM “ELECTRIC-TRACTION NETWORK – LOCOMOTIVE” 3. SWITCHING ON MAIN POWER CONVERTER IN “FREE PLAY” MODE; THE ANALYSIS OF VOLTS AND CURRENTS IN THE POWER SUPPLY INPUT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Mischenko

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is a continuation of analysis of the electric equivalent AC circuit «traction substation − device of transversal compensation − electric-traction network − electric locomotive DS 3» and the influence on a power transformer in the idle mode, depending on the feeder voltage and the distance of an electric locomotive from a traction substation. The numeral calculations are performed and the voltage and current values in the electric power supply system are analyzed.

  15. THE MATHEMATIC STIMULATION OF TRANSIENT PROCESS IN A.C. – SYSTEM “ELECTRIC-TRACTION NETWORK – LOCOMOTIVE” 3. SWITCHING ON MAIN POWER CONVERTER IN “FREE PLAY” MODE; THE ANALYSIS OF VOLTS AND CURRENTS IN THE POWER SUPPLY INPUT SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    T. M. Mischenko

    2011-01-01

    The article is a continuation of analysis of the electric equivalent AC circuit «traction substation − device of transversal compensation − electric-traction network − electric locomotive DS 3» and the influence on a power transformer in the idle mode, depending on the feeder voltage and the distance of an electric locomotive from a traction substation. The numeral calculations are performed and the voltage and current values in the electric power supply system are analyzed.

  16. Toward single cell traction microscopy within 3D collagen matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Matthew S.; Long, Rong; Feng, Xinzeng; Huang, YuLing; Hui, Chung-Yuen; Wu, Mingming

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical interaction between the cell and its extracellular matrix (ECM) regulates cellular behaviors, including proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and migration. Cells require the three-dimensional (3D) architectural support of the ECM to perform physiologically realistic functions. However, current understanding of cell–ECM and cell–cell mechanical interactions is largely derived from 2D cell traction force microscopy, in which cells are cultured on a flat substrate. 3D cell traction microscopy is emerging for mapping traction fields of single animal cells embedded in either synthetic or natively derived fibrous gels. We discuss here the development of 3D cell traction microscopy, its current limitations, and perspectives on the future of this technology. Emphasis is placed on strategies for applying 3D cell traction microscopy to individual tumor cell migration within collagen gels. - Highlights: • Review of the current state of the art in 3D cell traction force microscopy. • Bulk and micro-characterization of remodelable fibrous collagen gels. • Strategies for performing 3D cell traction microscopy within collagen gels

  17. Toward single cell traction microscopy within 3D collagen matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Matthew S. [Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Long, Rong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2G8 (Canada); Feng, Xinzeng [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Huang, YuLing [Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Hui, Chung-Yuen [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Wu, Mingming, E-mail: mw272@cornell.edu [Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Mechanical interaction between the cell and its extracellular matrix (ECM) regulates cellular behaviors, including proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and migration. Cells require the three-dimensional (3D) architectural support of the ECM to perform physiologically realistic functions. However, current understanding of cell–ECM and cell–cell mechanical interactions is largely derived from 2D cell traction force microscopy, in which cells are cultured on a flat substrate. 3D cell traction microscopy is emerging for mapping traction fields of single animal cells embedded in either synthetic or natively derived fibrous gels. We discuss here the development of 3D cell traction microscopy, its current limitations, and perspectives on the future of this technology. Emphasis is placed on strategies for applying 3D cell traction microscopy to individual tumor cell migration within collagen gels. - Highlights: • Review of the current state of the art in 3D cell traction force microscopy. • Bulk and micro-characterization of remodelable fibrous collagen gels. • Strategies for performing 3D cell traction microscopy within collagen gels.

  18. Dispositivo de tração do membro superior para osteossínteses intramedulares bloqueadas anterógradas de fraturas diafisárias de úmero Upper limb traction device for anterograde intramedullary locked nail of humeral shaft fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Chaves Corrêa

    2010-06-01

    surgically, usually by means of intramedullary locked nail. Some comminuted and/or very deviated shaft fractures can represent a real technical challenge. The fracture table, which allows for the vertical, horizontal and rotational instrumental stabilization of the limb, greatly facilitates reduction and implant placement maneuvers and are widely used by orthopedic surgeons. Humeral shaft fractures are mostly treated nonsurgically. However, some whose indications are well defined in literature require surgical treatment. They can be fixed by plates, or by anterograde or retrograde intramedullary nail. In the humerus, limb fracture reduction and stabilization maneuvers for implantation of intramedullary nails are done manually, usually by 2 assistants. Because they are subject to muscle fatigue, this option may be less efficient. The aim of this paper is to present an external traction device for use in anterograde intramedullary fixation of humerus shaft fractures that allows vertical, horizontal and rotational stabilization of the upper limb similarly to that used in the lower limbs. The device is portable, of simple construction, and can be installed on any operating table equipped with side rails. It was used in the surgical treatment of 29 humeral shaft fractures with anterograde locked intramedullary nail. Our experience was extremely positive. We had no complications related to its use and we believe it to have facilitated the surgical procedures in a remarkable way.

  19. Development of free running differential. Development of differential with an actuator and a clutch which disconnects the traction; Free running defu no kaihatsu. Kirippanashi kiko oyobi actuator wo naizoshita differential sochi no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, N; Teraoka, M; Ishikawa, O; Nagaoka, T; Ugajin, K [Tochigi Fuji Sangyo Co. Ltd., Tochigi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Free Running Differential has an effect on fuel economy and noise reduction from drive line for four wheel drive vehicle. It has an actuator and a clutch which disconnects the traction from no driving side tire when two wheel drive is selected. this unit can be installed in conventional differential carrier with no design change. It is compact in design and low in cost. We evaluate it as having a dominant position among any other Free running system. 7 figs.

  20. Targeted traction of impacted teeth with C-tube miniplates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Kim, Yong; Ahn, Hyo-Won; Lee, Dongjoo; Yang, Dong-Min; Kim, Seong-Hun; Nelson, Gerald

    2014-09-01

    Orthodontic traction of impacted teeth has typically been performed using full fixed appliance as anchorage against the traction force. This conventional approach can be difficult to apply in the mixed dentition if the partial fixed appliance offers an insufficient anchor unit. In addition, full fixed appliance can induce unwanted movement of adjacent teeth. This clinical report presents 3 cases where impacted teeth were recovered in the mixed or transitional dentition with skeletal anchorage on the opposite arch without full fixed appliance. Instead, intermaxillary traction was used to bring the impacted teeth into position. With this approach, side effects on teeth and periodontal tissues adjacent to the impaction were minimized.

  1. Influence of the braking power control of the traction asynchronous machine in the voltage vector control system under DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлія Олександрівна Слободенюк

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available At braking the traction motors are transferred to generator mode and produce electrical energy which passes to the contact mains or storage device in the DC mains for further use. Such braking is called regenerative. The resulting electrical energy can be spent by trains in traction mode. Regenerative braking reduces the consumption of electric power for traction. In electric railways of our country more than 3% of the consumed electrical energy is given back to contact mains annually. As this takes place there arises the task to control the braking of the traction motors with minimal impact on electric power quality and maintaining proper braking performance. Based on the analysis of the characteristics of the brake traction of an electric locomotive with asynchronous electric machines the main braking modes have been chosen: at a constant sliding speed and the stator constant voltage; at constant braking power and the stator constant voltage; at a power value more than the nominal braking power; at a constant load torque; at a constant frequency of the stator. The vector control system with the formation of the reactive component of the stator current and the EMF regulator was chosen, basing on the working conditions characteristics in the electric braking mode (recuperation; namely, that the characteristics are defined by the laws regulating the frequency and voltage across the stator windings. This control system can fully reproduce any predetermined trajectory of traction and braking performance and adjust braking power. The offered system with recuperation can be used as a means of compensation in emergency situations with a power failure

  2. Intravitreal injection of perfluoropropane for the treatment of vitreomacular traction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ping Wan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the efficacy of a single intravitreal injection of perfluoropropane(C3F8in releasing vitreomacular traction. METHODS: Twelve eyes of 12 consecutive patients with vitreomacular traction received a single intravitreal injection of 0.3mL 100%(C3F8were retrospectively analyzed. The best corrected vision acuity and the neural epithelium thickness of central macular were observed. RESULTS: One month following treatment, vitreomacular traction was released in 5 eyes(42%, mean final visual acuity(VAimproved 0.04 and mean central foveal thickness decreased by 69μm. The vision acuity before and after treatment were 0.20±0.07, 0.25±0.04 respectively.CONCLUSION: Intravitreal C3F8 injection could offer a minimally invasive alternative to pars plana vitrectomy in patients with vitreomacular traction.

  3. THE FLOW ANALYSIS ABOUT TRACTION OF QUARRY TRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Getman

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The method of determination of constituents of expense of electric power on traction of quarry trains is resulted in the article, and also the degree of their intercommunication with the mode of train motion is analysed.

  4. INTELLIGENT DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEM OF EMERGENCY SITUATIONS IN TRACTION SUBSTATIONS DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. N. Nasyrov

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article the architecture and algorithm of operating an expert system providing the efficiency of functioning the electric equipment for traction substation as well as the four-parameter belonging function are determined.

  5. Non-isolated integrated motor drive and battery charger based on the split-phase PM motor for plug-in vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano Guillén, Isabel; Bermejo Fernández, Álvaro

    2013-01-01

    In electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, the utility grid charges the vehicle battery through a battery charger. Different solutions have been proposed to reduce the size and cost of the charger. One solution to achieve this is to include the devices used in the traction circuit in the charger circuit; this is called an integrated motor drive and battery charger. A split-phase PM motor, a motor with double set of windings, gives the opportunity to implement different wind...

  6. TRACTION RESISTANCE IN CHITOSAN TREATED COTTON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOX Wouter

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays natural products interest has increased. However, when some products are included on textile fibers, they have no affinity and need some binders or other kind of auxiliaries to improve the yeld of the process, and some of them are not so natural as the product which are binding and consequently the “bio” definition is missed as some of them can be considered as highly pollutant. Chitosan is a common used bonding agent for cotton. It improves the antimicrobial and antifungal activity, improves wound healing and is a non-toxic bonding agent. The biopolymer used in this work is chitosan, which is a deacetylated derivative of chitin. These properties depend on the amount of deacetylation (DD and the Molecular weight (MW. Along with these improving properties, as it requires some acid pH to ve solved the treatment with chitosan can have some decreasing mechanical properties. The aim of that paper is to evaluate the change in breaking force of the treated samples and a change in elongation of those samples. It compared different amounts of concentration of chitosan with non treated cotton. The traction resistance test were performed on a dynamometer. The test was conducted according to the UNE EN ISO 13934-1 standard.

  7. Traction force microscopy of engineered cardiac tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Francesco Silvio; Agarwal, Ashutosh; O'Connor, Blakely Bussie; Liu, Qihan; Sheehy, Sean P; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2018-01-01

    Cardiac tissue development and pathology have been shown to depend sensitively on microenvironmental mechanical factors, such as extracellular matrix stiffness, in both in vivo and in vitro systems. We present a novel quantitative approach to assess cardiac structure and function by extending the classical traction force microscopy technique to tissue-level preparations. Using this system, we investigated the relationship between contractile proficiency and metabolism in neonate rat ventricular myocytes (NRVM) cultured on gels with stiffness mimicking soft immature (1 kPa), normal healthy (13 kPa), and stiff diseased (90 kPa) cardiac microenvironments. We found that tissues engineered on the softest gels generated the least amount of stress and had the smallest work output. Conversely, cardiomyocytes in tissues engineered on healthy- and disease-mimicking gels generated significantly higher stresses, with the maximal contractile work measured in NRVM engineered on gels of normal stiffness. Interestingly, although tissues on soft gels exhibited poor stress generation and work production, their basal metabolic respiration rate was significantly more elevated than in other groups, suggesting a highly ineffective coupling between energy production and contractile work output. Our novel platform can thus be utilized to quantitatively assess the mechanotransduction pathways that initiate tissue-level structural and functional remodeling in response to substrate stiffness.

  8. Design and manufacture of an ultrasonic inspection device for the friction welds in reactor vessel control rod drive mechanism housings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cieslav, C.; Peteuil, M.

    1985-01-01

    The control rod drive mechanism housings of a PWR reactor vessel consist of a stainless steel flange and a Ni-Cr-Fe alloy tube, assembled by friction welding. The properties of the interface and the nature of the adjacent materials require the development of a specific ultrasonic inspection technique which could be easily automated, considering the number of parts involved (77 parts per 1300 MWe reactor vessel). The part has the general shape of a tube (inside diameter: 70 mm, outside diameter: 103 mm). The transition between both forged parent materials (stainless steel/Ni-Cr-Fe alloy) is obtained by a very thin interface, whose general orientation is normal to the tube centerline. The heat affected zone has generally a coarser and more irregular structure than that observed in the parent materials. The design and development were carried out using a prototype machine on test-pieces representative of a control rod drive mechanism housing, and containing the following artificial reflectors: notches obtained by electro-discharge machining on the inside and outside surfaces, on each side of the interface; planar artificial defects, parallel to the interface. These defects, obtained from 2 flat bottomed holes, drilled into the mock-up constituent parts, were conveyed to the interface during friction welding

  9. Tractional retinal detachment in Usher syndrome type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Alka; Pal, Nikhil; Azad, Raj Vardhan; Sharma, Yog Raj; Chandra, Parijat; Vikram Singh, Deependra

    2005-08-01

    Retinal detachment is a rare complication in patients with retinitis pigmentosa. A case is reported of tractional retinal detachment in a patient with retinitis pigmentosa and sensorineural hearing loss, which was diagnosed as Usher syndrome type II. Because of the poor visual prognosis, the patient refused surgery in that eye. Tractional retinal detachment should be added to the differential diagnoses of visual loss in patients with retinitis pigmentosa.

  10. Automation and traction control of articulated vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Articulated machines such as load-haul-dump machines, wheel loaders and haulers operate in many different environments and driving conditions. In particular they need to be able to perform well with road conditions and loads that can change drastically, setting hard requirements on performances and robustness. The control challenges for off-road vehicles are hence quite different from standard cars or trucks, which mostly drive on regular roads. An important aspect characterising this is the ...

  11. Investigation into the traction system of battery-driven vehicle (electric motorcar) with super capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzomin, Oleksandr; Gurtovyi, Mykhailo; Kirylyuk, Artur; Pismenckiy, Viktor; Slipchenko, Mykola [Kharkiv National Univ. of Radio Electronics, Kharkiv (Ukraine)

    2012-11-01

    The results of investigations into the main characteristics of the traction system of the electric motorcar (EM) with application of super capacitors (SC) to the EM starting and acceleration regimes are given. Dynamics of the consumed power at the EM starting and acceleration up to the specified speed, taking into account its mass, acceleration time and aerodynamic characteristics, is investigated. The authors have developed the microcontroller device ensuring the decrease in the peak load on the accumulator battery (AB) at the moment of the EM starting and acceleration, as well as the automatic redistribution of the electric motor electrical supply between the SC and AB. (orig.)

  12. International ETG-Congress 2007. Special meeting 1: Hybrid drive engineering - power efficient electrical drives. Special meeting 2: Customer benefit by new technologies in railway engineering.. Proceedings; Internationaler ETG-Kongress 2007. Fachtagung 1: Hybridantriebstechnik - Energieeffiziente elektrische Antriebe. Fachtagung 2: Kundennutzen durch neue Technologien in der Bahntechnik. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The specialist conference customer benefit by new technologies in railway engineering took place as part of the international ETG-Congress 2007 (Congress of the Energietechnische Gesellschaft within VDE) in Karlsruhe. Light rapid transit vehicles, operating on DC-fed urban lines and AC-fed regional main lines as well, the state-of-the-art of energy storage devices and their interaction with the DC railway systems power supply, multi-system traction in the European high-speed and goods services and new drive technologies were reviewed. (orig.)

  13. A field test of substance use screening devices as part of routine drunk-driving spot detection operating procedures in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzopoulos, Richard; Lasarow, Avi; Bowman, Brett

    2013-10-01

    This pilot study aimed to test four substance use screening devices developed in Germany under local South African conditions and assess their utility for detecting driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) as part of the standard roadblock operations of local law enforcement agencies. The devices were used to screen a sample of motorists in the Gauteng and Western Cape provinces. The motorists were diverted for screening at roadblocks at the discretion of the law enforcement agencies involved, as per their standard operating procedures. Fieldworkers also administered a questionnaire that described the screening procedure, as well as information about vehicles, demographic information about the motorists and their attitudes to the screening process during testing. Motorists tested positive for breath alcohol in 28% of the 261 cases tested. Oral fluid was screened for drugs as per the standard calibrated cut-offs of all four devices. There were 14 cases where the under-influence drivers tested positive for alcohol and drugs simultaneously, but 14% of the 269 drivers drug-screened tested positive for drugs only. After alcohol, amphetamine, methamphetamine and cocaine were the most common drugs of impairment detected. The results suggest that under normal enforcement procedures only 76% of drivers impaired by alcohol and other drugs would have been detected. In more than 70% of cases the tests were administered within 5 min and this is likely to improve with more regular use. It was clear that the pilot screening process meets global testing standards. Although use of the screening devices alone would not serve as a basis for prosecution and provisions would need to be made for the confirmation of results through laboratory testing, rollout of this screening process would improve operational efficiency in at least two ways. Firstly, the accuracy of the tests will substantially decrease confirmatory test loads. Secondly, laboratory drug testing can be restricted to

  14. Traction force dynamics predict gap formation in activated endothelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valent, Erik T.; Nieuw Amerongen, Geerten P. van; Hinsbergh, Victor W.M. van; Hordijk, Peter L., E-mail: p.hordijk@vumc.nl

    2016-09-10

    In many pathological conditions the endothelium becomes activated and dysfunctional, resulting in hyperpermeability and plasma leakage. No specific therapies are available yet to control endothelial barrier function, which is regulated by inter-endothelial junctions and the generation of acto-myosin-based contractile forces in the context of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. However, the spatiotemporal distribution and stimulus-induced reorganization of these integral forces remain largely unknown. Traction force microscopy of human endothelial monolayers was used to visualize contractile forces in resting cells and during thrombin-induced hyperpermeability. Simultaneously, information about endothelial monolayer integrity, adherens junctions and cytoskeletal proteins (F-actin) were captured. This revealed a heterogeneous distribution of traction forces, with nuclear areas showing lower and cell-cell junctions higher traction forces than the whole-monolayer average. Moreover, junctional forces were asymmetrically distributed among neighboring cells. Force vector orientation analysis showed a good correlation with the alignment of F-actin and revealed contractile forces in newly formed filopodia and lamellipodia-like protrusions within the monolayer. Finally, unstable areas, showing high force fluctuations within the monolayer were prone to form inter-endothelial gaps upon stimulation with thrombin. To conclude, contractile traction forces are heterogeneously distributed within endothelial monolayers and force instability, rather than force magnitude, predicts the stimulus-induced formation of intercellular gaps. - Highlights: • Endothelial monolayers exert dynamic- and heterogeneous traction forces. • High traction forces correlate with junctional areas and the F-actin cytoskeleton. • Newly formed inter-endothelial gaps are characterized by opposing traction forces. • Force stability is a key feature controlling endothelial permeability.

  15. Traction force dynamics predict gap formation in activated endothelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valent, Erik T.; Nieuw Amerongen, Geerten P. van; Hinsbergh, Victor W.M. van; Hordijk, Peter L.

    2016-01-01

    In many pathological conditions the endothelium becomes activated and dysfunctional, resulting in hyperpermeability and plasma leakage. No specific therapies are available yet to control endothelial barrier function, which is regulated by inter-endothelial junctions and the generation of acto-myosin-based contractile forces in the context of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. However, the spatiotemporal distribution and stimulus-induced reorganization of these integral forces remain largely unknown. Traction force microscopy of human endothelial monolayers was used to visualize contractile forces in resting cells and during thrombin-induced hyperpermeability. Simultaneously, information about endothelial monolayer integrity, adherens junctions and cytoskeletal proteins (F-actin) were captured. This revealed a heterogeneous distribution of traction forces, with nuclear areas showing lower and cell-cell junctions higher traction forces than the whole-monolayer average. Moreover, junctional forces were asymmetrically distributed among neighboring cells. Force vector orientation analysis showed a good correlation with the alignment of F-actin and revealed contractile forces in newly formed filopodia and lamellipodia-like protrusions within the monolayer. Finally, unstable areas, showing high force fluctuations within the monolayer were prone to form inter-endothelial gaps upon stimulation with thrombin. To conclude, contractile traction forces are heterogeneously distributed within endothelial monolayers and force instability, rather than force magnitude, predicts the stimulus-induced formation of intercellular gaps. - Highlights: • Endothelial monolayers exert dynamic- and heterogeneous traction forces. • High traction forces correlate with junctional areas and the F-actin cytoskeleton. • Newly formed inter-endothelial gaps are characterized by opposing traction forces. • Force stability is a key feature controlling endothelial permeability.

  16. Traction for low-back pain with or without sciatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Inge; Widyahening, Indah S; van Tulder, Maurits W; Blomberg, Stefan E I; de Vet, Henrica Cw; Brønfort, Gert; Bouter, Lex M; van der Heijden, Geert J

    2013-08-19

    Traction has been used to treat low-back pain (LBP), often in combination with other treatments. We included both manual and machine-delivered traction in this review. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1995, and previously updated in 2006. To assess the effects of traction compared to placebo, sham traction, reference treatments and no treatment in people with LBP. We searched the Cochrane Back Review Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2012, Issue 8), MEDLINE (January 2006 to August 2012), EMBASE (January 2006 to August 2012), CINAHL (January 2006 to August 2012), and reference lists of articles and personal files. The review authors are not aware of any important new randomized controlled trial (RCTs) on this topic since the date of the last search. RCTs involving traction to treat acute (less than four weeks' duration), subacute (four to 12 weeks' duration) or chronic (more than 12 weeks' duration) non-specific LBP with or without sciatica. Two review authors independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction. As there were insufficient data for statistical pooling, we performed a descriptive analysis. We did not find any case series that identified adverse effects, therefore we evaluated adverse effects that were reported in the included studies. We included 32 RCTs involving 2762 participants in this review. We considered 16 trials, representing 57% of all participants, to have a low risk of bias based on the Cochrane Back Review Group's 'Risk of bias' tool.For people with mixed symptom patterns (acute, subacute and chronic LBP with and without sciatica), there was low- to moderate-quality evidence that traction may make little or no difference in pain intensity, functional status, global improvement or return to work when compared to placebo, sham traction or no treatment. Similarly, when comparing the combination of physiotherapy plus traction with

  17. Self-propelled trolley with articulated arms, tank and disengageable driving device to be mounted on the said trolley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asty, M.; Lerat, B.; Saglio, R.; Viard, J.

    1984-01-01

    This trolley can move between two walls, especially in the vessels inter-space of a fast reactor. This trolley has two wheels keeping in contact with one of the two walls and connected to the body of the trolley by two longitudinal arms, and two wheels keeping in contact with the other wall symmetrically mounted with regard to the others and connected to the body of the trolley by two side arms. The longitudinal and side arm are folding to allow the passage of the present device through a penetration shaft. The trolley carries a tank feeding a liquid onto the walls. The liquid is used for coupling the walls to ultrasonic transducers mounted on the trolley and employed to locate any defects in the walls. The present invention can be applied to ultrasonic testing of fast reactor vessels, to detect defects in metal walls, especially at welds [fr

  18. THE ANALISYS OF RAILWAY MULTI MOTORS ELECTRICAL DRIVE DYNAMIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Khilmon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of multi motors electrical traction drive dynamic analysis is denoted by its large application in electrical driving railway vehicles. In this paper an analysis is presented for two inducton motors traction drive with frequency inverter, vector control, and speed sensors of each electrical drive. The goal of this work is the analysis of two induction motors electrical drive, taking into account parametric perturbations and also a limited moment of wheel-rail adhesion, by laboratory study and simulation. Because of difference between motor’s parameters, it is necessary for parallel work to select motors with identical resistances and inductive winding. For this purpose the parametric identification method was used for each electrical drive, and also for two parallel motors. The result of identification was used in control setting.The  slippage  of  the  traction  drives  is  difficult  to  reproduce  in  laboratory;  therefore a mathematical modeling and simulation of mechanical part with a traction force restriction, specific for railway transport, were carried out. The suggested simulation is built with account of elastic deformations in kinetic chain, transforming traction force. The model permits to study a dynamic system in various circumstances.The results of laboratory investigations and simulation of dynamic regimes for two motor electrical drives are presented in this article. The results of analysis show, that a minimal difference between any parameters of two motors, parallel connected to convertor, is important for the slippage stability.

  19. Rotor-dynamic design aspects for a variable frequency drive based high speed cryogenic centrifugal pump in fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Jotirmoy; Vaghela, Hitensinh; Bhattacharya, Ritendra; Patel, Pratik; Shukla, Vinit; Shah, Nitin; Sarkar, Biswanath

    2015-01-01

    Superconducting magnets of large size are inevitable for fusion devices due to high magnetic field requirements. Forced flow cooling of the superconducting magnets with high mass flowrate of the order ∼3 kg/s is required to keep superconducting magnets within its safe operational boundaries during various plasma scenarios. This important requirement can be efficiently fulfilled by employing high capacity and high efficiency cryogenic centrifugal pumps. The efficiency > 70% will ensure overall lower heat load to the cryoplant. Thermo-hydraulic design of cryogenic centrifugal pump revealed that to achieve the operational regime with high efficiency, the speed should be ∼ 10,000 revolutions per minute. In this regard, the rotor-dynamic design aspect is quite critical from the operational stability point of view. The rotor shaft design of the cryogenic pump is primarily an outcome of optimization between thermal heat-in leak at cryogenic temperature level from ambient, cryogenic fluid impedance and designed rotation speed of the impeller wheel. The paper describes the basic design related to critical speed of the rotor shaft, rotor whirl and system instability prediction to explore the ideal operational range of the pump from the system stability point of view. In the rotor-dynamic analysis, the paper also describes the Campbell plots to ensure that the pump is not disturbed by any of the critical speeds, especially while operating near the nominal and enhanced operating modes. (author)

  20. Device and method for relativistic electron beam heating of a high-density plasma to drive fast liners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    A device and method for relativistic electron beam heating of a high-density plasma in a small localized region are described. A relativistic electron beam generator or accelerator produces a high-voltage electron beam which propagates along a vacuum drift tube and is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam. The beam is then directed through a low-density gas chamber which provides isolation between the vacuum modulator and the relativistic electron beam target. The relativistic beam is then applied to a high-density target plasma which typically comprises dt, dd, hydrogen boron or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 1017 to 1020 electrons per cubic centimeter. The target gas is ionized prior to application of the electron beam by means of a laser or other preionization source to form a plasma. Utilizing a relativistic electron beam with an individual particle energy exceeding 3 mev, classical scattering by relativistic electrons passing through isolation foils is negligible. As a result, relativistic streaming instabilities are initiated within the high-density target plasma causing the relativistic electron beam to efficiently deposit its energy and momentum into a small localized region of the high-density plasma target. Fast liners disposed in the high-density target plasma are explosively or ablatively driven to implosion by a heated annular plasma surrounding the fast liner which is generated by an annular relativistic electron beam. An azimuthal magnetic field produced by axial current flow in the annular plasma, causes the energy in the heated annular plasma to converge on the fast liner

  1. Contact traction analysis for profile change during coining process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Kyu; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kang, Heung Seok; Song, Kee Nam

    2002-01-01

    Contact tractions are analysed in the case of the change in contact profile occurring during the coining process of a thin strip material. The changed profile is assumed as a concave circular arc in the central part of the contact region which is smoothly connected with convex circular arcs at both sides, referring to the actual measurement of the coined material. The profile is discretized and the known solutions of singular integral equations are used. Since the contact profile affects the contact traction and relevant tribological behaviour (e.g. wear) as well, an accurate definition of the profile is necessary in the analysis of material failure. Parametric study is conducted with the variation of the radii and distance of the arcs, which defines the height difference between the summits of the arcs. Considered is the contact profile, which can give the negligible variation of the traction in comparison with that before the coining process

  2. A modification of the maitland roll top traction table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneipp, K

    1975-03-01

    This modification of the Maitland Roll Top Traction Table (Maitland, 1973) differs from the original as follows: 1. The two weight-bearing leaves are enclosed by a "guide frame" and the "U-piece" of the original is replaced by a hinged "gate" at the foot, which can be opened downwards for lumbar traction, or can be locked to restrain the leaves when the table is required for other purposes. 2. Four rollers of light steel replace the wooden dowels. 3. The modified table in use by the author is held by a floor peg, and is set up be-between two walls 10' 6″ apart which provide purchase points for traction. Alternatively, purchase at the head end can be taken by hooks attached to the table itself. 4. The design permits a six-foot plinth to be used. Copyright © 1975 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by . All rights reserved.

  3. Harmonic analysis of traction power supply system based on wavelet decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dun, Xiaohong

    2018-05-01

    With the rapid development of high-speed railway and heavy-haul transport, AC drive electric locomotive and EMU large-scale operation in the country on the ground, the electrified railway has become the main harmonic source of China's power grid. In response to this phenomenon, the need for timely monitoring of power quality problems of electrified railway, assessment and governance. Wavelet transform is developed on the basis of Fourier analysis, the basic idea comes from the harmonic analysis, with a rigorous theoretical model, which has inherited and developed the local thought of Garbor transformation, and has overcome the disadvantages such as window fixation and lack of discrete orthogonally, so as to become a more recently studied spectral analysis tool. The wavelet analysis takes the gradual and precise time domain step in the high frequency part so as to focus on any details of the signal being analyzed, thereby comprehensively analyzing the harmonics of the traction power supply system meanwhile use the pyramid algorithm to increase the speed of wavelet decomposition. The matlab simulation shows that the use of wavelet decomposition of the traction power supply system for harmonic spectrum analysis is effective.

  4. THE MEASUREMENT ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE IN THE REVERSE TRACTION NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Serdiuk

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The original automated method of measurement of electrical noise in the return electric-traction network is proposed. It is realized on the base of car-laboratory “Automatics, telemechanics and communication”. The mathematic model of return electric-traction network is developed to scientific bases of automated measurement. It allows us obtaining the mathematic expressions for change of voltage and current harmonics in the rail net and taking into account the inhomogeneity of lines for the following analytic determination of a source of electric noise.

  5. MODELING OF TRACTION SYNCHRONOUS PERMANENT MAGNET MOTOR MODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.N. Vas’kovsky

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of electromagnetic field for simulating operational modes of traction synchronous motors with permanent magnets intended for electric vehicles is developed. The mathematical model takes into account real-time rotor rotation and allows calculating and analyzing the motor basic running characteristics as time functions.

  6. High resolution, large deformation 3D traction force microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennet Toyjanova

    Full Text Available Traction Force Microscopy (TFM is a powerful approach for quantifying cell-material interactions that over the last two decades has contributed significantly to our understanding of cellular mechanosensing and mechanotransduction. In addition, recent advances in three-dimensional (3D imaging and traction force analysis (3D TFM have highlighted the significance of the third dimension in influencing various cellular processes. Yet irrespective of dimensionality, almost all TFM approaches have relied on a linear elastic theory framework to calculate cell surface tractions. Here we present a new high resolution 3D TFM algorithm which utilizes a large deformation formulation to quantify cellular displacement fields with unprecedented resolution. The results feature some of the first experimental evidence that cells are indeed capable of exerting large material deformations, which require the formulation of a new theoretical TFM framework to accurately calculate the traction forces. Based on our previous 3D TFM technique, we reformulate our approach to accurately account for large material deformation and quantitatively contrast and compare both linear and large deformation frameworks as a function of the applied cell deformation. Particular attention is paid in estimating the accuracy penalty associated with utilizing a traditional linear elastic approach in the presence of large deformation gradients.

  7. Physical and electrocardiographic evaluation of horses used for wagon traction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Bomfim

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this research was to evaluate the electrocardiogram (ECG of horses used for wagon traction and to compare the results with the parameters obtained from inactive horses or horses submitted to a training routine. Fifty-six 3-15-year-old healthy horses (22 females and 34 males were divided into three groups: control (without a work routine; N=21, wagon traction (N=25 and athlete (N=10 and submitted to physical examination and ECG (at rest. The rhythm, heart rate (HR, amplitude and duration of ECG waveforms and intervals were obtained from the frontal plane and base-apex leads. Heart score (HS was calculated using the arithmetic mean of QRS duration in LI, LII and LIII. Measurements of ECG waves were smaller in control group, in comparison with wagon traction and athlete groups, suggesting that exercise can change ECG. Similar results were observed in the wagon traction and athlete groups, but the electrophysiological adjustments to exercise were not the same for these groups.

  8. Traction control of an electric formula student racing car

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loof, J.W.; Besselink, I.J.M.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the design of a traction control system in an electric Formula Student vehicle. In many race applications the accelerator pedal is difficult to control for an in-experienced driver, especially in the case of electric vehicles, where a large torque is available from standstill.

  9. COMPROMISE, OPTIMAL AND TRACTIONAL ACCOUNTS ON PARETO SET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Lahuta

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem of optimum traction calculations is considered as a problem about optimum distribution of a resource. The dynamic programming solution is based on a step-by-step calculation of set of points of Pareto-optimum values of a criterion function (energy expenses and a resource (time.

  10. Development of low AC loss windings for superconducting traction transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamijo, H; Hata, H; Fukumoto, Y; Tomioka, A; Bohno, T; Yamada, H; Ayai, N; Yamasaki, K; Kato, T; Iwakuma, M; Funaki, K

    2010-01-01

    We have been developing a light weight and high efficiency superconducting traction transformer for railway rolling stock. We designed and fabricated a prototype superconducting traction transformer of a floor-mount type for Shinkansen rolling stock in 2004. We performed the type-test, the system-test, and the vibration-test. Consequently, we could verify that the transformer satisfied the requirement almost exactly as initially planned. However, there have been raised some problems to be solved to put superconducting traction transformer into practical use such that AC loss of the superconducting tape must be lower and the capacity of the refrigerator must be larger. Especially it is the most important to reduce the AC loss of superconducting windings for lightweight and high efficiency. The AC loss must be reduced near the theoretical value of superconducting tape with multifilament. In this study, we fabricated and evaluated the Bi2223 tapes as introduced various measures to reduce the AC loss. We confirmed that the AC loss of the narrow type of Bi2223 tapes with twist of filaments is lower, and we fabricated windings of this tape for use in superconducting traction transformer.

  11. Quality electricity lines of external power systems electric traction DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Petrov

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies that compare and analyze the numerical values of some key indicators quality electricity in the lines of the external power supply system the electric traction DC. As a supplement are additional and fundamental values of energy losses in them.

  12. THE DYNAMICS AND TRACTION ENERGY METRICS LOCOMOTIVE VL40

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Pylypenko

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the results of dynamic running and traction-energy tests of the electric locomotive VL40U are presented. In accordance with the test results a conclusion about the suitability of electric locomotive of such a type for operation with trains containing up to 15 passenger coaches inclusive is made.

  13. Apicotomy as Treatment for Failure of Orthodontic Traction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Berni Osório

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to present a case report that demonstrated primary failure in a tooth traction that was subsequently treated with apicotomy technique. Case Report. A 10-year-old girl had an impacted upper right canine with increased pericoronal space, which was apparent on a radiographic image. The right maxillary sinus showed an opacity suggesting sinusitis. The presumptive diagnosis was dentigerous cyst associated with maxillary sinus infection. The plan for treatment included treatment of the sinus infection and cystic lesion and orthodontic traction of the canine after surgical exposure and bonding of an orthodontic appliance. The surgical procedure, canine position, root dilaceration, and probably apical ankylosis acted in the primary failure of the orthodontic traction. Surgical apical cut of the displaced teeth was performed, and tooth position in the dental arch was possible, with a positive response to the pulp vitality test. Conclusion. Apicotomy is an effective technique to treat severe canine displacement and primary orthodontic traction failure of palatally displaced canines.

  14. Novel characteristics of traction force in biliary self-expandable metallic stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Yasuki; Hayashi, Kazuki; Yoshida, Michihiro; Naitoh, Itaru; Ban, Tesshin; Miyabe, Katsuyuki; Kondo, Hiromu; Nishi, Yuji; Umemura, Shuichiro; Fujita, Yasuaki; Natsume, Makoto; Kato, Akihisa; Ohara, Hirotaka; Joh, Takashi

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, knowledge concerning the mechanical properties of self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS) has increased. In a previous study, we defined traction force and traction momentum and reported that these characteristics are important for optimal stent deployment. However, traction force and traction momentum were represented as relative values and were not evaluated in various conditions. The purpose of the present study was to measure traction force in various situations assumed during SEMS placement. Traction force and traction momentum were measured in non-stricture, stricture, and angled stricture models using in-house equipment. Stricture and angled stricture models had significantly higher traction force and traction momentum than those of the non-stricture model (stricture vs non-stricture: traction force, 7.2 N vs 1.4 N, P stent influenced the traction force. Clinicians should be aware of the transition of the traction force and should schedule X-ray imaging during SEMS placement. © 2017 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  15. Influences of Traction Load Shock on Artificial Partial Discharge Faults within Traction Transformer—Experimental Test for Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaibing Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Partial discharge (PD measurement and its pattern recognition are vital to fault diagnosis of transformers, especially to those traction substation transformers undergoing repetitive traction load shocks. This paper presents the primary factors induced by traction load shocks including high total harmonics distortion (THD, transient voltage impulse and high-temperature rise, and their effects on the feature parameters of PD. Experimental tests are conducted on six artificial PD models with these factors introduced one by one. Results reveal that the maximum PD quantity and the PD repetitive rate are favorable to be enlarged when the oil temperature exceeds 80 °C or the THD is higher than 16% with certain orders of harmonic. The decline in PD inception voltage can mainly be attributed to the transient voltage impulse. The variation in central frequency of the fast Fourier transformation (FFT spectra transformed from ultra-high frequency signals can mainly be attributed to high THD, especially when it exceeds 20%. The temperature rise has no significant influence on the FFT spectra; the transient voltage impulse, however, can result in a central frequency shift of the floating particle discharge. With the rapid development of high-speed railways, the study presented in this paper will be helpful for field PD detection and recognition of traction substation transformers in the future.

  16. Drive equipment of the TRANSRAPID 06 with an iron bearing synchronous long stator motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsch, C P; Ciessow, G

    1981-01-01

    For the testing of an application orientated Maglev the TRANSRAPID test center Emsland is being installed by the joint venture TRANSRAPID. The drive of the vehicle TRANSRAPID 06 is realized by an iron bearing synchronous long stator motor. A description is given of the principle of this drive, the output of traction motor and substation and of the dynamics of vehicle movement's calculations.

  17. Drive Stands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrical Systems Laboratory (ESL)houses numerous electrically driven drive stands. A drive stand consists of an electric motor driving a gearbox and a mounting...

  18. Fuel assembly manufacturing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picard, P.; Villaeys, R.

    1995-01-01

    The device comprises a central support on which the frame is mounted, a magazine which supports the fuel rods in passages aligned with those in the frame and a traction assembly on the opposite side of the magazine and including an array of pull rods designed to be advanced through the passages in the frame, to grip respective fuel rods in magazine and to pull those rods into the passages on the return stroke. 13 figs

  19. Posture manipulation for rescue activity via small traction robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwano, Yuki; Osuka, Koichi; Amano, Hisanori

    2006-01-01

    We discuss a conceptual design of rescue robots against nuclear-power plant accidents. We claim that the rescue robots in nuclear-power plants should have the following properties. (1) The size is small. (2) The structure is simple. (3) The number of the robots is large. This paper studies the rescue robots to rescue people in an area polluted with radioactive leakage in nuclear power institutions. In particular, we propose a rescue system which consists of a group of small mobile robots. First, small traction robots set the posture of the fainted victims to carry easily, and carry them to the safety space with the mobile robots for the stretcher composition. In this paper, we describe the produced small traction robots. And, we confirm that the robots can manipulate a 40 kg dummy doll's posture. We also examine the optimal number of robots from a perspective of working efficiency in the assumption spot. (author)

  20. Fabrication of Superconducting Traction Transformer for Railway Rolling Stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamijo, H; Hata, H; Fujimoto, H; Inoue, A; Nagashima, K; Ikeda, K; Yamada, H; Sanuki, Y; Tomioka, A; Uwamori, K; Yoshida, S; Iwakuma, M; Funaki, K

    2006-01-01

    We designed a floor type single-phase 4 MVA superconducting traction transformer for Shinkansen rolling stock. In this study, we fabricated a prototype superconducting traction transformer based on this design. This transformer of the core-type design has a primary winding, four secondary windings and a tertiary winding. The windings are wound by Bi2223 superconducting tapes and cooled by subcooled liquid nitrogen. The core is kept at room temperature. The cryostat is made of GFRP with two holes to pass core legs through. The outer dimensions are about 1.2m x 0.7m x 1.9m excluding the compressor. Its weight is 1.71t excluding that of refrigerator and compressor. The transformer was tested according to Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS)-E5007. We confirmed that the performance of transformer has been achieved almost exactly as planned. The rated capacity is equivalent to 3.5MVA in the superconducting state

  1. Modern Solutions for Automation of Electrical Traction Power Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mihaela Andreica

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents modern solutions for the automation of the electrical traction power supply system used in urban public transport (trams, trolleybuses and subway trains. The monitoring and control of this process uses SCADA distributed architectures, grouped around a central point (dispatcher who controls all field sensors, transmitters and actuators using programmable logical controllers. The presented applications refer to the Bucharest electrical transport infrastructure.

  2. Road dust from pavement wear and traction sanding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupiainen, K.

    2007-07-01

    Vehicles affect the concentrations of ambient airborne particles through exhaust emissions, but particles are also formed in the mechanical processes in the tire-road interface, brakes, and engine. Particles deposited on or in the vicinity of the road may be re-entrained, or resuspended, into air through vehicle-induced turbulence and shearing stress of the tires. A commonly used term for these particles is 'road dust'. The processes affecting road dust emissions are complex and currently not well known. Road dust has been acknowledged as a dominant source of PM10 especially during spring in the sub-arctic urban areas, e.g. in Scandinavia, Finland, North America and Japan. The high proportion of road dust in sub-arctic regions of the world has been linked to the snowy winter conditions that make it necessary to use traction control methods. Traction control methods include dispersion of traction sand, melting of ice with brine solutions, and equipping the tires with either metal studs (studded winter tires), snow chains, or special tire design (friction tires). Several of these methods enhance the formation of mineral particles from pavement wear and/or from traction sand that accumulate in the road environment during winter. When snow and ice melt and surfaces dry out, traffic-induced turbulence makes some of the particles airborne. A general aim of this study was to study processes and factors underlying and affecting the formation and emissions of road dust from paved road surfaces. Special emphasis was placed on studying particle formation and sources during tire road interaction, especially when different applications of traction control, namely traction sanding and/or winter tires were in use. Respirable particles with aerodynamic diameter below 10 micrometers (PM10) have been the main concern, but other size ranges and particle size distributions were also studied. The following specific research questions were addressed: (i) How do traction

  3. Dementia & Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have to give up driving. Many people associate driving with self-reliance and freedom; the loss of driving privileges ... familiar roads and avoid long distances. Avoid heavy traffic and heavily traveled roads. Avoid driving at night and in bad weather. Reduce the ...

  4. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futatsugi, Masao.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To secure the reactor operation safety by the provision of a fluid pressure detecting section for control rod driving fluid and a control rod interlock at the midway of the flow pass for supplying driving fluid to the control rod drives. Constitution: Between a driving line and a direction control valve are provided a pressure detecting portion, an alarm generating device, and a control rod inhibition interlock. The driving fluid from a driving fluid source is discharged by way of a pump and a manual valve into the reactor in which the control rods and reactor fuels are contained. In addition, when the direction control valve is switched and the control rods are inserted and extracted by the control rod drives, the pressure in the driving line is always detected by the pressure detection section, whereby if abnormal pressure is resulted, the alarm generating device is actuated to warn the abnormality and the control rod inhibition interlock is actuated to lock the direction control valve thereby secure the safety operation of the reactor. (Seki, T.)

  5. Traction cytometry: regularization in the Fourier approach and comparisons with finite element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Ankur H; Ghosh, Prasenjit; Seetharaman, Ashwin; Kondaiah, Paturu; Gundiah, Namrata

    2018-05-09

    Traction forces exerted by adherent cells are quantified using displacements of embedded markers on polyacrylamide substrates due to cell contractility. Fourier Transform Traction Cytometry (FTTC) is widely used to calculate tractions but has inherent limitations due to errors in the displacement fields; these are mitigated through a regularization parameter (γ) in the Reg-FTTC method. An alternate finite element (FE) approach computes tractions on a domain using known boundary conditions. Robust verification and recovery studies are lacking but essential in assessing the accuracy and noise sensitivity of the traction solutions from the different methods. We implemented the L2 regularization method and defined a maximum curvature point in the traction with γ plot as the optimal regularization parameter (γ*) in the Reg-FTTC approach. Traction reconstructions using γ* yield accurate values of low and maximum tractions (Tmax) in the presence of up to 5% noise. Reg-FTTC is hence a clear improvement over the FTTC method but is inadequate to reconstruct low stresses such as those at nascent focal adhesions. FE, implemented using a node-by-node comparison, showed an intermediate reconstruction compared to Reg-FTTC. We performed experiments using mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) and compared results between these approaches. Tractions from FTTC and FE showed differences of ∼92% and 22% as compared to Reg-FTTC. Selection of an optimum value of γ for each cell reduced variability in the computed tractions as compared to using a single value of γ for all the MEF cells in this study.

  6. Online Open Circuit Fault Diagnosis for Rail Transit Traction Converter Based on Object-Oriented Colored Petri Net Topology Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For online open circuit fault diagnosis of the traction converter in rail transit vehicles, conventional approaches depend heavily on component parameters and circuit layouts. For better universality and less parameter sensitivity during the diagnosis, this paper proposes a novel topology analysis approach to diagnose switching device open circuit failures. During the diagnosis, the topology is analyzed with fault reasoning mechanism, which is based on object-oriented Petri net (OOCPN. The OOCPN model takes in digitalized current inputs as fault signatures, and dynamical transitions between discrete switching states of a circuit with broken device are symbolized with the dynamical transitions of colored tokens in OOCPN. Such transitions simulate natural reasoning process of an expert’s brain during diagnosis. The dependence on component parameters and on circuit layouts is finally eliminated by such circuit topology reasoning process. In the last part, the proposed online reasoning and diagnosis process is exemplified with the case of a certain switching device failure in the power circuit of traction converter.

  7. Assessment of potential energy efficiency improvements in the traction sector of the Swiss Federal Railways; Potentialermittlung Energieeffizienz Traktion bei den SBB - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.; Menth, S.; Lerjen, M.

    2007-07-01

    Possibilities to reduce the consumption of 16.7-Hz traction energy of Swiss Federal Railways (SBB) have been investigated. Various proposals have been discussed together with experts of SBB's Passenger, Cargo and Infrastructure divisions. Based on numerical simulations for representative train runs, the total consumption of the SBB network could be calculated and compared with real values. The possible reduction e.g. by energy optimised driving could be derived from this comparison; it is between 3 and 5 % of the specific consumption both for the influence by train driver and by traffic control. Technical measures in traction units and passenger coaches lead to reductions of up to about 3%, depending on the vehicle type. It is important that all measures take into account the extremely dense traffic on SBB's network and do not reduce the attractiveness for the customers. (author)

  8. Improving the electromagnetic compatibility of track circuits with electric rolling stock of double power supply with induction traction motors and electrictraction network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Visin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article the research results of many authors on the effect of current interference from the existing electric rolling stock with induction traction motors (ITM on the track circuits and the possibility of exceeding the train traffic safety standards are used. The new promising scheme of power circuit for electric locomotive of double power supply with an ITM applying the intermediary high-frequency transformer for reducing significantly the interference effects to SCB and communication devices is developed.

  9. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Hiroyasu.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To enable rapid control in a simple circuit by providing a motor control device having an electric capacity capable of simultaneously driving all of the control rods rapidly only in the inserting direction as well as a motor controlling device capable of fine control for the insertion and extraction at usual operation. Constitution: The control rod drives comprise a first motor control device capable of finely controlling the control rods both in inserting and extracting directions, a second motor control device capable of rapidly driving the control rods only in the inserting direction, and a first motor switching circuit and a second motor switching circuit switched by switches. Upon issue of a rapid insertion instruction for the control rods, the second motor switching circuit is closed by the switch and the second motor control circuit and driving motors are connected. Thus, each of the control rod driving motors is driven at a high speed in the inserting direction to rapidly insert all of the control rods. (Yoshino, Y.)

  10. Fast wave current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goree, J.; Ono, M.; Colestock, P.; Horton, R.; McNeill, D.; Park, H.

    1985-07-01

    Fast wave current drive is demonstrated in the Princeton ACT-I toroidal device. The fast Alfven wave, in the range of high ion-cyclotron harmonics, produced 40 A of current from 1 kW of rf power coupled into the plasma by fast wave loop antenna. This wave excites a steady current by damping on the energetic tail of the electron distribution function in the same way as lower-hybrid current drive, except that fast wave current drive is appropriate for higher plasma densities

  11. Distributed active traction control system applied to the RoboCup middle size league

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, José; Dias, André; Sequeira, João; Martins, Alfredo; Silva, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    This work addresses the problem of traction control in mobile wheeled robots in the particular case of the RoboCup Middle Size League (MSL). The slip control problem is formulated using simple friction models for ISePorto Team robots with a differential wheel configuration. Traction was also characterized experimentally in the MSL scenario for relevant game events. This work proposes a hierarchical traction control architecture which relies in local slip detection and con...

  12. Multiroller Traction Drive Speed Reducer. Evaluation for Automotive Gas Turbine Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Speed is deLermined by a magnetic pickup on a toothed wheel . Gas turbine engine instrumunelLtiouu i -designed 1f0r measurement of specific fuel...buffer seal and the fluid--film bearing measured a maximum total runout of 0.038 mm (0.0015 in.) at low speed. At higher speeds, above 8000 rpm, the...maximum was 0.025 mm (0.001 in.) except near 10 000 rpm, where the oscilloscope indicated an excursion of 0.045 mm (0.0018 in.). This runout was within

  13. Distracted driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... including maps) The Dangers of Talking on the Phone While Driving You are four times more likely to get ... of reach. If you are caught using a phone while driving, you may risk a ticket or fine. Most ...

  14. Distracted Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and increased awareness of distracted driving using radio advertisements, news stories, and similar media. After the projects ... available at www.trafficsafetymarketing.gov . Distracted Driving Enforcement – TV Ads (Paid). For re-tagging, go to: www. ...

  15. Physical Basis for Interfacial Traction-Separation Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neville R. Moody

    2002-01-01

    Many weapon components contain interfaces between dissimilar materials where cracks can initiate and cause failure. In recent years many researchers in the fracture community have adopted a cohesive zone model for simulating crack propagation (based upon traction-separation relations) Sandia is implementing this model in its ASCI codes. There is, however, one important obstacle to using a cohesive zone modeling approach. At the present time traction-separation relations are chosen in an ad hoc manner. The goal of the present work is to determine a physical basis for Traction-Separation (T-U) relations. This report presents results of a program aimed at determining the dependence of such relations on adhesive and bulk properties. The work focused on epoxy/solid interfaces, although the approach is applicable to a broad range of materials. Asymmetric double cantilevered beam and free surface film nanoindentation fracture toughness tests were used to generate a unique set of data spanning length scales, applied mode mixities, and yield (plastic) zone constraint. The crucial roles of crack tip plastic zone size and interfacial adhesion were defined by varying epoxy layer thickness and using coupling agents or special self-assembled monolayers in preparing the samples. The nature of the yield zone was probed in collaborative experiments run at the Advanced Photon Source. This work provides an understanding of the major phenomena governing polymer/solid interfacial fracture and identifies the essential features that must be incorporated in a T-U based cohesive zone failure model. We believe that models using physically based T-U relations provide a more accurate and widely applicable description of interface cracking than models using ad hoc relations. Furthermore, these T-U relations provide an essential tool for using models to tailor interface properties to meet design needs

  16. Transvenous Lead Extraction via the Inferior Approach Using a Gooseneck Snare versus Simple Manual Traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Uk; Kim, Jun; Hwang, You-Mi; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Min-Su; Choi, Hyung-Oh; Lee, Woo-Seok; Kwon, Chang-Hee; Ko, Gi-Young; Yoon, Hyun-Ki; Nam, Gi-Byoung; Choi, Kee-Joon; Kim, You-Ho

    2016-03-01

    The number of patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices needing lead extraction is increasing for various reasons, including infections, vascular obstruction, and lead failure. We report our experience with transvenous extraction of pacemaker and defibrillator leads via the inferior approach of using a gooseneck snare as a first-line therapy and compare extraction using a gooseneck snare with extraction using simple manual traction. The study included 23 consecutive patients (43 leads) who underwent transvenous lead extraction using a gooseneck snare (group A) and 10 consecutive patients (17 leads) who underwent lead extraction using simple manual traction (group B). Patient characteristics, indications, and outcomes were analyzed and compared between the groups. The dwelling time of the leads was longer in group A (median, 121) than in group B (median, 56; p=0.000). No differences were noted in the overall procedural success rate (69.6% vs. 70%), clinical procedural success rate (82.6% vs. 90%), and lead clinical success rate (86% vs. 94.1%) between the groups. The procedural success rates according to lead type were 89.2% and 100% for pacing leads and 66.7% and 83.3% for defibrillator leads in groups A and B, respectively. Major complications were noted in 3 (mortality in 1) patients in group A and 2 patients in group B. Transvenous extraction of pacemaker leads via an inferior approach using a gooseneck snare was both safe and effective. However, stand-alone transvenous extraction of defibrillator leads using the inferior approach was suboptimal.

  17. Effective Maxillary Protraction with Tandem Traction Bow Appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Kumar S Marure

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tandem traction bow appliance (TTBA promotes patient compliance, because it is more esthetic and comfortable than extraoral appliances. TTBA should be used only in case where maxillary deficiency and normal mandible is present. Advantages of it includes good oral hygiene, early treatment of any Class III malocclusion, optimal retention, distribution of the forces for protraction to all maxillary teeth, free mandibular movement. It can be used in conjunction with fixed appliances if necessary. This paper includes two case reports. The treatment results in both the cases demonstrated significant skeletal and dental response to TTBA therapy. Skeletal change was primarily a result of anterior movement of the maxilla.

  18. Electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    ENERGY CONVERSION IN ELECTRIC DRIVESElectric Drives: A DefinitionApplication Range of Electric DrivesEnergy Savings Pay Off RapidlyGlobal Energy Savings Through PEC DrivesMotor/Mechanical Load MatchMotion/Time Profile MatchLoad Dynamics and StabilityMultiquadrant OperationPerformance IndexesProblemsELECTRIC MOTORS FOR DRIVESElectric Drives: A Typical ConfigurationElectric Motors for DrivesDC Brush MotorsConventional AC MotorsPower Electronic Converter Dependent MotorsEnergy Conversion in Electric Motors/GeneratorsPOWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS (PECs) FOR DRIVESPower Electronic Switches (PESs)The

  19. Design of a Novel Electro-hydraulic Drive Downhole Tractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Delei; Shang, Jianzhong; Yang, Junhong; Wang, Zhuo; Wu, Wei

    2018-02-01

    In order to improve the traction ability and the work efficiency of downhole tractor in oil field, a novel electro-hydraulic drive downhole tractor was designed. The tractor’s supporting mechanism and moving mechanism were analyzed based on the tractor mechanical structure. Through the introduction of hydraulic system, the hydraulic drive mechanism and the implementation process were researched. Based on software, analysis of tractor hydraulic drive characteristic and movement performance were simulated, which provide theoretical basis for the development of tractor prototype.

  20. MONITORING OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY QUALITY ON THE TRACTION SUBSTATION INPUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.G. Gryb

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For the implementation of measures to maintain the quality of the energy industrial enterprises have to spend a significant material and monetary assets. In this regard, significant is the feasibility study of the allocation of such funds and, primarily, the determination of the economic damage arising from low quality of electricity. The reliability of the electricity metering system, relay protection and automation of modern digital substations depends on the quality of electrical energy. At the present time to improve the reliability of the substation operation it is necessary to monitor indicators of quality of electric energy, allowing you to take organizational and technical solutions for their improvement. Monitoring the power quality at the input traction substation has shown that indicators such as the coefficient of the n-th harmonic component of the voltage does not meet the standards GOST 13109-97. The source of higher harmonics is a voltage Converter used on the locomotive. To eliminate higher harmonics in the supply network for traction substations will need to install power filters. Today, the USB-analyzer of power quality «Digital measurement system of power quality» type of CSICE of accuracy class 0.2. Work energy requires reliable and quality electricity supply to consumers. The new model of balancing energy market are bilateral contracts. The main task of this market, it ensure the stable and reliable operation of the unified energy system of Ukraine, that is, transmission and supply of electricity of appropriate quality.

  1. Developing traction control strategy for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle using innovative optimization based approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, L.; Gu, J.; Dong, Z. [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This paper described a traction control system designed for hybrid vehicles with multiple power plants and drive axles. Model-based design tools were used to develop the traction control system and plug-in hybrid vehicle models. Optimization studies were conducted in a finite number of operating states in order to maximize the electrical and mechanical energy conversion efficiency of an extended range electric vehicle. Four global optimization algorithms were then evaluated in relation to their CPU times. The studied algorithms included a genetic algorithm (GA), a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, a hybrid adaptive metamodel optimization (HAM) and space elimination and unimodal region reduction (SEUMRE) algorithm. A comparative evaluation of the algorithms demonstrated that the PSO algorithm obtained optimal results, while the HAM algorithm used significantly less computational time. Results of the optimization studies were then implemented in a controller model. Results of the study showed that the energy efficiency of the vehicle improved using the developed controller model. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  2. Gaze-controlled Driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tall, Martin; Alapetite, Alexandre; San Agustin, Javier

    2009-01-01

    We investigate if the gaze (point of regard) can control a remote vehicle driving on a racing track. Five different input devices (on-screen buttons, mouse-pointing low-cost webcam eye tracker and two commercial eye tracking systems) provide heading and speed control on the scene view transmitted...

  3. Changes in dynamics processes of the muscles’ traction under influence of stress-factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Nozdrenko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Change of fibers’ dynamic parameters of the frog Rana temporaria skeletal muscle m. tibialis traction under influence of modulated stimulation and aluminium chloride solutions was studied. At 10-4,5·10-4 and 10‑3 M·l-1 concentrations of aluminium chloride the nonlinear decrease of the muscle fibers’ traction parameters was observed.

  4. Skull traction for cervical spinal injury in Enugu: A 5‑year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty‑one had the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Grade A whereas 64 had incomplete cord injury of ASIA Grades B–E. Forty‑eight had Crutchfield traction whereas 57 had Gardner‑Wells traction. At the end of treatment, no patient improved among those with ASIA Grades A and B. All the 12 cases of mortality ...

  5. The Harmonoise/IMAGINE model for traction noise of powered railway vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.; Zhang, X.

    2006-01-01

    Traction noise is one of the noise sources of powered railway vehicles such as locomotives, electric- and diesel-powered multiple unit trains and high-speed trains. Especially at speeds below 60 km/h and at idling, but also at acceleration conditions for a wide range of speeds, traction noise can be

  6. Impedance-Based Harmonic Instability Assessment in Multiple Electric Trains and Traction Network Interaction System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tao, Haidong; Hu, Haitao; Wang, Xiongfei

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents an impedance-based method to systematically investigate the interaction between multi-train and traction networks, focusing on evaluating the harmonic instability problems. Firstly, the interaction mechanism of multi-train and the traction network is represented as a feedback ...

  7. Fuzzy logic electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikanek, Susan R.

    1994-01-01

    An regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system using fuzzy logic for an electric or hybrid vehicle having a regenerative braking system operatively connected to an electric traction motor, and a separate hydraulic braking system includes sensors for monitoring present vehicle parameters and a processor, responsive to the sensors, for calculating vehicle parameters defining the vehicle behavior not directly measurable by the sensor and determining if regenerative antiskid braking control, requiring hydraulic braking control, and requiring traction control are required. The processor then employs fuzzy logic based on the determined vehicle state and provides command signals to a motor controller to control operation of the electric traction motor and to the brake controller to control fluid pressure applied at each vehicle wheel to provide the appropriate regenerative braking control, hydraulic braking control, and traction control.

  8. Fuzzy logic electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikanek, S.R.

    1994-10-25

    An regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system using fuzzy logic for an electric or hybrid vehicle having a regenerative braking system operatively connected to an electric traction motor, and a separate hydraulic braking system includes sensors for monitoring present vehicle parameters and a processor, responsive to the sensors, for calculating vehicle parameters defining the vehicle behavior not directly measurable by the sensor and determining if regenerative antiskid braking control, requiring hydraulic braking control, and requiring traction control are required. The processor then employs fuzzy logic based on the determined vehicle state and provides command signals to a motor controller to control operation of the electric traction motor and to the brake controller to control fluid pressure applied at each vehicle wheel to provide the appropriate regenerative braking control, hydraulic braking control, and traction control. 123 figs.

  9. The role played by the Coulombic traction for an interface crack in dissimilar piezoelectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qun; Chen Yiheng

    2008-01-01

    The role played by the Coulombic traction for an interface crack in dissimilar piezoelectric materials is clarified. Based on the extended Stroh theory, the Coulombic traction, usually neglected in piezoelectric fracture, is imposed on the interface crack surfaces. It is found that the low-capacitance medium (air or vacuum) inside the crack gap yields some large Coulombic traction as compared to the applied mechanical loading whether the remanent polarization of piezoelectric material is considered or not. Thus, previous investigations based on the traction-free condition underestimate the role of the Coulombic traction and in turn may yield unexpected errors for the effective stress intensity factor (SIF) and energy release rate (ERR) at the crack tip. (technical note)

  10. Pile Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Machine-oriented structural engineering firm TERA, Inc. is engaged in a project to evaluate the reliability of offshore pile driving prediction methods to eventually predict the best pile driving technique for each new offshore oil platform. Phase I Pile driving records of 48 offshore platforms including such information as blow counts, soil composition and pertinent construction details were digitized. In Phase II, pile driving records were statistically compared with current methods of prediction. Result was development of modular software, the CRIPS80 Software Design Analyzer System, that companies can use to evaluate other prediction procedures or other data bases.

  11. Traction for low back pain with or without sciatica: an updated systematic review within the framework of the Cochrane collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarke, J.; van Tulder, M.; Blomberg, S; de Vet, H.C.W.; van der Heijden, G; Bronfort, G.

    2006-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN. Systematic review. OBJECTIVE. To determine if traction is more effective than reference treatments, placebo/sham traction, or no treatment for low back pain (LBP). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA. Various types of traction are used in the treatment of LBP, often in conjunction with other

  12. Young adult patient with two palatally maxillary impacted canines and forced traction on rigid arches of stabilization. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucedero, M; Pezzuto, C; Rozzi, M; Ricchiuti, M R; Cozza, P

    2016-01-01

    Young adult patient treated for impaction of two maxillary canines. C.S., 15 years, female. Diagnostic evaluation by clinical and radiographic examinations shows permanent dentition with persistence of 5.3 and 6.3, impaction of 1.3 and 2.3, dento-skeletal Cl I malocclusion, normodivergence of bone bases. Analysis of TC dentalscan confirms the palatal impaction of 1.3 and 2.3. The treatment plan provided an orthodontic-surgical approach for adequate space management in dental arch, evaluation of eruption movements, choice of anchorage device, surgical exposure and application of the brackets. Deciduous canines have been extracted and an edgewise appliance with rigid rectangular full thickness archwires has been used to align the arches and to obtain maximum anchorage during the forced traction. The surgical phase, for exposure of 1.3 and 2.3 respectively, performed an open technique by excisional uncovering and a close technique by a repositioned flap. The case has been finalized for the achievement of the right occlusal keys. The possibility to choose the surgical technique depending on the intraosseous position of impacted teeth in association to the edgewise therapy with full thickness arches allows to realize an effectiveness surgical-orthodontic approach for the forced traction of impacted teeth in a favourable position.

  13. Local traction force in the proximal leading process triggers nuclear translocation during neuronal migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeshima, Hiroki; Nomura, Ken-Ichi; Yoshikawa, Shuhei; Hörning, Marcel; Tanaka, Motomu; Sakuma, Shinya; Arai, Fumihito; Kaneko, Makoto; Kengaku, Mineko

    2018-04-05

    Somal translocation in long bipolar neurons is regulated by actomyosin contractile forces, yet the precise spatiotemporal sites of force generation are unknown. Here we investigate the force dynamics generated during somal translocation using traction force microscopy. Neurons with a short leading process generated a traction force in the growth cone and counteracting forces in the leading and trailing processes. In contrast, neurons with a long leading process generated a force dipole with opposing traction forces in the proximal leading process during nuclear translocation. Transient accumulation of actin filaments was observed at the dipole center of the two opposing forces, which was abolished by inhibition of myosin II activity. A swelling in the leading process emerged and generated a traction force that pulled the nucleus when nuclear translocation was physically hampered. The traction force in the leading process swelling was uncoupled from somal translocation in neurons expressing a dominant negative mutant of the KASH protein, which disrupts the interaction between cytoskeletal components and the nuclear envelope. Our results suggest that the leading process is the site of generation of actomyosin-dependent traction force in long bipolar neurons, and that the traction force is transmitted to the nucleus via KASH proteins. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Traction bronchiectasis in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis: associated computed tomographic features and physiological significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, Sujal R. [Department of Radiology, King' s College Hospital, Denmark Hill, SE5 9RS, London (United Kingdom); Wells, Athol U.; Bois, Roland M. du [Interstitial Lung Disease Unit, Royal Brompton Hospital, Emmanuel Kaye Building, Manresa Road, Fulham, SW6 6LR, London (United Kingdom); Rubens, Michael B.; Hansell, David M. [Department of Radiology, Royal Brompton Hospital, Sydney Street, SW3 6NP, London (United Kingdom)

    2003-08-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the associated CT features and physiological consequences of traction bronchiectasis in patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA). The CT scans of 212 patients with CFA (158 men, 54 women; mean age 62.2{+-}10.6 years) were evaluated independently by two observers. The extent of fibrosis, the proportions of a reticular pattern and ground-glass opacification and the extent of emphysema were scored at five levels. The predominant CT pattern, coarseness of a reticular pattern and severity of traction bronchiectasis were graded semiquantitatively. Physiological indices were correlated with CT features. There was traction bronchiectasis on CT in 202 of 212 (95%) patients. Increasingly severe traction bronchiectasis was independently associated with increasingly extensive CFA (p<0.0005), a coarser reticular pattern (p<0.001), a lower proportion of ground-glass opacification (p<0.005) and less extensive emphysema (p<0.0005). Increasingly severe traction bronchiectasis was independently related to depression of DL{sub CO} (p<0.005), FVC (p=0.02) and pO{sub 2} (p<0.0005), but not indices of air-flow obstruction. In CFA, traction bronchiectasis increases with more extensive disease, a lower proportion of ground-glass opacification and a coarser reticular pattern, but it decreases with concurrent emphysema. Increasingly severe traction bronchiectasis is associated with additional physiological impairment for a given extent of pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. (orig.)

  15. Mineral extraction and transport device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaga, K.

    1991-08-21

    A device for the extraction and transport of stratified mineral deposits notably coal, having a transport run with lengths of transport troughing, an extraction run with lengths of extraction troughing, and a power-driven traction chain guided round return devices and carrying extraction bodies together with optional transport units. The transport and extraction troughing have guide members on which the extraction bodies and the transport units are guided with the aid of guide formations. Each extraction body consists of a headpiece having two laterally protruding guide formations, and an endpiece having two laterally protruding guide formations and a centrepiece. The headpiece and the endpiece are swivellably linked to the centrepiece through an axis running substantially at right angles to the traction axis of the traction chain and substantially at right angles to the floor of the lengths of transport troughing in the transport run. The centrepiece has an additional articulation about an axis substantially orthogonal to the swivel axis of the headpiece and the endpiece. Guide members are additionally provided in the vicinity of the return devices whereby the guide formations on each headpiece and endpiece receive continued guidance.

  16. Current drive for rotamak plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Experiments which have been undertaken over a number of years have shown that a rotating magnetic field can drive a significant non-linear Hall current in a plasma. Successful experiments of this concept have been made with a device called rotamak. In its original configuration this device was a field reversed ...

  17. Surgical management of retinal diseases: proliferative diabetic retinopathy and traction retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Iñigo, Yousef J; Acabá, Luis A; Berrocal, Maria H

    2014-01-01

    Current indications for pars plana vitrectomy in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) include vitreous hemorrhage, tractional retinal detachment (TRD), combined tractional and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (CTRRD), diabetic macular edema associated with posterior hyaloidal traction, and anterior segment neovascularization with media opacities. This chapter will review the indications, surgical objectives, adjunctive pharmacotherapy, microincision surgical techniques, and outcomes of diabetic vitrectomy for PDR, TRD, and CTRRD. With the availability of new microincision vitrectomy technology, wide-angle microscope viewing systems, and pharmacologic agents, vitrectomy can improve visual acuity and achieve long-term anatomic stability in eyes with severe complications from PDR. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  18. Design and test on vibration reduction for knife driving device of combine harvester%联合收获机切割器驱动装置减振设计与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志明; 马广; 吕彭民; 陈霓

    2014-01-01

    Summary In the knife driving system of combine harvester,a slider-crank mechanism with a simple structure is used for driving the cutter bar.A low-cost balance mass is generally used in this mechanism to offset the unbalanced force for vibration reduction.The vibration characteristics of the knife driving system should be clarified in order to develop a method to reduce the vibration.Furthermore,it is necessary to develop a design theory of the knife driving system of combine harvesters in order to derive the control parameters of the balance weights used for vibration reduction. The mechanical model of the knife driving device that is equipped with a slider-crank mechanism was constructed in order to derive the control parameters of the balance weights,such as the mass and the location of the balance mass.The simulation conditions of the model,which reflect the condition of the actual combine harvester, are listed.The angular velocity was equivalent to the rotation number of the crank wheel and was around 73 rad/s (700 r/min)in the clockwise direction.Vibration experiment was done with the type 4LZS-1.8 combine harvester. The vibration acceleration was measured using the preprocessing and cutting device of the actual combine harvester (the divider and conveying unit did not work;only the knife driving system worked).The interval time in calculation was set to 1 ms according to the sampling time of the measurement of the acceleration.The simulated inertia force was compared with measured acceleration in time series in order to evaluate the vibration model of the knife driving system.In the state without a balance mass,the simulation could express the vibration of the knife driving system well by comparing it with the measured acceleration.Consequently,this mechanical model could express the vibration characteristics of the knife driving system.The root mean square (RMS) value of the inertia force was simulated in the state with the balance mass in order to examine

  19. New model of inverting substation for DC traction with regenerative braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Abdul Malek Saidina; Samat, Ahmad Asri Abd; Isa, Siti Sarah Mat; Shamsuddin, Sarah Addyani; Jamaludin, Nur Fadhilah; Khyasudeen, Muhammad Farris

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a power electronic devices application focus on modeling, analysis, and control of switching power converter in the inverting DC substation with regenerative braking system which is used to recycle the surplus regenerative power by feed it back to the main AC grid. The main objective of this research is to improve the switching power electronic converter of the railway inverting substation and optimize the maximum kinetic energy recovery together with minimum power losses from the railway braking system. Assess performance including efficiency and robustness will be evaluated in order to get the best solution for the design configuration. Research methodology included mathematical calculation, simulation, and detail analysis on modeling of switching power converter on inverting substation. The design stage separates to four main areas include rectification mode, regenerative mode, control inverter mode and filtering mode. The simulation result has shown that the regenerative inverter has a capability to accept a maximum recovery power on the regeneration mode. Total energy recovery has increase and power losses have decreases because inverter abilities to transfer the surplus energy back to the main AC supply. An Inverter controller with PWM Generator and PI Voltage Regulator has been designed to control voltage magnitude and frequency of the DC traction system.

  20. Impaired Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Get the Facts What Works: Strategies to Increase Car Seat and Booster Seat ... narcotics. 3 That’s one percent of the 111 million self-reported episodes of alcohol-impaired driving among U.S. ...

  1. Control rod drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futatsugi, Masao; Goto, Mikihiko.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a control rod drive mechanism using water as an operating source, which prevents a phenomenon for forming two-layers of water in the neighbourhood of a return nozzle in a reactor to limit formation of excessive thermal stress to improve a safety. Constitution: In the control rod drive mechanism of the present invention, a heating device is installed in the neighbourhood of a pressure container for a reactor. This heating device is provided to heat return water in the reactor to a level equal to the temperature of reactor water thereby preventing a phenomenon for forming two-layers of water in the reactor. This limits formation of thermal stress in the return nozzle in the reactor. Accordingly, it is possible to minimize damages in the return nozzle portion and yet a possibility of failure in reactor water. (Kawakami, Y.)

  2. FY2015 Electric Drive Technologies Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-02-29

    The Electric Drive Technologies research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research is focused on developing power electronics (PE), electric motor, and traction drive system (TDS) technologies that will reduce system cost and improve their efficiency in transforming battery energy to useful work. The R&D is also aimed at better understanding and improving how various components of tomorrow’s automobiles will function as a unified system to improve fuel efficiency.

  3. FY2014 Electric Drive Technologies Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-12-01

    The Electric Drive Technologies research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research is focused on developing power electronics (PE), electric motor, and traction drive system (TDS) technologies that will reduce system cost and improve their efficiency in transforming battery energy to useful work. The R&D is also aimed at better understanding and improving how various components of tomorrow’s automobiles will function as a unified system to improve fuel efficiency.

  4. FY2016 Electric Drive Technologies Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-07-03

    The Electric Drive Technologies research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research is focused on developing power electronics (PE), electric motor, and traction drive system (TDS) technologies that will reduce system cost and improve their efficiency in transforming battery energy to useful work. The R&D is also aimed at better understanding and improving how various components of tomorrow’s automobiles will function as a unified system to improve fuel efficiency.

  5. A novel anchorage technique for transnasal traction in rigid external maxillary distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varol, A; Basa, S

    2013-12-01

    We describe an effective technique for anchorage of transnasal traction in the management of maxillary rotation during external distraction. Copyright © 2012 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Basilar impression in osteogenesis imperfecta: can it be treated with halo traction and posterior fusion?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noske, D. P.; van Royen, B. J.; Bron, J. L.; Vandertop, W. P.

    2006-01-01

    Basilar impression (BI) and hydrocephalus complicating osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is usually treated by anterior transoral decompression and posterior fixation. Nevertheless, it may be questioned if posterior fusion following axial halo traction is adequate in patients with symptomatic BI

  7. Application on forced traction test in surgeries for orbital blowout fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Hong Han

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To discuss the application of forced traction test in surgeries for orbital blowout fracture.METHODS: The clinical data of 28 patients with reconstructive surgeries for orbital fracture were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were treated with forced traction test before/in/after operation. The eyeball movement and diplopia were examined and recorded pre-operation, 3 and 6mo after operation, respectively.RESULTS: Diplopia was improved in all 28 cases with forced traction test. There was significant difference between preoperative and post-operative diplopia at 3 and 6mo(PCONCLUSION: Forced traction test not only have a certain clinical significance in diagnosis of orbital blowout fracture, it is also an effective method in improving diplopia before/in/after operation.

  8. Integrated Inverter For Driving Multiple Electric Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gui-Jia [Knoxville, TN; Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2006-04-04

    An electric machine drive (50) has a plurality of inverters (50a, 50b) for controlling respective electric machines (57, 62), which may include a three-phase main traction machine (57) and two-phase accessory machines (62) in a hybrid or electric vehicle. The drive (50) has a common control section (53, 54) for controlling the plurality of inverters (50a, 50b) with only one microelectronic processor (54) for controlling the plurality of inverters (50a, 50b), only one gate driver circuit (53) for controlling conduction of semiconductor switches (S1-S10) in the plurality of inverters (50a, 50b), and also includes a common dc bus (70), a common dc bus filtering capacitor (C1) and a common dc bus voltage sensor (67). The electric machines (57, 62) may be synchronous machines, induction machines, or PM machines and may be operated in a motoring mode or a generating mode.

  9. Traction suture modification to tongue-in-groove caudal septoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indeyeva, Y A; Lee, T S; Gordin, E; Chan, D; Ducic, Y

    2018-02-01

    Caudal septal deviation leads to unfavorable esthetic as well as functional effects on the nasal airway. A modification to the tongue-in-groove (TIG) technique to correct these caudal septal deformities is described. With placement of a temporary suspension suture to the caudal septum, manual traction is applied, assuring that the caudal septum remains in the midline position while it is being secured with multiple through-and-through, trans-columellar and trans-septal sutures. From 2003 to 2016, 148 patients underwent endonasal septoplasty using this modified technique, with excellent functional and cosmetic outcomes and a revision rate of 1.4%. This modified TIG technique replaces the periosteal suture that secures the caudal septum to the midline nasal crest in the original TIG technique. This simplifies the procedure and minimizes the risk of securing the caudal septum off-midline when used in endonasal septoplasty. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Observer Based Traction/Braking Control Design for High Speed Trains Considering Adhesion Nonlinearity

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Wenchuan; Liao, Wenhao; Li, Danyong; Song, Yongduan

    2014-01-01

    Train traction/braking control, one of the key enabling technologies for automatic train operation, literally takes its action through adhesion force. However, adhesion coefficient of high speed train (HST) is uncertain in general because it varies with wheel-rail surface condition and running speed; thus, it is extremely difficult to be measured, which makes traction/braking control design and implementation of HSTs greatly challenging. In this work, force observers are applied to estimate t...

  11. Measurement of the traction force of biological cells by digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao; Cross, Michael; Liu, Changgeng; Clark, David C.; Haynie, Donald T.; Kim, Myung K.

    2011-01-01

    The traction force produced by biological cells has been visualized as distortions in flexible substrata. We have utilized quantitative phase microscopy by digital holography (DH-QPM) to study the wrinkling of a silicone rubber film by motile fibroblasts. Surface deformation and the cellular traction force have been measured from phase profiles in a direct and straightforward manner. DH-QPM is shown to provide highly efficient and versatile means for quantitatively analyzing cellular motility. PMID:22254175

  12. Rigid two-axis MEMS force plate for measuring cellular traction force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Jung, Uijin G; Shimoyama, Isao; Kan, Tetsuo; Tsukagoshi, Takuya; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Cellular traction force is one of the important factors for understanding cell behaviors, such as spreading, migration and differentiation. Cells are known to change their behavior according to the mechanical stiffness of the environment. However, the measurement of cell traction forces on a rigid environment has remained difficult. This paper reports a micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) force plate that provides a cellular traction force measurement on a rigid substrate. Both the high force sensitivity and high stiffness of the substrate were obtained using piezoresistive sensing elements. The proposed force plate consists of a 70 µ m  ×  15 µ m  ×  5 µ m base as the substrate for cultivating a bovine aortic smooth muscle cell, and the supporting beams with piezoresistors on the sidewall and the surface were used to measure the forces in both the horizontal and vertical directions. The spring constant and force resolution of the fabricated force plate in the horizontal direction were 0.2 N m −1 and less than 0.05 µ N, respectively. The cell traction force was measured, and the traction force increased by approximately 1 µ N over 30 min. These results demonstrate that the proposed force plate is applicable as an effective traction force measurement. (paper)

  13. Acetabular labral tears: contrast-enhanced MR imaging under continuous leg traction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishii, T. [Div. of Functional Diagnostic Imaging, Biomedical Research Center, Osaka Univ. Medical School, Suita (Japan); Nakanishi, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Osaka Univ. Medical School, Suita (Japan); Sugano, N. [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Osaka Univ. Medical School, Suita (Japan); Naito, H. [Div. of Functional Diagnostic Imaging, Biomedical Research Center, Osaka Univ. Medical School, Suita (Japan); Tamura, S. [Div. of Functional Diagnostic Imaging, Biomedical Research Center, Osaka Univ. Medical School, Suita (Japan); Ochi, T. [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Osaka Univ. Medical School, Suita (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of continuous leg traction on contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the hip joint and to determine whether MR imaging under these conditions is useful for demonstrating acetabular labral tears. Nineteen hips underwent MR imaging with a T1-weighted spin-echo sequence, followed by MR imaging under continuous leg traction after intravenous injection of gadolinium-DTPA. Joint fluid enhancement and labral contour detection were evaluated. Eleven hips had labral tears shown by conventional arthrography, arthroscopy and macroscopic surgical findings. Assessment of labral tears by MR imaging was correlated with the diagnosis based on these standard techniques. Joint fluid enhancement was obtained in all hips at 30 min after injection. Superior and inferior labral surfaces were completely delineated in 1 hip on the unenhanced MR images, and in 7 and 13 hips, respectively, on the enhanced images under traction. The enhanced images under traction depicted 9 of the 11 labral tears. Comparison between the unenhanced image and the enhanced image under traction avoided mistaking undercutting of the labrum for a tear in 4 hips. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging under traction was valuable for detecting labral tears non-invasively and without radiation. Follow-up examinations using this method in patients with acetabular dysplasia can help to clarify the natural course of labral disorders and enable better treatment planning. (orig./MG)

  14. Traction bronchiectasis in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis: associated computed tomographic features and physiological significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Sujal R.; Wells, Athol U.; Bois, Roland M. du; Rubens, Michael B.; Hansell, David M.

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the associated CT features and physiological consequences of traction bronchiectasis in patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA). The CT scans of 212 patients with CFA (158 men, 54 women; mean age 62.2±10.6 years) were evaluated independently by two observers. The extent of fibrosis, the proportions of a reticular pattern and ground-glass opacification and the extent of emphysema were scored at five levels. The predominant CT pattern, coarseness of a reticular pattern and severity of traction bronchiectasis were graded semiquantitatively. Physiological indices were correlated with CT features. There was traction bronchiectasis on CT in 202 of 212 (95%) patients. Increasingly severe traction bronchiectasis was independently associated with increasingly extensive CFA (p CO (p 2 (p<0.0005), but not indices of air-flow obstruction. In CFA, traction bronchiectasis increases with more extensive disease, a lower proportion of ground-glass opacification and a coarser reticular pattern, but it decreases with concurrent emphysema. Increasingly severe traction bronchiectasis is associated with additional physiological impairment for a given extent of pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. (orig.)

  15. Driving things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevile, Maurice Richard

    2015-01-01

    I explore how participants organise involvement with objects brought into the car, relative to the demands of driving and social activity. Objects in cars commonly include phones or other technologies, food, body care products, texts, clothing, bags and carry items, toys, and even animals...... 2004, Haddington et al. 2012). I focus here especially on how the practical and interactional work of locating, seeing, placing, handling, hearing, and relinquishing, is ordered and accomplished relative to the emerging and contingent demands of both driving and social participation......, such that involvement with objects is constituted as secondary to driving in a multiactivity setting (e.g. Haddington et al. 2014). We see how events with, for, of, and even by objects can occur as predictable, planned and even designed for (e.g. changing glasses, applying body lotion), or might be unexpected...

  16. Drive-in device for long thin rods into narrow cavitations, especially for control-shutdown rods e.g. of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flessner, H.; Paeserack, U.

    1974-01-01

    The auxiliary device serves as holder for long and thin rods, e.g. control rods, transported hanging in bundles, when these are lowered into narrow cavities. It is constructed as a rod grab vertically movable at the end of a guide tube. A comb-shaped trap in connection with a guide rod serves for lateral support of the lower ends of the rods hanging on the grab. This guide rod can be moved in vertical direction by means of two pairs of convex rollers resting on the inner guide tube. In addition, the guide rod has a prolongation carrying a traverse by means of an abutment on the lower end. With these auxiliaries amongst others, the trap can be brought into a horizontal position by turning around an axis with the control rods meshing with the teeth of the trap while the parallelism of the rods is kept up during transport. (DG) [de

  17. A qualitative exploration of driving stress and driving discourtesy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Parker, B; Jones, C M; Rune, K; Tucker, J

    2018-05-31

    Driving courtesy, and conversely driving discourtesy, recently has been of great interest in the public domain. In addition, there has been increasing recognition of the negative impact of stress upon the individual's health and wellbeing, with a plethora of interventions aimed at minimising stress more generally. The research literature regarding driving dis/courtesy, in comparison, is scant, with a handful of studies examining the dis/courteous driving behaviour of road users, and the relationship between driving discourtesy and driving stress. To examine courteous and discourteous driving experiences, and to explore the impact of stress associated with such driving experiences. Thirty-eight drivers (20 females) from the Sunshine Coast region volunteered to participate in one of four 1-1.5 h focus groups. Content analysis used the verbatim utterances captured via an Mp3 device. Three themes pertaining to stressful and discourteous interactions were identified. Theme one pertained to the driving context: road infrastructure (eg, roundabouts, roadwork), vehicles (eg, features), location (eg, country vs city, unfamiliar areas), and temporal aspects (eg, holidays). Theme two pertained to other road users: their behaviour (eg, tailgating, merging), and unknown factors (eg, illicit and licit drug use). Theme three pertained to the self as road user: their own behaviours (eg, deliberate intimidation), and their emotions (eg, angry reaction to other drivers, being in control). Driving dis/courtesy and driving stress is a complex phenomenon, suggesting complex intervention efforts are required. Driving discourtesy was reported as being highly stressful, therefore intervention efforts which encourage driving courtesy and which foster emotional capacity to cope with stressful circumstances appear warranted. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. The impact of the neurodevelopmental traction technique on activation of lateral abdominal muscles in children aged 11-13 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogola, Anna; Gnat, Rafał; Dziub, Dorota; Gwóźdź, Michalina; Zaborowska, Małgorzata

    2016-06-27

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the activation of lateral abdominal muscles (LAM) in response to neurodevelopmental traction technique as assessed by ultrasounds as well as to compare the effects of different traction forces. An experiment with repeated measurements of the dependent variables was conducted. Thirty-seven children (22 girls) participated. Measurements of LAM thickness (indicating LAM activation) were performed bilaterally during traction of 5% body weight: 1) in neutral position, 2) in 20° posterior trunk inclination; during traction of 15% body weight: 3) in neutral position, 4) in 20° posterior trunk inclination. The ultrasound technology was employed. When applying the lighter traction the superficial LAM (external and internal oblique muscles) showed significant changes. The mean thickness of both muscles during traction increased (both p  0.05). Stronger traction elicited smaller changes. External and internal oblique muscles showed significant increases (p stronger traction (p Stronger traction induces smaller LAM thickness changes than lighter traction.

  19. Wrist Traction During MR Arthrography Improves Detection of Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex and Intrinsic Ligament Tears and Visibility of Articular Cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ryan K L; Griffith, James F; Ng, Alex W H; Nung, Ryan C H; Yeung, David K W

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of traction during MR arthrography of the wrist on joint space widening, cartilage visibility, and detection of tears of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) and intrinsic ligaments. A prospective study included 40 wrists in 39 patients (25 men, 14 women; mean age, 35 years). MR arthrography was performed with a 3-T MRI system with and without axial traction. Two radiologists independently measured wrist and carpal joint space widths and semiquantitatively graded articular cartilage visibility. Using conventional arthrography as the reference standard and working in consensus, they assessed for the presence of tears of the TFCC, lunotriquetral ligament (LTL), and scapholunate ligament (SLL). Visibility of a tear before traction was compared with visibility after traction. With traction, all joint spaces in the wrist and carpus were significantly widened (change, 0.15-1.01 mm; all p < 0.006). Subjective cartilage visibility of all joint spaces improved after traction (all p ≤ 0.048) except for that of the radioscaphoid space, which was well visualized even before traction. Conventional arthrography depicted 24 TFCC tears, seven LTL tears, and three SLL tears. The accuracy of tear detection improved after traction for the TFCC (98% after traction vs 83% before traction), the LTL (100% vs 88%), and the SLL (100% vs 95%). Tear visibility improved after traction for 54% of TFCC tears, 71% of LTL tears, and 66% of SLL tears. Wrist MR arthrography with axial traction significantly improved the visibility of articular cartilage and the detection and visibility of tears of the TFCC and intrinsic ligaments. The results favor more widespread use of traction during MR arthrography of the wrist.

  20. Smartphone Based Approach For Monitoring Inefficient And Unsafe Driving Behavior And Recognizing Drink And Drive Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Mane

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many automobile drivers having knowledge of the driving behaviours and habits that can lead to inefficient and unsafe driving. However it is often the case that these same drivers unknowingly manifest these inefficient and unsafe driving behaviours in their everyday driving activity. The proposed system proposes a practical and economical way to capture measure and alert drives of inefficient and unsafe driving as well as highly efficient system aimed at early detection and alert of dangerous vehicle maneuvers typically related to drunk driving. The upcoming solution consists of a mobile application running on a modern smartphone device paired with a compatible OBDII On-board diagnostics II reader.

  1. Sealing devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulson, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    A sealing device for minimising the leakage of toxic or radioactive contaminated environments through a biological shield along an opening through which a flexible component moves that penetrates the shield. The sealing device comprises an outer tubular member which extends over a length not less than the maximum longitudinal movement of the component along the opening. An inner sealing block is located intermediate the length of the component by connectors and is positioned in the bore of the outer tubular member to slide in the bore and effect a seal over the entire longitudinal movement of the component. The cross-section of the device may be circular and the block may be of polytetrafluoroethylene or of nylon impregnated with molybdenum or may be metallic. A number of the sealing devices may be combined into an assembly for a plurality of adjacent longitudinally movable components, each adapted to sustain a tensile load, providing the various drives of a master-slave manipulator. (author)

  2. Electrical Energy Quality Studies in 3 kV DC Electric Traction Systems for Different Schemes of Connection Traction Substation to Power Utility System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Mierzejewski

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper present aspects of DC electric traction system influence on electric energetic system. Study is based on modeling and simulation of electrified railway line. After simulation, there was performed analysis of energy quality, whitch using results of simulation and supply systems parameters.

  3. IMPLEMENTATION MODEL OF MOTOR TRACTION FORCE OF MAGLEV TRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Polyakov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Traction force implementation (TFI by the motor of magnetic levitation train (MLT occurs in the process of electric-to-kinetic energy transformation at interaction of inductor and armature magnetic fields. Ac-cordingly, the aim of this study is to obtain a correct description of such energy transformation. Methodology. At the present stage, a mathematical and, in particular, computer simulation is the main and most universal tool for analysis and synthesis of processes and systems. At the same time, radical advantages of this tool make the precision of selection of a particular research methodology even more important. It is especially important for such a large and complex system as MLT. Therefore the special attention in the work is given to the rationale for choosing the research paradigm selective features. Findings. The analysis results of existing TFI process model versions indicate that each of them has both advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, one of the main results of this study was the creation of a mathematical model for such process that would preserve the advantages of previous versions, but would be free from their disadvantages. The work provides rationale for application (for the purposes of research of train motor TFI of the integrative holistic paradigm, which assimilates the advantages of the theory of electric circuit and magnetic field. Originality. The priority of creation of such paradigm and corresponding version of FI model constitute the originality of the research. Practical value. The main manifestation of practical value of this research in the opportunity, in case of use of its results, for significant increase in efficiency of MLT dynamic studies, on the condition that their generalized costs will not rise.

  4. Partial-thickness macular hole in vitreomacular traction syndrome: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Sabti Khalid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Vitreomacular traction syndrome has recently been recognized as a distinct clinical condition. It may lead to many complications, such as cystoid macular edema, macular pucker formation, tractional macular detachment, and full-thickness macular hole formation. Case presentation We report a case of vitreomacular traction syndrome with eccentric traction at the macula and a partial-thickness macular hole in a 63-year-old Pakistani Punjabi man. The patient was evaluated using optical coherence tomography, and he underwent a successful pars plana vitrectomy. After the operation, his foveal contour regained normal configuration, and his visual acuity improved from 20/60 to 20/30. Conclusions Pars plana vitrectomy prevents the progression of a partial thickness macular hole in vitreomacular traction syndrome. The relief of traction by vitrectomy restores foveal anatomy and visual acuity in this condition.

  5. Community Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke

    2018-01-01

    Schools and educational institutions are challenged by not adequately educating students for independent knowledge collaboration and solving of complex societal challenges (Bundsgaard & Hansen, 2016; Slot et al., 2017). As an alternative strategy to formal learning has Community-driven research...... opportunity to break boundaries between research institutions and surrounding communities through the involvement of new types of actors, knowledge forms and institutions (OECD, 2011). This paper presents the project Community Drive a three year cross disciplinary community-driven game– and data-based project....... In the paper we present how the project Community Drive initiated in May 2018 is based on results from pilot projects conducted from 2014 – 2017. Overall these studies showed that it is a strong motivational factor for students to be given the task to change their living conditions through redesign...

  6. Control-rod driving mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jodoi, Takashi.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent falling of control rods due to malfunction. Constitution: The device of the present invention has a scram function in particular, and uses principally a fluid pressure as a scram accelerating means. The control rod is held by upper and lower holding devices, which are connected by a connecting mechanism. This connecting mechanism is designed to be detachable only at the lower limit of driving stroke of the control rod so that there occurs no erroneous scram resulting from careless disconnection of the connecting mechanism. Further, scramming operation due to own weight of the scram operating portion such as control rod driving shaft may be effected to increase freedom. (Kamimura, M.)

  7. Heating and current drive on NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. R.; Batchelor, D.; Carter, M.; Hosea, J.; Ignat, D.; LeBlanc, B.; Majeski, R.; Ono, M.; Phillips, C. K.; Rogers, J. H.; Schilling, G.

    1997-04-01

    Low aspect ratio tokamaks pose interesting new challenges for heating and current drive. The NSTX (National Spherical Tokamak Experiment) device to be built at Princeton is a low aspect ratio toroidal device that has the achievement of high toroidal beta (˜45%) and non-inductive operation as two of its main research goals. To achieve these goals significant auxiliary heating and current drive systems are required. Present plans include ECH (Electron cyclotron heating) for pre-ionization and start-up assist, HHFW (high harmonic fast wave) for heating and current drive and eventually NBI (neutral beam injection) for heating, current drive and plasma rotation.

  8. Heating and current drive on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.R.; Batchelor, D.; Carter, M.; Hosea, J.; Ignat, D.; LeBlanc, B.; Majeski, R.; Ono, M.; Phillips, C.K.; Rogers, J.H.; Schilling, G.

    1997-01-01

    Low aspect ratio tokamaks pose interesting new challenges for heating and current drive. The NSTX (National Spherical Tokamak Experiment) device to be built at Princeton is a low aspect ratio toroidal device that has the achievement of high toroidal beta (∼45%) and non-inductive operation as two of its main research goals. To achieve these goals significant auxiliary heating and current drive systems are required. Present plans include ECH (Electron cyclotron heating) for pre-ionization and start-up assist, HHFW (high harmonic fast wave) for heating and current drive and eventually NBI (neutral beam injection) for heating, current drive and plasma rotation. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  9. ENERGY EFFICIENCY DETERMINATION OF LOADING-BACK SYSTEM OF ELECTRIC TRACTION MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Afanasov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.Acceptance post-repair testsof electric traction machinesare conducted onloading-backstandsthat reducethe overall power costsfor the tests.Currentlya numberof possiblecircuit designs of loading-backsystems of electric machines are known, but there is nomethod of determiningtheir energy efficiency. This in turn makes difficult the choiceof rationaloptions. The purpose of the article is the development of the corresponding methodo-logy to make easier this process. Methodology. Expressions for determining theenergy efficiency ofa stand for testingof electric traction machineswere obtained using the generalizedscheme analysisof energy transformationsin the loading-backsystems of universal structure. Findings.Thetechnique wasoffered and the analytical expressions for determining the energy efficiency of loading-backsystemsof electric traction machines wereobtained. Energy efficiency coefficientofloading-backsystemisproposed to consider as the ratio of the total actionenergy of the mechanical and electromotive forces, providing anchors rotation and flowof currents in electric machines, which are being tested,to the total energy, consumed during the test from the external network. Originality. The concept was introduced and the analytical determination method of the energy efficiency of loading-backsystem in electric traction machines was offered. It differs by efficiency availability of power sources and converters, as well as energy efficiency factors of indirect methods of loss compensation. Practical value. The proposed technique of energy efficiency estimation of a loading-backsystemcan be used in solving the problem of rational options choice of schematics stands decisions for electric traction machines acceptance tests of main line and industrial transport.

  10. Electric drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-10-01

    Several electric vehicles have been tested in long-term tests, i.e. an electric passenger car (maximum speed 115 km/h) and several busses for use in pedestrians' zones, spas, airports, natural reserves, and urban transportation (DUO busses). The ICE high-speed train is discussed in some detail, i.e. its aeroacoustic and aerodynamic design, running gear, computer-controlled drives and brakes, diagnostic systems, and electrical equipment. The Berlin Maglev system is mentioned as well as current inverters in rail vehicles. (HWJ).

  11. Naturalistic driving observations of manual and visual-manual interactions with navigation systems and mobile phones while driving.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoph, M. Nes, N. van & Knapper, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses a naturalistic driving study on the use of mobile phones and navigation systems while driving. Manual interactions with these devices while driving can cause distraction from the driving task and reduce traffic safety. In this study 21 subjects were observed for 5 weeks. Their

  12. Effects of traction on the blood circulation of femoral head: DSA study on a canine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiujun; Xiao Jian; Ren Qile; Fu Shiping; Li Wei; Xiao Xiangsheng

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of traction on the blood circulation of femur head and its evaluation by DSA. Methods: Using micro-catheter, transfemoral selective femoral circumflex arteriography in 22 healthy dogs was performed in unilateral hip before (Group A, n=22) and immediately (Group B, n=22), 30 (Group D, n=22), 60 (Group E, n=20), 90 (Group F, n=10), 120 (Group G, n= 10) minutes during 2 kg skin hip traction, and immediately after traction removal (Group H, I, J, L and O) , and 30 minutes after traction removal with 60, 90 and 120 minutes continuous traction (Group K, M and P) , and 60 minutes after traction removal with 90 and 120 minutes continuous traction (Group N and Q). DSA was also performed immediately during 4 kg weight traction before continuous traction in 12 hips (Group C). Blood circulation of the femoral head was evaluated mainly by observing its perfusion and time of circulation. Femur head perfusion was assessed as good scoring 3, poor scoring 2 and extremely poor scoring 1. Femur head circulation time was assessed as normal scoring 3, prolonged scoring 2 and remarkably prolonged scoring 1. Analysis of variance was employed for analysis of the angiographic findings between different groups. Results: Good femoral head perfusion in Group A to Q was 22, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 22, 22, 1, 18, 0, 0, 8, 0, 0 and 1 hips respectively, poor one was 0, 22, 8, 22, 15, 4, 1, 0, 0, 15, 2, 4, 6, 2, 1, 3 and 8 hips, respectively, extremely poor one was 0, 0, 4, 0, 5, 6, 9, 0, 0, 4, 0, 6, 4, 0, 9, 7 and 1 hips, respectively; and normal femoral head blood circulation time was 22, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 22, 22, 1, 18, 0, 0, 8, 0, 0 and 1 hips, respectively, prolonged one was 0, 22, 9, 22, 15, 4, 2, 0, 0, 15, 2, 5, 7, 2, 2, 4 and 8 hips, respectively, remarkably prolonged one was 0, 0, 3, 0, 5, 6, 8, 0, 0, 4, 0, 5, 3, 0, 8, 6 and 1 hips, respectively. F value of femoral head perfusion among group A and B,group B and C, group B, D, E, F and G, Group H, I, J, L and O

  13. Traction endurance biomechanical study of metallic suture anchors at different insertion angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azato Flávia Namie

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The suture anchors' insertion angle and its traction resistance are the main subjects of this study. Twenty trials were realized using threaded suture anchors in four diferents angulations (30º /45º /60º /90º in human bone (distal femur and another twenty trials in artificial bone (SawboneTM. The anchors were pulled out being tractioned uprightly from its bone surface by a Kratos Universal test machine. The human bone results found no relation between the main subjects of this study, so whithout statistical value. On the other hand at the artificial bone the insertion angle of 90º beared more traction, being statistically significant compared to the other angles.

  14. [The application of delayed skin grafting combined traction in severe joint cicatricial contracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zihan; Zhang, Zhenxin; Wang, Benfeng; Sun, Yaowen; Guo, Yadong; Gao, Wenjie; Qin, Gaoping

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the effect of delayed skin grafting combined traction in severe joint cicatricial contracture. At the first stage, the joint cicatricial contracture was released completely with protection of vessels, nerves and tendons. The wound was covered with allogenetic skin or biomaterials. After skin traction for 7-14 days, the joint could reach the extension position. Then the skin graft was performed on the wound. 25 cases were treated from Mar. 2000 to May. 2013. Primary healing was achieved at the second stage in all the cases. The skin graft had a satisfactory color and elasticity. Joint function was normal. All the patients were followed up for 3 months to 11 years with no hypertrophic scar and contraction relapse, except for one case who didn' t have enough active exercise on shoulder joint. Delayed skin grafting combined traction can effectively increase the skin graft survival rate and improve the joint function recovery.

  15. An overview of the development of lead/acid traction batteries for electric vehicles in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaramaiah, G.; Subramanian, V. R.

    Electric vehicles (EVs) made an entry into the Indian scene quite recently in the area of passenger transportation, milk floats and other similar applications. The industrial EV market, with various models of fork-lift trucks and platform trucks already in wide use all over India, is a better understood application of EV batteries. The lead/acid traction batteries available in India are not of high-energy density. The best available indigenous lead/acid traction battery has an energy density ( C/5 rate) of 30 W h kg -1 as against 39 W h kg -1 available abroad. This paper reviews the developmental efforts relating to lead/acid traction batteries for electric vehicle applications in India, such as prototype road vehicles, commercial vehicles, rail cars, and locomotives. Due to the need for environmental protection and recognition of exhaustible, finite supplies of petroleum fuel, the Indian government is presently taking active interest in EV projects.

  16. Observer Based Traction/Braking Control Design for High Speed Trains Considering Adhesion Nonlinearity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchuan Cai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Train traction/braking control, one of the key enabling technologies for automatic train operation, literally takes its action through adhesion force. However, adhesion coefficient of high speed train (HST is uncertain in general because it varies with wheel-rail surface condition and running speed; thus, it is extremely difficult to be measured, which makes traction/braking control design and implementation of HSTs greatly challenging. In this work, force observers are applied to estimate the adhesion force or/and the resistance, based on which simple traction/braking control schemes are established under the consideration of actual wheel-rail adhesion condition. It is shown that the proposed controllers have simple structure and can be easily implemented from real applications. Numerical simulation also validates the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  17. Experimental research of vehicle traction properties for reconstruction of traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudziak Marian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to broaden the database of motor vehicle traction properties in unusual conditions, the research team has performed experimental studies: on wet and snow-covered surfaces. Tests of vehicles equipped with winter tyres with non-skid snow chains have been performed on snow-covered surfaces. It has been shown that on snowy surface chains affect vehicle traction properties, mostly during acceleration. They increase the rate of acceleration up to 50% compared to a vehicle with winter tyres without chains. The results of the performed research can be the basis for the full reconstruction of road accidents under these conditions. Knowledge of traction properties of cars in difficult and unusual conditions is an important cognitive factor and serves to improve road safety.

  18. Severe Postoperative Complications may be Related to Mesenteric Traction Syndrome during Open Esophagectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrus, R; Svendsen, L B; Secher, N H

    2017-01-01

    . RESULTS: Flushing appeared in 17 (open) and 5 (robotically assisted) surgical cases ( p = 0.001). Mean arterial pressure was stable during both types of surgeries, but infusion of vasopressors during the first hour of open surgery was related to development of widespread (Grade II) flushing ( p = 0......BACKGROUND: During abdominal surgery, traction of the mesenterium provokes mesenteric traction syndrome, including hypotension, tachycardia, and flushing, along with an increase in plasma prostacyclin (PGI2). We evaluated whether postoperative complications are related to mesenteric traction...... syndrome during esophagectomy. METHODS: Flushing, hemodynamic variables, and plasma 6-keto-PGF1α were recorded during the abdominal part of open ( n = 25) and robotically assisted ( n = 25) esophagectomy. Postoperative complications were also registered, according to the Clavien-Dindo classification...

  19. Tracking Traction Force Changes of Single Cells on the Liquid Crystal Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Fhong Soon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell migration is a key contributor to wound repair. This study presents findings indicating that the liquid crystal based cell traction force transducer (LCTFT system can be used in conjunction with a bespoke cell traction force mapping (CTFM software to monitor cell/surface traction forces from quiescent state in real time. In this study, time-lapse photo microscopy allowed cell induced deformations in liquid crystal coated substrates to be monitored and analyzed. The results indicated that the system could be used to monitor the generation of cell/surface forces in an initially quiescent cell, as it migrated over the culture substrate, via multiple points of contact between the cell and the surface. Future application of this system is the real-time assaying of the pharmacological effects of cytokines on the mechanics of cell migration.

  20. Halo-gravity traction in the treatment of severe spinal deformity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Changsheng; Wang, Huafeng; Zheng, Zhaomin; Zhang, Zhongmin; Wang, Jianru; Liu, Hui; Kim, Yongjung Jay; Cho, Samuel

    2017-07-01

    Halo-gravity traction has been reported to successfully assist in managing severe spinal deformity. This is a systematic review of all studies on halo-gravity traction in the treatment of spinal deformity to provide information for clinical practice. A comprehensive search was conducted for articles on halo-gravity traction in the treatment of spinal deformity according to the PRISMA guidelines. Appropriate studies would be included and analyzed. Preoperative correction rate of spinal deformity, change of pulmonary function and prevalence of complications were the main measurements. Sixteen studies, a total of 351 patients, were included in this review. Generally, the initial Cobb angle was 101.1° in the coronal plane and 80.5° in the sagittal plane, and it was corrected to 49.4° and 56.0° after final spinal fusion. The preoperative correction due to traction alone was 24.1 and 19.3%, respectively. With traction, the flexibility improved 6.1% but postoperatively the patients did not have better correction. Less aggressive procedures and improved pulmonary function were observed in patients with traction. The prevalence of traction-related complications was 22% and three cases of neurologic complication related to traction were noted. The prevalence of total complications related to surgery was 32% and that of neurologic complications was 1%. Partial correction could be achieved preoperatively with halo-gravity traction, and it may help decrease aggressive procedures, improve preoperative pulmonary function, and reduce neurologic complications. However, traction could not increase preoperative flexibility or final correction. Traction-related complications, although usually not severe, were not rare.

  1. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furumitsu, Yutaka.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the reliability of a device for driving an LMFBR type reactor control rod by providing a buffer unit having a stationary electromagnetic coil and a movable electromagnetic coil in the device to thereby avord impact stress at scram time and to simplify the structure of the buffer unit. Constitution: A non-contact type buffer unit is constructed with a stationary electromagnetic coil, a cable for the stationary coil, a movable electromagnetic coil, a spring cable for the movable coil, and a backup coil spring or the like. Force produced at scram time is delivered without impact by the attracting or repelling force between the stationary coil and the movable coil of the buffer unit. Accordingly, since the buffer unit is of a non-contact type, there is no mechanical impact and thus no large impact stress, and as it has simple configuration, the reliability is improved and the maintenance can be conducted more easily. (Yoshihara, H.)

  2. Comparison of the environmental performance of light mechanization and animal traction using a modular LCA approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerutti, Alessandro K.; Calvo, Angela; Bruun, Sander

    2014-01-01

    Animal traction has supported humans in most field operations since the origin of agriculture. With the introduction of mechanization, humans gained access to much more work power at similar management costs and were able to significantly increase the productivity and time efficiency of field...... Italy, while use of machine traction was evaluated using field data on two-wheel tractors performing the operations in similar production systems, converted to the specific functional unit. Owing to the differing properties of mechanical and living systems, it was difficult to establish a reliable...

  3. ONCE AGAIN ABOUT DETERMINATION OF SAVING OF ENERGY FOR TRACTION DUE TO PARTIAL CUT–OFF OF TRACTION ENGINES OF ELECTRIC ROLLING STOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Getman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In general the well known methods for determination of energy saving due to the partial traction engines cut-off based on their comparison to efficiency coefficient or to the power of energy losses do not allow objective estimation of efficiency of these measures and in a number of cases result in erroneous results and errors. The search for new more advanced methods for determination of energy saving at the partial cut-off of the traction engines is needed. Methodology. The method of calculation determination of energy saving when partial cutting-off of the traction engines is offered. It is based on the use of rationality coefficient as the loading mode of the electric power consumption for the measuring instrument of transportation activity. Findings. Using the given mathematical expressions it is possible to determine the energy saving in both the relative and absolute values and set the terms (motion speed and route gradient, under which the energy saving will take place. Originality. The method of the task solving, which is based on the evaluation of energy consumption differences for the compared variants (not on the comparison of efficiency coefficient or differences of power of energy losses is offered. Practical value. The given methodology allows obtaining more exact conclusions in relation to the electric power consumption, as the comparison of energy losses power or the efficiency coefficient does not determine precisely the electric power consumption for traction. Therefore the conclusions based on the comparison of power of energy losses or efficiency coefficient can appear inexact.

  4. Safe driving for teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driving and teenagers; Teens and safe driving; Automobile safety - teenage drivers ... months before taking friends as passengers. Teenage-related driving deaths occur more often in certain conditions. OTHER SAFETY TIPS FOR TEENS Reckless driving is still a ...

  5. Vacuum with mesh is a feasible temporary closure device after fascial dehiscence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørsum-Meyer, Thomas; Skarbye, Mona; Jensen, Kenneth Højsgaard

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The open abdomen is a challenging condition and a temporary abdominal closure device is required in order to protect the intra-abdominal viscera. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a recent device: vacuum-assisted wound closure and mesh-mediated fascial traction (VAWCM) after f...

  6. Improved motor intergrated permanent magnet gear for traction applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tommy V.; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Jensen, Karsten K.

    2012-01-01

    The Foster type electro-thermal RC network inside power semiconductor device is normally provided by manufacturers for junction temperature estimation. However it will result in inaccuracy or error when further attaching the Foster network with thermal impedances of heat sink or thermal grease, w...

  7. Transistorized PWM inverter-induction motor drive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peak, S. C.; Plunkett, A. B.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a transistorized PWM inverter-induction motor traction drive system. A vehicle performance analysis was performed to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of inverter and motor specifications. The inverter was a transistorized three-phase bridge using General Electric power Darlington transistors. The description of the design and development of this inverter is the principal object of this paper. The high-speed induction motor is a design which is optimized for use with an inverter power source. The primary feedback control is a torque angle control with voltage and torque outer loop controls. A current-controlled PWM technique is used to control the motor voltage. The drive has a constant torque output with PWM operation to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output with square wave operation to maximum speed. The drive system was dynamometer tested and the results are presented.

  8. Mobile Devices: Driving Us to Distraction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Bryan Goodwin delves into the reason behind addictive use of smartphones, tablets, netbooks, and e-readers, and considers whether introducing them into classrooms will help or hinder learning.

  9. Devices using GPS into driving simulators

    OpenAIRE

    ESPIE, S; GANIEUX, D; TOURNIER, N

    2004-01-01

    Cet article présente un nouvel outil utilisant des données SIG pour obtenir une définition analytique des routes afin que la base de données réponde aux besoins des simulateurs de conduite (modèle dynamique du véhicule, simulation de trafic, module sonore, etc.). Le simulateur peut calculer en temps réel les informations GPS simulées (SIL) et les envoyer au calculateur (HIS) qui fonctionne alors comme s'il équipait un véhicule réel sur une vraie route, dans des conditions réelles.

  10. Traction and lubricant film temperature as related to the glass transition temperature and solidification. [using infrared spectroscopy on EHD contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, J. L.; Peterkin, M. E.

    1978-01-01

    Does a traction fluid have to be a glass or solid under operating conditions. Infrared spectra on dynamic EHD contacts of several types of fluid were used to determine the surface and oil-film temperatures. Polarized spectral runs were made to study molecular alignment. Static glass transition pressures at appropriate temperatures were between 0.1 and 2.0 GPa, with the traction fluid showing the highest. In the EHD contact region, the traction fluid showed both the highest film temperatures as well as the greatest degree of molecular alignment. A plot of the difference between the film and surface temperatures vs shear rate resulted in a master plot valid for all the fluids. From this work, the authors propose a model of 'fluid' traction, where friction between parallel rough molecules provides the traction.

  11. Safety Education in Driving. 2nd Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Intended for driving instruction students, this publication contains instructional materials for safety education. It contains six sections on facts and figures; defensive driving; safety devices; restraints; emergency situations; and other highway users. Each section consists of reading material followed by an activity or activities. A total of…

  12. Design of salient pole PM synchronous machines for a vehicle traction application. Analysis and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rilla, M.

    2012-07-01

    This doctoral thesis presents a study on the development of a liquid-cooled frame salient pole permanent-magnet-exited traction machine for a four-wheel-driven electric car. The emphasis of the thesis is put on a radial flux machine design in order to achieve a light-weight machine structure for traction applications. The design features combine electromagnetic and thermal design methods, because traction machine operation does not have a strict operating point. Arbitrary load cycles and the flexible supply require special attention in the design process. It is shown that accurate modelling of the machine magnetic state is essential for high-performance operation. The saturation effect related to the cross-saturation has to be taken carefully into account in order to achieve the desired operation. Two prototype machines have been designed and built for testing: one totally enclosed machine with a special magnet module pole arrangement and another through-ventilated machine with a more traditional embedded magnet structure. Both structures are built with magnetically salient structures in order to increase the torque production capability with the reluctance torque component. Both machine structures show potential for traction usage. However, the traditional embedded magnet design turns out to be mechanically the more secure one of these two machine options. (orig.)

  13. Spatial discretization methods for air gap permeance calculations in double salient traction motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilhan, E.; Kremers, M.F.J.; Motoasca, T.E.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Lomonova, E.

    2012-01-01

    Weight limitations in electric/hybrid cars demand the highest possible power-to-weight ratio from the traction motor, as in double salient permanent magnet (PM) machines. Their high flux densities in the air gap result in nonlinear analytical models, which need to be time optimized. The incorporated

  14. Wavelet Entropy-Based Traction Inverter Open Switch Fault Diagnosis in High-Speed Railways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keting Hu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a diagnosis plan is proposed to settle the detection and isolation problem of open switch faults in high-speed railway traction system traction inverters. Five entropy forms are discussed and compared with the traditional fault detection methods, namely, discrete wavelet transform and discrete wavelet packet transform. The traditional fault detection methods cannot efficiently detect the open switch faults in traction inverters because of the low resolution or the sudden change of the current. The performances of Wavelet Packet Energy Shannon Entropy (WPESE, Wavelet Packet Energy Tsallis Entropy (WPETE with different non-extensive parameters, Wavelet Packet Energy Shannon Entropy with a specific sub-band (WPESE3,6, Empirical Mode Decomposition Shannon Entropy (EMDESE, and Empirical Mode Decomposition Tsallis Entropy (EMDETE with non-extensive parameters in detecting the open switch fault are evaluated by the evaluation parameter. Comparison experiments are carried out to select the best entropy form for the traction inverter open switch fault detection. In addition, the DC component is adopted to isolate the failure Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT. The simulation experiments show that the proposed plan can diagnose single and simultaneous open switch faults correctly and timely.

  15. Severe Postoperative Complications may be Related to Mesenteric Traction Syndrome during Open Esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrus, R; Svendsen, L B; Secher, N H; Goetze, J P; Rünitz, K; Achiam, M P

    2017-09-01

    During abdominal surgery, traction of the mesenterium provokes mesenteric traction syndrome, including hypotension, tachycardia, and flushing, along with an increase in plasma prostacyclin (PGI 2 ). We evaluated whether postoperative complications are related to mesenteric traction syndrome during esophagectomy. Flushing, hemodynamic variables, and plasma 6-keto-PGF 1α were recorded during the abdominal part of open ( n = 25) and robotically assisted ( n = 25) esophagectomy. Postoperative complications were also registered, according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Flushing appeared in 17 (open) and 5 (robotically assisted) surgical cases ( p = 0.001). Mean arterial pressure was stable during both types of surgeries, but infusion of vasopressors during the first hour of open surgery was related to development of widespread (Grade II) flushing ( p = 0.036). For patients who developed flushing, heart rate and plasma 6-keto-PGF 1α also increased ( p = 0.001 and p syndrome manifests more frequently during open than robotically assisted esophagectomy, and postoperative complications appear to be associated with severe mesenteric traction syndrome.

  16. Quantifying the Traction Force of a Single Cell by Aligned Silicon Nanowire Array

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Zhou

    2009-10-14

    The physical behaviors of stationary cells, such as the morphology, motility, adhesion, anchorage, invasion and metastasis, are likely to be important for governing their biological characteristics. A change in the physical properties of mammalian cells could be an indication of disease. In this paper, we present a silicon-nanowire-array based technique for quantifying the mechanical behavior of single cells representing three distinct groups: normal mammalian cells, benign cells (L929), and malignant cells (HeLa). By culturing the cells on top of NW arrays, the maximum traction forces of two different tumor cells (HeLa, L929) have been measured by quantitatively analyzing the bending of the nanowires. The cancer cell exhibits a larger traction force than the normal cell by ∼20% for a HeLa cell and ∼50% for a L929 cell. The traction forces have been measured for the L929 cells and mechanocytes as a function of culture time. The relationship between cells extending area and their traction force has been investigated. Our study is likely important for studying the mechanical properties of single cells and their migration characteristics, possibly providing a new cellular level diagnostic technique. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  17. Improving mandibular contour: A pilot study for indication of PPLA traction thread use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Stefania; Persechino, Flavia; Rubino, Giuseppe; Pellacani, Giovanni; Farnetani, Francesca; Urtis, Giacomo Giovanni

    2018-02-20

    The request for less-aggressive procedures to improve mandibular contour is increasing. Several kinds of threads have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, PLLA (poly-L-Lactic acid) traction thread procedure has not been previously described. To investigate the role of PLLA traction threads in improving mandibular contour. Twenty women were enrolled in the study. They were differentially classified for skin laxity. Patients were treated in a single session with two PLLA traction threads per side. Specific post-procedure instructions were given to patients, and complications occurred after the procedures were estimated. A Fisher's t-test was performed to identify criteria related to longevity of results. We found longevity of results to be associated with younger age (p = 0.001), absence of severe skin laxity of jawline and neck (p = 0.001), and aesthetic satisfaction (p = 0.024). Edema, swelling, and temporary skin contour irregularities were found in most cases (N = 16; 80%), whereas paresthesia resolving without sequelae in 2-4 weeks was found in two cases (10%). Our results show that selected patients, younger than 51 and showing a mild-moderate degree of skin laxity of jawline and neck angle represent ideal candidates for PLLA traction thread treatment. Further studies will be performed to confirm our results.

  18. Orthodontic Management with Traction and Asymmetric Extraction for Multiple Impacted Permanent Maxillary Teeth - A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qiannan; Zhang, Liang; Dai, Juan; Li, Feifei; Feng, Xue

    2016-01-01

    Multiple impacted teeth are a rare eruption disturbance that increases the case complexity. In this article, we described a 13-year-old boy whose 5 permanent maxillary teeth were not erupted although their root formation was complete. The orthodontic treatment with traction and asymmetric extraction was performed to achieve a significantly improved functional and esthetic result.

  19. The determination of the pressure-viscosity coefficient of two traction oils using film thickness measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van H.J.

    2010-01-01

    The pressure-viscosity coefficients of two commercial traction fluids are determined by fitting calculation results on accurate film thickness measurements, obtained at a wide range of speeds, and different temperatures. Film thickness values are calculated using a numerical method and approximation

  20. Original Paper Effects of oxen yoke and donkey collar on traction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The realization of mechanized zaï with draft animal encounters the weakness of hitch traction capabilities. To overcome this issue, a study was conducted in three villages in the northern Burkina Faso with the aim at evaluating the effect of improved yoke and improved collar respectively with oxen and donkey harnessing on ...

  1. Defining Strong State Accountability Systems: How Can Better Standards Gain Greater Traction? A First Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Eileen; Scull, Janie; Slicker, Gerilyn; Winkler, Amber M.

    2012-01-01

    Rigorous standards and aligned assessments are vital tools for boosting education outcomes but they have little traction without strong accountability systems that attach consequences to performance. In this pilot study, Eileen Reed, Janie Scull, Gerilyn Slicker, and Amber Winkler lay out the essential features of such accountability systems,…

  2. Increase of energy efficiency of testing of traction electric machines of direct and pulsating current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Afanasov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of the analysis of the effect of the load current of traction electric machines when tested for heating on the total electricity consumption for the test are presented. It is shown that increase of load current at the heating test permits to significantly reduce the consumption of electrical energy, and reduce the testing time without reducing its quality.

  3. The history of modern spinal traction with particular reference to neural disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shterenshis, M V

    1997-03-01

    The last 200 years of the history of spinal traction is described in the present article. The study starts at the end of the 18th century with the works of JA Venel (1789) who tried to apply the Hippocratic idea to modern surgery. Orthopedic specialists of the last century were mostly preoccupied with corsets and the method gained broader popularity when neurologists paid attention to the similar method of suspension. The Russian neurologist Osip Mochutkovsky described suspension as a method for the treatment of tabes dorsalis in an article published in the Russian magazine 'Vratch' in 1883. His works became known in Europe when JM Charcot paid attention to it and published a special short monograph on this subject in 1889. This work was translated into English (1889) and Russian (1890) and the method became popular in the treatment of tabes dorsalis and other neurological diseases. The eminent Russian neurologist VM Bekhterev proposed the combination of body suspension with cervical traction (1893). Some years later Gilles de la Tourette promoted the use of spinal traction in his neurological clinic (1897). Unfortunately neurologists worked without the cooperation of orthopedic specialists. During the first decades of the 20th century suspension was also replaced by traction in neurology. This method was used by both neurologists and orthopedic specialists but in the last decades neurologists lost their interests in it and it found greater use in traumatology and in spinal surgery where it is still in use today.

  4. Distributed Active Traction Control System Applied to the RoboCup Middle Size League

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Almeida

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses the problem of traction control in mobile wheeled robots in the particular case of the RoboCup Middle Size League (MSL. The slip control problem is formulated using simple friction models for ISePorto Team Robots with a differential wheel configuration. Traction was also characterized experimentally in the MSL scenario for relevant game events. This work proposes a hierarchical traction control architecture which relies on local slip detection and control at each wheel, with relevant information being relayed to a higher level responsible for global robot motion control. A dedicated one axis control embedded hardware subsystem allowing complex local control, high frequency current sensing and odometric information procession was developed. This local axis control board is integrated in a distributed system using CAN bus communications. The slipping observer was implemented in the axis control hardware nodes integrated in the ISePorto Robots and was used to control and detect loss of traction. An external vision system was used to perform a qualitative analysis of the slip detection and observer performance results are presented.

  5. Operation analysis of AC traction motors in terms of electromagnetic torque capability on sustainable railway vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulucea Cornelia A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable operation of electric railway systems represents a significant purpose nowadays in the development of high power and high speed locomotives and trains. At present, high speed electric vehicles mostly work with three-phase induction motors or three-phase synchronous motors as traction motors. The two electric machine types have different efficiencies at different operation points, and experience differences with respect to safety, speed and power, energy use and exergy efficiency. An important issue that correlates these aspects is the electromagnetic torque developed by an electric traction motor. In order to provide an overview of the technical performance of the operation of sustainable railway systems, a detailed analysis is carried out of the electromagnetic torque capability of AC electric motors utilized as traction motors in modern locomotives of high power and/or high speed. The results of this work may help in enhancing the main criteria for optimising the safe and sustainable operation of electric railway traction systems.

  6. Semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN

    2011-03-15

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, large-area, triaxially textured, single-crystal or single-crystal-like, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  7. A case of severe and rigid congenital thoracolumbar lordoscoliosis with diastematomyelia presenting with type 2 respiratory failure: managed by staged correction with controlled axial traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagaraju, Vijayanth; Chhabra, H S; Srivastava, Abhishek; Mahajan, Rajat; Kaul, Rahul; Bhatia, Pallav; Tandon, Vikas; Nanda, Ankur; Sangondimath, Gururaj; Patel, Nishit

    2016-10-01

    Congenital lordoscoliosis is an uncommon pathology and its management poses formidable challenge especially in the presence of type 2 respiratory failure and intraspinal anomalies. In such patients standard management protocols are not applicable and may require multistage procedure to minimize risk and optimize results. A 15-year-old girl presented in our hospital emergency services with severe breathing difficulty. She had a severe and rapidly progressing deformity in her back, noted since 6 years of age, associated with severe respiratory distress requiring oxygen and BiPAP support. She was diagnosed to have a severe and rigid congenital right thoracolumbar lordoscoliosis (coronal Cobb's angle: 105° and thoracic lordosis -10°) with type 1 split cord malformation with bony septum extending from T11 to L3. This leads to presentation of restrictive lung disease with type 2 respiratory failure. As her lung condition did not allow for any major procedure, we did a staged procedure rather than executing in a single stage. Controlled axial traction by halogravity was applied initially followed by halo-femoral traction. Four weeks later, this was replaced by halo-pelvic distraction device after a posterior release procedure with asymmetric pedicle substraction osteotomies at T7 and T10. Halo-pelvic distraction continued for 4 more weeks to optimize and correct the deformity. Subsequently definitive posterior stabilization and fusion was done. The detrimental effect of diastematomyelia resection in such cases is clearly evident from literature, so it was left unresected. A good scoliotic correction with improved respiratory function was achieved. Three years follow-up showed no loss of deformity correction, no evidence of pseudarthrosis and a good clinical outcome with reasonably balanced spine. The management of severe and rigid congenital lordoscoliotic deformities with intraspinal anomalies is challenging. Progressive reduction in respiratory volume in untreated

  8. Efficacy of Prone Lumbar Traction on Chronic Discogenic Low Back Pain and Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Beyki

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the outcomes of prone and supine lumbar traction in patients with chronic discogenic low back pain. Methods: The test was prospective and randomized control trial. The structure of trial was Urban Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation clinic. Participants was included of A total of 124 subjects with chronic low back pain (LBP and evidence of a degenerative and/or herniated inter-vertebral disk at 1 or more levels of the lumbar spine, who have not our exclusion criteria. There was A 4-week course of lumbar traction, prone or supine in case and control groups consecutively, consisting of six 30-minute sessions every other days, followed by four 30-minute sessions every 3 days. The numeric Visual pain rating scale and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI were completed at pre-intervention and discharge (within 2 weeks of the last visit. Results: A total of 124 subjects completed the treatment protocol. We noted significant improvements for all post-intervention outcome scores when compared with pre-intervention scores (P<0.01. Also found significant difference between 2 groups in favor of prone traction (P<0.01 Discussion: Traction applied in the prone position for 4 weeks was associated with improvements in pain intensity and ODI scores at discharge, in a sample of patients with activity limiting LBP. However, because we lacked a reasonable long time follow-up, we cannot imply a long lasting relationship between the traction and outcome, and a long time follow-up is suggested.

  9. Posterior-only surgery with preoperative skeletal traction for management of severe scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrpour, Saeedreza; Sorbi, Reza; Rezaei, Reza; Mazda, Keyvan

    2017-04-01

    The surgical treatment of severe adolescent spinal deformities is challenging and carries substantial risks of mortality and morbidity. To mitigate this risk, surgeons have employed various methods as this study designed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of preoperative halo-femoral or halo gravity traction (HGT) followed by posterior-only surgery in the management of severe scoliosis. A total number of 23 patients with severe scoliosis treated by preoperative skeletal traction (halo gravity or halo femoral) followed by posterior fusion and instrumentation in one stage. All patients were followed for a minimum of 2 years after surgery. The average age of the patients was 12.7 years at the time of surgery. Mean of the Cobb angle improved from 99.9° ± 8.2° preoperatively to 75.3° ± 8° post-traction and 49.5° ± 7.7° postoperatively. Kyphosis angle corrected from 56.4° ± 9.5° to 38.6° ± 5.8°. The preop-FVC% was 41 ± 6.1% and after 1 year follow-up FVC% was 45.7 ± 7.7%. No patients required an anterior release due to amount of their deformity. Despite the benefits of modern instrumentation procedures, the treatment of severe scoliosis can be very competing. We think that by applying preoperative halo femoral traction and halo-gravity traction, managing severe scoliosis will be in safe and easy manner and can lead to better deformity correction and less neurological complications and facilitate to avoid anterior operation for severe scoliosis and its related complications.

  10. METHODS AND RESEARCH CONCERNING SERVICE LIFE EXTENSION OF SUPORTING STRUCTURES OF TRACTION ROLLING STOCK FOR INDUSTRIAL TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Bondarev

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of work is scientifically grounded introduction of the acquired techniques into works for service life extension of the traction and motor rolling stock for industrial transport. Methodology. To achieve the purpose it was analyzed the acquired techniques for service life extension of the traction and motor rolling stock for mainline transport. The acquired techniques during solution of problems concerning the service life extension of rolling stock units were adapted to the locomotives TGM6A and traction aggregates OPE1. Findings. On the basis of experimental and theoretical complex of studies some results were obtained. They gave the ground to determine the possibility of acquired techniques use when solving the problems on service life extension of rolling stock units concerning locomotives TGM6A and traction aggregates OPE1. Originality. On the basis of conducted experimental and theoretical studies scientific maintenance of the works providing extension of service life of traction and motor units of industrial rolling stock was executed. Practical value. Technical solutions and measures, which have to be carried out during operation within the prolonged appointed service life of traction and motor units of industrial rolling stock enterprises using locomotives and traction aggregates to provide the basic technological cycles were developed.

  11. Diagnostic performance of direct traction MR arthrography of the hip: detection of chondral and labral lesions with arthroscopic comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmaranzer, Florian; Klauser, Andrea; Henninger, Benjamin; Kogler, Michael; Schmaranzer, Ehrenfried; Forstner, Thomas; Reichkendler, Markus

    2015-01-01

    To assess diagnostic performance of traction MR arthrography of the hip in detection and grading of chondral and labral lesions with arthroscopic comparison. Seventy-five MR arthrograms obtained ± traction of 73 consecutive patients (mean age, 34.5 years; range, 14-54 years) who underwent arthroscopy were included. Traction technique included weight-adapted traction (15-23 kg), a supporting plate for the contralateral leg, and intra-articular injection of 18-27 ml (local anaesthetic and contrast agent). Patients reported on neuropraxia and on pain. Two blinded readers independently assessed femoroacetabular cartilage and labrum lesions which were correlated with arthroscopy. Interobserver agreement was calculated using κ values. Joint distraction ± traction was evaluated in consensus. No procedure had to be stopped. There were no cases of neuropraxia. Accuracy for detection of labral lesions was 92 %/93 %, 91 %/83 % for acetabular lesions, and 92 %/88 % for femoral cartilage lesions for reader 1/reader 2, respectively. Interobserver agreement was moderate (κ = 0.58) for grading of labrum lesions and substantial (κ = 0.7, κ = 0.68) for grading of acetabular and femoral cartilage lesions. Joint distraction was achieved in 72/75 and 14/75 hips with/without traction, respectively. Traction MR arthrography safely enabled accurate detection and grading of labral and chondral lesions. (orig.)

  12. Diagnostic performance of direct traction MR arthrography of the hip: detection of chondral and labral lesions with arthroscopic comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmaranzer, Florian; Klauser, Andrea; Henninger, Benjamin [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Radiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Kogler, Michael; Schmaranzer, Ehrenfried [District Hospital St. Johann in Tyrol, Department of Radiology, St. Johann in Tyrol (Austria); Forstner, Thomas [Johannes Keppler University, Department for Applied Systems Research and Statistics, Linz (Austria); Reichkendler, Markus [District Hospital St. Johann in Tyrol, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, St. Johann in Tyrol (Austria)

    2015-06-01

    To assess diagnostic performance of traction MR arthrography of the hip in detection and grading of chondral and labral lesions with arthroscopic comparison. Seventy-five MR arthrograms obtained ± traction of 73 consecutive patients (mean age, 34.5 years; range, 14-54 years) who underwent arthroscopy were included. Traction technique included weight-adapted traction (15-23 kg), a supporting plate for the contralateral leg, and intra-articular injection of 18-27 ml (local anaesthetic and contrast agent). Patients reported on neuropraxia and on pain. Two blinded readers independently assessed femoroacetabular cartilage and labrum lesions which were correlated with arthroscopy. Interobserver agreement was calculated using κ values. Joint distraction ± traction was evaluated in consensus. No procedure had to be stopped. There were no cases of neuropraxia. Accuracy for detection of labral lesions was 92 %/93 %, 91 %/83 % for acetabular lesions, and 92 %/88 % for femoral cartilage lesions for reader 1/reader 2, respectively. Interobserver agreement was moderate (κ = 0.58) for grading of labrum lesions and substantial (κ = 0.7, κ = 0.68) for grading of acetabular and femoral cartilage lesions. Joint distraction was achieved in 72/75 and 14/75 hips with/without traction, respectively. Traction MR arthrography safely enabled accurate detection and grading of labral and chondral lesions. (orig.)

  13. Incore instrumentation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Kazuhiko.

    1996-01-01

    A position of a detector is detected by a driving device, and the detected values are sampled by a newly disposed central processing unit for sampling the detected values depending on the sampling position of the detected values. Since the sampling position of the detected values is detected by the driving device, the sampling position for the detection values does not rely on the speed of the driving motor of the driving device. The load on the central processing device for controlling the device is lowered by newly disposing the central processing unit for sampling detected values. When the values for the position of the detector counted after conversion to digital values reach the digital values corresponding to the detection value sampling position outputted from the central processing unit for controlling the device, a counted value comparison circuit causes the central processing unit for controlling the device to sample the detection values outputted from the detector. Then, the processing speed can be increased without interruption processings, which can save the central processing unit for sampling detection values. In addition, software can be simplified and loads can be lowered. (N.H.)

  14. Special Considerations in Distracted Driving with Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Dennis R; McGehee, Daniel V; Fisher, Donald; McCartt, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Novice teen drivers have long been known to have an increased risk of crashing, as well as increased tendencies toward unsafe and risky driving behaviors. Teens are unique as drivers for several reasons, many of which have implications specifically in the area of distracted driving. This paper reviews several of these features, including the widespread prevalence of mobile device use by teens, their lack of driving experience, the influence of peer passengers as a source of distraction, the role of parents in influencing teens’ attitudes and behaviors relevant to distracted driving and the impact of laws designed to prevent mobile device use by teen drivers. Recommendations for future research include understanding how engagement in a variety of secondary tasks by teen drivers affects their driving performance or crash risk; understanding the respective roles of parents, peers and technology in influencing teen driver behavior; and evaluating the impact of public policy on mitigating teen crash risk related to driver distraction. PMID:24776228

  15. Offset Compound Gear Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Mark A.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.

    2010-01-01

    The Offset Compound Gear Drive is an in-line, discrete, two-speed device utilizing a special offset compound gear that has both an internal tooth configuration on the input end and external tooth configuration on the output end, thus allowing it to mesh in series, simultaneously, with both a smaller external tooth input gear and a larger internal tooth output gear. This unique geometry and offset axis permits the compound gear to mesh with the smaller diameter input gear and the larger diameter output gear, both of which are on the same central, or primary, centerline. This configuration results in a compact in-line reduction gear set consisting of fewer gears and bearings than a conventional planetary gear train. Switching between the two output ratios is accomplished through a main control clutch and sprag. Power flow to the above is transmitted through concentric power paths. Low-speed operation is accomplished in two meshes. For the purpose of illustrating the low-speed output operation, the following example pitch diameters are given. A 5.0 pitch diameter (PD) input gear to 7.50 PD (internal tooth) intermediate gear (0.667 reduction mesh), and a 7.50 PD (external tooth) intermediate gear to a 10.00 PD output gear (0.750 reduction mesh). Note that it is not required that the intermediate gears on the offset axis be of the same diameter. For this example, the resultant low-speed ratio is 2:1 (output speed = 0.500; product of stage one 0.667 reduction and stage two 0.750 stage reduction). The design is not restricted to the example pitch diameters, or output ratio. From the output gear, power is transmitted through a hollow drive shaft, which, in turn, drives a sprag during which time the main clutch is disengaged.

  16. [Design of SCM inoculation device].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Mingli; Xie, Haiyuan

    2014-01-01

    The first step of bacilli culture is inoculation bacteria on culture medium. Designing a device to increase efficiency of inoculation is significative. The new device is controlled by SCM. The stepper motor can drive the culture medium rotating, accelerating, decelerating, overturn and suspending. The device is high practicability and efficient, let inoculation easy for operator.

  17. Integrated control rod monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Katsuhiro

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a device in which an entire control rod driving time measuring device and a control rod position support device in a reactor building and a central control chamber are integrated systematically to save hardwares such as a signal input/output device and signal cables between boards. Namely, (1) functions of the entire control rod driving time measuring device for monitoring control rods which control the reactor power and a control rod position indication device are integrated into one identical system. Then, the entire devices can be made compact by the integration of the functions. (2) The functions of the entire control rod driving time measuring device and the control rod position indication device are integrated in a central operation board and a board in the site. Then, the place for the installation of them can be used in common in any of the cases. (3) The functions of the entire control rod driving time measuring device and the control rod position indication device are integrated to one identical system to save hardware to be used. Then, signal input/output devices and drift branching panel boards in the site and the central operation board can be saved, and cables for connecting both of the boards is no more necessary. (I.S.)

  18. Distractions N' Driving: video game simulation educates young drivers on the dangers of texting while driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqer, Haneen; de Visser, Ewart; Strohl, Jonathan; Parasuraman, Raja

    2012-01-01

    The proliferation of portable communication and entertainment devices has introduced new dangers to the driving environment, particularly for young and inexperienced drivers. Graduate students from George Mason University illustrate a powerful, practical, and cost-effective program that has been successful in educating these drivers on the dangers of texting while driving, which can easily be adapted and implemented in other communities.

  19. Reactor control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukami, Haruo; Morimoto, Yoshinori.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To operate a reactor always with safety operation while eliminating the danger of tripping. Constitution: In a reactor control device adapted to detect the process variants of a reactor, control a control rod drive controlling system based on the detected signal to thereby control the driving the control rods, control the reactor power and control the electric power generated from an electric generator by the output from the reactor, detection means is provided for the detection of the electric power from said electric generator, and a compensation device is provided for outputting control rod driving compensation signals to the control rod driving controlling system in accordance with the amount of variation in the detected value. (Seki, T.)

  20. Tire-road friction estimation and traction control strategy for motorized electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Li-Qiang; Yue, Weiqiang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an optimal longitudinal slip ratio system for real-time identification of electric vehicle (EV) with motored wheels is proposed based on the adhesion between tire and road surface. First and foremost, the optimal longitudinal slip rate torque control can be identified in real time by calculating the derivative and slip rate of the adhesion coefficient. Secondly, the vehicle speed estimation method is also brought. Thirdly, an ideal vehicle simulation model is proposed to verify the algorithm with simulation, and we find that the slip ratio corresponds to the detection of the adhesion limit in real time. Finally, the proposed strategy is applied to traction control system (TCS). The results showed that the method can effectively identify the state of wheel and calculate the optimal slip ratio without wheel speed sensor; in the meantime, it can improve the accelerated stability of electric vehicle with traction control system (TCS). PMID:28662053

  1. Advanced state prediction of lithium-ion traction batteries in hybrid and battery electric vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadidi, Yasser

    2011-07-01

    Automotive power trains with high energy efficiencies - particularly to be found in battery and hybrid electric vehicles - find increasing attention in the focus of reduction of exhaust emissions and increase of mileage. The underlying concept, the electrification of the power train, is subject to the traction battery and its battery management system since the capability of the battery permits and restricts electric propulsion. Consequently, the overall vehicle efficiency and in particular the operation strategy performance strongly depends on the quality of information about the battery. Besides battery technology, the key challenges are given by both the accurate prediction of battery behaviour and the electrochemical battery degradation that leads to power and capacity fade of the traction battery. This book provides the methodology for development of a battery state monitoring and prediction algorithm for application in a battery management system that accounts for the effects of electrochemical degradation. (orig.)

  2. Concept for a Differential Lock and Traction Control Model in Automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukul, A. K.; Hansra, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    The automobile is a complex integration of electronics and mechanical components. One of the major components is the differential which is limited due to its shortcomings. The paper proposes a concept of a cost effective differential lock and traction for passenger cars to sports utility vehicles alike, employing a parallel braking mechanism coming into action based on the relative speeds of the wheels driven by the differential. The paper highlights the employment of minimum number of components unlike the already existing systems. The system was designed numerically for the traction control and differential lock for the world's cheapest car. The paper manages to come up with all the system parameters and component costing making it a cost effective system.

  3. Application of a High-Power Reversible Converter in a Hybrid Traction Power Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A high-power reversible converter can achieve a variety of functions, such as recovering regenerative braking energy, expanding traction power capacity, and improving an alternating current (AC grid power factor. A new hybrid traction power supply scheme, which consists of a high-power reversible converter and two 12-pulse diode rectifiers, is proposed. A droop control method based on load current feed-forward is adopted to realize the load distribution between the reversible converter and the existing 12-pulse diode rectifiers. The direct current (DC short-circuit characteristics of the reversible converter is studied, then the relationship between the peak fault current and the circuit parameters is obtained from theoretical calculations and validated by computer simulation. The first two sets of 2 MW reversible converters have been successfully applied in Beijing Metro Line 10, the proposed hybrid application scheme and coordinated control strategy are verified, and 11.15% of average energy-savings is reached.

  4. METHODOLOGY OF DETERMINATION OF QUALITY INDEX OF MAINTENANCE SERVICE SYSTEM OF POWER EQUIPMENT OF TRACTION SUBSTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. Matusevych

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this paper is development of methodology for definition of a quality system of maintenance and repair (M and P power equipment of traction substations (TS of electrified railways operating under conditions of uncertainty based on expert information. Methodology. The basic tenets of the theory of fuzzy sets and marks, linguistic and interval estimates of experts were applied to solve this problem. Results. Analysis of the existing diversity of approaches to development of modern methods of improvement of M and P allows us to conclude that the improvement in the quality of the system is achieved by solving individual problems increase the operational reliability of power equipment of traction substations in the following main interrelated areas. There are technical, economic and organizational. The basis of the quality evaluation system is initial data and expertise developed version of the document formalized quality evaluation of electrical equipment of traction substations by experts. The choice of determining the level of Quality service system based on the marks, linguistic and interval estimates of experts, which are reflected in quantitative and / or qualitative form was done. The possible options for expert data presentation and their corresponding quantitative methods of calculating the integral index of quality improvement system maintenance and P of traction substations were described. The methodology and the method of assessing the quality of system maintenance and P of TS allows quickly respond to changing operating conditions of power equipment of traction substations, and to determine the most effective strategies for maintenance of electrical and P TS under conditions of uncertainty functioning distance electricity. Originality. The method of a systematic approach to improve the quality of the system maintenance and P of power equipment of traction substation under conditions of uncertainty based on expert

  5. Model-based traction force microscopy reveals differential tension in cellular actin bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soiné, Jérôme R D; Brand, Christoph A; Stricker, Jonathan; Oakes, Patrick W; Gardel, Margaret L; Schwarz, Ulrich S

    2015-03-01

    Adherent cells use forces at the cell-substrate interface to sense and respond to the physical properties of their environment. These cell forces can be measured with traction force microscopy which inverts the equations of elasticity theory to calculate them from the deformations of soft polymer substrates. We introduce a new type of traction force microscopy that in contrast to traditional methods uses additional image data for cytoskeleton and adhesion structures and a biophysical model to improve the robustness of the inverse procedure and abolishes the need for regularization. We use this method to demonstrate that ventral stress fibers of U2OS-cells are typically under higher mechanical tension than dorsal stress fibers or transverse arcs.

  6. Hydraulic system for the drive of control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwano, Masao.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To remove thermal stress and improve safety by utilizing water discharged a driving device as a part of cooling water for the device upon driving of control rods. Constitution: A water drain valve is wholly closed and a flow stabilization valve is supplied with an amount of water necessary for driving control rods. Upon driving one control rod, an amount of water required for the driving is caused to flow to the relivant hydraulic control unit and the flow rate in the stabilization valve is reduced by an amount required for the driving to keep the flow rate constant in the flow control valve. Since Excess water conventionally returned to the pressure vessel is utilized as cooling water for the driving device of control rods, the pressure vessel nozzle can be saved. Accordingly, the thermal stress in the nozzle portion can be removed to significantly improve the safety. (Seki, T.)

  7. Operation analysis of AC traction motors in terms of electromagnetic torque capability on sustainable railway vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Bulucea Cornelia A.; Nicola Doru A.; Rosen Marc A.; Mastorakis Nikos E.; Bulucea Carmen A.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable operation of electric railway systems represents a significant purpose nowadays in the development of high power and high speed locomotives and trains. At present, high speed electric vehicles mostly work with three-phase induction motors or three-phase synchronous motors as traction motors. The two electric machine types have different efficiencies at different operation points, and experience differences with respect to safety, speed and power, energy use and exergy efficiency. ...

  8. Lateral femoral traction pin entry: risk to the femoral artery and other medial neurovascular structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appleton Paul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Femoral skeletal traction assists in the reduction and transient stabilization of pelvic, acetabular, hip, and femoral fractures when splinting is ineffective. Traditional teaching has recommended a medial entry site for insertion of the traction pin in order to minimize injury to the femoral artery as it passes through Hunter's canal. The present anatomical study evaluates the risk to the femoral artery and other medial neurovascular structures using a lateral entry approach. Methods Six embalmed cadavers (twelve femurs were obtained for dissection. Steinman pins were drilled from lateral to medial at the level of the superior pole of the patella, at 2 cm, and at 4 cm proximal to this point. Medial superficial dissection was then performed to identify the saphenous nerve, the superior medial geniculate artery, the adductor hiatus, the tendinous insertion of the adductor magnus and the femoral artery. Measurements localizing these anatomic structures relative to the pins were obtained. Results The femoral artery was relatively safe and was no closer than 29.6 mm (mean from any of the three Steinman pins. The superior medial geniculate artery was the medial structure at most risk. Conclusions Lateral femoral traction pin entry is a safe procedure with minimal risk to the saphenous nerve and femoral artery. Of the structures examined, only the superior medial geniculate artery is at a risk of iatrogenic injury due to its position. The incidence of such injury in clinical practice and its clinical significance is not known. Lateral insertion facilitates traction pin placement since it minimizes the need to move the contralateral extremity out of the way of the drilling equipment or the need to elevate or externally rotate the injured extremity relative to the contralateral extremity.

  9. A dynamic traction splint for the management of extrinsic tendon tightness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovelle, S; Heeter, P K; Phillips, P D

    1987-02-01

    The dynamic traction splint designed by therapists at Walter Reed Army Medical Center is used for the management of extrinsic extensor tendon tightness commonly seen in brachial plexus injuries and traumatic soft tissue injuries of the upper extremity. The two components of the splint allow for simultaneous maximum flexion of the MCP and IP joints. This simple and economical splint provides an additional modality to any occupational therapy service involved in the management of upper extremity disorders.

  10. Strategies for Proximal Femoral Nailing of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fractures: Lateral Decubitus Position or Traction Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonmez, Mesut Mehmet; Camur, Savas; Erturer, Erden; Ugurlar, Meric; Kara, Adnan; Ozturk, Irfan

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this prospective randomized study was to compare the traction table and lateral decubitus position techniques in the management of unstable intertrochanteric fractures. Eighty-two patients with unstable intertrochanteric fractures between 2011 and 2013 were included in this study. All patients were treated surgically with the Proximal Femoral Nail Antirotation implant (DePuy Synthes). Patients were randomized to undergo the procedure in the lateral decubitus position (42 patients) or with the use of a traction table (40 patients). Patients whose procedure was not performed entirely with a semi-invasive method or who required the use of additional fixation materials, such as cables, were excluded from the study. The groups were compared on the basis of the setup time, surgical time, fluoroscopic exposure time, tip-to-apex distance, collodiaphyseal angle, and modified Baumgaertner criteria for radiologic reduction. The setup time, surgical time, and fluoroscopic exposure time were lower and the differences were statistically significant in the lateral decubitus group compared with the traction table group. The collodiaphyseal angles were significantly different between the groups in favor of the lateral decubitus method. The tip-to-apex distance and the classification of reduction according to the modified Baumgaertner criteria did not demonstrate a statistically significant difference between the groups. The lateral decubitus position is used for most open procedures of the hip. We found that this position facilitates exposure for the surgical treatment of unstable intertrochanteric fractures and has advantages over the traction table in terms of set up time, surgical time and fluoroscopic exposure time.

  11. [The use of Saunders lumbar traction in physiotherapy of patients with chronic lower back pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingot, Julia; Pingot, Mariusz; Łabecka, Monika; Woldańska-Okońska, Marta

    2014-05-01

    Pain of the lower back is one of the most common ailments in modem society. Such frequent occurrence of back pain syndromes is a serious medical and social problem. Despite numerous attempts, there have not been comprehensive or decisive publications on the therapeutic standard for back pain syndromes that would cover all the aspects of the ailment. Partial report can change the attitude and shed new light on the treatment of these syndromes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of Saunders lumbar tractions in patients with chronic lower back pain in comparison with the group of patients undergoing pharmacological treatment. The study included 140 patients with chronic lower back pain who were divided into two groups. Each group consisted of 70 persons of mixed gender (the age mean value was 45). Group I were treated with the use of Saunders lumbar traction and Group II (control group) were treated pharmacologically. The following scales were used to assess pain and mobility of the lumbar part of the vertebral column (before treatment, in-treatment, right after treatment and 30 days after treatment): Laitinen, VAS, Rolland-Morris questionnaire and Schober functional test. The statistical analysis was performed with Greenhouse-Geisser test of within-subjects effects. In both the groups, a significant analgesic action and an improvement to spinal mobility were observed. Significantly better results were obtained in Group I where the patients had been treated with the use of Saunders lumbar traction. The pharmacological treatment applied in Group II showed an analgesic action and influenced positively the functional parameters of the patients. The effects, however, were much worse than in Group 1 where axial Saunders traction was applied to the lumbar part of the vertebral column.

  12. Creep force modelling for rail traction vehicles based on the Fastsim algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiryagin, Maksym; Polach, Oldrich; Cole, Colin

    2013-11-01

    The evaluation of creep forces is a complex task and their calculation is a time-consuming process for multibody simulation (MBS). A methodology of creep forces modelling at large traction creepages has been proposed by Polach [Creep forces in simulations of traction vehicles running on adhesion limit. Wear. 2005;258:992-1000; Influence of locomotive tractive effort on the forces between wheel and rail. Veh Syst Dyn. 2001(Suppl);35:7-22] adapting his previously published algorithm [Polach O. A fast wheel-rail forces calculation computer code. Veh Syst Dyn. 1999(Suppl);33:728-739]. The most common method for creep force modelling used by software packages for MBS of running dynamics is the Fastsim algorithm by Kalker [A fast algorithm for the simplified theory of rolling contact. Veh Syst Dyn. 1982;11:1-13]. However, the Fastsim code has some limitations which do not allow modelling the creep force - creep characteristic in agreement with measurements for locomotives and other high-power traction vehicles, mainly for large traction creep at low-adhesion conditions. This paper describes a newly developed methodology based on a variable contact flexibility increasing with the ratio of the slip area to the area of adhesion. This variable contact flexibility is introduced in a modification of Kalker's code Fastsim by replacing the constant Kalker's reduction factor, widely used in MBS, by a variable reduction factor together with a slip-velocity-dependent friction coefficient decreasing with increasing global creepage. The proposed methodology is presented in this work and compared with measurements for different locomotives. The modification allows use of the well recognised Fastsim code for simulation of creep forces at large creepages in agreement with measurements without modifying the proven modelling methodology at small creepages.

  13. Design of master control unit for laboratory prototype of traction converter for locomotives

    OpenAIRE

    Žák, Jan; Peroutka, Zdeněk; Ovaska, Seppo J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the prototype of a main traction converter with medium-frequency transformer for AC trolley wire-fed locomotives. The attention is paid to the new master control and diagnostic unit. The designed master control unit has been implemented in the LabVIEW environment. Our master control unit ensures an effective human interface between a user and the control hardware. In this case, the master unit makes possible both extensive control and diagnostic operations of the laborat...

  14. Innovative multi system traction equipment for modern rail vehicles; Innovative Mehrsystem-Antriebsausruestung fuer moderne Triebzuege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guggisberg, B.; Daehler, P. [ABB Schweiz AG, Turgi (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    The BORDLINE-Compact Converter consists of a main traction converter with integrated auxiliary converter. The converters are equipped with low voltage semiconductors and are intended to be used in DMUs as well as in EMUs with overhead voltages of 15 kV or 25 kV. For the operation with 3 kV DC an additional DC to AC converter using a separate main transformer winding is installed. (orig.)

  15. MODELING OF THE CONTROLLED TRACTION POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM IN THE SPACE-TIME COORDINATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry BOSYI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The problems of the traction power supply system calculation are considered in the article. The authors proposed the space-time model, which is based on the analytical functions of the current- and voltage-drop distributions in the contact network. The usage of the proposed model is shown for the control law calculation both to stabilize the voltage at the pantographs of the electric rolling stocks and to reduce the power losses.

  16. le traitement chirurgical des poches de rétraction tympaniques

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    16 juin 2006 ... L'évolution naturelle de l'otite atelectasique vers la maladie cholestéatomateuse complique d'avantage la prise en charge des poches de rétraction. ... risque de cholestéatome résiduel était important. Après un recul minimum de 21 mois, le résultat anato- mique été satisfaisant dans 88%. Ailleurs ...

  17. A comparative study on OCT before and after the operation for vitreomacular traction syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Qi Song

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To make a contrast and then analyze the difference of optical coherence tomography(OCTbefore and after vitreomacular traction syndrome(VTSwas performed. METHODS: The clinical date of 11 evaluable eyes of 11 patients with VTS who were diagnosed by OCT and underwent 25G vitreous surgery from January 2013 to January 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were followed up for an average of 6mo, to observe the visual acuity and OCT examination of the patient before and after operation. We compared the changes of retinal thickness and local morphology before and after operation.RESULTS: After vitreous retraction, 6 eyes improved, 2 eyes do not improve. One eye received macular membrane traction, in the operation the macular epiretinal membrane peeling, retrial membrane stripping and the triamcinolone acetonide intravitreal injection were given, but after the operation, the vision does not improve. Two eyes received vitreous combined with retinal macular membrane traction. In the operation, macular epiretinal membrane stripping was given, after the operation, visual acuity improved. The proportion of those with visual acuity of 0.1 or more increased from 46% before to 73% after the operation. Before operations, the mean central macular thickness was 619.27±195.13μm, 239.12±143.84μm after, which decreased significantly(PCONCLUSION: Vitrectomy can effectively relieve the vitreous traction of the macula, and can prevent further decline in visual acuity and reduce macular edema as well as improve the visual acuity of some patients. So, OCT has important guiding significance on the diagnosis and prognosis of this group.

  18. Morphostructural characterization of soil conventionally tilled with mechanized and animal traction with and without cover crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ralisch

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The structural stability and restructuring ability of a soil are related to the methods of crop management and soil preparation. A recommended strategy to reduce the effects of soil preparation is to use crop rotation and cover crops that help conserve and restore the soil structure. The aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify the homogeneous morphological units in soil under conventional mechanized tillage and animal traction, as well as to assess the effect on the soil structure of intercropping with jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis L.. Profiles were analyzed in April of 2006, in five counties in the Southern-Central region of Paraná State (Brazil, on family farms producing maize (Zea mays L., sometimes intercropped with jack bean. The current structures in the crop profile were analyzed using Geographic Information Systems (GIS and subsequently principal component analysis (PCA to generate statistics. Morphostructural soil analysis showed a predominance of compact units in areas of high-intensity cultivation under mechanized traction. The cover crop did not improve the structure of the soil with low porosity and compact units that hamper the root system growth. In areas exposed to animal traction, a predominance of cracked units was observed, where roots grew around the clods and along the gaps between them.

  19. A case of traction retinal detachment in a patient with Gaucher disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Akira; Gekka, Tamaki; Arai, Kota; Tsuneoka, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    This is the first report of vitreous surgery for traction retinal detachment in a patient with type III Gaucher disease with multiple vitreous opacities. A 16-year-old boy who was diagnosed with Gaucher disease at age two and was undergoing enzyme replacement therapy presented with numerous white opacities of varying sizes in the vitreous bodies of both eyes. Visual acuity was 20/40 in the right eye and 20/2000 in the left eye. The retina of the left eye was completely detached, and vitreous surgery was performed. Liquefaction of the vitreous body was advanced, and the central part of the vitreous cavity contained almost no vitreous humor. The macular region was successfully aspirated with a vitreous cutter to form a posterior vitreous detachment. From the optic disk to the nasal side, however, posterior vitreous detachment formation was prevented by strong adhesions between the retina and the vitreous body. The traction retinal detachment of the posterior fundus improved after vitreous body resection alone. Traction retinal detachment may occur as a result of severe vitreous liquefaction in cases of Gaucher disease with numerous vitreous opacities.

  20. Degradation-mediated cellular traction directs stem cell fate in covalently crosslinked three-dimensional hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khetan, Sudhir; Guvendiren, Murat; Legant, Wesley R.; Cohen, Daniel M.; Chen, Christopher S.; Burdick, Jason A.

    2013-05-01

    Although cell-matrix adhesive interactions are known to regulate stem cell differentiation, the underlying mechanisms, in particular for direct three-dimensional encapsulation within hydrogels, are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that in covalently crosslinked hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels, the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) is directed by the generation of degradation-mediated cellular traction, independently of cell morphology or matrix mechanics. hMSCs within HA hydrogels of equivalent elastic moduli that permit (restrict) cell-mediated degradation exhibited high (low) degrees of cell spreading and high (low) tractions, and favoured osteogenesis (adipogenesis). Moreover, switching the permissive hydrogel to a restrictive state through delayed secondary crosslinking reduced further hydrogel degradation, suppressed traction, and caused a switch from osteogenesis to adipogenesis in the absence of changes to the extended cellular morphology. Furthermore, inhibiting tension-mediated signalling in the permissive environment mirrored the effects of delayed secondary crosslinking, whereas upregulating tension induced osteogenesis even in the restrictive environment.

  1. Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor with Different Rotor Structures for Traction Motor in High Speed Trains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Torrent

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work we proposed to study the use of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM for railway traction in the high-speed trains (HST of Renfe Operadora (the Spanish national railway operator. Currently, induction motors (IM are used in AVE classes 102–112 trains, so, the IM used as a traction motor in these trains has been studied and characterized by comparing the results with data provided by Renfe. A PMSM of equivalent power to the IM has been dimensioned, and different electromagnetic structures of the PMSM rotor have been evaluated. The simulation by the finite element method and analysis of the equivalent electrical circuit used in all the motors have been studied to evaluate the performance of the motors in this application. Efficiency is calculated at different operating points due to its impact on the energy consumption of railway traction. The implementation of the PMSM evaluated is recommended, mainly due to the improvements achieved in efficiency as compared with the IM currently used.

  2. VITRECTOMY FOR INTERMEDIATE AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION ASSOCIATED WITH TANGENTIAL VITREOMACULAR TRACTION: A CLINICOPATHOLOGIC CORRELATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziada, Jean; Hagenau, Felix; Compera, Denise; Wolf, Armin; Scheler, Renate; Schaumberger, Markus M; Priglinger, Siegfried G; Schumann, Ricarda G

    2018-03-01

    To describe the morphologic characteristics of the vitreomacular interface in intermediate age-related macular degeneration associated with tangential traction due to premacular membrane formation and to correlate with optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings and clinical data. Premacular membrane specimens were removed sequentially with the internal limiting membrane from 27 eyes of 26 patients with intermediate age-related macular degeneration during standard vitrectomy. Specimens were processed for immunocytochemical staining of epiretinal cells and extracellular matrix components. Ultrastructural analysis was performed using transmission electron microscopy. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography images and patient charts were evaluated in retrospect. Immunocytochemistry revealed hyalocytes and myofibroblasts as predominant cell types. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrated evidence of vitreoschisis in all eyes. Myofibroblasts with contractile properties were observed to span between folds of the internal limiting membrane and vitreous cortex collagen. Retinal pigment epithelial cells or inflammatory cells were not detected. Mean visual acuity (Snellen) showed significant improvement from 20/72 ± 20/36 to 20/41 ± 20/32 (P age-related macular degeneration predominantly consists of vitreous collagen, hyalocytes, and myofibroblasts with contractile properties. Vitreoschisis and vitreous-derived cells appear to play an important role in traction formation of this subgroup of eyes. In patients with intermediate age-related macular degeneration and contractile premacular membrane, release of traction by vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling results in significantly functional and anatomical improvement.

  3. Vehicle non-exhaust emissions from the tyre-road interface - effect of stud properties, traction sanding and resuspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupiainen, Kaarle J.; Pirjola, Liisa

    2011-08-01

    In Northern cities respirable street dust emission levels (PM 10) are especially high during spring. The spring time dust has been observed to cause health effects as well as discomfort among citizens. Major sources of the dust are the abrasion products from the pavement and traction sand aggregates that are formed due to the motion of the tyre. We studied the formation of respirable abrasion particles in the tyre-road interface due to tyre studs and traction sanding by a mobile laboratory vehicle Sniffer. The measurements were preformed on a test track, where the influence of varying stud weight and stud number per tyre on PM 10 emissions was studied. Studded tyres resulted in higher emission levels than studless tyres especially with speeds 50 km h -1 and higher; however, by using light weight studs, which approximately halves the weight of studs, or by reducing the number of studs per tyre to half, the emission levels decreased by approximately half. Additionally measurements were done with and without traction sand coverage on the pavement of a public road. After traction sanding the emission levels were not affected by tyre type but by formation and suspension of traction sand related dust from the road surface. The emissions after traction sanding decreased as a function of time as passing vehicles' motion shifted the sand grains away from the areas with most tyre-road contact.

  4. Extended driving impairs nocturnal driving performances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Sagaspe

    Full Text Available Though fatigue and sleepiness at the wheel are well-known risk factors for traffic accidents, many drivers combine extended driving and sleep deprivation. Fatigue-related accidents occur mainly at night but there is no experimental data available to determine if the duration of prior driving affects driving performance at night. Participants drove in 3 nocturnal driving sessions (3-5 am, 1-5 am and 9 pm-5 am on open highway. Fourteen young healthy men (mean age [+/-SD] = 23.4 [+/-1.7] years participated Inappropriate line crossings (ILC in the last hour of driving of each session, sleep variables, self-perceived fatigue and sleepiness were measured. Compared to the short (3-5 am driving session, the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings increased by 2.6 (95% CI, 1.1 to 6.0; P<.05 for the intermediate (1-5 am driving session and by 4.0 (CI, 1.7 to 9.4; P<.001 for the long (9 pm-5 am driving session. Compared to the reference session (9-10 pm, the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings were 6.0 (95% CI, 2.3 to 15.5; P<.001, 15.4 (CI, 4.6 to 51.5; P<.001 and 24.3 (CI, 7.4 to 79.5; P<.001, respectively, for the three different durations of driving. Self-rated fatigue and sleepiness scores were both positively correlated to driving impairment in the intermediate and long duration sessions (P<.05 and increased significantly during the nocturnal driving sessions compared to the reference session (P<.01. At night, extended driving impairs driving performances and therefore should be limited.

  5. Experimental study on performance characteristics of servo-piston hydraulic control rod driving mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Mingrui; Han Weishi; Zhou Jie; Liu Chunyu; Yang Zhida; Wang Ge

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study on the performance characteristics of the servo-piston hydraulic control rod driving mechanism is carried out, the dynamic processes of the driving mechanism are obtained through the experiments in different working conditions. Combined with the structure characteristics of the driving mechanism, the change rule between the characteristics parameters and the working condition is analyzed. The results indicate that the traction of the servo-tube decreases quickly at first, then slowly and finally trends to be a constant with the working pressure increasing, the tractions are the largest in the startup and deboost phases. The under pressure of the drive cylinder rises slowly and the upper pressure decreases rapidly at the beginning of the rise, the variation trend is opposite in the falling stage. There exists quick and clear flow change processes in the startup and deboost phases, the flow mutation value reduces and the mutation time changes a little with the working pressure increasing. The driving mechanism runs stable and has high sensitivity precision, the load does not vibrate at all when working conditions has small disturbance, a steady transform can be realized among every condition. (authors)

  6. Ion trap device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Smith, Richard D.

    2016-01-26

    An ion trap device is disclosed. The device includes a series of electrodes that define an ion flow path. A radio frequency (RF) field is applied to the series of electrodes such that each electrode is phase shifted approximately 180 degrees from an adjacent electrode. A DC voltage is superimposed with the RF field to create a DC gradient to drive ions in the direction of the gradient. A second RF field or DC voltage is applied to selectively trap and release the ions from the device. Further, the device may be gridless and utilized at high pressure.

  7. HARMONIC DRIVE SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr FOLĘGA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The variety of types and sizes currently in production harmonic drive is a problem in their rational choice. Properly selected harmonic drive must meet certain requirements during operation, and achieve the anticipated service life. The paper discusses the problems associated with the selection of the harmonic drive. It also presents the algorithm correct choice of harmonic drive. The main objective of this study was to develop a computer program that allows the correct choice of harmonic drive by developed algorithm.

  8. Comparison between effectiveness of Mechanical and Manual Traction combined with mobilization and exercise therapy in Patients with Cervical Radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Syed Rehan Iftikhar; Shakil-Ur-Rehman, Syed; Ahmad, Shakeel; Naeem, Aamer

    2016-01-01

    Cervical radiculopathy is a common neuro-musculo-skeletal disorder causing pain and disability. Traction is part of the evidence based manual physical therapy management due to its mechanical nature, type of traction and parameters related to its applicability and are still to be explored more through research. Our objective was to determine the Effects of Mechanical versus Manual Traction in Manual Physical Therapy combined with segmental mobilization and exercise therapy in the physical therapy management of Patients with Cervical Radiculopathy. This randomized control trial was conducted at department of physical therapy and rehabilitation, Rathore Hospital Faisalabad, from February to July 2015. Inclusion criteria were both male and female patients with evident symptoms of cervical spine radiculopathy and age ranged between 20-70 years. The exclusion criteria were Patients with history of trauma, neck pain without radiculopathy, aged less than 20 and more than 70. A total of 72 patients with cervical radiculopathy were screened out as per the inclusion criteria, 42 patients were randomly selected and placed into two groups by toss and trial method, and only 36 patients completed the study, while 6 dropped out. The mechanical traction was applied in group A and manual traction in group B along with common intervention of segmental mobilization and exercise therapy in both groups for 6 weeks. The patient's outcomes were assessed by self reported NPRS and NDI at the baseline and after completion of 06 weeks exercise program at 3 days per week. The data was analyzed through SPSS version-21, and paired T test was applied at 95% level significance to determine the statistical deference between two groups. Clinically the group of patients treated with mechanical traction managed pain (mean pre 6.26, mean post 1.43), and disability (mean pre 24.43 and mean post 7.26) more effectively as compared with the group of patients treated with manual traction (Pain mean pre 6

  9. Neutral-beam current drive in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devoto, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    The theory of neutral-beam current drive in tokamaks is reviewed. Experiments are discussed where neutral beams have been used to drive current directly and also indirectly through neoclassical effects. Application of the theory to an experimental test reactor is described. It is shown that neutral beams formed from negative ions accelerated to 500 to 700 keV are needed for this device

  10. Neutral-beam current drive in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devoto, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    The theory of neutral-beam current drive in tokamaks is reviewed. Experiments are discussed where neutral beams have been used to drive current directly and also indirectly through neoclassical effects. Application of the theory to an experimental test reactor is described. It is shown that neutral beams formed from negative ions accelerated to 500-700 keV are needed for this device

  11. Underwater radiation measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Noriyuki; Suzuki, Yasuo

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a device for measuring, under water, radiation from spent fuels (long members to be detected) of nuclear power plants and reprocessing facilities. Namely, a detecting insertion tube (insertion tube) is disposed so as to be in parallel with axial direction of the long member to be detected stored underwater. A γ-ray detector is inserted to the inside of the insertion tube. A driving mechanism is disposed for moving the γ-ray detector in axial direction inside of the insertion tube. The driving mechanism preferably has a system that it moves the γ-ray detector by winding a detection signal cable around a driving drum. The driving mechanism is formed by inserting and securing a driving tube having screws formed on the side surface and inserting it into the insertion tube. It may have a system of moving the γ-ray detector together with the driving tube while engaging the teeth of a driving transfer mechanism with the screws of the driving tube. (I.S.)

  12. Small Screen Use and Driving Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchley, Paul; Strayer, David L

    2017-11-01

    The increased availability of "small screens," wireless devices with Internet-enabled connections, and their associated applications has almost overnight changed the way that we interact with our phones. The current work outlines some of the aspects of this problem as it relates to the influence of small screens on driving safety. Small screens are highly compelling to drivers, both for the information they convey and because the ability to ignore them while driving is impaired by cognitive resources used by the driving task itself. However, much is unknown about why people make choices to multitask while driving. Given the safety risks, it is recommended that parents, the public, and regulators take a stand against the use of Internet-enabled small screens unrelated to driving when the vehicle is in motion. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Medical instruments and devices principles and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Schreiner, Steven; Peterson, Donald R

    2015-01-01

    Medical Instruments and Devices: Principles and Practices originates from the medical instruments and devices section of The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition. Top experts in the field provide material that spans this wide field. The text examines how biopotential amplifiers help regulate the quality and content of measured signals. It includes instruments and devices that span a range of physiological systems and the physiological scale: molecular, cellular, organ, and system. The book chronicles the evolution of pacemakers and their system operation and discusses oscillometry, cardiac output measurement, and the direct and indirect methods of measuring cardiac output. The authors also expound on the mechanics and safety of defibrillators and cover implantable stimulators, respiration, and the structure and function of mechanical ventilators. In addition, this text covers in depth: Anesthesia Delivery Electrosurgical Units and Devices Biomedical Lasers Measuring Cellular Traction Forces Blood G...

  14. Mechanical Design Engineering Enabler Project wheel and wheel drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, Richard E.; Couch, Britt K.; Holley, John L., Jr.; Garris, Eric S.; Staut, Paul V.

    1992-01-01

    Our group was assigned the responsibility of designing the wheel and wheel drive system for a proof-of-concept model of the lunar-based ENABLER. ENABLER is a multi-purpose, six wheeled vehicle designed to lift and transport heavy objects associated with the construction of a lunar base. The resulting design was based on the performance criteria of the ENABLER. The drive system was designed to enable the vehicle to achieve a speed of 7 mph on a level surface, climb a 30 percent grade, and surpass a one meter high object and one meter wide crevice. The wheel assemblies were designed to support the entire weight of the vehicle on two wheels. The wheels were designed to serve as the main component of the vehicle's suspension and will provide suitable traction for lunar-type surfaces. The expected performance of the drive system for the ENABLER was influenced by many mechanical factors. The expected top speed on a level sandy surface is 4 mph instead of the desired 7 mph. This is due to a lack of necessary power at the wheels. The lack of power resulted from dimension considerations that allowed only an eight horsepower engine and also from mechanical inefficiencies of the hydraulic system. However, the vehicle will be able to climb a 30 percent grade, surpass a one meter high object and one meter wide crevice. The wheel assemblies will be able to support the entire weight of the vehicle on two wheels. The wheels will also provide adequate suspension for the vehicle and sufficient traction for lunar-type surfaces.

  15. Perfluorocarbon-perfused 23 gauge three-dimensional vitrectomy for complicated diabetic tractional retinal detachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez-Montoya, Raul; Guerrero-Naranjo, Jose Luis; Garcia-Aguirre, Gerardo; Morales-Cantón, Virgilio; Fromow-Guerra, Jans; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Background Perfluorocarbon liquid (PCL)-perfused vitrectomy has been shown in previous studies to be feasible, safe, and to have advantages in managing complicated cases of tractional retinal detachment. The present study had the objectives of describing the anatomical results and measuring surgical time and PCL consumption when combining PCL-perfused techniques with modern vitrectomy equipment. Methods A prospective, interventional consecutive case series was investigated. We enrolled patients with diabetic tractional retinal detachment, complicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy and poor vision. A 23 gauge PCL-perfused vitrectomy was done with three-dimensional settings. During the procedure, we assessed the degree of surgical bleeding, visualization quality, and difficulty of membrane dissections. Visual acuity, intraocular pressure, and anatomical success were assessed at one and 3 months of follow-up. Results Twelve patients were enrolled in this study. There were no statistical significant changes in intraocular pressure and visual acuity throughout the follow-up period. Surgery was performed in a hemorrhage-free environment in almost all cases, with good visualization and low technical difficulty. The mean complete surgical time was 94.92 ± 25.03 minutes. The mean effective vitrectomy time was 22.50 ± 19.04 minutes and the mean PCL consumption was 25.08 ± 9.76 mL, with a speed of 1.11 mL/minute. Anatomical success was 67% at 3 months. Conclusion Although the technique proved to have some advantages in managing complicated cases of diabetic tractional retinal detachment, there was a high consumption of PCL. A redesign of the entire system is needed in order to decrease the amount of PCL needed for the technique. PMID:22267907

  16. An assessment of available measures to reduce traction energy use in railway networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, Heather; Roberts, Clive; Hillmansen, Stuart; Schmid, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Railway networks are defined in terms of their distinguishing features. • Current energy saving measures are reviewed and categorised by the energy use they target. • The achievable energy savings of different measures are compared dependent on the network type. • The success of a measure depends on the characteristics of the network, vehicle and service. • Measures should be evaluated at system level due to interdependencies. - Abstract: Rail is becoming an increasingly popular choice to satisfy transportation demands locally, nationally and internationally, due to its inherent efficiency and high capacity. Despite this, operators are facing pressure to reduce rail energy consumption to meet efficiency targets, whilst still maintaining service quality and managing increased demand. A number of individual measures have been proposed to reduce energy in the rail sector, often showing good results on specific case studies. It is generally agreed that the attainable savings of a given measure change dependant on the route, vehicle and service characteristics. However, there is little information in the literature specifically regarding which measures are most suitable for given network types, or how they interact. This paper therefore aims to begin evaluating the available measures in terms of their suitability for different systems. Firstly, networks are defined in terms of their distinguishing features. As traction accounts for the majority of all energy use in the rail sector, the traction flow through a vehicle is considered as the starting point for an evaluation of measures. Current technologies and procedures are reviewed and categorised based on which area of traction use they target. Thought is given to the factors that affect implementation and the networks where they are applied. A key output of this paper is a comparison of the achievable energy savings of different measures dependent on the network type. It is hoped that this will

  17. Commercial Truck Driver Health and Safety: Exploring Distracted Driving Performance and Self-Reported Driving Skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinos, Despina; Heaton, Karen; Welburn, Sharon C; McManus, Benjamin; Griffin, Russell; Fine, Philip R

    2016-08-01

    Reducing distracters detrimental to commercial truck driving is a critical component of improving the safety performance of commercial drivers, and makes the highways safer for all drivers. This study used a driving simulator to examine effects of cell phone, texting, and email distractions as well as self-reported driver optimism bias on the driving performance of commercial truck drivers. Results revealed that more visually demanding tasks were related to poorer driving performance. However, the cell phone task resulted in less off-the-road eye glances. Drivers reporting being "very skilled" displayed poorer driving performance than those reporting being "skilled." Onboard communication devices provide a practical, yet visually and manually demanding, solution for connecting drivers and dispatchers. Trucking company policies should minimize interaction between dispatchers and drivers when the truck is in motion. Training facilities should integrate driving simulators into the instruction of commercial drivers, targeting over-confident drivers. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. Electric vehicle traction motors - The development of an advanced motor concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, P.

    1980-01-01

    An axial-field permanent magnet traction motor is described, similar to several advanced motors that are being developed in the United States. This type of machine has several advantages over conventional dc motors, particularly in the electric vehicle application. The rapidly changing cost of magnetic materials, particularly cobalt, makes it important to study the utilization of permanent magnet materials in such machines. The impact of different magnets on machine design is evaluated, and the advantages of using iron powder composites in the armature are assessed.

  19. Cohesive traction-separation relations for plate tearing under mixed mode loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, R. G.; Woelke, P. B.; Nielsen, K. L.

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigates a sequence of failure events related to steady-state tearing of large-scale ductile plates by employing the micro-mechanics based Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) model. The fracture process in front of an advancing crack is approximated by a series of 2D plane strain...... finite element models to facilitate a comprehensive study of mixed mode fracture behavior as well as a parameter study of the cohesive energy and tractions involved in the process. The results from the conducted GTN model simulations are used to define cohesive zone models suitable for plate tearing...

  20. Coupled electromagnetic acoustic and thermal-flow modeling of an induction motor of railway traction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasquelle, A.; Le Besnerais, J.; Harmand, S.; Hecquet, M.; Brisset, S.; Brochet, P.; Randria, A.

    2010-01-01

    In order to optimize the design of an enclosed induction machine of railway traction, a multi-physical model is developed taking into account electromagnetic, mechanical and thermal-flow phenomena. The electromagnetic model is based on analytical formulations and allows calculating the losses. The thermal-flow modeling is based on an equivalent thermal circuit which has the feature to consider the flow structure inside the machine. In this way, a numerical study has been carried out to evaluate this internal flow structure depending on the rotational speed. The results of the multi-physical model are confronted with experimental results.

  1. Equivalent model and power flow model for electric railway traction network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng

    2018-05-01

    An equivalent model of the Cable Traction Network (CTN) considering the distributed capacitance effect of the cable system is proposed. The model can be divided into 110kV side and 27.5kV side two kinds. The 110kV side equivalent model can be used to calculate the power supply capacity of the CTN. The 27.5kV side equivalent model can be used to solve the voltage of the catenary. Based on the equivalent simplified model of CTN, the power flow model of CTN which involves the reactive power compensation coefficient and the interaction of voltage and current, is derived.

  2. CONSTRUCTIVE MODELLING FOR ZONE OF RECOVERY ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF DC TRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Shynkarenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.The article is aimed to develop the means and methods of forming a plurality of real and potential structural diagrams for zones of energy recovery and different locations of trains for further training neuro-fuzzy networks on the basis of expert solutions and also for the formation of good control. Methodology. Methodology of mathematical and algorithmic constructivism for modeling the structural diagrams of the electric supply system and modes of traction power consumption and the train’s locations in zones of energy recovery was applied. This approach involves the development of constructive-synthesizing structures (CSS with transformation by specialization, interpretation, specification and implementation. Development CSS provides an extensible definition media, relations and the signature of operations and constructive axiomatic. The most complex and essential part of the axioms is the set formed by the substitution rules defining the process of withdrawal of the corresponding structures. Findings. A specialized and specified CSS, which allows considering all the possibilities and features, that supply power traction systems with modern equipment, stations and trains location was designed. Its feature: the semantic content of the terminal alphabet images of electrical traction network and power consumers with relevant attributes. A special case of the formation of the structural diagram shows the possibilities CSS in relation to this problem. Originality. A new approach to solving the problem of rational use of energy recovery, which consists in application of the methods and means of artificial neural networks, expert systems, fuzzy logic and mathematical and algorithmic constructivism. This paper presents the methods of constructive simulation of a production-distribution of energy recovery zone structure in the system of the DC traction. Practical value. The tasks decision of the rational use of energy recovery can

  3. Electric traction motion power and energy supply : basics and practical experience

    CERN Document Server

    Steimel, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This book has evolved from the lecture series ""Elektrische Bahnen" (""Electric railways") which has been held at Ruhr-Universität Bochum since 1996. Its primary audience are students of electrical energy technologies, control engineering and mechanical engineering as well as young engineers of electrical engineering, especially in the fields of power electronics, in railway industry and in railway-operating companies. The book intends to convey mechanical fundamentals of electric railway propulsion, which includes rail-bound guidance, transmission of traction effort from wheel to rail under t

  4. Behavior of single lap composite bolted joint under traction loading: Experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadhani, L. V.; Bewoor, Anand

    2018-04-01

    Composite bolted joints are preferred connection in the composite structures to facilitate the dismantling for the replacements/ maintenance work. The joint behavior under tractive forces has been studied in order to understand the safety of the structure designed. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the behavior of single-lap joints in carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites under traction loading conditions. The experiments were designed to identify the effect of bolt diameter, stacking sequence and loading rate on the properties of the joint. The experimental results show that the parameters influence the joint performance significantly.

  5. System design of the traction power supply for the high-speed line Beijing - Tianjin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmann, Martin; Fischer, Andreas; Tornow, Torsten [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    The high-speed line Beijing - Tianjin connecting the Capital Beijing with the harbour city Tianjin is the first high-speed line in China dedicated only to passenger traffic and is operated at 300 km/h. The commercial service started in due time for the Olympic games in 2008. For the system design and a reliable traction power supply the simulation software Sitras {sup registered} Sidytrac was used. The program incorporates all modules necessary for the overall system design and relating detailed investigations. Measurements during system integration test validated the simulation results. (orig.)

  6. Electric Vehicle - Economical driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, VCE, Steen V.; Schøn, Henriette

    1999-01-01

    Instruct the reader in getting most satisfaction out of an EV, especially concerning driving and loading.......Instruct the reader in getting most satisfaction out of an EV, especially concerning driving and loading....

  7. Dementia and driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000028.htm Dementia and driving To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. If your loved one has dementia , deciding when they can no longer drive may ...

  8. [Long-Term Outcomes of the Treatment of Pediatric Femoral Shaft Fractures Treated with Bryant's Vertical Traction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, J; Toufar, P; Kloub, M

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The paper aimed to evaluate the long-term outcomes of the treatment of diaphyseal femur fractures in children treated with Bryant's vertical traction. Moreover, we also assessed the size of overgrowth in the injured femur. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 23 patients with 23 femoral shaft fractures treated with Bryant's vertical traction at our department in 2009-2014. The following parameters were assessed: sex, ïnjured side, weight, age, mechanism of injury, potential abuse, type of fracture, duration of traction, and total length of hospital stay. The healing time of the fracture was the same as the duration of traction. Also assessed was the size of femoral shortening after the removal of traction, the presence of skin complications in the course of treatment and potential development of compartment syndrome. At the mean follow-up of 47.8 months (range 22-85 months) from the date of injury the patients were evaluated clinically and radiologically for: length of limbs, presence of rotational deformity, range of motion of knee and hip joints, potential pain or limping, potential scoliosis of the spine and presence of scars after traction. Finally, through a questionnaire we learned about the opinions of parents as to the treatment method and about the possibility of home traction. RESULTS All the fractures healed. There was a total of 17 injured boys and 6 injured girls. Whereas 12 patients sustained a fracture of the left femur, 11 patients sustained a fracture of the right femur. The mean weight of patients at the time of injury was 13.9 kg (range 5-20 kg). The mean age at the time of traction was 30.8 months (range 1-70 months). The injury most frequently occurred from various falls, altogether in 15 cases (65.2%). Traffic accidents were registered as the cause of injury in 3 cases (13%). No abuse was confirmed. The average duration of traction was 19.8 days (range 8-26 days). The total length of hospital stay took on average 23

  9. [Randomized controlled trials of needle knife therapy combined with rotation traction manipulation for the treatment of cervical spondylotic radiculopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhong-Liang; Su, Guo-Hong; Zheng, Bao-Zhu; Zuo, Yu-Zhu; Wei, Fu-Liang

    2016-09-25

    To compare the therapeutic effects between needle knife therapy combined with rotation traction manipulation and rotation traction manipulation for the treatment of cervical spondylotic radiculopathy. From November 2013 to June 2015, 80 patients with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy meeting the inclusion criteria were divided into two groups randomly:the control group in which 39 patients were treated with rotation traction manipulation, and the treatment group in which 41 patients were treated with needle knife combined with rotation traction manipulation. The patients in the control group were treated once dayly for 2 weeks, which was 1 course. The patients in the treatment group were treated with needle knife firstly once a week for 2 weeks, which was 1 course;then were treated with the same methods as the patients in the control group. The symptoms, signs score and the therapeutic effects of the two groups before and after treatment were observed. After treatment, symptoms and signs scores declined in both groups( P knife combined with rotation traction manipulation is an effective method for the treatment of cervical spondylotic radiculopathy, which is better than using manipulation method simply. Needle knife therapy has follow advantages:improving local blood circulation, reducing local content of pain substance, increasing production of substances resisting pain, opening channels and collaterals, and make body reaching new static and dynamic balance on the new foundation.

  10. Comparative study between lateral decubitus and traction table for treatment of pertrochanteric fractures with cephalomedullary nails ☆

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Fernando de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To perform a retrospective radiographic assessment of the reduction and implant position in the femoral head in patients with pertrochanteric fractures treated with cephalomedullary nailing in the lateral position versus traction table. METHODS: Radiographs of patients with pertrochanteric fracture of the femur treated with cephalomedullary nailing in the lateral position and traction table were retrospectively evaluated. For the evaluation we used the anteroposterior radiographic view of the pelvis and the lateral view of the affected side. The cervicodiaphyseal angle, the tip-apex distance (TAD, and the spatial position of the cephalic component in the head were measured. Two patient groups were created, one group operated on the traction table and another group operated in the lateral position. RESULTS: Regarding the cervicodiaphyseal angle observed in the traction table group, the results of 11 patients (61.1% were outside the acceptable parameters proposed in the present study. Both groups were equivalent regarding TAD and the position of the cephalic component in the head. CONCLUSION: A difference in the cervicodiaphyseal angle was observed; the group operated on the traction table had 11 patients (61.1% whose measurements were outside the acceptable parameters.

  11. Overhead Bryant's Traction Does Not Improve the Success of Closed Reduction or Limit AVN in Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucato, Daniel J; De La Rocha, Adriana; Lau, Karlee; Ramo, Brandon A

    2017-03-01

    Preoperative Bryant's overhead traction before closed reduction (CR) in developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) remains controversial and its success in increasing CR rates and reducing avascular necrosis (AVN) rates has not been specifically reported in a large cohort. IRB-approved retrospective study of patients (below 3 y)who were treated with attempted CR for idiopathic DDH from 1980 to 2009. Successful CR was defined as a hip that remained reduced and did not require repeat CR or open reduction. Patients were grouped by age, hip instability [Ortolani positive (reducible) vs. fixed dislocation], and Tonnis classification and rates of successful CR were compared between groups with PAVN between the traction (18%) and no-traction (8%) groups for all patients (P=0.15). In this retrospective series, preoperative Bryant's traction does not improve the rate of a successful CR for patients with DDH and has no protective effect on the development of AVN of the femoral head. These results suggest that Bryant's overhead traction may not be warranted for patients below 3 years of age with DDH. Level III.

  12. Gear bearing drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroidis, Constantinos (Inventor); Vranish, John M. (Inventor); Weinberg, Brian (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A gear bearing drive provides a compact mechanism that operates as an actuator providing torque and as a joint providing support. The drive includes a gear arrangement integrating an external rotor DC motor within a sun gear. Locking surfaces maintain the components of the drive in alignment and provide support for axial loads and moments. The gear bearing drive has a variety of applications, including as a joint in robotic arms and prosthetic limbs.

  13. Antihistamines and driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlon, J F

    1988-10-27

    The results of two placebo-controlled driving performance studies confirm laboratory data showing that the nonsedating antihistamine terfenadine does not influence the driving performance of users. The amplitude of vehicle weaving calculated for drivers who received this agent did not differ from control values. Neither terfenadine nor loratadine, another nonsedating antihistamine, potentiated the adverse effects of alcohol on driving performance.

  14. Driving After a Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 23,2015 Can I drive after a stroke? Driving is often a major concern after someone has a stroke. It’s not unusual for stroke survivors to want to drive. Being able to get around after a stroke is important. Safety behind the wheel is even more important after ...

  15. Sequential Dependencies in Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Anup; Tran, Cuong; Wilder, Matthew H.; Mozer, Michael C.; Trivedi, Mohan M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of recent experience on current behavior has been studied extensively in simple laboratory tasks. We explore the nature of sequential effects in the more naturalistic setting of automobile driving. Driving is a safety-critical task in which delayed response times may have severe consequences. Using a realistic driving simulator, we find…

  16. Simple Driving Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    2002-01-01

    -like language. Our aim is to extract a simple notion of driving and show that even in this tamed form it has much of the power of more general notions of driving. Our driving technique may be used to simplify functional programs which use function composition and will often be able to remove intermediate data...

  17. Efficiency trends in electric machines and drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mecrow, B.C.; Jack, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    Almost all electricity in the UK is generated by rotating electrical generators, and approximately half of it is used to drive electrical motors. This means that efficiency improvements to electrical machines can have a very large impact on energy consumption. The key challenges to increased efficiency in systems driven by electrical machines lie in three areas: to extend the application of variable-speed electric drives into new areas through reduction of power electronic and control costs; to integrate the drive and the driven load to maximise system efficiency; and to increase the efficiency of the electrical drive itself. In the short to medium term, efficiency gains within electrical machines will result from the development of new materials and construction techniques. Approximately a quarter of new electrical machines are driven by variable-speed drives. These are a less mature product than electrical machines and should see larger efficiency gains over the next 50 years. Advances will occur, with new types of power electronic devices that reduce switching and conduction loss. With variable-speed drives, there is complete freedom to vary the speed of the driven load. Replacing fixed-speed machines with variable-speed drives for a high proportion of industrial loads could mean a 15-30% energy saving. This could save the UK 15 billion kWh of electricity per year which, when combined with motor and drive efficiency gains, would amount to a total annual saving of 24 billion kWh

  18. Capillary network formation from dispersed endothelial cells: Influence of cell traction, cell adhesion, and extracellular matrix rigidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, João R. D.; Travasso, Rui; Carvalho, João

    2018-01-01

    The formation of a functional vascular network depends on biological, chemical, and physical processes being extremely well coordinated. Among them, the mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix and cell adhesion are fundamental to achieve a functional network of endothelial cells, able to fully cover a required domain. By the use of a Cellular Potts Model and Finite Element Method it is shown that there exists a range of values of endothelial traction forces, cell-cell adhesion, and matrix rigidities where the network can spontaneously be formed, and its properties are characterized. We obtain the analytical relation that the minimum traction force required for cell network formation must obey. This minimum value for the traction force is approximately independent on the considered cell number and cell-cell adhesion. We quantify how these two parameters influence the morphology of the resulting networks (size and number of meshes).

  19. Comparison of electric drives for road vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, C; Stephan, W [Deutsche Automobilgesellschaft m.b.H., Esslingen (Germany, F.R.)

    1977-01-01

    The low energy-storage capacity of the electrolytic energy-storage apparatus available at the moment limits the practical use of electric vehicles to meeting the requirements for restricted areas. But in this field of application, conversion from drive with internal combustion engine to electric drive can be considered only if a reduction of costs is achieved with electric drive. From the wide range of possible drive units the most suitable is found to be the dc squirrelcage motor the speed of which is controlled by field weakening. In the case of a motor with conventional design, the controllable drive range is limited to about 1 : 3, so that generally additional measures are required for extending the drive range. But if the motor is fitted with a compensation winding, field weakening to give a controlled speed range of 1 : 8 can be obtained. To evaluate the different drive units under consideration use is made of the acceleration when, according to the drive system, advantages are obtained from the point of view of energy consumption with disadvantages in acceleration time, and vice versa. By using vehicles proven in practice with different drive systems, either with hydrodynamic transducer and battery switchover, or else with changeover gear and mechanical clutch, the overall construction of the different control and protective arrangements are demonstrated. It is then found that the extra cost of regulation in the case of automatic drive operation is partly compensated by the additional protective devices which are required to limit the effects of any incorrect operations with a manually-operated drive.

  20. Teens' distracted driving behavior: Prevalence and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Pnina; Zhu, Chunming; Klauer, Sheila G; Dingus, Tom; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2017-12-01

    Teen drivers' over-involvement in crashes has been attributed to a variety of factors, including distracted driving. With the rapid development of in-vehicle systems and portable electronic devices, the burden associated with distracted driving is expected to increase. The current study identifies predictors of secondary task engagement among teenage drivers and provides basis for interventions to reduce distracted driving behavior. We described the prevalence of secondary tasks by type and driving conditions and evaluated the associations between the prevalence of secondary task engagement, driving conditions, and selected psychosocial factors. The private vehicles of 83 newly-licensed teenage drivers were equipped with Data Acquisition Systems (DAS), which documented driving performance measures, including secondary task engagement and driving environment characteristics. Surveys administered at licensure provided psychosocial measures. Overall, teens engaged in a potentially distracting secondary task in 58% of sampled road clips. The most prevalent types of secondary tasks were interaction with a passenger, talking/singing (no passenger), external distraction, and texting/dialing the cell phone. Secondary task engagement was more prevalent among those with primary vehicle access and when driving alone. Social norms, friends' risky driving behaviors, and parental limitations were significantly associated with secondary task prevalence. In contrast, environmental attributes, including lighting and road surface conditions, were not associated with teens' engagement in secondary tasks. Our findings indicated that teens engaged in secondary tasks frequently and poorly regulate their driving behavior relative to environmental conditions. Practical applications: Peer and parent influences on secondary task engagement provide valuable objectives for countermeasures to reduce distracted driving among teenage drivers. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and

  1. Harmonic analysis of electric locomotive and traction power system based on wavelet singular entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dun, Xiaohong

    2018-05-01

    With the rapid development of high-speed railway and heavy-haul transport, the locomotive and traction power system has become the main harmonic source of China's power grid. In response to this phenomenon, the system's power quality issues need timely monitoring, assessment and governance. Wavelet singular entropy is an organic combination of wavelet transform, singular value decomposition and information entropy theory, which combines the unique advantages of the three in signal processing: the time-frequency local characteristics of wavelet transform, singular value decomposition explores the basic modal characteristics of data, and information entropy quantifies the feature data. Based on the theory of singular value decomposition, the wavelet coefficient matrix after wavelet transform is decomposed into a series of singular values that can reflect the basic characteristics of the original coefficient matrix. Then the statistical properties of information entropy are used to analyze the uncertainty of the singular value set, so as to give a definite measurement of the complexity of the original signal. It can be said that wavelet entropy has a good application prospect in fault detection, classification and protection. The mat lab simulation shows that the use of wavelet singular entropy on the locomotive and traction power system harmonic analysis is effective.

  2. Finger-Shaped GelForce: Sensor for Measuring Surface Traction Fields for Robotic Hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K; Kamiyama, K; Kawakami, N; Tachi, S

    2010-01-01

    It is believed that the use of haptic sensors to measure the magnitude, direction, and distribution of a force will enable a robotic hand to perform dexterous operations. Therefore, we develop a new type of finger-shaped haptic sensor using GelForce technology. GelForce is a vision-based sensor that can be used to measure the distribution of force vectors, or surface traction fields. The simple structure of the GelForce enables us to develop a compact finger-shaped GelForce for the robotic hand. GelForce that is developed on the basis of an elastic theory can be used to calculate surface traction fields using a conversion equation. However, this conversion equation cannot be analytically solved when the elastic body of the sensor has a complicated shape such as the shape of a finger. Therefore, we propose an observational method and construct a prototype of the finger-shaped GelForce. By using this prototype, we evaluate the basic performance of the finger-shaped GelForce. Then, we conduct a field test by performing grasping operations using a robotic hand. The results of this test show that using the observational method, the finger-shaped GelForce can be successfully used in a robotic hand.

  3. Therapeutic effects of flurbiprofen axetil on mesenteric traction syndrome: randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hidemasa; Shida, Dai; Tagawa, Kyoko; Iwamoto, Ryo; Arita, Makoto; Arai, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Takeo

    2017-08-11

    This study aimed to reveal the appropriate timing for the intravenous administration of flurbiprofen axetil for preventing mesenteric traction syndrome (MTS), caused by prostacyclin release. In this prospective, randomized, clinical study, forty-five patients who were undergoing elective surgery for colorectal cancer via laparotomy were enrolled. Patients were randomly divided into 3 groups: a preoperative group (n = 16) receiving flurbiprofen axetil directly before surgery; a post-MTS group (n = 14) receiving following MTS onset; and a control group (n = 15) who were not administered flurbiprofen axetil. 6-keto-PGF1α, a stable metabolite of prostacyclin, levels were measured and mean blood pressures were recorded. In the preoperative group, 6-keto-PGF1α levels did not increase, blood pressure levels did not decrease, and no facial flushing was observed. In both the post-MTS and control groups, 6-keto-PGF1α levels increased markedly after mesenteric traction and blood pressure decreased significantly. The post-MTS group exhibited a faster decreasing trend in 6-keto-PGF1α levels and quick restore of the mean blood pressure, and the use of vasopressors and phenylephrine were lower than that in the control group. Even therapeutic administration of flurbiprofen axetil after the onset of MTS has also effects on MTS by suppressing prostacyclin production. Clinical trial number: UMIN000009111 . (Registered 14 October 2012).

  4. Fast Thermal Runaway Detection for Lithium-Ion Cells in Large Scale Traction Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Koch

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermal runaway of single cells within a large scale lithium-ion battery is a well-known risk that can lead to critical situations if no counter measures are taken in today’s lithium-ion traction batteries for battery electric vehicles (BEVs, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. The United Nations have published a draft global technical regulation on electric vehicle safety (GTR EVS describing a safety feature to warn passengers in case of a thermal runaway. Fast and reliable detection of faulty cells undergoing thermal runaway within the lithium-ion battery is therefore a key factor in battery designs for comprehensive passenger safety. A set of various possible sensors has been chosen based on the determined cell thermal runaway impact. These sensors have been tested in different sized battery setups and compared with respect to their ability of fast and reliable thermal runaway detection and their feasibility for traction batteries.

  5. Tangential vitreous traction: a possible mechanism of development of cystoid macular edema in retinitis pigmentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikiko Takezawa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Mikiko Takezawa, Soichi Tetsuka, Akihiro KakehashiDepartment of Ophthalmology, Jichi Medical University, Saitama Medical Center, Saitama, Saitama, JapanAbstract: We report the possible mechanism of development of cystoid macular edema (CME in retinitis pigmentosa (RP in the case of a 68-year-old woman with RP and CME in the right eye and resolving CME in the left eye. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography showed CME and posterior vitreoschisis in the nasal quadrant of the fundus without a posterior vitreous detachment (PVD. This vitreous pathology suggested bilateral thickening and shrinkage of the posterior vitreous cortex. In the right eye, CME was evident with no vitreofoveal separation. However, in the left eye, minimal change was seen in the CME associated with a focal shallow PVD over the fovea. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA in the left eye increased to 0.3 from 0.15 7 years after the first visit. Tangential vitreous traction on the macula may have caused the CME in the right eye. The shallow PVD over the fovea might have released the tangential vitreous traction from the fovea, induced spontaneous resolution of the CME, and improved the BCVA in the left eye.Keywords: retinitis pigmentosa, cystoid macular edema, posterior vitreous detachment, posterior vitreoschisis, optical coherence tomography

  6. The XXI century mountains: sustainable management of mountainous areas based on animal traction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues J.B.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO, there are around 300 million working animals worldwide. They play a fundamental role in human livelihoods through their contribution to financial, human and social capital, supporting between 300 and 600 million people globally, particularly in poorer areas, where animal energy represents a huge and extremely important sustainable power resource. Yet their recognition remains largely neglected, with animal traction being largely ignored by decision and policy makers and even by civil society at all levels, which compromises a real development and improvement of this technology as well as animal welfare. On the other hand, a collective ecological and economical consciousness and an increasing awareness of public opinion about the need to reduce the excessive industrialization and mechanization of agriculture and forestry has led some sectors of society to consider the (reuse of animal traction as a valid modern source of energy. Indeed, working animals optimally transform the consumed biomass in energy and natural fertilizer, which avoids soil degradation and contributes to a sustainable management of arable lands, forests and sensitive areas. The need to maintain biodiversity, reduce carbon emissions, encourage self-reliance and reduce consumption of resources also contributes to this trend.

  7. Lingual traction to facilitate fiber-optic intubation of difficult airways: a single-anesthesiologist randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Yiu-Hei; Karlnoski, Rachel A; Chen, Henian; Camporesi, Enrico M; Shah, Vimal V; Padhya, Tapan A; Mangar, Devanand

    2015-04-01

    Flexible fiber-optic bronchoscope-guided orotracheal intubation is a valuable technique with demonstrated benefits in the management of difficult airways. Despite its popularity with anesthesia providers, the technique is not fail-safe and airway-related complications secondary to failed intubation attempts remain an important problem. We sought to determine the effect of incorporating lingual traction on the success rate of fiber-optic bronchoscope-guided intubation in patients with anticipated difficult airways. In this prospective, randomized, cohort study, we enrolled 91 adult patients with anticipated difficult airways scheduled for elective surgery to undergo fiber-optic bronchoscope-guided orotracheal intubation alone or with lingual traction by an individual anesthesiologist after induction of general anesthesia and neuromuscular blockade. A total of 78 patients were randomized: 39 patients to the fiber-optic bronchoscope-guided intubation with lingual traction group and 39 patients to the fiber-optic bronchoscope-guided intubation alone group. The primary endpoint was the rate of successful first attempt intubations. The secondary outcome was sore throat grade on post-operative day 1. Fiber-optic intubation with lingual traction compared to fiber-optic intubation alone resulted in a higher success rate (92.3 vs. 74.4 %, χ (2) = 4.523, p = 0.033) and greater odds for successful first attempt intubation (OR 4.138, 95 % CI 1.041-16.444, p = 0.044). Sore throat severity on post-operative day 1 was not significantly different but trended towards worsening grades with lingual traction. In this study, lingual traction was shown to be a valuable maneuver for facilitating fiber-optic bronchoscope-guided intubation in the management of patients with anticipated difficult airways.

  8. Semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices on {110} oriented substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit

    2014-08-05

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, oriented, semiconductor-based, electronic devices on {110} textured substrates are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  9. [100] or [110] aligned, semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit

    2015-03-24

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, large-area, [100] or [110] textured, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  10. {100} or 45.degree.-rotated {100}, semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN

    2012-05-15

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, {100} or 45.degree.-rotated {100} oriented, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  11. Feasibility study on the interconnection of traction and other power line infrastructures; Machbarkeitsstudie zur Verknuepfung von Bahn- und Energieleitungsinfrastrukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, Lutz [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieversorgung und Hochspannungstechnik; Stephan, Arnd [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Professur Elektrische Bahnen; Weyer, Hartmut [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Deutsches und Internationales Berg- und Energierecht

    2013-06-15

    It was the purpose of the feasibility study to find out if and to what extent the existing transmission route potentials of the 16.7 Hz traction power network (DB Energie GmbH) can be used for the installation of new transmission lines of the standard 50 Hz power supply system. Of importance is here the question if and in which way the integration of new three-phase or DC overhead lines or cable systems in existing traction power routes is technically feasible, and to what extent such interconnection offers a potential for the acceleration of the planning and approval processes. (orig.)

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: How Do Plug-In Hybrid Electric Cars Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    supply in order to charge the traction battery pack. DC/DC converter: This device converts higher-voltage DC power from the traction battery pack to the lower-voltage DC power needed to run vehicle generators that perform both the drive and regeneration functions. Electric traction motor: Using power from

  13. Control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okutani, Tetsuro.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a simple and economical control rod drive using a control circuit requiring no pulse circuit. Constitution: Control rods in a BWR type reactor are driven by hydraulic pressure and inserted or withdrawn in the direction of applying the hydraulic pressure. The direction of the hydraulic pressure is controlled by a direction control valve. Since the driving for the control rod is extremely important in view of the operation, a self diagnosis function is disposed for rapid inspection of possible abnormality. In the present invention, two driving contacts are disposed each by one between the both ends of a solenoid valve of the direction control valve for driving the control rod and the driving power source, and diagnosis is conducted by alternately operating them. Therefore, since it is only necessary that the control circuit issues a driving instruction only to one of the two driving contacts, the pulse circuit is no more required. Further, since the control rod driving is conducted upon alignment of the two driving instructions, the reliability of the control rod drive can be improved. (Horiuchi, T.)

  14. Progress on advanced dc and ac induction drives for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1982-01-01

    Progress is reported in the development of complete electric vehicle propulsion systems, and the results of tests on the Road Load Simulator of two such systems representative of advanced dc and ac drive technology are presented. One is the system used in the DOE's ETV-1 integrated test vehicle which consists of a shunt wound dc traction motor under microprocessor control using a transistorized controller. The motor drives the vehicle through a fixed ratio transmission. The second system uses an ac induction motor controlled by transistorized pulse width modulated inverter which drives through a two speed automatically shifted transmission. The inverter and transmission both operate under the control of a microprocessor. The characteristics of these systems are also compared with the propulsion system technology available in vehicles being manufactured at the inception of the DOE program and with an advanced, highly integrated propulsion system upon which technology development was recently initiated.

  15. Using driving simulators to assess driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Linda Ng; Lee, John D

    2010-05-01

    Changes in drivers, vehicles, and roadways pose substantial challenges to the transportation safety community. Crash records and naturalistic driving data are useful for examining the influence of past or existing technology on drivers, and the associations between risk factors and crashes. However, they are limited because causation cannot be established and technology not yet installed in production vehicles cannot be assessed. Driving simulators have become an increasingly widespread tool to understand evolving and novel technologies. The ability to manipulate independent variables in a randomized, controlled setting also provides the added benefit of identifying causal links. This paper introduces a special issue on simulator-based safety studies. The special issue comprises 25 papers that demonstrate the use of driving simulators to address pressing transportation safety problems and includes topics as diverse as neurological dysfunction, work zone design, and driver distraction. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. High Torque, Direct Drive Electric Motor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Bear Engineering proposes to develop an innovative high torque, low speed, direct drive motor in order to meet NASA's requirements for such devices. Fundamentally,...

  17. MR findings associated with positive distraction of the hip joint achieved by axial traction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, Aline; Dietrich, Tobias J.; Maier, Matthias; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A. [Radiology, Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Faculty of Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Dora, Claudio [Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, Orthopedic Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Faculty of Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-06-01

    To determine which MR-arthrography findings are associated with positive hip joint distraction. One hundred patients with MR arthrography of the hip using axial traction were included. Traction was applied during the MR examination with an 8 kg (females) or 10 kg (males) water bag, attached to the ankle over a deflection pulley. Fifty patients showing joint space distraction were compared to an age- and gender-matched control group of 50 patients that did not show a joint distraction under axial traction. Two radiologists assessed the neck-shaft angle, lateral and anterior center-edge (CE) angles, CE angles in the transverse plane, extrusion index of the femoral head, acetabular depth, alpha angle, acetabular version, ligamentum teres, joint capsule and ligaments, iliopsoas tendon and the labrum. Mean joint space distraction in the study group was 0.9 ± 0.6 mm. Patients with positive joint space distraction had significantly higher neck-shaft angles (control group 131.6 ± 5.4 /study group 134.1 ± 6.1 , p < 0.05), smaller lateral CE angles (38.1 ± 5.9 /34.6 ± 7.2 , p < 0.05), smaller overall transverse CE angles (161.4 ± 9.9 /153.6 ± 9.6 , p < 0.001), smaller acetabular depth (4.1 ± 2.4 mm/5.8 ± 2.5 mm, p < 0.01), higher alpha angles (53.5 ± 7.8 /59.2 ± 10.1 , p < 0.01) and a thicker ligamentum teres (4.7 ± 1.4 mm/5.4 ± 1.8 mm, p < 0.05). The other parameters revealed no significant differences. ICC values for interobserver agreement were 0.71-0.95 and kappa values 0.43-0.92. Increased neck-shaft angles, small CE angles, small acetabular depth, higher alpha angles and a thick ligamentum teres are associated with positive joint distraction. (orig.)

  18. [SCREW-BASED INTERMAXILLARY TRACTION COMBINED WITH OCCLUSAL SPLINT FOR TREATMENT OF PEDIATRIC MANDIBULAR CONDYLAR FRACTURE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yang; Long, Xing; Deng, Mohong; Cai, Hengxing; Meng, Qinggong; Li, Bo

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the screw-based intermaxillary traction combined with occlusal splint in the treatment of pediatric mandibular condylar fracture. Between June 2005 and December 2013, 35 pediatric patients with 49 mandibular condylar fractures were treated, and the clinical data were retrospectively reviewed. There were 25 boys and 10 girls, aged 3-13 years (mean, 7.3 years). The injury causes included falling (18 cases), traffic accident (14 cases), and violence (3 cases). The time between injury and treatment was 2-30 days (mean, 6.8 days). Restricted mouth opening was observed, and the maximal mouth opening was (22.74 +/- 7.22) mm except 3 patients who were too young to measure. Condylar fractures were located at the left (12 cases), at the right (9 cases), at bilateral (14 cases) based on the sites; and fractures were classified as intracapsular (35 fractures), neck (10 fractures), and subcondylar (4 fractures) based on the fracture line. Four self-drilling titanium screws were inserted into the alveolar bone of both maxilla and mandible. After screw inserting, an occlusal splint with a fulcrum was used on the affected side and elastic band was put to perform anterior intermaxillary traction. After 1 month, the screws and splint were removed. Follow-up examinations were carried out on schedule. All the patients were followed up from 6 months to 8 years and 10 months (median, 71 months). No screw-related complication occurred in the others except one case of screw loosening. The postoperative maximal mouth opening was (38.82 +/- 2.02) nim. Mild joint noise was found in 4 cases and opening deviation occurred in 6 cases. Radiographic results demonstrated complete condyle remodeling was achieved in 24 cases (32 fractures), and moderate remodeling in 11 cases (17 fractures) at last follow-up. The screw-based intermaxillary traction combined with occlusal splint might be an effective method for pediatric mandibular condylar fracture. The screw

  19. MR findings associated with positive distraction of the hip joint achieved by axial traction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, Aline; Dietrich, Tobias J.; Maier, Matthias; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Dora, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    To determine which MR-arthrography findings are associated with positive hip joint distraction. One hundred patients with MR arthrography of the hip using axial traction were included. Traction was applied during the MR examination with an 8 kg (females) or 10 kg (males) water bag, attached to the ankle over a deflection pulley. Fifty patients showing joint space distraction were compared to an age- and gender-matched control group of 50 patients that did not show a joint distraction under axial traction. Two radiologists assessed the neck-shaft angle, lateral and anterior center-edge (CE) angles, CE angles in the transverse plane, extrusion index of the femoral head, acetabular depth, alpha angle, acetabular version, ligamentum teres, joint capsule and ligaments, iliopsoas tendon and the labrum. Mean joint space distraction in the study group was 0.9 ± 0.6 mm. Patients with positive joint space distraction had significantly higher neck-shaft angles (control group 131.6 ± 5.4 /study group 134.1 ± 6.1 , p < 0.05), smaller lateral CE angles (38.1 ± 5.9 /34.6 ± 7.2 , p < 0.05), smaller overall transverse CE angles (161.4 ± 9.9 /153.6 ± 9.6 , p < 0.001), smaller acetabular depth (4.1 ± 2.4 mm/5.8 ± 2.5 mm, p < 0.01), higher alpha angles (53.5 ± 7.8 /59.2 ± 10.1 , p < 0.01) and a thicker ligamentum teres (4.7 ± 1.4 mm/5.4 ± 1.8 mm, p < 0.05). The other parameters revealed no significant differences. ICC values for interobserver agreement were 0.71-0.95 and kappa values 0.43-0.92. Increased neck-shaft angles, small CE angles, small acetabular depth, higher alpha angles and a thick ligamentum teres are associated with positive joint distraction. (orig.)

  20. The improvement of maintenance service for traction networks equipment on the base of process approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Mironov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The new methods development for improving the maintenance service for equipment of traction networks in order to increase its efficiency and quality. Methodology. In world practice of solving problems related to the quality of products and services is usually achieved by introducing quality management system in to the enterprises. The provisions of quality management system were used for solving the problem. The technologies of process engineering were used for describing the main stages of maintenance service. Findings. The development of high-speed movement and growth of its intensity, the use of electric rolling stock of a new generation require the introduction of new methods diagnostics of equipment technical state and improvement of the existing maintenance system and repair of power supply. Developing a model of business-processes, their optimization with using techniques of process engineering and system management is needed for the transition to the management system based on the process approach. From the standpoint of the process approach and in accordance with the requirements of the quality management system (ISO 9001-2009, the operation of the E (Department of electrification and power supply infrastructure sector is represented as a scheme of business-processes in which the guaranteed supply with electricity of railway and third-party consumers is defined as the main business-process of management. Each of the sub-process of power supply for consumers is described in details. The use methods and main stages of process approach for sample management system reorganization were investigated. The methodology and the application method of PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act closed loop to the equipment maintenance system were described. The monitoring process of traction networks maintenance using the process approach was divided into components after investigations. The technical documentation of maintenance service was investigated in

  1. Superluminal warp drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F. [Colina de los Chopos, Centro de Fisica ' Miguel A. Catalan' , Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: p.gonzalezdiaz@imaff.cfmac.csic.es

    2007-09-20

    In this Letter we consider a warp drive spacetime resulting from that suggested by Alcubierre when the spaceship can only travel faster than light. Restricting to the two dimensions that retains most of the physics, we derive the thermodynamic properties of the warp drive and show that the temperature of the spaceship rises up as its apparent velocity increases. We also find that the warp drive spacetime can be exhibited in a manifestly cosmological form.

  2. Current drive in a ponderomotive potential with sign reversal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisch, N.J.; Dodin, I.Y.; Rax, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Noninductive current drive can be accomplished through ponderomotive forces with high efficiency when the potential changes sign over the interaction region. The effect, which operates somewhat like a Maxwell demon, can be practiced upon both ions and electrons. The current-drive efficiencies, in principle, might be higher than those possible with conventional rf current-drive techniques. It remains, however, for us to identify how the effect might be implemented in a magnetic fusion device in a practical manner

  3. Medications and impaired driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetland, Amanda; Carr, David B

    2014-04-01

    To describe the association of specific medication classes with driving outcomes and provide clinical recommendations. The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for articles published from January 1973 to June 2013 on classes of medications associated with driving impairment. The search included outcome terms such as automobile driving, motor vehicle crash, driving simulator, and road tests. Only English-language articles that contained findings from observational or interventional designs with ≥ 10 participants were included in this review. Cross-sectional studies, case series, and case reports were excluded. Driving is an important task and activity for the majority of adults. Some commonly prescribed medications have been associated with driving impairment measured by road performance, driving simulation, and/or motor vehicle crashes. This review of 30 studies identified findings with barbiturates, benzodiazepines, hypnotics, antidepressants, opioid and nonsteroidal analgesics, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, antiparkinsonian agents, skeletal muscle relaxants, antihistamines, anticholinergic medications, and hypoglycemic agents. Additional studies of medication impact on sedation, sleep latency, and psychomotor function, as well as the role of alcohol, are also discussed. Psychotropic agents and those with central nervous system side effects were associated with measures of impaired driving performance. It is difficult to determine if such associations are actually a result of medication use or the medical diagnosis itself. Regardless, clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of impaired driving with specific classes of medications, educate their patients, and/or consider safer alternatives.

  4. Universal Drive Train Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This vehicle drive train research facility is capable of evaluating helicopter and ground vehicle power transmission technologies in a system level environment. The...

  5. Algebraic software analysis and embedded simulation of a driving robot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkx, L.L.F.; Duringhof, H.M.; Cuijpers, P.J.L.

    2007-01-01

    At TNO Automotive the Generic Driving Actuator (GDA) is developed. The GDA is a device capable of driving a vehicle fully automatically using the same interface as a human driver does. In this paper, the design of the GDA is discussed. The software and hardware of the GDA and its effect on vehicle

  6. Drunk driving warning system (DDWS). Volume 2, Field test evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    The Drunk Driving Warning System (DDWS) is a vehicle-mounted device for testing driver impairment and activating alarms. The driver must pass a steering competency test (the Critical Tracking Task or CTT) in order to drive the car in a normal manner....

  7. Relay protection features of frequency-adjustable electric drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuprienko, V. V.

    2018-03-01

    The features of relay protection of high-voltage electric motors in composition of the frequency-adjustable electric drive are considered in the article. The influence of frequency converters on the stability of the operation of various types of relay protection used on electric motors is noted. Variants of circuits for connecting relay protection devices are suggested. The need to develop special relay protection devices for a frequency-adjustable electric drive is substantiated.

  8. A computational model for lower hybrid current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englade, R.C.; Bonoli, P.T.; Porkolab, M.

    1983-01-01

    A detailed simulation model for lower hybrid (LH) current drive in toroidal devices is discussed. This model accounts reasonably well for the magnitude of radio frequency (RF) current observed in the PLT and Alcator C devices. It also reproduces the experimental dependencies of RF current generation on toroidal magnetic field and has provided insights about mechanisms which may underlie the observed density limit of current drive. (author)

  9. Reluctance device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claridge, A.N.; Smith, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    A reluctance device comprises two or more phases, each of which has a rotor mounted for rotation within a tubular member and an annular stator positioned externally of the tubular member. The rotor and the internal surface of the tubular member are each provided with aligned, axially spaced apart annular arrays of teeth, the teeth on the rotor confronting those on the tubular member in radially spaced apart relationship. The stator encloses a coil which, when electrically energised, creates a plurality of magnetic flux paths each of which extends radially between the rotor and stator via the confronting teeth and the tubular member, and axially along both the rotor and the portion of the stator located radially outwardly of the coil. The portion of the tubular member intermediate the teeth thereon is provided with a non-magnetic insert in order to resist the axial passage of magnetic flux therethrough. In one of the claims, the tubular member comprises a portion of a nuclear reactor which is adapted to contain a reactor control rod, the rotor constituting a portion of the drive mechanism for the control rod contained in operation within the tubular member. (author)

  10. A mesenteric traction syndrome affects near-infrared spectroscopy evaluated cerebral oxygenation because skin blood flow increases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels D; Sørensen, Henrik; Ambrus, Rikard

    2018-01-01

    During abdominal surgery manipulation of internal organs may induce a "mesenteric traction syndrome" (MTS) including a triad of flushing, hypotension, and tachycardia that lasts for about 30 min. We evaluated whether MTS affects near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) assessed frontal lobe oxygenation ...

  11. Analysis of the process related to the operations management of the rail traction vehicles in JSC 'Serbian Railways'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukadinović Vojislav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the study, issues related to the operations management in railway were elaborated, with special emphasis on the operations management of rail vehicles and main parameters in its activities and in the railway functioning. The analysis of the current status, operation and functioning of the Serbian Railways was also provided, with a special focus on the study of the technical condition regarding exploitation, reliability, and availability of traction vehicles operation which is always actual and particularly important for ensuring the regular and safe functioning of train traffic in all railways in the world as well as in the railway of Serbia. The issue related to the exploitation reliability and availability regarding traction vehicles operation is also being analyzed which is reflected in development of the concept and creation of the methodology for assessment of the technical condition and indicators for determining the level of exploitation reliability, availability of the traction vehicle operation as well as functioning of train traffic and the models related to the operations management of rail traction vehicles.

  12. Evaluation of Strategies to Reducing Traction Energy Consumption of Metro Systems Using an Optimal Train Control Simulation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Su

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasing attention is being paid to the energy efficiency in metro systems to reduce the operational cost and to advocate the sustainability of railway systems. Classical research has studied the energy-efficient operational strategy and the energy-efficient system design separately to reduce the traction energy consumption. This paper aims to combine the operational strategies and the system design by analyzing how the infrastructure and vehicle parameters of metro systems influence the operational traction energy consumption. Firstly, a solution approach to the optimal train control model is introduced, which is used to design the Optimal Train Control Simulator(OTCS. Then, based on the OTCS, the performance of some important energy-efficient system design strategies is investigated to reduce the trains’ traction energy consumption, including reduction of the train mass, improvement of the kinematic resistance, the design of the energy-saving gradient, increasing the maximum traction and braking forces, introducing regenerative braking and timetable optimization. As for these energy-efficient strategies, the performances are finally evaluated using the OTCS with the practical operational data of the Beijing Yizhuang metro line. The proposed approach gives an example to quantitatively analyze the energy reduction of different strategies in the system design procedure, which may help the decision makers to have an overview of the energy-efficient performances and then to make decisions by balancing the costs and the benefits.

  13. Windowed SHE-PWM of Interleaved Four-Quadrant Converters for Resonance Suppression in Traction Power Supply Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Kejian; Konstantinou, Georgios; Mingli, Wu

    2017-01-01

    AC electric locomotives that use a number of interleaved four-quadrant converters generate high-frequency switching harmonics which may stimulate certain resonances in traction power supply systems (TPSSs). A windowed selective harmonic elimination pulse-width modulation (SHE-PWM) method...

  14. Cellular adhesome screen identifies critical modulators of focal adhesion dynamics, cellular traction forces and cell migration behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokkelman, Michiel; Balcıoğlu, Hayri E.; Klip, Janna E.; Yan, Kuan; Verbeek, Fons J.; Danen, Erik H. J.; van de Water, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells migrate from the primary tumour into surrounding tissue in order to form metastasis. Cell migration is a highly complex process, which requires continuous remodelling and re-organization of the cytoskeleton and cell-matrix adhesions. Here, we aimed to identify genes controlling aspects of tumour cell migration, including the dynamic organization of cell-matrix adhesions and cellular traction forces. In a siRNA screen targeting most cell adhesion-related genes we identified 200+ genes that regulate size and/or dynamics of cell-matrix adhesions in MCF7 breast cancer cells. In a subsequent secondary screen, the 64 most effective genes were evaluated for growth factor-induced cell migration and validated by tertiary RNAi pool deconvolution experiments. Four validated hits showed significantly enlarged adhesions accompanied by reduced cell migration upon siRNA-mediated knockdown. Furthermore, loss of PPP1R12B, HIPK3 or RAC2 caused cells to exert higher traction forces, as determined by traction force microscopy with elastomeric micropillar post arrays, and led to considerably reduced force turnover. Altogether, we identified genes that co-regulate cell-matrix adhesion dynamics and traction force turnover, thereby modulating overall motility behaviour. PMID:27531518

  15. Pneumatic-type dynamic traction and flexion splint for treating patients with extension contracture of the metacarpophalangeal joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Jun; Horiki, Mituru; Denno, Kakurou; Ogawa, Kazunori; Oka, Hisao; Domen, Kazuhisa

    2016-02-01

    Collateral ligament shortening causes extension contractures of the metacarpophalangeal joint, and dynamic flexion splinting has been widely used to treat these contractures; however, there are various problems with these approaches. We developed a novel, pneumatic-type dynamic traction and flexion splint to solve these problems. A total of 25 fingers were treated with the dynamic traction and flexion splint for 8 weeks. Every 2 weeks, the average metacarpophalangeal joint flexion angle, total active motion, grasp strength, and pain scores were assessed. The finger flexion angle was significantly greater at the final evaluation, starting after 6 weeks of treatment (p < 0.05), than prior to treatment. Similarly, the total active motion results improved significantly over 8 weeks. Our results show that use of the dynamic traction and flexion splint improves patient finger functioning and flexural angle. The dynamic traction and flexion (DTF) splint appears to be effective for treating patients. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2015.

  16. Non-canonical spectral decomposition of random functions of the traction voltage and current in electric transportation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Kostin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes the non-canonical spectral decomposition of random functions of the traction voltages and currents. This decomposition is adapted for the electric transportation systems. The numerical representation is carried out for the random function of voltage on the pantograph of electric locomotives VL8 and DE1.

  17. Mode of the short circuit in the direct current electric traction network with different feed charts of fyder area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mihalichenko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the results of mathematical design of the system of electric traction of direct current are represented in the mode of short circuit and different feed charts of fyder area: two-sided; one-sided. Comparison of transitional electric sizes which characterize electromagnetic processes during these malfunctions is analysed and executed.

  18. High performance control strategy for single-phase three-level neutral-point-clamped traction four-quadrant converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejian, Song; Konstantinou, Georgios; Jing, Li

    2017-01-01

    Operational data from Chinese railways indicate a number of challenges for traction four-quadrant converter (4QC) control including low-order voltage and current harmonics and reference tracking. A control strategy for a single-phase three-level neutral-point-clamped 4QC employed in the electric...

  19. Model for adhesion clutch explains biphasic relationship between actin flow and traction at the cell leading edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Erin M.; Stricker, Jonathan; Gardel, Margaret L.; Mogilner, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Cell motility relies on the continuous reorganization of a dynamic actin-myosin-adhesion network at the leading edge of the cell, in order to generate protrusion at the leading edge and traction between the cell and its external environment. We analyze experimentally measured spatial distributions of actin flow, traction force, myosin density, and adhesion density in control and pharmacologically perturbed epithelial cells in order to develop a mechanical model of the actin-adhesion-myosin self-organization at the leading edge. A model in which the F-actin network is treated as a viscous gel, and adhesion clutch engagement is strengthened by myosin but weakened by actin flow, can explain the measured molecular distributions and correctly predict the spatial distributions of the actin flow and traction stress. We test the model by comparing its predictions with measurements of the actin flow and traction stress in cells with fast and slow actin polymerization rates. The model predicts how the location of the lamellipodium-lamellum boundary depends on the actin viscosity and adhesion strength. The model further predicts that the location of the lamellipodium-lamellum boundary is not very sensitive to the level of myosin contraction. PMID:25969948

  20. Automatic car driving detection using raw accelerometry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strączkiewicz, M; Urbanek, J K; Fadel, W F; Crainiceanu, C M; Harezlak, J

    2016-09-21

    Measuring physical activity using wearable devices has become increasingly popular. Raw data collected from such devices is usually summarized as 'activity counts', which combine information of human activity with environmental vibrations. Driving is a major sedentary activity that artificially increases the activity counts due to various car and body vibrations that are not connected to human movement. Thus, it has become increasingly important to identify periods of driving and quantify the bias induced by driving in activity counts. To address these problems, we propose a detection algorithm of driving via accelerometry (DADA), designed to detect time periods when an individual is driving a car. DADA is based on detection of vibrations generated by a moving vehicle and recorded by an accelerometer. The methodological approach is based on short-time Fourier transform (STFT) applied to the raw accelerometry data and identifies and focuses on frequency vibration ranges that are specific to car driving. We test the performance of DADA on data collected using wrist-worn ActiGraph devices in a controlled experiment conducted on 24 subjects. The median area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) for predicting driving periods was 0.94, indicating an excellent performance of the algorithm. We also quantify the size of the bias induced by driving and obtain that per unit of time the activity counts generated by driving are, on average, 16% of the average activity counts generated during walking.

  1. Disturbance Observer-Based Backstepping Control of PMSM for the Mine Traction Electric Locomotive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiande Yan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM control system of the Mine Traction Electric Locomotive (MTEL, the fluctuation of the load will lead to the resonance of the velocity of the MTEL. In addition, the speed sensor is easy to be damaged due to the moisture, dust, and vibration. To solve the above problems, a disturbance observer-based (DOB backstepping control of PMSM for the MTEL is proposed in this paper. First, a full-dimensional Luenberger observer for PMSM is designed and the asymptotically stability of the observer is proved. Next, through the designing of the virtual control input that includes the reconstruction disturbances and using backstepping control strategy, the DOB controller is proposed. The obtained controller can achieve high precision speed tracking and disturbance rejection. Finally, the effectiveness and feasibility of the designed system are verified by Matlab simulation and experiment results.

  2. Visualizing the interior architecture of focal adhesions with high-resolution traction maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimatsu, Masatoshi; Mekhdjian, Armen H; Chang, Alice C; Tan, Steven J; Dunn, Alexander R

    2015-04-08

    Focal adhesions (FAs) are micron-sized protein assemblies that coordinate cell adhesion, migration, and mechanotransduction. How the many proteins within FAs are organized into force sensing and transmitting structures is poorly understood. We combined fluorescent molecular tension sensors with super-resolution light microscopy to visualize traction forces within FAs with <100 nm spatial resolution. We find that αvβ3 integrin selectively localizes to high force regions. Paxillin, which is not generally considered to play a direct role in force transmission, shows a higher degree of spatial correlation with force than vinculin, talin, or α-actinin, proteins with hypothesized roles as force transducers. These observations suggest that αvβ3 integrin and paxillin may play important roles in mechanotransduction.

  3. Suppression of experimental tractional retinal detachment by low-dose radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meredith, T.A.; Ficker, L.; Stevens, R.; Olkowski, Z.; Anderson, M.; Hartmann, J.; Crocker, I.

    1988-01-01

    We used a standardized model of traction retinal detachment (TRD) created by cellular membranes in the rabbit to test the effects of low-dose radiation therapy in suppressing TRD. The vitreous and lens were removed from pigmented rabbits, and homologous conjunctival fibroblasts were grown in cell culture. After resolution of postoperative inflammation, 50,000 fibroblasts in 0.1 mL of culture fluid were injected into the vitreous cavity. Ten eyes were maintained as controls. Nineteen eyes received 6 Gy (600 rad) of x-ray irradiation one to three hours after cellular injection. Eyes were monitored weekly for three weeks with indirect ophthalmoscopy. Seven (70%) of ten control eyes developed TRD at one week; no additional TRDs were noted at weeks 2 and 3. Significantly smaller numbers of irradiated eyes developed TRD: at week 1, two (11%) of 19; at week 2, five (28%) of 18; and at week 3, five (29%) of 17

  4. The wall traction induced by flowing red blood cells in model microvessels and its potential mechanotransduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Jonathan; Vermot, Julien

    2013-11-01

    There is evidence in early embryonic development, even well before advective oxygen transport is important, that the presence of red bloods cells per se trigger essential steps of normal vascular development. For example, showed that sequestration of blood cells early in the development of a mouse, such that the hematocrit is reduced, suppresses normal vascular network development. Vascular development also provides a model for remodeling and angiogenesis. We consider the transient stresses associated with blood cells flowing in model microvessels of comparable diameter to those at early stages of development (6 μm to 12 μm). A detailed simulation tool is used to show that passing blood cells present a significant fluctuating traction signature on the vessel wall, well above the mean stresses. This is particularly pronounced for slow flows (layer is also considered. NSF supported.

  5. First-order system least squares for the pure traction problem in planar linear elasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Z.; Manteuffel, T.; McCormick, S.; Parter, S.

    1996-12-31

    This talk will develop two first-order system least squares (FOSLS) approaches for the solution of the pure traction problem in planar linear elasticity. Both are two-stage algorithms that first solve for the gradients of displacement, then for the displacement itself. One approach, which uses L{sup 2} norms to define the FOSLS functional, is shown under certain H{sup 2} regularity assumptions to admit optimal H{sup 1}-like performance for standard finite element discretization and standard multigrid solution methods that is uniform in the Poisson ratio for all variables. The second approach, which is based on H{sup -1} norms, is shown under general assumptions to admit optimal uniform performance for displacement flux in an L{sup 2} norm and for displacement in an H{sup 1} norm. These methods do not degrade as other methods generally do when the material properties approach the incompressible limit.

  6. The method of the correlation and dispersion defining of the total power components in the electric transport devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Nikitenko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development and theoretical ground of the analytical method for the calculation of the active, reactive and total powers in the electric traction devices, taking into consideration the non-stationary character of the stochastic processes change of the voltage and current in the elements of these systems. Methodology. The mathematical methods of the random processes theory and the “discrete electrical engineering” methods are used for solving the main problem of this paper. Findings. The Method of the Correlation and Dispersion is developed for definition of the active power, the reactive power by Fryse and the total power of the devices in the elements of the electric traction system of the main-line railways. The method is based on the well-known concepts of auto- and inter-correlation functions of the random processes which govern the feeder voltages and the currents in the traction power supply subsystem as well as the currents and voltages of the electric rolling stock. The method developed in this paper allows estimating the powers of both stationary and non-stationary processes. This method can be used for the analysis of both the traction mode and the regenerative braking mode of the electric rolling stock. The total power components were calculated for the one of the feeder areas of the Prydniprovsk railway using this method. The results show the significant flow of the reactive power in the traction power supply system. This fact is also confirmed by the high values of the reactive power coefficient. Originality. Scientific novelty of the research is consisted in the following. Firstly, for defining the active and reactive powers in elements of the traction power supply system the new method (the Method of Correlation and Dispersion is created and grounded. This method is different from other existing methods because it takes into consideration the varying non-stationary character of the chance processes of the feeder and

  7. Modified Longo's stapled hemorrhoidopexy with additional traction sutures for the treatment of residual prolapsed piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuang-Wei; Kang, Jung-Cheng; Wu, Chang-Chieh; Hsiao, Cheng-Wen; Jao, Shu-Wen

    2008-03-01

    Residual prolapsed piles is a problem after the stapled hemorrhoidopexy, especially in large third- or fourth-degree hemorrhoids. We have developed a method using additional traction sutures along with modified Longo's procedure to manage this problem. From January 2005 to October 2005, 30 consecutive patients with symptomatic third- or fourth-degree hemorrhoids who underwent the modified Longo's stapled hemorrhoidopexy with additional traction sutures in a single institution were collected. The demographics, postoperative pain score, surgical features, outcomes, and early and late complications were recorded. All patients were followed for a mean duration of 8.8 (range, 4-15) months. Thirty patients (17 males) with a mean age of 45 (range, 27-63) years were identified. The mean postoperative pain score on the morning of the first postoperative day was 2.8 (range, 1-4). The mean duration of operation was 30.7 (range, 25-37) min. The mean duration of hospital stay was 2 (range, 1-3) days. The mean days for patients to resume normal work was 6.7 (range, 4-9) days. No other procedure-related complications occurred in all patients. There was no early complication except for fecal urgency found in one patient during the first postoperative days. Regarding the late complications, no residual prolapsed piles, persistent anal pain, incontinence, anal stenosis, or recurrent symptoms were found. Our preliminary experiences indicated that this modified procedures truly contributed to reduce the residual internal hemorrhoids and maintained the benefits of stapled hemorrhoidopexy. Randomized trial and long-term follow-up warrant to determine possible surgical and functional outcome.

  8. Frequency of vitreo macular traction in diabetic macular edema on optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, N.; Islam, Q.U.; Shafique, M.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the frequency of vitreo macular traction (VMT) in patients of diabetic macular edema (DME) as detected on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology (AFIO) Rawalpindi, from May 2013 to Jan 2014. Patients and Methods: Diabetic patients of less than 18 years of age with DME and central macular thickness of more than 250 micrometers (micro m) were included. The patients with idiopathic VMT, history of vitreoretinal surgery, and history of other retinal vascular diseases were excluded from the study. Dilated fundus was done in each patient using 90 D lens on a slit lamp biomicroscope and patients with diabetic retinopathy changes and DME were subjected to OCT examination using Topcon 3-D OCT 1000 (Topcon Corporation). Record of each patient including demographic data, ocular findings and OCT data were endorsed on a pre-devised proforma. Results: Seventy one eyes of 68 patients were included, 36 (50.7 percent) were males and 35 (49.29 percent) were females. Mean age was 53.17 +- 8.79 years. Mean central macular thickness (CMT) was 361.8 +- 109 mu m. VMT was detected in 17 (23.9 percent) eyes. Amongst these, 2(12.5 percent) eyes had vitreofoveal traction, epiretinal membrane was found in 4 (25 percent) eyes and 11(62.5 percent) eyes had extra foveal VMT. Conclusion: Detection of VMT in about a quarter of cases reflects that OCT is a viable tool for early detection of vitreomacular interface abnormalities. (author)

  9. Traction esophageal diverticulum: a rare cause of gastro-intestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballehaninna, Umashankar K; Shaw, Jason P; Brichkov, Igor

    2012-12-01

    Esophageal diverticula are uncommon lesions that are usually classified according to their location (cervical, thoracic, or epiphrenic), or underlying pathogenesis (pulsion or traction), and their morphology (true or false).The majority of esophageal diverticula are acquired lesions that occur predominantly in elderly adults. Pulsion, or false, diverticula are the most commonly encountered type of esophageal diverticula noticed at the level of cricopharyngeus muscle, occur as a localized outpouchings that lacks a muscular coat, and as such their wall is formed entirely by mucosa and submucosa. True, or traction, esophageal diverticulum (TED) is seen in the middle one third of the thoracic esophagus in a peribronchial location, occurs secondary to mediastinal inflammatory lesions such as tuberculosis or histoplasmosis. The resultant desmoplastic reaction in the paraesophageal tissue causes full thickness pinching on the esophageal wall, producing a conical, broad-mouthed true diverticulum. They often project to the right side because subcarinal lymph nodes in this area are closely associated with the right anterior wall of the esophagus. TED usually presents with symptoms such as dysphagia, postural regurgitation, belching, retrosternal pain, heartburn, and epigastric pain. As in patients with pharyngoesophageal (Zenker's) diverticula, pulmonary symptoms are often present but underestimated in TED patients. These symptoms range from mild nocturnal cough to life-threatening massive aspiration. In this particular report we describe a rare case of TED presenting as a symptomatic upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Diagnostic evaluation of TED includes chest X-ray, barium esophagogram and manometry. A significant proportion of lower esophageal diverticula are associated with motility disorders. Management of TED include treating the underlying cause sometimes a surgical resection of diverticulum along with esophageal myotomy is necessitated in symptomatic patients.

  10. The Development of Power Distribution Law in Transmission of Active Road Based on the Analysis of the Power Factors in the Coupling Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gorelov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective delivery of indivisible bulky and heavy loads whose weight can reach hundreds tons is of particular importance for development of various sectors of economy and support of defense capability. Special road trains provide open road transportation and off-road haulage of this kind of goods, but in difficult traffic environment their using capabilities are significantly restricted by a lack of the road-ability. For a road train to reach the better road-ability is possible by increasing the number of drive wheels. This can be achieved through the use of an activetrailer as its part. The effectiveness of using this drive may be estimated through comparison of the road train road-ability with the turned on and turned off passive and active semitrailer in different road environment. A mathematical model of the dynamics of the two-link semitrailer truck was created to solve the problem of comparing dynamic characteristics of the road trains with the passive and active semitrailer. The developed mathematical model of the four-axle tractor and three-axle semitrailer was implemented in the MATLAB® Simulink. It was revealed that in some traffic environments it is advisable to disable the semitrailer drive. A drive control algorithm of semitrailer wheels based on the analysis of the forces in the coupling device was proposed. Data from the sensors installed in the pin of the coupling device serve as a primary source of information for the control system. Test runs enabled us to define control limits for the drive control system. The article considers three cases to use the power of traction motors of the semitrailer in a predetermined range. A number of numerical experiments have been conducted to define dynamic qualities of the road trains in different cases of using semitrailer power. The analysis of results allowed us to draw conclusion that using a system of the semitrailer drive to be connected enables increasing efficiency of the road train

  11. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treu, C.A. Jr.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes. 7 figs.

  12. Wrong-way driving.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    Wrong-way driving is a phenomenon that mainly happens on motorways. Although the number of wrong-way crashes is relatively limited, their consequences are much more severe than the consequences of other motorway injury crashes. The groups most often causing wrong-way driving accidents are young,

  13. Recognizing driving in haste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rendón-Vélez, E.

    2014-01-01

    One can often hear people discussing the reasons why a road accident has happened: “She had to pick up her kids in the school before four o’clock and she was driving in haste and careless”, “He was stressed, he wanted to reach the beginning of the football match, tried to drive faster and didn't

  14. Switched reluctance motor drives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Davis RM, Ray WF, Blake RJ 1981 Inverter drive for switched reluctance: circuits and component ratings. Inst. Elec. Eng. Proc. B128: 126-136. Ehsani M. 1991 Position Sensor elimination technique for the switched reluctance motor drive. US Patent No. 5,072,166. Ehsani M, Ramani K R 1993 Direct control strategies based ...

  15. Self-driving carsickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diels, C.; Bos, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and

  16. Self-driving carsickness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diels, C.; Bos, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and

  17. Fundamentals of electrical drives

    CERN Document Server

    Veltman, André; De Doncker, Rik W

    2007-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive introduction to various aspects of electrical drive systems. This volume provides a presentation of dynamic generic models that cover all major electrical machine types and modulation/control components of a drive as well as dynamic and steady state analysis of transformers and electrical machines.

  18. Electric Vehicle - Economical driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, VCE, Steen V.; Schøn, Henriette

    1999-01-01

    How do you reduce the energy-wast when driving and loading EV's - or rather: How do I get more km/l out of an EV......How do you reduce the energy-wast when driving and loading EV's - or rather: How do I get more km/l out of an EV...

  19. Sodium aerosol recovering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, Koji; Ueda, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Kazuhisa.

    1997-01-01

    A main body of a recovering device is disposed in a sodium cooled reactor or a sodium cooled test device. Air containing sodium aerosol is sucked into the main body of the recovering device by a recycling fan and introduced to a multi-staged metal mesh filter portion. The air about against each of the metal mesh filters, and the sodium aerosol in the air is collected. The air having a reduced sodium aerosol concentration circulates passing through a recycling fan and pipelines to form a circulation air streams. Sodium aerosol deposited on each of the metal mesh filters is scraped off periodically by a scraper driving device to prevent clogging of each of the metal filters. (I.N.)

  20. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Akira.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to monitor the coupling state between a control rod and a control rod drive. Constitution: After the completion of a control rod withdrawal, a coolant pressure is applied to a control rod drive being adjusted so as to raise only the control rod drive and, in a case where the coupling between the control rod drive and the control rod is detached, the former is elevated till it contacts the control rod and then stopped. The actual stopping position is detected by an actual position detection circuit and compared with a predetermined position stored in a predetermined position detection circuit. If both of the positions are not aligned with each other, it is judged by a judging circuit that the control rod and the control rod drives are not combined. (Sekiya, K.)

  1. Development and interval testing of a naturalistic driving methodology to evaluate driving behavior in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babulal, Ganesh M; Addison, Aaron; Ghoshal, Nupur; Stout, Sarah H; Vernon, Elizabeth K; Sellan, Mark; Roe, Catherine M

    2016-01-01

    Background : The number of older adults in the United States will double by 2056. Additionally, the number of licensed drivers will increase along with extended driving-life expectancy. Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of injury and death in older adults. Alzheimer's disease (AD) also negatively impacts driving ability and increases crash risk. Conventional methods to evaluate driving ability are limited in predicting decline among older adults. Innovations in GPS hardware and software can monitor driving behavior in the actual environments people drive in. Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) devices are affordable, easy to install and capture large volumes of data in real-time. However, adapting these methodologies for research can be challenging. This study sought to adapt a COTS device and determine an interval that produced accurate data on the actual route driven for use in future studies involving older adults with and without AD.  Methods : Three subjects drove a single course in different vehicles at different intervals (30, 60 and 120 seconds), at different times of day, morning (9:00-11:59AM), afternoon (2:00-5:00PM) and night (7:00-10pm). The nine datasets were examined to determine the optimal collection interval. Results : Compared to the 120-second and 60-second intervals, the 30-second interval was optimal in capturing the actual route driven along with the lowest number of incorrect paths and affordability weighing considerations for data storage and curation. Discussion : Use of COTS devices offers minimal installation efforts, unobtrusive monitoring and discreet data extraction.  However, these devices require strict protocols and controlled testing for adoption into research paradigms.  After reliability and validity testing, these devices may provide valuable insight into daily driving behaviors and intraindividual change over time for populations of older adults with and without AD.  Data can be aggregated over time to look at changes

  2. Control rod control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiji, Takehiko; Obara, Kohei; Yanagihashi, Kazumi

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a device suitable for switching of electric motors for driving each of control rods in a nuclear reactor. Namely, in a control rod controlling device, a plurality of previously allotted electric motors connected in parallel as groups, and electric motors of any selected group are driven. In this case, a voltage of not driving predetermined selected electric motors is at first applied. In this state an electric current supplied to the circuit of predetermined electric motors is detected. Whether integration or failure of a power source and the circuit of the predetermined electric motors are normal or not is judged by the detected electric current supplied. After they are judged normal, the electric motors are driven by a regular voltage. With such procedures, whether the selected circuit is normal or not can be accurately confirmed previously. Since the electric motors are not driven just at the selected time, the control rods are not operated erroneously. (I.S.)

  3. Driving error and anxiety related to iPod mp3 player use in a simulated driving experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Ashley R; Carden, Randy L

    2009-08-01

    Driver distraction due to cellular phone usage has repeatedly been shown to increase the risk of vehicular accidents; however, the literature regarding the use of other personal electronic devices while driving is relatively sparse. It was hypothesized that the usage of an mp3 player would result in an increase in not only driving error while operating a driving simulator, but driver anxiety scores as well. It was also hypothesized that anxiety scores would be positively related to driving errors when using an mp3 player. 32 participants drove through a set course in a driving simulator twice, once with and once without an iPod mp3 player, with the order counterbalanced. Number of driving errors per course, such as leaving the road, impacts with stationary objects, loss of vehicular control, etc., and anxiety were significantly higher when an iPod was in use. Anxiety scores were unrelated to number of driving errors.

  4. Precision alignment device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, N.E.

    1988-03-10

    Apparatus for providing automatic alignment of beam devices having an associated structure for directing, collimating, focusing, reflecting, or otherwise modifying the main beam. A reference laser is attached to the structure enclosing the main beam producing apparatus and produces a reference beam substantially parallel to the main beam. Detector modules containing optical switching devices and optical detectors are positioned in the path of the reference beam and are effective to produce an electrical output indicative of the alignment of the main beam. This electrical output drives servomotor operated adjustment screws to adjust the position of elements of the structure associated with the main beam to maintain alignment of the main beam. 5 figs.

  5. Counter-diabatic driving for Dirac dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qi-Zhen; Cheng, Xiao-Hang; Chen, Xi

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the fast quantum control of Dirac equation dynamics by counter-diabatic driving, sharing the concept of shortcut to adiabaticity. We systematically calculate the counter-diabatic terms in different Dirac systems, like graphene and trapped ions. Specially, the fast and robust population inversion processes are achieved in Dirac system, taking into account the quantum simulation with trapped ions. In addition, the population transfer between two bands can be suppressed by counter-diabatic driving in graphene system, which might have potential applications in opt-electric devices.

  6. Turbulent current drive mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Christopher J.; Tang, Xian-Zhu; Guo, Zehua

    2017-08-01

    Mechanisms through which plasma microturbulence can drive a mean electron plasma current are derived. The efficiency through which these turbulent contributions can drive deviations from neoclassical predictions of the electron current profile is computed by employing a linearized Coulomb collision operator. It is found that a non-diffusive contribution to the electron momentum flux as well as an anomalous electron-ion momentum exchange term provide the most efficient means through which turbulence can modify the mean electron current for the cases considered. Such turbulent contributions appear as an effective EMF within Ohm's law and hence provide an ideal means for driving deviations from neoclassical predictions.

  7. Identifying Method of Drunk Driving Based on Driving Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Drunk driving is one of the leading causes contributing to traffic crashes. There are numerous issues that need to be resolved with the current method of identifying drunk driving. Driving behavior, with the characteristic of real-time, was extensively researched to identify impaired driving behaviors. In this paper, the drives with BACs above 0.05% were defined as drunk driving state. A detailed comparison was made between normal driving and drunk driving. The experiment in driving simulator was designed to collect the driving performance data of the groups. According to the characteristics analysis for the effect of alcohol on driving performance, seven significant indicators were extracted and the drunk driving was identified by the Fisher Discriminant Method. The discriminant function demonstrated a high accuracy of classification. The optimal critical score to differentiate normal from drinking state was found to be 0. The evaluation result verifies the accuracy of classification method.

  8. A few discussion on expert system development for electrical power systems-optimization of an inverter-motor of a railway traction chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fezzani, D.; Piquet, H.; Foch, H.

    1998-01-01

    This paper deals with the automatic design of static converters and electrical machines. Facing the multitude of such devices (converters-machines), the choice of the appropriate converter or machine is a delicate problem. A high level of expertise is required to determine the best structure for the considered application. This choice could be rapidly made if one had a system which incorporates a great knowledge of converters, machines and control methods. Firstly, the authors review the realized studies, then they propose this methodology for a concrete case in order to optimize an inverter-motor of a railway traction chain. Constraints are described in terms of input and output performances (losses, current,..). These data are analyzed by using design rules and methods which allow the decrease of the manufacture cost of the inverter-motor. Rules and methods are implemented on a workstation by means of an ''expert system shell'' SMECI. The article proposes several tracks which involve organization, methodology, confirmation and implementation of a tool supporting a method. This process of implementation is the most efficient to fit into a constant process of improvement which is supported by the return on experience and by the evolution of the state of the art. (orig.)

  9. Linear step drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haniger, L.; Elger, R.; Kocandrle, L.; Zdebor, J.

    1986-01-01

    A linear step drive is described developed in Czechoslovak-Soviet cooperation and intended for driving WWER-1000 control rods. The functional principle is explained of the motor and the mechanical and electrical parts of the drive, power control, and the indicator of position are described. The motor has latches situated in the reactor at a distance of 3 m from magnetic armatures, it has a low structural height above the reactor cover, which suggests its suitability for seismic localities. Its magnetic circuits use counterpoles; the mechanical shocks at the completion of each step are damped using special design features. The position indicator is of a special design and evaluates motor position within ±1% of total travel. A drive diagram and the flow chart of both the control electronics and the position indicator are presented. (author) 4 figs

  10. Fundamentals of electrical drives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, A.; Pulle, D.W.J.; de Doncker, R.W.

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive, user-friendly, color illustrated introductory text for electrical drive systems that simplifies the understanding of electrical machine principles Updated edition covers innovations in machine design, power semi-conductors, digital signal processors and simulation software Presents

  11. Science of driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The Science of Driving project focused on developing a collaborative relationship to develop curriculum units for middle school and high school students to engage them in exciting real-world scenarios. This effort involved faculty, staff, and student...

  12. Drugs and driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walsh, J. Michael; De Gier, Johan J.; Christopherson, Asbjørg S.; Verstraete, Alain G.

    The authors present a global overview on the issue of drugs and driving covering four major areas: (1) Epidemiology and Prevalence-which reviews epidemiological research, summarizes available information, discusses the methodological shortcomings of extant studies, and makes recommendations for

  13. Instant Google Drive starter

    CERN Document Server

    Procopio, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This book is a Starter which teaches you how to use Google Drive practically. This book is perfect for people of all skill levels who want to enjoy the benefits of using Google Drive to safely store their files online and in the cloud. It's also great for anyone looking to learn more about cloud computing in general. Readers are expected to have an Internet connection and basic knowledge of using the internet.

  14. Control rod driving mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooshima, Yoshio.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To perform reliable scram operation, even if abnormality should occur in a system instructing scram operation in FBR type reactors. Constitution: An aluminum alloy member to be melt at a predetermined temperature (about 600sup(o)C) is disposed to a connection part between a control rod and a driving mechanism, whereby the control rod is detached from the driving mechanism and gravitationally fallen to the reactor core. (Ikeda, J.)

  15. Modulated Current Drive Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, C.C.; Lohr, J.; Luce, T.C.; Prater, R.; Cox, W.A.; Forest, C.B.; Jayakumar, R.J.; Makowski, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    A new measurement approach is presented which directly determines the noninductive current profile from the periodic response of the motional Stark effect (MSE) signals to the slow modulation of the external current drive source. A Fourier transform of the poloidal magnetic flux diffusion equation is used to analyze the MSE data. An example of this measurement technique is shown using modulated electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) discharges from the DIII-D tokamak

  16. THE EIGHT-WHEEL LOCOMOTIVE DC3 WITH THE SECOND TYPE OF RATING UNLOADING AND ADDITIONAL LOADING OF WHEELS AND DEFLECTIONS SPRING SUSPENSION DURING TRACTION EFFORTS TRANSFER FROM BOGIES TO BODY WITH USING RECLINING TRACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Bratash

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article the calculation formulas for determination of unloadings (finishings loadings of wheels and bendings of a spring suspension of 8-wheel electric locomotive DS 3 with the hauling transmission of the second kind at the transmission of tractive forces from the bogies to the body through sloping tractions are presented. Numerical calculations are executed on the example of mainline freight-and-passenger electric locomotive DS 3.

  17. Self-driving carsickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diels, Cyriel; Bos, Jelte E

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and productivity. However, we here show that the envisaged scenarios all lead to an increased risk of motion sickness. As such, the benefits this technology is assumed to bring may not be capitalised on, in particular by those already susceptible to motion sickness. This can negatively affect user acceptance and uptake and, in turn, limit the potential socioeconomic benefits that this emerging technology may provide. Following a discussion on the causes of motion sickness in the context of self-driving cars, we present guidelines to steer the design and development of automated vehicle technologies. The aim is to limit or avoid the impact of motion sickness and ultimately promote the uptake of self-driving cars. Attention is also given to less well known consequences of motion sickness, in particular negative aftereffects such as postural instability, and detrimental effects on task performance and how this may impact the use and design of self-driving cars. We conclude that basic perceptual mechanisms need to be considered in the design process whereby self-driving cars cannot simply be thought of as living rooms, offices, or entertainment venues on wheels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Dementia and driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, D; Neubauer, K; Boyle, M; Gerrard, J; Surmon, D; Wilcock, G K

    1992-04-01

    Many European countries test cars, but not their drivers, as they age. There is evidence to suggest that human factors are more important than vehicular factors as causes of motor crashes. The elderly also are involved in more accidents per distance travelled than middle-aged drivers. As the UK relies on self-certification of health by drivers over the age of 70 years, we examined the driving practices of patients with dementia attending a Memory Clinic. Nearly one-fifth of 329 patients with documented dementia continued to drive after the onset of dementia, and impaired driving ability was noted in two-thirds of these. Their families experienced great difficulty in persuading patients to stop driving, and had to invoke outside help in many cases. Neuropsychological tests did not help to identify those who drove badly while activity of daily living scores were related to driving ability. These findings suggest that many patients with dementia drive in an unsafe fashion after the onset of the illness. The present system of self-certification of health by the elderly for driver-licensing purposes needs to be reassessed.

  19. Simulation of drive of mechanisms, working in specific conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovskaya, A. V.; Rybak, A. T.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a method for determining the dynamic loads on the lifting actuator device other than the conventional methods, for example, ship windlass. For such devices, the operation of their drives is typical under special conditions: different environments, the influence of hydrometeorological factors, a high level of vibration, variability of loading, etc. Hoisting devices working in such conditions are not considered in the standard; however, relevant studies concern permissible parameters of the drive devices of this kind. As an example, the article studied the work deck lifting devices - windlass. To construct a model, the windlass is represented by a rod of the variable cross-section. As a result, a mathematical model of the longitudinal oscillations of such rod is obtained. Analytic dependencies have also been obtained to determine the natural frequencies of the lowest forms of oscillations, which are necessary and are the basis for evaluating the parameters of operation of this type of the device.

  20. Understanding adolescent development: implications for driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Daniel P

    2007-01-01

    The implementation of Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) programs has significantly improved the crash and fatality rates of novice teen drivers, but these rates remain unacceptably high. A review of adolescent development research was undertaken to identify potential areas of improvement. Research support for GDL was found to be strong, particularly regarding early acquisition of expertise in driving safety (beyond driving skill), and to limitations that reduce opportunities for distraction. GDL regimes are highly variable, and no US jurisdictions have implemented optimal regimes. Expanding and improving GDL to enhance acquisition of expertise and self-regulation are indicated for implementation and for applied research. Driver training that effectively incorporates safety goals along with driving skill is another target. The insurance industry will benefit from further GDL enhancements. Benefits may accrue to improved driver training, improved simulation devices during training, and automated safety feedback instrumentation.