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Sample records for tract infections treated

  1. [Urinary tract infections in pregnancy: when to treat, how to treat, and what to treat with].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kladenský, J

    2012-04-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) in pregnant women are a relatively frequent occurrence and the spectrum of these infections ranges from lower urinary tract disease (asymptomatic bacteriuria, acute cystitis) to upper urinary tract disease (acute pyelonephritis). Anatomical and functional changes in the urinary tract in pregnancy result in significantly higher susceptibility to progression of the infection from asymptomatic bacteriuria to the stage of acute pyelonephritis. Untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy leads, in as much as 40%, to the development of acute pyelonephritis with all the subsequent negative effects not only for the woman herself, but particularly for the fetus. Bacteriuria in pregnancy accounts for a significantly higher number of newborns with a low birth weight, low gestational age and higher neonatal mortality rate. Therefore, it is necessary to perform screening for bacteriuria in pregnant women and, when the finding is positive, to treat this bacteriuria. The selection of an appropriate antimicrobial agent to treat urinary tract infection in pregnancy is limited by the safety of a given drug not only for the woman, but particularly for the fetus. The article provides an overview of medications that can be safely used throughout the pregnancy or only in certain stages of pregnancy. The selection of an appropriate antibiotic should always be preceded by the result of urine culture. The article presents the principles and rules for treating asymptomatic bacteriuria, acute cystitis and acute pyelonephritis in pregnant women.

  2. Antibiotics for treating lower urinary tract infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Anita; Mori, Rintaro; Lakhanpaul, Monica; Tullus, Kjell

    2012-08-15

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections in infants and children. Lower UTI is the most commonly presenting and in the majority of cases can be easily treated with a course of antibiotic therapy with no further complications. A number of antimicrobials have been used to treat children with lower UTIs; however is it unclear what are the specific benefits and harms of such treatments. This review aims to summarise the benefits and harms of antibiotics for treating lower UTI in children. We searched the Renal Group's Specialised Register (April 2012), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 5), MEDLINE OVID SP (from 1966), and EMBASE OVID SP (from 1988) without language restriction. Date of last search: May 2012. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs in which antibiotic therapy was used to treat bacteriologically proven, symptomatic, lower UTI in children aged zero to 18 years in primary and community healthcare settings were included. Two authors independently assessed study quality and extracted data. Statistical analyses were performed using the random effects model and the results expressed as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Sixteen RCTs, analysing 1,116 children were included. Conventional 10-day antibiotic treatment significantly increased the number of children free of persistent bacteriuria compared to single-dose therapy (6 studies, 228 children: RR 2.01, 95%CI 1.06 to 3.80). No heterogeneity was observed. Persistent bacteriuria at the end of treatment was reported in 24% of children receiving single-dose therapy compared to 10% of children who were randomised to 10-day therapy. There were no significant differences between groups for persistent symptoms, recurrence following treatment, or re-infection following treatment. There was insufficient data to analyse the effect of antibiotics on renal parenchymal damage, compliance, development of resistant organisms or adverse events. Despite

  3. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Urinary tract infections Urinary tract infections > A-Z Health Topics Urinary tract infections (PDF, ... Embed Subscribe To receive Publications email updates Submit Urinary tract infections Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are most often caused ...

  4. Use of Urine Testing in Outpatients Treated for Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiee, Jenny H.; Smith, Alexandria; Hanley, Janet; Saigal, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize urine test use in ambulatory, antibiotic-treated pediatric urinary tract infection (UTI). METHODS: We studied children UTI and a temporally associated antibiotic prescription from 2002 through 2007 by using a large claims database, Innovus i3. We evaluated urine-testing trends and performed multivariable logistic regression to assess for factors associated with urine culture use. RESULTS: Of 40 603 treated UTI episodes in 28 678 children, urinalysis was performed in 76%, and urine culture in 57%; 32% of children UTI episode. Urine culture use decreased during the study period from 60% to 54% (P UTI and urologic anomalies were not. CONCLUSIONS: Providers often do not obtain urine tests when prescribing antibiotics for outpatient pediatric UTI. Variation in urine culture use was observed based on age, gender, and physician specialty. Additional research is necessary to determine the implications of empirical antibiotic prescription for pediatric UTI without confirmatory urine testing. PMID:23918886

  5. Use of urine testing in outpatients treated for urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copp, Hillary L; Yiee, Jenny H; Smith, Alexandria; Hanley, Janet; Saigal, Christopher S

    2013-09-01

    To characterize urine test use in ambulatory, antibiotic-treated pediatric urinary tract infection (UTI). We studied children pediatrics: OR 2.6, 95% CI 2.5-2.8; emergency medicine, OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.3; urology: OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.4-0.6, compared with family/internal medicine). Recent antibiotic exposure (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.1-1.2) and empirical broad-spectrum prescription (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.2) were associated with urine culture use, whereas previous UTI and urologic anomalies were not. Providers often do not obtain urine tests when prescribing antibiotics for outpatient pediatric UTI. Variation in urine culture use was observed based on age, gender, and physician specialty. Additional research is necessary to determine the implications of empirical antibiotic prescription for pediatric UTI without confirmatory urine testing.

  6. Proper Antibiotic Use in a Home-Based Primary Care Population Treated for Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Megan E; Ford, James; Conway, Erin L; Ott, Michael C; Sellick, John A; Mergenhagen, Kari A

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the trends associated with diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections (UTI) in a home-based primary care population of Veterans Health System patients from 2006 to 2015. Retrospective cohort study. Veterans Healthcare System. Home-based primary care patients treated for UTI from 2006 to 2015. None. Appropriate therapy was determined based on the McGeer criteria. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine factors leading to appropriate UTI treatment. Of 366 available patients, 68 (18.6%) were tested for a UTI. Appropriate therapy occurred in 26% of patients. Allergy to any antibiotic increased the odds of appropriate treatment (odds ratio [OR] = 5.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-23.2). Flank pain and increased urinary frequency also increased the likelihood of being treated appropriately (OR = 25.9, 95% CI 2.9-584.0 and OR = 4.49, 95% CI 0.99-21.2, respectively). Antibiotics were overused for treating UTIs in the homebound population. Patients with flank pain, increased urinary frequency, and antibiotic allergy were more likely to receive appropriate treatment. Pharmacists, therefore, have a viable opportunity to increase appropriate antibiotic prescribing in the home-based primary care population.

  7. Acute health care utilization and outcomes for outpatient-treated urinary tract infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copp, Hillary L; Hanley, Janet; Saigal, Christopher S; Saperston, Kara

    2016-08-01

    The majority of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in children are treated in the ambulatory setting. The goal of this study is to describe the course of outpatient UTI management, including health services utilization, antibiotic switching (change from empirically prescribed antibiotic to another antibiotic), and antibiotic side effects. Using a large claims database, Truven Health MarketScan Research Database, we analyzed all children younger than 18 years old who had an antibiotic prescribed for an outpatient UTI from 2002 to 2010. We evaluated health services utilization and antibiotic switching in the 21-day period after UTI diagnosis. We compared side effects with rates in patients receiving narrow versus broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment. Chi-square analysis was used for descriptive statistics. We identified 242,819 outpatient, antibiotic-treated, UTI episodes. During the 21-day period after presentation, 26% required more than one visit for UTI management and children did not have imaging within 21 days of UTI: renal bladder ultrasound in 6%, VCUG in 2.6%, and DMSA in 0.05%. Broad-spectrum antibiotics were empirically prescribed to 34% of patients. Antibiotic switching occurred in only 8% of UTI episodes, indicating that empiric prescription covered the offending uropathogen the majority of the time. Antibiotic side effects occurred in 8% of UTI episodes. The most common side effects were gastrointestinal (∼3% of UTI episodes). All other side effects occurred in UTI episodes. Although there were statistically significant differences in side effects between broad- and narrow-spectrum antibiotics, these differences were not clinically relevant. Most outpatient UTIs in children do not require more than one healthcare visit, hospital admission, or change in empiric antibiotic therapy. This study supports the fact that pediatric UTIs can be effectively treated in the ambulatory setting. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Homeopathic medicinal products for preventing and treating acute respiratory tract infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, Kate; van Driel, Mieke L; Buffington, Benjamin J; McGuire, Treasure M; King, David

    2018-04-09

    Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) are common and may lead to complications. Most children experience between three and six ARTIs each year. Although these infections are self limiting, the symptoms can be distressing. Many treatments are used to control symptoms and shorten the duration of illness. They often have minimal benefit and may lead to adverse effects. Oral homeopathic medicinal products could play a role in the treatment of ARTIs for children if evidence for effectiveness is established. To assess the effectiveness and safety of oral homeopathic medicinal products compared with placebo or conventional therapy to prevent and treat acute respiratory tract infections in children. We searched CENTRAL (2017, Issue 11), which contains the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1946 to 27 November 2017), Embase (2010 to 27 November 2017), CINAHL (1981 to 27 November 2017), AMED (1985 to December 2014), CAMbase (searched 29 March 2018), British Homeopathic Library (searched 26 June 2013 - no longer operating). We also searched the WHO ICTRP and ClinicalTrials.gov trials registers (29 March 2018), checked references, and contacted study authors to identify additional studies. Double-blind, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or double-blind cluster-RCTs comparing oral homeopathy medicinal products with identical placebo or self selected conventional treatments to prevent or treat ARTIs in children aged 0 to 16 years. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We included eight RCTs of 1562 children receiving oral homeopathic medicinal products or a control treatment (placebo or conventional treatment) for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs). Four treatment studies examined the effect on recovery from URTIs, and four studies investigated the effect on preventing URTIs after one to three months of treatment and followed up for the remainder of the year. Two treatment and two prevention studies

  9. Urinary tract infection - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    UTI - children; Cystitis - children; Bladder infection - children; Kidney infection - children; Pyelonephritis - children ... Craig JC. Long-term antibiotics for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2011;(3):CD001534. PMID: ...

  10. [Recurrent urinary tract infections should not be treated cavalierly. First verify the diagnosis!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenlehner, F M E; Naber, K G

    2003-10-23

    Acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) and acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis (AUP) are two common urinary tract infections (UTI) in otherwise healthy young women. Both weaknesses of the mucosal barrier and specific factors of uropathogenic bacteria must be present before the bacteria can adhere to the urothelium and give rise to an infection. These circumstances are also of relevance in recurrent UTI. Antibiotic treatment of AUC and AUP is based on the guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). For the prevention of recurrent UTI, antibiotics, functional foods, injections, probiotic agents and other measures are recommended with varying potential for success.

  11. Urinary tract infections in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovalle, A; Levancini, M

    2001-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are very common during pregnancy. Escherichia coli is the most common pathogen isolated from pregnant women. Ampicillin should not be used because of its high resistance to Escherichia coli. Pyelonephritis can cause morbidity and can be life-threatening to both mother and fetus. Second and third-generation cephalosporins are recommended for treatment, administered initially intravenously during hospitalization. Cultures and the study of virulence factors of uropathogenic Escherichia coli are recommended for the adequate management of pyelonephritis. The lower genital tract infection associated with pyelonephritis is responsible for the failure of antibiotic treatment. Asymptomatic bacteriuria can evolve into cystitis or pyelonephritis. All pregnant women should be routinely screened for bacteriuria using urine culture, and should be treated with nitrofurantoin, sulfixosazole or first-generation cephalosporins. Recurrent urinary infection should be treated with prophylactic antibiotics. Pregnant women who develop urinary tract infections with group B streptococcal infection should be treated with prophylactic antibiotics during labour to prevent neonatal sepsis. Preterm delivery is frequent. Evidence suggests that infection plays a role in the pathogenesis of preterm labour. Experimental models in pregnant mice support the theory that Escherichia coli propagated by the transplacental route, involving bacterial adhesins, induces preterm delivery, but this has not been demonstrated in humans. Ascending lower genital tract infections are the most probable cause of preterm delivery, but this remains to be proved.

  12. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with Neurogenic Bladder and Bowel Why is it important to begin urologic care in infancy and ...

  13. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals ... Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Urinary Tract ...

  14. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & ... Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Urinary Tract ...

  15. Urinary Tract Infections (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections KidsHealth / For Teens / Urinary Tract Infections What's ... especially girls — visit a doctor. What Is a Urinary Tract Infection? A bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) is ...

  16. The frequency of urinary tract infection and subclinical bacteriuria in dogs with allergic dermatitis treated with oclacitinib: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Andrew C; Schissler, Jennifer R; Rosychuk, Rod A W; Moore, A Russell

    2017-10-01

    Oclacitinib is a selective Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of canine allergic pruritus and atopic dermatitis in dogs. Glucocorticoids and ciclosporin increase urinary tract infection (UTI) frequency in dogs with inflammatory skin disease. Prospective study to evaluate the frequency of UTI and subclinical bacteriuria in dogs with allergic dermatitis receiving oclacitinib. Client-owned dogs ≥2 years of age with a history of allergic dermatitis without apparent history of urinary tract disease or predisposition to UTI were included. Prior to enrolment, urinalysis and quantitative urine culture were performed after a washout period of at least 14 days from systemic antimicrobial drugs and 28 days for ciclosporin and systemic glucocorticoids. Dogs received oclacitinib at labelled dosing for an intended period of 180-230 days with a follow-up urinalysis and urine culture performed regardless of urinary tract signs. Systemic antimicrobial and immune-modulating drugs were not administered during the study. None of the 55 dogs in this study developed UTI while receiving oclacitinib based on follow-up urinalysis and urine culture performed during a range of 58-280 days (mean 195 days). Two dogs developed self-limiting abnormal urinary tract signs without urine culture or urinalysis findings consistent with UTI. These findings indicate that bacteriuria is not an expected adverse effect in dogs treated with oclacitinib without a prior history of UTI or predisposing condition during this treatment period. Therefore, routine urine culture is not indicated for such dogs in the absence of abnormal urinalysis or clinical signs of urinary tract disease. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  17. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... urinary tract infection, or UTI, you're probably thinking about peeing quite a lot. Why? Because it ... Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys ...

  18. Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  19. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections ( ... Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made ...

  20. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections ( ... Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made ...

  1. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is ...

  2. Pediatric urinary tract infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blickman, J.G.

    1991-02-06

    Acute urinary tract infection (UTI) is an important cause of morbidity in children and may be complicated by congenital urinary tract abnormalities of a functional or anatomic nature which, predispose to recurrent UTI's that in turn may lead to renal failure and hypertension. Early radiologic and ultrasonographic investigations may reveal these anatomic anomalies in particular because the urinary tract, specifically in children, is not readily accessible to adequate clinical examinations Excretory urography (EU) has been considered as the 'gold standard' of upper urinary tract visualization, while the voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) was thought to be the preferential method of imaging of the lower urinary tract. Recently, major technical advances have altered this commonly accepted diagnostic workup. Although ultrasonography, radio-nuclide scanning and urodynamics have become important contributors to the understanding of pathophysiology of UTI's their value and place in assessment of the sequence of imaging has not been comprehensively studied. This thesis deals about the optimization of the choice and the order of the different imaging techniques used in the evaluation of children, younger than six year with UTI. (author). 243 refs.; 23 figs.; 8 tabs.

  3. Pediatric urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blickman, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    Acute urinary tract infection (UTI) is an important cause of morbidity in children and may be complicated by congenital urinary tract abnormalities of a functional or anatomic nature which, predispose to recurrent UTI's that in turn may lead to renal failure and hypertension. Early radiologic and ultrasonographic investigations may reveal these anatomic anomalies in particular because the urinary tract, specifically in children, is not readily accessible to adequate clinical examinations Excretory urography (EU) has been considered as the 'gold standard' of upper urinary tract visualization, while the voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) was thought to be the preferential method of imaging of the lower urinary tract. Recently, major technical advances have altered this commonly accepted diagnostic workup. Although ultrasonography, radio-nuclide scanning and urodynamics have become important contributors to the understanding of pathophysiology of UTI's their value and place in assessment of the sequence of imaging has not been comprehensively studied. This thesis deals about the optimization of the choice and the order of the different imaging techniques used in the evaluation of children, younger than six year with UTI. (author). 243 refs.; 23 figs.; 8 tabs

  4. Managing urinary tract infections

    OpenAIRE

    Saadeh, Sermin A.; Mattoo, Tej K.

    2011-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in childhood. Presence of pyuria and bacteriuria in an appropriately collected urine sample are diagnostic of UTI. The risk of UTI is increased with an underlying urological abnormality such as vesicoureteral reflux, constipation, and voiding dysfunction. Patients with acute pyelonephritis are at risk of renal scarring and subsequent complications such as hypertension, proteinuria with and without FSGS, pregnancy-related complications and even end-sta...

  5. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) ... How Do I Know if I Have a UTI? You may notice signs of a urinary tract ...

  6. [Urinary tract infection in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herráiz, Miguel Angel; Hernández, Antonio; Asenjo, Eloy; Herráiz, Ignacio

    2005-12-01

    Urinary tract infections, asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB), acute cystitis (AC) and acute pyelonephritis (AP), are favored by the morphological and functional changes involved in pregnancy. AB increases the risk of preterm labor, low birth weight and AP. AB should be detected by uroculture (other methods are not sufficiently effective) and treated early. Approximately 80% of cases are caused by Escherichia coli. The risks and effectiveness of the distinct antibiotic regimens should be evaluated: fosfomycin trometamol in monotherapy or as short course therapy is safe and effective for the treatment of AB and AC. AP is the most frequent cause of hospital admission for medical reasons in pregnant women and can lead to complications in 10% of cases, putting the lives of the mother and fetus at risk. Currently outpatient treatment of AP is recommended in selected cases. Adequate follow-up of pregnant women with urinary tract infections is required due to frequent recurrence.

  7. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an infection somewhere in your urinary tract. Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? ... bladder, your brain tells you it's time to find a bathroom. Once you're ready to pee, ...

  8. URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Margieva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues of diagnosing and treating urinary tract infections and their role in development of renal injury are being actively discussed by scientists and practicing pediatricians. The article presents the most recent data on etiological factors, pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of this disease. It provides recommendations on diagnosis and management of patients depending on their age. The article presents a discussion of antibacterial therapy course duration and indications for anti-relapse treatment. The study demonstrates that intravenous antibacterial therapy must be launched immediately in neonates in the event of pyretic fever; empirical antibacterial therapy must be launched immediately in older children after diagnosis of the urinary tract infection has been confirmed; subsequently, treatment ought to be corrected depending on the results of a bacteriological trial, sensitivity to antibiotics and effectiveness of the prescribed antibiotic. Along with normalization of urination rhythm and water intake schedule, antibacterial preventive therapy might be considered, if effective, in the event of recurrent nature of the urinary tract infection

  9. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... urinary tract infection, or UTI, you're probably thinking about peeing quite a lot. Why? Because it ... you have a bladder infection, your doctor will order some medicine for you to take to kill ...

  10. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? ...

  11. Urinary Tract Infection and Bacteriuria in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Alexander P; Schaeffer, Anthony J

    2015-11-01

    Bacteriuria during pregnancy may be classified as asymptomatic bacteriuria, infections of the lower urinary tract (cystitis), or infections of the upper urinary tract (pyelonephritis). Lower tract bacteriuria is associated with an increased risk of developing pyelonephritis in pregnancy, which is itself associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Pregnant women should be screened for the presence of bacteriuria early in pregnancy. All bacteriuria in pregnancy should be treated, and antimicrobial choice in pregnancy should reflect safety for both the mother and the fetus. After treatment of bacteriuria, patients should be followed closely due to risk of recurrent bacteriuria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Neonatal Staphylococcus lugdunensis urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Itaru; Hataya, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Hanako; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Toshiro

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a known pathogen of infective endocarditis, but not of urinary tract infection. We report a previously healthy neonate without congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract who developed urinary tract infection due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis, illustrating that Staphylococcus lugdunensis can cause urinary tract infection even in those with no urinary tract complications. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  13. [Urinary tract infections in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michno, Mikolaj; Sydor, Antoni

    Review of urinary tract infections in adults including etiology, pathogenesis, classification and the most important therapeutic recommendations. Urinary tract infections are still a common clinical problem occurring more often in sexually active women, pregnancy, elderly , after catherization of a urinary bladder and urological surgery as well as in the co-existence of diabetes or nephrolithiasis. Due to the anatomical differences, women suffer more often than men. The main etiological factor is Escherichia coli, even though it plays a lesser role in the complicated infections, than in non-complicated ones. Apart from that, the infections may also be caused by atypical microbes, viruses and fungi. Relapses as well as reinfections are typical features of urinary tract infections and in some cases prolonged infections can spread from lower to upper urinary tract contributing to pyelonephritis, urosepsis or even death. These long-term infections can progress in a hidden, insidious, oligosymptomatic or asymptomatic manner leading to irreversible, progressive deterioration of renal function. They can also mask other diseases such as tuberculosis or neoplasms of the urinary tract, which leads to the delayed diagnosis and treatment. Diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections is a complex problem, often requiring specialized procedures as well as hospitalization. The choice of a therapy is determined by the type of infection, general condition, age and coexisting diseases. Rapid diagnosis and implementation of proper pharmacotherapy may shorten the time of treatment and hospitalization, preventing serious complications and reinfections.

  14. Urinary tract infections in women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common bacterial infections in women, with ... Acute cystitis refers to symptomatic infection of the bladder in the lower ... lungs in a patient with pneumonia.4. Risk factors ... use of antimicrobial agents for community-acquired UTIs has resulted in the emergence of antimicrobial resistance.

  15. Honey Bee as Alternative Medicine to Treat Eleven Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Causing Urinary Tract Infection during Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouacha, Mabrouka; Ayed, Hayette; Grara, Nedjoud

    2018-04-13

    Medicinal benefits of honey bee have been recognized in the medical community since ancient times as a remedy for many diseases and infections. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of 11 multidrug-resistant bacterial strains, isolated from urinary tract infections of pregnant women, to six honey samples collected from different localities in the east of Algeria. The evaluation of the antibacterial activity was performed by the well method followed by the broth dilution method using two-fold dilutions of each honey sample ranging from 2.5 to 80% (w/v). The results obtained in this study revealed that all tested honeys exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the tested strains. The diameters of inhibition ranged from 19.67 to 53.33 mm, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 2.5 to 40% (w/v) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBCs) varied between 2.5 and 80% (w/v). Gram-positive bacteria were found to be more susceptible than Gram-negative bacteria with diameters ranging from 43.33 to 53.33 mm; MIC and MBC values ranged from 2.5 to 5% (w/v). The P.aeruginosa strain was found to be less susceptible than other strains with inhibitory diameters ranging from 19.67 to 27.33 mm; MICs ranged from 20 to 40% and MBCs ranged from 20 to 80% ( w/v ). This contribution has provided a broad overview of the antibacterial activity of Algerian honey and shown that honey bee has great potential for therapeutic use as an alternative therapy for urinary tract infection treatment which is safe and efficient during pregnancy.

  16. Honey Bee as Alternative Medicine to Treat Eleven Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Causing Urinary Tract Infection during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabrouka Bouacha

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal benefits of honey bee have been recognized in the medical community since ancient times as a remedy for many diseases and infections. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of 11 multidrug-resistant bacterial strains, isolated from urinary tract infections of pregnant women, to six honey samples collected from different localities in the east of Algeria. The evaluation of the antibacterial activity was performed by the well method followed by the broth dilution method using two-fold dilutions of each honey sample ranging from 2.5 to 80% (w/v. The results obtained in this study revealed that all tested honeys exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the tested strains. The diameters of inhibition ranged from 19.67 to 53.33 mm, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs ranging from 2.5 to 40% (w/v and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBCs varied between 2.5 and 80% (w/v. Gram-positive bacteria were found to be more susceptible than Gram-negative bacteria with diameters ranging from 43.33 to 53.33 mm; MIC and MBC values ranged from 2.5 to 5% (w/v. The P. aeruginosa strain was found to be less susceptible than other strains with inhibitory diameters ranging from 19.67 to 27.33 mm; MICs ranged from 20 to 40% and MBCs ranged from 20 to 80% (w/v. This contribution has provided a broad overview of the antibacterial activity of Algerian honey and shown that honey bee has great potential for therapeutic use as an alternative therapy for urinary tract infection treatment which is safe and efficient during pregnancy.

  17. URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN ADULTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Infection of the urinary tract (UTI) is frequently encountered in clinical practice — in the USA these ... Asymptomatic UTI is identified when organisms can be isolated in appropriate numbers .... Pregnancy ... men, so pre-treatment urine culture is.

  18. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... when you do, phew! Your pee smells bad. These things happen because bacteria have caused an infection ... tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys two ureters (say: YUR- ...

  19. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & ... KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is a Urinary ...

  20. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... five to six times a day but never think twice about? Answer: Pee! But if you have ... urinary tract infection, or UTI, you're probably thinking about peeing quite a lot. Why? Because it ...

  1. Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Taskesen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are frequent conditions in children. Untreated urinary tract infections can lead to serious kidney problems that could threaten the life of the child. Therefore, early detection and treatment of urinary tract infection is important. In older children, urinary tract infections may cause obvious symptoms such as stomach ache and disuria. In infants and young children, UTIs may be harder to detect because of less specific symptoms. Recurrences are common in children with urinary abnormalities such as neurogenic bladder, vesicourethral reflux or those with very poor toilet and hygiene habits. This article reviews the diagnostic approach and presents the current data related to the roles of radiologic imaging, surgical correction and antibiotic prophylaxis of UTIs in children. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(2.000: 57-69

  2. Urinary tract infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedberry-Ross, Sherry; Pohl, Hans G

    2008-03-01

    Urinary tract infections can be a significant source of morbidity in the pediatric population. The mainstay of evaluating urinary tract infections in children has been physical examination, urinalysis and culture, and renal and bladder sonography and contrast cystography. However, novel clinical paradigms now consider the importance of various risk factors, such as bacterial virulence and antibiotic-resistance patterns, elimination disorders, and the role of innate immunity and inflammation in determining the likelihood of renal cortical scarring.

  3. Respiratory tract infection during Hajj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzeer Abdulaziz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory tract infection during Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca is a common illness, and it is responsible for most of the hospital admissions. Influenza virus is the leading cause of upper respiratory tract infection during Hajj, and pneumonia can be serious. Taking into account the close contacts among the pilgrims, as well as the crowding, the potential for transmission of M. tuberculosis is expected to be high. These pilgrims can be a source for spreading infection on their return home. Although vaccination program for influenza is implemented, its efficacy is uncertain in this religious season. Future studies should concentrate on prevention and mitigation of these infections.

  4. Bladder Infection (Urinary Tract Infection - UTI) in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Urinary Tract & How It Works Bladder Infection (Urinary Tract Infection—UTI) in Adults View or Print All ... Bladder infections are the most common type of urinary tract infection (UTI), but any part of your urinary ...

  5. Survey of risk factors urinary tract infection

    OpenAIRE

    A Dehghani; M zahedi; M moezzi; M dafei; H Falahzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Women are very susceptible to urinary tract infections and pregnancy raises the risk of urinary tract infection. In general, little information on the risk factors of urinary tract infection in pregnancy is underway. Urinary tract infection in pregnancy is an important risk factor for pregnancy dire consequences. The purpose of this study is to find risk factors associated with urinary tract infection in pregnant women. Methods: The study was observational and retrospective ...

  6. Urinary Tract Infections in the Older Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, Lindsay E

    2016-08-01

    Urinary infection is the most common bacterial infection in elderly populations. The high prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in both men and women is benign and should not be treated. A diagnosis of symptomatic infection for elderly residents of long-term care facilities without catheters requires localizing genitourinary findings. Symptomatic urinary infection is overdiagnosed in elderly bacteriuric persons with nonlocalizing clinical presentations, with substantial inappropriate antimicrobial use. Residents with chronic indwelling catheters experience increased morbidity from urinary tract infection. Antimicrobial therapy is selected based on clinical presentation, patient tolerance, and urine culture results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Urinary tract infection - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladder infection - adults; UTI - adults; Cystitis - bacterial - adults; Pyelonephritis - adults; Kidney infection - adults ... control. Menopause also increases the risk of a UTI. The following also increase your chances of developing ...

  8. Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... discomfort Frequent, painful urination Blood in urine Urethra (urethritis) Burning with urination Discharge When to see a ... opening to the bladder. Infection of the urethra (urethritis). This type of UTI can occur when GI ...

  9. Treatment ofurinary tract infection inchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Zwolińska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection is the most frequent bacterial infection in children. Its prevalence in the population younger than 14 years of age has been estimated at 5–10%. Its high recurrence, especially in patients with risk factors, poses a significant problem. The risk factors most common in the group of children ≤3 years are congenital defects blocking the flow of urine to the bladder, whereas in older children they most typically include a tendency for constipation and dysfunction of the lower urinary tract. The clinical picture is variable and depends on the child’s age, immunity status, pathogen virulence and localisation of infection. The mildest form of urinary tract infection is asymptomatic bacteriuria, whereas more severe presentations include acute pyelonephritis, acute focal bacterial nephritis and urosepsis. Prognosis is usually good, but under certain circumstances hypertension, proteinuria and chronic kidney disease may develop. Therefore, early introduced appropriate treatment is essential. According to the Polish Society for Paediatric Nephrology guidelines, asymptomatic bacteriuria does not warrant treatment, whereas febrile patients (>38°C under 24 months old with a suspicion for urinary tract infection must be promptly administered antibiotic therapy, after a urine specimen has been obtained for culture. For many years, urinary tract infection has remained a topic of controversy in terms of therapy duration and administration route. Inpatient treatment of children under 3 months of age is an accepted rule. Acute pyelonephritis necessitates a longer therapy, lasting from 7 to 10 days, whereas the duration of treatment of lower urinary tract infection has been cut down to 3 up to 5 days. Routine prophylactic antimicrobial therapy is not recommended following the initial urinary tract infection episode, yet should be considered in special circumstances. Alternative

  10. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For ... Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...

  11. Postpartum urinary tract infection by mode of delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundersen, Tina Djernis; Krebs, Lone; Loekkegaard, Ellen Christine Leth

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between postpartum urinary tract infection and intended mode of delivery as well as actual mode of delivery. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: All live births in Denmark between 2004 and 2010 (n=450 856). Births were classified...... was postpartum urinary tract infection (n=16 295) within 30 days post partum, defined as either a diagnosis of urinary tract infection in the National Patient Registry or redemption of urinary tract infection-specific antibiotics recorded in the Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. RESULTS: We found that 4.......6% of women with intended caesarean delivery and 3.5% of women with intended vaginal delivery were treated for postpartum urinary tract infection.Women with intended caesarean delivery had a significantly increased risk of postpartum urinary tract infection compared with women with intended vaginal delivery...

  12. Prevalence of urinary tract infection and vesicoureteral reflux in children with lower urinary tract dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Batavia, Jason P; Ahn, Jennifer J; Fast, Angela M; Combs, Andrew J; Glassberg, Kenneth I

    2013-10-01

    Lower urinary tract dysfunction is a common pediatric urological problem that is often associated with urinary tract infection. We determined the prevalence of a urinary tract infection history in children with lower urinary tract dysfunction and its association, if any, with gender, bowel dysfunction, vesicoureteral reflux and specific lower urinary tract conditions. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of children diagnosed with and treated for lower urinary tract dysfunction, noting a history of urinary tract infection with or without fever, gender, bowel dysfunction and vesicoureteral reflux in association with specific lower urinary tract conditions. Of the 257 boys and 366 girls with a mean age of 9.1 years 207 (33%) had a urinary tract infection history, including 88 with at least 1 febrile infection. A total of 64 patients underwent voiding cystourethrogram/videourodynamics, which revealed reflux in 44 (69%). In 119 of the 207 patients all infections were afebrile and 18 underwent voiding cystourethrogram/videourodynamics, which revealed reflux in 5 (28%). A urinary tract infection history was noted in 53% of girls but only 5% of boys (p infection history than patients with idiopathic detrusor overactivity disorder or primary bladder neck dysfunction (each p urinary tract dysfunction have a much higher urinary tract infection incidence than males. This association was most often noted for lower urinary tract conditions in which urinary stasis occurs, including detrusor underutilization disorder and dysfunctional voiding. Reflux was found in most girls with a history of febrile infections. Since reflux was identified in more than a quarter of girls with only afebrile infections who were evaluated for reflux, it may be reasonable to perform voiding cystourethrogram or videourodynamics in some of them to identify reflux. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Urinary tract infections during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Jennifer; Briggs, Gerald G; McKeown, Anna; Bustillo, Gerardo

    2004-10-01

    To provide a comprehensive review of urinary tract infections (UTIs) during pregnancy. All aspects of UTIs, including epidemiology, pathogenesis, resistance, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, were reviewed. MEDLINE (1966-August 2003) and Cochrane Library searches were performed using the key search terms urinary tract infection, pyelonephritis, cystitis, asymptomatic bacteriuria, and resistance. All article abstracts were evaluated for relevance. Only articles pertaining to pregnancy were included. The majority of published literature were review articles; the number of original clinical studies was limited. UTIs are the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy. They are characterized by the presence of significant bacteria anywhere along the urinary tract. Pyelonephritis is the most common severe bacterial infection that can lead to perinatal and maternal complications including premature delivery, infants with low birth weight, fetal mortality, preeclampsia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and transient renal insufficiency. Enterobacteriaceae account for 90% of UTIs. The common antibiotics used are nitrofurantoin, cefazolin, cephalexin, ceftriaxone, and gentamicin. Therapeutic management of UTIs in pregnancy requires proper diagnostic workup and thorough understanding of antimicrobial agents to optimize maternal outcome, ensure safety to the fetus, and prevent complications that lead to significant morbidity and mortality in both the fetus and the mother.

  14. [Urinary tract infection in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Geraldo; Marcolin, Alessandra Cristina; Quintana, Silvana Maria; Cavalli, Ricardo Carvalho

    2008-02-01

    Several factors cause urinary tract infection (UTI) to be a relevant complication of the gestational period, aggravating both the maternal and perinatal prognosis. For many years, pregnancy has been considered to be a factor predisposing to all forms of UTI. Today, it is known that pregnancy, as an isolated event, is not responsible for a higher incidence of UTI, but that the anatomical and physiological changes imposed on the urinary tract by pregnancy predispose women with asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) to become pregnant women with symptomatic UTI. AB affects 2 to 10% of all pregnant women and approximately 30% of these will develop pyelonephritis if not properly treated. However, a difficult-to-understand resistance against the identification of AB during this period is observed among prenatalists. The diagnosis of UTI is microbiological and it is based on two urine cultures presenting more than 10(5) colonies/mL urine of the same germ. Treatment is facilitated by the fact that it is based on an antibiogram, with no scientific foundation for the notion that a pre-established therapeutic scheme is an adequate measure. For the treatment of pyelonephritis, it is not possible to wait for the result of culture and previous knowledge of the resistance profile of the antibacterial agents available for the treatment of pregnant women would be the best measure. Another important variable is the use of an intravenous bactericidal antibiotic during the acute phase, with the possibility of oral administration at home after clinical improvement of the patient. At our hospital, the drug that best satisfies all of these requirements is cefuroxime, administered for 10-14 days. Third-generation cephalosporins do not exist in the oral form, all of them involving the inconvenience of parenteral administration. In view of their side effects, aminoglycosides are considered to be inadequate for administration to pregnant women. The inconsistent insinuation of contraindication of

  15. Nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery to treat infections in the female reproductive tract: evaluation of experimental systems and the potential for mathematical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Lee B; Frieboes, Hermann B; Steinbach-Rankins, Jill M

    2018-01-01

    A variety of drug-delivery platforms have been employed to deliver therapeutic agents across cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) and the vaginal mucosa, offering the capability to increase the longevity and retention of active agents to treat infections of the female reproductive tract (FRT). Nanoparticles (NPs) have been shown to improve retention, diffusion, and cell-specific targeting via specific surface modifications, relative to other delivery platforms. In particular, polymeric NPs represent a promising option that has shown improved distribution through the CVM. These NPs are typically fabricated from nontoxic, non-inflammatory, US Food and Drug Administration-approved polymers that improve biocompatibility. This review summarizes recent experimental studies that have evaluated NP transport in the FRT, and highlights research areas that more thoroughly and efficiently inform polymeric NP design, including mathematical modeling. An overview of the in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo NP studies conducted to date - whereby transport parameters are determined, extrapolated, and validated - is presented first. The impact of different NP design features on transport through the FRT is summarized, and gaps that exist due to the limitations of iterative experimentation alone are identified. The potential of mathematical modeling to complement the characterization and evaluation of diffusion and transport of delivery vehicles and active agents through the CVM and mucosa is discussed. Lastly, potential advancements combining experimental and mathematical knowledge are suggested to inform next-generation NP designs, such that infections in the FRT may be more effectively treated.

  16. Diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections across age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Christine M; Lowder, Jerry L

    2018-01-02

    Urinary tract infections are the most common outpatient infections, but predicting the probability of urinary tract infections through symptoms and test results can be complex. The most diagnostic symptoms of urinary tract infections include change in frequency, dysuria, urgency, and presence or absence of vaginal discharge, but urinary tract infections may present differently in older women. Dipstick urinalysis is popular for its availability and usefulness, but results must be interpreted in context of the patient's pretest probability based on symptoms and characteristics. In patients with a high probability of urinary tract infection based on symptoms, negative dipstick urinalysis does not rule out urinary tract infection. Nitrites are likely more sensitive and specific than other dipstick components for urinary tract infection, particularly in the elderly. Positive dipstick testing is likely specific for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy, but urine culture is still the test of choice. Microscopic urinalysis is likely comparable to dipstick urinalysis as a screening test. Bacteriuria is more specific and sensitive than pyuria for detecting urinary tract infection, even in older women and during pregnancy. Pyuria is commonly found in the absence of infection, particularly in older adults with lower urinary tract symptoms such as incontinence. Positive testing may increase the probability of urinary tract infection, but initiation of treatment should take into account risk of urinary tract infection based on symptoms as well. In cases in which the probability of urinary tract infection is moderate or unclear, urine culture should be performed. Urine culture is the gold standard for detection of urinary tract infection. However, asymptomatic bacteriuria is common, particularly in older women, and should not be treated with antibiotics. Conversely, in symptomatic women, even growth as low as 10 2 colony-forming unit/mL could reflect infection. Resistance is

  17. Urinary Tract Infection and Neurogenic Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, Maxim J; Seed, Patrick; Ross, Sherry S; Borawski, Kristy M

    2015-11-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are frequent, recurrent, and lifelong for patients with neurogenic bladder and present challenges in diagnosis and treatment. Patients often present without classic symptoms of UTI but with abdominal or back pain, increased spasticity, and urinary incontinence. Failure to recognize and treat infections can quickly lead to life-threatening autonomic dysreflexia or sepsis, whereas overtreatment contributes to antibiotic resistance, thus limiting future treatment options. Multiple prevention methods are used but evidence-based practices are few. Prevention and treatment of symptomatic UTI requires a multimodal approach that focuses on bladder management as well as accurate diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol ... stick into your cup of urine. The stick has specially treated paper on it and if it ...

  19. Urinary tract infection in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, L.; Janko, V.

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections in children which can be a source of significant morbidity. For as yet unknown reasons a minority of UTIs in children progress to renal scarring, hypertension and renal insufficiency. Clinical presentation of UTI in children may be nonspecific, and the appropriateness of certain diagnostic tests remains controversial. The diagnostic work-up should be tailored to uncover functional and structural abnormalities such as dysfunctional voiding, vesicoureteral reflux and obstructive uropathy. A more aggressive work-up is recommended for patients at greater risk for pyelonephritis and renal scarring, including infants less than one year of age. Early sequential (intravenous treatment followed by oral antibiotics) antibacterial therapy is recommended to prevent renal scarring. Routine antibiotic prophylaxis is not recommended, it may be used in patients with higher grade reflux, obstructive uropathy or recurring UTI who are at greater risk for subsequent infections and complications. (author)

  20. URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Sivalingam

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections frequently affect pregnant mothers. This problem causes significant morbidity and healthcare expenditure. Three common clinical manifestations of UTIs in pregnancy are: asymptomatic bacteriuria, acute cystitis and acute pyelonephritis. Escherichia coli remains the most frequent organism isolated in UTIs. All pregnant mothers should be screened for UTIs in pregnancy and antibiotics should be commenced without delay. Urine culture and sensitivity is the gold standard in diagnosing UTIs. Without treatment, asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy is associated with preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, maternal hypertension, pre-eclampsia and anaemia. Acute pyelonephritis can lead to maternal sepsis. Recurrent UTIs in pregnancy require prophylactic antibiotic treatment.

  1. No. 250-Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Annette; Larochelle, Annick

    2017-10-01

    To provide an update of the definition, epidemiology, clinical presentation, investigation, treatment, and prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections in women. Continuous antibiotic prophylaxis, post-coital antibiotic prophylaxis, and acute self-treatment are all efficient alternatives to prevent recurrent urinary tract infection. Vaginal estrogen and cranberry juice can also be effective prophylaxis alternatives. A search of PubMed and The Cochrane Library for articles published in English identified the most relevant literature. Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date restrictions. This update is the consensus of the Sub-Committee on Urogynaecology of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Recommendations were made according to the guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). Recurrent urinary tract infections need careful investigation and can be efficiently treated and prevented. Different prophylaxis options can be selected according to each patient's characteristics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Recurrent urinary tract infections in females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohsin, R.; Siddiqui, K.M.

    2010-01-01

    Uncomplicated Urinary tract infections are common in adult women across the entire age spectrum, with mean annual incidence of 15% and 10% in those aged 15-39 and 40-79 years, respectively. Urinary tract infection (UTI), with its diverse clinical syndromes and affected host groups, remains one of the most common but widely misunderstood and challenging infectious diseases encountered in clinical practice. Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) present a significant problem for women and a challenge for the doctors who care for them. The diagnosis of uncomplicated UTI can be achieved best by a thorough assessment of patient symptoms with or without the addition of a urine dipstick test. Treatment should be based on the most recent guidelines, taking into account resistance patterns in the local community. The patient who suffers from recurrent UTIs can be treated safely and effectively with continuous antibiotic prophylaxis, post-coital therapy, or self-initiated treatment. This review article covers the latest trends in the management of recurrent UTI among women. Further research is needed regarding rapid diagnosis of UTI, accurate presumptive identification of patients with resistant pathogens, and development of new antimicrobials for drug-resistant UTI. (author)

  3. Upper respiratory tract infections in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Clifton L; Diehl, Jason J

    2007-07-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) represent the most common acute illnesses in the general population and account for the leading acute diagnoses in the outpatient setting. Given the athlete's expectation to return to activity as soon as possible, the sports medicine physician should be able to accurately diagnose and aggressively treat these illnesses. This article discusses the common pathogens, diagnosis, treatment options, and return-to-play decisions for URTIs, with a focus on the common cold, sinusitis, pharyngitis, and infectious mononucleosis in the athlete.

  4. [COMPLICATED URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN THE ELDERLY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćosić, I; Ćosić, V

    2016-12-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common bacterial infections involving lower (cystitis, prostatitis) or upper (pyelonephritis, renal abscess, perinephric abscess) urinary tract. Differentiation of complicated and uncomplicated UTI is usually based on the presence of structural or functional urinary tract abnormalities, which can increase the risk of treatment failure and development of serious complications. Factors that increase the risk are foreign bodies, stones, obstruction, neurogenic bladder, kidney transplantation, immunosuppression, and pregnancy. Complicated UTI includes a spectrum of conditions that increase the risk of treatment failure, as well as of serious complications such as bacteremia and sepsis, perinephric abscess, renal impairment and emphysematous pyelonephritis. To avoid the potentially devastating outcomes, appropriate diagnostic procedures, antibiotic and surgical treatment, and appropriate follow-up are required. The incidence of complicated UTI will grow in the future due to general aging of the population, increasing incidence of diabetes, and ever growing number of immunocompromised and immunosuppressed patients. It is of key importance to recognize complicated UTI on time, and treat it wisely and aggressively to reduce duration of the disease and the risk of antibiotic resistance.

  5. [Fungal infections of the gastrointestinal tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragkoudakis, Emmanouil; Realdi, Giuseppe; Dore, Maria Pina

    2005-06-01

    In immunocompetent subjects fungal infections of the gastrointestinal tract are uncommon. Candida esophagitis remains the single most common fungal infection in immunocompromised hosts or in H. pylori- infected patients who receive antibiotic therapy. Enteric fungal infections are uncommon even in HIV-infected patients. Antifungal agents such as amphotericin B, ketoconazole, fluconazole, and the various formulations of itraconazole are effective for most cases.

  6. Survey of risk factors urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dehghani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Women are very susceptible to urinary tract infections and pregnancy raises the risk of urinary tract infection. In general, little information on the risk factors of urinary tract infection in pregnancy is underway. Urinary tract infection in pregnancy is an important risk factor for pregnancy dire consequences. The purpose of this study is to find risk factors associated with urinary tract infection in pregnant women. Methods: The study was observational and retrospective analysis was carried on in the winter of which 310 pregnant women participated in 11 health centers in Shahrekord. Of these 155 cases (patients and 155 controls (healthy that were matched for age Information required from the health records of pregnant women and complete Czech list of researcher whose validity was confirmed by experts were gathered. Information needed by pregnant women health records and complete list researcher was collected. Czech list contains a number of possible risk factors for illness and demographic characteristics of the study participants was Statistical analysis software spss version 16 by using chi square tests and logistic regression and t analysis was performed. Results: Among the variables vomiting (p = 0/00 a history of urinary tract infection in a previous pregnancy (P =.001, CI = 1.508-4.408, OR = 2.578 abortion own history (P =.014, CI = 1.165 -3.847, OR = 2.117, respectively, the most important risk factors for urinary tract infection in pregnant women were determined. Conclusion: Prevention and treatment of vomiting in pregnancy prevention of urinary tract infections during pregnancy. Prevention of abortion can play an important role in the prevention of urinary tract infection and its complications in pregnancy. The study also revealed a number of factors can have an impact on urinary tract infection in pregnancy that has not been enough attention and it is necessary that more attention be placed on health programs and

  7. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys ... topic for: Kids Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting View more Partner Message ...

  8. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys ... topic for: Kids Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting View more About Us ...

  9. The role of imaging in adult acute urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, J.A.W.

    1997-01-01

    Imaging is required in only a minority of patients with urinary tract infection. Some patients who present with severe loin pain are imaged because ureteric colic is suspected. If urinary tract infection does not respond normally to antibiotics, imaging is undertaken to check for evidence of renal obstuction or sepsis. Finally, after the acute infection has been treated, imaging is required in some patients to check for factors pre-disposing to renal damage or to relapsing or recurrent infection. This review discusses the appropriate choice of imaging technique to use in each clinical situation and summarises the expected findings. (orig.). With 15 figs., 1 tab

  10. [Upper respiratory tract infections and sports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffi El Amari, Emmanuelle

    2010-08-11

    Upper respiratory tract infections are frequent in athletes. Mainly of viral origin, they are treated symptomatically. Infectious mononucleosis is associated with an estimated 2% per hundred risk of splenic rupture, which occurs between day four and twenty one of the illness. Therefore return to play guidelines recommend avoiding, exercice during the first twenty one days. Physical exercise seems to influence the immune system, depending on the intensity and length of it. But the relationship between physical exercise and risk of infections remains controversial: some articles showing an increase in risk, whereas others suggesting a certain degree of protection, in athletes. The actual generally accepted working theory is the J-curve proposed by Nieman. This model remains to be formally proven.

  11. Common bacterial urinary tract infections in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, J E

    1976-09-01

    Unfortunately, there is no general consensus as to how long patients with bacteriuria or urinary tract infections should be monitored and certainly there is no agreement on how long recurrent episodes should be treated beyond ten days to two weeks. The most important points to remember are: 1. Culture the urine both at the time of therapy and during follow-up. The patient should be examined periodically for the presence of bacteruria. If bacteria cannot be eradicated, at least the physician is aware of the organism most likely causing the patient's symptoms. 2. Do not subject the patient with frequent recurrent (chronic) and complicated infections to continual antibacterial therapy, but rather, manage the acute episodes. 3. Use prophylaxis, particularly single bed-time doses for dysuria and frequency symptoms. 4. Screen for bacteriuria during pregnancy. 5. Avoid the use of catheters except where absolutely necessary. 6. Avoid systemic prophylaxis of infection in patients with catheters; rather, use closed-system drainage with antibacteri-irrigation. It is to be hoped within the next few years, studies now underway will allow specific recommendations regarding the management of asymptomatic bacteruria, the duration of therapy for recurrent infections, the prevention and treatment of L-form bacterial infections, and indications for urologic procedures.

  12. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys two ureters (say: ... Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting View more ... & Terms of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web ...

  13. Recurrent uncomplicated urinary tract infections in women: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosseir, Sandy B; Lind, Lawrence R; Winkler, Harvey A

    2012-03-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections most often present with symptoms of irritative voiding. In most cases, they are caused by reinfection with a previously isolated organism. Patients with one or more symptoms of uncomplicated recurrent urinary tract infection should undergo thorough examination and screening for underlying comorbidities that increase susceptibility. When frequent reinfections, empiric treatment relapse, persistent infections, or risk factors for complicated infections are encountered, patients may benefit from urodynamics, cystoscopy, renal ultrasound, intravenous urogram, or voiding cystourethrogram to evaluate for anatomic, functional, or metabolic abnormalities affecting the urinary tract (e.g., stones, stricture, obstruction, vesicoureteral reflux, lesions, detrusor underactivity). These patients may benefit from culture-guided empiric treatment and further evaluation by urology, nephrology, or infectious disease specialists. In patients with a history of uncomplicated urinary tract infections, empiric treatment guided by local antimicrobial resistance may efficiently treat a suspected recurrence. After successful treatment of the acute infection, postcoital prophylaxis, continuous prophylaxis, or self-start empiric treatment may be selected based on frequency of recurrent infections, temporal relation to intercourse, and patient characteristics. Ancillary measures such as probiotics, cranberry products, or local estrogen replacement may also be considered. This article will review the current definition, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, work-up, treatment, treatment side effects, and prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections in women. A suggested algorithm for evaluation and treatment based on current literature is provided.

  14. urinary tract infections amongst pregnant women attending

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) constitutes a major health problem in pregnant women due to their relatively short urethra, which ... the urine samples of pregnant women prior to treatment. ... Of 500 asymptomatic pregnant women screened, 433.

  15. Management of Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are a common occurrence in paediatrics. ... Ceftriaxone, ampicillin, cefotaxime and gentamycin are the recommended parenteral antibiotics, ... and/or oral medication) and hydration status (in the case of.

  16. Urinary tract infection in the neurogenic bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Humberto R.

    2016-01-01

    There is a high incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract function. This results in significant morbidity and health care utilization. Multiple well-established risk factors unique to a neurogenic bladder (NB) exist while others require ongoing investigation. It is important for care providers to have a good understanding of the different structural, physiological, immunological and catheter-related risk factors so that they may be modified when possible. Diagnosis remains complicated. Appropriate specimen collection is of paramount importance and a UTI cannot be diagnosed based on urinalysis or clinical presentation alone. A culture result with a bacterial concentration of ≥103 CFU/mL in combination with symptoms represents an acceptable definition for UTI diagnosis in NB patients. Cystoscopy, ultrasound and urodynamics should be utilized for the evaluation of recurrent infections in NB patients. An acute, symptomatic UTI should be treated with antibiotics for 5–14 days depending on the severity of the presentation. Antibiotic selection should be based on local and patient-based resistance patterns and the spectrum should be as narrow as possible if there are no concerns regarding urosepsis. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) should not be treated because of rising resistance patterns and lack of clinical efficacy. The most important preventative measures include closed catheter drainage in patients with an indwelling catheter and the use of clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) over other methods of bladder management if possible. The use of hydrophilic or impregnated catheters is not recommended. Intravesical Botox, bacterial interference and sacral neuromodulation show significant promise for the prevention of UTIs in higher risk NB patients and future, multi-center, randomized controlled trials are required. PMID:26904414

  17. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... Illnesses & Injuries Relax & Unwind People, Places & Things That Help Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for ... ll never want to have one again! To help keep those bacteria out of your urinary tract, ...

  18. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract Troubles Girls are more likely than boys to get a UTI. That's because their urethras are much shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get ...

  19. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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  20. Streptococcus pneumoniae urinary tract infection in pedeatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pougnet, Richard; Sapin, Jeanne; De Parscau, Loïc; Pougnet, Laurence

    2017-06-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae infections in children are most often lung infections or meningitis. Urinary tract infections are much rarer. We present the case of a urinary tract infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae. The clinical picture was classical. The urine culture showed the presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in urine (10 4 UFC/mL; with 2 × 10 4 leucocytes/mL). The literature mentions a few cases of such infections. In some studies, the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in urine of children is less than 1%. Those children mostly present abnormalities of urinary tract. In our case, urinary ultrasound scan have shown the presence of an ectopic kidney in this child. The discussion between the clinician and the biologist has contributed to the discovery of this renal anomaly.

  1. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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  2. Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common occurrence in children. The management and laboratory diagnosis of these infections pose unique challenges that are not encountered in adults. Important factors, such as specimen collection, urinalysis interpretation, culture thresholds, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, require special consideration in children and will be discussed in detail in the following review. PMID:27053673

  3. Urinary tract infections in women with stress urinary incontinence treated with transobturator suburethral tape and benefit gained from the sublingual polibacterial vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo Gómez, María F; Collazos Robles, Rafael E; Virseda Rodríguez, Álvaro J; García Cenador, María B; Mirón Canelo, José A; Padilla Fernández, Bárbara

    2015-08-01

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTIs) are highly prevalent diseases. Our purpose was to investigate the relationship between RUTIs and surgical correction of SUI with transobturator suburethral tape (TOT) and to describe the benefit gained from a sublingual polibacterial preparation on RUTIs developed after TOT. A retrospective study was performed on 420 women who underwent TOT surgery due to SUI between April 2003 and October 2011. Group A: patients without urinary tract infections (UTIs) before TOT (n = 294). Group B: patients with UTIs before TOT (n = 126). age, personal history, number of UTIs/month prior to and after surgery, appearance of urgent urinary incontinence (UUI) with or without UTIs, response to International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form (ICIQ-SF) and Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaires. Group A: 85% dry; 5% UUI; 4% de novo UTIs with good response to antibiotics over 6 days. No RUTIs during the follow-up period, 2% with sporadic UTIs. Group B: 47.61% RUTIs; 52.39% sporadic UTIs; greater incidence of diabetes mellitus (p < 0.0025) and smoking (p < 0.0031) than group A. After TOT: 79.36% dry; 10% RUTIs. After treatment with antibiotics for 6 days and bacterial preparation for 3 months, 82% of patients did not have a UTI anymore. Postoperative cystourethrogram revealed 38% of nondiagnosed cystoceles before TOT. No patient had a postvoiding volume greater than 100 cm(3) after TOT. Improvement of ICIQ-SF (p < 0.001) and SF-36 (p < 0.0004) in both groups. After eliminating bias associated with the tape, the technique and the surgeon's skills, SUI correction may decrease the number of UTIs and improve the quality of life. UTIs disappeared in 82% of patients with RUTIs after TOT.

  4. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life ... get up into the bladder more easily and cause an infection there. Some of the bacteria that ...

  7. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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  11. Urinary tract infection in women - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by bacteria that enter the urethra and travel to the bladder. ... BATHING AND HYGIENE To prevent future urinary tract infections, ... believe make infections more likely. Change your pad each time ...

  12. Current concepts in urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D H; Schaeffer, A J

    2004-03-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common infectious diseases that can be associated with substantial morbidity and significant expenditures. This review highlights the current concepts and recent advances in our understanding and management of this condition. Specific topics include pathogenesis, host factors, antimicrobial resistance, recurrent UTIs in women, diagnosis, treatment of uncomplicated and complicated UTIs, prophylaxis, catheter associated bacteriuria, pregnancy, diabetes, UTIs in men, prostatitis, and the chronic pelvic pain syndrome. UTIs can be viewed as an interaction between specific bacterial virulence factors and the patient. A new model explaining the pathogenesis of recurrent UTIs has been presented. There is a need to reconsider traditional treatment recommendations in the face of local resistance patterns, as well as the need to make better use of drugs that are currently available. Prospects for prevention of recurrent UTI include natural compounds, bacterial interference and immunization. With regard to UTI risk in women, patients can be classified based on age, and functional and hormonal status. Appropriate treatment approaches must be based on this classification. In contrast to uncomplicated UTIs, management of most complicated infections depends on clinical experience and resources at individual institutions rather than on evidence based guidelines. Asymptomatic bacteriuria generally should not be treated except in high-risk catheterized patients and in pregnancy. UTIs in men generally require formal urologic evaluation. Our understanding of the etiologies, diagnostic strategies, and treatment options for prostatitis and the chronic pelvic pain syndrome in men continues to evolve.

  13. Pediatric urinary tract infections: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsori, Maria; Galanakis, Emmanouil

    2012-10-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common serious bacterial infection in childhood. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are required for the optimal clinical outcome and the prevention of long-term morbidity and sequelae. Diagnosis and treatment of UTI may seem to be easy tasks, but they remain among the most controversial issues in pediatrics. Consequently, children suspected for UTIs are investigated and treated differently in different settings. The absence of typical clinical presentation and the uncertainties in setting the index of suspicion, collecting appropriate urine samples and interpreting results, combined with different antibiotic policies in the face of increasing resistance of uropathogens, contribute to the controversy. Recently issued guidelines have attempted to settle several thorny aspects in diagnosis and treatment, but quite a few issues still remain controversial. In this review, the authors explore the current situation on diagnosis and treatment of childhood UTI in better understanding their pathogenesis and prevalence in different child populations, discuss recently evaluated diagnostic tests and the new management guidelines.

  14. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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  19. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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  1. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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  3. Infective endocarditis following urinary tract infection caused by Globicatella sanguinis

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Saeko; Xu, Chieko; Sakai, Tetsuya; Fujii, Kotaro; Nakamura, Morio

    2017-01-01

    We report the first case of infective endocarditis following urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by Globicatella sanguinis in an 87-year-old Japanese woman with recurrent episodes of UTI. We identified the pathogen using the Rapid ID32 Strep system. Accurate identification of this infection is important and essential for the effective antimicrobial coverage to this pathogen.

  4. Imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dacher, Jean-Nicolas [University of Rouen, Quant-IF Laboratory, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Rouen (France); Rouen University Hospital Charles Nicolle, Department of Radiology, Rouen (France); UFR Medecine Pharmacie de Rouen, Laboratoire Quant-If, Rouen (France); Hitzel, Anne; Vera, Pierre [University of Rouen, Quant-IF Laboratory, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Rouen (France); CRLCC Henri Becquerel, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rouen (France); Avni, Fred E. [Free University of Brussels, Department of Radiology, Erasmus Hospital, Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    This article is focused on the controversial topic of imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection. A review of the recent literature illustrates the complementary roles of ultrasound, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. The authors stress the key role of ultrasound which has recently been debated. The commonly associated vesicoureteric reflux has to be classified as congenital or secondary due to voiding dysfunction. A series of frequently asked questions are addressed in a second section. The proposed answers are not the product of a consensus but should rather be considered as proposals to enrich the ongoing debate concerning the evaluation of urinary tract infection in children. (orig.)

  5. Imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dacher, Jean-Nicolas; Hitzel, Anne; Vera, Pierre; Avni, Fred E.

    2005-01-01

    This article is focused on the controversial topic of imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection. A review of the recent literature illustrates the complementary roles of ultrasound, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. The authors stress the key role of ultrasound which has recently been debated. The commonly associated vesicoureteric reflux has to be classified as congenital or secondary due to voiding dysfunction. A series of frequently asked questions are addressed in a second section. The proposed answers are not the product of a consensus but should rather be considered as proposals to enrich the ongoing debate concerning the evaluation of urinary tract infection in children. (orig.)

  6. Urinary Tract Infection in Children: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Hamid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common paediatric infections. By the time children are 5 years old, about 8% of girls and about 1-2% of boys have had at least one episode of UTI. UTIs are caused mainly by colonic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, followed by Klebsiella and Proteus. However, any organism that gains access to the urinary tract system may cause infection, including fungi (Candida species and viruses. In some instances, UTI results in recognition of an important underlying structural abnormality of the urinary tract. The febrile infant or child with clinically significant bacteriuria and no other site of infection to explain the fever, even in the absence of systemic symptoms has UTI. Signs and symptoms of UTIs vary depending on the child's age and on which part of the urinary tract is infected. The diagnosis of UTI is based on routine microscopic examination and culture of a properly collected urine specimen. Imaging studies are done in selected patients to identify anatomic abnormalities. Most cases of uncomplicated UTI respond readily to outpatient antibiotic treatment without further sequelae. All patients should have close follow-up to evaluate response to antibiotics and to prevent the development of long term complication.

  7. VIRAL ETIOLOGY OF RECURRENT URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Ibishev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Recurrent urinary tract infection is an actual problem of modern urology.Objective. Complex investigation of urinary tract infections including viral etiology for chronic recurrent cystitis in womenMaterials and methods. The study included 31 women with recurrent infection of urinary tract. Inclusion criteria were the presence of lower urinary tract symptoms caused by infection, severe recurrent course, the lack of anatomical and functional disorders of the urinary tract, the absence of bacterial pathogens during the study, taking into account the culture of aerobic and anaerobic culturing techniques.Results. The analysis of the clinical manifestations, the dominant in the study group were pain and urgency to urinate at 100% and 90% of women surveyed, respectively, and less frequent urination were recorded in 16.1% of patients. In general clinical examination of urine in all cases identified leukocyturia and 90% of the hematuria. By using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR in midstream urine of all examined was verified 10 types of human papilloma virus (HPV with the predominance of 16 and 18 types . Considering the presence of recurrent infectious and inflammatory processes of the urinary tract, cystoscopy with bladder biopsy was performed for all patients. When histomorphological biopsies of all patients surveyed noted the presence of the specific characteristics of HPV: papillary hyperplasia with squamous koilocytosis, pale cytoplasm and shrunken kernels. When analyzing the results of PCR biopsy data corresponded with the results of PCR in midstream urine in all biopsies was detected HPV.Conclusions. Human papillomavirus infection may be involved in the development of viral cystitis. In the etiological structure of viral cystitis, both highly oncogenic and low oncogenic HPV types can act.

  8. Diabetes and Risk of Community-Acquired Respiratory Tract Infections, Urinary Tract Infections, and Bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Reimar W.; Mor, Anil

    2013-01-01

    This review provides an update on the risk of several important community-acquired infections seen in patients with diabetes: respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and bacteremia. Respiratory tract infections: Recent epidemiological evidence shows a modest (1.25 to 1.75-fold) risk...... increase for hospitalization with pneumonia associated with diabetes. The increase of risk for tuberculosis is of similar magnitude in highly developed countries, and possibly higher in low-income countries. Poor glycemic control and long diabetes duration predict higher risk for both pneumonia...... and tuberculosis. Limited data is available for diabetes and influenza, yet both influenza and pneumococcal vaccination is recommended in patients with diabetes. Urinary tract infections: The risk of asymptomatic bacteriuria and cystitis is 1.5 to 2 times increased in diabetes patients, while their risk...

  9. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... signs that you might have a bladder infection, so based on your answers, your mom or dad ... off before you collect the pee. This is so your urine sample won't contain germs from ...

  10. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... Your pee smells bad. These things happen because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary ... shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get up into the bladder more easily ...

  11. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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  13. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... a bladder infection, your doctor will order some medicine for you to take to kill the bacteria. ... the hospital. At the hospital, the germ-fighting medicine can be delivered more effectively through a tiny ...

  14. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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  16. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... of your body. If they aren't wiped away properly, they stay on your skin. In girls, ... infection and you should see a doctor right away. What Will the Doctor Do? First, your doctor ...

  17. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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  18. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals ... 237 milliliters) of urine in your bladder, your brain tells you it's time to find a bathroom. ...

  19. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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  1. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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  2. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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  3. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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  4. The nature of immune responses to urinary tract infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Soman N.; Miao, Yuxuan

    2016-01-01

    The urinary tract is constantly exposed to microorganisms that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract, but generally the urinary tract resists infection by gut microorganisms. This resistance to infection is mainly ascribed to the versatility of the innate immune defences in the urinary tract as the adaptive immune responses are limited, particularly when only the lower urinary tract is infected. In recent years, as the strengths and weaknesses of the immune system of the urinary tract have emerged and as the virulence attributes of uropathogens are recognized, several potentially effective and unconventional strategies to contain or prevent urinary tract infections have emerged. PMID:26388331

  5. Diagnosis of pediatric urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng-Daw Tsai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is the second common infection in children. The diagnosis of UTI in infants and children can be difficult. Good history taking and physical examination are corner stones of good care of UTI. In addition, this article reviewed current evident on the methods of urine specimen collection and various diagnostic criteria to reach the diagnosis of UTI. Asian Guideline for UTI in children is highlighted to increase consensus of the diagnosis of UTI.

  6. Diagnosis of pediatric urinary tract infections

    OpenAIRE

    Jeng-Daw Tsai; Chun-Chen Lin; Stephan S. Yang

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the second common infection in children. The diagnosis of UTI in infants and children can be difficult. Good history taking and physical examination are corner stones of good care of UTI. In addition, this article reviewed current evident on the methods of urine specimen collection and various diagnostic criteria to reach the diagnosis of UTI. Asian Guideline for UTI in children is highlighted to increase consensus of the diagnosis of UTI.

  7. New paradigms of urinary tract infections: Implications for patient management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J Horvath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs represent one of the most commonly acquired diseases among the general population as well as hospital in-patients, yet remain difficult to effectively and consistently treat. High rates of recurrence, anatomic abnormalities, and functional disturbances of the urinary tract all contribute to the difficulty in management of these infections. However, recent advances reveal important molecular and genetic factors that contribute to bacterial invasion and persistence in the urinary tract, particularly for the most common causative agent, uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Recent studies using animal models of experimental UTIs have recently provided mechanistic insight into the clinical observations that question the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy in treatment. Ultimately, continuing research will be necessary to identify the best targets for effective treatment of this costly and widespread infectious disease.

  8. Asymptomatic urinary tract infection among pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A good proportion of pregnant women patronize traditional birth homes in Nigeria for ante-natal care. This study aimed at determining the prevalence, risk factors, and susceptibility profile of etiologic agents of urinary tract infection among ante-natal attendees in a traditional birth home in Benin City, Nigeria.

  9. Febrile urinary tract infections: pyelonephritis and urosepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneeberger, Caroline; Holleman, Frits; Geerlings, Suzanne E.

    2016-01-01

    Complicated infections of the urinary tract (UTI) including pyelonephritis and urosepsis are also called febrile UTI. This review describes insights from the literature on this topic since July 2014. Recent studies regarding risk factors and consequences of febrile UTI confirmed existing knowledge.

  10. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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  13. Pediatric urinary tract infection as a cause of outpatient clinic visits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Failure to timely diagnose and treat urinary tract infections is associated with grave long term consequences. The objectives of this study included assessing the proportion and predictors of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) as a cause of pediatric outpatient department (OPD) visits and determining common ...

  14. Antibiotic resistance in community-acquired urinary tract infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of community-acquired UTI organisms to amoxycillin and co-trimoxazole was .... Treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection in non-pregnant women. Postgrad ... Single-dose antibiotic treatment for symptomatic uri- nary tract infections in ...

  15. urinary tract infections in symptomatic pregnant women attending

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    bacterial infections in the elderly but also the most common and ... For pregnant women, urinary tract infection is the most common ... causing arthropathy in children. Urinary tract ... resistance in our environment, resistance such as β-. Urinary ...

  16. Childhood urinary tract infection in Benin City: pathogens and ...

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    Childhood urinary tract infection in Benin City: pathogens and antimicrobial ... of bacterial isolates implicated in urinary tract infection (UTI) amongst children was ... There is also an emerging resistance of common pathogens to azithromycin ...

  17. Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Related Conditions (For Parents)

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    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Related Conditions KidsHealth / For Parents / Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Related Conditions What's in this article? ...

  18. Urinary Tract Infection in Febrile Children with Sickle Cell Anaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Nigeria. Children with this disease have increased tendency to develop frequent and severe infections especially of the urinary tract, bones and lungs. The prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI) has however not been reported in this part ...

  19. Antimicrobial Stewardship and Urinary Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian M. Abbo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections are the most common bacterial infections encountered in ambulatory and long-term care settings in the United States. Urine samples are the largest single category of specimens received by most microbiology laboratories and many such cultures are collected from patients who have no or questionable urinary symptoms. Unfortunately, antimicrobials are often prescribed inappropriately in such patients. Antimicrobial use, whether appropriate or inappropriate, is associated with the selection for antimicrobial-resistant organisms colonizing or infecting the urinary tract. Infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant organisms are associated with higher rates of treatment failures, prolonged hospitalizations, increased costs and mortality. Antimicrobial stewardship consists of avoidance of antimicrobials when appropriate and, when antimicrobials are indicated, use of strategies to optimize the selection, dosing, route of administration, duration and timing of antimicrobial therapy to maximize clinical cure while limiting the unintended consequences of antimicrobial use, including toxicity and selection of resistant microorganisms. This article reviews successful antimicrobial stewardship strategies in the diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections.

  20. New markers of urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masajtis-Zagajewska, Anna; Nowicki, Michal

    2017-08-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infection independent of age. It is also one of the most common causes of hospitalizations for infections among elderly people and the most common indication for antibiotic prescriptions in primary care. Both diagnostics and management of lower and upper urinary tract infections provide challenges in clinical practice due to their high prevalence and recurrence, and worldwide increase of antibiotic resistance. The clinical symptoms of UTI are often uncharacteristic or asymptomatic. The accurate diagnosis and early treatment are crucial due to risk of septicaemia and long-term consequences. Currently the diagnosis of urinary tract infection is based on the presence of clinical symptoms in combination with the results of nitrite strip test indicating the presence of bacteria in urine and semi-quantitative measurement of white blood cells count in urine. Although urine culture is the gold standard in UTI diagnostics it is both time-consuming and costly. Searching for novel biomarkers of UTI has attracted much attention in recent years. The article reviews several promising serum and urine biomarkers of UTI such as leukocyte esterase, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, interleukins, elastase alpha (1)-proteinase inhibitor, lactofferin, secretory immunoglobulin A, heparin-binding protein, xanthine oxidase, myeloperoxidase, soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1, α-1 microglobulin (α1Mg) and tetrazolium nitroblue test (TNB). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Urinary tract infection in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Raul

    2011-12-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infection in women in general and in postmenopausal women in particular. Two groups of elderly women with recurrent UTI should be differentiated regarding age and general status: healthy, young postmenopausal women aged 50 to 70 years who are neither institutionalized or catheterized and elderly institutionalized women with or without a catheter. Bacteriuria occurs more often in elderly functionally impaired women, but in general it is asymptomatic. However, the risk factors associated with recurrent UTI in elderly women are not widely described. In a multivariate analysis it was found that urinary incontinence, a history of UTI before menopause, and nonsecretor status were strongly associated with recurrent UTI in young postmenopausal women. Another study described the incidence and risk factors of acute cystitis among nondiabetic and diabetic postmenopausal women. Independent predictors of infection included insulin-treated patients and a lifetime history of urinary infection. Borderline associations included a history of vaginal estrogen cream use in the past month, kidney stones, and asymptomatic bacteriuria at baseline. Another important factor in postmenopausal women is the potential role that estrogen deficiency plays in the development of bacteriuria. There are at least two studies showing a beneficial effect of estrogen in the management of recurrent bacteriuria in elderly women. One of these studies showed that vaginal estrogen cream reduced vaginal pH from 5.5±0.7 to 3.6±1.0, restored lactobacillus, and decreased new episodes of UTI. Another study reported similar results using an estriol vaginal ring. However, contradictory results are found in the literature. For example, additional studies found that the use of estriol-containing vaginal pessaries was less effective than oral nitrofurantoin macrocrystals in preventing UTI in postmenopausal women. Two other studies also did not find any

  2. Urinary tract infections in symptomatic pregnant women attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Several notable human pathogens cause urinary tract infections. Several factors are known to predispose an individual to developing urinary tract infections; one of the factors is pregnancy. Therefore, this research set out to determine the bacteriologic profile of urinary tract infection and the susceptibility pattern ...

  3. Fungal Urinary Tract Infection in Burn Patients‎

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suad Yousuf Aldorkee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection is the most common hospital-acquired infection. Fungal species are unusual causes of urinary tract infection in healthy individuals, but common in the hospital setting or among patients with predisposing diseases and structural abnormalities of the kidney and collecting system. Burn patients are susceptible to nosocomial infections owing to the immunocompromising effects of burn injury, cutaneous and respiratory tract injury, prolonged intensive care unit stays and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. Objective: The study population includes adult patients of both genders who presented with different percentages of body burns. Urine sample was collected from each patient at the time of admission and weekly thereafter for 6 weeks and sent for general urine examination and urine culture to test for the possibility of fungal growth. Those who found to develop fungal UTI by urine culture during their hospitalization and had no infection at the time of admission were selected as subjects for our study. Results: 28 (18.6% patients had positive fungal culture during their hospitalization, 11 of them were males and 17 were females, the most common age of presentation was 41-50 years and the mean age ± SD was (44.4 ± 10.7 years. The most common isolated fungi were Candida albicans (64.3%, followed by Candida glabrata (21.4% and Candida tropicalis (7.1%. The majority of patients developed infection within the 2nd and 3rd weeks of hospitalization, however, those who presented with total body surface area burned > 40% developed an earlier infection within the 1st week. Female gender, urethral catheterization and diabetes mellitus were significantly associated with higher risk of infection as the P values were 0.03, 0.005 and 0.004 respectively. Conclusion: Fungal urinary tract infection occurred in 18.6% of burn patients. The most common causative fungi are candida species. Advanced age, female gender, high percentage of

  4. Urinary tract infection in kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón-Mora, Natalia; Pachón Díaz, Jerónimo; Cordero Matía, Elisa

    2017-04-01

    Infectious complications remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality among transplant recipients. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infectious complication in kidney transplant recipients with a reported incidence from 25% to 75%, varies widely likely due to differences in definition, diagnostic criteria, study design, and length of observation. We sought reviews the incidence and importance of urinary tract infection on graft survival, the microbiology with special emphasis on multidrug resistant microorganisms, the therapeutic management of UTI and the prophylaxis of recurrent UTI among solid organ transplant recipients, highlighting the need for prospective clinical trials to unify the clinical management in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  5. Urinary Tract Infections in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, Lona; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTIs) in older women are commonly encountered in outpatient practice. OBJECTIVE To review management of asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic UTI and review prevention of recurrent UTIs in older community-dwelling women. EVIDENCE REVIEW A search of Ovid (Medline, PsycINFO, Embase) for English-language human studies conducted among adults aged 65 years and older and published in peer-reviewed journals from 1946 to November 20, 2013. RESULTS The clinical spectrum of UTIs ranges from asymptomatic bacteriuria, to symptomatic and recurrent UTIs, to sepsis associated with UTI requiring hospitalization. Recent evidence helps differentiate asymptomatic bacteriuria from symptomatic UTI. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is transient in older women, often resolves without any treatment, and is not associated with morbidity or mortality. The diagnosis of symptomatic UTI is made when a patient has both clinical features and laboratory evidence of a urinary infection. Absent other causes, patients presenting with any 2 of the following meet the clinical diagnostic criteria for symptomatic UTI: fever, worsened urinary urgency or frequency, acute dysuria, suprapubic tenderness, or costovertebral angle pain or tenderness. A positive urine culture (≥105 CFU/mL) with no more than 2 uropathogens and pyuria confirms the diagnosis of UTI. Risk factors for recurrent symptomatic UTI include diabetes, functional disability, recent sexual intercourse, prior history of urogynecologic surgery, urinary retention, and urinary incontinence. Testing for UTI is easily performed in the clinic using dipstick tests. When there is a low pretest probability of UTI, a negative dipstick result for leukocyte esterase and nitrites excludes infection. Antibiotics are selected by identifying the uropathogen, knowing local resistance rates, and considering adverse effect profiles. Chronic suppressive antibiotics for 6 to 12 months and

  6. Management of urinary tract infections in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgman, D E

    1994-06-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most frequent complications of pregnancy. When the lower UTIs of asymptomatic bacteriuria and cystitis are not eradicated, the subsequent risk of the development of pyelonephritis is increased. The associated decreased maternal morbidity and fetal prematurity are the goals of a screening and treatment program for pregnant women. This clinical article presents information on the etiology, incidence, diagnosis, and management of asymptomatic bacteriuria and cystitis. Nursing implications regarding teaching are included.

  7. Epidemiology of urinary tract infections in Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, L R; Phair, J P; Seki, Masafumi; Hamilton, H B; Nefzger, M D

    1964-08-19

    The present study was conducted at ABCC on a sample of Hiroshima residents systematically seleced for determining the influence on general health status of exposure to the atomic bomb of 1945. A survey for urinary infections was taken on persons in the sample examined in the ABCC clinic over a 1-year period: approximately 3000 women and 2000 men. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of urinary infection and to study the relation between bacteriuria and various aspects of the general examination, particularly blood pressure. In addition, the rates of urinary tract infection in the clinic were compared with the rates of chronic pyelonephritis at autopsy. Results showed that infections were much more common in women than in men and rose with age in both sexes. The greatest increase in the prevalence was found in women age 60 years and over was due to coliform bacteria in all but a few instances. There was no difference in hematuria, glycosuria, diabetes, serum cholesterol, blood groups, electrocardiograms, audiometry, vibrometry, hemoglobin levels or height-weight ratios. Blood pressure is higher in infected women as compared with noninfected women and the finding of higher rates for cardiac enlargement suggests that this small difference in blood pressures may have biological significance. However, the data do not permit a conclusion as to whether the urinary infections were responsible for the higher blood pressure levels, or whether the higher blood pressure levels increased the frequency of detectable infection. The difference between the clinical rates of urinary infection in men and women, and the pathological diagnosis of pyelonephritis in the same population, supports a previous suggestion that much of what is called pyelonephritis at autopsy is not due to urinary tract infection. 27 references, 2 figures, 10 tables.

  8. The Vaginal Microbiota and Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Ann E

    2016-12-01

    The vagina is a key anatomical site in the pathogenesis of urinary tract infection (UTI) in women, serving as a potential reservoir for infecting bacteria and a site at which interventions may decrease the risk of UTI. The vaginal microbiota is a dynamic and often critical factor in this pathogenic interplay, because changes in the characteristics of the vaginal microbiota resulting in the loss of normally protective Lactobacillus spp. increase the risk of UTI. These alterations may result from the influence of estrogen deficiency, antimicrobial therapy, contraceptives, or other causes. Interventions to reduce adverse effects on the vaginal microbiota and/or to restore protective lactobacilli may reduce the risks of UTI.

  9. Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infection Prevention bundle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Zarkotou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI are among the most common healthcare-associated infections, and potentially lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Multifaceted infection control strategies implemented as bundles can prevent nosocomial infections associated with invasive devices such as CAUTIs. The components of the CAUTI bundle proposed herein, include appropriate indications for catheterization and recommendations for the procedures of catheter insertion and catheter maintenance and care. Avoiding unnecessary urinary catheter use is the most effective measure for their prevention. To minimize the risk of CAUTI, urinary catheters should be placed only when a clinical valid indication is documented and they should be removed as soon as possible; alternatives to catheterization should also be considered. Aseptic insertion technique, maintenance of closed drainage system and strict adherence to hand hygiene are essential for preventing CAUTI. The successful implementation of the bundle requires education and training for all healthcare professionals and evaluation of surveillance data.

  10. Treatments for symptomatic urinary tract infections during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Juan C; Abalos, Edgardo

    2011-01-19

    Urinary tract infections, including pyelonephritis, are serious complications that may lead to significant maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. There is a large number of drugs, and combination of them, available to treat urinary tract infections, most of them tested in non-pregnant women. Attempts to define the optimal antibiotic regimen for pregnancy have, therefore, been problematic. The objective of this review was to determine, from the best available evidence from randomised controlled trials, which agent is the most effective for the treatment of symptomatic urinary tract infections during pregnancy in terms of cure rates, recurrent infection, incidence of preterm delivery and premature rupture of membranes, admission to neonatal intensive care unit, need for change of antibiotic, and incidence of prolonged pyrexia. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group Trials Register (November 2009) and reference lists of articles. We considered all trials where the intention was to allocate participants randomly to one of at least two alternative treatments for any symptomatic urinary tract infection. Both review authors assessed trial quality and extracted data. We included 10 studies, recruiting a total of 1125 pregnant women. In most of the comparisons there were no significant differences between the treatments under study with regard to cure rates, recurrent infection, incidence of preterm delivery, admission to neonatal intensive care unit, need for change of antibiotic and incidence of prolonged pyrexia. When cefuroxime and cephradine were compared, there were better cure rates (29/49 versus 41/52) and fewer recurrences (20/49 versus 11/52) in the cefuroxime group. There was only one other statistically significant difference when comparing outpatient versus inpatient treatment. Gestational age at birth was greater in women from the outpatient group (38.86 versus 37.21), while birthweight was on average greater in the inpatient group

  11. Assessment of infective urinary tract disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixt, R.; Stokland, E.

    1998-01-01

    Urinary tracts infection (UTI) is common in children, particularly in the youngest age groups. There is a risk for progressive deterioration of renal function in these children if aggravating factors such as gross reflux and/or outflow obstruction of the urinary tract are present. In this review the pros and cons of available scintigrafic and radiological imaging techniques for the work-up of these children are presented. Ultrasound can be used in the acute phase to exclude obstruction but can not reliably show transient or permanent parenchymal lesions. The presence of reflux can be established with X-ray or direct nuclide cystography. The X-ray technique gives good morphological information and has a grading system with prognostic relevance. Both techniques are invasive and great care must be taken to keep the radiation burden down with the X-ray technique. Indirect nuclide cystography following a renographic study is non-invasive but has a lower sensitivity than direct techniques. More experience is needed with the indirect technique to evaluate the consequences of its apparently low sensitivity. Urography has a limited place in the acute work-up of urinary tract infection but can be used to look for renal scarring 1-2 years after an acute pyelonephritis. The 99m Tc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan can be used during the acute UTI to show pyelonephritic lesions with good accuracy and/or during the follow-up after six months to show permanent lesions. The acute DMSA scan can be omitted

  12. Imaging in childhood urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccabona, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common query in pediatric radiology. Imaging for and after UTI is still a heavily debated topic with different approaches, as thorough evidence to decide upon a definite algorithm is scarce. This review article tries to address the clinical rational of the various approaches (general imaging, top-down or bottom-up, selected and individualized imaging concepts…), describes the available imaging modalities and the respective findings in imaging children with UTI, and proposes an imaging algorithm for the work-up of children during and after UTI discussing the "pros and cons" of the different attitudes. In summary, imaging by US is generally considered for all infants and children with a febrile or complicated (upper) UTI, particularly without previously known urinary tract anatomy. The further work-up (searching for renal scarring and assessment of vesico-ureteric reflux) is then decided according to these initial findings as well as the clinical presentation, course, and scenario.

  13. Novel Strategies in the Prevention and Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüthje, Petra; Brauner, Annelie

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are one of the most common bacterial infections, especially in women and children, frequently treated with antibiotics. The alarming increase in antibiotic resistance is a global threat to future treatment of infections. Therefore, alternative strategies are urgently needed. The innate immune system plays a fundamental role in protecting the urinary tract from infections. Antimicrobial peptides form an important part of the innate immunity. They are produced by epithelial cells and neutrophils and defend the urinary tract against invading bacteria. Since efficient resistance mechanisms have not evolved among bacterial pathogens, much effort has been put into exploring the role of antimicrobial peptides and possibilities to utilize them in clinical practice. Here, we describe the impact of antimicrobial peptides in the urinary tract and ways to enhance the production by hormones like vitamin D and estrogen. We also discuss the potential of medicinal herbs to be used in the prophylaxis and the treatment of urinary tract infections. PMID:26828523

  14. A prospective study of urinary tract infection during pelvic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialas, I.; Bessell, E.M.; Sokal, M.

    1989-01-01

    The frequency of urinary tract infection before and during pelvic radiotherapy was studied prospectively in 172 patients who were not catherised and had not had instrumentation for at least 4 weeks prior to radiotherapy. The incidence of urinary tract infection prior to radiotherapy was 17% and a further 17% of patients develped a urinary tract infection during radiotherapy. Mid-stream specimens of urine (MSU) should be examined for infection on a weekly basis during pelvic radiotherapy not only to identify this additional 17% of patients but also to detect those patients who have persistent urinary tract infection in spite of treatment with appropriate antibiotics. (author). 6 refs.; 1 fig.; 4 tabs

  15. Urinary Tract Infection: Pathogenesis and Outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Lisa K; Hunstad, David A

    2016-11-01

    The clinical syndromes comprising urinary tract infection (UTI) continue to exert significant impact on millions of patients worldwide, most of whom are otherwise healthy women. Antibiotic therapy for acute cystitis does not prevent recurrences, which plague up to one fourth of women after an initial UTI. Rising antimicrobial resistance among uropathogenic bacteria further complicates therapeutic decisions, necessitating new approaches based on fundamental biological investigation. In this review, we highlight contemporary advances in the field of UTI pathogenesis and how these might inform both our clinical perspective and future scientific priorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Urinary Tract Infection: Pathogenesis and Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Lisa K.; Hunstad, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The clinical syndromes comprising urinary tract infection (UTI) continue to exert significant impact on millions of patients worldwide, most of whom are otherwise healthy women. Antibiotic therapy for acute cystitis does not prevent recurrences, which plague up to one fourth of women after an initial UTI. Rising antimicrobial resistance among uropathogenic bacteria further complicates therapeutic decisions, necessitating new approaches based on fundamental biological investigation. In this review, we highlight contemporary advances in the field of UTI pathogenesis and how these might inform both our clinical perspective and future scientific priorities. PMID:27692880

  17. Clinical analysis of urinary tract infection in patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y-H; Li, G-Q; Guo, S-M; Che, Y-N; Wang, X; Cheng, F-T

    2017-10-01

    To analyze the related influencing factors of urinary tract infection in patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). A total of 343 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia admitted to this hospital from January 2013 to December 2016, were selected and treated by TURP. Patients were divided into infection group and non-infection group according to the occurrence of urinary tract infection after operation. The possible influencing factors were collected to perform univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. There were 53 cases with urinary tract infection after operation among 343 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia, accounting for 15.5%. The univariate analysis displayed that the occurrence of urinary tract infection in patients undergoing TURP was closely associated with patient's age ≥ 65 years old, complicated diabetes, catheterization for urinary retention before operation, no use of antibiotics before operation and postoperative indwelling catheter duration ≥ 5 d (p urinary tract infection in patients receiving TURP (p urinary tract infection after TURP, while preoperative prophylactic utilization of anti-infective drugs can reduce the occurrence of postoperative urinary tract infection.

  18. Proteus mirabilis and Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Jessica N.; Pearson, Melanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a Gram-negative bacterium which is well-known for its ability to robustly swarm across surfaces in a striking bulls’-eye pattern. Clinically, this organism is most frequently a pathogen of the urinary tract, particularly in patients undergoing long-term catheterization. This review covers P. mirabilis with a focus on urinary tract infections (UTI), including disease models, vaccine development efforts, and clinical perspectives. Flagella-mediated motility, both swimming and swarming, is a central facet of this organism. The regulation of this complex process and its contribution to virulence is discussed, along with the type VI-secretion system-dependent intra-strain competition which occurs during swarming. P. mirabilis uses a diverse set of virulence factors to access and colonize the host urinary tract, including urease and stone formation, fimbriae and other adhesins, iron and zinc acquisition, proteases and toxins, biofilm formation, and regulation of pathogenesis. While significant advances in this field have been made, challenges remain to combatting complicated UTI and deciphering P. mirabilis pathogenesis. PMID:26542036

  19. Proteus mirabilis and Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Jessica N; Pearson, Melanie M

    2015-10-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a Gram-negative bacterium and is well known for its ability to robustly swarm across surfaces in a striking bulls'-eye pattern. Clinically, this organism is most frequently a pathogen of the urinary tract, particularly in patients undergoing long-term catheterization. This review covers P. mirabilis with a focus on urinary tract infections (UTI), including disease models, vaccine development efforts, and clinical perspectives. Flagella-mediated motility, both swimming and swarming, is a central facet of this organism. The regulation of this complex process and its contribution to virulence is discussed, along with the type VI-secretion system-dependent intra-strain competition, which occurs during swarming. P. mirabilis uses a diverse set of virulence factors to access and colonize the host urinary tract, including urease and stone formation, fimbriae and other adhesins, iron and zinc acquisition, proteases and toxins, biofilm formation, and regulation of pathogenesis. While significant advances in this field have been made, challenges remain to combatting complicated UTI and deciphering P. mirabilis pathogenesis.

  20. Bacterial Uropathogens in Urinary Tract Infection and Antibiotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections encountered by clinicians in developing countries. Area-specific monitoring studies aimed to gain knowledge about the type of pathogens responsible for urinary tract infections and their resistance patterns may help the clinician to ...

  1. Adenovirus respiratory tract infections in Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia S Ampuero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Currently, there is a paucity of data regarding human adenovirus (HAdv circulation in Andean regions of South America. To address this shortcoming, we report the clinical, phylogenetic, and epidemiologic characteristics of HAdv respiratory tract infection from a large sentinel surveillance study conducted among adults and children in Peru. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from participants visiting any of 38 participating health centers, and viral pathogens were identified by immunofluorescence assay in cell culture. In addition, molecular characterization was performed on 226 randomly selected HAdv samples. Between 2000 and 2010, a total of 26,375 participants with influenza-like illness (ILI or severe acute respiratory infection (SARI were enrolled in the study. HAdv infection was identified in 2.5% of cases and represented 6.2% of all viral pathogens. Co-infection with a heterologous virus was found in 15.5% of HAdv cases. HAdv infection was largely confined to children under the age of 15, representing 88.6% of HAdv cases identified. No clinical characteristics were found to significantly distinguish HAdv infection from other respiratory viruses. Geographically, HAdv infections were more common in sites from the arid coastal regions than in the jungle or highland regions. Co-circulation of subgroups B and C was observed each year between 2006 and 2010, but no clear seasonal patterns of transmission were detected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HAdv accounted for a significant fraction of those presenting with ILI and SARI in Peru and tended to affect the younger population disproportionately. Longitudinal studies will help better characterize the clinical course of patients with HAdv in Peru, as well as determine the role of co-infections in the evolution of illness.

  2. Adenovirus respiratory tract infections in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampuero, Julia S; Ocaña, Víctor; Gómez, Jorge; Gamero, María E; Garcia, Josefina; Halsey, Eric S; Laguna-Torres, V Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there is a paucity of data regarding human adenovirus (HAdv) circulation in Andean regions of South America. To address this shortcoming, we report the clinical, phylogenetic, and epidemiologic characteristics of HAdv respiratory tract infection from a large sentinel surveillance study conducted among adults and children in Peru. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from participants visiting any of 38 participating health centers, and viral pathogens were identified by immunofluorescence assay in cell culture. In addition, molecular characterization was performed on 226 randomly selected HAdv samples. Between 2000 and 2010, a total of 26,375 participants with influenza-like illness (ILI) or severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) were enrolled in the study. HAdv infection was identified in 2.5% of cases and represented 6.2% of all viral pathogens. Co-infection with a heterologous virus was found in 15.5% of HAdv cases. HAdv infection was largely confined to children under the age of 15, representing 88.6% of HAdv cases identified. No clinical characteristics were found to significantly distinguish HAdv infection from other respiratory viruses. Geographically, HAdv infections were more common in sites from the arid coastal regions than in the jungle or highland regions. Co-circulation of subgroups B and C was observed each year between 2006 and 2010, but no clear seasonal patterns of transmission were detected. HAdv accounted for a significant fraction of those presenting with ILI and SARI in Peru and tended to affect the younger population disproportionately. Longitudinal studies will help better characterize the clinical course of patients with HAdv in Peru, as well as determine the role of co-infections in the evolution of illness.

  3. Adenovirus Respiratory Tract Infections in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampuero, Julia S.; Ocaña, Víctor; Gómez, Jorge; Gamero, María E.; Garcia, Josefina; Halsey, Eric S.; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Background Currently, there is a paucity of data regarding human adenovirus (HAdv) circulation in Andean regions of South America. To address this shortcoming, we report the clinical, phylogenetic, and epidemiologic characteristics of HAdv respiratory tract infection from a large sentinel surveillance study conducted among adults and children in Peru. Methods/Principal Findings Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from participants visiting any of 38 participating health centers, and viral pathogens were identified by immunofluorescence assay in cell culture. In addition, molecular characterization was performed on 226 randomly selected HAdv samples. Between 2000 and 2010, a total of 26,375 participants with influenza-like illness (ILI) or severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) were enrolled in the study. HAdv infection was identified in 2.5% of cases and represented 6.2% of all viral pathogens. Co-infection with a heterologous virus was found in 15.5% of HAdv cases. HAdv infection was largely confined to children under the age of 15, representing 88.6% of HAdv cases identified. No clinical characteristics were found to significantly distinguish HAdv infection from other respiratory viruses. Geographically, HAdv infections were more common in sites from the arid coastal regions than in the jungle or highland regions. Co-circulation of subgroups B and C was observed each year between 2006 and 2010, but no clear seasonal patterns of transmission were detected. Conclusions/Significance HAdv accounted for a significant fraction of those presenting with ILI and SARI in Peru and tended to affect the younger population disproportionately. Longitudinal studies will help better characterize the clinical course of patients with HAdv in Peru, as well as determine the role of co-infections in the evolution of illness. PMID:23056519

  4. Cranberry in prevention of urinary tract Infections in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda-Machado Pablo Andrés

    2011-01-01

    The urinary infection tract is the most common infectious complication in pregnancy.The aim was to conduct a literature review of the evidence on effectiveness, safetyand cost effectiveness of cranberry products in preventing urinary tract infection inpregnancy. Studies suggest a potential protective effect of cranberry products againsturinary tract infection in pregnancy and there is no documented evidence of danger orcontraindication in pregnancy or lactation. The cost effectiveness of cran...

  5. Assessment of infective urinary tract disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sixt, R.; Stokland, E. [Goteborg, Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital/Ostra (Sweden). Dept. of Pediatric Clinical Physiology and Dept. of Pediatric Radiology

    1998-06-01

    Urinary tracts infection (UTI) is common in children, particularly in the youngest age groups. There is a risk for progressive deterioration of renal function in these children if aggravating factors such as gross reflux and/or outflow obstruction of the urinary tract are present. In this review the pros and cons of available scintigrafic and radiological imaging techniques for the work-up of these children are presented. Ultrasound can be used in the acute phase to exclude obstruction but can not reliably show transient or permanent parenchymal lesions. The presence of reflux can be established with X-ray or direct nuclide cystography. The X-ray technique gives good morphological information and has a grading system with prognostic relevance. Both techniques are invasive and great care must be taken to keep the radiation burden down with the X-ray technique. Indirect nuclide cystography following a renographic study is non-invasive but has a lower sensitivity than direct techniques. More experience is needed with the indirect technique to evaluate the consequences of its apparently low sensitivity. Urography has a limited place in the acute work-up of urinary tract infection but can be used to look for renal scarring 1-2 years after an acute pyelonephritis. The {sup 99m}Tc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan can be used during the acute UTI to show pyelonephritic lesions with good accuracy and/or during the follow-up after six months to show permanent lesions. The acute DMSA scan can be omitted.

  6. [Urinary tract infection in pregnancy and menopause].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broseta Rico, Enrique; Jiménez Cruz, Juan Fernando

    2002-11-01

    To review the topic of urinary tract infections (UTI) during pregnancy and menopause. UTI during pregnancy and menopause have great relevance in the field of urologic infections; during pregnancy because of the particularities involved in its diagnosis and treatment and potential consequences to the fetus and mother; menopausal UTI because this group of women is numerous and represents a growing section of the general population pyramid, due to the aging of population in developed countries associated with longer life expectancies and grater demand for quality of life. We performed a bibliographic review combined with our personal experience. During pregnancy there are several functional and anatomical changes that condition not only a higher risk of UTI, but also an additional treatment difficulty due to antimicrobial pharmacokinetics alterations and potential damage to the fetus. Despite efforts to find an easy, fast and reliable test for bacteriuria detection, urine culture continues to be the first diagnostic test for its detection and follow up during pregnancy. Penicillin derivates and cephalosporins continue to be the first choice because their lack of adverse effects on either fetus or mother. Alternative options like phosphomicin and aztreonam although they show low toxicity there is need for more studies supporting their suitability for the treatment of pregnancy UTIs. Menopausal female UTI have their different features from those in younger women. Hormonal alterations derived from gonadal atrophy associate functional changes in the vaginal ecosystem, making it prone to enterobacteriaceae colonization as a first step up to the urinary tract. This associated with genitourinary tract anatomical alterations inherent t aging make UTI extraordinary prevalent in this growing segment of population. Treatment lines focus on hormonal alteration correction and proper antimicrobial prophylaxis and vaccines in a close future. UTIs during pregnancy and menopause have

  7. Clinical requirements in the treatment of today's respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höffken, G

    1993-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are among the most frequent infections in man and lower tract infections account substantially for the overall mortality in hospitals. Regarding the etiology of pneumonias, one has to consider different pathogenic mechanisms, age of the patients, underlying diseases, concomitant medications, symptomatologies, seasonal influences, and clinical conditions, e.g. intensive care environment and mechanical ventilation. To optimize the rational management of respiratory infections, identification of the etiologic agent would be desirable. The decision of how to treat is often based on epidemiologic, clinical, and radiological assessments. Epidemiologic studies have shown a pronounced difference in the etiologic spectrum between community- and hospital-acquired RTIs. In community-acquired pneumonias, pneumococci, Haemophilus influenzae, Legionella, Mycoplasma and viruses predominate, whereas in nosocomially acquired pneumonias, Enterobacteriaceae, e.g. Klebsiella, Proteus, Enterobacter as well as Pseudomonas and staphylococci comprise the most frequent isolates. Empirical therapy has to cover all possible etiologic pathogens which most likely cause the infection. In addition, an adequate kinetic profile, e.g. once or twice daily dosing, sufficient pulmonary tissue or fluid penetration, and acceptable tolerance and costs are prerequisites for optimal therapy. Drugs of choice for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia are aminobenzylpenicillins or macrolides. Oral cephalosporins exhibit excellent activity against many bacterial pathogens of typical community-acquired pneumonia, and are active against beta-lactamase-producing H. influenzae.

  8. Role of scintigraphy in urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    There is controversy regarding the role of radiological imaging for urinary tract infection (UTI). The gold standard has been the intravenous pyelogram (IVP). Yet, the IVP has a very limited value with only about 25% of children with pyelonephritis demonstrating abnormalities. Ultrasound (US) has recently been advocated as a replacement for the poorly sensitive and poorly specific IVP. However, comparative studies between US and IVP indicate only an equivalent sensitivity and specificity. Cortical scintigraphy with Technetium-99m glucoheptonate (99mTc GH) or 99mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc DMSA) has also been advocated as a means of differentiating parenchymal (pyelonephritis) from nonparenchymal (lower UTI) involvement in UTI. The clinical presentation may be misleading especially in the infant and child in whom an elevated temperature, flank pain, shaking chills, or an elevated sedimentation rate are often lacking. The clinician attempts to localize the site of infection for it has a direct bearing upon the therapy. A collecting system infection can often be eradicated with a single oral dose of an appropriate antibiotic, whereas renal parenchymal involvement requires IV therapy for an extended interval. Cortical scintigraphy can localize the site of infection with a high degree of accuracy. Recent studies report a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 81% of pyelonephritis. This is in contrast to the IVP with a sensitivity of only 24% and US with a sensitivity of only 42%. The scintigraphic appearance of parenchymal infection of the kidney is a spectrum of minimal to gross defects reflecting the degree of histologic involvement that spans from a mild infection to frank abscess. Cortical scintigraphy can be used to monitor the evolution of scarring following infection. Cortical scintigraphy with 99mTc DMSA or 99mTc GH is the method of choice for the initial evaluation of UTI. 37 references

  9. Probiotics in the prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections in children

    OpenAIRE

    Zwolińska, Danuta

    2017-01-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections are a serious clinical problem both in adults and children. Febrile episodes of recurrent urinary tract infections may lead to the formation of renal scars and development of chronic kidney disease. Traditionally, management involved antibiotic prophylaxis introduced after a first febrile episode. Recently, however, the indications for antibiotic therapy have been narrowed down to treat cases of recurrent urinary tract infections and disorders which...

  10. An initially unidentified case of urinary tract infection due to Aerococcus urinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meletis, Georgios; Chatzidimitriou, Dimitrios; Tsingerlioti, Fani; Chatzopoulou, Fani; Tzimagiorgis, Georgios

    2017-07-01

    Aerococcus urinae is a microorganism responsible for urinary tract and blood stream infections which are rarely reported in clinical practice. However, it has been proposed that the infrequency of such reports may be partially due to difficulties related to pathogen identification. We present here a case of an elderly male patient with urinary tract infection where A. urinae was initially not identified by a private microbiology laboratory. Our report highlights the need to consider A. urinae as a causative agent of urinary tract infections because if not identified and properly treated it may lead to endocarditis or septicemia.

  11. Urinary Tract Infections in Children : EAU/ESPU Guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, Raimund; Dogan, Hasan S.; Hoebeke, Piet; Kocvara, Radim; Nijman, Rien J. M.; Radmayr, Christian; Tekgul, Serdar

    Context: In 30% of children with urinary tract anomalies, urinary tract infection (UTI) can be the first sign. Failure to identify patients at risk can result in damage to the upper urinary tract. Objective: To provide recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment, and imaging of children presenting

  12. Urinary tract infections: epidemiology, mechanisms of infection and treatment options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Mireles, Ana L.; Walker, Jennifer N.; Caparon, Michael; Hultgren, Scott J.

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a severe public health problem and are caused by a range of pathogens, but most commonly by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. High recurrence rates and increasing antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens threaten to greatly increase the economic burden of these infections. In this Review, we discuss how basic science studies are elucidating the molecular details of the crosstalk that occurs at the host–pathogen interface, as well as the consequences of these interactions for the pathophysiology of UTIs. We also describe current efforts to translate this knowledge into new clinical treatments for UTIs. PMID:25853778

  13. Prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenlehner, F M E; Vahlensieck, W; Bauer, H W; Weidner, W; Piechota, H J; Naber, K G

    2013-03-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most frequent bacterial infections in the community and health care setting. Mostly young and, to some extent, postmenopausal women are affected by recurrent UTI (rUTI) defined as ≥3 UTI/year or ≥2 UTI/half year. In contrast, rUTI is rare in healthy men. On the other hand, rUTI are frequently found in female and male patients with complicating urological factors, e.g. urinary catheters, infection stones. Remediable predisposing factors in uncomplicated rUTI in women are rare. In complicated rUTI the success depends mainly on the possibility to eliminate or at leastimprove the complicating risk factors. Continuous antibiotic prophylaxis or postcoital prophylaxis, if there is close correlation with sexual intercourse, are most effective to prevent rUTI. Nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim (or cotrimoxazole), and fosfomycin trometamol are available as first-line drugs. Oral cephalosporins and quinolones should be restricted to specific indications. Antibiotic prophylaxis reduces the number of uropathogens in the gut and/or vaginal flora and reduces bacterial "fitness". Given the correct indication, the recurrence rate of rUTI can be reduced by about 90%. Due to possible adverse events and the concern of selecting resistant pathogens, according to the guidelines of the European Association of Urology antimicrobial prophylaxis should be considered only after counselling, behavioural modification and non-antimicrobial measures have been attempted. In postmenopausal patients vaginal substitution of oestriol should be started first. Oral or parenteral immunoprophylaxis is another option in patients with rUTI. Other possibilities with varying scientific evidence are prophylaxis with cranberry products, specific plant combinations or probiotics. The prophylaxis of catheter-associated UTI should employ strategies which result in a reduction of frequency and duration of catheter drainage of the urinary tract. The currently available

  14. Asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic urinary tract infections in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnarr, J; Smaill, F

    2008-10-01

    Symptomatic and asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in pregnant women. A history of previous urinary tract infections and low socioeconomic status are risk factors for bacteriuria in pregnancy. Escherichia coli is the most common aetiologic agent in both symptomatic and asymptomatic infection and quantitative culture is the gold standard for diagnosis. Treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria has been shown to reduce the rate of pyelonephritis in pregnancy and therefore screening for and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria has become a standard of obstetrical care. Antibiotic treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria is associated with a decrease in the incidence of low birth weight, but the methodological quality of the studies limits the strength of the conclusions that can be drawn. Debate exists in the literature as to whether treated pyelonephritis is associated with adverse fetal outcomes. There is no clear consensus in the literature on antibiotic choice or duration of therapy for infection. With increasing antibiotic resistance, consideration of local resistance rates is necessary when choosing therapy.

  15. Urinary tract infections in pregnancy: old and new unresolved diagnostic and therapeutic problems

    OpenAIRE

    Matuszkiewicz-Rowi?ska, Joanna; Ma?yszko, Jolanta; Wieliczko, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in pregnant women and pose a great therapeutic challenge, since the risk of serious complications in both the mother and her child is high. Pregnancy is a state associated with physiological, structural and functional urinary tract changes which promote ascending infections from the urethra. Unlike the general population, all pregnant women should be screened for bacteriuria with urine culture, and asymptomatic bacteriuria must be treated in every ca...

  16. Urologic evaluation of urinary tract infection in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diokno, A C; Compton, A; Seski, J; Vinson, R

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-three antepartum patients with urinary tract infections underwent urologic evaluation as soon as the infection had been successfully treated. The evaluation included history of voiding habits, cystometry, urethral calibration and cystourethroscopy. A second phase of the urologic evaluation included an excretory urogram and repeat cystometry 10-12 weeks postpartum. Sixty percent had a history of infrequent voiding, and 90% of them had a bladder capacity greater than 450 mL. Forty-one percent of the patients had a normal bladder capacity (less than 450 mL), and 85% of this group did not have any history of infrequent voiding. The radiographic evaluation postpartum in 18 of 33 patients revealed major abnormalities in 50%. These abnormalities were seen as often and were as significant in women with asymptomatic bacteriuria as in those who presented with acute pyelonephritis. The results suggest that the large bladder seen in pregnant women may be secondary to the chronic, unphysiologic habit of infrequent voiding. Furthermore, this study reinforced the fact that most pregnant women with urinary tract infection have preexisting chronic bladder or renal abnormalities that predispose them to infection. Those at risk should be identified early through a careful history and urinalysis to determine which ones need urinary prophylaxis during pregnancy. Postpartum urologic investigation should be carried out to identify any structural or functional problems; understanding them is helpful in present and future management.

  17. Prevalence and bacterial susceptibility of hospital acquired urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Neto José Anastácio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Urinary tract infection is the most common nosocomially acquired infection. It is important to know the etiology and antibiotic susceptibility infectious agents to guide the initial empirical treatment. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of bacterial strains and their antibiotic susceptibility in nosocomially acquired urinary tract infection in a university hospital between January and June 2003. METHODS: We analyzed the data of 188 patients with positive urine culture (= 10(5 colony-forming units/mL following a period of 48 hours after admission. RESULTS: Half of patients were male. Mean age was 50.26 ± 22.7 (SD, range 3 months to 88 years. Gram-negative bacteria were the agent in approximately 80% of cases. The most common pathogens were E. coli (26%, Klebsiella sp. (15%, P. aeruginosa (15% and Enterococcus sp. (11%. The overall bacteria susceptibility showed that the pathogens were more sensible to imipenem (83%, second or third generation cephalosporin and aminoglycosides; and were highly resistant to ampicillin (27% and cefalothin (30%. It is important to note the low susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (42% and norfloxacin (43%. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that if one can not wait the results of urine culture, the best choices to begin empiric treatment are imipenem, second or third generation cephalosporin and aminoglycosides. Cefalothin and ampicillin are quite ineffective to treat these infections.

  18. Bacteraemia, urinary tract infection and malaria in hospitalised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . However, it remains unclear whether such infections are attributable to the malaria, other risk factors, or are coincidental. Objective: To determine the prevalence of bacteraemia and urinary tract infections (UTI) in febrile hospitalised children ...

  19. Urinary tract infections in the infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Mehreen; Seed, Patrick C

    2015-03-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) in an infant may be the first indication of an underlying renal disorder. Early recognition and initiation of adequate therapy for UTI is important to reduce the risk of long-term renal scarring. Ampicillin and gentamicin are traditionally the empiric treatment of choice; however, local antibiotic resistance patterns should be considered. Maternal antibiotics during pregnancy also increase the risk of resistant pathogens during neonatal UTI. Long-term management after the first UTI in infants remains controversial because of lack of specific studies in this age group and the risk-benefit issues for antibiotic prophylaxis between reduced recurrent disease and emergent antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Antibiotic Resistance in Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stultz, Jeremy S; Doern, Christopher D; Godbout, Emily

    2016-12-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common problem in pediatric patients. Resistance to common antibiotic agents appears to be increasing over time, although resistance rates may vary based on geographic region or country. Prior antibiotic exposure is a pertinent risk factor for acquiring resistant organisms during a first UTI and recurrent UTI. Judicious prescribing of antibiotics for common pediatric conditions is needed to prevent additional resistance from occurring. Complex pediatric patients with histories of hospitalizations, prior antibiotic exposure, and recurrent UTIs are also at high risk for acquiring UTIs due to extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing organisms. Data regarding the impact of in vitro antibiotic susceptibility testing interpretation on UTI treatment outcomes is lacking.

  1. Novel management of urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Douglas W; Patel, Ashay S; Koff, Stephen A; Justice, Sheryl S

    2011-07-01

    To highlight observations that have suggested the need for changing the conventional approach to the evaluation and management of urinary tract infections (UTIs) and vesicoureteral reflux in children and examine new alternative approaches to prevention of UTI and renal scarring based on research into host-pathogen interaction. Recent studies have questioned the traditional approach of using prophylactic antibiotics to prevent recurrence of UTI and development of renal scarring in children with vesicoureteral reflux. Ongoing research on host-pathogen interactions reveals a promising capability to analyze virulence factors in bacteria causing UTIs in children, identify highly virulent bacteria capable of causing pyelonephritis and renal injury, and to selectively target the gastrointestinal reservoirs of these bacteria for elimination using probiotics. Promising experimental studies correlating bacterial virulence with pattern of UTI and identification and characterization of a newly available probiotic capable of eradicating uropathogenic bacteria make targeted probiotic prevention of renal injury-inducing UTIs a potential therapeutic reality.

  2. Renal scintigraphy in children with first febrile urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte Perez, Maria Caridad; Guillen Dosal, Ana; Martinez Silva, Magaly; Hernandez Robledo, Ernesto

    2012-01-01

    The urinary tract infection is one of the most frequent bacterial infections in the childhood. Two hundred eleven children diagnosed as first febrile urinary tract infection patients were studied and performed Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in the acute phase of infection. The results were correlated to the duration and intensity of the fever before the diagnosis, to the acute phase reactants (hemogram, erythrosedimentation and reactive-C protein) and to the results of imaging studies (renal ultrasound and mictional uretrocystography)

  3. Urinary tract infections in women with urogynaecological symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakeman, Marielle M. E.; Roovers, Jan-Paul W. R.

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are common in the field of urogynaecology. Women with persistent urinary symptoms seem more likely to have bacteriuria despite negative cultures. In this review, we will give an overview of the recent insights on the relationship between urinary tract infection and

  4. Antibiotic resistance in children with recurrent or complicated urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, N; Quol, K; Al-Momani, T; Al-Awaisheh, F; Al-Kayed, D

    2009-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is certainly one of the most common childhood infections. Emerging resistance to the antibiotics is not unusual. Current hospitalization for children with urinary tract infection is reserved for severe or complicated cases. The aim of the present study was to determine the antibiotic resistance pattern among children with recurrent or complicated urinary tract infection. A retrospective study carried out at Prince Hashem hospital, Zarqa city, eastern Jordan and involved 336 episodes of culture proved urinary tract infection obtained from 121 patients with recurrent UTI, who used prophylactic antibiotics during the period from April 1, 2004 to December 31, 2006. The isolated microorganisms and there antibiotics susceptibility were studied. Seventy three patients (60.3%) were found to have some forms of urinary tract anomaly, significantly more prevalent among male children Purinary tract infection (64.3% vs. 16.6%, Purinary tract infection. Proteus, Pseudomonas and Candida spp. were more prevalent in patients with complicated (Presistant to most antibiotics tested. Pediatric urine culture isolates are becoming increasingly resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Empirical treatment with Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) or Cephalexin as the initial drug is ineffective. Nitrofurantoin and Nalidixic acid can be considered as the first line antibiotics for prophylaxis and or treatment of patients with recurrent UTI, while Meropenam and Ciprofloxacin can be used empirically in treating patients with complicated UTI.

  5. Cranberry for Urinary Tract Infection: From Bench to Bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Sureda, Antoni; Daglia, Maria; Izadi, Morteza; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are common infectious diseases which can occur in any part of the urinary tract such as bladder, kidney, ureters, and urethra. They are commonly caused by bacteria that enter through the urethra. Urinary tract infections commonly develop in the bladder and spread to renal tissues. Up to now, there are different antimicrobial agents which have beneficial role on urinary tract infections. However, most of them cause different adverse effects and therefore, much attention has been paid to the search for effective therapeutic agents with negligible adverse effects. Cranberry is known as one of the most important edible plants, which possesses potent antimicrobial effects against the bacteria responsible for urinary tract infections. Growing evidence has shown that cranberry suppresses urinary tract infections and eradicates the bacteria. Therefore, the aim of this study is to critically review the available literature regarding the antimicrobial activities of cranberry against urinary tract infection microorganisms. In addition, we discuss etiology, epidemiology, risk factors, and current drugs of urinary tract infections to provide a more complete picture of this disease.

  6. Work up of Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copp, Hillary L.; Schmidt, Bogdana

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric UTI costs the healthcare system upwards of 180 million dollars annually, and accounts for over 1.5 million clinician visits per year. Accurate and timely diagnosis of these infections is important for determining appropriate treatment and preventing long-term complications such as renal scarring, hypertension, and end-stage renal disease. Outside of the first 12 months, girls are more likely to be diagnosed with a UTI. About half of boys with UTI will be diagnosed within the first 12 months of life. The prevalence and incidence of pediatric UTI varies by age, race/ethnicity, sex and circumcision status. Diagnosis of UTI is made based on history and exam findings and confirmed with appropriately collected urine. If a bag specimen is negative, this can be used to rule out UTI without the need for confirmatory culture; however positive urinalysis tests from bag specimen warrant further investigation with a catheterized specimen or suprapubic aspiration. Urine culture is the gold standard for diagnosing UTI: Greater than 50,000 CFU on a catheterized specimen or suprapubic aspiration indicate presence of a UTI. Greater than 100,000 CFU on a voided specimen is considered a positive culture. There is no consensus on the need and optimal strategy for imaging in the setting of urinary tract infection in the pediatric population. Prompt recognition of UTI and antibiogram-based, empiric treatment or culture-based, targeted treatment should be initiated within 72 of presentation. PMID:26475948

  7. Grepafloxacin Clinical Program for Lower Respiratory Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne C Rodloff

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper evaluates the clinical trial program in lower respiratory tract infections treated with a new fluoroquinolone antibiotic, grepafloxacin. Unlike older quinolones, grepafloxacin has excellent activity against Gram-positive organisms, which include Streptococcus pneumoniae and “atypical” pathogens Legionella species. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae. Grepafloxacin has a long half-life of 12 to 15 h, which allows once daily dosing. Six studies have been conducted regarding community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections (LRTls, four about community-acquired pneumonia (CAP and two about acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (ABECB . In these studies, grepafloxacin demonstrated clinical equivalence with standard therapies. but, in patients with documented infections. grepafloxacin was statistically superior to amoxycillin in both CAP and ABECB. The new fluoroquinolone has a good safety profile, comparable with that of ciprofloxacin. The most common adverse effects of grepafloxacin were nausea and a metallic taste; however, these effects resulted in only a few discontinuations of therapy. With the increasing prevalence of resistance in pathogens isolated from community-acquired LRTIs, grepafloxacin offers a good alternative for monotherapy in these patients.

  8. CXC chemokine receptor 2 contributes to host defense in murine urinary tract infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olszyna, D. P.; Florquin, S.; Sewnath, M.; Branger, J.; Speelman, P.; van Deventer, S. J.; Strieter, R. M.; van der Poll, T.

    2001-01-01

    CXC chemokines have been implicated in the recruitment of neutrophils to sites of infection. To determine the role of CXC chemokines in the host response to urinary tract infection (UTI), female mice were treated with an antibody against the major CXC chemokine receptor in the mouse, CXCR2, before

  9. Prevention of pin tract infection with titanium-copper alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Toshiharu; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Tohru; Ohtani, Kaori; Zen, Yo; Tomita, Katsuro

    2009-10-01

    The most frequent complication in external fixation is pin tract infection. To reduce the incidence of implant-associated infection, many published reports have looked at preventing bacterial adhesion by treating the pin surface. This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of a Titanium-Copper (Ti-Cu) alloy on implant infection, and to determine the potential use of the Ti-Cu alloy as a biomaterial. Two forms of Ti-Cu alloys were synthesized: one with 1% Cu and the other with 5% Cu. For analyzing infectious behavior, the implants were exposed to Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The reaction of pathogens to the Ti-Cu alloys was compared with their reaction to stainless steel and pure titanium as controls. Both Ti-Cu alloys evidently inhibited colonization by both bacteria. Conversely, cytocompatibility studies were performed using fibroblasts and colony formation on the metals was assessed by counting the number of colonies. Ti-1% Cu alloy showed no difference in the number of colonies compared with the control. External fixator pins made of Ti-Cu alloys were evaluated in a rabbit model. The tissue-implant interactions were analyzed for the presence of infection, inflammatory changes and osteoid-formation. Ti-1% Cu alloy significantly inhibited inflammation and infection, and had excellent osteoid-formation. Copper blood levels were measured before surgery and at 14 days postoperatively. Preoperative and postoperative blood copper values were not statistically different. Overall, it was concluded that Ti-Cu alloys have antimicrobial activity and substantially reduce the incidence of pin tract infection. Ti-1% Cu alloy shows particular promise as a biomaterial. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Preventing urinary tract infections in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gabrielle J; Craig, Jonathan C; Carapetis, Jonathan R

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is common in children, causes them considerable discomfort, as well as distress to parents and has a tendency to recur. Approximately 20% of those children who experience one infection will have a repeat episode. Since 1975, 11 trials of long-term antibiotics compared with placebo or no treatment in 1,550 children have been published. Results have been heterogeneous, but the largest trial demonstrated a small reduction (6% absolute risk reduction, risk ratio 0.65) in the risk of repeat symptomatic UTI over 12 months of treatment. This effect was consistent across sub groups of children based upon age, gender, vesicoureteric reflux status and number of prior infections. Trials involving re-implantation surgery (and antibiotics compared with antibiotics alone) for the sub-group of children with vesicoureteric reflux have not shown a reduction in repeat UTI, with the possible exception of a very small benefit for febrile UTI. Systematic reviews have shown that circumcision reduces the risk of repeat infection but 111 circumcisions would need to be performed to prevent one UTI in unpredisposed boys. Given the need for anaesthesia and the risk of surgical complication, net clinical benefit is probably restricted to those who are predisposed (such as those with recurrent infection). Many small trials in complementary therapies have been published and many suggest some benefit, however inclusion of children is limited. Only three trials involving 394 children for cranberry products, two trials with a total of 252 children for probiotics and one trial with 24 children for vitamin A are published. Estimates of efficacy vary widely and imprecision is evident. Multiple interventions to prevent UTI in children exist. Of those, long-term low dose antibiotics has the strongest evidence base, but the benefit is small. Circumcision in boys reduces the risk substantially, but should be restricted to those at risk. There is little evidence of benefit of

  11. Multidrug resistance in pediatric urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspari, Romolo J; Dickson, Eric; Karlowsky, James; Doern, Gary

    2006-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) represent a common infection in the pediatric population. Escherichia coli is the most common uropathogen in children, and antimicrobial resistance in this species complicates the treatment of pediatric UTIs. Despite the impact of resistance on empiric antibiotic choice, there is little data on multidrug resistance in pediatric patients. In this paper, we describe characteristics of multidrug-resistant E. coli in pediatric patients using a large national database of uropathogens antimicrobial sensitivities. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns to commonly prescribed antibiotics were performed on uropathogens isolated from children presenting to participating hospitals between 1999 and 2001. Data were analyzed separately for four pediatric age groups. Single and multidrug resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefazolin, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) were performed on all specimens. There were a total of 11,341 E. coli urine cultures from 343 infants (0-4 weeks), 1,801 toddlers (5 weeks-24 months), 6,742 preteens (2-12 years), and 2,455 teens (13-17 years). E. coli resistance to ampicillin peaked in toddlers (52.8%) but was high in preteens (52.1%), infants (50.4%), and teens (40.6%). Resistance to two or more antibiotics varied across age groups, with toddlers (27%) leading preteens (23.1%), infants (21%), and teens (15.9%). Resistance to three or more antibiotics was low in all age groups (range 3.1-5.2%). The most common co-resistance in all age groups was ampicillin/TMP-SMZ. In conclusion, less than half of all pediatric UTIs are susceptible to all commonly used antibiotics. In some age groups, there is a significant percentage of co-resistance between the two most commonly used antibiotics (ampicillin and TMP-SMZ).

  12. Recurrent urinary tract infections in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Abdullatif; Ahmed, Kamran; Zaman, Iftikhar; Khan, Muhammad Shamim; Dasgupta, Prokar

    2015-06-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) are more common in women and are frequently defined as ≥2 episodes in the last 6 months or ≥3 episodes in the last 12 months. In a primary care setting, 53 % of women above the age of 55 years and 36 % of younger women report a recurrence within 1 year. Thus, management and prevention of recurrent UTI is of utmost significance. This review aims to highlight the latest research in prevention strategies and suggest a management pathway. A search was conducted on MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews databases for the latest systematic reviews and high-quality randomized controlled trials. Special emphasis was placed on the remit "recurrent" and strongly adhered to. Furthermore, a Google search was conducted for current guidelines on the management of UTIs. Current prevention strategies include eliminating risk factors that increase the risk of acquiring recurrent UTI and continuous, post-coital and self-initiated antimicrobial prophylaxis. Other prospective preventative strategies, currently under trial, include use of vaccinations, D-mannose and lactobacillus (probiotics). Although risk factors should be identified and addressed accordingly, individualized antibiotic prophylaxis remains the most effective method of management. Non-antibiotic prevention strategies such as cranberry, vitamin C and methenamine salts lack strong evidence to be introduced as routine management options and as alternatives to antibiotics. Based on current evidence and guidelines, a management pathway is recommended. Emerging therapies require further evaluation before they can be recommended.

  13. Asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic urinary tract infections during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macejko, Amanda M; Schaeffer, Anthony J

    2007-02-01

    Urinary tract infections are common complications of pregnancy; upper tract infections in particular may lead to significant morbidity for both the mother and fetus. Bacteriuria is a significant risk factor for developing pyelonephritis in pregnant women. Therefore, proper screening and treatment of bacteriuria during pregnancy is necessary to prevent complications. All women should be screened for bacteriuria in the first trimester, and women with a history of recurrent urinary tract infections or anomalies should have repeat bacteriuria screening throughout pregnancy. Treatment of bacteriuria should include 3-day therapy with appropriate antimicrobials, and women should be followed closely after treatment because recurrence may occur in up to one third of patients.

  14. Recommended treatment for urinary tract infection in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercaigne, L M; Zhanel, G G

    1994-02-01

    To establish and recommend a therapeutic regimen for the treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI) in pregnancy based on the published studies. An English-language literature search employing MEDLINE, Index Medicus, and bibliographic reviews of the references obtained were searched (key terms: urinary tract infection, UTI, pregnancy, bacteriuria). All identified human studies dealing with bacteriuria or UTI in pregnancy were analyzed. Limited data are available regarding the appropriate antibiotic management of UTI in pregnancy. Single-dose cure rates with amoxicillin are approximately 80 percent. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole provides cure rates of greater than 80 percent. Cephalosporins and nitrofurantoin produce variable results. We recommend separating pregnant subjects with UTI into two groups. Those with asymptomatic bacteriuria can be treated with a single dose of an antimicrobial to which the organism is susceptible. For those with symptomatic UTI, we recommend amoxicillin 500 mg tid for three days. Urine cultures should be repeated seven days following therapy to assess cure or failure. Well-designed studies need to be performed, comparing single-dose and three-day therapy for UTI in pregnancy.

  15. Urinary tract infections in women with urogynaecological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakeman, Marielle M E; Roovers, Jan-Paul W R

    2016-02-01

    Urinary tract infections are common in the field of urogynaecology. Women with persistent urinary symptoms seem more likely to have bacteriuria despite negative cultures. In this review, we will give an overview of the recent insights on the relationship between urinary tract infection and persistent urinary symptoms and possible new therapeutic options. Recently published articles evaluated the prevalence of low-count bacteriuria (≥10 CFU/ml) or intracellular bacterial communities in women with overactive bladder symptoms (OAB). Differences in urinary microbioma observed in women with and without OAB symptoms were evaluated. In the light of these findings, current screening strategies were discussed and alternative screening methods for bacteriuria developed. Low-count bacteriuria (≥10 CFU/ml) seems to be more prevalent in women with OAB. Also intracellular bacterial communities are more commonly detected in these women. The microbioma found in women with urinary symptoms appeared to differ from healthy controls. The current screening methods might be insufficient as they are targeted at detecting uropathogenic Escherichia coli, mostly using a detection threshold of at least 10 CFU/ml and failing to detect intracellular bacterial communities. Studies evaluating the efficacy of treating women with low-count bacteriuria are limited but promising.

  16. Pin Tract Infection after Uniplanar External Fixation of Open ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    Regionally, a study by Jellis et al in Lusaka, Zambia, compared the rate of severe pin tract infection in HIV negative and positive ... likelihood of infection such as human immunodeficiency virus infection, diabetes mellitus, liver failure, renal failure, tumours ... Combined Open Tibia-Fibular. And Femur Fractures. 2. 2.7. Totals.

  17. Antibiogram of nosocomial urinary tract infections in Felege Hiwot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nosocomial infections increase the cost of medical care, extend hospital stay and reflect on the morbidity and mortality of the admitted patients. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common nosocomial infections in humans. Objectives: To determine the prevalence and antibiogram of nosocomial ...

  18. Prevalence of urinary tract infection among pregnant women at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy and these infections. Untreated UTI can be associated with serious obstetric complications. This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of UTI among symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women ...

  19. Management of upper respiratory tract infections in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) occurs commonly in both children and adults and is a major ... by a watery nasal discharge, which after one to three days becomes .... iron supplementation is remarkably effective in areas where iron.

  20. a seven months retrospective study on urinary tract infection among

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is a significant health problem world wide, ... responsible for a high rate of morbidity in neonates and children. ... predominant bacterial pathogens and their sensitivity to antibiotics so as to guide ... resistant strains.

  1. Emphysematous cystitis: An unusual lower urinary tract infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emphysematous cystitis: An unusual lower urinary tract infection. MA Lakmichi, M Boukhar, F Barjani, O Saghir, T Hanich, B Wakrim, M Gabsi, A Elhauos, N Charif Idrissi Genouni, N Ousehal, Z Dahami, SM Moudouni, I Sarf ...

  2. Pediatric recurrent respiratory tract infections: when and how to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pediatric recurrent respiratory tract infections: when and how to explore the immune system? (About 53 cases). Mohammed El-Azami-El-Idrissi, Mounia Lakhdar-Idrissi, Sanae Chaouki, Samir Atmani, Abdelhak Bouharrou, Moustapha Hida ...

  3. Treatment of 31 Cases of Infant Respiratory Tract Infection by Health-care Tuina plus Medicated Bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jie; WU Xue-fei

    2003-01-01

    Thirty-one cases of infant respiratory tract infection were treated by no-pain health-care Tuina plus medicated bath. Since the therapeutic effects were satisfactory, so parents and infants are willing to accept.

  4. International Spinal Cord Injury Urinary Tract Infection Basic Data Set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetz, L L; Cardenas, D D; Kennelly, M

    2013-01-01

    To develop an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Basic Data Set presenting a standardized format for the collection and reporting of a minimal amount of information on UTIs in daily practice or research.......To develop an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Basic Data Set presenting a standardized format for the collection and reporting of a minimal amount of information on UTIs in daily practice or research....

  5. Concomitant Bacterial Meningitis in Infants With Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Joanna; Cruz, Andrea T; Nigrovic, Lise E; Freedman, Stephen B; Garro, Aris C; Ishimine, Paul T; Kulik, Dina M; Uspal, Neil G; Grether-Jones, Kendra L; Miller, Aaron S; Schnadower, David; Shah, Samir S; Aronson, Paul L; Balamuth, Fran

    2017-09-01

    To determine age-stratified prevalence of concomitant bacterial meningitis in infants ≤60 days with a urinary tract infection, we performed a 23-center, retrospective study of 1737 infants with urinary tract infection. Concomitant bacterial meningitis was rare, but more common in infants 0-28 days of age [0.9%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.4%-1.9%) compared with infants 29-60 days of age (0.2%; 95% CI: 0%-0.8%).

  6. Urinary tract infection after voiding cystourethrogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E K; Malhotra, N R; Shannon, R; Jacobson, D L; Green, J; Rigsby, C K; Holl, J L; Cheng, E Y

    2017-08-01

    Reported rates of post-procedural urinary tract infection (ppUTI) after voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) are highly variable (0-42%). This study aimed to determine the risk of ppUTI after cystogram, and evaluate predictors of ppUTI. A retrospective cohort study of children undergoing VCUG or radionuclide cystogram (henceforth 'cystogram') was conducted. Children with neurogenic bladder who underwent cystogram in the operating room and without follow-up at the study institution were excluded. Incidence of symptomatic ppUTI within 7 days after cystogram was recorded. Predictors of ppUTI were evaluated using univariate statistics. A total of 1108 children (54% female, median age 1.1 years) underwent 1203 cystograms: 51% were on periprocedural antibiotics, 75% had a pre-existing urologic diagnosis (i.e., vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) or hydronephrosis; not UTI alone), and 18% had a clinical UTI within 30 days before cystogram. Of the cystograms, 41% had an abnormal cystogram and findings included VUR (82%), ureterocele (6%), and diverticula (6%). Twelve children had a ppUTI (1.0%; four girls, five uncircumcised boys, three circumcised boys; median age 0.9 years). Factors significantly associated with diagnosis of a ppUTI (Summary fig.) included: pre-existing urologic diagnosis prior to cystogram (12/12, 100% of patients with ppUTI), abnormal cystogram results (11/12, 92%), and use of periprocedural antibiotics (11/12, 92%). All 11 children with an abnormal cystogram had VUR ≥ Grade III. However, among all children with VUR ≥ Grade III, 4% (11/254) had a ppUTI. This is the largest study to date that has examined incidence and risk factors for ppUTI after cystogram. The retrospective nature of the study limited capture of some clinical details. This study demonstrated that the risk of ppUTI after a cystogram is very low (1.0% in this cohort). Having a pre-existing urologic diagnosis such as VUR or hydronephrosis was associated with ppUTI; therefore, children with

  7. [The features in preventing recurrent lower urinary tract infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzhieva, Z K; Kazilov, Yu B

    2016-08-01

    This review outlines characteristics of medications most commonly used for preventing recurrent lower urinary tract infection (UTI). It shows that the treatment and prophylaxis of UTI should be comprehensive and include the restoration of the normal urogenital tract anatomy and use in addition to antibacterial and anti-inflammatory drugs, agents, normalizing the function of the lower urinary tract, as well as drugs for local and systemic immunoprophylaxis, protection of the urothelium from recurrent infection, local hormone replacement therapy in menopause, and dietary supplements to acidify the urine.

  8. Reproductive tract infections in northern Vietnam: health providers' diagnostic dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, My Hu'o'ng; Gammeltoft, Tine; Christoffersen, Sarah Vigh

    2010-01-01

    Research was conducted on reproductive tract infections among women obtaining induced abortions at Ph[image omitted]-[image omitted] hospital in Haiphong City, a major maternity hospital in northern Vietnam. The research aimed to explore how clinicians and lab-technicians diagnose reproductive...... tract infections and the difficulties they experience in establishing exact diagnoses. A combination of both quantitative and qualitative research methodologies was employed. The quantitative research involved 748 abortion-seeking women; the qualitative research was conducted with 10 doctors and 10 lab......-technicians providing reproductive health services. A marked tendency was observed among both clinicians and lab-technicians to overdiagnose reproductive tract infections and to prescribe antibiotics routinely. Social, cultural, and clinical factors associated with the tendency to overdiagnose reproductive tract...

  9. Renal scar formation after urinary tract infection in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Seo Park

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common bacterial illness in children. Acute pyelonephritis in children may lead to renal scarring with the risk of later hypertension, preeclampsia during pregnancy, proteinuria, and renal insufficiency. Until now, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR has been considered the most important risk factor for post-UTI renal scar formation in children. VUR predisposes children with UTI to pyelonephritis, and both are associated with renal scarring. However, reflux nephropathy is not always acquired; rather, it reflects refluxassociated congenital dysplastic kidneys. The viewpoint that chronic kidney disease results from renal maldevelopment-associated VUR has led to questioning the utility of any regimen directed at identifying or treating VUR. Despite the recognition that underlying renal anomalies may be the cause of renal scarring that was previously attributed to infection, the prevention of renal scarring remains the goal of all therapies for childhood UTI. Therefore, children at high risk of renal scar formation after UTI should be treated and investigated until a large clinical study and basic research give us more information.

  10. Antibiotic resistance in children with complicated urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildiz, B.; Kural, N.; Yarar, C.; Ak, I.; Akcar, N.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to determine the resistance of antibiotics for complicated urinary tract infection (UTI), including urinary tract anomaly (UTA), for empirical antibiotic therapy of complicated UTI. Four hundred and twenty two urine isolates were obtained from 113 patients with recurrent UTI, who used prophylactic antibiotics between February 1999 and November 2004 in the Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey. Reflux was found to be most important predisposing factor for recurrent UTI (31.9%). Renal scar was detected more in patients with UTA than without UTA (59.2% versus 12.4%, p<0.05). Gram-negative organisms were dominant in patients with and without UTA (91.5% and 79.2%). Enterococci and Candida spp. were more prevalent in children with UTA than without UTA (p<0.001). Isolates were significantly more resistant to ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, amikacin, co-amoxiclav, ticarcillin-clvalanate and piperacillin-tazobactam in patients with UTA than without UTA. We found low resistance to ciprofloxacin and nitrofurantoin in UTI with and without UTA. Enterococci spp. was highly resistance to ampicillin and amikacin in patients with UTA. Aztreonam, meropenem and ciprofloxacin seemed to be the best choice for treatment of UTI with UTA due to Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. Nitrofurantoin and nalidixic acid may be first choice antibiotics for prophylaxis in UTI with and without UTA. The UTI with UTA caused by Enterococci spp. might not benefit from a combination of amikacin and ampicillin, it could be treated with glycopeptides. (author)

  11. "Urinary Tract Infection"-Requiem for a Heavyweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finucane, Thomas E

    2017-08-01

    "Urinary tract infection" ("UTI") is an ambiguous, expansive, overused diagnosis that can lead to marked, harmful antibiotic overtreatment. "Significant bacteriuria," central to most definitions of "UTI," has little significance in identifying individuals who will benefit from treatment. "Urinary symptoms" are similarly uninformative. Neither criterion is well defined. Bacteriuria and symptoms remit and recur spontaneously. Treatment is standard for acute uncomplicated cystitis and common for asymptomatic bacteriuria, but definite benefits are few. Treatment for "UTI" in older adults with delirium and bacteriuria is widespread but no evidence supports the practice, and expert opinion opposes it. Sensitive diagnostic tests now demonstrate that healthy urinary tracts host a ubiquitous, complex microbial community. Recognition of this microbiome, largely undetectable using standard agar-based cultures, offers a new perspective on "UTI." Everyone is bacteriuric. From this perspective, most people who are treated for a "UTI" would probably be better off without treatment. Elderly adults, little studied in this regard, face particular risk. Invasive bacterial diseases such as pyelonephritis and bacteremic bacteriuria are also "UTIs." Mindful decisions about antibiotic use will require a far better understanding of how pathogenicity arises within microbial communities. It is likely that public education and meaningful informed-consent discussions about antibiotic treatment of bacteriuria, emphasizing potential harms and uncertain benefits, would reduce overtreatment. Emphasizing the microbiome's significance and using the term "urinary tract dysbiosis" instead of "UTI" might also help and might encourage mindful study of the relationships among host, aging, microbiome, disease, and antibiotic treatment. © 2017, Copyright the Author Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  12. Urinary tract infection in Children Hospitalized at Constanta Clinical Infectious Diseases Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pînzaru Anca Daniela

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In pediatrics, the urinary tract infection is one of the most frequent bacterial infection, representing an important health problem due to its high incidence, wide etiology, asymptomatic evolution, and multiple and sever complications, relapses and sequelae.” Material and Method: We evaluated 45 children, aged between 6 months and 16 years, diagnosed and treated for urinary tract infection at the Clinical Infectious Diseases Hospital, of Constanta County, in a period of 3 years and 6 months. Results: During studied period, between January 2014 and June 2017 from a total of 9343 patients admitted to the Constanta Clinical Infectious Diseases Hospital, we selected 45 children (4.81‰ diagnosed with urinary tract infection. The average age of children with urinary tract infections was 5 years and 5 months. The gender distribution revealed a 2:1 balance in girl’s favor. The most affected group of age was 1-3 years. Fever was the dominating symptom. Urine cultures were positive for 37 cases, meanwhile for eight cases had been negative. The predominant germs are E. coli for female and for male Proteus. We noticed that for E. coli the highest sensitivity is preserved to Ertapenem -15 cases, followed by Ceftriaxone and Ciprofloxacin -10 cases each, and Gentamycin -9 cases. Conclusions: Pediatric urinary tract infection should be considered in every patient under 3 years with unexplained fever.

  13. review article urinary tract infections in a tertiary hospital in abuja

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    easily treated with a course of antibiotic, but there is increased resistance to many of these antibiotics. ... Urinary tract infection or UTI is said to exist when a .... for pregnant women in Ghana 9.5%26. .... Acheampong I, Addo K. Asymptomatic.

  14. Validation study of a diary for use in acute lower respiratory tract infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watson, L; Little, P; Moore, M; Warner, G; Williamson, [No Value

    2001-01-01

    Background. Despite lower respiratory tract infection (LRTi) being the most common illness treated by doctors, no validated outcome measure to assess symptom duration and severity has been developed for patient self-completion. Methods. As part of a randomized control trial researching management of

  15. bacterial uropathogens in urinary tract infection and antibiotic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-07-02

    Jul 2, 2011 ... BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections ... leaves the clinicians with very few alternative options of drugs for the treatment of UTIs. As drug resistance ... can be asymptomatic or symptomatic, UTIs that .... pregnancy and stage of pregnancy, age groups and.

  16. Urinary tract infection among pregnant women at Bobo-Dioulasso ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary tract infections are the first infections in pregnant women and can cause serious complications during pregnancy. In order to improve its management in low income country like Burkina Faso, we conducted a prospect cross-sectional study, to describe its epidemiological and biological aspects in pregnant women at ...

  17. Incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) among pregnant women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) among 80 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at Oluyoro Catholic Hospital (OCH), Ibadan, Nigeria, as well as the isolation and identification of the pathogens responsible for the infection. A total of 80 clean voided mid-stream urine samples were ...

  18. Urinary tract infection in renal transplant recipients | Elkehili | Arab ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the commonest bacterial infection occurring in renal transplant recipients, and it is associated with significant morbidity. This study aimed to assess the characteristics of all UTI episodes diagnosed in renal transplant patients who attended regularly for follow up in the nephrology ...

  19. The innate immune response during urinary tract infection and pyelonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, John David; Schwaderer, Andrew L; Becknell, Brian; Watson, Joshua; Hains, David S

    2014-07-01

    Despite its proximity to the fecal flora, the urinary tract is considered sterile. The precise mechanisms by which the urinary tract maintains sterility are not well understood. Host immune responses are critically important in the antimicrobial defense of the urinary tract. During recent years, considerable advances have been made in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying immune homeostasis of the kidney and urinary tract. Dysfunctions in these immune mechanisms may result in acute disease, tissue destruction and overwhelming infection. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the innate immune response in the urinary tract in response to microbial assault. In doing so, we focus on the role of antimicrobial peptides-a ubiquitous component of the innate immune response.

  20. [Antibiotic prescribing in acute respiratory tract infections in general practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malo, S; Bjerrum, L; Feja, C; Lallana, M J; Poncel, A; Rabanaque, M J

    2015-06-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a worldwide threat to public health. Acute respiratory tract infections are the main reason for antibiotic prescribing in the Spanish paediatric population. The aim of the study was to describe the frequency of antibiotic prescription and their pattern of use in acute respiratory tract infections diagnosed in children in Primary Care in Aragón (Spain). A study was conducted over a 1-year period on children between 0 and 14 years-old, recording all episodes of acute otitis, acute pharyngotonsillitis, non-specific upper respiratory infection, and acute bronchitis. The proportion of episodes within each diagnosis receiving an antibiotic prescription was calculated, and the prescribing pattern was determined. Half (50%) of the children in Aragón were diagnosed with a respiratory tract infection during the study period. Non-specific upper respiratory infection was the most frequent diagnosis. An antibiotic was prescribed in 75% of pharyngotonsillitis episodes, 72% of otitis, 27% of bronchitis, and 16% of non-specific upper respiratory infections. Broad spectrum antibiotics, mainly amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic, were predominantly prescribed. Antibiotic prescribing in respiratory tract infections in children was generally high, and the choice of antibiotics was probably inappropriate in a high percentage of cases. Therefore an improvement in antibiotic prescribing in children appears to be needed. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Diagnosis and clinical management of urinary tract infection

    OpenAIRE

    Heilberg, Ita Pfeferman; Schor, Nestor

    2003-01-01

    A review about recent aspects on diagnosis and clinical management of urinary tract infection (UTI) is presented. There is a wide variation in clinical presentation of UTI which include different forms as cystitis, pyelonephritis, urethral syndrome and the clinical relevance of asymptomatic bacteriuria and low-count bacteriuria that must be distinguished from contamination. Pathogenetic aspects concerning bacterial virulence as well as host factors in susceptibility to UTI as urinary tract ob...

  2. Scintigraphy findings in children presenting the first febrile infection of urinary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte Perez, Maria Caridad; Piedra Bello, Misleidys; Guillen Dosal, Ana

    2010-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the more frequent bacterial infections in childhood. The aim of present research was to know the acute phase renal alterations of the first febrile infection of urinary tract

  3. Urinary glicosaminoglycans levels in women with urinary tract infection and non urinary tract infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasaribu, H. P.; Hanifa, A.; Tala, R. Z.; Ardiansyah, E.; Simanjuntak, R. Y.; Effendy, I. H.

    2018-03-01

    UTI is an infection that occurs in the urinary tract due to the proliferation of a microorganism. Female is fourteen times more vulnerable to UTI than male, because their urethra is shorter. Bladder epithelium is coated with a thin layer of glycosaminoglycans which act as a non-specific anti-adherence factor and nonspecific defense mechanisms against infection and can be found in the urine. An analytic study with cross sectional approach was conducted in 46 patients (23 with UTI and 23 non UTI) from June 2016 to determine differences in levels of urinary glycosaminoglycans between two groups. Urine samples were taken and tested for UTI and non UTI strips test. Laboratory examination of urine GAGs levels using ELISA kit for Human Glycosaminoglycans, then tabulated and analyzed using SPSS. The result showed no significant differences in the characteristics of women between two groups. There are significant differences in the mean levels of urinary GAGs in women with UTI compared with Non-UTI (69.74 ± 21.34; 21.39 ± 2.61 mg/l; p UTI incidence, with low odds ratio values and no significant difference in the mean of urinary glicosaminoglycans level based on sexual status.

  4. The Genetics of Urinary Tract Infections and the Innate Defense of the Kidney and Urinary tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambite, Ines; Rydstrom, Gustav; Schwaderer, Andrew L.; Hains, David S.

    2015-01-01

    The urinary tract is a sterile organ system. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common and often serious infections. Research has focused on uropathogen, environment, and host factors leading to UTI pathogenesis. A growing body of evidence exists implicating genetic factors that can contribute to UTI risks. In this review, we highlight genetic variations in aspects of the innate immune system critical to the host response to uropathogens. This overview includes genetic variations in pattern recognition receptor molecules, chemokines/cytokines, and neutrophil activation. We also comprehensively cover murine knockout models of UTI, genetic variations involved in renal scarring as a result of ascending UTIs, and asymptomatic bacteriuria. PMID:27617139

  5. Zinc Supplementation in Treatment of Children With Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Naziri, Mahdyieh; Taherahmadi, Hassan; Kahbazi, Manijeh; Tabaei, Aram

    2016-07-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is very common in children. Precocious diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important because of the permanent disease complications. Zinc increases the response to treatment in many infections. In this study, we explored the effect of zinc in treating UTI. Two hundred children with UTI were divided into 2 groups of 100 who were comparable in terms of age, sex, urine laboratory profiles, and clinical signs and symptoms. The control group received a standard treatment protocol for UTI and the intervention group received oral zinc sulfate syrup plus routine treatment of UTI. A faster recovery was observed in the patients receiving zinc, but abdominal pain was exacerbated by zinc and lasted longer. Three months after the treatment, there was no significant difference between the two groups in the time of fever stop and negative urine culture. In children with UTI, zinc supplementation has a positive effect in ameliorating severe dysuria and urinary frequency while the use of this medication is not recommended in the presence of abdominal pain.

  6. PREVALENCE OF HYPERTENSION, ANEMIA, ASYMPTOMATIC URINARY TRACT INFECTION, SYPHILIS, HIV AND HEPATITIS B VIRUS INFECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deme, Chala; Edao, Beyene; Jaya, Gemedi; Tisiano, Gebre; Fano, Hayi; Alegria, Iñaki; Reyes, Francisco; Gorgolas, Miguel; Ramos, José M

    2016-09-01

    Antenatal care (ANC) is provided to prevent, diagnose early and treat pregnant women for a variety of diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalences of syphilis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HVB) and asymptomatic urinary tract infections and the prevalence of hypertension and anemia among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at Gambo Rural Hospital in southern Ethiopia. The following tests were conducted among study subjects: hemoglobin (Hgb) level, rapid plasma reagin (RPR) for syphilis, anti-HIV antibodies, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and urine analysis. A total of 574 pregnant women were included in this study. The mean age of the participants was 25.7 (SD: 4.8) years old; 88.2% were living in urban areas and 11.8% in rural areas. Sixty-seven point two percent of participants began their attended care during the second trimester of their pregnancy. Overall, anemia (Hgb urinary tract infection (having ≥10 white blood cells /high power field in the urine) was present in 12.7% of participants (95% CI: 10.0-15.5). The RPR test was positive in two patients (0.3%; 95% CI: 0.1-1.3). The prevalences of positive test for HBsAg and HIV-1 were 2.3% (95% CI: 1.3-3.8) and 0.2% (95% CI: 0.03-0.9), respectively. No HIV-2 cases were detected. Our data show relatively low prevalences of anemia, hypertension, urinary tract infection, syphilis, HIV, and hepatitis B virus infections among study subjects at a rural antenatal clinic in southern Ethiopia.

  7. Enabling factors for antibiotic prescribing for upper respiratory tract infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; Radzeviciene Jurgute, Ruta; Bjerrum, Lars

    2013-01-01

    . This study aimed to explore experiences of GPs in Lithuania and the Russian Federation with regard to antibiotic prescription for upper respiratory tract infections. By such means it might be possible to reveal external enabling factors that influence antibiotic prescribing in these countries. Method. Five...... for political leadership to encourage clinically grounded antibiotic use; over-the-counter sale of antibiotics; designation of antibiotics as reimbursable medications; supervision by external oversight institutions; lack of guidelines for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections; and pharmaceutical......Abstract Introduction. General practitioners (GPs) write about 80% of all antibiotic prescriptions, the greatest number of them for patients with respiratory tract infections. However, there is a lack of research targeting the influence of external factors on antibiotic prescribing by physicians...

  8. Consultation expectations among patients with respiratory tract infection symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Gitte Bruun; Sørensen, Mette Sejr; Hansen, Malene Plejdrup

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Antibiotic resistance is a growing threat to public health, and antibiotic prescribing increases. About 90% of antibiotics are prescribed in general practice, mostly for acute respiratory tract infections. It is well known that patient expectations and general practitioners......' misinterpretation of patients' expectations are associated with antibiotic overuse. The aim of this study was to explore Danish patients' expectations when consulting a general practitioner with symptoms of acute respiratory tract infection, and to determine predictors for these expectations. METHODS......: A questionnaire survey was conducted in Danish primary care during 2014. Patients aged ≥ 18 years were asked about their expectations to the consultation when consulting with symptoms of acute respiratory tract infections. Associations between socio-demographic characteristics, self-reported antibiotic...

  9. Consultation expectations among patients with respiratory tract infection symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Lauridsen, Gitte; Sejr Sørensen, Mette; Hansen, Malene Plejdrup

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Antibiotic resistance is a growing threat to public health, and antibiotic prescribing increases. About 90% of antibiotics are prescribed in general practice, mostly for acute respiratory tract infections. It is well known that patient expectations and general practitioners’ misinter......­pretation of patients’ expectations are associated with antibiotic overuse. The aim of this study was to explore Danish patients’ expectations when consulting a general prac­titioner with symptoms of acute respiratory tract infection, and to determine predictors for these expectations. Methods: A questionnaire survey...... was conducted in Danish primary care during 2014. Patients aged ≥ 18 years were asked about their expectations to the consultation when consulting with symptoms of acute respiratory tract infections. Associations between socio-demographic characteristics, self-reported antibiotic prescription and patients...

  10. A Case of Pyriform Sinus Fistula Infection with Double Tracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Shino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyriform sinus fistula is a rare clinical entity and the precise origin remains controversial. The fistula is discovered among patients with acute suppurative thyroiditis or deep neck infection of the left side of the neck and is usually located in the left pyriform sinus. To the best of our knowledge, only a single tract has been reported to be responsible for pyriform sinus fistula infection. We present a case of a 13-year-old female patient with a pyriform sinus fistula that caused a deep infection of the left side of the neck and showed double-tract involvement discovered during surgical resection of the entire fistula. Both tracts arose around the pyriform sinus and terminated at the upper portion of the left lobe of the thyroid.

  11. The investigation of urinary tract infections in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carty, H.; Rangr, P.

    2002-01-01

    This article outlines the role and methods used in the investigation of urinary tract infections in children. Each modality, whether it has been used in the past or begin used currently or in the future, has been discussed, together with its advantages and pitfalls. There are no hard and fast rules in the investigation of urinary tract infections. It really depends on the clinical scenario and the child. This article will hopefully provide a basis of understanding the reasons behind each investigation and their appropriate use in the child depending on their age and clinical history. (author)

  12. Two-picture urography in urinary tract infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laehde, S.; Standertskjoeld-Nordenstam, C.G.; Suoranta, H.; Pyhtinen, J.

    1981-01-01

    Researchers analyzed separately from a urographic series 1 radiograph of the kidneys, ureters and bladder after releasing compression. The diagnosis was compared to that of the complete series in 230 consecutive urographic studies performed for recurrent urinary tract infections. The findings were in agreement in 88 per cent of the cases and no therapeutically significant change was overlooked owing to the decrease in the number of exposures. A urographic series with 2 films is described and recommended for the screening of recurrent urinary tract infections in young patients

  13. Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth G. Jepson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cranberries have been used widely for several decades for the prevention and treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs. This is the third update of our review first published in 1998 and updated in 2004 and 2008. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of cranberry products in preventing UTIs in susceptible populations. METHODS: Search methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library and the Internet. We contacted companies involved with the promotion and distribution of cranberry preparations and checked reference lists of review articles and relevant studies. Date of search: July 2012. Selection criteria: All randomised controlled trials (RCTs or quasi-RCTs of cranberry products for the prevention of UTIs. Data collection and analysis: Two authors independently assessed and extracted data. Information was collected on methods, participants, interventions and outcomes (incidence of symptomatic UTIs, positive culture results, side effects, adherence to therapy. Risk ratios (RR were calculated where appropriate, otherwise a narrative synthesis was undertaken. Quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool. MAIN RESULTS: This updated review includes a total of 24 studies (six cross-over studies, 11 parallel group studies with two arms; five with three arms, and two studies with a factorial design with a total of 4473 participants. Ten studies were included in the 2008 update, and 14 studies have been added to this update. Thirteen studies (2380 participants evaluated only cranberry juice/concentrate; nine studies (1032 participants evaluated only cranberry tablets/capsules; one study compared cranberry juice and tablets; and one study compared cranberry capsules and tablets. The comparison/control arms were placebo, no treatment, water, methenamine hippurate, antibiotics, or lactobacillus. Eleven studies were not included in the meta

  14. Desensitization with ciprofloxacin in a patient with partially treated urinary tract infection Desensibilización con ciprofloxacina en una paciente con infección urinaria parcialmente tratada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulma Reina Cutta

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Fluoroquinolones have been widely used for over 30 years and tolerance to them has been good. They are of broad spectrum against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria, although the activity of norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin against streptococci and some anaerobic bacteria is rather limited. Their oral bioavailability is good and tissue penetration is adequate.

    Hipersensitivity reactions occur in about 1 per 50.000 treatments. We report a case of successful oral desensitization with ciprofloxacin in a patient with chronic partially treated urinary tract infection. This is the first desensitization with quinolones reported in Colombia.

     

    Por más de 30 años se han usado ampliamente las fluoroquinolonas a las cuales ha habido buena tolerancia; son de amplio espectro contra gérmenes grampositivos y gramnegativos, aunque la actividad de la

  15. Can a pin-tract infection cause an acute generalized soft tissue infection and a compartment syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhun, Haldun; Saka, Gürsel; Enercan, Meriç

    2005-10-01

    A patient who developed soft tissue infection and osteomyelitis secondary to pin tract infection after skeletal traction was evaluated. Tibial traction was performed on a patient who had exposed to a femoral pertrochanteric fracture after falling from a tree in a rural public hospital. On the first postoperative day shortly after development of soft tissue swelling, redness, and tenderness in the affected leg, compartment syndrome was noted with subsequent removal of the pin at the same health center. After arrival of the case in our center surgical decompression with an open faciatomy and proper antibiotherapy were instituted. Simultaneously hyperbaric oxygen was administered. After eradication of soft tissue infection we treated the fracture with a Richards compression screw-plate device. The patient was discharged with complete cure. This case presented how seriously a simple pin-tract infection can cause a grave clinical entity resulting in potential loss of an extremity.

  16. The Diagnosis, Evaluation and Treatment of Acute and Recurrent Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becknell, Brian; Schober, Megan; Korbel, Lindsey; Spencer, John David

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is one of the most common bacterial infections encountered by pediatricians. Currently, the diagnosis and management of acute urinary tract infection and recurrent urinary tract infection in children remains controversial. Recently published guidelines and large clinical trials have attempted to clarify UTI diagnostic and management strategies. In this manuscript, we review the diagnosis and management of acute and recurrent urinary tract infection in the pediatric population. PMID:25421102

  17. In vitro activity of vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) on urinary tract pathogens in uncomplicated urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukhari, S.; Tariq, S.; Alam, M.A.; Chiragh, S.; Wazir, M.S.; Suleman, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Urinary tract infection is the most common bacterial infection in the community, mainly caused by Escherichia coli (E coli). Due to its high incidence and recurrence, problems are faced in the treatment with antibiotics. Cranberry being herbal remedy have long been the focus of interest for their beneficial effects in preventing urinary tract infections. This study was conducted to analyse in vitro activity of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) on uropathogenic E coli in uncomplicated urinary tract infections. Method: In this laboratory based single group experimental study, anti-bacterial activity of Vaccinium macrocarpon concentrate on urinary tract E coli was investigated, in vitro. Ninety-six culture positive cases of different uropathogens were identified. Vaccinium macrocarpon concentrate at different concentrations was prepared in distilled water and put in wells punched in nutrient agar. E coli isolates were inoculated on the plates and incubated at 37 Degree C for 24 hours. A citric acid solution of the same pH as that of Vaccinium macrocarpon was used and put in a well on the same plate to exclude the effect of pH. Results: A total of 35 isolates of E coli were identified out of 96 culture positive specimens of urine and found sensitive to Vaccinium macrocarpon (p<0.000). Results revealed that Vaccinium macrocarpon has antibacterial effect against E coli. Furthermore the antibacterial activity of Vaccinium macrocarpon has dose response relationship. Acidic nature of Vaccinium macrocarpon due to its pH is not contributory towards its antibacterial effect. Conclusion: Vaccinium macrocarpon concentrate may be used in urinary tract infection caused by E coli. (author)

  18. Novel Approaches to Preventing Urinary Tract Infection in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    vaccines . In: Mobley HLT. 54. Johnson JR. Steil A. Delavari P. Canine feces as a reservoir ofextraintestinal Warren 1W, eds. Urinary tract infections...the material was subjected to analysis by Triple quadrupole ESI-MS/CID-MS experiments were electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in the positive ion...prophylaxis. Characteristic of prophylactic regimens development of vaccines against these infections, containing nitrofurantoin is the frequency of side

  19. Young-infant Sepsis Combined with Urinary Tract Infection Due to Hafnia alvei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Liu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Hafnia alvei infections are uncommon and occur mainly in adult patients featuring underlying illnesses. Its isolation in pediatric cases is even more unusual. We report a rare case of sepsis combined with urinary tract infection caused by H. alvei in a 39-day-old infant who did not appear to feature any underlying disease. The infant was successfully treated with ceftriaxone over a 14-day period. In this case, we want to remind clinicians that the possibility of an extraintestinal invasive infection such as bacteremia or urinary tract infection caused by H. alvei should be taken into account in young infants who feature no apparent underlying disease. [J Formos Med Assoc 2007;106(3 Suppl:S39-S43

  20. Comparative study of reproductive tract infections of female sex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Reproductive tract infections (RTIs) have become international public health problem. Aim: We assessed the RTIs. A community-based study was carried out among female sex workers (FSWs), gynecology clinic patients and general population in Suzhou, China to investigate the major pathogens of RTIs and ...

  1. Prophylactic ciprofloxacin for catheter-associated urinary-tract infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wall, E. van der; Verkooyen, R.P.; Mintjes-de Groot, J.; Oostinga, J.; Dijk, Arie van; Hustinx, W.N.M.; Verbrugh, H.A.

    1992-01-01

    Patients receiving antibiotics during bladder drainage have a lower incidence of urinary-tract infections compared with similar patients not on antibiotics. However, antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with a urinary catheter is opposed because of the fear of inducing resistant bacterial strains. We

  2. Cranberry juice for urinary tract infection in children

    OpenAIRE

    Goldman, Ran D.

    2012-01-01

    Question Several children in my clinic are recovering from urinary tract infections (UTI). A mother of one of the children asked me if I recommended cranberry juice for children to prevent future episodes of UTI. She was given cranberry juice after she suffered from a UTI several months ago.

  3. Management of childhood urinary tract infections: an economic modeling study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, M.; Adang, E.M.M.; Wolters, R.J.; Wouden, J.C. van der; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Wensing, M.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Childhood urinary tract infections (UTIs) can lead to renal scarring and ultimately to terminal renal failure, which has a high impact on quality of life, survival, and health-care costs. Variation in the treatment of UTIs between practices is high. OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost-effectiveness of a

  4. How do Dutch general practitioners diagnose children's urinary tract infections?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, M.; Wolters, R.J.; Wouden, J.C. van der; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Wensing, M.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study which tests general practitioners used to diagnose a urinary tract infection (UTI) in children and which patient characteristics were associated with test choice. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review on the diagnosis of UTIs in children in Dutch general practices who were diagnosed

  5. Management of Urinary Tract Infections in Children | Schellack ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are a common occurrence in paediatrics. UTIs present in children as fever, anorexia, vomiting, lethargy and dysuria. Approximately 80% of the time, Escherichia coli is the causative bacteria in paediatrics, however, fungal UTI caused by Candida species can occur in premature infants. With an ...

  6. Upper respiratory tract infection, heterologous immunisation and meningococcal disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, R. J.; Bijlmer, H. A.; Tobi, H.; Dankert, J.; Bouter, L. M.

    1999-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that an episode of upper respiratory tract infection or heterologous immunisation is a predisposing factor for the occurrence of meningococcal disease, data from 377 cases of meningococcal disease and their household contacts (n = 1124) were analysed by conditional logistic

  7. Interventions for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneeberger, Caroline; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Middleton, Philippa; Crowther, Caroline A.

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) are common in women who are pregnant and may cause serious adverse pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child including preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age babies. Interventions used to prevent RUTI in women who are pregnant can be pharmacological

  8. Interventions for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneeberger, Caroline; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Middleton, Philippa; Crowther, Caroline A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) are common in women who are pregnant and may cause serious adverse pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child including preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age babies. Interventions used to prevent RUTI in women who are pregnant can be

  9. Interventions for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneeberger, Caroline; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Middleton, Philippa; Crowther, Caroline A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) are common in women who are pregnant and may cause serious adverse pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child including preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age babies. Interventions used to prevent RUTI in women who are pregnant can be

  10. Comparative Study on Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infection among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is associated with clinical conditions such as hypertension, anaemia, kidney failure and even death. Diagnosis and early detection of UTI are critical measures in the management of the disease. The classical microbiological culture method is hindered by long diagnostic time and characteristic ...

  11. Bacterial aetiology in lower respiratory tract infections : Relevance in outpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teepe, J.

    2017-01-01

    Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is one of the leading reasons for consulting in primary care. Today, a general practitioner faces the challenge of distinguishing between patients with a mild self-limiting disease to whom antibiotics would do more harm than good and those who would benefit

  12. Management of non-catheter-associated complicated urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dielubanza, Elodi J; Mazur, Daniel J; Schaeffer, Anthony J

    2014-03-01

    This article presents an overview of non-catheter-associated complicated urinary tract infection (UTI) from a urologic point of view. Discussion includes the evaluation and workup a complicated UTI through history, physical examination, laboratory analysis, and radiographic studies. Specific types of complicated UTI, such as urinary obstruction and renal abscess, are reviewed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Urinary Tract Infections in Pregnancy - Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, A; Gomes, G; Campos, A

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Literature review of classification, epidemiology, pathophysiology, microbiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, complications, treatment and prevention of urinary tract infections (UTI) in pregnancy. Data Sources and Review Methods: Bibliographic research in Medline, through PubMed and Medscape, of systematic reviews, observational studies, clinical guidelines, meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials published between January 1992 and December 2010. Results: Asymp...

  14. [Characteristic features of urinary tract infection in malnourished children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stârcea, Magdalena; Munteanu, Mihaela; Brumariu, O

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to prove a relationship between urinary tract infection and malnutrition in children 0-3 years old, hospitalized in the IVI Pediatric Clinic, Hospital St. Mary Iaşi, between January 2000 and December 2004. We have made a retrospective study for 298 infant and young children with urinary tract infection, 237 eutrophic and 61 malnourished. We studied comparatively the both groups with urinary tract infection (UTI), and we applied statistic methods for results. The statistic methods prove that relative risk for UTI increases in malnutrition, predictive positive value is 72.5%. The clinical manifestation is similar in malnourished and eutrophic, but many co morbidities were associated with dystrophic status. Malformation of urinary tract was associate two times more in malnourished child. The etiology of infection was dominated by Escherichia coli, Proteus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. In malnourished children 5% of UTI was determinate by opportunist etiological agents like: Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Acinetobacter. More frequently, bacterium develops resistance of antibiotics like amino-penicilina, Trimethoprim and Cephalosporin. Accurate and fast diagnosis and treatment of UTI in infant and child with malnutrition is the best way for nutritional rehabilitation and prevention of serious consequence.

  15. Comparative Genomics of Escherichia coli Strains Causing Urinary Tract Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria; Schembri, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    The virulence determinants of uropathogenic Escherichia coli have been studied extensively over the years, but relatively little is known about what differentiates isolates causing various types of urinary tract infections. In this study, we compared the genomic profiles of 45 strains from a range...

  16. Diagnostic strategies for urinary tract infections in French general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinouani, S; de Lary de Latour, H; Joseph, J-P; Letrilliart, L

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to describe the diagnostic management procedures for detection of urinary tract infections in general practice and their correlated factors. We analyzed data from the ECOGEN study on urinary tract infections, collected in France between November 2011 and April 2012. This national cross-sectional study was carried out in general practices. Data was coded according to the International Classification of Primary Care. A total of 340 consultations or home visits were held for urinary tract infections. The five most frequent diagnostic procedures were (in descending order) clinical examination (67.6%), urine cytobacteriological examination (UCBE) (47.9%), urine dipstick test (15.6%), blood test (8.5%), and imaging (6.5%). No urine dipstick test or UCBE was performed in 43% of cases. Factors correlated with diagnostic procedures were age and gender of patients, annual number of consultations held by family physicians, and duration of consultation. Family physicians did not comply with guidelines on diagnostic management for detection of urinary tract infections. We hypothesized that this non-compliance could be due to the family physicians' environment and characteristics, and to clinical practice guidelines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of parental perception of childhood urinary tract infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is common in children with possible severe complications, deserving public health interventions. Aims: To evaluate parental perception of symptoms, causes, complication and treatment of childhood UTI, and proposerelevant interventions. Methods: This is an ethicallyapproved ...

  18. Antimicrobial resistance patterns in outpatient urinary tract infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. There is a global emergence of resistance against commonly prescribed antibiotics. Empirical antibiotic prescribing should be guided by local antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Aim. To identify organisms and determine antibiotic susceptibility in urinary tract infections (UTIs) at 3 Military Hospital, Bloemfontein ...

  19. Resistance of Uropathogens in Asymptomatic Urinary Tract Infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worldwide the surveillance of antimicrobial resistance among urinary tract pathogens is useful to determine the important trend and geographical variation of uropathogens. The study evaluated the pathogen frequency, resistance rate and pattern among HIV-infected Nigerians. Midstream urine samples taken for culture ...

  20. Evaluation of female residents for urinary tract infections, Onicha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cases of urinary tract infections (UTIs) have been on the increase in our society, posing a threat to health causing economic and social burden on the populace especially among women and girls. This study was therefore carried out to assess the prevalence of UTIs among female residents of Igboeze-Onicha Community in ...

  1. Predictors of Urinary Tract Infections in Nursing Students in India

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dear Sir,. I read with a lot of interest, the original research paper by Vyas et al.[1] This paper tried to find out the clinical, demographic and social causes predisposing nursing students to urinary tract infections (UTI). The study has revealed the prevalence rate of UTI as >19%. The authors have mentioned that the subjects ...

  2. a seven months retrospective study on urinary tract infection among

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is a significant health problem world wide, affecting all ages and both sexes. It is the most common infectious complication associated with serious risk in pregnancy and responsible for a high rate of morbidity in neonates and children. Most often antibiotics are prescribed in UTI ...

  3. Metabolomics of urinary tract infection : a multiplatform approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacchiarotta, Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is a complex clinical entity a common infectious disease that encompasses a variety of clinical syndromes with a positive bacterial culture as common denominator. This thesis provides an exhaustive exploratory study of the metabolic pattern of patients affected by urinary

  4. Occurrence of Urinary Tract Infection in Adolescent and Adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is commonly experienced by women of various age groups especially elderly ones. We planned to find out the prevalent microbial strains causing UTI in slum inhabitant adolescent and adult women in Dhaka City, Bangladesh. Methods amd Materials: Urine sample was collected ...

  5. Therapeutic management of Urinary Tract Infections (UTI): A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is one of the most common diseases and a significant cause of morbidity in all age groups. There are large differences in the management of UTI with respect to definition, diagnosis and treatment. This retrospective study reviewed the diagnosis and drug treatment of UTI at the Teaching ...

  6. Factors associated with community-acquired urinary tract infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Urinary tract infections (UTI) are a common medical problem affecting the general population and thus commonly encountered in medical practice, with the global burden of UTIs at about 150 million people. Because uropathogens largely originate from colonic flora, they are easy to predict, and this is the ...

  7. Urinary Tract Infection Caused by a Capnophilic Proteus mirabilis Strain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trapman, M.; Ingen, J. van; Keijman, J.; Swanink, C.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    From a urine sample from a patient with a urinary tract infection, a carbon dioxide-dependent Proteus mirabilis strain was isolated. It is important to perform urine cultures in 5% carbon dioxide and an anaerobic atmosphere if bacteria prominent in Gram stains do not grow on routine media in ambient

  8. Antibiotic Resistance in Urinary Tract Infections in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Ronald P.; Haith, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine resistance to antibiotics of "Escherichia coli" in uncomplicated urinary tract infections (uUTIs) in female college students. Participants: Symptomatic patients presenting to a student health service from September 2008 to December 2009. Methods: Clean catch midstream urine samples were tested for urinalysis (UA) and…

  9. Improving antibiotic use for complicated urinary tract infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoorenberg, V.

    2014-01-01

    Guidelines for antimicrobial treatment are important in the process of improving antibiotic use, because they describe appropriate antibiotic use. In this thesis, we demonstrated the value of appropriate antibiotic use (i.e. guideline adherence) in patients with a complicated urinary tract infection

  10. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection as a Cause of Outpatient Clinic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-01

    Mar 1, 2018 ... predictors of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) as a cause of pediatric outpatient department ... with pediatric UTI (1,4,5). Effective management of patients suffering ..... patients. J of. Resear in Medical and Dental Sci 2014; 2(1). 17.

  11. Effect of pravastatin and fosinopril on recurrent urinary tract infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouwels, K.B.; Visser, Sipke; Hak, E.

    OBJECTIVES: Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a problem affecting both women and men. Animal experiments and in vitro studies indicate that statins might prevent recurrent UTIs. We assessed the effects of pravastatin on UTI antibiotic prescribing among adults. METHODS: A post hoc

  12. Postpartum urinary tract infection by mode of delivery: a Danish nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Tina Djernis; Krebs, Lone; Loekkegaard, Ellen Christine Leth; Rasmussen, Steen Christian; Glavind, Julie; Clausen, Tine Dalsgaard

    2018-03-14

    To examine the association between postpartum urinary tract infection and intended mode of delivery as well as actual mode of delivery. Retrospective cohort study. All live births in Denmark between 2004 and 2010 (n=450 856). Births were classified by intended caesarean delivery (n=45 053) or intended vaginal delivery (n=405 803), and by actual mode of delivery: spontaneous vaginal delivery, operative vaginal delivery, emergency or planned caesarean delivery in labour or prelabour. The primary outcome measure was postpartum urinary tract infection (n=16 295) within 30 days post partum, defined as either a diagnosis of urinary tract infection in the National Patient Registry or redemption of urinary tract infection-specific antibiotics recorded in the Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. We found that 4.6% of women with intended caesarean delivery and 3.5% of women with intended vaginal delivery were treated for postpartum urinary tract infection.Women with intended caesarean delivery had a significantly increased risk of postpartum urinary tract infection compared with women with intended vaginal delivery (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.27 to 1.40), after adjustment for age at delivery, smoking, body mass index, educational level, gestational diabetes mellitus, infection during pregnancy, birth weight, preterm delivery, preterm prelabour rupture of membranes, pre-eclampsia, parity and previous caesarean delivery (adjusted OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.46).Using actual mode of delivery as exposure, all types of operative delivery had an equally increased risk of postpartum urinary tract infection compared with spontaneous vaginal delivery. Compared with intended vaginal delivery, intended caesarean delivery was significantly associated with a higher risk of postpartum urinary tract infection. Future studies should focus on reducing routine catheterisation prior to operative vaginal delivery as well as improving procedures related to catheterisation. © Article author

  13. Recommendations for the empirical treatment of complicated urinary tract infections using surveillance data on antimicrobial resistance in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningstein, Maike; van der Bij, Akke K.; de Kraker, Marlieke E. A.; Monen, Jos C.; Muilwijk, Jan; de Greeff, Sabine C.; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; van Hall, Maurine A. Leverstein-; Vlaspolder, F.; Cohen Stuart, J. W. T.; van Hees, B. C.; Wintermans, R. G. F.; Altorf-van der Kuil, W.; Alblas, J.; van der Bij, A. K.; Frentz, D.; Leenstra, T.; Monen, J. C.; Muilwijk, J.; Notermans, D. W.; de Greeff, S. C.; van Keulen, P. H. J.; Kluytmans, J. A. J. W.; Mattsson, E. E.; Sebens, F. W.; Frenay, H. M. E.; Maraha, B.; Heilmann, F. G. C.; Halaby, T.; Versteeg, D.; Hendrix, R.; Schellekens, J. F. P.; Diederen, B. M. W.; de Brauwer, E. I. G. B.; Stals, F. S.; Bakker, L. J.; Dorigo-Zetsma, J. W.; van Zeijl, J. H.; Bernards, A. T.; de Jongh, B. M.; Vlaminckx, B. J. M.; Horrevorts, A.; Kuipers, S.; Moffie, B.; Brimicombe, R. W.; Jansen, C. L.; Renders, N. H. M.; Hendrickx, B. G. A.; Buiting, A. G. M.; Kaan, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Complicated urinary tract infections (c-UTIs) are among the most common nosocomial infections and a substantial part of the antimicrobial agents used in hospitals is for the treatment of c-UTIs. Data from surveillance can be used to guide the empirical treatment choices of clinicians when treating

  14. Paediatric Urinary Tract Infection: A Hospital Based Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Khursheed Ahmed; Bhat, Javaid Ahmed; Parry, Nazir Ahmed; Shaheen, Lubna; Bhat, Sartaj Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Paediatric Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is one of the commonly encountered entities by paediatricians. Studies have shown easy vulnerability of paediatric urinary tract in any acute febrile illness and a miss in diagnosis could have long term consequences like renal scaring with its adverse effects. Bearing these evidence based preludes in view we designed our study to know the prevalence of UTI in Kashmir province. Aim Aim of the present study was to know the prevalence of UTI in febrile children and to know the sensitivity of different imaging modalities like Renal and Urinary Bladder Ultrasonography (RUS), Voiding Cystourethrography (VCUG) and Dimercaptosuccinic Acid (DMSA) scan in diagnosing UTI. Materials and Methods A total of 304 patients, between 2 months to 10 years, with axillary temperature of ≥ 100.4oF (38oC), who did not have a definite source for their fever and who were not on antibiotics were included in the study. Detailed history and through clinical examination was done to rule out any potential or definite focus of infection as per the predesigned proforma. Routine urine examination with culture and sensitivity, followed by RUS and VCUG was done in all patients where routine urine examination was suggestive of UTI. DMSA was done in only culture proven cases after 6 months to document the renal scarring. Results Out of 304 children, 140 were males and 164 were females, UTI was present in 40 patients who had fever without any apparent cause giving a prevalence of 13.2%. Escherichia coli (E. coli) were the commonest isolated organism, followed by Klebsiella and Citrobacter species. Renal and Urinary Bladder Ultrasonography (RUS) detected Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR) in 25% (10/40) while VCUG showed VUR in 55% (22/40) giving a RUS sensitivity of 45% for detecting VUR. DMSA done only after 6 months in UTI diagnosed patients showed a renal scarring in 25% (10/40) patients. Conclusion Missing a febrile paediatric UTI, can prove a future

  15. Significance of Moraxella catarrhalis as a causative organism of lower respiratory tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. Ramadan

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: This study shows that when microbiological and clinical criteria are met, M. catarrhalis when isolated should be considered as a pathogen causing lower respiratory tract infections. M. catarrhalis, lower respiratory tract infections.

  16. Urinary tract infections in children: EAU/ESPU guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Raimund; Dogan, Hasan S; Hoebeke, Piet; Kočvara, Radim; Nijman, Rien J M; Radmayr, Christian; Tekgül, Serdar

    2015-03-01

    In 30% of children with urinary tract anomalies, urinary tract infection (UTI) can be the first sign. Failure to identify patients at risk can result in damage to the upper urinary tract. To provide recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment, and imaging of children presenting with UTI. The recommendations were developed after a review of the literature and a search of PubMed and Embase. A consensus decision was adopted when evidence was low. UTIs are classified according to site, episode, symptoms, and complicating factors. For acute treatment, site and severity are the most important. Urine sampling by suprapubic aspiration or catheterisation has a low contamination rate and confirms UTI. Using a plastic bag to collect urine, a UTI can only be excluded if the dipstick is negative for both leukocyte esterase and nitrite or microscopic analysis is negative for both pyuria and bacteriuria. A clean voided midstream urine sample after cleaning the external genitalia has good diagnostic accuracy in toilet-trained children. In children with febrile UTI, antibiotic treatment should be initiated as soon as possible to eradicate infection, prevent bacteraemia, improve outcome, and reduce the likelihood of renal involvement. Ultrasound of the urinary tract is advised to exclude obstructive uropathy. Depending on sex, age, and clinical presentation, vesicoureteral reflux should be excluded. Antibacterial prophylaxis is beneficial. In toilet-trained children, bladder and bowel dysfunction needs to be excluded. The level of evidence is high for the diagnosis of UTI and treatment in children but not for imaging to identify patients at risk for upper urinary tract damage. In these guidelines, we looked at the diagnosis, treatment, and imaging of children with urinary tract infection. There are strong recommendations on diagnosis and treatment; we also advise exclusion of obstructive uropathy within 24h and later vesicoureteral reflux, if indicated. Copyright © 2014 European

  17. Urinary tract infections during pregnancy - an updated overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szweda, Hanna; Jóźwik, Marcin

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common type of infection during pregnancy, affecting up to 10% of pregnant women. They are also recognized as the second most common ailment of pregnancy, after anemia. Three clinical types of pregnancy-related UTI are distinguished: asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB), cystitis, and pyelonephritis. A particular form of ASB is the presence of Group B streptococci in the urinary tract of the pregnant woman. All clinical types of UTI may lead to serious maternal and fetal complications. Therefore, unlike in the nonpregnant female patient, all UTIs during pregnancy, including the asymptomatic infection, require treatment. In some patients, antibiotic prophylaxis should also be introduced. In the present work, we collectively summarize current practical recommendations from a number of international bodies and organizations.

  18. Are probiotics effective in preventing urinary tract infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, Juan; Rada, Gabriel

    2018-04-04

    Urinary tract infection is the most common bacterial infection and recurrences are common. Probiotics have been proposed as an alternative to decrease this risk. However, it is not clear if they are really effective. To answer this question we used Epistemonikos, the largest database of systematic reviews in health, which is maintained by screening multiple information sources, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, among others. We extracted data from the systematic reviews, reanalyzed data of primary studies, conducted a meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table using the GRADE approach. We identified six systematic reviews including nine studies overall, of which seven were randomized trials. We concluded it is not clear whether probiotics decrease the risk of symptomatic urinary tract infection, because the certainty of the evidence is very low.

  19. Intractable urinary tract infection in a renal transplant recipient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokulnath, Renuka Satish

    2009-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common bacterial infections after renal transplantation and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Recurrent or relapsing infections are not uncommon in the early post-transplant period and superadded fungal UTI can occur in these patients, posing a difficult therapeutic problem. Literature on recurrent UTI after transplant as well as the ideal approach to such patients is scanty. We present the case of a renal allograft recipient who presented with relapsing bacterial UTI complicated by systemic fungemia; also, a brief review of fungal UTI is attempted. (author)

  20. Drug utilization study of antibiotics for urinary tract infections in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A drug utilization pattern of antibiotics for urinary tract infections in 200 cases above 18 years of age was done at Katuri Medical College Hospital, Guntur, India. The antibiotic sensitivity profile of the microorganism causing urinary tract infections was studied in cases diagnosed as urinary tract infection. The patients with ...

  1. 77 FR 11133 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Complicated Urinary Tract Infections: Developing Drugs for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry on Complicated Urinary Tract Infections: Developing Drugs for Treatment... Urinary Tract Infections: Developing Drugs for Treatment.'' The purpose of this guidance is to assist sponsors in the clinical development of drugs for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections (c...

  2. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern from pregnant women with urinary tract infection in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, G; Kumari, Pinki; Kabungulundabungi, Neema

    2014-09-01

    To determine the antibacterial profile of pregnant women with urinaty tract infections and analyze the antibiotic sensitivity pattern for the effective treatment. A total of 395 urine samples from pregnant women with different gestational age were processed for the isolation of uropathogens and tested against eight groups of antibiotics namely penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, macrolides, lincosamides, glycopeptides and sulfonamides. A positive culture percentage of 46.6% was obtained with the highest urinary tract infection in third trimester gestational age. Among the uropathogens isolated, 85.6% were Gram negative and 14.4% were Gram positive with Escherichia coli as the predominant bacteria (43.9%) followed by Klebsiella oxytoca (19.4%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (13.3%). Antibiotic sensitivity assay revealed that amikacin had the highest overall sensitivity (n=136; 76.7%) and the subsequent highest sensitivity was observed with ciprofloxacin (n=132; 73.3%), clindamycin (n=124; 68.9%), cefotaxime (n=117; 65%) and nalidixic acid (n=115; 63.9%). The findings revealed that uropathogens were more resistant to penicillins, macrolides and glycopeptides which restrict their use in treating urinaty tract infections during pregnancy. In conclusion, common causative bacteria and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern are to be determined along with their safety to mother and fetus for the effective treatment of urinary tract infections during pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Urinary Tract Infection in Children: Etiological Structure, Age and Gender Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Bezruk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the etiological structure of urinary tract infections, dynamics, gender and age dependence in the child population of Chernivtsi region. Patients and methods. During 2009–2013 2432 urine samples of the children treated in health care centers of Chernivtss region were investigated by bacteriological method with purpose of verification of the diagnosis urinary tract infections. Six hundred and fifty five strains of bacteria and fungi were isolated as etiological agents. Results. The patient’s gender was found to correlate with etiological structure of the urinary tract infections and the content of the residential urine microflora. The main etiological role of the Enterobacteriaceae family in general was demonstrated. As a causative agent of the urinary tract infection E.coli has been isolated more frequently in the urine samples of female patients (р < 0.05. In contrary, Proteus spp. has been isolated in male patients (р < 0.01. As a part of the urine resident microflora E.coli strains were more frequently isolated in the female urine samples (р < 0.05. Conclusion. The research will allow to hold the correct and reasoned medical and rehabilitation events on all stages of rendering of specialized medical care for children and to develop the programs directed on the improvement of indicators of health and prevention of disability in children.

  4. Urinary tract infections in patients with spinal cord injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hondt, Frederiek; Everaert, Karel

    2011-12-01

    Spinal cord injuries (SCI) result in different lower urinary tract dysfunctions. Because of both the disease and the bladder drainage method, urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most frequent conditions seen in SCI patients. Diagnosis is not always easy due to lack of symptoms. Asymptomatic bacteriuria needs no treatment. If symptoms occur, antibiotherapy is indicated. Duration depends mainly on severity of illness and upper urinary tract or prostatic involvement. Choice of antibiotherapy should be based on local resistance profiles, but fluoroquinolones seems to be an adequate empirical treatment. Prevention of UTI is important, as lots of complications can be foreseen. Catheter care, permanent low bladder pressure and clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) with hydrophilic catheters are interventions that can prevent UTI. Probiotics might be useful, but data are limited.

  5. Imaging after urinary tract infection in older children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Michael P; Chow, Jeanne S; Johnson, Emilie K; Rosoklija, Ilina; Logvinenko, Tanya; Nelson, Caleb P

    2015-05-01

    There are few guidelines and little data on imaging after urinary tract infections in older children. We determined the clinical yield of renal and bladder ultrasound, and voiding cystourethrogram in older children and adolescents after urinary tract infection. We analyzed findings on voiding cystourethrogram, and renal and bladder ultrasound as well as the clinical history of patients who underwent the 2 studies on the same day between January 2006 and December 2010. We selected for study patients 5 to 18 years old who underwent imaging for urinary tract infection. Those with prior postnatal genitourinary imaging or prenatal hydronephrosis were excluded from analysis. We identified a cohort of 153 patients, of whom 74% were 5 to 8 years old, 21% were 8 to 12 years old and 5% were 12 to 18 years old. Of the patients 77% were female, 78% had a febrile urinary tract infection history and 55% had a history of recurrent urinary tract infections. Renal and bladder ultrasound findings revealed hydronephrosis in 7.8% of patients, ureteral dilatation in 3.9%, renal parenchymal findings in 20% and bladder findings in 12%. No patient had moderate or greater hydronephrosis. Voiding cystourethrogram showed vesicoureteral reflux in 34% of cases and bladder or urethral anomalies in 12%. Reflux was grade I, II-III and greater than III in 5.9%, 26% and 2% of patients, respectively. For any voiding cystourethrogram abnormality the sensitivity and specificity of any renal and bladder ultrasound abnormality were 0.49 (95% CI 0.37-0.62) and 0.76 (95% CI 0.66-0.84), respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 0.58 (95% CI 0.44-0.71) and 0.69 (0.59-0.77), respectively. In older children with a history of urinary tract infection the imaging yield is significant. However, imaging revealed high grade hydronephrosis or high grade vesicoureteral reflux in few patients. Renal ultrasound is not reliable for predicting voiding cystourethrogram findings such as vesicoureteral

  6. Adhesion Molecules Associated with Female Genital Tract Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Qualai

    Full Text Available Efforts to develop vaccines that can elicit mucosal immune responses in the female genital tract against sexually transmitted infections have been hampered by an inability to measure immune responses in these tissues. The differential expression of adhesion molecules is known to confer site-dependent homing of circulating effector T cells to mucosal tissues. Specific homing molecules have been defined that can be measured in blood as surrogate markers of local immunity (e.g. α4β7 for gut. Here we analyzed the expression pattern of adhesion molecules by circulating effector T cells following mucosal infection of the female genital tract in mice and during a symptomatic episode of vaginosis in women. While CCR2, CCR5, CXCR6 and CD11c were preferentially expressed in a mouse model of Chlamydia infection, only CCR5 and CD11c were clearly expressed by effector T cells during bacterial vaginosis in women. Other homing molecules previously suggested as required for homing to the genital mucosa such as α4β1 and α4β7 were also differentially expressed in these patients. However, CD11c expression, an integrin chain rarely analyzed in the context of T cell immunity, was the most consistently elevated in all activated effector CD8+ T cell subsets analyzed. This molecule was also induced after systemic infection in mice, suggesting that CD11c is not exclusive of genital tract infection. Still, its increase in response to genital tract disorders may represent a novel surrogate marker of mucosal immunity in women, and warrants further exploration for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

  7. Antimicrobial Resistance of Breakthrough-Urinary Tract Infections in Children under Antimicrobial Prophylaxis

    OpenAIRE

    Nomura, Toshihito; Hisata, Ken; Toyama, Yudai; Sakaguchi, Keita; Igarashi, Naru; Nakao, Akihiro; Matsunaga, Nobuaki; Komatsu, Mitsutaka; Obinata, Kaoru; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial prophylaxis using cefaclor or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole) is recommended for children with vesicoureteral reflex (VUR) to prevent recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI). This retrospective study was performed by reviewing the data of children ≥5 years of age treated for recurrent UTI in six hospitals from 2010 to 2015. The criteria for UTI diagnosis is fever (≥38°C) and positive results in urine culture (>104 colony-forming units/ml in midstream or withdrawn ...

  8. High Frequency of Staphylococcus Saprophyticus Urinary Tract Infections Among Female Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Denise Swei; Shieh, Huei Hsin; Barreira, Eliane Roseli; Ragazzi, Selma Lopes Betta; Gilio, Alfredo Elias

    2015-09-01

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a rarely reported agent of urinary tract infection (UTI) in the pediatric population. In our retrospective 3-year study, S. saprophyticus comprised 24.5% of 106 isolates of UTIs in female adolescents 12-15 years of age who attended an emergency department. Clinicians should be aware of the high prevalence of this etiology when empirically treating UTIs in female adolescents.

  9. Antibiotic Resistance in Children with Recurrent or Complicated Urinary Tract Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidal S Younish

    2009-01-01

    Pediatric urine culture isolates are becoming increasingly resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Empirical treatment with Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX or Cephalexin as the initial drug is ineffective. Nitrofurantoin and Nalidixic acid can be considered as the first line antibiotics for prophylaxis and or treatment of patients with recurrent UTI, while Meropenam and Ciprofloxacin can be used empirically in treating patients with complicated UTI. Key words: Antibiotic resistance, Complicated, Recurrent, Urinary tract infection

  10. Alternative approaches to conventional treatment of acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxman, Betsy; Buxton, Miatta

    2013-04-01

    The increasing resistance of uropathogens to antibiotics and recognition of the generally self-limiting nature of uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) suggest that it is time to reconsider empirical treatment of UTI using antibiotics. Identifying new and effective strategies to prevent recurrences and alternative treatment strategies are a high priority. We review the recent literature regarding the effects of functional food products, probiotics, vaccines, and alternative treatments on treating and preventing UTI.

  11. Etiologic study of urinary tract infection in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Mery Kogika

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections were documented in 51 dogs. Several factors such as etiologic agents, localization of the infection, predisposing factors, sex, age, and breed were considered. The diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI was based on bacteriological investigation and it was considered positive when urine sample collected by catheterization contained more than 105 bacteria/ml. Mixed infection was found in 4 of the infected dogs, totallizing 55 isolates. Among them, Escherichia coli (35.3% was the most frequently isolated, followed by Staphylococcus sp. (23.5%, Proteus mirabilis (15.7%, Streptococcus sp. (13.7%, Klebsiella sp. (9.8%. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3.9%, Enterobacter cloacae (2.0%, Citrobacter freundii (2.0% and Providencia rettgeri (2.0%. As to antimicrobial susceptibility, norfloxacin and gentamicin were successful for the treatment of gram-negative microorganisms, while the most effective drugs for gram-positive bacteria were cephalothin and nitrofurantoin. UTI was observed more frequently in Cocker Spaniel and German Shepherd; male dogs were more involved, and pyelonephritis was the predominant disease observed. Infection was seen in all ages, but the frequency was higher in middle aged dogs. Urolithiasis were observed as common predisposing or underlying factors to UTI being, cither Staphylococcus sp. or Proteus mirabilis isolated in those cases which alkaline urine pH was observed.

  12. The potential of photo-deposited silver coatings on Foley catheters to prevent urinary tract infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Ian Richard; Pollini, Mauro; Paladini, Federica

    2016-01-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) represents one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality. The resistance demonstrated by many microorganisms to conventional antibiotic therapies and the increasing health-care costs have recently encouraged the definition of alternative preventive strategies, which can have a positive effect in the management of infections. Antimicrobial urinary catheters have been developed through the photo-chemical deposition of silver coatings on the external and luminal surfaces. The substrates are exposed to ultraviolet radiation after impregnation into a silver-based solution, thus inducing the in situ synthesis of silver particles. The effect of the surface treatment on the material was investigated through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and silver ion release measurements. The ability of microorganisms commonly associated with urinary tract infections was investigated in terms of bacterial viability, proliferation and biofilm development, using Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis as target organisms. The silver coatings demonstrated good distribution of silver particles to the substrate, and proved an effective antibacterial capability in simulated biological conditions. The low values of silver ion release demonstrated the optimum adhesion of the coating. The results indicated a good potential of silver-based antimicrobial materials for prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infection. - Highlights: • Silver nanocoatings were deposited on urinary catheters. • Both luminal and outer surface were successfully treated. • The treated devices demonstrated were effective against different microorganisms. • The antibacterial potential of the devices was assessed.

  13. The potential of photo-deposited silver coatings on Foley catheters to prevent urinary tract infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Ian Richard [School of Pharmacy & Biomolecular Sciences, University of Brighton, Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom); Pollini, Mauro, E-mail: mauro.pollini@unisalento.it [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Silvertech Ltd, Via Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Paladini, Federica [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2016-12-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) represents one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality. The resistance demonstrated by many microorganisms to conventional antibiotic therapies and the increasing health-care costs have recently encouraged the definition of alternative preventive strategies, which can have a positive effect in the management of infections. Antimicrobial urinary catheters have been developed through the photo-chemical deposition of silver coatings on the external and luminal surfaces. The substrates are exposed to ultraviolet radiation after impregnation into a silver-based solution, thus inducing the in situ synthesis of silver particles. The effect of the surface treatment on the material was investigated through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and silver ion release measurements. The ability of microorganisms commonly associated with urinary tract infections was investigated in terms of bacterial viability, proliferation and biofilm development, using Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis as target organisms. The silver coatings demonstrated good distribution of silver particles to the substrate, and proved an effective antibacterial capability in simulated biological conditions. The low values of silver ion release demonstrated the optimum adhesion of the coating. The results indicated a good potential of silver-based antimicrobial materials for prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infection. - Highlights: • Silver nanocoatings were deposited on urinary catheters. • Both luminal and outer surface were successfully treated. • The treated devices demonstrated were effective against different microorganisms. • The antibacterial potential of the devices was assessed.

  14. [Clinical studies on flomoxef in respiratory tract infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanegae, H; Yamada, H; Yamaguchi, T; Kuroki, S; Katoh, O

    1987-10-01

    Flomoxef (FMOX, 6315-S) is a new oxacephem with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. We used FMOX for treatment of 13 patients with respiratory tract infections including 4 cases of pneumonia, 5 of lung abscess and 4 of exacerbation of the chronic airway diseases. FMOX showed excellent in vitro antimicrobial activities against clinical isolates including 4 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, 2 strains of Haemophilus influenzae and each one strain of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Clinical responses were excellent in 3 cases, good in 7 and fair or poor in 3. No side effect was observed, but abnormal laboratory findings caused by FMOX administration were found in 2 cases; hypertransaminasemia and eosinophilia. However, neither of them was severe. From the above results, it is considered that FMOX will be useful for treatment of patients with respiratory tract infections.

  15. [Clinical evaluations of flomoxef in respiratory tract infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikasa, K; Sawaki, M; Ako, H; Narita, N

    1987-10-01

    Flomoxef (FMOX, 6315-S), a new antibacterial drug, was administered to 9 cases with respiratory tract infections for a duration of 8 approximately 16 days at a daily dose of 2 g. Diagnosis of these patients were bronchopneumonia 5 cases, chronic bronchitis 3 cases and acute bronchitis 1 case. From transtracheal aspiration several organisms were isolated; Haemophilus influenzae was isolated in 3 cases, Streptococcus pneumoniae in 3 cases, H. influenzae plus Branhamella catarrhalis in 1 case, Streptococcus dysgalactiae plus Neisseria meningitidis in 1 case and Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum in 1 case. The clinical efficacy was good in all 9 cases, the efficacy rate was 100%. All the bacteria were eliminated. Side effects were not observed. From these results, it appears that FMOX is a valuable drug in the treatment of respiratory tract infections.

  16. [Clinical trials of flomoxef in complicated urinary tract infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, N; Sudoko, H; Fukuta, K; Nakano, M; Ushiyama, T; Tajima, A; Aso, Y; Masuda, H; Suzuki, A; Suzuki, K

    1987-10-01

    Flomoxef (6315-S, FMOX), a new oxacephem antibiotic was studied clinically in 27 patients with complicated urinary tract infections. FMOX was intravenously administered at a dose of 1.0 g twice daily for 5 days. Clinical effect of FMOX on patients with complicated urinary tract infections were excellent in 11.5%, moderate in 57.7% and overall clinical efficacy rate was 69.2%. During the treatment with FMOX, urticaria was observed in 1 case. In laboratory tests, a decrease of RBC, Hb and Ht in 1 case, a decrease of WBC in 1 case and an elevation of GPT in another case were observed. But these abnormal values were slight and transient.

  17. [Lower urinary tract infections in men. Urethritis, cystitis and prostatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanella, Marie-Céline; Schoofs, Fabian; Huttner, Benedikt; Huttner, Angela

    2017-04-12

    Recommendations for the treatment of lower non-catheter-related urinary tract infection (UTI) in men are rarely evidence-based. Their management requires the localization of the site of infection, whether it be the urethra, bladder or prostate, and includes antibiotic therapy and in most cases urological assessment. They are often associated with urinary tract procedures or anatomical or functional abnormalities. Nearly 80 % of male UTIs are caused by Enterobacteriaceae. The prevalence of broad-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing strains (ESBL) and quinolone-resistant strains is increasing. The aim of this article is to define three types of lower, non-catheter-related UTI in men - urethritis, cystitis and prostatitis - their microbiology and management in Switzerland.

  18. Urinary tract infections in older women: a clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, Lona; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

    2014-02-26

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTIs) in older women are commonly encountered in outpatient practice. To review management of asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic UTI and review prevention of recurrent UTIs in older community-dwelling women. A search of Ovid (Medline, PsycINFO, Embase) for English-language human studies conducted among adults aged 65 years and older and published in peer-reviewed journals from 1946 to November 20, 2013. The clinical spectrum of UTIs ranges from asymptomatic bacteriuria, to symptomatic and recurrent UTIs, to sepsis associated with UTI requiring hospitalization. Recent evidence helps differentiate asymptomatic bacteriuria from symptomatic UTI. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is transient in older women, often resolves without any treatment, and is not associated with morbidity or mortality. The diagnosis of symptomatic UTI is made when a patient has both clinical features and laboratory evidence of a urinary infection. Absent other causes, patients presenting with any 2 of the following meet the clinical diagnostic criteria for symptomatic UTI: fever, worsened urinary urgency or frequency, acute dysuria, suprapubic tenderness, or costovertebral angle pain or tenderness. A positive urine culture (≥105 CFU/mL) with no more than 2 uropathogens and pyuria confirms the diagnosis of UTI. Risk factors for recurrent symptomatic UTI include diabetes, functional disability, recent sexual intercourse, prior history of urogynecologic surgery, urinary retention, and urinary incontinence. Testing for UTI is easily performed in the clinic using dipstick tests. When there is a low pretest probability of UTI, a negative dipstick result for leukocyte esterase and nitrites excludes infection. Antibiotics are selected by identifying the uropathogen, knowing local resistance rates, and considering adverse effect profiles. Chronic suppressive antibiotics for 6 to 12 months and vaginal estrogen therapy effectively reduce

  19. Predictors Of Non-Escherichia Coli Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Nader; Wald, Ellen R; Keren, Ron; Gotman, Nathan; Ivanova, Anastasia; Carpenter, Myra A; Moxey-Mims, Marva; Hoberman, Alejandro

    2016-11-01

    We aimed to determine which children are prone to non-Escherichia coli urinary tract infection (UTIs). We included 769 children with UTI. We found that circumcised males, Hispanic children, children without fever and children with grades 3 and 4 vesicoureteral reflux were more likely to have a UTI caused by organisms other than E. coli. This information may guide clinicians in their choice of antimicrobial therapy.

  20. Recurrent urinary tract infection by burkholderia cepacia in a live related renal transplant recipient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeshan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia cepacia is high virulent organism usually causing lower respiratory tract infections especially in Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and post lung transplant. Urinary tract infections with Burkholderia cepacia have been associated after bladder irrigation or use of contaminated hospital objects. Post renal transplant urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infectious complications. Recurrent urinary tract infection with Burkholderia cepacia is a rare finding. Complete anatomical evaluation is essential in case recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) after renal transplant. Vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR) and neurogenic urinary bladder was found to be important risk factors. (author)

  1. Doripenem in hospital infections: a focus on nosocomial pneumonia, complicated intra-abdominal infections, and complicated urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tze Shien Lo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Tze Shien Lo,1 Stephanie M Borchardt,2 Justin M Welch,3 Melissa A Rohrich,3 Augusto M Alonto,4 Anne V Alonto51Infectious Diseases Service, Veterans Administration Medical Center, Fargo, North Dakota, USA; 2Research Service, Veterans Administration Medical Center, Fargo, North Dakota, USA; 3Pharmacy Service, Veterans Administration Medical Center, Fargo, North Dakota, USA; 4Infectious Diseases Department, MeritCare Medical Center, Fargo, North Dakota, USA; 5Department of Internal Medicine, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Fargo, North Dakota, USAAbstract: Doripenem is the latest carbapenem on the market to date. Although not an antibiotic in a new class, it offers a glimmer of hope in combating serious infections secondary to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria when we have not seen a new class of antibacterial, particularly for Gram-negative bacteria, for more than 10 years. In vitro, doripenem exhibits a broad spectrum of activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL and Amp-C β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae and anaerobes. Doripenem also exhibits better in vitro activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared to other anti-pseudomonal carbapenems. It combines the desirable activities of both imipenem and meropenem. It has similar activity to imipenem against Gram-positive pathogens and has the antimicrobial spectrum of meropenem against Gram-negative organisms. Several randomized clinical trials have demonstrated that doripenem is non-inferior to meropenem, imipenem, piperacillin/tazobactam, or levofloxacin in its efficacy and safety profile in treating a wide range of serious bacterial infections including intra-abdominal infection, complicated urinary tract infection, and nosocomial pneumonia. Due to its wide spectrum of activity and good safety profile it is susceptible to misuse leading to increasing rates of resistance

  2. Urinary tract infection in children: Role of ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hye Won; Lee, Sun Wha; Ko, Young Tae; Lim, Joo Won

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate diagnostic usefulness of ultrasonography(US) in pediatric patient with urinary tract infection. Fifty-five children with urinary tract infection underwent renal ultrasonography and voiding cystourethrography(VCUG). The imaging findings were analyzed retrospectively. Renal sonograms were normal in 34 of 55 children(62%). Five of 34 patients with normal sonogram had vesicoureteral reflux of grade I and III on VCUG. Renal sonograms were abnormal in 21 of 55 children(38%). Sonographic findings included hydronephrosis, hyperechoic kidney, nephromegaly, altrophic kidney, renal abscess, and duplex ureter. Eleven of 21 patient with abnormal sonogram had vesicoureteral reflux of grade I to IV on VCUG. Ultrasonography is an useful and reliable initial screening examination in the investigation of children with UTI. Unfortunately US is neither sufficiently sensitive nor specific for detecting VUR. VCUG provides confirmative and valuable information about vesicoureteral reflux, and VCUG should be considered as a next modality for UTI. The combined use of sonography and VCUG provides more valuable information in urinary tract infection

  3. Risk factors for lower respiratory tract infections in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silfeler, I.; Tanidir, I.C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Acute respiratory tract infections are divided into two groups as upper and lower respiratory tract infections. These are very common diseases in childhood. In this study, we aimed to determine risk factors for lower respiratory tract in this region. Methodology: Hospital were included in our study. Their examinations, backgrounds, family histories and information about environmental factors were recorded in questionnaire forms. Results: Lack of vaccination, duration of breast feeding, onset age of cow's milk, family history for asthma and food allergy, number of hospitalized people in the same room, number of people who live in same house and smoking around the children were evaluated for the presence of LRTI, and LRTI risks of these factors were respectively observed as 1.69, 1.71, 1.61, 1.69, 1.20, 1.47, 1.56 and 2.63 fold increased. Conclusion: Standardization of clinical diagnosis, accurate and realistic use of antibiotics, correction of nutrition, improvement of socio-economic situation and the elimination of Respiratory Infections. (author)

  4. Visibility of the urethral meatus and risk of urinary tract infections in uncircumcised boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrovsky, Alexander Sasha; Foster, Bethany J.; Jednak, Roman; Mok, Elise; McGillivray, David

    2012-01-01

    Background: Uncircumcised boys are at higher risk for urinary tract infections than circumcised boys. Whether this risk varies with the visibility of the urethral meatus is not known. Our aim was to determine whether there is a hierarchy of risk among uncircumcised boys whose urethral meatuses are visible to differing degrees. Methods: We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study in one pediatric emergency department. We screened 440 circumcised and uncircumcised boys. Of these, 393 boys who were not toilet trained and for whom the treating physician had requested a catheter urine culture were included in our analysis. At the time of catheter insertion, a nurse characterized the visibility of the urethral meatus (phimosis) using a 3-point scale (completely visible, partially visible or nonvisible). Our primary outcome was urinary tract infection, and our primary exposure variable was the degree of phimosis: completely visible versus partially or nonvisible urethral meatus. Results: Cultures grew from urine samples from 30.0% of uncircumcised boys with a completely visible meatus, and from 23.8% of those with a partially or nonvisible meatus (p = 0.4). The unadjusted odds ratio (OR) for culture growth was 0.73 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.35–1.52), and the adjusted OR was 0.41 (95% CI 0.17–0.95). Of the boys who were circumcised, 4.8% had urinary tract infections, which was significantly lower than the rate among uncircumcised boys with a completely visible urethral meatus (unadjusted OR 0.12 [95% CI 0.04–0.39], adjusted OR 0.07 [95% CI 0.02–0.26]). Interpretation: We did not see variation in the risk of urinary tract infection with the visibility of the urethral meatus among uncircumcised boys. Compared with circumcised boys, we saw a higher risk of urinary tract infection in uncircumcised boys, irrespective of urethral visibility. PMID:22777988

  5. Work-up of Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Bogdana; Copp, Hillary L

    2015-11-01

    Pediatric urinary tract infection (UTI) costs the health care system more than $180 million annually, and accounts for more than 1.5 million clinician visits per year. Accurate and timely diagnosis of these infections is important for determining appropriate treatment and preventing long-term complications such as renal scarring, hypertension, and end-stage renal disease. After the first 12 months, girls are more likely to be diagnosed with a UTI. About half of boys with UTI are diagnosed within the first 12 months of life. Diagnosis of UTI is made based on history and examination findings and confirmed by urine testing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Bacteriological study of urinary tract infection in antenatal care patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Ritu, Singh Brij N, Begum Rehana, Yadav Ramesh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims & Objective: To isolate and diagnose the Uropathogens and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern in anti-natal care patient suffering from Urinary tract Infections. Material and Methods: 150 samples were collected by consent pregnant women between the age group of 18 to 40 years. A midstream clean catch is adequate, provided by all pregnant women’s through given careful instructions. For enumeration of bacteria we perform standard loop techniques method. The number of colonies counted or estimated, and this number used to calculate the number of viable bacteria per ml of urine. The bacterial strains were identified by colonies character stick, gram staining, morphological and biochemical character. The bacterial strains identification was done up to genus and species level. The antibiotics sensitivity test of bacterial strains was done as per CLSI guidelines by Kirby-Baure Disc Diffusion Methods. Results: The significant bactiurea was found in 50 patients among 150 patients used. The most commonly isolated bacteria was Escherichia coli 23(40% Klebsiellaaerogens 11 (22% Staphylococcus aureus 10 (20% Pseudomonas aerugenosa 4(8%.The incidence of bacteriuria among in their first pregnancy was 22.2%.The higher incidence of UTI in 2nd and 3rd trimester was found to have 31.4% & 40%. These studies were showing high level of resistance to first line antibiotics such as Cotrimaxozole. Conclusion: To minimizing the complication of the pregnant women should be educated about the physiology of pregnancy clinical presentation includes asymptomatic bacteria, acute cystitis & pyelonephritis. Pregnant women should be screened for asymptomatic bacteriuria by urine culture and treated with appropriate antibiotics. After the post treatment pregnant women should be examine again to confirm post treatment urine sterility.

  7. [Urinary tract infections : What has been confirmed in therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, J; Stief, C G; Magistro, G

    2017-12-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) affect approximately 150 million people worldwide per year, causing annual health costs of over three billion dollars just in the USA. Every second woman experiences at least one UTI in her lifetime, with every one in four experiencing recurrence. Uncomplicated infections like single or recurrent cystitis and pyelonephritis can be distinguished from complicated disease. UTIs in men can spread to the male glands, causing prostatitis and epididymitis. Antibiotic therapy is the standard procedure for UTIs. However, the extensive and sometimes irrational use of antibiotics for the treatment of infections has led to an increase in the incidence of multiresistant pathogens in recent years. Therefore, preventive nonantibiotic approaches are of great interest. This article provides an overview of the current management of urological infections as well as an outline of nonantibiotic preventive treatment modalities.

  8. Antimicrobial resistance pattern of Escherichia coli isolated from patients with urinary tract infection (UTI in Yasuj city during 1391-1392.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sharifi

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: It is recommended to treat urinary tract infections by using fewer antibiotics such as Amoxicillin / Clavulanic acid and co-trimoxazole, and administration of ciprofloxacin and gentamicin should be used with caution.

  9. Value of Ultrasound in Detecting Urinary Tract Anomalies After First Febrile Urinary Tract Infection in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobrial, Emad E; Abdelaziz, Doaa M; Sheba, Maha F; Abdel-Azeem, Yasser S

    2016-05-01

    Background Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract. Ultrasound is a noninvasive test that can demonstrate the size and shape of kidneys, presence of dilatation of the ureters, and the existence of anatomic abnormalities. The aim of the study is to estimate the value of ultrasound in detecting urinary tract anomalies after first attack of UTI. Methods This study was conducted at the Nephrology Clinic, New Children's Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, from August 2012 to March 2013, and included 30 children who presented with first attack of acute febrile UTI. All patients were subjected to urine analysis, urine culture and sensitivity, serum creatinine, complete blood count, and imaging in the form of renal ultrasound, voiding cysto-urethrography, and renal scan. Results All the patients had fever with a mean of 38.96°C ± 0.44°C and the mean duration of illness was 6.23 ± 5.64 days. Nineteen patients (63.3%) had an ultrasound abnormality. The commonest abnormalities were kidney stones (15.8%). Only 2 patients who had abnormal ultrasound had also vesicoureteric reflux on cystourethrography. Sensitivity of ultrasound was 66.7%, specificity was 37.5%, positive predictive value was 21.1%, negative predictive value was 81.8%, and total accuracy was 43.33%. Conclusion We concluded that ultrasound alone was not of much value in diagnosing and putting a plan of first attack of febrile UTI. It is recommended that combined investigations are the best way to confirm diagnosis of urinary tract anomalies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Host-pathogen interactions mediating pain of urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudick, Charles N; Billips, Benjamin K; Pavlov, Vladimir I; Yaggie, Ryan E; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Klumpp, David J

    2010-04-15

    Pelvic pain is a major component of the morbidity associated with urinary tract infection (UTI), yet the molecular mechanisms underlying UTI-induced pain remain unknown. UTI pain mechanisms probably contrast with the clinical condition of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB), characterized by significant bacterial loads without lack symptoms. A murine UTI model was used to compare pelvic pain behavior elicited by infection with uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain NU14 and ASB strain 83972. NU14-infected mice exhibited pelvic pain, whereas mice infected with 83972 did not exhibit pain, similar to patients infected with 83972. NU14-induced pain was not dependent on mast cells, not correlated with bacterial colonization or urinary neutrophils. UTI pain was not influenced by expression of type 1 pili, the bacterial adhesive appendages that induce urothelial apoptosis. However, purified NU14 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent pain, whereas 83972 LPS induced no pain. Indeed, 83972 LPS attenuated the pain of NU14 infection, suggesting therapeutic potential. These data suggest a novel mechanism of infection-associated pain that is dependent on TLR4 yet independent of inflammation. Clinically, these findings also provide the rational for probiotic therapies that would minimize the symptoms of infection without reliance on empirical therapies that contribute to antimicrobial resistance.

  11. Gut-sparing treatment of urinary tract infection in patients at high risk of Clostridium difficile infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Christopher; Vaughn, Byron P; Graiziger, Carolyn T; Sadowsky, Michael J; Khoruts, Alexander

    2017-02-01

    Recipients of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI) remain at markedly increased risk of re-infection with C. difficile with new antibiotic provocations. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common indications for antibiotics in these patients, often resulting in C. difficile re-infection. We present a case series of 19 patients treated with parenteral aminoglycosides for UTI following FMT for RCDI. A 3 day outpatient regimen of once-daily intramuscular administration of gentamicin was used to treat 18 consecutive FMT recipients with uncomplicated UTI. One other patient was treated for a complicated UTI with intravenous amikacin. Profiling of 16S rRNA genes was used to track changes in faecal microbial community structure during this regimen in three patients. The protocol was highly effective in treating UTI symptoms. None of the patients suffered a re-infection with C. difficile The faecal microbial communities remained undisturbed by treatment with intramuscular administration of gentamicin. Despite falling out of favour in recent years, aminoglycoside antibiotics given parenterally have the advantage of minimal penetration into the gut lumen. A brief (3 day) course of parenteral gentamicin was safe and effective in curing UTI in patients at high risk of C. difficile infection without perturbing their gut microbiota. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Urinary tract infections in pregnancy: old and new unresolved diagnostic and therapeutic problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszkiewicz-Rowińska, Joanna; Małyszko, Jolanta; Wieliczko, Monika

    2015-03-16

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in pregnant women and pose a great therapeutic challenge, since the risk of serious complications in both the mother and her child is high. Pregnancy is a state associated with physiological, structural and functional urinary tract changes which promote ascending infections from the urethra. Unlike the general population, all pregnant women should be screened for bacteriuria with urine culture, and asymptomatic bacteriuria must be treated in every case that is diagnosed, as it is an important risk factor for pyelonephritis in this population. The antibiotic chosen should have a good maternal and fetal safety profile. In this paper, current principles of diagnosis and management of UTI in pregnancy are reviewed, and the main problems and controversies are identified and discussed.

  13. Urinary tract infections in pregnancy: old and new unresolved diagnostic and therapeutic problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małyszko, Jolanta; Wieliczko, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in pregnant women and pose a great therapeutic challenge, since the risk of serious complications in both the mother and her child is high. Pregnancy is a state associated with physiological, structural and functional urinary tract changes which promote ascending infections from the urethra. Unlike the general population, all pregnant women should be screened for bacteriuria with urine culture, and asymptomatic bacteriuria must be treated in every case that is diagnosed, as it is an important risk factor for pyelonephritis in this population. The antibiotic chosen should have a good maternal and fetal safety profile. In this paper, current principles of diagnosis and management of UTI in pregnancy are reviewed, and the main problems and controversies are identified and discussed. PMID:25861291

  14. [Nitrofurantoin--clinical relevance in uncomplicated urinary tract infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ingo

    2014-07-01

    The nitrofuran derivative nitrofurantoin has been used for more than 60 years for the antibacterial therapy of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI). Despite its long application, this antibiotic retained good activity against Escherichia coli and some other pathogens of uncomplicated urinary tract infections such as Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Enterococcus species. Nitrofurantoin therapy has been shown to be accompanied by numerous adverse drug effects. Among these, there are also serious side effects such as pulmonary reactions and polyneuropathy, which mainly occur in long-term use. Recent studies, however, have shown a good efficacy and tolerability of short-term nitrofurantoin therapy comparable to previous established standard therapeutic regimens applying cotrimoxazole or quinolones. Because of these data and the alarming resistance rates of uropathogenic Escherichia coli to cotrimoxazole and quinolones that have been increased markedly in several countries, the clinical significance ofnitrofurantoin has been raised again. In many current treatment guidelines, e. g., the international clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis in women published by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the European Society for Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, nitrofurantoin has been recommended as one first-line antibiotic of empiric antibacterial treatment of uncomplicated cystitis in otherwise healthy women. In Germany, however, nitrofurantoin should only be applied if more effective and less risky antibiotics cannot be used. Nitrofurantoin is contraindicated in the last three months of pregnancy and in patients suffering from renal impairment of each degree. Despite compatibility concerns, nitrofurantoin has also been recommended for the re-infection prophylaxis of recurrent uncomplicated urinary tract infections in Germany and several other countries.

  15. The DMSA scan in paediatric urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditchfield, M.R.; Nadel, H.R.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the present paper was to review the use of the dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan in urinary tract infection at British Columbia's Children's Hospital to determine the frequency of cortical defects and the association between vesico-ureteric reflux and the presence of cortical defects in children with urinary tract infection. A total of 129 consecutive children with a urinary tract infection referred for a DMSA scan in a 2-year period (January 1992-January 1994) were retrospectively studied. The results were analysed in terms of kidneys, and the incidence of cortical defects was determined. Eighty-eight patients (68%) had a radiographic micturating cysto-urethrogram within 6 months of the DMSA scan, and in this group the relationship of defects with vesico-ureteric reflux was determined. Overall, 81/258 (31%) of kidneys had a cortical defect on a DMSA scan. Of those who had a micturating cysto-urethrogram, 53/176 (30%) kidneys had vesico-ureteric reflux, and of those that had reflux, 21/53 (40%) had a cortical defect on a DMSA scan. In the group of children without reflux, 38/123 (31%) had a cortical defect. Renal cortical scan defects are common findings in paediatric urinary infection, and frequently occur in the absence of vesico-ureteric reflux. These defects represent either established scars or acute pyelonephritis that can proceed to scarring. The micturating cysto-urethro-gram alone is insufficient as a screening modality to identify those kidneys at risk of renal scarring. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  16. Antibiotic Resistance in Children with Recurrent or Complicated Urinary Tract Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Nidal S Younish; K Qual; T Al-Awaisheh; F Al-Awaisheh; D Al-Kayed

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infection is certainly one of the most common childhood infections. Emerging resistance to the antibiotics is not unusual. Current hospitalization for children with urinary tract infection is reserved for severe or complicated cases. The aim of the present study was to determine the antibiotic resistance pattern among children with recurrent or complicated urinary tract infection. METHODS: A retrospective study carried out at Prince Hashem hospital, Zarqa ...

  17. Respiratory Tract Infections and the Role of Biologically Active Polysaccharides in Their Management and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesenak, Milos; Urbancikova, Ingrid; Banovcin, Peter

    2017-07-20

    Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are the most common form of infections in every age category. Recurrent respiratory tract infections (RRTIs), a specific form of RTIs, represent a typical and common problem associated with early childhood, causing high indirect and direct costs on the healthcare system. They are usually the consequence of immature immunity in children and high exposure to various respiratory pathogens. Their rational management should aim at excluding other severe chronic diseases associated with increased morbidity (e.g., primary immunodeficiency syndromes, cystic fibrosis, and ciliary dyskinesia) and at supporting maturity of the mucosal immune system. However, RRTIs can also be observed in adults (e.g., during exhausting and stressful periods, chronic inflammatory diseases, secondary immunodeficiencies, or in elite athletes) and require greater attention. Biologically active polysaccharides (e.g., β-glucans) are one of the most studied natural immunomodulators with a pluripotent mode of action and biological activity. According to many studies, they possess immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and anti-infectious activities and therefore could be suggested as an effective part of treating and preventing RTIs. Based on published studies, the application of β-glucans was proven as a possible therapeutic and preventive approach in managing and preventing recurrent respiratory tract infections in children (especially β-glucans from Pleurotus ostreatus ), adults (mostly the studies with yeast-derived β-glucans), and in elite athletes (studies with β-glucans from Pleurotus ostreatus or yeast).

  18. [Diagnosis and clinical management of urinary tract infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilberg, Ita Pfeferman; Schor, Nestor

    2003-01-01

    A review about recent aspects on diagnosis and clinical management of urinary tract infection (UTI) is presented. There is a wide variation in clinical presentation of UTI which include different forms as cystitis, pyelonephritis, urethral syndrome and the clinical relevance of asymptomatic bacteriuria and low-count bacteriuria that must be distinguished from contamination. Pathogenetic aspects concerning bacterial virulence as well as host factors in susceptibility to UTI as urinary tract obstruction, vesicoureteral reflux, indwelling bladder catheters, pregnancy, diabetes mellitus, sexual activity, contraceptive methods, prostatism, menopause, advanced age and renal transplantation are discussed. Diagnostic criteria and the most common tests utilized for differentiation between lower and upper UTI have been reviewed. The authors conclude that a careful evaluation of the underlying factors is required for the correct diagnosis of UTI and to prevent recurrence and that appropriate strategies and specific therapeutic regimens may maximize the benefit while reducing costs and adverse reactions.

  19. Limited Evidence on the Management of Respiratory Tract Infections in Down's Syndrome : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manikam, Logan; Reed, Kate; Venekamp, Roderick P; Hayward, Andrew; Littlejohns, Peter; Schilder, Anne; Lakhanpaul, Monica

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: To systematically review the effectiveness of preventative and therapeutic interventions for respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in people with Down's syndrome. METHODS: Databases were searched for any published and ongoing studies of respiratory tract diseases in children and adults with

  20. Effectiveness of adenoidectomy in children with recurrent upper respiratory tract infections: open randomised controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardweg, M.T. van den; Boonacker, C.W.; Rovers, M.M.; Hoes, A.W.; Schilder, A.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of adenoidectomy in children with recurrent upper respiratory tract infections. DESIGN: Open randomised controlled trial. SETTING: 11 general hospitals and two academic centres. PARTICIPANTS: 111 children aged 1-6 with recurrent upper respiratory tract

  1. Prevalence of upper urinary tract anomalies in hospitalized premature infants with urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachharajani, A; Vricella, G J; Najaf, T; Coplen, D E

    2015-05-01

    The 2011 American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines address imaging after initial febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) in infants >2 months of age. We sought to determine the frequency of upper urinary tract anomalies (hydronephrosis and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR)) in hospitalized premature infants with UTI. We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admissions at a tertiary care children's hospital between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2010. We queried the records for UTI, renal ultrasound (US) and voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG). We identified 3518 unique admissions. UTI occurred in 118 infants (3%). Sixty-nine (60%) had a normal US. Renal dilation was predominantly renal pelvic dilation (12%) and isolated caliectasis (22%). VUR was identified in 15 (14%) infants evaluated with a VCUG. VUR was identified in nine (12%) infants without and in seven (16%) with an abnormality on US. Reflux was identified in 7% of male and 38% of female infants with a UTI. Anatomic abnormalities of the upper urinary tract are uncommon in premature infants with a UTI that occurs during neonatal hospitalization. In concordance with the AAP guidelines, a VCUG may not be required in all NICU infants under age 2 months after a single UTI.

  2. Triggered Urine Interleukin-6 Correlates to Severity of Symptoms in Nonfebrile Lower Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundén, Fredrik; Butler, Daniel; Wullt, Björn

    2017-07-01

    Objective diagnosis of symptomatic urinary tract infections in patients prone to asymptomatic bacteriuria is compromised by local host responses that are already present and the positive urine culture. We investigated interleukin-6 as a biomarker for nonfebrile urinary tract infection severity and diagnostic thresholds for interleukin-6 and 8, and neutrophils to differentiate between asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract infection. Patients with residual urine and neurogenic bladders due to spinal lesions included in a long-term Escherichia coli 83972 asymptomatic bacteriuria inoculation trial were monitored for 2 years. Symptom scoring and urine sampling to estimate interleukin-6 and 8, and neutrophils were performed regularly monthly and at urinary tract infection episodes. Patients were followed in the complete study for a mean of 19 months (range 10 to 27) and those with asymptomatic bacteriuria with E. coli 83972 were followed a mean of 11 months (range 4 to 19). A total of 37 nonfebrile urinary tract infection episodes with complete data on interleukin-6 and 8, neutrophils and symptom scoring were documented. Interleukin-6 was the only marker that persistently increased during urinary tract infection compared to asymptomatic bacteriuria in pooled and paired intra-individual comparisons (p urinary tract infection symptoms (p urinary tract infection episodes. However, in urinary tract infections with worse symptoms interleukin-6 and neutrophils demonstrated equal good/excellent outcomes. Triggered interleukin-6 correlated to urinary tract infection symptom severity and demonstrated a promising differential diagnostic capacity to discriminate urinary tract infection from asymptomatic bacteriuria. Future studies should explore interleukin-6 as a biomarker of urinary tract infection severity and assess the treatment indication in nonfebrile urinary tract infections. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by

  3. The significance of ultrasonography in urinary tract infection in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Dae Hyun; Lee, Kwang Sul; Jeon, Woo Ki; Kim, Ho Kyun; Lee, Ghi Jai; Kim, Jeong Sook; Jeon, Jong Dong; Han, Chang Yul; Song, Moon Kab

    1990-01-01

    Urinary tract infection(UTI) is one of the major bacterial disease of children that causes morbidity and inconvenience to many patients were related to recurrent vesicoureteral reflux. Radiological examinations of the 72 patients of urinary tract infection(UTI) who were visited to Seoul Paik Hospital from Jan 1st 1986 to Jul 30th 1989, were analysed in this study. US was used as an initial study in all patients who showed acute stage of UTI and followed by IVP, VCUG, 99m Tc-DMSA scan for veslcoureteral reflex or renal scarring. If US showed obstructing lesion, no further study was performed. The resulted were as follows: 1. US is valuable as a screening procedure during the first UTI in congenital abnormalities and in particular obstructive lesions that require surgery. 2. A normal US in a child older than 5 or 6 years is meaningful as an investigation in the group of the first documented UTI uncomplicated. 3. Vesicoureteral reflex, a major factor leading to parenchymal damage in young children can not be detected reliably by US. If the US is suggestive of vesicoureteral reflex, this should be confirmed by VCUG and 99m Tc-DMSA scan for renal scarring. If the US is normal or equivocal in recurrent infection and unexplained persistent clinical findings, this should be followed by VCUG and 9 9mTc-DMSA scan

  4. An update on emerging therapies for urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Aneela; Alarfaj, Sumaiah; Darouiche, Rabih; Mohajer, Mayar

    2017-03-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common healthcare-acquired infections, and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Worldwide use of antibiotics has led to a significant rise in resistant uropathogens emanating from both hospitals and communities. The huge concern of multidrug resistance (MDR) has led the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to encourage drug companies to invest in the development of new antibiotics. Area covered: In this review we summarized data on already approved antibiotics, and selected emerging therapies that are currently in phase II and III trials with emphasis on complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs). We performed our search using PubMed, ClinicalTrials.gov, Google Scholar and Pharmaprojects. Expert opinion: Efficacious antimicrobials are needed to overcome MDR organisms. There are several dugs in initial and later stages of development, but most of them lack full spectrum of activity against some Gram-negative organisms, particularly against MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Better understanding of the pathogenesis of UTI and genetic engineering of pathogens can provide new drugs to combat resistance in the future.

  5. Antibiotic resistance patterns of outpatient pediatric urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlin, Rachel S; Shapiro, Daniel J; Hersh, Adam L; Copp, Hillary L

    2013-07-01

    We characterize the current national patterns of antibiotic resistance of outpatient pediatric urinary tract infection. We examined outpatient urinary isolates from patients younger than 18 years in 2009 using The Surveillance Network®, a database with antibiotic susceptibility results and patient demographic data from 195 United States hospitals. We determined the prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns for the 6 most common uropathogens, ie Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus. We compared differences in uropathogen prevalence between males and females using chi-square analysis. We identified 25,418 outpatient urinary isolates. E. coli was the most common uropathogen overall but the prevalence of E. coli was higher among females (83%) than males (50%, p Resistance among E. coli was highest for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (24%) but lower for nitrofurantoin (less than 1%) and cephalothin (15%). Compared to 2002 Surveillance Network data, E. coli resistance rates increased for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (from 23% to 31% in males and from 20% to 23% in females) and ciprofloxacin (from 1% to 10% and from 0.6% to 4%, respectively). E. coli remains the most common pediatric uropathogen. Although widely used, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is a poor empirical choice for pediatric urinary tract infections in many areas due to high resistance rates. First-generation cephalosporins and nitrofurantoin are appropriate narrow-spectrum alternatives given their low resistance rates. Local antibiograms should be used to assist with empirical urinary tract infection treatment. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk Factors for Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection and Renal Scarring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, Ron; Shaikh, Nader; Pohl, Hans; Gravens-Mueller, Lisa; Ivanova, Anastasia; Zaoutis, Lisa; Patel, Melissa; deBerardinis, Rachel; Parker, Allison; Bhatnagar, Sonika; Haralam, Mary Ann; Pope, Marcia; Kearney, Diana; Sprague, Bruce; Barrera, Raquel; Viteri, Bernarda; Egigueron, Martina; Shah, Neha; Hoberman, Alejandro

    2015-07-01

    To identify risk factors for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) and renal scarring in children who have had 1 or 2 febrile or symptomatic UTIs and received no antimicrobial prophylaxis. This 2-year, multisite prospective cohort study included 305 children aged 2 to 71 months with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) receiving placebo in the RIVUR (Randomized Intervention for Vesicoureteral Reflux) study and 195 children with no VUR observed in the CUTIE (Careful Urinary Tract Infection Evaluation) study. Primary exposure was presence of VUR; secondary exposures included bladder and bowel dysfunction (BBD), age, and race. Outcomes were recurrent febrile or symptomatic urinary tract infection (F/SUTI) and renal scarring. Children with VUR had higher 2-year rates of recurrent F/SUTI (Kaplan-Meier estimate 25.4% compared with 17.3% for VUR and no VUR, respectively). Other factors associated with recurrent F/SUTI included presence of BBD at baseline (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.07 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09-3.93]) and presence of renal scarring on the baseline (99m)Tc-labeled dimercaptosuccinic acid scan (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.88 [95% CI: 1.22-6.80]). Children with BBD and any degree of VUR had the highest risk of recurrent F/SUTI (56%). At the end of the 2-year follow-up period, 8 (5.6%) children in the no VUR group and 24 (10.2%) in the VUR group had renal scars, but the difference was not statistically significant (adjusted odds ratio: 2.05 [95% CI: 0.86-4.87]). VUR and BBD are risk factors for recurrent UTI, especially when they appear in combination. Strategies for preventing recurrent UTI include antimicrobial prophylaxis and treatment of BBD. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Sphingobacterium respiratory tract infection in patients with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Gregorio Fabiola

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteria that belong to the genus Sphingobacterium are Gram-negative, non-fermentative bacilli, ubiquitous in nature and rarely involved in human infections. The aims of this study were to evaluate the epidemiology of infection by Sphingobacterium in a cohort of patients affected by Cystic Fibrosis (CF, the antibiotic susceptibility and the DNA fingerprinting of the isolated strains and to analyze some clinical outcomes of the infected patients. Findings Between January 2006 and June 2008, patients (n = 332 attending the Regional CF Unit in Naples, Italy, were enrolled. Sputum samples were processed for microscopic, cultural, phenotypic identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing. DNA fingerprinting was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. A total of 21 strains of Sphingobacterium were isolated from 7 patients (13 of S. spiritovorum, 8 of S. multivorum. S. multivorum isolates were more resistant than those of S. spiritovorum. PFGE profiles were in general heterogeneous, which suggested independent circulation. Conclusions This is the first Italian report about respiratory tract infections by Sphingobacterium in CF patients. In our cohort, these infections were not associated with a deterioration of pulmonary function during the follow-up period. Although the exact role of this microorganism in CF lung disease is unknown and the number of infected patients was small, this study could represent an important starting-point for understanding the epidemiology and the possible pathogenic role of Sphingobacterium in CF patients.

  8. Treatment failures after antibiotic therapy of uncomplicated urinary tract infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Lars; Dessau, Ram B; Hallas, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The efficacy of sulfamethizole and pivmecillinam in the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTI) has been questioned because of an increase in the prevalence of resistant strains. The aim of this study was to describe the risk of treatment failures over the last 10 years. DESIGN......: Retrospective cohort study. MATERIAL: Data were retrieved from Odense Pharmaco Epidemiological Database and consisted of women receiving sulfamethizole (n = 44,716) or pivmecillinam (n = 3093) during the period 1990-99. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prescription of a new antibiotic drug appropriate for UTI within 4...

  9. Gram-Positive Uropathogens, Polymicrobial Urinary Tract Infection, and the Emerging Microbiota of the Urinary Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Kimberly A; Lewis, Amanda L

    2016-04-01

    Gram-positive bacteria are a common cause of urinary-tract infection (UTI), particularly among individuals who are elderly, pregnant, or who have other risk factors for UTI. Here we review the epidemiology, virulence mechanisms, and host response to the most frequently isolated Gram-positive uropathogens: Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus agalactiae. We also review several emerging, rare, misclassified, and otherwise underreported Gram-positive pathogens of the urinary tract including Aerococcus, Corynebacterium, Actinobaculum, and Gardnerella. The literature strongly suggests that urologic diseases involving Gram-positive bacteria may be easily overlooked due to limited culture-based assays typically utilized for urine in hospital microbiology laboratories. Some UTIs are polymicrobial in nature, often involving one or more Gram-positive bacteria. We herein review the risk factors and recent evidence for mechanisms of bacterial synergy in experimental models of polymicrobial UTI. Recent experimental data has demonstrated that, despite being cleared quickly from the bladder, some Gram-positive bacteria can impact pathogenic outcomes of co-infecting organisms. When taken together, the available evidence argues that Gram-positive bacteria are important uropathogens in their own right, but that some can be easily overlooked because they are missed by routine diagnostic methods. Finally, a growing body of evidence demonstrates that a surprising variety of fastidious Gram-positive bacteria may either reside in or be regularly exposed to the urinary tract and further suggests that their presence is widespread among women, as well as men. Experimental studies in this area are needed; however, there is a growing appreciation that the composition of bacteria found in the bladder could be a potentially important determinant in urologic disease, including susceptibility to UTI.

  10. A pilot study on Trichomonas vaginalis in women with recurrent urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Chih Chang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichomoniasis and recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs shared similar risk factors, age distribution and overlapping symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV in women with recurrent UTIs, attending a urology clinic in a medical center, in order to inform screening and treatment policies. Methods: Women with recurrent UTIs, defined as the presence of lower urinary tract symptoms (dysuria, frequency and urgency and three positive urine cultures on voided urine specimens in the previous year, were enrolled prospectively from January 2013 to April 2014. Urine samples were collected for culture and tested for TV using immunochromatographic strip. Outpatient follow-up was arranged to diagnose any symptomatic UTI recurrence. Results: Sixty-five women were recruited. Mean age was 57.4 ± 14.3 year-old and follow-up duration was 9.5 ± 4.0 months. The prevalence of TV was 16.9% (11/65. Eight women had UTI recurrence in the follow-up period. Recurrence rate did not differ in patients with and without concomitant TV infection. Conclusions: Given the high prevalence of TV, we suggest that testing for TV should be considered in women with recurrent UTIs. Further larger studies are needed to evaluate the potential benefit of treating TV in this group of patients. Keywords: Prevalence, Trichomonas vaginalis, Urinary tract infection, Women

  11. Evaluation of CD4+/CD8+ status and urinary tract infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of CD4+/CD8+ status and urinary tract infections associated with urinary schistosomiasis ... African Health Sciences ... by <50 ova /10ml of urine had a mean CD4+:CD8+ ratio of 1.57 while those with heavy infections as ... Key words: CD4+, CD8+, urinary tract infections, urinary schistosomiasis, rural Nigerians

  12. Prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Around 40-50% of women experience at least one urinary tract infection (UTI) during their lifetime and 20-30% of these have a recurrence within 3-4 months of the initial infection.¹ Recurrent UTI (usually defined as three episodes in the last 12 months or two episodes in the last 6 months) can have a considerable impact on a woman's quality of life. Each episode of acute UTI in young women is typically associated with about 6 days of symptoms, 2.4 days of restricted activities and 0.4 days of bed rest.¹ Antibacterial prophylaxis is effective in preventing recurrent episodes, but at the expense of unwanted effects and a risk of promoting bacterial resistance. Here we assess the efficacy of different antibacterial regimens and non-antibacterial alternatives (cranberry, probiotics, oestrogens, immunostimulation, hyaluronic acid and chondroitin, acupuncture and herbs) in the prevention of recurrent uncomplicated UTIs in women.

  13. Probiotics in the prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Zwolińska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent urinary tract infections are a serious clinical problem both in adults and children. Febrile episodes of recurrent urinary tract infections may lead to the formation of renal scars and development of chronic kidney disease. Traditionally, management involved antibiotic prophylaxis introduced after a first febrile episode. Recently, however, the indications for antibiotic therapy have been narrowed down to treat cases of recurrent urinary tract infections and disorders which pose a significant risk for their development. In the current era of the ubiquitous use of antibiotics, bacterial resistance is an increasingly alarming problem, hence the recent search for alternative methods of prophylactic treatment. For many reasons, probiotics appear to be an excellent alternative. The microbiome of the human gastrointestinal tract and urogenital tract consists of a multitude of helpful probiotic bacteria, including the especially beneficial Lactobacillus strain. A significant relationship has been confirmed to exist between infections of the urinary tract and a decreased number of lactobacilli. Their antibacterial properties include their ability to  secrete numerous substances inhibiting the growth of  pathogenic microorganisms and to form a biofilm preventing the adhesion of uropathogens to the epithelium of the urinary tract as well as, indirectly, their immunomodulatory potential. This study is aimed at discussing the existing evidence supporting the effectiveness of probiotics in the prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections, with special emphasis on the paediatric population. Probiotics make an excellent and safe alternative for the traditional prophylactic antibiotic therapy.

  14. Changes in Bacterial Resistance Patterns of Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Rationale for Empirical Antibiotic Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    İbrahim Gökçe; Neslihan Çiçek; Serçin Güven; Ülger Altuntaş; Neşe Bıyıklı; Nurdan Yıldız; Harika Alpay

    2017-01-01

    Background: The causative agent spectrum and resistance patterns of urinary tract infections in children are affected by many factors. Aims: To demonstrate antibiotic resistance in urinary tract infections and changing ratio in antibiotic resistance by years. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: We analysed antibiotic resistance patterns of isolated Gram (-) bacteria during the years 2011-2014 (study period 2) in children with urinary tract infections. We...

  15. Urinary NGAL deficiency in recurrent urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Catherine S; Johnson, Kathryn; Patel, Viral; Wax, Rebecca; Rodig, Nancy; Barasch, Jonathan; Bachur, Richard; Lee, Richard S

    2017-06-01

    Children with recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTI) often show no identifiable cause of their infections. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is known to be upregulated within the uroepithelium and kidney of patients with UTI and exhibits a localized bacteriostatic effect through iron chelation. We hypothesize that some patients with rUTI without an identifiable cause of their recurrent infections have locally deficient NGAL production. We therefore explored whether a lack of NGAL production may be a factor in the pathogenesis of rUTI. Patients seen in the urology clinic for rUTI who were tract, or other reasons that predispose to UTI, such as neurogenic bladder, the need for intermittent catheterization, or unrepaired posterior urethral valves. Control patients were healthy children enrolled from the emergency department with no history of UTI or renal dysfunction, normal urinalysis at the time of enrollment, and presenting no diagnosis associated with increased NGAL levels, such as acute kidney injury or infection. NGAL was measured by immunoblot. Fifteen cases and controls were enrolled. Median urinary NGAL levels were significantly decreased in rUTI patients compared with controls [15 (14-29) ng/ml vs 30 (27-61) ng/ml; p = 0.002)] Although comparatively diminished, measurable NGAL levels were present in all patients with rUTI. Urinary NGAL is significantly decreased in patients with compared with patients without rUTI. These data suggest that some patients with rUTI may be predisposed to UTI because of a relative local deficiency in urinary NGAL production.

  16. The Effects of Oxidative Stress in Urinary Tract Infection

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    Ergul Belge Kurutas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to determine the effects of oxidative stress in urinary tract infection (UTI. One hundred sixty-four urine samples obtained from patients with the prediagnosis of acute UTI admitted to the Faculty of Medicine, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, were included in this study. Urine cultures were performed according to standard techniques. Urinary isolates were identified by using API ID 32E. The catalase and superoxide dismutase activity and the lipid peroxidation levels known as oxidative stress markers were measured in all urine samples. Thirty-six pathogen microorganisms were identified in positive urine cultures. These microorganisms were as follows: 23 (63.8% E coli, 5 (13.8% P mirabilis, 4 (11.1% K pneumoniae, 2 (5.5% Candida spp, 1 (2.7% S saprophyticus, and 1 (2.7% P aeruginosa. It was observed that lipid peroxidation levels were increased while catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were decreased in positive urine cultures, compared to negative cultures. We conclude that urinary tract infection causes oxidative stress, increases lipid peroxidation level, and leads to insufficiency of antioxidant enzymes.

  17. [Primary and secondary prevention of urinary tract infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenlehner, F M E; Vahlensieck, W; Bauer, H W; Weidner, W; Naber, K G; Piechota, H J

    2011-10-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most frequent bacterial infections in the community and health care setting. Mostly young and, to some extent, postmenopausal women are affected by recurrent UTI (rUTI) defined as ≥3 UTI/year. On the other hand rUTI are frequently found in patients with complicating urological factors, e.g. urinary catheters. Modifiable predisposing factors in uncomplicated rUTI in women are rare. Continuous antibiotic prophylaxis or postcoital prophylaxis, if there is close correlation with sexual intercourse, are most effective to prevent rUTI. Nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim (or cotrimoxazole), and fosfomycin trometamol are available as first-line drugs. Oral cephalosporins and quinolones should be restricted to specific indications. Antibiotic prophylaxis reduces the number of uropathogens in the gut and/or vaginal flora and reduces bacterial"fitness". Given the correct indication, the recurrence rate of rUTI can be reduced by about 90%. In postmenopausal patients vaginal substitution of oestriol should be started first. Oral or parenteral immunoprophylaxis is another option in patients with rUTI. Other possibilities with varying scientific evidence are prophylaxis with cranberries or probiotics. The prophylaxis of catheter-associated UTI or asymptomatic bacteriuria should employ strategies which result in a reduction of frequency and duration of catheter drainage of the urinary tract. The currently available catheter materials have only little influence on reducing catheter-associated rUTI.

  18. Association Between Early Idiopathic Neonatal Jaundice and Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Murat; Sarici, S Ümit; Yurdugül, Yüksel; Akpinar, Melis; Altun, Demet; Özcan, Begüm; Serdar, Muhittin A; Sarici, Dilek

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose: Etiologic role, incidence, demographic, and response-to-treatment characteristics of urinary tract infection (UTI) among neonates, its relationship with significant neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, and abnormalities of the urinary system were studied in a prospective investigation in early (≤10 days) idiopathic neonatal jaundice in which all other etiologic factors of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia were ruled out. Patients and methods: Urine samples for microscopic and bacteriologic examination were obtained with bladder catheterization from 155 newborns with early neonatal jaundice. Newborns with a negative urine culture and with a positive urine culture were defined as group I and group II, respectively, and the 2 groups were compared with each other. Results: The incidence of UTI in whole of the study group was 16.7%. Serum total and direct bilirubin levels were statistically significantly higher in group II when compared with group I (P = .005 and P = .001, respectively). Decrease in serum total bilirubin level at the 24th hour of phototherapy was statistically significantly higher in group I compared with group II (P = .022). Conclusions: Urinary tract infection should be investigated in the etiologic evaluation of newborns with significant hyperbilirubinemia. The possibility of UTI should be considered in jaundiced newborns who do not respond to phototherapy well or have a prolonged duration of phototherapy treatment. PMID:28469520

  19. Urinary tract infections in women: etiology and treatment options

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    Minardi D

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Daniele Minardi, Gianluca d'Anzeo, Daniele Cantoro, Alessandro Conti, Giovanni MuzzonigroDepartment of Clinical and Specialist Sciences, Urology, Polytechnic University of the Marche Medical School and United Hospitals, Ancona, ItalyAbstract: Urinary tract infections (UTI are common among the female population. It has been calculated that about one-third of adult women have experienced an episode of symptomatic cystitis at least once. It is also common for these episodes to recur. If predisposing factors are not identified and removed, UTI can lead to more serious consequences, in particular kidney damage and renal failure. The aim of this review was to analyze the factors more commonly correlated with UTI in women, and to see what possible solutions are currently used in general practice and specialized areas, as well as those still under investigation. A good understanding of the possible pathogenic factors contributing to the development of UTI and its recurrence will help the general practitioner to interview the patient, search for causes that would otherwise remain undiscovered, and to identify the correct therapeutic strategy.Keywords: urinary tract infection, women, etiology, diagnosis, treatment

  20. Procalcitonin guided antibiotic therapy and hospitalization in patients with lower respiratory tract infections: a prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial

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    Henzen Christoph

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Lower respiratory tract infections like acute bronchitis, exacerbated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and community-acquired pneumonia are often unnecessarily treated with antibiotics, mainly because of physicians' difficulties to distinguish viral from bacterial cause and to estimate disease-severity. The goal of this trial is to compare medical outcomes, use of antibiotics and hospital resources in a strategy based on enforced evidence-based guidelines versus procalcitonin guided antibiotic therapy in patients with lower respiratory tract infections. Methods and design: We describe a prospective randomized controlled non-inferiority trial with an open intervention. We aim to randomize over a fixed recruitment period of 18 months a minimal number of 1002 patients from 6 hospitals in Switzerland. Patients must be >18 years of age with a lower respiratory tract infections Discussion: Use of and prolonged exposure to antibiotics in lower respiratory tract infections is high. The proposed trial investigates whether procalcitonin-guidance may safely reduce antibiotic consumption along with reductions in hospitalization costs and antibiotic resistance. It will additionally generate insights for improved prognostic assessment of patients with lower respiratory tract infections. Trial registration: ISRCTN95122877

  1. Evaluation of maternal urinary tract infection as a potential risk factor for neonatal urinary tract infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrin Khalesi; Nastaran Khosravi; Ali Jalali; Leila Amini

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the relationship between maternal UTI during pregnancy and neonatal UTI. Materials and methods This cross-sectional study included eighty neonates referred to Ali-e-Asghar Hospital, Tehran, Iran, in 2011. The participants were divided into the study (with diagnosis of UTI; n = 40) and the control (without this type of infection; n = 40) groups. The mothers were asked about the history of UTI during pregnancy, and if the response was positive, the trimester in which UTI had...

  2. Probiotic therapy: immunomodulating approach toward urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amdekar, Sarika; Singh, Vinod; Singh, Desh Deepak

    2011-11-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an extremely common health problem, with an unpredictable history. Members of enterobacteriaceae family such as Escherichia coli, which are normal inhabitants of human intestines, account for the majority of these uncomplicated infections. Rarely, UTI can result from virus or fungus. There is a close correlation between loss of the normal genital microbiota, particularly Lactobacillus species, and an increased incidence of genital and bladder infections. Although antimicrobial agents are generally effective in eradicating these infections, there is a high incidence of recurrence. Use of Lactobacillus species to combat UTI is now giving modern concept of modern genitourinary vaccine with the facts that it not only maintains low pH of the genital area, produces hydrogen peroxide and hinders the growth of E. coli but also activates Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2), which produces interleukin-10 (IL-10) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88). E. coli activates TLR4, which is responsible for the activation of IL-12, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). This process downregulates inflammatory reactions caused due to pathogens. Current review covers the probiotics-based TLR therapy and shed some knowledge for the use of Lactobacillus species as probiotics.

  3. Resistance of catheter-associated urinary tract infections to antibacterials

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    Verhaz Antonija

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI are the most common nosocomial infections. The worldwide data show the increasing resistance to conventional antibiotics among urinary tract pathogens. Aim. To evaluate the adequacy of initial antimicrobial therapy in relation to the antimicrobial resistance of pathogens responsible for CAUTI in Clinical Center of Banja Luka. Methods. A retrospective study on major causes of CAUTI, antibiotic resistance and treatment principles was conducted at four departments of the Clinical Center of Banja Luka from January 1st, 2000 to April 1st, 2003. Results. The results showed that 265 patients had developed CAUTI. The seven most commonly isolated microorganisms were, in descending order: E. coli (31.0%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (13.8%, Proteus mirabilis (12.9%, Gr. Klebsiella-Enterobacter (12.3%, Enterococcus spp. (5.2%, Pseudomonas spp. (4.3%, Serratia spp. (4.0%. The most common pathogens were highly resistant to ampicillin (64−100%, gentamycin (63−100%, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (68−100%, while some bacterias, like Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia spp. showed rates of ciprofloxacin resistance as high as 42.8% and 72.7%, respectively. In 55.5% of the cases, the initial antibiotic therapy was inadequate, and was corrected latter on. There were no standard therapeutic protocols for this type of nosocomial infections. Conclusion. The results of this study emphasized an urgency of the prevention and introduction of clinical protocols for better management of CAUTI. Treatment principles should better correspond to the antibiotic sensitivity of uropathogens.

  4. Urinary Tract Infection Antibiotic Trial Study Design: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basmaci, Romain; Vazouras, Konstantinos; Bielicki, Julia; Folgori, Laura; Hsia, Yingfen; Zaoutis, Theoklis; Sharland, Mike

    2017-12-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) represent common bacterial infections in children. No guidance on the conduct of pediatric febrile UTI clinical trials (CTs) exist. To assess the criteria used for patient selection and the efficacy end points in febrile pediatric UTI CTs. Medline, Embase, Cochrane central databases, and clinicaltrials.gov were searched between January 1, 1990, and November 24, 2016. We combined Medical Subject Headings terms and free-text terms for "urinary tract infections" and "therapeutics" and "clinical trials" in children (0-18 years), identifying 3086 articles. Two independent reviewers assessed study quality and performed data extraction. We included 40 CTs in which a total of 4381 cases of pediatric UTIs were investigated. Positive urine culture results and fever were the most common inclusion criteria (93% and 78%, respectively). Urine sampling method, pyuria, and colony thresholds were highly variable. Clinical and microbiological end points were assessed in 88% and 93% of the studies, respectively. Timing for end point assessment was highly variable, and only 3 studies (17%) out of the 18 performed after the Food and Drug Administration 1998 guidance publication assessed primary and secondary end points consistently with this guidance. Our limitations included a mixed population of healthy children and children with an underlying condition. In 6 trials, researchers studied a subgroup of patients with afebrile UTI. We observed a wide variability in the microbiological inclusion criteria and the timing for end point assessment. The available guidance for adults appear not to be used by pediatricians and do not seem applicable to the childhood UTI. A harmonized design for pediatric UTIs CT is necessary. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Factors associated with urinary tract infections among HIV-1 infected patients.

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    Agata Skrzat-Klapaczyńska

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections remain an important yet underinvestigated clinical problem among HIV infected patients. Here we analyze factors associated with its occurrence and the spectrum of bacterial pathogens identified in the group of patients followed at the HIV Out-Patient Clinic in Warsaw.Clinic database collected all medical information on patients routinely followed since 1994 to 2015. All patients with available urine culture were included into analyses, only the first culture was included. In statistical analyses logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with positive culture.In total 608 patients had urine culture performed, 176 (28.9% were females and 432 (71,1% were males, 378 (62.2% registered in care before/in 2007, 258 (42.4% infected through homosexual contact. Median baseline lymphocyte CD4+ count was 385 (IQR:204-565 cells/μl and median nadir lymphocyte CD4+ count 197 (86-306 cells/μl. One hundred and eighteen patients were actively infected with HCV, as defined by positive real-time PCR. In total 141 (23.2% patients had positive urine culture, the most common bacterial pathogen was E.coli (58.2% and E. faecalis (12.8%. Patients with urinary tract infection were more likely to be female (51.8% vs. 22.1%, p<0.0001, infected through other than homosexual mode (80.1% vs. 50.7%, p<0.0001, with lower nadir CD4 count (139 vs. 221 cells/μl, p<0.0001 and lower baseline HIV RNA (4.02 vs. 4.35 log copies/ml, p = 0.01 and less likely to be HCV RNA positive (26.9% vs. 49.2%, p = 0.01. In multivariate regression model being registered before/in 2007 (OR = 2.10; [95%CI: 1.24-3.56], infected through other than homosexual mode (2.05;[1.18-3.56] and female gender (2.14;[1.33-3.44] were increasing and higher nadir CD4+ count decreasing (0.92;[0.85-0.99] the odds of urinary tract infection.We have identified that almost one third of patients had urinary tract infections with non-typical bacterial pathogens. Population

  6. Development of a Vaccine against Escherichia coli Urinary Tract Infections

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    Harry L. T. Mobley

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is the second most common infection in humans after those involving the respiratory tract. This results not only in huge annual economic costs, but in decreased workforce productivity and high patient morbidity. Most infections are caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC. Antibiotic treatment is generally effective for eradication of the infecting strain; however, documentation of increasing antibiotic resistance, allergic reaction to certain pharmaceuticals, alteration of normal gut flora, and failure to prevent recurrent infections represent significant barriers to treatment. As a result, approaches to prevent UTI such as vaccination represent a gap that must be addressed. Our laboratory has made progress toward development of a preventive vaccine against UPEC. The long-term research goal is to prevent UTIs in women with recurrent UTIs. Our objective has been to identify the optimal combination of protective antigens for inclusion in an effective UTI vaccine, optimal adjuvant, optimal dose, and optimal route of delivery. We hypothesized that a multi-subunit vaccine elicits antibody that protects against experimental challenge with UPEC strains. We have systematically identified four antigens that can individually protect experimentally infected mice from colonization of the bladder and/or kidneys by UPEC when administered intranasally with cholera toxin (CT as an adjuvant. To advance the vaccine for utility in humans, we will group the individual antigens, all associated with iron acquisition (IreA, Hma, IutA, FyuA, into an effective combination to establish a multi-subunit vaccine. We demonstrated for all four vaccine antigens that antigen-specific serum IgG represents a strong correlate of protection in vaccinated mice. High antibody titers correlate with low colony forming units (CFUs of UPEC following transurethral challenge of vaccinated mice. However, the contribution of cell-mediated immunity cannot

  7. Pharmacological properties of oral antibiotics for the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Andrea; Rosi, Elia

    2017-12-01

    The therapeutic management of uncomplicated bacterial urinary tract infections (UTIs) is based on short-term courses of oral antibiotics. The preferred drugs are nitrofurantoin trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, fosfomycin trometamol, fluoroquinolones and β-lactam agents. The choice of agent for treating uncomplicated UTIs should be based on the pharmacokinetic characteristics of the molecule so that clinical benefit is optimized and the risk of antibacterial resistance is minimized. This article discusses the general pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) aspects of antimicrobial chemotherapy, the PK/PD characteristics of oral antimicrobial agents for the treatment of uncomplicated UTIs and the pharmacological and therapeutic strategies for limiting or preventing bacterial resistance.

  8. Etiology of urinary tract infection in scholar children

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    Barroso Jr. Ubirajara

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To prospectively assess the prevalence of vesicourethral dysfunction in children over 3 years old, comparing it with the occurrence rate for other potential factors that cause urinary infection in this age range. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 36 girls and 9 boys were assessed, with mean age of 6.4 years, ranging from 3 to 13.9 years. These children were prospectively assessed regarding the presence of symptoms of lower urinary tract dysfunction. These data were compared with the retrospective assessment of other potential risk factors for urinary infection. Ultrasonography was performed in 28 children and voiding cystourethrogram was performed in 26 patients. RESULTS: Vesicourethral dysfunction was diagnosed in 39 (87% of the 45 children with urinary infection. Among these 39 patients, all had voiding urgency, 30 (77% had urinary incontinence, 12 (31% pollakiuria and 3 (8% presented infrequent voiding. Vaginal discharge was evidenced in 8 (22% girls and phimosis in 2 (22% boys. Obstipation was diagnosed in 10 (22% cases. Significant post-voiding residue was detected in 4 (13% of the 28 cases assessed. Vesicoureteral reflux was evidenced in 5 (19% of the 26 patients who underwent voiding cystourethrogram. In only 2 (4% cases there was not an apparent cause for the infection. CONCLUSION: Vesicourethral dysfunction is a major cause of urinary infection in children with ages above 3 years old. In cases where voiding dysfunction in not present, other predisposing factors must be assessed. However, only 4% of the patients did not present an apparent urologic cause for the infection.

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis infection of the male genital tract: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackern-Oberti, Juan Pablo; Motrich, Rubén Darío; Breser, María Laura; Sánchez, Leonardo Rodolfo; Cuffini, Cecilia; Rivero, Virginia Elena

    2013-11-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most prevalent cause of sexually transmitted diseases. Although the prevalence of chlamydial infection is similar in men and women, current research and screening are still focused on women, who develop the most severe complications, leaving the study of male genital tract (MGT) infection underrated. Herein, we reviewed the literature on genital CT infection with special focus on the MGT. Data indicate that CT certainly infects different parts of the MGT such as the urethra, seminal vesicles, prostate, epididymis and testis. However, whether or not CT infection has detrimental effects on male fertility is still controversial. The most important features of CT infection are its chronic nature and the presence of a mild inflammation that remains subclinical in most individuals. Chlamydia antigens and pathogen recognition receptors (PRR), expressed on epithelial cells and immune cells from the MGT, have been studied in the last years. Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression has been observed in the testis, epididymis, prostate and vas deferens. It has been demonstrated that recognition of chlamydial antigens is associated with TLR2, TLR4, and possibly, other PRRs. CT recognition by PRRs induces a local production of cytokines/chemokines, which, in turn, provoke chronic inflammation that might evolve in the onset of an autoimmune process in genetically susceptible individuals. Understanding local immune response along the MGT, as well as the crosstalk between resident leukocytes, epithelial, and stromal cells, would be crucial in inducing a protective immunity, thus adding to the design of new therapeutic approaches to a Chlamydia vaccine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of maternal urinary tract infection as a potential risk factor for neonatal urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalesi, Nasrin; Khosravi, Nastaran; Jalali, Ali; Amini, Leila

    2014-06-01

    To assess the relationship between maternal UTI during pregnancy and neonatal UTI. This cross-sectional study included eighty neonates referred to Ali-e-Asghar Hospital, Tehran, Iran, in 2011. The participants were divided into the study (with diagnosis of UTI; n = 40) and the control (without this type of infection; n = 40) groups. The mothers were asked about the history of UTI during pregnancy, and if the response was positive, the trimester in which UTI had occurred. Urinalysis and urine culture were carried out for all neonates. Overall, 14.9% of neonates had mothers with a positive history of UTI during their pregnancy (4.4%, 6.1%, and 4.4% during the 1(st), 2(nd), and 3(rd) trimesters, respectively). A significant relationship was detected between the occurrence of UTI in neonates and maternal UTI, so that the overall prevalence of UTI among neonates of affected mothers was significantly higher than that observed among non-infected mothers (30.0% versus 6.8%; p = 0.001). Maternal UTI resulted in 5.9-fold increased risk of neonatal UTI. In UTI group, the most common bacterial etiologies of UTI were Escherichia coli (65.9%), followed by Klebsiella (14.6%) and Staphylococci (9.8%). Our findings confirmed the association between the history of UTI in mother and occurrence of UTI in neonate, emphasizing to pay more attention for assessing and managing UTI in neonates in order to reduce the related complications.

  11. Evaluation of maternal urinary tract infection as a potential risk factor for neonatal urinary tract infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Khalesi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To assess the relationship between maternal UTI during pregnancy and neonatal UTI.This cross-sectional study included eighty neonates referred to Ali-e-Asghar Hospital, Tehran, Iran, in 2011. The participants were divided into the study (with diagnosis of UTI; n = 40 and the control (without this type of infection; n = 40 groups. The mothers were asked about the history of UTI during pregnancy, and if the response was positive, the trimester in which UTI had occurred. Urinalysis and urine culture were carried out for all neonates.Overall, 14.9% of neonates had mothers with a positive history of UTI during their pregnancy (4.4%, 6.1%, and 4.4% during the 1(st, 2(nd, and 3(rd trimesters, respectively. A significant relationship was detected between the occurrence of UTI in neonates and maternal UTI, so that the overall prevalence of UTI among neonates of affected mothers was significantly higher than that observed among non-infected mothers (30.0% versus 6.8%; p = 0.001. Maternal UTI resulted in 5.9-fold increased risk of neonatal UTI. In UTI group, the most common bacterial etiologies of UTI were Escherichia coli (65.9%, followed by Klebsiella (14.6% and Staphylococci (9.8%.Our findings confirmed the association between the history of UTI in mother and occurrence of UTI in neonate, emphasizing to pay more attention for assessing and managing UTI in neonates in order to reduce the related complications.

  12. Urinary tract infections in infants and children: Diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joan L; Finlay, Jane C; Lang, Mia Eileen; Bortolussi, Robert

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have resulted in major changes in the management of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in children. The present statement focuses on the diagnosis and management of infants and children >2 months of age with an acute UTI and no known underlying urinary tract pathology or risk factors for a neurogenic bladder. UTI should be ruled out in preverbal children with unexplained fever and in older children with symptoms suggestive of UTI (dysuria, urinary frequency, hematuria, abdominal pain, back pain or new daytime incontinence). A midstream urine sample should be collected for urinalysis and culture in toilet-trained children; others should have urine collected by catheter or by suprapubic aspirate. UTI is unlikely if the urinalysis is completely normal. A bagged urine sample may be used for urinalysis but should not be used for urine culture. Antibiotic treatment for seven to 10 days is recommended for febrile UTI. Oral antibiotics may be offered as initial treatment when the child is not seriously ill and is likely to receive and tolerate every dose. Children UTI with a renal/bladder ultrasound to identify any significant renal abnormalities. A voiding cystourethrogram is not required for children with a first UTI unless the renal/bladder ultrasound reveals findings suggestive of vesicoureteral reflux, selected renal anomalies or obstructive uropathy.

  13. Modern imaging technology for childhood urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccabona, M.; Fotter, R.

    2005-01-01

    Imaging in childhood urinary tract infection (UTI) is still a matter of debate. There are established guidelines, however new knowledge and the changed medical environment have enhanced this ongoing discussion. These new insights have impacted therapy and consequently the imaging algorithm. Modern imaging methods - particularly MRI and modern ultrasound (US) - are less invasive with a lower radiation burden. Additionally, it has been shown that VUR is a poor predictor for renal scarring out, which affects long-term results. Furthermore, the majority of UT malformations is depicted by prenatal US. The most crucial aspect of improving long-term outcome appears to be the early and reliable depiction of UTI and effective treatment to prevent renal scarring. This review tries to present this new knowledge and to discuss the potential of modern imaging. Recent changes in imaging algorithms are highlighted and an outcome-oriented algorithm that addresses these recent developments is proposed, without lightly abandoning established standards. It consists of an orienting US and - for depiction of renal involvement - amplitude coded color Doppler sonography or renal static scintigraphy (considered the gold standard, particularly for evaluating scars); in future MRI may play a role. Based on this concept, only patients with renal damage as well as patients with complex urinary tract malformations or intractable recurrent UTI may have to undergo VCUG. (orig.) [de

  14. [Treatment of fungal infections of upper respiratory tract and ear].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnatowski, Piotr; Kurnatowska, Agnieszka K

    2007-01-01

    Fungi, in comparison with other pathogenic factors, have high pathogenicity. The number of fungal species which are able to infect people is over 500. The upper respiratory tract and ear have permanent contact with external environment which makes their ontocenoses open to continuous exchange of microorganisms of which they consist. In etiology of inflammatory processes 21 species which belonging to 3 genera (Zygomycota, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota) of fungi play important role. Administration of antifungal drugs can be: prophylactic, empiric preemptive and therapeutic. Physicians may prescribe antibiotics (mainly pollens: amphotericin B, natamycin and nystatin) and chemiotherapeutics (mainly azoles and fluorpirymidins, pigments, chlorhexidine and chlorquinaldol). In ENT practice topical and systemic drugs can be administrated. Topical lozenges include amphotericin B, clotrimazole, chlorhexidine or chlorquinaldol and oral gels: nystatin and miconazole. Some of drugs are in the form of suspension/solution, which can be used for inhalation, into the sinus, for swabbing or for lavage: amphotericin B, natamycin, nystatin, clotrimazol, flucytosine, miconazole, fluconazole, vorykonazole, caspofungin. It should be underlined that only a few of dugs can be absorbed from the digestive tract: flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, vorykonazole.

  15. Urinary tract infections in general practice patients: diagnostic tests versus bacteriological culture.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nys, S.; Merode, T. van; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Stobberingh, E.E.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common bacterial infections encountered in general practice. For the optimal treatment the general practitioner (GP) should rely on the results of diagnostic tests and recent antimicrobial susceptibility of uropathogens. Patients and methods: In total

  16. Anti-inflammatory therapy for urinary tract infection in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Vyalkova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to substantiate the importance of an etiological approach to diagnosing urinary tract infection in children in terms of the species and biological properties of an infectious agent and to evaluate the efficiency of anti-inflammatory therapy. The study included 116 patients aged 3-15 years with chronic pyelonephritis (Group 1 and isolated bacteriuria (Group 2. After 10-14-day antibiotic therapy, Group 1 patients were allocated to two subgroups: Subgroup la («=30 took furamag 5 mg/kg/day; Subgroup lb («=30 received furamag at the same dose in combination with canephron. The treatment cycle lasted 10-14 days. Subgroup 2a («=26 children had furamag 5 mgДg/day and Subgroup 2b (« =30 took furamag in combination with canephron. The duration of treatment was 14 days. The investigators established the high efficiency of therapy with furamag for renal infection in the children with the active and decrement phases and that of the drug of choice for its monotherapy of isolated highly virulent bacteriuria. Therapeutic efficiency was proven to be related to the species and biological characteristics of an infectious agent. Anti-inflammatory therapy for pyelonephritis in terms of the species of pathogenic bacteria was ascertained to improve the efficiency of treatment. A rationale was provided for the individual choice of antibiotics, followed by the use of furamag, eubiotics, and drugs aimed at inhibiting virulence factors and persistence of the pathogen to sanitize the primary focus of infection.

  17. Considering Respiratory Tract Infections and Antimicrobial Sensitivity: An Exploratory Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin, R.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to observe the sensitivity and resistance of status of antibiotics for respiratory tract infection (RTI. Throat swab culture and sensitivity report of 383 patients revealed sensitivity profiles were observed with amoxycillin (7.9%, penicillin (33.7%, ampicillin (36.6%, co-trimoxazole (46.5%, azithromycin (53.5%, erythromycin (57.4%, cephalexin (69.3%, gentamycin (78.2%, ciprofloxacin (80.2%, cephradine (81.2%, ceftazidime (93.1%, ceftriaxone (93.1%. Sensitivity to cefuroxime was reported 93.1% cases. Resistance was found with amoxycillin (90.1%, ampicillin (64.1%, penicillin (61.4%, co-trimoxazole (43.6%, erythromycin (39.6%, and azithromycin (34.7%. Cefuroxime demonstrates high level of sensitivity than other antibiotics and supports its consideration with patients with upper RTI.

  18. Do pollution and climate influence respiratory tract infections in children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Duarte Passos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To review if pollution and climate changes can influence respiratory tract infections in children. Data source: articles published on the subject in PubMed, SciELO, Bireme, EBSCO and UpTodate were reviewed. The following inclusion criteria were considered: scientific papers between 2002 and 2012, study design, the pediatric population, reference documents such as the CETESB and World Health Organization Summary of the data: We analyzed research that correlated respiratory viruses and climate and/or pollution changes. Respiratory syncytial virus has been the virus related most to changes in climate and humidity. Other "old and new" respiratory viruses such as Human Bocavirus, Metapneumovirus, Parechovirus and Parainfuenza would need to be investigated owing to their clinical importance. Although much has been studied with regard to the relationship between climate change and public health, specific studies about its influence on children's health remain scarce.

  19. Is Escherichia coli urinary tract infection a zoonosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, L.; Garneau, P.; Bruant, G.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that the Escherichia coli causing urinary tract infection (UTI) may come from meat and animals. The purpose was to investigate if a clonal link existed between E. coli from animals, meat and UTI patients. Twenty-two geographically and temporally matched B2 E. coli...... from UTI patients, community-dwelling humans, broiler chicken meat, pork, and broiler chicken, previously identified to exhibit eight virulence genotypes by microarraydetection of approximately 300 genes, were investigated for clonal relatedness by PFGE. Nine isolates were selected and tested...... for in vivo virulence in the mouse model of ascending UTI. UTI and community-dwelling human strains were closely clonally related to meat strains. Several human derived strains were also clonally interrelated. All nine isolates regardless of origin were virulent in the UTI model with positive urine, bladder...

  20. Community acquired urinary tract infection: etiology and bacterial susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Neto José Anastácio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Urinary tract infections (UTI are one of the most common infectious diseases diagnosed. UTI account for a large proportion of antibacterial drug consumption and have large socio-economic impacts. Since the majority of the treatments begins or is done completely empirically, the knowledge of the organisms, their epidemiological characteristics and their antibacterial susceptibility that may vary with time is mandatory. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of uropathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility of the community acquired UTI diagnosed in our institution and to provide a national data. METHODS: We analyzed retrospectively the results of urine cultures of 402 patients that had community acquired urinary tract infection in the year of 2003. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients in this study was 45.34 ± 23.56 (SD years. There were 242 (60.2% females and 160 (39.8% males. The most commonly isolated organism was Escherichia coli (58%. Klebsiella sp. (8.4% and Enterococcus sp.(7.9% were reported as the next most common organisms. Of all bacteria isolated from community acquired UTI, only 37% were sensitive to ampicillin, 51% to cefalothin and 52% to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The highest levels of susceptibility were to imipenem (96%, ceftriaxone (90%, amikacin (90%, gentamicin (88%, levofloxacin (86%, ciprofloxacin (73%, nitrofurantoin (77% and norfloxacin (75%. CONCLUSION: Gram-negative agents are the most common cause of UTI. Fluoroquinolones remains the choice among the orally administered antibiotics, followed by nitrofurantoin, second and third generation cephalosporins. For severe disease that require parenteral antibiotics the choice should be aminoglycosides, third generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones or imipenem, which were the most effective.

  1. Urinary tract infections in extended care facilities: preventive management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regal, Randolph E; Pham, Co Q D; Bostwick, Thomas R

    2006-05-01

    To provide health care professionals with an overview of interventions that may be done to reduce the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in elderly patients, especially those residing in extended care facilities. A Medline search of the English literature was performed from 1980 to January 2006 to find literature relevant to urinary tract prophylaxis. Further references were hand-searched from relevant sources. When assessing the effectiveness of various clinical interventions for reducing the incidence of UTIs in the elderly, preference was given to more recent, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized studies, but studies of less robust design also were included in the discussions when the former were lacking. Where possible, recent publications were favored over older studies. References were all reviewed by the authors and chosen to present key citations. Data selection was prioritized to address specific subtopics. Though still frequent in occurrence and quite costly in terms of morbidity, mortality, and cost to the health care system, numerous measures may be taken to ameliorate the incidence of UTIs in elderly, institutionalized residents. First and foremost, establishing and adhering to good infection-control practices by health care givers and minimizing the use of indwelling catheters are essential. Adequate staffing and training are germane to this effort. Reasonably well-designed clinical studies also give credence to the use of topical estrogens and lactobacillus "probiotics" for female subgroups and cranberry juice for a wider array of patients. Vitamin C is of no proven benefit. With regard to antibiotics, with the relative paucity of data available for this patient population, concerns for resistance proliferation must be balanced against perceived gains in UTI reduction.

  2. Asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract infections in women : focus on diabetes mellitus and pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneeberger, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    There is a shortage of evidence for clinical guidelines on diagnosis and management of both asymptomatic bacteriuria (the presence of bacteria in urine without symptoms of an infection) and urinary tract infections in women with diabetes and pregnant women. Asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract

  3. CLINICAL EFFICACY OF IBUPROFEN IN THERAPY FOR VIRAL UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS IN INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.O. Skugarevskaya

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of use of ibuprofen in cases of viral upper respiratory tract infections (Vuri in children of early childhood has proved its' safety and efficacy. This medical agent has not only terminate fever but also diminished some other symptoms of Vuri.Key words: ibuprofen, viral upper respiratory tract infections, children.

  4. Coxsackievirus A21, Enterovirus 68, and Acute Respiratory Tract Infection, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Zichun; Gonzalez, Richard; Wang, Zhong; Ren, Lili; Xiao, Yan; Li, Jianguo; Li, Yongjun; Vernet, Guy; Paranhos-Baccalà, Gláucia; Jin, Qi; Wang, Jianwei

    2012-01-01

    During August 2006–April 2010, in Beijing, China, 2 rare human enterovirus serotypes, coxsackievirus A21 and enterovirus 68, were detected most frequently in human enterovirus–positive adults with acute respiratory tract infections. Thus, during some years, these 2 viruses cause a substantial proportion of enterovirus-associated adult acute respiratory tract infections.

  5. Urinary tract infections in patients with diabetes mellitus: epidemiology, pathogenesis and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, Suzanne E.

    2008-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have a higher prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) compared with patients without DM. They also more often have bacteraemia, with the urinary tract as the most common focus for these infections, as well as

  6. Incidence and risk factors for pin tract infection in external fixation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidence and risk factors for pin tract infection in external fixation of fractures ... for pin tract infection, there were 93 pins scored grade 1, 32 pins grade 2, 15 ... The incidence increased from 20.5% in closed fractures to 75.9% in open fractures.

  7. Plasma soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor in children with urinary tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittenhagen, Per; Andersen, Jesper Brandt; Hansen, Anita

    2011-01-01

    In this prospective study we investigated the role of plasma levels of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in children with urinary tract infection.......In this prospective study we investigated the role of plasma levels of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in children with urinary tract infection....

  8. Preventive and therapeutic administration of an indigenous Lactobacillus sp. strain against Proteus mirabilis ascending urinary tract infection in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Martín; Scavone, Paola; Zunino, Pablo

    2005-07-01

    Probiotics are increasingly being considered as non-pharmaceutical and safe potential alternatives for the treatment and prevention of a variety of pathologies including urinary tract infections. These are the most common infections in medical practice and are frequently treated with antibiotics, which have generated an intense selective pressure over bacterial populations. Proteus mirabilis is a common cause of urinary tract infections in catheterised patients and people with abnormalities of the urinary tract. In this work we isolated, identified and characterised an indigenous Lactobacillus murinus strain (LbO2) from the vaginal tract of a female mouse. In vitro characterisation of LbO2 included acid and bile salts tolerance, growth in urine, adherence to uroepithelial cells and in vitro antimicrobial activity. The selected strain showed interesting properties, suitable for its use as a probiotic. The ability of LbO2 to prevent and even treat ascending P. mirabilis urinary tract infection was assessed using an experimental model in the mouse. Kidney and bladder P. mirabilis counts were significantly lower in mice preventively treated with the probiotic than in non-treated mice. When LbO2 was used for therapeutic treatment, bladder counts of treated mice were significantly lower although no significant differences were detected in P. mirabilis kidney colonisation of treated and non-treated animals. These results are encouraging and prompt further research related to probiotic strains and the basis of their effects for their use in human and animal health.

  9. Urinary tract infection and adverse outcome of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimetry, Shaira R; El-Tokhy, Hanan M; Abdo, Nagla M; Ebrahim, Moustafa A; Eissa, Mohammed

    2007-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) during pregnancy are among the commonest health problems world wide, specially in developing countries, including Egypt. It has several adverse outcomes not only on the mother but also on the fetus as well.. The aim of this study is to determine the incidence of UTIs during pregnancy, study the main risk factors associated with such infections and find the impact of these infections on some pregnancy outcomes namely the gestational age and birth weight. A follow-up study on 249 pregnant women attending the ante natal care clinic at Zagazig university hospital. They were recruited over a period from 1st of September to 30th of or November, 2005. The outcome could be recorded for 201 of them. Data were collected through a pretested questionnaire, repeated urine analyses and recording of outcome of pregnancy. The study revealed that the incidence of UTIs during pregnancy was 31.3%. The commonest organisms were Klebsiella and E-coli. Several socio-demographic characteristics were found significantly associated with UTIs, age being 30 years and more, illiterates and low educational level, low socio-economic level and those with unsatisfactory personal hygiene and those using underwear clothes other than cotton. Significant associations with UTIs were also found in multigravidae 4th and more, those having more than one child and those who previously suffered UTIs. The only predicting variable with UTIs was low socio-economic level. The study revealed that the probability of delivering premature infants and low birth weights was significantly higher among those who experienced UTIs during pregnancy. Multivariate analysis revealed that UTI was one of the main contributors to pre-mature deliveries. Urinary tract infections with pregnancy still constitute a big problem with high incidence. It has a great impact on pregnancy outcome mainly pre-mature labor. So, the study recommends health education about personal hygiene, repeated urine

  10. Maternal urinary tract infection as a risk factor for neonatal urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emamghorashi, Fatemeh; Mahmoodi, Nasrin; Tagarod, Zahra; Heydari, Seyed Taghi

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of maternal UTI during pregnancy with neonatal UTI. One hundred and fourteen neonates admitted to hospital were enrolled in the present study, of whom 40 were admitted for management of UTI and 74 for management of jaundice. Urinalysis and urine culture were carried out for all of the neonates. Data regarding gestational age, history of UTI in the mother during pregnancy, and urinary symptoms of neonates were collected. The mean gestational age of the neonates was 38.4 ± 1.4 weeks (range, 30 to 40 weeks) and their mean age at admission was 6.2 ± 3.8 days old (range, 1 to 25 days). The mean gestational age and birth weight of the two groups with and without UTI were 38.38 ± 1.32 weeks versus 38.41 ± 1.62 weeks and 2930.43 ± 492.15 g versus 2930 ± 447.33 g, respectively. No abnormal findings were detected on physical examinations, and none of the neonate had abnormal renal ultrasonography findings. There was a significant relationship between maternal prenatal UTI and neonatal infection; 30.0% of the neonates with UTI versus 6.8% of those without UTI had mothers with a history of UTI (odds ratio, 5.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.9 to 18.3; P = .001). Our study showed an association between maternal and neonatal UTI. This indicates a possible benefit of evaluation of neonates of mothers who had UTI during pregnancy.

  11. THE DIGESTIVE TRACT DEVELOPMENT OF THE TIGER GROUPER Epinephelus fuscoguttatus LARVAE TREATED WITH THYROXINE HORMONE

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Muzaki; Ketut Mahardika; Indah Mastuti; Wawan Andriyanto; Yasmina Nirmala Asih; Ida Komang Wardana

    2012-01-01

    Thyroxin administration in tiger grouper larval rearing was conducted to determine its effect on development of digestive tract of the larvae. Newly hatched larvae were treated with 0 mg/L (control), 0.1 mg/L, and 0.2 mg/L of thyroxin for 2 hours in a 30 L tank before were transferred into a 1 m3 rearing tank. Samples were collected daily until 10 DAH and every 3 days until 40 DAH. Development of digestive tract was observed using histological method. For all treatments, the digestive tract w...

  12. Characterisation of antibiotic prescriptions for acute respiratory tract infections in Danish general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune; Hansen, Malene Plejdrup; Saust, Laura Trolle

    2017-01-01

    Inappropriate use of antibiotics is contributing to the increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance. Several Danish guidelines on antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections in general practice have been issued to promote rational prescribing of antibiotics, however it is unclear...... if these recommendations are followed. We aimed to characterise the pattern of antibiotic prescriptions for patients diagnosed with acute respiratory tract infections, by means of electronic prescriptions, labeled with clinical indications, from Danish general practice. Acute respiratory tract infections accounted for 456...... prescription patterns for acute respiratory tract infections by data linkage of clinical indications. The findings confirm that penicillin V is the most commonly prescribed antibiotic agent for treatment of patients with an acute respiratory tract infection in Danish general practice. However, second...

  13. Probiotics for preventing urinary tract infections in adults and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenger, Erin M; Tejani, Aaron M; Loewen, Peter S

    2015-12-23

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common bacterial infection that can lead to significant morbidity including stricture, abscess formation, fistula, bacteraemia, sepsis, pyelonephritis and kidney dysfunction. Mortality rates are reported to be as high as 1% in men and 3% in women due to development of pyelonephritis. Because probiotic therapy is readily available without a prescription, a review of their efficacy in the prevention of UTI may aid consumers in making informed decisions about potential prophylactic therapy. Institutions and caregivers also need evidence-based synopses of current evidence to make informed patient care decisions. Compared to placebo or no therapy, did probiotics (any formulation) provide a therapeutic advantage in terms of morbidity and mortality, when used to prevent UTI in susceptible patient populations?Compared to other prophylactic interventions, including drug and non-drug measures (e.g. continuous antibiotic prophylaxis, topical oestrogen, cranberry juice), did probiotics (any formulation) provide a therapeutic advantage in terms of morbidity and mortality when used to prevent UTIs in susceptible patient populations? We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Specialised Register to 21 September 2015 through contact with the Trials' Search Co-ordinator using search terms relevant to this review. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of susceptible patients (e.g. past history of UTI) or healthy people in which any strain, formulation, dose or frequency of probiotic was compared to placebo or active comparators were included. All RCTs and quasi-RCTs (RCTs in which allocation to treatment was obtained by alternation, use of alternate medical records, date of birth or other predictable methods) looking at comparing probiotics to no therapy, placebo, or other prophylactic interventions were included. Summary estimates of effect were obtained using a random-effects model, and results were expressed as risk ratios (RR) and their 95

  14. Percutaneous balloon dilatation of stenotic calyceal diverticular infundibula in patients with recurrent urinary tract infections.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keeling, Aoife N

    2012-02-01

    AIM: Renal calyceal diverticula are usually detected as incidental findings on intravenous pyelograms (IVPs) and rarely manifest any clinical signs or symptoms. However, they can interfere with patient\\'s quality of life in a number of instances causing pain, recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs), abscess, systemic sepsis and calculus formation. The purpose of this study was to review the clinical indications, procedure technique and clinical outcome in all patients referred to Interventional Radiology for the percutaneous management of renal calyceal diverticula. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of all patients treated with percutaneous balloon dilatation of calyceal diverticular infundibula in the Interventional Radiology Department over a 10-year period was performed. Data collected included clinical details, laboratory indices, IVP and CT findings, procedure details and clinical outcome. RESULTS: A total of three patients were treated over the course of the study period. All patients were young females who presented as a result of recurrent urinary tract infections. The calyceal diverticula were diagnosed incidentally on routine IVPs, with CT eloquently confirming the plain film findings in two cases. Technical procedure success was achieved in all cases, avoiding surgical intervention. Clinical follow-up revealed no further UTIs following dilatation. CONCLUSION: Fluoroscopic guided percutaneous balloon dilatation of renal calyceal diverticular infundibula following direct diverticular puncture is a safe and well tolerated method to reduce UTI and potentially avoid future stone formation.

  15. Percutaneous balloon dilatation of stenotic calyceal diverticular infundibula in patients with recurrent urinary tract infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeling, Aoife N. [Department of Academic Radiology, Beaumont Hospital, Beaumont Road, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Wang, Tim T. [Department of Biosurgery and Surgical Technology, Surgical Epidemiology and Quality Unit, Imperial College London, St. Mary' s Hospital, London W2 1NY (United Kingdom); Lee, Michael J., E-mail: mlee@rcsi.ie [Department of Academic Radiology, Beaumont Hospital, Beaumont Road, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2011-02-15

    Aim: Renal calyceal diverticula are usually detected as incidental findings on intravenous pyelograms (IVPs) and rarely manifest any clinical signs or symptoms. However, they can interfere with patient's quality of life in a number of instances causing pain, recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs), abscess, systemic sepsis and calculus formation. The purpose of this study was to review the clinical indications, procedure technique and clinical outcome in all patients referred to Interventional Radiology for the percutaneous management of renal calyceal diverticula. Materials and methods: A retrospective review of all patients treated with percutaneous balloon dilatation of calyceal diverticular infundibula in the Interventional Radiology Department over a 10-year period was performed. Data collected included clinical details, laboratory indices, IVP and CT findings, procedure details and clinical outcome. Results: A total of three patients were treated over the course of the study period. All patients were young females who presented as a result of recurrent urinary tract infections. The calyceal diverticula were diagnosed incidentally on routine IVPs, with CT eloquently confirming the plain film findings in two cases. Technical procedure success was achieved in all cases, avoiding surgical intervention. Clinical follow-up revealed no further UTIs following dilatation. Conclusion: Fluoroscopic guided percutaneous balloon dilatation of renal calyceal diverticular infundibula following direct diverticular puncture is a safe and well tolerated method to reduce UTI and potentially avoid future stone formation.

  16. Percutaneous balloon dilatation of stenotic calyceal diverticular infundibula in patients with recurrent urinary tract infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeling, Aoife N.; Wang, Tim T.; Lee, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Renal calyceal diverticula are usually detected as incidental findings on intravenous pyelograms (IVPs) and rarely manifest any clinical signs or symptoms. However, they can interfere with patient's quality of life in a number of instances causing pain, recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs), abscess, systemic sepsis and calculus formation. The purpose of this study was to review the clinical indications, procedure technique and clinical outcome in all patients referred to Interventional Radiology for the percutaneous management of renal calyceal diverticula. Materials and methods: A retrospective review of all patients treated with percutaneous balloon dilatation of calyceal diverticular infundibula in the Interventional Radiology Department over a 10-year period was performed. Data collected included clinical details, laboratory indices, IVP and CT findings, procedure details and clinical outcome. Results: A total of three patients were treated over the course of the study period. All patients were young females who presented as a result of recurrent urinary tract infections. The calyceal diverticula were diagnosed incidentally on routine IVPs, with CT eloquently confirming the plain film findings in two cases. Technical procedure success was achieved in all cases, avoiding surgical intervention. Clinical follow-up revealed no further UTIs following dilatation. Conclusion: Fluoroscopic guided percutaneous balloon dilatation of renal calyceal diverticular infundibula following direct diverticular puncture is a safe and well tolerated method to reduce UTI and potentially avoid future stone formation.

  17. Pediatric febrile urinary tract infections: the current state of play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hewitt Ian K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Studies undertaken in recent years have improved our understanding regarding the consequences and management of febrile urinary tract infections (UTIs, which are amongst the most common serious bacterial infections in childhood, with renal scarring a frequent outcome. In the past pyelonephritic scarring of the kidney, often associated with vesico-ureteral reflux (reflux nephropathy was considered a frequent cause of chronic renal insufficiency in children. Increasing recognition as a consequence of improved antenatal ultrasound, that the majority of these children had congenital renal hypo-dysplasia, has resulted in a number of studies examining treatment strategies and outcomes following UTI. In recent years there is a developing consensus regarding the need for a less aggressive therapeutic approach with oral as opposed to intravenous antibiotics, and less invasive investigations, cystourethrography in particular, following an uncomplicated first febrile UTI. There does remain a concern that with this newer approach we may be missing a small subgroup of children more prone to develop severe kidney damage as a consequence of pyelonephritis, and in whom some form of intervention may prove beneficial. These concerns have meant that development of a universally accepted diagnostic protocol remains elusive.

  18. Pathogenesis and Laboratory Diagnosis of Childhood Urinary Tract Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jharna Mandal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common infections of childhood. The clinical presentations are mostly non-specific or mild. As any episode of UTI can potentially damage the kidneys, timely diagnosis and treatment are necessary to prevent renal damage. Incidence of UTI varies depending on the age, gender, and race of the child. UTIs in children are commonly caused by bacteria, though viruses, fungi, and parasites are also occasionally involved. The pathogenesis of UTI is complex where several host and pathogen factors influence the course of the disease and its outcome. Urine culture is still considered the gold standard method for the diagnosis of UTI. The means of obtaining urine samples from children for culture involves urethral catheterisation and suprapubic aspiration. The conventional methods of antibiotic susceptibility testing are labour intensive and time exhaustive. With the advent of technology, many automated platforms are available which are rapid, involve less volume of the culture or the sample, and have high accuracy.

  19. Evaluation of Urinary Tract Infections Due to Candida Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeser Karaca Derici

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Although urinary tract infections often caused by bacteria, fungal etiology is detected in a significant number of infections in which Candida is the leading cause. In this study we aimed to evaluate the distribution of Candida strains isolated from urine samples in our hospital. Material and Method: Candida species were identified based on germ tube test, colony morphology on chrom agar Candida (Biomerieux, France and API ID32C AUX (Biomerieux, France commercial kit. Data were analyzed with SPSS 15.0 software for data analysis. Results: During March 2011-March 2014 a total of 109662 urine cultures were evaluated and 24364 samples revealed significant growth. Of the significant growth detected 24364 (22% samples 1096 (4.5% were defined as yeasts. The isolates most frequently detected in this study were C. albicans (50.5%, C. tropicalis (15.9%, C. glabrata (12.7%, C. parapsilosis (7.2%, C. kefyr (5.8%, C. krusei (5.5%. The highest yeast growth was observed in anesthesia intensive care unit. Discussion: In our study, the most frequently isolated species of yeast in the urine was C. albicans. Determination of Candida species and their clinical distributions in hospitals is very important in terms of giving direction to the treatment and measures to be taken.

  20. HIV-1 infection: the role of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavarelli, Mariangela; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2014-06-01

    The intestinal mucosa has an important role as portal of entry during mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 and during sexual transmission. Tissue morphology and integrity, as well as distribution of relevant cell types within the mucosa, spanning from the oropharynx to the rectum, can greatly influence viral infection, replication, presentation, and persistence. The relative contribution to transmission by cell-associated or cell-free virus is still not defined for the different routes of transmission. Although the main target cells for HIV-1 replication are the CD4+ T lymphocytes, which are rapidly depleted both in the periphery and in the mucosal tissues, dendritic cells, Langerhans' cells, and macrophages are players in each of these processes. The predominant cells involved may differ according to the tract of the gut and the route of transmission. The microenvironment of the intestinal mucosa, including mucus, antibodies, or chemo-cytokines, can as well influence infection and replication of the virus: their role is still under investigation. The understanding of these processes may help in developing efficient prevention strategies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Renal inflammatory response to urinary tract infection in rat neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarepour, M; Moradpoor, H; Emamghorashi, F; Owji, S M; Roodaki, M; Khamoushi, M

    2015-09-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections. Maternal UTI is a risk factor for neonatal UTI. The aim of the present study was to determine the severity of renal inflammation in neonate rats born from mothers with induced UTI. Twelve pregnant rats (Sprague-Dawley) were included in study. The rats were divided into two groups (six rats in each group). In the first group, pyelonephritis was induced in the third trimester of pregnancy and the second group was used as a control group. After delivery, the neonates were divided into three groups based on days after birth (the 1 st, 3 rd and 7 th days after birth). In each group, two neonates of each mother were killed and a midline abdominal incision was made and both kidneys were aseptically removed. On the 7 th day, rat mothers were killed and their kidneys were removed. The preparations were evaluated with a bright field microscope for inflammatory response. Renal pathology showed inflammation in all UTI-induced mothers, but only two cases of neonates (2.1%) showed inflammation in the renal parenchyma. There was no relation between the positive renal culture and the pathological changes. We conclude that neonates with UTI born to UTI-induced mothers showed a lesser inflammatory response.

  2. Symptomatic Shigella sonnei urinary tract infection in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baka, S; Spathi, A; Tsouma, I; Kouskouni, E

    2013-01-01

    This report describes a case of urinary tract infection (UTI) due to Shigella sonnei during pregnancy. A 31-year-old pregnant woman was admitted complaining of left-flank tenderness, dysuria, and fever. Following examination, significant laboratory data were collected including increased leukocyte count (10,800/ul with 86% neutrophils) and C-reactive protein (9.6 mg/dl). Urinalysis revealed 30 to 50 leukocytes per high power field while from the quantitative urine culture Shigella sonnei was recovered after 24 h incubation at 37 degrees C. After a two-week course with 750 mg cefuroxime every 8 h, the patient experienced gradual resolution of all symptoms and urinary cultures were negative two weeks and one month, respectively, after completing the therapy. The gestational course was uneventful and the patient delivered a healthy baby girl at term. Shigella sonnei can be responsible for UTI during pregnancy even when no predisposing factors or an apparent source of infection can be identified.

  3. Renal inflammatory response to urinary tract infection in rat neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zarepour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common bacterial infections. Maternal UTI is a risk factor for neonatal UTI. The aim of the present study was to determine the severity of renal inflammation in neonate rats born from mothers with induced UTI. Twelve pregnant rats (Sprague-Dawley were included in study. The rats were divided into two groups (six rats in each group. In the first group, pyelonephritis was induced in the third trimester of pregnancy and the second group was used as a control group. After delivery, the neonates were divided into three groups based on days after birth (the 1 st, 3 rd and 7 th days after birth. In each group, two neonates of each mother were killed and a midline abdominal incision was made and both kidneys were aseptically removed. On the 7 th day, rat mothers were killed and their kidneys were removed. The preparations were evaluated with a bright field microscope for inflammatory response. Renal pathology showed inflammation in all UTI-induced mothers, but only two cases of neonates (2.1% showed inflammation in the renal parenchyma. There was no relation between the positive renal culture and the pathological changes. We conclude that neonates with UTI born to UTI-induced mothers showed a lesser inflammatory response.

  4. Etiology and antimicrobial resistance patterns in pediatric urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; He, Lijiao; Sha, Jintong; Zhu, Haobo; Huang, Liqu; Zhu, Xiaojiang; Dong, Jun; Li, Guogen; Ge, Zheng; Lu, Rugang; Ma, Geng; Shi, Yaqi; Guo, Yunfei

    2018-02-02

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of most common pediatric infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the etiology and antimicrobial resistance patterns in children hospitalized at Children's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University. We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study of all UTI from 1 January 2013 to 30 November 2016 in children discharged from Nanjing Children's Hospital. The isolated pathogens and their resistance patterns were examined using midstream urine culture. A total of 2,316 children with UTI were included in the study. The occurrence rates of isolated pathogens were as follows: Enterococcus spp., 35.15%; Escherichia coli, 22.32%; Staphylococcus aureus spp., 7.73%; Streptococcus spp., 7.51%; and Klebsiella spp., 6.95%. Uropathogens had a low susceptibility to linezolid (3.47%), vancomycin (0.92%), imipenem (5.74%), and amikacin (3.17%), but they had a high susceptibility to erythromycin (90.52%), penicillin G (74.01%), cefotaxime (71.41%), cefazolin (73.41%), cefuroxime (72.52%), and aztreonam (70.11%). There is high antibiotic resistance in hospitalized children with UTI. Susceptibility testing should be carried out on all clinical isolates, and the empirical antibiotic treatment should be altered accordingly. © 2018 Japan Pediatric Society.

  5. Preventing urinary tract infections after menopause without antibiotics.

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    Caretto, Marta; Giannini, Andrea; Russo, Eleonora; Simoncini, Tommaso

    2017-05-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common bacterial infections in women, and increase in incidence after the menopause. It is important to uncover underlying abnormalities or modifiable risk factors. Several risk factors for recurrent UTIs have been identified, including the frequency of sexual intercourse, spermicide use and abnormal pelvic anatomy. In postmenopausal women UTIs often accompany the symptoms and signs of the genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM). Antimicrobial prophylaxis has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing the risk of recurrent UTIs in women, but this may lead to drug resistance of both the causative microorganisms and the indigenous flora. The increasing prevalence of Escherichia coli (the most prevalent uropathogen) that is resistant to antimicrobial agents has stimulated interest in novel non-antibiotic methods for the prevention of UTIs. Evidence shows that topical estrogens normalize vaginal flora and greatly reduce the risk of UTIs. The use of intravaginal estrogens may be reasonable in postmenopausal women not taking oral estrogens. A number of other strategies have been used to prevent recurrent UTIs: probiotics, cranberry juice and d-mannose have been studied. Oral immunostimulants, vaginal vaccines and bladder instillations with hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate are newer strategies proposed to improve urinary symptoms and quality of life. This review provides an overview of UTIs' prophylaxis without antibiotics, focusing on a practical clinical approach to women with UTIs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevention of recurrent urinary tract infection in children.

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    Williams, Gabrielle; Craig, Jonathan C

    2009-02-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) in children is common (5-10%) and recurs in 10-30%. UTI causes an unpleasant, usually febrile illness in children. This review focuses on studies evaluating interventions to prevent UTI in children and published between January 2007 and June 2008. Three relevant updated Cochrane reviews, six randomized trials and an evidence-based guideline were published in the study period. Five of the six trials and one of the three Cochrane updates included data on the effects of relevant interventions in children. Three of the six trials investigated the efficacy of long-term, low-dose antibiotics as prophylaxis, and the other trials and both Cochrane updates evaluated complementary therapies such as vitamin A, probiotics and herbal supplements. The benefit of prophylactic antibiotics for the prevention of recurrent UTI in children remains unclear because of underpowered and suboptimally designed trials, but these studies suggest that any benefit is likely to be small, and clinical significance may be limited. The trials of complementary interventions (vitamin A, probiotics, cranberry, nasturtium and horseradish) generally gave favourable results but were not conclusive. Children and families who use these products should be aware that further infections are possible despite their use.

  7. Utility of Ultrasonography for Urinary Tract Infections of Infants

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    Yoon, Chul Ho; Kim, Yun Jeong [Dongnam Health Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    In this study, we investigated utility of ultrasonography for urinary tract infections of infants. The results of the research is as follows : 1. The number of infants under one year old was 100 out of 122 infants who were diagnosed as a unitary infection. The ratio of males to females was 1.7 : 1. Seventy-seven infants who underwent three kinds of radiologic examinations such as kidney sonography (51%), {sup 99m}TC DMSA-scan (42%), and VCUG (22%). 2. In comparison of correlation between kidney sonography and VCUG, the sensitivity of kidney sonography was 82% while the specificity of kidney sonography was 58%. In comparison of correlation between kidney sonography and {sup 99m}TC DMSA-scan, the sensitivity of kidney sonography was 66% while the specificity of kidney sonography was 67%. 3. Utility of kidney sonography showed the highest efficiency when we considered pain, discomfort, a sense of shame, psychological stress when infants may undergo at the examination, side-effect of a contrast agent after the examination, and complication of exposure to radiation.

  8. Update on the approach of urinary tract infection in childhood.

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    Simões e Silva, Ana Cristina; Oliveira, Eduardo Araújo

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infection in childhood. UTI may be the sentinel event for underlying renal abnormality. There are still many controversies regarding proper management of UTI. In this review article, the authors discuss recent recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment, prophylaxis, and imaging of UTI in childhood based on evidence, and when this is lacking, based on expert consensus. Data were obtained after a review of the literature and a search of Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, and Scielo. In the first year of life, UTIs are more common in boys (3.7%) than in girls (2%). Signs and symptoms of UTI are very nonspecific, especially in neonates and during childhood; in many cases, fever is the only symptom. Clinical history and physical examination may suggest UTI, but confirmation should be made by urine culture, which must be performed before any antimicrobial agent is given. During childhood, the proper collection of urine is essential to avoid false-positive results. Prompt diagnosis and initiation of treatment is important to prevent long-term renal scarring. Febrile infants with UTIs should undergo renal and bladder ultrasonography. Intravenous antibacterial agents are recommended for neonates and young infants. The authors also advise exclusion of obstructive uropathies as soon as possible and later vesicoureteral reflux, if indicated. Prophylaxis should be considered for cases of high susceptibility to UTI and high risk of renal damage. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Utility of Ultrasonography for Urinary Tract Infections of Infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Chul Ho; Kim, Yun Jeong

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we investigated utility of ultrasonography for urinary tract infections of infants. The results of the research is as follows : 1. The number of infants under one year old was 100 out of 122 infants who were diagnosed as a unitary infection. The ratio of males to females was 1.7 : 1. Seventy-seven infants who underwent three kinds of radiologic examinations such as kidney sonography (51%), 99m TC DMSA-scan (42%), and VCUG (22%). 2. In comparison of correlation between kidney sonography and VCUG, the sensitivity of kidney sonography was 82% while the specificity of kidney sonography was 58%. In comparison of correlation between kidney sonography and 99m TC DMSA-scan, the sensitivity of kidney sonography was 66% while the specificity of kidney sonography was 67%. 3. Utility of kidney sonography showed the highest efficiency when we considered pain, discomfort, a sense of shame, psychological stress when infants may undergo at the examination, side-effect of a contrast agent after the examination, and complication of exposure to radiation.

  10. Prevention and treatment of urinary tract infection with probiotics: Review and research perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchert, D; Sheridan, L; Papatsoris, A; Faruquz, Z; Barua, J M; Junaid, I; Pati, Y; Chinegwundoh, F; Buchholz, N

    2008-04-01

    The spiralling costs of antibiotic therapy, the appearance of multiresistant bacteria and more importantly for patients and clinicians, unsatisfactory therapeutic options in recurrent urinary tract infection (RUTI) calls for alternative and advanced medical solutions. So far no sufficient means to successfully prevent painful and disabling RUTI has been found. Even though long-term oral antibiotic treatment has been used with some success as a therapeutic option, this is no longer secure due to the development of bacterial resistance. One promising alternative is the use of live microorganisms (probiotics) to prevent and treat recurrent complicated and uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI).The human normal bacterial flora is increasingly recognised as an important defence to infection. Since the advent of antibiotic treatment five decades ago, a linear relation between antibiotic use and reduction in pathogenic bacteria has become established as medical conventional wisdom. But with the use of antibiotics the beneficial bacterial flora hosted by the human body is destroyed and pathogenic bacteria are selectively enabled to overgrow internal and external surfaces. The benign bacterial flora is crucial for body function and oervgrowth with pathogenic microorganisms leads to illness. Thus the concept of supporting the human body's normal flora with live microorganisms conferring a beneficial health effect is an important medical strategy.

  11. NORMAL NASOPHARYNGEAL MICROFLORA AS A RESERVOIR OF MULTIRESISTANT STRAINS OF UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS

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    Minukhin V.V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nasopharinheal carriage of bacteria may play a central role in the development and spread of respiratory infections. In addition, so-called "healthy" carriage is often transformed under the influence of various factors into an active infection.It is necessary to take into account not only the range of possible pathogens, but also trends in the development of antibiotic resistance of leading etiologic agents while choosing tactics of antimicrobial therapy. The investigation was designed to study the role of normal microflora of the nasopharynx as a reservoir of resistant strains of respiratory infections. Materials and Methods. Fifty three healthy individuals and 168 patients with acute upper respiratory tract infections who had been treated in CEHC "Kharkiv Municipal Clinical Hospital № 30" were examined. Microbiological study included isolation and identification of pathogens in accordance with the Order of the Ministry of Health Care № 535 from 22.04.1985., determination of the sensitivity of microorganisms to antibiotics by diffusion method according to the Order of the Ministry of Health Care of Ukraine № 167 from 05.04.2007. Results and discussion. Bacteriological study of nasal swabs of healthy people showed that the composition of the microflora of the nasopharynx contained potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Among the isolated microorganisms essential place was occupied by S. epidermidis and S. aureus, both in monoculture and association. Epidermal staphylococcus was isolated in 36 % and Staphylococcus aureus in 27% of cases. Pneumococcus and hemolytic streptococcus of group A were isolated in 23 and 14% of cases, respectively. One hundred and eighty strains of opportunistic microorganisms were isolated in the study of nasopharyngeal microflora of patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection. The leading role belonged to S. pyogenes (40.5% and S.epidermidis (33,3%. S. aureus (12,8% and S.pneumoniae (10,6% were next

  12. Exploring relationships of catheter-associated urinary tract infection and blockage in people with long-term indwelling urinary catheters.

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    Wilde, Mary H; McMahon, James M; Crean, Hugh F; Brasch, Judith

    2017-09-01

    To describe and explore relationships among catheter problems in long-term indwelling urinary catheter users, including excess healthcare use for treating catheter problems. Long-term urinary catheter users experience repeated problems with catheter-related urinary tract infection and blockage of the device, yet little has been reported of the patterns and relationships among relevant catheter variables. Secondary data analysis was conducted from a sample in a randomised clinical trial, using data from the entire sample of 202 persons over 12 months' participation. Descriptive statistics were used to characterise the sample over time. Zero-inflated negative binomial models were employed for logistic regressions to evaluate predictor variables of the presence/absence and frequencies of catheter-related urinary tract infection and blockage. Catheter-related urinary tract infection was marginally associated with catheter blockage. Problems reported at least once per person in the 12 months were as follows: catheter-related urinary tract infection 57%, blockage 34%, accidental dislodgment 28%, sediment 87%, leakage (bypassing) 67%, bladder spasms 59%, kinks/twists 42% and catheter pain 49%. Regression analysis demonstrated that bladder spasms were significantly related to catheter-related urinary tract infection and sediment amount, and catheter leakages were marginally significantly and positively related to catheter-related urinary tract infection. Frequencies of higher levels of sediment and catheter leakage were significantly associated with higher levels of blockage, and being female was associated with fewer blockages. Persons who need help with eating (more disabled) were also more likely to have blockages. Catheter-related urinary tract infection and blockage appear to be related and both are associated with additional healthcare expenditures. More research is needed to better understand how to prevent adverse catheter outcomes and patterns of problems in

  13. CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE PATTERN OF PATHOGENS IN PEDIATRIC URINARY TRACT INFECTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amornchaicharoensuk, Yupaporn

    2016-09-01

    Medical records of children less than 15-years of age admitted to hospital for urinary tract infection (UTI) from January 2010 to December 2014 were reviewed. Among 100 children (59% males and 41% females) with upper UTI, the most common pathogen (88%) was Escherichia coli, of which 69% were nonextended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and 19 % ESBL producers. Resistance to ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was 90% and 60%, respectively. All ESBL-producing E. coli were resistant to ampicillin and third generation cephalosporins (cefotaxime and ceftriaxone), while 87% and 1.5% of non ESBL-producing E. coli were resistant to ampicillin and the two third generation cephalosporins, respectively. These data highlight the high prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli in pediatric UTI and the potential problem in treating such infections.

  14. Epidemiology of Urinary Tract Infections in Hospitolized Children in Fatemi-Sahamieh Hospital (2005-2006

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    M.R Shokrollahei

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and ObjectivesMorbidity and mortality of urinary tract infection is common in spite of prescription of effective new antibiotics. Chronic pyelonphritis is one of the important reasons of end stage renal failure. Our study is carried out on 167 children admitted in Fatemi koodacan Hospital due to urinary tract infection. Major goal of this study was determination of epidemiology of urinary tract infection.Methods This study was cross sectional descriptive and sampling method was census. Various Factors such as age, gender, causative pathogen, used antibiotics and required time for getting negative urine culture test were studied. data were collected by means questionnaire.ResultsAccording to the study urinary tract infection was more common in females (74.2% of all cases while in male neonates it is more common than females. Incidence peak of urinary tract infection is seen in children between 1-6 years old. The most common pathogens responsible to urinary tract infection was E. coli and Klebsiella. The most common background disease was vesicoureteral reflux. The most common prescribed antibiotic was ceftriaxone (65%. After 2 days of taking antibiotic the majority of patients (87.7% had negative urine culture.ConclusionIn our study E. coli and Klebsiella are the most common pathogen responsible to urinary tract infection. In our study the frequency of urinary tract infection with Proteus was low (only 1.1% in comparison with other studies. Other epidemiological indices in this study were comparable to previous studies.Keywords: Urinary Tract, Urinary Tract Infections, Children

  15. Human bocavirus infection as a cause of severe acute respiratory tract infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moesker, F M; van Kampen, J J A; van der Eijk, A A; van Rossum, A M C; de Hoog, M; Schutten, M; Smits, S L; Bodewes, R; Osterhaus, A D M E; Fraaij, P L A

    2015-10-01

    In 2005 human bocavirus (HBoV) was discovered in respiratory tract samples of children. The role of HBoV as the single causative agent for respiratory tract infections remains unclear. Detection of HBoV in children with respiratory disease is frequently in combination with other viruses or bacteria. We set up an algorithm to study whether HBoV alone can cause severe acute respiratory tract infection (SARI) in children. The algorithm was developed to exclude cases with no other likely cause than HBoV for the need for admission to the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with SARI. We searched for other viruses by next-generation sequencing (NGS) in these cases and studied their HBoV viral loads. To benchmark our algorithm, the same was applied to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-positive patients. From our total group of 990 patients who tested positive for a respiratory virus by means of RT-PCR, HBoV and RSV were detected in 178 and 366 children admitted to our hospital. Forty-nine HBoV-positive patients and 72 RSV-positive patients were admitted to the PICU. We found seven single HBoV-infected cases with SARI admitted to PICU (7/49, 14%). They had no other detectable virus by NGS. They had much higher HBoV loads than other patients positive for HBoV. We identified 14 RSV-infected SARI patients with a single RSV infection (14/72, 19%). We conclude that our study provides strong support that HBoV can cause SARI in children in the absence of viral and bacterial co-infections. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hypercalciuria, a promoting factor to urinary tract infection in children

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    Gheissari Alaleh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common diseases of urogenital tract in children. Detecting predisposing factors for UTI takes an important place in managing patients with UTI. Recently, a few studies emphasized on idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH as a predisposing factor for UTI and dysfunctional voiding. Therefore, we carried out a survey to find out whether non-calculus IH is a contributing factor in children with the first attack of pyelonephritis. Materials and Methods: This is a case-control study carried out on 60 children aged 2-11 years admitted at St Al-Zahra hospital, Isfahan, Iran, with the first episode of upper UTI and 200 age- and gender-matched normal healthy children between September 2003 and February 2005. We used second fasting spot urine sample to measure calcium and creatinine. Two urine samples were obtained one week apart to increase the accuracy of measurement. All samples were collected after at least 6 weeks of completing the treatment course of pyelonephritis. Ultrasound examination and VCUG were performed in all patients before entering the survey as case group to rule out obstruction and VUR. Results: Mean age of case and control group were 4.86 ± 3.08 years and 4.22 ± 2.9 years, respectively. The mean calcium to creatinine ratio (Ca/Cr in case and control group were 0.308 ± 0.21 and 0.208 ± 0.12 mg/mg, respectively, P < 0.001. The difference between the mean values of these two groups was significant only in age group ≤6 years, P < 0.0001 and odds ratio was 2.1 (95% CI 1.03-7.8. After determining the mean values of urine Ca/Cr ration according to both age groups and gender, it was cleared that only significant difference was related to male < 6 years. Conclusion: The likelihood of hypercalciuria should be assessed especially in male children with UTI and without any urinary tract obstruction.

  17. Urinary tract infection pattern in adult women followed from childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebäck, Carin; Hansson, Sverker; Martinell, Jeanette; Sandberg, Torsten; Jodal, Ulf

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of urinary tract infection (UTI) and bladder function in women who had experienced recurrent UTI in childhood, with and without consequent renal damage, and followed for three to four decades. A population-based cohort of women who had been followed from the first UTI in childhood and previously studied at a median age of 27 years was studied at a median age of 41 years. Renal damage was evaluated by (99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid scan. Clinical data were collected on the pattern of recurrent UTIs and bladder function. A total of 86 women were investigated, of whom 58 had suffered renal damage and 28 were without. Febrile UTI in adulthood had occurred in 22 patients, once in 15 women and twice or more in seven women. There was a change in the infection pattern over time, evident already in childhood, that was characterized by a decrease in UTI frequency and a shift from febrile to non-febrile infections. A significant association was found between renal damage and febrile UTI (p = 0.046), and between abnormal bladder function and recurrent non-febrile UTI (p = 0.002). There was no relationship between persisting vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and proneness to either symptomatic UTI (p = 0.99) or febrile UTI in adulthood (p = 0.14). Among this study cohort there was a continuously decreasing rate of febrile UTI in adulthood. Persisting VUR was not related to UTI in adulthood. Abnormal bladder function was related to non-febrile UTI but not to febrile UTI.

  18. Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection Among Renal Transplant Recipients: Risk Factors and Long-Term Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawab, Khaled Abdel; Gheith, Osama; Al Otaibi, Torki; Nampoory, Naryanam; Mansour, Hany; Halim, Medhat A; Nair, Prasad; Said, Tarek; Abdelmonem, Mohamed; El-Sayed, Ayman; Awadain, Waleed

    2017-04-01

    Urinary tract infection is the most common type of bacterial infection in kidney transplant procedures, with adverse effects on graft and patient survival. We aimed to evaluate the risk factors of recurrent urinary tract infection in renal transplant recipients and its impact on patient and graft survival. In a cohort of 1019 patients who were transplanted between 2000 and 2010 at Hamed Al-Essa Organ Transplant Center in Kuwait, 86% developed at least 1 episode of urinary tract infection, with only 6.2% of patients having recurrent infections. We compared patients with recurrent urinary tract infections (group 1) with those who had no recurrence (group 2) regarding their risk factors. Patients in group 1 were significantly younger than those in group 2 (34.9 ± 23 vs 42.8 ± 16 y; P urinary tract infections (P infections were significantly more prevalent among group 1 (10.8% vs 3.8%; P = .008). Long-term graft outcome (functioning and failed) were 78.5% and 21.5% in group 1 versus 85.1% and 13.9% in group 2 (P = .18). Patient outcomes (living and deceased donors) were 98.4% and 1.6% in group 1 versus 95.7% and 4.3% in group 2 (P = .187). Adult females, thymoglobulin induction, pretransplant urologic problems, and hepatitis C infection were the risk factors of recurrent urinary tract infection among our renal transplant patients. However, recurrence did not adversely affect graft or patient survival.

  19. Interventions for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberger, Caroline; Geerlings, Suzanne E; Middleton, Philippa; Crowther, Caroline A

    2012-11-14

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) are common in women who are pregnant and may cause serious adverse pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child including preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age babies. Interventions used to prevent RUTI in women who are pregnant can be pharmacological (antibiotics) or non-pharmacological (cranberry products, acupuncture, probiotics and behavioural modifications). So far little is known about the best way to prevent RUTI in pregnant women. To assess the effects of interventions for preventing recurrent urinary tract infections in pregnant women.The primary maternal outcomes were RUTI before birth (variously defined) and preterm birth (before 37 weeks). The primary infant outcomes were small-for-gestational age and total mortality. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (8 June 2012) and reference lists of retrieved articles. Published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, clustered-randomised trials and abstracts of any intervention (pharmacological and non-pharmacological) for preventing RUTI during pregnancy (compared with another intervention, placebo or with usual care). Two review authors independently evaluated the one identified trial for inclusion and assessed trial quality. Two review authors extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. The review included one trial involving 200 women. The trial compared a daily dose of nitrofurantoin and close surveillance (regular clinic visit, urine cultures and antibiotics when a positive culture was found) with close surveillance only. No significant differences were found for the primary outcomes: recurrent pyelonephritis (risk ratio (RR) 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.31 to 2.53, one study, 167 women), recurrent urinary tract infection before birth (RR 0.30, 95% CI 0.06 to 1.38; one study 167 women) and preterm birth (before 37 weeks) (RR 1.18, 95% CI 0.42 to 3.35; one study 147 women). The

  20. Roultella ornithinolytica infection in infancy: a case of febrile urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Petris, Laura; Ruffini, Ermanno

    2018-05-02

    Raoultella ornithinolytica is a Gram-negative, non-motile, encapsulated, aerobic bacillus belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. R. ornithinolytica is a not very common, but emergent causal agent of human infection, and its expression of beta-lactamase provides resistance to commonly used antibiotics. The pathogenetic potential of R. ornithinolytica isolates in human disease has become increasingly important. Several cases of hospital-acquired infection, mostly associated with invasive procedures, or in patients with co-morbidity caused by R. ornithinolytica, have been previously reported in the adult population. In pediatric population, two cases in immunocompromised children, one case in an infant with visceral heterotaxy and one case of catheter-related bacteraemia are described. Here, we present the first case of febrile urinary tract infection due to R. ornithinolytica in an 8-month-old infant, recovered from a previous febrile UTI caused by E. coli and without co-morbidity. The empiric therapy with ceftriaxone, followed by cefpodoxime proxetil, resolved symptoms: the clinical condition of the infant improved rapidly and the treatment eradicated urine from the R. ornithinolytica infection. Since other pathogens rather than R. ornithinolytica are usually identified in children with urinary tract infections, including Escherichia coli, Proteus, Klebsiella and Pseudomonas, the identification of this microorganism in our patient's urine was also unexpected.

  1. Longer Duration of Urinary Catheterization Increases Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection in PICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Kahoru; Furuichi, Mihoko; Ito, Kenta; Morikawa, Yoshihiko; Watanabe, Ichiro; Shimizu, Naoki; Horikoshi, Yuho

    2018-06-13

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections account for 30% of healthcare-associated infections. To date, few studies have addressed pediatric catheter-associated urinary tract infection in PICUs. The aim of our study was to assess the risk of catheter-associated urinary tract infection in relation to the duration of catheterization in the PICU. Retrospective cohort study. PICU at a tertiary children's hospital. Our study was conducted between April 2012 and June 2015 at Tokyo Metropolitan Children's Medical Center in Japan. Children in the PICU with an urethral catheter were included. Catheter-associated urinary tract infection cases were defined according to the National Healthcare Safety Network criteria. The patients' demographic data and isolated organisms were reviewed. Duration of catheterization and the catheter-associated urinary tract infection occurrence rate were analyzed. None. Among 1,890 catheterizations, 23 catheter-associated urinary tract infection cases were identified. The overall occurrence rate was 2.35/1,000 catheter-days. Among the patients with catheter-associated urinary tract infection, 13 were boys. The median age was 11 months (interquartile range, 7-35 mo), and the median duration of catheterization was 7 days (interquartile range, 5-12 d). The isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli (26.5%), Enterococcus faecalis (17.6%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (11.8%). Two species were isolated in each of 11 cases (47.8%). Each additional day of catheterization increased the risk of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (odds ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02-1.10, and odds ratio adjusted for contact precaution status and surgical procedures was 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01-1.09). Longer duration of catheterization increased the risk of catheter-associated urinary tract infection by 5% each day at the PICU. Prompt removal of the urethral catheter is strongly recommended whenever feasible.

  2. Anatomy and Physiology of the Urinary Tract: Relation to Host Defense and Microbial Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickling, Duane R; Sun, Tung-Tien; Wu, Xue-Ru

    2015-08-01

    The urinary tract exits to a body surface area that is densely populated by a wide range of microbes. Yet, under most normal circumstances, it is typically considered sterile, i.e., devoid of microbes, a stark contrast to the gastrointestinal and upper respiratory tracts where many commensal and pathogenic microbes call home. Not surprisingly, infection of the urinary tract over a healthy person's lifetime is relatively infrequent, occurring once or twice or not at all for most people. For those who do experience an initial infection, the great majority (70% to 80%) thankfully do not go on to suffer from multiple episodes. This is a far cry from the upper respiratory tract infections, which can afflict an otherwise healthy individual countless times. The fact that urinary tract infections are hard to elicit in experimental animals except with inoculum 3-5 orders of magnitude greater than the colony counts that define an acute urinary infection in humans (105 cfu/ml), also speaks to the robustness of the urinary tract defense. How can the urinary tract be so effective in fending off harmful microbes despite its orifice in a close vicinity to that of the microbe-laden gastrointestinal tract? While a complete picture is still evolving, the general consensus is that the anatomical and physiological integrity of the urinary tract is of paramount importance in maintaining a healthy urinary tract. When this integrity is breached, however, the urinary tract can be at a heightened risk or even recurrent episodes of microbial infections. In fact, recurrent urinary tract infections are a significant cause of morbidity and time lost from work and a major challenge to manage clinically. Additionally, infections of the upper urinary tract often require hospitalization and prolonged antibiotic therapy. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the basic anatomy and physiology of the urinary tract with an emphasis on their specific roles in host defense. We also highlight the

  3. "Hospital at home" for neuromuscular disease patients with respiratory tract infection: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianello, Andrea; Savoia, Francesca; Pipitone, Emanuela; Nordio, Beatrice; Gallina, Giulia; Paladini, Luciana; Concas, Alessandra; Arcaro, Giovanna; Gallan, Federico; Pegoraro, Elena

    2013-12-01

    The "hospital-at-home" model may provide adequate care without an adverse effect on clinical outcome, and is generally well received by users. Our objective was to compare hospital-at-home and in-patient hospital care for neuromuscular disease (NMD) patients with respiratory tract infections. We conducted a prospective randomized controlled trial in a university teaching hospital offering secondary care service to a population of approximately 500,000. We recruited selected NMD patients with respiratory tract infection for whom hospital admission had been recommended after medical assessment. Hospital-at-home was provided as an alternative to in-patient admission. The main outcome measures were need for hospitalization, treatment failure, time to recovery, death during the first 3 months following exacerbation, and cost of patient care. Among 59 consecutive NMD patients eligible for the study, 53 met the criteria for hospital-at-home. Twenty-six subjects were randomized to home care and 27 to hospital care. No significant differences were found in treatment failure (8/26 vs 13/27, P = .19), time to recovery (8.9 ± 4.6 vs 9 ± 8.9 d, P = .21), or mortality at 3 months (3/26 vs 4/27 deaths, P = .42) between the groups. Hospital-at-home failure was independently correlated with type of NMD (P = .004) with an odds ratio of failure of 17.3 (95% CI 2.1 to infinity) for subjects with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The total and daily direct cost of patient healthcare was significantly lower for the subjects who were successfully treated at home, compared to the hospitalized individuals. Hospital-at-home is an effective alternative to hospital admission for selected NMD patients with respiratory tract infections.

  4. Asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract infections in women: focus on diabetes mellitus and pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Schneeberger, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    There is a shortage of evidence for clinical guidelines on diagnosis and management of both asymptomatic bacteriuria (the presence of bacteria in urine without symptoms of an infection) and urinary tract infections in women with diabetes and pregnant women. Asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract infections in these two risk groups may have far-reaching consequences such as pyelonephritis and preterm birth. The results of the studies in this thesis can be used to fill some of the knowledge...

  5. Adenovirus infection in children with acute lower respiratory tract infections in Beijing, China, 2007 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunyan; Xiao, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Ren, Lili; Li, Jianguo; Xie, Zhengde; Xu, Baoping; Yang, Yan; Qian, Suyun; Wang, Jianwei; Shen, Kunling

    2015-10-01

    Human adenoviruses (HAdV) play a significant role in pediatric respiratory tract infections. To date, over 60 types of HAdV have been identified. Here, HAdV types are characterized in children in the Beijing area with acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTIs) and the clinical features and laboratory findings of hospitalized HAdV-infected cases are described. Respiratory specimens were collected from pediatric patients with ALRTIs in the emergency department or from those admitted to Beijing Children's Hospital between March 2007 and December 2012. Infections with common respiratory viruses were determined by PCR or RT-PCR. HAdV positive samples were further typed by PCR and sequencing. Among 3356 patients with ALRTIs, 194 (5.8 %) were found to have HAdV infection. HAdV infection was primarily confined to children (88.35 %) less than 5 years of age. A total of 11 different types of HAdV were detected throughout the study period, with HAdV-B7 (49.0 %) and HAdV-B3 (26.3 %) as the most prevalent types, followed by HAdV-C2 (7.7 %) and HAdVC1 (4.6 %). Newly emerging and re-emergent types or variants, HAdV-B55 (n = 5), HAdV-C57 (n = 3), and HAdV-B14p1 (n = 1), were identified. Results also included the reported first case of co-infection with HAdV-C2 and HAdV-C57. Clinical entities of patients with single HAdV infection (n = 49) were similar to those with mixed HAdV/respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections (n = 41). Patients with HAdV-B7 infection had longer duration of fever and higher serum levels of muscle enzymes than HAdV-B3-infected patients. During the study period, HAdV-B7 and HAdV-B3 were the predominant types identified in pediatric ALRTIs. HAdV-B7 infection tends to have more severe clinical consequences. The presence of newly emerging types or variants and co-infection with different types of HAdV highlights the need for constant and close surveillance of HAdV infection.

  6. [Different species of human rhinovirus infection in children with acute respiratory tract infections in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ming-hui; Zhao, Lin-qing; Qian, Yuan; Zhu, Ru-nan; Deng, Jie; Wang, Fang; Sun, Yu; Tian, Run

    2013-12-01

    To understand the clinical characteristics of different groups human rhinovirus (HRV)-A, B and C infection in children with acute respiratory tract infections (ARI) in Beijing. Respiratory tract specimens (n = 1412) collected from children with ARI during Jan. 2011 to Dec. 2012 were tested for HRV by using semi-nested PCR. Gene fragments of VP4/VP2 capsid protein amplified from HRV positive specimens were sequenced for HRV genotype confirmation. Then epidemiological characteristics of these HRV-positive cases were analyzed. Among these 1412 specimens tested, 103 (7.3%) were HRV positive, including 54 (52.4%) positive for HRV-A, 14 (13.6%) for HRV-B, 35 (34.0%) for HRV-C determined by sequence analysis. The positive rates of HRV-A, B and C (2.5%, 16/638; 0.3%, 2/638 and 1.3%, 8/638) in children with acute upper respiratory tract infections (URI) were lower than those (5.8%, 36/623; 1.8%, 11/623 and 3.9%, 24/623) in children with acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRI) (P = 0.003, 0.011, 0.003). In children with LRI, the positive rates of HRV-A, C were similar to each other (P = 0.112), and both were higher than that of HRV-B (P = 0.000, P = 0.026). The severity of ARI among children positive for different groups HRV showed no significant difference evaluated by Kruskal-Wallis H test (Hc = 0.044, P > 0.05), as well as that between children co-infected with HRV and other viruses and those infected with HRV only evaluated by Wilcoxon rank sum test (Zc = 0.872, P > 0.05). HRV is one of important pathogens for children with ARI, especially LRI in Beijing. The positive rates of HRV-A and HRV-C are similar to each other, and both are higher than that of HRV-B. No significant difference was shown among children with different HRV genotypes by evaluation of the severity of ARI, and co-infections of HRV with other viruses do not significantly increase the severity of ARI.

  7. [The role of the uretral catheter in the development of catheter- related urinary tract infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyev, A O; Govorov, A V; Shiryaev, A A; Pushkar, D Yu

    2017-12-01

    The most common source of nosocomial infection is the urinary tract, especially if they it is drained with a urethral catheter. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections account for at least 80% of all complicated urinary tract infections and are the most common type of hospital-acquired infection. Intestinal microflora plays the leading role in the pathogenesis of catheter-associated urinary tract infections, whereas the most important risk factor for their development is the long duration of urinary catheter drainage. In the case of short-term and intermittent catheterization, routine antibiotic prophylaxis is not required, but if a patient develops clinically significant infection, antibiotic therapy is required followed by definitive therapy based on culture. Urethral catheters coated with antimicrobial substances and anti-inflammatory agents can significantly reduce the adhesion and migration of bacteria, thereby reducing the incidence of urinary tract infections. Despite this, the incidence of catheter-associated infection remains high. We have reviewed recent literature related to catheter-associated urinary tract infections and the best means of preventing this condition.

  8. Risk factors for postoperative urinary tract infection following midurethral sling procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doganay, Melike; Cavkaytar, Sabri; Kokanali, Mahmut Kuntay; Ozer, Irfan; Aksakal, Orhan Seyfi; Erkaya, Salim

    2017-04-01

    To identify the potential risk factors for urinary tract infections following midurethral sling procedures. 556 women who underwent midurethral sling procedure due to stress urinary incontinence over a four-year period were reviewed in this retrospective study. Of the study population, 280 women underwent TVT procedures and 276 women underwent TOT procedures. Patients were evaluated at 4-8 weeks postoperatively and were investigated for the occurrence of a urinary tract infection. Patients who experienced urinary tract infection were defined as cases, and patients who didn't were defined as controls. All data were collected from medical records. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify the risk factors for urinary tract infection. Of 556 women, 58 (10.4%) were defined as cases while 498 (89.6%) were controls. The mean age of women in cases (57.8±12.9years) was significantly greater than in controls (51.8±11.2years) (purinary tract infection, concomitant vaginal hysterectomy and cystocele repair, TVT procedure and postoperative postvoiding residual bladder volume ≥100ml were more common in cases than in controls. However, in multivariate regression analysis model presence of preoperative urinary tract infection [OR (95% CI)=0.1 (0.1-0.7); p=0.013], TVT procedure [OR (95% CI)=8.4 (3.1-22.3); p=0.000] and postoperative postvoiding residual bladder volume ≥100ml [OR (95% CI)=4.6 (1.1-19.2); p=0.036] were significant independent risk factors for urinary tract infection following midurethral slings CONCLUSION: Urinary tract infection after midurethral sling procedures is a relatively common complication. The presence of preoperative urinary tract infection, TVT procedure and postoperative postvoiding residual bladder volume ≥100ml may increase the risk of this complication. Identification of these factors could help surgeons to minimize this complicationby developing effective strategies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Predicting the Risk of Breakthrough Urinary Tract Infections: Primary Vesicoureteral Reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidas, Guy; Billimek, John; Nam, Alexander; Soltani, Tandis; Kelly, Maryellen S; Selby, Blake; Dorgalli, Crystal; Wehbi, Elias; McAleer, Irene; McLorie, Gordon; Greenfield, Sheldon; Kaplan, Sherrie H; Khoury, Antoine E

    2015-11-01

    We constructed a risk prediction instrument stratifying patients with primary vesicoureteral reflux into groups according to their 2-year probability of breakthrough urinary tract infection. Demographic and clinical information was retrospectively collected in children diagnosed with primary vesicoureteral reflux and followed for 2 years. Bivariate and binary logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with breakthrough urinary tract infection. The final regression model was used to compute an estimation of the 2-year probability of breakthrough urinary tract infection for each subject. Accuracy of the binary classifier for breakthrough urinary tract infection was evaluated using receiver operator curve analysis. Three distinct risk groups were identified. The model was then validated in a prospective cohort. A total of 252 bivariate analyses showed that high grade (IV or V) vesicoureteral reflux (OR 9.4, 95% CI 3.8-23.5, p urinary tract infection (OR 5.3, 95% CI 1.1-24.7, p = 0.034) and female gender (OR 2.6, 95% CI 0.097-7.11, p urinary tract infection. Subgroup analysis revealed bladder and bowel dysfunction was a significant risk factor more pronounced in low grade (I to III) vesicoureteral reflux (OR 2.8, p = 0.018). The estimation model was applied for prospective validation, which demonstrated predicted vs actual 2-year breakthrough urinary tract infection rates of 19% vs 21%. Stratifying the patients into 3 risk groups based on parameters in the risk model showed 2-year risk for breakthrough urinary tract infection was 8.6%, 26.0% and 62.5% in the low, intermediate and high risk groups, respectively. This proposed risk stratification and probability model allows prediction of 2-year risk of patient breakthrough urinary tract infection to better inform parents of possible outcomes and treatment strategies. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  10. Urinary tract infections in children and adolescents with acute psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Chelsea M; Phillip, Niju; Miller, Brian J

    2017-05-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with increased infections. We previously found an association between urinary tract infection (UTI) and acute psychosis in adults. The aims of this study were to 1) evaluate the prevalence of UTI at the time of admission in children and adolescents with non-affective psychosis and psychotic depression versus those with non-psychotic major depressive disorder, and 2) compare demographic and clinical features between children and adolescents with acute psychosis with and without comorbid UTI. We performed a retrospective chart review of 227 subjects ages 10-18 who were hospitalized between 2005 and 2014 for an acute episode of DSM-IV non-affective psychosis (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, psychosis NOS, or delusional disorder; n=80), major depressive disorder (MDD) with psychotic features (n=47); or MDD without psychotic features (n=100). The prevalence of UTI was 20% in non-affective psychosis, 9% in MDD with psychotic features, and 13% in non-psychotic MDD. After controlling for potential confounders, UTI was 3.5 times more likely in subjects with non-affective psychosis than non-psychotic MDD (OR=3.5, 95% CI 1.3-9.2, p=0.01). Subjects with UTI had a higher prevalence of manic symptoms, but otherwise there were no associations between clinical characteristics and UTI in acute psychosis. We found an association between UTIs and children and adolescents with acute non-affective psychosis. The results highlight the potential importance of screening for comorbid UTI in patients with acute psychosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of Urinary Tract Infection in Children With Gastroenteritis

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    Soleimani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Urinary tract infection (UTI is the second most common bacterial infection in infancy and childhood with peaking in infancy and toilet training. Objectives The current study aimed to investigate UTI in patients with diarrhea. Patients and Methods This case-control study was conducted on 200 participants, 100 were patients with acute gastroenteritis and the other 100 were controls who referred to the clinic for routine checkup. UTI was defined as two positive urine cultures with > 105 cfu/mL. If white blood cells were more than 10/mm3 in un-centrifuged urine it would be considered pyuria and more than one microorganism in 10 oil immersion fields as bacteriuria. Analysis was conducted using SPSS ver. 16 with application of chi-square test and 0.05 as significant levels. Results The distribution of these 200 children were 115 (57.5% and 85 (42.5% for females and males respectively. The gender and age distribution in case and control groups showed non-significant association. In urine culture it was observed that 27 individuals were positive and there were seven healthy children. The number of children with positive urine culture was higher than that of their counterparts significantly (P = 0.0001. Relationship between urine culture and age groups showed that the number of participants with positive urine culture was higher in children with age of two months to two years but it was not significant (P = 0.54. Conclusions It was demonstrated that, considerable percentage of UTI existed in the gastroenteritis diseases. Early treatment of UTI in patients would reduce UTI complications.

  12. Improving the prescribing of antibiotics for urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, G M; Stanton, L A; Bergin, J K; Chapman, G A

    1997-04-01

    In recent years there have been changes in the recommended antibiotic treatment for urinary tract infections (UTIs). In particular, the use of amoxycillin or co-trimoxazole is now discouraged, with amoxycillin-potassium clavulanate, cephalexin and trimethoprim becoming first-line agents for uncomplicated lower UTIs. To examine whether academic detailing, performed by a pharmacist, could modify prescribing practices for antibiotics used in the treatment of UTI in the community setting. The intervention was conducted in Southern Tasmania, using the remainder of the State as a control area. The target group of general practitioners was sent educational material designed to assist in the appropriate prescribing of antibiotics in the treatment of UTI. A pharmacist then visited each general practitioner and discussed the rational use of antibiotics for UTIs directly with him/her. Outcomes were measured using evaluation feedback from the general practitioners and pharmacoepidemiological data, which were not linked to diagnosis. The key variable examined was the total defined daily doses (DDDs) dispensed for the recommended first-line agents (amoxycillin-potassium clavulanate, cephalexin and trimethoprim) compared with amoxycillin (3 g single-dose form) and co-trimoxazole. The educational programme was very well received by the general practitioners. Changes in the prescribing of antibiotics commonly used for UTIs were evident in both study regions over the course of the study, but the improvements were significantly greater in the intervention area. Educational programmes utilizing academic detailing by pharmacists can modify prescribing practices within the community setting.

  13. Oxidative status parameters in children with urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, Stanislava; Bogavac-Stanojevic, Natasa; Kotur-Stevuljevic, Jelena; Peco-Antic, Amira; Ivanisevic, Ivana; Ivanisevic, Jasmina; Paripovic, Dusan; Jelic-Ivanovic, Zorana

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infectious diseases in children. The aim of this study was to determine the total prooxidant and antioxidant capacity of children with UTI, as well as changes of oxidative status parameters according to acute inflammation persistence and acute kidney injury (AKI) development. The patients enrolled in the study comprised 50 Caucasian children (median age was 6 months) with UTI. Total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS), oxidative stress index (OSI), inflammation marker C-reactive protein (CRP) and renal function parameters urea and creatinine were analyzed in patient's serums. According to duration of inflammation during UTI, TAS values were significantly higher (0.99 vs. 0.58 mmol/L, P = 0.017) and OSI values were significantly lower (0.032 vs. 0.041 AU, P = 0.037) in the subjects with longer duration of inflammation than in the subjects with shorter duration of inflammation. We did not find significant difference in basal values of oxidative status parameters according to AKI development. OSI values could detect the simultaneous change of TAS and TOS due to change in the oxidative-antioxidant balance during the recovery of children with UTI. TAS and OSI as markers of oxidative stress during UTI are sensitive to accompanying inflammatory condition. Further investigations are needed to evaluate whether TAS, TOS and OSI could be used to monitor disease severity in children with UTI.

  14. Reliability of dipstick assay in predicting urinary tract infection

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    Anith Kumar Mambatta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Urine dipstick analysis is a quick, cheap and a useful test in predicting Urinary Tract Infection (UTI in hospitalized patients. Our aim is to evaluate the reliability (sensitivity of urine dipstick analysis against urine culture in the diagnosis of UTI. Materials and Methods: Patients admitted to our hospital suspected of having UTI, with positive urine cultures were included in this study from a 2-year period (January 2011 to December 2012. Dipstick urinalysis was done using multistix 10 SG (Siemens and clinitek advantus analyzer. The sensitivity of dipstick nitrites, leukocyte esterase and blood in these culture-positive UTI patients was calculated retrospectively. Results: Urine dipstick analysis of 635 urine culture-positive patients was studied. The sensitivity of nitrite alone and leukocyte esterase alone were 23.31% and 48.5%, respectively. The sensitivity of blood alone in positive urine culture was 63.94%, which was the highest sensitivity for a single screening test. The presence of leukocyte esterase and/or blood increased the sensitivity to 72.28%. The sensitivity was found to be the highest when nitrite, leukocyte and blood were considered together. Conclusions: Nitrite test and leukocyte esterase test when used individually is not reliable to rule out UTI. Hence, symptomatic UTI patients with negative dipstick assay should be subjected to urine culture for a proper management.

  15. Urinary Tract Infection among Renal Transplant Recipients in Yemen.

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    Adnan S Gondos

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is the most common complication following kidney transplantation (KT, which could result in losing the graft. This study aims to identify the prevalence of bacterial UTI among KT recipients in Yemen and to determine the predisposing factors associated with post renal transplantation UTI. A cross sectional study included of 150 patients, who underwent KT was conducted between June 2010 and January 2011. A Morning mid-stream urine specimen was collected for culture and antibiotic susceptibility test from each recipient. Bacterial UTI was found in 50 patients (33.3%. The prevalence among females 40.3% was higher than males 29%. The UTI was higher in the age group between 41-50 years with a percentage of 28% and this result was statistically significant. Predisposing factors as diabetes mellitus, vesicoureteral reflux, neurogenic bladder and polycystic kidney showed significant association. High relative risks were found for polycystic kidney = 13.5 and neurogenic bladder = 13.5. The most prevalent bacteria to cause UTI was Escherichia coli represent 44%, followed by Staphylococcus saprophyticus 34%. Amikacin was the most effective antibiotic against gram-negative isolates while Ciprofloxacin was the most effective antibiotic against Staphylococcus saprophyticus. In conclusion, there is high prevalence of bacterial UTI among KT recipients in Yemen. Diabetes mellitus, vesicoureteral reflux, neurogenic bladder, polycystic kidney and calculi were the main predisposing factors.

  16. Urinary Tract Infection among Renal Transplant Recipients in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondos, Adnan S; Al-Moyed, Khaled A; Al-Robasi, Abdul Baki A; Al-Shamahy, Hassan A; Alyousefi, Naelah A

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common complication following kidney transplantation (KT), which could result in losing the graft. This study aims to identify the prevalence of bacterial UTI among KT recipients in Yemen and to determine the predisposing factors associated with post renal transplantation UTI. A cross sectional study included of 150 patients, who underwent KT was conducted between June 2010 and January 2011. A Morning mid-stream urine specimen was collected for culture and antibiotic susceptibility test from each recipient. Bacterial UTI was found in 50 patients (33.3%). The prevalence among females 40.3% was higher than males 29%. The UTI was higher in the age group between 41-50 years with a percentage of 28% and this result was statistically significant. Predisposing factors as diabetes mellitus, vesicoureteral reflux, neurogenic bladder and polycystic kidney showed significant association. High relative risks were found for polycystic kidney = 13.5 and neurogenic bladder = 13.5. The most prevalent bacteria to cause UTI was Escherichia coli represent 44%, followed by Staphylococcus saprophyticus 34%. Amikacin was the most effective antibiotic against gram-negative isolates while Ciprofloxacin was the most effective antibiotic against Staphylococcus saprophyticus. In conclusion, there is high prevalence of bacterial UTI among KT recipients in Yemen. Diabetes mellitus, vesicoureteral reflux, neurogenic bladder, polycystic kidney and calculi were the main predisposing factors.

  17. Risk factors for urinary tract infection following incontinence surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Ingrid; Brubaker, Linda; Chai, Toby C; Markland, Alayne D; Menefee, Shawn A; Sirls, Larry; Sutkin, Gary; Zimmern, Phillipe; Arisco, Amy; Huang, Liyuan; Tennstedt, Sharon; Stoddard, Anne

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe risk factors for post-operative urinary tract infection (UTI) the first year after stress urinary incontinence surgery. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed on data from 1,252 women randomized in two surgical trials, Stress Incontinence Surgical Treatment Efficacy trial (SISTEr) and Trial Of Mid-Urethral Slings (TOMUS). Baseline recurrent UTI (rUTI; ≥3 in 12 months) increased the risk of UTI in the first 6 weeks in both study populations, as did sling procedure and self-catheterization in SISTEr, and bladder perforation in TOMUS. Baseline rUTI, UTI in the first 6 weeks, and PVR > 100 cc at 12 months were independent risk factors for UTI between 6 weeks and 12 months in the SISTEr population. Few (2.3-2.4%) had post-operative rUTI, precluding multivariable analysis. In women with pre-operative rUTI, successful surgery (negative cough stress test) at 1 year did not appear to decrease the risk of persistent rUTI. Pre-operative rUTI is the strongest risk factor for post-operative UTI.

  18. Non-Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Urinary Tract Infections

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    Mariëlle Beerepoot

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing antimicrobial resistance has stimulated interest in non-antibiotic prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs. Well-known steps in the pathogenesis of UTIs are urogenital colonization and adherence of uropathogens to uroepithelial cell receptors. To prevent colonization in postmenopausal women, vaginal, but not oral, estrogens have been shown to restore the vagina lactobacilli flora, reduce vaginal colonization with Enterobacteriaceae, and reduce the number of UTIs compared to placebo. Different lactobacilli strains show different results in the prevention of recurrent UTIs. Intravaginal suppositories with Lactobacillus crispatus in premenopausal women and oral capsules with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 in postmenopausal women are promising. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C cannot be recommended for the prevention of UTIs. Cranberries are thought to contain proanthocyanidins that can inhibit adherence of P-fimbriated E. coli to the uroepithelial cell receptors. Cranberry products decreased UTI recurrences about 30%–40% in premenopausal women with recurrent UTIs, but are less effective than low-dose antimicrobial prophylaxis. However, the optimal dose of cranberry product has still to be determined. Initially OM-89, a vaccine with 18 heat-killed E. coli extracts, seemed promising, but this was not confirmed in a recently randomized trial.

  19. Diagnosis and management of bacteremic urinary tract infection in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Heidi K; Chang, Pearl W; Schroeder, Alan R

    2015-01-01

    To report the prevalence of bacteremia by age in a sample of infantsurinary tract infections (UTIs), to compare characteristics of infants with UTIs with and without bacteremia, and to describe treatment courses and 30-day outcomes in infants with UTIs with and without bacteremia. We used a retrospective cross-sectional design to determine the prevalence of bacteremia in infants with UTIs at our institution. A double cohort design matching for age and gender was used to compare clinical characteristics and outcomes between infants with bacteremic versus nonbacteremic UTIs. We identified 1379 UTIs, with blood cultures obtained in 52% of cases. The prevalence of bacteremia was 4.1% (95% confidence interval 3.1%-5.3%) for all UTIs and 8% (95% confidence interval 6.1%-10.2%) for UTIs in which blood culture was obtained. Fifty-five infants with bacteremic UTIs were compared with 110 infants with nonbacteremic UTIs. Except for minor differences in the urinalysis and serum band count, there were no significant differences in clinical presentation between the 2 groups. Bacteremic infants received longer parenteral treatment courses than nonbacteremic infants (mean 6.7 vs 2.4 days, PPediatrics.

  20. Secondary or Transient Pseudohypoaldosteronism Associated With Urinary Tract Anomaly and Urinary Infection: A Case Report

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    Vinod Krishnappa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyponatremia with hyperkalemia in infancy is a rare presentation, but may be due to aldosterone deficiency or end organ resistance to its action. There are few cases associating this condition with urinary tract infections or anatomic abnormalities that predispose to infection. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion in diagnosing secondary pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA due to its often atypical presentation. We describe ten month-old infant who presented with this condition and was found to have urinary tract infection complicating unilateral urinary tract anomaly, which may have strong association with renal tubular resistance to aldosterone.

  1. [Urinary tract infection caused by Enterobacteriaceae and its relationship with vesicoureteral reflux].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Álvarez, Manuel; Acosta Batista, Bárbara; Pérez Córdova, Rodolfo; Hernández Robledo, Ernesto

    The first urinary tract infection can be a marker of a urinary tract anomaly, mainly vesicoureteral reflux. The aim of this work was to determine the association between isolated enterobacteria with the presence and grade of vesicoureteral reflux in neonatal patients with their first urinary tract infection. A retrospective, observational and analytic study of newborns, who were admitted to the Neonatal Department, University Pediatric Hospital "Juan Manuel Márquez," in Havana, Cuba, from 1992 to 2013 was conducted. The causal microorganism of urinary tract infection was from the Enterobacteriaceae family. They were evaluated by radio imaging. The association between the presence and grade of vesicoureteral reflux with the causal microorganism of the urinary tract infection was analyzed. Newborn infants with urinary tract infection (450) were studied. Bacterial isolations in the urine cultures corresponded to E. coli in 316 cases (70.2%). The prevalence of vesicoureteral reflux was 18.2%. The presence of bacteria corresponding to the Enterobacteriaceae family (other than E. coli) had significant risk association with vesicoureteral reflux (OR: 2.02; p urinary tract infection. However, an association between the isolation of a microorganism of the Enterobacteriaceae family different to E. coli with the presence of vesicoureteral reflux and mainly with higher grades of vesicoureteral reflux exists. Copyright © 2017 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  2. Update on the approach of urinary tract infection in childhood

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    Ana Cristina Simões e Silva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Urinary tract infection (UTI is the most common bacterial infection in childhood. UTI may be the sentinel event for underlying renal abnormality. There are still many controversies regarding proper management of UTI. In this review article, the authors discuss recent recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment, prophylaxis, and imaging of UTI in childhood based on evidence, and when this is lacking, based on expert consensus. Sources: Data were obtained after a review of the literature and a search of Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, and Scielo. Summary of the findings: In the first year of life, UTIs are more common in boys (3.7% than in girls (2%. Signs and symptoms of UTI are very nonspecific, especially in neonates and during childhood; in many cases, fever is the only symptom. Conclusions: Clinical history and physical examination may suggest UTI, but confirmation should be made by urine culture, which must be performed before any antimicrobial agent is given. During childhood, the proper collection of urine is essential to avoid false-positive results. Prompt diagnosis and initiation of treatment is important to prevent long-term renal scarring. Febrile infants with UTIs should undergo renal and bladder ultrasonography. Intravenous antibacterial agents are recommended for neonates and young infants. The authors also advise exclusion of obstructive uropathies as soon as possible and later vesicoureteral reflux, if indicated. Prophylaxis should be considered for cases of high susceptibility to UTI and high risk of renal damage. Resumo: Objetivo: A infecção do trato urinário (ITU é a infecção bacteriana mais comum na infância. A ITU pode ser o evento sentinela para alteração renal subjacente. Ainda há muitas controvérsias com relação ao tratamento adequado da ITU. Neste artigo de revisão, discutimos as últimas recomendações para diagnóstico, tratamento, profilaxia e imagiologia da ITU na infância, com base em comprova

  3. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor treatment and the development of urinary tract infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouwels, Koen; Visser, Sipke; Bos, Jens; Hak, Eelko

    2013-01-01

    Background: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) can reduce the urine output, especially when treatment is started. Since bacterial clearance from the urinary tract is dependent on the urine output, it was hypothesized that ACEi may also increase the risk of urinary tract infections

  4. Trimethoprim in vitro antibacterial activity is not increased by adding sulfamethoxazole for pediatric Escherichia coli urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hiep T; Hurwitz, Richard S; Defoor, W Robert; Minevich, Eugene; McAdam, Alexander J; Mortensen, Joel E; Novak-Weekley, Susan M; Minnillo, Brian J; Elder, Jack S

    2010-07-01

    The combination of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is often used to treat uncomplicated urinary tract infections in children. The rationale for combining trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole is that they may act synergistically to increase antibacterial activity. However, approximately 3% of patients show allergic reactions to sulfamethoxazole, of which some are serious (liver failure and Stevens-Johnson syndrome). We determined whether adding sulfamethoxazole is necessary to increase in vitro antibacterial activity for pediatric urinary tract infection compared to that of trimethoprim alone. We prospectively identified 1,298 children with urinary tract infection (greater than 100,000 cfu/ml Escherichia coli) from a total of 4 American regions. In vitro susceptibility of bacterial isolates to sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was determined using disk diffusion. Ampicillin susceptibility was tested at 2 sites. At 1 site all uropathogens from consecutive urinary isolates were evaluated. E. coli susceptibility to trimethoprim was 70%, comparable to the 70% of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (p = 0.9) and higher than the 56.9% of sulfamethoxazole (p trimethoprim was significantly higher than to ampicillin. At 1 site the susceptibility of other uropathogens to trimethoprim and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was similar to that of E. coli. In children with urinary tract infection in vitro susceptibility to trimethoprim was comparable to that to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and significantly higher than to sulfamethoxazole. This finding was similar at all sites. Adding sulfamethoxazole appears unnecessary and may represent a risk to patients. Trimethoprim can be used as an alternative to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole based on in vitro antibacterial susceptibility. Routine trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole use for urinary tract infection should be carefully reevaluated. Copyright (c) 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc

  5. [Microbial etiology and susceptibility of community urinary tract infections during pregnancy in the south of Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkel, Daniela Fraguas; Dallé, Jessica; Antonello, Vicente Sperb

    2014-03-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common conditions during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of germs and the antimicrobial susceptibility profile in urine culture isolates from pregnant patients treated at a tertiary maternity hospital in Porto Alegre, Brazil. A cross-sectional, retrospective and descriptive study was carried out at Hospital Fêmina, a leading institution in prenatal, birth and postnatal healthcare in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. A total of 482 microbial community results were analyzed out of 1,558 positive urine cultures of pregnant women in all gestational ages treated at Fêmina Hospital between January 2007 and July 2013. The susceptibility pattern presented in this research shows that the choice for UTI treatment during pregnancy should be nitrofurantoin (for uncomplicated infections) or second-generation cephalosporins such as cefuroxime (for uncomplicated and complicated infections), over ampicillin, first-generation cephalosporins and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. Empirical treatment for UTI in pregnancy should be started according to the susceptibility patterns described in the literature and re-analyzed after the results of the urine culture.

  6. Genital and urinary tract infections in diabetes: impact of pharmacologically-induced glucosuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, Suzanne; Fonseca, Vivian; Castro-Diaz, David; List, James; Parikh, Shamik

    2014-01-01

    Predisposition to genital infections and urinary tract infections (UTIs) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) results from several factors such as glucosuria, adherence of bacteria to the uroepithelium and immune dysfunction. The tendency to develop these infections could be even higher in patients

  7. Prescribing patterns for upper respiratory tract infections in general practice in France and in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosman, S.; Vaillant, M. le; Schellevis, F.; Clerc, P.; Verheij, R.; Pelletier-Fleury, N.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: France and the Netherlands are often presented as two contrasting countries with regard to drug prescriptions and consumption. This study aimed to analyse general practitioners' (GP's) prescription patterns for upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). METHODS: Data on diagnoses and

  8. Primary care management of respiratory tract infections in Dutch preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Angelique G S C; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Schilder, Anne G M; Hoes, Arno W; de Jong, Vanya F G M; Hak, Eelko

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine age-specific antibiotic prescription and referral rates in preschool children diagnosed with acute respiratory tract infection (RTI) in primary care. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Research database of the Netherlands University Medical Center Utrecht Primary

  9. Appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing for upper respiratory tract infections in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdardottir, N. R.; Nielsen, A. B. S.; Munck, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in two countries with different prevalence of antimicrobial resistance: Denmark and Iceland.Design: A cross-sectional study. Settings and subjects. General practitioners (GPs...

  10. Co-existence of malaria and urinary tract infection among children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Co-existence of malaria and urinary tract infection among children under five: ... was the predominant cause of the UTI and the isolates were highly resistant ... Keywords: Malaria, UTI, antibiotic sensitivity pattern, parasitaemia, bacteriuria, fever ...

  11. Diagnostic value of radioisotopic cystography in evaluation of VUR in children with urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiri, M.; Shabestani- Monfared, A.; Derazgisoo, M.

    2002-01-01

    Radioisotope scanning is very important in evaluation, diagnosis and proper treatment of urinary tract infection and vesico ureteral reflux because of high sensitivity of this technique and less radiation dose delivered to the patients. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study to determine the frequency vesico ureteral reflux in a group of children aged 28 days to 14 years referred to our department with diagnosis of urinary tract infection .The radioisotope scanning was conducted for all of patients (30 patients) and the results were analyzed. The results showed that urinary tract infection is seen in wide age group and is usually associated with vesico ureteral reflux . The above findings revealed the important role of radioisotope scanning in early diagnosis and subsequent treatment of urinary tract infection to detect vesico ureteral reflux and prevent subsequent side effects in these patients

  12. Probiotics in Preventing Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Women: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Annie H

    2015-01-01

    Increasing antibiotic resistance and increasing resistance to commonly used antibiotics makes treatment and prevention of urinary tract infections difficult. Although more research is needed, probiotics should be considered a useful and safe alternative to antibiotics.

  13. Prevalence and antibiogram of bacterial isolates from urinary tract infections at Dessie Health Research Laboratory, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulugeta Kibret

    2014-02-01

    Conclusions: In the study area resistance rates to erythromycin, amoxycillin and tetracycline were high. Since most isolates were sensitive to nitrofurantoin and gentamicin, they are considered as appropriate antimicrobials for empirical treatment urinary tract infections.

  14. Etiology of acute lower respiratory tract infections in children: current state of the issue (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Bogdanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute lower respiratory tract infections are the leading cause of global morbidity and mortality in children under five years. Verification of the etiology of acute lower respiratory tract infections is necessary for definition of treatment and direction of prevention. Respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A and B, parainfluenza 1, 2, and 3 and adenovirus are considered the main reasons of acute lower respiratory tract infections. The importance of different viruses depends on countries, district, seasons and ages of children. Analysis of the results of studies from different regions of the world showed fluctuations in frequency of etiology definition of respiratory viruses from 25 to 90%. Respiratory syncytial virus is the main reason of acute lower respiratory tract infections, especially in the group of children up to 1 year.

  15. Illness perception and related behaviour in lower respiratory tract infections-a European study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, Patricia M.; Broekhuizen, Berna D L; Butler, Chris C.; Coenen, Samuel; Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Goossens, Herman; Hood, Kerry; Smith, Richard; de Vries-van Vugt, Saskia F.; Little, Paul; Verheij, Theo J M

    2015-01-01

    Background. Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is a common presentation in primary care, but little is known about associated patients' illness perception and related behaviour. Objective. To describe illness perceptions and related behaviour in patients with LRTI visiting their general

  16. Potential Misclassification of Urinary Tract-Related Bacteremia Upon Applying the 2015 Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection Surveillance Definition From the National Healthcare Safety Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, M Todd; Ratz, David; Meddings, Jennifer; Fakih, Mohamad G; Saint, Sanjay

    2016-04-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently updated the surveillance definition of catheter-associated urinary tract infection to include only urine culture bacteria of at least 1 × 10(5) colony-forming units/mL. Our findings suggest that the new surveillance definition may fail to capture clinically meaningful catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

  17. Profile of urinary tract infections in paediatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palak Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: This cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary care centre in Puducherry, south India, with the aim of finding the profile of the paediatric urinary tract infection (UTI, bacterial pathogens involved, and also to observe vesicoureteric reflux (VUR and renal scarring in these patients. Methods: A total of 524 paediatric patients ≤13 yr, suspected to have UTI, were included in the study. Urine samples were collected, processed for uropathogen isolation and antibiotic susceptibility test was performed as per the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. Thirty two culture proven children with UTI underwent micturating cysto-urethrography (MCU and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA scanning was done for 69 children. Results: o0 f the 524 children, 186 (35.4% had culture proven UTI with 105 (56.4% being infants, 50 (27.4% between 1-5 yr, 30 (16.12% between 5-13 yr and 129 (69.35% males. Posterior urethral valve (PUV was noted in three, hydronephrosis in one, VUR in 18 and renal scarring in 33. VUR as well as renal scarring were more in males >1 yr of age. A significant association (P=0.0054 was noted with a combined sensitivity and specificity of these investigations being 83 and 90 per cent, respectively of the MCU and DMSA scans for detecting VUR. Escherichia coli was the most common pathogen isolated, sensitive to nitrofurantoin, followed by cefoperazone-sulbactam, aminoglycosides and meropenem. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results indicate that UTI varies with age and gender and extensive evaluation is required in boys under one year of age with UTI. This study also highlights the better efficacy of aminoglycosides, cefoperazone-sulbactam and nitrofurantoin in vitro compared with meropenem in Gram-negative uropathogens.

  18. Urinary tract infections in pregnancy: evaluation of diagnostic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jido, Tukur Ado

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed with the objective to examine the diagnostic framework for urinary tract infection (UTI) in pregnancy and physician response to the clinical diagnosis and to correlate responses to the results of urine culture and sensitivity. Over a 6-month period, 81 consecutive patients attending the labor ward admission of a district general hospital with the diagnosis of UTI during pregnancy were analyzed. Relevant information on symptom complex, result of dipstick urinalysis and culture and sensitivity were recorded. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Of the 78 patients analyzed, 79% had increased urinary frequency, 73.1% had suprapubic pains and 53.1% had dysuria. All the patients had urinalysis with dipsticks, 41 (52.6%) were positive for nitrites and 64 (82.1%) were positive for leukocyte esterase. All 78 patients had urine culture and sensitivity, 21 (26.8%) of who were positive, and coliforms were the most commonly isolated pathogens. The sensitivity for nitrite was 80.9%, specificity 57.9% and positive predictive value 41.4%. The corresponding figures for leukocyte esterase were sensitivity 100%, specificity 24.6% and positive predictive value 32.8%. Sixty-six (84.6%) patients had treatment started on the basis of the clinical diagnosis, mostly with co-amoxyclavullinic acid or amoxicillin alone. A high resistance rate to these empirically chosen antibiotics was seen in the sensitivity pattern of isolated pathogens. Current clinical diagnostic algorithms for the diagnosis of UTI when applied in the context of pregnancy have low specificity and positive predictive values; yet, empirical antibiotics are frequently employed on this basis. These are often not in keeping with the sensitivity pattern of isolated organisms. There is need for a continuing research for more specific bedside tests.

  19. Urinary tract infections in pregnancy: Evaluation of diagnostic framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tukur Ado Jido

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed with the objective to examine the diagnostic framework for urinary tract infection (UTI in pregnancy and physician response to the clinical diagnosis and to correlate responses to the results of urine culture and sensitivity. Over a 6-month period, 81 consecutive patients attending the labor ward admission of a district general hospital with the diagnosis of UTI during pregnancy were analyzed. Relevant information on symptom complex, result of dipstick urinalysis and culture and sensitivity were recorded. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Of the 78 patients analyzed, 79% had increased urinary frequency, 73.1% had suprapubic pains and 53.1% had dysuria. All the patients had urinalysis with dipsticks, 41 (52.6% were positive for nitrites and 64 (82.1% were positive for leukocyte esterase. All 78 patients had urine culture and sensitivity, 21 (26.8% of who were positive, and coliforms were the most commonly isolated pathogens. The sensitivity for nitrite was 80.9%, specificity 57.9% and positive predictive value 41.4%. The corresponding figures for leukocyte esterase were sensi-tivity 100%, specificity 24.6% and positive predictive value 32.8%. Sixty-six (84.6% patients had treatment started on the basis of the clinical diagnosis, mostly with co-amoxyclavullinic acid or amoxicillin alone. A high resistance rate to these empirically chosen antibiotics was seen in the sensitivity pattern of isolated pathogens. Current clinical diagnostic algorithms for the diagnosis of UTI when applied in the context of pregnancy have low specificity and positive predictive values; yet, empirical antibiotics are frequently employed on this basis. These are often not in keeping with the sensitivity pattern of isolated organisms. There is need for a continuing research for more specific bedside tests.

  20. Obstetrical outcome in women with urinary tract infections in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebäck, Carin; Hansson, Sverker; Martinell, Jeanette; Milsom, Ian; Sandberg, Torsten; Jodal, Ulf

    2016-04-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) during childhood can result in permanent renal damage, with possible implications for future pregnancies. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate pregnancy outcomes in women followed after their first UTI in childhood. A cohort of 72 parous women was followed from their first UTI in childhood up to a median age of 41 years. Clinical data were obtained from antenatal and hospital records. Renal damage was evaluated by a (99m) Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid scan. Pregnancy blood pressure (BP), complications and UTIs were compared between women with and without renal damage. All women completed the investigations, 48 with and 24 without renal damage. No woman, irrespective of presence or absence of renal damage, was diagnosed with hypertension before the first pregnancy. Pregnancy-related hypertension was diagnosed in 10 of 151 pregnancies, all in women with renal damage. Preeclampsia occurred in four women. Women with renal damage had significantly higher systolic BP measured at the last antenatal visit of their first pregnancy, compared with women without renal damage (p = 0.005). During subsequent pregnancies both systolic and diastolic BP were significantly higher in women with than without renal damage (p = 0.02 and p = 0.03, respectively). In this population-based follow-up study we found a large proportion of women with renal damage after UTI in childhood. Women with renal damage had significantly higher BP during pregnancy compared with women without renal damage. Pregnancy-related hypertension was recorded only in women with renal damage. However, pregnancy complications, including preeclampsia, were few. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. Bacteremia and meningitis among infants with urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachur, R; Caputo, G L

    1995-10-01

    A retrospective analysis of 354 patients urinary tract infections (UTIs) was performed to characterize patients with bacteremia or meningitis and to identify any objective predictors of these complications. Thirty-three patients with bacteremia were identified. Blood culture isolates included Escherichia coli (25), Staphylococcus aureus (4), enterococcus (1), group B Streptococcus (2), and Enterobacter (1). Besides one patient with group B Streptococcus bacteremia at 1.5 months of age, all bacteremias after one month of age were with E. coli. Bacteremia was limited to those < 6 months old and inversely related to age (R = 0.24, P = 0.0008). Grouped by age, the incidence of bacteremia was 21% for 0 < or = 1 month, 13% for 1.1-2.0 months, 4% for 2.1-3.0 months, and 8% for 3.1-6.0 months. Mean white blood cell count, initial temperature, initial serum bicarbonate, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were not statistically significant between bacteremic (B) and nonbacteremic (NB) patients. Statistically significant differences were noted for percentage of bands (6.2% [NB] vs. 12.3% [B] P < 0.001), total band count (1048 [NB] vs. 2252 [B] P < 0.001), and band-neutrophil ratio (0.16 [NB] vs. 0.36 [B] P = 0.01); however, no practical value for any of these measures would reliably discriminate between bacteremic and nonbacteremic patients. Four patients, all neonates, had meningitis; too few patients with meningitis were identified for analysis. In summary, bacteremia with UTIs was observed to be inversely related to age and limited to patients less than six months of age. No objective parameters were identified to distinguish patients with bacteremia at the time of presentation.

  2. Dipstick screening for urinary tract infection in febrile infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glissmeyer, Eric W; Korgenski, E Kent; Wilkes, Jacob; Schunk, Jeff E; Sheng, Xiaoming; Blaschke, Anne J; Byington, Carrie L

    2014-05-01

    This study compares the performance of urine dipstick alone with urine microscopy and with both tests combined as a screen for urinary tract infection (UTI) in febrile infants aged 1 to 90 days. We queried the Intermountain Healthcare data warehouse to identify febrile infants with urine dipstick, microscopy, and culture performed between 2004 and 2011. UTI was defined as >50 000 colony-forming units per milliliter of a urinary pathogen. We compared the performance of urine dipstick with unstained microscopy or both tests combined ("combined urinalysis") to identify UTI in infants aged 1 to 90 days. Of 13 030 febrile infants identified, 6394 (49%) had all tests performed and were included in the analysis. Of these, 770 (12%) had UTI. Urine culture results were positive within 24 hours in 83% of UTIs. The negative predictive value (NPV) was >98% for all tests. The combined urinalysis NPV was 99.2% (95% confidence interval: 99.1%-99.3%) and was significantly greater than the dipstick NPV of 98.7% (98.6%-98.8%). The dipstick positive predictive value was significantly greater than combined urinalysis (66.8% [66.2%-67.4%] vs 51.2% [50.6%-51.8%]). These data suggest 8 febrile infants would be predicted to have a false-positive combined urinalysis for every 1 infant with UTI initially missed by dipstick screening. Urine dipstick testing compares favorably with both microscopy and combined urinalysis in febrile infants aged 1 to 90 days. The urine dipstick test may be an adequate stand-alone screen for UTI in febrile infants while awaiting urine culture results. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Profile of urinary tract infections in paediatric patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Palak; Mandal, Jharna; Krishnamurthy, Sriram; Barathi, Deepak; Pandit, Nandini

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: This cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary care centre in Puducherry, south India, with the aim of finding the profile of the paediatric urinary tract infection (UTI), bacterial pathogens involved, and also to observe vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) and renal scarring in these patients. Methods: A total of 524 paediatric patients ≤13 yr, suspected to have UTI, were included in the study. Urine samples were collected, processed for uropathogen isolation and antibiotic susceptibility test was performed as per the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Thirty two culture proven children with UTI underwent micturating cysto-urethrography (MCU) and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scanning was done for 69 children. Results: of the 524 children, 186 (35.4%) had culture proven UTI with 105 (56.4%) being infants, 50 (27.4%) between 1-5 yr, 30 (16.12%) between 5-13 yr and 129 (69.35%) males. Posterior urethral valve (PUV) was noted in three, hydronephrosis in one, VUR in 18 and renal scarring in 33. VUR as well as renal scarring were more in males >1 yr of age. A significant association (P=0.0054) was noted with a combined sensitivity and specificity of these investigations being 83 and 90 per cent, respectively of the MCU and DMSA scans for detecting VUR. Escherichia coli was the most common pathogen isolated, sensitive to nitrofurantoin, followed by cefoperazone-sulbactam, aminoglycosides and meropenem. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results indicate that UTI varies with age and gender and extensive evaluation is required in boys under one year of age with UTI. This study also highlights the better efficacy of aminoglycosides, cefoperazone-sulbactam and nitrofurantoin in vitro compared with meropenem in Gram–negative uropathogens. PMID:26112850

  4. Bacterial infection of the lower respiratory tract in 34 horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racklyeft, D J; Love, D N

    2000-08-01

    To investigate associations between the bacteriology and aspects of history, clinical presentation, outcome and pathology of lower respiratory tract disease of 34 horses. Detailed aerobic and anaerobic bacteriological investigations were performed on clinical specimens from horses with pneumonia, lung abscessation and necrotic pneumonia with or without pleurisy in an attempt to identify those bacteria that might contribute to the initiation and progression of infection. Bacteria were cultured from 33 of the 34 horses. In ten cases, only aerobic/facultatively anaerobic isolates were cultured while aerobic/facultatively anaerobic bacteria and obligately anaerobic bacteria were isolated in the other 23 cases. Moderate to large numbers of anaerobic bacteria were isolated only when the estimated duration of illness was at least five days. Bacteria were not cultured from 12 of the pleural fluid samples but were always cultured from pulmonary samples (either transtracheal aspirates from live horses or pulmonary lesions at necropsy). Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus was isolated in the three cases where only one bacterial species was cultured. In the other 30 cases, multiple species were isolated. These included most often and in greatest numbers, Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus, Pasteurellaceae, Escherichia coli, anaerobic cocci, Eubacterium fossor, Bacteroides tectum, Prevotella heparinolytica, Fusobacterium spp, and pigmented members of the genera Prevotella and Porphyromonas. Aerobic/facultatively anaerobic organisms were isolated from 97% of horses, while obligately anaerobic organisms were cultured from 68% of horses. There was no association between the isolation of any specific bacterium and the outcome of disease. However, obligately anaerobic bacteria (such as anaerobic cocci, Bacteroides tectum, P heparinolytica and Fusobacterium spp) and the facultatively anaerobic species Escherichia coli, were recovered more commonly from horses that died or were

  5. Antimicrobial resistance patterns in community acquired urinary tract infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilani, S.Y.H; Ahmad, N.; Shah, S.R.A.

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most frequent disease for which patients seek medical care. The antimicrobial agents causing UTI and their sensitivity patterns have remarkably changed throughout the world over the past few years. Hence, the present study was designed to explore the uropathogens and their susceptibility to various molecules in our region. Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was conducted at Medical C Unit of Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from January 2015 to January 2016. Patients with clinical features of UTI were evaluated using Urine R/E and Urine culture and sensitivity. Ten antibiotics were checked for susceptibility. Results were analysed using SPSS 17. Results: A total of 630 patients presented with urinary complaints. Of these, 236 patients had more than 8-10 pus cells on urine R/E. They were further evaluated using culture and sensitivity and positive culture was obtained in 75 patients. Of these 34 (45.3%) were males and 41 (54.7%) were females. E Coli was the predominant isolate being present in 49 (65.3%) patients. This was followed by Klebsiella in 9 (12%) patients. Tazobactam-piperacillin and cefoperazone-sulbactam were the most sensitive drugs having overall sensitivity of 96% and 93.3% respectively. The isolates were highly resistant to Fluoroquinolones 77.3% followed by Penicillins 72% and TMP-SMX 69.3%.Conclusion: Antibiotic sensitivity patterns have enormously changed over the past decade. Newer agents are quite efficacious but their use should be highly judicious to prevent the development of resistance to these molecules. (author)

  6. Ethnic variations in morbidity and mortality from lower respiratory tract infections: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Colin R; Steiner, Markus Fc; Cezard, Genevieve; Bansal, Narinder; Fischbacher, Colin; Douglas, Anne; Bhopal, Raj; Sheikh, Aziz

    2015-10-01

    There is evidence of substantial ethnic variations in asthma morbidity and the risk of hospitalisation, but the picture in relation to lower respiratory tract infections is unclear. We carried out an observational study to identify ethnic group differences for lower respiratory tract infections. A retrospective, cohort study. Scotland. 4.65 million people on whom information was available from the 2001 census, followed from May 2001 to April 2010. Hospitalisations and deaths (any time following first hospitalisation) from lower respiratory tract infections, adjusted risk ratios and hazard ratios by ethnicity and sex were calculated. We multiplied ratios and confidence intervals by 100, so the reference Scottish White population's risk ratio and hazard ratio was 100. Among men, adjusted risk ratios for lower respiratory tract infection hospitalisation were lower in Other White British (80, 95% confidence interval 73-86) and Chinese (69, 95% confidence interval 56-84) populations and higher in Pakistani groups (152, 95% confidence interval 136-169). In women, results were mostly similar to those in men (e.g. Chinese 68, 95% confidence interval 56-82), although higher adjusted risk ratios were found among women of the Other South Asians group (145, 95% confidence interval 120-175). Survival (adjusted hazard ratio) following lower respiratory tract infection for Pakistani men (54, 95% confidence interval 39-74) and women (31, 95% confidence interval 18-53) was better than the reference population. Substantial differences in the rates of lower respiratory tract infections amongst different ethnic groups in Scotland were found. Pakistani men and women had particularly high rates of lower respiratory tract infection hospitalisation. The reasons behind the high rates of lower respiratory tract infection in the Pakistani community are now required. © The Royal Society of Medicine.

  7. PATTERN OF ANTIMICROBIAL USE FOR URINARY TRACT INFECTION DURING PREGNANCY IN A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    Haldia Priyanka, Sharma Taruna, Nautiyal Ruchira

    2015-01-01

    Background: Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) may be classified as lower (cystitis and asymptomatic bacteriuria) or upper urinary tract infections (pyelonephritis). The recommended antibiotics for use in pregnancy for management of ASB include amoxicillin, oral cephalosporins and nitrofurantoin; and for the treatment of lower UTI during pregnancy include penicillins, oral cephalosporins. Data from the antibiotic usage study in UTI during pregnancy will help in establishing a proper antibiotic uti...

  8. Risk factors for febrile urinary tract infection in infants with prenatal hydronephrosis: comprehensive single center analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareba, Piotr; Lorenzo, Armando J; Braga, Luis H

    2014-05-01

    We assessed risk factors for urinary tract infection in children with prenatal hydronephrosis We identified 376 infants with prenatal hydronephrosis in an institutional database. The occurrence of febrile urinary tract infection in the first 2 years of life was ascertained by chart review. Febrile urinary tract infection was defined as a positive culture from a catheterized urine specimen in a patient with a fever of 38.0C or greater. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess gender, circumcision status, hydronephrosis grade, vesicoureteral reflux grade and antibiotic prophylaxis as predictors of the risk of urinary tract infection. Included in analysis were 277 males and 99 females. Hydronephrosis was high grade in 128 infants (34.0%) and vesicoureteral reflux was present in 79 (21.0%). Antibiotic prophylaxis was prescribed in 60.4% of patients, preferentially to females vs males (70.7% vs 56.7%), those with high vs low grade hydronephrosis (70.3% vs 55.2%) and those with vs without vesicoureteral reflux (96.2% vs 50.8%). On multivariate analysis there was an association between high grade hydronephrosis and an increased risk of urinary tract infection (adjusted OR 2.40, 95% CI 1.26-4.56). Females (adjusted OR 3.16, 95% CI 0.98-10.19) and uncircumcised males (adjusted OR 3.63, 95% CI 1.18-11.22) were also at higher risk than circumcised males. Antibiotic prophylaxis was not associated with a decreased risk of urinary tract infection (adjusted OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.45-1.94). High grade hydronephrosis, female gender and uncircumcised status in males are independent risk factors for febrile urinary tract infection in infants with prenatal hydronephrosis. Antibiotic prophylaxis did not reduce the risk of urinary tract infection in the study group. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Development and validation of a nomogram predicting recurrence risk in women with symptomatic urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tommaso; Mazzoli, Sandra; Migno, Serena; Malossini, Gianni; Lanzafame, Paolo; Mereu, Liliana; Tateo, Saverio; Wagenlehner, Florian M E; Pickard, Robert S; Bartoletti, Riccardo

    2014-09-01

    To develop and externally validate a novel nomogram predicting recurrence risk probability at 12 months in women after an episode of urinary tract infection. The study included 768 women from Santa Maria Annunziata Hospital, Florence, Italy, affected by urinary tract infections from January 2005 to December 2009. Another 373 women with the same criteria enrolled at Santa Chiara Hospital, Trento, Italy, from January 2010 to June 2012 were used to externally validate and calibrate the nomogram. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression models tested the relationship between urinary tract infection recurrence risk, and patient clinical and laboratory characteristics. The nomogram was evaluated by calculating concordance probabilities, as well as testing calibration of predicted urinary tract infection recurrence with observed urinary tract infections. Nomogram variables included: number of partners, bowel function, type of pathogens isolated (Gram-positive/negative), hormonal status, number of previous urinary tract infection recurrences and previous treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria. Of the original development data, 261 out of 768 women presented at least one episode of recurrence of urinary tract infection (33.9%). The nomogram had a concordance index of 0.85. The nomogram predictions were well calibrated. This model showed high discrimination accuracy and favorable calibration characteristics. In the validation group (373 women), the overall c-index was 0.83 (P = 0.003, 95% confidence interval 0.51-0.99), whereas the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.85 (95% confidence interval 0.79-0.91). The present nomogram accurately predicts the recurrence risk of urinary tract infection at 12 months, and can assist in identifying women at high risk of symptomatic recurrence that can be suitable candidates for a prophylactic strategy. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  10. Hand hygiene to reduce community transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infection: a systematic review.

    OpenAIRE

    Warren-Gash, C; Fragaszy, E; Hayward, AC

    2012-01-01

    : Please cite this paper as: Warren-Gash et al. (2012) Hand hygiene to reduce community transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infection: a systematic review. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: 10.1111/irv.12015. Hand hygiene may be associated with modest protection against some acute respiratory tract infections, but its specific role in influenza transmission in different settings is unclear. We aimed to review evidence that improving hand hygiene reduces primary an...

  11. Chronic Infections of the Urinary Tract and Bladder Cancer Risk: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Otunu, Oghenetejiri; Akhtar, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Literature on the relationship between recurrent urinary tract infections and urinary bladder carcinoma risk has been inconsistent. Therefore, we carried out this systematic review of observational studies to ascertain if there is any association between chronic urinary tract infection and urinary bladder carcinoma. A total of 10 databases were searched using Boolean: CINAHL, PUBMED, Google Scholar, Medline, Science Direct, SCIRUS, Cochrane, UK PubMed central, NHS evidence and WHO-website. The search yielded an initial hit of 3,518 articles and after screening and critical appraisal, seven studies were included for this review. Four articles reported an association between chronic urinary tract infections and bladder cancer while three concluded a weak or no association at least in one gender. Main findings in this review were that most of the studies reported an association between chronic urinary tract infections and bladder cancer risk. However, inferences about the causal association between chronic urinary tract infections and bladder cancer risk should be drawn cautiously considering the methodological limitations of case-control studies included in this review. Therefore, more empirical evidence is needed to determine the causal nature of relationships between chronic urinary tract infections and bladder cancer risk.

  12. The “Top-Down” Approach to the Evaluation of Children with Febrile Urinary Tract Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans G. Pohl

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of children presenting with urinary tract infection (UTI has long entailed sonography and cystography to identify all urological abnormalities that might contribute to morbidity. The identification of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR has been of primary concern since retrospective studies from the 1930s to 1960s established a strong association between VUR, recurrent UTI, and renal cortical scarring. It has been proposed that all VUR carries a risk for renal scarring and, therefore, all VUR should be identified and treated. We will not discuss the controversies surrounding VUR treatment in this review focusing instead on a new paradigm for the evaluation of the child with UTI that is predicated on identifying those at risk for scarring who are most deserving of further evaluation by cystography.

  13. Management of urinary tract infections in children in an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joan L; Le Saux, Nicole

    2016-09-01

    Accurate diagnosis and appropriate use of antimicrobials for treatment and prevention of urinary tract infections (UTIs) is vital in an era of increasing antibiotic resistance. The article reviews indications for and interpretation of urinalysis and urine culture results for diagnosis of UTI, choice of antibiotics for empiric and definitive UTI therapy, the rationale behind and indications for radiographic investigations, and prevention of UTIs including the complex decision as to whether antibiotic prophylaxis will benefit a child. Expert commentary: Over-diagnosis of UTI is a prevalent problem due to the lack of specificity of both urinalysis and urine culture. The most major recent advance in the field has been the recognition that antibiotic prophylaxis for UTI is rarely indicated as in most situations, the number needed to treat to prevent one UTI is too high to justify the risk of adverse events and development of antimicrobial resistance.

  14. Detrusor instability in children with recurrent urinary tract infection and/or enuresis. II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, N; Nielsen, K K; Kristensen, E S

    1986-01-01

    Of 41 children, aged 5-15 years, referred consecutively because of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) and/or enuresis, 18 (44%) showed detrusor instability (DI) in at least 2 of 6 CO2 cystometries. One child was excluded from the study because of lack of follow-up. Four children with less...... pronounced DI (instability during less than or equal to 50% of the cystometries performed) and frequent UTIs were given antibiotics prophylactically for 3 months. In the remaining 13 children, DI was found during more than half the cystometries performed, and 11 of these children, who also had urge...... incontinence, were treated with emepronium bromide, 400-600 mg daily (10-12 mg/kg) for 3 months. In 7 of the patients this treatment was supplemented by antibiotics prophylactically because of frequent UTIs. Two children with special problems received other types of treatment. All children were free from...

  15. The preventive effect on respiratory tract infections of Oscillococcinum®. A cost-effectiveness analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombo GL

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Giorgio L Colombo,1,2 Sergio Di Matteo,2 Chiara Martinotti,2 Martina Oselin,2 Giacomo M Bruno,2 Gianfranco M Beghi3 1Department of Drug Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 2S.A.V.E. Studi Analisi Valutazioni Economiche S.r.l., Health Economics & Outcomes Research, Milan, Italy; 3Unit of Pulmonary Rehabilitation, Hospital of Casorate Primo, Pavia, Italy Background: Anas barbariae hepatis et cordis extractum 200K (Oscillococcinum® is used to treat and prevent seasonal colds and airway inflammatory affections, improve symptom control, and reduce the frequency of respiratory tract infection (RTI episodes. The objective of this controlled observational study is to investigate, from the Italian National Health Service (NHS point of view, the role of Anas barbariae hepatis et cordis extractum 200K in preventing RTIs and estimate the annual average cost per patient due to visits and medicines in a real-world setting, investigating whether this method of treatment can bring savings for the NHS.Methods: Data from a single center from 2002 to 2011 were used. The analysis examined 455 patients who suffered from respiratory diseases. Of the total number of patients, 246 were treated with Anas barbariae hepatis et cordis extractum 200K while 209 were not treated (Control group. All the data concerning RTI episodes, pharmacological treatments, and pneumological visits were extracted from the database.Results: It was found that, regardless of the diagnosis, the frequency of RTI episodes was always lower in patients treated with Anas barbariae hepatis et cordis extractum 200K; the difference between the numbers of events occurring was statistically significant in every class of patients (p<0.001. The costs that the NHS had to incur were significantly lower in the classes of patients treated (p<0.001.Discussion: The results indicate that Anas barbariae hepatis et cordis extractum 200K has a preventive effect on the onset of RTI episodes. The analysis

  16. Respiratory Tract Infections and Voice Quality in 4-Year-old Children in the STEPS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallvik, Emma; Toivonen, Laura; Peltola, Ville; Kaljonen, Anne; Simberg, Susanna

    2018-03-02

    Health-related factors are part of the multifactorial background of dysphonia in children. Respiratory tract infections affect the same systems and structures that are used for voice production. The purpose of this study was to investigate if the number of respiratory tract infections or the viral etiology were significant predictors for a more hoarse voice quality. The participants were 4-year-old children who participated in the multidisciplinary STEPS study (Steps to the Healthy Development and Well-being of Children) where they were followed up from pregnancy or birth to 4 years of age. Data were collected through questionnaires and a health diary filled in by the parents. Some of the children were followed up more intensively for respiratory tract infections during the first 2 years of life, and nasal swab samples were taken at the onset of respiratory symptoms. Our participants were 489 of these children who had participated in the follow-up for at least 1 year and for whom data on respiratory tract infections and data on voice quality were available. The number of hospitalizations due to respiratory tract infections was a significant predictor for a more hoarse voice quality. Neither the number of rhinovirus infections nor the number of respiratory syncytial virus infections was statistically significant predictors for a more hoarse voice quality. Based on our results, we would suggest including questions on the presence of respiratory tract infections that have led to hospitalization in the pediatric voice anamnesis. Whether the viral etiology of respiratory tract infections is of importance or not requires further research. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Children's UTIs in the new millennium. Diagnosis, investigation, and treatment of childhood urinary tract infections in the year 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C. T.; Matsell, D. G.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an effective approach for family physicians treating children presenting with urinary tract infections (UTIs). QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The information presented, and articles quoted, are drawn from both review of the literature and recent consensus guidelines. Data and recommendations come from prospective multicentre trials; retrospective reviews; expert consensus statements; and some smaller trials, commentaries, and editorials. MAIN MESSAGE: Urinary tract infections are often seen in family practice. Diagnosis requires suspicion and a realization that children, especially those younger than 2 years, often have very few, nonspecific signs of infection. Obtaining a proper urine sample is vital, because true infections require radiographic studies. Antibiotic prophylaxis is promoted because of the link between vesicoureteral reflux, recurrent UTIs, and renal scarring and hypertension. We generally provide prophylaxis until children are 3 or 4 years, when risk of damage from reflux is lessened and timely urine samples are easier to obtain for prompt therapy. Surgical opinion is sought only when medical management has failed. Failure is defined as either recurrent infections and pyelonephritis or poor renal growth. CONCLUSION: To diagnose UTIs in children, physicians must suspect them, obtain proper urine samples, order appropriate investigations to rule out underlying anatomic abnormalities, and treat with appropriate antibiotics considering both organism sensitivities and length of therapy. PMID:11561337

  18. Intravenous moxifloxacin in routine hospital treatment of respiratory tract infections in China: results of a multicenter, noninterventional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen R

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Rongchang Chen1, Wenjiang Ma2, Xuezhong Yu3, Xinmin Liu4, Jihong Zhu5, Hong Liang6, Xiaomei Wu7, Tao Guo81State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, China; 2Respiratory Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Medical School of Zhejiang University, China; 3Emergency Department, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, China; 4Geriatric Department, Peking University First Hospital, China; 5Emergency Department, Peking University People's Hospital, China; 6Respiratory Department, Huadong Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University, China; 7Respiratory Department, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, China; 8Hematology Department, Wuhan Union Hospital, ChinaObjective: To investigate the effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of moxifloxacin (MXF (intravenous [IV] or sequential therapy [IV followed by oral] under daily treatment conditions in a large number of patients with respiratory tract infections.Design: Patients with a diagnosis of respiratory tract infection should be treated with MXF IV and/or tablets 400 mg once daily for a duration at the physician's discretion. For each patient, the physician documented data at an initial visit and at the end of therapy (EOT visit and/or, in the case of sequential therapy, an interim visit when the patient switched to oral treatment.Results: A total of 1953 patients treated with MXF were documented and were valid for an effectiveness and safety evaluation. An improvement was observed in 98.1% (n = 1911/1949 of patients treated with MXF. Recovery was documented in 89.9% (n = 1754/1951 of the patients. At the EOT visit, severity of infection was assessed to be "relieved" or at least "improved" in 96.5% (n = 1873/1940 of the patients. Physicians assessed overall effectiveness as "good" or "very good" in 93.3% (n = 1822/1953 of all patients. The physicians' overall tolerability rating was "very good" or "good" in 93.5% (n

  19. [Efficacy and tolerance of fenspiride in adult patients with acute respiratory tract infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płusa, T; Nawacka, D

    1998-12-01

    Fenspiride is an antiinflammatory drug targeted for the respiratory tract. In our study clinical efficacy and tolerance of drug were evaluated in 392 adult patients with acute respiratory tract infections. According to clinical criteria all observed symptoms were classified as mild, moderate and severe. The most of observed patients were included into moderate symptom score. Cough and nose obturation were dominant symptoms. All noticed changes in the upper respiratory tract were decreased after fenspiride therapy in 7 days trial. In 168 observed patients systemic and in 60 local acting antibiotics were successfully applied. Excellent tolerance of fenspiride was documented in 59% and good tolerance --in 34% of patients. Observed adverse reactions were classified as mild and in 20 patients fenspiride was rejected. Authors suggest that fenspiride therapy is save and successful in patient with acute respiratory tract infection. Good results in patients with bronchitis in decreasing of bronchospasm indicate fenspiride as a good tool in bronchial infection.

  20. The one-film urogram in urinary tract infection in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonidas, J.C.; Schwartz, R.; Schwartz, A.M.; McCauley, R.G.; Darling, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of the 5 min postinjection radiograph during urography were studied in 131 children. The 5 min film was overall accurate in 83.2%, with a 56% sensitivity and 91.3% specificity in patients with urinary tract infection (n = 62). In cases in which the 5 min film was not diagostic, it nevertheless raised enough suspicions to dictate additional films. It is suggested that in urinary tract infection, errors will not be made if the single 5 min postinjection film is reviewed and additional films are obtained only if parts of the urinary tract are incompletely visualized or appear questionable. Further study is necessary to explore the merits of a similar approach for pediatric urography unrelated to urinary tract infection

  1. Procalcitonin and C-reactive protein in urinary tract infection diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui-Ying; Liu, Hua-Wei; Liu, Ji-Ling; Dong, Jun-Hua

    2014-05-30

    Urinary infections are a common type of pediatric disease, and their treatment and prognosis are closely correlated with infection location. Common clinical manifestations and laboratory tests are insufficient to differentiate between acute pyelonephritis and lower urinary tract infection. This study was conducted to explore a diagnostic method for upper and lower urinary tract infection differentiation. The diagnostic values of procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were analyzed using the receiver operating characteristic curve method for upper and lower urinary tract infection differentiation. PCT was determined using chemiluminescent immunoassay. The PCT and CRP values in children with acute pyelonephritis were significantly higher than those in children with lower urinary tract infection (3.90 ± 3.51 ng/ml and 68.17 ± 39.42 mg/l vs. 0.48 ± 0.39 ng/ml and 21.39 ± 14.92 mg/l). The PCT values were correlated with the degree of renal involvement, whereas the CRP values failed to show such a significant correlation. PCT had a sensitivity of 90.47% and a specificity of 88% in predicting nephropathia, whereas CRP had sensitivity of 85.71% and a specificity of 48%. Both PCT and CRP can be used for upper and lower urinary tract infection differentiation, but PCT has higher sensitivity and specificity in predicting pyelonephritis than CRP. PCT showed better results than CRP. PCT values were also correlated with the degree of renal involvement.

  2. Hyperammonemia associated with distal renal tubular acidosis or urinary tract infection: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clericetti, Caterina M; Milani, Gregorio P; Lava, Sebastiano A G; Bianchetti, Mario G; Simonetti, Giacomo D; Giannini, Olivier

    2018-03-01

    Hyperammonemia usually results from an inborn error of metabolism or from an advanced liver disease. Individual case reports suggest that both distal renal tubular acidosis and urinary tract infection may also result in hyperammonemia. A systematic review of the literature on hyperammonemia secondary to distal renal tubular acidosis and urinary tract infection was conducted. We identified 39 reports on distal renal tubular acidosis or urinary tract infections in association with hyperammonemia published between 1980 and 2017. Hyperammonemia was detected in 13 children with distal renal tubular acidosis and in one adult patient with distal renal tubular acidosis secondary to primary hyperparathyroidism. In these patients a negative relationship was observed between circulating ammonia and bicarbonate levels (P urinary tract infection was complicated by acute hyperammonemia and symptoms and signs of acute neuronal dysfunction, such as an altered level of consciousness, convulsions and asterixis, often associated with signs of brain edema, such as anorexia and vomiting. Urea-splitting bacteria were isolated in 28 of the 31 cases. The urinary tract was anatomically or functionally abnormal in 30 of these patients. This study reveals that both altered distal renal tubular acidification and urinary tract infection may be associated with relevant hyperammonemia in both children and adults.

  3. Extraction Strings for Ureteric Stents: Is There an Increased Risk for Urinary Tract Infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Maryna; Fehr, Jan; Sulser, Tullio; Eberli, Daniel; Mortezavi, Ashkan

    To evaluate urinary tract infections associated with placement of ureteric stents, we performed a retrospective study and compared rates between patients with and patients without an extraction string attached to the ureteric stent. Indwelling ureteric stents are routinely removed by cystoscopy. If an extraction string has been connected to the stent at the time of placement, however, the removal can be performed without an invasive procedure. Concerns exist regarding the risk for an unintentional dislocation, increased stent-related discomfort, or an increase of the post-operative urinary tract infection rate. All elective transurethral ureteric stent placements performed between November 2011 and December 2012 in our department were included for this investigation. Urinary tract infection was defined according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) surveillance definition of health-care-associated infections. Patients with an existing urinary tract infection at the time of admission were excluded from the analysis. A total of 342 patients receiving ureteric stents were evaluated regarding post-operative urinary tract infections. Of these patients, 127 (37.1%) had an extraction string and 215 (62.9%) a stent without a string. The total urinary tract infection rate was 6.4% with no significant difference between the two groups (7.9% vs. 5.6%, p = 0.49). In the present study, we did not observe an increased rate of post-operative urinary tract infections in patients with an extraction string attached to the ureteral stent. Extraction string is a good option for patients to avoid cystoscopic stent removal.

  4. The "RESEAU MATER": An efficient infection control for endometritis, but not for urinary tract infection after vaginal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayzac, Louis; Caillat-Vallet, Emmanuelle; Girard, Raphaële; Berland, Michel

    "RESEAU MATER" is useful to monitor nosocomial infections in maternity and contributes to the decreasing trend of it, since its implementation. Specifically, this network demonstrates its efficiency in the control of endometritis following vaginal deliveries, but not in the control of urinary tract infections. The aim of this study is to determine whether the difference between the control of endometritis and of urinary tract infection could be explained by an unsuitable regression model or by an unsuitable care policy concerning urinary cares. This study includes (1) the analysis of historic data of the network and (2) the description of French guidelines for maternity cares and available evaluations, concerning endometritis and urinary tract infection prevention. Univariate and multivariate odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for the total study period of 1999-2013, for these infections and their risk factors. The endometritis frequency is decreasing, in association with no significant evolution of associated risk factors, but urinary tract infection frequency is constant, in association with a increasing trend of its risk factors such as intermittent catheterization and epidural analgesia. In French guidelines, all preventive measures against endometritis are clearly broadcasted by all field operators, and repeated audits have reinforced the control of their application. But preventive measures against urinary tract infection seem to be broadcasted exclusively in the circle of infection prevention agencies and not in the obstetrics societies or in the Health Ministry communication. Urinary tract infection prevention requires a clearer public and professional policy in favor of a more efficient urinary cares, with a specific target to maternity. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Management of urinary tract infections in patients with neurogenic bladder: challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannek, Jürgen; Wöllner, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common morbidities in persons with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD). They are associated with a significant morbidity and mortality, and they affect the quality of life of the affected patients. Diagnosis and treatment of UTI in this group of patients are challenging. In this review, the current strategies regarding diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are summarized. it is important to correctly diagnose a UTI, as treatment of bacteriuria should strictly be avoided. A UTI is defined as a combination of laboratory findings (leukocyturia and bacteriuria) and symptoms. Laboratory findings without symptoms are classified as asymptomatic bacteriuria. Routine urine screening is not advised. Only UTI should be treated; treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria is not indicated. Prior to treatment, urine for a urine culture should be obtained. Antibiotic treatment for ~7 days is advised. In recurrent UTI, bladder management should be optimized and morphologic causes for UTI should be excluded. If UTIs persist, medical prophylaxis should be considered. Currently, no prophylactic measure with evidence-based efficacy exists. Long-term antibiotic prophylaxis should be used merely as an ultimate measure. Among the various mentioned innovative approaches for UTI prevention, bacteriophages, intravesical instillations, complementary and alternative medicine techniques, and probiotics seem to be most promising. Recently, several promising innovative options for UTI prophylaxis have been developed which may help overcome the current therapeutic dilemma. However, further well designed studies are necessary to evaluate the safety and efficacy of these approaches.

  6. Urinary tract infections in pregnant women with coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olén, Ola; Montgomery, Scott M; Ekbom, Anders; Bollgren, Ingela; Ludvigsson, Jonas F

    2007-02-01

    Previous research has indicated a link between coeliac disease (CD) and urinary tract infection (UTI). The objective of this study was to assess the risk of UTI and repeated episodes of UTI before the current pregnancy in women with diagnosed or undiagnosed CD. A national registry-based cohort study restricted to pregnant women was used in this investigation, with linkage between the Swedish National Medical Birth Registry and the National Inpatient Registry. We analysed the risk of UTI during pregnancy from 1973 to 1989 in 212 pregnancies to women who had received a diagnosis of CD prior to giving birth and in 786 pregnancies to women diagnosed after giving birth. We also assessed the risk of repeated episodes of UTI before the current pregnancy according to data in the national birth records of 1990-2001 in 617 women with CD diagnosed prior to giving birth and 109 women diagnosed after giving birth. UTI during pregnancy: UTI occurred during 19,139/1,678,304 pregnancies to women who had never had a diagnosis of CD, compared with in 12/786 pregnancies to women with undiagnosed CD (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.37; 95% CI=0.78-2.43; p=0.276) and in 0/212 pregnancies to women with diagnosed CD (AOR=0.06; 95% CI=0.00-8.94; p=0.277) (ORs adjusted for maternal age, parity, nationality and calendar period). Repeated episodes of UTI before the current pregnancy: among 692,991 women who had never had a diagnosis of CD, 74,776 reported repeated episodes of UTI, compared with 14/101 women with undiagnosed CD (AOR=1.39; 95% CI=0.79-2.45; p=0.255) and 69/566 women with diagnosed CD (AOR=1.02; 95% CI=0.79-1.32; p=0.864) (ORs adjusted for maternal age, parity, nationality, calendar period and civil status). Adjustment for smoking in a subset of patients with available data did not change the risk estimates. It cannot be ruled out that undiagnosed CD in pregnant women is associated with a small, increased risk of UTI. In pregnant women with diagnosed CD, there seems to be no

  7. Risk factors of urinary tract infection in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Gulfareen; Zehra, Nishat; Munir, Aftab Afroze; Haider, Ambreen

    2010-03-01

    To determine the frequency, risk factors and pattern of urinary complaints during pregnancy. A descriptive study was conducted in the Obstetric and Gynaecology Department of Isra University Hospital, Hyderabad from 1st January to 30th August 2008. Total 232 women were selected to ascertain the frequency and pattern of urinary symptoms as well as the risk factors of urinary tract infection (UTI) such as age, parity, education, past history of UTI and haemoglobin among women attending an antenatal clinic. All pregnant women irrespective of age, parity and gestational age were included, while women with known underlying renal pathology, chronic renal disease, renal transplant, diabetes or taking immunosuppressant therapy were excluded. Informed consent was taken and data collected on a self designed proforma. All the women underwent complete examination of urine. Dipstick test was performed on midstream urine and urine was cultured incase of positive dipstick test and women with urinary symptoms. Data was analyzed on SPSS version 11. Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were calculated among the categorical parameters by applying the Fisher's exact test. Out of 232 women, 108(46.5%) reported urinary symptoms which were due to pregnancy induced changes on urinary system as no growth was obtained on urine culture, while 10 (4.3%) were due to underlying UTI. Most common urinary symptom in these women was abnormal voiding pattern 85 (40.3%) followed by irritative symptoms and voiding difficulties. Illiteracy, history of sexual activity, low socioeconomic (monthly income UTI and multiparity were found to be risk factors for UTI in these women. On complete urine examination, 222 (95.6%) patients either did not reveal any pus cells or had less than 5 WBC/HPF. Out of 108 cultures, only 10 (4.3%) specimens showed growth. E-coli was the most commonly detected organism 7 (3%) followed by S-aureus in 3 (1.3%). The common urinary symptoms encountered in the studied women were

  8. Bladder pressure measurements and urinary tract infection in trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duane, Therèse M; Young, Andrew; Weber, William; Wolfe, Luke G; Malhotra, Ajai K; Aboutanos, Michel B; Whelan, James F; Mayglothling, Julie; Ivatury, Rao R

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this trial was to determine if using a closed technique for bladder pressure measurements (BPMs) would eliminate them as a risk factor for urinary tract infection (UTI) in trauma patients, as was shown previously using an open technique. Data were collected prospectively from January 2006 until December 2009 by a dedicated epidemiology nurse and combined with trauma registry data at our Level 1 trauma center. All trauma patients admitted to the surgical trauma intensive care unit (STICU) with and without UTIs were compared for demographic and epidemiologic data. A closed system was used in which the urinary drainage catheter (UDC) remained connected to the bag and 45 mL of saline was injected through a two-way valved sideport, with subsequent measurements through the sideport. There were 1,641 patients in the trial. The UTI group was sicker (Injury Severity Score [ISS] 18.7±11.9 no UTI vs. 28±10.7 UTI; p<0.0001), with longer stays (11.4±12.4 days no UTI vs. 37.9±20.3 days UTI; p<0.0001) and more UDC days (4.3±6.6 no UTI vs. 23.9±16.6 UTI; p<0.0001). The BPM group had more UDC days (15.6 days±16.0 BPM vs. 5.4 days±7.3 no BPM; p<0.0001), yet no difference in UTI rate/1,000 UDC days (5.7 no BPM vs. 8.0 BPM; p=0.5291). Logistic regression demonstrated only UDC days to be a predictor of UTI (1.125; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.097-1.154; p<0.0001), whereas ISS (1.083, 95% CI 1.063-1.104; p<0.0001) and age (1.051, 95% CI 1.037-1.065; p<0.0001) were the only predictors of death. Although patients undergoing BPM have more UTIs than patients without BPM, the measurements are not an independent predictor of UTI when done by the closed technique. These findings emphasize the judicious use of BPM with a closed system and, more importantly, the need for early removal of catheters.

  9. Ultra-violet resonance Raman spectroscopy for the rapid discrimination of urinary tract infection bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Roger M; Goodacre, Royston

    2004-03-19

    The ability to identify pathogenic organisms rapidly provides significant benefits to clinicians; in particular, with respect to best prescription practices and tracking of recurrent infections. Conventional bioassays require 3-5 days before identification of an organism can be made, thus compromising the effectiveness with which patients can be treated for bacterial infections. We analysed 20 clinical isolates of urinary tract infections (UTI) by ultra-violet resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopy, utilising 244 nm excitation delivering approximately 0.1 mW laser power at the sample, with typical spectral collection times of 120 s. UVRR results in resonance-enhanced Raman signals for certain chromophoric segments of macromolecules, intensifying those selected bands above what would otherwise be observed for a normal Raman experiment. Utilising the whole-organism 'fingerprints' obtained by UVRR we were able to discriminate successfully between UTI pathogens using chemometric cluster analyses. This work demonstrates significant improvements in the speed with which spectra can be obtained by Raman spectroscopic techniques for the discrimination of clinical bacterial samples.

  10. Antimicrobials for the treatment of urinary tract infection in pregnancy: practices in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, Elizabeth; Thomas, Raja John; Chandy, Sujith; Mathai, Matthews; Bergstrom, Staffan

    2004-09-01

    Although urinary tract infection (UTI) in pregnancy is a common medical problem, very little is known about the susceptibility patterns of bacteria causing UTI and the prescription practices for UTI in pregnancy in low-income countries. Studies were, therefore, carried out in southern India to document the susceptibility patterns and to compare these with prescription practices. Data on susceptibility patterns of bacteria isolated in significant counts from urine of pregnant women suspected to have urinary infection were collected. Prescribing patterns for these infections were ascertained using a questionnaire. About 90% of E. coli causing UTI is still susceptible to nitrofurantoin, a relatively inexpensive and safe drug. However, less than 25% of doctors used it for treatment of cystitis. Cephalosporins were most commonly used in hospital practice for the treatment of UTI. Amoxycillin was being used widely to treat UTI in pregnancy in spite of high prevalence of resistance. There were wide variations in the duration of therapy and use of prophylaxis. Our findings indicate an urgent need for proper guidelines, dissemination of information to practitioners and supervision of antimicrobial usage in low income countries like India. Irrational and unnecessary drug use can be expensive and harmful.

  11. Complicated urinary tract infections: practical solutions for the treatment of multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallett, Ann; Hand, Kieran

    2010-11-01

    Resistance in Gram-negative bacteria has been increasing, particularly over the last 6 years. This is mainly due to the spread of strains producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) such as CTX-M enzymes or AmpC β-lactamases. Many of the isolates producing these enzymes are also resistant to trimethoprim, quinolones and aminoglycosides, often due to plasmid co-expression of other resistance mechanisms. CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli often occurs in the community and as E. coli is one of the commonest organisms causing urinary tract infections (UTIs) the choice of agents to treat these infections is diminishing. Novel combinations of antibiotics are being used in the community and broad-spectrum agents such as carbapenems are being used increasingly as empirical treatment for severe infections. Of particular concern therefore are reports in the UK of organisms that produce carbapenemases. As resistance is becoming more widespread, prudent use of antimicrobials is imperative and, as asymptomatic bacteriuria is typically benign in the elderly, antibiotics should not be prescribed without clinical signs of UTI. The use of antibiotics as suppressive therapy or long-term prophylaxis may no longer be defensible.

  12. The burden and risk factors of Sexually Transmitted Infections and Reproductive Tract Infections among pregnant women in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munjoma Marshal W

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs and Reproductive tract infections (RTIs are responsible for high morbidity among women. We aim to quantify the magnitude of the burden and risk factors of STI/RTI s among pregnant women in Zimbabwe. Methods A cross sectional study of pregnant women enrolled at 36 weeks of gestation from the national PMTCT program. Study was conducted from three peri-urban clinics around Harare Zimbabwe offering maternal and child health services. Results A total of 691 pregnant women were enrolled. Prevalence of HSV was (51.1%, HIV (25.6% syphilis (1.2%, Trichomonas vaginalis (11.8%, bacterial vaginosis (32.6% and Candidiasis (39.9%. Seven percent of the women had genital warts, 3% had genital ulcers and 28% had an abnormal vaginal discharge. Prevalence of serological STIs and vaginal infections were 51% and 64% respectively. Risk factors for a positive serologic STI were increasing age above 30 years, polygamy and multigravid; adjusted OR (95% CI 2.61(1.49-4.59, 2.16(1.06-4.39, 3.89(1.27-11.98 respectively, partner taking alcohol and number of lifetime sexual partners. For vaginal infections it was age at sexual debut; OR (95% CI 1.60(1.06-2.42. More than 25% of the women reported previous STI treatment. Fifty two percent reported ever use of condoms and 65% were on oral contraceptives. Mean age gap for sexual partners was 6.3 years older. Conclusions There is a high morbidity of STI/RTIs in this cohort. There is need to continuously screen, counsel, treat and monitor trends of STI/RTIs to assess if behaviour changes lead to reduction in infections and their sustainability.

  13. Probiotics for preventing acute upper respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qiukui; Dong, Bi Rong; Wu, Taixiang

    2015-02-03

    Probiotics may improve a person's health by regulating their immune function. Some trials have shown that probiotic strains can prevent respiratory infections. Even though the previous version of our review showed benefits of probiotics for acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), several new studies have been published. To assess the effectiveness and safety of probiotics (any specified strain or dose), compared with placebo, in the prevention of acute URTIs in people of all ages, at risk of acute URTIs. We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 6), MEDLINE (1950 to July week 3, 2014), EMBASE (1974 to July 2014), Web of Science (1900 to July 2014), the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, which includes the China Biological Medicine Database (from 1978 to July 2014), the Chinese Medicine Popular Science Literature Database (from 2000 to July 2014) and the Masters Degree Dissertation of Beijing Union Medical College Database (from 1981 to July 2014). We also searched the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov for completed and ongoing trials on 31 July 2014. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing probiotics with placebo to prevent acute URTIs. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility and quality of trials, and extracted data using the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included 13 RCTs, although we could only extract data to meta-analyse 12 trials, which involved 3720 participants including children, adults (aged around 40 years) and older people. We found that probiotics were better than placebo when measuring the number of participants experiencing episodes of acute URTI (at least one episode: odds ratio (OR) 0.53; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37 to 0.76, P value school absence (OR 0.10; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.47, very low quality evidence). Probiotics and placebo were similar when measuring the rate ratio of episodes of acute

  14. Cost effectiveness of amoxicillin for lower respiratory tract infections in primary care : An economic evaluation accounting for the cost of antimicrobial resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppong, Raymond; Smith, Richard D.; Little, Paul; Verheij, Theo; Butler, Christopher C.; Goossens, Herman; Coenen, Samuel; Moore, Michael; Coast, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Background Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are a major disease burden and are often treated with antibiotics. Typically, studies evaluating the use of antibiotics focus on immediate costs of care, and do not account for the wider implications of antimicrobial resistance. Aim This study

  15. Four country healthcare-associated infection prevalence survey: pneumonia and lower respiratory tract infections.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Humphreys, H

    2010-03-01

    In 2006, the Hospital Infection Society was funded by the respective health services in England, Wales, Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland to conduct a prevalence survey of healthcare-associated infection (HCAI). Here, we report the prevalence of pneumonia and lower respiratory tract infection other than pneumonia (LRTIOP) in these four countries. The prevalence of all HCAIs was 7.59% (5743 out of 75 694). Nine hundred (15.7%) of these infections were pneumonia, and 402 (7.0%) were LRTIOP. The prevalence of both infections was higher for males than for females, and increased threefold from those aged <35 to those aged >85 years (P<0.001). At the time of the survey or in the preceding seven days, 23.7% and 18.2% of patients with pneumonia and LRTIOP, respectively, were mechanically ventilated compared to 5.2% of patients in the whole study population. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was the cause of pneumonia and LRTIOP in 7.6% and 18.1% of patients, respectively (P<0.001). More patients with LRTIOP (4.2%) had concurrent diarrhoea due to Clostridium difficile compared to patients with pneumonia (2.4%), but this did not reach statistical significance. Other HCAIs were present in 137 (15.2%) of patients with pneumonia and 66 (16.4%) of those with LRTIOP. The results suggest that reducing instrumentation, such as mechanical ventilation where possible, should help reduce infection. The higher prevalence of MRSA as a cause of LRTIOP suggests a lack of specificity in identifying the microbial cause and the association with C. difficile emphasises the need for better use of antibiotics.

  16. Viral Co-Infections in Pediatric Patients Hospitalized with Lower Tract Acute Respiratory Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebey-López, Miriam; Herberg, Jethro; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Salas, Antonio; Martinón-Sánchez, José María; Gormley, Stuart; Sumner, Edward; Fink, Colin; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Molecular techniques can often reveal a broader range of pathogens in respiratory infections. We aim to investigate the prevalence and age pattern of viral co-infection in children hospitalized with lower tract acute respiratory infection (LT-ARI), using molecular techniques. A nested polymerase chain reaction approach was used to detect Influenza (A, B), metapneumovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza (1-4), rhinovirus, adenovirus (A-F), bocavirus and coronaviruses (NL63, 229E, OC43) in respiratory samples of children with acute respiratory infection prospectively admitted to any of the GENDRES network hospitals between 2011-2013. The results were corroborated in an independent cohort collected in the UK. A total of 204 and 97 nasopharyngeal samples were collected in the GENDRES and UK cohorts, respectively. In both cohorts, RSV was the most frequent pathogen (52.9% and 36.1% of the cohorts, respectively). Co-infection with multiple viruses was found in 92 samples (45.1%) and 29 samples (29.9%), respectively; this was most frequent in the 12-24 months age group. The most frequently observed co-infection patterns were RSV-Rhinovirus (23 patients, 11.3%, GENDRES cohort) and RSV-bocavirus / bocavirus-influenza (5 patients, 5.2%, UK cohort). The presence of more than one virus in pediatric patients admitted to hospital with LT-ARI is very frequent and seems to peak at 12-24 months of age. The clinical significance of these findings is unclear but should warrant further analysis.

  17. Pediatric urinary tract infection: imaging techniques with special reference to voiding cystoerethrography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Blickman

    1991-01-01

    textabstractUrinary tract infection (UTI) is the second most common infection in childhood. Large hospital-based pediatric series report an incidence of 3-5%. Dickinson prospectively determined that 1.7/1000 boys and 3.1/1 000 girls annually present with a UTI. This corresponds to about 780

  18. Aeromonas hydrophila urinary tract infection in pregnancy- Case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Ragunathan, Latha; Kavitha, Kannaiyan; Raveendran, Vinod; Dhandapani, Senthil Pragash; Jaget, Nirmala; Kannivelu, Jayanthi

    2012-01-01

    A case of a pregnant woman without previous or concomitant disease, who developed an Aeromonas hydrophila urinary tract infection (UTI) at 12 weeks gestation, is reported. A brief review of the literature on the association and incidence of Aeromonas spp in urinary infections and also in association with pregnancy is presented.

  19. Pharmacodynamics of nitrofurantoin at different pH levels against pathogens involved in urinary tract infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, F.; Melchers, M.J.B.; Lagarde, C.M.C.; Meletiadis, J.; Mouton, J.W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Urinary tract infections are among the most common human infections. Due to the progressive increase in ESBL-producing bacteria and the unavailability of new antibiotics, re-evaluation of 'old' antibiotics is needed. However, the pharmacodynamics of nitrofurantoin under variable pH

  20. Procalcitonin Testing to Guide Antibiotic Therapy in Acute Upper and Lower Respiratory Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Philipp; Wirz, Yannick; Mueller, Beat

    2018-03-06

    Is the use of procalcitonin for guiding antibiotic decisions in patients with acute upper and lower respiratory tract infections associated with improved clinical outcomes compared with usual care? Among patients with varying types and severity of acute respiratory infection, using procalcitonin to guide decisions about antibiotics is associated with lower rates of antibiotic exposure, antibiotic-related adverse effects, and mortality.

  1. Predicting nosocomial lower respiratory tract infections by a risk index based system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Yong; Shan, Xue; Zhao, Jingya; Han, Xuelin; Tian, Shuguang; Chen, Fangyan; Su, Xueting; Sun, Yansong; Huang, Liuyu; Grundmann, Hajo; Wang, Hongyuan; Han, Li

    2017-01-01

    Although belonging to one of the most common type of nosocomial infection, there was currently no simple prediction model for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). This study aims to develop a risk index based system for predicting nosocomial LRTIs based on data from a large point-prevalence

  2. Acute respiratory tract infections: a potential trigger for the acute coronary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harskamp, Ralf E.; van Ginkel, Margreet W.

    2008-01-01

    Clinical studies suggest that acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) may be a risk factor for the acute coronary syndrome (ACS). ARTI is associated with an increased risk for ACS up to 2 weeks prior to a cardiac event. The mechanism that may underlie this association is unclear. Infections are

  3. Predictors of long length of stay in infants hospitalized with urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Janet A; Mahant, Sanjay; DeGroot, Julie M; Stephens, Derek; Parkin, Patricia C

    2014-09-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common serious bacterial infection in infants. To use resources optimally, factors contributing to costs through length of stay (LOS) must be identified. This study sought to identify clinical and health system factors associated with long LOS in infants with UTI. Using a case-control design, we included infants Pediatrics.

  4. Prevention of clinical urinary tract infections in vulnerable very old persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caljouw, Monique Adriana Anna

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most frequently reported infections among older persons. UTI not only causes several days of illness but may have more severe consequences, such as a decline in functioning, as well as delirium, dehydration, urosepsis, hospitalization, or even death.

  5. Reproductive tract infections in women seeking abortion in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thủy Đỗ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women requesting abortion are at increased risk of developing RTI complications. However, RTI control in many resource-poor countries including Vietnam have been faced with logistical and methodological problems due to lack of standardized definitions of RTIs, lack of well-validated diagnostic criteria, lack of accurate laboratory tests, and lack of diagnostic equipment and skills. This article investigates the prevalence of RTIs among Vietnamese abortion-seeking women, to evaluate the available diagnostic techniques, and to assess antibiotic resistance among aetiological agents of RTI. Method The study was conducted in Phu-San hospital (PSH from December 2003 through April 2004 among 748 abortion clients. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-economic and reproductive characteristics. Specimens were collected for laboratory analyses of chlamydia, gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis, vaginal candidiasis (VC, bacterial vaginosis (BV and syphilis. To assess the validity of the obtained results, the study was repeated among 100 women and the duplicate samples were analysed at PSH and Copenhagen University Hospital (CUH. Results In all 54% of the women were diagnosed as having an RTI, including 3.3% with sexually transmitted infections. Endogenous infections were most prevalent (VC 34% and BV 12% followed by chlamydia (1.3% and trichomoniasis (0.7%. The sensitivity of culture for VC and BV was 30% and 88%, respectively, when tests in PSH were measured against tests in CUH. Antibiotic resistance was common among bacterial isolates. Conclusion RTIs are common among women seeking abortion. The presence of RTIs is associated with an increased risk of developing iatrogenic infections, routine administration of prophylactic antibiotic to all women undergoing abortion should be considered. However, the choice of routine prophylactic antibiotics should be based on relevant surveillance data of antibiotic resistance

  6. Kocuria kristinae in catheter associated urinary tract infection: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Rachna; Dudeja, Mridu; Das, Ayan K; Nandy, Shyamasree

    2013-08-01

    Kocuria kristinae is a gram positive coccus of the family of Micrococcacae. It inhabits the skin and mucous membranes, but it has rarely been isolated from clinical specimens and is thus considered to be a non-pathogenic commensal. However, it may cause opportunistic infections in patients with indwelling devices and severe underlying diseases. We are reporting an unusual case of a Kocuria kristinae urinary tract infection in a catheterized, 20-years old male. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a catheter related urinary tract infection which was caused by Kocuria kristinae.

  7. Animal models for studying female genital tract infection with Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Evelien; Kalmar, Isabelle; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2013-09-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen. It is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the world, with more than 100 million new cases of genital tract infections with C. trachomatis occurring each year. Animal models are indispensable for the study of C. trachomatis infections and the development and evaluation of candidate vaccines. In this paper, the most commonly used animal models to study female genital tract infections with C. trachomatis will be reviewed, namely, the mouse, guinea pig, and nonhuman primate models. Additionally, we will focus on the more recently developed pig model.

  8. Natural approaches to prevention and treatment of infections of the lower urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Kathleen A

    2008-09-01

    Infections of the lower urinary tract are common occurrences in young women, during pregnancy, and in peri- and postmenopausal women. Because of the chronic nature of urinary tract infections (UTIs) and the potential for antibiotic resistance, a natural approach to prevention and treatment is desirable. Clinical research suggests the best natural options for long-term prevention include cranberry, mannose, and probiotics. Botanicals that can be effective at the first sign of an infection and for short-term prophylaxis include berberine and uva ursi. Estriol cream and vitamins A and C have also been shown to prevent UTIs, while potassium salts can alkalinize the urine and reduce dysuria.

  9. Urinary tract infection during pregnancy: current concepts on a common multifaceted problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinderi, Kallirhoe; Delkos, Dimitrios; Kalinderis, Michail; Athanasiadis, Apostolos; Kalogiannidis, Ioannis

    2018-02-06

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common bacterial infection in pregnancy, increasing the risk of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Urinary tract infections may present as asymptomatic bacteriuria, acute cystitis or pyelonephritis. Escherichia coli is the most common pathogen associated with both symptomatic and asymptomatic bacteriuria. If asymptomatic bacteriuria is untreated, up to 30% of mothers develop acute pyelonephritis, with an increased risk of multiple maternal and neonatal complications, such as preeclampsia, preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction and low birth weight. Urinary tract infection is a common, but preventable cause of pregnancy complications, thus urinary tests, such as urine culture or new technologies such as high-throughput DNA sequence-based analyses, should be used in order to improve antenatal screening of pregnant women.

  10. [Cefazolin efficacy and antibiotic sensitivity against pathogenic bacteria in pediatric with acute upper urinary tract infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuke, Toshiya; Abe, Yoshifusa; Hoshino, Akihiro; Oto, Hideyasu; Sakai, Naho; Murayama, Junichiro; Yoshida, Koichiro; Itabashi, Kazuo

    2010-05-01

    Acute upper urinary tract infection may cause sepsis, especially in neonates and infants, mandating the choice of appropriate, effective antibacterials minimizing increasing bacterial resistance. Frequently prescribing broad-spectrum cephalosporinin is one such example. Different antibacterial therapies are initiated clinically due to treatment protocol differences among institutions, disease severity, etc. We studied the efficacy of cefazolin (CEZ), a first-generation cephalosporin, as first-line parenteral treatment in acute upper urinary tract infection. We found that 88.9% of microbial infections have indications for CEZ. CEZ efficacy is 91.3%, and 97.2% of urine cultures show negative results. Escherichia coli sensitivity to antibacterial agents is 90.9% of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) pediatric therapy in acute upper urinary tract infection.

  11. Hand hygiene to reduce community transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infection: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren‐Gash, Charlotte; Fragaszy, Ellen; Hayward, Andrew C.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Warren‐Gash et al. (2012) Hand hygiene to reduce community transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infection: a systematic review. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: 10.1111/irv.12015. Hand hygiene may be associated with modest protection against some acute respiratory tract infections, but its specific role in influenza transmission in different settings is unclear. We aimed to review evidence that improving hand hygiene reduces primary and secondary transmission of (i) influenza and (ii) acute respiratory tract infections in community settings. We searched Medline, Embase, Global Health and Cochrane databases up to 13 February 2012 for reports in any language of original research investigating the effect of hand hygiene on influenza or acute respiratory tract infection where aetiology was unspecified in community settings including institutions such as schools, and domestic residences. Data were presented and quality rated across outcomes according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. Sixteen articles met inclusion criteria. There was moderate to low‐quality evidence of a reduction in both influenza and respiratory tract infection with hand hygiene interventions in schools, greatest in a lower–middle‐income setting. There was high‐quality evidence of a small reduction in respiratory infection in childcare settings. There was high‐quality evidence for a large reduction in respiratory infection with a hand hygiene intervention in squatter settlements in a low‐income setting. There was moderate‐ to high‐quality evidence of no effect on secondary transmission of influenza in households that had already experienced an index case. While hand hygiene interventions have potential to reduce transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infections, their effectiveness varies depending on setting, context and compliance. PMID:23043518

  12. Immunostimulation with oral vaccines for prevention and treatment of respiratory tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Szamborski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The respiratory system is susceptible to unfavourable effects of biological and non-biological factors. In the protection against infectious agents, the immune system plays a crucial role thanks to close cooperation of specific (acquired and non-specific (natural, innate immune mechanisms. A non-specific response actively supports specific response mechanisms. This enables effective protection of our body against infections, both at the stage when pathogens reach the organism and after their penetration into tissues. A stimulation with microbial antigens leads to the activation of specific immunity mechanisms: humoral and cell-mediated responses. In the humoral response, specific immunoglobulins of various classes are involved to protect from recurrent infections. The knowledge of immunity development enables immune system stimulation with pharmaceutical products. The most common immunostimulants are non-specific and specific bacterial vaccines. The main goal of vaccines is the protection of healthy individuals against infections. Conventional prophylactic vaccines are immunogenic products. They contain a combination of extracts of various bacteria, usually ones that are aetiological factors of upper respiratory tract infections. Non-specific vaccines are administered to provoke a specific immune response towards antigens contained in the vaccine. They are bacterial immunostimulants acting mainly by stimulation and mobilisation of host defensive mechanisms. They improve antibacterial serum properties by increasing the level of natural antibodies. If needed, these reactions should be easily stimulated by a pathogen present in nature and should effectively neutralize or limit the disease. In patients who have been treated with a non-specific vaccine, decreased numbers of episodes of respiratory tract infections as well lower antibiotic intake were noted.

  13. Staphylococcus aureus urinary tract infections in children are associated with urinary tract abnormalities and vesico-ureteral reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megged, Orli

    2014-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an uncommon cause of pediatric urinary tract infection (UTI). Data regarding urinary tract malformations in children with S. aureus UTI is limited. The medical records of all children aged 0 to 16 years at Shaare Zedek Medical Center between 2001 and 2013 and who were diagnosed with S. aureus UTI were reviewed for demographic, clinical, and laboratory data. Patients with Escherichia coli UTIs during the same period were included as controls. S. aureus was the cause of UTI in 26 children, of whom six were bacteremic. Compared to children with E. coli UTI, children with S. aureus had higher rates of abnormal findings in ultrasound (77 vs. 22%; p UTI had abnormal voiding cystourethrogram (53 vs. 23%; p UTI was significantly longer than for patients with E. coli UTI (8 vs. 2.3 days; p = 0.0003). S. aureus is an uncommon urinary pathogen among children. The finding of S. aureus UTI requires thorough search for urinary abnormalities.

  14. Novel Approaches to Preventing Urinary Tract Infection in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    tract tissue (kidney). (4) Establishment of a collaboration with Drs. M. Juliana McElrath and Florian Hladik of the Fred Hutchison Cancer Research...liver, A. Hamers , W. Gaastra, 20. Levery, S. B., M. E. Salyan, S. J. Steele, R. Kannagi, S. Dasgupta, J. L. K.-A. Karlsson, and S. Normark. 1990

  15. A systematic review of estrogens for recurrent urinary tract infections: third report of the hormones and urogenital therapy (HUT) committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo, L; Lose, G; McClish, D; Versi, E; de Koning Gans, H

    2001-01-01

    Our objective was to apply a meta-analysis to the available data to evaluate the effect of estrogen supplementation in the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections in postmenopausal women. The literature review incorporated articles based on a search of Excerpta Medica, Medline, Science Citation Index and a manual search of commonly read journals in the fields of urology, gynecology, gerontology and primary healthcare, from January 1969 to December 1998. The search was not limited to English-language publications. Inclusion criteria were peer-reviewed articles containing original data with a primary outcome of symptomatic urinary tract infections and an estrogen-treated group. Articles were categorized into randomized controlled trials, case-control studies and self-controlled series. Of the articles reviewed, five were randomized controlled trials, two were case-control studies and three were self-control series. Meta-analysis of data from 334 subjects revealed a significant benefit from estrogen over placebo (odds ratio = 2.51, 95% confidence interval = 1.48 4.25). The most convincing results were obtained using the vaginal route of administration. A variety of different estrogen preparations have been employed in the few published reports, making comparison of the data difficult. However, vaginal administration seems to be effective in the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections in postmenopausal women.

  16. Risk Factors for Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infections in a Pediatric Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nora G; Marchalik, Daniel; Lipsky, Andrew; Rushton, H Gil; Pohl, Hans G; Song, Xiaoyan

    2016-04-01

    Catheter associated urinary tract infections are an essential measure for health care quality improvement that affects reimbursement through hospital acquired condition reduction programs in adult patients. With the mounting importance of preventing such infections we evaluated risk factors for acquiring catheter associated urinary tract infections in pediatric patients. All catheter associated urinary tract infections were identified at 1 pediatric institution from September 2010 to August 2014 from a prospective database maintained by the infection control office. To identify risk factors patients with a catheter associated urinary tract infection were individually matched to control patients with a urinary catheter but without infection by age, gender, date and the hospital location of the infection in 1:2 fashion. A total of 50 patients with catheter associated urinary tract infection were identified and matched to 100 control patients. Compared to controls the patients with infection were more likely to have a catheter in place for longer (2.9 days, OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.01, 1.15, p = 0.02). They were also more likely to be on contact precautions (OR 4.00, 95% CI 1.73, 9.26, p = 0.001), and have concurrent infections (OR 3.04, 95% CI 1.39, 6.28, p = 0.005) and a history of catheterization (OR 3.24, 95% CI 1.55, 6.77, p = 0.002). Using a conditional multivariate regression model the 3 most predictive variables were duration of catheter drainage, contact isolation status and history of catheterization. Longer duration of urinary catheter drainage, positive contact precautions status and a history of catheterization appear to be associated with a higher risk of catheter associated urinary tract infection in hospitalized pediatric patients. Physicians should attempt to decrease the duration of catheterization, especially in patients who meet these criteria, to minimize the risk of catheter associated urinary tract infection. Copyright © 2016 American Urological

  17. [Impact of pharmaceutical interventions on antibiotic therapy of urinary tract infections in rehabilitation center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochefolle, A; Maison, O; Chazaud, C; Rioufol, C; Rode, G; Luaute, J; Jacquin-Courtois, S; Guinet-Lacoste, A; Carré, E

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of medico-pharmaceutical partnership on the quality of antibiotic treatment in urinary tract infection (UTI) within rehabilitation center. All antibiotic prescriptions were validated by the pharmacist at the start of treatment and twice a week. All patients with symptomatic urinary tract infection between January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2015 were included in this study. Addition to awareness among specifiers to promoting the appropriate use of antibiotics, the pharmacist suggested pharmaceutical interventions (PI) in order to improve the quality of antibiotic treatments. At the same time, 3 quality indicators (QI) were followed: duration, dosage, antibiotic susceptibility. The compliance rates of this 3 QI allowed to assess the quality of the antibiotic treatment in urinary tract infection. The study population included 154 patients corresponding to 252 UTI. Sixty-eight PI were made by pharmacist about urinary tract infection treatment (overdosage or under-dosing, duration unknown, inadequate route of administration). These QI achieved 96.4% compliance with duration, 98.8% compliance with dosage and 99.2% with the antibiotic susceptibility. This study allowed showing the medico-pharmaceutical impact on the quality of antibiotic treatments in UTI. The awareness among specifiers with a daily validation of prescription by the pharmacist allowed to improve urinary tract infections care in rehabilitation center. 4. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Changes in Bacterial Resistance Patterns of Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Rationale for Empirical Antibiotic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Gökçe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The causative agent spectrum and resistance patterns of urinary tract infections in children are affected by many factors. Aims: To demonstrate antibiotic resistance in urinary tract infections and changing ratio in antibiotic resistance by years. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: We analysed antibiotic resistance patterns of isolated Gram (- bacteria during the years 2011-2014 (study period 2 in children with urinary tract infections. We compared these findings with data collected in the same centre in 2001-2003 (study period 1. Results: Four hundred and sixty-five uncomplicated community-acquired Gram (- urinary tract infections were analysed from 2001-2003 and 400 from 2011-2014. Sixty-one percent of patients were female (1.5 girls : 1 boy. The mean age of children included in the study was 3 years and 9 months. Escherichia coli was the predominant bacteria isolated during both periods of the study (60% in study period 1 and 73% in study period 2. Bacteria other than E. coli demonstrated a higher level of resistance to all of the antimicrobials except trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole than E. coli bacteria during the years 2011-2014. In our study, we found increasing resistance trends of urinary pathogens for cefixime (from 1% to 15%, p0.05. Conclusion: In childhood urinary tract infections, antibiotic resistance should be evaluated periodically and empiric antimicrobial therapy should be decided according to antibiotic sensitivity results

  19. Primary pneumocystis infection in infants hospitalized with acute respiratory tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Hans Henrik; von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Lundgren, Bettina

    2007-01-01

    with 431 episodes of acute respiratory tract infection (RTI) by using a real-time PCR assay. In 68 episodes in 67 infants, P. jirovecii was identified. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of a positive signal compared with the first quartile of age (7-49 days) was 47.4 (11.0-203), 8.7 (1......Acquisition of Pneumocystis jirovecii infection early in life has been confirmed by serologic studies. However, no evidence of clinical illness correlated with the primary infection has been found in immunocompetent children. We analyzed 458 nasopharyngeal aspirates from 422 patients hospitalized.......9-39.7), and 0.6 (0.1-6.7) for infants in the second (50-112 days), third (113-265 days), and fourth (268-4,430 days) age quartiles, respectively. Infants with an episode of upper RTI (URTI) were 2.0 (1.05-3.82) times more likely to harbor P. jirovecii than infants with a lower RTI. P. jirovecii may manifest...

  20. Risk factors for surgical site infection and urinary tract infection after spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Hiroyuki; Setoguchi, Takao; Ishidou, Yasuhiro; Nagano, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Takuya; Komiya, Setsuro

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to identify and compare risk factors for surgical site infection (SSI) and non-surgical site infections (non-SSIs), particularly urinary tract infection (UTI), after spine surgery. We retrospectively reviewed 825 patients (median age 59.0 years (range 33-70 years); 442 males) who underwent spine surgery at Kagoshima University Hospital from January 2009 to December 2014. Patient parameters were compared using the Mann-Whitney U and Fisher's exact tests. Risk factors associated with SSI and UTI were analyzed via the multiple logistic regression analysis. P operation time (P = 0.0019 and 0.0162, respectively) and ASA classification 3 (P = 0.0132 and 0.0356, respectively). The 1 week post-operative C-reactive protein (CRP) level was a risk factor for UTI (P = 0.0299), but not for SSI (P = 0.4996). There was no relationship between SSI and symptomatic UTI after spine surgery. Risk factors for post-operative SSI and UTI were operative time and ASA classification 3; 1 week post-operative CRP was a risk factor for UTI only.