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Sample records for tract motor patterns

  1. Differential adaptation of descending motor tracts in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüber, Theodor; Lindenberg, Robert; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2015-06-01

    Between-group comparisons of musicians and nonmusicians have revealed structural brain differences and also functional differences in motor performance. In this study, we aimed to examine the relation between white matter microstructure and high-level motor skills by contrasting 2 groups of musicians with different instrument-specific motor requirements. We used diffusion tensor imaging to compare diffusivity measures of different corticospinal motor tracts of 10 keyboard players, 10 string players, and 10 nonmusicians. Additionally, the maximal tapping rates of their left and right index fingers were determined. When compared with nonmusicians, fractional anisotropy (FA) values of right-hemispheric motor tracts were significantly higher in both musician groups, whereas left-hemispheric motor tracts showed significantly higher FA values only in the keyboard players. Voxel-wise FA analysis found a group effect in white matter underlying the right motor cortex. Diffusivity measures of fibers originating in the primary motor cortex correlated with the maximal tapping rate of the contralateral index finger across all groups. The observed between-group diffusivity differences might represent an adaptation to the specific motor demands of the respective musical instrument. This is supported further by finding correlations between diffusivity measures and maximal tapping rates. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. 22 RESISTANCE PATTERN OF URINARY TRACT INFECTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    22. RESISTANCE PATTERN OF URINARY TRACT INFECTION BACTERIAL ISOLATES. TO SELECTED QUINOLONES. *A.R.M Momoh, *M.AC. Odike, * S. Olowo, **A.A. Momoh, **P.O. Okolo. Department of *Pathological Sciences, College of Medicine, A.A.U/IRRUA Specialist. Teaching Hospital, IRRUA, Edo State, ...

  3. Digestive and respiratory tract motor responses associated with eructation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Ivan M; Medda, Bidyut K; Shaker, Reza

    2013-06-01

    We studied the digestive and respiratory tract motor responses in 10 chronically instrumented dogs during eructation activated after feeding. Muscles were recorded from the cervical area, thorax, and abdomen. The striated muscles were recorded using EMG and the smooth muscles using strain gauges. We found eructation in three distinct functional phases that were composed of different sets of motor responses: gas escape, barrier elimination, and gas transport. The gas escape phase, activated by gastric distension, consists of relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter and diaphragmatic hiatus and contraction of the longitudinal muscle of the thoracic esophagus and rectus abdominis. All these motor events promote gas escape from the stomach. The barrier elimination phase, probably activated by rapid gas distension of the thoracic esophagus, consists of relaxation of the pharyngeal constrictors and excitation of dorsal and ventral upper esophageal sphincter distracting muscles, as well as rapid contraction of the diaphragmatic dome fibers. These motor events allow esophagopharyngeal air movement by promoting retrograde airflow and opening of the upper esophageal sphincter. The transport phase, possibly activated secondary to diaphragmatic contraction, consists of a retrograde contraction of the striated muscle esophagus that transports the air from the thoracic esophagus to the pharynx. We hypothesize that the esophageal reverse peristalsis is mediated by elementary reflexes, rather than a coordinated peristaltic response like secondary peristalsis. The phases of eructation can be activated independently of one another or in a different manner to participate in physiological events other than eructation that cause gastroesophageal or esophagogastric reflux.

  4. Corticospinal tract atrophy and motor fMRI predict motor preservation after functional cerebral hemispherectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anthony C; Ibrahim, George M; Poliakov, Andrew V; Wang, Page I; Fallah, Aria; Mathern, Gary W; Buckley, Robert T; Collins, Kelly; Weil, Alexander G; Shurtleff, Hillary A; Warner, Molly H; Perez, Francisco A; Shaw, Dennis W; Wright, Jason N; Saneto, Russell P; Novotny, Edward J; Lee, Amy; Browd, Samuel R; Ojemann, Jeffrey G

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The potential loss of motor function after cerebral hemispherectomy is a common cause of anguish for patients, their families, and their physicians. The deficits these patients face are individually unique, but as a whole they provide a framework to understand the mechanisms underlying cortical reorganization of motor function. This study investigated whether preoperative functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could predict the postoperative preservation of hand motor function. METHODS Thirteen independent reviewers analyzed sensorimotor fMRI and colored fractional anisotropy (CoFA)-DTI maps in 25 patients undergoing functional hemispherectomy for treatment of intractable seizures. Pre- and postoperative gross hand motor function were categorized and correlated with fMRI and DTI findings, specifically, abnormally located motor activation on fMRI and corticospinal tract atrophy on DTI. RESULTS Normal sensorimotor cortical activation on preoperative fMRI was significantly associated with severe decline in postoperative motor function, demonstrating 92.9% sensitivity (95% CI 0.661-0.998) and 100% specificity (95% CI 0.715-1.00). Bilaterally robust, symmetric corticospinal tracts on CoFA-DTI maps were significantly associated with severe postoperative motor decline, demonstrating 85.7% sensitivity (95% CI 0.572-0.982) and 100% specificity (95% CI 0.715-1.00). Interpreting the fMR images, the reviewers achieved a Fleiss' kappa coefficient (κ) for interrater agreement of κ = 0.69, indicating good agreement (p motor function can be identified prior to hemispherectomy, where fMRI or DTI suggests that cortical reorganization of motor function has occurred prior to the operation.

  5. Compositional symbol grounding for motor patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Alberto; Caneva, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    We developed a new experimental and simulative paradigm to study the establishing of compositional grounded representations for motor patterns. Participants learned to associate non-sense arm motor patterns, performed in three different hand postures, with non-sense words. There were two group conditions: in the first (compositional), each pattern was associated with a two-word (verb-adverb) sentence; in the second (holistic), each same pattern was associated with a unique word. Two experiments were performed. In the first, motor pattern recognition and naming were tested in the two conditions. Results showed that verbal compositionality had no role in recognition and that the main source of confusability in this task came from discriminating hand postures. As the naming task resulted too difficult, some changes in the learning procedure were implemented in the second experiment. In this experiment, the compositional group achieved better results in naming motor patterns especially for patterns where hand postures discrimination was relevant. In order to ascertain the differential effect, upon this result, of memory load and of systematic grounding, neural network simulations were also made. After a basic simulation that worked as a good model of subjects performance, in following simulations the number of stimuli (motor patterns and words) was increased and the systematic association between words and patterns was disrupted, while keeping the same number of words and syntax. Results showed that in both conditions the advantage for the compositional condition significantly increased. These simulations showed that the advantage for this condition may be more related to the systematicity rather than to the mere informational gain. All results are discussed in connection to the possible support of the hypothesis of a compositional motor representation and toward a more precise explanation of the factors that make compositional representations working.

  6. Compositional symbol grounding for motor patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eGreco

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We developed a new experimental and simulative paradigm to study the establishing of compositional grounded representations for motor patterns. Participants learned to associate nonsense arm motor patterns, performed in three different hand postures, with nonsense words. There were two group conditions: in the first (compositional, each pattern was associated with a two-word (verb-adverb sentence; in the second (holistic, each same pattern was associated with a unique word. Two experiments were performed. In the first, motor pattern recognition and naming were tested in the two conditions. Results showed that verbal compositionality had no role in recognition and that the main source of confusability in this task came from discriminating hand postures. As the naming task resulted too difficult, some changes in the learning procedure were implemented in the second experiment. In this experiment, the compositional group achieved better results in naming motor patterns especially for patterns where hand postures discrimination was relevant. In order to ascertain the differential effect, upon this result, of memory load and of systematic grounding, neural network simulations were also made. After a basic simulation that worked as a good model of subjects performance, in following simulations the number of stimuli (motor patterns and words was increased and the systematic association between words and patterns was disrupted, while keeping the same number of words and syntax. Results showed that in both conditions the advantage for the compositional condition significantly increased. These simulations showed that the advantage for this condition may be more related to the systematicity rather than to the mere informational gain. All results are discussed in connection to the possible support of the hypothesis of a compositional motor representation and towards a more precise explanation of the factors that make compositional representations working.

  7. Motor patterns during active electrosensory acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker eHofmann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Motor patterns displayed during active electrosensory acquisition of information seem to be an essential part of a sensory strategy by which weakly electric fish actively generate and shape sensory flow. These active sensing strategies are expected to adaptively optimize ongoing behavior with respect to either motor efficiency or sensory information gained. The tight link between the motor domain and sensory perception in active electrolocation make weakly electric fish like Gnathonemus petersii an ideal system for studying sensory-motor interactions in the form of active sensing strategies. Analyzing the movements and electric signals of solitary fish during unrestrained exploration of objects in the dark, we here present the first formal quantification of motor patterns used by fish during electrolocation. Based on a cluster analysis of the kinematic values we categorized the basic units of motion. These were then analyzed for their associative grouping to identify and extract short coherent chains of behavior. This enabled the description of sensory behavior on different levels of complexity: from single movements, over short behaviors to more complex behavioral sequences during which the kinematics alter between different behaviors. We present detailed data for three classified patterns and provide evidence that these can be considered as motor components of active sensing strategies. In accordance with the idea of active sensing strategies, we found categorical motor patterns to be modified by the sensory context. In addition these motor patterns were linked with changes in the temporal sampling in form of differing electric organ discharge frequencies and differing spatial distributions.The ability to detect such strategies quantitatively will allow future research to investigate the impact of such behaviors on sensing.

  8. Correlation between electrophysiological properties, morphological maturation, and olig gene changes during postnatal motor tract development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jun; Zhang, Yi Ping; Shields, Lisa B E; Zhang, Zoe Z; Liu, Naikui; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Feng, Shi-Qing; Shields, Christopher B

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated electrophysiological and histological changes as well as alterations of myelin relevant proteins of descending motor tracts in rat pups. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) represent descending conducting responses following stimulation of the motor cortex to responses being elicited from the lower extremities. MEP responses were recorded biweekly from postnatal (PN) week 1 to week 9 (adult). MEP latencies in PN week 1 rats averaged 23.7 ms and became shorter during early maturation, stabilizing at 6.6 ms at PN week 4. During maturation, the conduction velocity (CV) increased from 2.8 ± 0.2 at PN week 1 to 35.2 ± 3.1 mm/ms at PN week 8. Histology of the spinal cord and sciatic nerves revealed progressive axonal myelination. Expression of the oligodendrocyte precursor markers PDGFRα and NG2 were downregulated in spinal cords, and myelin-relevant proteins such as GalC, CNP, and MBP increased during maturation. Oligodendrocyte-lineage markers Olig2 and MOG, expressed in myelinated oligodendrocytes, peaked at PN week 3 and were downregulated thereafter. A similar expression pattern was observed in neurofilament M/H subunits that were extensively phosphorylated in adult spinal cords but not in neonatal spinal cords, suggesting an increase in axon diameter and myelin formation. Ultrastructural morphology in the ventrolateral funiculus (VLF) showed axon myelination of the VLF axons (99.3%) at PN week 2, while 44.6% were sheathed at PN week 1. Increased axon diameter and myelin thickness in the VLF and sciatic nerves were highly correlated to the CV (rs > 0.95). This suggests that MEPs could be a predicator of morphological maturity of myelinated axons in descending motor tracts. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Abdominal respiratory motor pattern in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Makito

    2010-01-01

    In this brief review, I focused on the abdominal expiratory motor pattern in the rat. In the vagotomized adult rat, hypercapnic acidosis evoked two patterns of the abdominal expiratory activity; one with low amplitude expiratory discharge (E-all activity) that persisted throughout the expiratory phase, and another with late expiratory and high amplitude bursts (E2 activity) superimposed on the E-all activity. The E-all activity appeared from milder acidosis than the E2 activity. In the anesthetized, vagotomized or vagus-intact neonatal rats, abdominal muscles often showed not only E2 activity but also a smaller additional burst occurred just after the termination of diaphragmatic inspiratory activity (E1 activity). Since this E1 activity is rarely observed in the adult rat, the abdominal respiratory motor pattern likely changes during postnatal development. Under light anesthesia, vagal afferent feedback shortened the respiratory cycle period due to shortening of the expiratory duration. Further decrement in depth of anesthesia changed the biphasic E2+E1 abdominal motor activity pattern to E-all activity pattern in the vagus-intact neonatal rat. Since this E-all activity was typically observed with short cycle period in the vagus-intact neonatal rat, relation with the E-all activity in the vagotomized adult rat remained unknown. The vagal feedback should have roles not only in setting the cycle period short but also shaping the expiratory motor pattern in the neonatal rat. Although abdominal muscles in the in vitro preparation from neonatal rat also showed biphasic E2+E1 activity, E2 activity was shorter and/or smaller than the E1 activity.

  10. Antimicrobial resistance patterns in outpatient urinary tract infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. There is a global emergence of resistance against commonly prescribed antibiotics. Empirical antibiotic prescribing should be guided by local antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Aim. To identify organisms and determine antibiotic susceptibility in urinary tract infections (UTIs) at 3 Military Hospital, Bloemfontein ...

  11. Bacterial isolates and drug susceptibility patterns of urinary tract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy may cause complications such as pyelonephritis, hypertensive disease of pregnancy, anaemia, chronic renal failure, premature delivery and foetal mortality. This study aimed to identify the etiologic agents of UTI and to determine the patterns of antimicrobial drug susceptibility ...

  12. Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of symptomatic urinary tract infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine sensitivity pattern of antimicrobial organism in women presenting with features of urinary tract infections in pregnancy in Aminu Kano teaching hospital Kano. Methods: Retrospective study carried out between January to December 2010, amongst pregnant women attending our antenatal clinic.

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of urinary tract pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khameneh, Zakieh Rostamzadeh; Afshar, Ali Taghizadeh

    2009-01-01

    Microbial drug resistance is a major problem in the treatment of infectious diseases worldwide. The purpose of this survey is to determine the prevalence of the type of bacterial agents that cause urinary infection and to assess the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern in the Urmia Medical University, Iran. In the period between 2005 and 2006, urine cultures collected were analyzed. Positive culture was defined as growth of a single bacterial species with colony count of > 100,000 CFU/mL. Stratification was done according to age-group and gender. Statistical tests used included chi-square to evaluate differences between susceptibility rates. A total of 803 urine culture positive patients were studied of whom 81.6% were females and 18.4% were males. The common micro-organisms isolated were E. coli (78.58%), Klebsiella (5.48%), Proteus and Staphylococcus. About 89% of the E. coli isolated showed sensitivity to cephtizoxin, 83.9% to gentamycin and 83.2% to ciprofloxacin; the highest resistance was shown to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole. Surveys of this nature will give a clear idea about the bacteriologic profile in a given institution as well their antibiotic sensitivity profile. This will act as a guide to commencing empirical antibiotic treatment in patients with urinary infections until such time culture reports are available. (author)

  14. Transcranial magnetic stimulation--may be useful as a preoperative screen of motor tract function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Gloria M; Dias, Brennan R; Brown, Judy L; Henry, Christina M; Brooks, David A; Buggie, Ed W

    2013-08-01

    Transcranial motor stimulation with noninvasive cortical surface stimulation, using a high-intensity magnetic field referred to as transcranial magnetic stimulation generally, is considered a nonpainful technique. In contrast, transcranial electric stimulation of the motor tracts typically cannot be done in unanesthesized patients. Intraoperative monitoring of motor tract function with transcranial electric stimulation is considered a standard practice in many institutions for patients during surgical procedures in which there is potential risk of motor tract impairment so that the risk of paraplegia or paraparesis can be reduced. Because transcranial electric stimulation cannot be typically done in the outpatient setting, transcranial magnetic stimulation may be able to provide a well-tolerated method for evaluation of the corticospinal motor tracts before surgery. One hundred fifty-five patients aged 5 to 20 years were evaluated preoperatively with single-stimulation nonrepetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for preoperative assessment. The presence of responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation reliably predicted the presence of responses to transcranial electric stimulation intraoperatively. No complications occurred during the testing, and findings were correlated to the clinical history and used in the setup of the surgical monitoring.

  15. Effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on motor representations in the motor cortex and corticospinal tract in rats.

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    Muramatsu, Ken; Ikutomo, Masako; Tamaki, Toru; Shimo, Satoshi; Niwa, Masatoshi

    2018-02-01

    Motor disorders in patients with diabetes are associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, which can lead to symptoms such as lower extremity weakness. However, it is unclear whether central motor system disorders can disrupt motor function in patients with diabetes. In a streptozotocin-induced rat model of type 1 diabetes, we used intracortical microstimulation to evaluate motor representations in the motor cortex, recorded antidromic motor cortex responses to spinal cord stimulation to evaluate the function of corticospinal tract (CST) axons, and used retrograde labeling to evaluate morphological alterations of CST neurons. The diabetic rats exhibited size reductions in the hindlimb area at 4 weeks and in trunk and forelimb areas after 13 weeks, with the hindlimb and trunk area reductions being the most severe. Other areas were unaffected. Additionally, we observed reduced antidromic responses in CST neurons with axons projecting to lumbar spinal segments (CST-L) but not in those with axons projecting to cervical segments (CST-C). This was consistent with the observation that retrograde-labeled CST-L neurons were decreased in number following tracer injection into the spinal cord in diabetic animals but that CST-C neurons were preserved. These results show that diabetes disrupts the CST system components controlling hindlimb and trunk movement. This disruption may contribute to lower extremity weakness in patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Microtubule patterning in the presence of moving motor proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D; de Vries, G; Martin, J; Dawes, A

    2015-10-07

    Cytoskeletal polymers such as microtubules (MTs) interact with motor proteins to form higher-order structures. In vitro experiments have shown that MT patterns such as asters, bundles, and vortices can form under the influence of a single type of dynamic motor protein. MTs also can form anti-parallel bundles, similar to bundles that form the mitotic spindle during cell division, under the influence of two types of moving motors with opposite directionality. Despite the importance of MT structures, their mechanism of formation is not yet understood. We develop an integro-partial differential equation model to describe the dynamic interactions between MTs and moving motor proteins. Our model takes into account motor protein speed, processivity, density, and directionality, as well as MT treadmilling and reorganization due to interactions with motors. Simulation results show that plus-end directed motor proteins can form vortex patterns at low motor density, while minus-end directed motor proteins form aster patterns at similar densities. Also, motor proteins with opposite directionality are able to organize MTs into anti-parallel bundles. Our model is able to provide a quantitative and qualitative description of MT patterning, providing insights into possible mechanisms of spindle formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Disrupted white matter in language and motor tracts in developmental stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connally, Emily L; Ward, David; Howell, Peter; Watkins, Kate E

    2014-04-01

    White matter tracts connecting areas involved in speech and motor control were examined using diffusion-tensor imaging in a sample of people who stutter (n=29) who were heterogeneous with respect to age, sex, handedness and stuttering severity. The goals were to replicate previous findings in developmental stuttering and to extend our knowledge by evaluating the relationship between white matter differences in people who stutter and factors such as age, sex, handedness and stuttering severity. We replicated previous findings that showed reduced integrity in white matter underlying ventral premotor cortex, cerebral peduncles and posterior corpus callosum in people who stutter relative to controls. Tractography analysis additionally revealed significantly reduced white matter integrity in the arcuate fasciculus bilaterally and the left corticospinal tract and significantly reduced connectivity within the left corticobulbar tract in people who stutter. Region-of-interest analyses revealed reduced white matter integrity in people who stutter in the three pairs of cerebellar peduncles that carry the afferent and efferent fibers of the cerebellum. Within the group of people who stutter, the higher the stuttering severity index, the lower the white matter integrity in the left angular gyrus, but the greater the white matter connectivity in the left corticobulbar tract. Also, in people who stutter, handedness and age predicted the integrity of the corticospinal tract and peduncles, respectively. Further studies are needed to determine which of these white matter differences relate to the neural basis of stuttering and which reflect experience-dependent plasticity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Inter-individual differences in audio-motor learning of piano melodies and white matter fiber tract architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, Annerose; Hijmans, Brenda S; Cerliani, L.; Bangert, Marc; Nanetti, Luca; Keller, Peter E; Keysers, C.

    Humans vary substantially in their ability to learn new motor skills. Here, we examined inter-individual differences in learning to play the piano, with the goal of identifying relations to structural properties of white matter fiber tracts relevant to audio-motor learning. Non-musicians (n = 18)

  19. Motor patterns during walking on a slippery walkway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappellini, Germana; Ivanenko, Yuri P; Dominici, Nadia; Poppele, Richard E; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    Friction and gravity represent two basic physical constraints of terrestrial locomotion that affect both motor patterns and the biomechanics of bipedal gait. To provide insights into the spatiotemporal organization of the motor output in connection with ground contact forces, we studied adaptation

  20. Detection of hand and leg motor tract injury using novel diffusion tensor MRI tractography in children with central motor dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jeong-Won; Lee, Jessica; Kamson, David O; Chugani, Harry T; Juhász, Csaba

    2015-09-01

    To examine whether an objective segmenation of corticospinal tract (CST) associated with hand and leg movements can be used to detect central motor weakness in the corresponding extremities in a pediatric population. This retrospective study included diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of 25 children with central paresis affecting at least one limb (age: 9.0±4.2years, 15 boys, 5/13/7 children with left/right/both hemispheric lesions including ischemia, cyst, and gliosis), as well as 42 pediatric control subjects with no motor dysfunction (age: 9.0±5.5years, 21 boys, 31 healthy/11 non-lesional epilepsy children). Leg- and hand-related CST pathways were segmented using DTI-maximum a posteriori (DTI-MAP) classification. The resulting CST volumes were then divided by total supratentorial white matter volume, resulting in a marker called "normalized streamline volume ratio (NSVR)" to quantify the degree of axonal loss in separate CST pathways associated with leg and hand motor functions. A receiver operating characteristic curve was applied to measure the accuracy of this marker to identify extremities with motor weakness. NSVR values of hand/leg CST selectively achieved the following values of accuracy/sensitivity/specificity: 0.84/0.84/0.57, 0.82/0.81/0.55, 0.78/0.75/0.55, 0.79/0.81/0.54 at a cut-off of 0.03/0.03/0.03/0.02 for right hand CST, left hand CST, right leg CST, and left leg CST, respectively. Motor weakness of hand and leg was most likely present at the cut-off values of hand and leg NSVR (i.e., 0.029/0.028/0.025/0.020 for left-hand/right-hand/left-leg/right-leg). The control group showed a moderate age-related increase in absolute CST volumes and a biphasic age-related variation of the normalized CST volumes, which were lacking in the paretic children. This study demonstrates that DTI-MAP classification may provide a new imaging tool to quantify axonal loss in children with central motor dysfunction. Using this technique, we found that early-life brain

  1. Postnatal development of a segmental switch enables corticospinal tract transmission to spinal forelimb motor circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Samit; Martin, John H

    2010-02-10

    Development of skilled movements and the corticospinal tract (CST) begin prenatally and continue postnatally. Because the CST is required for skilled movements in maturity, it is accepted that motor skills cannot occur until the CST develops a mature organization. We recently showed that the CST plays an essential role in postnatal development of interneurons comprising the spinal circuits it engages. We proposed that CST signals are more effectively transmitted to ventral motor circuits after interneuron maturation, thereby enabling expression of CST motor functions, suggesting development of a segmental switch promoting transmission. We tested this by recording CST-evoked focal synaptic potentials, extracellularly, in the cervical enlargement of cats before and after interneuron maturation [postnatal week 5 (PW5) to PW7]. We compared monosynaptic CST amplitude input to segmental circuits with oligosynaptic ventral horn responses, as a measure of CST-evoked segmental response transmission from input to output. The M1 primary motor cortex was unilaterally inactivated between PW5 and PW7 to determine activity dependence. CST interneuron contacts were identified using confocal microscopy. CST terminals contact diverse interneuron classes. CST stimulation strongly activated ventral motor circuits at the ages when both interneurons and CST spinal terminations have developed a mature phenotype, supporting development of segmental transmission of CST signals. CST activity blockade impeded development of effective segmental transmission by the inactivated CST and created a novel path for transmission from the ipsilateral, unaffected, CST. Our findings show that development of segmental CST signal transmission regulates nascent CST motor control functions and provide insight into systems-level mechanisms for protracted motor skill development.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance patterns in community acquired urinary tract infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilani, S.Y.H; Ahmad, N.; Shah, S.R.A.

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most frequent disease for which patients seek medical care. The antimicrobial agents causing UTI and their sensitivity patterns have remarkably changed throughout the world over the past few years. Hence, the present study was designed to explore the uropathogens and their susceptibility to various molecules in our region. Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was conducted at Medical C Unit of Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from January 2015 to January 2016. Patients with clinical features of UTI were evaluated using Urine R/E and Urine culture and sensitivity. Ten antibiotics were checked for susceptibility. Results were analysed using SPSS 17. Results: A total of 630 patients presented with urinary complaints. Of these, 236 patients had more than 8-10 pus cells on urine R/E. They were further evaluated using culture and sensitivity and positive culture was obtained in 75 patients. Of these 34 (45.3%) were males and 41 (54.7%) were females. E Coli was the predominant isolate being present in 49 (65.3%) patients. This was followed by Klebsiella in 9 (12%) patients. Tazobactam-piperacillin and cefoperazone-sulbactam were the most sensitive drugs having overall sensitivity of 96% and 93.3% respectively. The isolates were highly resistant to Fluoroquinolones 77.3% followed by Penicillins 72% and TMP-SMX 69.3%.Conclusion: Antibiotic sensitivity patterns have enormously changed over the past decade. Newer agents are quite efficacious but their use should be highly judicious to prevent the development of resistance to these molecules. (author)

  3. Urinary tract candidiasis in HIV+ patients and sensitivity patterns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of Candida urinary tract infections is gradually on the rise and is an important public health problem. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of urinary tract candidiasis (candiduria) in HIV positive patients in Dschang District Hospital and the antifungal susceptibility test of isolates. A total of 285 ...

  4. Patterns of molecular motors that guide and sort filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Beat; Nédélec, François

    2012-11-21

    Molecular motors can be immobilized to transport filaments and loads that are attached to these filaments inside a nano-device. However, if motors are distributed uniformly over a flat surface, the motility is undirected, and the filaments move equally in all directions. For many applications it is important to control the direction in which the filaments move, and two strategies have been explored to achieve this: applying external forces and confining the filaments inside channels. In this article, we discuss a third strategy in which the topography of the sample remains flat, but the motors are distributed non-uniformly over the surface. Systems of filaments and patterned molecular motors were simulated using a stochastic engine that included Brownian motion and filament bending elasticity. Using an evolutionary algorithm, patterns were optimized for their capacity to precisely control the paths of the filaments. We identified patterns of motors that could either direct the filaments in a particular direction, or separate short and long filaments. These functionalities already exceed what has been achieved with confinement. The patterns are composed of one or two types of motors positioned in lines or along arcs and should be easy to manufacture. Finally, these patterns can be easily combined into larger designs, allowing one to precisely control the motion of microscopic objects inside a device.

  5. Inter-individual differences in audio-motor learning of piano melodies and white matter fiber tract architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Annerose; Hijmans, Brenda S; Cerliani, Leonardo; Bangert, Marc; Nanetti, Luca; Keller, Peter E; Keysers, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Humans vary substantially in their ability to learn new motor skills. Here, we examined inter-individual differences in learning to play the piano, with the goal of identifying relations to structural properties of white matter fiber tracts relevant to audio-motor learning. Non-musicians (n = 18) learned to perform three short melodies on a piano keyboard in a pure audio-motor training condition (vision of their own fingers was occluded). Initial learning times ranged from 17 to 120 min (mean ± SD: 62 ± 29 min). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was used to derive the fractional anisotropy (FA), an index of white matter microstructural arrangement. A correlation analysis revealed that higher FA values were associated with faster learning of piano melodies. These effects were observed in the bilateral corticospinal tracts, bundles of axons relevant for the execution of voluntary movements, and the right superior longitudinal fasciculus, a tract important for audio-motor transformations. These results suggest that the speed with which novel complex audio-motor skills can be acquired may be determined by variability in structural properties of white matter fiber tracts connecting brain areas functionally relevant for audio-motor learning. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The effect of electrical stimulation of the corticospinal tract on motor units of the human biceps brachii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nicolas Caesar; Taylor, Janet L; Gandevia, Simon C

    2002-01-01

    In healthy human subjects, descending motor pathways including the corticospinal tract were stimulated electrically at the level of the cervicomedullary junction to determine the effects on the discharge of motoneurones innervating the biceps brachii. Post-stimulus time histograms (PSTHs) were...... delays). We propose that in response to electrical stimulation of the descending tract fibres, biceps motoneurones receive a large excitatory input with minimal dispersion and it presumably contains a dominant monosynaptic component....

  7. Tractography of the corticospinal tracts in infants with focal perinatal injury: comparison with normal controls and to motor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roze, Elise; Harris, Polly A.; Ball, Gareth; Braga, Rodrigo M.; Allsop, Joanna M.; Counsell, Serena J.; Elorza, Leire Zubiaurre; Merchant, Nazakat; Arichi, Tomoki; Edwards, A.D.; Cowan, Frances M.; Porter, Emma; Rutherford, Mary A.

    2012-01-01

    Our aims were to (1) assess the corticospinal tracts (CSTs) in infants with focal injury and healthy term controls using probabilistic tractography and (2) to correlate the conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and tractography findings in infants with focal injury with their later motor function. We studied 20 infants with focal lesions and 23 controls using MRI and diffusion tensor imaging. Tract volume, fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity (RD) of the CSTs were determined. Asymmetry indices (AIs) were calculated by comparing ipsilateral to contralateral CSTs. Motor outcome was assessed using a standardized neurological examination. Conventional MRI was able to predict normal motor development (n = 9) or hemiplegia (n = 6). In children who developed a mild motor asymmetry (n = 5), conventional MRI predicted a hemiplegia in two and normal motor development in three infants. The AIs for tract volume, FA, ADC and RD showed a significant difference between controls and infants who developed a hemiplegia, and RD also showed a significant difference in AI between controls and infants who developed a mild asymmetry. Conventional MRI was able to predict subsequent normal motor development or hemiplegia following focal injury in newborn infants. Measures of RD obtained from diffusion tractography may offer additional information for predicting a subsequent asymmetry in motor function. (orig.)

  8. Tractography of the corticospinal tracts in infants with focal perinatal injury: comparison with normal controls and to motor development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roze, Elise [Imperial College, Centre for the Developing Brain, London (United Kingdom); Hammersmith Hospital, Robert Steiner MR Unit, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom); University Medical Center Groningen, Division of Neonatology, Beatrix Children' s Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands); Harris, Polly A.; Ball, Gareth; Braga, Rodrigo M.; Allsop, Joanna M.; Counsell, Serena J. [Imperial College, Centre for the Developing Brain, London (United Kingdom); Hammersmith Hospital, Robert Steiner MR Unit, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom); Elorza, Leire Zubiaurre [Imperial College, Centre for the Developing Brain, London (United Kingdom); Hammersmith Hospital, Robert Steiner MR Unit, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom); University of Barcelona, Department of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Barcelona (Spain); Merchant, Nazakat; Arichi, Tomoki; Edwards, A.D.; Cowan, Frances M. [Imperial College, Centre for the Developing Brain, London (United Kingdom); Hammersmith Hospital, Robert Steiner MR Unit, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom); Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Division of Neonatology, London (United Kingdom); Porter, Emma [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Division of Neonatology, London (United Kingdom); Rutherford, Mary A. [Imperial College, Centre for the Developing Brain, London (United Kingdom); Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Division of Neonatology, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    Our aims were to (1) assess the corticospinal tracts (CSTs) in infants with focal injury and healthy term controls using probabilistic tractography and (2) to correlate the conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and tractography findings in infants with focal injury with their later motor function. We studied 20 infants with focal lesions and 23 controls using MRI and diffusion tensor imaging. Tract volume, fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity (RD) of the CSTs were determined. Asymmetry indices (AIs) were calculated by comparing ipsilateral to contralateral CSTs. Motor outcome was assessed using a standardized neurological examination. Conventional MRI was able to predict normal motor development (n = 9) or hemiplegia (n = 6). In children who developed a mild motor asymmetry (n = 5), conventional MRI predicted a hemiplegia in two and normal motor development in three infants. The AIs for tract volume, FA, ADC and RD showed a significant difference between controls and infants who developed a hemiplegia, and RD also showed a significant difference in AI between controls and infants who developed a mild asymmetry. Conventional MRI was able to predict subsequent normal motor development or hemiplegia following focal injury in newborn infants. Measures of RD obtained from diffusion tractography may offer additional information for predicting a subsequent asymmetry in motor function. (orig.)

  9. A Parietal-Temporal Sensory-Motor Integration Area for the Human Vocal Tract: Evidence from an fMRI Study of Skilled Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pa, Judy; Hickok, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Several sensory-motor integration regions have been identified in parietal cortex, which appear to be organized around motor-effectors (e.g., eyes, hands). We investigated whether a sensory-motor integration area might exist for the human vocal tract. Speech requires extensive sensory-motor integration, as does other abilities such as vocal…

  10. Resistance pattern of enterobacteriaceae isolates from urinary tract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: It is estimated that 150 million urinary tract infections (UTIs) occur yearly worldwide, resulting in more than 6 billion dollar in direct healthcare cost. The etiology of UTIs is predictable, with Escherichia coli, an Enterobacteriaceae being the principal pathogen. Quinolones are usually the drug of choice.

  11. Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of organisms causing urinary tract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of a larger project on childhood urinary tract infection, antimicrobial sensitivity tests were carried out on the bacterial isolates from the urine of febrile children seen at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Methodology: Midstream urine specimens were collected from 171 sickle cell anaemia children and ...

  12. Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern of Urinary Tract Pathogens in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    New mechanisms of bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents. New. England Journal of Medicine, 324: 601-612. Kabins, A E and Cohen, S (1966). Resistance factor in. Enterobacteriaceae. New England Journal of. Medicine, 275: 248-252. Kunin, C M (1987). Detection, Prevention and. Management of Urinary Tract ...

  13. Urinary tract candidiasis in HIV+ patients and sensitivity patterns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    health problem. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of urinary tract candidiasis (candiduria) ..... Oral and urinary colonisation of Candida species in HIV/AIDS patients in. Cameroon. Basic Sci. Med., 2(1):1-8. DOI: 10.5923/j.medicine.20130201.01. Lozes E, Ahoussinou C, Agassounon M,. TchibozoDjikpo,.

  14. Urinary tract pathogens and antimicrobial sensitivity patterns in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Adequate treatment and control of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) depends on a good knowledge of the agents causing the infection. The study was designed to assess the aetiology of childhood UTI and the susceptibility of these pathogens to the commonly available antimicrobial agents. Methodology: Children ...

  15. Fast progressive lower motor neuron disease is an ALS variant: A two-centre tract of interest-based MRI data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Hans-Peter; Agosta, Federica; Riva, Nilo; Spinelli, Edoardo G; Comi, Giancarlo; Ludolph, Albert C; Filippi, Massimo; Kassubek, Jan

    2018-01-01

    The criteria for assessing upper motor neuron pathology in pure lower motor neuron disease (LMND) still remain a major issue of debate with respect to the clinical classification as an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) variant. The study was designed to investigate white matter damage by a hypothesis-guided tract-of-interest-based approach in patients with LMND compared with healthy controls and ´classical´ ALS patients in order to identify in vivo brain structural changes according to the neuropathologically defined ALS affectation pattern. Data were pooled from two previous studies at two different study sites (Ulm, Germany and Milano, Italy). DTI-based white matter integrity mapping was performed by voxelwise statistical comparison and by a tractwise analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA) maps according to the ALS-staging pattern for 65 LMND patients (clinically differentiated in fast and slow progressors) vs. 92 matched controls and 101 ALS patients with a 'classical' phenotype to identify white matter structural alterations. The analysis of white matter structural connectivity by regional FA reductions demonstrated the characteristic alteration patterns along the CST and also in frontal and prefrontal brain areas in LMND patients compared to controls and ALS. Fast progressing LMND showed substantial involvement, like in ALS, while slow progressors showed less severe alterations. In the tract-specific analysis according to the ALS-staging pattern, fast progressing LMND showed significant alterations of ALS-related tract systems as compared to slow progressors and controls. This study showed an affectation pattern for corticoefferent fibers in LMND with fast disease progression as defined for ALS, that way confirming the hypothesis that fast progressing LMND is a phenotypical variant of ALS.

  16. Activation of less affected corticospinal tract and poor motor outcome in hemiplegic pediatric patients: a diffusion tensor tractography imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hyun Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The less affected hemisphere is important in motor recovery in mature brains. However, in terms of motor outcome in immature brains, no study has been reported on the less affected corticospinal tract in hemiplegic pediatric patients. Therefore, we examined the relationship between the condition of the less affected corticospinal tract and motor function in hemiplegic pediatric patients. Forty patients with hemiplegia due to perinatal or prenatal injury (13.7 ± 3.0 months and 40 age-matched typically developing controls were recruited. These patients were divided into two age-matched groups, the high functioning group (20 patients and the low functioning group (20 patients using functional level of hemiplegia scale. Diffusion tensor tractography images showed that compared with the control group, the patient group of the less affected corticospinal tract showed significantly increased fiber number and significantly decreased fractional anisotropy value. Significantly increased fiber number and significantly decreased fractional anisotropy value in the low functioning group were observed than in the high functioning group. These findings suggest that activation of the less affected hemisphere presenting as increased fiber number and decreased fractional anisotropy value is related to poor motor function in pediatric hemiplegic patients.

  17. Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of organisms causing urinary tract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... Sensitivity to 15 antimicrobials (based on availability of sensitivity disc) was tested using ... In general, the pattern of bacteriuria and their sensitivity in the SCA group was similar to the pattern in the control ... Departments of Paediatrics and 1Medical Microbiology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital,.

  18. Limb-kinetic apraxia due to injury of corticofugal tracts from secondary motor area in patients with corona radiata infarct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung Ho; Seo, Jeong Pyo

    2016-12-01

    Limb-kinetic apraxia (LKA) is defined as an execution disorder of movements, resulting from injury of the corticofugal tract (CFT) from the secondary motor area. Diagnosis of LKA is difficult because it is made by clinical observation of movements. In this study, using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT), we attempted to investigate injury of the CFT from the secondary motor area in patients with corona radiata infarct. Twenty patients with corona radiata infarct were recruited. A probabilistic tractography method was used in fiber tracking for reconstruction of the corticospinal tract (CST) and CFT. Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity, and tract volume of the CSTs and CFTs from the dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC) and supplementary motor area (SMA) were measured. In the affected hemisphere, FA values of the CST from the precentral hand knob and the CFT from the dPMC were significantly decreased compared with those of the unaffected hemisphere (p < 0.05). The tract volumes of the CST from the precentral hand knob and the CFTs from the dPMC and SMA in the affected hemisphere were also significantly decreased compared with those of the unaffected hemisphere (p < 0.05). We demonstrated concurrent injury of the CFTs from the secondary motor area along with injury of the CST in patients with corona radiata infarct, using DTT. Our results suggest that LKA ascribed to injury of the CFTs from the secondary motor area could be accompanied by injury of the CST ascribed to the corona radiata infarct.

  19. Information to cerebellum on spinal motor networks mediated by the dorsal spinocerebellar tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stecina, Katinka; Fedirchuk, Brent; Hultborn, Hans

    2013-01-01

    of peripheral sensory input to the cerebellum in general, and during rhythmic movements such as locomotion and scratch. In contrast, the VSCT was seen as conveying a copy of the output of spinal neuronal circuitry, including those circuits generating rhythmic motor activity (the spinal central pattern generator......, overall, there is a greater similarity between DSCT and VSCT activity than previously acknowledged. Indeed the majority of DSCT cells can be driven by spinal CPGs for locomotion and scratch without phasic sensory input. It thus seems natural to propose the possibility that CPG input to some...

  20. Assessment of the pyramidal tract by diffusion tensor analysis in brain hemorrhage patients for motor function prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamo, Michiaki; Abe, Takumi; Izumiyama, Hitoshi

    2008-01-01

    In patients with brain hemorrhage, the entire visualized pyramidal tract was established as an area of interest (ROI). Its Fractional Anisotropy (FA) value was determined by diffusion tensor analysis (DTA), and its relationship to motor function at the onset and three months later was investigated. In 30 patients with brain hemorrhage accompanying paralysis, MRI was performed during the subacute phase (6-14 days after onset). In addition, using a workstation, DTA was performed in order to visualize the pyramidal tract. The FA of the ROI was measured on the affected and unaffected sides, and as previously reported, the ratio of FA in the affected and unaffected sides was calculated. Subsequently, we examined the relationship between the FA ratio and motor function prognosis. Motor function prognosis was assessed based on the sum of the Brunnstrom stage at the onset and three months later. A strong correlation coefficient existed between the FA ratio of the entire pyramidal tract and the sum of the Brunnstrom stage three months after onset (0.74, p<0.001), and prognosis of motor function tended to improve in patients with FA ratios of 0.95 or higher. Patients with mild paralysis were identified in order to ascertain the degree of improvement in paralysis, and a significant correlation between the FA ratio of the entire pyramidal tract and the degree of improvement in the Brunnstrom stage was observed (correlation coefficient 0.77, p<0.001). When compared to putamen hemorrhage, the FA ratio affected the prognosis of paralysis more in thalamic hemorrhage. The results suggest that in patients with an FA ratio of 1.0, the recovery rate of paralysis three months after onset is markedly high. In brain hemorrhage patients, a reduction in the FA ratio of the entire pyramidal tract was correlated with the functional prognosis of motor paralysis, and in thalamic hemorrhage, it may be possible to predict motor function based on FA ratios. Hence, the DTA of the pyramidal tract

  1. Pattern of Endoscopic Findings of Upper Gastrointestinal Tract in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UGT) including gastro esophageal reflux (GERD), peptic ulcer diseases (PU), and upper gastrointestinal malignancies was not studied recently in Sudan. Objectives: The aim of this study is to know the pattern of endoscopic findings of upper ...

  2. The Frequency and Pattern of Female Genital Tract Malignancies at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome has considerably altered the pattern of female genital cancers.[1]. In developed countries, the introduction of routine screening and treatment for premalignant lesions of the cervix has lead to a dramatic fall in the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer over the past five decades.

  3. Mitotic motors coregulate microtubule patterns in axons and dendrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shen; Liu, Mei; Mozgova, Olga I; Yu, Wenqian; Baas, Peter W

    2012-10-03

    Microtubules are nearly uniformly oriented in the axons of vertebrate neurons but are non-uniformly oriented in their dendrites. Studies to date suggest a scenario for establishing these microtubule patterns whereby microtubules are transported into the axon and nascent dendrites with plus-ends-leading, and then additional microtubules of the opposite orientation are transported into the developing dendrites. Here, we used contemporary tools to confirm that depletion of kinesin-6 (also called CHO1/MKLP1 or kif23) from rat sympathetic neurons causes a reduction in the appearance of minus-end-distal microtubules in developing dendrites, which in turn causes them to assume an axon-like morphology. Interestingly, we observed a similar phenomenon when we depleted kinesin-12 (also called kif15 or HKLP2). Both motors are best known for their participation in mitosis in other cell types, and both are enriched in the cell body and dendrites of neurons. Unlike kinesin-12, which is present throughout the neuron, kinesin-6 is barely detectable in the axon. Accordingly, depletion of kinesin-6, unlike depletion of kinesin-12, has no effect on axonal branching or navigation. Interestingly, depletion of either motor results in faster growing axons with greater numbers of mobile microtubules. Based on these observations, we posit a model whereby these two motors generate forces that attenuate the transport of microtubules with plus-ends-leading from the cell body into the axon. Some of these microtubules are not only prevented from moving into the axon but are driven with minus-ends-leading into developing dendrites. In this manner, these so-called "mitotic" motors coregulate the microtubule patterns of axons and dendrites.

  4. Clinical profile of motor neuron disease patients with lower urinary tract symptoms and neurogenic bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Costa, Juan Francisco; Arlandis, Salvador; Hervas, David; Martínez-Cuenca, Esther; Cardona, Fernando; Pérez-Tur, Jordi; Broseta, Enrique; Sevilla, Teresa

    2017-07-15

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are frequent in motor neuron disease (MND) patients, but clinical factors related to them are unknown. We describe differences in LUTS among MND phenotypes and their relationship with other clinical characteristics, including prognosis. For this study, we collected clinical data of a previously published cohort of patients diagnosed with classical amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (cALS), progressive muscular atrophy (PMA) or primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) with and without LUTS. Familial history was recorded and the C9ORF72 expansion was analysed in the entire cohort. Patients were followed-up for survival until August 2016. Fifty-five ALS patients (37 cALS, 10 PMA and 8 PLS) were recruited. Twenty-four reported LUTS and neurogenic bladder (NB) could be demonstrated in nine of them. LUTS were not influenced by age, phenotype, disability, cognitive or behavioural impairment, or disease progression, but female sex appeared to be a protective factor (OR=0.39, p=0.06). Neither family history nor the C9ORF72 expansion was linked to LUTS or NB. In the multivariate analysis, patients reporting LUTS early in the disease course tended to show poorer survival. In this study, LUTS appear to be more frequent in male MND patients, but are not related to age, clinical or genetic characteristics. When reported early, LUTS could be a sign of rapid disease spread and poor prognosis. Further prospective longitudinal and neuroimaging studies are warranted to confirm this hypothesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Comparison of antimicrobial resistance pattern of selected respiratory tract pathogens isolated from different animal species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettstein, K; Frey, J

    2004-09-01

    The antibiotic resistance pattern of respiratory tract pathogens isolated of different animal species suffering from respiratory tract diseases has been investigated by antibiograms performed by agar diffusion test. The results show that the resistance situation in Switzerland is favourable compared with studies from other countries. However, high resistance rates were found in certain species: 61% of Streptococcus spp. were resistant to erythromycin and 44% to tetracycline, 59% of Bordetella bronchiseptica were resistant to ampicillin and 50% of Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica were multiresistant to tetracycline, ampicillin and streptomycine. The gram negative isolates were widely resistant to streptomycine.

  6. Motor Circuit-Specific Burst Patterns Drive Different Muscle and Behavior Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Florian; White, Rachel S.; Stein, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    In the isolated CNS, different modulatory inputs can enable one motor network to generate multiple output patterns. Thus far, however, few studies have established whether different modulatory inputs also enable a defined network to drive distinct muscle and movement patterns in vivo, much as they enable these distinctions in behavioral studies. This possibility is not a foregone conclusion, because additional influences present in vivo (e.g., sensory feedback, hormonal modulation) could alter the motor patterns. Additionally, rhythmic neuronal activity can be transformed into sustained muscle contractions, particularly in systems with slow muscle dynamics, as in the crab (Cancer borealis) stomatogastric system used here. We assessed whether two different versions of the biphasic (protraction, retraction) gastric mill (chewing) rhythm, triggered in the isolated stomatogastric system by the modulatory ventral cardiac neurons (VCNs) and postoesophageal commissure (POC) neurons, drive different muscle and movement patterns. One distinction between these rhythms is that the lateral gastric (LG) protractor motor neuron generates tonic bursts during the VCN rhythm, whereas its POC-rhythm bursts are divided into fast, rhythmic burstlets. Intracellular muscle fiber recordings and tension measurements show that the LG-innervated muscles retain the distinct VCN-LG and POC-LG neuron burst structures. Moreover, endoscope video recordings in vivo, during VCN-triggered and POC-triggered chewing, show that the lateral teeth protraction movements exhibit the same, distinct protraction patterns generated by LG in the isolated nervous system. Thus, the multifunctional nature of an identified motor network in the isolated CNS can be preserved in vivo, where it drives different muscle activity and movement patterns. PMID:23864688

  7. Stimulation of the human motor cortex alters generalization patterns of motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban de Xivry, Jean-Jacques; Marko, Mollie K; Pekny, Sarah E; Pastor, Damien; Izawa, Jun; Celnik, Pablo; Shadmehr, Reza

    2011-05-11

    It has been hypothesized that the generalization patterns that accompany learning carry the signatures of the neural systems that are engaged in that learning. Reach adaptation in force fields has generalization patterns that suggest primary engagement of a neural system that encodes movements in the intrinsic coordinates of joints and muscles, and lesser engagement of a neural system that encodes movements in the extrinsic coordinates of the task. Among the cortical motor areas, the intrinsic coordinate system is most prominently represented in the primary sensorimotor cortices. Here, we used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to alter mechanisms of synaptic plasticity and found that when it was applied to the motor cortex, it increased generalization in intrinsic coordinates but not extrinsic coordinates. However, when tDCS was applied to the posterior parietal cortex, it had no effects on learning or generalization in the force field task. The results suggest that during force field adaptation, the component of learning that produces generalization in intrinsic coordinates depends on the plasticity in the sensorimotor cortex.

  8. Patterns of symptom development in patients with motor neuron disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walhout, Renée; Verstraete, Esther; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; Veldink, Jan H; van den Berg, Leonard H

    2018-02-01

    To investigate whether symptom development in motor neuron disease (MND) is a random or organized process. Six hundred patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), upper motor neuron (UMN) or lower motor neuron (LMN) phenotypes were invited for a questionnaire concerning symptom development. A binomial test was used to examine distribution of symptoms from site of onset. Development of symptoms over time was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. There were 470 respondents (ALS = 254; LMN = 100; UMN = 116). Subsequent symptoms were more often in the contralateral limb following unilateral limb onset (ALS: arms p = 1.05 × 10 -8 , legs p < 2.86 × 10 -15 ; LMN phenotype: arms p = 6.74 × 10 -9 , legs p = 6.26 × 10 -6 ; UMN phenotype: legs p = 4.07 × 10 -14 ). In patients with limb onset, symptoms occurred significantly faster in the contralateral limb, followed by the other limbs and lastly by the bulbar region. Patterns of non-contiguous symptom development were also reported: leg symptoms followed bulbar onset in 30%, and bulbar symptoms followed leg onset in 11% of ALS patients. Preferred spread of symptoms from one limb to the contralateral limb, and to adjacent sites appears to be a characteristic of MND phenotypes, suggesting that symptom spread is organized, possibly involving axonal connectivity. Non-contiguous symptom development, however, is not uncommon, and may involve other factors.

  9. Distribution patterns of influenza virus receptors and viral attachment patterns in the respiratory and intestinal tracts of seven avian species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Taiana

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study assessed the presence of sialic acid α-2,3 and α-2,6 linked glycan receptors in seven avian species. The respiratory and intestinal tracts of the chicken, common quail, red-legged partridge, turkey, golden pheasant, ostrich, and mallard were tested by means of lectin histochemistry, using the lectins Maackia amurensis agglutinin II and Sambucus nigra agglutinin, which show affinity for α-2,3 and α-2,6 receptors, respectively. Additionally, the pattern of virus attachment (PVA was evaluated with virus histochemistry, using an avian-origin H4N5 virus and a human-origin seasonal H1N1 virus. There was a great variation of receptor distribution among the tissues and avian species studied. Both α-2,3 and α-2,6 receptors were present in the respiratory and intestinal tracts of the chicken, common quail, red-legged partridge, turkey, and golden pheasant. In ostriches, the expression of the receptor was basically restricted to α-2,3 in both the respiratory and intestinal tracts and in mallards the α-2,6 receptors were absent from the intestinal tract. The results obtained with the lectin histochemistry were, in general, in agreement with the PVA. The differential expression and distribution of α-2,3 and α-2,6 receptors among various avian species might reflect a potentially decisive factor in the emergence of new viral strains.

  10. Bacteriological profile and antibiotic sensitivity pattern in patients with Urinary tract infection

    OpenAIRE

    N Subedi; S Pudasaini

    2017-01-01

    Background: Urinary tract infection is one of the common bacterial infections seeking treatment in clinical practice. A variety of organisms are associated with UTI and the most common organisms are Escherichia coli and other coliforms. Bacteriological investigations of UTI are not complete without antibiotic sensitivity test of the isolate. The aim of this study is to determine the bacteriological profile and antibiotic sensitivity patterns and their disease association.Materials and methods...

  11. Maximum likelihood estimation of motor unit firing pattern statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navallas, Javier; Malanda, Armando; Rodriguez-Falces, Javier

    2014-05-01

    Estimation of motor unit firing pattern statistics is a valuable method in physiological studies and a key procedure in electromyographic (EMG) decomposition algorithms. However, if any firings within the pattern are undetected or missed during the decomposition process, the estimation procedure can be disrupted. In order to provide an optimal solution, we present a maximum likelihood estimator of EMG firing pattern statistics, taking into account that some firings may be undetected. A model of the inter-discharge interval (IDI) probability density function with missing firings has been employed to derive the maximum likelihood estimator of the mean and standard deviation of the IDIs. Actual calculation of the maximum likelihood solution has been obtained by means of numerical optimization. The proposed estimator has been evaluated and compared to other previously developed algorithms by means of simulation experiments and has been tested on real signals. The new estimator was found to be robust and reliable in diverse conditions: IDI distributions with a high coefficient of variance or considerable skewness. Moreover, the proposed estimator outperforms previous algorithms both in simulated and real conditions.

  12. 77 FR 67613 - Patterns of Safety Violations by Motor Carrier Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 385 and 386 [Docket No. FMCSA-2011-0321] RIN 2126-AB42 Patterns of Safety Violations by Motor Carrier Management AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking...

  13. [Flexible ureterorenoscopy and laser lithotripsy for upper urinary tract stones in neurologic patients with severe motor disability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madec, F-X; Suply, E; Luyckx, F; Nedelec, M; Chowaniec, Y; Branchereau, J; Le Normand, L; Glemain, P

    2017-05-01

    The study's objective was to evaluate the effectiveness and morbidity of flexible ureterorenoscopy and laser lithotripsy for upper urinary tract stones in patients with a nervous system pathology including severe motor disability. Between 2006 and 2013, we retrospectively analyzed 83 flexible ureterorenoscopy to treat 63 kidneys in 42 patients. Stone free (SF) kidneys defined as an absence of stones on computerized tomography, renal ultrasound, X-ray or direct ureterorenoscopy, were considered a surgical success. Complications were classified according to the Clavien-Dindo system. Success rates were 49.2 %, 57.1 % and 58.7 %, respectively after first, second and third flexible ureterorenoscopy procedure. Clearance after one procedure was achieved in 64.3 % of cases involving less than 20mm stones. No major complication (Clavien-Dindo>2) was described (0 %). Complication rates were 44.7 %, with 31.6 % Clavien-Dindo 2. The main complication was urosepsis, which occurred in 27.6 % of cases. Flexible ureteroscopy and laser lithotripsies for upper urinary tract stones in neurologic patients with severe motor disability are associated with a lower success rate and some frequent low grade complications compared to overall population. In clinical practice, the indications of flexible ureterorenoscopy for these patients seem restricted. 5. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Glial tumors in brodmann area 6: spread pattern and relationships to motor areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Komal B; Hayman, L Anne; Chavali, Lakshmi S; Hamilton, Jackson D; Prabhu, Sujit S; Wangaryattawanich, Pattana; Kumar, Vinodh A; Kumar, Ashok J

    2015-01-01

    The posterior frontal lobe of the brain houses Brodmann area 4, which is the primary motor cortex, and Brodmann area 6, which consists of the supplementary motor area on the medial portion of the hemisphere and the premotor cortex on the lateral portion. In this area, safe resection is dependent on accurate localization of the motor cortex and the central sulcus, which can usually be achieved by using thin-section imaging and confirmed by using other techniques. The most reliable anatomic landmarks are the "hand knob" area and the marginal ramus of the cingulate sulcus. Postoperatively, motor deficits can occur not only because of injury to primary motor cortex but also because of injury to the supplementary motor area. Unlike motor cortex injury, the supplementary motor area syndrome is transient, if it occurs at all. On the lateral hemisphere, motor and language deficits can also occur because of premotor cortex injury, but a dense motor deficit would indicate subcortical injury to the corticospinal tract. The close relationship of the subcortical motor fibers and premotor cortex is illustrated. In contrast to the more constant landmarks of the central sulcus and marginal ramus, which aid in preoperative localization, the variable interruptions in the precentral and cingulate sulci of the posterior frontal lobe seem to provide "cortical bridges" for spread of infiltrating gliomas. (©)RSNA, 2015.

  15. Patterns of Weakness, Classification of Motor Neuron Disease, and Clinical Diagnosis of Sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statland, Jeffrey M; Barohn, Richard J; McVey, April L; Katz, Jonathan S; Dimachkie, Mazen M

    2015-11-01

    When approaching a patient with suspected motor neuron disease (MND), the pattern of weakness on examination helps distinguish MND from other diseases of peripheral nerves, the neuromuscular junction, or muscle. MND is a clinical diagnosis supported by findings on electrodiagnostic testing. MNDs exist on a spectrum, from a pure lower motor neuron to mixed upper and lower motor neuron to a pure upper motor neuron variant. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive mixed upper and lower motor neuron disorder, most commonly sporadic, which is invariably fatal. This article describes a pattern approach to identifying MND and clinical features of sporadic ALS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Pattern Recognition via the Toll-Like Receptor System in the Human Female Genital Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaei Nasu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The mucosal surface of the female genital tract is a complex biosystem, which provides a barrier against the outside world and participates in both innate and acquired immune defense systems. This mucosal compartment has adapted to a dynamic, non-sterile environment challenged by a variety of antigenic/inflammatory stimuli associated with sexual intercourse and endogenous vaginal microbiota. Rapid innate immune defenses against microbial infection usually involve the recognition of invading pathogens by specific pattern-recognition receptors recently attributed to the family of Toll-like receptors (TLRs. TLRs recognize conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs synthesized by microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses as well as endogenous ligands associated with cell damage. Members of the TLR family, which includes 10 human TLRs identified to date, recognize distinct PAMPs produced by various bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. The available literature regarding the innate immune system of the female genital tract during human reproductive processes was reviewed in order to identify studies specifically related to the expression and function of TLRs under normal as well as pathological conditions. Increased understanding of these molecules may provide insight into site-specific immunoregulatory mechanisms in the female reproductive tract.

  17. Altered motor control patterns in whiplash and chronic neck pain

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    Vasseljen Ottar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent whiplash associated disorders (WAD have been associated with alterations in kinesthetic sense and motor control. The evidence is however inconclusive, particularly for differences between WAD patients and patients with chronic non-traumatic neck pain. The aim of this study was to investigate motor control deficits in WAD compared to chronic non-traumatic neck pain and healthy controls in relation to cervical range of motion (ROM, conjunct motion, joint position error and ROM-variability. Methods Participants (n = 173 were recruited to three groups: 59 patients with persistent WAD, 57 patients with chronic non-traumatic neck pain and 57 asymptomatic volunteers. A 3D motion tracking system (Fastrak was used to record maximal range of motion in the three cardinal planes of the cervical spine (sagittal, frontal and horizontal, and concurrent motion in the two associated cardinal planes relative to each primary plane were used to express conjunct motion. Joint position error was registered as the difference in head positions before and after cervical rotations. Results Reduced conjunct motion was found for WAD and chronic neck pain patients compared to asymptomatic subjects. This was most evident during cervical rotation. Reduced conjunct motion was not explained by current pain or by range of motion in the primary plane. Total conjunct motion during primary rotation was 13.9° (95% CI; 12.2–15.6 for the WAD group, 17.9° (95% CI; 16.1–19.6 for the chronic neck pain group and 25.9° (95% CI; 23.7–28.1 for the asymptomatic group. As expected, maximal cervical range of motion was significantly reduced among the WAD patients compared to both control groups. No group differences were found in maximal ROM-variability or joint position error. Conclusion Altered movement patterns in the cervical spine were found for both pain groups, indicating changes in motor control strategies. The changes were not related to a

  18. [Surgical treatment of eloquent brain area tumors using neurophysiological mapping of the speech and motor areas and conduction tracts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuev, A A; Korotchenko, E N; Ivanova, D S; Pedyash, N V; Teplykh, B A

    To evaluate the efficacy of intraoperative neurophysiological mapping in removing eloquent brain area tumors (EBATs). Sixty five EBAT patients underwent surgical treatment using intraoperative neurophysiological mapping at the Pirogov National Medical and Surgical Center in the period from 2014 to 2015. On primary neurological examination, 46 (71%) patients were detected with motor deficits of varying severity. Speech disorders were diagnosed in 17 (26%) patients. Sixteen patients with concomitant or isolated lesions of the speech centers underwent awake surgery using the asleep-awake-asleep protocol. Standard neurophysiological monitoring included transcranial stimulation as well as motor and, if necessary, speech mapping. The motor and speech areas were mapped with allowance for the preoperative planning data (obtained with a navigation station) synchronized with functional MRI. In this case, a broader representation of the motor and speech centers was revealed in 12 (19%) patients. During speech mapping, no speech disorders were detected in 7 patients; in 9 patients, stimulation of the cerebral cortex in the intended surgical area induced motor (3 patients), sensory (4), and amnesic (2) aphasia. In the total group, we identified 11 patients in whom the tumor was located near the internal capsule. Upon mapping of the conduction tracts in the internal capsule area, the stimulus strength during tumor resection was gradually decreased from 10 mA to 5 mA. Tumor resection was stopped when responses retained at a stimulus strength of 5 mA, which, when compared to the navigation data, corresponded to a distance of about 5 mm to the internal capsule. Completeness of tumor resection was evaluated (contrast-enhanced MRI) in all patients on the first postoperative day. According to the control MRI data, the tumor was resected totally in 60% of patients, subtotally in 24% of patients, and partially in 16% of patients. In the early postoperative period, the development or

  19. Rhythmic activity of feline dorsal and ventral spinocerebellar tract neurons during fictive motor actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedirchuk, Brent; Stecina, Katinka; Kristensen, Kasper Kyhl

    2013-01-01

    nerves. Spinocerebellar tract cells with cell bodies located in the lumbar segments were identified by electrophysiological techniques and examined by extra- and intracellular microelectrode recordings. During fictive locomotion, 57/81 DSCT and 30/30 VSCT neurons showed phasic, cycle-related activity...

  20. Patterns Of Antimicrobial Use For Respiratory Tract Infections In Elderly Patients

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    Taha, H.M.; Rasheedy, D.; Mahmoud, A.H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Elderly patients are prone to respiratory tract infections (RTIs) both; acute bronchitis and pneumonia. A large proportion of the antibiotics prescribed are unlikely to provide clinical benefit to patients. There is an increased need to decrease excess antibiotic use in elderly to minimize antibiotic resistance. Objective: To describe patterns of antimicrobial use for respiratory tract infections (RTIs) among elderly Patients and methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on one hundred elderly patients, aged > 60 years, both males and females to describe patterns of antimicrobial use for respiratory tract infections (RTIs) among elderly patients. RTIs, categorized as acute bronchitis, and pneumonia, were studied for appropriateness of antimicrobial use, type of antibiotics used, and factors associated with their use. We rated antibiotic use as appropriate (when an effective drug was used), inappropriate (when a more effective drug was indicated), or unjustified (when use of any antimicrobial was not indicated). Results: Of 100 patients with RTI, overall treatment was appropriate in 79% of episodes, inappropriate in 9%, and unjustified in 12%. For acute bronchitis, treatment was appropriate in 85% and unjustified in 15% of cases. For pneumonia, treatment was appropriate in 55% of episodes. Among the most commonly used antimicrobials, B.Lactam + macrolides their use were unjustified in 41% of cases. There were statistical significant differences in the patterns of antibiotic use when stratified by age, gender, and co- morbid conditions including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Conclusion: Antimicrobials are unjustifiably used for 12% of RTIs and 15% of cases of acute bronchitis, thus suggesting a need for programs to improve antibiotic prescribing at hospitals.

  1. A single-center experience of antimicrobial resistance patterns in pediatric urinary tract infection.

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    Senel, Saliha; Karacan, Candemir; Erkek, Nilgun; Gol, Nese

    2010-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of urinary tract pathogens and their resistance patterns against antimicrobial agents in a single center. In children <16 years of age admitted for urinary tract infection (UTI) to the Dr. Sami Ulus Teaching and Training Hospital from January 2004 to December 2008, positive urine cultures were reviewed. A total of 3,485 positive urine cultures were identified, of which 2,379 (68%) were from females and 106 (32%) from males. Their mean age was 63.5 +/- 40.7 months. Escherichia coli was the most common causative agent both in total and among different age groups. Ampicillin had the highest resistance rate from all the pathogens isolated (63.8%), followed by piperacillin (51.8%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX; 48.6%). Cephalotin also had a high resistance rate (32.7%). The least resistance was for imipenem, amikacin, netilmicin and ciprofloxacin (0.13, 1.7, 2.4 and 7.5%, respectively). None of the Klebsiella and Pseudomonas isolates were resistant to imipenem. None of the Staphylococcus aureus isolates were resistant to teicoplanin and vancomycin. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. were isolated from two cultures. E. coli was the most common causative agent of UTI in children. Ampicillin, TMP-SMX or cephalothin and piperacillin had the highest resistance rates against urinary tract pathogens in our center. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Detection of Variability of the Motor Unit Action Potential Shape by Means of the Firing Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian; Nikolic, Mile; Dahl, Kristian

    1997-01-01

    The motor unit action potential is a summation of the potentials of the individual muscle fibers from the same motor unit.By using a newly developed automatic EMG decomposition system, variability of the firing patterns of the muscle fibers are analyzed.......The motor unit action potential is a summation of the potentials of the individual muscle fibers from the same motor unit.By using a newly developed automatic EMG decomposition system, variability of the firing patterns of the muscle fibers are analyzed....

  3. Motor deficits following dorsal corticospinal tract transection in rats: voluntary versus skilled locomotion readouts

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    Lara Bieler

    2018-02-01

    The functional relevance of the dorsal CST in locomotion of rats is not as prominent as compared to in humans and thus challenging the motor execution is mandatory to reliably investigate CST function. A detailed analysis of voluntary walking using the CatWalk XT is not adequate to detect deficits following dorsal CST lesion in rats.

  4. Individualized prediction of schizophrenia based on the whole-brain pattern of altered white matter tract integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Jen; Liu, Chih-Min; Hsu, Yung-Chin; Lo, Yu-Chun; Hwang, Tzung-Jeng; Hwu, Hai-Gwo; Lin, Yi-Tin; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac

    2018-01-01

    A schizophrenia diagnosis relies on characteristic symptoms identified by trained physicians, and is thus prone to subjectivity. This study developed a procedure for the individualized prediction of schizophrenia based on whole-brain patterns of altered white matter tract integrity. The study comprised training (108 patients and 144 controls) and testing (60 patients and 60 controls) groups. Male and female participants were comparable in each group and were analyzed separately. All participants underwent diffusion spectrum imaging of the head, and the data were analyzed using the tract-based automatic analysis method to generate a standardized two-dimensional array of white matter tract integrity, called the connectogram. Unique patterns in the connectogram that most accurately identified schizophrenia were systematically reviewed in the training group. Then, the diagnostic performance of the patterns was individually verified in the testing group by using receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis. The performance was high in men (accuracy = 0.85) and satisfactory in women (accuracy = 0.75). In men, the pattern was located in discrete fiber tracts, as has been consistently reported in the literature; by contrast, the pattern was widespread over all tracts in women. These distinct patterns suggest that there is a higher variability in the microstructural alterations in female patients than in male patients. The individualized prediction of schizophrenia is feasible based on the different whole-brain patterns of tract integrity. The optimal masks and their corresponding regions in the fiber tracts could serve as potential imaging biomarkers for schizophrenia. Hum Brain Mapp 39:575-587, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Regional differences in practice patterns and associated outcomes for upper tract urothelial carcinoma in Canada.

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    Metcalfe, Michael; Kassouf, Wassim; Rendon, Ricardo; Bell, David; Izawa, Jonathan; Chin, Joseph; Kapoor, Anil; Matsumoto, Edward; Lattouf, Jean-Baptiste; Saad, Fred; Lacombe, Louis; Fradet, Yves; Fairey, Adrian; Jacobson, Niels-Eric; Drachenberg, Darryl; Cagiannos, Ilias; So, Alan; Black, Peter

    2012-12-01

    : We delineated Canadian regional differences in practice patterns in the management of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) after nephroureterectomy and relate these to patient outcomes. : A database was created with 1029 patients undergoing radical nephroureterectomy for UTUC between 1994 and 2009 at 10 Canadian centres. Demographic, clinical and pathological variables were collected from chart review. Practice pattern variables were defined as: open versus laparoscopic nephroureterectomy, management strategy for the distal ureter, performance of lymphadenectomy and administration of chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. The outcome measures were overall (OS), disease-specific (DSS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS). The centres were divided into three regions (West, Central, East). Cox proportional multivariable linear regression analysis was used to determine the association between regional differences in practice patterns and clinical outcomes. : There was a significant difference in practice patterns between regions within Canada for: time from diagnosis to surgery (p = 0.001), type of surgery (open vs. laparoscopic, p analysis demonstrated that the differences in survival were independent of region OS (p = 0.78), DSS (p = 0.30) or RFS (p = 0.43). : There is significant disparity in practice patterns between regions within Canada, but these do not appear to have an effect on survival. We believe that the variability in practice is a reflection of the lack of standardized treatments for UTUC and underlines the need for multi-institutional studies in this disease.

  6. Exercise promotes motor functional recovery in rats with corticospinal tract injury: anti-apoptosis mechanism

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    Ting-ting Hou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that exercise interventions can improve functional recovery after spinal cord injury, but the mechanism of action remains unclear. To investigate the mechanism, we established a unilateral corticospinal tract injury model in rats by pyramidotomy, and used a single pellet reaching task and horizontal ladder walking task as exercise interventions postoperatively. Functional recovery of forelimbs and forepaws in the rat models was noticeably enhanced after the exercises. Furthermore, TUNEL staining revealed significantly fewer apoptotic cells in the spinal cord of exercised rats, and western blot analysis showed that spinal cord expression of the apoptosis-related protein caspase-3 was significantly lower, and the expression of Bcl-2 was significantly higher, while the expression of Bax was not signifiantly changed after exercise, compared with the non-exercised group. Expression of these proteins decreased with time after injury, towards the levels observed in sham-operated rats, however at 4 weeks postoperatively, caspase-3 expression remained significantly greater than in sham-operated rats. The present findings indicate that a reduction in apoptosis is one of the mechanisms underlying the improvement of functional recovery by exercise interventions after corticospinal tract injury.

  7. Motor and sensory responses after percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation in multiple sclerosis patients with lower urinary tract symptoms treated in daily practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecca, C; Digesu, G A; Robshaw, P; Puccini, F; Khullar, V; Tubaro, A; Gobbi, C

    2014-03-01

    Posterior tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) is an effective treatment option for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Patients with MS and LUTS unresponsive to medical treatment received PTNS for 12 weeks after saline urodynamics to evaluate the prevalence of motor, sensory and combined responses during PTNS and to determine whether the type of response can predict treatment outcome. LUTS were also assessed using a 3-day bladder diary, patient perception of bladder condition (PPBC) questionnaire, patient perception of intensity of urgency scale (PPIUS), Kings Health QOL questionnaire (KHQ) and Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-q) before and after treatment. Patients were considered as "responders" if they reported an improvement >50% in their LUTS according to the PPBC. Sensory, motor and combined sensory/motor responses were compared between responders and non-responders. Eighty-three patients were included. 61% (51/83) of patients were responders. Sensory, motor and combined sensory/motor responses were found in 64% (53/83), 6% (5/83) and 30% (25/83) of patients respectively. A sensory response alone, or in combination with a motor response, was better associated with a successful outcome than the presence of a motor response alone (P = 0.001). A sensory response, either alone or in combination with a motor response, is more frequent and seems to be better associated with a successful outcome of PTNS than motor response alone. © 2014 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2014 EFNS.

  8. Differential activity patterns of putaminal neurons with inputs from the primary motor cortex and supplementary motor area in behaving monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Sayuki; Hatanaka, Nobuhiko; Takada, Masahiko; Nambu, Atsushi

    2011-09-01

    Activity patterns of projection neurons in the putamen were investigated in behaving monkeys. Stimulating electrodes were implanted chronically into the proximal (MI(proximal)) and distal (MI(distal)) forelimb regions of the primary motor cortex (MI) and the forelimb region of the supplementary motor area (SMA). Cortical inputs to putaminal neurons were identified by excitatory orthodromic responses to stimulation of these motor cortices. Then, neuronal activity was recorded during the performance of a goal-directed reaching task with delay. Putaminal neurons with inputs from the MI and SMA showed different activity patterns, i.e., movement- and delay-related activity, during task performance. MI-recipient neurons increased activity in response to arm-reach movements, whereas SMA-recipient neurons increased activity during delay periods, as well as during movements. The activity pattern of MI + SMA-recipient neurons was of an intermediate type between those of MI- and SMA-recipient neurons. Approximately one-half of MI(proximal)-, SMA-, and MI + SMA-recipient neurons changed activities before the onset of movements, whereas a smaller number of MI(distal)- and MI(proximal + distal)-recipient neurons did. Movement-related activity of MI-recipient neurons was modulated by target directions, whereas SMA- and MI + SMA-recipient neurons had a lower directional selectivity. MI-recipient neurons were located mainly in the ventrolateral part of the caudal aspect of the putamen, whereas SMA-recipient neurons were located in the dorsomedial part. MI + SMA-recipient neurons were found in between. The present results suggest that a subpopulation of putaminal neurons displays specific activity patterns depending on motor cortical inputs. Each subpopulation receives convergent or nonconvergent inputs from the MI and SMA, retains specific motor information, and sends it to the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra through the direct and indirect pathways of the basal ganglia.

  9. Understanding the Patterns of Antibiotic Susceptibility of Bacteria Causing Urinary Tract Infection in West Bengal, India

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    Sunayana eSaha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common infectious diseases at the community level. In order to assess the adequacy of empirical therapy, the susceptibility of antibiotics and resistance pattern of bacteria responsible for UTI in West Bengal, India, were evaluated throughout the period of 2008-2013. The infection reports belonging to all age groups and both sexes were considered. E. coli was the most abundant uropathogen with a prevalence rate of 67.1%, followed by Klebsiella spp. (22% and Pseudomonas spp. (6%. Penicillin was least effective against UTI-causing E. coli and maximum susceptibility was recorded for the drugs belonging to fourth generation cephalosporins. Other abundant uropathogens, Klebsiella spp., were maximally resistant to broad-spectrum penicillin, followed by aminoglycosides and third generation cephalosporin. The antibiotic resistance pattern of two principal UTI pathogens, E. coli and Klebsiella spp. in West Bengal, appears in general to be similar to that found in other parts of the Globe. Higher than 50% resistance were observed for broad-spectrum penicillin. Fourth generation cephalosporin and macrolides seems to be the choice of drug in treating UTIs in Eastern India. Furthermore, improved maintenance of infection incident logs is needed in Eastern Indian hospitals in order to facilitate regular surveillance of the occurrence of antibiotic resistance patterns, since such levels continue to change.

  10. Modeling Hot Spot Motor Vehicle Theft Crime in Relation to Landuse and Settlement Patterns

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    Djaka Marwasta

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The crowd of Yogyakarta urban has impacted its surrounding area, including Depok sub district, which is indicated by the rising of physical development, for example education facilities and settlements. The progress does not only bring positive impact, but also negative impact for instance the rising of crime number i.e. motor vehicle robbery. The aims of this research are 1 mapping motor vehicle robbery data as the distribution map and identifying motor vehicle robbery hot spot base on distrbution map; and 2 studying the correlation of motor vehicle robbery hot spot with physical environment phenomena, i.e. land use type and settlement pattern. The research method consists of two parts; they are motor vehicle robbery cluster analysis and the relation of motor vehicle robbery and physical environment analysis. Motor vehicle robbery cluster analysis is using distribution data, which analyzes the distribution into motor vehicle robbery hot spot with nearest neighbor tehnique. Contingency coefficient and frequency distribution analysis is used to analyze the correlation of motor vehicle robbery hot spot and physical environment. Contingency coefficient is used to study the relation of motor vehicle robbery hot spot polygon with physical environment condition, whereas frequency distribution is used to study the distribution of motor vehicle robbery in the hot spot with physical environment condition. Physical environment which consists of land use type, housing density, house regularity pattern, and the average of building size, are obtained from interpretation of black and white panchromatic aerial photograph year 2000, in the scale 1 : 20.000. the most motor vehicle robbery hot spot is found on the settlement area, 68,3% from 378 motor vehicle robbery cases in the hot spot. The seond level is found on the education area (16.4%. The most motor vehicle hot spot in the settlement is found on the hight density and irregular settlement, which have big

  11. Short time sports exercise boosts motor imagery patterns: Implications of mental practice in rehabilitation programs

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    Selina Christin Wriessnegger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Motor imagery (MI is a commonly used paradigm for the study of motor learning or cognitive aspects of action control. The rationale for using MI training to promote the relearning of motor function arises from research on the functional correlates that MI shares with the execution of physical movements. While most of the previous studies investigating MI were based on simple movements in the present study a more attractive mental practice was used to investigate cortical activation during MI. We measured cerebral responses with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in twenty three healthy volunteers as they imagined playing soccer or tennis before and after a short physical sports exercise. Our results demonstrated that only 10 minutes of training are enough to boost motor imagery patterns in motor related brain regions including premotor cortex and supplementary motor area (SMA but also fronto-parietal and subcortical structures. This supports previous findings that motor imagery has beneficial effects especially in combination with motor execution when used in motor rehabilitation or motor learning processes. We conclude that sports MI combined with an interactive game environment could be a promising additional tool in future rehabilitation programs aiming to improve upper or lower limb functions or support neuroplasticity.

  12. Brain activations underlying different patterns of performance improvement during early motor skill learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Stéphanie; Dricot, Laurence; Gradkowski, Wojciech; Laloux, Patrice; Vandermeeren, Yves

    2012-08-01

    Motor learning plays a central role in daily life and in neurorehabilitation. Several forms of motor learning have been described, among which motor skill learning, i.e. reaching a superior level of performance (a skill) through a shift of the speed/accuracy trade-off. During the first stage of learning a visuomotor skill, we observed differential patterns of evolution of the speed/accuracy trade-off in normal subjects. Half of the subjects rapidly achieved successful motor skill learning with an early shift of the speed/accuracy trade-off leading to a superior level of performance (shift pattern). The other subjects attained only minimal global improvement due to a converse evolution of speed and accuracy (i.e. a respect of the speed/accuracy trade-off: fit pattern). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to explore the neural substrates underlying these differential patterns during the first stage of motor skill learning in normal subjects. Twenty right-handed normal subjects performed an implicit visuomotor learning task with their non-dominant hand. The task ("circuit game") consisted in learning to navigate a pointer along a circuit as quickly and accurately as possible using a fMRI-compatible mouse. Velocity, accuracy, and performance indexes were used to characterise the motor learning pattern (shift/fit) and to perform fMRI correlation analysis in order to find the neural substrate associated with the shift and fit patterns during early motor skill learning. Nine subjects showed a fit pattern (fitters), and eleven, a shift pattern ("shifters"). fMRI analyses at whole group level (ANOVA) and at sub-group level demonstrated that the supplementary motor area (SMA) was more activated in "shifters" than in the "fitters" groups and that the BOLD activation within the SMA correlated significantly with the on-line shift of the speed/accuracy trade-off in the "shifters" group. Despite identical instructions and experimental conditions, during the

  13. Right lower limb apraxia in a patient with left supplementary motor area infarction: intactness of the corticospinal tract confirmed by transcranial magnetic stimulation

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    Min Cheol Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We reported a 50-year-old female patient with left supplementary motor area infarction who presented right lower limb apraxia and investigated the possible causes using transcranial magnetic stimulation. The patient was able to walk and climb stairs spontaneously without any assistance at 3 weeks after onset. However, she was unable to intentionally move her right lower limb although she understood what she supposed to do. The motor evoked potential evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation from the right lower limb was within the normal range, indicating that the corticospinal tract innervating the right lower limb was uninjured. Thus, we thought that her motor dysfunction was not induced by motor weakness, and confirmed her symptoms as apraxia. In addition, these results also suggest that transcranial magnetic stimulation is helpful for diagnosing apraxia.

  14. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of bacteria isolated from urinary tract infections in Northern Iran

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    Abbas Mihankhah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to investigate the bacteria associated with urinary tract infection (UTI and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the isolates during 2013–2015 in Northern Iran. Materials and Methods: Overall 3798 patients with clinical symptoms of UTI were subjected as samples, and they were cultured and pure isolated bacteria were identified using biochemical tests and subjected to antibiogram assessment using disc diffusion method. Results: Totally, 568 (14.96% from 3798 patients had positive UTI. Four hundred and ninety-seven (87.5% from 568 isolated bacteria were resistant to at least one antibiotic. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus spp., and Pseudomonas spp. were the most prevalent bacteria. Isolated bacteria indicated the highest antibiotic resistance to methicillin (76.06% and ampicillin (89.29% and also revealed the most sensitivity to imipenem (99.1% and amikacin (91.57%. Statistical analysis of the resistance pattern trend during 3 years indicated the insignificant increase (P > 0.05 in antibiotic resistance of the isolates. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed a great concern for emerging UTI-related multidrug-resistant strains of bacteria causing UTI in Iran.

  15. Brain activation patterns of motor imagery reflect plastic changes associated with intensive shooting training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeck, Jong-Su; Kim, Yang-Tae; Seo, Jee-Hye; Ryeom, Hun-Kyu; Lee, Jongmin; Choi, Sung-Mook; Woo, Minjung; Kim, Woojong; Kim, Jin Gu; Chang, Yongmin

    2012-09-01

    Evidence from previous studies has suggested that motor imagery and motor action engage overlapping brain systems. As a result of this observation that motor imagery can activate brain regions associated with actual motor movement, motor imagery is expected to enhance motor skill performance and become an underlying principle for physical training in sports and physical rehabilitation. However, few studies have examined the effects of physical training on motor imagery in beginners. Also, differences in neural networks related to motor imagery before and after training have seldom been studied. In the current study, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated the question of whether motor imagery can reflect plastic changes of neural correlates associated with intensive training. In fact, motor imagery was used in this study as a tool to assess the brain areas involved in shooting and involved in learning of shooting. We discovered that use of motor imagery resulted in recruitment of widely distributed common cortical areas, which were suggested to play a role in generation and maintenance of mental images before and after 90 h of shooting training. In addition to these common areas, brain activation before and after 90 h of shooting practice showed regionally distinct patterns of activity change in subcortical motor areas. That is, basal ganglia showed increased activity after 90 h of shooting practice, suggesting the occurrence of plastic change in association with gains in performance and reinforcement learning. Therefore, our results suggest that, in order to reach a level of expertise, the brain would change through initial reinforcement of preexistent connections during the training period and then use more focused neural correlates through formation of new connections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Central pattern generators in the turtle spinal cord: selection among the forms of motor behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Paul S G

    2018-02-01

    Neuronal networks in the turtle spinal cord have considerable computational complexity even in the absence of connections with supraspinal structures. These networks contain central pattern generators (CPGs) for each of several behaviors, including three forms of scratch, two forms of swim, and one form of flexion reflex. Each behavior is activated by a specific set of cutaneous or electrical stimuli. The process of selection among behaviors within the spinal cord has multisecond memories of specific motor patterns. Some spinal cord interneurons are partially shared among several CPGs, whereas other interneurons are active during only one type of behavior. Partial sharing is a proposed mechanism that contributes to the ability of the spinal cord to generate motor pattern blends with characteristics of multiple behaviors. Variations of motor patterns, termed deletions, assist in characterization of the organization of the pattern-generating components of CPGs. Single-neuron recordings during both normal and deletion motor patterns provide support for a CPG organizational structure with unit burst generators (UBGs) whose members serve a direction of a specific degree of freedom of the hindlimb, e.g., the hip-flexor UBG, the hip-extensor UBG, the knee-flexor UBG, the knee-extensor UBG, etc. The classic half-center hypothesis that includes all the hindlimb flexors in a single flexor half-center and all the hindlimb extensors in a single extensor half-center lacks the organizational complexity to account for the motor patterns produced by turtle spinal CPGs. Thus the turtle spinal cord is a valuable model system for studies of mechanisms responsible for selection and generation of motor behaviors. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The concept of the central pattern generator (CPG) is a major tenet in motor neuroethology that has influenced the design and interpretations of experiments for over a half century. This review concentrates on the turtle spinal cord and describes studies from

  17. Prediction of functional outcomes in stroke patients: the role of motor patterns according to limb synergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gialanella, Bernardo; Santoro, Raffaele

    2015-10-01

    To address the relationships among motor patterns evaluated according to the limb synergies and functional outcomes in stroke patients and clarify which motor pattern was the most important predictor of functional outcomes. The study was conducted on 208 patients with primary diagnosis of stroke admitted for in-hospital rehabilitation. At entry, the Fugl-Meyer Scale was administered to assess motor function according to limb synergies. Pearson's correlation was used to assess the relationship between variables, and backward stepwise regression analysis was used to identify the outcome determinants. Final functional independence measure (FIM) scores and length of in-hospital stay were the outcome measures. At the end of rehabilitation, motor-FIM scores of patients with extensor and flexor synergies, mixing synergies, and no dependence from the synergies were higher than those of no movements and flexor synergy. Multivariate regression analysis showed that extensor synergy of upper limb was an independent predictor of final motor-FIM, personal care and mobility, extensor synergy of lower limb of locomotion, while mixing synergies of upper limb was an independent predictor of length of in-hospital stay. In stroke rehabilitation, the patients' motor patterns according to the synergies strongly relate with functional outcomes and are important outcome predictors.

  18. Antibiotic resistance pattern and empirical therapy for urinary tract infections in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Harthi, Abdulla A.; Al-Fifi, Suliman H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to study the type of bacterial pathogen causing urinary tract infection in children at Aseer Central Hospital, southwestern Saudi Arabia and their antimicrobial resistance patterns. A retrospective study of all the urine cultures carried out on the children in the period from January 2003 to December 2006, for a total of 4 years were reviewed at the bacteriology laboratory, Aseer Central Hospital, southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. Their antimicrobial resistances as well as sensitivities were also analyzed. A total of 464 urine cultures were identified. Escherichia coli constitutes the most common pathogen isolated 37.3%, followed by Klebsiella 16.4% and Pseudomonas species 15.7%. In general, there was a significant increase in the resistance rates of different bacterial pathogens to different antibiotics. In spite of an increase in the resistance rates of bacterial pathogens causing UTI, ceftriaxone, imipenem and to some extent Azactam are appropriate for initial empirical intravenous therapy in UTI. In patients with uncomplicated UTI not requiring hospitalization, Nalidixic acid and Nitrofurantoin can be used as oral treatment. (author)

  19. Natural error patterns enable transfer of motor learning to novel contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Oviedo, Gelsy; Bastian, Amy J

    2012-01-01

    Successful behavior demands motor learning to be transferable in some cases (e.g., adjusting walking patterns as we develop and age) and context specific in others (e.g., learning to walk in high heels). Here we investigated differences in motor learning transfer in people learning a new walking pattern on a split-belt treadmill, where the legs move at different speeds. We hypothesized that transfer of the newly acquired walking pattern on the treadmill to natural over ground walking might depend on the pattern of errors experienced during learning. Error patterns within a person's natural range might be experienced as endogenous (i.e., produced by the body), encouraging general adjustments that transfer across contexts. On the other hand, larger errors might be experienced as exogenous (i.e., produced by the environment), indicating unusual conditions requiring context-specific learning. To test this, we manipulated the distribution of errors experienced during learning to lie either within or outside the normal distribution of walking errors. We found that restriction of errors to the natural range produced transfer of the new walking pattern from the treadmill to natural walking off the treadmill, while larger errors prevented transfer. This result helps explain how transfer of motor learning is controlled, and it offers an important strategy for clinical rehabilitation, where transfer of motor learning to other contexts is essential.

  20. Tensor and non-tensor tractography for the assessment of the corticospinal tract of children with motor disorders: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanou, Maria-Ioanna; Lumsden, Daniel E; Ashmore, Jonathan; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Charles-Edwards, Geoffrey

    2016-10-01

    Non-invasive measures of corticospinal tract (CST) integrity may help to guide clinical interventions, particularly in children and young people (CAYP) with motor disorders. We compared diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics extracted from the CST generated by tensor and non-tensor based tractography algorithms. For a group of 25 CAYP undergoing clinical evaluation, the CST was reconstructed using (1) deterministic tensor-based tractography algorithm, (2) probabilistic tensor-based, and (3) constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD)-derived tractography algorithms. Choice of tractography algorithm significantly altered the results of tracking. Larger tracts were consistently defined with CSD, with differences in FA but not MD values for tracts to the pre- or post-central gyrus. Differences between deterministic and probabilistic tensor-based algorithms were minimal. Non-tensor reconstructed tracts appeared to be more anatomically representative. Examining metrics along the tract, difference in FA values appeared to be greatest in voxels with predominantly single-fibre orientations. Less pronounced differences were seen outwith of these regions. With an increasing interest in the applications of tractography analysis at all stages of movement disorder surgery, it is important that clinicians remain alert to the consequences of choice of tractography algorithm on subsequently generated tracts, including differences in volumes, anatomical reconstruction, and DTI metrics, the latter of which will have global as well as more regional effects. Tract-wide analysis of DTI based metrics is of limited utility, and a more segmental approach to analysis may be appropriate, particularly if disruption to a focal region of a white matter pathway is anticipated.

  1. Novel diffusion tensor imaging technique reveals developmental streamline volume changes in the corticospinal tract associated with leg motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamson, David O; Juhász, Csaba; Chugani, Harry T; Jeong, Jeong-Won

    2015-04-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has expanded our knowledge of corticospinal tract (CST) anatomy and development. However, previous developmental DTI studies assessed the CST as a whole, overlooking potential differences in development of its components related to control of the upper and lower extremities. The present cross-sectional study investigated age-related changes, side and gender differences in streamline volume of the leg- and hand-related segments of the CST in children. DTI data of 31 children (1-14 years; mean age: 6±4 years; 17 girls) with normal conventional MRI were analyzed. Leg- and hand-related CST streamline volumes were quantified separately, using a recently validated novel tractography approach. CST streamline volumes on both sides were compared between genders and correlated with age. Higher absolute streamline volumes were found in the left leg-related CST compared to the right (p=0.001) without a gender effect (p=0.4), whereas no differences were found in the absolute hand-related CST volumes (p>0.4). CST leg-related streamline volumes, normalized to hemispheric white matter volumes, declined with age in the right hemisphere only (R=-.51; p=0.004). Absolute leg-related CST streamline volumes showed similar, but slightly weaker correlations. Hand-related absolute or normalized CST streamline volumes showed no age-related variations on either side. These results suggest differential development of CST segments controlling hand vs. leg movements. Asymmetric volume changes in the lower limb motor pathway may be secondary to gradually strengthening left hemispheric dominance and is consistent with previous data suggesting that footedness is a better predictor of hemispheric lateralization than handedness. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Impact of Diffusion Tensor Imaging Fiber Tracking of the Corticospinal Tract Based on Navigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Surgery of Motor-Eloquent Brain Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffa, Giovanni; Conti, Alfredo; Scibilia, Antonino; Cardali, Salvatore Massimiliano; Esposito, Felice; Angileri, Filippo Flavio; La Torre, Domenico; Sindorio, Carmela; Abbritti, Rosaria Viola; Germanò, Antonino; Tomasello, Francesco

    2017-11-29

    Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) enables preoperative mapping of the motor cortex (M1). The combination of nTMS with diffusion tensor imaging fiber tracking (DTI-FT) of the corticospinal tract (CST) has been described; however, its impact on surgery of motor-eloquent lesions has not been addressed. To analyze the impact of nTMS-based mapping on surgery of motor-eloquent lesions. In this retrospective case-control study, we reviewed the data of patients operated for suspected motor-eloquent lesions between 2012 and 2015. The patients underwent nTMS mapping of M1 and, from 2014, nTMS-based DTI-FT of the CST. The impact on the preoperative risk/benefit analysis, surgical strategy, craniotomy size, extent of resection (EOR), and outcome were compared with a control group. We included 35 patients who underwent nTMS mapping of M1 (group A), 35 patients who also underwent nTMS-based DTI-FT of the CST (group B), and a control group composed of 35 patients treated without nTMS (group C). The patients in groups A and B received smaller craniotomies (P = .01; P = .001), had less postoperative seizures (P = .02), and a better postoperative motor performance (P = .04) and Karnofsky Performance Status (P = .009) than the controls. Group B exhibited an improved risk/benefit analysis (P = .006), an increased EOR of nTMS-negative lesions in absence of preoperative motor deficits (P = .01), and less motor and Karnofsky Performance Status worsening in case of preoperative motor deficits (P = .02, P = .03) than group A. nTMS-based mapping enables a tailored surgical approach for motor-eloquent lesions. It may improve the risk/benefit analysis, EOR and outcome, particularly when nTMS-based DTI-FT is performed. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  3. Bacteria etiological agents causing respiratory tract infections in children and their resistance patterns to a panel of ten antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nweze EI

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the bacteria etiological agents of respiratory tract infection among 280 school children in South East Nigeria, and to determine their antimicrobial resistance patterns to a panel of ten antibiotics. Methods: Throat swabs (280 were collected from students in four boarding schools located in Enugu and Onitsha metropolis. Standard microbiological procedures were used to screen these swabs to determine the prevalence of respiratory pathogens while the disc diffusion test was used to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of the recovered isolates. Results: Of the 280 samples screened, 57.1% were positive. Haemophilus influenzae was the most prevalent (16.1%, followed by Streptococcus pyogenes (13.9%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (12.5%, Streptococcus pneumoniae (6.8%, Staphylococcus aureus (5.4% and Corynebacterium diphtheriae (2.5%. More isolates were recovered in the two male schools investigated. However, there was no significant difference in the overall prevalence of isolates according to sex or school location of the subjects. Greater number of isolates (56% was recovered from those aged 11-14 years. This was statistically significant (P<0.05, compared to the other two age groups (15-18 years and 19-23 years. The pattern of resistance varied according to the bacteria species. There were multi-resistant isolates. Since these students stand the risk of contracting respiratory tract infection particularly from reservoirs among them, there is need to increase surveillance and develop better strategies to curb the increasing prevalence of respiratory tract infection in this and other similar regions of Africa. Conclusions: The spectrum of bacteria causing respiratory tract infection is still wide in Nigeria. Many isolates showed appreciable levels of antibiotic resistance apparently due to antibiotic abuse. Development of new strategies to curb this increasing prevalence of respiratory tract infection is warranted.

  4. Antero-posterior patterning of the vertebrate digestive tract: 40 years after Nicole Le Douarin's PhD thesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapin-Botton, Anne

    2005-01-01

    This review is dedicated to the work on chick digestive tract organogenesis that Nicole Le Douarin performed as a PhD student under the direction of Etienne Wolf. I discuss how she laid the grounds for future work by establishing fate maps at somitic stages, by describing morphogenetic movements between germ layers and by pointing to signaling events between endoderm and mesoderm. Her inspiring work was extended by others, in particular at the molecular level, leading to a better understanding of antero-posterior patterning in the digestive tract. Antero-posterior patterning of endoderm is initiated at gastrulation when future anterior and posterior endoderm ingress at different times and accordingly express different genes. Plasticity is however maintained at somite stages and even later, when organ primordia can be delineated. There is a cross-talk between endoderm and mesoderm and the two layers exchange instructive signals that induce specific antero-posterior identities as well as permissive signals required for organogenesis from previously patterned fields. Recent experiments suggest that several signaling molecules involved in neural tube antero-posterior patterning are also instrumental in the digestive tract including retinoic acid and FGF4.

  5. Patterned-string tasks: relation between fine motor skills and visual-spatial abilities in parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasheninnikova, Anastasia

    2013-01-01

    String-pulling and patterned-string tasks are often used to analyse perceptual and cognitive abilities in animals. In addition, the paradigm can be used to test the interrelation between visual-spatial and motor performance. Two Australian parrot species, the galah (Eolophus roseicapilla) and the cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), forage on the ground, but only the galah uses its feet to manipulate food. I used a set of string pulling and patterned-string tasks to test whether usage of the feet during foraging is a prerequisite for solving the vertical string pulling problem. Indeed, the two species used techniques that clearly differed in the extent of beak-foot coordination but did not differ in terms of their success in solving the string pulling task. However, when the visual-spatial skills of the subjects were tested, the galahs outperformed the cockatiels. This supports the hypothesis that the fine motor skills needed for advanced beak-foot coordination may be interrelated with certain visual-spatial abilities needed for solving patterned-string tasks. This pattern was also found within each of the two species on the individual level: higher motor abilities positively correlated with performance in patterned-string tasks. This is the first evidence of an interrelation between visual-spatial and motor abilities in non-mammalian animals.

  6. Patterned-string tasks: relation between fine motor skills and visual-spatial abilities in parrots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Krasheninnikova

    Full Text Available String-pulling and patterned-string tasks are often used to analyse perceptual and cognitive abilities in animals. In addition, the paradigm can be used to test the interrelation between visual-spatial and motor performance. Two Australian parrot species, the galah (Eolophus roseicapilla and the cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus, forage on the ground, but only the galah uses its feet to manipulate food. I used a set of string pulling and patterned-string tasks to test whether usage of the feet during foraging is a prerequisite for solving the vertical string pulling problem. Indeed, the two species used techniques that clearly differed in the extent of beak-foot coordination but did not differ in terms of their success in solving the string pulling task. However, when the visual-spatial skills of the subjects were tested, the galahs outperformed the cockatiels. This supports the hypothesis that the fine motor skills needed for advanced beak-foot coordination may be interrelated with certain visual-spatial abilities needed for solving patterned-string tasks. This pattern was also found within each of the two species on the individual level: higher motor abilities positively correlated with performance in patterned-string tasks. This is the first evidence of an interrelation between visual-spatial and motor abilities in non-mammalian animals.

  7. Suboptimal Muscle Synergy Activation Patterns Generalize their Motor Function across Postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, M Hongchul; Ting, Lena H

    2016-01-01

    We used a musculoskeletal model to investigate the possible biomechanical and neural bases of using consistent muscle synergy patterns to produce functional motor outputs across different biomechanical conditions, which we define as generalizability. Experimental studies in cats demonstrate that the same muscle synergies are used during reactive postural responses at widely varying configurations, producing similarly-oriented endpoint force vectors with respect to the limb axis. However, whether generalizability across postures arises due to similar biomechanical properties or to neural selection of a particular muscle activation pattern has not been explicitly tested. Here, we used a detailed cat hindlimb model to explore the set of feasible muscle activation patterns that produce experimental synergy force vectors at a target posture, and tested their generalizability by applying them to different test postures. We used three methods to select candidate muscle activation patterns: (1) randomly-selected feasible muscle activation patterns, (2) optimal muscle activation patterns minimizing muscle effort at a given posture, and (3) generalizable muscle activation patterns that explicitly minimized deviations from experimentally-identified synergy force vectors across all postures. Generalizability was measured by the deviation between the simulated force direction of the candidate muscle activation pattern and the experimental synergy force vectors at the test postures. Force angle deviations were the greatest for the randomly selected feasible muscle activation patterns (e.g., >100°), intermediate for effort-wise optimal muscle activation patterns (e.g., ~20°), and smallest for generalizable muscle activation patterns (e.g., synergy force vector was reduced by ~45% when generalizability requirements were imposed. Muscles recruited in the generalizable muscle activation patterns had less sensitive torque-producing characteristics to changes in postures. We

  8. Antibiotic resistance rates and physician antibiotic prescription patterns of uncomplicated urinary tract infections in southern Chinese primary care

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Carmen Ka Man; Kung, Kenny; Au-Doung, Philip Lung Wai; Ip, Margaret; Lee, Nelson; Fung, Alice; Wong, Samuel Yeung Shan

    2017-01-01

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in primary care. Whilst primary care physicians are called to be antimicrobial stewards, there is limited primary care antibiotic resistance surveillance and physician antibiotic prescription data available in southern Chinese primary care. The study aimed to investigate the antibiotic resistance rate and antibiotic prescription patterns in female patients with uncomplicated UTI. Factors associated with antibiotic resistance and prescrip...

  9. Epidemiological Features and Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Haemophilus influenzae Originating from Respiratory Tract and Vaginal Specimens in Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Ping; Hua, Chun-Zhen; Sun, Li-Ying; Wang, Hong-Jiao; Chen, Zhi-Min; Shang, Shi-Qiang

    2017-12-01

    Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) is a common pathogen of respiratory tract infections in children, however, as a possible cause of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls, its epidemiological features, antibiotic-resistance patterns, and treatment are seldom noted. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Specimens obtained from patients were inoculated on Haemophilus selective medium; and drug-sensitivities tests were determined using the disk diffusion method. A cefinase disk was used to detect β-lactamase. A total of 610 H. influenzae strains, 81.6% (498/610) from the respiratory tract and 18.0% (110/610) from the vagina, were identified in the Children's Hospital in 2015. The age of the children with respiratory tract strains were significantly younger than those with vaginal strains (P influenzae isolation rate in May was the highest. The β-lactamase positive rate was 51.5% (314/610), and 52.5% (320/610) were resistant to ampicillin. The susceptibilities rates to cefuroxime, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefotaxime, clarithromycin, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim were 72.1% (440/610), 95.9%, 96.4% (588/610), 81.8% (499/610), and 36.4% (222/610), respectively. Higher resistance to ampicillin, cefuroxime, clarithromycin, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim were found in respiratory tract strains, compared with vaginal strains (P influenzae in the respiratory tract were cured with oral or intravenous β-lactam antibiotics. Of all patients with vaginal strains, 50% (55/110) were cured with topical ofloxacin gel, and 44.5% (49/110) were cured with oral β-lactam antibiotics. The drug-resistance rates of H. influenzae isolated from vagina were lower than those from the respiratory tract. Topical ofloxacin gel or oral β-lactam antibiotics are effective treatments to eliminate the H. influenza causing infection in the vagina. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacteria isolated from patients with urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.U.; Mirza, I.A.; Ikram, A.; Afzal, A.; Ali, S.; Hussain, A.; Ghafoor, T.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial pathogens in the patients of urinary tract infection reporting at a tertiary care hospital. Study Design: Laboratory based study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from January to December 2012. Methodology: A total of 440 culture positive bacterial isolates from 1110 urine samples; submitted over a period of one year were included in this study. Identification of bacterial isolates was done by standard biochemical profile of the organisms. The antimicrobial susceptibility of culture positive bacterial isolates was performed by disk diffusion method as recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute guidelines (CLSI). Results: Out of the 440 culture positive urine samples, 152 (34.6%) were from indoor patients whereas 288 (65.4%) from outdoor patients. Gram negative bacteria accounted for 414 (94%) of the total isolates while rest of the 26 (6%) were Gram positive bacteria. The most prevalent bacterial isolate was Escherichia (E.) coli 270 (61.3%) followed by Pseudomonas (P.) aeruginosa 52 (12%) and Klebsiella (K.) pneumoniae 42 (9.5%). The susceptibility pattern of E. coli showed that 96.2% of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to imipenem, 85.1% to amikacin, 80.7% to piperacillin/tazobactam and 72.6% to nitrofurantoin. In case of P. aeruginsosa, 73% bacterial isolates were sensitive to tazobactam/piperacillin, 69.2% to sulbactam/cefoperazone and 65.38% to imipenem. The antibiogram of K. pneumoniae has revealed that 76.1% of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to imipenem and 52.3% to piperacillin/tazobactam. Nitrofurantoin and imipenem were the most effective antimicrobials amongst the Enterococcus spp. as 92.3% showed susceptibility to this bacterial isolate. Conclusion: Majority of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to imipenem and piperacillin/tazobactam while susceptibility to most of the commonly used oral

  11. PABPN1 polyalanine tract deletion and long expansions modify its aggregation pattern and expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Arnaud F.; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Alexander, Christine; Dicaire, Marie-Josee; Sasseville, A. Marie-Josee; Langelier, Yves; Rouleau, Guy A.; Brais, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Expansions of a (GCN) 10 /polyalanine tract in the Poly(A) Binding Protein Nuclear 1 (PABPN1) cause autosomal dominant oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD). In OPMD muscles, as in models, PABPN1 accumulates in intranuclear inclusions (INIs) whereas in other diseases caused by similar polyalanine expansions, the mutated proteins have been shown to abnormally accumulate in the cytoplasm. This study presents the impact on the subcellular localization of PABPN1 produced by large expansions or deletion of its polyalanine tract. Large tracts of more than 24 alanines result in the nuclear accumulation of PABPN1 in SFRS2-positive functional speckles and a significant decline in cell survival. These large expansions do not cause INIs formation nor do they lead to cytoplasmic accumulation. Deletion of the polyalanine tract induces the formation of aggregates that are located on either side and cross the nuclear membrane, highlighting the possible role of the N-terminal polyalanine tract in PABPN1 nucleo-cytoplasmic transport. We also show that even though five other proteins with polyalanine tracts tend to aggregate when over-expressed they do not co-aggregate with PABPN1 INIs. This study presents the first experimental evidence that there may be a relative loss of function in OPMD by decreasing the availability of PABPN1 through an INI-independent mechanism

  12. Postembryonic development of centrally generated flight motor patterns in the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierk, Ricardo; Duch, Carsten; Pflüger, Hans-Joachim

    2010-01-01

    This study analyses the maturation of centrally generated flight motor patterns during metamorphosis of Manduca sexta. Bath application of the octopamine agonist chlordimeform to the isolated central nervous system of adult moths reliably induces fictive flight patterns in wing depressor and elevator motoneurons. Pattern maturation is investigated by chlordimeform application at different developmental stages. Chlordimeform also induces motor patterns in larval ganglia, which differ from fictive flight, indicating that in larvae and adults, octopamine affects different networks. First changes in motoneuron activity occur at the pupal stage P10. Rhythmic motor output is induced in depressor, but not in elevator motoneurons at P12. Adult-like fictive flight activity in motoneurons is observed at P16 and increases in speed and precision until emergence 2 days later. Pharmacological block of chloride channels with picrotoxin also induces fictive flight in adults, suggesting that the pattern-generating network can be activated by the removal of inhibition, and that proper network function does not rely on GABA(A) receptors. Our results suggest that the flight pattern-generating network becomes gradually established between P12 and P16, and is further refined until adulthood. These findings are discussed in the context of known physiological and structural CNS development during Manduca metamorphosis.

  13. Origins location of the outflow tract ventricular arrhythmias exhibiting qrS pattern or QS pattern with a notch on the descending limb in lead V1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cong; Zheng, Cheng; Zhou, De-Pu; Li, Xiao-Wei; Wu, Shu-Jie; Lin, Jia-Feng

    2017-05-15

    Ventricular outflow tract(VOT) ventricular arrhythmias(VAs) presenting qrS pattern or QS pattern with a notch on the descending limb in lead V1 were consistently thought of arising from the commissure between left and right coronary cusp (L-RCC) by previous studies. However, we found they could originate from other anatomic structures in VOT. This study aimed to investigate the exact origin of this kind VAs. Forty-nine patients of VOT premature ventricular contrations/ventricular tachycardia(PVCs/VT) with lead V1 presenting qrS pattern or QS pattern with a notch on the descending limb undergoing successful radiofrequency catheter ablation(RFCA) in our center were analyzed. 12-lead electrocardiogram(ECG) of these PVCs/VT were summarized. Among these PVCs/VT, 37 cases exhibited qrS morphology in lead V1, 12 cases presented QS pattern with a notch on the descending limb in the same lead. Based on the successful ablation sites, these PVCs/VT were divided into 2 groups: (1)Right ventricular outflow tract(RVOT) group (26 cases), and (2) Left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) group(23 cases, 4 cases originating from the left coronary cusp(LCC), 2 from the right coronary cusp(RCC), 16 from the L-RCC, 1 from the area inferior to LCC(ILCC)). The ECG characteristics of each PVCs/VT were analyzed. Among these PVCs/VT, applying the precordial transitional zone index(TZ index) pattern or QS pattern with a notch on descending limb not only arising from L-RCC, but also RVOT, LCC, RCC and ILCC. Combining TZ index and QRS morphology in lead I to predict origin site of these kind VAs is a convenient, simple and reliable method and facilitates the RFCA procedure.

  14. Relationship among bacterial virulence, bladder dysfunction, vesicoureteral reflux and patterns of urinary tract infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Douglas W; Patel, Ashay S; Horvath, Dennis J; Li, Birong; Koff, Stephen A; Justice, Sheryl S

    2012-07-01

    We hypothesized that virulence levels of Escherichia coli isolates causing pediatric urinary tract infections differ according to severity of infection and also among various uropathies known to contribute to pediatric urinary tract infections. We evaluated these relationships using in vitro cytokine interleukin-6 elicitation. E. coli isolates were cultured from children presenting with urinary tract infections. In vitro cytokine (interleukin-6) elicitation was quantified for each isolate and the bacteria were grouped according to type of infection and underlying uropathy (neurogenic bladder, nonneurogenic bowel and bladder dysfunction, primary vesicoureteral reflux, no underlying etiology). A total of 40 E. coli isolates were collected from children with a mean age of 61.5 months (range 1 to 204). Mean level of in vitro cytokine elicitation from febrile urinary tract infection producing E. coli was significantly lower than for nonfebrile strains (p = 0.01). The interleukin-6 response to E. coli in the neurogenic bladder group was also significantly higher than in the vesicoureteral reflux (p = 0.01) and no underlying etiology groups (p = 0.02). In vitro interleukin-6 elicitation, an established marker to determine bacterial virulence, correlates inversely with clinical urinary tract infection severity. Less virulent, high cytokine producing E. coli were more likely to cause cystitis and were more commonly found in patients with neurogenic bladder and nonneurogenic bowel and bladder dysfunction, whereas higher virulence isolates were more likely to produce febrile urinary tract infections and to affect children with primary vesicoureteral reflux and no underlying etiology. These findings suggest that bacteria of different virulence levels may be responsible for differences in severity of pediatric urinary tract infections and may vary among different underlying uropathies. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by

  15. The interaction of positive and negative sensory feedback loops in dynamic regulation of a motor pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausborn, Jessica; Wolf, Harald; Stein, Wolfgang

    2009-10-01

    In many rhythmic behaviors, phasic sensory feedback modifies the motor pattern. This modification is assumed to depend on feedback sign (positive vs. negative). While on a phenomenological level feedback sign is well defined, many sensory pathways also process antagonistic, and possibly contradictory, sensory information. We here model the locust flight pattern generator and proprioceptive feedback provided by the tegula wing receptor to test the functional significance of sensory pathways processing antagonistic information. We demonstrate that the tegula provides delayed positive feedback via interneuron 301, while all other pathways provide negative feedback. Contradictory to previous assumptions, the increase of wing beat frequency when the tegula is activated during flight is due to the positive feedback. By use of an abstract model we reveal that the regulation of motor pattern frequency by sensory feedback critically depends on the interaction of positive and negative feedback, and thus on the weighting of antagonistic pathways.

  16. Onset and spreading patterns of upper and lower motor neuron symptoms in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, Sonja; Kollewe, Katja; Fahlbusch, Marion; Zapf, Antonia; Dengler, Reinhard; Krampfl, Klaus; Petri, Susanne

    2011-05-01

    The potential linkage between upper (UMN) and lower motor neuron (LMN) involvement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has not yet been fully elucidated. There is ongoing discussion as to whether ALS is primarily a disease of UMNs or LMNs. We performed a retrospective analysis of 189 ALS patients from our ALS outpatient database to investigate the different spreading patterns of UMN and LMN affection in disease progression in relation to the onset region. The body region with the highest UMN involvement at onset in general also had the highest frequency of LMN signs and vice versa. This is in line with the hypothesis of a focal onset of disease, which then spreads to adjacent areas. However, there was a great variation between ALS phenotypes. These observations support the hypothesis of focal damage of a localized group of motor neurons, which then spreads to adjacent motor neurons. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Examining Differences in Patterns of Sensory and Motor Recovery After Stroke With Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrau, Jennifer A; Herter, Troy M; Scott, Stephen H; Dukelow, Sean P

    2015-12-01

    Developing a better understanding of the trajectory and timing of stroke recovery is critical for developing patient-centered rehabilitation approaches. Here, we quantified proprioceptive and motor deficits using robotic technology during the first 6 months post stroke to characterize timing and patterns in recovery. We also make comparisons of robotic assessments to traditional clinical measures. One hundred sixteen subjects with unilateral stroke were studied at 4 time points: 1, 6, 12, and 26 weeks post stroke. Subjects performed robotic assessments of proprioceptive (position sense and kinesthesia) and motor function (unilateral reaching task and bimanual object hit task), as well as several clinical measures (Functional Independence Measure, Purdue Pegboard, and Chedoke-McMaster Stroke Assessment). One week post stroke, many subjects displayed proprioceptive (48% position sense and 68% kinesthesia) and motor impairments (80% unilateral reaching and 85% bilateral movement). Interindividual recovery on robotic measures was highly variable. However, we characterized recovery as early (normal by 6 weeks post stroke), late (normal by 26 weeks post stroke), or incomplete (impaired at 26 weeks post stroke). Proprioceptive and motor recovery often followed different timelines. Across all time points, robotic measures were correlated with clinical measures. These results highlight the need for more sensitive, targeted identification of sensory and motor deficits to optimize rehabilitation after stroke. Furthermore, the trajectory of recovery for some individuals with mild to moderate stroke may be much longer than previously considered. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Distinct Laterality in Forelimb-Movement Representations of Rat Primary and Secondary Motor Cortical Neurons with Intratelencephalic and Pyramidal Tract Projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soma, Shogo; Saiki, Akiko; Yoshida, Junichi; Ríos, Alain; Kawabata, Masanori; Sakai, Yutaka; Isomura, Yoshikazu

    2017-11-08

    Two distinct motor areas, the primary and secondary motor cortices (M1 and M2), play crucial roles in voluntary movement in rodents. The aim of this study was to characterize the laterality in motor cortical representations of right and left forelimb movements. To achieve this goal, we developed a novel behavioral task, the Right-Left Pedal task, in which a head-restrained male rat manipulates a right or left pedal with the corresponding forelimb. This task enabled us to monitor independent movements of both forelimbs with high spatiotemporal resolution. We observed phasic movement-related neuronal activity (Go-type) and tonic hold-related activity (Hold-type) in isolated unilateral movements. In both M1 and M2, Go-type neurons exhibited bias toward contralateral preference, whereas Hold-type neurons exhibited no bias. The contralateral bias was weaker in M2 than M1. Moreover, we differentiated between intratelencephalic (IT) and pyramidal tract (PT) neurons using optogenetically evoked spike collision in rats expressing channelrhodopsin-2. Even in identified PT and IT neurons, Hold-type neurons exhibited no lateral bias. Go-type PT neurons exhibited bias toward contralateral preference, whereas IT neurons exhibited no bias. Our findings suggest a different laterality of movement representations of M1 and M2, in each of which IT neurons are involved in cooperation of bilateral movements, whereas PT neurons control contralateral movements. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In rodents, the primary and secondary motor cortices (M1 and M2) are involved in voluntary movements via distinct projection neurons: intratelencephalic (IT) neurons and pyramidal tract (PT) neurons. However, it remains unclear whether the two motor cortices (M1 vs M2) and the two classes of projection neurons (IT vs PT) have different laterality of movement representations. We optogenetically identified these neurons and analyzed their functional activity using a novel behavioral task to monitor movements

  19. Evidence for a general stiffening motor control pattern in neck pain: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisingset, Ingebrigt; Woodhouse, Astrid; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin; Stavdahl, Øyvind; Lorås, Håvard; Gismervik, Sigmund; Andresen, Hege; Austreim, Kristian; Vasseljen, Ottar

    2015-03-17

    Neck pain is associated with several alterations in neck motion and motor control. Previous studies have investigated single constructs of neck motor control, while few have applied a comprehensive set of tests to investigate cervical motor control. This comparative cross- sectional study aimed to investigate different motor control constructs in neck pain patients and healthy controls. A total of 166 subjects participated in the study, 91 healthy controls (HC) and 75 neck pain patients (NP) with long-lasting moderate to severe neck pain. Neck flexibility, proprioception, head steadiness, trajectory movement control, and postural sway were assessed using a 3D motion tracking system (Liberty). The different constructs of neck motion and motor control were based on tests used in previous studies. Neck flexibility was lower in NP compared to HC, indicated by reduced cervical ROM and conjunct motion. Movement velocity was slower in NP compared to HC. Tests of head steadiness showed a stiffer movement pattern in NP compared to HC, indicated by lower head angular velocity. NP patients departed less from a predictable trajectory movement pattern (figure of eight) compared to healthy controls, but there was no difference for unpredictable movement patterns (the Fly test). No differences were found for postural sway in standing with eyes open and eyes closed. However, NP patients had significantly larger postural sway when standing on a balance pad. Proprioception did not differ between the groups. Largest effect sizes (ES) were found for neck flexibility (ES range: 0.2-0.8) and head steadiness (ES range: 1.3-2.0). Neck flexibility was the only construct that showed a significant association with current neck pain, while peak velocity was the only variable that showed a significant association with kinesiophobia. NP patients showed an overall stiffer and more rigid neck motor control pattern compared to HC, indicated by lower neck flexibility, slower movement velocity

  20. Toward the Autism Motor Signature: Gesture patterns during smart tablet gameplay identify children with autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzulewicz, Anna; Sobota, Krzysztof; Delafield-Butt, Jonathan T.

    2016-08-01

    Autism is a developmental disorder evident from infancy. Yet, its clinical identification requires expert diagnostic training. New evidence indicates disruption to motor timing and integration may underpin the disorder, providing a potential new computational marker for its early identification. In this study, we employed smart tablet computers with touch-sensitive screens and embedded inertial movement sensors to record the movement kinematics and gesture forces made by 37 children 3-6 years old with autism and 45 age- and gender-matched children developing typically. Machine learning analysis of the children’s motor patterns identified autism with up to 93% accuracy. Analysis revealed these patterns consisted of greater forces at contact and with a different distribution of forces within a gesture, and gesture kinematics were faster and larger, with more distal use of space. These data support the notion disruption to movement is core feature of autism, and demonstrate autism can be computationally assessed by fun, smart device gameplay.

  1. Conservation of ParaHox genes' function in patterning of the digestive tract of the marine gastropod Gibbula varia

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    Steiner Gerhard

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Presence of all three ParaHox genes has been described in deuterostomes and lophotrochozoans, but to date one of these three genes, Xlox has not been reported from any ecdysozoan taxa and both Xlox and Gsx are absent in nematodes. There is evidence that the ParaHox genes were ancestrally a single chromosomal cluster. Colinear expression of the ParaHox genes in anterior, middle, and posterior tissues of several species studied so far suggest that these genes may be responsible for axial patterning of the digestive tract. So far, there are no data on expression of these genes in molluscs. Results We isolated the complete coding sequences of the three Gibbula varia ParaHox genes, and then tested their expression in larval and postlarval development. In Gibbula varia, the ParaHox genes participate in patterning of the digestive tract and are expressed in some cells of the neuroectoderm. The expression of these genes coincides with the gradual formation of the gut in the larva. Gva-Gsx patterns potential neural precursors of cerebral ganglia as well as of the apical sensory organ. During larval development this gene is involved in the formation of the mouth and during postlarval development it is expressed in the precursor cells involved in secretion of the radula, the odontoblasts. Gva-Xolx and Gva-Cdx are involved in gut patterning in the middle and posterior parts of digestive tract, respectively. Both genes are expressed in some ventral neuroectodermal cells; however the expression of Gva-Cdx fades in later larval stages while the expression of Gva-Xolx in these cells persists. Conclusions In Gibbula varia the ParaHox genes are expressed during anterior-posterior patterning of the digestive system. This colinearity is not easy to spot during early larval stages because the differentiated endothelial cells within the yolk permanently migrate to their destinations in the gut. After torsion, Gsx patterns the mouth and foregut

  2. Patterns and consequences of inadequate sleep in college students: substance use and motor vehicle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Daniel J; Bramoweth, Adam D

    2010-06-01

    We examined college sleep patterns and consequences using a cross-sectional design. We found that students get insufficient sleep and frequently use medication and alcohol as sleep aids, use stimulants as alertness aids, and fall asleep at the wheel, or have motor vehicle accidents due to sleepiness. Future studies should focus on effective interventions for sleep in college students. Copyright 2010 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Detection of Ludic Patterns in Two Triadic Motor Games and Differences in Decision Complexity

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    Miguel Pic Aguilar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The triad is a particular structure in which an ambivalent social relationship takes place. This work is focused on the search of behavioral regularities in the practice of motor games in triad, which is a little known field. For the detection of behavioral patterns not visible to the naked eye, we use Theme. A chasing games model was followed, with rules, and in two different structures (A↔B↔C↔A and A → B → C → A on four class groups (two for each structure, for a total of 84, 12, and 13 year old secondary school students, 37 girls (44% and 47 boys (56%. The aim was to examine if the players' behavior, in relation to the triad structure, matches with any ludic behavior patterns. An observational methodology was applied, with a nomothetic, punctual and multidimensional design. The intra and inter-evaluative correlation coefficients and the generalizability theory ensured the quality of the data. A mixed behavioral role system was used (four criteria and 15 categories, and the pattern detection software Theme was applied to detect temporal regularities in the order of event occurrences. The results show that time location of motor responses in triad games was not random. In the “maze” game we detected more complex ludic patterns than the “three fields” game, which might be explained by means of structural determinants such as circulation. This research points out the decisional complexity in motor games, and it confirms the differences among triads from the point of view of motor communication.

  4. Major motor atrophic patterns in the face and neck: CT evaluation

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    Harnsberger, H.R.; Dillon, W.P.

    1985-06-01

    Cranial nerve deficits from various pathologic processes of the head and neck may result in characteristic patterns of denervation muscular atrophy. Such atrophic patterns may be clues to the location and extent of the lesion, particularly when cranial nerves are involved early in the course of the disease process. Thirty-six patients with computed tomographic (CT) evidence of muscular atrophy secondary to pathologic conditions involving the motor division of cranial nerves were examined. Five characteristic denervation muscular atrophy patterns seen on CT scans were identified. Recognition of these atrophic patterns can prevent misinterpretation of their CT appearance and direct the CT examination to the course of the compromised cranial nerve from the brainstem to its peripheral innervation.

  5. Non-stationary Discharge Patterns in Motor Cortex under Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation: A Review.

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    Sabato eSantaniello

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS of the subthalamic nucleus (STN directly modulates the basal ganglia, but how such stimulation impacts the cortex upstream is largely unknown. There is evidence of cortical activation in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats and facilitation of motor evoked potentials in Parkinson’s disease (PD patients, but the impact of the DBS settings on the cortical activity in normal vs. Parkinsonian conditions is still debated.In recent studies, we used point process models to analyze non-stationary activation patterns and inter-neuronal dependencies in the motor and sensory cortices of awake non-human primates during STN DBS. We reported that these features are enhanced after treatment with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP, which causes a consistent PD-like motor impairment, and that high-frequency DBS (i.e., >100 pulses-per-second [pps] strongly reduces the short-term patterns (3-7ms period both before and after MPTP treatment, while it elicits a consistent short-latency post-stimulus activation. Low-frequency DBS (≤50pps, instead, had negligible effects on the non-stationary features while decreased the burstiness of the spike trains.We evaluate here the impact of the DBS settings on the cortical discharge patterns by using tools from the information theory (receiver operating characteristic curve, information rate, etc. and report that the probability of spiking of the cortical neurons is significantly conditioned on the DBS settings, with such dependency being significantly larger for high- vs. low-frequency DBS. Overall, the selective suppression of non-stationary features and the increased modulation of the spike probability suggest that high-frequency STN DBS enhances the neuronal activation in motor and sensory cortices, presumably because of reinforcement mechanisms, which perhaps involve the overlap between feedback antidromic and feed-forward orthodromic responses along the basal ganglia

  6. Distinct brain metabolic patterns separately associated with cognition, motor function, and aging in Parkinson's disease dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ji Hyun; Katako, Audrey; Aljuaid, Maram; Goertzen, Andrew L; Borys, Andrew; Hobson, Douglas E; Kim, Seok Min; Lee, Chong Sik

    2017-12-01

    We explored whether patients with Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) show a distinct spatial metabolic pattern that characterizes cognitive deficits in addition to motor dysfunction. Eighteen patients with PDD underwent 3 separate positron emission tomography sessions with [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose (for glucose metabolism), fluorinated N-3-fluoropropyl-2-beta-carboxymethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane (for dopamine transporter density) and Pittsburgh compound-B (for beta-amyloid load). We confirmed in PDD versus normal controls, overall hypometabolism in the posterior and prefrontal brain regions accompanied with hypermetabolism in subcortical structures and the cerebellar vermis. A multivariate network analysis then revealed 3 metabolic patterns that are separately associated with cognitive performance (p = 0.042), age (p = 0.042), and motor symptom severity (p = 0.039). The age-related pattern's association with aging was replicated in healthy controls (p = 0.047) and patients with Alzheimer's disease (p = 0.002). The cognition-related pattern's association with cognitive performance was observed, with a trend-level of correlation, in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (p = 0.084) but not in patients with Alzheimer's disease (p = 0.974). We found no association with fluorinated N-3-fluoropropyl-2-beta-carboxymethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane and Pittsburgh compound-B positron emission tomography with patients' cognitive performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Motor vehicle-bicycle crashes in Beijing: irregular maneuvers, crash patterns, and injury severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xinping; Ma, Ming; Huang, Helai; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Wu, Chaozhong

    2011-09-01

    This research presents a comprehensive analysis of motor vehicle-bicycle crashes using 4 years of reported crash data (2004-2007) in Beijing. The interrelationship of irregular maneuvers, crash patterns and bicyclist injury severity are investigated by controlling for a variety of risk factors related to bicyclist demographics, roadway geometric design, road environment, etc. Results show that different irregular maneuvers are correlated with a number of risk factors at different roadway locations such as the bicyclist age and gender, weather and traffic condition. Furthermore, angle collisions are the leading pattern of motor vehicle-bicycle crashes, and different irregular maneuvers may lead to some specific crash patterns such as head-on or rear-end crashes. Orthokinetic scrape is more likely to result in running over bicyclists, which may lead to more severe injury. Moreover, bicyclist injury severity level could be elevated by specific crash patterns and risk factors including head-on and angle collisions, occurrence of running over bicyclists, night without streetlight, roads without median/division, higher speed limit, heavy vehicle involvement and older bicyclists. This study suggests installation of median, division between roadway and bikeway, and improvement of illumination on road segments. Reduced speed limit is also recommended at roadway locations with high bicycle traffic volume. Furthermore, it may be necessary to develop safety campaigns aimed at male, teenage and older bicyclists. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Onset and spreading patterns of lower motor neuron involvements predict survival in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura-Kiyono, Chieko; Kimura, Fumiharu; Ishida, Simon; Nakajima, Hideto; Hosokawa, Takafumi; Sugino, Masakazu; Hanafusa, Toshiaki

    2011-11-01

    To define patterns of spread through the order of lower motor neuron involvement (first, second or third order), relationships between interval or sites of affected areas from onset to involvement of a second region, and prognosis, including 5 year survival, normal preservation of motor function at onset of respiratory symptoms and cumulative occurrence of each region and direction of spread. 150 patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) underwent follow-up at 3 month intervals until the appearance of respiratory symptoms. Symptom appearances were determined using the revised version of the ALS Functional Rating Scale. Median survival with combined type onset (two regions simultaneously) was shorter (18 months) than with bulbar onset (26 months, p=0.01). The interval from onset to involvement of the second region correlated significantly with survival, independent of particular combinations. 5 year survival rate was 21% for lower limb onset, 18% for upper limb onset and 16% for bulbar onset. No patient with a rapid spread pattern (two regions within 3 months from onset) survived >5 years. Early manifestations of bulbar symptoms within 1 year were associated with worse survival (pspread longitudinally to adjacent regions. Bulbar function remained preserved in 27%, lower limb function in 10% and upper limb function in 2.7%. The interval between onset and involvement of the second region is an important predictor of survival. The data support the contiguous anatomical propagation of lower motor neuron involvement in sporadic ALS.

  9. Melanoma of the Sinonasal Tract: Value of a Septate Pattern on Precontrast T1-Weighted MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y-K; Choi, J W; Kim, H-J; Kim, H Y; Park, G M; Ko, Y-H; Cha, J; Kim, S T

    2018-01-25

    Various tumors of the sinonasal tract can exhibit high signal intensity on T1WI. The purpose of this study was to determine the value of a septate pattern on precontrast T1WI for diagnosing sinonasal melanoma. Retrospectively, 3 observers independently reviewed MR images of 31 histologically proved sinonasal melanomas with special attention to the presence or absence of a septate pattern on precontrast T1WI, defined as alternating hyperintense and hypointense striations on precontrast T1WI. For comparison, we evaluated the prevalence of a septate pattern on precontrast T1WI in 106 nonmelanomatous sinonasal malignant tumors with 16 different histologic types. We also tried to identify the histopathologic features responsible for the septate pattern on precontrast T1WI. Twenty-seven (87.1%) of 31 sinonasal melanomas showed hyperintense foci on T1WI, among which a septate pattern on precontrast T1WI was seen in 23 (74.2%), while 22 (20.8%) of 106 nonmelanomatous malignant tumors demonstrated hyperintense foci on T1WI, among which only 3 (2.8%) showed a septate pattern on precontrast T1WI. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of a septate pattern on precontrast T1WI for the diagnosis of sinonasal melanoma were 74%, 97%, 88%, 93%, and 92%, respectively. Although limited due to the retrospective nature, 4 of 23 histologically reviewed sinonasal melanomas revealed an uneven distribution of melanin with alternating melanin and fibrous bands within the tumors. A septate pattern on precontrast T1WI might be an adjunctive imaging finding for the diagnosis of sinonasal melanoma. This might be attributed histologically to an uneven distribution of melanin and hemorrhage within the tumors. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  10. Flip, flop and fly: modulated motor control and highly variable movement patterns of autotomized gecko tails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Timothy E; Russell, Anthony P

    2010-02-23

    Many animals lose and regenerate appendages, and tail autotomy in lizards is an extremely well-studied example of this. Whereas the energetic, ecological and functional ramifications of tail loss for many lizards have been extensively documented, little is known about the behaviour and neuromuscular control of the autotomized tail. We used electromyography and high-speed video to quantify the motor control and movement patterns of autotomized tails of leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius). In addition to rhythmic swinging, we show that they exhibit extremely complex movement patterns for up to 30 min following autotomy, including acrobatic flips up to 3 cm in height. Unlike the output of most central pattern generators (CPGs), muscular control of the tail is variable and can be arrhythmic. We suggest that the gecko tail is well suited for studies involving CPGs, given that this spinal preparation is naturally occurring, requires no surgery and exhibits complex modulation.

  11. A gait paradigm reveals different patterns of abnormal cerebellar motor learning in primary focal dystonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffland, B S; Veugen, L C; Janssen, M M H P; Pasman, J W; Weerdesteyn, V; van de Warrenburg, B P

    2014-12-01

    Accumulating evidence points to a role of the cerebellum in the pathophysiology of primary dystonia. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the abnormalities of cerebellar motor learning in primary dystonia are solely detectable in more pure forms of cerebellum-dependent associative motor learning paradigms, or whether these are also present in other motor learning paradigms that rely heavily on the cerebellum but in addition require a more widespread sensorimotor network. Twenty-six patients with various forms of focal dystonia and 10 age-matched healthy controls participated in a motor learning paradigm on a split-belt treadmill. By using reflective markers, three-dimensional kinematics were recorded using a 6-camera motion analysis system. Adaptation walking parameters were analyzed offline, comparing the different dystonia groups and healthy controls. Patients with blepharospasm and writer's cramp were significantly impaired on various adaptation walking parameters. Whereas results of cervical dystonia patients did not differ from healthy controls in terms of adaptation walking parameters, differences in parameters of normal gait were found. We have here demonstrated abnormal sensorimotor adaptation with the split-belt paradigm in patients with blepharospasm and writer's cramp. This reinforces the current concept of cerebellar dysfunction in primary dystonia, and that this extends beyond more pure forms of cerebellum-dependent associative motor learning paradigms. However, the finding of normal adaptation in cervical dystonia patients indicates that the pattern of cerebellar dysfunction may be slightly different for the various forms of primary focal dystonia, suggesting that actual cerebellar pathology may not be a primary driving force in dystonia.

  12. Muscle activation patterns and motor anatomy of Anna's hummingbirds Calypte anna and zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Edward R; Keeney, Brooke K; Kung, Eric; Makan, Sirish; Wild, J Martin; Altshuler, Douglas L

    2013-01-01

    Flying animals exhibit profound transformations in anatomy, physiology, and neural architecture. Although much is known about adaptations in the avian skeleton and musculature, less is known about neuroanatomy and motor unit integration for bird flight. Hummingbirds are among the most maneuverable and specialized of vertebrate fliers, and two unusual neuromuscular features have been previously reported: (1) the pectoralis major has a unique distribution pattern of motor end plates (MEPs) compared with all other birds and (2) electromyograms (EMGs) from the hummingbird's pectoral muscles, the pectoralis major and the supracoracoideus, show activation bursts composed of one or a few spikes that appear to have a very consistent pattern. Here, we place these findings in a broader context by comparing the MEPs, EMGs, and organization of the spinal motor neuron pools of flight muscles of Anna's hummingbird Calypte anna, zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, and, for MEPs, several other species. The previously shown MEP pattern of the hummingbird pectoralis major is not shared with its closest taxonomic relative, the swift, and appears to be unique to hummingbirds. MEP arrangements in previously undocumented wing muscles show patterns that differ somewhat from other avian muscles. In the parallel-fibered strap muscles of the shoulder, MEP patterns appear to relate to muscle length, with the smallest muscles having fibers that span the entire muscle. MEP patterns in pennate distal wing muscles were the same regardless of size, with tightly clustered bands in the middle portion of the muscle, not evenly distributed bands over the muscle's entire length. Muscle activations were examined during slow forward flight in both species, during hovering in hummingbirds, and during slow ascents in zebra finches. The EMG bursts of a wing muscle, the pronator superficialis, were highly variable in peak number, size, and distribution across wingbeats for both species. In the pectoralis

  13. Patterns of Facial Fractures and Protective Device Use in Motor Vehicle Collisions From 2007 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, David A; Saha, Sandeep; Nayar, Harry S; Doyle, John F; Agarwal, Suresh K; Chaiet, Scott R

    2016-12-01

    Facial fractures after motor vehicle collisions are a significant source of facial trauma in patients seen at trauma centers. With recent changes in use of seat belts and advances in airbag technology, new patterns in the incidence of facial fractures after motor vehicle collisions have yet to be quantified. To evaluate the incidence of facial fractures and assess the influence of protective device use in motor vehicle collisions in patients treated at trauma centers in the United States. Using a data set from the National Trauma Data Bank, we retrospectively assessed facial fractures in motor vehicle collisions occurring from 2007 through 2012, reported by level I, II, III, and IV trauma centers. Data analysis was performed from March 13 to September 22, 2015. We characterized the data set by subsite of facial injury using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes including mandible, midface, and nasal fractures. We assessed the influence of variables such as age, sex, race/ethnicity, crash occupant (driver or passenger), use of protective device, and presence or suspicion of alcohol use. A total of 518 106 patients required assessment at a trauma center after a motor vehicle collision, with 56 422 (10.9%) experiencing at least 1 facial fracture. Nasal fracture was the most common facial fracture (5.6%), followed by midface (3.8%), other (3.2%), orbital (2.6%), mandible (2.2%), and panfacial fractures (0.8%). Of the subset sustaining at least 1 facial fracture, 5.8% had airbag protection only, 26.9% used a seat belt only, and 9.3% used both protective devices, while 57.6% used no protective device. Compared with no protective device, the use of an airbag alone significantly reduced the likelihood of facial fracture after a motor vehicle collision (odds ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.79-0.86); use of a seat belt alone had a greater effect (odds ratio, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.56-0.58) and use of both devices provided the greatest odds reduction (odds ratio

  14. Kinetic theory of pattern formation in mixtures of microtubules and molecular motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryshev, Ivan; Marenduzzo, Davide; Goryachev, Andrew B.; Morozov, Alexander

    2018-02-01

    In this study we formulate a theoretical approach, based on a Boltzmann-like kinetic equation, to describe pattern formation in two-dimensional mixtures of microtubular filaments and molecular motors. Following the previous work by Aranson and Tsimring [Phys. Rev. E 74, 031915 (2006), 10.1103/PhysRevE.74.031915] we model the motor-induced reorientation of microtubules as collision rules, and devise a semianalytical method to calculate the corresponding interaction integrals. This procedure yields an infinite hierarchy of kinetic equations that we terminate by employing a well-established closure strategy, developed in the pattern-formation community and based on a power-counting argument. We thus arrive at a closed set of coupled equations for slowly varying local density and orientation of the microtubules, and study its behavior by performing a linear stability analysis and direct numerical simulations. By comparing our method with the work of Aranson and Tsimring, we assess the validity of the assumptions required to derive their and our theories. We demonstrate that our approximation-free evaluation of the interaction integrals and our choice of a systematic closure strategy result in a rather different dynamical behavior than was previously reported. Based on our theory, we discuss the ensuing phase diagram and the patterns observed.

  15. Antibiotic resistance pattern of different Escherichia coli phylogenetic groups isolated from human urinary tract infection and avian colibacillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemnia, Ali; Ahmadi, Malahat; Dilmaghani, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    The emergence and propagation of different phylogenetic groups of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli have become a worldwide health concern in human and veterinary medicine. Therefore, the evaluation of the phylogenetic distribution of antibiotic-resistant E. coli is important for therapeutic and economic purposes. The aims of this study were to determine phylogenetic groups and patterns of antibiotic resistance of E. coli strains isolated from human urinary tract infection and avian colibacillosis. A total of 50 E. coli isolates (25 from human urinary tract infection and 25 from avian colibacillosis) were characterized by culture and assigned as different phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2, and D) by triplex PCR assay. Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was used to assess the susceptibility of all isolates to ten antibiotics. RESULTS showed that the majority of the human and poultry isolates belonged to phylogenetic groups A and B2 and phylogenetic group B1 of the avian pathogenic strain isolates were the most drug-resistant isolates. Most of the isolates were resistant to at least five antibiotics, and multiple drug resistance was observed in 98% of E. coli isolates. A high degree of resistance was seen against penicillin and erythromycin. According to the results of this study, multidrug-resistance among isolates and high relation between phylogenetic groups and resistance in both human and poultry isolates were observed.

  16. Effect of Nutrition with Propolis and Bee Pollen Supplements on Bacteria Colonization Pattern in Gastrointestinal Tract of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Kročko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available For replace of banned antibiotics used as growth promoters in broiler chicken nutrition, the supplements as probiotics, prebiotics, antioxidants, acidifiers and enzymes, has been mainly studied. These alternative substances improved the feed conversion, performance, growth and health of broiler chickens through a mechanisms associated with gastrointestinal tract and bacteria colonization. Propolis and bee pollen belong to the group of naturally occurring substances of animal and plant origin with antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. The scope of this study was to find a counts of Enterococcus sp., Enterobacteriaceae family and lactic acid bacteria in crop, ileum and caecum of broiler chickens after propolis and bee pollen addition in their nutrition. Lower dosages of propolis and higher dosages of bee pollen in chicken nutrition significantly (P0.05 number of Enterobacteriaceae family isolates. The bacteria colonization pattern in gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens can be affected also by combination of nutrition supplements and pH value which can provide the advantage to some bacteria and influenced their competitiveness.

  17. The humoral pattern recognition molecule PTX3 is a key component of innate immunity against urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaillon, Sébastien; Moalli, Federica; Ragnarsdottir, Bryndis; Bonavita, Eduardo; Puthia, Manoj; Riva, Federica; Barbati, Elisa; Nebuloni, Manuela; Cvetko Krajinovic, Lidija; Markotic, Alemka; Valentino, Sonia; Doni, Andrea; Tartari, Silvia; Graziani, Giorgio; Montanelli, Alessandro; Delneste, Yves; Svanborg, Catharina; Garlanda, Cecilia; Mantovani, Alberto

    2014-04-17

    Immunity in the urinary tract has distinct and poorly understood pathophysiological characteristics and urinary tract infections (UTIs) are important causes of morbidity and mortality. We investigated the role of the soluble pattern recognition molecule pentraxin 3 (PTX3), a key component of the humoral arm of innate immunity, in UTIs. PTX3-deficient mice showed defective control of UTIs and exacerbated inflammation. Expression of PTX3 was induced in uroepithelial cells by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) in a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)- and MyD88-dependent manner. PTX3 enhanced UPEC phagocytosis and phagosome maturation by neutrophils. PTX3 was detected in urine of UTI patients and amounts correlated with disease severity. In cohorts of UTI-prone patients, PTX3 gene polymorphisms correlated with susceptibility to acute pyelonephritis and cystitis. These results suggest that PTX3 is an essential component of innate resistance against UTIs. Thus, the cellular and humoral arms of innate immunity exert complementary functions in mediating resistance against UTIs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Distribution pattern of anthropogenic marine debris along the gastrointestinal tract of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) as implications for rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colferai, André S; Silva-Filho, Rodolfo Pinho; Martins, Aryse Moreira; Bugoni, Leandro

    2017-06-15

    Pollution from anthropogenic marine debris (AMD) is currently the most widely distributed and lasting anthropic impact in the marine environment, affecting hundreds of species, including all sea turtles. In this study, the patterns of AMD distribution along the gastrointestinal tract (GT) and their relationship with obstructions and faecalomas in 62 green turtles (Chelonia mydas) that died during rehabilitation in southern Brazil were determined. The GT was split in seven sections, corresponding to the natural organs and intestinal areas morphologically and physiologically distinct. Mean mass (4.24g) and area (146.74cm 2 ) of AMD in the stomach were higher than in other sections. The anterior portion of the rectum had the highest number of obstructions, followed by the stomach. AMD was associated with the obstructions, with positive correlation between faecalomas and AMD masses. Organs and subdivisions showed marked differences in susceptibility to obstructions caused by AMD, which deserves attention in clinical interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative analysis of antibiotic resistance and phylogenetic group patterns in human and porcine urinary tract infectious Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Viktoria; Nielsen, E.M.; Krag, L.

    2009-01-01

    to relatively benign asymptomatic bacteriuria strains. Here we analyse a spectrum of porcine and human UTI E. coli strains with respect to their antibiotic resistance patterns and their phylogenetic groups, determined by multiplex PCR. The clonal profiles of the strains differed profoundly; whereas human......Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common infectious diseases in humans and domestic animals such as pigs. The most frequent infectious agent in such infections is Escherichia coli. Virulence characteristics of E. coli UTI strains range from highly virulent pyelonephritis strains...... strains predominantly belonged to clonal types B2 and D, these were not seen among the porcine strains, which all belonged to the E. coli clonal groups A and B1. Contrary to the human strains, the majority of the porcine strains were multidrug resistant. The distinct profiles of the porcine strains...

  20. Encoding sensory and motor patterns as time-invariant trajectories in recurrent neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudar, Vishwa; Buonomano, Dean V

    2018-03-14

    Much of the information the brain processes and stores is temporal in nature-a spoken word or a handwritten signature, for example, is defined by how it unfolds in time. However, it remains unclear how neural circuits encode complex time-varying patterns. We show that by tuning the weights of a recurrent neural network (RNN), it can recognize and then transcribe spoken digits. The model elucidates how neural dynamics in cortical networks may resolve three fundamental challenges: first, encode multiple time-varying sensory and motor patterns as stable neural trajectories; second, generalize across relevant spatial features; third, identify the same stimuli played at different speeds-we show that this temporal invariance emerges because the recurrent dynamics generate neural trajectories with appropriately modulated angular velocities. Together our results generate testable predictions as to how recurrent networks may use different mechanisms to generalize across the relevant spatial and temporal features of complex time-varying stimuli. © 2018, Goudar et al.

  1. Cardinality as a Highly Descriptive Feature in Myoelectric Pattern Recognition for Decoding Motor Volition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max eOrtiz-Catalan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate descriptors of muscular activity play an important role in clinical practice and rehabilitation research. Such descriptors are features of myoelectric signals extracted from sliding time windows. A wide variety of myoelectric features have been used as inputs to pattern recognition algorithms that aim to decode motor volition. The output of these algorithms can then be used to control limb prostheses, exoskeletons, and rehabilitation therapies. In the present study, cardinality is introduced and compared with traditional time-domain (Hudgins’ set and other recently proposed myoelectric features (for example, rough entropy. Cardinality was found to consistently outperform other features, including those that are more sophisticated and computationally expensive, despite variations in sampling frequency, time window length, contraction dynamics, type and number of movements (single or simultaneous, and classification algorithms. Provided that the signal resolution is kept between 12 and 14 bits, cardinality improves myoelectric pattern recognition for the prediction of motion volition. This technology is instrumental for the rehabilitation of amputees and patients with motor impairments where myoelectric signals are viable. All code and data used in this work is available online within BioPatRec.

  2. Cardinality as a highly descriptive feature in myoelectric pattern recognition for decoding motor volition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Catalan, Max

    2015-01-01

    Accurate descriptors of muscular activity play an important role in clinical practice and rehabilitation research. Such descriptors are features of myoelectric signals extracted from sliding time windows. A wide variety of myoelectric features have been used as inputs to pattern recognition algorithms that aim to decode motor volition. The output of these algorithms can then be used to control limb prostheses, exoskeletons, and rehabilitation therapies. In the present study, cardinality is introduced and compared with traditional time-domain (Hudgins' set) and other recently proposed myoelectric features (for example, rough entropy). Cardinality was found to consistently outperform other features, including those that are more sophisticated and computationally expensive, despite variations in sampling frequency, time window length, contraction dynamics, type, and number of movements (single or simultaneous), and classification algorithms. Provided that the signal resolution is kept between 12 and 14 bits, cardinality improves myoelectric pattern recognition for the prediction of motion volition. This technology is instrumental for the rehabilitation of amputees and patients with motor impairments where myoelectric signals are viable. All code and data used in this work is available online within BioPatRec.

  3. Endogenous rhythm and pattern-generating circuit interactions in cockroach motor centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izhak David

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cockroaches are rapid and stable runners whose gaits emerge from the intricate, and not fully resolved, interplay between endogenous oscillatory pattern-generating networks and sensory feedback that shapes their rhythmic output. Here we studied the endogenous motor output of a brainless, deafferented preparation. We monitored the pilocarpine-induced rhythmic activity of levator and depressor motor neurons in the mesothoracic and metathoracic segments in order to reveal the oscillatory networks’ architecture and interactions. Data analyses included phase relations, latencies between and overlaps of rhythmic bursts, spike frequencies, and the dependence of these parameters on cycle frequency. We found that, overall, ipsilateral connections are stronger than contralateral ones. Our findings revealed asymmetries in connectivity among the different ganglia, in which meta-to-mesothoracic ascending coupling is stronger than meso-to-metathoracic descending coupling. Within-ganglion coupling between the metathoracic hemiganglia is stronger than that in the mesothoracic ganglion. We also report differences in the role and mode of operation of homologue network units (manifested by levator and depressor nerve activity. Many observed characteristics are similar to those exhibited by intact animals, suggesting a dominant role for feedforward control in cockroach locomotion. Based on these data we posit a connectivity scheme among components of the locomotion pattern generating system.

  4. Specific motor patterns of arousal disorders in adults: a video-polysomnographic analysis of 184 episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loddo, Giuseppe; Sessagesimi, Elisa; Mignani, Francesco; Cirignotta, Fabio; Mondini, Susanna; Licchetta, Laura; Bisulli, Francesca; Tinuper, Paolo; Provini, Federica

    2018-01-01

    To compile an objective accurate description of the motor patterns of adult arousal disorders (ADs). We reviewed 59 nocturnal video-polysomnographic (VPSG) recordings of 30 adult patients (>15 years) with a history of sleepwalking (SW). We scrutinized the semeiology of all 184 episodes recorded, classifying them into three groups according to three semeiological motor patterns characterized by increasing intensity and complexity: simple arousal movements (pattern I), characterized by head flexion/extension, head flexion/extension and limb movement or head flexion/extension and partial trunk flexion/extension; rising arousal movements (pattern II), characterized by a complete trunk flexion with patient sitting up in bed; and complex arousal with ambulatory movements (pattern III) characterized by SW. The VPSG recordings were compared to those of 10 healthy controls. AD patients presented with 169 pattern I, 37 pattern II, and nine pattern III episodes. Pattern I developed into pattern II in 17 cases and into pattern II followed by pattern III in five patients. Pattern II developed into pattern III in four patients. Onset was abrupt in 55% of the episodes. Episodes lasted a mean (±standard deviation) of 33 ± 35 s. Movements tended to halt temporarily during 72% of the episodes. We recorded 248 movements during sleep in the healthy controls, none of whom presented with AD patterns. We identified three specific motor patterns in AD patients not previously reported and not observed in healthy controls. Identification of these patterns could be important for diagnosis and serve as the basis for a new definition of AD in adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Successive motor nerve blocks to identify the muscles causing a spasticity pattern: example of the arm flexion pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genet, F; Schnitzler, A; Droz-Bartholet, F; Salga, M; Tatu, L; Debaud, C; Denormandie, P; Parratte, B

    2017-01-01

    Botulinum Toxin A has been the main treatment for spasticity since the beginning of the 1990s. Surprisingly, there is still no consensus regarding injection parameters or, importantly, how to determine which muscles to target to improve specific functions. The aim of this study was to develop a systematic approach to determine this, using the example of the arm flexion pattern. We first determined anatomical landmarks for selective motor block of the brachialis nerve, using 20 forearms from 10 fresh cadavers in Ecole Européenne de Chirurgie and a university-based dissection centre, Paris, France. We then carried out selective blocks of the motor nerves to the brachialis, brachioradialis and biceps brachii in patients with stroke with an arm flexion pattern, in a University Rehabilitation Hospital, Garches, France. We measured: the resting angle of the elbow angle in standing (manual goniometer), active and passive range of extension, and spasticity using the Held and Tardieu and the Modified Ashworth scales. Range of passive elbow extension was also measured with the shoulder in 90° of flexion. The resting angle of the elbow in standing decreased by 35.0° (from 87.6 ± 23.7 to 52.6 ± 24.2°) with inhibition of brachialis, by a further 3.9° (from 52.6 ± 24.2 to 48.7 ± 23.7°) with inhibition of brachioradialis and a further 14.5° (from 48.7 ± 23.7to 34.2 ± 20.7°) with inhibition of biceps brachii. These results were consistent with the clinical evaluation of passive elbow range of motion with the shoulder at 90°. Sequential blocking of the nerves to the three main elbow flexors revealed that the muscle that limited elbow extension the most, was brachialis. This muscle should be the main target to improve the arm flexion pattern. These results show that it is important not simply to inject the most superficial or powerful muscles to treat a spastic deformity. A comprehensive assessment is required. The strategy proposed in this paper should

  6. Severe aberrant glenohumeral motor patterns in a young female rower: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGurk Neal

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This case features an 18-year-old female with glenohumeral dysrhythmia and subluxation-relocation patterns. This unusual case highlights the need for careful examination and consideration to the anatomical structures involved. Conventional approaches to shoulder examination include range of motion, orthopaedic tests and manual resistance tests. We also assessed the patient's cognitive ability to coordinate muscle function. With this type of assessment we found that co-contraction of local muscle groups seemed to initially improve the patients abnormal shoulder motion. With this information a rehabilitation method was instituted with a goal to maintain the improvement. Case presentation An 18-year-old female with no history of trauma, presented with painless kinesiopathology of the left shoulder (in abduction consisting of dysrhythmia of the glenohumeral joint and early lateral rotation of the scapula. Examination also showed associated muscle atrophy of the lower trapezius and surrounding general muscle weakness. We used an untested functional assessment method in addition to more conventional methods. Exercise rehabilitation interventions were subsequently prescribed and graduated in accordance with what is known as the General Physical Rehabilitation Pyramid. Conclusion This paper presents an unusual case of aberrant shoulder movement. It highlights the need for careful examination and thought regarding the anatomical structures and normal motor patterns associated with the manoeuvre being tested. It also emphasised the use of co-contraction during examination in an attempt to immediately improve a regional dysrythmia if there is suspicion of a regional aberrant motor pattern. Further research may be warranted to test this approach.

  7. Consequences of comorbidity of developmental coordination disorders and learning disabilities for severity and pattern of perceptual-motor dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Jongmans, MJ; Smits-Engelsman, BCM; Schoemaker, MM

    2003-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have difficulty learning and performing age-appropriate perceptual-motor skills in the absence of diagnosable neurological disorders. Descriptive studies have shown that comorbidity of DCD exists with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities (LD). This study examined the consequences of the comorbidity of DCD and LD for the severity and pattern of perceptual-motor dysfunction. Compared to children with DC...

  8. Patterns of growth and tract formation during the early development of secondary lineages in the Drosophila larval brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovick, Jennifer K; Kong, Angel; Omoto, Jaison J; Ngo, Kathy T; Younossi-Hartenstein, Amelia; Hartenstein, Volker

    2016-04-01

    The Drosophila brain consists of a relatively small number of invariant, genetically determined lineages which provide a model to study the relationship between gene function and neuronal architecture. In following this long-term goal, we reconstruct the morphology (projection pattern and connectivity) and gene expression patterns of brain lineages throughout development. In this article, we focus on the secondary phase of lineage morphogenesis, from the reactivation of neuroblast proliferation in the first larval instar to the time when proliferation ends and secondary axon tracts have fully extended in the late third larval instar. We have reconstructed the location and projection of secondary lineages at close (4 h) intervals and produced a detailed map in the form of confocal z-projections and digital three-dimensional models of all lineages at successive larval stages. Based on these reconstructions, we could compare the spatio-temporal pattern of axon formation and morphogenetic movements of different lineages in normal brain development. In addition to wild type, we reconstructed lineage morphology in two mutant conditions. (1) Expressing the construct UAS-p35 which rescues programmed cell death we could systematically determine which lineages normally lose hemilineages to apoptosis. (2) so-Gal4-driven expression of dominant-negative EGFR ablated the optic lobe, which allowed us to conclude that the global centrifugal movement normally affecting the cell bodies of lateral lineages in the late larva is causally related to the expansion of the optic lobe, and that the central pattern of axonal projections of these lineages is independent of the presence or absence of the optic lobe. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Motor control patterns during an active straight leg raise in pain-free subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beales, Darren John; O'Sullivan, Peter Bruce; Briffa, N Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    Repeated measures. To investigate motor control (MC) patterns of normal subjects during the low level physical load of the active straight leg raise (ASLR). Aberrant MC patterns, as observed with the ASLR test, are considered to be a mechanism for ongoing pain and disability in subjects with chronic musculoskeletal pelvic girdle pain. These patterns may not only affect the provision of lumbopelvic stability, but also respiration and the control of continence. Greater understanding of MC patterns in pain-free subjects may improve the management of pelvic girdle pain. METHODS.: Fourteen pain-free nulliparous women were examined during the ASLR. Electromyography of the anterior abdominal wall, right chest wall and the anterior scaleni, intraabdominal pressure (IAP), intrathoracic pressure (ITP), respiratory rate, pelvic floor kinematics, and downward leg pressure of the nonlifted leg were compared between a left and right ASLR. There was greater activation of obliquus internus abdominis and obliquus externus abdominis on the side of the ASLR. The predominant pattern of activation for the chest wall was tonic activation during an ipsilateral ASLR, and phasic respiratory activation lifting the contralateral leg. Respiratory fluctuation of both IAP and ITP did not differ lifting either leg. The baseline shifts of these pressure variables in response to the physical demand of lifting the leg was also the same either side. There was no difference in respiratory rate, pelvic floor kinematics, or downward leg pressure. Pain-free subjects demonstrate a predominant pattern of greater ipsilateral tonic activation of the abdominal wall and chest wall on the side of the ASLR. This was achieved with minimal apparent disruption to IAP and ITP. The findings of this study demonstrate the plastic nature of the abdominal cylinder and the flexibility of the neuromuscular system in controlling load transference during an ASLR.

  10. Individual Neurons Confined to Distinct Antennal-Lobe Tracts in the Heliothine Moth: Morphological Characteristics and Global Projection Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ian, Elena; Zhao, Xin C.; Lande, Andreas; Berg, Bente G.

    2016-01-01

    To explore fundamental principles characterizing chemosensory information processing, we have identified antennal-lobe projection neurons in the heliothine moth, including several neuron types not previously described. Generally, odor information is conveyed from the primary olfactory center of the moth brain, the antennal lobe, to higher brain centers via projection neuron axons passing along several parallel pathways, of which the medial, mediolateral, and lateral antennal-lobe tract are considered the classical ones. Recent data have revealed the projections of the individual tracts more in detail demonstrating three main target regions in the protocerebrum; the calyces are innervated mainly by the medial tract, the superior intermediate protocerebrum by the lateral tract exclusively, and the lateral horn by all tracts. In the present study, we have identified, via iontophoretic intracellular staining combined with confocal microscopy, individual projection neurons confined to the tracts mentioned above, plus two additional ones. Further, using the visualization software AMIRA, we reconstructed the stained neurons and registered the models into a standard brain atlas, which allowed us to compare the termination areas of individual projection neurons both across and within distinct tracts. The data demonstrate a morphological diversity of the projection neurons within distinct tracts. Comparison of the output areas of the neurons confined to the three main tracts in the lateral horn showed overlapping terminal regions for the medial and mediolateral tracts; the lateral tract neurons, on the contrary, targeted mostly other output areas in the protocerebrum. PMID:27822181

  11. A preliminary fMRI study on activiation pattern and functional reorganization of motor cortex in acute ischemic stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan-yong ZENG

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe and explore the activation pattern and functional reorganization mechanism of motor cortex in acute ischemic stroke patients. Methods A total of 22 patients with first-ever acute ischemic stroke were included in this study. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was used to observe the changing of activation pattern and functional reorganization of motor cortex in finger-tapping task. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS and Fugl-Meyer Assessment Scale for Upper Extremity (FMA-UE were used to evaluate motor function, and neuroelectrophysiology monitored resting motor threshold (RMT. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between activation of region of interest (ROI and neurological function, motor function and neuroelectrophysiology. Moreover, dynamic causal model (DCM was used to analyze the intrahemispheric and interhemispheric effective connectivity between brain regions in finger-tapping task. Results Movements of the affected hand showed significant signal activation in the ipsilesional primary motor cortex (M1, premotor cortex (PMC and bilateral supplementary motor area (SMA, while the contralesional PMC, posterior parietal cortex (PPC and bilateral cerebellar hemisphere also showed slight activation. Movements of the unaffected hand showed significant activation in the contralesional M1, PMC and SMA, while the ipsilesional SMA and inferior parietal lobule also showed slight activation. The activation value of ipsilesional M1 was negatively correlated with neurological function (NIHSS score; rs = -0.452, P = 0.035 and positively correlated with motor function of upper extremity (FMA-UE score; rs = 0.543, P = 0.009. The activation value of ipsilesional sensorimotor cortex (SMC was positively correlated with RMT (rs = 0.718, P = 0.001. The advantage model of DCM showed bidirectional suppressive influence of connectivity between bilateral M1, negative effective

  12. Drosophila polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (DmPTB regulates dorso-ventral patterning genes in embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Heimiller

    Full Text Available The Drosophila polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (dmPTB or hephaestus plays an important role during embryogenesis. A loss of function mutation, heph(03429, results in varied defects in embryonic developmental processes, leading to embryonic lethality. However, the suite of molecular functions that are disrupted in the mutant remains unknown. We have used an unbiased high throughput sequencing approach to identify transcripts that are misregulated in this mutant. Misregulated transcripts show evidence of significantly altered patterns of splicing (exon skipping, 5' and 3' splice site switching, alternative 5' ends, and mRNA level changes (up and down regulation. These findings are independently supported by reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis and in situ hybridization. We show that a group of genes, such as Zerknüllt, z600 and screw are among the most upregulated in the mutant and have been functionally linked to dorso-ventral patterning and/or dorsal closure processes. Thus, loss of dmPTB function results in specific misregulated transcripts, including those that provide the missing link between the loss of dmPTB function and observed developmental defects in embryogenesis. This study provides the first comprehensive repertoire of genes affected in vivo in the heph mutant in Drosophila and offers insight into the role of dmPTB during embryonic development.

  13. Morphology and function of the reproductive tract of the spider crab Libinia spinosa (Crustacea, Brachyura, Majoidea): pattern of sperm storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sal Moyano, M. P.; Gavio, M. A.; Cuartas, E. I.

    2010-09-01

    Morphology and function of the male reproductive tract, female spermatheca and patterns of sperm storage were assessed in the crab Libinia spinosa using histological methods. Testes are characterized by the presence of peripheral spermatogonia and different sequences of sperm maturity. Spermatophores begin to be packed in the last portion. The vas deferens consists of three sections: anterior, with undeveloped spermatophores and free sperm; median, with well-developed spermatophores; and posterior with granular secretions. Female spermathecae are of the ventral type, with a velum separating dorsal and ventral chambers. Live individuals were kept in the laboratory and arranged in pairs. An experiment was conducted toward the end of the reproductive season, in which males with the right gonopod excised were placed with receptive females. After mating, females were killed and the spermathecae dissected for histological study and observation of the pattern of sperm storage. Spermatozoa were found forming discrete sperm packages. New ejaculates can fill the entire spermatheca or be restricted to the ventral chamber; sperm are rounded, with a distinguishable acrosomal core. Old ejaculates are restricted to the dorsal chamber and are of irregular shape and larger size; an acrosomal core was not distinguishable. The secretions produced by the glandular epithelium of the dorsal chamber of the spermathecae are likely to have a role in the removal of dead sperm.

  14. The changing pattern of antimicrobial resistance within 42,033 Escherichia coli isolates from nosocomial, community and urology patient-specific urinary tract infections, Dublin, 1999-2009.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cullen, Ivor M

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the changing pattern of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli urinary tract infection over an eleven year period, and to determine whether E. coli antibiotic resistance rates vary depending on whether the UTI represents a nosocomial, community acquired or urology patient specific infection.

  15. Filter Bank Regularized Common Spatial Pattern Ensemble for Small Sample Motor Imagery Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Hoon; Lee, David; Lee, Sang-Goog

    2018-02-01

    For the last few years, many feature extraction methods have been proposed based on biological signals. Among these, the brain signals have the advantage that they can be obtained, even by people with peripheral nervous system damage. Motor imagery electroencephalograms (EEG) are inexpensive to measure, offer a high temporal resolution, and are intuitive. Therefore, these have received a significant amount of attention in various fields, including signal processing, cognitive science, and medicine. The common spatial pattern (CSP) algorithm is a useful method for feature extraction from motor imagery EEG. However, performance degradation occurs in a small-sample setting (SSS), because the CSP depends on sample-based covariance. Since the active frequency range is different for each subject, it is also inconvenient to set the frequency range to be different every time. In this paper, we propose the feature extraction method based on a filter bank to solve these problems. The proposed method consists of five steps. First, motor imagery EEG is divided by a using filter bank. Second, the regularized CSP (R-CSP) is applied to the divided EEG. Third, we select the features according to mutual information based on the individual feature algorithm. Fourth, parameter sets are selected for the ensemble. Finally, we classify using ensemble based on features. The brain-computer interface competition III data set IVa is used to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. The proposed method improves the mean classification accuracy by 12.34%, 11.57%, 9%, 4.95%, and 4.47% compared with CSP, SR-CSP, R-CSP, filter bank CSP (FBCSP), and SR-FBCSP. Compared with the filter bank R-CSP ( , ), which is a parameter selection version of the proposed method, the classification accuracy is improved by 3.49%. In particular, the proposed method shows a large improvement in performance in the SSS.

  16. Automatic recognition of gait patterns in human motor disorders using machine learning: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Joana; Santos, Cristina P; Moreno, Juan C

    2018-03-01

    automatic recognition of human movement is an effective strategy to assess abnormal gait patterns. Machine learning approaches are mainly applied due to their ability to work with multidimensional nonlinear features. to compare several machine learning algorithms employed for gait pattern recognition in motor disorders using discriminant features extracted from gait dynamics. Additionally, this work highlights procedures that improve gait recognition performance. we conducted an electronic literature search on Web of Science, IEEE, and Scopus, using "human recognition", "gait patterns'', and "feature selection methods" as relevant keywords. analysis of the literature showed that kernel principal component analysis and genetic algorithms are efficient at reducing dimensional features due to their ability to process nonlinear data and converge to global optimum. Comparative analysis of machine learning performance showed that support vector machines (SVMs) exhibited higher accuracy and proper generalization for new instances. automatic recognition by combining dimensional data reduction, cross-validation and normalization techniques with SVMs may offer an objective and rapid tool for investigating the subject's clinical status. Future directions comprise the real-time application of these tools to drive powered assistive devices in free-living conditions. Copyright © 2018 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Classification of multi-class motor imagery EEG using four band common spatial pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Amama; Zainab, Rida; Ahmad, Rushda Basir; Saeed, Maryam; Kamboh, Awais Mehmood

    2017-07-01

    Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs) serve as an integration tool between acquired brain signals and external devices. Precise classification of the acquired brain signals with the least misclassification error is an arduous task. Existing techniques for classification of multi-class motor imagery electroencephalogram (EEG) have low accuracy and are computationally inefficient. This paper introduces a classification algorithm, which uses two frequency ranges, mu and beta rythms, for feature extraction using common spatial pattern (CSP) along with support vector machine (SVM) for classification. The technique uses only four frequency bands with no feature reduction and consequently less computational cost. The implementation of this algorithm on BCI competition III dataset IIIa, resulted in the highest classification accuracy in comparison to existing algorithms. A mean accuracy of 85.5 for offline classification has been achieved using this technique.

  18. Multisubject Learning for Common Spatial Patterns in Motor-Imagery BCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Devlaminck

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor-imagery-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs commonly use the common spatial pattern filter (CSP as preprocessing step before feature extraction and classification. The CSP method is a supervised algorithm and therefore needs subject-specific training data for calibration, which is very time consuming to collect. In order to reduce the amount of calibration data that is needed for a new subject, one can apply multitask (from now on called multisubject machine learning techniques to the preprocessing phase. Here, the goal of multisubject learning is to learn a spatial filter for a new subject based on its own data and that of other subjects. This paper outlines the details of the multitask CSP algorithm and shows results on two data sets. In certain subjects a clear improvement can be seen, especially when the number of training trials is relatively low.

  19. Spectrum and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of pathogens causing urinary tract infection experience in a tertiary care setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjad, A.; Mirza, I.A.; Abbasi, S.A.; Farwa, U.; Sattar, A.; Qureshi, Z.A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the spectrum and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of pathogens causing urinary tract infection from the samples received at AFIP Rawalpindi. Place and duration of study. The study was carried out at Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology from January 2010 to June 2010. Material and Method: This was descriptive cross-sectional study. A total of 500 bacterial isolates out of 2050 urine culture samples, for a period of six month were included in the study. Indentification was carried out by standard biochemical profile of the organisms. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of isolated organisms were performed by disk diffusion method as recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute. Results Out of the culture positive cases, gram-negative bacteria constituted the largest group with a total of 434 (87%) isolates, while gram-positive bacteria constituted only 44 (8.8%) isolates. E. coli was the most common isolate accounting for 63% of the total positive bacterial cultures followed by Klebsiella spp (9%) and P. aernginosa (7%). Susceptibility pattern of E. coli revealed that 96% of isolates were sensitive to imipenem, 91% to piperacillin-tazobactam and 87% to Nitrofurantoin. For Klebsiella spp, 86% of Isolates were susceptible to Imipenem and 71 % to piperacillin-tazobactam. As regards acinetobacter spp, 94% of Isolates were susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam and 70 % to Imipenem an piperacilline-sulbactam. Antibiogram of P. aeruginosa revealed that 94% of isolates were sensitive to ceftazidime and 86% to imipenem. Nitrofurantoin was the most effective urinary antibiotic in case of enterococcus spp as 85% of isolates were susceptible to this compound. Conclusion: From the present study we conclude that E. coli was the predominant urinary pathogen in our set up. The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of E. coli revealed that majority of isolates were susceptible to imipenem and piperacilline

  20. Air-space pattern in lung metastasis from adenocarcinoma of the GI tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaeta, M.; Volta, S.; Scribano, E. [Univ. of Messina (Italy)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    We retrospectively reviewed a series of proven lung metastasis to evaluate the frequency and CT features of metastases showing an air-space (lepidic) pattern of growth. CT examinations of 65 patients with proven lung metastasis from GI carcinomas were reviewed by three observers. Four CT features were used to classify lesions as air-space metastases: (a) air-space nodules; (b) parenchymal consolidation containing air bronchogram and/or showing angiogram sign; (c) focal or extensive ground-glass opacities; and (d) nodule(s) with a {open_quotes}halo{close_quotes} sign. Six of 65 patients showed air-space metastases: three from pancreatic carcinoma. two from colonic carcinoma, and one from jejunal carcinoma. In one case, metastasis appeared as extensive parenchymal consolidation associated with ground-glass opacities; in one as an area of ground-glass opacity; in one as an extensive parenchymal consolidation with air bronchogram; in one as parenchymal consolidations with angiogram sign and multiple nodules, some of these with halo sign; in one as air-space nodules and patchy air-space consolidations; and in one as a solitary nodule with halo sign. Our study shows that air-space lung metastasis from GI carcinomas is uncommon but not rare. On CT as well as microscopically, differential diagnosis between air-space metastasis and bronchioloalveolar carcinoma may be impossible. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Species-specific diversity of a fixed motor pattern: the electric organ discharge of Gymnotus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejo Rodríguez-Cattaneo

    Full Text Available Understanding fixed motor pattern diversity across related species provides a window for exploring the evolution of their underlying neural mechanisms. The electric organ discharges of weakly electric fishes offer several advantages as paradigmatic models for investigating how a neural decision is transformed into a spatiotemporal pattern of action. Here, we compared the far fields, the near fields and the electromotive force patterns generated by three species of the pulse generating New World gymnotiform genus Gymnotus. We found a common pattern in electromotive force, with the far field and near field diversity determined by variations in amplitude, duration, and the degree of synchronization of the different components of the electric organ discharges. While the rostral regions of the three species generate similar profiles of electromotive force and local fields, most of the species-specific differences are generated in the main body and tail regions of the fish. This causes that the waveform of the field is highly site dependant in all the studied species. These findings support a hypothesis of the relative separation of the electrolocation and communication carriers. The presence of early head negative waves in the rostral region, a species-dependent early positive wave at the caudal region, and the different relationship between the late negative peak and the main positive peak suggest three points of lability in the evolution of the electrogenic system: a the variously timed neuronal inputs to different groups of electrocytes; b the appearance of both rostrally and caudally innervated electrocytes, and c changes in the responsiveness of the electrocyte membrane.

  2. Urinary Tract Infections Due to Catheterization and Drug Resistance Patterns of Isolated Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mosavian

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available UTI is the most common infection in all ages and urinary catheters especially long-term catheterization are important predisposing factors of UTI. Urinary catheters are used in different hospital wards as a complementary curative method for the patients who are undergone various surgical procedures, such as : cesarean, hysterectomy , laparotomy, etc and they who are unable to control their voided urine . 226 urine specimens were collected from 119 catheterized patients which had been hospitalized in seven wards of Razi and Golestan hospitals in Ahwas city . At least two urine specimens were collected from each patient , before and after the insertion of the catheter . All of the specimens were inoculated to suitable Media, after transportation to the Microbiology Lab . Isolated colonies were identified and their resistance patterns were determined by the standard disk diffusion method (Kirby –Bauer procedure to 8 different antibiotics. 38 cases (43.6% out of 87 patients showed Bacteriuria in the end of catheterization . They had no bacteriuria symptoms or sign before the catheterization. The most cases(28.9% of bacteriuria occured in 30-39 years group and the lowest cases (2.6 % of them occured in 60-69 years group. Out of 50 bacterial strains isolated from urine cultures , E.coil (with 17 cases was the highest (34% and Staphylococcus aureus , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Edwardsiella tarda , Enterobacter sakazakii (with 2% for each were the lowest cases. E.coli, Enterobacter and Kl. rhinoscleromatis , showed the most resistance to Ampicillin, Penicillin , Cephalexin , and the lowest rate to Nalidixic acid, Gentamicin and Nitrofurantoin . Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates ,also,showed the most resistance (100% to Penicillin and Ampicillin , and the lowest rate to Gentamicin (with 66.7%, Cotrimoxazol and Nitrofurantoin (with 50% .The results of this study suggested that catheterization , especially long- term catheterization causes the rise of

  3. Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections in Women in a Sao Paulo Quaternary Care Hospital: Bacterial Spectrum and Susceptibility Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Hisano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI in women are very common. Regular analysis of bacterial flora is important to formulate updated guidelines. The objective of this study is to determine and compare the microbiology of UTIs and their susceptibility patterns in a quaternary care hospital. In a seven-year review, the urine culture results of 480 female patients with uncomplicated UTIs were analyzed. Patients were divided into three groups according to their diagnosis and treatment characteristics: Group 1, cystitis at outpatient basis; group 2, cystitis at the Emergency Unit; and group 3, pyelonephritis. Group 1 included older patients, with a higher incidence of concomitant diabetes mellitus and recurrent UTIs. E. coli was the most common pathogen, responsible for 75.1% of cases, mainly for pyelonephritis (87.3%. Of the oral antimicrobials tested for cystitis, amoxicillin/clavulanate and nitrofurantoin had the highest susceptibility profiles (84.4% and 87.3%, respectively. For E. coli only, their susceptibility profiles were as high as 90.8% and 97.4%, respectively. For pyelonephritis treatment, fluoroquinoles had a susceptibility profile <90%, while ceftriaxone and gentamicin had susceptibility >90%. Uncomplicated UTI treatment is becoming more challenging because the susceptibility profiles of oral antimicrobials are increasingly resistant. In our environment, cystitis can still be managed with nitrofurantoin. Uncomplicated pyelonephritis should be managed with ceftriaxone or gentamicin.

  4. /sup 131/I-labelling of frozen ram sperma and distribution pattern of sperma in the genital tract of sheep, following artificial insemination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckner, G. (Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Tierproduktion und Veterinaermedizin); Kaempfer, I. (Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Radiologische Klinik)

    1983-04-01

    The method of /sup 131/I-labelling of ram sperma was applied to frozen sperma and used in experimental insemination to test the spermatozoa for both migratory capacity and distribution in the genital tract of sheep. The penetration rate of frozen sperma into the upper genital tract was found to be slower than that of native sperma. The two sperma variants were compared also for migratory performance, and the distance travelled into the upper genital tract by frozen sperma one hour after insemination amounted to only 40 per cent of the distance covered by native sperma in the same period of time. The ratio of native to frozen sperma in the tubal region was 100 : 75.3. Sperma population in the tubal region was higher than that in the uterus, two hours after insemination, which seems to indicate a certain reservoir function. Pronounced asymmetrical distribution patterns in the oviducts were equally recordable from native and frozen sperma.

  5. Biomechanical Remodeling of the Diabetic Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jingbo; Liao, Donghua; Yang, Jian

    2010-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tract sensory-motor abnormalities are common in patients with diabetes mellitus with symptoms arising from the whole GI tract. Common complaints include dysphasia, early satiety, reflux, constipation, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The pathogenesis of GI symptoms...

  6. Motor sequence learning in the elderly: differential activity patterns as a function of hand modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eudave, Luis; Aznárez-Sanado, Maite; Luis, Elkin O; Martínez, Martín; Fernández-Seara, María A; Pastor, María A

    2017-08-01

    Previous research on motor sequence learning (MSL) in the elderly has focused mainly on unilateral tasks, even though bilateral coordination might be impaired in this age group. In this fMRI study, 28 right-handed elderly subjects were recruited. The paradigm consisted of a Novel and a simple Control sequence executed with the right (R), left (L) and both hands (B). Behavioral performance (Accuracy[AC], Inter-tap Interval[ITI]) and associated brain activity were assessed during early learning. Behavioral performance in the Novel task was similar between unilateral conditions whereas in the bimanual condition more errors and slower motor execution were observed. Brain activity increases during learning showed differences between Conditions: R showed increased activity in pre-SMA, basal ganglia and left hippocampus while B showed activity increments mainly in posterior parietal cortex and cerebellum. L did not show any activity modulation during learning. Performance correlates for AC (related to spatial success) and ITI (related to accurate timing) shared a cortico-basal-cerebellar network. However, it was found that the ITI regressor presented additional significant correlations with activity in SMA and basal ganglia in R. The AC regressor showed additional significant correlations with activity in more extended thalamic and cerebellar areas in B. The present findings suggest that, behaviorally, the spatial and temporal components of MSL are impaired in elderly subjects when using both hands. Additionally, differential brain activity patterns were found across hand modalities. The results obtained reveal the existence of a highly specialized network in the dominant hand and identify areas specifically involved in bimanual coordination.

  7. Effects of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission on motor patterns of human sigmoid colon in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulí, M; Martínez, E; Gallego, D; Opazo, A; Espín, F; Martí-Gallostra, M; Jiménez, M; Clavé, P

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: To characterize the in vitro motor patterns and the neurotransmitters released by enteric motor neurons (EMNs) in the human sigmoid colon. Experimental approach: Sigmoid circular strips were studied in organ baths. EMNs were stimulated by electrical field stimulation (EFS) and through nicotinic ACh receptors. Key results: Strips developed weak spontaneous rhythmic contractions (3.67±0.49 g, 2.54±0.15 min) unaffected by the neurotoxin tetrodotoxin (TTX; 1 μM). EFS induced strong contractions during (on, 56%) or after electrical stimulus (off, 44%), both abolished by TTX. Nicotine (1–100 μM) inhibited spontaneous contractions. Latency of off-contractions and nicotine responses were reduced by NG-nitro-L-arginine (1 mM) and blocked after further addition of apamin (1 μM) or the P2Y1 receptor antagonist MRS 2179 (10 μM) and were unaffected by the P2X antagonist NF279 (10 μM) or α-chymotrypsin (10 U mL−1). Amplitude of on- and off-contractions was reduced by atropine (1 μM) and the selective NK2 receptor antagonist Bz-Ala-Ala-D-Trp-Phe-D-Pro-Pro-Nle-NH2 (1 μM). MRS 2179 reduced the amplitude of EFS on- and off-contractions without altering direct muscular contractions induced by ACh (1 nM–1 mM) or substance P (1 nM–10 μM). Conclusions and implications: Latency of EFS-induced off-contractions and inhibition of spontaneous motility by nicotine are caused by stimulation of inhibitory EMNs coreleasing NO and a purine acting at muscular P2Y1 receptors through apamin-sensitive K+ channels. EFS-induced on- and off-contractions are caused by stimulation of excitatory EMNs coreleasing ACh and tachykinins acting on muscular muscarinic and NK2 receptors. Prejunctional P2Y1 receptors might modulate the activity of excitatory EMNs. P2Y1 and NK2 receptors might be therapeutic targets for colonic motor disorders. PMID:18846038

  8. The emergence of sarcomeric, graded-polarity and spindle-like patterns in bundles of short cytoskeletal polymers and two opposite molecular motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, E M; Dey, S; Mogilner, A

    2011-01-01

    We use linear stability analysis and numerical solutions of partial differential equations to investigate pattern formation in the one-dimensional system of short dynamic polymers and one (plus-end directed) or two (one is plus-end, another minus-end directed) molecular motors. If polymer sliding and motor gliding rates are slow and/or the polymer turnover rate is fast, then the polymer-motor bundle has mixed polarity and homogeneous motor distribution. However, if motor gliding is fast, a sarcomeric pattern with periodic bands of alternating polymer polarity separated by motor aggregates evolves. On the other hand, if polymer sliding is fast, a graded-polarity bundle with motors at the center emerges. In the presence of the second, minus-end directed motor, the sarcomeric pattern is more ubiquitous, while the graded-polarity pattern is destabilized. However, if the minus-end motor is weaker than the plus-end directed one, and/or polymer nucleation is autocatalytic, and/or long polymers are present in the bundle, then a spindle-like architecture with a sorted-out polarity emerges with the plus-end motors at the center and minus-end motors at the edges. We discuss modeling implications for actin-myosin fibers and in vitro and meiotic spindles.

  9. Improved children's motor learning of the basketball free shooting pattern by associating subjective error estimation and extrinsic feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Leandro de Carvalho da; Pereira-Monfredini, Carla Ferro; Teixeira, Luis Augusto

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed at assessing the interaction between subjective error estimation and frequency of extrinsic feedback in the learning of the basketball free shooting pattern by children. 10- to 12-year olds were assigned to 1 of 4 groups combining subjective error estimation and relative frequency of extrinsic feedback (33% × 100%). Analysis of performance was based on quality of movement pattern. Analysis showed superior learning of the group combining error estimation and 100% feedback frequency, both groups receiving feedback on 33% of trials achieved intermediate results, and the group combining no requirement of error estimation and 100% feedback frequency had the poorest learning. Our results show the benefit of subjective error estimation in association with high frequency of extrinsic feedback in children's motor learning of a sport motor pattern.

  10. Antibiotic resistance rates and physician antibiotic prescription patterns of uncomplicated urinary tract infections in southern Chinese primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carmen Ka Man; Kung, Kenny; Au-Doung, Philip Lung Wai; Ip, Margaret; Lee, Nelson; Fung, Alice; Wong, Samuel Yeung Shan

    2017-01-01

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in primary care. Whilst primary care physicians are called to be antimicrobial stewards, there is limited primary care antibiotic resistance surveillance and physician antibiotic prescription data available in southern Chinese primary care. The study aimed to investigate the antibiotic resistance rate and antibiotic prescription patterns in female patients with uncomplicated UTI. Factors associated with antibiotic resistance and prescription was explored. A prospective cohort study was conducted in 12 primary care group clinics in Hong Kong of patients presenting with symptoms of uncomplicated UTI from January 2012 to December 2013. Patients' characteristics such as age, comorbidity, presenting symptoms and prior antibiotic use were recorded by physicians, as well as any empirical antibiotic prescription given at presentation. Urine samples were collected to test for antibiotic resistance of uropathogens. Univariate analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with antibiotic resistance and prescription. A total of 298 patients were included in the study. E. coli was detected in 107 (76%) out of the 141 positive urine samples. Antibiotic resistance rates of E. coli isolates for ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin and nitrofurantoin were 59.8%, 31.8%, 23.4%, 1.9% and 0.9% respectively. E. coli isolates were sensitive to nitrofurantoin (98.1%) followed by amoxicillin (78.5%). The overall physician antibiotic prescription rate was 82.2%. Amoxicillin (39.6%) and nitrofurantoin (28.6%) were the most common prescribed antibiotics. Meanwhile, whilst physicians in public primary care prescribed more amoxicillin (OR: 2.84, 95% CI: 1.67 to 4.85, Pantibiotic resistance and physician antibiotic prescription is recommended.

  11. Etiology and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of bacteria collected from urinary tract infections in the ASL3 in Genoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Fedele

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiological study addressed to identify the pathogens collected from urine samples and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns was conducted. From January 2008 to May 2009 56,435 urine samples were processed in the Clinical Microbiological Laboratory of the ASL3 in Genoa. Materials and methods. Urine samples were firstly screened by automated equipment Uroquik (ALIFAX.All urine cultures with microbial ≥105 CFU / ml were seeded on Chromagar Orientation (BD and incubated at 37 ° C °.The identification of the isolates and the evaluation of their susceptibility to antibiotics were determined by the automated system Vitek 2 (bioMérieux. Results. About 33% (18,543 of the urine samples gave positive results.The number and frequency of the microorganisms collected was: 13,379 (72% Gram-negative including 9179 (69% E.coli, 1382 (10% Klebsiella spp, 1209 (9% Proteus spp, 445 (3% Pseudomonas spp, and other species 1164 (9%, 4942 (27% Gram positive which included 3615 (73% Enterococcus spp, 821 (17% Staphylococcus spp, 506 (10% Streptococcus spp and 222 (1% fungi. In E. coli the incidence of susceptible strains ranged between 90-96% for gentamicin, fosfomycin, nitrofurantoin, piperacillin-tazobactam, between 87-89% for the cefepime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, about 70% for quinolones ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 62% for piperacillin, about 50% to ampicillin. For Klebsiella spp and Proteus spp the percentage of susceptible strains ranged from 95-99% to piperacillin-tazobactam, gentamicin, and respectively 93% and between 68-52% for third-generation cephalosporins cefotaxime and ceftazidime and fluoroquinolones ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin. Conclusions. Present findings indicate that among the Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli, cause most of UTI and in vitro resulted susceptible various antibiotics.There was an increased resistance to fluoroquinolones among community-acquired E. coli and Proteus spp.A periodical

  12. Motor network structure and function are associated with motor performance in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Hans-Peter; Gorges, Martin; Grön, Georg; Kassubek, Jan; Landwehrmeyer, G Bernhard; Süßmuth, Sigurd D; Wolf, Robert Christian; Orth, Michael

    2016-03-01

    In Huntington's disease, the relationship of brain structure, brain function and clinical measures remains incompletely understood. We asked how sensory-motor network brain structure and neural activity relate to each other and to motor performance. Thirty-four early stage HD and 32 age- and sex-matched healthy control participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion tensor, and intrinsic functional connectivity MRI. Diffusivity patterns were assessed in the cortico-spinal tract and the thalamus-somatosensory cortex tract. For the motor network connectivity analyses the dominant M1 motor cortex region and for the basal ganglia-thalamic network the thalamus were used as seeds. Region to region structural and functional connectivity was examined between thalamus and somatosensory cortex. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was higher in HD than controls in the basal ganglia, and lower in the external and internal capsule, in the thalamus, and in subcortical white matter. Between-group axial and radial diffusivity differences were more prominent than differences in FA, and correlated with motor performance. Within the motor network, the insula was less connected in HD than in controls, with the degree of connection correlating with motor scores. The basal ganglia-thalamic network's connectivity differed in the insula and basal ganglia. Tract specific white matter diffusivity and functional connectivity were not correlated. In HD sensory-motor white matter organization and functional connectivity in a motor network were independently associated with motor performance. The lack of tract-specific association of structure and function suggests that functional adaptation to structural loss differs between participants.

  13. Neuromolecular Imaging Shows Temporal Synchrony Patterns between Serotonin and Movement within Neuronal Motor Circuits in the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Broderick

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present discourse links the electrical and chemical properties of the brain with neurotransmitters and movement behaviors to further elucidate strategies to diagnose and treat brain disease. Neuromolecular imaging (NMI, based on electrochemical principles, is used to detect serotonin in nerve terminals (dorsal and ventral striata and somatodendrites (ventral tegmentum of reward/motor mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal brain circuits. Neuronal release of serotonin is detected at the same time and in the same animal, freely moving and unrestrained, while open-field behaviors are monitored via infrared photobeams. The purpose is to emphasize the unique ability of NMI and the BRODERICK PROBE® biosensors to empirically image a pattern of temporal synchrony, previously reported, for example, in Aplysia using central pattern generators (CPGs, serotonin and cerebral peptide-2. Temporal synchrony is reviewed within the context of the literature on central pattern generators, neurotransmitters and movement disorders. Specifically, temporal synchrony data are derived from studies on psychostimulant behavior with and without cocaine while at the same time and continuously, serotonin release in motor neurons within basal ganglia, is detected. The results show that temporal synchrony between the neurotransmitter, serotonin and natural movement occurs when the brain is NOT injured via, e.g., trauma, addictive drugs or psychiatric illness. In striking contrast, in the case of serotonin and cocaine-induced psychostimulant behavior, a different form of synchrony and also asynchrony can occur. Thus, the known dysfunctional movement behavior produced by cocaine may well be related to the loss of temporal synchrony, the loss of the ability to match serotonin in brain with motor activity. The empirical study of temporal synchrony patterns in humans and animals may be more relevant to the dynamics of motor circuits and movement behaviors than are studies of

  14. Communication Deficits and the Motor System: Exploring Patterns of Associations in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, M; Shui, A M; Nowinski, L A; Golas, S B; Ferrone, C; O'Rourke, J A; McDougle, C J

    2017-01-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have notable difficulties in motor, speech and language domains. The connection between motor skills (oral-motor, manual-motor) and speech and language deficits reported in other developmental disorders raises important questions about a potential relationship between motor skills and speech-language deficits in ASD. To this end, we examined data from children with ASD (n = 1781), 2-17 years of age, enrolled in the Autism Speaks-Autism Treatment Network (AS-ATN) registry who completed a multidisciplinary evaluation that included diagnostic, physical, cognitive and behavioral assessments as part of a routine standard of care protocol. After adjusting for age, non-verbal IQ, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) medication use, and muscle tone, separate multiple linear regression analyses revealed significant positive associations of fine motor skills (FM) with both expressive language (EL) and receptive language (RL) skills in an impaired FM subgroup; in contrast, the impaired gross motor (GM) subgroup showed no association with EL but a significant negative association with RL. Similar analyses between motor skills and interpersonal relationships across the sample found both GM skills and FM skills to be associated with social interactions. These results suggest potential differences in the contributions of fine versus gross motor skills to autistic profiles and may provide another lens with which to view communication differences across the autism spectrum for use in treatment interventions.

  15. Motor imagery EEG classification with optimal subset of wavelet based common spatial pattern and kernel extreme learning machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyeong-Jun Park; Jongin Kim; Beomjun Min; Boreom Lee

    2017-07-01

    Performance of motor imagery based brain-computer interfaces (MI BCIs) greatly depends on how to extract the features. Various versions of filter-bank based common spatial pattern have been proposed and used in MI BCIs. Filter-bank based common spatial pattern has more number of features compared with original common spatial pattern. As the number of features increases, the MI BCIs using filter-bank based common spatial pattern can face overfitting problems. In this study, we used eigenvector centrality feature selection method, wavelet packet decomposition common spatial pattern, and kernel extreme learning machine to improve the performance of MI BCIs and avoid overfitting problems. Furthermore, the computational speed was improved by using kernel extreme learning machine.

  16. Improved Volitional Recall of Motor-Imagery-Related Brain Activation Patterns Using Real-Time Functional MRI-Based Neurofeedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epifanio Bagarinao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Motor imagery (MI, a covert cognitive process where an action is mentally simulated but not actually performed, could be used as an effective neurorehabilitation tool for motor function improvement or recovery. Recent approaches employing brain–computer/brain–machine interfaces to provide online feedback of the MI during rehabilitation training have promising rehabilitation outcomes. In this study, we examined whether participants could volitionally recall MI-related brain activation patterns when guided using neurofeedback (NF during training. The participants’ performance was compared to that without NF. We hypothesized that participants would be able to consistently generate the relevant activation pattern associated with the MI task during training with NF compared to that without NF. To assess activation consistency, we used the performance of classifiers trained to discriminate MI-related brain activation patterns. Our results showed significantly higher predictive values of MI-related activation patterns during training with NF. Additionally, this improvement in the classification performance tends to be associated with the activation of middle temporal gyrus/inferior occipital gyrus, a region associated with visual motion processing, suggesting the importance of performance monitoring during MI task training. Taken together, these findings suggest that the efficacy of MI training, in terms of generating consistent brain activation patterns relevant to the task, can be enhanced by using NF as a mechanism to enable participants to volitionally recall task-related brain activation patterns.

  17. Effects of iron deficiency in infancy on patterns of motor development over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafir, Tal; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa; Calatroni, Agustin; Jimenez, Elias; Lozoff, Betsy

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study of the effects of iron deficiency in infancy assessed motor development over time in 185 healthy Costa Rican children who varied in iron status at 12–23 months. Longitudinal analyses (hierarchical linear modeling) used the Bayley Psychomotor Index before and both 1 week and 3 months after iron treatment in infancy and the Bruninks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency – long form at 5 years and short form at 11–14 years. Children with chronic severe iron deficiency in infancy had lower motor scores at the beginning of the study and a lower but parallel trajectory for motor scores through early adolescence. Thus, there was no evidence of catch-up in motor development, despite iron therapy in infancy that corrected iron deficiency anemia in all cases. PMID:17050023

  18. Improved Discriminability of Spatiotemporal Neural Patterns in Rat Motor Cortical Areas as Directional Choice Learning Progresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei eMao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Animals learn to choose a proper action among alternatives to improve their odds of success in food foraging and other activities critical for survival. Through trial-and-error, they learn correct associations between their choices and external stimuli. While a neural network that underlies such learning process has been identified at a high level, it is still unclear how individual neurons and a neural ensemble adapt as learning progresses. In this study, we monitored the activity of single units in the rat medial and lateral agranular (AGm and AGl, respectively areas as rats learned to make a left or right side lever press in response to a left or right side light cue. We noticed that rat movement parameters during the performance of the directional choice task quickly became stereotyped during the first 2-3 days or sessions. But learning the directional choice problem took weeks to occur. Accompanying rats’ behavioral performance adaptation, we observed neural modulation by directional choice in recorded single units. Our analysis shows that ensemble mean firing rates in the cue-on period did not change significantly as learning progressed, and the ensemble mean rate difference between left and right side choices did not show a clear trend of change either. However, the spatiotemporal firing patterns of the neural ensemble exhibited improved discriminability between the two directional choices through learning. These results suggest a spatiotemporal neural coding scheme in a motor cortical neural ensemble that may be responsible for and contributing to learning the directional choice task.

  19. Structural and Functional Brain Patterns of Non-Motor Syndromes in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tino Prell

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a common, progressive and multisystem neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and functional magnetic resonance imaging can render the view toward understanding the neural basis of these non-motor syndromes, as they help to understand the underlying pathophysiological abnormalities. This review provides an up-to-date description of structural and functional brain alterations in patients with PD with cognitive deficits, visual hallucinations, fatigue, impulsive behavior disorders, sleep disorders, and pain.

  20. Repetition priming of motor activity mediated by a central pattern generator: the importance of extrinsic vs. intrinsic program initiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalchi, Michael J.; Jing, Jian; Weiss, Klaudiusz R.

    2016-01-01

    Repetition priming is characterized by increased performance as a behavior is repeated. Although this phenomenon is ubiquitous, mediating mechanisms are poorly understood. We address this issue in a model system, the feeding network of Aplysia. This network generates both ingestive and egestive motor programs. Previous data suggest a chemical coding model: ingestive and egestive inputs to the feeding central pattern generator (CPG) release different modulators, which act via different second messengers to prime motor activity in different ways. The ingestive input to the CPG (neuron CBI-2) releases the peptides feeding circuit activating peptide and cerebral peptide 2, which produce an ingestive pattern of activity. The egestive input to the CPG (the esophageal nerve) releases the peptide small cardioactive peptide. This model is based on research that focused on a single aspect of motor control (radula opening). Here we ask whether repetition priming is observed if activity is triggered with a neuron within the core CPG itself and demonstrate that it is not. Moreover, previous studies demonstrated that effects of modulatory neurotransmitters that induce repetition priming persist. This suggests that it should be possible to “prime” motor programs triggered from within the CPG by first stimulating extrinsic modulatory inputs. We demonstrate that programs triggered after ingestive input activation are ingestive and programs triggered after egestive input activation are egestive. We ask where this priming occurs and demonstrate modifications within the CPG itself. This arrangement is likely to have important consequences for “task” switching, i.e., the cessation of one type of motor activity and the initiation of another. PMID:27466134

  1. Study of the pattern of lower respiratory tract infection within the first year in renal transplant patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr Affara

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: Lower respiratory tract infection is a serious complication after renal transplantation. Bacterial and mixed bacterial infections are the most common etiologies, proper diagnosis using all tools of diagnosis especially bronchoscopy and quantitative culture can help in diagnosis and prevent the overuse of antibiotics.

  2. Incidence and treatment patterns in males presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms to the emergency department in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roghmann, Florian; Ghani, Khurshid R; Kowalczyk, Keith J; Bhojani, Naeem; Sammon, Jesse D; Gandaglia, Giorgio; Trudeau, Vincent; Becker, Andreas; Sukumar, Shyam; Menon, Mani; Zorn, Kevin C; Karakiewicz, Pierre; Sun, Maxine; Noldus, Joachim; Trinh, Quoc-Dien

    2013-11-01

    Due to varying clinical definitions of lower urinary tract symptoms, it has been difficult to determine comparable prevalence and incidence rates of lower urinary tract symptoms and their treatment modalities. We assessed the incidence of emergency department visits in men with lower urinary tract symptoms who presented to emergency departments in the United States and factors associated with an increased likelihood of hospitalization. Emergency department visits from 2006 to 2009 associated with a primary diagnosis of lower urinary tract symptoms using established criteria were abstracted from the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample. Age adjusted incidence rates of emergency department visits and charges were calculated. We performed multivariable analysis to examine patient and hospital characteristics of those hospitalized and those with benign prostatic hyperplasia related adverse events. A weighted estimate of 1,178,423 emergency department visits for lower urinary tract symptoms was recorded with a national incidence of 197.6/100,000 males per year. A total of 112,288 visits (9.5%) resulted in hospitalization. Adverse events were identified in 734,269 patients (62.3%). The most common adverse events were catheterization in 44.6% of cases, infection in 17.4%, hematuria in 9.6%, bladder stones in 1.7%, hydronephrosis in 1.2% and acute renal failure in 0.1%. On multivariable analysis independent predictors of hospital admission included comorbidities, socioeconomic status, hospital characteristics and adverse events such as sepsis, acute renal failure and hydronephrosis. Independent predictors of adverse events included patient age, year of visit, socioeconomic status, hospital characteristics and concomitant neurological disease. In 2009 total emergency department charges for lower urinary tract symptoms were $494,981,922. The number of men with lower urinary tract symptoms who visit the emergency department has remained stable, while emergency

  3. Roles for multifunctional and specialized spinal interneurons during motor pattern generation in tadpoles, zebrafish larvae, and turtles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Berkowitz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The hindbrain and spinal cord can produce multiple forms of locomotion, escape, and withdrawal behaviors and (in limbed vertebrates site-specific scratching. Until recently, the prevailing view was that the same classes of CNS neurons generate multiple kinds of movements, either through reconfiguration of a single, shared network or through an increase in the number of neurons recruited within each class. The mechanisms involved in selecting and generating different motor patterns have recently been explored in detail in some non-mammalian, vertebrate model systems. Work on the hatchling Xenopus tadpole, the larval zebrafish, and the adult turtle has now revealed that distinct kinds of motor patterns are actually selected and generated by combinations of multifunctional and specialized spinal interneurons. Multifunctional interneurons may form a core, multipurpose circuit that generates elements of coordinated motor output utilized in multiple behaviors, such as left-right alternation. But, in addition, specialized spinal interneurons including separate glutamatergic and glycinergic classes are selectively activated during specific patterns: escape-withdrawal, swimming and struggling in tadpoles and zebrafish, and limb withdrawal and scratching in turtles. These specialized neurons can contribute by changing the way central pattern generator (CPG activity is initiated and by altering CPG composition and operation. The combined use of multifunctional and specialized neurons is now established as a principle of organization across a range of vertebrates. Future research may reveal common patterns of multifunctionality and specialization among interneurons controlling diverse movements and whether similar mechanisms exist in higher-order brain circuits that select among a wider array of complex movements.

  4. Phasic bursts of the antagonistic jaw muscles during REM sleep mimic a coordinated motor pattern during mastication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, T; Nakamura, N; Masuda, Y; Yoshida, A; Morimoto, T; Yamamura, K; Yamashita, S; Sato, F

    2013-02-01

    Sleep-related movement disorders are characterized by the specific phenotypes of muscle activities and movements during sleep. However, the state-specific characteristics of muscle bursts and movement during sleep are poorly understood. In this study, jaw-closing and -opening muscle electromyographic (EMG) activities and jaw movements were quantified to characterize phenotypes of motor patterns during sleep in freely moving and head-restrained guinea pigs. During non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, both muscles were irregularly activated in terms of duration, activity, and intervals. During rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, clusters of phasic bursts occurred in the two muscles. Compared with NREM sleep, burst duration, activity, and intervals were less variable during REM sleep for both muscles. Although burst activity was lower during the two sleep states than during chewing, burst duration and intervals during REM sleep were distributed within a similar range to those during chewing. A trigger-averaged analysis of muscle bursts revealed that the temporal association between the bursts of the jaw-closing and -opening muscles during REM sleep was analogous to the temporal association during natural chewing. The burst characteristics of the two muscles reflected irregular patterns of jaw movements during NREM sleep and repetitive alternating bilateral movements during REM sleep. The distinct patterns of jaw muscle bursts and movements reflect state-specific regulations of the jaw motor system during sleep states. Phasic activations in the antagonistic jaw muscles during REM sleep are regulated, at least in part, by the neural networks involving masticatory pattern generation, demonstrating that waking jaw motor patterns are replayed during sleep periods.

  5. Motor Imagery Classification Using Mu and Beta Rhythms of EEG with Strong Uncorrelating Transform Based Complex Common Spatial Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngjoo; Ryu, Jiwoo; Kim, Ko Keun; Took, Clive C; Mandic, Danilo P; Park, Cheolsoo

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the disassociation between the mu and beta rhythms of electroencephalogram (EEG) during motor imagery tasks. The proposed algorithm in this paper uses a fully data-driven multivariate empirical mode decomposition (MEMD) in order to obtain the mu and beta rhythms from the nonlinear EEG signals. Then, the strong uncorrelating transform complex common spatial patterns (SUTCCSP) algorithm is applied to the rhythms so that the complex data, constructed with the mu and beta rhythms, becomes uncorrelated and its pseudocovariance provides supplementary power difference information between the two rhythms. The extracted features using SUTCCSP that maximize the interclass variances are classified using various classification algorithms for the separation of the left- and right-hand motor imagery EEG acquired from the Physionet database. This paper shows that the supplementary information of the power difference between mu and beta rhythms obtained using SUTCCSP provides an important feature for the classification of the left- and right-hand motor imagery tasks. In addition, MEMD is proved to be a preferred preprocessing method for the nonlinear and nonstationary EEG signals compared to the conventional IIR filtering. Finally, the random forest classifier yielded a high performance for the classification of the motor imagery tasks.

  6. Motor Imagery Classification Using Mu and Beta Rhythms of EEG with Strong Uncorrelating Transform Based Complex Common Spatial Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngjoo Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated the disassociation between the mu and beta rhythms of electroencephalogram (EEG during motor imagery tasks. The proposed algorithm in this paper uses a fully data-driven multivariate empirical mode decomposition (MEMD in order to obtain the mu and beta rhythms from the nonlinear EEG signals. Then, the strong uncorrelating transform complex common spatial patterns (SUTCCSP algorithm is applied to the rhythms so that the complex data, constructed with the mu and beta rhythms, becomes uncorrelated and its pseudocovariance provides supplementary power difference information between the two rhythms. The extracted features using SUTCCSP that maximize the interclass variances are classified using various classification algorithms for the separation of the left- and right-hand motor imagery EEG acquired from the Physionet database. This paper shows that the supplementary information of the power difference between mu and beta rhythms obtained using SUTCCSP provides an important feature for the classification of the left- and right-hand motor imagery tasks. In addition, MEMD is proved to be a preferred preprocessing method for the nonlinear and nonstationary EEG signals compared to the conventional IIR filtering. Finally, the random forest classifier yielded a high performance for the classification of the motor imagery tasks.

  7. Motor Imagery Classification Using Mu and Beta Rhythms of EEG with Strong Uncorrelating Transform Based Complex Common Spatial Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jiwoo; Kim, Ko Keun; Mandic, Danilo P.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the disassociation between the mu and beta rhythms of electroencephalogram (EEG) during motor imagery tasks. The proposed algorithm in this paper uses a fully data-driven multivariate empirical mode decomposition (MEMD) in order to obtain the mu and beta rhythms from the nonlinear EEG signals. Then, the strong uncorrelating transform complex common spatial patterns (SUTCCSP) algorithm is applied to the rhythms so that the complex data, constructed with the mu and beta rhythms, becomes uncorrelated and its pseudocovariance provides supplementary power difference information between the two rhythms. The extracted features using SUTCCSP that maximize the interclass variances are classified using various classification algorithms for the separation of the left- and right-hand motor imagery EEG acquired from the Physionet database. This paper shows that the supplementary information of the power difference between mu and beta rhythms obtained using SUTCCSP provides an important feature for the classification of the left- and right-hand motor imagery tasks. In addition, MEMD is proved to be a preferred preprocessing method for the nonlinear and nonstationary EEG signals compared to the conventional IIR filtering. Finally, the random forest classifier yielded a high performance for the classification of the motor imagery tasks. PMID:27795702

  8. Spatial functional distribution in the corticospinal tract at the corona radiata. A three-dimensional anisotropy contrast study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Takashi; Yoshimoto, Takashi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Kabasawa, Hiroyuki

    2001-06-01

    The spatial functional distribution of the nerve fibers was investigated in the corticospinal tract at the level of the corona radiata. Thirteen patients with corona radiata infarction underwent axial single-shot echo planar diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging using a 1.5 Tesla scanner. Image analysis used the three-dimensional anisotropy contrast (3DAC) method to demarcate the nerve fibers in the corticospinal tract. Axial 3DAC images demonstrated the corticospinal tract as a distinct area indicating nerve fiber integrity in all normal hemispheres and infraction as a dark or black area in affected hemispheres. Seven patients with upper extremity-dominant motor dysfunction had infarction located in the middle one third of the corticospinal tract. A patient with lower extremity-dominant motor dysfunction had infarction in the posterior one third. Five patients with equal motor dysfunction in the upper and lower extremities had infarction in both the middle and posterior one thirds of the corticospinal tract. The recovery of motor dysfunction at one month follow up correlated with the location of the corticospinal; tract injury on the initial 3DAC images. The findings of the 3DAC images provide an indicator of the pattern and the recovery from acute and chronic motor dysfunction in patients with corona radiata infarction. (author)

  9. Bacterial Aetiology and Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections in Children in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazina Sharmin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs in children are among the most common bacterial infections. Community-acquired urinary tract infections (CAUTI are often treated empirically with broad-spectrum antibiotics. Pattern of aetiologic agents and their antibiotic sensitivity may vary according to geographical and regional location. So, knowledge of antibiotic resistance trends is important for improving evidence-based recommendations for empirical treatment of UTIs. Objectives: To determine the common bacterial aetiologies of CAUTIs and their antibiotic resistance patterns in a tertiary care hospital, Savar. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at Enam Medical College Hospital, Savar from May 2016 to April 2017. We collected clean-catch mid-stream urine samples from 257 patients having clinical diagnosis of UTI and submitted to the clinical microbiology laboratory for culture and sensitivity. Results: A total of 120 (46.7% samples were positive for bacterial growth. Escherichia coli (79% was the most common pathogen, followed by Klebsiella spp. (14%. Bacterial isolates showed high prevalence of resistance to multiple antibiotics. Resistance against amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, co-trimoxazole and ciprofloxacin was higher compared to newer quinolones and aminoglycosides. Conclusion: Esch. coli and Klebsiella spp. were the predominant bacterial pathogens. The resistance pattern to commonly prescribed antibiotics was quite high and alarming.

  10. Premotor spinal network with balanced excitation and inhibition during motor patterns has high resilience to structural division

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Peter C; Vestergaard, Mikkel; Reveles Jensen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    synaptic inputs to motoneurons were estimated during rhythmic motor activity and demonstrated primarily intense inputs that consisted of qualitatively similar mixed E/I before and after the transection. To understand this high functional resilience, we used mathematical modeling of networks with recurrent...... connectivity that could potentially explain the balanced E/I. Both experimental and modeling data support the concept of a locally balanced premotor network consisting of recurrent E/I connectivity, in addition to the well known reciprocal network activity. The multifaceted synaptic connections provide spinal......Direct measurements of synaptic inhibition (I) and excitation (E) to spinal motoneurons can provide an important insight into the organization of premotor networks. Such measurements of flexor motoneurons participating in motor patterns in turtles have recently demonstrated strong concurrent E...

  11. Lack of pyloric interstitial cells of Cajal explains distinct peristaltic motor patterns in stomach and small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan-Yu; Lammers, Wim J E P; Bercik, Premysl; Huizinga, Jan D

    2005-09-01

    The frequency and propagation velocity of distension-induced peristaltic contractions in the antrum and duodenum are distinctly different and depend on activation of intrinsic excitatory motoneurons as well as pacemaker cells, the interstitial cells of Cajal associated with Auerbach's plexus (ICC-AP). Because ICC are critical for coordination of motor activities along the long axis of many regions in the gut, the role of ICC in antroduodenal coordination was investigated. We used immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, simultaneous multiple electrical recordings in vitro, and videofluoroscopy in vivo in mice and rats. A strongly reduced number of ICC-AP with loss of network characteristics was observed in a 4-mm area in the rat and a 1-mm area in the mouse pyloric region. The pyloric region showed a slow wave-free gap of 4.1 mm in rats and 1.3 mm in mice. Between antrum and duodenum, there was no interaction of electrical activities and in the absence of gastric emptying, there was no coordination of motor activities. When the pyloric sphincter opened, 2.4 s before the front of the antral wave reached the pylorus, the duodenum distended after receiving gastric content and aboral duodenal peristalsis was initiated, often disrupting other motor patterns. The absence of ICC-AP and slow wave activity in the pyloric region allows the antrum and duodenum to have distinct uncoordinated motor activities. Coordination of aborally propagating peristaltic antral and duodenal activity is initiated by opening of the pylorus, which is followed by distention-induced duodenal peristalsis. Throughout this coordinated motor activity, the pacemaker systems in antrum and duodenum remain independent.

  12. Bacterial profile and drug susceptibility pattern of urinary tract infection in pregnant women at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemu Agersew

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common health problem among pregnant women. Proper investigation and prompt treatment are needed to prevent serious life threatening condition and morbidity due to urinary tract infection that can occur in pregnant women. Recent report in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia indicated the prevalence of UTI in pregnant women was 11.6 % and Gram negative bacteria was the predominant isolates and showed multi drug resistance. This study aimed to assess bacterial profile that causes urinary tract infection and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern among pregnant women visiting antenatal clinic at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital from March 22 to April 30, 2011. Mid stream urine samples were collected and inoculated into Cystine Lactose Electrolyte Deficient medium (CLED. Colony counts yielding bacterial growth of 105/ml of urine or more of pure isolates were regarded as significant bacteriuria for infection. Colony from CLED was sub cultured onto MacConkey agar and blood agar plates. Identification was done using cultural characteristics and a series of biochemical tests. A standard method of agar disc diffusion susceptibility testing method was used to determine susceptibility patterns of the isolates. Results The overall prevalence of UTI in pregnant women was 10.4 %. The predominant bacterial pathogens were Escherichia coli 47.5 % followed by coagulase-negative staphylococci 22.5 %, Staphylococcus aureus 10 %, and Klebsiella pneumoniae 10 %. Gram negative isolates were resulted low susceptibility to co-trimoxazole (51.9 % and tetracycline (40.7 % whereas Gram positive showed susceptibility to ceftriaxon (84.6 % and amoxicillin–clavulanic acid (92.3 %. Multiple drug resistance (resistance to two or more drugs was observed in 95 % of the isolates. Conclusion

  13. Circadian pattern of motor activity in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonetti, Lorenzo; Conca, Andreas; Giupponi, Giancarlo; Natale, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to describe the 24-hour activity rhythm in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A total of 18 ADHD patients and 37 healthy controls (HCs) wore an actigraph for 7 days. ADHD patients showed higher motor activity than HCs at 4:00, 6:00, 15:00 and 16:00 hour. Within the theoretical framework of the two-process model of sleep regulation, the observed data may be explained by lower homeostatic sleep pressure in ADHD. This could lead to an increase in motor activity in the second half of the night, when sleep need decreases more rapidly, and in the first half of the afternoon, when patients do not experience the typical post-lunch dip.

  14. Motor Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Jorn

    2017-01-01

    Motor neurons translate synaptic input from widely distributed premotor networks into patterns of action potentials that orchestrate motor unit force and motor behavior. Intercalated between the CNS and muscles, motor neurons add to and adjust the final motor command. The identity and functional...... properties of this facility in the path from synaptic sites to the motor axon is reviewed with emphasis on voltage sensitive ion channels and regulatory metabotropic transmitter pathways. The catalog of the intrinsic response properties, their underlying mechanisms, and regulation obtained from motoneurons...... in in vitro preparations is far from complete. Nevertheless, a foundation has been provided for pursuing functional significance of intrinsic response properties in motoneurons in vivo during motor behavior at levels from molecules to systems....

  15. The pattern of the electromagnetic field emitted by mobile phones in motor vehicle driving simulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Politański

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The paper reports the results of the determinations of UMTS EMF distributions in the driver's cab of motor vehicle simulators. The results will serve as the basis for future research on the influence of EMF emitted by mobile phones on driver physiology. Materials and Methods: Two motor vehicle driving simulators were monitored, while an EMF source was placed at the driver's head or on the dashboard of the motor vehicle driving simulator. For every applied configuration, the maximal electric field strength was measured, as were the values at 16 points corresponding to chosen locations on a driver's or passenger's body. Results: When the power was set for the maximum (49 mW, a value of 27 V/m was measured in the vicinity of the driver's head when the phone was close to the head. With the same power, when the phone was placed on the dashboard, the measured maximum was 15.2 V/m in the vicinity of the driver's foot. Similar results were obtained for the passenger. Significant perturbations in EMF distribution and an increase in electric field strength values in the motor vehicle driving simulator were also observed in comparison to free space measurements, and the electric field strength was up to 3 times higher inside the simulator. Conclusions: This study can act as the basis of future studies concerning the influence of the EMF emitted by mobile phones on the physiology of the driver. Additionally, the authors postulate that it is advisable to keep mobile phones at a distance from the head, i.e. use, whenever possible, hands-free kits to reduce EMF exposure, both for drivers and passengers.

  16. Time and frequency domain methods for quantifying common modulation of motor unit firing patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myers Lance J

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In investigations of the human motor system, two approaches are generally employed toward the identification of common modulating drives from motor unit recordings. One is a frequency domain method and uses the coherence function to determine the degree of linear correlation between each frequency component of the signals. The other is a time domain method that has been developed to determine the strength of low frequency common modulations between motor unit spike trains, often referred to in the literature as 'common drive'. Methods The relationships between these methods are systematically explored using both mathematical and experimental procedures. A mathematical derivation is presented that shows the theoretical relationship between both time and frequency domain techniques. Multiple recordings from concurrent activities of pairs of motor units are studied and linear regressions are performed between time and frequency domain estimates (for different time domain window sizes to assess their equivalence. Results Analytically, it may be demonstrated that under the theoretical condition of a narrowband point frequency, the two relations are equivalent. However practical situations deviate from this ideal condition. The correlation between the two techniques varies with time domain moving average window length and for window lengths of 200 ms, 400 ms and 800 ms, the r2 regression statistics (p Conclusions Although theoretically equivalent and experimentally well correlated there are a number of minor discrepancies between the two techniques that are explored. The time domain technique is preferred for short data segments and is better able to quantify the strength of a broad band drive into a single index. The frequency domain measures are more encompassing, providing a complete description of all oscillatory inputs and are better suited to quantifying narrow ranges of descending input into a single index. In general the

  17. Changes in supraspinal activation patterns following robotic locomotor therapy in motor-incomplete spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Patricia; McColl, Roderick; Querry, Ross; Foreman, Nathan; Mosby, James; Tansey, Keith; Williamson, Jon

    2005-12-01

    Body weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT) is a task-specific rehabilitation strategy that enhances functional locomotion in patients following spinal cord injury (SCI). Supraspinal centers may play an important role in the recovery of over-ground locomotor function in patients with motor-incomplete SCI. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential for supraspinal reorganization associated with 12 weeks of robotic BWSTT using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Four men with motor-incomplete SCI participated in this study. Time since onset ranged from 14 weeks to 48 months post-SCI injury. All subjects were trained with BWSTT 3 times weekly for 12 weeks. This training was preceded and followed by fMRI study of supraspinal activity during a movement task. Testing of locomotor disability included the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI II) and over-ground gait speed. All subjects demonstrated some degree of change in the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal following BWSTT. fMRI results demonstrated greater activation in sensorimotor cortical regions (S1, S2) and cerebellar regions following BWSTT. Intensive task-specific rehabilitative training, such as robotic BWSTT, can promote supraspinal plasticity in the motor centers known to be involved in locomotion. Furthermore, improvement in over-ground locomotion is accompanied by an increased activation of the cerebellum.

  18. Identification of abnormal motor cortex activation patterns in children with cerebral palsy by functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Bilal; Tian, Fenghua; Behbehani, Khosrow; Romero, Mario I.; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Clegg, Nancy J.; Smith, Linsley; Reid, Dahlia; Liu, Hanli; Alexandrakis, George

    2010-05-01

    We demonstrate the utility of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a tool for physicians to study cortical plasticity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Motor cortex activation patterns were studied in five healthy children and five children with CP (8.4+/-2.3 years old in both groups) performing a finger-tapping protocol. Spatial (distance from center and area difference) and temporal (duration and time-to-peak) image metrics are proposed as potential biomarkers for differentiating abnormal cortical activation in children with CP from healthy pediatric controls. In addition, a similarity image-analysis concept is presented that unveils areas that have similar activation patterns as that of the maximum activation area, but are not discernible by visual inspection of standard activation images. Metrics derived from the images presenting areas of similarity are shown to be sensitive identifiers of abnormal activation patterns in children with CP. Importantly, the proposed similarity concept and related metrics may be applicable to other studies for the identification of cortical activation patterns by fNIRS.

  19. Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of Bacteria Causing Urinary Tract Infections in Children of Fasa During the years 2012 and 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    alireza molazade

    2015-02-01

    Conclusion: Regarding the results, it is recommended to use Ciprofloxacin and Nitrofurantoin for outpatient treatment of UTI. Selecting proper antibiotics for UTI treatment should be on the basis of the local prevalence of pathogenic bacteria and antibiotic resistance pattern.

  20. Discrimination of Motor Imagery-Induced EEG Patterns in Patients with Complete Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pfurtscheller

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available EEG-based discrimination between different motor imagery states has been subject of a number of studies in healthy subjects. We investigated the EEG of 15 patients with complete spinal cord injury during imagined right hand, left hand, and feet movements. In detail we studied pair-wise discrimination functions between the 3 types of motor imagery. The following classification accuracies (mean ± SD were obtained: left versus right hand 65.03% ± 8.52, left hand versus feet 68.19% ± 11.08, and right hand versus feet 65.05% ± 9.25. In 5 out of 8 paralegic patients, the discrimination accuracy was greater than 70% but in only 1 out of 7 tetraplagic patients. The present findings provide evidence that in the majority of paraplegic patients an EEG-based BCI could achieve satisfied results. In tetraplegic patients, however, it is expected that extensive training-sessions are necessary to achieve a good BCI performance at least in some subjects.

  1. Recovery of post stroke proximal arm function, driven by complex neuroplastic bilateral brain activation patterns and predicted by baseline motor dysfunction severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana ePundik

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Neuroplastic changes that drive recovery of shoulder/elbow function after stoke have been poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between neuroplastic brain changes related to shoulder/elbow movement control in response to treatment and recovery of arm motor function in chronic stroke survivors. Methods: Twenty-three chronic stroke survivors were treated with 12 weeks of arm rehabilitation. Outcome measures included functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI for the shoulder/elbow components of reach and a skilled motor function test (Arm Motor Abilities Test (AMAT, collected before and after treatment.Results: We observed two patterns of neuroplastic changes that were associated with gains in motor function: decreased or increased task-related brain activation. Those with significantly better motor function at baseline exhibited a decrease in brain activation in response to treatment, evident in the ipsilesional primary motor and contralesional supplementary motor regions; in contrast, those with greater baseline motor impairment, exhibited increased brain activation in response to treatment. There was an linear relationship between greater functional gain (AMAT and increased activation in bilateral primary motor, contralesional primary and secondary sensory regions, and contralesional lateral premotor area, after adjusting for baseline AMAT, age, and time since stroke. Conclusions: Recovery of functional reach involves recruitment of several contralesional and bilateral primary motor regions. In response to intensive therapy, the direction of functional brain change (i.e. increase or decrease in task-related brain recruitment for shoulder/elbow reach components depends on baseline level of motor function and may represent either different phases or different strategies of neuroplasticity that drive functional recovery.

  2. Unstable patterns and robust synchronization in a model of motor pathway in birdsong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moukam Kakmeni, F.M.; Bowong, S.; Nana, L.; Kofane, T.C.

    2006-10-01

    This paper investigates the fundamental dynamical mechanism responsible for transition to chaos in periodically modulated Duffing-Van der Pol oscillator. It is shown that a modulationally unstable pattern appears into an initially stable motionless state. A further spatiotemporal transition occurs with a sharp interface from the selected stable pattern to a stabilized pattern or chaotic state. Also, the synchronization of the chaotic state of the model is investigated. The results are discussed in the context of generalized synchronization. The main idea is to construct an augmented dynamical system from the synchronization error system, which is itself uncertain. The advantage of this method over existing results is that the synchronization time is explicitly computed. Numerical simulations are provided to verify the operation of the proposed algorithm. (author)

  3. Using Fractal and Local Binary Pattern Features for Classification of ECOG Motor Imagery Tasks Obtained from the Right Brain Hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fangzhou; Zhou, Weidong; Zhen, Yilin; Yuan, Qi; Wu, Qi

    2016-09-01

    The feature extraction and classification of brain signal is very significant in brain-computer interface (BCI). In this study, we describe an algorithm for motor imagery (MI) classification of electrocorticogram (ECoG)-based BCI. The proposed approach employs multi-resolution fractal measures and local binary pattern (LBP) operators to form a combined feature for characterizing an ECoG epoch recording from the right hemisphere of the brain. A classifier is trained by using the gradient boosting in conjunction with ordinary least squares (OLS) method. The fractal intercept, lacunarity and LBP features are extracted to classify imagined movements of either the left small finger or the tongue. Experimental results on dataset I of BCI competition III demonstrate the superior performance of our method. The cross-validation accuracy and accuracy is 90.6% and 95%, respectively. Furthermore, the low computational burden of this method makes it a promising candidate for real-time BCI systems.

  4. Changes in bacterial resistance patterns in children with urinary tract infections on antimicrobial prophylaxis at University Hospital in Split

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilić, Tanja; Gračan, Sanda; Arapović, Adela; Čapkun, Vesna; Šubat-Dežulović, Mirna; Saraga, Marijan

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background We assessed prevalence and resistance of uropathogens on antimicrobial agents (AA) from urine cultures (UC) in children hospitalized with urinary tract infections (UTI) at University Hospital in Split. Material/Methods During the 7-year period, children hospitalized only once with UTI alone were compared to those repeatedly hospitalized, and who received long-term antimicrobial prophylaxis (LTAP), as well as those with associated anomalies of the urinary system (US). Results E. coli was the most frequent isolate (67.7%) with resistance to ampicillin by 69.5%, amoxicillin/clavulonic acid by 3.5%, cephalexin by 6.6%, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) by 27.5%, and nitrofurantoin by 0.4%. For other uropathogens, AA resistance rates were the following: 64.3%, 5.8%, 10.5%, 21.3%, and 7.9%. The high or increasing resistance to TMP-SMX is characterized by all uropathogens. Patients with anomalies of US showed a lower prevalence of E. coli and Enterococcus sp., but a higher prevalence of Pseudomonas sp., ESBL-producing E. coli and Klebsiella sp. than those without US anomalies. Repeatedly hospitalized patients showed a lower prevalence of E. coli, but a higher prevalence of Pseudomonas sp. and Klebsiella sp. than patients hospitalized only once. Both groups displayed significantly less resistance of Enterococcus sp. In patients receiving LTAP before hospitalization, E. coli was significantly more resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulonic acid and TMP/SMX than in those without LTAP. Conclusions Based on our results, we recommend excluding ampicillin altogether, and reconsideration of further use of TMP-SMX, as well as use of nitrofurantoin, cephalexin and amoxicillin/clavulonic acid for LTAP in our region. PMID:21709628

  5. Peroneal muscular atrophy with pyramidal tract features (hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type V): a clinical, neurophysiological, and pathological study of a large kindred.

    OpenAIRE

    Frith, J A; McLeod, J G; Nicholson, G A; Yang, F

    1994-01-01

    A large family with autosomal dominant inheritance of peroneal muscular atrophy, associated with extensor plantar responses in some cases, has been studied. Onset was usually in the first two decades and spasticity was not a feature. Nerve conduction studies in 21 cases and light and electron microscope findings on six sural nerve biopsies were similar to those in hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type II.

  6. In vivo and in vitro study of the influence of the anticholinesterase drug galantamine on motor and evacuative functions of rat gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turiiski, Valentin I; Krustev, Atanas D; Sirakov, Vladimir N; Getova, Damianka P

    2004-09-13

    Galantamine is efficacious for vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Its application leads to some negative gastrointestinal side effects. The present study observes galantamine-induced influence on gastrointestinal motility of rats and its effects on isolated gastrointestinal smooth muscles. The gastrointestinal tract was studied by X-ray contrast examination. Functional disturbances were observed: hypertonia, increased stomach and ileal peristalsis activity, accelerated intestinal passage. In vitro, the drug caused tonic contractions in smooth muscle preparations and increased the gastric and ileal phasic amplitude. The jejunal smooth muscle strips demonstrated an opposite tendency. The reactions were a result of the interaction of galantamine-accumulated endogenic acetycholine with M- and N-acetylcholine receptors. The tonic effects were influenced in varying degree by atropine and ipratropium, whereas the phasic by atropine, ipratropium, hexametonium and methysergide. In conclusion, the in vitro effects registered satisfactorily explain in vivo examined galantamine-induced changes in the gastrointestinal tract of the treated rats and can be considered as main cause for development of such changes.

  7. Pattern of visceral injuries following blunt abdominal trauma in motor vehicular accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, J.S.; Iqbal, N.; Gardezi, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the frequency of various visceral injuries following, high-speed motor vehicle crashes with special reference to frequency of liver injuries, severity and complications. The study included 100 consecutive patients of blunt abdominal trauma. Patients of either gender and age above 12 and below 70 were included in this study. Purposive non-probability sampling was done. Injuries were identified, graded and managed accordingly. The data was then entered into SPSS and descriptive statistical tests were applied. Liver was the most common organ injured (35%), followed by spleen (32 %) and small gut (30 %). In 23 patients, liver was the only organ injured. Most of the liver injuries fell under grade I (42.8%) followed by grade II (28.35%) and grade III (22.85%) and were treated by suture hepatorrhaphy alone in 71.42% cases. The operated cases were mostly complicated by wound infection (33.76%). Overall mortality remained high (12%) and was related to a combination of delays in arriving at a diagnosis due to nonavailability of CT scan and routine use of peritoneal lavage. (author)

  8. Motor patterns associated with crawling in a soft-bodied arthropod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Michael A; Fusillo, Steven J; Colman, Kara; Trimmer, Barry A

    2010-07-01

    Soft-bodied animals lack distinct joints and levers, and so their locomotion is expected to be controlled differently from that of animals with stiff skeletons. Some invertebrates, such as the annelids, use functionally antagonistic muscles (circumferential and longitudinal) acting on constant-volume hydrostatics to produce extension and contraction. These processes form the basis for most theoretical considerations of hydrostatic locomotion in organisms including larval insects. However, caterpillars do not move in this way, and their powerful appendages provide grip independent of their dimensional changes. Here, we show that the anterograde wave of movement seen in the crawling tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, is mediated by co-activation of dorsal and ventral muscles within a body segment, rather than by antiphasic activation, as previously believed. Furthermore, two or three abdominal segments are in swing phase simultaneously, and the activities of motor neurons controlling major longitudinal muscles overlap in more than four segments. Recordings of muscle activity during natural crawling show that some are activated during both their shortening and elongation. These results do not support the typical peristaltic model of crawling, but they do support a tension-based model of crawling, in which the substrate is utilized as an anchor to generate propulsion.

  9. Correlation between permanent tooth eruption pattern and the predominance of the motor function laterality

    OpenAIRE

    Veloso-Durán, Ana; Vazquez-Salceda, Carmen M.; López-Jiménez, Julian; Veloso-Durán, Margarita; Puigdollers, Andreu

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To asses whether dental eruption order can play a role in the early diagnosis of crossed laterality. Study Design: Dental eruption pattern along with eye, ear, hand and foot lateralism were examined on 131 children between 6 to 8 years old from public schools from a multietnic population area of Barcelona city. Statistic methods (Statgraphics Plus 5.1 program) were used to evaluate data recollected. Results: Only foot and dentition lateralities behave as independent variables rega...

  10. In vitro fermentation pattern of D-tagatose is affected by adaptation of the microbiota from the gastrointestinal tract of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laerke, H N; Jensen, B B; Højsgaard, S

    2000-07-01

    Knowledge of the fermentation pattern of D-tagatose is important for the assessment of energy value and compliance of D-tagatose. In vitro fermentation experiments with pig intestinal contents and bacteria harvested from the gastrointestinal tract of pigs were used to investigate the degradation of D-tagatose and the formation of fermentation products. Two groups of eight pigs were fed either a control diet containing 150 g/kg sucrose or a diet which had 100 g/kg of the sucrose replaced by D-tagatose. After 18 d the pigs were killed and the gastrointestinal contents collected for in vitro studies. No microbial fermentation of D-tagatose occurred in the stomach or in the small intestine, whereas the sugar was fermented in the cecum and colon. Formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, valerate, caproate and some heptanoate were produced by the microbial fermentation of D-tagatose by gut microbiota. Hydrogen and methane were also produced. The population of D-tagatose-degrading bacteria in fecal samples and the capacity of bacteria from the hindgut to degrade D-tagatose were higher in the pigs adapted to D-tagatose compared with unadapted pigs. In unadapted pigs, the major fermentation product from D-tagatose was acetic acid. Much more butyric and valeric acids were produced from D-tagatose by bacterial slurries of tagatose-adapted pigs compared with unadapted pigs; this was especially the case for samples from the colon. We conclude that D-tagatose is not fermented in the upper gastrointestinal tract, and the ability of the large intestinal microbiota to ferment D-tagatose is dependent on adaptation.

  11. Lewis, Fischer 344, and Sprague-Dawley rats display differences in lipid peroxidation, motor recovery, and rubrospinal tract preservation after spinal cord injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto eMestre

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The rat is the most common animal model for the preclinical validation of neuroprotective therapies in spinal cord injury (SCI. Lipid peroxidation (LP is a hallmark of the damage triggered after SCI. Free radicals react with fatty acids causing cellular and membrane disruption. LP accounts for a considerable amount of neuronal cell death after SCI. To better understand the implications of inbred and outbred rat strain selection on preclinical SCI research we evaluated LP after laminectomy sham surgery and a severe contusion of the T9 spinal cord in female Sprague-Dawley (SPD, Lewis (LEW and Fischer 344 (F344 rats. Further analysis included locomotor recovery using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB scale and retrograde rubrospinal tract tracing. LEW had the highest levels of LP products 72 hours after sham surgery and SCI, significantly different from both F344 and SPD. SPD rats had the fastest functional recovery and highest BBB scores; these were not significantly different to F344. However, LEW rats achieved the lowest BBB scores throughout the two-month follow-up, yielding significant differences when compared to SPD and F344. To see if the improvement in locomotion was secondary to an increase in axon survival we evaluated rubrospinal neurons (RSN via retrograde labeling of the rubrospinal tract and quantified cells at the red nuclei. The highest numbers of RSNs were observed in SPD rats then F344; the lowest counts were seen in LEW rats. The BBB scores significantly correlated with the amount of positively stained RSN in the red nuclei. It is critical to identify inter-strain variations as a potential confound in preclinical research. Multi-strain validation of neuroprotective therapies may increase chances of successful translation.

  12. Community paediatricians' counseling patterns and knowledge of recommendations relating to child restraint use in motor vehicles.

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    Rothenstein, J; Howard, A; Parkin, P; Khambalia, A; Macarthur, C

    2004-04-01

    Road traffic injury is the leading cause of death among Canadian children and youth. Transport Canada recommends four types of child restraint depending on the size of the child, and recent studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of recommended restraint use. To determine community paediatricians' knowledge of Transport Canada recommendations for child restraint use in vehicles, and to examine paediatricians' counseling patterns in relation to child passenger safety. A mailed questionnaire survey of all community paediatricians affiliated with the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto was conducted. A 16 item questionnaire gathered information on knowledge of Transport Canada recommendations for child restraint use, general counseling patterns in relation to child passenger safety, and demographic information. In total, 60 community paediatricians in active practice were identified. Of these, 48 (80%) responded to the mailed questionnaire. Almost all paediatricians (92%) correctly identified the recommended weight for transition to a forward-facing car seat, whereas fewer paediatricians (63%) correctly identified the recommended weight for transition to a booster seat from a forward-facing car seat, and only one third of paediatricians correctly identified the recommended weight for transition from a booster seat to a seat belt. Community paediatricians' knowledge of Transport Canada recommendations for child restraint use in vehicles is incomplete. There is a need for such recommendations to be better disseminated to paediatricians and parents so that information on child restraint use is delivered in a clear and consistent manner.

  13. Mastery in Goal Scoring, T-Pattern Detection, and Polar Coordinate Analysis of Motor Skills Used by Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañer, Marta; Barreira, Daniel; Camerino, Oleguer; Anguera, M Teresa; Fernandes, Tiago; Hileno, Raúl

    2017-01-01

    Research in soccer has traditionally given more weight to players' technical and tactical skills, but few studies have analyzed the motor skills that underpin specific motor actions. The objective of this study was to investigate the style of play of the world's top soccer players, Cristiano Ronaldo and Lionel Messi, and how they use their motor skills in attacking actions that result in a goal. We used and improved the easy-to-use observation instrument (OSMOS-soccer player) with 9 criteria, each one expanded to build 50 categories. Associations between these categories were investigated by T-pattern detection and polar coordinate analysis. T-pattern analysis detects temporal structures of complex behavioral sequences composed of simpler or directly distinguishable events within specified observation periods (time point series). Polar coordinate analysis involves the application of a complex procedure to provide a vector map of interrelated behaviors obtained from prospective and retrospective sequential analysis. The T-patterns showed that for both players the combined criteria were mainly between the different aspects of motor skills, namely the use of lower limbs, contact with the ball using the outside of the foot, locomotion, body orientation with respect to the opponent goal line, and the criteria of technical actions and the right midfield. Polar coordinate analysis detected significant associations between the same criteria included in the T-patterns as well as the criteria of turning the body, numerical equality with no pressure, and relative numerical superiority.

  14. Mastery in Goal Scoring, T-Pattern Detection, and Polar Coordinate Analysis of Motor Skills Used by Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Castañer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Research in soccer has traditionally given more weight to players' technical and tactical skills, but few studies have analyzed the motor skills that underpin specific motor actions. The objective of this study was to investigate the style of play of the world's top soccer players, Cristiano Ronaldo and Lionel Messi, and how they use their motor skills in attacking actions that result in a goal. We used and improved the easy-to-use observation instrument (OSMOS-soccer player with 9 criteria, each one expanded to build 50 categories. Associations between these categories were investigated by T-pattern detection and polar coordinate analysis. T-pattern analysis detects temporal structures of complex behavioral sequences composed of simpler or directly distinguishable events within specified observation periods (time point series. Polar coordinate analysis involves the application of a complex procedure to provide a vector map of interrelated behaviors obtained from prospective and retrospective sequential analysis. The T-patterns showed that for both players the combined criteria were mainly between the different aspects of motor skills, namely the use of lower limbs, contact with the ball using the outside of the foot, locomotion, body orientation with respect to the opponent goal line, and the criteria of technical actions and the right midfield. Polar coordinate analysis detected significant associations between the same criteria included in the T-patterns as well as the criteria of turning the body, numerical equality with no pressure, and relative numerical superiority.

  15. Association between patterns of jaw motor activity during sleep and clinical signs and symptoms of sleep bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yuya; Suganuma, Takeshi; Takaba, Masayuki; Ono, Yasuhiro; Abe, Yuka; Yoshizawa, Shuichiro; Sakai, Takuro; Yoshizawa, Ayako; Nakamura, Hirotaka; Kawana, Fusae; Baba, Kazuyoshi

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between patterns of jaw motor activity during sleep and clinical signs and symptoms of sleep bruxism. A total of 35 university students and staff members participated in this study after providing informed consent. All participants were divided into either a sleep bruxism group (n = 21) or a control group (n = 14), based on the following clinical diagnostic criteria: (1) reports of tooth-grinding sounds for at least two nights a week during the preceding 6 months by their sleep partner; (2) presence of tooth attrition with exposed dentin; (3) reports of morning masticatory muscle fatigue or tenderness; and (4) presence of masseter muscle hypertrophy. Video-polysomnography was performed in the sleep laboratory for two nights. Sleep bruxism episodes were measured using masseter electromyography, visually inspected and then categorized into phasic or tonic episodes. Phasic episodes were categorized further into episodes with or without grinding sounds as evaluated by audio signals. Sleep bruxism subjects with reported grinding sounds had a significantly higher total number of phasic episodes with grinding sounds than subjects without reported grinding sounds or controls (Kruskal-Wallis/Steel-Dwass tests; P sleep bruxism subjects with tooth attrition exhibited significantly longer phasic burst durations than those without or controls (Kruskal-Wallis/Steel-Dwass tests; P sleep bruxism subjects with morning masticatory muscle fatigue or tenderness exhibited significantly longer tonic burst durations than those without or controls (Kruskal-Wallis/Steel-Dwass tests; P sleep bruxism represents different aspects of jaw motor activity during sleep. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  16. Short-Term Synaptic Plasticity at Interneuronal Synapses Could Sculpt Rhythmic Motor Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yan; Parker, David

    2016-01-01

    The output of a neuronal network depends on the organization and functional properties of its component cells and synapses. While the characterization of synaptic properties has lagged cellular analyses, a potentially important aspect in rhythmically active networks is how network synapses affect, and are in turn affected by, network activity. This could lead to a potential circular interaction where short-term activity-dependent synaptic plasticity is both influenced by and influences the network output. The analysis of synaptic plasticity in the lamprey locomotor network was extended here to characterize the short-term plasticity of connections between network interneurons and to try and address its potential network role. Paired recordings from identified interneurons in quiescent networks showed synapse-specific synaptic properties and plasticity that supported the presence of two hemisegmental groups that could influence bursting: depression in an excitatory interneuron group, and facilitation in an inhibitory feedback circuit. The influence of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity on network activity was investigated experimentally by changing Ringer Ca(2+) levels, and in a simple computer model. A potential caveat of the experimental analyses was that changes in Ringer Ca(2+) (and compensatory adjustments in Mg(2+) in some cases) could alter several other cellular and synaptic properties. Several of these properties were tested, and while there was some variability, these were not usually significantly affected by the Ringer changes. The experimental analyses suggested that depression of excitatory inputs had the strongest influence on the patterning of network activity. The simulation supported a role for this effect, and also suggested that the inhibitory facilitating group could modulate the influence of the excitatory synaptic depression. Short-term activity-dependent synaptic plasticity has not generally been considered in spinal cord models. These

  17. Resting-state interhemispheric motor connectivity and white matter integrity correlate with motor impairment in chronic stroke

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    Joyce L Chen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Functional and structural reorganization in the brain occurs after stroke. The ability to predict motor outcomes may depend on patterns of brain functional and structural connectivity. We tested the hypothesis that alterations in motor transcallosal and corticospinal connections correlate with motor impairment in patients with chronic stroke. Eleven ischemic stroke patients underwent the Upper Extremity Fugl Meyer assessment, resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging, and diffusion tensor imaging. Twelve healthy control subjects underwent diffusion tensor imaging. We assessed the temporal coupling in neural activity between interhemispheric motor cortex, and white matter integrity by means of fractional anisotropy, in the transcallosal motor fibers and corticospinal tract. Partial correlation analyses were performed to determine whether these connectivity measures correlate with Upper Extremity Fugl Meyer scores. Patients compared to controls had reduced fractional anisotropy in common voxels of transcallosal motor and ipsilesional corticospinal fibers. Within the patient group those with higher interhemispheric motor cortex connectivity and higher fractional anisotropy in the transcallosal motor fibers were less impaired. The results show that markers of functional and structural motor cortex connectivity correlate with motor impairment in the chronic stage of stroke.

  18. Discrete motor coordinates for vowel production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Florencia Assaneo

    Full Text Available Current models of human vocal production that capture peripheral dynamics in speech require large dimensional measurements of the neural activity, which are mapped into equally complex motor gestures. In this work we present a motor description for vowels as points in a discrete low-dimensional space. We monitor the dynamics of 3 points at the oral cavity using Hall-effect transducers and magnets, describing the resulting signals during normal utterances in terms of active/inactive patterns that allow a robust vowel classification in an abstract binary space. We use simple matrix algebra to link this representation to the anatomy of the vocal tract and to recent reports of highly tuned neuronal activations for vowel production, suggesting a plausible global strategy for vowel codification and motor production.

  19. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Urinary tract infections Urinary tract infections > A-Z Health Topics Urinary tract infections (PDF, ... To receive Publications email updates Enter email Submit Urinary tract infections Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are most often caused ...

  20. Visually driven chaining of elementary swim patterns into a goal-directed motor sequence: a virtual reality study of zebrafish prey capture

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    Chintan A Trivedi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Prey capture behavior critically depends on rapid processing of sensory input in order to track, approach and catch the target. When using vision, the nervous system faces the problem of extracting relevant information from a continuous stream of input in order to detect and categorize visible objects as potential prey and to select appropriate motor patterns for approach. For prey capture, many vertebrates exhibit intermittent locomotion, in which discrete motor patterns are chained into a sequence, interrupted by short periods of rest. Here, using high-speed recordings of full-length prey capture sequences performed by freely swimming zebrafish larvae in the presence of a single paramecium, we provide a detailed kinematic analysis of first and subsequent swim bouts during prey capture. Using Fourier analysis, we show that individual swim bouts represent an elementary motor pattern. Changes in orientation are directed towards the target on a graded scale and are implemented by an asymmetric tail bend component superimposed on this basic motor pattern. To further investigate the role of visual feedback on the efficiency and speed of this complex behavior, we developed a closed-loop virtual reality setup in which minimally restrained larvae recapitulated interconnected swim patterns closely resembling those observed during prey capture in freely moving fish. Systematic variation of stimulus properties showed that prey capture is initiated within a narrow range of stimulus size and velocity. Furthermore, variations in the delay and location of swim-triggered visual feedback showed that the reaction time of secondary and later swims is shorter for stimuli that appear within a narrow spatio-temporal window following a swim. This suggests that the larva may generate an expectation of stimulus position, which enables accelerated motor sequencing if the expectation is met by appropriate visual feedback.

  1. Correlation between permanent tooth eruption pattern and the predominance of the motor function laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso-Durán, Ana; Vazquez-Salceda, Ma Carmen; López-Jiménez, Julian; Veloso-Durán, Margarita; Puigdollers, Andreu

    2014-09-01

    To asses whether dental eruption order can play a role in the early diagnosis of crossed laterality. Dental eruption pattern along with eye, ear, hand and foot lateralism were examined on 131 children between 6 to 8 years old from public schools from a multietnic population area of Barcelona city. Statistic methods (Statgraphics Plus 5.1 program) were used to evaluate data recollected. Only foot and dentition lateralities behave as independent variables regarding hand laterality. So dental eruption laterality (along with the foot one) would be one of the parameters more related to hand laterality given that dentition variable relationship is greater that the foot one. This suggests that tooth eruption could be more clinically relevant. Crossed laterality hand-foot is significantly more predominant in men (13%) than in women (1,6%). Meanwhile, the relationship between hand and dentition didn't show any influence of sex. Dental eruption order, can be used as a good parameter in the determination of the patient's laterality.

  2. A model of the enteric neural circuitry underlying the generation of rhythmic motor patterns in the colon: the role of serotonin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Sang Don

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the role of multiple cell types involved in rhythmic motor patterns in the large intestine that include tonic inhibition of the muscle layers interrupted by rhythmic colonic migrating motor complexes (CMMCs) and secretomotor activity. We propose a model that assumes these motor patterns are dependent on myenteric descending 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) interneurons. Asynchronous firing in 5-HT neurons excite inhibitory motor neurons (IMNs) to generate tonic inhibition occurring between CMMCs. IMNs release mainly nitric oxide (NO) to inhibit the muscle, intrinsic primary afferent neurons (IPANs), glial cells, and pacemaker myenteric pacemaker interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC-MY). Mucosal release of 5-HT from enterochromaffin (EC) cells excites the mucosal endings of IPANs that synapse with 5-HT descending interneurons and perhaps ascending interneurons, thereby coupling EC cell 5-HT to myenteric 5-HT neurons, synchronizing their activity. Synchronized 5-HT neurons generate a slow excitatory postsynaptic potential in IPANs via 5-HT7 receptors and excite glial cells and ascending excitatory nerve pathways that are normally inhibited by NO. Excited glial cells release prostaglandins to inhibit IMNs (disinhibition) to allow full excitation of ICC-MY and muscle by excitatory motor neurons (EMNs). EMNs release ACh and tachykinins to excite pacemaker ICC-MY and muscle, leading to the simultaneous contraction of both the longitudinal and circular muscle layers. Myenteric 5-HT neurons also project to the submucous plexus to couple motility with secretion, especially during a CMMC. Glial cells are necessary for switching between different colonic motor behaviors. This model emphasizes the importance of myenteric 5-HT neurons and the likely consequence of their coupling and uncoupling to mucosal 5-HT by IPANs during colonic motor behaviors. PMID:27789457

  3. Learning of temporal motor patterns: An analysis of continuous vs. reset timing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo eLaje

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to generate well-timed sequences of movements is critical to an array of behaviors, including the ability to play a musical instrument or a video game. Here we address two questions relating to timing with the goal of better understanding the neural mechanisms underlying temporal processing. First, how does accuracy and variance change over the course of learning of complex spatiotemporal patterns? Second, is the timing of sequential responses most consistent with starting and stopping an internal timer at each interval or with continuous timing?To address these questions we used a psychophysical task in which subjects learned to reproduce a sequence of finger taps in the correct order and at the correct times—much like playing a melody at the piano. This task allowed us to calculate the variance of the responses at different time points using data from the same trials. Our results show that while standard Weber’s law is clearly violated, variance does increase as a function of time squared, as expected according to the generalized form of Weber’s law—which separates the source of variance into time-dependent and time-independent components. Over the course of learning, both the time-independent variance and the coefficient of the time-dependent term decrease. Our analyses also suggest that timing of sequential events does not rely on the resetting of an internal timer at each event.We describe and interpret our results in the context of computer simulations that capture some of our psychophysical findings. Specifically, we show that continuous timing, as opposed to reset timing, is expected from population clock models in which timing emerges from the internal dynamics of recurrent neural networks.

  4. [Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Gram-negative bacteria isolated in urinary tract infections in Venezuela: Results of the SMART study 2009-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Napoleón; Guzmán, Manuel; Merentes, Altagracia; Rizzi, Adele; Papaptzikos, Juana; Rivero, Narlesky; Oranges, Carmela; Vlllarroel, Héctor; Limas, Yoxsivell

    2015-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance of pathogens causing urinary tract infection (UTI) is a growing problem, which complicates their effective treatment. Surveillance is needed to guide appropriate empiric therapy. to describe the susceptibility patterns of Gram-negative bacteria isolated of patients with UTI to twelve antibiotics as part of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends in Venezuela. Between 2009-2012 a total of 472 Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from hospitalized patients with UTI. The isolates were sent to Central Laboratory (Central Laboratory of International Health Management Associates) to confirm their identification, and to make susceptibility testing as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Enterobacteriacea comprised 96.6% of the total, where Escherichia coli (76.9%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (10.6%) were the most frequent. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) was detected in 21.6% of isolates. Top antimicrobial activity were ertapenem, imipenem, and amikacin (> 90.0%), slightly lower for amikacin (85.1%) in ESBL-producing strains. Resistance rates to fluoroquinolones and ampicillin/sulbactam were high (40 y 64%, respectively). These data suggest a necessary revision of the therapeutic regimens for the empirical treatment of UTI in Venezuela.

  5. Elucidation of the Pattern of the Onset of Male Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Using Cluster Analysis: Efficacy of Tamsulosin in Each Symptom Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, Ken; Kataoka, Masao; Ogawa, Soichiro; Akaihata, Hidenori; Sato, Yuichi; Yabe, Michihiro; Hata, Junya; Koguchi, Tomoyuki; Kojima, Yoshiyuki; Shiragasawa, Chihaya; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu; Yamaguchi, Osamu

    2015-08-01

    To present a new grouping of male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) based on symptom patterns and clarify whether the therapeutic effect of α1-blocker differs among the groups. We performed secondary analysis of anonymous data from 4815 patients enrolled in a postmarketing surveillance study of tamsulosin in Japan. Data on 7 International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) items at the initial visit were used in the cluster analysis. IPSS and quality of life (QOL) scores before and after tamsulosin treatment for 12 weeks were assessed in each cluster. Partial correlation coefficients were also obtained for IPSS and QOL scores based on changes before and after treatment. Five symptom groups were identified by cluster analysis of IPSS. On their symptom profile, each cluster was labeled as minimal type (cluster 1), multiple severe type (cluster 2), weak stream type (cluster 3), storage type (cluster 4), and voiding type (cluster 5). Prevalence and the mean symptom score were significantly improved in almost all symptoms in all clusters by tamsulosin treatment. Nocturia and weak stream had the strongest effect on QOL in clusters 1, 2, and 4 and clusters 3 and 5, respectively. The study clarified that 5 characteristic symptom patterns exist by cluster analysis of IPSS in male patients with LUTS. Tamsulosin improved various symptoms and QOL in each symptom group. The study reports many male patients with LUTS being satisfied with monotherapy using tamsulosin and suggests the usefulness of α1-blockers as a drug of first choice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cord blood PRF1 methylation patterns and risk of lower respiratory tract infections in infants: findings from the Ulm Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgizouli, Magdeldin; Logan, Chad; Nieters, Alexandra; Brenner, Hermann; Rothenbacher, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are a major cause of morbidity in children. DNA methylation provides a mechanism for transmitting environmental effects on the genome, but its potential role in LRTIs is not well studied. We investigated the methylation pattern of an enhancer region of the immune effector gene perforin-1 (PRF1), which encodes a cytolytic molecule of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer cells (NK), in cord blood DNA of children recruited in a German birth cohort in association with LRTIs in the first year of life.Pyrosequencing was used to determine the methylation levels of target cytosine-phosphate-guanines (CpGs) in a 2-stage case-control design. Cases were identified as children who developed ≥2 episodes of physician-recorded LRTIs during the first year of life and controls as children who had none. Discovery (n = 87) and replication (n = 90) sets were arranged in trios of 1 case and 2 controls matched for sex and season of birth.Logistic regression analysis revealed higher levels of methylation at a CpG that corresponds to a signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) responsive enhancer in the discovery (odds ratio [OR] per 1% methylation difference 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-1.50) and replication (OR per 1% methylation difference 1.25, 95% CI 1.04-1.50) sets. Adjustment for having siblings blood PRF1 enhancer methylation patterns and subsequent risk of LRTIs in infants. Methylation levels at specific CpGs of the PRF1 enhancer varied according to maternal and family environmental factors suggesting a role for DNA methylation in mediating environmental influences on gene function.

  7. A spatial-frequency-temporal optimized feature sparse representation-based classification method for motor imagery EEG pattern recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Minmin; Wang, Aimin; Liu, Feixiang

    2017-09-01

    Effective feature extraction and classification methods are of great importance for motor imagery (MI)-based brain-computer interface (BCI) systems. The common spatial pattern (CSP) algorithm is a widely used feature extraction method for MI-based BCIs. In this work, we propose a novel spatial-frequency-temporal optimized feature sparse representation-based classification method. Optimal channels are selected based on relative entropy criteria. Significant CSP features on frequency-temporal domains are selected automatically to generate a column vector for sparse representation-based classification (SRC). We analyzed the performance of the new method on two public EEG datasets, namely BCI competition III dataset IVa which has five subjects and BCI competition IV dataset IIb which has nine subjects. Compared to the performance offered by the existing SRC method, the proposed method achieves average classification accuracy improvements of 21.568 and 14.38% for BCI competition III dataset IVa and BCI competition IV dataset IIb, respectively. Furthermore, our approach also shows better classification performance when compared to other competing methods for both datasets.

  8. Decoding sequential finger movements from preparatory activity in higher-order motor regions: a functional magnetic resonance imaging multi-voxel pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambu, Isao; Hagura, Nobuhiro; Hirose, Satoshi; Wada, Yasuhiro; Kawato, Mitsuo; Naito, Eiichi

    2015-11-01

    Performing a complex sequential finger movement requires the temporally well-ordered organization of individual finger movements. Previous behavioural studies have suggested that the brain prepares a whole sequence of movements as a single set, rather than the movements of individual fingers. However, direct neuroimaging support for this hypothesis is lacking and, assuming it to be true, it remains unclear which brain regions represent the information of a prepared sequence. Here, we measured brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging while 14 right-handed healthy participants performed two types of well-learned sequential finger movements with their right hands. Using multi-voxel pattern analysis, we examined whether the types of the forthcoming sequence could be predicted from the preparatory activities of nine regions of interest, which included the motor, somatosensory and posterior parietal regions in each hemisphere, bilateral visual cortices, cerebellum and basal ganglia. We found that, during preparation, the activity of the contralateral motor regions could predict which of the two sequences would be executed. Further detailed analysis revealed that the contralateral dorsal premotor cortex and supplementary motor area were the key areas that contributed to the prediction consistently across participants. These contrasted with results from execution-related brain activity where a performed sequence was successfully predicted from the activities in the broad cortical sensory-motor network, including the bilateral motor, parietal and ipsilateral somatosensory cortices. Our study supports the hypothesis that temporary well-organized sequences of movements are represented as a set in the brain, and that preparatory activity in higher-order motor regions represents information about upcoming motor actions. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Dutasteride-mediated morphological changes in the genitourinary tract associated with altered expression patterns of the androgen and estrogen receptors in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enatsu, N; Chiba, K; Sumii, K; Fukuda, T; Okada, K; Matsushita, K; Fujisawa, M

    2017-03-01

    We evaluated the effects of dutasteride on the genitourinary tract using fifteen 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were divided into three groups comprising five animals each and treated as follows. Group A was a control group, members of Group B received oral administration of dutasteride 0.1 mg/kg/day from the age of 8 to 16 weeks, and members of Group C were castrated at the age of 8 weeks. All rats were killed at the age of 16 weeks for the sample collection of blood, bladder, prostate, seminal vesicles, and penis. Then, we evaluated the pathological examination for evaluating the tissue fibrosis and hormonal receptor expression. The results showed that the mean size of the prostate and seminal vesicles was smaller in Group B and Group C than in Group A. Serum and tissue concentrations of both testosterone and dihydrotestosterone were remarkably reduced in serum and all tissues in Group C compared with Group A. On the other hand, in Group B, only dihydrotestosterone was reduced in serum and penis. Histopathological examination revealed that Group C showed statistically significant histological changes, such as an increase in fibrotic tissue in the bladder, prostate, and penis. Similarly, Group B showed fibrotic changes in the prostate and penis compared with the Group A. Immunofluorescent staining revealed that the androgen receptor was more strongly expressed than the estrogen receptor beta in Group A. On the other hand, in Group C, weak expression of the androgen receptor and strong expression of the estrogen receptor beta was noted. In Group B, these changes were noted in the prostate and penis. These findings suggest that dutasteride cause morphological changes not only in prostate but also in penis. These changes are associated with altered expression patterns of androgen receptor and estrogen receptor. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  10. Frequency of escherichia coli in patients with community acquired urinary tract infection and their resistance pattern against some commonly used anti bacterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, W.; Jamshed, F.; Ahmad, W.

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a very common health problem and Escherichia coli (E coli) are the most common organisms associated with community acquired UTI. Unfortunately these bacteria have developed extensive resistance against most of the commonly used anti-bacterials. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and resistance pattern of E coli in patients of community acquired UTI in an area in northern part of Pakistan. Methods: Urine specimens were collected from patients who were clinically diagnosed as community acquired UTI. Urine routine examination (Urine RE) was done and samples positive for UTI (Pus cells >10/High Power Field) were included in the study. These samples were inoculated on Eosin Methylene Blue (EMB) agar plates and incubated at 37 degree C for 36 hours. Suspected colonies were then inoculated further on EMB plates for pure cultures of E coli characterized by certain morphological characteristics. IMViC was applied for the confirmation of E coli. In vitro antibiotic susceptibility tests of E coli were performed with standardized commercial susceptibility discs (OXOID). Results: Out of 50 specimens, positive for UTI by urine RE, 20 showed pure growth of E coli on culture (40%). The majority of the isolates (28%; n=14) were from women while only 12% (n=6) were from men. Escherichia coli showed a high rate of resistance towards Ampicillin (90%), Tetracycline (70%), Erythromycin (70%) and Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (55%). Sparfloxacin showed better results (45%) than ciprofloxacin (50%). Out of 20 E coli isolates, two (10%) were resistant to all the antibacterials except chloramphenicol, eight isolates (40%) showed resistance to six or more than six while 14 (70%) were resistant to four or more than four drugs. Conclusion: Rate of resistance of E coli against commonly used antibacterials was quite high and majority of the strains showed multidrug resistance. (author)

  11. Neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract mediating inputs from emetic vagal afferents and the area postrema to the pattern generator for the emetic act in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, T; Fukuda, H

    1992-08-01

    Roles of neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract corresponding to the area subpostrema (mNST) for the retching reflex were investigated in decerebrate, paralyzed dogs. Retching was defined as rhythmic coactivation of the phrenic and abdominal muscle nerves. Retching which had been induced by stimulation of the left and right abdominal vagus nerves was impaired by cooling the left and right mNSTs, respectively. This result indicates that the mNST neurons mediate activities of emetic vagal afferents. All 40 non-respiratory neurons in the mNST, which had excitatory response to pulse train stimulation of the vagus nerve, were also activated by continuous stimulation of the vagus nerve to provoke retching. During provoked retching, however, these neurons did not exhibit any activities modulated in association with retching. The average latency of responses of these neurons to the pulse train stimulation (306.5 ms) was significantly shorter than that of the inspiratory neurons in the lateral NST and the adjacent reticular formation. Discharge frequencies of these neurons in the mNST gradually increased after administration of apomorphine (6/10) and glutamate (14/14) to the 4th ventricle. Antidromic responses to stimulation of the Bötzinger complex were observed in some (20/289) of the mNST neurons. These findings suggest that neurons in the mNST mediate the information from both the abdominal vagal afferents and the area postrema and drive the pattern generator for retching and vomiting, which is assumed to be located in the Bötzinger complex.

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing bacteria causing nosocomial urinary tract infections in an Iranian referral teaching hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Rasool; Ehsanpoor, Mohsen; Khorvash, Farzin; Shokri, Dariush

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Gram-negative bacilli are the most important cause of nosocomial urinary tract infections (UTIs). The production of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes is a common mechanism of resistance among these bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of ESBL producing Gram-negative bacteria causing nosocomial UTI in a referral hospital as well as their susceptibility pattern to the most commonly used antibiotics. Methods: In a prospective cross-sectional study performed over a 6-month period, urinary specimens obtained from hospitalized patients with documented culture-proved nosocomial UTI (age range of 1-87 years). Isolated aerobic Gram-negative bacteria underwent further microbiologic tests for detection of ESBL, as well as antimicrobial susceptibility test using Kirby-Bauer (disk diffusion) and E-test methods. Findings: During the study period, 213 urine samples were detected to have growth of Gram-negative organism. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated organism (61%). ESBL was detected in 102 isolates including 38.5% of E. coli, 39.5% of Klebsiella pneumonia, 88.5% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 100% of Acinetobacter baumannii strains. Imipenem and meropenem were the most effective antibiotics on E. coli and K. pneumoniae strains. P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii strains showed high resistance to all tested antibiotics. Conclusion: Large numbers of Gram-negative bacteria causing nosocomial UTIs produce ESBL with most being multidrug-resistant. Therefore, routine ESBL detection testing and subsequent antibiogram with disk diffusion method could be useful to determine the best treatment options for UTI. PMID:24991629

  13. Factors influencing the injury pattern and injury severity after high speed motor vehicle accident--a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weninger, Patrick; Hertz, Harald

    2007-10-01

    Motor vehicular accidents (MVA) are the leading cause of death among people under 40 years of age. Despite improvement in car safety and driver awareness of the use of safety devices, fatalities and severe injuries continue to occur. From 1997 to 2004, 13,678 patients after MVA were admitted to our institution. Out of this cohort, 584 (4.3%) patients suffered blunt major trauma defined as Injury Severity Score (ISS) >or=16 and at least one life-threatening injury in one body region. Preclinical data were recorded in 458 patients matching the inclusion criteria. The circumstances of the trauma scene such as weather conditions were analysed as well as technical crash data such as direction of impact, security devices used and type and severity of automobile damage. In a retrospective trial, the influence of preclinical variables on the injury pattern and on injury severity was investigated. 314 (68.6%) patients were male and 144 (31.4%) female. Injury severity (p=0.015) and rate of multiple injuries (p=0.012) were higher in patients after side-impact crashes. If automobiles with SIPS were used, injury severity was significantly reduced in case of side-impact crashes (p=0.003). Patients after frontal impact crashes had a higher rate of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) compared to the overall cohort (p=0.014). Patients suffering blunt aortic (n=29) dissection were involved in frontal crashes with seat belt use (pIn case of high speed MVA in rural areas the trauma mechanism and the circumstances (i.e., impact direction, automobile deformation) should be considered to identify patients at high risk of severe blunt trauma and multiple injuries.

  14. Antimicrobial resistance pattern of Escherichia coli isolated from patients with urinary tract infection (UTI in Yasuj city during 1391-1392.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sharifi

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: It is recommended to treat urinary tract infections by using fewer antibiotics such as Amoxicillin / Clavulanic acid and co-trimoxazole, and administration of ciprofloxacin and gentamicin should be used with caution.

  15. Neuromodulation to the Rescue: Compensation of Temperature-Induced Breakdown of Rhythmic Motor Patterns via Extrinsic Neuromodulatory Input.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola Städele

    revealed the ability of IMI to reduce detrimental leak-current influences on neuronal networks over a broad conductance range and indicated that leak and IMI are closely coregulated in the biological system to enable stable motor patterns. In conclusion, these results show that temperature compensation does not need to be implemented within the network itself but can be conditionally provided by extrinsic neuromodulatory input that counterbalances temperature-induced modifications of circuit-intrinsic properties.

  16. Similar circuits but different connectivity patterns between the cerebellum, basal ganglia, and supplementary motor area in early Parkinson's disease patients and controls during predictive motor timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husárová, Ivica; Mikl, Michal; Lungu, Ovidiu V; Mareček, Radek; Vaníček, Jiří; Bareš, Martin

    2013-10-01

    The cerebellum, basal ganglia (BG), and other cortical regions, such as supplementary motor area (SMA) have emerged as important structures dealing with various aspects of timing, yet the modulation of functional connectivity between them during motor timing tasks remains unexplored. We used dynamic causal modeling to investigate the differences in effective connectivity (EC) between these regions and its modulation by behavioral outcome during a motor timing prediction task in a group of 16 patients with early Parkinson's disease (PD) and 17 healthy controls. Behavioral events (hits and errors) constituted the driving input connected to the cerebellum, and the modulation in connectivity was assessed relative to the hit condition (successful interception of target). The driving input elicited response in the target area, while modulatory input changed the specific connection strength. The neuroimaging data revealed similar structure of intrinsic connectivity in both groups with unidirectional connections from cerebellum to both sides of the BG, from BG to the SMA, and then from SMA to the cerebellum. However, the type of intrinsic connection was different between two groups. In the PD group, the connection between the SMA and cerebellum was inhibitory in comparison to the HC group, where the connection was activated. Furthermore, the modulation of connectivity by the performance in the task was different between the two groups, with decreased connectivity between the cerebellum and left BG and SMA and a more pronounced symmetry of these connections in controls. In the same time, there was an increased EC between the cerebellum and both sides of BG with more pronounced asymmetry (stronger connection with left BG) in patients. In addition, in the PD group the modulatory input strengthened inhibitory connectivity between the SMA and the cerebellum, while in the HC group the excitatory connection was slightly strengthened. Our findings indicate that although early PD

  17. Consequences of comorbidity of developmental coordination disorders and learning disabilities for severity and pattern of perceptual-motor dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongmans, MJ; Smits-Engelsman, BCM; Schoemaker, MM

    2003-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have difficulty learning and performing age-appropriate perceptual-motor skills in the absence of diagnosable neurological disorders. Descriptive studies have shown that comorbidity of DCD exists with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

  18. Frequency and antimicrobial resistance patterns of bacteria implicated in community urinary tract infections: a ten-year surveillance study (2000–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhares Inês

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common infectious diseases at the community level. In order to assess the adequacy of the empirical therapy, the prevalence and the resistance pattern of the main bacteria responsible for UTI in the community (in Aveiro, Portugal was evaluated throughout a ten-year period. Methods In this retrospective study, all urine samples from patients of the District of Aveiro, in ambulatory regime, collected at the Clinical Analysis Laboratory Avelab during the period 2000–2009 were analysed. Samples with more than 105 CFU/mL bacteria were considered positive and, for these samples, the bacteria were identified and the profile of antibiotic susceptibility was characterized. Results From the 155597 samples analysed, 18797 (12.1% were positive for bacterial infection. UTI was more frequent in women (78.5% and its incidence varied with age, affecting more the elderly patients (38.6%. Although E. coli was, as usual, the most common pathogen implicated in UTI, it were observed differences related to the other bacteria more implicated in UTI relatively to previous studies. The bacteria implicated in the UTI varied with the sex of the patient, being P. aeruginosa a more important cause of infection in men than in women. The incidence of the main bacteria changed over the study period (P. aeruginosa, Klebsiella spp and Providencia spp increased and Enterobacter spp decreased. Although E. coli was responsible for more than an half of UTI, its resistance to antibiotics was low when compared with other pathogens implicated in UTI, showing also the lowest percentage of multidrug resistant (MDR isolates (17%. Bacteria isolated from females were less resistant than those isolated from males and this difference increased with the patient age. Conclusions The differences in sex and age must be taken into account at the moment of empirical prescription of antimicrobials. From the recommended

  19. Digestive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.F.G. da

    1976-01-01

    Scintiscanning of salivary glands with (sup 99m)Tc is commented. The uses of triolein - and oleic acid labelled with 131 I, 125 I or 82 Br are discussed in the study of fat absorption, as well as 14 C and 191 Y. The use of 57 Co as a radiotracer in the intestinal absorption of vitamin B 12 is analysed. Orientation is given about 51 Cr - albumin clearance in the study of plasmatic protein loss by digestive tract. The radiotracers 131 I, 125 I and 51 Cr are pointed out in the investigation of immunoglobulins. Consideration is given to the quantification of digestive bleedings by the use of 51 Cr [pt

  20. The effects of temperature on the burial performance and axial motor pattern of the sand-swimming of the Mojave fringe-toed lizard Uma scoparia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayne, B C; Daggy, M W

    2000-04-01

    Although lateral axial bending is widespread for the locomotion of ectothermic vertebrates, the axial motor patterns of terrestrial taxa are known only for a limited number of species and behaviors. Furthermore, the extent to which the trunk and tail of ectothermic tetrapods have similar motor patterns is poorly documented. We therefore recorded the activity of the epaxial muscles in the trunk and tail of sand-swimming Mojave fringe-toed lizards (Uma scoparia) to determine whether this specialized behavior has features of the motor pattern that differ from those of diverse ectothermic vertebrates. Muscle activity during initial sand-swimming was a standing-wave pattern in the trunk and tail. Next, the hind limbs moved alternately and the caudofemoralis muscles and nearby axial muscle in the trunk and tail had similar long-duration electromyographic bursts, whereas the anterior trunk had shorter, more frequent electromyographic bursts. The final tail burial involved a traveling wave of posteriorly propagated axial muscle activity within localized regions of the tail. With increased temperature (from 22 to 40 degrees C), the mean frequencies of axial oscillations increased from approximately 7 to 21 Hz, and the greatest value (33 Hz) was nearly twice the maximal limb cycling frequency during running. The mean burial time at the lowest temperature (3.8 s) was nearly twice that for a 10 degrees C higher temperature. For the axial electromyograms, a decrease in temperature of 18 degrees C more than doubled the electromyographic and cycle durations, whereas the duty factors and intersegmental phase lags changed only slightly with temperature.

  1. Differences in the pattern of antibiotic prescription profile and recurrence rate for possible urinary tract infections in women with and without diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneeberger, Caroline; Stolk, Ronald P.; DeVries, J. Hans; Schneeberger, Peter M.; Herings, Ron M.; Geerlings, Suzanne E.

    OBJECTIVE - Women with diabetes have a high incidence and complication rate of urinary tract infections (UTIs). Our aims were to compare current treatment strategies with respect to recurrence rates in women with diabetes with those without diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - We used a Dutch

  2. Differences in the pattern of antibiotic prescription profile and recurrence rate for possible urinary tract infections in women with and without diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneeberger, Caroline; Stolk, Ronald P.; DeVries, J. Hans; Schneeberger, Peter M.; Herings, Ron M.; Geerlings, Suzanne E.

    2008-01-01

    Women with diabetes have a high incidence and complication rate of urinary tract infections (UTIs). Our aims were to compare current treatment strategies with respect to recurrence rates in women with diabetes with those without diabetes. We used a Dutch registration database containing pharmacy

  3. Motor skills related to body movement and dance. t-patterns detection Habilidades motrices en expresión corporal y danza. Detección de t-patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dinušová

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In the learning processes that promotes the generation of motor actions, teachers usually propose instructions based on kinetic models. The aim of this study is to observe what type of motor answers the subjects generate from kinesic models offered by the teachers. The motor answers to observe refer to the patterns of motor skills of stability, locomotion and manipulation, variations of body-space, time and interaction between participants. 12 Phsysical Activity and Sports Science students without experience in dance participated in the study. 8 sessions were observed focused on space, time, energy and body contact. A specific instrument was created, the observational system of motor skills OSMOS (Castañer, Torrents, Anguera y Dinusôva, 2008,. It was codified with ThemeCoder  (Pattern Vision, 2001 and SDIS-GSEQ   (Bakeman &  Quera, 1996 and THEME (Magnusson, 2000 were used for the reliability and detection of T-patterns .
    Key Words:  Motor Skills, Field Format, Body expression and dance, Motor T-Patterns detection, Kinesic's Model.

    En todo proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje que promueva la generación de acciones motrices, la elección de los modelos que usan los docentes es una decisión pedagógica de mayor importancia de la que se le suele otorgar.  El objetivo de la investigación es el de observar y constatar qué tipo de respuestas motrices generan los discentes a partir de los modelos de tipo cinésico ofrecidos por los docentes. Las respuestas motrices a observar se refieren a los patrones de habilidades motrices, las variaciones de cuerpo-espacio y tiempo así como de interacción entre los participantes. Han participado en el estudio 12 estudiantes de primer ciclo en Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el deporte con alto bagaje deportivo pero sin experiencia en danza y expresión corporal (EC. Se observaron 8 sesiones

  4. Automatically characterizing sensory-motor patterns underlying reach-to-grasp movements on a physical depth inversion illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian eNguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, movement variability has been of great interest to motor control physiologists as it constitutes a physical, quantifiable form of sensory feedback to aid in planning, updating, and executing complex actions. In marked contrast, the psychological and psychiatric arenas mainly rely on verbal descriptions and interpretations of behavior via observation. Consequently, a large gap exists between the body’s manifestations of mental states and their descriptions, creating a disembodied approach in the psychological and neural sciences: contributions of the peripheral nervous system to central control, executive functions, and decision-making processes are poorly understood. How do we shift from a psychological, theorizing approach to characterize complex behaviors more objectively?We introduce a novel, objective, statistical framework and visuomotor control paradigm to help characterize the stochastic signatures of minute fluctuations in overt movements during a visuomotor task. We also quantify a new class of covert movements that spontaneously occur without instruction. These are largely beneath awareness, but inevitably present in all behaviors. The inclusion of these motions in our analyses introduces a new paradigm in sensory-motor integration. As it turns out, these movements, often overlooked as motor noise, contain valuable information that contributes to the emergence of different kinesthetic percepts. We apply these new methods to help better understand perception-action loops. To investigate how perceptual inputs affect reach behavior, we use a depth inversion illusion: the same physical stimulus produces two distinct depth percepts that are nearly orthogonal, enabling a robust comparison of competing percepts. We find that the moment-by-moment empirically estimated motor output variability can inform us of the participants’ perceptual states, detecting physiologically relevant signals from the peripheral nervous system that

  5. Urinary tract infection - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000505.htm Urinary tract infection - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A urinary tract infection is an infection of the urinary tract. This ...

  6. Axial diffusivity changes in the motor pathway above stroke foci and functional recovery after subcortical infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Peng, Kangqiang; Dang, Chao; Tan, Shuangquan; Chen, Hongbing; Xie, Chuanmiao; Xing, Shihui; Zeng, Jinsheng

    2018-01-01

    Secondary degeneration of the fiber tract of the motor pathway below infarct foci and functional recovery after stroke have been well demonstrated, but the role of the fiber tract above stroke foci remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate diffusion changes in motor fibers above the lesion and identify predictors of motor improvement within 12 weeks after subcortical infarction. Diffusion tensor imaging and the Fugl-Meyer (FM) scale were conducted 1, 4, and 12 weeks (W) after a subcortical infarct. Proportional recovery model residuals were used to assign patients to proportional recovery and poor recovery groups. Region of interest analysis was used to assess diffusion changes in the motor pathway above and below a stroke lesion. Multivariable linear regression was employed to identify predictors of motor improvement within 12 weeks after stroke. Axial diffusivity (AD) in the underlying white matter of the ipsilesional primary motor area (PMA) and cerebral peduncle (CP) in both proportional and poor recovery groups was lower at W1 compared to the controls and values in the contralesional PMA and CP (all P < 0.05). Subsequently, AD in the ipsilesional CP became relatively stable, while AD in the ipsilesional PMA significantly increased from W4 to W12 after stroke (P < 0.05). In all of the patients, changes in the FM scores were greater in those with higher changes in AD of the ipsilesional PMA. Only initial impairment or lesion volume was predictive of motor improvement within 12 weeks after stroke in patients with proportional or poor recovery. Increases of AD in the motor pathway above stroke foci may be associated with motor recovery after subcortical infarction. Early measurement of diffusion metrics in the ipsilesional non-ischemic motor pathway has limited value in predicting future motor improvement patterns (proportional or poor recovery).

  7. Gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.D.; Pointon, R.C.S.

    1985-01-01

    At the time of writing, radiotherapy is of only minor use in the management of adenocarcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract, for a number of reasons. First, an exploratory laparotomy is generally needed for diagnosis, and if possible the tumour is resected or by-passed. Second, radiotherapy planning in the upper abdomen is complicated by the proximity of small bowel, kidneys, and spinal cord. Third, it has been assumed that these tumours cause death largely as a result of distant metastases, so that local radiotherapy, even if effective, would contribute little to survival. The continued interest in radiotherapy for this group of tumours arises out of the poor survival rates following surgery, which have not changed for many years, and the morbidity associated with their resection. It was hoped that the addition of cytotoxic agents to radical surgery would improve survival rates in carcinoma of the stomach and intraperitoneal colon. Despite a large number of well-organised prospective trials, using a variety of cytotoxic drugs, there is so far no evidence that the addition of chemotherapy to radical surgery improves survival for either tumour site. The authors are therefore faced with a group of tumours which are not only common, but commonly fatal and many surgeons would accept that a new approach using modern radiotherapy techniques may well be justified. There is evidence that this movement is already taking place for carcinoma of the rectum, and the indications for radiotherapy in this condition will be dealt with below. Before considering these it is worth dwelling briefly on recent changes in surgical and radiological practices which, if they fulfil expectations, might allow radiotherapy to be used for carcinoma of the colon, stomach, and pancreas as it is now used for rectal cancer

  8. Urinary tract infections in symptomatic pregnant women attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Several notable human pathogens cause urinary tract infections. Several factors are known to predispose an individual to developing urinary tract infections; one of the factors is pregnancy. Therefore, this research set out to determine the bacteriologic profile of urinary tract infection and the susceptibility pattern ...

  9. urinary tract infections in symptomatic pregnant women attending

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    cause urinary tract infections. Several factors are known to predispose an individual to developing urinary tract infections; one of the factors is pregnancy. Therefore, this research set out to determine the bacteriologic profile of urinary tract infection and the susceptibility pattern among symptomatic pregnant women in Abuja.

  10. Measurement of Gastrointestinal and Colonic Motor Functions in Humans and AnimalsSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Camilleri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability to assess the complex motor functions of the gastrointestinal tract accurately has been of tremendous value to understanding and treating digestive diseases. Unlike other smooth or cardiac muscle organ systems with relatively more rhythmic and patterned motor behavior, the complexity of the diverse motor behaviors of the alimentary canal have made the development and use of clinical and preclinical tests of gastrointestinal motor function a great challenge. It is perhaps this complexity, as well as the importance of gastrointestinal function to overall health and well-being, that have fascinated early physiologists and continue to push modern physiologists and clinical diagnosticians to develop new and more accurate measurements of motility. It is also because of this complexity that the standardization of these measures presents hurdles to broad adoption and that the measurements of the more complex motility functions remain restricted mainly to tertiary referral centers. Keywords: Acute Pancreatitis, Biliary Pancreatitis, Necroptosis, Apoptosis, Pancreatic Cell Death

  11. Distribution and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Gram Negative Bacteria Causing Urinary Tract Infection (UTI and Detection New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1 Producing Isolates in Ahwaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Afrugh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI is the commonest bacterial infectious disease in worldwide (especially in developing countries with a high rate of morbidity and financial cost. The management of UTI infections has been jeopardized by increase in immergence of antimicrobial drug resistance. Knowledge of the local bacterial etiology and susceptibility patterns is required to trace any change that might have occurred in time so that updated recommendation for optimal empirical therapy of UTI can be made. The aim of this investigation was distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of gram negative bacteria causing urinary tract infection (UTI and detection NDM-1 (new-delhi-metallo-beta-lactamase-1 producing isolates in Ahwaz. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done during a period of one year from April 2013 to March 2014. Clean catch midstream urine samples were collected from suspected patients to UTI. The isolates were identified based on morphological and biochemical testes. Culture was performed on routine microbiological media. Susceptibility testing was performed according CLSI (2013 guidelines. Detection of carbapenemase producing isolates was performed by modified hodge test (MHT. Metallo-beta-lactamase isolates were detected by imipenem-EDTA combined disc test (CDT. Results: In this study 708 gram negative organisms were isolated from urine samples. E.coli was the most common isolated bacteria (67% followed by Klebsiella spp. (26.5% and Enterobacter spp. (2.5%. In antibiotic susceptibility testing more than 90% of isolates were sensitive to tetracycline, ceftazidime, meropenem, amikacin, cefotaxime, imipenem, and cefepime. Isolates were more resistant to cephalothin (32%, co-trimoxazol (30.5%, and nalidixic acid (25%. Conclusion: In our results isolated organisms from outpatients showed very high sensitivity to common antibiotics. Continuous and regular monitoring of susceptibility pattern of

  12. Index finger motor imagery EEG pattern recognition in BCI applications using dictionary cleaned sparse representation-based classification for healthy people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Minmin; Zeng, Hong; Wang, Aimin; Zhao, Fengkui; Liu, Feixiang

    2017-09-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG)-based motor imagery (MI) brain-computer interface (BCI) has shown its effectiveness for the control of rehabilitation devices designed for large body parts of the patients with neurologic impairments. In order to validate the feasibility of using EEG to decode the MI of a single index finger and constructing a BCI-enhanced finger rehabilitation system, we collected EEG data during right hand index finger MI and rest state for five healthy subjects and proposed a pattern recognition approach for classifying these two mental states. First, Fisher's linear discriminant criteria and power spectral density analysis were used to analyze the event-related desynchronization patterns. Second, both band power and approximate entropy were extracted as features. Third, aiming to eliminate the abnormal samples in the dictionary and improve the classification performance of the conventional sparse representation-based classification (SRC) method, we proposed a novel dictionary cleaned sparse representation-based classification (DCSRC) method for final classification. The experimental results show that the proposed DCSRC method gives better classification accuracies than SRC and an average classification accuracy of 81.32% is obtained for five subjects. Thus, it is demonstrated that single right hand index finger MI can be decoded from the sensorimotor rhythms, and the feature patterns of index finger MI and rest state can be well recognized for robotic exoskeleton initiation.

  13. Index finger motor imagery EEG pattern recognition in BCI applications using dictionary cleaned sparse representation-based classification for healthy people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Minmin; Zeng, Hong; Wang, Aimin; Zhao, Fengkui; Liu, Feixiang

    2017-09-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG)-based motor imagery (MI) brain-computer interface (BCI) has shown its effectiveness for the control of rehabilitation devices designed for large body parts of the patients with neurologic impairments. In order to validate the feasibility of using EEG to decode the MI of a single index finger and constructing a BCI-enhanced finger rehabilitation system, we collected EEG data during right hand index finger MI and rest state for five healthy subjects and proposed a pattern recognition approach for classifying these two mental states. First, Fisher's linear discriminant criteria and power spectral density analysis were used to analyze the event-related desynchronization patterns. Second, both band power and approximate entropy were extracted as features. Third, aiming to eliminate the abnormal samples in the dictionary and improve the classification performance of the conventional sparse representation-based classification (SRC) method, we proposed a novel dictionary cleaned sparse representation-based classification (DCSRC) method for final classification. The experimental results show that the proposed DCSRC method gives better classification accuracies than SRC and an average classification accuracy of 81.32% is obtained for five subjects. Thus, it is demonstrated that single right hand index finger MI can be decoded from the sensorimotor rhythms, and the feature patterns of index finger MI and rest state can be well recognized for robotic exoskeleton initiation.

  14. Patterns of gastric evacuation, digesta characteristics and pH changes along the gastrointestinal tract of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) and European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulou, D; Moutou, K A; Fountoulaki, E; Venou, B; Adamidou, S; Alexis, M N

    2011-04-01

    A comparative study of gastric evacuation rates (GERs) and digesta content, moisture and pH values along the gastrointestinal tract was performed between gilthead sea bream and European sea bass. In order to distinguish species-specific differences from diet-elicited effects, all parameters were determined under either a fishmeal diet or a carob seed germ meal diet that contained high levels of total and soluble non-starch polysaccharides. GERs were significantly different between species and they were not affected by diet. Similarly, species-specific patterns were revealed in the distribution of digesta and water content along the gastrointestinal tract. In sea bream, stomach digesta and water content decreased with time, whereas in sea bass stomach retained the highest digesta and water content throughout the sampling period. The anterior and distal intestine exhibited the lowest accommodating capacities of digesta and water in either species. Overall, sea bream performed stomach digestion at lower hydration levels and higher pH compared with sea bass. Diet affected stomach moisture in both species and pH of stomach digesta in sea bass and of all intestinal sections in sea bream. The results obtained indicated that water and inorganic ion exchanges through the gut may differentiate between the species and warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of a robotic seal on the motor activity and sleep patterns of older people with dementia, as measured by wearable technology: A cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, Wendy; Jones, Cindy; Murfield, Jenny; Thalib, Lukman; Beattie, Elizabeth; Shum, David; O'Dwyer, Siobhan; Mervin, M Cindy; Draper, Brian

    2018-04-01

    The robotic seal, PARO, has been used as an alternative to animal-assisted therapies with residents with dementia in long-term care, yet understanding of its efficacy is limited by a paucity of research. We explored the effects of PARO on motor activity and sleep patterns, as measured by a wearable triaxial accelerometer. Cluster-randomised controlled trial, involving 28 facilities in Queensland, Australia. Nine facilities were randomised to the PARO group (individual, non-facilitated, 15-min sessions three afternoons per week for 10 weeks), 10 to a plush toy (PARO with robotic features disabled) and nine to usual care. Changes in day- and nighttime motor activity and sleep after the 10-week intervention, as measured by SenseWear ® armbands, worn by participants continuously for 24 h at baseline, during two single intervention days in weeks 5 and 10 respectively, and post-intervention (week 15). Analyses followed intention-to-treat, using repeated-measures mixed-effects models. After 10 weeks, the PARO group showed a greater reduction in daytime step count than usual care (p = 0.023), and in nighttime step count (p = 0.028) and daytime physical activity (p = 0.026) compared with the plush toy group. At post-intervention, the PARO group showed a greater reduction in daytime step count than the plush toy group (p = 0.028), and at nighttime compared with both the plush toy group (p = 0.019) and the usual-care group (p = 0.046). The PARO group also had a greater reduction in nighttime physical activity than the usual-care group (p = 0.015). PARO may have some effect on motor activity of older people with dementia in long-term care, but not on sleep patterns. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12614000508673). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Qualified Census Tracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — A Qualified Census Tract (QCT) is any census tract (or equivalent geographic area defined by the Census Bureau) in which at least 50% of households have an income...

  17. Urinary tract infection - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000521.htm Urinary tract infection - adults To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A urinary tract infection, or UTI, is an infection of the urinary ...

  18. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of genital tract bacteria in pregnant women with preterm premature rupture of membranes in a resource-limited setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleje, George U; Adinma, Joseph I; Ghasi, Samuel; Ikechebelu, Joseph I; Igwegbe, Anthony O; Okonkwo, John E; Okafor, Charles I; Ezeama, Chukwuemeka O; Ezebialu, Ifeanyichukwu U; Ogbuagu, Chukwuanugo N

    2014-10-01

    To identify microbes prevalent in the genital tract of pregnant women with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and to assess the susceptibility of the microbial isolates to a range of antibiotics to determine appropriate antibiotics for treating cases of PPROM in resource-limited settings. A prospective cross-sectional study was undertaken involving women with (n=105) and without (n=105) a confirmed diagnosis of PPROM admitted to Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, southeast Nigeria, between January 1, 2011, and April 30, 2013. Endocervical swabs were collected from all participants and examined microbiologically. Antibiotic sensitivity testing was performed using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion. Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli were significantly more prevalent among women with PPROM than among those without PPROM (P<0.01). Among the antibiotics considered safe to use during pregnancy, the bacteria were most sensitive to ampicillin-sulbactam, cefixime, cefuroxime, and erythromycin. For the first 48hours, women with PPROM should receive an intravenous dose combining ampicillin-sulbactam, cefixime, cefuroxime, or erythromycin with metronidazole followed by oral administration of the chosen antibiotic combination to complete a 7-day course. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Chronic Sleep Restriction during Early Adolescence on the Adult Pattern of Connectivity of Mouse Secondary Motor Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeh, Yazan N; Rodriguez, Alexander V; Bellesi, Michele; Bernard, Amy; de Vivo, Luisa; Funk, Chadd M; Harris, Julie; Honjoh, Sakiko; Mihalas, Stefan; Ng, Lydia; Koch, Christof; Cirelli, Chiara; Tononi, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Cortical circuits mature in stages, from early synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning to late synaptic refinement, resulting in the adult anatomical connection matrix. Because the mature matrix is largely fixed, genetic or environmental factors interfering with its establishment can have irreversible effects. Sleep disruption is rarely considered among those factors, and previous studies have focused on very young animals and the acute effects of sleep deprivation on neuronal morphology and cortical plasticity. Adolescence is a sensitive time for brain remodeling, yet whether chronic sleep restriction (CSR) during adolescence has long-term effects on brain connectivity remains unclear. We used viral-mediated axonal labeling and serial two-photon tomography to measure brain-wide projections from secondary motor cortex (MOs), a high-order area with diffuse projections. For each MOs target, we calculated the projection fraction, a combined measure of passing fibers and axonal terminals normalized for the size of each target. We found no homogeneous differences in MOs projection fraction between mice subjected to 5 days of CSR during early adolescence (P25-P30, ≥ 50% decrease in daily sleep, n=14) and siblings that slept undisturbed (n=14). Machine learning algorithms, however, classified animals at significantly above chance levels, indicating that differences between the two groups exist, but are subtle and heterogeneous. Thus, sleep disruption in early adolescence may affect adult brain connectivity. However, because our method relies on a global measure of projection density and was not previously used to measure connectivity changes due to behavioral manipulations, definitive conclusions on the long-term structural effects of early CSR require additional experiments.

  20. The mechanism of saccade motor pattern generation investigated by a large-scale spiking neuron model of the superior colliculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Morén

    Full Text Available The subcortical saccade-generating system consists of the retina, superior colliculus, cerebellum and brainstem motoneuron areas. The superior colliculus is the site of sensory-motor convergence within this basic visuomotor loop preserved throughout the vertebrates. While the system has been extensively studied, there are still several outstanding questions regarding how and where the saccade eye movement profile is generated and the contribution of respective parts within this system. Here we construct a spiking neuron model of the whole intermediate layer of the superior colliculus based on the latest anatomy and physiology data. The model consists of conductance-based spiking neurons with quasi-visual, burst, buildup, local inhibitory, and deep layer inhibitory neurons. The visual input is given from the superficial superior colliculus and the burst neurons send the output to the brainstem oculomotor nuclei. Gating input from the basal ganglia and an integral feedback from the reticular formation are also included.We implement the model in the NEST simulator and show that the activity profile of bursting neurons can be reproduced by a combination of NMDA-type and cholinergic excitatory synaptic inputs and integrative inhibitory feedback. The model shows that the spreading neural activity observed in vivo can keep track of the collicular output over time and reset the system at the end of a saccade through activation of deep layer inhibitory neurons. We identify the model parameters according to neural recording data and show that the resulting model recreates the saccade size-velocity curves known as the saccadic main sequence in behavioral studies. The present model is consistent with theories that the superior colliculus takes a principal role in generating the temporal profiles of saccadic eye movements, rather than just specifying the end points of eye movements.

  1. Identification of Characteristic Motor Patterns Preceding Freezing of Gait in Parkinson’s Disease Using Wearable Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Palmerini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Freezing of gait (FOG is a disabling symptom that is common among patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD. External cues such as rhythmic auditory stimulation can help PD patients experiencing freezing to resume walking. Wearable systems for automatic freezing detection have been recently developed. However, these systems detect a FOG episode after it has happened. Instead, in this study, a new approach for the prediction of FOG (before it actually happens is presented. Prediction of FOG might enable preventive cueing, reducing the likelihood that FOG will occur. Moreover, understanding the causes and circumstances of FOG is still an open research problem. Hence, a quantitative characterization of movement patterns just before FOG (the pre-FOG phase is of great importance. In this study, wearable inertial sensors were used to identify and quantify the characteristics of gait during the pre-FOG phase and compare them with the characteristics of gait that do not precede FOG. The hypothesis of this study is based on the threshold-based model of FOG, which suggests that before FOG occurs, there is a degradation of the gait pattern. Eleven PD subjects were analyzed. Six features extracted from movement signals recorded by inertial sensors showed significant differences between gait and pre-FOG. A classification algorithm was developed in order to test if it is feasible to predict FOG (i.e., detect it before it happens. The aim of the classification procedure was to identify the pre-FOG phase. Results confirm that there is a degradation of gait occurring before freezing. Results also provide preliminary evidence on the feasibility of creating an automatic algorithm to predict FOG. Although some limitations are present, this study shows promising findings for characterizing and identifying pre-FOG patterns, another step toward a better understanding, prediction, and prevention of this disabling symptom.

  2. Characterization of a cerebral palsy-like model in rats: Analysis of gait pattern and of brain and spinal cord motor areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Adriana Souza; de Almeida, Wellington; Popik, Bruno; Sbardelotto, Bruno Marques; Torrejais, Márcia Miranda; de Souza, Marcelo Alves; Centenaro, Lígia Aline

    2017-08-01

    In an attempt to propose an animal model that reproduces in rats the phenotype of cerebral palsy, this study evaluated the effects of maternal exposure to bacterial endotoxin associated with perinatal asphyxia and sensorimotor restriction on gait pattern, brain and spinal cord morphology. Two experimental groups were used: Control Group (CTG) - offspring of rats injected with saline during pregnancy and Cerebral Palsy Group (CPG) - offspring of rats injected with lipopolysaccharide during pregnancy, submitted to perinatal asphyxia and sensorimotor restriction for 30days. At 29days of age, the CPG exhibited coordination between limbs, weight-supported dorsal steps or weight-supported plantar steps with paw rotation. At 45days of age, CPG exhibited plantar stepping with the paw rotated in the balance phase. An increase in the number of glial cells in the primary somatosensory cortex and dorsal striatum were observed in the CPG, but the corpus callosum thickness and cross-sectional area of lateral ventricle were similar between studied groups. No changes were found in the number of motoneurons, glial cells and soma area of the motoneurons in the ventral horn of spinal cord. The combination of insults in the pre, peri and postnatal periods produced changes in hindlimbs gait pattern of animals similar to those observed in diplegic patients, but motor impairments were attenuated over time. Besides, the greater number of glial cells observed seems to be related to the formation of a glial scar in important sensorimotor brain areas. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk of recurrent acute lower urinary tract infections and prescription pattern of antibiotics in women with and without diabetes in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, Kees J.; Hak, Eelko; Zuithoff, Nicolaas P. A.; Hoepelman, Andy I. M.; Rutten, Guy E. H. M.

    Aim. To investigate diabetes characteristics associated with the risk of recurrent lower UTIs and the antibiotic prescription pattern. Methods. In an exploratory retrospective study involving 7063 women aged >= 30 years, we studied the incidence of recurrent UTI (relapses and reinfection) in women

  4. Vocal Tract Images Reveal Neural Representations of Sensorimotor Transformation During Speech Imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Daniel; Miquel, Marc E; Evans, Bronwen G; Adank, Patti; McGettigan, Carolyn

    2017-05-01

    Imitating speech necessitates the transformation from sensory targets to vocal tract motor output, yet little is known about the representational basis of this process in the human brain. Here, we address this question by using real-time MR imaging (rtMRI) of the vocal tract and functional MRI (fMRI) of the brain in a speech imitation paradigm. Participants trained on imitating a native vowel and a similar nonnative vowel that required lip rounding. Later, participants imitated these vowels and an untrained vowel pair during separate fMRI and rtMRI runs. Univariate fMRI analyses revealed that regions including left inferior frontal gyrus were more active during sensorimotor transformation (ST) and production of nonnative vowels, compared with native vowels; further, ST for nonnative vowels activated somatomotor cortex bilaterally, compared with ST of native vowels. Using test representational similarity analysis (RSA) models constructed from participants' vocal tract images and from stimulus formant distances, we found that RSA searchlight analyses of fMRI data showed either type of model could be represented in somatomotor, temporal, cerebellar, and hippocampal neural activation patterns during ST. We thus provide the first evidence of widespread and robust cortical and subcortical neural representation of vocal tract and/or formant parameters, during prearticulatory ST. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. The pattern of thalamocortical and brain stem projections to the vibrissae-related sensory and motor cortices in de-whiskered congenital hypothyroid rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afarinesh, Mohammad Reza; Behzadi, Gila

    2017-08-01

    The present study is designed to investigate the plastic organization of the thalamo-cortical (TC) and brain stem afferents of whisker primary sensory (wS1) and motor (wM1) cortical areas in congenital hypothyroid (CH) pups following whisker deprivation (WD) from neonatal to adolescence period. Maternal hypothyroidism was induced by adding propylthiouracil (PTU) to the drinking water from early embryonic day 16 to postnatal day (PND) 60. Pregnant rats were divided into intact and CH groups (n = 8). In each group, the total whiskers of pups (4 of 8) were trimmed continuously from PND 1 to PND 60. Retrograde tracing technique with WGA-HRP was performed in the present study. Retrogradely labeled neurons were observed in the specific thalamic nuclei (VPM and VL) following separately WGA-HRP injections into wS1/M1 cortical areas. The number of labeled cells in the VPM, VL, VM and PO nuclei of the thalamus significantly decreased in CH offsprings rats (P < 0.05). Neonatal WD did not show any significant effects on the number of VPM, VL, VM and PO labeled projection neurons to wS1 and wM1 cortical areas. In addition, retrogradely labeled neurons in dorsal raphe (DR) and locus coeruleus (LC) nuclei were observed in all experimental groups. The number of DR and LC labeled neurons were higher in the CH and whisker deprived groups compared to their matching controls (P < 0.05). Upon our results, CH and WD had no synergic or additive effects on the TC and brain stem afferent patterns of barrel sensory and motor cortices.

  6. Normal patterns of spontaneous activity are required for correct motor axon guidance and the expression of specific guidance molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, M Gartz; Landmesser, Lynn T

    2004-09-02

    Rhythmic spontaneous electrical activity occurs in many parts of the developing nervous system, where it plays essential roles in the refinement of neural connections. By blocking or slowing this bursting activity, via in ovo drug applications at precise developmental periods, we show that such activity is also required at much earlier stages for spinal motoneurons to accurately execute their first major dorsal-ventral pathfinding decision. Blockade or slowing of rhythmic bursting activity also prevents the normal expression patterns of EphA4 and polysialic acid on NCAM, which may contribute to the pathfinding errors observed. More prolonged (E2-5) blockade resulted in a downregulation of LIM homeodomain transcription factors, but since this occurred only after the pathfinding errors and alterations in guidance molecules, it cannot have contributed to them.

  7. The motor evoked potential in AIDS and HAM/TSP: state of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E; Elfakhani, Mohamed; Boutros, Nash N

    2009-12-01

    We aimed to better understand the involvement of the corticospinal tract, assessed by non-invasive transcranial stimulation, in order to determine the actual involvement of the motor system in patients with HAM/TSP and AIDS. An exhaustive MEDLINE search for the period of 1985 to 2008 for all articles cross-referenced for 'HTLV-I, HTLV-II, HTLV-III and HIV, HIV1, HIV2, evoked potential, motor evoked potential, high voltage electrical stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, magnetic stimulation, corticomotor physiology, motor pathways, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS, SIDA, tropical spastic paraparesis, HTLV-I-associated myelopathy, HAM, TSP, and HAM/TSP' were selected and analysed. Eighteen papers published in English, Spanish, Portuguese, French and Japanese were identified. Only the central motor conduction time has been analyzed in seropositive patients to human retroviruses. The investigations done on HAM/TSP support the involvement of the pyramidal tract mainly at lower levels, following a centripetal pattern; in AIDS, such an involvement seems to be more prominent at brain levels following a centrifugal pattern. The central motor conduction time abnormalities and involvement differences of the corticospinal tract of patients with AIDS and HAM/TSP dissected here would allow to re-orient early neurorehabilitation measures in these retroviruses-associated neurodegenerative disorders. Besides this, more sophisticated and sensitive non-invasive corticospinal stimulation measures that detect early changes in thalamocortical-basal ganglia circuitry will be needed in both clinically established as well as asymptomatic patients at times when the fastest corticospinal fibers remain uninvolved.

  8. Urinary tract pathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns in different age and gender groups at a tertiary care hospital of peshawar, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabbir, M.; ALi, I.; Iman, N.U.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate frequency of various urinary tract infections (UTI) pathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility in patients of different age and gender groups at a tertiary care hospital in Peshawar. Methodology: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar from January 2014 to September 2015. Total of 787 urine cultures were performed using conventional microbiological techniques. Biochemical techniques were used to identify the organisms and antibiotic sensitivity was determined by Kirby-Bauer and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration methods Results: Out of 787 samples cultured, 458 (58.2%) were positive and were included in study. Age ranged from 1 year to 111 years (mean 41.7). 314 (68.6%) were female and 144 (31.4%) male. UTI was commoner in female (68.6%) than male (31.4%). E. coli was the most common pathogen and accounted for 76.6% of all growths. Up to age 10 years Enterobacter spp., (25%) and between age 41-50 years Morganella spp., (8.3%) were second common pathogens in females. In rest of all age groups Citrobacter spp., were second common pathogens accounting for 10.5% of all positive cultures. Morganella spp., (5.0%), Pseudomonas spp., (3.5%), Enterobacter spp., (1.3%), Klebsiella spp., (1.1%), Staphylococcus aureus (0.9%), Proteus spp., (0.7%) and Streptococcus faecalis (0.4%) were present in less than 13% cases. E. coli was sensitive to Imipenem (98.6%), Meropenem (97.8%), Tazobactam (96.2%), Cefoperazone+sulbactam (93.9%) and Amikacin (92.5%) and was resistant to Nalidixic acid (91.7%) and Ampicillin (90.8%). Citrobacter spp., had sensitivity to Amikacin (93.8%), Meropenem (93.8%) and Imipenem (93.0%) and was absolutely resistant to Ampicillin (100%) Conclusion: Common uropathogens were E. coli and Citrobacter spp. All gram-negative uropathogens were sensitive to Imipenem, Meropenem, Tazobactam, Cefoperazone+sulbactam and Amikacin. There was high resistance to Penicillin, Cephalosporin, and

  9. Decoding post-stroke motor function from structural brain imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane M. Rondina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical research based on neuroimaging data has benefited from machine learning methods, which have the ability to provide individualized predictions and to account for the interaction among units of information in the brain. Application of machine learning in structural imaging to investigate diseases that involve brain injury presents an additional challenge, especially in conditions like stroke, due to the high variability across patients regarding characteristics of the lesions. Extracting data from anatomical images in a way that translates brain damage information into features to be used as input to learning algorithms is still an open question. One of the most common approaches to capture regional information from brain injury is to obtain the lesion load per region (i.e. the proportion of voxels in anatomical structures that are considered to be damaged. However, no systematic evaluation has yet been performed to compare this approach with using patterns of voxels (i.e. considering each voxel as a single feature. In this paper we compared both approaches applying Gaussian Process Regression to decode motor scores in 50 chronic stroke patients based solely on data derived from structural MRI. For both approaches we compared different ways to delimit anatomical areas: regions of interest from an anatomical atlas, the corticospinal tract, a mask obtained from fMRI analysis with a motor task in healthy controls and regions selected using lesion-symptom mapping. Our analysis showed that extracting features through patterns of voxels that represent lesion probability produced better results than quantifying the lesion load per region. In particular, from the different ways to delimit anatomical areas compared, the best performance was obtained with a combination of a range of cortical and subcortical motor areas as well as the corticospinal tract. These results will inform the appropriate methodology for predicting long term motor outcomes

  10. Motor recovery by improvement of limb-kinetic apraxia in a chronic stroke patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung Ho

    2013-01-01

    We report on a chronic stroke patient who showed motor recovery by improvement of limb-kinetic apraxia (LKA) after undergoing intensive rehabilitation for a period of one month, which was demonstrated by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). A 50-year-old male patient presented with severe paralysis of the left extremities at the onset of thalamic hemorrhage. At thirty months after onset, the patient exhibited moderate weakness of his left upper and lower extremities. In addition, he exhibited a slow, clumsy, and mutilated movement pattern during grasp-release movements of his left hand. During a one-month period of intensive rehabilitation, which was started at thrity months after onset, the patient showed 22% motor recovery of the left extremities. The slow, clumsy, and mutilated movement pattern of the left hand almost disappeared. DTTs of the corticospinal tract (CST) in both hemispheres originated from the cerebral cortex, including the primary motor cortex, and passed along the known CST pathway. The DTT of the right CST was located anterior to the old hemorrhagic lesion. TMS study performed at thirty and thirty-one months after onset showed normal and similar findings for motor evoked potential in terms of latency and amplitude of the left hand muscle. We think that the motor weakness of the left extremities in this patient was mainly ascribed to LKA and that most of the motor recovery during a one-month period of rehabilitation was attributed to improvement of LKA.

  11. Brain MR Imaging in Patients with Lower Motor Neuron-Predominant Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Edoardo G; Agosta, Federica; Ferraro, Pilar M; Riva, Nilo; Lunetta, Christian; Falzone, Yuri M; Comi, Giancarlo; Falini, Andrea; Filippi, Massimo

    2016-08-01

    Purpose To investigate the patterns of cortical thinning and white matter tract damage in patients with lower motor neuron (LMN)-predominant disease compared with healthy control subjects and those with classic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to evaluate the relationship between brain structural changes and clinical and cognitive features in these patients. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the local ethical committee, and written informed consent was obtained from all subjects before enrollment. Twenty-eight patients with LMN-predominant disease were compared with 55 patients with ALS and 56 healthy control subjects. Patients underwent a clinical and neuropsychological assessment and T1-weighted and diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Surface-based morphometry was used to assess cortical thickness. Tract-based spatial statistics and tractography were used to study white matter tract damage. Results Patients with LMN-predominant disease did not show differences compared with healthy control subjects in cortical thickness and diffusion-tensor MR imaging metrics. Patients with ALS showed cortical thinning of the motor-related cortices and a distributed involvement of the prefrontal, temporal, and parietal gyri (P motor and extramotor tracts compared with control subjects and patients with LMN-predominant disease (tract-based spatial statistics: P disease, cognitive deficits correlated with alterations in diffusivity in the left cingulum (r = -0.66, P = .01) and superior longitudinal fasciculus (r = -0.65, P = .05). Conclusion Motor and extramotor cortical thinning and diffusion-tensor MR imaging alterations were specific for motor neuron disease phenotypes, with clinically overt upper motor neuron involvement. However, the lack of significant differences in cortical thickness between subjects with LMN-predominant disease and those with ALS and cognitive deficits associated with alterations in diffusivity in patients with LMN

  12. Persistent patterns of interconnection in time-varying cortical networks estimated from high-resolution EEG recordings in humans during a simple motor act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vico Fallani, F; Colosimo, A [Interdepartmental Research Centre for Models and Information Analysis in Biomedical Systems, University ' La Sapienza' , Corso V. Emanuele, 244, 00186, Rome (Italy); Latora, V [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Catania, Via S.Sofia, 64, Catania (Italy); Astolfi, L; Cincotti, F; Mattia, D; Marciani, M G; Babiloni, F [IRCCS ' Fondazione Santa Lucia' , Via Ardeatina, 306, Rome (Italy); Salinari, S [Department of ' Informatica e Sistemistica' , University ' Sapienza' , Via Ariosto, 25, Rome (Italy)], E-mail: fabrizio.devicofallani@uniroma1.it, E-mail: latora@ct.infn.it

    2008-06-06

    In this work, a novel approach based on the estimate of time-varying graph indices is proposed in order to capture the basic schemes of communication within the functional brain networks during a simple motor act. To achieve this, we used a cascade of computational tools able to estimate first the electrical activity of the cortical surface by using high-resolution EEG techniques. From the cortical signals of different regions of interests we estimated the time-varying functional connectivity patterns by means of the adaptive partial directed coherence. The time-varying connectivity estimation returns a series of networks evolving during the examined task which can be summarized and interpreted with the aid of mathematical indices based on graph theory. The combination of all these methods is demonstrated on a set of high-resolution EEG data recorded from a group of healthy subjects performing a simple foot movement. It can be anticipated that the combination of the time-varying connectivity with the theoretical graph analysis is able to reveal precious information about the interconnections of the cerebral network as the significant persistence of mutual links and three-node motifs.

  13. Association between Community Ambulation Walking Patterns and Cognitive Function in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease: Further Insights into Motor-Cognitive Links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aner Weiss

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cognitive function is generally evaluated based on testing in the clinic, but this may not always reflect real-life function. We tested whether parameters derived from long-term, continuous monitoring of gait are associated with cognitive function in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD. Methods. 107 patients with PD (age: 64.9 ± 9.3 yrs; UPDRS motor sum “off”: 40.4 ± 13.2; 25.23% women wore a 3D accelerometer on their lower back for 3 days. Computerized measures of global cognitive function, executive function, attention, and nonverbal memory were assessed. Three-day acceleration derived measures included cadence, variability, bilateral coordination, and dynamic postural control. Associations between the acceleration derived measures and cognitive function were determined. Results. Linear regression showed associations between vertical gait variability and cadence and between global cognitive score, attention, and executive function (p≤0.048. Dynamic postural control was associated with global cognitive score and attention (p≤0.027. Nonverbal memory was not associated with the acceleration-derived measures. Conclusions. These findings suggest that metrics derived from a 3-day worn body-fixed sensor reflect cognitive function, further supporting the idea that the gait pattern may be altered as cognition declines and that gait provides a window into cognitive function in patients with PD.

  14. Study of Antibiotic Resistance Pattern and Mutation in Genes gyrA and parC of Escherichia Coli Causing Urinary Tract Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Faghri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Fluoroquinolones are essential antimicrobial agents used to treat UTIs. Clinical experiences have shown a high rate of antibiotic resistance among uropatho-gens. These resistance are usually the consequence of mutations involving genes encoding gyrA and parC. The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial resistance pattern and the presence of mutations in regions that code for quinolone resistance in the genes gyrA and parC in clinical isolates of E. coli from a hospital in Isfahan, Iran. Materials & Methods: A total of 135 isolates of E.coli (from urine were collected from Sep-tember to February 2013 from Alzahra Hospital (Isfahan, Iran. Bacterial susceptibility to an-timicrobial agents was determined using disk diffusion method. PCR was performed to detect genes gyrA and parC. Then, 13 isolates were randomly chosen for genetic characterization of the quinolone-determining region (QRDR of the parC and gyrA genes. Results: Among 135 E. coli isolates, 61 isolates ( 45 % were resistant to fluoroquinolones. From 13 isolates, 11 isolates showed two mutations (Ser83Leu/ Asp87Asn and 2 isolates showed a single mutation (Ser83Leu in gyrA gene. Also, five different mutations were de-tected in parC gene in the E. coli isolates, encoding Ser80Ile, Ser80Val, Ser80Arg, Glu84Val, Gly78Ser. Conclusion: More research on the molecular basis of FQ resistance is required to develop new therapeutic strategies for FQ-resistant E. coli. To overcome antibiotic resistance antibiotic therapy should be limited and based on the susceptibility patterns of microorganisms. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2016; 23 (2:118-125

  15. BACTERIAL PREVALENCE, ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY PATTERN AND PREDISPOSING FACTORS IN PATIENTS OF NOSOCOMIAL URINARY TRACT INFECTION (UTI VISITED THE TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN JAMNAGAR REGION, WESTERN GUJARAT, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Somabhai Modi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Nosocomial UTI is the most common bacterial infection ranging from asymptomatic bacterial to septicaemia. Gram-negative bacteria contribute 80-85% of UTI and 15-20% by gram positive with major contribution by E. coli. The aim of the study is to assess the bacterial prevalence, drug sensitivity pattern and predisposing factors in nosocomial UTI. MATERIALS AND METHODS 778 midstream urine samples were tested by conventional methods of which 282 (36.25% samples were identified as positive for bacteria. All the isolates were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity testing. Statistical analysis was done by Chi-square test. RESULTS Bacterial prevalence was 36.25%. 87.95% UTI were caused by gram negative while 12.05% cases were due to gram-positive bacteria. Most prevalent bacterium was E. coli (48.23%. Piperacillin+tazobactam were identified as most sensitive drug for all gram-negative isolates. Among the gram-positive isolates, coagulase-positive bacteria like Staph aureus were sensitive to all tested drugs while coagulase-negative bacteria were less sensitive to all exposed drugs and Enterococcus produced 75% sensitivity rate to vancomycin, teicoplanin and linezolid. UTI was common between 40-60 years (37.23% with mean age 44.23±20.05 and P value was >0.05. High frequency observed in men (55.32% than women (44.68%, (P >0.05. 53.19% cases had history of catheterisation (P <0.001. CONCLUSION Variable sensitivity pattern and increasing drug resistance observed in uropathogen, so study emphasise over antibiotic sensitivity testing before prescribing empirical therapy, understanding the risk factors helps to contain the UTI.

  16. Comparison of realistic and idealized breathing patterns in computational models of airflow and vapor dosimetry in the rodent upper respiratory tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colby, Sean M.; Kabilan, Senthil; Jacob, Richard E.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Corley, Richard A.

    2016-03-17

    Abstract Context: Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of airflows coupled with physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling of respiratory tissue doses of airborne materials have traditionally used either steady-state inhalation or a sinusoidal approximation of the breathing cycle for airflow simulations despite their differences from normal breathing patterns. Objective: Evaluate the impact of realistic breathing patterns, including sniffing, on predicted nasal tissue concentrations of a reactive vapor that targets the nose in rats as a case study. Materials and methods: Whole-body plethysmography measurements from a free-breathing rat were used to produce profiles of normal breathing, sniffing and combinations of both as flow inputs to CFD/PBPK simulations of acetaldehyde exposure. Results: For the normal measured ventilation profile, modest reductions in time- and tissue depth-dependent areas under the curve (AUC) acetaldehyde concentrations were predicted in the wet squamous, respiratory and transitional epithelium along the main airflow path, while corresponding increases were predicted in the olfactory epithelium, especially the most distal regions of the ethmoid turbinates, versus the idealized profile. The higher amplitude/frequency sniffing profile produced greater AUC increases over the idealized profile in the olfactory epithelium, especially in the posterior region. Conclusions: The differences in tissue AUCs at known lesion-forming regions for acetaldehyde between normal and idealized profiles were minimal, suggesting that sinusoidal profiles may be used for this chemical and exposure concentration. However, depending upon the chemical, exposure system and concentration and the time spent sniffing, the use of realistic breathing profiles, including sniffing, could become an important modulator for local tissue dose predictions.

  17. Mastery in Goal Scoring, T-Pattern Detection, and Polar Coordinate Analysis of Motor Skills Used by Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Castañer; Daniel Barreira; Oleguer Camerino; M. Teresa Anguera; Tiago Fernandes; Raúl Hileno

    2017-01-01

    Research in soccer has traditionally given more weight to players' technical and tactical skills, but few studies have analyzed the motor skills that underpin specific motor actions. The objective of this study was to investigate the style of play of the world's top soccer players, Cristiano Ronaldo and Lionel Messi, and how they use their motor skills in attacking actions that result in a goal. We used and improved the easy-to-use observation instrument (OSMOS-soccer player) with 9 criteria,...

  18. Biomechanics of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Health and Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jingbo; Liao, Donghua; Gregersen, Hans

    2010-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is functionally subjected to dimensional changes. Hence, biomechanical properties such as the stress-strain relationships are of particularly importance. These properties vary along the normal GI tract and remodel in response to growth, aging and disease. The biome......The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is functionally subjected to dimensional changes. Hence, biomechanical properties such as the stress-strain relationships are of particularly importance. These properties vary along the normal GI tract and remodel in response to growth, aging and disease....... The biomechanical properties are crucial for GI motor function because peristaltic motion that propels the food through the GI tract is a result of interaction of the passive and active tissue forces and the hydrodynamic forces in the food bolus and remodeling of the mechanical properties reflects the changes...... in the tissue structure that determine a specific motor dysfunction. Therefore, biomechanical data on the GI wall are important to understand the pathogenesis to the GI motor-sensory function and dysfunction. Moreover, biomechanical studies of the GI tract pave the way for further mathematical and computational...

  19. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with Neurogenic Bladder and ... To protect the kidneys from damage – By preventing urinary tract infections (UTI) – By identifying and treating vesicoureteral remux (VUR). ...

  20. Assessment of the corticospinal tract alterations before and after resection of brainstem lesions using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and tractography at 3 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovanlikaya, Ilhami, E-mail: ilk2002@med.cornell.edu [Department of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY (United States); Firat, Zeynep [Department of Radiology, Yeditepe University Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey); Kovanlikaya, Arzu [Department of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY (United States); Ulug, Aziz M. [Department of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yeditepe University, Istanbul (Turkey); Cihangiroglu, M. Mutlu [Department of Radiology, Yeditepe University Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey); John, Majnu [Department of Public Health, Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY (United States); Bingol, Canan Aykut; Ture, Ugur [Institute of Neurological Sciences, Yeditepe University Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-03-15

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the role of Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and Diffusion Tensor Tractography (DTT) on the corticospinal tract alterations due to space occupying lesions in the brainstem before and after surgical resection. Pre- and post-surgical DTI data were acquired in 14 patients undergoing surgical resection of brainstem lesions. Patterns of corticospinal tract (CST) alteration on DTT were compared with the neurological exams of the patients pre- and post-operatively. DTT, especially in 3D movie format, seemed very helpful for evaluating the relationship of the lesions with the corticospinal tracts for surgical approach. None of the patients developed additional motor deficit related to surgery except one patient who presented with cerebellar ataxia after surgery. All of the patients with normal CST on DTT presented without motor deficit on neurological exam. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative predictive values of DTT before surgery were 100%, 63.6%, 42.9% and 100%, and the corresponding values after surgery were 100%, 96%, 75% and 100% respectively. Although it has low specificity before surgery, DTT is a potentially useful technique in evaluating the effects of brainstem lesions and surgical resection on the relevant corticospinal tracts with high negative predictive value and higher specificity after surgery.

  1. MicroRNA expression patterns in human anterior cingulate and motor cortex: A study of dementia with Lewy bodies cases and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter T; Wang, Wang-Xia; Janse, Sarah A; Thompson, Katherine L

    2018-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we evaluated the expression of miRNAs in anterior cingulate (AC; Brodmann area [BA] 24) and primary motor (MO; BA 4) cortical tissue from aged human brains in the University of Kentucky AD Center autopsy cohort, with a focus on dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). RNA was isolated from gray matter of brain samples with pathology-defined DLB, AD, AD + DLB, and low-pathology controls, with n = 52 cases initially included (n  = 23 with DLB), all with low (matter of MO, AC, primary somatosensory (BA 3), and dorsolateral prefrontal (BA 9) cortical regions. The miRNA expression patterns differed substantially according to anatomic location: of the relatively highly-expressed miRNAs, 150/481 (31%) showed expression that was different between AC versus MO (at p < .05 following correction for multiple comparisons), most (79%) with higher expression in MO. A subset of these results were confirmed in qPCR validation focusing on miR-7, miR-153, miR-133b, miR-137, and miR-34a. No significant variation in miRNA expression was detected in association with either neuropathology or sex after correction for multiple comparisons. A subset of miRNAs (some previously associated with α-synucleinopathy and/or directly targeting α-synuclein mRNA) were differentially expressed in AC and MO, which may help explain why these brain regions show differences in vulnerability to Lewy body pathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A Ternary Hybrid EEG-NIRS Brain-Computer Interface for the Classification of Brain Activation Patterns during Mental Arithmetic, Motor Imagery, and Idle State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jaeyoung; Kwon, Jinuk; Im, Chang-Hwan

    2018-01-01

    The performance of a brain-computer interface (BCI) can be enhanced by simultaneously using two or more modalities to record brain activity, which is generally referred to as a hybrid BCI. To date, many BCI researchers have tried to implement a hybrid BCI system by combining electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to improve the overall accuracy of binary classification. However, since hybrid EEG-NIRS BCI, which will be denoted by hBCI in this paper, has not been applied to ternary classification problems, paradigms and classification strategies appropriate for ternary classification using hBCI are not well investigated. Here we propose the use of an hBCI for the classification of three brain activation patterns elicited by mental arithmetic, motor imagery, and idle state, with the aim to elevate the information transfer rate (ITR) of hBCI by increasing the number of classes while minimizing the loss of accuracy. EEG electrodes were placed over the prefrontal cortex and the central cortex, and NIRS optodes were placed only on the forehead. The ternary classification problem was decomposed into three binary classification problems using the "one-versus-one" (OVO) classification strategy to apply the filter-bank common spatial patterns filter to EEG data. A 10 × 10-fold cross validation was performed using shrinkage linear discriminant analysis (sLDA) to evaluate the average classification accuracies for EEG-BCI, NIRS-BCI, and hBCI when the meta-classification method was adopted to enhance classification accuracy. The ternary classification accuracies for EEG-BCI, NIRS-BCI, and hBCI were 76.1 ± 12.8, 64.1 ± 9.7, and 82.2 ± 10.2%, respectively. The classification accuracy of the proposed hBCI was thus significantly higher than those of the other BCIs ( p < 0.005). The average ITR for the proposed hBCI was calculated to be 4.70 ± 1.92 bits/minute, which was 34.3% higher than that reported for a previous binary hBCI study.

  3. A Ternary Hybrid EEG-NIRS Brain-Computer Interface for the Classification of Brain Activation Patterns during Mental Arithmetic, Motor Imagery, and Idle State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyoung Shin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a brain-computer interface (BCI can be enhanced by simultaneously using two or more modalities to record brain activity, which is generally referred to as a hybrid BCI. To date, many BCI researchers have tried to implement a hybrid BCI system by combining electroencephalography (EEG and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS to improve the overall accuracy of binary classification. However, since hybrid EEG-NIRS BCI, which will be denoted by hBCI in this paper, has not been applied to ternary classification problems, paradigms and classification strategies appropriate for ternary classification using hBCI are not well investigated. Here we propose the use of an hBCI for the classification of three brain activation patterns elicited by mental arithmetic, motor imagery, and idle state, with the aim to elevate the information transfer rate (ITR of hBCI by increasing the number of classes while minimizing the loss of accuracy. EEG electrodes were placed over the prefrontal cortex and the central cortex, and NIRS optodes were placed only on the forehead. The ternary classification problem was decomposed into three binary classification problems using the “one-versus-one” (OVO classification strategy to apply the filter-bank common spatial patterns filter to EEG data. A 10 × 10-fold cross validation was performed using shrinkage linear discriminant analysis (sLDA to evaluate the average classification accuracies for EEG-BCI, NIRS-BCI, and hBCI when the meta-classification method was adopted to enhance classification accuracy. The ternary classification accuracies for EEG-BCI, NIRS-BCI, and hBCI were 76.1 ± 12.8, 64.1 ± 9.7, and 82.2 ± 10.2%, respectively. The classification accuracy of the proposed hBCI was thus significantly higher than those of the other BCIs (p < 0.005. The average ITR for the proposed hBCI was calculated to be 4.70 ± 1.92 bits/minute, which was 34.3% higher than that reported for a previous binary

  4. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in your urinary tract. Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract ... and you should see a doctor right away. What Will the Doctor Do? First, your doctor will ...

  5. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Urinary Tract ... Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...

  6. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works Puberty & Growing Up Staying Healthy Staying Safe Recipes & ... in your urinary tract. Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract ...

  7. Childhood urinary tract infection in Benin City: pathogens and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-microbial sensitivity pattern of bacterial isolates implicated in urinary tract infection (UTI) amongst children was studied using the disc diffusion method. The prospective study was carried out in 65 children managed for urinary tract infection in the paediatric facilities of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin ...

  8. Bacterial Uropathogens in Urinary Tract Infection and Antibiotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections encountered by clinicians in developing countries. Area-specific monitoring studies aimed to gain knowledge about the type of pathogens responsible for urinary tract infections and their resistance patterns may help the clinician to ...

  9. Female genital tract cancers in Sagamu, southwest, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To describe pattern of female genital tract cancers seen at Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital (OOUTH), Sagamu, Nigeria. Design: This is a retrospective review of all cases of female genital tract cancers managed at the Gynaecology department of OOUTH, Sagamu, Nigeria. Setting: OOUTH is a ...

  10. The corticospinal tract: a biomarker to categorize upper limb functional potential in unilateral cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen eJaspers

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP typically present with largely divergent upper limb sensorimotor deficits and individual differences in response to upper limb rehabilitation. This review summarizes how early brain damage can cause dramatic deviations from the normal anatomy of sensory and motor tracts, resulting in unique wiring patterns of the sensorimotor system in CP. Based on the existing literature we suggest that corticospinal tract (CST anatomy and integrity constrains sensorimotor function of the upper limb and potentially also the response to treatment. However, it is not possible to infer CST (reorganization from clinical presentation alone and conventional biomarkers like time of the insult, location and extent of the lesion seem to have limited clinical utility. Here we propose a theoretical framework based on a detailed examination of the motor system using behavioral, neurophysiological and magnetic resonance imaging measures, akin to those used to predict potential for upper limb recovery of adults after stroke. This theoretical framework might prove useful because it provides testable hypotheses for future research with the goal to develop and validate a clinical assessment flowchart to categorize children with unilateral CP.

  11. Ataxin-1 with an expanded glutamine tract alters nuclear matrix-associated structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, P J; Koshy, B T; Cummings, C J

    1997-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is one of several neurodegenerative disorders caused by an expansion of a polyglutamine tract. It is characterized by ataxia, progressive motor deterioration, and loss of cerebellar Purkinje cells. To understand the pathogenesis of SCA1, we examined the subcel......Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is one of several neurodegenerative disorders caused by an expansion of a polyglutamine tract. It is characterized by ataxia, progressive motor deterioration, and loss of cerebellar Purkinje cells. To understand the pathogenesis of SCA1, we examined.......5 microm across, whereas the expanded ataxin-1 localizes to a single approximately 2-microm structure, before the onset of ataxia. Mutant ataxin-1 localizes to a single nuclear structure in affected neurons of SCA1 patients. Similarly, COS-1 cells transfected with wild-type or mutant ataxin-1 show...... a similar pattern of nuclear localization; with expanded ataxin-1 occurring in larger structures that are fewer in number than those of normal ataxin-1. Colocalization studies show that mutant ataxin-1 causes a specific redistribution of the nuclear matrix-associated domain containing promyelocytic...

  12. Upper respiratory tract (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major passages and structures of the upper respiratory tract include the nose or nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat (pharynx), and voice box (larynx). The respiratory system is lined with a mucous membrane that ...

  13. Prognostic Value of Cortically Induced Motor Evoked Activity by TMS in Chronic Stroke: Caveats from a Revealing Single Clinical Case

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Amengual, Julià L

    2012-06-08

    AbstractBackgroundWe report the case of a chronic stroke patient (62 months after injury) showing total absence of motor activity evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of spared regions of the left motor cortex, but near-to-complete recovery of motor abilities in the affected hand.Case presentationMultimodal investigations included detailed TMS based motor mapping, motor evoked potentials (MEP), and Cortical Silent period (CSP) as well as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of motor activity, MRI based lesion analysis and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) Tractography of corticospinal tract (CST). Anatomical analysis revealed a left hemisphere subinsular lesion interrupting the descending left CST at the level of the internal capsule. The absence of MEPs after intense TMS pulses to the ipsilesional M1, and the reversible suppression of ongoing electromyographic (EMG) activity (indexed by CSP) demonstrate a weak modulation of subcortical systems by the ipsilesional left frontal cortex, but an inability to induce efficient descending volleys from those cortical locations to right hand and forearm muscles. Functional MRI recordings under grasping and finger tapping patterns involving the affected hand showed slight signs of subcortical recruitment, as compared to the unaffected hand and hemisphere, as well as the expected cortical activations.ConclusionsThe potential sources of motor voluntary activity for the affected hand in absence of MEPs are discussed. We conclude that multimodal analysis may contribute to a more accurate prognosis of stroke patients.

  14. Motor teams :

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stochastic transitions between two species of motor yields Bidirectional motion. • Tuning of single-motor parameters. • No need to invoke a third “coordination complex”. Page 8. PNAS, 2009. 5.5 pN. 1.1 x 5 = 5.5 pN. Page 9. Kinesin motors have a problem working together. D istance (x) or. Force = Distance * K. TRAP ...

  15. Motor Starters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The power factor controller (PFC) was invented by a NASA engineer. It matches voltage with a motor's actual need by sensing shifts in the relationship between voltage and current flow. With the device, power can be trimmed as much as 65%. Intellinet adopted this technology and designed "soft start" and "load-responsive" control modes to start engines gradually and recycle voltage without reducing motor speed. Other features are lower motor heat and faster fault identification.

  16. Bilateral alteration in stepping pattern after unilateral motor cortex injury: a new test strategy for analysis of skilled limb movements in neurological mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Tracy D; Liu, Lily; Colwell, Keri L; Whishaw, Ian Q; Metz, Gerlinde A

    2006-05-15

    Mice are becoming increasingly popular to model neurological disease and motor system dysfunction. For evaluation of discrete, chronic motor impairments, skilled limb movements represent a valuable extension of standard mouse test batteries. This study introduces an efficient and sensitive test strategy for comprehensive assessment of skilled fore- and hind-limb stepping in mice. Adult C57BL/6 mice were trained and video-recorded in two walking tasks, the widely used rotorod test and a new ladder rung task. The animals then received a unilateral ischemic lesion in the motor cortex forelimb and hind limb area and were video-recorded on days 12 and 26 post-lesion. Forelimb and hind limb stepping movements were rated using a combination of endpoint measures and qualitative assessment. The results showed that while animals maintained a weight-supported gait, posture and stepping movements were abnormal at both post-operative intervals. The rotorod analysis revealed stepping deficits in both forelimbs that led to adoption of compensatory movement strategies. The ladder rung task revealed stepping errors in ipsi- and contralateral fore- and hind-limbs. The findings demonstrate that this test strategy provides comprehensive assessment of motor impairments in mice and that qualitative movement analysis is a valuable tool for elaborating subtle motor disturbances.

  17. Lower urinary tract dysfunction in critical illness polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, André

    2013-01-01

    Critical illness polyneuropathy is a frequent complication of critical illness in intensive care units. Reports on autonomic systems like lower urinary tract and bowel functions in patients with CIP are not available in medical literature. This study performed during primary rehabilitation of patients with critical illness polyneuropathy explores if sensory and motor pathways controlling the lower urinary tract function are affected from the disease. Neurourological examinations, urodynamics, electromyography and lower urinary tract imaging were performed in 28 patients with critical illness polyneuropathy. Sacral sensation was impaired in 1 patient (4%). Sacral reflexes were absent in 8 patients (30%). Anal sphincter resting tone was reduced in 3 (12%), anal sphincter voluntary contraction was absent or reduced in 8 patients (30%). Urodynamic findings were detrusor overactivity and detrusor overactivity incontinence in 9 (37.5%), incomplete voiding in 8 (30%), abnormal sphincter activity in 4 (16%), abnormal bladder sensation in 4 (16%) and detrusor acontractility in 2 patients (8.3%). Morphological abnormalities of the lower urinary tract had 10 patients (41.6%). Sensory and motor pathways controlling the lower urinary tract might be affected from CIP. During urodynamics dysfunctions of the storage as well as the voiding phase were found. Morphological lower urinary tract abnormalities were common.

  18. Urinary Tract Infections (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections KidsHealth / For Teens / Urinary Tract Infections What's in ... especially girls — visit a doctor. What Is a Urinary Tract Infection? A bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) is the ...

  19. Drug utilization study of antibiotics for urinary tract infections in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A drug utilization pattern of antibiotics for urinary tract infections in 200 cases above 18 years of age was done at Katuri Medical College Hospital, Guntur, India. The antibiotic sensitivity profile of the microorganism causing urinary tract infections was studied in cases diagnosed as urinary tract infection. The patients with ...

  20. Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging and Motor Outcome in Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spampinato, M V; Chan, C; Jensen, J H; Helpern, J A; Bonilha, L; Kautz, S A; Nietert, P J; Feng, W

    2017-07-01

    Motor impairment is the most common deficit after stroke. Our aim was to evaluate whether diffusional kurtosis imaging can detect corticospinal tract microstructural changes in the acute phase for patients with first-ever ischemic stroke and motor impairment and to assess the correlations between diffusional kurtosis imaging-derived diffusion metrics for the corticospinal tract and motor impairment 3 months poststroke. We evaluated 17 patients with stroke who underwent brain MR imaging including diffusional kurtosis imaging within 4 days after the onset of symptoms. Neurologic evaluation included the Fugl-Meyer Upper Extremity Motor scale in the acute phase and 3 months poststroke. For the corticospinal tract in the lesioned and contralateral hemispheres, we estimated with diffusional kurtosis imaging both pure diffusion metrics, such as the mean diffusivity and mean kurtosis, and model-dependent quantities, such as the axonal water fraction. We evaluated the correlations between corticospinal tract diffusion metrics and the Fugl-Meyer Upper Extremity Motor scale at 3 months. Among all the diffusion metrics, the largest percentage signal changes of the lesioned hemisphere corticospinal tract were observed with axial kurtosis, with an average 12% increase compared with the contralateral corticospinal tract. The strongest associations between the 3-month Fugl-Meyer Upper Extremity Motor scale score and diffusion metrics were found for the lesioned/contralateral hemisphere corticospinal tract mean kurtosis (ρ = -0.85) and axial kurtosis (ρ = -0.78) ratios. This study was designed to be one of hypothesis generation. Diffusion metrics related to kurtosis were found to be more sensitive than conventional diffusivity metrics to early poststroke corticospinal tract microstructural changes and may have potential value in the prediction of motor impairment at 3 months. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  1. Motor teams :

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Switch. Welte et al, 1998, Gross et al, 2002. Motion of Lipid droplets in Drosophila embryos. Page 7. • Stochastic transitions between two species of motor yields Bidirectional motion. • Tuning of single-motor parameters. • No need to invoke a ...

  2. [Biliary tract tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavani, A; Negri, E; La Vecchia, C

    1996-01-01

    Biliary tract cancers are rare neoplasms including gallbladder cancer (the commonest), extrahepatic biliary tract cancer and cancer of the ampulla of Vater. Descriptive epidemiology of biliary tract cancers as a whole has two peculiarities: incidence and mortality rates are higher for women than men, and in some specific populations. Mortality rates are highest among New Mexico American Indian women, in Chile and Japan, lowest in Great Britain and Greece. Mortality trends vary widely: the largest increases have been observed in Japan, Hong-Kong and Spain and the largest decreases in the Anglo-Saxon populations. Our knowledge of biliary tract cancer etiology is limited. Defined risks include genetic factors (family history of biliary tract cancers, ethnicity), history of gallbladder disease, and cholelithiasis. Risk factors reported in some studies, on which, however, information is not consistent and which need further study, include overweight, some menstrual and reproductive factors (multiparity, young age at first birth, late menopause), low education, cigarette smoking, selected bacterial infections, some intestinal diseases and diabetes.

  3. Multiple neural oscillators and muscle feedback are required for the intestinal fed state motor program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jordan D; Bornstein, Joel C; Thomas, Evan A

    2011-05-05

    After a meal, the gastrointestinal tract exhibits a set of behaviours known as the fed state. A major feature of the fed state is a little understood motor pattern known as segmentation, which is essential for digestion and nutrient absorption. Segmentation manifests as rhythmic local constrictions that do not propagate along the intestine. In guinea-pig jejunum in vitro segmentation constrictions occur in short bursts together with other motor patterns in episodes of activity lasting 40-60 s and separated by quiescent episodes lasting 40-200 s. This activity is induced by luminal nutrients and abolished by blocking activity in the enteric nervous system (ENS). We investigated the enteric circuits that regulate segmentation focusing on a central feature of the ENS: a recurrent excitatory network of intrinsic sensory neurons (ISNs) which are characterized by prolonged after-hyperpolarizing potentials (AHPs) following their action potentials. We first examined the effects of depressing AHPs with blockers of the underlying channels (TRAM-34 and clotrimazole) on motor patterns induced in guinea-pig jejunum, in vitro, by luminal decanoic acid. Contractile episode durations increased markedly, but the frequency and number of constrictions within segmenting bursts and quiescent period durations were unaffected. We used these observations to develop a computational model of activity in ISNs, excitatory and inhibitory motor neurons and the muscle. The model predicted that: i) feedback to ISNs from contractions in the circular muscle is required to produce alternating activity and quiescence with the right durations; ii) transmission from ISNs to excitatory motor neurons is via fast excitatory synaptic potentials (EPSPs) and to inhibitory motor neurons via slow EPSPs. We conclude that two rhythm generators regulate segmentation: one drives contractions within segmentation bursts, the other the occurrence of bursts. The latter depends on AHPs in ISNs and feedback to these

  4. Multiple neural oscillators and muscle feedback are required for the intestinal fed state motor program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan D Chambers

    Full Text Available After a meal, the gastrointestinal tract exhibits a set of behaviours known as the fed state. A major feature of the fed state is a little understood motor pattern known as segmentation, which is essential for digestion and nutrient absorption. Segmentation manifests as rhythmic local constrictions that do not propagate along the intestine. In guinea-pig jejunum in vitro segmentation constrictions occur in short bursts together with other motor patterns in episodes of activity lasting 40-60 s and separated by quiescent episodes lasting 40-200 s. This activity is induced by luminal nutrients and abolished by blocking activity in the enteric nervous system (ENS. We investigated the enteric circuits that regulate segmentation focusing on a central feature of the ENS: a recurrent excitatory network of intrinsic sensory neurons (ISNs which are characterized by prolonged after-hyperpolarizing potentials (AHPs following their action potentials. We first examined the effects of depressing AHPs with blockers of the underlying channels (TRAM-34 and clotrimazole on motor patterns induced in guinea-pig jejunum, in vitro, by luminal decanoic acid. Contractile episode durations increased markedly, but the frequency and number of constrictions within segmenting bursts and quiescent period durations were unaffected. We used these observations to develop a computational model of activity in ISNs, excitatory and inhibitory motor neurons and the muscle. The model predicted that: i feedback to ISNs from contractions in the circular muscle is required to produce alternating activity and quiescence with the right durations; ii transmission from ISNs to excitatory motor neurons is via fast excitatory synaptic potentials (EPSPs and to inhibitory motor neurons via slow EPSPs. We conclude that two rhythm generators regulate segmentation: one drives contractions within segmentation bursts, the other the occurrence of bursts. The latter depends on AHPs in ISNs and feedback

  5. The Effect of Body Weight Support Treadmill Training on Gait Recovery, Proximal Lower Limb Motor Pattern, and Balance in Patients with Subacute Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yu-Rong; Lo, Wai Leung; Lin, Qiang; Li, Le; Xiao, Xiang; Raghavan, Preeti; Huang, Dong-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Gait performance is an indicator of mobility impairment after stroke. This study evaluated changes in balance, lower extremity motor function, and spatiotemporal gait parameters after receiving body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) and conventional overground walking training (CT) in patients with subacute stroke using 3D motion analysis. Inpatient department of rehabilitation medicine at a university-affiliated hospital. 24 subjects with unilateral hemiplegia in the subacute stage were randomized to the BWSTT (n = 12) and CT (n = 12) groups. Parameters were compared between the two groups. Data from twelve age matched healthy subjects were recorded as reference. Patients received gait training with BWSTT or CT for an average of 30 minutes/day, 5 days/week, for 3 weeks. Balance was measured by the Brunel balance assessment. Lower extremity motor function was evaluated by the Fugl-Meyer assessment scale. Kinematic data were collected and analyzed using a gait capture system before and after the interventions. Both groups improved on balance and lower extremity motor function measures (P training. Both methods can improve balance and motor function.

  6. Lower motor neuron findings after upper motor neuron injury: Insights from postoperative supplementary motor area syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey E Florman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertonia and hypereflexia are classically described responses to upper motor neuron injury. However, acute hypotonia and areflexia with motor deficit are hallmark findings after many central nervous system insults such as acute stroke and spinal shock. Historic theories to explain these contradictory findings have implicated a number of potential mechanisms mostly relying on the loss of descending corticospinal input as the underlying etiology. Unfortunately, these simple descriptions consistently fail to adequately explain the pathophysiology and connectivity leading to acute hyporeflexia and delayed hypereflexia that result from such insult. This article highlights the common observation of acute hyporeflexia after central nervous system insults and explores the underlying anatomy and physiology. Further, evidence for the underlying connectivity is presented and implicates the dominant role of supraspinal inhibitory influence originating in the supplementary motor area descending through the corticospinal tracts. Unlike traditional explanations, this theory more adequately explains the findings of postoperative supplementary motor area syndrome in which hyporeflexive motor deficit is observed acutely in the face of intact primary motor cortex connections to the spinal cord. Further, the proposed connectivity can be generalized to help explain other insults including stroke, atonic seizures, and spinal shock.

  7. The Effect of Body Weight Support Treadmill Training on Gait Recovery, Proximal Lower Limb Motor Pattern, and Balance in Patients with Subacute Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Rong Mao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Gait performance is an indicator of mobility impairment after stroke. This study evaluated changes in balance, lower extremity motor function, and spatiotemporal gait parameters after receiving body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT and conventional overground walking training (CT in patients with subacute stroke using 3D motion analysis. Setting. Inpatient department of rehabilitation medicine at a university-affiliated hospital. Participants. 24 subjects with unilateral hemiplegia in the subacute stage were randomized to the BWSTT (n=12 and CT (n=12 groups. Parameters were compared between the two groups. Data from twelve age matched healthy subjects were recorded as reference. Interventions. Patients received gait training with BWSTT or CT for an average of 30 minutes/day, 5 days/week, for 3 weeks. Main Outcome Measures. Balance was measured by the Brunel balance assessment. Lower extremity motor function was evaluated by the Fugl-Meyer assessment scale. Kinematic data were collected and analyzed using a gait capture system before and after the interventions. Results. Both groups improved on balance and lower extremity motor function measures (P<0.05, with no significant difference between the two groups after intervention. However, kinematic data were significantly improved (P<0.05 after BWSTT but not after CT. Maximum hip extension and flexion angles were significantly improved (P<0.05 for the BWSTT group during the stance and swing phases compared to baseline. Conclusion. In subacute patients with stroke, BWSTT can lead to improved gait quality when compared with conventional gait training. Both methods can improve balance and motor function.

  8. Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  9. Atypical inter-hemispheric communication correlates with altered motor inhibition during learning of a new bimanual coordination pattern in developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, Mélody; Amarantini, David; Albaret, Jean-Michel; Chaix, Yves; Tallet, Jessica

    2017-04-25

    Impairment of motor learning skills in developmental coordination disorder (DCD) has been reported in several studies. Some hypotheses on neural mechanisms of motor learning deficits in DCD have emerged but, to date, brain-imaging investigations are scarce. The aim of the present study is to assess possible changes in communication between brain areas during practice of a new bimanual coordination task in teenagers with DCD (n = 10) compared to matched controls (n = 10). Accuracy, stability and number of mirror movements were computed as behavioural variables. Neural variables were assessed by electroencephalographic coherence analyses of intra-hemispheric and inter-hemispheric fronto-central electrodes. In both groups, accuracy of the new coordination increased concomitantly with right intra-hemispheric fronto-central coherence. Compared to typically developing teenagers, DCD teenagers presented learning difficulties expressed by less stability, no stabilization of the new coordination and a greater number of mirror movements despite practice. These measures correlated with reduced inter-hemispheric communication, even after practice of the new coordination. For the first time, these findings provide neuro-imaging evidence of a kind of inter-hemispheric 'disconnection' related to altered inhibition of mirror movements during motor learning in DCD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. EphA4-mediated ipsilateral corticospinal tract misprojections are necessary for bilateral voluntary movements but not bilateral stereotypic locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serradj, Najet; Paixão, Sónia; Sobocki, Tomasz; Feinberg, Mitchell; Klein, Rüdiger; Kullander, Klas; Martin, John H

    2014-04-09

    In this study, we took advantage of the reported role of EphA4 in determining the contralateral spinal projection of the corticospinal tract (CST) to investigate the effects of ipsilateral misprojections on voluntary movements and stereotypic locomotion. Null EphA4 mutations produce robust ipsilateral CST misprojections, resulting in bilateral corticospinal tracts. We hypothesize that a unilateral voluntary limb movement, not a stereotypic locomotor movement, will become a bilateral movement in EphA4 knock-out mice with a bilateral CST. However, in EphA4 full knock-outs, spinal interneurons also develop bilateral misprojections. Aberrant bilateral spinal circuits could thus transform unilateral corticospinal control signals into bilateral movements. We therefore studied mice with conditional forebrain deletion of the EphA4 gene under control by Emx1, a gene expressed in the forebrain that affects the developing CST but spares brainstem motor pathways and spinal motor circuits. We examined two conditional knock-outs targeting forebrain EphA4 during performance of stereotypic locomotion and voluntary movement: adaptive locomotion over obstacles and exploratory reaching. We found that the conditional knock-outs used alternate stepping, not hopping, during overground locomotion, suggesting normal central pattern generator function and supporting our hypothesis of minimal CST involvement in the moment-to-moment control of stereotypic locomotion. In contrast, the conditional knock-outs showed bilateral voluntary movements under conditions when single limb movements are normally produced and, as a basis for this aberrant control, developed a bilateral motor map in motor cortex that is driven by the aberrant ipsilateral CST misprojections. Therefore, a specific change in CST connectivity is associated with and explains a change in voluntary movement.

  11. Application of stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    This book is divided into three parts, which is about practical using of stepping motor. The first part has six chapters. The contents of the first part are about stepping motor, classification of stepping motor, basic theory og stepping motor, characteristic and basic words, types and characteristic of stepping motor in hybrid type and basic control of stepping motor. The second part deals with application of stepping motor with hardware of stepping motor control, stepping motor control by microcomputer and software of stepping motor control. The last part mentions choice of stepping motor system, examples of stepping motor, measurement of stepping motor and practical cases of application of stepping motor.

  12. 1988 Volvo award in biomechanics. The triaxial coupling of torque generation of trunk muscles during isometric exertions and the effect of fatiguing isoinertial movements on the motor output and movement patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnianpour, M; Nordin, M; Kahanovitz, N; Frankel, V

    1988-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that reduction of precise motor control accompanies local muscular fatigue. The effects of isodynamic fatiguing of flexion and extension trunk movements on the movement patterns and the motor output of the trunk were investigated. Twenty male subjects with no history of low-back pain for the past 6 months volunteered for the study. A triaxial dynamometer was used that simultaneously provided measurement of torque, angular position and velocity of each axis. Resistances were set independently for each axis by an interfaced computer. The subjects performed trunk flexion and extension movement against a sagittal plane resistance equal to 70% of their maximum isometric extension strength in the upright position. The minimum resistances in the coronal and transverse planes were set up at 7 Newton meters. The subjects were asked to perform trunk movement as quickly and as accurately as possible while exerting the maximum efforts until exhaustion. Analysis of variance, the MANOVA procedure with a repeated measure design, was performed among the selected parameters of the first, middle and last three repetition cycles. The selected parameters are the trunk motor output and movement patterns; the total angular excursion, range of motion, maximum and average torque and angular velocity of the trunk. All the selected parameters were significantly reduced in the sagittal plane. Subjects displayed significantly less motor control and greater range of motion in the coronal and transverse planes in performing the primary task of flexion and extension. The reduction in the functional capacity of the primary muscles performing the required task is compensated by secondary muscle groups and the spinal structure is loaded in a more injury prone pattern, as identified by finite element models. In addition it is suggested that the fatigued muscles would be less able to compensate any perturbation in the load or position of the trunk. The repetitive loading

  13. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys ... ON THIS TOPIC Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting Contact Us Print Resources ...

  14. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys ... topic for: Kids Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting View more Partner Message ...

  15. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is ...

  16. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is ...

  17. Market Analysis and Consumer Impacts Source Document. Part II. Review of Motor Vehicle Market and Consumer Expenditures on Motor Vehicle Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    This source document on motor vehicle market analysis and consumer impacts consists of three parts. Part II consists of studies and review on: motor vehicle sales trends; motor vehicle fleet life and fleet composition; car buying patterns of the busi...

  18. Characterizing relationships of DTI, fMRI, and motor recovery in stroke rehabilitation utilizing brain-computer interface technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jie; Young, Brittany M; Nigogosyan, Zack; Walton, Leo M; Nair, Veena A; Grogan, Scott W; Tyler, Mitchell E; Farrar-Edwards, Dorothy; Caldera, Kristin E; Sattin, Justin A; Williams, Justin C; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    The relationship of the structural integrity of white matter tracts and cortical activity to motor functional outcomes in stroke patients is of particular interest in understanding mechanisms of brain structural and functional changes while recovering from stroke. This study aims to probe these underlying mechanisms using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fMRI measures. We examined the structural integrity of the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) using DTI and corticomotor activity using motor-task fMRI in stroke patients who completed up to 15 sessions of rehabilitation therapy using Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) technology. We hypothesized that (1) the structural integrity of PLIC and corticomotor activity are affected by stroke; (2) changes in structural integrity and corticomotor activity following BCI intervention are related to motor recovery; (3) there is a potential relationship between structural integrity and corticomotor activity. We found that (1) the ipsilesional PLIC showed significantly decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) values when compared to the contralesional PLIC; (2) lower ipsilesional PLIC-FA values were significantly associated with worse motor outcomes (i.e., ipsilesional PLIC-FA and motor outcomes were positively correlated.); (3) lower ipsilesional PLIC-FA values were significantly associated with greater ipsilesional corticomotor activity during impaired-finger-tapping-task fMRI (i.e., ipsilesional PLIC-FA and ipsilesional corticomotor activity were negatively correlated), with an overall bilateral pattern of corticomotor activity observed; and (4) baseline FA values predicted motor recovery assessed after BCI intervention. These findings suggest that (1) greater vs. lesser microstructural integrity of the ipsilesional PLIC may contribute toward better vs. poor motor recovery respectively in the stroke-affected limb and demand lesser vs. greater cortical activity respectively from the ipsilesional motor cortex; and that (2

  19. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Urinary Tract ... KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor. © 1995- ...

  20. MRI of the fetal gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saguintaah, Magali; Couture, Alain; Veyrac, Corinne; Baud, Catherine; Quere, Marie-Pierre

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the MRI patterns of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in normal fetuses and some GI tract abnormalities. Materials and methods: A retrospective (1996-1998) and prospective (1999-2000) study of 48 fetal abdominal MRI scans was performed between 23 and 38 weeks of gestation. T1-weighted (T1-W) fast gradient-echo (Flash 2D) and T2-weighted (T2-W) HASTE sequences were obtained on a 1.5-T unit, in frontal and sagittal planes, after maternal premedication. Fresh meconium was also studied. Results: Normal patterns (40 cases): the rectum was seen in all cases and exhibited meconium-like high signal on T1-W images and low signal on T2-W images. It was close to the bladder whatever the fetal gender with its cul-de-sac being at least 10 mm below the bladder neck. The large bowel had a same signal; the distal colon was demonstrated more frequently than the proximal colon. The small bowel was transiently hyperintense on TI-W images early in gestation and then hyperintense on T2-W images. Normal measurements were obtained. GI tract abnormalities (eight cases): cysts close to normal bowel (n=2), atresias (n=5; microcolon, dilated small bowel with abnormal signal, one with a meconium cyst) and a cloacal malformation with midgut malrotation (n=1; abnormal liquid signal in the rectum separated from the bladder wall and colon located on the left side). Conclusions: MRI provided complete visualisation of the fetal GI tract, showed specific signal intensities, identified the level of an obstruction, detected a microcolon, and demonstrated communication between urinary and GI tracts. It shows great potential. (orig.)

  1. The genitourinary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currarino, G.

    1985-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the field of pediatric uroradiology, as in most other aspects of radiology, since the last edition of this text was published in 1978. To a large extent, this progress was due to the remarkable advances in, and an increased application of, ultrasound, computed tomography, and nuclear imaging. In this section, an attempt has been made to incorporate and illustrate some of the applications of these diagnostic modalities to pediatric urology. The subjects discussed in this section include a brief account of the major radiologic procedures used in pediatric urology, followed by a review of the most common congenital and acquired diseases of the urinary tract and of the male and female genital tract, precocious puberty and intersex conditions, and disorders of the adrenal glands and related structures

  2. Multimodal structural MRI in the diagnosis of motor neuron diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar M. Ferraro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This prospective study developed an MRI-based method for identification of individual motor neuron disease (MND patients and test its accuracy at the individual patient level in an independent sample compared with mimic disorders. 123 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, 44 patients with predominantly upper motor neuron disease (PUMN, 20 patients with ALS-mimic disorders, and 78 healthy controls were studied. The diagnostic accuracy of precentral cortical thickness and diffusion tensor (DT MRI metrics of corticospinal and motor callosal tracts were assessed in a training cohort and externally proved in a validation cohort using a random forest analysis. In the training set, precentral cortical thickness showed 0.86 and 0.89 accuracy in differentiating ALS and PUMN patients from controls, while DT MRI distinguished the two groups from controls with 0.78 and 0.92 accuracy. In ALS vs controls, the combination of cortical thickness and DT MRI metrics (combined model improved the classification pattern (0.91 accuracy. In the validation cohort, the best accuracy was reached by DT MRI (0.87 and 0.95 accuracy in ALS and PUMN vs mimic disorders. The combined model distinguished ALS and PUMN patients from mimic syndromes with 0.87 and 0.94 accuracy. A multimodal MRI approach that incorporates motor cortical and white matter alterations yields statistically significant improvement in accuracy over using each modality separately in the individual MND patient classification. DT MRI represents the most powerful tool to distinguish MND from mimic disorders.

  3. Role of heat shock protein Hsp25 in the response of the orofacial nuclei motor system to physiological stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashov, A. K.; Talebian, S.; Wolgemuth, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    Although expression of the small heat shock protein family member Hsp25 has been previously observed in the central nervous system (CNS), both constitutively and upon induction, its function in the CNS remains far from clear. In the present study we have characterized the spatial pattern of expression of Hsp25 in the normal adult mouse brain as well as the changes in expression patterns induced by subjecting mice to experimental hyperthermia or hypoxia. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a surprisingly restricted pattern of constitutive expression of Hsp25 in the brain, limited to the facial, trigeminal, ambiguus, hypoglossal and vagal motor nuclei of the brainstem. After hyperthermia or hypoxia treatment, significant increases in the levels of Hsp25 were observed in these same areas and also in fibers of the facial and trigeminal nerve tracts. Immunoblot analysis of protein lysates from brainstem also showed the same pattern of induction of Hsp25. Surprisingly, no other area in the brain showed expression of Hsp25, in either control or stressed animals. The highly restricted expression of Hsp25 implies that this protein may have a specific physiological role in the orofacial motor nuclei, which govern precise coordination between muscles of mastication and the pharynx, larynx, and face. Its rapid induction after stress further suggests that Hsp25 may serve as a specific molecular chaperone in the lower cholinergic motor neurons and along their fibers under conditions of stress or injury. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  4. Making sense: Motor activation and action plausibility during sentence processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, K.J.Y.; Bastiaansen, M.C.M.; Dijkstra, A.F.J.; Rueschemeyer, S.A.

    2017-01-01

    The current electroencephalography study investigated the relationship between the motor and (language) comprehension systems by simultaneously measuring mu and N400 effects. Specifically, we examined whether the pattern of motor activation elicited by verbs depends on the larger sentential context.

  5. THE MOTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    MOTOR is the first assignment that students at Unit 1a of the School of Architecture are introduced to. The purpose of the assignment is to shake up the students and their preconceptions of what architec- ture is. This is done by introducing them to a working method that al- lows them to develop ...

  6. THE MOTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    MOTOR is the first assignment that students at Unit 1a of the School of Architecture are introduced to. The purpose of the assignment is to shake up the students and their preconceptions of what architec- ture is. This is done by introducing them to a working method that al- lows them to develop...

  7. Motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, Daniel M; Flanagan, J Randall

    2010-06-08

    Although learning a motor skill, such as a tennis stroke, feels like a unitary experience, researchers who study motor control and learning break the processes involved into a number of interacting components. These components can be organized into four main groups. First, skilled performance requires the effective and efficient gathering of sensory information, such as deciding where and when to direct one's gaze around the court, and thus an important component of skill acquisition involves learning how best to extract task-relevant information. Second, the performer must learn key features of the task such as the geometry and mechanics of the tennis racket and ball, the properties of the court surface, and how the wind affects the ball's flight. Third, the player needs to set up different classes of control that include predictive and reactive control mechanisms that generate appropriate motor commands to achieve the task goals, as well as compliance control that specifies, for example, the stiffness with which the arm holds the racket. Finally, the successful performer can learn higher-level skills such as anticipating and countering the opponent's strategy and making effective decisions about shot selection. In this Primer we shall consider these components of motor learning using as an example how we learn to play tennis. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Corticobulbar tract changes as predictors of dysarthria in childhood brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liégeois, Frédérique; Tournier, Jacques-Donald; Pigdon, Lauren; Connelly, Alan; Morgan, Angela T

    2013-03-05

    To identify corticobulbar tract changes that may predict chronic dysarthria in young people who have sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI) in childhood using diffusion MRI tractography. We collected diffusion-weighted MRI data from 49 participants. We compared 17 young people (mean age 17 years, 10 months; on average 8 years postinjury) with chronic dysarthria who sustained a TBI in childhood (range 3-16 years) with 2 control groups matched for age and sex: 1 group of young people who sustained a traumatic injury but had no subsequent dysarthria (n = 15), and 1 group of typically developing individuals (n = 17). We performed tractography from spherical seed regions within the precentral gyrus white matter to track: 1) the hand-related corticospinal tract; 2) the dorsal corticobulbar tract, thought to correspond to the lips/larynx motor representation; and 3) the ventral corticobulbar tract, corresponding to the tongue representation. Despite widespread white matter damage, radial (perpendicular) diffusivity within the left dorsal corticobulbar tract was the best predictor of the presence of dysarthria after TBI. Diffusion metrics in this tract also predicted speech and oromotor performance across the whole group of TBI participants, with additional significant contributions from ventral speech tract volume in the right hemisphere. An intact left dorsal corticobulbar tract seems crucial to the normal execution of speech long term after acquired injury. Examining the speech-related motor pathways using diffusion-weighted MRI tractography offers a promising prognostic tool for people with acquired, developmental, or degenerative neurologic conditions likely to affect speech.

  9. Presentation, pattern, and natural course of severe symptoms, and role of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance among patients presenting with suspected uncomplicated urinary tract infection in primary care: observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, P; Merriman, R; Turner, S; Rumsby, K; Warner, G; Lowes, J A; Smith, H; Hawke, C; Leydon, G; Mullee, M; Moore, M V

    2010-02-05

    To assess the natural course and the important predictors of severe symptoms in urinary tract infection and the effect of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance. Observational study. Primary care. 839 non-pregnant adult women aged 18-70 presenting with suspected urinary tract infection. Duration and severity of symptoms. 684 women provided some information on symptoms; 511 had both laboratory results and complete symptom diaries. For women with infections sensitive to antibiotics, severe symptoms, rated as a moderately bad problem or worse, lasted 3.32 days on average. After adjustment for other predictors, moderately bad symptoms lasted 56% longer (incidence rate ratio 1.56, 95% confidence interval 1.22 to 1.99, Pinfections; 62% longer (1.62, 1.13 to 2.31, P=0.008) when no antibiotics prescribed; and 33% longer (1.33, 1.14 to 1.56, Psymptoms was shorter if the doctor was perceived to be positive about diagnosis and prognosis (continuous 7 point scale: 0.91, 0.84 to 0.99; P=0.021) and longer when the woman had frequent somatic symptoms (1.03, 1.01 to 1.05, P=0.002; for each symptom), a history of cystitis, urinary frequency, and more severe symptoms at baseline. Antibiotic resistance and not prescribing antibiotics are associated with a greater than 50% increase in the duration of more severe symptoms in women with uncomplicated urinary tract infection. Women with a history of cystitis, frequent somatic symptoms (high somatisation), and severe symptoms at baseline can be given realistic advice that they are likely to have severe symptoms lasting longer than three days.

  10. Sleep/awake status throughout the night and circadian motor activity patterns in older nursing-home residents with or without dementia, and older community-dwelling people without dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Yu; Kodama, Ayuto; Sato, Kotaro; Kurosawa, Satoko; Ishikawa, Takashi; Ishikawa, Sachiko

    2016-12-01

    Sleep disturbances are commonly observed in older nursing home residents, mainly in combination with dementia. However, sleep-associated circadian motor activity patterns have not been thoroughly investigated in Japanese nursing homes. The present study aimed to respectively clarify the effect of community living and the presence of dementia on sleep disturbances and interrupted activity rhythm of older nursing-home residents with or without dementia and older community-dwelling people without dementia. Actigraph devices worn on the participants' non-dominant wrists for seven days were used to collect objective measurements of the sleep/awake status throughout the night and the circadian motor activity patterns. The presence of dementia was assessed by a trained medical doctor using the residents' records and the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR). The functional capacity of the participants was determined using the Barthel Index (BI). Fifty-one older people in Akita prefecture were included in the current study, consisting of 17 residents with dementia (mean age: 82.2 years), 17 residents without dementia (84.5 years), and 17 community-dwelling people (83.6 years). The results showed that older nursing-home residents with dementia had significantly a lower rate of sleep efficiency and a longer awake time throughout the night than the other groups. Older nursing-home residents with and without dementia had more fragmented rhythm than community-dwelling people without dementia. These results provide evidence of poor sleep/awake status throughout the night and interrupted circadian activity rhythms in nursing-home residents with and without dementia. However, further studies performed according to dementia classifications are needed.

  11. Diffusion tensor MRI tractography reveals increased fractional anisotropy (FA) in arcuate fasciculus following music-cued motor training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Emma; Schaefer, Rebecca S; Bastin, Mark E; Roberts, Neil; Overy, Katie

    2017-08-01

    Auditory cues are frequently used to support movement learning and rehabilitation, but the neural basis of this behavioural effect is not yet clear. We investigated the microstructural neuroplasticity effects of adding musical cues to a motor learning task. We hypothesised that music-cued, left-handed motor training would increase fractional anisotropy (FA) in the contralateral arcuate fasciculus, a fibre tract connecting auditory, pre-motor and motor regions. Thirty right-handed participants were assigned to a motor learning condition either with (Music Group) or without (Control Group) musical cues. Participants completed 20minutes of training three times per week over four weeks. Diffusion tensor MRI and probabilistic neighbourhood tractography identified FA, axial (AD) and radial (RD) diffusivity before and after training. Results revealed that FA increased significantly in the right arcuate fasciculus of the Music group only, as hypothesised, with trends for AD to increase and RD to decrease, a pattern of results consistent with activity-dependent increases in myelination. No significant changes were found in the left ipsilateral arcuate fasciculus of either group. This is the first evidence that adding musical cues to movement learning can induce rapid microstructural change in white matter pathways in adults, with potential implications for therapeutic clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of Joint Gait Patterns Defined by a Delphi Consensus Study Is Related to Gross Motor Function, Topographical Classification, Weakness, and Spasticity, in Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuys, Angela; Papageorgiou, Eirini; Schless, Simon-Henri; De Laet, Tinne; Molenaers, Guy; Desloovere, Kaat

    2017-01-01

    During a Delphi consensus study, a new joint gait classification system was developed for children with cerebral palsy (CP). This system, whose reliability and content validity have previously been established, identified 49 distinct joint patterns. The present study aims to provide a first insight toward the construct validity and clinical relevance of this classification system. The retrospective sample of convenience consisted of 286 patients with spastic CP (3-18 years old, GMFCS levels I-III, 166 with bilateral CP). Kinematic and kinetic trials from three-dimensional gait analysis were classified according to the definitions of the Delphi study, and one classified trial was randomly selected for each included limb ( n = 446). Muscle weakness and spasticity were assessed for different muscle groups acting around the hip, knee, and ankle. Subsequently, Pearson Chi square tests, Cramer's V, and adjusted standardized residuals were calculated to explore the strength and direction of the associations between the joint patterns, and the different patient-specific characteristics (i.e., age, GMFCS level, and topographical classification) or clinical symptoms (muscle weakness and spasticity). Patient-specific characteristics showed several significant associations with the patterns of different joints, but the strength of most identified associations was weak. Apart from the knee during stance phase and the pelvis in the sagittal plane, the results systematically showed that the patterns with "minor gait deviations" were the most frequently observed. These minor deviations were found significantly more often in limbs with a lower level of spasticity and good muscle strength. Several other pathological joint patterns were moderately associated with weakness or spasticity, including but not limited to "outtoeing" for weakness and "intoeing" for spasticity. For the joints in the sagittal plane, significantly stronger associations were found with muscle weakness and

  13. Urinary tract trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.E. (Sunnybrook Medical Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1983-09-01

    From a practical point of view, a woman who has blunt injury to the pelvic area with hematuria from the lower urinary tract, has a contused or ruptured bladder. In a man, such a situation calls for retrograde urethrography to determine if the injury is in the urethra or the bladder because the two organs are investigated differently. In both sexes, such injuries are usually associated with pelvic fractures. Massive bladder displacement and severe hemorrhage should alert one to the need for pelvic angiography to find and embolize the bleeding site within the first 24 hours after injury. For blunt trauma to the upper urinary tract an intravenous urogram with tomography is still the main examination. However, a normal intravenous urogram does not exclude serious injury. Therefore, if signs or symptoms persist, a computerized tomographic (CT) examination should be performed if available. Otherwise, a radionuclide study is advisable. Non-excretion on intravenous urography with tomography calls for selective renal arteriography to delineate the etiology. There can be serious renal trauma in the absence of hematuria, which may occur with renal pedicle injury or avulsion of the ureter. Minor forniceal ruptures may occasionally mask severe posterior renal lacerations.

  14. Understanding social motor coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, R C; Fitzpatrick, Paula; Caron, Robert; Mergeche, Joanna

    2011-10-01

    Recently there has been much interest in social coordination of motor movements, or as it is referred to by some researchers, joint action. This paper reviews the cognitive perspective's common coding/mirror neuron theory of joint action, describes some of its limitations and then presents the behavioral dynamics perspective as an alternative way of understanding social motor coordination. In particular, behavioral dynamics' ability to explain the temporal coordination of interacting individuals is detailed. Two experiments are then described that demonstrate how dynamical processes of synchronization are apparent in the coordination underlying everyday joint actions such as martial art exercises, hand-clapping games, and conversations. The import of this evidence is that emergent dynamic patterns such as synchronization are the behavioral order that any neural substrate supporting joint action (e.g., mirror systems) would have to sustain. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Spinal tract pathology in AIDS: postmortem MRI correlation with neuropathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santosh, C.G. [City Hospital, Edinburgh (United Kingdom). MRI Unit; Bell, J.E. [Western General Hospital, Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Neuropathology Lab.; Best, J.J.K. [City Hospital, Edinburgh (United Kingdom). MRI Unit

    1995-02-01

    Vacuolar myelopathy (VM) and tract pallor are poorly understood spinal tract abnormalities in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We studied the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect these changes in spinal cord specimens postmortem and whether criteria could be formulated which would allow these conditions to be differentiated from other lesions of the spinal cord in AIDS, such as lymphoma, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) myelitis. We imaged 38 postmortem specimens of spinal cord. The MRI studies were interpreted blind. The specimens included cases of VM myelin pallor. CMV myeloradiculitis, HIV myelitis, lymphoma as well as normal cords, both HIV+ve and HIV-ve. MRI showed abnormal signal, suggestive of tract pathology, in 10 of the 14 cases with histopathological evidence of tract changes. The findings in VM and tract pallor on proton-density and T{sub 2}-weighted MRI were increased signal from the affected white-matter tracts, present on multiple contiguous slices and symmetrical in most cases. The pattern was sufficiently distinct to differentiate spinal tract pathology from other spinal cord lesions in AIDS. (orig.)

  16. Jidosha's Motors

    OpenAIRE

    Shirakawa Okuma, Rosely; Calderón Orejuela, Javier

    2016-01-01

    La tesis narra la situación de una empresa concesionaria de vehículos nuevos, Jidosha's Motors, perteneciente a una corporación japonesa que cuenta con una cultura muy arraigada de ética y de cumplimiento. Se plantean respuestas, se identifican problemas y sus alternativas de solución para una toma adecuada de decisiones por parte de los directivos, siguiendo una estructura de análisis de situaciones de negocios (ASN). Tesis

  17. Beta-band intermuscular coherence: a novel biomarker of upper motor neuron dysfunction in motor neuron disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Karen M; Zaaimi, Boubker; Williams, Timothy L; Baker, Stuart N; Baker, Mark R

    2012-09-01

    In motor neuron disease, the focus of therapy is to prevent or slow neuronal degeneration with neuroprotective pharmacological agents; early diagnosis and treatment are thus essential. Incorporation of needle electromyographic evidence of lower motor neuron degeneration into diagnostic criteria has undoubtedly advanced diagnosis, but even earlier diagnosis might be possible by including tests of subclinical upper motor neuron disease. We hypothesized that beta-band (15-30 Hz) intermuscular coherence could be used as an electrophysiological marker of upper motor neuron integrity in such patients. We measured intermuscular coherence in eight patients who conformed to established diagnostic criteria for primary lateral sclerosis and six patients with progressive muscular atrophy, together with 16 age-matched controls. In the primary lateral sclerosis variant of motor neuron disease, there is selective destruction of motor cortical layer V pyramidal neurons and degeneration of the corticospinal tract, without involvement of anterior horn cells. In progressive muscular atrophy, there is selective degeneration of anterior horn cells but a normal corticospinal tract. All patients with primary lateral sclerosis had abnormal motor-evoked potentials as assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation, whereas these were similar to controls in progressive muscular atrophy. Upper and lower limb intermuscular coherence was measured during a precision grip and an ankle dorsiflexion task, respectively. Significant beta-band coherence was observed in all control subjects and all patients with progressive muscular atrophy tested, but not in the patients with primary lateral sclerosis. We conclude that intermuscular coherence in the 15-30 Hz range is dependent on an intact corticospinal tract but persists in the face of selective anterior horn cell destruction. Based on the distributions of coherence values measured from patients with primary lateral sclerosis and control

  18. Neonatal Staphylococcus lugdunensis urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Itaru; Hataya, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Hanako; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Toshiro

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a known pathogen of infective endocarditis, but not of urinary tract infection. We report a previously healthy neonate without congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract who developed urinary tract infection due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis, illustrating that Staphylococcus lugdunensis can cause urinary tract infection even in those with no urinary tract complications. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  19. Urinary tract infections in women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common bacterial infections in women, with half of all women experiencing at least one in their lifetime.1 Of the women affected, 25-30% develop recurrent infections unrelated to any functional or anatomical abnormality of the urinary tract.2 Most UTIs in women are episodes of acute.

  20. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? ...

  1. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? ...

  2. Perchance to dream? Primordial motor activity patterns in vertebrates from fish to mammals: their prenatal origin, postnatal persistence during sleep, and pathological reemergence during REM sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corner, Michael A; Schenck, Carlos H

    2015-12-01

    An overview is presented of the literature dealing with sleep-like motility and concomitant neuronal activity patterns throughout the life cycle in vertebrates, ectothermic as well as endothermic. Spontaneous, periodically modulated, neurogenic bursts of non-purposive movements are a universal feature of larval and prenatal behavior, which in endothermic animals (i.e. birds and mammals) continue to occur periodically throughout life. Since the entire body musculature is involved in ever-shifting combinations, it is proposed that these spontaneously active periods be designated as 'rapid-BODY-movement' (RBM) sleep. The term 'rapid-EYE-movement (REM) sleep', characterized by attenuated muscle contractions and reduced tonus, can then be reserved for sleep at later stages of development. Mature stages of development in which sustained muscle atonia is combined with 'paradoxical arousal' of cortical neuronal firing patterns indisputably represent the evolutionarily most recent aspect of REM sleep, but more research with ectothermic vertebrates, such as fish, amphibians and reptiles, is needed before it can be concluded (as many prematurely have) that RBM is absent in these species. Evidence suggests a link between RBM sleep in early development and the clinical condition known as 'REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD)', which is characterized by the resurgence of periodic bouts of quasi-fetal motility that closely resemble RBM sleep. Early developmental neuromotor risk factors for RBD in humans also point to a relationship between RBM sleep and RBD.

  3. Differences of inter-tract correlations between neonates and children around puberty: A study based on microstructural measurements with DTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra eMishra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The human brain development is a complicated yet well-organized process. Metrics derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, including fractional anisotropy (FA, radial (RD, axial (AxD and mean diffusivity (MD, have been used to noninvasively access the microstructural development of human brain white matter (WM. At birth, most of the major WM tracts are apparent but in a relatively disorganized pattern. Brain maturation is a process of establishing an organized pattern of these major WM tracts. However, how the linkage pattern of major WM tracts changes during development remains unclear. In this study, DTI data of 26 neonates and 28 children around puberty were acquired. 10 major WM tracts, representing four major tract groups involved in distinctive brain functions, were traced with DTI tractography for all 54 subjects. With the 10 by 10 correlation matrices constructed with Spearman’s pairwise inter-tract correlations and based on tract-level measurements of FA, RD, AxD and MD of both age groups, we assessed if the inter-tract correlations become stronger from birth to puberty. In addition, hierarchical clustering was performed based on the pairwise correlations of WM tracts to reveal the clustering pattern for each age group and pattern shift from birth to puberty. Stronger and enhanced microstructural inter-tract correlations were found during development from birth to puberty. The linkage patterns of two age groups differ due to brain development. These changes of microstructural correlations from birth to puberty suggest inhomogeneous but organized myelination processes which cause the reshuffled inter-tract correlation pattern and make homologous tracts tightly clustered. It opens a new window to study WM tract development and can be potentially used to investigate atypical brain development due to neurological or psychiatric disorders.

  4. Neural Control of the Lower Urinary Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groat, William C.; Griffiths, Derek; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes anatomical, neurophysiological, pharmacological, and brain imaging studies in humans and animals that have provided insights into the neural circuitry and neurotransmitter mechanisms controlling the lower urinary tract. The functions of the lower urinary tract to store and periodically eliminate urine are regulated by a complex neural control system in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral autonomic ganglia that coordinates the activity of smooth and striated muscles of the bladder and urethral outlet. The neural control of micturition is organized as a hierarchical system in which spinal storage mechanisms are in turn regulated by circuitry in the rostral brain stem that initiates reflex voiding. Input from the forebrain triggers voluntary voiding by modulating the brain stem circuitry. Many neural circuits controlling the lower urinary tract exhibit switch-like patterns of activity that turn on and off in an all-or-none manner. The major component of the micturition switching circuit is a spinobulbospinal parasympathetic reflex pathway that has essential connections in the periaqueductal gray and pontine micturition center. A computer model of this circuit that mimics the switching functions of the bladder and urethra at the onset of micturition is described. Micturition occurs involuntarily in infants and young children until the age of 3 to 5 years, after which it is regulated voluntarily. Diseases or injuries of the nervous system in adults can cause the re-emergence of involuntary micturition, leading to urinary incontinence. Neuroplasticity underlying these developmental and pathological changes in voiding function is discussed. PMID:25589273

  5. Recurrent urinary tract infections in females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohsin, R.; Siddiqui, K.M.

    2010-01-01

    Uncomplicated Urinary tract infections are common in adult women across the entire age spectrum, with mean annual incidence of 15% and 10% in those aged 15-39 and 40-79 years, respectively. Urinary tract infection (UTI), with its diverse clinical syndromes and affected host groups, remains one of the most common but widely misunderstood and challenging infectious diseases encountered in clinical practice. Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) present a significant problem for women and a challenge for the doctors who care for them. The diagnosis of uncomplicated UTI can be achieved best by a thorough assessment of patient symptoms with or without the addition of a urine dipstick test. Treatment should be based on the most recent guidelines, taking into account resistance patterns in the local community. The patient who suffers from recurrent UTIs can be treated safely and effectively with continuous antibiotic prophylaxis, post-coital therapy, or self-initiated treatment. This review article covers the latest trends in the management of recurrent UTI among women. Further research is needed regarding rapid diagnosis of UTI, accurate presumptive identification of patients with resistant pathogens, and development of new antimicrobials for drug-resistant UTI. (author)

  6. Proteus mirabilis and Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Jessica N.; Pearson, Melanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a Gram-negative bacterium which is well-known for its ability to robustly swarm across surfaces in a striking bulls’-eye pattern. Clinically, this organism is most frequently a pathogen of the urinary tract, particularly in patients undergoing long-term catheterization. This review covers P. mirabilis with a focus on urinary tract infections (UTI), including disease models, vaccine development efforts, and clinical perspectives. Flagella-mediated motility, both swimming and swarming, is a central facet of this organism. The regulation of this complex process and its contribution to virulence is discussed, along with the type VI-secretion system-dependent intra-strain competition which occurs during swarming. P. mirabilis uses a diverse set of virulence factors to access and colonize the host urinary tract, including urease and stone formation, fimbriae and other adhesins, iron and zinc acquisition, proteases and toxins, biofilm formation, and regulation of pathogenesis. While significant advances in this field have been made, challenges remain to combatting complicated UTI and deciphering P. mirabilis pathogenesis. PMID:26542036

  7. Radiological evaluation congenital gastrointestinal tract anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young Hee; Kim, Ock [Hanil Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jung Wha [Seoul Nationl Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-06-15

    With the improvements, during recent years, in the control of the infections and nutritional diseases the subject of congenital malformation becomes of increasing importance. The radiologic signs are crucial for prompt diagnosis of anomalies of alimentary tract and with early identification of resulting complication, surgical therapy is usually life-saving. 30 cases of congenital anomalies of alimentary tract in infants were reviewed in respect of age, sex, incidence and radiological findings. The results are summarized as follows; 1, The most common lesion was hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, followed by congenital megacolon and anorectal anomaly, tracheoesophageal fistula, intestinal atresia. 2. Male outnumbered female in most congenital anomalies of alimentary tract. 25 cases were under the age of 1 month. 3. Common symptoms of upper gastrointestinal tract obstruction are vomiting and abdominal distension. In the obstruction of lower gastrointestinal tract, abdominal distension and failure of meconium passage were noted. 4. Roentgenologic findings were as follows, a. Chest A-P and lateral view: In tracheoesophageal fistula, saccular dilatation of upper esophagus and displacement of trachea anterolaterally were the most common finding. b. Simple abdomen: Obstructive pattern of proximal portion of duodenum shows in 11 cases, of distal bowel shows in 16 cases. Duodenal atresia showed 'double bubble' sign, hypertrophic pyloric stenosis showed marked gastric distension, paucity of air in small bowel and increases gastric peristalsis were the most common findings. Hirschsprung's disease showed absenced of rectal gas almostly. The variable length between blind hindgut to anus was seen in anorectal anomalies. c. Esophagogram: Blind sac of upper esophagus was seen at the 4th thoracic spinal level and displacement of trachea anterolaterally. 1 case of tracheoesophageal fistula had an intact esophageal lumen. d. Upper G-I series: In hypertrophic pyloric

  8. Radiological evaluation congenital gastrointestinal tract anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Young Hee; Kim, Ock; Jang, Jung Wha

    1983-01-01

    With the improvements, during recent years, in the control of the infections and nutritional diseases the subject of congenital malformation becomes of increasing importance. The radiologic signs are crucial for prompt diagnosis of anomalies of alimentary tract and with early identification of resulting complication, surgical therapy is usually life-saving. 30 cases of congenital anomalies of alimentary tract in infants were reviewed in respect of age, sex, incidence and radiological findings. The results are summarized as follows; 1, The most common lesion was hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, followed by congenital megacolon and anorectal anomaly, tracheoesophageal fistula, intestinal atresia. 2. Male outnumbered female in most congenital anomalies of alimentary tract. 25 cases were under the age of 1 month. 3. Common symptoms of upper gastrointestinal tract obstruction are vomiting and abdominal distension. In the obstruction of lower gastrointestinal tract, abdominal distension and failure of meconium passage were noted. 4. Roentgenologic findings were as follows, a. Chest A-P and lateral view: In tracheoesophageal fistula, saccular dilatation of upper esophagus and displacement of trachea anterolaterally were the most common finding. b. Simple abdomen: Obstructive pattern of proximal portion of duodenum shows in 11 cases, of distal bowel shows in 16 cases. Duodenal atresia showed 'double bubble' sign, hypertrophic pyloric stenosis showed marked gastric distension, paucity of air in small bowel and increases gastric peristalsis were the most common findings. Hirschsprung's disease showed absenced of rectal gas almostly. The variable length between blind hindgut to anus was seen in anorectal anomalies. c. Esophagogram: Blind sac of upper esophagus was seen at the 4th thoracic spinal level and displacement of trachea anterolaterally. 1 case of tracheoesophageal fistula had an intact esophageal lumen. d. Upper G-I series: In hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, delayed

  9. Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccine Safety Frequently Asked Questions about Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infections Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What is ... an incision above the pubis. What is a urinary tract infection? A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection ...

  10. The motor evoked potential in aids and HAM/TSP State of the evidence El potencial evocado motor en SIDA y HAM/PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidias E. Leon-Sarmiento

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed to better understand the involvement of the corticospinal tract, assessed by non-invasive transcranial stimulation, in order to determine the actual involvement of the motor system in patients with HAM/TSP and AIDS. METHOD: An exhaustive MEDLINE search for the period of 1985 to 2008 for all articles cross-referenced for "HTLV-I, HTLV-II, HTLV-III and HIV, HIV1, HIV2, evoked potential, motor evoked potential, high voltage electrical stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, magnetic stimulation, corticomotor physiology, motor pathways, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS, SIDA, tropical spastic paraparesis, HTLV-I-associated myelopathy, HAM, TSP, and HAM/TSP" were selected and analysed. RESULTS: Eighteen papers published in English, Spanish, Portuguese, French and Japanese were identified. Only the central motor conduction time has been analyzed in seropositive patients to human retroviruses. The investigations done on HAM/TSP support the involvement of the pyramidal tract mainly at lower levels, following a centripetal pattern; in AIDS, such an involvement seems to be more prominent at brain levels following a centrifugal pattern. CONCLUSION: The central motor conduction time abnormalities and involvement differences of the corticospinal tract of patients with AIDS and HAM/TSP dissected here would allow to re-orient early neurorehabilitation measures in these retroviruses-associated neurodegenerative disorders. Besides this, more sophisticated and sensitive non-invasive corticospinal stimulation measures that detect early changes in thalamocortical-basal ganglia circuitry will be needed in both clinically established as well as asymptomatic patients at times when the fastest corticospinal fibers remain uninvolved.OBJETIVO: Investigar el compromiso del tracto piramidal, evaluado por estimulación trascranial no invasiva, en pacientes afectados por SIDA y HAM/TSP. MÉTODO: Se realizó una búsqueda en la base de

  11. Changes in structural integrity are correlated with motor and functional recovery after post-stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yang-teng; Lin, Keh-chung; Liu, Ho-ling; Chen, Yao-liang; Wu, Ching-yi

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies indicate the structural integrity of the ipsilesional corticospinal tract (CST) and the transcallosal motor tract, which are closely linked to stroke recovery. However, the individual contribution of these 2 fibers on different levels of outcomes remains unclear. Here, we used DTI tractography to investigate whether structural changes of the ipsilesional CST and the transcallosal motor tracts associate with motor and functional recovery after stroke rehabilitation. Ten participants with post-acute stroke underwent the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and DTI before and after bilateral robotic training. All participants had marked improvements in motor performance, functional use of the affected arm, and independence in daily activities. Increased fractional anisotropy (FA) in the ipsilesional CST and the transcallosal motor tracts was noted from pre-treatment to the end of treatment. Participants with higher pre-to-post differences in FA values of the transcallosal motor tracts had greater gains in the WMFT and the FIM scores. A greater improvement on the FMA was coupled with increased FA changes along the ipsilesional CST. These findings suggest 2 different structural indicators for post-stroke recovery separately at the impairment-based and function-based levels.

  12. Congenital optic tract syndrome: magnetic resonance imaging and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M A; Grosof, D H; Hart, W M

    1997-12-01

    Lesions of the optic tract produce a distinctive pattern of optic atrophy and visual field loss and may be due to either congenital or acquired causes. We report a case of a congenital optic tract syndrome and correlate the magnetic resonance imaging findings with the appearance of nerve fiber layer defects found by confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy.

  13. Fast and Efficient Four‑class Motor Imagery Electroencephalography Signal Analysis Using Common Spatial Pattern-Ridge Regression Algorithm for the Purpose of Brain-Computer Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifzadeh, Sahar; Rezaei, Mohammad; Faez, Karim; Amiri, Mahmood

    2017-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces enable users to control devices with electroencephalographic (EEG) activity from the scalp or with single-neuron activity from within the brain. One of the most challenging issues in this regard is the balance between the accuracy of brain signals from patients and the speed of interpreting them into machine language. The main objective of this paper is to analyze different approaches to achieve the balance more quickly and in a better way. To reduce the ocular artifacts, the symmetric prewhitening independent component analysis (ICA) algorithm has been evaluated, which has the lowest runtime and lowest signal-to-interference (SIR) index, without destroying the original signal. After quick elimination of all undesirable signals, two successful feature extractors - the log-band power algorithm and common spatial patterns (CSPs) - are used to extract features. The emphasis is on identifying discriminative properties of the feature sets representing EEG trials recorded during the imagination of the tongue, feet, and left-right-hand movement. Finally, three well-known classifiers are evaluated, where the ridge regression classifier and CSPs as feature extractor have the highest accuracy classification rate about 83.06% with a standard deviation of 1.22%, counterposing the recent studies.

  14. Antibiotic susceptibility of organisms causing urinary tract infection in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Changes in susceptibility patterns of bacterial pathogens isolated from urinary tract infections emphasize the need for regional surveillance to generate information that can be used in management of patients. Knowledge on the current status of antimicrobial resistance in uropathogens, and the prevalence of ...

  15. Bacteriology of urinary tract infection and antimicrobial sensitivities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the serious bacterial infections in febrile young children, which may cause chronic morbidities. Studies from different parts of Nigeria have shown varying pattern in its bacteriology and antibiotic sensitivities. Antimicrobial resistance rate among uropathogens is an increasing ...

  16. Resistance of Uropathogens in Asymptomatic Urinary Tract Infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worldwide the surveillance of antimicrobial resistance among urinary tract pathogens is useful to determine the important trend and geographical variation of uropathogens. The study evaluated the pathogen frequency, resistance rate and pattern among HIV-infected Nigerians. Midstream urine samples taken for culture ...

  17. Metabolomics of urinary tract infection : a multiplatform approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacchiarotta, Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is a complex clinical entity a common infectious disease that encompasses a variety of clinical syndromes with a positive bacterial culture as common denominator. This thesis provides an exhaustive exploratory study of the metabolic pattern of patients affected by urinary

  18. Childhood Urinary Tract Infection in Abakaliki: Etiological Organisms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Childhood Urinary Tract Infection in Abakaliki: Etiological Organisms and Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern. ... Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study carried out at the Children's Outpatient Clinic and Children's Emergency Ward of Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital Abakaliki (EBSUTH). The study was ...

  19. R2 & NE Tract - 2010 Census; Housing and Population Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (MAF/TIGER) Database (MTDB). The MTDB represents a seamless national file with no overlaps or gaps between parts, however, each TIGER/Line File is designed to stand alone as an independent data set, or they can be combined to cover the entire nation. Census tracts are small, relatively permanent statistical subdivisions of a county or equivalent entity, and were defined by local participants as part of the 2010 Census Participant Statistical Areas Program. The Census Bureau delineated the census tracts in situations where no local participant existed or where all the potential participants declined to participate. The primary purpose of census tracts is to provide a stable set of geographic units for the presentation of census data and comparison back to previous decennial censuses. Census tracts generally have a population size between 1,200 and 8,000 people, with an optimum size of 4,000 people. When first delineated, census tracts were designed to be homogeneous with respect to population characteristics, economic status, and living conditions. The spatial size of census tracts varies widely depending on the density of settlement. Physical changes in street patterns caused by highway construction, new

  20. Gross motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross motor control is the ability to make large, general movements (such as waving an arm or lifting a ... Gross motor control is a milestone in the development of an infant. Infants develop gross motor control before they ...

  1. Motor pathway degeneration in young ataxia telangiectasia patients: A diffusion tractography study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishani Sahama

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Whole tract analysis of the corticomotor, corticospinal and somatosensory pathways in ataxia telangiectasia showed significant white matter degeneration along the entire length of motor circuits, highlighting that ataxia–telangiectasia gene mutation impacts the cerebellum and multiple other motor circuits in young patients.

  2. Differential motor and prefrontal cerebello-cortical network development: Evidence from multimodal neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jessica A; Orr, Joseph M; Mittal, Vijay A

    2016-01-01

    While our understanding of cerebellar structural development through adolescence and young adulthood has expanded, we still lack knowledge of the developmental patterns of cerebellar networks during this critical portion of the lifespan. Volume in lateral posterior cerebellar regions associated with cognition and the prefrontal cortex develops more slowly, reaching their peak volume in adulthood, particularly as compared to motor Lobule V. We predicted that resting state functional connectivity of the lateral posterior regions would show a similar pattern of development during adolescence and young adulthood. That is, we expected to see changes over time in Crus I and Crus II connectivity with the cortex, but no changes in Lobule V connectivity. Additionally, we were interested in how structural connectivity changes in cerebello-thalamo-cortical white matter are related to changes in functional connectivity. A sample of 23 individuals between 12 and 21years old underwent neuroimaging scans at baseline and 12months later. Functional networks of Crus I and Crus II showed significant connectivity decreases over 12months, though there were no differences in Lobule V. Furthermore, these functional connectivity changes were correlated with increases in white matter structural integrity in the corresponding cerebello-thalamo-cortical white matter tract. We suggest that these functional network changes are due to both later pruning in the prefrontal cortex as well as further development of the white matter tracts linking these brain regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & ... KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is a Urinary ...

  4. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract Troubles Girls are more likely than boys to get a UTI. That's because their urethras are much shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get ...

  5. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a urinary tract infection before anyone else can see there's anything wrong with you. That's why it's ... signs of a kidney infection and you should see a doctor right away. What Will the Doctor ...

  6. Urinary Tract Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... UTI (Urinary Tract Infection) - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Urine Sample -- Female (Clean Catch) - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified ( ...

  7. Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Taskesen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are frequent conditions in children. Untreated urinary tract infections can lead to serious kidney problems that could threaten the life of the child. Therefore, early detection and treatment of urinary tract infection is important. In older children, urinary tract infections may cause obvious symptoms such as stomach ache and disuria. In infants and young children, UTIs may be harder to detect because of less specific symptoms. Recurrences are common in children with urinary abnormalities such as neurogenic bladder, vesicourethral reflux or those with very poor toilet and hygiene habits. This article reviews the diagnostic approach and presents the current data related to the roles of radiologic imaging, surgical correction and antibiotic prophylaxis of UTIs in children. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(2.000: 57-69

  8. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... para niños How the Body Works Puberty & Growing Up Staying Healthy Staying Safe Recipes & Cooking Health Problems ... Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys two ureters ( ...

  9. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... if I Have a UTI? You may notice signs of a urinary tract infection before anyone else ... it smell bad when you pee? These are signs that you might have a bladder infection, so ...

  10. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / ...

  11. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body. Ahhh! That feels better. Urinary Tract Troubles Girls are more likely than boys to get a ... away properly, they stay on your skin. In girls, this means they can grow near the opening ...

  12. Candida Urinary Tract Infection: Pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, John F.; Kavanagh, Kevin; Sobel, Jack D.; Kauffman, Carol A.; Newman, Cheryl A.

    2011-01-01

    Candida species are unusual causes of urinary tract infection (UTI) in healthy individuals, but common in the hospital setting or among patients with predisposing diseases and structural abnormalities of the kidney and collecting system. The urinary tract may be invaded in either an antegrade fashion from the bloodstream or retrograde via the urethra and bladder. Candida species employ a repertoire of virulence factors, including phenotypic switching, dimorphism, galvano - and thi...

  13. Atrio-His bundle tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechenmacher, C

    1975-01-01

    The atrio-His bundle tracts are very rare; only two have been found in 687 hearts studied histologically. These tracts have a similar appearance to those of the atrioventricular bundle and form a complete bypass of the atrioventricular node. In their presence the electrocardiogram may show a short or normal PR interval. They may be responsible for some cases of very rapid ventricular response to supraventricular arrhythmias. Images PMID:1191446

  14. Auditory-Perceptual Learning Improves Speech Motor Adaptation in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Shiller, Douglas M.; Rochon, Marie-Lyne

    2014-01-01

    Auditory feedback plays an important role in children’s speech development by providing the child with information about speech outcomes that is used to learn and fine-tune speech motor plans. The use of auditory feedback in speech motor learning has been extensively studied in adults by examining oral motor responses to manipulations of auditory feedback during speech production. Children are also capable of adapting speech motor patterns to perceived changes in auditory feedback, however it...

  15. Is Intraoperative Diffusion tensor Imaging at 3.0T Comparable to Subcortical Corticospinal tract Mapping?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ostrý, S.; Belšan, T.; Otáhal, Jakub; Beneš, V.; Netuka, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 5 (2013), s. 797-807 ISSN 0148-396X Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : corticospinal tract * intraoperative tractography * intraoperative image distortion * motor-evoked potentials * subcortical mapping Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.031, year: 2013

  16. Motor control for a brushless DC motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, William J. (Inventor); Faulkner, Dennis T. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to a motor control system for a brushless DC motor having an inverter responsively coupled to the motor control system and in power transmitting relationship to the motor. The motor control system includes a motor rotor speed detecting unit that provides a pulsed waveform signal proportional to rotor speed. This pulsed waveform signal is delivered to the inverter to thereby cause an inverter fundamental current waveform output to the motor to be switched at a rate proportional to said rotor speed. In addition, the fundamental current waveform is also pulse width modulated at a rate proportional to the rotor speed. A fundamental current waveform phase advance circuit is controllingly coupled to the inverter. The phase advance circuit is coupled to receive the pulsed waveform signal from the motor rotor speed detecting unit and phase advance the pulsed waveform signal as a predetermined function of motor speed to thereby cause the fundamental current waveform to be advanced and thereby compensate for fundamental current waveform lag due to motor winding reactance which allows the motor to operate at higher speeds than the motor is rated while providing optimal torque and therefore increased efficiency.

  17. Abnormal gastric and small intestinal motor function in diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samsom, M.; Smout, A. J.

    1997-01-01

    It is now well recognized that the prevalence of delayed gastric emptying in both insulin-dependent as well as noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is high. Recently performed studies have shown that motor disorders of several parts of the upper gastrointestinal tract contribute to this delay in

  18. The effects of surgery on gastrointestinal motor activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    .M.M. Quigley

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal surgical procedures have the potential to disrupt motor activity in various organs of the gastrointestinal tract or, indeed, throughout the entire alimentary canal. Several of these motor effects have important clinical consequences and have also served to advance our understanding of the regulation of gastrointestinal motor activity. This review will focus, in particular, on the effects of surgery on the small intestine, and will attempt to emphasize the implications of these studies for our understanding of small intestinal motility, in general.

  19. Task-dependent activation of distinct fast and slow(er) motor pathways during motor imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Martin; Taube, Wolfgang; Lauber, Benedikt

    2018-02-22

    Motor imagery and actual movements share overlapping activation of brain areas but little is known about task-specific activation of distinct motor pathways during mental simulation of movements. For real contractions, it was demonstrated that the slow(er) motor pathways are activated differently in ballistic compared to tonic contractions but it is unknown if this also holds true for imagined contractions. The aim of the present study was to assess the activity of fast and slow(er) motor pathways during mentally simulated movements of ballistic and tonic contractions. H-reflexes were conditioned with transcranial magnetic stimulation at different interstimulus intervals to assess the excitability of fast and slow(er) motor pathways during a) the execution of tonic and ballistic contractions, b) motor imagery of these contraction types, and c) at rest. In contrast to the fast motor pathways, the slow(er) pathways displayed a task-specific activation: for imagined ballistic as well as real ballistic contractions, the activation was reduced compared to rest whereas enhanced activation was found for imagined tonic and real tonic contractions. This study provides evidence that the excitability of fast and slow(er) motor pathways during motor imagery resembles the activation pattern observed during real contractions. The findings indicate that motor imagery results in task- and pathway-specific subliminal activation of distinct subsets of neurons in the primary motor cortex. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. High efficiency motors; Motores de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uranga Favela, Ivan Jaime [Energia Controlada de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    This paper is a technical-financial study of the high efficiency and super-premium motors. As it is widely known, more than 60% of the electrical energy generated in the country is used for the operation of motors, in industry as well as in commerce. Therefore the importance that the motors have in the efficient energy use. [Espanol] El presente trabajo es un estudio tecnico-financiero de los motores de alta eficiencia y los motores super premium. Como es ampliamente conocido, mas del 60% de la energia electrica generada en el pais, es utilizada para accionar motores, dentro de la industria y el comercio. De alli la importancia que los motores tienen en el uso eficiente de la energia.

  1. Axonal remodeling in the corticospinal tract after stroke: how does rehabilitative training modulate it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naohiko Okabe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke causes long-term disability, and rehabilitative training is commonly used to improve the consecutive functional recovery. Following brain damage, surviving neurons undergo morphological alterations to reconstruct the remaining neural network. In the motor system, such neural network remodeling is observed as a motor map reorganization. Because of its significant correlation with functional recovery, motor map reorganization has been regarded as a key phenomenon for functional recovery after stroke. Although the mechanism underlying motor map reorganization remains unclear, increasing evidence has shown a critical role for axonal remodeling in the corticospinal tract. In this study, we review previous studies investigating axonal remodeling in the corticospinal tract after stroke and discuss which mechanisms may underlie the stimulatory effect of rehabilitative training. Axonal remodeling in the corticospinal tract can be classified into three types based on the location and the original targets of corticospinal neurons, and it seems that all the surviving corticospinal neurons in both ipsilesional and contralesional hemisphere can participate in axonal remodeling and motor map reorganization. Through axonal remodeling, corticospinal neurons alter their output selectivity from a single to multiple areas to compensate for the lost function. The remodeling of the corticospinal axon is influenced by the extent of tissue destruction and promoted by various therapeutic interventions, including rehabilitative training. Although the precise molecular mechanism underlying rehabilitation-promoted axonal remodeling remains elusive, previous data suggest that rehabilitative training promotes axonal remodeling by upregulating growth-promoting and downregulating growth-inhibiting signals.

  2. Pattern of presentation and management of benign upper urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Upper urinary tract obstruction is a common cause of severe symptoms, recurrent urinary tract infection and deterioration or complete loss of renal function when intervention is not timely. Objective: To document the pattern of presentation and the management options for the benign upper urinary tract ...

  3. Managing the urinary tract in spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon C.W Harrison

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This review sets out to provide an overview of the author′s approach to the management of the urinary tract in the patient who has suffered from an injury to their spinal cord. Emphasis is given to the need to understand the fundamental pathophysiological patterns that are seen with injuries that involve the sacral segments of the cord (the conus and those that spare the conus but interrupt communication between the sacral parasympathetic and somatic centers and the brain (supraconal lesions. The importance of patient participation in management decisions is highlighted by considering the different ways in which the urinary tract can be managed and how the clinician needs to try to meet patient expectations and requirements while establishing safe urological management. Finally, consideration is given to the importance of establishing an appropriate follow up regime and managing urinary tract complications effectively.

  4. The effect of vocal tract impedance on the vocal folds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.; Selamtzis, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The importance of the interaction between the acoustic impedance of the vocal tract with the flow across the vocal cords is well established. In this paper we are investigating the changes in vocal tract impedance when using the different modes of phonation according to Sadolin [1], going from...... the soft levels of the Neutral mode to the high levels of the fully ‘metallic’ Edge mode. The acoustic impedance of vocal tract as seen from the mouth opening is measured via a microphone placed close to the mouth when exciting the system with a volume velocity source [2]. At the same time a Laryngograph...... frontend is used to measure the electroglottograph signal which reflects the opening and closing pattern of the vocal folds. The measurements were carried out for all four modes (Neutral, Curbing, Overdrive and Edge) for the vowel [a] in three different pitches: C3(131 Hz), G3 (196 Hz) and C4 (262Hz...

  5. Relationship of bladder dysfunction with upper urinary tract deterioration in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündoğdu, Gökhan; Kömür, Mustafa; Avlan, Dinçer; Sarı, Ferda Bacaksızlar; Delibaş, Ali; Taşdelen, Bahar; Naycı, Ali; Okuyaz, Cetin

    2013-10-01

    Although lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) in patients with cerebral palsy (CP) has been previously documented by clinical observations and urodynamic tests, its correlation with upper urinary tract deterioration (UUTD) has not been demonstrated. This paper documents symptoms and urodynamic findings of LUTD and their relationship with UUTD in 33 children with CP. By sonography, 4 of these children were found to have UUTD. Age was found to correlate with UUTD, but gender difference and mental or motor functions did not. When comparing urinary symptoms with UUTD, incontinence (n = 31) did not correlate, but on the other hand symptoms of detrusor sphincter dyssynergia (interrupted voiding, urinary retention, hesitancy; n = 5) and culture proven febrile urinary tract infections (n = 4) did. Abnormal urodynamics findings were not diagnostic. We conclude that, apart from incontinence, dysfunctional voiding symptoms and febrile urinary tract infections are valuable indicators of UUTD. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Disturbances of gastrointestinal motility of the stomach in patients with chronic gastric erosions and biliary tract disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svintsitskyĭ, A S; Solovĭova, H A

    2012-12-01

    Article dwells on comparison data about motor function of the stomach in the three groups of patients: with gastric erosions and biliary tract diseases, duodenal ulcer disease, chronic gastritis. It is shown, that patients with gastric erosions and biliary tract diseases are characterized by slower evacuation function of the stomach, hypotonus of the stomach. Frequency of duodenal reflux in this group of patients is very high (85,9 %).

  7. Motor Priming in Neurorehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Stoykov, Mary Ellen; Madhavan, Sangeetha

    2015-01-01

    Priming is a type of implicit learning wherein a stimulus prompts a change in behavior. Priming has been long studied in the field of psychology. More recently, rehabilitation researchers have studied motor priming as a possible way to facilitate motor learning. For example, priming of the motor cortex is associated with changes in neuroplasticity that are associated with improvements in motor performance. Of the numerous motor priming paradigms under investigation, only a few ...

  8. Computertomographie of the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadler, H.W.; Roedl, W.

    1982-01-01

    Besides the demonstration of parenchymatous organs CT can be used also in the diagnosis of hollow organs of the gastrointestinal tract, e.g. the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, and the small and large bowels, since the development of fast scanners with higher resolution. Conventional X-ray and endoscopy have to be primary diagnostics. CT, on the other hand, is capable of assessing of extraluminal and intramural tumor extension. In inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, CT can show the environmental reaction. In penetrating ulcers of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum, the extension and direction of penetration can be figured by CT well. Extraenteral masses with secondary displacement, impression or infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract are often verified by CT only. One of the CT domains is the local relapse of rectum carcinoma following rectum amputation especially in differentiation from local scar formation. The importance of CT in radiotherapy treatment planning is not subject of this paper. (orig.) [de

  9. Spatial patterns of whole brain grey and white matter injury in patients with occult spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Xuetao; Nie, Binbin; Wang, Hong; Duan, Shaofeng; Zhang, Zan; Dai, Guanghui; Ma, Qiaozhi; Shan, Baoci; Ma, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Spastic diplegic cerebral palsy (SDCP) is a common type of cerebral palsy (CP), which presents as a group of motor-impairment syndromes. Previous conventional MRI studies have reported abnormal structural changes in SDCP, such as periventricular leucomalacia. However, there are roughly 27.8% SDCP patients presenting normal appearance in conventional MRI, which were considered as occult SDCP. In this study, sixteen patients with occult SDCP and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects were collected and the data were acquired on a 3T MR system. We applied voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis to investigate whole brain grey and white matter injury in occult SDCP. By using VBM method, the grey matter volume reduction was revealed in the bilateral basal ganglia regions, thalamus, insula, and left cerebral peduncle, whereas the white matter atrophy was found to be located in the posterior part of corpus callosum and right posterior corona radiata in the occult SDCP patients. By using TBSS, reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) values were detected in multiple white matter regions, including bilateral white matter tracts in prefrontal lobe, temporal lobe, internal and external capsule, corpus callosum, cingulum, thalamus, brainstem and cerebellum. Additionally, several regions of white matter tracts injury were found to be significantly correlated with motor dysfunction. These results collectively revealed the spatial patterns of whole brain grey and white matter injury in occult SDCP.

  10. Oncologic imaging of the genitourinary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClennan, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    Malignant neoplasms of the genitourinary (GU) tract account for a significant number of cancer-related deaths in man. For example, prostate cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death in adult males. Early diagnosis and treatment can have a profound effect on patient prognosis and survival. This paper examines the large body of information related to primary tumors of the kidney, bladder, and prostate, and their pattern of spread. Tumor oncology is discussed and related to the utility of available techniques, such as CT, MR imaging, and US. Imaging strategies are discussed that stress consideration of therapeutic efficacy and patient outcome. Current tumor staging and classification is presented and the various imaging strategies keyed to detection, definition, and treatment options for GU tract tumors. The strengths and limitations of modern imaging techniques are reviewed. An optimal approach to effective workup is developed with regard to availability, evolving technology, and cost efficacy. The controversies and conflicts in imaging and treatment options are explored while constructing a step-by-step approach that is both flexible and pragmatic for the clinician and radiologist faced daily with oncologic management choices

  11. Urinary tract infections in the elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, S James; Lancaster, Jason W

    2011-10-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common problem in the elderly population. The spectrum of disease varies from a relatively benign cystitis to potentially life-threatening pyelonephritis. This review covers the management of asymptomatic bacteriuria, acute uncomplicated cystitis, acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis, antibiotic resistance, catheter-associated bacteriuria/symptomatic UTIs, and antibiotic prophylaxis for recurrent infections in elderly men and women. Literature was obtained from English-language searches of MEDLINE (1966-April 2011), Cochrane Library, BIOSIS (1993-April 2011), and EMBASE (1970-April 2011). Further publications were identified from citations of resulting articles. Search terms included, but were not limited to, urinary tract infections, asymptomatic bacteriuria, acute uncomplicated cystitis, acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis, antibiotic resistance, catheter associated urinary tract infections, recurrent urinary tract infections, and elderly. The prevalence of UTIs in elderly women depends on the location in which these women are living. For elderly women living in the community, UTIs compromise the second most common infection, whereas in residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs) and hospitalized subjects, it is the number one cause of infection. The spectrum of patient presentation varies from classic signs and symptoms in the independent elderly population to atypical presentations, including increased lethargy, delirium, blunted fever response, and anorexia. Although there are few guidelines specifically directed toward the management of UTIs in the elderly population, therapy generally mirrors the recommendations for the younger adult age groups. When choosing a treatment regimen, special attention must be given to the severity of illness, living conditions, existing comorbidities, presence of external devices, local antibiotic resistance patterns, and the ability of the patient to comply with therapy. Improved guidelines

  12. Padrão e ritmo de aquisição das habilidades motoras de lactentes pré-termo nos quatro primeiros meses de idade corrigida Pattern and rate of motor skill acquisition among preterm infants during the first four months corrected age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine P. Raniero

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Este estudo objetivou caracterizar o padrão e o ritmo de aquisição das habilidades motoras de lactentes nascidos pré-termo nos quatro primeiros meses de idade corrigida, comparando-os com um grupo de lactentes a termo. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 12 lactentes pré-termo saudáveis, (MD=33,6 semanas de idade gestacional, ± 1,25 e 10 lactentes a termo saudáveis (MD=39,1 semanas de idade gestacional, ± 0,73. Eles foram avaliados mensalmente (zero a quatro meses de idade com o Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP. RESULTADOS: O padrão de desempenho motor aumentou ao longo dos meses em ambos os grupos, constatando variabilidade nos escores totais em todas as idades. O grupo pré-termo apresentou escore médio mais elevado do que o a termo entre um e quatro meses de idade. Nesse grupo, o ritmo de aquisição motora foi maior de zero a um do que de três a quatro meses. Verificou-se também que os cuidadores desses lactentes iniciaram a estimulação com brinquedos anteriormente aos cuidadores do grupo a termo. Ambos os grupos apresentaram escores médios inferiores aos do TIMP. CONCLUSÕES: Os lactentes pré-termo apresentaram padrão de desenvolvimento motor semelhante aos típicos quanto à sequência de habilidades adquiridas e ritmo acelerado no período de recém-nascido (RN a um mês de idade. Sugere-se que lactentes pré-termo com essas características não necessitam de correção do grau de prematuridade e que programas de acompanhamento orientem os pais e cuidadores a estimulá-los, desde o primeiro mês, com brinquedos, propiciando a exploração precoce de diversos padrões motores.OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to characterize the pattern and rate of motor skill acquisition among preterm infants from newborn to four months corrected age, in comparison with a group of full-term infants. METHODS: Twelve healthy preterm infants (mean gestational age=33.6 weeks ± 1.25 and 10 healthy full-term infants (mean

  13. Gray matter and white matter changes in non-demented amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients with or without cognitive impairment: A combined voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics whole-brain analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christidi, Foteini; Karavasilis, Efstratios; Riederer, Franz; Zalonis, Ioannis; Ferentinos, Panagiotis; Velonakis, Georgios; Xirou, Sophia; Rentzos, Michalis; Argiropoulos, Georgios; Zouvelou, Vasiliki; Zambelis, Thomas; Athanasakos, Athanasios; Toulas, Panagiotis; Vadikolias, Konstantinos; Efstathopoulos, Efstathios; Kollias, Spyros; Karandreas, Nikolaos; Kelekis, Nikolaos; Evdokimidis, Ioannis

    2018-04-01

    The phenotypic heterogeneity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) implies that patients show structural changes within but also beyond the motor cortex and corticospinal tract and furthermore outside the frontal lobes, even if frank dementia is not detected. The aim of the present study was to investigate both gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) changes in non-demented amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients with or without cognitive impairment (ALS-motor and ALS-plus, respectively). Nineteen ALS-motor, 31 ALS-plus and 25 healthy controls (HC) underwent 3D-T1-weighted and 30-directional diffusion-weighted imaging on a 3 T MRI scanner. Voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial-statistics analysis were performed to examine GM volume (GMV) changes and WM differences in fractional anisotropy (FA), axial and radial diffusivity (AD, RD, respectively). Compared to HC, ALS-motor patients showed decreased GMV in frontal and cerebellar areas and increased GMV in right supplementary motor area, while ALS-plus patients showed diffuse GMV reduction in primary motor cortex bilaterally, frontotemporal areas, cerebellum and basal ganglia. ALS-motor patients had increased GMV in left precuneus compared to ALS-plus patients. We also found decreased FA and increased RD in the corticospinal tract bilaterally, the corpus callosum and extra-motor tracts in ALS-motor patients, and decreased FA and increased AD and RD in motor and several WM tracts in ALS-plus patients, compared to HC. Multimodal neuroimaging confirms motor and extra-motor GM and WM abnormalities in non-demented cognitively-impaired ALS patients (ALS-plus) and identifies early extra-motor brain pathology in ALS patients without cognitive impairment (ALS-motor).

  14. Impairments of Social Motor Coordination in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlet, Manuel; Marin, Ludovic; Raffard, Stéphane; Schmidt, R. C.; Capdevielle, Delphine; Boulenger, Jean-Philippe; Del-Monte, Jonathan; Bardy, Benoît G.

    2012-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that motor coordination of interacting people plays a crucial role in the success of social exchanges. Abnormal movements have been reported during interpersonal interactions of patients suffering from schizophrenia and a motor coordination breakdown could explain this social interaction deficit, which is one of the main and earliest features of the illness. Using the dynamical systems framework, the goal of the current study was (i) to investigate whether social motor coordination is impaired in schizophrenia and (ii) to determine the underlying perceptual or cognitive processes that may be affected. We examined intentional and unintentional social motor coordination in participants oscillating hand-held pendulums from the wrist. The control group consisted of twenty healthy participant pairs while the experimental group consisted of twenty participant pairs that included one participant suffering from schizophrenia. The results showed that unintentional social motor coordination was preserved while intentional social motor coordination was impaired. In intentional coordination, the schizophrenia group displayed coordination patterns that had lower stability and in which the patient never led the coordination. A coupled oscillator model suggests that the schizophrenia group coordination pattern was due to a decrease in the amount of available information together with a delay in information transmission. Our study thus identified relational motor signatures of schizophrenia and opens new perspectives for detecting the illness and improving social interactions of patients. PMID:22272247

  15. The frontal aslant tract underlies speech fluency in persistent developmental stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronfeld-Duenias, Vered; Amir, Ofer; Ezrati-Vinacour, Ruth; Civier, Oren; Ben-Shachar, Michal

    2016-01-01

    The frontal aslant tract (FAT) is a pathway that connects the inferior frontal gyrus with the supplementary motor area (SMA) and pre-SMA. The FAT was recently identified and introduced as part of a "motor stream" that plays an important role in speech production. In this study, we use diffusion imaging to examine the hypothesis that the FAT underlies speech fluency, by studying its properties in individuals with persistent developmental stuttering, a speech disorder that disrupts the production of fluent speech. We use tractography to quantify the volume and diffusion properties of the FAT in a group of adults who stutter (AWS) and fluent controls. Additionally, we use tractography to extract these measures from the corticospinal tract (CST), a well-known component of the motor system. We compute diffusion measures in multiple points along the tracts, and examine the correlation between these diffusion measures and behavioral measures of speech fluency. Our data show increased mean diffusivity in bilateral FAT of AWS compared with controls. In addition, the results show regions within the left FAT and the left CST where diffusivity values are increased in AWS compared with controls. Last, we report that in AWS, diffusivity values measured within sub-regions of the left FAT negatively correlate with speech fluency. Our findings are the first to relate the FAT with fluent speech production in stuttering, thus adding to the current knowledge of the functional role that this tract plays in speech production and to the literature of the etiology of persistent developmental stuttering.

  16. Motor Cortex Activity Organizes the Developing Rubrospinal System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Preston T J A; Martin, John H

    2015-09-30

    The corticospinal and rubrospinal systems function in skilled movement control. A key question is how do these systems develop the capacity to coordinate their motor functions and, in turn, if the red nucleus/rubrospinal tract (RN/RST) compensates for developmental corticospinal injury? We used the cat to investigate whether the developing rubrospinal system is shaped by activity-dependent interactions with the developing corticospinal system. We unilaterally inactivated M1 by muscimol microinfusion between postnatal weeks 5 and 7 to examine activity-dependent interactions and whether the RN/RST compensates for corticospinal tract (CST) developmental motor impairments and CST misprojections after M1 inactivation. We examined the RN motor map and RST cervical projections at 7 weeks of age, while the corticospinal system was inactivated, and at 14 weeks, after activity returned. During M1 inactivation, the RN on the same side showed normal RST projections and reduced motor thresholds, suggestive of precocious development. By contrast, the RN on the untreated/active M1 side showed sparse RST projections and an immature motor map. After M1 activity returned later in adolescent cat development, RN on the active M1/CST side continued to show a substantial loss of spinal terminations and an impaired motor map. RN/RST on the inactivated side regressed to a smaller map and fewer axons. Our findings suggest that the developing rubrospinal system is under activity-dependent regulation by the corticospinal system for establishing mature RST connections and RN motor map. The lack of RS compensation on the non-inactivated side can be explained by development of ipsilateral misprojections from the active M1 that outcompete the RST. Significance statement: Skilled movements reflect the activity of multiple descending motor systems and their interactions with spinal motor circuits. Currently, there is little insight into whether motor systems interact during development to

  17. The Nucleus of the Solitary Tract and the coordination of respiratory and sympathetic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B. Zoccal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that breathing introduces rhythmical oscillations in the heart rate and arterial pressure levels. Sympathetic oscillations coupled to the respiratory activity have been suggested as an important homeostatic mechanism optimizing tissue perfusion and blood gas uptake/delivery. This respiratory-sympathetic coupling is strengthened in conditions of blood gas challenges (hypoxia and hypercapnia as a result of the synchronized activation of brainstem respiratory and sympathetic neurons, culminating with the emergence of entrained cardiovascular and respiratory reflex responses. Studies have proposed that the ventrolateral region of the medulla oblongata is a major site of synaptic interaction between respiratory and sympathetic neurons. However, other brainstem regions also play a relevant role in the patterning of respiratory and sympathetic motor outputs. Recent findings suggest that the neurons of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS, in the dorsal medulla, are essential for the processing and coordination of respiratory and sympathetic responses to hypoxia. The NTS is the first synaptic station of the cardiorespiratory afferent inputs, including peripheral chemoreceptors, baroreceptors and pulmonary stretch receptors. The synaptic profile of the NTS neurons receiving the excitatory drive from afferent inputs is complex and involves distinct neurotransmitters, including glutamate, ATP and acetylcholine. In the present review we discuss the role of the NTS circuitry in coordinating sympathetic and respiratory reflex responses. We also analyze the neuroplasticity of NTS neurons and their contribution for the development of cardiorespiratory dysfunctions, as observed in neurogenic hypertension, obstructive sleep apnea and metabolic disorders.

  18. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a kidney infection , and it's serious because it can damage the kidneys and make you very sick. How Do I Know if I Have a UTI? You may notice signs of a urinary tract infection before anyone else can see there's anything wrong with you. That's why ...

  19. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For ... Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...

  20. Urinary tract infections in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (cystitis or urethritis) with no urological anomalies and mostly affects girls over the age of 2 years. Complicated UTIs involve the renal parenchyma (pyelonephritis), and are usually associated with underlying congenital anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract.9 These UTIs may result in significant short-term morbidity,.

  1. Candida urinary tract infection: pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John F; Kavanagh, Kevin; Sobel, Jack D; Kauffman, Carol A; Newman, Cheryl A

    2011-05-01

    Candida species are unusual causes of urinary tract infection (UTI) in healthy individuals, but common in the hospital setting or among patients with predisposing diseases and structural abnormalities of the kidney and collecting system. The urinary tract may be invaded in either an antegrade fashion from the bloodstream or retrograde via the urethra and bladder. Candida species employ a repertoire of virulence factors, including phenotypic switching, dimorphism, galvano - and thigmotropism, and hydrolytic enzymes, to colonize and then invade the urinary tract. Antegrade infection occurs primarily among patients predisposed to candidemia. The process of adherence to and invasion of the glomerulus, renal blood vessels, and renal tubules by Candida species was elegantly described in early histopathologic studies. Armed with modern molecular biologic techniques, the various virulence factors involved in bloodborne infection of the kidney are gradually being elucidated. Disturbances of urine flow, whether congenital or acquired, instrumentation of the urinary tract, diabetes mellitus, antimicrobial therapy, and immunosuppression underlie most instances of retrograde Candida UTI. In addition, bacterial UTIs caused by Enterobacteriaceae may facilitate the initial step in the process. Ascending infections generally do not result in candidemia in the absence of obstruction.

  2. GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF CLARIAS GARIEPINUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    One hundred and fourteen (114) and one hundred and ninety nine (199) were infested fish samples from gills and gastrointestinal tract respectively. Parasites recovered during the survey include two species from gills identified as. Ergasilus sarsi ((24.60%) a crustacean (copepod), and one protozoan (myxosporean) named.

  3. Output variability across animals and levels in a motor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Brian J; Günay, Cengiz; Kueh, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Rhythmic behaviors vary across individuals. We investigated the sources of this output variability across a motor system, from the central pattern generator (CPG) to the motor plant. In the bilaterally symmetric leech heartbeat system, the CPG orchestrates two coordinations in the bilateral hearts with different intersegmental phase relations (Δϕ) and periodic side-to-side switches. Population variability is large. We show that the system is precise within a coordination, that differences in repetitions of a coordination contribute little to population output variability, but that differences between bilaterally homologous cells may contribute to some of this variability. Nevertheless, much output variability is likely associated with genetic and life history differences among individuals. Variability of Δϕ were coordination-specific: similar at all levels in one, but significantly lower for the motor pattern than the CPG pattern in the other. Mechanisms that transform CPG output to motor neurons may limit output variability in the motor pattern. PMID:29345614

  4. Directed flux motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A directed flux motor described utilizes the directed magnetic flux of at least one magnet through ferrous material to drive different planetary gear sets to achieve capabilities in six actuated shafts that are grouped three to a side of the motor. The flux motor also utilizes an interwoven magnet configuration which reduces the overall size of the motor. The motor allows for simple changes to modify the torque to speed ratio of the gearing contained within the motor as well as simple configurations for any number of output shafts up to six. The changes allow for improved manufacturability and reliability within the design.

  5. Neuroplasticity & Motor Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Lundbye

    is a measure of our ability to form and store a motor memory of the task. However, the initial memory of the task is labile and may be subject to interference. During and following motor learning plastic changes occur within the central nervous system. On one hand these changes are driven by motor practice......, on the other hand the changes underlie the formation of motor memory and the retention of improved motor performance. During motor learning changes may occur at many different levels within the central nervous system dependent on the type of task and training. Here, we demonstrate different studies from our...

  6. Electric motor handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, B J

    2013-01-01

    Electric Motor Handbook aims to give practical knowledge in a wide range of capacities such as plant design, equipment specification, commissioning, operation and maintenance. The book covers topics such as the modeling of steady-state motor performance; polyphase induction, synchronous, and a.c. commutator motors; ambient conditions, enclosures, cooling and loss dissipation; and electrical supply systems and motor drives. Also covered are topics such as variable-speed drives and motor control; materials and motor components; insulation types, systems, and techniques; and the installation, sit

  7. Urinary tract infection in the neurogenic bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Humberto R.

    2016-01-01

    There is a high incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract function. This results in significant morbidity and health care utilization. Multiple well-established risk factors unique to a neurogenic bladder (NB) exist while others require ongoing investigation. It is important for care providers to have a good understanding of the different structural, physiological, immunological and catheter-related risk factors so that they may be modified when possible. Diagnosis remains complicated. Appropriate specimen collection is of paramount importance and a UTI cannot be diagnosed based on urinalysis or clinical presentation alone. A culture result with a bacterial concentration of ≥103 CFU/mL in combination with symptoms represents an acceptable definition for UTI diagnosis in NB patients. Cystoscopy, ultrasound and urodynamics should be utilized for the evaluation of recurrent infections in NB patients. An acute, symptomatic UTI should be treated with antibiotics for 5–14 days depending on the severity of the presentation. Antibiotic selection should be based on local and patient-based resistance patterns and the spectrum should be as narrow as possible if there are no concerns regarding urosepsis. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) should not be treated because of rising resistance patterns and lack of clinical efficacy. The most important preventative measures include closed catheter drainage in patients with an indwelling catheter and the use of clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) over other methods of bladder management if possible. The use of hydrophilic or impregnated catheters is not recommended. Intravesical Botox, bacterial interference and sacral neuromodulation show significant promise for the prevention of UTIs in higher risk NB patients and future, multi-center, randomized controlled trials are required. PMID:26904414

  8. Urinary tract infection in the neurogenic bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Humberto R; Hickling, Duane R

    2016-02-01

    There is a high incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract function. This results in significant morbidity and health care utilization. Multiple well-established risk factors unique to a neurogenic bladder (NB) exist while others require ongoing investigation. It is important for care providers to have a good understanding of the different structural, physiological, immunological and catheter-related risk factors so that they may be modified when possible. Diagnosis remains complicated. Appropriate specimen collection is of paramount importance and a UTI cannot be diagnosed based on urinalysis or clinical presentation alone. A culture result with a bacterial concentration of ≥10(3) CFU/mL in combination with symptoms represents an acceptable definition for UTI diagnosis in NB patients. Cystoscopy, ultrasound and urodynamics should be utilized for the evaluation of recurrent infections in NB patients. An acute, symptomatic UTI should be treated with antibiotics for 5-14 days depending on the severity of the presentation. Antibiotic selection should be based on local and patient-based resistance patterns and the spectrum should be as narrow as possible if there are no concerns regarding urosepsis. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) should not be treated because of rising resistance patterns and lack of clinical efficacy. The most important preventative measures include closed catheter drainage in patients with an indwelling catheter and the use of clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) over other methods of bladder management if possible. The use of hydrophilic or impregnated catheters is not recommended. Intravesical Botox, bacterial interference and sacral neuromodulation show significant promise for the prevention of UTIs in higher risk NB patients and future, multi-center, randomized controlled trials are required.

  9. Treatment ofurinary tract infection inchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Zwolińska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection is the most frequent bacterial infection in children. Its prevalence in the population younger than 14 years of age has been estimated at 5–10%. Its high recurrence, especially in patients with risk factors, poses a significant problem. The risk factors most common in the group of children ≤3 years are congenital defects blocking the flow of urine to the bladder, whereas in older children they most typically include a tendency for constipation and dysfunction of the lower urinary tract. The clinical picture is variable and depends on the child’s age, immunity status, pathogen virulence and localisation of infection. The mildest form of urinary tract infection is asymptomatic bacteriuria, whereas more severe presentations include acute pyelonephritis, acute focal bacterial nephritis and urosepsis. Prognosis is usually good, but under certain circumstances hypertension, proteinuria and chronic kidney disease may develop. Therefore, early introduced appropriate treatment is essential. According to the Polish Society for Paediatric Nephrology guidelines, asymptomatic bacteriuria does not warrant treatment, whereas febrile patients (>38°C under 24 months old with a suspicion for urinary tract infection must be promptly administered antibiotic therapy, after a urine specimen has been obtained for culture. For many years, urinary tract infection has remained a topic of controversy in terms of therapy duration and administration route. Inpatient treatment of children under 3 months of age is an accepted rule. Acute pyelonephritis necessitates a longer therapy, lasting from 7 to 10 days, whereas the duration of treatment of lower urinary tract infection has been cut down to 3 up to 5 days. Routine prophylactic antimicrobial therapy is not recommended following the initial urinary tract infection episode, yet should be considered in special circumstances. Alternative

  10. An 11-year analysis of the prevalent uropathogens and the changing pattern of Escherichia coli antibiotic resistance in 38,530 community urinary tract infections, Dublin 1999-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, I M; Manecksha, R P; McCullagh, E; Ahmad, S; O'Kelly, F; Flynn, R; McDermott, T E D; Murphy, P; Grainger, R; Fennell, J P; Thornhill, J A

    2013-03-01

    Knowledge of local antimicrobial resistance patterns is essential for evidence-based empirical antibiotic prescribing, and a cutoff point of 20% has been suggested as the level of resistance at which an agent should no longer be used empirically. We sought to identify the changing incidence of causative uropathogens over an 11-year period. We also examined the trends in antibiotic resistance encountered in both the pooled urine samples and those where the causative organism was Escherichia coli. A retrospective analysis of the antimicrobial resistance within the positive community urine isolates over the 11-year period, 1999 to 2009, in a single Dublin teaching hospital was performed. In total 38,530 positive urine samples processed at our laboratory originated in the community of which 23,838 (56.7%) had E. coli as the infecting organism. The prevalence of E. coli has been increasing in recent years in community UTIs with 70.4% of UTIs in the community caused by E.coli in 2009. Ampicillin and trimethoprim were the least-active agents against E. coli with mean 11-year resistance rates of 60.8 and 31.5%, respectively. Significant trends of increasing resistance over the 11-year period were identified for trimethoprim, co-amoxyclav, cefuroxime and gentamicin. Ciprofloxacin remains a reasonable empirical antibiotic choice in this community with an 11-year resistance rate of 10.6%. Higher antibiotic resistance rates were identified in the male population and in children. Resistance rates to commonly prescribed antibiotics are increasing significantly. This data will enable evidence-based empirical prescribing which will ensure more effective treatment and lessen the emergence of resistant uropathogens in the community.

  11. Learning from sensory and reward prediction errors during motor adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Jun; Shadmehr, Reza

    2011-03-01

    Voluntary motor commands produce two kinds of consequences. Initially, a sensory consequence is observed in terms of activity in our primary sensory organs (e.g., vision, proprioception). Subsequently, the brain evaluates the sensory feedback and produces a subjective measure of utility or usefulness of the motor commands (e.g., reward). As a result, comparisons between predicted and observed consequences of motor commands produce two forms of prediction error. How do these errors contribute to changes in motor commands? Here, we considered a reach adaptation protocol and found that when high quality sensory feedback was available, adaptation of motor commands was driven almost exclusively by sensory prediction errors. This form of learning had a distinct signature: as motor commands adapted, the subjects altered their predictions regarding sensory consequences of motor commands, and generalized this learning broadly to neighboring motor commands. In contrast, as the quality of the sensory feedback degraded, adaptation of motor commands became more dependent on reward prediction errors. Reward prediction errors produced comparable changes in the motor commands, but produced no change in the predicted sensory consequences of motor commands, and generalized only locally. Because we found that there was a within subject correlation between generalization patterns and sensory remapping, it is plausible that during adaptation an individual's relative reliance on sensory vs. reward prediction errors could be inferred. We suggest that while motor commands change because of sensory and reward prediction errors, only sensory prediction errors produce a change in the neural system that predicts sensory consequences of motor commands.

  12. Tract profiles of white matter properties: automating fiber-tract quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeatman, Jason D; Dougherty, Robert F; Myall, Nathaniel J; Wandell, Brian A; Feldman, Heidi M

    2012-01-01

    Tractography based on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) data is a method for identifying the major white matter fascicles (tracts) in the living human brain. The health of these tracts is an important factor underlying many cognitive and neurological disorders. In vivo, tissue properties may vary systematically along each tract for several reasons: different populations of axons enter and exit the tract, and disease can strike at local positions within the tract. Hence quantifying and understanding diffusion measures along each fiber tract (Tract Profile) may reveal new insights into white matter development, function, and disease that are not obvious from mean measures of that tract. We demonstrate several novel findings related to Tract Profiles in the brains of typically developing children and children at risk for white matter injury secondary to preterm birth. First, fractional anisotropy (FA) values vary substantially within a tract but the Tract FA Profile is consistent across subjects. Thus, Tract Profiles contain far more information than mean diffusion measures. Second, developmental changes in FA occur at specific positions within the Tract Profile, rather than along the entire tract. Third, Tract Profiles can be used to compare white matter properties of individual patients to standardized Tract Profiles of a healthy population to elucidate unique features of that patient's clinical condition. Fourth, Tract Profiles can be used to evaluate the association between white matter properties and behavioral outcomes. Specifically, in the preterm group reading ability is positively correlated with FA measured at specific locations on the left arcuate and left superior longitudinal fasciculus and the magnitude of the correlation varies significantly along the Tract Profiles. We introduce open source software for automated fiber-tract quantification (AFQ) that measures Tract Profiles of MRI parameters for 18 white matter tracts. With further validation, AFQ Tract

  13. Tract profiles of white matter properties: automating fiber-tract quantification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason D Yeatman

    Full Text Available Tractography based on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI data is a method for identifying the major white matter fascicles (tracts in the living human brain. The health of these tracts is an important factor underlying many cognitive and neurological disorders. In vivo, tissue properties may vary systematically along each tract for several reasons: different populations of axons enter and exit the tract, and disease can strike at local positions within the tract. Hence quantifying and understanding diffusion measures along each fiber tract (Tract Profile may reveal new insights into white matter development, function, and disease that are not obvious from mean measures of that tract. We demonstrate several novel findings related to Tract Profiles in the brains of typically developing children and children at risk for white matter injury secondary to preterm birth. First, fractional anisotropy (FA values vary substantially within a tract but the Tract FA Profile is consistent across subjects. Thus, Tract Profiles contain far more information than mean diffusion measures. Second, developmental changes in FA occur at specific positions within the Tract Profile, rather than along the entire tract. Third, Tract Profiles can be used to compare white matter properties of individual patients to standardized Tract Profiles of a healthy population to elucidate unique features of that patient's clinical condition. Fourth, Tract Profiles can be used to evaluate the association between white matter properties and behavioral outcomes. Specifically, in the preterm group reading ability is positively correlated with FA measured at specific locations on the left arcuate and left superior longitudinal fasciculus and the magnitude of the correlation varies significantly along the Tract Profiles. We introduce open source software for automated fiber-tract quantification (AFQ that measures Tract Profiles of MRI parameters for 18 white matter tracts. With further

  14. Identifying the white matter impairments among ART-naive HIV patients: a multivariate pattern analysis of DTI data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Zhenchao; Liu, Zhenyu; Yang, Xin; Wang, Shuo; Yu, Dongdong; Li, Ruili; Li, Hongjun; Cui, Xingwei; Dong, Enqing; Tian, Jie

    2017-01-01

    To identify the white matter (WM) impairments of the antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive HIV patients by conducting a multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) of Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data We enrolled 33 ART-naive HIV patients and 32 Normal controls in the current study. Firstly, the DTI metrics in whole brain WM tracts were extracted for each subject and feed into the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operators procedure (LASSO)-Logistic regression model to identify the impaired WM tracts. Then, Support Vector Machines (SVM) model was constructed based on the DTI metrics in the impaired WM tracts to make HIV-control group classification. Pearson correlations between the WM impairments and HIV clinical statics were also investigated. Extensive HIV-related impairments were observed in the WM tracts associated with motor function, the corpus callosum (CC) and the frontal WM. With leave-one-out cross validation, accuracy of 83.08% (P=0.002) and the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve of 0.9110 were obtained in the SVM classification model. The impairments of the CC were significantly correlated with the HIV clinic statics. The MVPA was sensitive to detect the HIV-related WM changes. Our findings indicated that the MVPA had considerable potential in exploring the HIV-related WM impairments. (orig.)

  15. Identifying the white matter impairments among ART-naive HIV patients: a multivariate pattern analysis of DTI data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Zhenchao [Shandong University, School of Mechanical, Electrical and Information Engineering, Weihai, Shandong Province (China); Institute of Automation, CAS Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Beijing (China); Liu, Zhenyu; Yang, Xin; Wang, Shuo; Yu, Dongdong [Institute of Automation, CAS Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Beijing (China); Li, Ruili; Li, Hongjun [Beijing YouAn Hospital, Capital Medical University, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Cui, Xingwei [Zhengzhou University, Cooperative Innovation Center of Internet Healthcare, Zhengzhou (China); Dong, Enqing [Shandong University, School of Mechanical, Electrical and Information Engineering, Weihai, Shandong Province (China); Tian, Jie [Institute of Automation, CAS Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Beijing (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2017-10-15

    To identify the white matter (WM) impairments of the antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive HIV patients by conducting a multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) of Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data We enrolled 33 ART-naive HIV patients and 32 Normal controls in the current study. Firstly, the DTI metrics in whole brain WM tracts were extracted for each subject and feed into the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operators procedure (LASSO)-Logistic regression model to identify the impaired WM tracts. Then, Support Vector Machines (SVM) model was constructed based on the DTI metrics in the impaired WM tracts to make HIV-control group classification. Pearson correlations between the WM impairments and HIV clinical statics were also investigated. Extensive HIV-related impairments were observed in the WM tracts associated with motor function, the corpus callosum (CC) and the frontal WM. With leave-one-out cross validation, accuracy of 83.08% (P=0.002) and the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve of 0.9110 were obtained in the SVM classification model. The impairments of the CC were significantly correlated with the HIV clinic statics. The MVPA was sensitive to detect the HIV-related WM changes. Our findings indicated that the MVPA had considerable potential in exploring the HIV-related WM impairments. (orig.)

  16. Urinary tract infection in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Theresa A; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

    2013-10-01

    Urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria are common in older adults. Unlike in younger adults, distinguishing symptomatic urinary tract infection from asymptomatic bacteriuria is problematic, as older adults, particularly those living in long-term care facilities, are less likely to present with localized genitourinary symptoms. Consensus guidelines have been published to assist clinicians with diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection; however, a single evidence-based approach to diagnosis of urinary tract infection does not exist. In the absence of a gold standard definition of urinary tract infection that clinicians agree upon, overtreatment with antibiotics for suspected urinary tract infection remains a significant problem, and leads to a variety of negative consequences including the development of multidrug-resistant organisms. Future studies improving the diagnostic accuracy of urinary tract infections are needed. This review will cover the prevalence, diagnosis and diagnostic challenges, management, and prevention of urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria in older adults.

  17. Handbook on linear motor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    This book guides the application for Linear motor. It lists classification and speciality of Linear Motor, terms of linear-induction motor, principle of the Motor, types on one-side linear-induction motor, bilateral linear-induction motor, linear-DC Motor on basic of the motor, linear-DC Motor for moving-coil type, linear-DC motor for permanent-magnet moving type, linear-DC motor for electricity non-utility type, linear-pulse motor for variable motor, linear-pulse motor for permanent magneto type, linear-vibration actuator, linear-vibration actuator for moving-coil type, linear synchronous motor, linear electromagnetic motor, linear electromagnetic solenoid, technical organization and magnetic levitation and linear motor and sensor.

  18. Diagnosis and management of urinary tract infections in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Jessica; Kitlowski, Andrew David; Ou, Derek; Bedolla, John

    2014-07-01

    Urinary tract infections are a heterogeneous group of disorders, involving infection of all or part of the urinary tract, and are defined by bacteria in the urine with clinical symptoms that may be acute or chronic. Approximately 1 million urinary tract infections are treated every year in United States emergency departments. The female-to-male ratio is 6:1. Urinary tract infections are categorized as upper versus lower tract involvement and as uncomplicated versus complicated. The emergency clinician must carefully categorize the infection and take into account patient host factors to optimally treat and disposition patients. A working knowledge of local or at least national susceptibility patterns of the most likely pathogens is essential. A variety of special populations exist that require special management, including pregnant females, patients with anatomic abnormalities, and instrumented patients.

  19. Spatially dynamic recurrent information flow across long-range dorsal motor network encodes selective motor goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Peter E; Hagan, Maureen A; John, Sam E; Opie, Nicholas L; Ordidge, Roger J; O'Brien, Terence J; Oxley, Thomas J; Moffat, Bradford A; Wong, Yan T

    2018-03-08

    Performing voluntary movements involves many regions of the brain, but it is unknown how they work together to plan and execute specific movements. We recorded high-resolution ultra-high-field blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal during a cued ankle-dorsiflexion task. The spatiotemporal dynamics and the patterns of task-relevant information flow across the dorsal motor network were investigated. We show that task-relevant information appears and decays earlier in the higher order areas of the dorsal motor network then in the primary motor cortex. Furthermore, the results show that task-relevant information is encoded in general initially, and then selective goals are subsequently encoded in specifics subregions across the network. Importantly, the patterns of recurrent information flow across the network vary across different subregions depending on the goal. Recurrent information flow was observed across all higher order areas of the dorsal motor network in the subregions encoding for the current goal. In contrast, only the top-down information flow from the supplementary motor cortex to the frontoparietal regions, with weakened recurrent information flow between the frontoparietal regions and bottom-up information flow from the frontoparietal regions to the supplementary cortex were observed in the subregions encoding for the opposing goal. We conclude that selective motor goal encoding and execution rely on goal-dependent differences in subregional recurrent information flow patterns across the long-range dorsal motor network areas that exhibit graded functional specialization. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Chronic motor tic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder ... Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start at ...

  1. Teamwork in microtubule motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Roop; Rai, Arpan K; Barak, Pradeep; Rai, Ashim; Kunwar, Ambarish

    2013-11-01

    Diverse cellular processes are driven by the collective force from multiple motor proteins. Disease-causing mutations cause aberrant function of motors, but the impact is observed at a cellular level and beyond, therefore necessitating an understanding of cell mechanics at the level of motor molecules. One way to do this is by measuring the force generated by ensembles of motors in vivo at single-motor resolution. This has been possible for microtubule motor teams that transport intracellular organelles, revealing unexpected differences between collective and single-molecule function. Here we review how the biophysical properties of single motors, and differences therein, may translate into collective motor function during organelle transport and perhaps in other processes outside transport. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Association Between Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Genotype and Upper Extremity Motor Outcome After Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Won Hyuk; Park, Eunhee; Lee, Jungsoo; Lee, Ahee; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2017-06-01

    The identification of intrinsic factors for predicting upper extremity motor outcome could aid the design of individualized treatment plans in stroke rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to identify prognostic factors, including intrinsic genetic factors, for upper extremity motor outcome in patients with subacute stroke. A total of 97 patients with subacute stroke were enrolled. Upper limb motor impairment was scored according to the upper limb of Fugl-Meyer assessment score at 3 months after stroke. The prediction of upper extremity motor outcome at 3 months was modeled using various factors that could potentially influence this impairment, including patient characteristics, baseline upper extremity motor impairment, functional and structural integrity of the corticospinal tract, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor genotype. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression models were used to identify the significance of each factor. The independent predictors of motor outcome at 3 months were baseline upper extremity motor impairment, age, stroke type, and corticospinal tract functional integrity in all stroke patients. However, in the group with severe motor impairment at baseline (upper limb score of Fugl-Meyer assessment stroke. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor genotype may be a potentially useful predictor of upper extremity motor outcome in patients with subacute stroke with severe baseline motor involvement. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Investigations of the migrating motor complex in domestic turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, L R; Duke, G E; Evanson, O A

    1990-09-01

    The motor correlate of the migrating myoelectric complex (MMC) was characterized in domestic turkeys, and feeding state, age, sex, and time of day were examined as possible factors influencing the motor activity observed. Strain gauge transducers, and in a few birds Ag-AgCl bipolar electrodes, were implanted on the caudoventral thin muscle of the muscular stomach, the duodenum, ileum, cecum, and colon. Contractility was recorded for 8-10 h per bird on alternating days for 2-3 wk, except in birds involved in four 24-h recording sessions during a 2-wk period. Intense motor activity characteristic of phase III of the MMC occurred only in the ileum; other phases could not be identified. The duration, propagation velocity, and percent of cyclic motor patterns propagating from one site to another were similar to those reported in other galliform species. The occurrence of cyclic motor activity appeared to be related to food consumption; the number of motor patterns occurring during an intense feeding session was less than the number observed 1.5-2 h after feeding. In addition, more motor patterns were recorded in fasted poults during the light period than in the dark; however, the reverse was observed in juveniles fed ad libitum. Cyclic motor activity recorded in fasted 18-wk-old birds was of longer duration than that in fasted 8-wk-old birds. No statistically significant differences were noted in the cyclic motor patterns of male vs. female poults.

  4. Multidetector CT and MRI in diseases of the GI tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruel, J.M.; Gallix, B.

    2003-01-01

    With the introduction of spiral scanning then multidetector technologies, the accuracy for diagnosing digestive tract diseases with CT has been highly improved, and CT is used more and more in the evaluation of patients with suspected gastrointestinal disorders. CT is able to demonstrate both the intramural and the extra-mural components of the disease, and has a major role in the preoperative staging and the follow-up Improvements of CT protocols, such as CT-enteroclysis, or multiplanar 2D and 3D post-processing, including now techniques for 'virtual endoscopy', lead to discuss new indications in which CT could now compete with conventional X-rays series and video-endoscopy. This precise study of the digestive wall, the peri-digestive fat, the digestive tract blood supply, may be performed by MRI, under the condition of access to high level machines and standardized protocols. MR-enteroclysis and MR-virtual colonoscopy could be performed with much lower risk for the patient, in terms of radiation dose or contrast adverse effects. Endo-luminal coils should give to MR an ultra-high resolution for analysing the different layers of the gastrointestinal wall. Learning objectives: to review how to perform CT and MRI protocols for digestive tract imaging, to recognize the CT arid MR patterns of the main digestive tract diseases, to discuss the value, limits and role of CT and MR in digestive tract diseases, to discuss the potential role of CT and MR new technological developments for digestive tract imaging in the upcoming future Conclusion: CT is nowadays a modality of choice for digestive imaging. Improvements in technologies and indications, the necessary discussion of the risks and benefits for the patient should let the radiologists consider MRI in gastrointestinal disorders as an important part of the routine activity in clinical MRI. (authors)

  5. Impact of internal capsule lesions on outcome of motor hand function at one year post-stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiemanck, Sven K.; Kwakkel, Gert; Post, Marcel W. M.; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Prevo, Arie J. H.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between damage to different levels of the corticofugal tract and long-term hand motor recovery. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. PATIENTS: Seventy-five first-ever middle cerebral artery stroke survivors. METHODS: Hand motor function was assessed with the

  6. Sensory-motor transformations for speech occur bilaterally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Gregory B; Thesen, Thomas; Carlson, Chad; Doyle, Werner; Devinsky, Orrin; Pesaran, Bijan

    2014-03-06

    Historically, the study of speech processing has emphasized a strong link between auditory perceptual input and motor production output. A kind of 'parity' is essential, as both perception- and production-based representations must form a unified interface to facilitate access to higher-order language processes such as syntax and semantics, believed to be computed in the dominant, typically left hemisphere. Although various theories have been proposed to unite perception and production, the underlying neural mechanisms are unclear. Early models of speech and language processing proposed that perceptual processing occurred in the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (Wernicke's area) and motor production processes occurred in the left inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area). Sensory activity was proposed to link to production activity through connecting fibre tracts, forming the left lateralized speech sensory-motor system. Although recent evidence indicates that speech perception occurs bilaterally, prevailing models maintain that the speech sensory-motor system is left lateralized and facilitates the transformation from sensory-based auditory representations to motor-based production representations. However, evidence for the lateralized computation of sensory-motor speech transformations is indirect and primarily comes from stroke patients that have speech repetition deficits (conduction aphasia) and studies using covert speech and haemodynamic functional imaging. Whether the speech sensory-motor system is lateralized, like higher-order language processes, or bilateral, like speech perception, is controversial. Here we use direct neural recordings in subjects performing sensory-motor tasks involving overt speech production to show that sensory-motor transformations occur bilaterally. We demonstrate that electrodes over bilateral inferior frontal, inferior parietal, superior temporal, premotor and somatosensory cortices exhibit robust sensory-motor neural

  7. Programmable dc motor controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, J. E.

    1982-11-01

    A portable programmable dc motor controller, with features not available on commercial instruments was developed for controlling fixtures during welding processes. The controller can be used to drive any dc motor having tachometer feedback and motor requirements not exceeding 30 volts, 3 amperes. Among the controller's features are delayed start time, upslope time, speed, and downslope time.

  8. Electric Motor Thermal Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Thermal management enables more efficient and cost-effective motors. This Annual Merit Review presentation describes the technical accomplishments and progress in electric motor thermal management R&D over the last year. This project supports a broad industry demand for data, analysis methods, and experimental techniques to improve and better understand motor thermal management.

  9. Efficiency of Brownian Motors

    OpenAIRE

    Parrondo, J. M. R.; Blanco, J. M.; Cao, F. J.; Brito, R.

    1998-01-01

    The efficiency of different types of Brownian motors is calculated analytically and numerically. We find that motors based on flashing ratchets present a,low efficiency and an unavoidable entropy production. On the other hand, a certain class of motors based on adiabatically changing potentials, named reversible ratchets, exhibit a higher efficiency and the entropy production can be arbitrarily reduced.

  10. Magnetic-motor-root stimulation: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Hanajima, Ritsuko; Terao, Yasuo; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2013-06-01

    Magnetic stimulation can activate the human central and peripheral nervous systems non-invasively and virtually painlessly. Magnetic stimulation over the spinal enlargements can activate spinal nerves at the neuroforamina (magnetic-neuroforamina stimulation). This stimulation method provides us with information related to the latency of compound-muscle action potential (CMAP), which is usually interpreted as peripheral motor-conduction time (PMCT). However, this stimulation method has faced several problems in clinical applications. One is that supramaximal CMAPs were unobtainable. Another is that magnetic stimulation did not usually activate the spinal nerves in the spinal canal, i.e., the cauda equina, which prevented an evaluation of its conduction. For these reasons, magnetic-neuroforamina stimulation was rarely used to evaluate the conduction of peripheral nerves. It was mainly used to evaluate the conduction of the corticospinal tract using the parameter of central motor-conduction time (CMCT), which was calculated by subtracting PMCT from the latency of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the primary motor cortex. Recently, supramaximal stimulation has been achieved in magnetic-neuroforamina stimulation, and this has contributed to the measurement of both CMAP size and latency. The achievement of supramaximal stimulation is ascribed to the increase in magnetic-stimulator output and a novel coil, the magnetic augmented translumbosacral stimulation (MATS) coil. The most proximal part of the cauda equina can be reliably activated using the MATS coil (magnetic-conus stimulation), thus contributing to the measurement of cauda equina conduction time (CECT) and cortico-conus motor-conduction time (CCCT). These recent developments in magnetic-motor-root stimulation enable us to more precisely evaluate the conduction of the proximal part of peripheral nerves and that of the corticospinal tract for lower-limb muscles

  11. Aversive stimuli exacerbate defensive motor behaviour in motor conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakemore, Rebekah L; Sinanaj, Indrit; Galli, Silvio; Aybek, Selma; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2016-12-01

    Conversion disorder or functional neurological symptom disorder (FND) can affect the voluntary motor system, without an organic cause. Functional symptoms are thought to be generated unconsciously, arising from underlying psychological stressors. However, attempts to demonstrate a direct relationship between the limbic system and disrupted motor function in FND are lacking. We tested whether negative affect would exacerbate alterations of motor control and corresponding brain activations in individuals with FND. Ten patients and ten healthy controls produced an isometric precision-grip contraction at 10% of maximum force while either viewing visual feedback of their force output, or unpleasant or pleasant emotional images (without feedback). Force magnitude was continuously recorded together with change in brain activity using fMRI. For controls, force output decayed from the target level while viewing pleasant and unpleasant images. Patients however, maintained force at the target level without decay while viewing unpleasant images, indicating a pronounced effect of negative affect on force output in FND. This emotional modulation of force control was associated with different brain activation patterns between groups. Contrasting the unpleasant with the pleasant condition, controls showed increased activity in the inferior frontal cortex and pre-supplementary motor area, whereas patients had greater activity in the cerebellum (vermis), posterior cingulate cortex, and hippocampus. Engagement of a cerebellar-limbic network in patients is consistent with heightened processing of emotional salience, and supports the role of the cerebellum in freezing responses in the presence of aversive events. These data highlight a possible neural circuit through which psychological stressors elicit defensive behaviour and modulate motor function in FND. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bladder Infection (Urinary Tract Infection - UTI) in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Urinary Tract & How It Works Bladder Infection (Urinary Tract Infection—UTI) in Adults View or Print All Sections ... Bladder infections are the most common type of urinary tract infection (UTI), but any part of your urinary tract ...

  13. Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Upper GI Tract Upper gastrointestinal tract radiography or ... X-ray? What is Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract Radiography? Upper gastrointestinal tract radiography, also called an upper ...

  14. What drives progressive motor deficits in patients with acute pontine infarction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue-bao Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive motor deficits are relatively common in acute pontine infarction and frequently associated with increased functional disability. However, the factors that affect the progression of clinical motor weakness are largely unknown. Previous studies have suggested that pontine infarctions are caused mainly by basilar artery stenosis and penetrating artery disease. Recently, lower pons lesions in patients with acute pontine infarctions have been reported to be related to progressive motor deficits, and ensuing that damage to the corticospinal tracts may be responsible for the worsening of neurological symptoms. Here, we review studies on motor weakness progression in pontine infarction and discuss the mechanisms that may underlie the neurologic worsening.

  15. Functional Neuroimaging of Motor Control inParkinson’s Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herz, Damian M; Eickhoff, Simon B; Løkkegaard, Annemette

    2014-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging has been widely used to study the activation patterns of the motor network in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), but these studies have yielded conflicting results. This meta-analysis of previous neuroimaging studies was performed to identify patterns of abnormal...... in the posterior motor putamen, which improved with dopaminergic medication. The likelihood of detecting a decrease in putaminal activity increased with motor impairment. This reduced motor activation of the posterior putamen across previous neuroimaging studies indicates that nigrostriatal dopaminergic...... denervation affects neural processing in the denervated striatal motor territory. In contrast, fronto-parietal motor areas display both increases as well as decreases in movement related activation. This points to a more complex relationship between altered cortical physiology and nigrostriatal dopaminergic...

  16. Endosymbiont gene functions impaired and rescued by polymerase infidelity at poly(A) tracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamas, Ivica; Wernegreen, Jennifer J.; Nystedt, Björn; Kauppinen, Seth N.; Darby, Alistair C.; Gomez-Valero, Laura; Lundin, Daniel; Poole, Anthony M.; Andersson, Siv G. E.

    2008-01-01

    Among host-dependent bacteria that have evolved by extreme reductive genome evolution, long-term bacterial endosymbionts of insects have the smallest (160–790 kb) and most A + T-rich (>70%) bacterial genomes known to date. These genomes are riddled with poly(A) tracts, and 5–50% of genes contain tracts of 10 As or more. Here, we demonstrate transcriptional slippage at poly(A) tracts within genes of Buchnera aphidicola associated with aphids and Blochmannia pennsylvanicus associated with ants. Several tracts contain single frameshift deletions; these apparent pseudogenes showed patterns of constraint consistent with purifying selection on the encoded proteins. Transcriptional slippage yielded a heterogeneous population of transcripts with variable numbers of As in the tract. Across several frameshifted genes, including B. aphidicola cell wall biosynthesis genes and a B. pennsylvanicus histidine biosynthesis gene, 12–50% of transcripts contained corrected reading frames that could potentially yield full-length proteins. In situ immunostaining confirmed the production of the cell wall biosynthetic enzyme UDP-N-acetylmuramyl pentapeptide synthase encoded by the frameshifted murF gene. Simulation studies indicated an overrepresentation of poly(A) tracts in endosymbiont genomes relative to other A + T-rich bacterial genomes. Polymerase infidelity at poly(A) tracts rescues the functionality of genes with frameshift mutations and, conversely, reduces the efficiency of expression for in-frame genes carrying poly(A) regions. These features of homopolymeric tracts could be exploited to manipulate gene expression in small synthetic genomes. PMID:18815381

  17. Motor/generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickam, Christopher Dale [Glasford, IL

    2008-05-13

    A motor/generator is provided for connecting between a transmission input shaft and an output shaft of a prime mover. The motor/generator may include a motor/generator housing, a stator mounted to the motor/generator housing, a rotor mounted at least partially within the motor/generator housing and rotatable about a rotor rotation axis, and a transmission-shaft coupler drivingly coupled to the rotor. The transmission-shaft coupler may include a clamp, which may include a base attached to the rotor and a plurality of adjustable jaws.

  18. Mucoadhesion and the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varum, Felipe J O; McConnell, Emma L; Sousa, Joao J S; Veiga, Francisco; Basit, Abdul W

    2008-01-01

    The concept of mucoadhesion is one that has the potential to improve the highly variable residence times experienced by drugs and dosage forms at various sites in the gastrointestinal tract, and consequently, to reduce variability and improve efficacy. Intimate contact with the mucosa should enhance absorption or improve topical therapy. A variety of approaches have been investigated for mucoadhesion in the gastrointestinal tract, particularly for the stomach and small intestine. Despite interesting results in these sites, mucoadhesive approaches have not yet shown success in humans. The potential of the lower gut for these applications has been largely neglected, although the large intestine in particular may benefit, and the colon has several factors that suggest mucoadhesion could be successful there, including lower motility and the possibility of a lower mucus turnover and thicker mucus layer. In vitro studies on colonic mucoadhesion show promise, and rectal administration has shown some positive results in vivo. This review considers the background to mucoadhesion with respect to the physiological conditions of the gastrointestinal tract as well as the principles that underlie this concept. Mucoadhesive approaches to gastrointestinal drug delivery will be examined, with particular attention given to the lower gut.

  19. URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Margieva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues of diagnosing and treating urinary tract infections and their role in development of renal injury are being actively discussed by scientists and practicing pediatricians. The article presents the most recent data on etiological factors, pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of this disease. It provides recommendations on diagnosis and management of patients depending on their age. The article presents a discussion of antibacterial therapy course duration and indications for anti-relapse treatment. The study demonstrates that intravenous antibacterial therapy must be launched immediately in neonates in the event of pyretic fever; empirical antibacterial therapy must be launched immediately in older children after diagnosis of the urinary tract infection has been confirmed; subsequently, treatment ought to be corrected depending on the results of a bacteriological trial, sensitivity to antibiotics and effectiveness of the prescribed antibiotic. Along with normalization of urination rhythm and water intake schedule, antibacterial preventive therapy might be considered, if effective, in the event of recurrent nature of the urinary tract infection. 

  20. Inference of historical changes in migration rate from the lengths of migrant tracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pool, John E; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2009-01-01

    After migrant chromosomes enter a population, they are progressively sliced into smaller pieces by recombination. Therefore, the length distribution of "migrant tracts" (chromosome segments with recent migrant ancestry) contains information about historical patterns of migration. Here we introduce...... a theoretical framework describing the migrant tract length distribution and propose a likelihood inference method to test demographic hypotheses and estimate parameters related to a historical change in migration rate. Applying this method to data from the hybridizing subspecies Mus musculus domesticus and M...

  1. The frontotemporal dementia-motor neuron disease continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, James R; Halliday, Glenda M; Kril, Jillian J; Ittner, Lars M; Götz, Jürgen; Kiernan, Matthew C; Hodges, John R

    2016-08-27

    Early reports of cognitive and behavioural deficits in motor neuron disease might have been overlooked initially, but the concept of a frontotemporal dementia-motor neuron disease continuum has emerged during the past decade. Frontotemporal dementia-motor neuron disease is now recognised as an important dementia syndrome, which presents substantial challenges for diagnosis and management. Frontotemporal dementia, motor neuron disease, and frontotemporal dementia-motor neuron disease are characterised by overlapping patterns of TAR DNA binding protein (TDP-43) pathology, while the chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9orf72) repeat expansion is common across the disease spectrum. Indeed, the C9orf72 repeat expansion provides important clues to disease pathogenesis and suggests potential therapeutic targets. Variable diagnostic criteria identify motor, cognitive, and behavioural deficits, but further refinement is needed to define the clinical syndromes encountered in frontotemporal dementia-motor neuron disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Piezoelectric Motors, an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Spanner

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric motors are used in many industrial and commercial applications. Various piezoelectric motors are available in the market. All of the piezoelectric motors use the inverse piezoelectric effect, where microscopically small oscillatory motions are converted into continuous or stepping rotary or linear motions. Methods of obtaining long moving distance have various drive and functional principles that make these motors categorized into three groups: resonance-drive (piezoelectric ultrasonic motors, inertia-drive, and piezo-walk-drive. In this review, a comprehensive summary of piezoelectric motors, with their classification from initial idea to recent progress, is presented. This review also includes some of the industrial and commercial applications of piezoelectric motors that are presently available in the market as actuators.

  3. Motor degradation prediction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.

    1996-12-01

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor`s duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures.

  4. Upper Extremity Motor Impairments and Microstructural Changes in Bulbospinal Pathways in Chronic Hemiparetic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriel Owen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Following hemiparetic stroke, precise, individuated control of single joints is often replaced by highly stereotyped patterns of multi-joint movement, or abnormal limb synergies, which can negatively impact functional use of the paretic arm. One hypothesis for the expression of these synergies is an increased dependence on bulbospinal pathways such as the rubrospinal (RubST tract and especially the reticulospinal (RetST tracts, which co-activate multiple muscles of the shoulder, elbow, wrist, and fingers. Despite indirect evidence supporting this hypothesis in humans poststroke, it still remains unclear whether it is correct. Therefore, we used high-resolution diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to quantify white matter microstructure in relation to severity of arm synergy and hand-related motor impairments. DTI was performed on 19 moderately to severely impaired chronic stroke individuals and 15 healthy, age-matched controls. In stroke individuals, compared to controls, there was significantly decreased fractional anisotropy (FA and significantly increased axial and radial diffusivity in bilateral corona radiata and body of the corpus callosum. Furthermore, poststroke, the contralesional (CL RetST FA correlated significantly with both upper extremity (UE synergy severity (r = −0.606, p = 0.003 and hand impairment (r = −0.609, p = 0.003. FA in the ipsilesional RubST significantly correlated with hand impairment severity (r = −0.590, p = 0.004. For the first time, we separately evaluate RetST and RubST microstructure in chronic stroke individuals with UE motor impairment. We demonstrate that individuals with the greatest UE synergy severity and hand impairments poststroke have the highest FA in the CL RetST a pattern consistent with increased myelination and suggestive of neuroplastic reorganization. Since the RetST pathway microstructure, in particular, is sensitive to abnormal joint coupling and hand-related motor

  5. Sleep quality influences subsequent motor skill acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleman, Erica R; Albouy, Genevieve; Doyon, Julien; Cronin-Golomb, Alice; King, Bradley R

    2016-06-01

    While the influence of sleep on motor memory consolidation has been extensively investigated, its relation to initial skill acquisition is less well understood. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of sleep quality and quantity on subsequent motor skill acquisition in young adults without sleep disorders. Fifty-five healthy adults (mean age = 23.8 years; 34 women) wore actigraph wristbands for 4 nights, which provided data on sleep patterns before the experiment, and then returned to the laboratory to engage in a motor sequence learning task (explicit 5-item finger sequence tapping task). Indicators of sleep quality and quantity were then regressed on a measure of motor skill acquisition (Gains Within Training, GWT). Wake After Sleep Onset (WASO; i.e., the total amount of time the participants spent awake after falling asleep) was significantly and negatively related to GWT. This effect was not because of general arousal level, which was measured immediately before the motor task. Conversely, there was no relationship between GWT and sleep duration or self-reported sleep quality. These results indicate that sleep quality, as assessed by WASO and objectively measured with actigraphy before the motor task, significantly impacts motor skill acquisition in young healthy adults without sleep disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Energy-efficient electric motors study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-23

    The study identifies the industrial decision makers, investigated the information they needed to know, how they can best be reached, and the motivating factors for purchasing energy-efficient electric motors. A survey was conducted of purchasers of integral horsepower polyphase motors. The survey measured current knowledge of and awareness of energy-efficient motors, decision-making criteria, information sources, purchase and usage patterns, and related factors. The survey data were used for the electric motor market penetration analysis. Additionally, a telephone survey was made. The study also provides analyses of distribution channels, commercialization constraints, and the impacts of government programs and rising energy prices. A description of study findings, conclusions, and recommendations is presented. Sample questionnaires and copies of letters to respondents are presented in 3 appendices. Appendices D and E contain descriptions of the methods used. (MCW)

  7. Onset Latency of Motor Evoked Potentials in Motor Cortical Mapping with Neuronavigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallioniemi, Elisa; Pitkänen, Minna; Säisänen, Laura; Julkunen, Petro

    2015-01-01

    Cortical motor mapping in pre-surgical applications can be performed using motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes evoked with neuronavigated transcranial magnetic stimulation. The MEP latency, which is a more stable parameter than the MEP amplitude, has not so far been utilized in motor mapping. The latency, however, may provide information about the stress in damaged motor pathways, e.g. compression by tumors, which cannot be observed from the MEP amplitudes. Thus, inclusion of this parameter could add valuable information to the presently used technique of MEP amplitude mapping. In this study, the functional cortical representations of first dorsal interosseous (FDI), abductor pollicis brevis (APB) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles were mapped in both hemispheres of ten healthy righthanded volunteers. The cortical muscle representations were evaluated by the area and centre of gravity (CoG) by using MEP amplitudes and latencies. As expected, the latency and amplitude CoGs were congruent and were located in the centre of the maps but in a few subjects, instead of a single centre, several loci with short latencies were observed. In conclusion, MEP latencies may be useful in distinguishing the cortical representation areas with the most direct pathways from those pathways with prolonged latencies. However, the potential of latency mapping to identify stressed motor tract connections at the subcortical level will need to be verified in future studies with patients.

  8. Similar Motor Cortical Control Mechanisms for Precise Limb Control during Reaching and Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovenko, Sergiy

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the course of evolution there has been a parallel development of the complexity and flexibility of the nervous system and the skeletomuscular system that it controls. This development is particularly evident for the cerebral cortical areas and the transformation of the use of the upper limbs from a purely locomotor function to one including, or restricted to, reaching and grasping. This study addresses the issue of whether the control of reaching has involved the development of new cortical circuits or whether the same neurons are used to control both locomotion and reaching. We recorded the activity of pyramidal tract neurons in the motor cortex of the cat both during voluntary gait modifications and during reaching. All cells showed generally similar patterns of activity in both tasks. More specifically, we showed that, in many cases, cells maintained a constant temporal relationship to the activity of synergistic muscle groups in each task. In addition, in some cells the relationship between the intensity of the cell discharge activity and the magnitude of the EMG activity was equally constant during gait modifications and reaching. As such, the results are compatible with the hypothesis that the corticospinal circuits used to control reaching evolved from those used to precisely modify gait. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In an article in 1989, Georgopoulos and Grillner (1989) proposed that the corticospinal control mechanisms used for reaching movements in primates may have evolved from those used to control precise modifications of gait during quadrupedal locomotion. In this article, we provide a test of this hypothesis by recording the activity of individual motor cortical cells during both behaviors. Our results are compatible with the hypothesis in that they demonstrate that individual cortical neurons exhibit similar qualitative and quantitative patterns during each behavior. Beyond a general similarity of activity patterns, we show that some cortical

  9. Factors affecting on the particle deposition in the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Yoshihisa

    1991-01-01

    The deposition pattern of inhaled particles in the respiratory tracts is affected by anatomical structure of the respiratory tracts and respiratory pattern of animals, which are modified by many factors as animal species, physiological and psychological conditions, age, sex, smoking drug, lung diseases, etc. In human, studies have been focused on the initial lung deposition of particles and have made it clear that the respiratory pattern, gender, and diseases may have influence on the deposition pattern. On the other hand, there was little knowledge on the initial lung deposition of particles in laboratory animals. Recently, Raabe et al. have reported the initial lung deposition of 169 Yb-aluminosilicate particles in mice, rats, hamsters, guinea pigs and rabbits. The authors have also investigated the lung deposition of latex particles with different sizes and 198 Au-colloid in rats whose respiratory volumes during the inhalation were monitored by body plethysmography. These experiments indicated that the deposition of inhaled particles in distal lung e.g. small bronchiolar and alveolar region, was much lower in laboratory animals than that of human. This species difference may be due to smaller diameter of respiratory tract and/or shallower breathing and higher respiratory rate of laboratory animals. The experimental animals in which respiratory diseases were induced artificially have been used to investigate the modification factors on the deposition pattern of inhaled particles. As respiratory diseases, emphysema was induced in rats, hamsters, beagle dogs in some laboratories and pulmonary delayed type hypersensitivity reaction in rats was in our laboratory. The initial lung deposition of particles in these animals was consistently decreased in comparison with normals, regardless of the animal species and the type of disease. (author)

  10. Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of organisms causing urinary tract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    skeletal toxicity in pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis re- ceiving a three—month course of ciprofloxacin. Pediatr Infec. DisJ 1991; 10: 723 ~ 729. 22. Danisovicova A, Krcmeryova T, Belan S, et a1. Magnetic reso— nance imaging in diagnosis of potential arthropathogencity in children receiving quinilones: No evidence for ...

  11. The Frequency and Pattern of Female Genital Tract Malignancies at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data were analyzed using SPSS version 12 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) and the results expressed in descriptive statistics by simple percentages. Results: One hundred and sixty six (166) cases of genital malignancies were recorded during the 6‑year review. Majority of the patients were in the fifth and sixth decades ...

  12. Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of organisms causing urinary tract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: Antimicrobial sensitivity test was carried out on bacterial isolates from the urine of febrile children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) and children with HbAA in Maiduguri. Urine specimens were collected and cultured by standard methods. Sensitivity to 15 antimicrobials (based on availability of sensitivity ...

  13. Urinary tract infections and Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Payam; Behzadi, Elham; Ranjbar, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract candidiasis is known as the most frequent nosocomial fungal infection worldwide. Candida albicans is the most common cause of nosocomial fungal urinary tract infections; however, a rapid change in the distribution of Candida species is undergoing. Simultaneously, the increase of urinary tract candidiasis has led to the appearance of antifungal resistant Candida species. In this review, we have an in depth look into Candida albicans uropathogenesis and distribution of the three most frequent Candida species contributing to urinary tract candidiasis in different countries around the world. For writing this review, Google Scholar -a scholarly search engine- (http://scholar.google.com/) and PubMed database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/) were used. The most recently published original articles and reviews of literature relating to the first three Candida species causing urinary tract infections in different countries and the pathogenicity of Candida albicans were selected and studied. Although some studies show rapid changes in the uropathogenesis of Candida species causing urinary tract infections in some countries, Candida albicans is still the most important cause of candidal urinary tract infections. Despite the ranking of Candida albicans as the dominant species for urinary tract candidiasis, specific changes have occurred in some countries. At this time, it is important to continue the surveillance related to Candida species causing urinary tract infections to prevent, control and treat urinary tract candidiasis in future.

  14. Integration of Corticospinal Tractography Reduces Motor Complications After Radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, Tomoyuki, E-mail: kouga-tky@umin.ac.jp [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Shin, Masahiro; Maruyama, Keisuke; Kamada, Kyousuke; Ota, Takahiro [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Itoh, Daisuke [Department of Radiology, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kunii, Naoto [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Ino, Kenji; Aoki, Shigeki; Masutani, Yoshitaka; Igaki, Hiroshi; Onoe, Tsuyoshi [Department of Radiology, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Nobuhito [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether the use of diffusion-tensor tractography (DTT) of the corticospinal tract could reduce motor complications after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods and Materials: Patients with arteriovenous malformation (AVM) in the deep frontal lobe, deep parietal lobe, basal ganglia, and thalamus who had undergone radiosurgery since 2000 and were followed up for more than 3 years were studied. DTT of the corticospinal tract had been integrated into treatment planning of SRS since 2004, and the maximum dose received by the corticospinal tract was attempted to be less than 20 Gy. Treatment outcomes before (28 patients, Group A) and after (24 patients, Group B) the introduction of this technique were compared. Results: There were no statistical differences between the two groups (Group A vs. Group B) in patients' age (34 years vs. 33 years, p = 0.76), percentage of patients with hemorrhagic events before treatment (50% vs. 29%, p = 0.12), or percentage of AVM involving the basal ganglia and thalamus (36% vs. 46%, p = 0.46). Obliteration rates were 69% and 76% at 4 years in Groups A and B, respectively (p = 0.68), which were not significantly different. Motor complications were observed in 5 patients in Group A (17.9%) but only in 1 patient in Group B (4.2%), which was significantly less frequent (p = 0.021). Conclusion: Integrating DTT of the corticospinal tract into treatment planning contributed to reduction of motor complications without compromising the obliteration rate for AVM adjacent to the corticospinal tract.

  15. Impaired transmission in the corticospinal tract and gait disability in spinal cord injured persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthélemy, Dorothy; Willerslev-Olsen, Maria; Lundell, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    with the degree of foot drop, as measured by toe elevation and ankle angle excursion in the first part of swing. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to elicit motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the TA. The amplitude of the MEPs at rest and their latency during contraction were correlated to the degree...... that transmission in the corticospinal tract is of importance for lifting the foot during the swing phase of human gait....

  16. Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…

  17. Studies on fetal motor behaviour in normal and complicated pregnancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sival, D A

    The possibility of studying fetal motor behaviour by ultrasound techniques has provoked research on its potential application for assessment of prenatal neurological conditions. The characteristics ('quality') of one particular movement pattern, the 'general movement', has been shown to be

  18. STUDIES ON FETAL MOTOR BEHAVIOR IN NORMAL AND COMPLICATED PREGNANCIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sival, DA

    The possibility of studying fetal motor behaviour by ultrasound techniques has provoked research on its potential application for assessment of prenatal neurological conditions. The characteristics ('quality') of one particular movement pattern, the 'general movement', has been shown to be

  19. URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Sivalingam

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections frequently affect pregnant mothers. This problem causes significant morbidity and healthcare expenditure. Three common clinical manifestations of UTIs in pregnancy are: asymptomatic bacteriuria, acute cystitis and acute pyelonephritis. Escherichia coli remains the most frequent organism isolated in UTIs. All pregnant mothers should be screened for UTIs in pregnancy and antibiotics should be commenced without delay. Urine culture and sensitivity is the gold standard in diagnosing UTIs. Without treatment, asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy is associated with preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, maternal hypertension, pre-eclampsia and anaemia. Acute pyelonephritis can lead to maternal sepsis. Recurrent UTIs in pregnancy require prophylactic antibiotic treatment.

  20. Changes to the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This article explores changes in the ageing gastrointestinal tract, including: » Diminished sense of taste and smell. » Shrinking of the maxillary and mandibular bones in the jaw. » Slowing of oesophageal peristalsis giving a feeling that something is 'stuck in the throat'. » Relaxation of the lower sphincter leading to gastro-oesophageal reflux. » Reduction in gastric bicarbonate and prostaglandin in mucus increasing susceptibility to stomach ulcers. » Changes in villi in the small intestine reducing the area for absorption. » Overpopulation of bacteria in the small intestine leading to decreased absorption of folic acid and minerals.

  1. Motor degradation prediction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor's duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures

  2. A tract-specific framework for white matter morphometry combining macroscopic and microscopic tract features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Awate, Suyash P; Das, Sandhitsu R; Woo, John H; Melhem, Elias R; Gee, James C; Yushkevich, Paul A

    2010-10-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging plays a key role in our understanding of white matter both in normal populations and in populations with brain disorders. Existing techniques focus primarily on using diffusivity-based quantities derived from diffusion tensor as surrogate measures of microstructural tissue properties of white matter. In this paper, we describe a novel tract-specific framework that enables the examination of white matter morphometry at both the macroscopic and microscopic scales. The framework leverages the skeleton-based modeling of sheet-like white matter fasciculi using the continuous medial representation, which gives a natural definition of thickness and supports its comparison across subjects. The thickness measure provides a macroscopic characterization of white matter fasciculi that complements existing analysis of microstructural features. The utility of the framework is demonstrated in quantifying white matter atrophy in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, a severe neurodegenerative disease of motor neurons. We show that, compared to using microscopic features alone, combining the macroscopic and microscopic features gives a more complete characterization of the disease. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Early functional impairment of sensory-motor connectivity in a mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentis, George Z.; Blivis, Dvir; Liu, Wenfang; Drobac, Estelle; Crowder, Melissa E.; Kong, Lingling; Alvarez, Francisco J.; Sumner, Charlotte J.; O'Donovan, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY To define alterations of neuronal connectivity that occur during motor neuron degeneration, we characterized the function and structure of spinal circuitry in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) model mice. SMA motor neurons show reduced proprioceptive reflexes that correlate with decreased number and function of synapses on motor neuron somata and proximal dendrites. These abnormalities occur at an early stage of disease in motor neurons innervating proximal hindlimb muscles and medial motor neurons innervating axial muscles, but only at end-stage disease in motor neurons innervating distal hindlimb muscles. Motor neuron loss follows afferent synapse loss with the same temporal and topographical pattern. Trichostatin A, which improves motor behavior and survival of SMA mice, partially restores spinal reflexes illustrating the reversibility of these synaptic defects. De-afferentation of motor neurons is an early event in SMA and may be a primary cause of motor dysfunction that is amenable to therapeutic intervention. PMID:21315257

  4. Susceptibility of Urinary Tract Bacteria to Newer Antimicrobial Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula Mehta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs are among the commonest types of bacterial infections. The antibiotic treatment for UTIs is associated with important medical and economic implications. Many different microorganisms can cause UTIs though the most common pathogens are E. coli and members of family Enterobacteriaceae. The knowledge of etiology and antibiotic resistance pattern of the organisms causing urinary tract infection is essential. The present study was undertaken to evaluate trends of antibiotic susceptibility of commonly isolated uropathogens using newer antimicrobial agents, prulifloxacin, fosfomycin (FOM and doripenem. We conclude that maintaining a record of culture results and the antibiogram may help clinicians to determine the empirical and/or specific treatment based on the antibiogram of the isolate for better therapeutic outcome.

  5. The emotional motor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstege, G

    1992-01-01

    A large number of new descending motor pathways to caudal brainstem and spinal cord have been recognized recently. Nevertheless all the new pathways seem to belong to one of three motor systems in the central nervous system (CNS). This survey gives an overview of the pathways belonging to the so-called emotional motor system or the third motor system as defined by Holstege. The similarities and differences with the core, median and lateral paracore areas of the CNS as defined by Nieuwenhuys are discussed.

  6. Control motor brushless sensorless

    OpenAIRE

    Solchaga Pérez de Lazárraga, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    El proyecto consiste en la creación de un circuito capaz de controlar la velocidad de un motor brushless sensorless. Este tipo de motores eléctricos tienen como característica que no tienen escobillas para cambiar la polaridad del bobinado de su interior y tampoco precisan de un sensor que indique que ha realizado una vuelta. Los motores brushless que son controlados por este tipo de circuitos son específicos para aeronaves no tripuladas y requieren un diseño diferente a un motor brushless pe...

  7. Cranberries and lower urinary tract infection prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Hisano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lower urinary tract infections are very common diseases. Recurrent urinary tract infections remain challenging to treat because the main treatment option is long-term antibiotic prophylaxis; however, this poses a risk for the emergence of bacterial resistance. Some options to avoid this risk are available, including the use of cranberry products. This article reviews the key methods in using cranberries as a preventive measure for lower urinary tract infections, including in vitro studies and clinical trials.

  8. Quantitative MRI in hypomyelinating disorders: Correlation with motor handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenweg, Marjan E; Wolf, Nicole I; van Wieringen, Wessel N; Barkhof, Frederik; van der Knaap, Marjo S; Pouwels, Petra J W

    2016-08-23

    To assess the correlation of tissue parameters estimated by quantitative magnetic resonance (MR) techniques and motor handicap in patients with hypomyelination. Twenty-eight patients with different causes of hypomyelination (12 males, 16 females; mean age 10 years) and 61 controls (33 males, 28 females; mean age 8 years) were prospectively investigated. We quantified T2 relaxation time, magnetization transfer ratio, fractional anisotropy, mean, axial, and radial diffusivities, and brain metabolites. We performed measurements in the splenium, parietal deep white matter, and corticospinal tracts in the centrum semiovale. We further analyzed diffusion measures using tract-based spatial statistics. We estimated severity of motor handicap by the gross motor function classification system. We evaluated correlation of handicap with MR measures by linear regression analyses. Fractional anisotropy, magnetization transfer ratio, choline, and N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratio were lower and diffusivities, T2 values, and inositol were higher in patients than in controls. Tract-based spatial statistics showed that these changes were widespread for fractional anisotropy (96% of the white matter skeleton), radial (93%) and mean (84%) diffusivity, and less so for axial diffusivity (20%). Correlation with handicap yielded radial diffusivity and N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratio as strongest independent explanatory variables. Gross motor function classification system grades are in part explained by MR measures. They indicate that mainly lack of myelin and, to a lesser degree, loss of axonal integrity codetermine the degree of motor handicap in patients with hypomyelinating disorders. These MR measures can be used to evaluate strategies that are aimed at promotion of myelination. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  9. Is spina bifida occulta associated with lower urinary tract dysfunction in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, M; Boddy, S A

    2004-06-01

    Of congenital malformations of the central nervous system 46% are abnormalities of the spinal cord, which includes spina bifida occulta. The occurrence and significance of spina bifida occulta in children with lower urinary tract and bowel dysfunction were evaluated prospectively. Between January 1999 and February 2001, 158 consecutive children presenting with lower urinary tract and bowel dysfunction were prospectively evaluated for associated spinal abnormalities. Plain abdominal x-ray showed either the presence or absence of fusion of the posterior elements of the lumbar and/or sacral spinous processes. Of the 158 patients 57 (36%) had spina bifida occulta (group 1) and 101 (64%) did not (group 2). There was no correlation between clinical outcome in group 1 with spina bifida occulta and lower urinary tract dysfunction and the pattern of spina bifida occulta. Significant correlation was present between lower urinary tract dysfunction and the presence of spina bifida occulta on plain abdominal x-ray. No significant correlation was found between the presence of spina bifida occulta and spinal cord abnormalities by magnetic resonance imaging scan. There was no direct causal relation between the radiological finding and lower urinary tract dysfunction. Children presenting with spina bifida occulta, and lower urinary tract and bowel dysfunction have normal genitourinary tracts and absent spinal cord abnormalities. Spina bifida occulta is probably a coincidental finding and its true significance in this cohort was not established.

  10. A review of monopolar motor mapping and a comprehensive guide to continuous dynamic motor mapping for resection of motor eloquent brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schucht, P; Seidel, K; Jilch, A; Beck, J; Raabe, A

    2017-06-01

    Monopolar mapping of motor function differs from the most commonly used method of intraoperative mapping, i.e. bipolar direct electrical stimulation at 50-60Hz (Penfield technique mapping). Most importantly, the monopolar probe emits a radial, homogenous electrical field different to the more focused inter-tip bipolar electrical field. Most users combine monopolar stimulation with the short train technique, also called high frequency stimulation, or train-of-five techniques. It consists of trains of four to nine monopolar rectangular electrical pulses of 200-500μs pulse length with an inter stimulus interval of 2-4msec. High frequency short train stimulation triggers a time-locked motor-evoked potential response, which has a defined latency and an easily quantifiable amplitude. In this way, motor thresholds might be used to evaluate a current-to-distance relation. The homogeneous electrical field and the current-to-distance approximation provide the surgeon with an estimate of the remaining distance to the corticospinal tract, enabling the surgeon to adjust the speed of resection as the corticospinal tract is approached. Furthermore, this stimulation paradigm is associated with a lower incidence of intraoperative seizures, allowing continuous stimulation. Hence, monopolar mapping is increasingly used as part of a strategy of continuous dynamic mapping: ergonomically integrated into the surgeon's tools, the monopolar probe reliably provides continuous/uninterrupted feedback on motor function. As part of this strategy, motor mapping is not any longer a time consuming interruption of resection but rather a radar-like, real-time information system on the spatial relationship of the current resection site to eloquent motor structures. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Mapeamento da área motora durante a cirurgia de tumor intracraniano: fatores que podem modificar a intensidade da estimulação Intraoperative mapping of motor areas during brain tumor surgery: electrical stimulation patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Thadeu Brainer-Lima

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O mapeamento com estimulação direta do córtex cerebral foi utilizado quando o tumor estava próximo ou infiltrava o lobo central. OBJETIVO: Avaliar interferências na técnica de estimulação eletrica direta do córtex e substância branca, sob anestesia geral, durante cirurgia para tumor cerebral relacionado ao lobo central. MÉTODO: Foram estudados 42 pacientes operados de junho de 2000 a junho de 2003. Os fatores que modificaram a intensidade da estimulação necessaria para localizar a área motora durante a cirurgia foram estudados. RESULTADOS: A intensidade necessária do estimulo foi maior entre os pacientes com déficit motor antes da cirurgia (p=0,425, edema na ressonância magnetica (p=0,468 e anestesia com proporfol contínuo (p=0,001. CONCLUSÃO: O mapeamento funcional do lobo central durante a cirurgia foi prejudicado pelo deficit motor acentuado, edema cerebral e anestesia com propofol contínuo.Brain mapping with direct electrical stimulation is usefull when the tumor is located near or has infiltrated the central lobe. OBJETIVE: To analize the surgical findings with direct electrical stimulation of the cortex and white matter under general anesthesia during surgery for brain tumors related to the central lobe. METHOD: We studied 42 patients operated on from June 2000 to June 2003. We analyzed surgical findings and details of brain mapping. RESULTS: The mean value of the intensity of the stimulus was greater among those who presented motor deficit prior to surgery (p = 0.0425 and edema on MRI (p= 0.0468 or during anesthesia with continuous propofol (p=0.001. CONCLUSION: The functional mapping of the central lobe may be influenced by severe motor deficit, edema on MRI and propofol's anesthesia.

  12. Evaluation of endoscopic entire 3D image acquisition of the digestive tract using a stereo endoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Kayo; Watabe, Kenji; Fujinaga, Tetsuji; Iijima, Hideki; Tsujii, Masahiko; Takahashi, Hideya; Takehara, Tetsuo; Yamada, Kenji

    2017-02-01

    Because the view angle of the endoscope is narrow, it is difficult to get the whole image of the digestive tract at once. If there are more than two lesions in the digestive tract, it is hard to understand the 3D positional relationship among the lesions. Virtual endoscopy using CT is a present standard method to get the whole view of the digestive tract. Because the virtual endoscopy is designed to detect the irregularity of the surface, it cannot detect lesions that lack irregularity including early cancer. In this study, we propose a method of endoscopic entire 3D image acquisition of the digestive tract using a stereo endoscope. The method is as follows: 1) capture sequential images of the digestive tract by moving the endoscope, 2) reconstruct 3D surface pattern for each frame by stereo images, 3) estimate the position of the endoscope by image analysis, 4) reconstitute the entire image of the digestive tract by combining the 3D surface pattern. To confirm the validity of this method, we experimented with a straight tube inside of which circles were allocated at equal distance of 20 mm. We captured sequential images and the reconstituted image of the tube revealed that the distance between each circle was 20.2 +/- 0.3 mm (n=7). The results suggest that this method of endoscopic entire 3D image acquisition may help us understand 3D positional relationship among the lesions such as early esophageal cancer that cannot be detected by virtual endoscopy using CT.

  13. Characterisation of antibiotic prescriptions for acute respiratory tract infections in Danish general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune; Hansen, Malene Plejdrup; Saust, Laura Trolle

    2017-01-01

    Inappropriate use of antibiotics is contributing to the increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance. Several Danish guidelines on antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections in general practice have been issued to promote rational prescribing of antibiotics, however it is uncle......-line agents like macrolides and amoxicillin with or without clavulanic acid are overused. Strategies to improve the quality of antibiotic prescribing especially for pneumonia, acute otitis media and acute rhinosinusitis are warranted.......Inappropriate use of antibiotics is contributing to the increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance. Several Danish guidelines on antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections in general practice have been issued to promote rational prescribing of antibiotics, however it is unclear...... if these recommendations are followed. We aimed to characterise the pattern of antibiotic prescriptions for patients diagnosed with acute respiratory tract infections, by means of electronic prescriptions, labeled with clinical indications, from Danish general practice. Acute respiratory tract infections accounted for 456...

  14. Three-dimensional white matter tractography by diffusion tensor imaging in ischaemic stroke involving the corticospinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunimatsu, A.; Aoki, S.; Masutani, Y.; Abe, O.; Mori, H.; Ohtomo, K.

    2003-01-01

    Diffusion tensor MR imaging (DTI) provides information on diffusion anisotropy, which can be expressed with three-dimensional (3D) white matter tractography. We used 3D white matter tractography to show the corticospinal tract in eight patients with acute or early subacute ischaemic stroke involving the posterior limb of the internal capsule or corona radiata and to assess involvement of the tract. Infarcts and the tract were shown simultaneously, providing information on their spatial relationships. In five of the eight patients, 3D fibre tract maps showed the corticospinal tract in close proximity to the infarct but not to pass through it. All these patients recovered well, with maximum improvement from the lowest score on manual muscle testing (MMT) up to the full score through rehabilitation. In the other three patients the corticospinal tract was shown running through the infarct; reduction in MMT did not necessarily improve favourably or last longer, other than in one patient. As 3D white matter tractography can show spatial relationships between the corticospinal tract and an infarct, it might be helpful in prognosis of gross motor function. (orig.)

  15. The Emotional Motor System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holstege, G.

    1992-01-01

    A large number of new descending motor pathways to caudal brainstem and spinal cord have been recognized recently. Nevertheless all the new pathways seem to belong to one of three motor systems in the central nervous system (CNS). This survey gives an overvieuw of the pathways belonging to the

  16. THE EMOTIONAL MOTOR SYSTEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOLSTEGE, G

    1992-01-01

    A large number of new descending motor pathways to caudal brainstem and spinal cord have been recognized recently. Nevertheless all the new pathways seem to belong to one of three motor systems in the central nervous system (CNS). This survey gives an overvieuw of the pathways belonging to the

  17. Modeling Induction Motor Imbalances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armah, Kabenla; Jouffroy, Jerome; Duggen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a study into the development of a generalized model for a three-phase induction motor that offers flexibility of simulating balanced and unbalanced parameter scenarios. By analyzing the interaction of forces within the motor, we achieve our main objective of deriving the system...

  18. Stepping motor controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourret, Steven C.; Swansen, James E.

    1984-01-01

    A stepping motor is microprocessingly controlled by digital circuitry which monitors the output of a shaft encoder adjustably secured to the stepping motor and generates a subsequent stepping pulse only after the preceding step has occurred and a fixed delay has expired. The fixed delay is variable on a real-time basis to provide for smooth and controlled deceleration.

  19. Increased threshold of short-latency motor evoked potentials in transgenic mice expressing Channelrhodopsin-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Xiong, Wenhui; Zhang, Ping; Chen, Lifang; Fang, Jianqiao; Shields, Christopher; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Jin, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    Transgenic mice that express channelrhodopsin-2 or its variants provide a powerful tool for optogenetic study of the nervous system. Previous studies have established that introducing such exogenous genes usually does not alter anatomical, electrophysiological, and behavioral properties of neurons in these mice. However, in a line of Thy1-ChR2-YFP transgenic mice (line 9, Jackson lab), we found that short-latency motor evoked potentials (MEPs) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation had a longer latency and much lower amplitude than that of wild type mice. MEPs evoked by transcranial electrical stimulation also had a much higher threshold in ChR2 mice, although similar amplitudes could be evoked in both wild and ChR2 mice at maximal stimulation. In contrast, long-latency MEPs evoked by electrically stimulating the motor cortex were similar in amplitude and latency between wild type and ChR2 mice. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings from layer V pyramidal neurons of the motor cortex in ChR2 mice revealed no significant differences in intrinsic membrane properties and action potential firing in response to current injection. These data suggest that corticospinal tract is not accountable for the observed abnormality. Motor behavioral assessments including BMS score, rotarod, and grid-walking test showed no significant differences between the two groups. Because short-latency MEPs are known to involve brainstem reticulospinal tract, while long-latency MEPs mainly involve primary motor cortex and dorsal corticospinal tract, we conclude that this line of ChR2 transgenic mice has normal function of motor cortex and dorsal corticospinal tract, but reduced excitability and responsiveness of reticulospinal tracts. This abnormality needs to be taken into account when using these mice for related optogenetic study.

  20. Role of the left frontal aslant tract in stuttering: a brain stimulation and tractographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemerdere, Rahsan; de Champfleur, Nicolas Menjot; Deverdun, Jérémy; Cochereau, Jérôme; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Herbet, Guillaume; Duffau, Hugues

    2016-01-01

    The neural correlates of stuttering are to date incompletely understood. Although the possible involvement of the basal ganglia, the cerebellum and certain parts of the cerebral cortex in this speech disorder has previously been reported, there are still not many studies investigating the role of white matter fibers in stuttering. Axonal stimulation during awake surgery provides a unique opportunity to study the functional role of structural connectivity. Here, our goal was to investigate the white matter tracts implicated in stuttering, by combining direct electrostimulation mapping and postoperative tractography imaging, with a special focus on the left frontal aslant tract. Eight patients with no preoperative stuttering underwent awake surgery for a left frontal low-grade glioma. Intraoperative cortical and axonal electrical mapping was used to interfere in speech processing and subsequently provoke stuttering. We further assessed the relationship between the subcortical sites leading to stuttering and the spatial course of the frontal aslant tract. All patients experienced intraoperative stuttering during axonal electrostimulation. On postsurgical tractographies, the subcortical distribution of stimulated sites matched the topographical position of the left frontal aslant tract. This white matter pathway was preserved during surgery, and no patients had postoperative stuttering. For the first time to our knowledge, by using direct axonal stimulation combined with postoperative tractography, we provide original data supporting a pivotal role of the left frontal aslant tract in stuttering. We propose that this speech disorder could be the result of a disconnection within a large-scale cortico-subcortical circuit subserving speech motor control.

  1. Higher Efficiency HVAC Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Charles Joseph [QM Power, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2018-02-13

    The objective of this project was to design and build a cost competitive, more efficient heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) motor than what is currently available on the market. Though different potential motor architectures among QMP’s primary technology platforms were investigated and evaluated, including through the building of numerous prototypes, the project ultimately focused on scaling up QM Power, Inc.’s (QMP) Q-Sync permanent magnet synchronous motors from available sub-fractional horsepower (HP) sizes for commercial refrigeration fan applications to larger fractional horsepower sizes appropriate for HVAC applications, and to add multi-speed functionality. The more specific goal became the research, design, development, and testing of a prototype 1/2 HP Q-Sync motor that has at least two operating speeds and 87% peak efficiency compared to incumbent electronically commutated motors (EC or ECM, also known as brushless direct current (DC) motors), the heretofore highest efficiency HVACR fan motor solution, at approximately 82% peak efficiency. The resulting motor prototype built achieved these goals, hitting 90% efficiency and .95 power factor at full load and speed, and 80% efficiency and .7 power factor at half speed. Q-Sync, developed in part through a DOE SBIR grant (Award # DE-SC0006311), is a novel, patented motor technology that improves on electronically commutated permanent magnet motors through an advanced electronic circuit technology. It allows a motor to “sync” with the alternating current (AC) power flow. It does so by eliminating the constant, wasteful power conversions from AC to DC and back to AC through the synthetic creation of a new AC wave on the primary circuit board (PCB) by a process called pulse width modulation (PWM; aka electronic commutation) that is incessantly required to sustain motor operation in an EC permanent magnet motor. The Q-Sync circuit improves the power factor of the motor by removing all

  2. To What Extent Can Motor Imagery Replace Motor Execution While Learning a Fine Motor Skill?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobierajewicz, Jagna; Szarkiewicz, Sylwia; Prekoracka-Krawczyk, Anna; Jaskowski, Wojciech; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Motor imagery is generally thought to share common mechanisms with motor execution. In the present study, we examined to what extent learning a fine motor skill by motor imagery may substitute physical practice. Learning effects were assessed by manipulating the proportion of motor execution and

  3. Induction motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1990-01-01

    Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly ultilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilized induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high-frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high-frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

  4. Induction motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1990-01-01

    Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly utilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilizes induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

  5. Enhanced white matter tracts integrity in children with abacus training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuzheng; Geng, Fengji; Tao, Lixia; Hu, Nantu; Du, Fenglei; Fu, Kuang; Chen, Feiyan

    2011-01-01

    Experts of abacus, who have the skills of abacus-based mental calculation (AMC), are able to manipulate numbers via an imagined abacus in mind and demonstrate extraordinary ability in mental calculation. Behavioral studies indicated that abacus experts utilize visual strategy in solving numerical problems, and fMRI studies confirmed the enhanced involvement of visuospatial-related neural resources in AMC. This study aims to explore the possible changes in brain white matter induced by long-term training of AMC. Two matched groups participated: the abacus group consisting of 25 children with over 3-year training in abacus calculation and AMC, the controls including 25 children without any abacus experience. We found that the abacus group showed higher average fractional anisotropy (FA) in whole-brain fiber tracts, and the regions with increased FA were found in corpus callosum, left occipitotemporal junction and right premotor projection. No regions, however, showed decreased FA in the abacus group. Further analysis revealed that the differences in FA values were mainly driven by the alternation of radial rather than axial diffusivities. Furthermore, in forward digit and letter memory span tests, AMC group showed larger digit/letter memory spans. Interestingly, individual differences in white matter tracts were found positively correlated with the memory spans, indicating that the widespread increase of FA in the abacus group result possibly from the AMC training. In conclusion, our findings suggested that long-term AMC training from an early age may improve the memory capacity and enhance the integrity in white matter tracts related to motor and visuospatial processes. Hum Brain Mapp, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. STEPPING MOTOR - HYDRAULIC MOTOR SERVO DRIVES FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    machine tool systems wherever the existing production batch sizes and frequency of manufacture justifies it in a developing country. This is so mainly because numerically controlled (NC) ... Because the NC machine is an expensive item of equipment it is ... electric stepping motor is a very precise unit with. 10k ohms.

  7. Metastases of the digestive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caramella, E.; Bruneton, J.N.; Roux, P.; Aubanel, D.; Lecomte, P.

    1983-01-01

    In addition to personal observations of 77 patients with one or more metastatic sites in the gastrointestinal tract, the authors reviewed over 1000 similar cases in the literature. The general radiologic aspects of each location (oesophagus, stomach, intestine, colon/rectum) are discussed. The pathophysiology of this type of metastasis explains the radiologic images obtained during barium transit examinations. The lymphatic type of spread observed in the oesophageal region in connection with carcinoma of the breast is the origin of stenosis of the middle third. The haematogenous type of diffusion encountered during melanomas creates intramural or intraluminal radiologic images. Two means of spread can be observed in the stomach. Haematogenous spread can result in frequently multiple and ulcerated nodular submucosal lesions from melanomas and bronchogenic carcinomas; it can also cause a more or less stenotic invasive image, especially in connection with carcinoma of the breast. Dissemination by means of the mesenteric reflections, and in particular around the gastrocolic ligament, explains the spread of a carcinoma of the transverse colon towards the stomach. The most frequent secondary sites in the gastrointestinal tract occur in the small intestine, the majority of these metastases being caused by pelvic tumours. Whether occurring in the small intestine or the colon, the patophysiology is similar: direct invasion by a non-contiguous primary carcinoma along the fascias and mesenteric attachments (more rarely by lymphatic permeation), dissemination by the peritoneal fluid or haematogenuous spread. In the first two types of dissemination cited, the image encountered is often hard to differentiate from radiation-induced lesions. (orig.)

  8. White Matter Structure in Older Adults Moderates the Benefit of Sleep Spindles on Motor Memory Consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Bryce A; Zhu, Alyssa H; Lindquist, John R; Villeneuve, Sylvia; Rao, Vikram; Lu, Brandon; Saletin, Jared M; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Jagust, William J; Walker, Matthew P

    2017-11-29

    Sleep spindles promote the consolidation of motor skill memory in young adults. Older adults, however, exhibit impoverished sleep-dependent motor memory consolidation. The underlying pathophysiological mechanism(s) explaining why motor memory consolidation in older adults fails to benefit from sleep remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that male and female older adults show impoverished overnight motor skill memory consolidation relative to young adults, with the extent of impairment being associated with the degree of reduced frontal fast sleep spindle density. The magnitude of the loss of frontal fast sleep spindles in older adults was predicted by the degree of reduced white matter integrity throughout multiple white matter tracts known to connect subcortical and cortical brain regions. We further demonstrate that the structural integrity of selective white matter fiber tracts, specifically within right posterior corona radiata, right tapetum, and bilateral corpus callosum, statistically moderates whether sleep spindles promoted overnight consolidation of motor skill memory. Therefore, white matter integrity within tracts known to connect cortical sensorimotor control regions dictates the functional influence of sleep spindles on motor skill memory consolidation in the elderly. The deterioration of white matter fiber tracts associated with human brain aging thus appears to be one pathophysiological mechanism influencing subcortical-cortical propagation of sleep spindles and their related memory benefits. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Numerous studies have shown that sleep spindle expression is reduced and sleep-dependent motor memory is impaired in older adults. However, the mechanisms underlying these alterations have remained unknown. The present study reveals that age-related degeneration of white matter within select fiber tracts is associated with reduced sleep spindles in older adults. We further demonstrate that, within these same fiber tracts, the degree of

  9. Structural abnormalities in early Tourette syndrome children: a combined voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Liu

    Full Text Available Tourette Syndrome (TS is characterized with chronic motor and vocal tics beginning in childhood. Abnormality of both gray (GM and white matter (WM has been observed in cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits and sensory-motor cortex of adult TS patient. It is not clear if these morphological changes are also present in TS children and if there are any microstructural changes of WM. To understand the developmental cause of such changes, we investigated volumetric changes of GM and WM using VBM and microstructural changes of WM using DTI, and correlated these changes with tic severity and duration. T1 images and Diffusion Tensor Images (DTI from 21 TS children were compared with 20 age and gender matched health control children using a 1.5T Philips scanner. All of the 21 TS children met the DSM-IV-TR criteria. T1 images were analyzed using DARTEL-VBM in conjunction with statistical parametric mapping (SPM. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI analysis was performed using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS. Brain volume changes were found in left superior temporal gyrus, left and right paracentral gyrus, right precuneous cortex, right pre- and post-central gyrus, left temporal occipital fusiform cortex, right frontal pole, and left lingual gyrus. Significant axial diffusivity (AD and mean diffusivity (MD increases were found in anterior thalamic radiation, right cingulum bundle projecting to the cingulate gurus and forceps minor. Decreases in white matter volume (WMV in the right frontal pole were inversely related with tic severity (YGTSS, and increases in AD and MD were positively correlated with tic severity and duration, respectively. These changes in TS children can be interpreted as signs of neural plasticity in response to the experiential demand. Our findings may suggest that the morphological and microstructural measurements from structural MRI and DTI can potentially be used as a biomarker of the pathophysiologic pattern of early TS children.

  10. Auditory-perceptual learning improves speech motor adaptation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiller, Douglas M; Rochon, Marie-Lyne

    2014-08-01

    Auditory feedback plays an important role in children's speech development by providing the child with information about speech outcomes that is used to learn and fine-tune speech motor plans. The use of auditory feedback in speech motor learning has been extensively studied in adults by examining oral motor responses to manipulations of auditory feedback during speech production. Children are also capable of adapting speech motor patterns to perceived changes in auditory feedback; however, it is not known whether their capacity for motor learning is limited by immature auditory-perceptual abilities. Here, the link between speech perceptual ability and the capacity for motor learning was explored in two groups of 5- to 7-year-old children who underwent a period of auditory perceptual training followed by tests of speech motor adaptation to altered auditory feedback. One group received perceptual training on a speech acoustic property relevant to the motor task while a control group received perceptual training on an irrelevant speech contrast. Learned perceptual improvements led to an enhancement in speech motor adaptation (proportional to the perceptual change) only for the experimental group. The results indicate that children's ability to perceive relevant speech acoustic properties has a direct influence on their capacity for sensory-based speech motor adaptation.

  11. Peptide Hormones in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasi...

  12. urinary tract infections amongst pregnant women attending

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    INTRODUCTION. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common bacterial infection during pregnancy and a significant cause of perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality (1). It may be symptomatic, in form of urethritis, cystitis, pyelonephritis; or it may remain asymptomatic (2). Urinary Tract Infection is more common in women.

  13. Urinary tract infection in girls - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI) should begin to improve within 1 to 2 days in most girls. The advice below may not ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 127. Elder JS. Urinary tract infections. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, ...

  14. Constipation and reversible urinary tract abnormalities.

    OpenAIRE

    Dohil, R; Roberts, E; Jones, K V; Jenkins, H R

    1994-01-01

    Urinary tract anomalies were prospectively investigated with ultrasound in 29 children with functional constipation. These children were compared before and after treatment with 451 age matched healthy controls without constipation. The bladder residue and upper renal tract dilatation after micturition were significantly increased in the group with constipation and improved after treatment.

  15. Renal tract malformations: perspectives for nephrologists.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerecuk, L.; Schreuder, M.F.; Woolf, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    Renal tract malformations are congenital anomalies of the kidneys and/or lower urinary tract. One challenging feature of these conditions is that they can present not only prenatally but also in childhood or adulthood. The most severe types of malformations, such as bilateral renal agenesis or

  16. Surgical evaluation of a novel tethered robotic capsule endoscope using micro-patterned treads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliker, Levin J; Kern, Madalyn D; Schoen, Jonathan A; Rentschler, Mark E

    2012-10-01

    The state-of-the-art technology for gastrointestinal (GI) tract exploration is a capsule endoscope (CE). Capsule endoscopes are pill-sized devices that provide visual feedback of the GI tract as they move passively through the patient. These passive devices could benefit from a mobility system enabling maneuverability and controllability. Potential benefits of a tethered robotic capsule endoscope (tRCE) include faster travel speeds, reaction force generation for biopsy, and decreased capsule retention. In this work, a tethered CE is developed with an active locomotion system for mobility within a collapsed lumen. Micro-patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) treads are implemented onto a custom capsule housing as a mobility method. The tRCE housing contains a direct current (DC) motor and gear train to drive the treads, a video camera for visual feedback, and two light sources (infrared and visible) for illumination. The device was placed within the insufflated abdomen of a live anesthetized pig to evaluate mobility performance on a planar tissue surface, as well as within the cecum to evaluate mobility performance in a collapsed lumen. The tRCE was capable of forward and reverse mobility for both planar and collapsed lumen tissue environments. Also, using an onboard visual system, the tRCE was capable of demonstrating visual feedback within an insufflated, anesthetized porcine abdomen. Proof-of-concept in vivo tRCE mobility using micro-patterned PDMS treads was shown. This suggests that a similar method could be implemented in future smaller, faster, and untethered RCEs.

  17. Tract-Specific Diffusion Tensor Imaging Reveals Laterality of Neurological Symptoms in Patients with Cervical Compression Myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Satoshi; Koda, Masao; Saito, Junya; Takahashi, Sho; Inada, Taigo; Kamiya, Koshiro; Ota, Mitsutoshi; Iijima, Yasushi; Masuda, Yoshitada; Matsumoto, Koji; Kojima, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Obata, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Masashi; Furuya, Takeo

    2016-12-01

    Patients with cervical compression myelopathy (CCM) generally present bilateral neurological symptoms in their extremities. However, a substantial portion of patients with CCM exhibit laterality of neurological symptoms. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between intrinsic structural damage and laterality of symptoms using spinal cord diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the corticospinal tract. We enrolled 10 healthy volunteers and 40 patients with CCM in this study. We evaluated motor function using the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) motor score for left and right extremities. For DTI acquisitions, a 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging system with diffusion-weighted spin-echo sequence was used. Regions-of-interest in the lateral column tracts were determined. We determined the correlations between fractional anisotropy (FA) and ASIA motor scores. An FA asymmetry index was calculated using left and right regions-of-interest. Four patients exhibited laterality of symptoms in their extremities, for which left and right ASIA scores correlated moderately with FA in the left and right lateral columns, respectively (left: ρ = 0.64, P laterality of symptoms. Using tract-specific DTI, we demonstrated that microstructural damages in the left and right corticospinal tracts correlated with corresponding neurological symptoms in the ipsilateral side and the FA asymmetry index could indicate laterality in neurological symptoms of patients with CCM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Physiological Markers of Motor Inhibition during Human Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Julie; Greenhouse, Ian; Labruna, Ludovica; Ivry, Richard B

    2017-04-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies in humans have shown that many behaviors engage processes that suppress excitability within the corticospinal tract. Inhibition of the motor output pathway has been extensively studied in the context of action stopping, where a planned movement needs to be abruptly aborted. Recent TMS work has also revealed markers of motor inhibition during the preparation of movement. Here, we review the evidence for motor inhibition during action stopping and action preparation, focusing on studies that have used TMS to monitor changes in the excitability of the corticospinal pathway. We discuss how these physiological results have motivated theoretical models of how the brain selects actions, regulates movement initiation and execution, and switches from one state to another. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Survey of risk factors urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dehghani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Women are very susceptible to urinary tract infections and pregnancy raises the risk of urinary tract infection. In general, little information on the risk factors of urinary tract infection in pregnancy is underway. Urinary tract infection in pregnancy is an important risk factor for pregnancy dire consequences. The purpose of this study is to find risk factors associated with urinary tract infection in pregnant women. Methods: The study was observational and retrospective analysis was carried on in the winter of which 310 pregnant women participated in 11 health centers in Shahrekord. Of these 155 cases (patients and 155 controls (healthy that were matched for age Information required from the health records of pregnant women and complete Czech list of researcher whose validity was confirmed by experts were gathered. Information needed by pregnant women health records and complete list researcher was collected. Czech list contains a number of possible risk factors for illness and demographic characteristics of the study participants was Statistical analysis software spss version 16 by using chi square tests and logistic regression and t analysis was performed. Results: Among the variables vomiting (p = 0/00 a history of urinary tract infection in a previous pregnancy (P =.001, CI = 1.508-4.408, OR = 2.578 abortion own history (P =.014, CI = 1.165 -3.847, OR = 2.117, respectively, the most important risk factors for urinary tract infection in pregnant women were determined. Conclusion: Prevention and treatment of vomiting in pregnancy prevention of urinary tract infections during pregnancy. Prevention of abortion can play an important role in the prevention of urinary tract infection and its complications in pregnancy. The study also revealed a number of factors can have an impact on urinary tract infection in pregnancy that has not been enough attention and it is necessary that more attention be placed on health programs and

  20. Startle stimuli exert opposite effects on human cortical and spinal motor system excitability in leg muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilic, T V; Pötter-Nerger, M; Holler, I

    2011-01-01

    Increased excitability of the spinal motor system has been observed after loud and unexpected acoustic stimuli (AS) preceding H-reflexes. The paradigm has been proposed as an electrophysiological marker of reticulospinal tract activity in humans. The brainstem reticular formation also maintains...

  1. Changes in Voice Onset Time and Motor Speech Skills in Children following Motor Speech Therapy: Evidence from /pa/ productions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Vickie Y.; Kadis, Darren S.; Oh, Anna; Goshulak, Debra; Namasivayam, Aravind; Pukonen, Margit; Kroll, Robert; De Nil, Luc F.; Pang, Elizabeth W.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated changes in motor speech control and inter-gestural coordination for children with speech sound disorders (SSD) subsequent to PROMPT (Prompts for Restructuring Oral Muscular Phonetic Targets) intervention. We measured the distribution patterns of voice onset time (VOT) for a voiceless stop (/p/) to examine the changes in inter-gestural coordination. Two standardized tests were used (VMPAC, GFTA-2) to assess the changes in motor speech skills and articulation. Data showed positive changes in patterns of VOT with a lower pattern of variability. All children showed significantly higher scores for VMPAC, but only some children showed higher scores for GFTA-2. Results suggest that the proprioceptive feedback provided through PROMPT had a positive influence on motor speech control and inter-gestural coordination in voicing behavior. This set of VOT data for children with SSD adds to our understanding of the speech characteristics underlying motor speech control. Directions for future studies are discussed. PMID:24446799

  2. Preserved motor-evoked potentials but without good motor recovery in a patient with decerebrate rigidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuen-Der Kao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The corticospinal tract is not incriminated in decerebrate rigidity (DR. However, this has not yet been proven in humans. We applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS in a decerebrate patient to support the hypothesis. A patient suffering from pontine hemorrhage with the fourth ventricular extension was admitted unconscious and in a decerebrate posture. Five days later, she regained consciousness but remained in a decerebrate posture. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs to TMS were measured 1 week after she had regained consciousness, and this provoked muscle responses in her hands and feet bilaterally. During the follow-up, the patient’s muscle tone became persistently flaccid, although her strength increased to varying degrees in different body and limb muscles. She remained bedridden for 3 years after the stroke and could neither turn on the bed by herself nor perform skilled movements using her hands. The findings of TMS confirmed the animal studies in that the mechanism of decerebrate rigidity did not come through a damage of the corticospinal pathway. This also implies that a preserved corticospinal tract function cannot guarantee a good motor recovery in a stroke patient.

  3. MRI investigation of the sensorimotor cortex and the corticospinal tract after acute spinal cord injury: a prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Patrick; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Ashburner, John; Wolf, Katharina; Sutter, Reto; Altmann, Daniel R; Friston, Karl; Thompson, Alan; Curt, Armin

    2013-09-01

    In patients with chronic spinal cord injury, imaging of the spinal cord and brain above the level of the lesion provides evidence of neural degeneration; however, the spatial and temporal patterns of progression and their relation to clinical outcomes are uncertain. New interventions targeting acute spinal cord injury have entered clinical trials but neuroimaging outcomes as responsive markers of treatment have yet to be established. We aimed to use MRI to assess neuronal degeneration above the level of the lesion after acute spinal cord injury. In our prospective longitudinal study, we enrolled patients with acute traumatic spinal cord injury and healthy controls. We assessed patients clinically and by MRI at baseline, 2 months, 6 months, and 12 months, and controls by MRI at the same timepoints. We assessed atrophy in white matter in the cranial corticospinal tracts and grey matter in sensorimotor cortices by tensor-based analyses of T1-weighted MRI data. We used cross-sectional spinal cord area measurements to assess atrophy at cervical level C2/C3. We used myelin-sensitive magnetisation transfer (MT) and longitudinal relaxation rate (R1) maps to assess microstructural changes associated with myelin. We also assessed associations between MRI parameters and clinical improvement. All analyses of brain scans done with statistical parametric mapping were corrected for family-wise error. Between Sept 17, 2010, and Dec 31, 2012, we recruited 13 patients and 18 controls. In the 12 months from baseline, patients recovered by a mean of 5·27 points per log month (95% CI 1·91-8·63) on the international standards for the neurological classification of spinal cord injury (ISNCSCI) motor score (p=0·002) and by 10·93 points per log month (6·20-15·66) on the spinal cord independence measure (SCIM) score (pspinal cord area (patients declined by 0·46 mm per month compared with a stable cord area in controls; pscore 5·21, p=0·0081; left Z score 4·12, p=0·0004) and

  4. Image-guided preoperative prediction of pyramidal tract side effect in deep brain stimulation: proof of concept and application to the pyramidal tract side effect induced by pallidal stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgarten, Clement; Zhao, Yulong; Sauleau, Paul; Malrain, Cecile; Jannin, Pierre; Haegelen, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the medial globus pallidus (GPm) is a surgical procedure for treating patients suffering from Parkinson���s disease. Its therapeutic effect may be limited by the presence of pyramidal tract side effect (PTSE). PTSE is a contraction time-locked to the stimulation when the current spreading reaches the motor fibers of the pyramidal tract within the internal capsule. The objective of the study was to propose a preoperative predictive model of PTSE. A machine learning-ba...

  5. Neurogenic Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction in Adults with Cerebral Palsy: Outcomes following a Conservative Management Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Robert A; Pisansky, Andrew; Fleck, Joseph; Hoversten, Patrick; Cotter, Katherine J; Katorski, Jenna; Liberman, Daniel; Elliott, Sean P

    2016-04-01

    Cerebral palsy is characterized by motor impairment following injury to the developing brain. Neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction is estimated to affect at least a third of children with cerebral palsy. However there are limited data as patients transition to adulthood. We sought to describe the symptoms, sequelae and management of neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction in adults with cerebral palsy. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of adult patients with cerebral palsy between 2011 and 2014. Patients with prior bladder reconstruction or catheterization based bladder drainage were excluded from study. Cerebral palsy severity was determined using GMFCS (Gross Motor Function Classification System). A conservative evaluation and treatment paradigm was used. Noninvasive treatments were encouraged. Specifically clean intermittent catheterization, which is often not feasible, is avoided unless urinary retention, hydronephrosis or refractory lower urinary tract symptoms develop. There were 121 patients included in final analysis. Median age was 25 and 61 patients (50%) had GMFCS level V. Noninvasive management failed in 28 of 121 patients (23%) as defined by hydronephrosis in 9, persistent urinary retention in 10 and refractory lower urinary tract symptoms/incontinence in 9. Urethral clean intermittent catheterization was poorly tolerated. Of all patients 25% showed evidence of urolithiasis during the study period. Surgical intervention was rare and associated with significant morbidity. Adults with cerebral palsy may present with variable signs and symptoms of neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction. Conservative treatment was successful in more than 75% of patients. Clean intermittent catheterization was poorly tolerated in patients in whom conservative treatment failed. Surgical intervention was rarely indicated and it should be reserved for select individuals. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc

  6. Evidence for Plasticity in White Matter Tracts of Chronic Aphasic Patients Undergoing Intense Intonation-based Speech Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaug, Gottfried; Marchina, Sarah; Norton, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Recovery from aphasia can be achieved through recruitment of either peri-lesional brain regions in the affected hemisphere or homologous language regions in the non-lesional hemisphere. For patients with large left-hemisphere lesions, recovery through the right hemisphere may be the only possible path. The right hemisphere regions most likely to play a role in this recovery process are the superior temporal lobe (important for auditory feedback control), premotor regions/posterior inferior frontal gyrus (important for planning and sequencing of motor actions and for auditory-motor mapping) and the primary motor cortex (important for execution of vocal motor actions). These regions are connected reciprocally via a major fiber tract called the arcuate fasciculus (AF), but this tract is usually not as well developed in the non-dominant right hemisphere. We tested whether an intonation-based speech therapy (i.e., Melodic Intonation Therapy) which is typically administered in an intense fashion with 75–80 daily therapy sessions, would lead to changes in white matter tracts, particularly the AF. Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we found a significant increase in the number of AF fibers and AF volume comparing post with pre-treatment assessments in 6 patients that could not be attributed to scan-to-scan variability. This suggests that intense, long-term Melodic Intonation Therapy leads to remodeling of the right AF and may provide an explanation for the sustained therapy effects that were seen in these 6 patients. PMID:19673813

  7. Human spinal motor control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-01-01

    interneurons and exert a direct (willful) muscle control with the aid of a context-dependent integration of somatosensory and visual information at cortical level. However, spinal networks also play an important role. Sensory feedback through spinal circuitries is integrated with central motor commands...... the central motor command by opening or closing sensory feedback pathways. In the future, human studies of spinal motor control, in close collaboration with animal studies on the molecular biology of the spinal cord, will continue to document the neural basis for human behavior. Expected final online...

  8. Clinical neurophysiological evaluation for simple motor tics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattamon Panyakaew

    Full Text Available Objective: To demonstrate the usefulness of neurophysiological evaluation to distinguish simple motor tics and functional myoclonus. Methods: Careful clinical assessments, multichannel surface EMG, and EEG-EMG jerk-locked back-averaging were performed. Results: Urge to move and ability to voluntarily suppress the movement were reported. EMG bursts showed variable duration and triphasic pattern of the antagonist muscles mimicking voluntary movements. Only the late component of the Bereitschaftspotential (BP2 was present prior to the involuntary movement onset. Conclusion: Combination of the isolated late BP, premonitory urge, and suppressibility leads to the diagnosis of simple motor tics rather than functional myoclonus. Significance: The physiological approach in addition to careful clinical assessment is helpful to support the diagnosis of tic. Keywords: Simple motor tics, Functional movement disorders, EEG–EMG jerk-locked back-averaging

  9. Urinary tract infections: etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of uropathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Laneve

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infections are a serious health problem affecting millions of people each year.They are the second most common type of infection in the body.The objective of study was to determine the etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of urinary tract infections pathogens isolated in our Patology Clinic laboratory. Materials and Methods: During the period July 2007- July 2008,were analysed 1422 urine samples.The determination of the total microbe load were acquire with an kit of the BIO-DETECTOR while the identification of germs with Apy sistem. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were assaied with the ATB UR strip. Results: About the total of samples analysed, 320 (22% had significant bacteriuria. Escherichia coli was the most common etiologic agent isolated (62%, followed by Klebsiella ssp. (10%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5,95% and Proteus mirabilis (5%. Gram-positive bacteria accounted for only 7.32% , with prevalence of Staphylococcus ssp (5,32 and Enterococcus spp (2%. The most effective antibiotics for Gram- were: Imipenem, Amikacin, Ceftazidime and Cefotaxim, while for Gram+ were: Minocyclin,Vancomycin and Oxacillin. Conclusion: Escherichia coli was the microrganism more frequently isolated between Gram negative bacteria with very susceptible to Amoxicillin. Currently, the empirical use of Cotrimoxazole and Amoxicillin is not recommended for Enterobacteriaceae. Urinary tract infections are more common in women than in men. Men are more likely to get a UTI once past the age of 65. Current data on the prevalence of multidrug resistance among urinary tract isolates should be a consideration to change the current empiric treatment of IVU.

  10. Diminished motor skill development in elderly: indications for limited motor chunk use.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwey, Willem B.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether elderly use motor