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  1. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection as a Cause of Outpatient Clinic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-01

    Mar 1, 2018 ... BACKGROUND: Failure to timely diagnose and treat urinary tract infections is associated with grave long term consequences. The objectives of this study included assessing the proportion and predictors of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) as a cause of pediatric outpatient department (OPD) visits and ...

  2. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Urinary tract infections Urinary tract infections > A-Z Health Topics Urinary tract infections (PDF, ... To receive Publications email updates Enter email Submit Urinary tract infections Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are most often caused ...

  3. Comparative Genomics of Escherichia coli Strains Causing Urinary Tract Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria; Schembri, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    The virulence determinants of uropathogenic Escherichia coli have been studied extensively over the years, but relatively little is known about what differentiates isolates causing various types of urinary tract infections. In this study, we compared the genomic profiles of 45 strains from a range...... and their disease categories but strong correlation between the genotype and the phylogenetic group association. Also, very few genetic differences may exist between isolates causing symptomatic and asymptomatic infections. Only relatively few genes that could potentially differentiate between the individual...

  4. Respiratory Tract Infection Caused by Fonsecaea monophora After Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleinman, Isabella Barbosa; Gonçalves, Sarah Santos; Nucci, Marcio; Quintella, Danielle Carvalho; Halpern, Márcia; Akiti, Tiyomi; Barreiros, Glória; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes; Santoro-Lopes, Guilherme

    2017-12-01

    Fonsecaea spp. are melanized fungi which cause most cases of chromoblastomycosis. The taxonomy of this genus has been revised, now encompassing four species, with different pathogenic potential: F. pedrosoi, F. nubica, F. pugnacius, and F. monophora. The latter two species present wider clinical spectrum and have been associated with cases of visceral infection, most often affecting the brain. To our knowledge, this is the first report of proven case of F. monophora respiratory tract infection. A Brazilian 57-year-old-female patient underwent kidney transplantation on January 12, 2013. On the fourth postoperative month, the patient presented with fever, productive cough, and pleuritic pain in the right hemithorax. A thoracic CT scan showed a subpleural 2.2-cm nodular lesion in the right lung lower lobe, with other smaller nodules (0.5-0.7 cm) scattered in both lungs. Bronchoscopy revealed a grayish plaque on the right bronchus which was biopsied. Microscopic examination demonstrated invasion of bronchial mucosa by pigmented hyphae. Culture from the bronchial biopsy and bronchoalveolar lavage samples yielded a melanized mold, which was eventually identified as F. monophora. She started treatment with voriconazole (400 mg q.12h on the first day, followed by 200 mg q.12h). After 4 weeks of therapy, voriconazole dose was escalated to 200 mg q.8h and associated with amphotericin B (deoxycolate 1 mg/kg/day) because of a suspected dissemination to the brain. The patient eventually died of sepsis 8 weeks after the start of antifungal therapy. In conclusion, F. monophora may cause respiratory tract infection in solid organ transplant recipients.

  5. Antibiotic susceptibility of organisms causing urinary tract infection in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Changes in susceptibility patterns of bacterial pathogens isolated from urinary tract infections emphasize the need for regional surveillance to generate information that can be used in management of patients. Knowledge on the current status of antimicrobial resistance in uropathogens, and the prevalence of ...

  6. Pediatric urinary tract infection as a cause of outpatient clinic visits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Failure to timely diagnose and treat urinary tract infections is associated with grave long term consequences. The objectives of this study included assessing the proportion and predictors of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) as a cause of pediatric outpatient department (OPD) visits and determining common ...

  7. Characteristics of Escherichia coli causing persistence or relapse of urinary tract infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnæs, Karen; Stegger, Marc; Reisner, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTIs) pose a major problem but little is known about characteristics of Escherichia coli associated with RUTI. This study includes E. coli from 155 women with community-acquired lower urinary tract infections (UTIs) randomized to one of three dosing regiments...... of pivmecillinam and aimed to identify associations between the presence of 29 virulence factor genes (VFGs), phylogenetic groups and biofilm formation and the course of infection during follow-up visits at 8-10 and 35-49 days post-inclusion, respectively. E. coli causing persistence or relapse were more often...

  8. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli O78:H10, the cause of an outbreak of urinary tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bente; Scheutz, Flemming; Andersen, Rebecca L

    2012-01-01

    In 1991, multiresistant Escherichia coli O78:H10 strains caused an outbreak of urinary tract infections in Copenhagen, Denmark. The phylogenetic origin, clonal background, and virulence characteristics of the outbreak isolates, and their relationship to nonoutbreak O78:H10 strains according...

  9. Lower respiratory tract infection caused by respiratory syncytial virus : current management and new therapeutics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazur, Natalie; Martinon-Torres, Federico; Baraldi, Eugenio; Fauroux, Brigitte; Greenough, Anne; Heikkinen, Terho; Manzoni, Paolo; Mejias, Asuncion; Nair, Harish; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G.; Polack, Fernando P.; Ramilo, Octavio; Sharland, Mike; Stein, Renato; Madhi, Shabir A.; Bont, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major worldwide cause of morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age. Evidence-based management guidelines suggest that there is no effective treatment for RSV lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and that supportive care, ie, hydration and

  10. Urinary tract infection - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000505.htm Urinary tract infection - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A urinary tract infection is an infection of the urinary tract. This ...

  11. Neonatal Staphylococcus lugdunensis urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Itaru; Hataya, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Hanako; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Toshiro

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a known pathogen of infective endocarditis, but not of urinary tract infection. We report a previously healthy neonate without congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract who developed urinary tract infection due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis, illustrating that Staphylococcus lugdunensis can cause urinary tract infection even in those with no urinary tract complications. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  12. Vaccines in prophylaxis of urinary tract infections caused by the bacteria from the genus Proteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzewiecka, Dominika; Lewandowska, Gabriela

    2016-09-30

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) pose a threat especially to women, the individuals with weakened immunity or with abnormalities in the urinary tract as well as to hospitalized and catheterized patients. The bacteria from the genus Proteus, especially P. mirabilis, are important UTI pathogenic factors. They frequently cause chronic, recurrent or severely complicated infections, resulting in the urinary stones production due to urease and other virulence factors. The ability to survive inside the stones and the increasing antibiotic resistance make it difficult to eradicate the bacteria from the urinary tract. A good solution to the problem may be the vaccination which obtained the interest from the surveyed persons, in spite of the antivaccination attitudes visible also in Poland. Currently, there are four vaccines available, composed of killed cells of different uropathogens, including Proteus spp. They are administrated intranassaly or vaginally and require many booster doses. They decrease the probability of reinfection in patients suffering from recurrent UTIs but the mechanisms of the immune response have not been exactly defined. Promising results were obtained in the studies on a mice model concerning the subunit, conjugated vaccines in which various P. mirabilis surface antigens (with the exception of flagellin) were successfully employed. Hitherto, the best results were obtained by the intranasal vaccinations, using MR/P fimbriae antigens with MPL or cholera toxin adjuvants and the antigens expressed in Lactococcus lactis or Salmonella Typhimurium. It led to an increase in the levels of the specific serum and mucosal antibodies resulting in the protection against P. mirabilis UTIs.

  13. Acquisition of a pathogenicity island in an Escherichia coli clinical isolate causing febrile urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, S M; Zúñiga, S; Ulleryd, P; Vila, J

    2011-12-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are less common in men than in women, and uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the most frequent etiological agent. Recurrent UTI in men have often been reported as a relapse with the same strain as the index infection. The persistence of the same E. coli strain within the urinary tract has often been explained by a prostatic focus. The aim of this study was to determine whether recurrence was associated with relapse or reinfection and the possible effect of treatment on the content of virulence factors of the isolates causing these infections. Thirty E. coli isolates were collected from 15 patients with a febrile UTI having a bacteriological recurrence during long-term follow-up. These isolates were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and virulence profiling in order to determine whether they constituted relapse or reinfection. Five recurrences were categorized as relapse and nine as reinfections. The results obtained showed that the horizontal transfer of virulence factors contained in a pathogenicity island had occurred in one isolate. This event is possible in vivo and allows bacteria to become more virulent and, perhaps, cause greater damage. The acquisition of virulence genes by horizontal gene transfer is an ongoing process of evolution that continuously leads to new bacterial pathotypes.

  14. Urinary tract infection - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000521.htm Urinary tract infection - adults To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A urinary tract infection, or UTI, is an infection of the urinary ...

  15. [Urinary tract infection caused by Enterobacteriaceae and its relationship with vesicoureteral reflux].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Álvarez, Manuel; Acosta Batista, Bárbara; Pérez Córdova, Rodolfo; Hernández Robledo, Ernesto

    The first urinary tract infection can be a marker of a urinary tract anomaly, mainly vesicoureteral reflux. The aim of this work was to determine the association between isolated enterobacteria with the presence and grade of vesicoureteral reflux in neonatal patients with their first urinary tract infection. A retrospective, observational and analytic study of newborns, who were admitted to the Neonatal Department, University Pediatric Hospital "Juan Manuel Márquez," in Havana, Cuba, from 1992 to 2013 was conducted. The causal microorganism of urinary tract infection was from the Enterobacteriaceae family. They were evaluated by radio imaging. The association between the presence and grade of vesicoureteral reflux with the causal microorganism of the urinary tract infection was analyzed. Newborn infants with urinary tract infection (450) were studied. Bacterial isolations in the urine cultures corresponded to E. coli in 316 cases (70.2%). The prevalence of vesicoureteral reflux was 18.2%. The presence of bacteria corresponding to the Enterobacteriaceae family (other than E. coli) had significant risk association with vesicoureteral reflux (OR: 2.02; p urinary tract infection. However, an association between the isolation of a microorganism of the Enterobacteriaceae family different to E. coli with the presence of vesicoureteral reflux and mainly with higher grades of vesicoureteral reflux exists. Copyright © 2017 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  16. Predominant and common cause of urinary tract infection(s) in sukkur city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, B.A.

    2007-01-01

    To examine and evaluate the predominant and common etiologic agent(s) of urinary tract infection (UTI) in Sukkur city and to determine their current antibiotic susceptibility/resistance trends. Nine hundred sixty six patients out of 1430 abnormal urine reports (showing significant abnormalities such as protein, pus, red cells) were asked to give second sample. The urine samples were examined by both urine test strip (Combur 10 Test, Roche) and microscopically (wet preparation) followed by culture and sensitivity. The culture sensitivity was done on urine samples of which bacterial numbers were estimated as more than 105CFU. The study was conducted at Safeway Diagnostic and Research Laboratory Sukkur and the Department of Microbiology, Shah Abdul Latif University Khairpur, Sindh from March 2001 to March 2003. Eight hundred fifty-two (88.2%) showed Escherichia spp followed by Klebsiella spp (6.9%) and proteus spp (4.9%). These showed 95%, 90%, 90% sensitivity to ofloxacin respectively. Ninety percent isolates of Escherichia spp, Proteus spp and Klebsiella spp were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. Escherichia spp was found to be major uropathogen and ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were effective antibiotics against these strains isolated from UTI patients of Sukkur city. (author)

  17. Vaccines in prophylaxis of urinary tract infections caused by the bacteria from the genus Proteus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Drzewiecka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs pose a threat especially to women, the individuals with weakened immunity or with abnormalities in the urinary tract as well as to hospitalized and catheterized patients. The bacteria from the genus Proteus, especially P. mirabilis, are important UTI pathogenic factors. They frequently cause chronic, recurrent or severely complicated infections, resulting in the urinary stones production due to urease and other virulence factors. The ability to survive inside the stones and the increasing antibiotic resistance make it difficult to eradicate the bacteria from the urinary tract. A good solution to the problem may be the vaccination which obtained the interest from the surveyed persons, in spite of the antivaccination attitudes visible also in Poland. Currently, there are four vaccines available, composed of killed cells of different uropathogens, including Proteus spp. They are administrated intranassaly or vaginally and require many booster doses. They decrease the probability of reinfection in patients suffering from recurrent UTIs but the mechanisms of the immune response have not been exactly defined. Promising results were obtained in the studies on a mice model concerning the subunit, conjugated vaccines in which various P. mirabilis surface antigens (with the exception of flagellin were successfully employed. Hitherto, the best results were obtained by the intranasal vaccinations, using MR/P fimbriae antigens with MPL or cholera toxin adjuvants and the antigens expressed in Lactococcus lactis or Salmonella Typhimurium. It led to an increase in the levels of the specific serum and mucosal antibodies resulting in the protection against P. mirabilis UTIs.

  18. Green tea as an effective antimicrobial for urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda eReygaert

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs are a very most common type of infection worldwide, and result in billions of dollars in medical care costs. Escherichia coli is the infective agent for 80%-90% of all UTIs. Green tea, derived from leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant has been shown to have various potential health benefits (e.g. cardiovascular disease and cancer. The major beneficial components of green tea have been characterized, and are now known to be polyphenolic catechins. The main catechins in green tea are (--epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG, (--epigallocatechin (EGC, (--epicatechin (EC, and (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG. EGCG and EGC have been shown to have antimicrobial effects, but only EGC has been shown to be excreted in urine. Isolates of E. coli from urinary tract infections collected between 2007-2008 were characterized for antimicrobial resistance to standard drugs. Then 80 of these isolates, representing a wide spectrum of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, were selected for testing using an extract of green tea.Results: The concentrations of green tea extract tested were 0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, and 4.0 mg/ml. All of the strains tested, except one, had MICs of ≤4.0 mg/ml, with 40% of the isolates having an MIC of ≤2.5 mg/ml, 36% of the isolates having an MIC of ≤3.0 mg/ml, 18% of the isolates having an MIC of ≤3.5 mg/ml, and 5% of the isolates having an MIC of ≤4.0 mg/ml. Two control strains varied in susceptibility, one having an MIC of ≤2.5 mg/ml, another having an MIC of ≤3.5 mg/ml, and the third having an MIC of ≤4.0 mg/ml.Conclusion: Since EGC has been shown to have antimicrobial effects on E. coli, and EGC has been shown to be excreted in the urine in a high enough concentration to potentially be effective as an antimicrobial; these MIC results suggest that ingesting green tea could have potential antimicrobial effects on urinary tract infections caused by E. coli.

  19. Antiseptic and antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria causing urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, D J; Thomas, B

    1980-01-01

    A collection of 802 isolates of Gram-negative bacteria causing urinary tract infections was made from general practice, antenatal clinics, and local hospitals. The organisms were tested for their sensitivity to chlorhexidine, cetrimide, glutaraldehyde, phenyl mercuric nitrate, a phenolic formulation, and a proprietary antiseptic containing a mixture of picloxydine, octyl phenoxy polyethoxyethanol, and benzalkonium chloride. Escherichia coli, the major species isolated, proved to be uniformly sensitive to these agents. Approximately 10% of the total number of isolates, however, exhibited a degree of resistance to the cationic agents. These resistant organisms were members of the genera Proteus, Providencia, and Pseudomonas; they were also generally resistant to five, six, or seven antibiotics. It is proposed therefore that an antiseptic policy which involves the intensive use of cationic antiseptics might lead to the selection of a flora of notoriously drug-resistant species. PMID:6769972

  20. [Resistence of Escherichia coli, the most frequent cause of urinary tract infection in children, to antibiotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Vesna; Milosević, Biljana

    2010-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) take the second place in the incidence of bacterial infection in children. Escherichia coli is a cause of infection in 85-90%. A periodic evaluation of the resistance to antimicrobial drugs has to be performed in each geographic region, since investigations confirmed that the resistance of bacteria causing UTI has been in progress. A retrospective investigation has been performed, comprising the two time periods in the range of 10 years in order to identify the prevalence and resistance of the bacteria causing UTI in the patients treated at the Department of Nephrology of Institute for Child and Youth Health Care of Vojvodina. During the first investigated period from January 1996 up to December 1997, there were 163 urin analyses performed vs 134 urine analyses in the second period, starting from January 2006 to December 2007. In both periods, Escherichia coli, was the most frequent cause of UTI (82.1% in 1996/97 vs 86.50% in 2006/07). During this ten-year period, the resistance of Escherichia coli increased both to ampicillin (from 53% to 69% (p > 0.05) and to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (34% vs 55%; p resistance to ceftazidim, gentamycin and nalidixic acid, but significant increase to ampicillin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and cephalexin. For the initial therapy of UTI in the Province of Vojvodina we recommend: perorally--ephalosporins I, II and III generation, and in case when the child is not capable to get therapy perorally, or in the case of highly febrile infant--ephalosporins III generation parenterally.

  1. Understanding the Patterns of Antibiotic Susceptibility of Bacteria Causing Urinary Tract Infection in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunayana eSaha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common infectious diseases at the community level. In order to assess the adequacy of empirical therapy, the susceptibility of antibiotics and resistance pattern of bacteria responsible for UTI in West Bengal, India, were evaluated throughout the period of 2008-2013. The infection reports belonging to all age groups and both sexes were considered. E. coli was the most abundant uropathogen with a prevalence rate of 67.1%, followed by Klebsiella spp. (22% and Pseudomonas spp. (6%. Penicillin was least effective against UTI-causing E. coli and maximum susceptibility was recorded for the drugs belonging to fourth generation cephalosporins. Other abundant uropathogens, Klebsiella spp., were maximally resistant to broad-spectrum penicillin, followed by aminoglycosides and third generation cephalosporin. The antibiotic resistance pattern of two principal UTI pathogens, E. coli and Klebsiella spp. in West Bengal, appears in general to be similar to that found in other parts of the Globe. Higher than 50% resistance were observed for broad-spectrum penicillin. Fourth generation cephalosporin and macrolides seems to be the choice of drug in treating UTIs in Eastern India. Furthermore, improved maintenance of infection incident logs is needed in Eastern Indian hospitals in order to facilitate regular surveillance of the occurrence of antibiotic resistance patterns, since such levels continue to change.

  2. Risk factors for healthcare-acquired urinary tract infections caused by multi-drug resistant microorganisms

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    Đorđević Zorana M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Healthcare-acquired urinary tract infections (HAUTI make up to 40% of all healthcareacquired infections and contribute significantly to hospital morbidity, mortality, and overall cost of treatment. Objective. The aim of our study was to investigate possible risk factors for development of HAUTI caused by multi-drug resistant pathogens. Methods. The prospective case-control study in a large tertiary-care hospital was conducted during a five-year period. The cases were patients with HAUTI caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR pathogens, and the controls were patients with HAUTI caused by non-MDR pathogens. Results. There were 562 (62.6% patients with MDR isolates and 336 (37.4% patients with non-MDR isolates in the study. There were four significant predictors of HAUTI caused by MDR pathogens: hospitalization before insertion of urinary catheter for more than eight days (ORadjusted = 2.763; 95% CI = 1.352-5.647; p = 0.005, hospitalization for more than 15 days (ORadjusted = 2.144; 95% CI = 1.547-2.970; p < 0.001, previous stay in another department (intensive care units, other wards or hospitals (ORadjusted = 2.147; 95% CI = 1.585-2.908; p < 0.001, and cancer of various localizations (ORadjusted = 2.313; 95% CI = 1.255-4.262; p = 0.007. Conclusion. Early removal of urinary catheter and reduction of time spent in a hospital or in an ICU could contribute to a decrease in the rate of HAUTI caused by MDR pathogens.

  3. Susceptibilities of Chlamydia trachomatis isolates causing uncomplicated female genital tract infections and pelvic inflammatory disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, R J; Bhullar, V; Mitchell, S H; Bullard, J; Knapp, J S

    1995-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of 45 recent clinical isolates of Chlamydia trachomatis obtained from women with asymptomatic genital tract infection, mucopurulent cervicitis, or pelvic inflammatory disease to doxycycline, azithromycin, ofloxacin, and clindamycin were determined. In addition, susceptibilities of 12 isolates to amoxicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were also determined. Isolates also were serotyped with a panel of monoclonal antibodies specific for chlamydial major outer...

  4. Susceptibilities of Chlamydia trachomatis isolates causing uncomplicated female genital tract infections and pelvic inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R J; Bhullar, V; Mitchell, S H; Bullard, J; Knapp, J S

    1995-03-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of 45 recent clinical isolates of Chlamydia trachomatis obtained from women with asymptomatic genital tract infection, mucopurulent cervicitis, or pelvic inflammatory disease to doxycycline, azithromycin, ofloxacin, and clindamycin were determined. In addition, susceptibilities of 12 isolates to amoxicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were also determined. Isolates also were serotyped with a panel of monoclonal antibodies specific for chlamydial major outer membrane protein; 24 of 45 (53%) belonged to serovars Ia and E. For all isolates, the MIC range of doxycycline was 0.008 to 0.06 micrograms/ml, for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole it was 0.03 to 0.25 micrograms/ml, for azithromycin it was 0.125 to 2.0 micrograms/ml, for ofloxacin it was 0.5 to 1.0 micrograms/ml, for clindamycin it was 0.25 to 2.0 micrograms/ml, and for amoxicillin it was 0.25 to 4.0 microgram/ml. The ranges of minimum chlamydiacidal concentrations were generally 1 to 4 dilutions above the MICs of most agents, with a rank order similar to those of the MICs. Comparing the minimum chlamydiacidal concentrations for 90% of isolates tested, isolates causing asymptomatic infection belonged to a greater variety of serovars and were relatively more susceptible to doxycycline and azithromycin than isolates causing mucopurulent cervicitis or pelvic inflammatory disease; these differences in susceptibility were not detected among the other study agents. These data indicate that additional studies are needed to better define the apparent association of certain chlamydial serovars with the clinical severity of disease and the in vitro susceptibilities to certain antimicrobial agents.

  5. Predictors of Antimicrobial Resistance among Pathogens Causing Urinary Tract Infection in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Nader; Hoberman, Alejandro; Keren, Ron; Ivanova, Anastasia; Gotman, Nathan; Chesney, Russell W.; Carpenter, Myra A.; Moxey-Mims, Marva; Wald, Ellen R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine which children with urinary tract infection (UTI) are likely to have pathogens resistant to narrow-spectrum antimicrobials. Study design Children, 2 to 71 months of age (n=769) enrolled in the RIVUR or CUTIE studies were included. We used logistic regression models to test the associations between demographic and clinical characteristics and resistance to narrow-spectrum antimicrobials. Results Of the included patients, 91% were female and 76% had vesicoureteral reflux. The risk of resistance to narrow-spectrum antibiotics in uncircumcised males was approximately 3 times that of females (OR=3.1; 95% CI: 1.4—6.7); in children with bladder bowel dysfunction (BBD) the risk was 2 times that of children with normal function (OR=2.2; 95% CI: 1.2—4.1). Children who had received one course of antibiotics during the past 6 months also had higher odds of harboring resistant organisms (OR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.1—2.3). Hispanic children had higher odds of harboring pathogens resistant to some narrow-spectrum antimicrobials. Conclusions Uncircumcised males, Hispanic children, children with BBD, and children who received one course of antibiotics in the past 6 months were more likely to have a UTI caused by pathogens resistant to one or more narrow-spectrum antimicrobials. PMID:26794472

  6. Chronological change of antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli causing urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemura, Katsumi; Tanaka, Kazushi; Adachi, Masayo; Yamashita, Masuo; Arakawa, Soichi; Fujisawa, Masato

    2011-10-01

    Overuse of antibiotics can cause the emergence of resistant bacterial strains. This study retrospectively investigated recent trends in Escherichia coli causing urinary tract infections (UTIs), focusing on antibiotic use and antibiotic susceptibilities. Patients diagnosed with UTIs caused by E. coli in Akashi Municipal Hospital between April 2004 and March 2010 were enrolled in the study. A total of 858 UTI cases were examined. Antibiotics used in our hospital during that period and the antibiotic susceptibilities of E. coli in UTI cases were assessed. We analyzed the data on a yearly basis, with the year being defined as the period from April to the following March (e.g., in this study the period from April 2004 to March 2005 represents 2004). The first 3 years (2004-2006) were compared to the last 3 years (2007-2009). The use of piperacillin, cephazolin, amikacin, oral cefotiam, and levofloxacin decreased significantly and the use of imipenem, gentamicin (GM), cefcapene, and oral minocycline (MINO) increased significantly in the last 3 years compared to the previous 3 years. The susceptibilities of MINO in complicated cystitis significantly increased and those of GM in uncomplicated pyelonephritis significantly decreased in these 3 years (2007-2009) compared to the previous 3 years (2004-2006) (P changes in our pattern of antibiotic use associated with changes in antibiotic susceptibilities and an increase in ESBL-producing E. coli isolated from our UTI cases. Monitoring of antibiotic use and emergence of resistant strains should be continued.

  7. New Progress in the Cause Analysis and Nursing of Respiratory Tract Infection after Abdominal Surgery under General Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Congxian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a review of the causes of respiratory tract infection after abdominal surgery. These causes include general anesthesia, intubation factors, factors inherent to the patient, surgical factors, the injudicious use of antimicrobial agents, and the environmental factors of the ward. The perioperative management of the respiratory tract should be strengthened. Health education, respiratory function training, oral nursing intervention, atomization inhalation, and personalized expectoration methods should receive more attention to decrease the complications and promote the early rehabilitation of patients after abdominal surgery.

  8. Distribution of respiratory viruses which cause lower respiratory tract infection in pediatric age group

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    Selim Dereci

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the appropriate treatment regimen and the clinical course of the lower respiratory tract infections( RTI s and to detect the common viral causes of lower RTI s. Methods: The present study included a total of 255 pediatric patients aged less than 7 years old and admitted to the Department of Pediatrics of Rize Training and Research Hospital between January 2014 and January 2015 with clinical pre-diagnosis of lower RTI . Nasopharyngeal swab specimens collected from these patients were tested for viral pathogens by using multiplex RT- PCR kit the ResPlex II plus Panel PRE (Qiagen, Germany. Results: A total of 212 out of 255 (83.1% specimens revealed positive for one or more viral pathogens. The most common detected pathogens were respiratory syncytial virus ( RSV A/B in 110 samples (43.1%, rhinovirus in 51 samples (20.0%, adenovirus in 36 samples (14.1%, influenzae virus A in 32 samples (12.5%, and coronavirus in 24 samples (9.4%. In 76 samples (29.8%, more than one viral pathogen were detected. RSV was seen in more than 50% patients in the first 2 years. RSV was the most common pathogen in each year of the first 5 years but rhinovirus, influenza A and adenovirus were seen more than RSV after the fifth year. A total of 95.8% of the viral detections were seen between November and April without a significant peak amongst these months. The distribution of the pathogens by months of the year showed no significance. Conclusions: These findings can contribute to epidemiological data of Turkey. Detection of the viral pathogens causing lower RTIs can be critical in management of the disease, decrease inappropriate antibiotic treatment, and lower the morbidity and mortality rates in such diseases.

  9. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with Neurogenic Bladder and ... To protect the kidneys from damage – By preventing urinary tract infections (UTI) – By identifying and treating vesicoureteral remux (VUR). ...

  10. Clinical predictors of ceftriaxone resistance in microorganisms causing febrile urinary tract infections in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Lázaro, Javier; Smithson, Alex; Jovè Vidal, Neus; Batida Vila, María Teresa

    2018-02-01

    Because of high rates of resistance to fluoroquinolones, ceftriaxone has become one of the main options for treating febrile urinary tract infection (FUTI). This study aimed to identify predictors of ceftriaxone resistance in community-acquired FUTIs in men. Cross-sectional ambispective study enrolling men with FUTIs treated in the emergency department of a local area hospital in Spain. A total of 552 FUTI episodes were studied; 103 (18.6%) were caused by a ceftriaxone-resistant microorganism. Variables associated with a ceftriaxone-resistant FUTI were older age, health care-associated FUTI, dementia, diabetes mellitus, neoplasms, a history of UTIs, urologic disease, and complicated FUTI. Patients with ceftriaxone-resistant FUTIs also had higher rates of recent antibiotic treatment. Independent variables associated with FUTI due to a ceftriaxoneresistant microorganism were cirrhosis of the liver (odds ratio [OR], 6,00 95% CI, 1.25-28; P = .025), health careassociated FUTI (OR, 2.3 95% CI, 1.23-4.27; P = .009), and prior treatment with antibiotics (OR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.23-3.76 P = .007). Components of health care-associated FUTI were a history of admission to a long-term residence (OR, 2.90 95% CI, 1.21-7.16; P = .017) and use of penicillins with or without beta-lactamase inhibitors (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.05-4.42; P = .035). Cirrhosis of the liver; history of health care-associated FUTI, especially in patients residing in a long-term care facility; and recent use of antibiotics, mainly penicillins with or without beta-lactamase inhibitors, are risk factors for ceftriaxone-resistant FUTI in men.

  11. Brucella melitensis: a rarely suspected cause of infections of genitalia and the lower urinary tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Stamatiou

    Full Text Available We examined the clinical presentation and outcome of Brucellar infections of genitalia and the lower urinary tract through a review of the medical records of 10 cases of male patients with brucellar infections of the genitalia and lower urinary tract. The mean age of the patients with brucellosis was 49.2, (median 52, range 15-77 years. Eleven out of 17 patients were rural residents, 15 reported that they might have consumed unpasteurized dairy products and four reported occupational exposure. Symptoms onset was acute in almost all cases. Scrotal pain, epidedimal swelling and fever were the most common symptoms. The Wright test was positive in 13 patients, while Brucella sp. was isolated from blood cultures in six cases. Only two patients were found with abnormal liver ultrasonography. All patients underwent treatment with doxycycline and aminoglycoside for seven days and doxycycline alone for two months. Most of them responded to antibiotic therapy with rapid regression of symptoms. One patient failed to respond to therapy and presented necrotizing orchitis, as well as abscesses, which required orchectomy. Brucellar infections of the genitalia and lower urinary tract have no specific clinical presentation; the usual laboratory examination is not sufficient to diagnose this kind of infection, therefore it could easily be misdiagnosed. An analytical medical history (including overall dietary habits and recent consumption of non-pasteurized dairy products could indicate Brucelosis as would the persistence of symptoms despite a one-week antibiotic treatment. In general, patients afflicted by brucellar epididymoorchitis respond to Brucellosis antibiotic therapy, except for some rare cases that present necrotizing orchitis and require surgical treatment.

  12. Epidemiological factors associated with ESBL- and non ESBL-producing E. coli causing urinary tract infection in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Frederik Boetius; Schønning, Kristian; Rasmussen, Steen Christian

    2016-01-01

    were prospectively collected and retrospective statistical analyses were done. This study included 98 cases with urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by ESBL-producing E. coli, 174 with antibiotic-resistant (non-ESBL) E. coli, 177 with susceptible E. coli and 200 with culture negative urine samples....... Case groups had significantly higher use of antibiotics than the control group within 30 days before infection (p ...-producing E. coli. Exposure to antibiotics was a risk factor for UTI with E. coli, while prior antibiotic usage was not an indisputable predictor for infection with ESBL-producing E.coli in general practice....

  13. FREQUENCY, URINALYSIS AND SUSCEPTIBILITY PROFILE OF PATHOGENS CAUSING URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN ENUGU STATE, SOUTHEAST NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uju M.E. Dibua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was designed to determine the frequency and causative agent(s of urinary tract infections (UTIs in individuals with symptoms of urinary tract infections in Enugu State of Southeast Nigeria, and to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of microbial agents isolated from urine culture. Methods: The study involved 211 individuals (149 females and 62 males clinically suspected for UTI. Urine samples were collected by the mid-stream ‘clean catch' method and tested using standard procedures. Antibiotic susceptibility of the isolated pathogens was tested using the Kirby-Bauer technique according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. Results: Microscopy of centrifuged urine samples showed 16 patients had pyuria while 54 had pus cells. Calcium oxalate crystals were found in 14 samples. Urinalysis performed with urine samples showed 17 had protein; seven were nitrite positive and three had moderate to high glucose concentration. Fifty-four urine samples (36.2% from females and 12 (19.4% from males showed significant growth upon culture. Gram stain and biochemical tests identified nine different organisms with Escherichia coli as the most common isolated species. Forty three randomly selected strains were further tested for their susceptibility against a panel of antibiotics. Thirty isolates (81.08% were resistant to four or more antibiotics with the highest resistance shown by E. coli (76.67%. All the Gram- negative isolates were resistant to Ampicilox, Cefuroxime and Amoxicillin. Conclusion: Urinary tract infections were found more in females in the area under study. As found in other studies, E. coli was the most predominant isolate, although other organisms seem to be on the increase.

  14. Bacteria etiological agents causing respiratory tract infections in children and their resistance patterns to a panel of ten antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nweze EI

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the bacteria etiological agents of respiratory tract infection among 280 school children in South East Nigeria, and to determine their antimicrobial resistance patterns to a panel of ten antibiotics. Methods: Throat swabs (280 were collected from students in four boarding schools located in Enugu and Onitsha metropolis. Standard microbiological procedures were used to screen these swabs to determine the prevalence of respiratory pathogens while the disc diffusion test was used to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of the recovered isolates. Results: Of the 280 samples screened, 57.1% were positive. Haemophilus influenzae was the most prevalent (16.1%, followed by Streptococcus pyogenes (13.9%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (12.5%, Streptococcus pneumoniae (6.8%, Staphylococcus aureus (5.4% and Corynebacterium diphtheriae (2.5%. More isolates were recovered in the two male schools investigated. However, there was no significant difference in the overall prevalence of isolates according to sex or school location of the subjects. Greater number of isolates (56% was recovered from those aged 11-14 years. This was statistically significant (P<0.05, compared to the other two age groups (15-18 years and 19-23 years. The pattern of resistance varied according to the bacteria species. There were multi-resistant isolates. Since these students stand the risk of contracting respiratory tract infection particularly from reservoirs among them, there is need to increase surveillance and develop better strategies to curb the increasing prevalence of respiratory tract infection in this and other similar regions of Africa. Conclusions: The spectrum of bacteria causing respiratory tract infection is still wide in Nigeria. Many isolates showed appreciable levels of antibiotic resistance apparently due to antibiotic abuse. Development of new strategies to curb this increasing prevalence of respiratory tract infection is warranted.

  15. Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Taskesen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are frequent conditions in children. Untreated urinary tract infections can lead to serious kidney problems that could threaten the life of the child. Therefore, early detection and treatment of urinary tract infection is important. In older children, urinary tract infections may cause obvious symptoms such as stomach ache and disuria. In infants and young children, UTIs may be harder to detect because of less specific symptoms. Recurrences are common in children with urinary abnormalities such as neurogenic bladder, vesicourethral reflux or those with very poor toilet and hygiene habits. This article reviews the diagnostic approach and presents the current data related to the roles of radiologic imaging, surgical correction and antibiotic prophylaxis of UTIs in children. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(2.000: 57-69

  16. Could Urinary Tract Infection Cause Female Stress Urinary Incontinence? A Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Fatemeh; Motaghed, Zahra; Abbaszadeh, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI), the most common type of urinary incontinence (UI), is usually defined as leakage of urine during movement or activity which puts pressure on the bladder, such as coughing, sneezing, running or heavy lifting. It is reported in most countries that 15% to 40% of women struggle with SUI and its severe implications for daily life, including social interactions, sexuality, and psychological wellbeing. The aim of our study was to assess the relationship between urinary tract infection and the severity of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). This research was a cross-sectional study conducted in a public urology clinic in Tehran. The study population was all females with complaints of SUI who visited the clinic during 2014. We compared Valsalva leak point pressure (VLPP) in two groups of patients, with and without history of urinary tract infection (UTI). According to the findings of our study, the mean VLPP was 83.10 cm H2O in the group with UTI history, and 81.29 cm H2O in those without history of UTI. The difference in VLPP between the two groups was not significant (P < 0.05), even after controlling for confounding variables including age, body mass index, history of hysterectomy and number of deliveries. Our study did not confirm a significant relationship between UTI and severity of SUI as measured by VLPP. A decisive opinion would require extensive future studies by prospective methods.

  17. Urinary Tract Infections (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections KidsHealth / For Teens / Urinary Tract Infections What's in ... especially girls — visit a doctor. What Is a Urinary Tract Infection? A bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) is the ...

  18. Candida Urinary Tract Infection: Pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, John F.; Kavanagh, Kevin; Sobel, Jack D.; Kauffman, Carol A.; Newman, Cheryl A.

    2011-01-01

    Candida species are unusual causes of urinary tract infection (UTI) in healthy individuals, but common in the hospital setting or among patients with predisposing diseases and structural abnormalities of the kidney and collecting system. The urinary tract may be invaded in either an antegrade fashion from the bloodstream or retrograde via the urethra and bladder. Candida species employ a repertoire of virulence factors, including phenotypic switching, dimorphism, galvano - and thi...

  19. Microfluidic system for the identification of bacterial pathogens causing urinary tract infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Holger; Hlawatsch, Nadine; Haraldsson, Tommy; van der Wijngaart, Wouter; Lind, Anders; Malhotra-Kumar, Surbi; Turlej-Rogacka, Agata; Goossens, Herman

    2015-03-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections and pose a significant healthcare burden. The growing trend in antibiotic resistance makes it mandatory to develop diagnostic kits which allow not only the determination of a pathogen but also the antibiotic resistances. We have developed a microfluidic cartridge which takes a direct urine sample, extracts the DNA, performs an amplification using batch-PCR and flows the sample over a microarray which is printed into a microchannel for fluorescence detection. The cartridge is injection-molded out of COP and contains a set of two-component injection-molded rotary valves to switch between input and to isolate the PCR chamber during thermocycling. The hybridization probes were spotted directly onto a functionalized section of the outlet microchannel. We have been able to successfully perform PCR of E.coli in urine in this chip and perform a fluorescence detection of PCR products. An upgraded design of the cartridge contains the buffers and reagents in blisters stored on the chip.

  20. Antimicrobial resistance in pathogens causing urinary tract infections in a rural community of Odisha, India

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    Muktikesh Dash

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial resistance of urinary tract pathogens has increased worldwide. Empiric treatment of community-acquired urinary tract infection (CA-UTI is determined by antimicrobial resistance patterns of uropathogens in a population of specific geographical location. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of CA-UTI in rural Odisha, India, and the effect of gender and age on its prevalence as well as etiologic agents and the resistance profile of the bacterial isolates. Materials and Methods: Consecutive clean-catch mid-stream urine samples were collected from 1670 adult patients. The urine samples were processed and microbial isolates were identified by conventional methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on all bacterial isolates by Kirby Bauer′s disc diffusion method. Results: The prevalence of UTI was significantly higher in females compared with males (females 45.2%, males 18.4%, OR = 2.041, 95% CI = 1.64-2.52, P ≤ 0.0001. Young females within the age group of 18-37 years and elderly males (≥68 years showed high prevalence of UTI. Escherichia coli (68.8% was the most prevalent isolate followed by Enterococcus spp. (9.7%. Amikacin and nitrofurantoin were the most active antimicrobial agents which showed low resistance rate of 5.8% and 9.8%, respectively. Conclusion: Our study revealed E. coli as the pre-dominant bacterial pathogen. Nitrofurantoin should be used as empirical therapy for uncomplicated CA-UTIs. In the Indian setting, routine urine cultures may be advisable, since treatment failure is likely to occur with commonly used antimicrobials. Therefore, development of regional surveillance programs is necessary for implementation of national CA-UTI guidelines.

  1. Epidemiological factors associated with ESBL- and non ESBL-producing E. coli causing urinary tract infection in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Frederik Boëtius; Schønning, Kristian; Rasmussen, Steen Christian; Littauer, Pia; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Løbner-Olesen, Anders; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate how use of antibiotics precedes the presence of ESBL-producing E.coli in general practice. The authors performed a triple-case-control study where three case groups were individually compared to a single control group of uninfected individuals. Urine samples were prospectively collected and retrospective statistical analyses were done. This study included 98 cases with urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by ESBL-producing E. coli, 174 with antibiotic-resistant (non-ESBL) E. coli, 177 with susceptible E. coli and 200 with culture negative urine samples. Case groups had significantly higher use of antibiotics than the control group within 30 days before infection (p E. coli. Exposure to antibiotics was a risk factor for UTI with E. coli, while prior antibiotic usage was not an indisputable predictor for infection with ESBL-producing E.coli in general practice.

  2. Evaluation the Antibacterial Effects of Two Commercial Products of Eucalyptus globulus Against Common Microbial Causes of Respiratory Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Nahaei, Mahsa Kalejahi 1, Parisa Rahbarfam 1, Solmaz Maleki Dizaj 2, Farzaneh Lotfipour *

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants have attained once more importance due to drug resistance of microbial isolates to common antibiotics as well as fewer side effects and low cost of herbal products comparing to chemical drugs. Eucalyptus globules (E. globulus has been widely applied as a natural remedy in respiratory tract infections. The present study focused on the evaluation of antibacterial effect of two commercial products of E. globulus against common microbial causes of respiratory tract infections. To this end, two commercial products of E. globules including inhaler and oral soft capsule with standard expiration date, (in three different batch numbers were purchased from the pharmacy stores of Tabriz city. Methods: The antibacterial efficiency of these products were investigated using Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC, Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC and disk diffusion methods against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Pseudomona aeruginosa. Results: Based on the obtained results, these commercial products of E. globules showed significant inhibitory effects against Gram-positive bacteria. The findings also indicated that the Eucalyptus inhaler products had more inhibitory effects than Eucalyptus oral soft capsule, however batch to batch variations were of concern. Conclusion: This research presents optimistic result on using the Eucalyptus as an alternative antibacterial agent against respiratory tract pathogenic microorganisms.

  3. Appendectomy as a Risk Factor for Bacteremic Biliary Tract Infection Caused by Antibiotic-Resistant Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koki Kawanishi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. Recent evidence has suggested that appendix plays a pivotal role in the development and preservation of intestinal immune system. The aim of this study is to examine whether prior appendectomy is associated with an increased risk for the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in bacteremia from biliary tract infection (BTI. Methods. Charts from 174 consecutive cases of bacteremia derived from BTI were retrospectively reviewed. Using multivariate analysis, independent risk factors for development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria were identified among the clinical parameters, including a history of appendectomy. Results. In total, 221 bacteria strains were identified from 174 BTI events. Of those, 42 antibiotic-resistant bacteria were identified in 34 patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that prior appendectomy (Odds ratio (OR, 3.02; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.15–7.87; p=0.026, antibiotic use within the preceding three months (OR, 3.06; 95% CI, 1.26–7.64; p=0.013, and bilioenteric anastomosis or sphincterotomy (OR, 3.77; 95% CI, 1.51–9.66; p=0.0046 were independent risk factors for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Conclusions. Prior appendectomy was an independent risk factor for the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in bacteremia from BTI.

  4. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Urinary Tract ... Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...

  5. urinary tract infections amongst pregnant women attending

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    INTRODUCTION. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common bacterial infection during pregnancy and a significant cause of perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality (1). It may be symptomatic, in form of urethritis, cystitis, pyelonephritis; or it may remain asymptomatic (2). Urinary Tract Infection is more common in women.

  6. Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  7. Corynebacterium glucuronolyticum causing genitourinary tract infection: Case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gherardi

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we describe a urethritis case caused by C. glucuronolyticum in a 37-year-old, apparently healthy male, who complained mild pain in the lower abdomen, with several urinary symptoms. While urethral and semen specimens did not yield positive results for microbiological evaluation, cultures of urine samples revealed the monomicrobial growth on blood-containing media of tiny colonies after 24 h of incubation, clearly evident only after 48 h of incubation under CO2-enriched atmosphere. Colonies were identified as C. glucuronolyticum both by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Oral ciprofloxacin gradually led to clinical improvement and, finally, to a complete recovery, in accordance with microbiological findings. In spite of its infrequent detection, C. glucuronolyticum might be a potential urogenital pathogen in males more commonly that what believed, perhaps due to slow growth leading to underrecognition; we suggest therefore to consider the organism in the differential diagnostics of bacterial diseases of the urinary tract.

  8. Respiratory tract infection is the major cause of the ambulatory visits in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lue KoHuang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As children represent the future, ensuring that they receive proper health care should be a primary concern of our societies. Epidemiological research underpins the importance of effective child health care strategies, and highlights the need for accurate data collection; such surveys are currently lacking in Taiwan. In our descriptive studies, we compared the differences of the ten most common diseases in the year 2000 and 2009 among Taiwanese children. Methods Data for a total of 174,651 and 142,200 visits under eighteen years old were collected from the National Health Insurance Research Database in year 2000 and 2009. A maximum of three outpatient diagnostic codes (the International Classification of Disease [ICD], ninth revision could be listed for every visit. Data were categorized according to the principal diagnoses, age and different specialties of physicians. Results Respiratory tract infection was the most common disease (58.21% to 44.77%. Teeth (4.90% to 5.16% and eye (2.52% to 3.15% problems were the also in the list of top ten diseases. In year 2009, the rate of allergic rhinitis was 2.87% in 7-18 years old group. Pediatricians were the first option for consultation, followed by ear, nose and throat specialists and family physicians. However, for the school age children group, the role of pediatricians with regards to children's health care showed a decrease in its importance. Conclusions The amount of information relevant to child health care is rapidly expanding. The ten most common diseases of the present analysis may serve as baseline data for future evaluations of the changes of type of diseases among children.

  9. Evaluation of the antibacterial potential of Petroselinum crispum and Rosmarinus officinalis against bacteria that cause urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Villas Boas Petrolini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluated the antibacterial activity of the crude hydroalcoholic extracts, fractions, and compounds of two plant species, namely Rosmarinus officinalis and Petroselinum crispum, against the bacteria that cause urinary tract infection. The microdilution method was used for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC. The crude hydroalcoholic extract of R. officinalis displayed in vitro activity against Gram-positive bacteria, with satisfactory MBC for the clinical isolate S. saprophyticus. The fractions and the pure compound rosmarinic acid did not furnish promising results for Gram-negative bacteria, whereas fractions 2, 3, and 4 gave encouraging results for Gram-positive bacteria and acted as bactericide against S. epidermidis as well as E. faecalis (ATCC 29212 and its clinical isolate. R. officinalis led to promising results in the case of Gram-positive bacteria, resulting in a considerable interest in the development of reliable alternatives for the treatment of urinary infections.

  10. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is ...

  11. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is ...

  12. Urinary tract infections and Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Payam; Behzadi, Elham; Ranjbar, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract candidiasis is known as the most frequent nosocomial fungal infection worldwide. Candida albicans is the most common cause of nosocomial fungal urinary tract infections; however, a rapid change in the distribution of Candida species is undergoing. Simultaneously, the increase of urinary tract candidiasis has led to the appearance of antifungal resistant Candida species. In this review, we have an in depth look into Candida albicans uropathogenesis and distribution of the three most frequent Candida species contributing to urinary tract candidiasis in different countries around the world. For writing this review, Google Scholar -a scholarly search engine- (http://scholar.google.com/) and PubMed database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/) were used. The most recently published original articles and reviews of literature relating to the first three Candida species causing urinary tract infections in different countries and the pathogenicity of Candida albicans were selected and studied. Although some studies show rapid changes in the uropathogenesis of Candida species causing urinary tract infections in some countries, Candida albicans is still the most important cause of candidal urinary tract infections. Despite the ranking of Candida albicans as the dominant species for urinary tract candidiasis, specific changes have occurred in some countries. At this time, it is important to continue the surveillance related to Candida species causing urinary tract infections to prevent, control and treat urinary tract candidiasis in future.

  13. Candida urinary tract infection: pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John F; Kavanagh, Kevin; Sobel, Jack D; Kauffman, Carol A; Newman, Cheryl A

    2011-05-01

    Candida species are unusual causes of urinary tract infection (UTI) in healthy individuals, but common in the hospital setting or among patients with predisposing diseases and structural abnormalities of the kidney and collecting system. The urinary tract may be invaded in either an antegrade fashion from the bloodstream or retrograde via the urethra and bladder. Candida species employ a repertoire of virulence factors, including phenotypic switching, dimorphism, galvano - and thigmotropism, and hydrolytic enzymes, to colonize and then invade the urinary tract. Antegrade infection occurs primarily among patients predisposed to candidemia. The process of adherence to and invasion of the glomerulus, renal blood vessels, and renal tubules by Candida species was elegantly described in early histopathologic studies. Armed with modern molecular biologic techniques, the various virulence factors involved in bloodborne infection of the kidney are gradually being elucidated. Disturbances of urine flow, whether congenital or acquired, instrumentation of the urinary tract, diabetes mellitus, antimicrobial therapy, and immunosuppression underlie most instances of retrograde Candida UTI. In addition, bacterial UTIs caused by Enterobacteriaceae may facilitate the initial step in the process. Ascending infections generally do not result in candidemia in the absence of obstruction.

  14. Antibacterial activity of Valeriana jatamansi against extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Gramnegative bacteria causing urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babar Habib

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find out the antibacterial activity of Valeriana jatamansi (V. jatamansi rhizomes against the extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs producing isolates of Enterobacteriaceae family. Methods: Confirmation of ESBLs producing Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Hafnia alvei isolated from urinary tract infections was performed by double disc diffusion assay. Antimicrobial susceptibility of all ESBLs producing isolates was determined by disc diffusion method following guidelines of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Successive extraction of rhizomes of V. jatamansi was performed with hexane, chloroform and methanol using Soxhelt apparatus. These extracts were tested against the ESBLs producing isolates using well diffusion method. Results: Hexane extract showed significant results as compared to chloroform and methanol extracts with the maximum zone of inhibition (21 mm while ciprofloxacin and amikacin were used as standard drugs. Conclusions: Findings of the study suggested that hexane extract of V. jatamansi can be used in combination with other antibiotics as alternative treatment for urinary tract infections caused by ESBLs producing strains of Enterobacteriaceae.

  15. Urinary tract infection in women - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by bacteria that enter the urethra and travel to the bladder. ... BATHING AND HYGIENE To prevent future urinary tract infections, you ... make infections more likely. Change your pad each time you ...

  16. G-scores: a method for identifying disease-causing pathogens with application to lower respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Peng, Peichao; Wang, Lu; Kang, Yu

    2014-07-20

    Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are well known for the lack of a good diagnostic method. The main difficulty lies in the fact that there are a variety of pathogens causing LRTIs, and their management and treatment are quite different. The development of quantitative real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (qrt-LAMP) made it possible to rapidly amplify and quantify multiple pathogens simultaneously. The question that remains to be answered is how accurate and reliable is this method? More importantly, how are qrt-LAMP measurements utilized to inform/suggest medical decisions? When does a pathogen start to grow out of control and cause infection? Answers to these questions are crucial to advise treatment guidance for LRTIs and also helpful to design phase I/II trials or adaptive treatment strategies. In this article, our main contributions include the following two aspects. First, we utilize zero-inflated mixture models to provide statistical evidence for the validity of qrt-LAMP being used in detecting pathogens for LRTIs without the presence of a gold standard test. Our results on qrt-LAMP suggest that it provides reliable measurements on pathogens of interest. Second, we propose a novel statistical approach to identify disease-causing pathogens, that is, distinguish the pathogens that colonize without causing problems from those that rapidly grow and cause infection. We achieve this by combining information from absolute quantities of pathogens and their symbiosis information to form G-scores. Change-point detection methods are utilized on these G-scores to detect the three phases of bacterial growth-lag phase, log phase, and stationary phase. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Urinary tract infection in children after cardiac surgery: Incidence, causes, risk factors and outcomes in a single-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabbani, Mohamed S; Ismail, Sameh R; Fatima, Anis; Shafi, Rehana; Idris, Julinar A; Mehmood, Akhter; Singh, Reetam K; Elbarabry, Mahmoud; Hijazi, Omar; Hussein, Mohamed A

    2016-01-01

    Nosocomial urinary tract infection (UTI) increases hospitalization, cost and morbidity. In this cohort study, we aimed to determine the incidence, risk factors, etiology and outcomes of UTIs in post-operative cardiac children. To this end, we studied all post-operative patients admitted to the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Unit (PCICU) in 2012, and we divided the patients into two groups: the UTI (UTI group) and the non-UTI (control group). We compared both groups for multiple peri-operative risk factors. We included 413 children in this study. Of these, 29 (7%) had UTIs after cardiac surgery (UTI group), and 384 (93%) were free from UTIs (control group). All UTI cases were catheter-associated UTIs (CAUTIs). A total of 1578 urinary catheter days were assessed in this study, with a CAUTI density rate of 18 per 1000 catheter days. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated the following risk factors for CAUTI development: duration of urinary catheter placement (purinary tract (CAKUT) (purinary catheter, the presence of CAKUT, and the presence of syndromes comprised the main risk factors for CAUTI. Gram-negative organisms were the main causes for CAUTI, and one-third of them found to be resistant in this single-center study. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Urinary tract infection caused by community-acquired extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing bacteria in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Hee; Yang, Eun Mi; Kim, Chan Jong

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by resistant strains of bacteria is increasingly prevalent in children. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and risk factors for UTI caused by community-acquired extended-spectrum β-lactamase (CA-ESBL)-producing bacteria in infants. This was a retrospective study performed over 5 years in a single Korean center. Hospitalized infants with febrile UTI were enrolled and divided into two groups (CA-ESBL vs. CA non-ESBL UTI). The yearly prevalence was calculated. Baseline characteristics and clinical course such as fever duration, laboratory and radiological findings were compared between the two groups. Risk factors associated with the CA-ESBL UTI were investigated. Among the enrolled infants (n=185), 31 (17%) had CA-ESBL UTI. The yearly prevalence of ESBL of CA-ESBL UTI increased during the study (0% in 2010, 22.2% in 2015). Infants with CA-ESBL UTI had a longer duration of fever after initiating antibiotics (2.0±1.1 vs. 1.5±0.6 days, p=0.020). Cortical defects on renal scan and early treatment failure were more frequent in CA-ESBL (64.5 vs. 42.2%, p=0.023; 22.6 vs. 4.5%, p=0.001). A logistic regression analysis revealed that urinary tract abnormalities and previous UTI were independent risk factors for CA-EBSL UTI (odds ratio, 2.7; p=0.025; 10.3; p=0.022). The incidence of UTI caused by ESBL-producing bacteria has increased in Korean infants. Recognition of the clinical course and risk factors for ESLB-producing UTI may help to determine appropriate guidelines for its management. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  19. Community-acquired febrile urinary tract infection caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria in hospitalised infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Marco, Roberto; Guillén Olmos, Elena; Bretón-Martínez, José Rafael; Giner Pérez, Lourdes; Casado Sánchez, Benedicta; Fujkova, Julia; Salamanca Campos, Marina; Nogueira Coito, José Miguel

    2017-05-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria are infrequent pathogens of urinary tract infections in children. The objective of our study was to investigate the presence, clinically associated characteristics and risk factors for acquisition of urinary tract infection/acute pyelonephritis (UTI/APN) in hospitalised children <2years old caused by community-acquired ESBL. A case-control study in a second level community hospital in Spain, in which 537 episodes of UTI/APN were investigated in a retrospective study between November 2005 and August 2014. Cases were patients with ESBL strains. For each case, four ESBL-negative controls were selected. A questionnaire with the variables of interest was completed for every patient, and the groups were compared. ESBL-positive strains were found in 19 (3,5%) cultures. Of these 16 (84%) were Escherichia coli. Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) of any grade was more frequent in the ESBL group (60 vs. 29%), although without statistical significance. Relapses were more frequent in the ESBL group (42% vs. 18%) (P=.029; OR=3.2; 95%CI: 1.09-9.5). The prevalence of UTI/APN due to ESBL-positive strains increased slightly from 2.7% in the period 2005-2009 to 4.4% in the period 2010-2014. ESBL UTI/APN were associated with more frequent relapses. VUR of any grade was twice more frequent in the ESBL group. Piperacillin/tazobactam, fosfomycin and meropenem showed an excellent activity. Aminoglycosides may be a therapeutic option, and in our patients gentamicin was the antibiotic most used. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  20. Urinary tract infections in women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common bacterial infections in women, with half of all women experiencing at least one in their lifetime.1 Of the women affected, 25-30% develop recurrent infections unrelated to any functional or anatomical abnormality of the urinary tract.2 Most UTIs in women are episodes of acute.

  1. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Urinary Tract ... KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor. © 1995- ...

  2. Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccine Safety Frequently Asked Questions about Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infections Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What is ... an incision above the pubis. What is a urinary tract infection? A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection ...

  3. Use of spermicide-coated condoms and other risk factors for urinary tract infection caused by Staphylococcus saprophyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fihn, S D; Boyko, E J; Chen, C L; Normand, E H; Yarbro, P; Scholes, D

    1998-02-09

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus is the second most common cause of urinary tract infection (UTI) in young women. Relatively little is known about risk factors for this infection including exposure to vaginal spermicides, which increases the risk of UTI caused by Escherichia coli. We conducted a case-control study in a large health maintenance organization Case patients were sexually active young women with acute UTIs caused by S saprophyticus identified from computerized laboratory files during 1990 to 1993. Population-based control patients were randomly selected from the organization's enrollment files. Exposures such as sexual activity and contraceptive practice were determined by interview. Of 1299 eligible women, 66% (96 case patients and 629 control patients) were interviewed. Case patients were more often unmarried and were more sexually active. Ninety-nine percent of case patients and 57% of control patients reported previous UTIs. Exposure to any type of condom during the previous year was reported by 53% of case patients and 31% of control patients. Exposure to spermicide-coated condoms during the previous month was associated with a higher risk of UTI (odds ratio [OR], 3.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-10.3). The OR for exposure during the previous year ranged from 2.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.0-4.8) for less than once weekly to 6.05 (95% confidence interval, 2.2-16.6) for more than twice weekly. In multivariate analyses, younger age (OR, 0.97 per year), intercourse frequency (OR, 1.2 per weekly episode), prior UTI (OR, 3.3), and frequency of exposure to spermicide-coated condoms (OR, 8.4 for more than once weekly and 10.9 for more than twice weekly) were independent predictors of UTI. Among women exposed to spermicide-coated condoms, 74% of UTIs caused by S saprophyticus were attributable to this exposure. Spermicide-coated condoms were associated with an increase risk of UTI caused by S saprophyticus. Because sexual activity and spermicide exposure are

  4. Bacteremic Urinary Tract Infection Caused by Multidrug-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Are Associated With Severe Sepsis at Admission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Chien; Hsiao, Chih-Yen; Hung, Miao-Chiu; Hung, Sheng-Che; Wang, Hung-Ping; Huang, Yun-Jhong; Wang, Jann-Tay

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study is to compare the clinical features and treatment outcomes among patients with bacteremic urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) and non-MDR Enterobacteriaceae and to identify whether MDR pathogens were independently associated with severe sepsis or septic shock at presentation. The clinical data of adult patients visiting and being treated at Chia-Yi Christian Hospital due to bacteremic UTI caused by Enterobacteriaceae from January 2006 to August 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 585 patients were enrolled. Among them, 220 (37.6%) were caused by the MDR Enterobacteriaceae. A total of 206 patients (35.2%) developed severe sepsis or septic shock at presentation. Patients in the MDR group tend to be male and have a past history of gout, recurrent UTI, prior hospitalization, hydronephrosis, renal stone, ureteral stone, indwelling urinary catheter, newly development of renal dysfunction, severe sepsis or septic shock, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, receipt of ineffective empirical therapy, longer hospital stay, and higher in-hospital mortality (2.7% vs 1.9%, P = 0.569). Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, it is revealed that independent predictors associated with severe sepsis or septic shock at presentation were liver cirrhosis (OR 2.868; 95% CI 1.439–5.716; P = 0.003), indwelling urinary catheter (OR 1.936; 95% CI 1.238–3.027; P = 0.004), and MDR Enterobacteriaceae (OR 1.447; 95% CI 1.002–2.090; P = 0.049). Multidrug resistance was associated with the development of severe sepsis or septic shock upon presentation among patients with bacteremic UTI caused by Enterobacteriaceae. Therefore, empirical antibiotics therapy for patients with UTI presented with severe sepsis and/or septic shock should be more broad-spectrum to effectively cover MDR Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:27196480

  5. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a urinary tract infection before anyone else can see there's anything wrong with you. That's why it's ... signs of a kidney infection and you should see a doctor right away. What Will the Doctor ...

  6. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... if I Have a UTI? You may notice signs of a urinary tract infection before anyone else ... it smell bad when you pee? These are signs that you might have a bladder infection, so ...

  7. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / ...

  8. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? ...

  9. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? ...

  10. Molecular identification of adenovirus causing respiratory tract infection in pediatric patients at the University of Malaya Medical Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbuBakar Sazaly

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are at least 51 adenovirus serotypes (AdV known to cause human infections. The prevalence of the different human AdV (HAdV serotypes varies among different regions. Presently, there are no reports of the prevalent HAdV types found in Malaysia. The present study was undertaken to identify the HAdV types associated primarily with respiratory tract infections (RTI of young children in Malaysia. Methods Archived HAdV isolates from pediatric patients with RTI seen at the University of Malaya Medical Center (UMMC, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from 1999 to 2005 were used. Virus isolates were inoculated into cell culture and DNA was extracted when cells showed significant cytopathic effects. AdV partial hexon gene was amplified and the sequences together with other known HAdV hexon gene sequences were used to build phylogenetic trees. Identification of HAdV types found among young children in Malaysia was inferred from the phylograms. Results At least 2,583 pediatric patients with RTI sought consultation and treatment at the UMMC from 1999 to 2005. Among these patients, 48 ( Conclusions HAdV-1 and HAdV-2 were the most common HAdV isolated from pediatric patients who sought treatment for RTI at the UMMC from 1999 to 2005. HAdV-B, mainly HAdV-3, was recovered from ~22% of the patients. These findings provide a benchmark for future studies on the prevalence and epidemiology of HAdV types in Malaysia and in the region.

  11. URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Sivalingam

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections frequently affect pregnant mothers. This problem causes significant morbidity and healthcare expenditure. Three common clinical manifestations of UTIs in pregnancy are: asymptomatic bacteriuria, acute cystitis and acute pyelonephritis. Escherichia coli remains the most frequent organism isolated in UTIs. All pregnant mothers should be screened for UTIs in pregnancy and antibiotics should be commenced without delay. Urine culture and sensitivity is the gold standard in diagnosing UTIs. Without treatment, asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy is associated with preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, maternal hypertension, pre-eclampsia and anaemia. Acute pyelonephritis can lead to maternal sepsis. Recurrent UTIs in pregnancy require prophylactic antibiotic treatment.

  12. In vitro studies on medicinal plants used against bacterial diabetic foot ulcer (BDFU) and urinary tract infected (UTI) causing pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbu Lakshmi, S; Chelladurai, G; Suresh, B

    2016-09-01

    The pus samples from diabetic foot ulcer patients and urine samples from urinary tract infected patients were collected and inoculated in nutrient agar plates. The colonies showing different morphologies were streaked on selective agar plates. The antibacterial assay of selected commercial antibiotics was tested against the foot ulcer and urinary tract isolates. The result revealed that most of the organisms were found to be resistant against the antibiotics. Screening of antibacterial activity of selected plants, methanol extracts of plants were prepared and tested against foot ulcer pathogens. Among the plants used, the methanolic extract Tragia involucrata was very effective against the foot ulcer pathogens and to separate the compounds present in the methanolic extract of T. involucrata, when it was subjected to column chromatography. The fractions obtained were further checked for their antibacterial property and fraction 1 which inhibited the pathogens, were subjected to thin layer chromatography and the structure of the particular phytochemical compound was elucidated by NMR study. The spices were tested for their antibacterial property against the urinary tract pathogens. Among the spices tested; Allium sativum inhibited the growth of the pathogens isolated from urinary tract infection. It can be concluded that the plants extract can be used to discover natural products that may serve as lead for the development of new pharmaceuticals addressing the major therapeutic needs.

  13. Clonal Diversity, Virulence Potential and Antimicrobial Resistance ofEscherichia coliCausing Community Acquired Urinary Tract Infection in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nüesch-Inderbinen, Magdalena T; Baschera, Melinda; Zurfluh, Katrin; Hächler, Herbert; Nüesch, Hansjakob; Stephan, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the clonal structure, virulence potential and antibiotic susceptibility of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) isolates causing community acquired urinary tract infection (CAUTI) in unselected primary care patients in Switzerland. Methods: We performed multilocus sequence typing, virulence factor determination, and phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance testing on 44 non-duplicate UPEC isolates. Results: Twenty-seven different sequence types (STs) were identified. Major UPEC clones were represented by 19 (43.2%) of the isolates, including E. coli ST131, ST69 (both 13.6%), ST73 (6.8%), ST10 (4.5%), ST127, ST140, (both 2.3%). Five (11.4%) isolates belonged to ST141. Aggregate virulence factor (VF) scores were highest among isolates belonging to ST127 and ST141. Overall, 50% of the isolates were susceptible to all 12 antimicrobials tested, and all isolates remained susceptible to fosfomycin and nitrofurantoin. Resistance to sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin were found in 31.8, and 15.9% of the isolates, respectively. Plasmid-mediated resistance genes were detected in ST69 and ST131 and included aac(6 ' )-Ib-cr (2.3% of all isolates) bla CTX-M-14 and bla CTX-M-15 (9%), and mph(A) (13.6%). None of the isolates tested positive for mcr-1 or mcr-2 . Conclusions: Our results show that CAUTI in Switzerland is caused by a wide variety of UPEC STs for which fosfomycin remains a good treatment option. We suggest that ST141 is an emerging clone associated with UTI in the community, and warrants closer attention. Moreover, the high rate of E. coli harboring mph(A) from patients without a history of antimicrobial therapy or hospitalization indicates that UPEC is an important reservoir for mph(A) .

  14. Clonal Diversity, Virulence Potential and Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia coli Causing Community Acquired Urinary Tract Infection in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena T. Nüesch-Inderbinen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the clonal structure, virulence potential and antibiotic susceptibility of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC isolates causing community acquired urinary tract infection (CAUTI in unselected primary care patients in Switzerland.Methods: We performed multilocus sequence typing, virulence factor determination, and phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance testing on 44 non-duplicate UPEC isolates.Results: Twenty-seven different sequence types (STs were identified. Major UPEC clones were represented by 19 (43.2% of the isolates, including E. coli ST131, ST69 (both 13.6%, ST73 (6.8%, ST10 (4.5%, ST127, ST140, (both 2.3%. Five (11.4% isolates belonged to ST141.Aggregate virulence factor (VF scores were highest among isolates belonging to ST127 and ST141. Overall, 50% of the isolates were susceptible to all 12 antimicrobials tested, and all isolates remained susceptible to fosfomycin and nitrofurantoin. Resistance to sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin were found in 31.8, and 15.9% of the isolates, respectively. Plasmid-mediated resistance genes were detected in ST69 and ST131 and included aac(6′-Ib-cr (2.3% of all isolates blaCTX−M−14 and blaCTX−M−15 (9%, and mph(A (13.6%. None of the isolates tested positive for mcr-1 or mcr-2.Conclusions: Our results show that CAUTI in Switzerland is caused by a wide variety of UPEC STs for which fosfomycin remains a good treatment option. We suggest that ST141 is an emerging clone associated with UTI in the community, and warrants closer attention. Moreover, the high rate of E. coli harboring mph(A from patients without a history of antimicrobial therapy or hospitalization indicates that UPEC is an important reservoir for mph(A.

  15. Bladder Infection (Urinary Tract Infection - UTI) in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Urinary Tract & How It Works Bladder Infection (Urinary Tract Infection—UTI) in Adults View or Print All Sections ... Bladder infections are the most common type of urinary tract infection (UTI), but any part of your urinary tract ...

  16. [Urinary tract infection and neurogenic bladder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, J; Gory, A; Bernard, L; Ruffion, A; Denys, P; Chartier-Kastler, E

    2007-05-01

    One of the main complications of spinal cord injury is neurogenic bladder when the bladder fails to empty spontaneously. Urinary tract infection is the leading cause of morbidity and the second cause of mortality in these subjects. Patient education and personalized medical follow-up must ensure adapted management depending on the risk factors and the voiding mode. The risk of urinary tract infection can be decreased by perfect neurological control of detrusor activity combined with a method of drainage: intermittent self-catheterization. Despite these measures, many patients experience recurrent symptomatic urinary tract infections. Repeated antibiotic therapy increases the risk of selection of multiresistant bacteria without reducing either the incidence or the severity of symptomatic urinary tract infections. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is very frequent in patients treated by intermittent catheterization and does not justify antibiotic therapy, as antiseptics and urinary alkalinizers or acidifiers have been shown to be effective. "Antibiocycle" strategies could have a beneficial role by significantly decreasing the number of infections and hospitalizations with no major ecological risks, by using molecules that are well tolerated orally with a low selection pressure. All febrile urinary tract infections require rapid investigation and an urgent urological and infectious diseases opinion (abscess, severe sepsis, resistance). The SPILF-AFU 2002 consensus conference provided answers to major questions concerning the definition, treatment and prevention of nosocomial urinary tract infection, especially in a context of neurogenic bladder.

  17. How Family Physicians Manage Urinary Tract Infection in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Woolnough, K. V.; Domovitch, E.

    1983-01-01

    Physicians vary in their approaches to urinary tract infections in females. We studied 198 women with symptoms suggesting urinary tract infection. Computer analysis failed to identify any clusters of symptoms, signs or significant historical data which would predict significant bacteriuria with acceptable accuracy. Routine culturing of all symptomatic women is not recommended. Risk factors causing complications of urinary tract infection are reviewed.

  18. Urinary tract infections in symptomatic pregnant women attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Several notable human pathogens cause urinary tract infections. Several factors are known to predispose an individual to developing urinary tract infections; one of the factors is pregnancy. Therefore, this research set out to determine the bacteriologic profile of urinary tract infection and the susceptibility pattern ...

  19. urinary tract infections in symptomatic pregnant women attending

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    cause urinary tract infections. Several factors are known to predispose an individual to developing urinary tract infections; one of the factors is pregnancy. Therefore, this research set out to determine the bacteriologic profile of urinary tract infection and the susceptibility pattern among symptomatic pregnant women in Abuja.

  20. Spectrum and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of pathogens causing urinary tract infection experience in a tertiary care setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjad, A.; Mirza, I.A.; Abbasi, S.A.; Farwa, U.; Sattar, A.; Qureshi, Z.A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the spectrum and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of pathogens causing urinary tract infection from the samples received at AFIP Rawalpindi. Place and duration of study. The study was carried out at Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology from January 2010 to June 2010. Material and Method: This was descriptive cross-sectional study. A total of 500 bacterial isolates out of 2050 urine culture samples, for a period of six month were included in the study. Indentification was carried out by standard biochemical profile of the organisms. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of isolated organisms were performed by disk diffusion method as recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute. Results Out of the culture positive cases, gram-negative bacteria constituted the largest group with a total of 434 (87%) isolates, while gram-positive bacteria constituted only 44 (8.8%) isolates. E. coli was the most common isolate accounting for 63% of the total positive bacterial cultures followed by Klebsiella spp (9%) and P. aernginosa (7%). Susceptibility pattern of E. coli revealed that 96% of isolates were sensitive to imipenem, 91% to piperacillin-tazobactam and 87% to Nitrofurantoin. For Klebsiella spp, 86% of Isolates were susceptible to Imipenem and 71 % to piperacillin-tazobactam. As regards acinetobacter spp, 94% of Isolates were susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam and 70 % to Imipenem an piperacilline-sulbactam. Antibiogram of P. aeruginosa revealed that 94% of isolates were sensitive to ceftazidime and 86% to imipenem. Nitrofurantoin was the most effective urinary antibiotic in case of enterococcus spp as 85% of isolates were susceptible to this compound. Conclusion: From the present study we conclude that E. coli was the predominant urinary pathogen in our set up. The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of E. coli revealed that majority of isolates were susceptible to imipenem and piperacilline

  1. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in urinary tract infections caused by Enterobacteria: understanding and guidelines for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Tello, A; Gimbernat, H; Redondo, C; Arana, D M; Cacho, J; Angulo, J C

    2014-12-01

    Beta-lactamases are bacterial enzymes that protect microorganisms from the lethal effects of β-lactam antibiotics. The production of beta-lactamases is the most important mechanism of resistance to these antibiotics, especially in Gram-negative bacteria. Review the magnitude of the problem of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) in the urological setting and present the fundamental action guidelines on the issue, the main risk factors and the prevention strategies. A structured search strategy for patient, problem, intervention, comparison and result was conducted in the PubMed-Medline database to identify the most relevant studies related to the management of patients with urinary tract infection by ESBL-producing microorganisms. We also present a caseload analysis of our center on this issue. ESBL are found in Enterobacteria, mainly Klebsiella sp. and Escherichia coli and are characterized by their hydrolytic ability compared with beta-lactam antibiotics, which entails resistance to penicillin, cephalosporin and aztreonam. They are also associated with resistance to other antibiotics. There is a high risk of infection and colonization by ESBL producers in patients with prolonged hospital stays or who required invasive devices. The prior use of antibiotics and stays in residential care are also risk factors. Prevention programs should focus on preventing nosocomial infection. It is essential that a restrictive policy on the use of antibiotics be implemented. The therapy of choice for severe infections is focused on carbapenems, although their indiscriminate use should be avoided. In uncomplicated lower urinary tract infections, fosfomycin and nitrofurantoin are the best treatment alternatives. ESBL-producing strains constitute a true global health problem. Prevention strategies should focus on nosocomial infection. We should not forget, however, that the appearance of these pathogens in community-acquired infections is increasingly frequent. Therapeutic

  2. Spectrum and potency of ceftaroline tested against leading pathogens causing community-acquired respiratory tract infections in Europe (2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, David J; Flamm, Robert K; Jones, Ronald N; Sader, Helio S

    2013-01-01

    Ceftaroline, the active metabolite of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, is a novel cephalosporin exhibiting in vitro bactericidal activity against Gram-positive organisms, including Streptococcus pneumoniae and methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus, as well as common Gram-negative organisms. The objective of this study was to determine the spectrum and potency of ceftaroline against recent leading pathogens causing community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTI) isolated in Europe. A total of 1563 isolates from the 2010 Assessing Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance Evaluation (AWARE) Program were identified as CARTI pathogens by the infection type and/or specimen type recorded by the participating laboratory. Isolates were collected from patients in 52 medical centers located in 19 European countries (including Israel and Turkey). Susceptibility testing for ceftaroline and commonly used antimicrobials was performed by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth microdilution methodology. Susceptibility interpretations for comparators were as published in CLSI and the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing guidelines, and for ceftaroline US-FDA breakpoints were also applied. Ceftaroline was very active overall against 799 S. pneumoniae (MIC(50/90,) ≤ 0.008/0.12 μg/mL) and inhibited 100.0% of all isolates at a MIC ≤ 0.5 μg/mL. Ceftaroline was very potent against penicillin-resistant (CLSI oral penicillin V breakpoints) and -intermediate S. pneumoniae (MIC(50/90), 0.12/0.25 and 0.03/0.12 μg/mL, respectively), but potency was lower than observed against penicillin-susceptible isolates (MIC(50/90), ≤ 0.008/≤ 0.008 μg/mL). Ceftaroline was also very active (MIC(50/90), ≤ 0.008/0.015 μg/mL) against 515 Haemophilus influenzae, including β-lactamase-producing strains (MIC(50/90), 0.015/0.06 μg/mL). Ceftaroline also demonstrated good activity against 205 Moraxella catarrhalis isolates (MIC(50

  3. Molecular identification of adenovirus causing respiratory tract infection in pediatric patients at the University of Malaya Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Jamil, Juraina; Teoh, Boon-Teong; Hassan, Eddy H; Roslan, Nuruliza; Abubakar, Sazaly

    2010-07-02

    There are at least 51 adenovirus serotypes (AdV) known to cause human infections. The prevalence of the different human AdV (HAdV) serotypes varies among different regions. Presently, there are no reports of the prevalent HAdV types found in Malaysia. The present study was undertaken to identify the HAdV types associated primarily with respiratory tract infections (RTI) of young children in Malaysia. Archived HAdV isolates from pediatric patients with RTI seen at the University of Malaya Medical Center (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from 1999 to 2005 were used. Virus isolates were inoculated into cell culture and DNA was extracted when cells showed significant cytopathic effects. AdV partial hexon gene was amplified and the sequences together with other known HAdV hexon gene sequences were used to build phylogenetic trees. Identification of HAdV types found among young children in Malaysia was inferred from the phylograms. At least 2,583 pediatric patients with RTI sought consultation and treatment at the UMMC from 1999 to 2005. Among these patients, 48 (type 1 (HAdV-1) and HAdV type 2 (HAdV-2), and among the HAdV-B species, HAdV type 3 (HAdV-3) was the most common serotype identified. HAdV-C species also was isolated from throat and rectal swabs of children with hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Two isolates were identified as corresponding to HAdV-F species from a child with HFMD and a patient with intestinal obstruction. HAdV-1 and HAdV-2 were the most common HAdV isolated from pediatric patients who sought treatment for RTI at the UMMC from 1999 to 2005. HAdV-B, mainly HAdV-3, was recovered from approximately 22% of the patients. These findings provide a benchmark for future studies on the prevalence and epidemiology of HAdV types in Malaysia and in the region.

  4. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & ... KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is a Urinary ...

  5. Urinary Tract Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... UTI (Urinary Tract Infection) - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Urine Sample -- Female (Clean Catch) - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified ( ...

  6. Management of Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is defined as a significant growth of bacteria in the urine, together with fever, lethargy, dysuria, pain, anorexia, vomiting and possible kidney scarring.1,2,3. UTIs are usually caused by gram-negative aerobic bacilli; approximately 80% are caused by Escherichia coli.2,4 Other causative ...

  7. Diagnosis and management of fungal urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Carol A

    2014-03-01

    When the terms funguria or fungal urinary tract infection are used, most physicians are referring to candiduria and urinary tract infections due to Candida species. Other fungi, including yeasts and molds can involve the kidney during the course of disseminated infection, but rarely cause symptoms referable to the urinary tract. Candida species appear to be unique in their ability to both colonize and cause invasive disease in the urinary tract. This overview focuses only on candiduria and Candida urinary tract infection because they are common and many times present perplexing management issues. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a kidney infection , and it's serious because it can damage the kidneys and make you very sick. How Do I Know if I Have a UTI? You may notice signs of a urinary tract infection before anyone else can see there's anything wrong with you. That's why ...

  9. Randomized controlled trial of piperacillin-tazobactam, cefepime and ertapenem for the treatment of urinary tract infection caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yu Bin; Lee, Jacob; Kim, Young Keun; Lee, Seung Soon; Lee, Jeong-A; Kim, Hyo Youl; Uh, Young; Kim, Han-Sung; Song, Wonkeun

    2017-06-07

    Due to limited therapeutic options, the spread of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) have become a major public health concern. We conducted a prospective, randomized, open-label comparison of the therapeutic efficacy of piperacillin-tazobactam (PTZ), cefepime, and ertapenem in febrile nosocomial urinary tract infection with ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC). This study was conducted at three university hospitals between January 2013 and August 2015. Hospitalized adult patients presenting with fever were screened for healthcare-associated urinary tract infection (HA-UTI). When ESBL-EC was solely detected and susceptible to a randomized antibiotic in vitro, the case was included in the final analysis. Participants were treated for 10-14 days with PTZ, cefepime, or ertapenem. A total of 66 participants were evenly assigned to the PTZ and ertapenem treatment groups. After the recruitment of six participants, assignment to the cefepime treatment group was stopped because of an unexpectedly high treatment failure rate. The baseline characteristics of these participants did not differ from participants in other treatment groups. The clinical and microbiological response to PTZ treatment was estimated to be 94% and was similar to the response to ertapenem treatment. The efficacy of cefepime was 33.3%. In the cefepime group, age, Charlson comorbidity index, genotype, and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) did not significantly affect the success of treatment. Similarly, genotype seemed to be irrelevant with respect to clinical outcome in the PTZ group. Expired cases tended to involve septic shock with a high Charlson comorbidity index and high MIC. Results from this study suggest that PTZ is effective in the treatment of urinary tract infection caused by ESBL-EC when the in vitro test indicates susceptibility. In addition, cefepime should not be used as an alternative treatment for urinary tract infection caused by ESBL-EC. The trial was registered with

  10. Childhood urinary tract infection caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing bacteria: Risk factors and empiric therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyar Aksu, Nihal; Ekinci, Zelal; Dündar, Devrim; Baydemir, Canan

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated risk factors of childhood urinary tract infection (UTI) associated with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria (ESBL-positive UTI) and evaluated antimicrobial resistance as well as empiric treatment of childhood UTI. The records of children with positive urine culture between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2012 were evaluated. Patients with positive urine culture for ESBL-producing bacteria were defined as the ESBL-positive group, whereas patients of the same gender and similar age with positive urine culture for non-ESBL-producing bacteria were defined as the ESBL-negative group. Each ESBL-positive patient was matched with two ESBL-negative patients. The ESBL-positive and negative groups consisted of 154 and 308 patients, respectively. Potential risk factors for ESBL-positive UTI were identified as presence of underlying disease, clean intermittent catheterization (CIC), hospitalization, use of any antibiotic and history of infection in the last 3 months (P infection in the last 3 months were identified as independent risk factors. In the present study, 324 of 462 patients had empiric therapy. Empiric therapy was inappropriate in 90.3% of the ESBL-positive group and in 4.5% of the ESBL-negative group. Resistance to nitrofurantoin was similar between groups (5.1% vs 1.2%, P = 0.072); resistance to amikacin was low in the ESBL-positive group (2.6%) and there was no resistance in the ESBL-negative group. Clean intermittent catheterization, hospitalization and history of infection in the last 3 months should be considered as risk factors for ESBL-positive UTI. The combination of ampicillin plus amikacin should be taken into consideration for empiric therapy in patients with acute pyelonephritis who have the risk factors for ESBL-positive UTI. Nitrofurantoin seems to be a logical choice for the empiric therapy of cystitis. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  11. High fluoroquinolone MIC is associated with fluoroquinolone treatment failure in urinary tract infections caused by fluoroquinolone susceptible Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanaumpawan, Pinyo; Nachamkin, Irving; Bilker, Warren B; Roy, Jason A; Metlay, Joshua P; Zaoutis, Theoklis E; Lautenbach, Ebbing

    2017-04-08

    Suboptimal clinical response to fluoroquinolone (FQ) therapy has been clearly documented in patients with Salmonella typhi infection with reduced FQ susceptibility. However, the clinical impact of reduced FQ susceptibility on other infections including E. coli urinary tract infections (UTIs) has never been evaluated. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of female patients with fluoroquinolone susceptible E. coli (FQSEC) UTIs who received FQ therapy at outpatient services within University of Pennsylvania Health System, Philadelphia. Exposed patients were those with high MIC-FQSEC UTIs (the levofloxacin MIC > 0.12 but ≤ 2 mg/L) while unexposed patients were those with low MIC-FQSEC UTIs (the levofloxacin MIC ≤ 0.12 mg/L). The primary treatment outcome was treatment failure within 10 weeks after initiation of FQ therapy. From May 2008 to April 2011, we enrolled 29 exposed patients and 246 unexposed patients. Two patients in each group experienced treatment failure; exposed vs. unexposed (6.9 vs. 0.8%; p = 0.06). Risk difference and risk ratio (RR) for treatment failure were 0.06 [95% CI -0.03-0.15; exact-p = 0.06] and 8.48 [95% CI 1.24-57.97; exact-p = 0.06], respectively. After adjusting for underlying cerebrovascular disease, the RR was 7.12 (95% CI 1.20-42.10; MH-p = 0.04). Our study demonstrated the negative impact of reduced FQ susceptibility on the treatment response to FQ therapy in FQSEC UTIs. This negative impact may be more intensified in other serious infections. Future studies in other clinical situations should be conducted to fill the gap of knowledge.

  12. Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... discomfort Frequent, painful urination Blood in urine Urethra (urethritis) Burning with urination Discharge When to see a ... opening to the bladder. Infection of the urethra (urethritis). This type of UTI can occur when GI ...

  13. Aerococcus urinae: An Emerging Cause of Urinary Tract Infection in Older Adults with Multimorbidity and Urologic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Higgins

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aerococcus urinae is a rare organism isolated from urine cultures. We present a case of an 80 year-old male with bladder cancer and multimorbidity who developed A. urinae infection. A. urinae may cause simple and complicated UTIs, bacteremia, and endocarditis in older adults with multimorbidity, chronic urinary retention, or indwelling catheters. A. urinae treatment should employ penicillin, amoxicillin, and nitrofurantoin. Due to increasing antibiotic resistance, urine culture should include antibiotic susceptibility testing. Prompt and culture-specific treatment is critical to avoid clinical progression of the infection.

  14. Treatment ofurinary tract infection inchildren

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    Danuta Zwolińska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection is the most frequent bacterial infection in children. Its prevalence in the population younger than 14 years of age has been estimated at 5–10%. Its high recurrence, especially in patients with risk factors, poses a significant problem. The risk factors most common in the group of children ≤3 years are congenital defects blocking the flow of urine to the bladder, whereas in older children they most typically include a tendency for constipation and dysfunction of the lower urinary tract. The clinical picture is variable and depends on the child’s age, immunity status, pathogen virulence and localisation of infection. The mildest form of urinary tract infection is asymptomatic bacteriuria, whereas more severe presentations include acute pyelonephritis, acute focal bacterial nephritis and urosepsis. Prognosis is usually good, but under certain circumstances hypertension, proteinuria and chronic kidney disease may develop. Therefore, early introduced appropriate treatment is essential. According to the Polish Society for Paediatric Nephrology guidelines, asymptomatic bacteriuria does not warrant treatment, whereas febrile patients (>38°C under 24 months old with a suspicion for urinary tract infection must be promptly administered antibiotic therapy, after a urine specimen has been obtained for culture. For many years, urinary tract infection has remained a topic of controversy in terms of therapy duration and administration route. Inpatient treatment of children under 3 months of age is an accepted rule. Acute pyelonephritis necessitates a longer therapy, lasting from 7 to 10 days, whereas the duration of treatment of lower urinary tract infection has been cut down to 3 up to 5 days. Routine prophylactic antimicrobial therapy is not recommended following the initial urinary tract infection episode, yet should be considered in special circumstances. Alternative

  15. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For ... Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...

  16. Urinary Tract Infection in Children: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Hamid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common paediatric infections. By the time children are 5 years old, about 8% of girls and about 1-2% of boys have had at least one episode of UTI. UTIs are caused mainly by colonic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, followed by Klebsiella and Proteus. However, any organism that gains access to the urinary tract system may cause infection, including fungi (Candida species and viruses. In some instances, UTI results in recognition of an important underlying structural abnormality of the urinary tract. The febrile infant or child with clinically significant bacteriuria and no other site of infection to explain the fever, even in the absence of systemic symptoms has UTI. Signs and symptoms of UTIs vary depending on the child's age and on which part of the urinary tract is infected. The diagnosis of UTI is based on routine microscopic examination and culture of a properly collected urine specimen. Imaging studies are done in selected patients to identify anatomic abnormalities. Most cases of uncomplicated UTI respond readily to outpatient antibiotic treatment without further sequelae. All patients should have close follow-up to evaluate response to antibiotics and to prevent the development of long term complication.

  17. Difficult identification of Haemophilus influenzae, a typical cause of upper respiratory tract infections, in the microbiological diagnostic routine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Rebecca; Zautner, Andreas Erich; Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Frickmann, Hagen

    2015-03-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a key pathogen of upper respiratory tract infections. Its reliable discrimination from nonpathogenic Haemophilus spp. is necessary because merely colonizing bacteria are frequent at primarily unsterile sites. Due to close phylogenetic relationship, it is not easy to discriminate H. influenzae from the colonizer Haemophilus haemolyticus. The frequency of H. haemolyticus isolations depends on factors like sampling site, patient condition, and geographic region. Biochemical discrimination has been shown to be nonreliable. Multiplex PCR including marker genes like sodC, fucK, and hpd or sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, the P6 gene, or multilocus-sequence-typing is more promising. For the diagnostic routine, such techniques are too expensive and laborious. If available, matrix-assisted laser-desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry is a routine-compatible option and should be used in the first line. However, the used database should contain well-defined reference spectra, and the spectral difference between H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus is small. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization is an option for less well-equipped laboratories, but the available protocol will not lead to conclusive results in all instances. It can be used as a second line approach. Occasional ambiguous results have to be resolved by alternative molecular methods like 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

  18. Nosocomial urinary tract infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase uropathogens: Prevalence, pathogens, risk factors, and strategies for infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouassida, Khaireddine; Jaidane, Mehdi; Bouallegue, Olfa; Tlili, Ghassen; Naija, Habiba; Mosbah, Ali Tahar

    2016-01-01

    Our goal was to investigate the prevalence and antibiogram pattern of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production among uropathogens using isolates from urine samples collected at the Department of Urology in the Sahloul Hospital, Tunisia We also aimed to identify the risk factors for nosocomial urinary tract infections (UTIs) in patients who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and the measures for infection control. Laboratory records of a five-year period from January 2004 to December 2008 were submitted for retrospective analysis to determine the incidence of ESBL infections. A total of 276 isolates were collected. A case-control study involving comparisons between two groups of patients who underwent TURP was performed to determine the risk factors for ESBL infection. Group 1, designated case subjects, included 51 patients with nosocomial UTI after TURP. Group 2, designated control subjects, consisted of 58 randomly selected patients who underwent TURP without nosocomial UTI in the same period. Factors suspected to be implicated in the emergence of ESBL infection were compared between the two groups in order to identify risk factors for infection. A univariate regression analysis was performed, followed by a multivariate one. The annual prevalence of ESBL infection ranged from 1.3-2.5%. After performing univariate and multivariate regression analysis, the main risk factors for ESBL infections were identified as: use of antibiotics the year preceding the admission, duration of catheter use, and bladder washout (p=0.012, p=0.019, and pnosocomial UTIs.

  19. Urinary tract infection in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Theresa A; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

    2013-10-01

    Urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria are common in older adults. Unlike in younger adults, distinguishing symptomatic urinary tract infection from asymptomatic bacteriuria is problematic, as older adults, particularly those living in long-term care facilities, are less likely to present with localized genitourinary symptoms. Consensus guidelines have been published to assist clinicians with diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection; however, a single evidence-based approach to diagnosis of urinary tract infection does not exist. In the absence of a gold standard definition of urinary tract infection that clinicians agree upon, overtreatment with antibiotics for suspected urinary tract infection remains a significant problem, and leads to a variety of negative consequences including the development of multidrug-resistant organisms. Future studies improving the diagnostic accuracy of urinary tract infections are needed. This review will cover the prevalence, diagnosis and diagnostic challenges, management, and prevention of urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria in older adults.

  20. Value of cystography in urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncrieff, M W; Whitelaw, R

    1976-01-01

    Fifty-one children with a bacteriologically proven urinary tract infection had both an intravenous urogram (IVU) and a micturating cystogram. The IVU was normal in 35. Only 6 of these children showed reflux in the cystogram, affecting 7 of the 70 ureters at risk. Since reflux on its own does not cause renal damage, which occurs only with super-added infection, detection of reflux is not important providing the urine is kept sterile. We suggest that cystography be deferred providing the IVU is normal until recurrent infections occur while under hospital care, and, with this policy this unpleasant and sometimes hazardous investigation could be avoided in many children with a single urinary tract infection. PMID:1008600

  1. VIRAL ETIOLOGY OF RECURRENT URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS

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    H. S. Ibishev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Recurrent urinary tract infection is an actual problem of modern urology.Objective. Complex investigation of urinary tract infections including viral etiology for chronic recurrent cystitis in womenMaterials and methods. The study included 31 women with recurrent infection of urinary tract. Inclusion criteria were the presence of lower urinary tract symptoms caused by infection, severe recurrent course, the lack of anatomical and functional disorders of the urinary tract, the absence of bacterial pathogens during the study, taking into account the culture of aerobic and anaerobic culturing techniques.Results. The analysis of the clinical manifestations, the dominant in the study group were pain and urgency to urinate at 100% and 90% of women surveyed, respectively, and less frequent urination were recorded in 16.1% of patients. In general clinical examination of urine in all cases identified leukocyturia and 90% of the hematuria. By using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR in midstream urine of all examined was verified 10 types of human papilloma virus (HPV with the predominance of 16 and 18 types . Considering the presence of recurrent infectious and inflammatory processes of the urinary tract, cystoscopy with bladder biopsy was performed for all patients. When histomorphological biopsies of all patients surveyed noted the presence of the specific characteristics of HPV: papillary hyperplasia with squamous koilocytosis, pale cytoplasm and shrunken kernels. When analyzing the results of PCR biopsy data corresponded with the results of PCR in midstream urine in all biopsies was detected HPV.Conclusions. Human papillomavirus infection may be involved in the development of viral cystitis. In the etiological structure of viral cystitis, both highly oncogenic and low oncogenic HPV types can act.

  2. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... get up into the bladder more easily and cause an infection there. Some of the bacteria that cause UTIs normally live in your intestines. Each time ... bladder. If the bacteria go there, they can cause a bladder infection, which is a type of ...

  3. URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN CHILDREN

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    T. V. Margieva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues of diagnosing and treating urinary tract infections and their role in development of renal injury are being actively discussed by scientists and practicing pediatricians. The article presents the most recent data on etiological factors, pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of this disease. It provides recommendations on diagnosis and management of patients depending on their age. The article presents a discussion of antibacterial therapy course duration and indications for anti-relapse treatment. The study demonstrates that intravenous antibacterial therapy must be launched immediately in neonates in the event of pyretic fever; empirical antibacterial therapy must be launched immediately in older children after diagnosis of the urinary tract infection has been confirmed; subsequently, treatment ought to be corrected depending on the results of a bacteriological trial, sensitivity to antibiotics and effectiveness of the prescribed antibiotic. Along with normalization of urination rhythm and water intake schedule, antibacterial preventive therapy might be considered, if effective, in the event of recurrent nature of the urinary tract infection

  4. An overview of the predictors of symptomatic urinary tract infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection experienced by humans after respiratory and gastro‑intestinal infections, and also the most common cause of nosocomial infections for patients admitted to hospitals indeed UTIs are the most frequent bacterial infection in women. Aim: The aim was to ...

  5. Colonization of the lower urogenital tract with Ureaplasma parvum can cause asymptomatic infection of the upper reproductive system in women: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzykowska, Urszula; Elias, Joanna; Elias, Marek; Mączyńska, Beata; Sobieszczańska, Beata Magdalena

    2014-05-01

    Genital ureaplasmas are considered opportunistic pathogens of human genitourinary tract involved in adverse pregnancy sequelae and infertility. While association of Ureaplasma urealyticum with urogenital tract infections is well established, the role of Ureaplasma parvum in these infections is still insufficient. In the study, we compared how often cervicovaginal colonization with U. parvum is associated with the presence of these microorganisms in the upper genitourinary tract of fertile and infertile women. We used PCR assay to determine the prevalence of U. parvum and U. urealyticum in pairs of specimens, i.e., vaginal swabs and Douglas' pouch fluid samples from consecutive 40 women with no symptoms of genital tract infection. In total, 19 (47.5 %) of the 40 samples were positive for ureaplasmas. U. parvum was simultaneously detected in pairs of samples in five (55.5 %) of the nine (47.4 %) women positive in PCR assay. As many as 5 (18.5 %) of the 27 infertile women and 1 (7.7 %) of the 13 fertile women showed infection of the upper genital tract with U. parvum. The results of the study demonstrated that colonization of the lower genital tract with U. parvum can produce asymptomatic infection of the upper reproductive system in women. These findings also imply that U. parvum may be present in the upper genital tract at the time of conception and might be involved in adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  6. Antimicrobial Stewardship and Urinary Tract Infections

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    Lilian M. Abbo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections are the most common bacterial infections encountered in ambulatory and long-term care settings in the United States. Urine samples are the largest single category of specimens received by most microbiology laboratories and many such cultures are collected from patients who have no or questionable urinary symptoms. Unfortunately, antimicrobials are often prescribed inappropriately in such patients. Antimicrobial use, whether appropriate or inappropriate, is associated with the selection for antimicrobial-resistant organisms colonizing or infecting the urinary tract. Infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant organisms are associated with higher rates of treatment failures, prolonged hospitalizations, increased costs and mortality. Antimicrobial stewardship consists of avoidance of antimicrobials when appropriate and, when antimicrobials are indicated, use of strategies to optimize the selection, dosing, route of administration, duration and timing of antimicrobial therapy to maximize clinical cure while limiting the unintended consequences of antimicrobial use, including toxicity and selection of resistant microorganisms. This article reviews successful antimicrobial stewardship strategies in the diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections.

  7. New markers of urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masajtis-Zagajewska, Anna; Nowicki, Michal

    2017-08-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infection independent of age. It is also one of the most common causes of hospitalizations for infections among elderly people and the most common indication for antibiotic prescriptions in primary care. Both diagnostics and management of lower and upper urinary tract infections provide challenges in clinical practice due to their high prevalence and recurrence, and worldwide increase of antibiotic resistance. The clinical symptoms of UTI are often uncharacteristic or asymptomatic. The accurate diagnosis and early treatment are crucial due to risk of septicaemia and long-term consequences. Currently the diagnosis of urinary tract infection is based on the presence of clinical symptoms in combination with the results of nitrite strip test indicating the presence of bacteria in urine and semi-quantitative measurement of white blood cells count in urine. Although urine culture is the gold standard in UTI diagnostics it is both time-consuming and costly. Searching for novel biomarkers of UTI has attracted much attention in recent years. The article reviews several promising serum and urine biomarkers of UTI such as leukocyte esterase, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, interleukins, elastase alpha (1)-proteinase inhibitor, lactofferin, secretory immunoglobulin A, heparin-binding protein, xanthine oxidase, myeloperoxidase, soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1, α-1 microglobulin (α1Mg) and tetrazolium nitroblue test (TNB). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Vaginal Microbiota and Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Ann E

    2016-12-01

    The vagina is a key anatomical site in the pathogenesis of urinary tract infection (UTI) in women, serving as a potential reservoir for infecting bacteria and a site at which interventions may decrease the risk of UTI. The vaginal microbiota is a dynamic and often critical factor in this pathogenic interplay, because changes in the characteristics of the vaginal microbiota resulting in the loss of normally protective Lactobacillus spp. increase the risk of UTI. These alterations may result from the influence of estrogen deficiency, antimicrobial therapy, contraceptives, or other causes. Interventions to reduce adverse effects on the vaginal microbiota and/or to restore protective lactobacilli may reduce the risks of UTI.

  9. Urinary tract infection in kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón-Mora, Natalia; Pachón Díaz, Jerónimo; Cordero Matía, Elisa

    2017-04-01

    Infectious complications remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality among transplant recipients. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infectious complication in kidney transplant recipients with a reported incidence from 25% to 75%, varies widely likely due to differences in definition, diagnostic criteria, study design, and length of observation. We sought reviews the incidence and importance of urinary tract infection on graft survival, the microbiology with special emphasis on multidrug resistant microorganisms, the therapeutic management of UTI and the prophylaxis of recurrent UTI among solid organ transplant recipients, highlighting the need for prospective clinical trials to unify the clinical management in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  10. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... Your pee smells bad. These things happen because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary ... shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get up into the bladder more easily ...

  11. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... in your urinary tract. Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract ... and you should see a doctor right away. What Will the Doctor Do? First, your doctor will ...

  12. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works Puberty & Growing Up Staying Healthy Staying Safe Recipes & ... in your urinary tract. Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract ...

  13. Healthcare-associated respiratory tract infection and colonization in an intensive care unit caused by Burkholderia cepacia isolated in mouthwash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannete Zurita

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Our findings strongly suggest that alcohol-free mouthwash solution intrinsically contaminated with B. cepacia was the source of these colonizations and infections involving adults in the ICU.

  14. Cranberries and lower urinary tract infection prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Hisano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lower urinary tract infections are very common diseases. Recurrent urinary tract infections remain challenging to treat because the main treatment option is long-term antibiotic prophylaxis; however, this poses a risk for the emergence of bacterial resistance. Some options to avoid this risk are available, including the use of cranberry products. This article reviews the key methods in using cranberries as a preventive measure for lower urinary tract infections, including in vitro studies and clinical trials.

  15. Cranberry for Urinary Tract Infection: From Bench to Bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Sureda, Antoni; Daglia, Maria; Izadi, Morteza; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are common infectious diseases which can occur in any part of the urinary tract such as bladder, kidney, ureters, and urethra. They are commonly caused by bacteria that enter through the urethra. Urinary tract infections commonly develop in the bladder and spread to renal tissues. Up to now, there are different antimicrobial agents which have beneficial role on urinary tract infections. However, most of them cause different adverse effects and therefore, much attention has been paid to the search for effective therapeutic agents with negligible adverse effects. Cranberry is known as one of the most important edible plants, which possesses potent antimicrobial effects against the bacteria responsible for urinary tract infections. Growing evidence has shown that cranberry suppresses urinary tract infections and eradicates the bacteria. Therefore, the aim of this study is to critically review the available literature regarding the antimicrobial activities of cranberry against urinary tract infection microorganisms. In addition, we discuss etiology, epidemiology, risk factors, and current drugs of urinary tract infections to provide a more complete picture of this disease.

  16. Once-daily intramuscular amikacin for outpatient treatment of lower urinary tract infections caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in children

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    Polat M

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Meltem Polat,1,2 Soner Sertan Kara1 1Pediatric Infectious Diseases Department, Erzurum Research and Training Hospital, Erzurum, 2Pediatric Infectious Diseases Department, Pamukkale University Faculty of Medicine, Denizli, Turkey Background: The rise in community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL-producing Escherichia coli strains raises the question of how to treat these infections effectively in pediatric outpatients. Amikacin has shown promising in vitro activity against ESBL-producing urinary isolates of E. coli; however, clinical data are limited. Objective: To investigate the clinical and microbiological outcomes of community-acquired lower UTIs caused by ESBL-producing E. coli treated with outpatient amikacin in children. Materials and methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed on pediatric patients aged ≥2 to 18 years treated as outpatients with intramuscular amikacin (given at a dose of 15 mg/kg/day once daily for community-acquired lower UTIs caused by ESBL-producing E. coli, between January 2015 and December 2016. Results: A total of 53 pediatric patients (38 females were enrolled in this study. The median age was 4.7 years (range 3–12 years. All E. coli isolates were susceptible to amikacin with minimum inhibitory concentrations of ≤4 mg/L. The median duration of amikacin treatment was 6 days (range 3–7 days. Favorable clinical and bacteriological responses were observed in 51 of 53 (96% patients. Development of resistance during treatment with amikacin was seen in only 1 patient (2%, who failed to respond to amikacin treatment and developed acute pyelonephritis with bacteremia. Relapsed lower UTI after initial treatment response occurred in 1 patient (2% 2 weeks after completion of amikacin treatment. All patients had normal serum creatinine values at baseline, and no significant nephrotoxicity or ototoxicity was observed in any of the patients. Conclusion: Our study

  17. Risk factors for community-acquired urinary tract infections caused by ESBL-producing enterobacteriaceae--a case-control study in a low prevalence country.

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    Arne Søraas

    Full Text Available Community-acquired urinary tract infection (CA-UTI is the most common infection caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, but the clinical epidemiology of these infections in low prevalence countries is largely unknown. A population based case-control study was conducted to assess risk factors for CA-UTI caused by ESBL-producing E. coli or K. pneumoniae. The study was carried out in a source population in Eastern Norway, a country with a low prevalence of infections caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. The study population comprised 100 cases and 190 controls with CA-UTI caused by ESBL-producing and non-ESBL-producing E. coli or K. pneumoniae, respectively. The following independent risk factors of ESBL-positive UTIs were identified: Travel to Asia, The Middle East or Africa either during the past six weeks (Odds ratio (OR = 21; 95% confidence interval (CI: 4.5-97 or during the past 6 weeks to 24 months (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.1-4.4, recent use of fluoroquinolones (OR = 16; 95% CI: 3.2-80 and β-lactams (except mecillinam (OR = 5.0; 95% CI: 2.1-12, diabetes mellitus (OR = 3.2; 95% CI: 1.0-11 and recreational freshwater swimming the past year (OR = 2.1; 95% CI: 1.0-4.0. Factors associated with decreased risk were increasing number of fish meals per week (OR = 0.68 per fish meal; 95% CI: 0.51-0.90 and age (OR = 0.89 per 5 year increase; 95% CI: 0.82-0.97. In conclusion, we have identified risk factors that elucidate mechanisms and routes for dissemination of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in a low prevalence country, which can be used to guide appropriate treatment of CA-UTI and targeted infection control measures.

  18. Prevalence and Antibiogram of Microbial Agents Causing Nosocomial Urinary Tract Infection in Surgical Ward of Dhaka Medical College Hospital

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    Tashmin Afroz Binte Islam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nosocomial infections pose substantial risk to patients receiving care in hospitals. In Bangladesh, this problem is aggravated by inadequate infection control due to poor hygiene, resource and structural constraints and lack of awareness regarding nosocomial infections. Objective: We carried out this study to determine the prevalence of different microorganisms from urine in surgery ward and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern against various antibiotics. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in Department of Microbiology, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka over a period of 12 months from July 2011 to June 2012. A total of 52 urine specimens were collected from catheterized patients admitted in general surgery ward of Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH and incubated in blood agar, MacConkey agar media and the isolates were identified by different biochemical tests – oxidase test and reaction in MIU (motility indole urease and Simmon’s citrate and TSI (triple sugar iron media. ESBL producers were detected by double-disk synergy test (DDST. Results: Bacteria were isolated from 35 specimens and Escherichia coli was the commonest isolate (23, 65.71% followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 6 (17.14%, Klebsiella pneumoniae 3 (8.57%, Acinetobacter baumannii 2 (5.72% and Proteus vulgaris 1 (2.86% respectively. Among the isolates, 10 (28.57% ESBL producers were detected and the highest ESBL production was observed in Escherichia coli (8, 22.85% followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae 1 (2.86% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1 (2.86%. The isolates were resistant to most of the commonly used antimicrobial agents. Conclusion: The emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR bacteria poses a difficult task for physicians who have limited therapeutic options. However, the high rate of nosocomial infections and multi-resistant pathogens necessitate urgent comprehensive interventions of infection control.

  19. Significance of Moraxella catarrhalis as a causative organism of lower respiratory tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. Ramadan

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: This study shows that when microbiological and clinical criteria are met, M. catarrhalis when isolated should be considered as a pathogen causing lower respiratory tract infections. M. catarrhalis, lower respiratory tract infections.

  20. Characteristics of gram-negative urinary tract infections caused by extended spectrum beta lactamases: pivmecillinam as a treatment option within South Dublin, Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fardod O’Kelly

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of urinary tract infections (UTIs caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae is increasing and the therapeutic options are limited, especially in primary care. Recent indications have suggested pivmecillinam to be a suitable option. This pilot study aimed to assess the viability of pivmecillinam as a therapeutic option in a Dublin cohort of mixed community and healthcare origin. Methods A prospective measurement of mean and fractional inhibitory concentrations of antibiotic use in 95 patients diagnosed with UTI caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae was carried out. 36 % patients were from general practice, 40 % were admitted to hospital within south Dublin, and 25 % samples arose from nursing homes. EUCAST breakpoints were used to determine if an isolate was sensitive or resistant to antibiotic agents. Results Sixty-nine percent of patients (N = 66 with urinary ESBL isolates were female. The mean age of females was 66 years compared with a mean age of 74 years for males. Thirty-six percent of isolates originated from primary care, hospital inpatients (26 %, and nursing homes (24 %. The vast majority of ESBL isolates were E. coli (80 %. The E tests for mecillinam and co-amoxiclav had concentration ranges from 0.16 mg/L up to 256 mg/L. The mean inhibitory concentration (MIC of mecillinam ranged from 0.25 to 256 mg/L, while co-amoxiclav MICs ranged from 6 to 256 mg/L. The percentage of isolates resistant to mecillinam and co-amoxiclav was found to be 5.26 and 94.74 % respectively. Conclusions This is the first study exploring the use of pivmecillinam in an Irish cohort and has demonstrated that its use in conjunction with or without co-amoxiclav is an appropriate and useful treatment for urinary tract infections caused by ESBL-producing organisms.

  1. Once-daily intramuscular amikacin for outpatient treatment of lower urinary tract infections caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Meltem; Kara, Soner Sertan

    2017-01-01

    Background The rise in community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs) with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli strains raises the question of how to treat these infections effectively in pediatric outpatients. Amikacin has shown promising in vitro activity against ESBL-producing urinary isolates of E. coli; however, clinical data are limited. Objective To investigate the clinical and microbiological outcomes of community-acquired lower UTIs caused by ESBL-producing E. coli treated with outpatient amikacin in children. Materials and methods A retrospective cohort study was performed on pediatric patients aged ≥2 to 18 years treated as outpatients with intramuscular amikacin (given at a dose of 15 mg/kg/day once daily) for community-acquired lower UTIs caused by ESBL-producing E. coli, between January 2015 and December 2016. Results A total of 53 pediatric patients (38 females) were enrolled in this study. The median age was 4.7 years (range 3–12 years). All E. coli isolates were susceptible to amikacin with minimum inhibitory concentrations of ≤4 mg/L. The median duration of amikacin treatment was 6 days (range 3–7 days). Favorable clinical and bacteriological responses were observed in 51 of 53 (96%) patients. Development of resistance during treatment with amikacin was seen in only 1 patient (2%), who failed to respond to amikacin treatment and developed acute pyelonephritis with bacteremia. Relapsed lower UTI after initial treatment response occurred in 1 patient (2%) 2 weeks after completion of amikacin treatment. All patients had normal serum creatinine values at baseline, and no significant nephrotoxicity or ototoxicity was observed in any of the patients. Conclusion Our study suggests that once-daily intramuscular amikacin could be an alternative option for outpatient treatment of community-acquired lower UTIs caused by amikacin-susceptible ESBL-producing E. coli in pediatric patients with normal renal function, when

  2. [Fungal infections of the gastrointestinal tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragkoudakis, Emmanouil; Realdi, Giuseppe; Dore, Maria Pina

    2005-06-01

    In immunocompetent subjects fungal infections of the gastrointestinal tract are uncommon. Candida esophagitis remains the single most common fungal infection in immunocompromised hosts or in H. pylori- infected patients who receive antibiotic therapy. Enteric fungal infections are uncommon even in HIV-infected patients. Antifungal agents such as amphotericin B, ketoconazole, fluconazole, and the various formulations of itraconazole are effective for most cases.

  3. Urinary tract infections in the elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, S James; Lancaster, Jason W

    2011-10-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common problem in the elderly population. The spectrum of disease varies from a relatively benign cystitis to potentially life-threatening pyelonephritis. This review covers the management of asymptomatic bacteriuria, acute uncomplicated cystitis, acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis, antibiotic resistance, catheter-associated bacteriuria/symptomatic UTIs, and antibiotic prophylaxis for recurrent infections in elderly men and women. Literature was obtained from English-language searches of MEDLINE (1966-April 2011), Cochrane Library, BIOSIS (1993-April 2011), and EMBASE (1970-April 2011). Further publications were identified from citations of resulting articles. Search terms included, but were not limited to, urinary tract infections, asymptomatic bacteriuria, acute uncomplicated cystitis, acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis, antibiotic resistance, catheter associated urinary tract infections, recurrent urinary tract infections, and elderly. The prevalence of UTIs in elderly women depends on the location in which these women are living. For elderly women living in the community, UTIs compromise the second most common infection, whereas in residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs) and hospitalized subjects, it is the number one cause of infection. The spectrum of patient presentation varies from classic signs and symptoms in the independent elderly population to atypical presentations, including increased lethargy, delirium, blunted fever response, and anorexia. Although there are few guidelines specifically directed toward the management of UTIs in the elderly population, therapy generally mirrors the recommendations for the younger adult age groups. When choosing a treatment regimen, special attention must be given to the severity of illness, living conditions, existing comorbidities, presence of external devices, local antibiotic resistance patterns, and the ability of the patient to comply with therapy. Improved guidelines

  4. Predictive value of Escherichia coli susceptibility in strains causing asymptomatic bacteriuria for women with recurrent symptomatic urinary tract infections receiving prophylaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerepoot, M. A. J.; den Heijer, C. D. J.; Penders, J.; Prins, J. M.; Stobberingh, E. E.; Geerlings, S. E.

    2012-01-01

    A significant proportion of women develop a recurrence following an initial urinary tract infection (UTI). In women with recurrent UTI, the predictive value of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) for the development of a subsequent UTI has not yet been established and it is not known whether information

  5. Development of a chip-based multiplexed immunoassay using liposomal nanovesicles and its application in the detection of pathogens causing female lower genital tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsiang Su

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: This microarray chip was a rapid, easy, inexpensive and sensitive tool for detecting female lower genital tract Candida infection in a one-time vaginal sampling process, although the data on the four other pathogens were still unavailable. A larger population study is encouraged to test the validity of this multiplexed immunoassay chip.

  6. Urinary tract infection in girls - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI) should begin to improve within 1 to 2 days in most girls. The advice below may not ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 127. Elder JS. Urinary tract infections. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, ...

  7. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys ... ON THIS TOPIC Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting Contact Us Print Resources ...

  8. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys ... topic for: Kids Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting View more Partner Message ...

  9. Survey of risk factors urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dehghani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Women are very susceptible to urinary tract infections and pregnancy raises the risk of urinary tract infection. In general, little information on the risk factors of urinary tract infection in pregnancy is underway. Urinary tract infection in pregnancy is an important risk factor for pregnancy dire consequences. The purpose of this study is to find risk factors associated with urinary tract infection in pregnant women. Methods: The study was observational and retrospective analysis was carried on in the winter of which 310 pregnant women participated in 11 health centers in Shahrekord. Of these 155 cases (patients and 155 controls (healthy that were matched for age Information required from the health records of pregnant women and complete Czech list of researcher whose validity was confirmed by experts were gathered. Information needed by pregnant women health records and complete list researcher was collected. Czech list contains a number of possible risk factors for illness and demographic characteristics of the study participants was Statistical analysis software spss version 16 by using chi square tests and logistic regression and t analysis was performed. Results: Among the variables vomiting (p = 0/00 a history of urinary tract infection in a previous pregnancy (P =.001, CI = 1.508-4.408, OR = 2.578 abortion own history (P =.014, CI = 1.165 -3.847, OR = 2.117, respectively, the most important risk factors for urinary tract infection in pregnant women were determined. Conclusion: Prevention and treatment of vomiting in pregnancy prevention of urinary tract infections during pregnancy. Prevention of abortion can play an important role in the prevention of urinary tract infection and its complications in pregnancy. The study also revealed a number of factors can have an impact on urinary tract infection in pregnancy that has not been enough attention and it is necessary that more attention be placed on health programs and

  10. Bacteremic Urinary Tract Infection Caused by Multidrug-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Are Associated With Severe Sepsis at Admission: Implication for Empirical Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Chien; Hsiao, Chih-Yen; Hung, Miao-Chiu; Hung, Sheng-Che; Wang, Hung-Ping; Huang, Yun-Jhong; Wang, Jann-Tay

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the clinical features and treatment outcomes among patients with bacteremic urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) and non-MDR Enterobacteriaceae and to identify whether MDR pathogens were independently associated with severe sepsis or septic shock at presentation.The clinical data of adult patients visiting and being treated at Chia-Yi Christian Hospital due to bacteremic UTI caused by Enterobacteriaceae from January 2006 to August 2015 were retrospectively analyzed.A total of 585 patients were enrolled. Among them, 220 (37.6%) were caused by the MDR Enterobacteriaceae. A total of 206 patients (35.2%) developed severe sepsis or septic shock at presentation. Patients in the MDR group tend to be male and have a past history of gout, recurrent UTI, prior hospitalization, hydronephrosis, renal stone, ureteral stone, indwelling urinary catheter, newly development of renal dysfunction, severe sepsis or septic shock, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, receipt of ineffective empirical therapy, longer hospital stay, and higher in-hospital mortality (2.7% vs 1.9%, P = 0.569). Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, it is revealed that independent predictors associated with severe sepsis or septic shock at presentation were liver cirrhosis (OR 2.868; 95% CI 1.439-5.716; P = 0.003), indwelling urinary catheter (OR 1.936; 95% CI 1.238-3.027; P = 0.004), and MDR Enterobacteriaceae (OR 1.447; 95% CI 1.002-2.090; P = 0.049).Multidrug resistance was associated with the development of severe sepsis or septic shock upon presentation among patients with bacteremic UTI caused by Enterobacteriaceae. Therefore, empirical antibiotics therapy for patients with UTI presented with severe sepsis and/or septic shock should be more broad-spectrum to effectively cover MDR Enterobacteriaceae.

  11. Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections Management in Women: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Badr, Ahmed; Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer

    2013-08-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most frequent clinical bacterial infections in women, accounting for nearly 25% of all infections. Around 50-60% of women will develop UTIs in their lifetimes. Escherichia coli is the organism that causes UTIs in most patients. Recurrent UTIs (RUTI) are mainly caused by reinfection by the same pathogen. Having frequent sexual intercourse is one of the greatest risk factors for RUTIs. In a subgroup of individuals with coexisting morbid conditions, complicated RUTIs can lead to upper tract infections or urosepsis. Although the initial treatment is antimicrobial therapy, use of different prophylactic regimens and alternative strategies are available to reduce exposure to antibiotics.

  12. Fluorescence diagnosis of upper respiratory tract infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Kate C.; Inada, Natalia M.; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2015-06-01

    The pharyngitis and laryngitis are respiratory tract infections highly common. Pharyngitis can be accompanied by fever, especially if caused by a systemic infection. Laryngitis is an inflammation of your voice box (larynx) from irritation or infection. The conventional treatment is the antibiotics administration, which may be responsible by an increase of identification of bacterial strains resistant to drug. This fact associated to high incidence of these infections become important to develop new technologies for diagnosis. This study aims to evaluate the use of widefield fluorescence imaging for the characterization of oropharynx infections, in order to diagnose the bacteria colonization. The imaging system for wide field fluorescence visualization is Evince® (MMOptics, São Carlos, SP, Brazil) coupled to an Apple iPhone® cell phone device. The system consists of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) operating in the violet blue region centered at green-red spectrum 450 nm and optical filters that allow viewing of fluorescence. A tongue depressor was adapted to Evince® for mouth opening. The same images were captured with white light and fluorescence with an optical system. The red fluorescence may be a bacterial marker for physiological monitoring of oropharynx infection processes. The bacterial biofilm on tissue were assigned to the presence of protoporphyrin IX. This work indicates that the autofluorescence of the tissue may be used as a non-invasive technique to aid in the oropharynx infection diagnostic.

  13. Detection of CTX-M-15 beta-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae causing hospital- and community-acquired urinary tract infections as early as 2004, in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyahi, Joel; Moyo, Sabrina J; Tellevik, Marit Gjerde; Ndugulile, Faustine; Urassa, Willy; Blomberg, Bjørn; Langeland, Nina

    2017-04-17

    The spread of Extended Spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) among Enterobacteriaceae and other Gram-Negative pathogens in the community and hospitals represents a major challenge to combat infections. We conducted a study to assess the prevalence and genetic makeup of ESBL-type resistance in bacterial isolates causing community- and hospital-acquired urinary tract infections. A total of 172 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae were collected in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, from patients who met criteria of community and hospital-acquired urinary tract infections. We used E-test ESBL strips to test for ESBL-phenotype and PCR and sequencing for detection of ESBL genes. Overall 23.8% (41/172) of all isolates were ESBL-producers. ESBL-producers were more frequently isolated from hospital-acquired infections (32%, 27/84 than from community-acquired infections (16%, 14/88, p Tanzania.

  14. Urinary tract infection in infants caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli: comparison between urban and rural hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ming-Fang; Chen, Wan-Ling; Huang, I-Fei; Chen, Jung-Ren; Chiou, Yee-Hsuan; Chen, Yao-Shen; Lee, Susan Shin-Jung; Hung, Wan-Yu; Hung, Chih-Hsin; Wang, Jiun-Ling

    2016-08-01

    Community-acquired urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli is an emerging problem. Compared with urban infants, rural infants may encounter different distributions of community-acquired resistant strains and various barriers to efficient management. A retrospective survey and comparison was conducted for infants with UTI caused by ESBL-producing E. coli admitted to an urban hospital (n = 111) and a rural hospital (n = 48) in southern Taiwan from 2009 to 2012. Compared with 2009 and 2010, the total number of cases at both hospitals significantly increased in 2011 and 2012 (p rural patients, the urban patients were significantly younger, and they had fewer days of fever before and after admission, fewer presentations of poor activity and poor appetite, and a lower serum creatinine level. Most of the patients had no prior history of illness, and we could not identify any significant different risk factors for acquiring ESBL-producing E. coli, such as past antimicrobial use, hospitalization, UTI, and underlying renal diseases, between the urban and rural populations. The increase in community-acquired UTI in infants caused by ESBL-producing E. coli was similar between the urban and rural populations. Our preliminary data suggest that the rural-urban disparities were probably related to easy access to health care by the urban population. ESBL complicates disease management, and the increase in the prevalence of ESBL producers is a major health concern and requires further healthy carrier and environmental surveillance.

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing bacteria causing nosocomial urinary tract infections in an Iranian referral teaching hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Rasool; Ehsanpoor, Mohsen; Khorvash, Farzin; Shokri, Dariush

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Gram-negative bacilli are the most important cause of nosocomial urinary tract infections (UTIs). The production of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes is a common mechanism of resistance among these bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of ESBL producing Gram-negative bacteria causing nosocomial UTI in a referral hospital as well as their susceptibility pattern to the most commonly used antibiotics. Methods: In a prospective cross-sectional study performed over a 6-month period, urinary specimens obtained from hospitalized patients with documented culture-proved nosocomial UTI (age range of 1-87 years). Isolated aerobic Gram-negative bacteria underwent further microbiologic tests for detection of ESBL, as well as antimicrobial susceptibility test using Kirby-Bauer (disk diffusion) and E-test methods. Findings: During the study period, 213 urine samples were detected to have growth of Gram-negative organism. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated organism (61%). ESBL was detected in 102 isolates including 38.5% of E. coli, 39.5% of Klebsiella pneumonia, 88.5% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 100% of Acinetobacter baumannii strains. Imipenem and meropenem were the most effective antibiotics on E. coli and K. pneumoniae strains. P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii strains showed high resistance to all tested antibiotics. Conclusion: Large numbers of Gram-negative bacteria causing nosocomial UTIs produce ESBL with most being multidrug-resistant. Therefore, routine ESBL detection testing and subsequent antibiogram with disk diffusion method could be useful to determine the best treatment options for UTI. PMID:24991629

  16. Urinary tract infections: epidemiology, mechanisms of infection and treatment options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Mireles, Ana L.; Walker, Jennifer N.; Caparon, Michael; Hultgren, Scott J.

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a severe public health problem and are caused by a range of pathogens, but most commonly by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. High recurrence rates and increasing antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens threaten to greatly increase the economic burden of these infections. In this Review, we discuss how basic science studies are elucidating the molecular details of the crosstalk that occurs at the host–pathogen interface, as well as the consequences of these interactions for the pathophysiology of UTIs. We also describe current efforts to translate this knowledge into new clinical treatments for UTIs. PMID:25853778

  17. Drug utilization study of antibiotics for urinary tract infections in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A drug utilization pattern of antibiotics for urinary tract infections in 200 cases above 18 years of age was done at Katuri Medical College Hospital, Guntur, India. The antibiotic sensitivity profile of the microorganism causing urinary tract infections was studied in cases diagnosed as urinary tract infection. The patients with ...

  18. Human Escherichia coli isolates from hemocultures: Septicemia linked to urogenital tract infections is caused by isolates harboring more virulence genes than bacteraemia linked to other conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micenková, Lenka; Beňová, Alžbeta; Frankovičová, Lucia; Bosák, Juraj; Vrba, Martin; Ševčíková, Alena; Kmeťová, Marta; Šmajs, David

    2017-04-01

    Escherichia coli is the most common cause of bloodstream infections and community-acquired sepsis. The main aim of this study was to determine virulence characteristics of E. coli isolates from hemocultures of patients with a primary disease of urogenital tract, digestive system, a neoplastic blood disease, or other conditions. Results from a set of 314 E. coli isolates from hemocultures were compared to data from a previously published analysis of 1283 fecal commensal E. coli isolates. Genetic profiling of the 314 E. coli isolates involved determination of phylogenetic group (A, B1, B2, D, C, E, and F), identification of 21 virulence factors, as well as 30 bacteriocin-encoding determinants. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to analyze clonal character of the hemoculture-derived isolates. The E. coli isolates from hemocultures belonged mainly to phylogenetic groups B2 (59.9%) and D (21.0%), and less frequently to phylogroups A (10.2%) and B1 (5.7%). Commonly detected virulence factors included adhesins (fimA 92.0%, pap 47.1%, and sfa 26.8%), and iron-uptake encoding genes (fyuA 87.9%, fepC 79.6%, aer 70.7%, iucC 68.2%, and ireA 13.7%), followed by colibactin (pks island 31.5%), and cytotoxic necrotizing factor (cnf1 11.1%). A higher frequency of microcin producers (and microcin M determinant) and a lower frequency of colicin Ib and microcin B17 was found in hemoculture-derived isolates compared to commensal fecal isolates. E. coli isolates from hemocultures harbored more virulence genes compared to fecal E. coli isolates. In addition, hemoculture E. coli isolates from patients with primary diagnosis related to urogenital tract were clearly different and more virulence genes were detected in these isolates compared to both fecal isolates and hemoculture-derived isolates from patients with blood and gastrointestinal diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Colistin- and Carbapenem-Resistant Escherichia coli Harboring mcr-1 and blaNDM-5, Causing a Complicated Urinary Tract Infection in a Patient from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediavilla, José R; Patrawalla, Amee; Chen, Liang; Chavda, Kalyan D; Mathema, Barun; Vinnard, Christopher; Dever, Lisa L; Kreiswirth, Barry N

    2016-08-30

    Colistin is increasingly used as an antibiotic of last resort for the treatment of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative infections. The plasmid-borne colistin resistance gene mcr-1 was initially identified in animal and clinical samples from China and subsequently reported worldwide, including in the United States. Of particular concern is the spread of mcr-1 into carbapenem-resistant bacteria, thereby creating strains that approach pan-resistance. While several reports of mcr-1 have involved carbapenem-resistant strains, no such isolates have been described in the United States. Here, we report the isolation and identification of an Escherichia coli strain harboring both mcr-1 and carbapenemase gene blaNDM-5 from a urine sample in a patient without recent travel outside the United States. The isolate exhibited resistance to both colistin and carbapenems, but was susceptible to amikacin, aztreonam, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, tigecycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The mcr-1- and blaNDM-5-harboring plasmids were completely sequenced and shown to be highly similar to plasmids previously reported from China. The strain in this report was first isolated in August 2014, highlighting an earlier presence of mcr-1 within the United States than previously recognized. Colistin has become the last line of defense for the treatment of infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria resistant to multiple classes of antibiotics, in particular carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). Resistance to colistin, encoded by the plasmid-borne gene mcr-1, was first identified in animal and clinical samples from China in November 2015 and has subsequently been reported from numerous other countries. In April 2016, mcr-1 was identified in a carbapenem-susceptible Escherichia coli strain from a clinical sample in the United States, followed by a second report from a carbapenem-susceptible E. coli strain originally isolated in May 2015. We report the isolation and identification of

  20. Bacteriology of urinary tract infection and antimicrobial sensitivities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the serious bacterial infections in febrile young children, which may cause chronic morbidities. Studies from different parts of Nigeria have shown varying pattern in its bacteriology and antibiotic sensitivities. Antimicrobial resistance rate among uropathogens is an increasing ...

  1. Urinary tract infection among pregnant women at Bobo-Dioulasso ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary tract infections are the first infections in pregnant women and can cause serious complications during pregnancy. In order to improve its management in low income country like Burkina Faso, we conducted a prospect cross-sectional study, to describe its epidemiological and biological aspects in pregnant women at ...

  2. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract Troubles Girls are more likely than boys to get a UTI. That's because their urethras are much shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get ...

  3. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... para niños How the Body Works Puberty & Growing Up Staying Healthy Staying Safe Recipes & Cooking Health Problems ... Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys two ureters ( ...

  4. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... body. Ahhh! That feels better. Urinary Tract Troubles Girls are more likely than boys to get a ... away properly, they stay on your skin. In girls, this means they can grow near the opening ...

  5. Streptococcus pneumoniae urinary tract infection in pedeatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pougnet, Richard; Sapin, Jeanne; De Parscau, Loïc; Pougnet, Laurence

    2017-06-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae infections in children are most often lung infections or meningitis. Urinary tract infections are much rarer. We present the case of a urinary tract infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae. The clinical picture was classical. The urine culture showed the presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in urine (10 4 UFC/mL; with 2 × 10 4 leucocytes/mL). The literature mentions a few cases of such infections. In some studies, the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in urine of children is less than 1%. Those children mostly present abnormalities of urinary tract. In our case, urinary ultrasound scan have shown the presence of an ectopic kidney in this child. The discussion between the clinician and the biologist has contributed to the discovery of this renal anomaly.

  6. [Prevalence and risk factors for extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli causing community-onset urinary tract infections in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Victor M; Maya, Juan J; Correa, Adriana; Perenguez, Marcela; Muñoz, Juan S; Motoa, Gabriel; Pallares, Christian J; Rosso, Fernando; Matta, Lorena; Celis, Yamile; Garzon, Martha; Villegas, María V

    2016-11-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in the community. However, information of resistant isolates in this context is limited in Latin America. This study aims to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with community-onset UTI (CO-UTI) caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-Producing Escherichia coli in Colombia. A case-control study was conducted between August and December of 2011 in three Colombian tertiary-care institutions. All patients who were admitted to the Emergency Department with a probable diagnosis of CO-UTI were invited to participate. All participating patients were asked for a urine sample. ESBL confirmatory test, antibiotic susceptibility, and molecular epidemiology were performed in these E.coli isolates (Real Time-PCR for bla genes, repetitive element palindromic PCR [rep-PCR], multilocus sequence typing [MLST] and virulence factors by PCR). Clinical and epidemiological information was recorded, and a statistical analysis was performed. Of the 2124 recruited patients, 629 had a positive urine culture, 431 of which grew E.coli; 54 were positive for ESBL, of which 29 were CTX-M-15. The majority of ESBL isolates were susceptible to ertapenem, phosphomycin and amikacin. Complicated UTI was strongly associated with ESBL-producing E.coli infections (OR=3.89; 95%CI: 1.10-13.89; P=.03). CTX-M-15-producing E.coli showed 10 different pulsotypes, 65% were PT1 or PT4, and corresponded to ST131. Most of these isolates had 8 out of the 9 analysed virulence factors. E.coli harbouring bla CTX-M-15 associated with ST131 is still frequent in Colombia. The presence of complicated CO-UTI increases the risk of ESBL-producing E.coli, and must be taken into account in order to provide an adequate empirical therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  7. Recurrent uncomplicated urinary tract infections in women: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosseir, Sandy B; Lind, Lawrence R; Winkler, Harvey A

    2012-03-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections most often present with symptoms of irritative voiding. In most cases, they are caused by reinfection with a previously isolated organism. Patients with one or more symptoms of uncomplicated recurrent urinary tract infection should undergo thorough examination and screening for underlying comorbidities that increase susceptibility. When frequent reinfections, empiric treatment relapse, persistent infections, or risk factors for complicated infections are encountered, patients may benefit from urodynamics, cystoscopy, renal ultrasound, intravenous urogram, or voiding cystourethrogram to evaluate for anatomic, functional, or metabolic abnormalities affecting the urinary tract (e.g., stones, stricture, obstruction, vesicoureteral reflux, lesions, detrusor underactivity). These patients may benefit from culture-guided empiric treatment and further evaluation by urology, nephrology, or infectious disease specialists. In patients with a history of uncomplicated urinary tract infections, empiric treatment guided by local antimicrobial resistance may efficiently treat a suspected recurrence. After successful treatment of the acute infection, postcoital prophylaxis, continuous prophylaxis, or self-start empiric treatment may be selected based on frequency of recurrent infections, temporal relation to intercourse, and patient characteristics. Ancillary measures such as probiotics, cranberry products, or local estrogen replacement may also be considered. This article will review the current definition, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, work-up, treatment, treatment side effects, and prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections in women. A suggested algorithm for evaluation and treatment based on current literature is provided.

  8. FAQs about Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the bladder. What are the symptoms of a urinary tract infection? Some of the common symptoms of a urinary tract infection are: • Burning or ... catheter is removed. Sometimes people with catheter-associated urinary tract ... these symptoms of infection. Can catheter-associated urinary tract infections ...

  9. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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  10. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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  11. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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  12. Management of upper respiratory tract infections in children | Cotton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) occurs commonly in both children and adults and is a major cause of mild morbidity. It has a high cost to society, being responsible for absenteeism from school and work and unnecessary medical care, and is occasionally associated with serious sequelae. URTIs are usually caused ...

  13. Diabetes and Risk of Community-Acquired Respiratory Tract Infections, Urinary Tract Infections, and Bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Reimar W.; Mor, Anil

    2013-01-01

    This review provides an update on the risk of several important community-acquired infections seen in patients with diabetes: respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and bacteremia. Respiratory tract infections: Recent epidemiological evidence shows a modest (1.25 to 1.75-fold) risk...... and tuberculosis. Limited data is available for diabetes and influenza, yet both influenza and pneumococcal vaccination is recommended in patients with diabetes. Urinary tract infections: The risk of asymptomatic bacteriuria and cystitis is 1.5 to 2 times increased in diabetes patients, while their risk...... factors for urinary tract infection are the same as in persons without diabetes. Bacteremia: The risk of bacteremia due to pneumococci is approximately 1.5 times increased in diabetes, similar to the increased risk for pneumonia. In comparison, diabetes is associated with 2.5 to 3 times increased risk...

  14. Recurrent urinary tract infection by burkholderia cepacia in a live related renal transplant recipient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeshan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia cepacia is high virulent organism usually causing lower respiratory tract infections especially in Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and post lung transplant. Urinary tract infections with Burkholderia cepacia have been associated after bladder irrigation or use of contaminated hospital objects. Post renal transplant urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infectious complications. Recurrent urinary tract infection with Burkholderia cepacia is a rare finding. Complete anatomical evaluation is essential in case recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) after renal transplant. Vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR) and neurogenic urinary bladder was found to be important risk factors. (author)

  15. Urinary tract infections in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (cystitis or urethritis) with no urological anomalies and mostly affects girls over the age of 2 years. Complicated UTIs involve the renal parenchyma (pyelonephritis), and are usually associated with underlying congenital anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract.9 These UTIs may result in significant short-term morbidity,.

  16. Urinary tract infection in renal transplant recipients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Introduction: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the commonest bacterial infection occurring in renal transplant recipients, and it is associated with significant morbidity. This study aimed to assess the characteristics of all UTI episodes diagnosed in renal transplant patients who attended regularly for follow up in the ...

  17. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for ... a bladder infection, your doctor will order some medicine for you to take to kill the bacteria. ...

  18. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... infection before anyone else can see there's anything wrong with you. That's why it's important to talk ... kidney infection and you should see a doctor right away. What Will the Doctor Do? First, your ...

  19. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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  1. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... infection, which is a type of UTI. You may also hear a bladder infection called cystitis (say: ... harmful bacteria keep spreading. From the bladder, they may head into one of the ureters and climb ...

  2. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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  3. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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  4. Multiplex quantitative PCR for detection of lower respiratory tract infection and meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeldaim, Guma M K; Strålin, Kristoffer; Korsgaard, Jens; Blomberg, Jonas; Welinder-Olsson, Christina; Herrmann, Björn

    2010-12-03

    Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae cause pneumonia and as Neisseria meningitidis they are important agents of meningitis. Although several PCR methods have been described for these bacteria the specificity is an underestimated problem. Here we present a quantitative multiplex real-time PCR (qmPCR) for detection of S. pneumoniae (9802 gene fragment), H. influenzae (omp P6 gene) and N. meningitidis (ctrA gene). The method was evaluated on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from 156 adults with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and 31 controls, and on 87 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from meningitis patients. The analytical sensitivity was not affected by using a combined mixture of reagents and a combined DNA standard (S. pneumoniae/H. influenzae/N. meningitidis) in single tubes. By blood- and BAL-culture and S. pneumoniae urinary antigen test, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae were aetiological agents in 21 and 31 of the LTRI patients, respectively. These pathogens were identified by qmPCR in 52 and 72 of the cases, respectively, yielding sensitivities and specificities of 95% and 75% for S. pneumoniae, and 90% and 65% for H. influenzae, respectively. When using a cut-off of 10⁵ genome copies/mL for clinical positivity the sensitivities and specificities were 90% and 80% for S. pneumoniae, and 81% and 85% for H. influenzae, respectively. Of 44 culture negative but qmPCR positive for H. influenzae, 41 were confirmed by fucK PCR as H. influenzae. Of the 103 patients who had taken antibiotics prior to sampling, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae were identified by culture in 6% and 20% of the cases, respectively, and by the qmPCR in 36% and 53% of the cases, respectively.In 87 CSF samples S. pneumoniae and N. meningitidis were identified by culture and/or 16 S rRNA in 14 and 10 samples and by qmPCR in 14 and 10 samples, respectively, giving a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 100% for both bacteria. The PCR provides increased

  5. Multiplex quantitative PCR for detection of lower respiratory tract infection and meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welinder-Olsson Christina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae cause pneumonia and as Neisseria meningitidis they are important agents of meningitis. Although several PCR methods have been described for these bacteria the specificity is an underestimated problem. Here we present a quantitative multiplex real-time PCR (qmPCR for detection of S. pneumoniae (9802 gene fragment, H. influenzae (omp P6 gene and N. meningitidis (ctrA gene. The method was evaluated on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL samples from 156 adults with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI and 31 controls, and on 87 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples from meningitis patients. Results The analytical sensitivity was not affected by using a combined mixture of reagents and a combined DNA standard (S. pneumoniae/H. influenzae/N. meningitidis in single tubes. By blood- and BAL-culture and S. pneumoniae urinary antigen test, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae were aetiological agents in 21 and 31 of the LTRI patients, respectively. These pathogens were identified by qmPCR in 52 and 72 of the cases, respectively, yielding sensitivities and specificities of 95% and 75% for S. pneumoniae, and 90% and 65% for H. influenzae, respectively. When using a cut-off of 105 genome copies/mL for clinical positivity the sensitivities and specificities were 90% and 80% for S. pneumoniae, and 81% and 85% for H. influenzae, respectively. Of 44 culture negative but qmPCR positive for H. influenzae, 41 were confirmed by fucK PCR as H. influenzae. Of the 103 patients who had taken antibiotics prior to sampling, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae were identified by culture in 6% and 20% of the cases, respectively, and by the qmPCR in 36% and 53% of the cases, respectively. In 87 CSF samples S. pneumoniae and N. meningitidis were identified by culture and/or 16 S rRNA in 14 and 10 samples and by qmPCR in 14 and 10 samples, respectively, giving a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 100% for both

  6. Urinary tract infections in patients with spinal cord lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, F; Bagi, P; Høiby, N

    2001-01-01

    Even though the mortality due to urinary tract complications has decreased dramatically during the last decades in individuals with spinal cord lesions (SCL), urinary tract infections (UTI) still cause significant morbidity in this population. Complicated UTI are caused by a much wider variety...... and local hygiene should be encouraged. If the patient has a reinfection or relapsing symptomatic UTI, it is important to check for inadequately treated infection and complications, which need special attention, in particular residual urine and urinary stones. No reliable evidence exists...... of the effectiveness of cranberry juice and other cranberry products. Prophylactic antibacterials should only be used in patients with recurrent UTI where no underlying cause can be found and managed, and in particular if the upper urinary tract is dilated. Antibacterials should not be used for the prevention of UTI...

  7. Spectrum and potency of ceftaroline against leading pathogens causing community-acquired respiratory tract and skin and soft tissue infections in Latin America, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Flamm

    Full Text Available Ceftaroline, the active metabolite of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, is a cephalosporin with in vitro bactericidal activity against Gram-positive organisms, including methicillinsusceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus, β-haemolytic and viridans group streptococci, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, as well as common Gram-negative organisms. In this study a total of 986 isolates collected in 2010 from patients in 15 medical centers in five Latin American countries from the Assessing Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance Evaluation Program were identified as community-acquired respiratory tract or skin and soft tissue infection pathogens. Ceftaroline was the most potent agent tested against S. pneumoniae with a MIC90 value (0.12 µg/mL that was eight-fold lower than ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, and linezolid. Its spectrum of coverage (100.0% susceptible was similar to tigecycline, linezolid, levofloxacin and vancomycin. Against Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis, ceftaroline was the most active agent tested. The activity of ceftaroline against S. aureus (including MRSA was similar to that of vancomycin and tetracycline (MIC90,1 µg/mL and linezolid (MIC90,2 Jg/mL. The 1-haemolytic streptococci exhibited 100.0% susceptibility to ceftaroline. Ceftaroline activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., and Enterobacter spp. was similar to that of ceftriaxone and ceftazidime. These parenteral cephalosporin agents have potent activity against non-extended-spectrum These parenteral cephalosporin agents have potent activity against non-extended-spectrum-lactamase-phenotype strains, but are not active against extended-spectrum β-lactamase-phenotype strains. These results confirm the in vitro activity of ceftaroline against pathogens common in communityacquired respiratory tract and skin and soft tissue infection in Latin America, and suggest that ceftaroline fosamil could be an important therapeutic option for these infections.

  8. Spectrum and potency of ceftaroline against leading pathogens causing community-acquired respiratory tract and skin and soft tissue infections in Latin America, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, Robert K; Sader, Helio S; Jones, Ronald N

    2013-01-01

    Ceftaroline, the active metabolite of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, is a cephalosporin with in vitro bactericidal activity against Gram-positive organisms, including methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus, β-haemolytic and viridans group streptococci, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, as well as common Gram-negative organisms. In this study a total of 986 isolates collected in 2010 from patients in 15 medical centers in five Latin American countries from the Assessing Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance Evaluation Program were identified as community-acquired respiratory tract or skin and soft tissue infection pathogens. Ceftaroline was the most potent agent tested against S. pneumoniae with a MIC90 value (0.12μg/mL) that was eight-fold lower than ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, and linezolid. Its spectrum of coverage (100.0% susceptible) was similar to tigecycline, linezolid, levofloxacin and vancomycin. Against Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis, ceftaroline was the most active agent tested. The activity of ceftaroline against S. aureus (including MRSA) was similar to that of vancomycin and tetracycline (MIC90, 1μg/mL) and linezolid (MIC90, 2μg/mL). The β-haemolytic streptococci exhibited 100.0% susceptibility to ceftaroline. Ceftaroline activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., and Enterobacter spp. was similar to that of ceftriaxone and ceftazidime. These parenteral cephalosporin agents have potent activity against non-extended-spectrum β-lactamase-phenotype strains, but are not active against extended-spectrum β-lactamase-phenotype strains. These results confirm the in vitro activity of ceftaroline against pathogens common in community-acquired respiratory tract and skin and soft tissue infection in Latin America, and suggest that ceftaroline fosamil could be an important therapeutic option for these infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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  13. Plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli causing urinary tract infection in the Auckland community likely to be resistant to commonly prescribed antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinkovic, Dragana; Morris, Arthur J; Dyet, Kristin; Bakker, Sarah; Heffernan, Helen

    2015-03-13

    To estimate the prevalence and characterise plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase (PMACBL)- producing Escherichia coli in the Auckland community. All cefoxitin non-susceptible (NS) E. coli identified at the two Auckland community laboratories between 1 January and 31 August 2011 were referred to ESR for boronic acid double-disc synergy testing, to detect the production of AmpC beta-lactamase, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify the presence of PMACBL genes. PMACBL-producing isolates were typed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and PCR was used to determine their phylogenetic group and to identify multilocus sequence type (ST)131. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) were performed according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations. 101 (51%) and 74 (37%) of 200 non-duplicate cefoxitin-NS E. coli were PMACBL producers or assumed hyper-producers of chromosomal AmpC beta-lactamase, respectively. The prevalence of PMACBL-producing E. coli was 0.4%. PMACBL-producing E. coli were significantly less susceptible to norfloxacin, trimethoprim and nitrofurantoin than E. coli that produced neither a PMACBL nor an ESBL. Very few (4%) PMACBL-producing E. coli co-produced an ESBL. Most (88%) of the PMACBL-producing isolates had a CMY-2-like PMACBL. The PMACBL-producing E. coli isolates were diverse based on their PFGE profiles, 44% belonged to phylogenetic group D, and only four were ST131. 100 of the 101 PMACBL-producing E. coli were cultured from urine, and were causing urinary tract infection (UTI) in the majority of patients. The median patient age was 56 years and most (94%) of the patients were women. A greater proportion of patients with community-acquired UTI caused by PMACBL-producing E. coli received a beta-lactam antimicrobial than patients with community-acquired UTI caused by other non-AmpC, non-ESBL-producing E. coli. Thirty-six (43%) patients with community

  14. Imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dacher, Jean-Nicolas; Hitzel, Anne; Vera, Pierre; Avni, Fred E.

    2005-01-01

    This article is focused on the controversial topic of imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection. A review of the recent literature illustrates the complementary roles of ultrasound, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. The authors stress the key role of ultrasound which has recently been debated. The commonly associated vesicoureteric reflux has to be classified as congenital or secondary due to voiding dysfunction. A series of frequently asked questions are addressed in a second section. The proposed answers are not the product of a consensus but should rather be considered as proposals to enrich the ongoing debate concerning the evaluation of urinary tract infection in children. (orig.)

  15. Imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dacher, Jean-Nicolas [University of Rouen, Quant-IF Laboratory, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Rouen (France); Rouen University Hospital Charles Nicolle, Department of Radiology, Rouen (France); UFR Medecine Pharmacie de Rouen, Laboratoire Quant-If, Rouen (France); Hitzel, Anne; Vera, Pierre [University of Rouen, Quant-IF Laboratory, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Rouen (France); CRLCC Henri Becquerel, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rouen (France); Avni, Fred E. [Free University of Brussels, Department of Radiology, Erasmus Hospital, Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    This article is focused on the controversial topic of imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection. A review of the recent literature illustrates the complementary roles of ultrasound, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. The authors stress the key role of ultrasound which has recently been debated. The commonly associated vesicoureteric reflux has to be classified as congenital or secondary due to voiding dysfunction. A series of frequently asked questions are addressed in a second section. The proposed answers are not the product of a consensus but should rather be considered as proposals to enrich the ongoing debate concerning the evaluation of urinary tract infection in children. (orig.)

  16. Semen culture and the assessment of genitourinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Solomon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The male factor contributes approximately 50% to infertility-related cases in couples with an estimated 12%–35% of these cases attributable to male genital tract infections. Depending on the nature of the infection, testicular sperm production, sperm transport, and sperm function can be compromised. Yet, infections are potentially treatable causes of infertility. Male genital tract infections are increasingly difficult to detect. Moreover, they often remain asymptomatic (“silent” with the result that they are then passed on to the relevant sexual partner leading to fertilization and pregnancy failure as well as illness of the offspring. With the worldwide increasing problem of antibiotic resistance of pathogens, proper diagnosis and therapy of the patient is important. This testing, however, should include not only aerobic microbes but also anaerobic as these can be found in almost all ejaculates with about 71% being potentially pathogenic. Therefore, in cases of any indication of a male genital tract infection, a semen culture should be carried out, particularly in patients with questionable semen quality. Globally, an estimate of 340 million new infections with sexually transmitted pathogens is recorded annually. Among these, the most prevalent pathogens including Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Mycoplasma hominis. Escherichia coli are considered the most common nonsexually transmitted urogenital tract microbes. These pathogens cause epididymitis, epididymo-orchitis, or prostatitis and contribute to increased seminal leukocyte concentrations.

  17. Evaluation of the in vitro growth of urinary tract infection-causing gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria in a proposed synthetic human urine (SHU) medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipe, Deepak S; Ulett, Glen C

    2016-08-01

    Bacteriuria is a hallmark of urinary tract infection (UTI) and asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU), which are among the most frequent infections in humans. A variety of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria are associated with these infections but Escherichia coli contributes up to 80% of cases. Multiple bacterial species including E. coli can grow in human urine as a means to maintain colonization during infections. In vitro bacteriuria studies aimed at modeling microbial growth in urine have utilized various compositions of synthetic human urine (SHU) and a Composite SHU formulation was recently proposed. In this study, we sought to validate the recently proposed Composite SHU as a medium that supports the growth of several bacterial species that are known to grow in normal human urine and/or artificial urine. Comparative growth assays of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Enterococcus faecalis were undertaken using viable bacterial count and optical density measurements over a 48h culture period. Three different SHU formulations were tested in various culture vessels, shaking conditions and volumes and showed that Composite SHU can support the robust growth of gram-negative bacteria but requires supplementation with 0.2% yeast extract to support the growth of gram-positive bacteria. Experiments are also presented that show an unexpected but major influence of P. mirabilis towards the ability to measure bacterial growth in generally accepted multiwell assays using absorbance readings, predicted to have a basis in the release of volatile organic compound(s) from P. mirabilis during growth in Composite SHU medium. This study represents an essential methodological validation of a more chemically defined type of synthetic urine that can be applied to study mechanisms of bacteriuria and we conclude will offer a useful in vitro model to investigate the

  18. Interventions for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneeberger, Caroline; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Middleton, Philippa; Crowther, Caroline A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) are common in women who are pregnant and may cause serious adverse pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child including preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age babies. Interventions used to prevent RUTI in women who are pregnant can be

  19. Interventions for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneeberger, Caroline; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Middleton, Philippa; Crowther, Caroline A.

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) are common in women who are pregnant and may cause serious adverse pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child including preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age babies. Interventions used to prevent RUTI in women who are pregnant can be pharmacological

  20. Interventions for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneeberger, Caroline; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Middleton, Philippa; Crowther, Caroline A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) are common in women who are pregnant and may cause serious adverse pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child including preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age babies. Interventions used to prevent RUTI in women who are pregnant can be

  1. Evaluation of parental perception of childhood urinary tract infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is common in children with possible severe complications, deserving public health interventions. Aims: To evaluate parental perception of symptoms, causes, complication and treatment of childhood UTI, and proposerelevant interventions. Methods: This is an ethicallyapproved ...

  2. Evaluation of female residents for urinary tract infections, Onicha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cases of urinary tract infections (UTIs) have been on the increase in our society, posing a threat to health causing economic and social burden on the populace especially among women and girls. This study was therefore carried out to assess the prevalence of UTIs among female residents of Igboeze-Onicha Community in ...

  3. Predictors of Urinary Tract Infections in Nursing Students in India

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dear Sir,. I read with a lot of interest, the original research paper by Vyas et al.[1] This paper tried to find out the clinical, demographic and social causes predisposing nursing students to urinary tract infections (UTI). The study has revealed the prevalence rate of UTI as >19%. The authors have mentioned that the subjects ...

  4. Is Escherichia coli urinary tract infection a zoonosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, L.; Garneau, P.; Bruant, G.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that the Escherichia coli causing urinary tract infection (UTI) may come from meat and animals. The purpose was to investigate if a clonal link existed between E. coli from animals, meat and UTI patients. Twenty-two geographically and temporally matched B2 E. coli...

  5. Management of Urinary Tract Infections in Children | Schellack ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are a common occurrence in paediatrics. UTIs present in children as fever, anorexia, vomiting, lethargy and dysuria. Approximately 80% of the time, Escherichia coli is the causative bacteria in paediatrics, however, fungal UTI caused by Candida species can occur in premature infants. With an ...

  6. Occurrence of Urinary Tract Infection in Adolescent and Adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is commonly experienced by women of various age groups especially elderly ones. We planned to find out the prevalent microbial strains causing UTI in slum inhabitant adolescent and adult women in Dhaka City, Bangladesh. Methods amd Materials: Urine sample was collected ...

  7. Therapeutic management of Urinary Tract Infections (UTI): A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is one of the most common diseases and a significant cause of morbidity in all age groups. There are large differences in the management of UTI with respect to definition, diagnosis and treatment. This retrospective study reviewed the diagnosis and drug treatment of UTI at the Teaching ...

  8. Aetiology of Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in Benin City, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients with respiratory tract infections (RTI), Pneumonia inclusive account for a large proportion of a primary care physicians (PCP) work load and a frequent cause for prescription of antibacterial agents. The study was aimed at analyzing the various isolated organisms obtained from sputum and to test their susceptibility ...

  9. Predictors of Urinary Tract Infections in Nursing Students in India

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    demographic and social causes predisposing nursing students to urinary tract infections (UTI). The study has revealed the prevalence rate of UTI as >19%. The authors have mentioned that the subjects were residing in the nursing hostel. It must be noted that most of the nursing students spend significant time in the hospital ...

  10. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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  11. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... no matter how busy you are. Water and cranberry juice are two good choices. Those trips to ... help wash bacteria out of your body and cranberry juice may actually help prevent another infection. If ...

  12. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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  16. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... kidney infection and you should see a doctor right away. What Will the Doctor Do? First, your ... consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, ...

  17. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & ... 237 milliliters) of urine in your bladder, your brain tells you it's time to find a bathroom. ...

  18. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying ... a UTI, he or she will want to test your urine. You'll have to go into ...

  19. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & ...

  20. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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  1. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... on it and if it turns a certain color, it means you have a UTI. The doctor ...

  2. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals ...

  3. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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  4. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos ... connected to each kidney). From there, the urine travels through the ureters down to the bladder. When ...

  5. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs ... You'll also want to stay away from foods and drinks that contain caffeine , such as cola ...

  6. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... a bladder infection, your doctor will order some medicine for you to take to kill the bacteria. ... the hospital. At the hospital, the germ-fighting medicine can be delivered more effectively through a tiny ...

  7. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... choose to send the urine sample to a lab for testing. If it turns out you have ...

  8. A Case of Pyriform Sinus Fistula Infection with Double Tracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Shino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyriform sinus fistula is a rare clinical entity and the precise origin remains controversial. The fistula is discovered among patients with acute suppurative thyroiditis or deep neck infection of the left side of the neck and is usually located in the left pyriform sinus. To the best of our knowledge, only a single tract has been reported to be responsible for pyriform sinus fistula infection. We present a case of a 13-year-old female patient with a pyriform sinus fistula that caused a deep infection of the left side of the neck and showed double-tract involvement discovered during surgical resection of the entire fistula. Both tracts arose around the pyriform sinus and terminated at the upper portion of the left lobe of the thyroid.

  9. The nature of immune responses to urinary tract infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Soman N.; Miao, Yuxuan

    2016-01-01

    The urinary tract is constantly exposed to microorganisms that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract, but generally the urinary tract resists infection by gut microorganisms. This resistance to infection is mainly ascribed to the versatility of the innate immune defences in the urinary tract as the adaptive immune responses are limited, particularly when only the lower urinary tract is infected. In recent years, as the strengths and weaknesses of the immune system of the urinary tract have emerged and as the virulence attributes of uropathogens are recognized, several potentially effective and unconventional strategies to contain or prevent urinary tract infections have emerged. PMID:26388331

  10. The Vaginal Microbiota and Urinary Tract Infection

    OpenAIRE

    STAPLETON, ANN E.

    2016-01-01

    The vagina is a key anatomical site in the pathogenesis of urinary tract infection (UTI) in women, serving as a potential reservoir for infecting bacteria and a site at which interventions may decrease the risk of UTI. The vaginal microbiota is a dynamic and often critical factor in this pathogenic interplay, because changes in the characteristics of the vaginal microbiota resulting in the loss of normally protective Lactobacillus spp. increase the risk of UTI. These alterations may result fr...

  11. Urinary tract infection among apparently healthy commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... with age playing a prominent factor. Therefore, as road safety campaigns are encouraged for transport workers, concerted efforts must also be made to enlighten them on the need to avoid risky sexual behaviours including drug and alcohol abuse. Keywords: Urinary Tract Infections, Asymptomatic UTI, Personal hygiene, ...

  12. 22 RESISTANCE PATTERN OF URINARY TRACT INFECTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    22. RESISTANCE PATTERN OF URINARY TRACT INFECTION BACTERIAL ISOLATES. TO SELECTED QUINOLONES. *A.R.M Momoh, *M.AC. Odike, * S. Olowo, **A.A. Momoh, **P.O. Okolo. Department of *Pathological Sciences, College of Medicine, A.A.U/IRRUA Specialist. Teaching Hospital, IRRUA, Edo State, ...

  13. Febrile urinary tract infections: pyelonephritis and urosepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneeberger, Caroline; Holleman, Frits; Geerlings, Suzanne E.

    2016-01-01

    Complicated infections of the urinary tract (UTI) including pyelonephritis and urosepsis are also called febrile UTI. This review describes insights from the literature on this topic since July 2014. Recent studies regarding risk factors and consequences of febrile UTI confirmed existing knowledge.

  14. Asymptomatic urinary tract infection among pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A good proportion of pregnant women patronize traditional birth homes in Nigeria for ante-natal care. This study aimed at determining the prevalence, risk factors, and susceptibility profile of etiologic agents of urinary tract infection among ante-natal attendees in a traditional birth home in Benin City, Nigeria.

  15. Reproductive tract infections among women attending primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive tract infections among women attending primary health care facilities in Moshi, Tanzania. ... 43% of laboratory diagnosed RTIs were asymptomatic. Although none of the women had reported abnormal urogenital symptoms during routine clinical consultation, 64% revealed such symptoms on direct questioning.

  16. Nosocomial urinary tract infections: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovelli, Valerio; Gaziev, Gabriele; Topazio, Luca; Bove, Pierluigi; Vespasiani, Giuseppe; Finazzi Agrò, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Nosocomial urinary tract infections are a common complication in healthcare systems worldwide. A review of the literature was performed in June 2014 using the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) database, through either PubMed or Ovid as a search engine, to identify publications regarding nosocomial urinary tract infections (NUTIs) definition, epidemiology, etiology and treatment.According to current definitions, more than 30% of nosocomial infections are urinary tract infections (UTIs). A UTI is defined 'nosocomial' (NUTI) when it is acquired in any healthcare institution or, more generally, when it is related to patient management. The origin of nosocomial bacteria is endogenous (the patient's flora) in two thirds of the cases. Patients with indwelling urinary catheters, those undergoing urological surgery and manipulations, long-stay elderly male patients and patients with debilitating diseases are at high risk of developing NUTIs. All bacterial NUTIs should be treated, whether the patient is harboring a urinary catheter or not. The length of treatment depends on the infection site. There is abundance of important guidance which should be considered to reduce the risk of NUTIs (hand disinfection with instant hand sanitizer, wearing non-sterile gloves permanently, isolation of infected or colonized catheterized patients). Patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria can generally be treated initially with catheter removal or catheter exchange, and do not necessarily need antimicrobial therapy. Symptomatic patients should receive antibiotic therapy. Resistance of urinary pathogens to common antibiotics is currently a topic of concern.

  17. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert ... More on this topic for: Kids Chronic Kidney ... purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All ...

  18. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ...

  19. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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  20. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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  1. Vaccines for Chlamydia infections of the female genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Louise M; McNeilly, Celia

    2008-02-01

    Genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is an escalating global public health concern causing considerable morbidity and socioeconomic burden worldwide. Although antibiotics are used to treat symptomatic urogenital infections, chlamydial infection remains asymptomatic in approximately 50% of infected men and 70% of infected women. The major clinical manifestations of genital chlamydial infection in women include mucopurulent cervicitis, endometritis and pelvic inflammatory disease. Genital infection with C. trachomatis markedly enhances the risk for reproductive tract sequelae in women, including tubal factor infertility, chronic pain and ectopic pregnancy. Definitive infection control of chlamydial infections will likely be achievable through a safe and efficacious vaccine. This will require identifying protective chlamydial antigens in animal models as well as identifying effective adjuvants and delivery systems that target subunit vaccines to immune inductive sites or secondary lymphoid tissues, and will be safe for use in humans.

  2. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... go to the bathroom much more often than normal? Can you only pee a little bit at ... the outside. Some bacteria on the outside is normal and aren't necessarily causing the problem on ...

  3. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... And when you do, phew! Your pee smells bad. These things happen because bacteria have caused an ... pee? Is your pee cloudy? Does it smell bad when you pee? These are signs that you ...

  4. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... time. And when you do, phew! Your pee smells bad. These things happen because bacteria have caused ... your pee? Is your pee cloudy? Does it smell bad when you pee? These are signs that ...

  5. Urinary tract infection pathogenesis: host factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Ann E

    2014-03-01

    Clinically, host factors in the pathogenesis of urinary tract infection (UTI) may be considered as modifiable (eg, behaviors associated with increased risk of UTI, anatomic and functional problems of the urinary tract) and thus potentially amenable to a change in patient behavior or treatment approach, or as intrinsic and nonmodifiable host factors that neither the patient nor the clinician can influence (eg, gender and genetic influences associated with UTI). Although considering nonmodifiable host factors may be discouraging to patients and clinicians at present, some genetic associations have the potential for future predictive value and may interface with future treatments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Urinary Tract Infection in Febrile Children with Sickle Cell Anaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Nigeria. Children with this disease have increased tendency to develop frequent and severe infections especially of the urinary tract, bones and lungs. The prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI) has however not been reported in this part ...

  7. Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Related Conditions (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Related Conditions KidsHealth / For Parents / Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Related Conditions What's in this article? What ...

  8. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

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    Full Text Available ... you go — yow! You also might have the feeling that you need to go to the bathroom all the time. And when you do, phew! Your pee smells bad. These things happen because bacteria have caused an ...

  9. Urinary tract infections in patients with spinal cord lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, F; Bagi, P; Høiby, N

    2001-01-01

    Even though the mortality due to urinary tract complications has decreased dramatically during the last decades in individuals with spinal cord lesions (SCL), urinary tract infections (UTI) still cause significant morbidity in this population. Complicated UTI are caused by a much wider variety...... and local hygiene should be encouraged. If the patient has a reinfection or relapsing symptomatic UTI, it is important to check for inadequately treated infection and complications, which need special attention, in particular residual urine and urinary stones. No reliable evidence exists...... extending treatment to at least 5 days, and in those with reinfection or relapsing UTI, at least 7 to 14 days, depending on the severity of the infection. The diagnosis of structural and/or functional risk factors is essential in order to plan an optimal treatment for UTI in individuals with SCL, which...

  10. IN VITRO ACTIVITY OF VACCINIUM MACROCARPON (CRANBERRY) ON URINARY TRACT PATHOGENS IN UNCOMPLICATED URINARY TRACT INFECTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Saima; Chiragh, Sadia; Tariq, Sumbal; Alam, Muhammad Adeel; Wazir, Muhammad Salim; Suleman, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is the most common bacterial infection in the community, mainly caused by Escherichia coli (E coli). Due to its high incidence and recurrence, problems are faced in the treatment with antibiotics. Cranberry being herbal remedy have long been the focus of interest for their beneficial effects in preventing urinary tract infections. This study was conducted to analyse in vitro activity of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) on uropathogenic E coli in uncomplicated urinary tract infections. In this laboratory based single group experimental study, anti-bacterial activity of Vaccinium macrocarpon concentrate on urinary tract E coli was investigated, in vitro. Ninety-six culture positive cases of different uropathogens were identified. Vaccinium macrocarpon concentrate at different concentrations was prepared in distilled water and put in wells punched in nutrient agar. E coli isolates were inoculated on the plates and incubated at 37 °C for 24 hours. A citric acid solution of the same pH as that of Vaccinium macrocarpon was used and put in a well on the same plate to exclude the effect of pH. A total of 35 isolates of E coli were identified out of 96 culture positive specimens of urine and found sensitive to Vaccinium macrocarpon (p<0.000). Results revealed that Vaccinium macrocarpon has antibacterial effect against E coli. Furthermore the antibacterial activity of Vaccinium macrocarpon has dose response relationship. Acidic nature of Vaccinium macrocarpon due to its pH is not contributory towards its antibacterial effect. Vaccinium macrocarpon concentrate may be used in urinary tract infection caused by E coli.

  11. In vitro activity of vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) on urinary tract pathogens in uncomplicated urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukhari, S.; Tariq, S.; Alam, M.A.; Chiragh, S.; Wazir, M.S.; Suleman, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Urinary tract infection is the most common bacterial infection in the community, mainly caused by Escherichia coli (E coli). Due to its high incidence and recurrence, problems are faced in the treatment with antibiotics. Cranberry being herbal remedy have long been the focus of interest for their beneficial effects in preventing urinary tract infections. This study was conducted to analyse in vitro activity of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) on uropathogenic E coli in uncomplicated urinary tract infections. Method: In this laboratory based single group experimental study, anti-bacterial activity of Vaccinium macrocarpon concentrate on urinary tract E coli was investigated, in vitro. Ninety-six culture positive cases of different uropathogens were identified. Vaccinium macrocarpon concentrate at different concentrations was prepared in distilled water and put in wells punched in nutrient agar. E coli isolates were inoculated on the plates and incubated at 37 Degree C for 24 hours. A citric acid solution of the same pH as that of Vaccinium macrocarpon was used and put in a well on the same plate to exclude the effect of pH. Results: A total of 35 isolates of E coli were identified out of 96 culture positive specimens of urine and found sensitive to Vaccinium macrocarpon (p<0.000). Results revealed that Vaccinium macrocarpon has antibacterial effect against E coli. Furthermore the antibacterial activity of Vaccinium macrocarpon has dose response relationship. Acidic nature of Vaccinium macrocarpon due to its pH is not contributory towards its antibacterial effect. Conclusion: Vaccinium macrocarpon concentrate may be used in urinary tract infection caused by E coli. (author)

  12. Assessment of Risk Factors, Treatment and Hospital Stay in Complicated Urinary Tract Infections in Men Caused by Pseudomonas: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Selçuk Özger

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It is known that Pseudomonas has been isolated more frequently in health care-related urinary tract infections (UTIs. It was aimed to determine the risk factors and empiric therapies due to antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas-related male UTIs, and assess the effect of Pseudomonas isolation on treatment and length of hospital stay. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted between January 2011 and January 2013 with 228 male health care-related complicated UTI patients hospitalized in the Urology and Infectious Diseases Inpatient Clinics at Gazi University Faculty of Medicine. Three hundred UTI attacks in 228 patients were evaluated retrospectively with regard to agents. Results: Pseudomonas was isolated in 37 of 300 complicated UTI attacks in 228 male patients. Nephrolithiasis, recurrent UTI and internal urinary catheterization were determined as the risk factors for Pseudomonas related with health care-related UTI. It was understood that nephrolithiasis increased Pseudomonas isolated UTI risk 3.5 fold and recurrent UTI increased the risk 8.9 fold. The antibiotic resistance of Pseudomonas was higher than other agents. Pseudomonas related UTIs prolonged the duration of hospital stay and antibiotic treatment. Conclusion: In the presence of nephrolithiasis, recurrent UTI and internal urinary catheterization, drugs against Pseudomonas would be appropriate empiric treatment for health care-related complicated UTI. Ciprofloxacin use should be restricted when local antibiotic resistance, which leads empiric treatment, is taken into consideration. Increases in hospital stay and antibiotic treatment duration were thought to be associated with recurrent infection frequency and high antibiotics resistance in Pseudomonas related UTIs.

  13. Nonfermenting Gram-negative Bacilli other than Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter Spp. Causing Respiratory Tract Infections in a Tertiary Care Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisumu Chawla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli have emerged as important healthcare-associated pathogens. It is important to correctly identify all clinically significant nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli considering the intrinsic multidrug resistance exhibited by these bacteria. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was undertaken to identify the various nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli other than Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. isolated from respiratory samples (n = 9363, to understand their clinical relevance and to analyze their antibiotic susceptibility pattern. Results: Nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli were isolated from 830 (16.4% samples showing significant growth. Thirty-three (4% isolates constituted nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli other than P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (15, 45.5% was the most common isolate followed by Burkholderia cepacia (4, 12.1%, Sphingomonas paucimobilis (3, 9.1%, and Achromobacter xylosoxidans (3, 9.1%. On the basis of clinicomicrobiological correlation, pathogenicity was observed in 69.7% (n = 23 isolates. Timely and correct treatment resulted in clinical improvement in 87.9% cases. Conclusion: Any nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli isolated from respiratory tract infection should not be ignored as mere contaminant, but correlated clinically for its pathogenic potential and identified using standard methods so as to institute appropriate and timely antibiotic coverage.

  14. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Clinical Trials Hematuria: Blood in the Urine Interstitial Cystitis (Painful Bladder Syndrome) Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Kidney Infection Definition & ...

  15. Recurrent urinary tract infections in females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohsin, R.; Siddiqui, K.M.

    2010-01-01

    Uncomplicated Urinary tract infections are common in adult women across the entire age spectrum, with mean annual incidence of 15% and 10% in those aged 15-39 and 40-79 years, respectively. Urinary tract infection (UTI), with its diverse clinical syndromes and affected host groups, remains one of the most common but widely misunderstood and challenging infectious diseases encountered in clinical practice. Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) present a significant problem for women and a challenge for the doctors who care for them. The diagnosis of uncomplicated UTI can be achieved best by a thorough assessment of patient symptoms with or without the addition of a urine dipstick test. Treatment should be based on the most recent guidelines, taking into account resistance patterns in the local community. The patient who suffers from recurrent UTIs can be treated safely and effectively with continuous antibiotic prophylaxis, post-coital therapy, or self-initiated treatment. This review article covers the latest trends in the management of recurrent UTI among women. Further research is needed regarding rapid diagnosis of UTI, accurate presumptive identification of patients with resistant pathogens, and development of new antimicrobials for drug-resistant UTI. (author)

  16. No. 250-Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Annette; Larochelle, Annick

    2017-10-01

    To provide an update of the definition, epidemiology, clinical presentation, investigation, treatment, and prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections in women. Continuous antibiotic prophylaxis, post-coital antibiotic prophylaxis, and acute self-treatment are all efficient alternatives to prevent recurrent urinary tract infection. Vaginal estrogen and cranberry juice can also be effective prophylaxis alternatives. A search of PubMed and The Cochrane Library for articles published in English identified the most relevant literature. Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date restrictions. This update is the consensus of the Sub-Committee on Urogynaecology of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Recommendations were made according to the guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). Recurrent urinary tract infections need careful investigation and can be efficiently treated and prevented. Different prophylaxis options can be selected according to each patient's characteristics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Urinary Tract Infection and Neurogenic Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, Maxim J; Seed, Patrick; Ross, Sherry S; Borawski, Kristy M

    2015-11-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are frequent, recurrent, and lifelong for patients with neurogenic bladder and present challenges in diagnosis and treatment. Patients often present without classic symptoms of UTI but with abdominal or back pain, increased spasticity, and urinary incontinence. Failure to recognize and treat infections can quickly lead to life-threatening autonomic dysreflexia or sepsis, whereas overtreatment contributes to antibiotic resistance, thus limiting future treatment options. Multiple prevention methods are used but evidence-based practices are few. Prevention and treatment of symptomatic UTI requires a multimodal approach that focuses on bladder management as well as accurate diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Equal virulence of rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in infants hospitalized for lower respiratory tract infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, J.C.; Goossens, L.K.; Hendrix, R.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Lusthusz, A.; Thio, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinovirus (RV) are predominant viruses associated with lower respiratory tract infection in infants. We compared the symptoms of lower respiratory tract infection caused by RSV and RV in hospitalized infants. RV showed the same symptoms as RSV, so on clinical

  19. Urinary Tract Infections in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, Lona; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTIs) in older women are commonly encountered in outpatient practice. OBJECTIVE To review management of asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic UTI and review prevention of recurrent UTIs in older community-dwelling women. EVIDENCE REVIEW A search of Ovid (Medline, PsycINFO, Embase) for English-language human studies conducted among adults aged 65 years and older and published in peer-reviewed journals from 1946 to November 20, 2013. RESULTS The clinical spectrum of UTIs ranges from asymptomatic bacteriuria, to symptomatic and recurrent UTIs, to sepsis associated with UTI requiring hospitalization. Recent evidence helps differentiate asymptomatic bacteriuria from symptomatic UTI. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is transient in older women, often resolves without any treatment, and is not associated with morbidity or mortality. The diagnosis of symptomatic UTI is made when a patient has both clinical features and laboratory evidence of a urinary infection. Absent other causes, patients presenting with any 2 of the following meet the clinical diagnostic criteria for symptomatic UTI: fever, worsened urinary urgency or frequency, acute dysuria, suprapubic tenderness, or costovertebral angle pain or tenderness. A positive urine culture (≥105 CFU/mL) with no more than 2 uropathogens and pyuria confirms the diagnosis of UTI. Risk factors for recurrent symptomatic UTI include diabetes, functional disability, recent sexual intercourse, prior history of urogynecologic surgery, urinary retention, and urinary incontinence. Testing for UTI is easily performed in the clinic using dipstick tests. When there is a low pretest probability of UTI, a negative dipstick result for leukocyte esterase and nitrites excludes infection. Antibiotics are selected by identifying the uropathogen, knowing local resistance rates, and considering adverse effect profiles. Chronic suppressive antibiotics for 6 to 12 months and

  20. Is It Necessary to Specifically Define the Cause of Surgically Treated Biliary Tract Infections? A Rare Case of Raoultella planticola Cholecystitis and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat Can Ulukent

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Raoultella planticola is an aquatic and soil organism that does not notoriously cause invasive infections in humans. Infections in the literature are limited only in case reports. We present a very rare case of R. planticola cholecystitis. A 71-year-old female patient with abdominal pain was diagnosed with acute cholecystitis. Patient received intravenous antibiotic treatment, but the treatment failed and the patient underwent an open cholecystectomy. The final pathological result was gangrenous cholecystitis complicated with R. planticola. Eventually, the patient recovered with appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Patients with acute cholecystitis are usually treated without any microbiological sampling and antibiotic treatment is started empirically. To date, there have only been 5 reported biliary system related R. planticola infections in humans. We believe that Raoultella species might be a more frequent agent than usually thought, especially in resistant cholecystitis cases. Resistant strains should be considered as a possible causative organism when the patient’s condition worsened despite proper antimicrobial therapy. It should be considered safe to send microbiological samples for culture and specifically define the causative microorganisms even in the setting of a cholecystectomized patient.

  1. Urinary tract infections in patients with spinal cord lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, F; Bagi, P; Høiby, N

    2001-01-01

    Even though the mortality due to urinary tract complications has decreased dramatically during the last decades in individuals with spinal cord lesions (SCL), urinary tract infections (UTI) still cause significant morbidity in this population. Complicated UTI are caused by a much wider variety...... with SCL. There is no doubt that the greatest risk for complicated UTI in these individuals is the use of an indwelling catheter. Intermittent catheterisation during the rehabilitation phase has been shown to lower the rate of UTI, and virtually eliminate many of the complications associated...... extending treatment to at least 5 days, and in those with reinfection or relapsing UTI, at least 7 to 14 days, depending on the severity of the infection. The diagnosis of structural and/or functional risk factors is essential in order to plan an optimal treatment for UTI in individuals with SCL, which...

  2. Urinary tract infections in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phé, Véronique; Pakzad, Mahreen; Curtis, Carmel; Porter, Bernadette; Haslam, Collette; Chataway, Jeremy; Panicker, Jalesh N

    2016-06-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are commonly reported by people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) and significantly impact quality of life. To provide an overview of the problem of UTIs in PwMS and offer a practical approach for the diagnosis and management. A review of the literature through a Pubmed search up to October 2015 was performed using the following keywords: multiple sclerosis, neurogenic bladder, urinary tract infections, relapse, dipsticks, culture, recurrent and prevention. Noteworthy topics include the definition of a confirmed symptomatic UTI as a positive urine culture defined by >10(5) colony-forming units (CFU)/mL or >10(4) CFU/mL if a urethral catheter urine sample is taken, or any count of bacteria in a suprapubic bladder puncture specimen, both in addition to symptoms including fever, pain, changes in lower urinary tract symptoms or neurological status. Urinalysis is useful to exclude a UTI; however, on its own is insufficient to confirm a UTI, for which urine culture is required. Experts advise asymptomatic UTIs should not be treated except in the context of an acute relapse. From international guidelines, there is no validated strategy to prevent recurrent UTIs in PwMS. This review provides an overview of the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of UTIs in the setting of multiple sclerosis (MS). © The Author(s), 2016.

  3. [COMPLICATED URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN THE ELDERLY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćosić, I; Ćosić, V

    2016-12-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common bacterial infections involving lower (cystitis, prostatitis) or upper (pyelonephritis, renal abscess, perinephric abscess) urinary tract. Differentiation of complicated and uncomplicated UTI is usually based on the presence of structural or functional urinary tract abnormalities, which can increase the risk of treatment failure and development of serious complications. Factors that increase the risk are foreign bodies, stones, obstruction, neurogenic bladder, kidney transplantation, immunosuppression, and pregnancy. Complicated UTI includes a spectrum of conditions that increase the risk of treatment failure, as well as of serious complications such as bacteremia and sepsis, perinephric abscess, renal impairment and emphysematous pyelonephritis. To avoid the potentially devastating outcomes, appropriate diagnostic procedures, antibiotic and surgical treatment, and appropriate follow-up are required. The incidence of complicated UTI will grow in the future due to general aging of the population, increasing incidence of diabetes, and ever growing number of immunocompromised and immunosuppressed patients. It is of key importance to recognize complicated UTI on time, and treat it wisely and aggressively to reduce duration of the disease and the risk of antibiotic resistance.

  4. The immune response against Chlamydia suis genital tract infection partially protects against re-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Evelien; Devriendt, Bert; Yin, Lizi; Chiers, Koen; Cox, Eric; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2014-09-25

    The aim of the present study was to reveal the characteristic features of genital Chlamydia suis infection and re-infection in female pigs by studying the immune response, pathological changes, replication of chlamydial bacteria in the genital tract and excretion of viable bacteria. Pigs were intravaginally infected and re-infected with C. suis strain S45, the type strain of this species. We demonstrated that S45 is pathogenic for the female urogenital tract. Chlamydia replication occurred throughout the urogenital tract, causing inflammation and pathology. Furthermore, genital infection elicited both cellular and humoral immune responses. Compared to the primo-infection of pigs with C. suis, re-infection was characterized by less severe macroscopic lesions and less chlamydial elementary bodies and inclusions in the urogenital tract. This indicates the development of a certain level of protection following the initial infection. Protective immunity against re-infection coincided with higher Chlamydia-specific IgG and IgA antibody titers in sera and vaginal secretions, higher proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), higher percentages of blood B lymphocytes, monocytes and CD8⁺ T cells and upregulated production of IFN-γ and IL-10 by PBMC.

  5. Prevalence of urinary tract infection and vesicoureteral reflux in children with lower urinary tract dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Batavia, Jason P; Ahn, Jennifer J; Fast, Angela M; Combs, Andrew J; Glassberg, Kenneth I

    2013-10-01

    Lower urinary tract dysfunction is a common pediatric urological problem that is often associated with urinary tract infection. We determined the prevalence of a urinary tract infection history in children with lower urinary tract dysfunction and its association, if any, with gender, bowel dysfunction, vesicoureteral reflux and specific lower urinary tract conditions. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of children diagnosed with and treated for lower urinary tract dysfunction, noting a history of urinary tract infection with or without fever, gender, bowel dysfunction and vesicoureteral reflux in association with specific lower urinary tract conditions. Of the 257 boys and 366 girls with a mean age of 9.1 years 207 (33%) had a urinary tract infection history, including 88 with at least 1 febrile infection. A total of 64 patients underwent voiding cystourethrogram/videourodynamics, which revealed reflux in 44 (69%). In 119 of the 207 patients all infections were afebrile and 18 underwent voiding cystourethrogram/videourodynamics, which revealed reflux in 5 (28%). A urinary tract infection history was noted in 53% of girls but only 5% of boys (p infection history than patients with idiopathic detrusor overactivity disorder or primary bladder neck dysfunction (each p urinary tract dysfunction have a much higher urinary tract infection incidence than males. This association was most often noted for lower urinary tract conditions in which urinary stasis occurs, including detrusor underutilization disorder and dysfunctional voiding. Reflux was found in most girls with a history of febrile infections. Since reflux was identified in more than a quarter of girls with only afebrile infections who were evaluated for reflux, it may be reasonable to perform voiding cystourethrogram or videourodynamics in some of them to identify reflux. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Urinary Tract Infection: Pathogenesis and Outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Lisa K; Hunstad, David A

    2016-11-01

    The clinical syndromes comprising urinary tract infection (UTI) continue to exert significant impact on millions of patients worldwide, most of whom are otherwise healthy women. Antibiotic therapy for acute cystitis does not prevent recurrences, which plague up to one fourth of women after an initial UTI. Rising antimicrobial resistance among uropathogenic bacteria further complicates therapeutic decisions, necessitating new approaches based on fundamental biological investigation. In this review, we highlight contemporary advances in the field of UTI pathogenesis and how these might inform both our clinical perspective and future scientific priorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A prospective study of urinary tract infection during pelvic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialas, I.; Bessell, E.M.; Sokal, M.

    1989-01-01

    The frequency of urinary tract infection before and during pelvic radiotherapy was studied prospectively in 172 patients who were not catherised and had not had instrumentation for at least 4 weeks prior to radiotherapy. The incidence of urinary tract infection prior to radiotherapy was 17% and a further 17% of patients develped a urinary tract infection during radiotherapy. Mid-stream specimens of urine (MSU) should be examined for infection on a weekly basis during pelvic radiotherapy not only to identify this additional 17% of patients but also to detect those patients who have persistent urinary tract infection in spite of treatment with appropriate antibiotics. (author). 6 refs.; 1 fig.; 4 tabs

  8. Proteus mirabilis and Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Jessica N.; Pearson, Melanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a Gram-negative bacterium which is well-known for its ability to robustly swarm across surfaces in a striking bulls’-eye pattern. Clinically, this organism is most frequently a pathogen of the urinary tract, particularly in patients undergoing long-term catheterization. This review covers P. mirabilis with a focus on urinary tract infections (UTI), including disease models, vaccine development efforts, and clinical perspectives. Flagella-mediated motility, both swimming and swarming, is a central facet of this organism. The regulation of this complex process and its contribution to virulence is discussed, along with the type VI-secretion system-dependent intra-strain competition which occurs during swarming. P. mirabilis uses a diverse set of virulence factors to access and colonize the host urinary tract, including urease and stone formation, fimbriae and other adhesins, iron and zinc acquisition, proteases and toxins, biofilm formation, and regulation of pathogenesis. While significant advances in this field have been made, challenges remain to combatting complicated UTI and deciphering P. mirabilis pathogenesis. PMID:26542036

  9. Causes, prevention and treatment of Escherichia coli infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Dinah

    Escherichia coli is a normal inhabitant of the human gastrointestinal tract and can cause healthcare-associated infections. The organism is most frequently responsible for urinary tract infections and it is the bacterium most often implicated in the cause of diarrhoea in people travelling overseas. In recent years, a strain called Ecoli O157 has gained notoriety for causing foodborne infection, which can have severe health consequences, especially in young children. This article describes the range of different infections caused by Ecoli in healthcare settings and the community and discusses the characteristics of the different strains of the bacteria that explain variations in their pathogenicity.

  10. [Lower urinary tract infections in men. Urethritis, cystitis and prostatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanella, Marie-Céline; Schoofs, Fabian; Huttner, Benedikt; Huttner, Angela

    2017-04-12

    Recommendations for the treatment of lower non-catheter-related urinary tract infection (UTI) in men are rarely evidence-based. Their management requires the localization of the site of infection, whether it be the urethra, bladder or prostate, and includes antibiotic therapy and in most cases urological assessment. They are often associated with urinary tract procedures or anatomical or functional abnormalities. Nearly 80 % of male UTIs are caused by Enterobacteriaceae. The prevalence of broad-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing strains (ESBL) and quinolone-resistant strains is increasing. The aim of this article is to define three types of lower, non-catheter-related UTI in men - urethritis, cystitis and prostatitis - their microbiology and management in Switzerland.

  11. Diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections across age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Christine M; Lowder, Jerry L

    2018-01-02

    Urinary tract infections are the most common outpatient infections, but predicting the probability of urinary tract infections through symptoms and test results can be complex. The most diagnostic symptoms of urinary tract infections include change in frequency, dysuria, urgency, and presence or absence of vaginal discharge, but urinary tract infections may present differently in older women. Dipstick urinalysis is popular for its availability and usefulness, but results must be interpreted in context of the patient's pretest probability based on symptoms and characteristics. In patients with a high probability of urinary tract infection based on symptoms, negative dipstick urinalysis does not rule out urinary tract infection. Nitrites are likely more sensitive and specific than other dipstick components for urinary tract infection, particularly in the elderly. Positive dipstick testing is likely specific for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy, but urine culture is still the test of choice. Microscopic urinalysis is likely comparable to dipstick urinalysis as a screening test. Bacteriuria is more specific and sensitive than pyuria for detecting urinary tract infection, even in older women and during pregnancy. Pyuria is commonly found in the absence of infection, particularly in older adults with lower urinary tract symptoms such as incontinence. Positive testing may increase the probability of urinary tract infection, but initiation of treatment should take into account risk of urinary tract infection based on symptoms as well. In cases in which the probability of urinary tract infection is moderate or unclear, urine culture should be performed. Urine culture is the gold standard for detection of urinary tract infection. However, asymptomatic bacteriuria is common, particularly in older women, and should not be treated with antibiotics. Conversely, in symptomatic women, even growth as low as 10 2 colony-forming unit/mL could reflect infection. Resistance is

  12. Postpartum urinary tract infection by mode of delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundersen, Tina Djernis; Krebs, Lone; Loekkegaard, Ellen Christine Leth

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between postpartum urinary tract infection and intended mode of delivery as well as actual mode of delivery. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: All live births in Denmark between 2004 and 2010 (n=450 856). Births were classified...... was postpartum urinary tract infection (n=16 295) within 30 days post partum, defined as either a diagnosis of urinary tract infection in the National Patient Registry or redemption of urinary tract infection-specific antibiotics recorded in the Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. RESULTS: We found that 4.......6% of women with intended caesarean delivery and 3.5% of women with intended vaginal delivery were treated for postpartum urinary tract infection.Women with intended caesarean delivery had a significantly increased risk of postpartum urinary tract infection compared with women with intended vaginal delivery...

  13. [Upper respiratory tract infections and sports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffi El Amari, Emmanuelle

    2010-08-11

    Upper respiratory tract infections are frequent in athletes. Mainly of viral origin, they are treated symptomatically. Infectious mononucleosis is associated with an estimated 2% per hundred risk of splenic rupture, which occurs between day four and twenty one of the illness. Therefore return to play guidelines recommend avoiding, exercice during the first twenty one days. Physical exercise seems to influence the immune system, depending on the intensity and length of it. But the relationship between physical exercise and risk of infections remains controversial: some articles showing an increase in risk, whereas others suggesting a certain degree of protection, in athletes. The actual generally accepted working theory is the J-curve proposed by Nieman. This model remains to be formally proven.

  14. Adenovirus Respiratory Tract Infections in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampuero, Julia S.; Ocaña, Víctor; Gómez, Jorge; Gamero, María E.; Garcia, Josefina; Halsey, Eric S.; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Background Currently, there is a paucity of data regarding human adenovirus (HAdv) circulation in Andean regions of South America. To address this shortcoming, we report the clinical, phylogenetic, and epidemiologic characteristics of HAdv respiratory tract infection from a large sentinel surveillance study conducted among adults and children in Peru. Methods/Principal Findings Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from participants visiting any of 38 participating health centers, and viral pathogens were identified by immunofluorescence assay in cell culture. In addition, molecular characterization was performed on 226 randomly selected HAdv samples. Between 2000 and 2010, a total of 26,375 participants with influenza-like illness (ILI) or severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) were enrolled in the study. HAdv infection was identified in 2.5% of cases and represented 6.2% of all viral pathogens. Co-infection with a heterologous virus was found in 15.5% of HAdv cases. HAdv infection was largely confined to children under the age of 15, representing 88.6% of HAdv cases identified. No clinical characteristics were found to significantly distinguish HAdv infection from other respiratory viruses. Geographically, HAdv infections were more common in sites from the arid coastal regions than in the jungle or highland regions. Co-circulation of subgroups B and C was observed each year between 2006 and 2010, but no clear seasonal patterns of transmission were detected. Conclusions/Significance HAdv accounted for a significant fraction of those presenting with ILI and SARI in Peru and tended to affect the younger population disproportionately. Longitudinal studies will help better characterize the clinical course of patients with HAdv in Peru, as well as determine the role of co-infections in the evolution of illness. PMID:23056519

  15. Adenovirus respiratory tract infections in Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia S Ampuero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Currently, there is a paucity of data regarding human adenovirus (HAdv circulation in Andean regions of South America. To address this shortcoming, we report the clinical, phylogenetic, and epidemiologic characteristics of HAdv respiratory tract infection from a large sentinel surveillance study conducted among adults and children in Peru. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from participants visiting any of 38 participating health centers, and viral pathogens were identified by immunofluorescence assay in cell culture. In addition, molecular characterization was performed on 226 randomly selected HAdv samples. Between 2000 and 2010, a total of 26,375 participants with influenza-like illness (ILI or severe acute respiratory infection (SARI were enrolled in the study. HAdv infection was identified in 2.5% of cases and represented 6.2% of all viral pathogens. Co-infection with a heterologous virus was found in 15.5% of HAdv cases. HAdv infection was largely confined to children under the age of 15, representing 88.6% of HAdv cases identified. No clinical characteristics were found to significantly distinguish HAdv infection from other respiratory viruses. Geographically, HAdv infections were more common in sites from the arid coastal regions than in the jungle or highland regions. Co-circulation of subgroups B and C was observed each year between 2006 and 2010, but no clear seasonal patterns of transmission were detected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HAdv accounted for a significant fraction of those presenting with ILI and SARI in Peru and tended to affect the younger population disproportionately. Longitudinal studies will help better characterize the clinical course of patients with HAdv in Peru, as well as determine the role of co-infections in the evolution of illness.

  16. Adenovirus respiratory tract infections in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampuero, Julia S; Ocaña, Víctor; Gómez, Jorge; Gamero, María E; Garcia, Josefina; Halsey, Eric S; Laguna-Torres, V Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there is a paucity of data regarding human adenovirus (HAdv) circulation in Andean regions of South America. To address this shortcoming, we report the clinical, phylogenetic, and epidemiologic characteristics of HAdv respiratory tract infection from a large sentinel surveillance study conducted among adults and children in Peru. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from participants visiting any of 38 participating health centers, and viral pathogens were identified by immunofluorescence assay in cell culture. In addition, molecular characterization was performed on 226 randomly selected HAdv samples. Between 2000 and 2010, a total of 26,375 participants with influenza-like illness (ILI) or severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) were enrolled in the study. HAdv infection was identified in 2.5% of cases and represented 6.2% of all viral pathogens. Co-infection with a heterologous virus was found in 15.5% of HAdv cases. HAdv infection was largely confined to children under the age of 15, representing 88.6% of HAdv cases identified. No clinical characteristics were found to significantly distinguish HAdv infection from other respiratory viruses. Geographically, HAdv infections were more common in sites from the arid coastal regions than in the jungle or highland regions. Co-circulation of subgroups B and C was observed each year between 2006 and 2010, but no clear seasonal patterns of transmission were detected. HAdv accounted for a significant fraction of those presenting with ILI and SARI in Peru and tended to affect the younger population disproportionately. Longitudinal studies will help better characterize the clinical course of patients with HAdv in Peru, as well as determine the role of co-infections in the evolution of illness.

  17. Bacterial Uropathogens in Urinary Tract Infection and Antibiotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections encountered by clinicians in developing countries. Area-specific monitoring studies aimed to gain knowledge about the type of pathogens responsible for urinary tract infections and their resistance patterns may help the clinician to ...

  18. Bacterial interference for prevention of urinary tract infection: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darouiche, R O; Hull, R A

    2000-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in this population. The bladders of patients with SCI, particularly those with indwelling bladder catheters, can become colonized by a variety of organisms, including those that may, and others that may not, cause symptoms of infection. The latter group of bacteria, so-called benign colonizers, are often left untreated because they may provide some protection against symptomatic infection with more pathogenic bacteria. In recent years, deliberate urogenital tract colonization with benign bacterial strains was studied with the objective of offering some protection against invasion by uropathogenic strains. When well-characterized strains of Lactobacillus sp. were used to colonize the vagina of women prone to frequent UTI, a moderate reduction in the rate of recurrent UTI was observed. In other studies, a non-pathogenic prototype of Escherichia coli (strain 83,972) causing asymptomatic bacteriuria was used for deliberate bladder colonization. These preliminary observations encourage the examination of the safety and preventive efficacy of this approach in human subjects.

  19. Global prevalence of antibiotic resistance in paediatric urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli and association with routine use of antibiotics in primary care: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, Ashley; Hay, Alastair D; Lane, Isabel F; Thornton, Hannah V; Wootton, Mandy; Costelloe, Céire

    2016-03-15

    To systematically review studies investigating the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli in children and, when appropriate, to meta-analyse the relation between previous antibiotics prescribed in primary care and resistance. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Pooled percentage prevalence of resistance to the most commonly used antibiotics in children in primary care, stratified by the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) status of the study country. Random effects meta-analysis was used to quantify the association between previous exposure to antibiotics in primary care and resistance. Observational and experimental studies identified through Medline, Embase, Cochrane, and ISI Web of Knowledge databases, searched for articles published up to October 2015. Studies were eligible if they investigated and reported resistance in community acquired urinary tract infection in children and young people aged 0-17. Electronic searches with MeSH terms and text words identified 3115 papers. Two independent reviewers assessed study quality and performed data extraction. 58 observational studies investigated 77,783 E coli isolates in urine. In studies from OECD countries, the pooled prevalence of resistance was 53.4% (95% confidence interval 46.0% to 60.8%) for ampicillin, 23.6% (13.9% to 32.3%) for trimethoprim, 8.2% (7.9% to 9.6%) for co-amoxiclav, and 2.1% (0.8 to 4.4%) for ciprofloxacin; nitrofurantoin was the lowest at 1.3% (0.8% to 1.7%). Resistance in studies in countries outside the OECD was significantly higher: 79.8% (73.0% to 87.7%) for ampicillin, 60.3% (40.9% to 79.0%) for co-amoxiclav, 26.8% (11.1% to 43.0%) for ciprofloxacin, and 17.0% (9.8% to 24.2%) for nitrofurantoin. There was evidence that bacterial isolates from the urinary tract from individual children who had received previous prescriptions for antibiotics in primary care were more likely to be resistant to antibiotics, and

  20. Role of scintigraphy in urinary tract infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, J.J.

    1988-10-01

    There is controversy regarding the role of radiological imaging for urinary tract infection (UTI). The gold standard has been the intravenous pyelogram (IVP). Yet, the IVP has a very limited value with only about 25% of children with pyelonephritis demonstrating abnormalities. Ultrasound (US) has recently been advocated as a replacement for the poorly sensitive and poorly specific IVP. However, comparative studies between US and IVP indicate only an equivalent sensitivity and specificity. Cortical scintigraphy with Technetium-99m glucoheptonate (99mTc GH) or 99mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc DMSA) has also been advocated as a means of differentiating parenchymal (pyelonephritis) from nonparenchymal (lower UTI) involvement in UTI. The clinical presentation may be misleading especially in the infant and child in whom an elevated temperature, flank pain, shaking chills, or an elevated sedimentation rate are often lacking. The clinician attempts to localize the site of infection for it has a direct bearing upon the therapy. A collecting system infection can often be eradicated with a single oral dose of an appropriate antibiotic, whereas renal parenchymal involvement requires IV therapy for an extended interval. Cortical scintigraphy can localize the site of infection with a high degree of accuracy. Recent studies report a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 81% of pyelonephritis. This is in contrast to the IVP with a sensitivity of only 24% and US with a sensitivity of only 42%. The scintigraphic appearance of parenchymal infection of the kidney is a spectrum of minimal to gross defects reflecting the degree of histologic involvement that spans from a mild infection to frank abscess. Cortical scintigraphy can be used to monitor the evolution of scarring following infection. Cortical scintigraphy with 99mTc DMSA or 99mTc GH is the method of choice for the initial evaluation of UTI. 37 references.

  1. Role of scintigraphy in urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    There is controversy regarding the role of radiological imaging for urinary tract infection (UTI). The gold standard has been the intravenous pyelogram (IVP). Yet, the IVP has a very limited value with only about 25% of children with pyelonephritis demonstrating abnormalities. Ultrasound (US) has recently been advocated as a replacement for the poorly sensitive and poorly specific IVP. However, comparative studies between US and IVP indicate only an equivalent sensitivity and specificity. Cortical scintigraphy with Technetium-99m glucoheptonate (99mTc GH) or 99mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc DMSA) has also been advocated as a means of differentiating parenchymal (pyelonephritis) from nonparenchymal (lower UTI) involvement in UTI. The clinical presentation may be misleading especially in the infant and child in whom an elevated temperature, flank pain, shaking chills, or an elevated sedimentation rate are often lacking. The clinician attempts to localize the site of infection for it has a direct bearing upon the therapy. A collecting system infection can often be eradicated with a single oral dose of an appropriate antibiotic, whereas renal parenchymal involvement requires IV therapy for an extended interval. Cortical scintigraphy can localize the site of infection with a high degree of accuracy. Recent studies report a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 81% of pyelonephritis. This is in contrast to the IVP with a sensitivity of only 24% and US with a sensitivity of only 42%. The scintigraphic appearance of parenchymal infection of the kidney is a spectrum of minimal to gross defects reflecting the degree of histologic involvement that spans from a mild infection to frank abscess. Cortical scintigraphy can be used to monitor the evolution of scarring following infection. Cortical scintigraphy with 99mTc DMSA or 99mTc GH is the method of choice for the initial evaluation of UTI. 37 references

  2. Distribution and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Gram Negative Bacteria Causing Urinary Tract Infection (UTI and Detection New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1 Producing Isolates in Ahwaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Afrugh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI is the commonest bacterial infectious disease in worldwide (especially in developing countries with a high rate of morbidity and financial cost. The management of UTI infections has been jeopardized by increase in immergence of antimicrobial drug resistance. Knowledge of the local bacterial etiology and susceptibility patterns is required to trace any change that might have occurred in time so that updated recommendation for optimal empirical therapy of UTI can be made. The aim of this investigation was distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of gram negative bacteria causing urinary tract infection (UTI and detection NDM-1 (new-delhi-metallo-beta-lactamase-1 producing isolates in Ahwaz. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done during a period of one year from April 2013 to March 2014. Clean catch midstream urine samples were collected from suspected patients to UTI. The isolates were identified based on morphological and biochemical testes. Culture was performed on routine microbiological media. Susceptibility testing was performed according CLSI (2013 guidelines. Detection of carbapenemase producing isolates was performed by modified hodge test (MHT. Metallo-beta-lactamase isolates were detected by imipenem-EDTA combined disc test (CDT. Results: In this study 708 gram negative organisms were isolated from urine samples. E.coli was the most common isolated bacteria (67% followed by Klebsiella spp. (26.5% and Enterobacter spp. (2.5%. In antibiotic susceptibility testing more than 90% of isolates were sensitive to tetracycline, ceftazidime, meropenem, amikacin, cefotaxime, imipenem, and cefepime. Isolates were more resistant to cephalothin (32%, co-trimoxazol (30.5%, and nalidixic acid (25%. Conclusion: In our results isolated organisms from outpatients showed very high sensitivity to common antibiotics. Continuous and regular monitoring of susceptibility pattern of

  3. Urinary tract infections in the geriatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpay, Yesim; Aykin, Nevil; Korkmaz, Pinar; Gulduren, Hakki Mustafa; Caglan, Figen Cevik

    2018-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the second most common infection in geriatric population. This study investigated clinical findings, diagnostic approaches, complicating factors, prognosis, causative microorganisms and antimicrobial susceptibility in geriatric patients diagnosed with UTI. A total of 140 hospitalised patients with UTIs were evaluated within three years between January 2011-January 2015 at the Eskisehir Yunus Emre State Hospital. UTI diagnosed when there were systemic and urinary signs and symptoms and a positive dipstick test and urine culture result, leukocyte and CRP like serum parameters. Among the studied patients, 41.4% had urological diseases, 20.7% had diabetes mellitus and 19.2% had neurological diseases. The most common symptoms and signs were fever, dysuria nausea/vomiting, general condition impairment, pyuria, haematuria. The laboratory values for CRP, ESR and leukocyte count were 84 mg/dL, 56 mm/s and 11.9 (10^3μL), with mean values being determined. Among patients having a urinary catheter (17.1%), 27.9% had a history of UTI, while 29.3% had been hospitalised. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the most commonly identified microorganisms. The mean duration for hospitalisation was 7.6 days, while a 5% mortality rate was observed over the course of the disease. Because of the potential for serious complications and mortality, elderly patients with urinary tract infection, should receive immediate empirical treatment based on anamnesis, clinical evaluation and urinalysis and should be re-examined using results from cultures and antibiograms upon follow-up.

  4. Urinary Tract Infections in Children : EAU/ESPU Guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, Raimund; Dogan, Hasan S.; Hoebeke, Piet; Kocvara, Radim; Nijman, Rien J. M.; Radmayr, Christian; Tekgul, Serdar

    Context: In 30% of children with urinary tract anomalies, urinary tract infection (UTI) can be the first sign. Failure to identify patients at risk can result in damage to the upper urinary tract. Objective: To provide recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment, and imaging of children presenting

  5. Onychomycosis: A Rare Presentation of Fungal Urinary Tract Infection (UTI in Extremely Preterm Neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Kalane

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Onychomycosis refers to nail infections caused by any fungus, including yeasts and nondermatophyte molds. Fungal infection has emerged as an important cause of neonatal infections with significant morbidity and mortality, especially in extremely low and very low birth weight infants. We report a 24-days-old boy who presented with onychomycosis on left ring finger nail associated with fungal urine tract infection. Nail finding helped us in detecting fungal urinary tract infection (UTI. Further studies are needed to evaluate the etiologies and treatment of neonatal onychomycosis, and dermatologists should pay attention to this rare event. Hence we are reporting this rare case.

  6. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and respiratory tract infections in pre-school children – a cross-sectional study in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Bielska

    2015-09-01

    The majority of the 3-year-old children who had lower respiratory tract infections required antibiotics and hospitalization. Living in a home where no tobacco rules were established may cause an increase of respiratory tract infections.

  7. Urinary tract infection in the neurogenic bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Humberto R.

    2016-01-01

    There is a high incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract function. This results in significant morbidity and health care utilization. Multiple well-established risk factors unique to a neurogenic bladder (NB) exist while others require ongoing investigation. It is important for care providers to have a good understanding of the different structural, physiological, immunological and catheter-related risk factors so that they may be modified when possible. Diagnosis remains complicated. Appropriate specimen collection is of paramount importance and a UTI cannot be diagnosed based on urinalysis or clinical presentation alone. A culture result with a bacterial concentration of ≥103 CFU/mL in combination with symptoms represents an acceptable definition for UTI diagnosis in NB patients. Cystoscopy, ultrasound and urodynamics should be utilized for the evaluation of recurrent infections in NB patients. An acute, symptomatic UTI should be treated with antibiotics for 5–14 days depending on the severity of the presentation. Antibiotic selection should be based on local and patient-based resistance patterns and the spectrum should be as narrow as possible if there are no concerns regarding urosepsis. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) should not be treated because of rising resistance patterns and lack of clinical efficacy. The most important preventative measures include closed catheter drainage in patients with an indwelling catheter and the use of clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) over other methods of bladder management if possible. The use of hydrophilic or impregnated catheters is not recommended. Intravesical Botox, bacterial interference and sacral neuromodulation show significant promise for the prevention of UTIs in higher risk NB patients and future, multi-center, randomized controlled trials are required. PMID:26904414

  8. Urinary tract infection in the neurogenic bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Humberto R; Hickling, Duane R

    2016-02-01

    There is a high incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract function. This results in significant morbidity and health care utilization. Multiple well-established risk factors unique to a neurogenic bladder (NB) exist while others require ongoing investigation. It is important for care providers to have a good understanding of the different structural, physiological, immunological and catheter-related risk factors so that they may be modified when possible. Diagnosis remains complicated. Appropriate specimen collection is of paramount importance and a UTI cannot be diagnosed based on urinalysis or clinical presentation alone. A culture result with a bacterial concentration of ≥10(3) CFU/mL in combination with symptoms represents an acceptable definition for UTI diagnosis in NB patients. Cystoscopy, ultrasound and urodynamics should be utilized for the evaluation of recurrent infections in NB patients. An acute, symptomatic UTI should be treated with antibiotics for 5-14 days depending on the severity of the presentation. Antibiotic selection should be based on local and patient-based resistance patterns and the spectrum should be as narrow as possible if there are no concerns regarding urosepsis. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) should not be treated because of rising resistance patterns and lack of clinical efficacy. The most important preventative measures include closed catheter drainage in patients with an indwelling catheter and the use of clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) over other methods of bladder management if possible. The use of hydrophilic or impregnated catheters is not recommended. Intravesical Botox, bacterial interference and sacral neuromodulation show significant promise for the prevention of UTIs in higher risk NB patients and future, multi-center, randomized controlled trials are required.

  9. Bacteraemia, urinary tract infection and malaria in hospitalised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . However, it remains unclear whether such infections are attributable to the malaria, other risk factors, or are coincidental. Objective: To determine the prevalence of bacteraemia and urinary tract infections (UTI) in febrile hospitalised children ...

  10. Renal scintigraphy in children with first febrile urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte Perez, Maria Caridad; Guillen Dosal, Ana; Martinez Silva, Magaly; Hernandez Robledo, Ernesto

    2012-01-01

    The urinary tract infection is one of the most frequent bacterial infections in the childhood. Two hundred eleven children diagnosed as first febrile urinary tract infection patients were studied and performed Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in the acute phase of infection. The results were correlated to the duration and intensity of the fever before the diagnosis, to the acute phase reactants (hemogram, erythrosedimentation and reactive-C protein) and to the results of imaging studies (renal ultrasound and mictional uretrocystography)

  11. Urinary tract infections in women with urogynaecological symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakeman, Marielle M. E.; Roovers, Jan-Paul W. R.

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are common in the field of urogynaecology. Women with persistent urinary symptoms seem more likely to have bacteriuria despite negative cultures. In this review, we will give an overview of the recent insights on the relationship between urinary tract infection and

  12. Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections due to Asymptomatic Colonic Diverticulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Falidas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colovesical fistula is a common complication of diverticulitis. Pneumaturia, fecaluria, urinary tract infections, abdominal pain, and dysuria are commonly reported. The authors report a case of colovesical fistula due to asymptomatic diverticulitis, and they emphasize the importance of deeply investigate recurrent urinary tract infection without any bowel symptoms. They also briefly review the literature.

  13. Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections due to Asymptomatic Colonic Diverticulitis

    OpenAIRE

    Falidas, Evangelos; Anyfantakis, Georgios; Boutzouvis, Stavros; Kyriakopoulos, Michail; Mathioulakis, Stavros; Vlachos, Konstantinos; Villias, Constantinos

    2012-01-01

    Colovesical fistula is a common complication of diverticulitis. Pneumaturia, fecaluria, urinary tract infections, abdominal pain, and dysuria are commonly reported. The authors report a case of colovesical fistula due to asymptomatic diverticulitis, and they emphasize the importance of deeply investigate recurrent urinary tract infection without any bowel symptoms. They also briefly review the literature.

  14. Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) in sexually active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aresearch to investigate the prevalence of urinary tract infections in sexually active women (18 – 41 years) from selected health care centres in Abakaliki was carried out. Attempt was made to fined out the number of treated cases, aetiologic agents and age range with highest incdence o urinary tract infections over the study ...

  15. Urinary Tract Infection In Young Healthy Women Following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections in outpatient clinical settings globally. Young healthy women are at highest risk of community-acquired UTI. While uncomplicated UTI is not life-threatening, it is associated with high morbidity and treatment costs. The pathogenesis of urinary tract ...

  16. Childhood urinary tract infection in Benin City: pathogens and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-microbial sensitivity pattern of bacterial isolates implicated in urinary tract infection (UTI) amongst children was studied using the disc diffusion method. The prospective study was carried out in 65 children managed for urinary tract infection in the paediatric facilities of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin ...

  17. Urinary Tract Infections in Children with Primary Nephrotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary Tract Infections in Children with Primary Nephrotic Syndrome and Acute Glomerulonephritis. ... West African Journal of Medicine ... Abstract. BACKGROUND: The occurrence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children with Nephrotic syndrome (NS) has been widely reported by various workers, but not much has been ...

  18. An outbreak of severe respiratory tract infection caused by human metapneumovirus in a residential care facility for elderly in Utrecht, the Netherlands, January to March 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.T. Wierik (M J Te); D.T. Nguyen (Tien); M.F.C. Beersma (Thijs); S.F. Thijsen (Steven); K.A. Heemstra

    2012-01-01

    textabstractRecognition of infections with human metapneumovirus (HMPV) among institutionalised elderly is rising. When HMPV was found to be the causative agent of an outbreak of pneumonia in a residential care facility for elderly in the Netherlands, an elaborate outbreak investigation was set up,

  19. Urinary Tract Infection and Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Penfield, Nicolas W.; Trautner, Barbara W.; Jump, Robin

    2018-01-01

    Synopsis Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a significant cause of morbidity among older adults; however, antibiotic prescriptions for clinically suspected UTIs are often inappropriate. Healthcare providers frequently struggle to differentiate UTI from asymptomatic bacteriuria, particularly in patients presenting with nonspecific symptoms. Patients with baseline cognitive impairments that limit history-taking can be particularly challenging. Here, we review the epidemiology and pathogenesis of UTI in older adults. We also discuss an approach to the diagnosis and treatment of UTIs, focusing on recognizing patients who would likely benefit from antibiotic treatment and on identifying patients for whom empiric antibiotic therapy should not be given. PMID:29079155

  20. Enterococcal urinary tract infections in a university hospital: clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Barros

    Full Text Available Although urinary tract infections (UTI represent the most common infection caused by enterococci, some aspects remain to be fully clarified. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics present in UTI caused by Enterococcus spp. in patients followed up at the Prof. Edgard Santos Teaching Hospital of the Federal University of Bahia. All patients consecutively examined between 1997 and 2005, who received a diagnosis of UTI caused by Enterococcus spp. were included in the study. UTI was defined as the presence of 10(5 colony-forming units per mL of urine. Standard microbiological techniques were used. During the study period, 6.2% of the urine cultures were positive for Enterococcus spp. The mean age of the patients was 48.9 years and 57% were male. At initial evaluation, 13% of the patients had complaints suggestive of UTI. Nineteen patients had a history consistent with obstructive uropathy and 26 with neurogenic bladder. At final evaluation, UTI was the diagnosis in 48 patients. In 36 patients (29%, the primary diagnosis was related to urogenital diseases, consisting of obstructive uropathy in 23 of these cases, while in 32 patients (25.8% primary diagnosis was related to neurologic diseases, frequently neurogenic bladder. UTI caused by Enterococcus spp. is not infrequent, is usually associated with few or no symptoms and occurs in sick patients who have anatomical or functional obstructive uropathy associated or not with urinary tract catheterization or instrumentation. The diagnosis of enterococcal UTI may indicate a urinary tract abnormality yet to be diagnosed.

  1. Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of organisms causing urinary tract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of a larger project on childhood urinary tract infection, antimicrobial sensitivity tests were carried out on the bacterial isolates from the urine of febrile children seen at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Methodology: Midstream urine specimens were collected from 171 sickle cell anaemia children and ...

  2. Urogenital Tract Infection in Asymptomatic Male Patients with Infertility in University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State

    OpenAIRE

    Ibadin, K. O.; Osemwenkha, A. P.; Ibeh, I. N.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Urogenital tract infection (UTI) contributes to the commonest single defined cause of infertility worldwide. To evaluate the role of urogenital tract infection in male with infertility and its association with sperm quality. Methodology and Results: Three hundred and twenty three (323) samples from infertile male subject were screened microbiologically for microorganisms associated with urogenital tract infection with seventy-two (72) age-matched male as controls using microbiological s...

  3. Drug and Vaccine Development for the Treatment and Prevention of Urinary Tract Infections

    OpenAIRE

    O’Brien, Valerie P.; Hannan, Thomas J.; Nielsen, Hailyn V.; Hultgren, Scott J.

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most common bacterial infections in humans, affecting millions of people every year. UTI cause significant morbidity in women throughout their lifespan, in infant boys, in older men, in individuals with underlying urinary tract abnormalities, and in those that require long-term urethral catheterization, such as patients with spinal cord injuries or incapacitated individuals living in nursing homes. Serious sequelae include frequent recurrences, pye...

  4. Management of acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooton, T M; Stam, W E

    1991-03-01

    Acute uncomplicated UTI is one of the most common problems for which young women seek medical attention, and it accounts for considerable morbidity and health care costs. Acute cystitis is a superficial infection of the bladder mucosa, whereas pyelonephritis involves tissue invasion of the upper urinary tract. Localization tests suggest that as many as one third of episodes of acute cystitis are associated with silent upper tract involvement. Acute cystitis or pyelonephritis in the adult patient should be considered uncomplicated if the patient is not pregnant or elderly, if there has been no recent instrumentation or antimicrobial treatment, and if there are no known functional or anatomic abnormalities of the genitourinary tract. Most of these infections are caused by E. coli, which are susceptible to many oral antimicrobials. Because of the superficial nature of cystitis, single-dose and 3-day regimens have gained wide acceptance as the preferred methods of treatment. Review of the published data suggests that a 3-day regimen is more effective than a single-dose regimen for all antimicrobials tested. Regimens with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole appear to be more effective than those with beta-lactams, regardless of the duration. Acute pyelonephritis does not necessarily imply a complicated infection. Upper tract infection with highly virulent uropathogens in an otherwise healthy woman may be considered an uncomplicated infection. The optimal treatment duration for acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis has not been established, and 14-day regimens are often used. We prefer to use antimicrobials that attain high renal tissue levels, such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or quinolones, for pyelonephritis. Women with frequently recurring infections can be successfully managed by continuous prophylaxis, either daily or thrice-weekly, by postcoital prophylaxis, or, in compliant patients, by early self-administration of single-dose or 3-day therapy as soon as typical

  5. Anatomy and Physiology of the Urinary Tract: Relation to Host Defense and Microbial Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickling, Duane R; Sun, Tung-Tien; Wu, Xue-Ru

    2015-08-01

    The urinary tract exits to a body surface area that is densely populated by a wide range of microbes. Yet, under most normal circumstances, it is typically considered sterile, i.e., devoid of microbes, a stark contrast to the gastrointestinal and upper respiratory tracts where many commensal and pathogenic microbes call home. Not surprisingly, infection of the urinary tract over a healthy person's lifetime is relatively infrequent, occurring once or twice or not at all for most people. For those who do experience an initial infection, the great majority (70% to 80%) thankfully do not go on to suffer from multiple episodes. This is a far cry from the upper respiratory tract infections, which can afflict an otherwise healthy individual countless times. The fact that urinary tract infections are hard to elicit in experimental animals except with inoculum 3-5 orders of magnitude greater than the colony counts that define an acute urinary infection in humans (105 cfu/ml), also speaks to the robustness of the urinary tract defense. How can the urinary tract be so effective in fending off harmful microbes despite its orifice in a close vicinity to that of the microbe-laden gastrointestinal tract? While a complete picture is still evolving, the general consensus is that the anatomical and physiological integrity of the urinary tract is of paramount importance in maintaining a healthy urinary tract. When this integrity is breached, however, the urinary tract can be at a heightened risk or even recurrent episodes of microbial infections. In fact, recurrent urinary tract infections are a significant cause of morbidity and time lost from work and a major challenge to manage clinically. Additionally, infections of the upper urinary tract often require hospitalization and prolonged antibiotic therapy. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the basic anatomy and physiology of the urinary tract with an emphasis on their specific roles in host defense. We also highlight the

  6. Influenza A (H10N7 Virus Causes Respiratory Tract Disease in Harbor Seals and Ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith M A van den Brand

    Full Text Available Avian influenza viruses sporadically cross the species barrier to mammals, including humans, in which they may cause epidemic disease. Recently such an epidemic occurred due to the emergence of avian influenza virus of the subtype H10N7 (Seal/H10N7 in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina. This epidemic caused high mortality in seals along the north-west coast of Europe and represented a potential risk for human health. To characterize the spectrum of lesions and to identify the target cells and viral distribution, findings in 16 harbor seals spontaneously infected with Seal/H10N7 are described. The seals had respiratory tract inflammation extending from the nasal cavity to bronchi associated with intralesional virus antigen in respiratory epithelial cells. Virus infection was restricted to the respiratory tract. The fatal outcome of the viral infection in seals was most likely caused by secondary bacterial infections. To investigate the pathogenic potential of H10N7 infection for humans, we inoculated the seal virus intratracheally into six ferrets and performed pathological and virological analyses at 3 and 7 days post inoculation. These experimentally inoculated ferrets displayed mild clinical signs, virus excretion from the pharynx and respiratory tract inflammation extending from bronchi to alveoli that was associated with virus antigen expression exclusively in the respiratory epithelium. Virus was isolated only from the respiratory tract. In conclusion, Seal/H10N7 infection in naturally infected harbor seals and experimentally infected ferrets shows that respiratory epithelial cells are the permissive cells for viral replication. Fatal outcome in seals was caused by secondary bacterial pneumonia similar to that in fatal human cases during influenza pandemics. Productive infection of ferrets indicates that seal/H10N7 may possess a zoonotic potential. This outbreak of LPAI from wild birds to seals demonstrates the risk of such occasions for mammals

  7. Colistin- and Carbapenem-Resistant Escherichia coli Harboring mcr-1 and blaNDM-5, Causing a Complicated Urinary Tract Infection in a Patient from the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. Mediavilla

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Colistin is increasingly used as an antibiotic of last resort for the treatment of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative infections. The plasmid-borne colistin resistance gene mcr-1 was initially identified in animal and clinical samples from China and subsequently reported worldwide, including in the United States. Of particular concern is the spread of mcr-1 into carbapenem-resistant bacteria, thereby creating strains that approach pan-resistance. While several reports of mcr-1 have involved carbapenem-resistant strains, no such isolates have been described in the United States. Here, we report the isolation and identification of an Escherichia coli strain harboring both mcr-1 and carbapenemase gene blaNDM-5 from a urine sample in a patient without recent travel outside the United States. The isolate exhibited resistance to both colistin and carbapenems, but was susceptible to amikacin, aztreonam, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, tigecycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The mcr-1- and blaNDM-5-harboring plasmids were completely sequenced and shown to be highly similar to plasmids previously reported from China. The strain in this report was first isolated in August 2014, highlighting an earlier presence of mcr-1 within the United States than previously recognized.

  8. Lower blood glucose and variability are associated with earlier recovery from renal injury caused by episodic urinary tract infection in advanced type 2 diabetic chronic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Fang Chiu

    Full Text Available In our previous study, type 2 diabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD patients with glomerular filtration rates of 9 days, Group B groups. The differences in the continuous and categorical variables of the two groups were assessed separately. The mean glucose levels and their variability (using the standard deviation and the coefficient of standard deviation were compared at the fasting, midday pre-meal, evening pre-meal, and evening post-meal time points during hospitalization. We have organized the manuscript in a manner compliant with the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology statement.Acute kidney injury occurred within the two groups (p = 0.007 and p = 0.001, respectively. The early-morning blood glucose levels (149.7±44.0 mg/dL and average blood glucose levels (185.6±52.0 mg/dL were better in Group A (p = 0.01, p = 0.02. Group A patients also had lower glucose variability than Group B at the different time points (p<0.05. Group A also had earlier renal recovery. More relevant pathogens were identified from blood in Group B (p = 0.038.Early-morning fasting and mean blood glucose levels and their variability can be good indicators of severe infection and predictors of renal outcome in type 2 diabetic patients with CKD and UTI.

  9. The significance of ultrasonography in urinary tract infection in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Dae Hyun; Lee, Kwang Sul; Jeon, Woo Ki; Kim, Ho Kyun; Lee, Ghi Jai; Kim, Jeong Sook; Jeon, Jong Dong; Han, Chang Yul; Song, Moon Kab

    1990-01-01

    Urinary tract infection(UTI) is one of the major bacterial disease of children that causes morbidity and inconvenience to many patients were related to recurrent vesicoureteral reflux. Radiological examinations of the 72 patients of urinary tract infection(UTI) who were visited to Seoul Paik Hospital from Jan 1st 1986 to Jul 30th 1989, were analysed in this study. US was used as an initial study in all patients who showed acute stage of UTI and followed by IVP, VCUG, 99m Tc-DMSA scan for veslcoureteral reflex or renal scarring. If US showed obstructing lesion, no further study was performed. The resulted were as follows: 1. US is valuable as a screening procedure during the first UTI in congenital abnormalities and in particular obstructive lesions that require surgery. 2. A normal US in a child older than 5 or 6 years is meaningful as an investigation in the group of the first documented UTI uncomplicated. 3. Vesicoureteral reflex, a major factor leading to parenchymal damage in young children can not be detected reliably by US. If the US is suggestive of vesicoureteral reflex, this should be confirmed by VCUG and 99m Tc-DMSA scan for renal scarring. If the US is normal or equivocal in recurrent infection and unexplained persistent clinical findings, this should be followed by VCUG and 9 9mTc-DMSA scan

  10. Etiology of urinary tract infection in scholar children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barroso Jr. Ubirajara

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To prospectively assess the prevalence of vesicourethral dysfunction in children over 3 years old, comparing it with the occurrence rate for other potential factors that cause urinary infection in this age range. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 36 girls and 9 boys were assessed, with mean age of 6.4 years, ranging from 3 to 13.9 years. These children were prospectively assessed regarding the presence of symptoms of lower urinary tract dysfunction. These data were compared with the retrospective assessment of other potential risk factors for urinary infection. Ultrasonography was performed in 28 children and voiding cystourethrogram was performed in 26 patients. RESULTS: Vesicourethral dysfunction was diagnosed in 39 (87% of the 45 children with urinary infection. Among these 39 patients, all had voiding urgency, 30 (77% had urinary incontinence, 12 (31% pollakiuria and 3 (8% presented infrequent voiding. Vaginal discharge was evidenced in 8 (22% girls and phimosis in 2 (22% boys. Obstipation was diagnosed in 10 (22% cases. Significant post-voiding residue was detected in 4 (13% of the 28 cases assessed. Vesicoureteral reflux was evidenced in 5 (19% of the 26 patients who underwent voiding cystourethrogram. In only 2 (4% cases there was not an apparent cause for the infection. CONCLUSION: Vesicourethral dysfunction is a major cause of urinary infection in children with ages above 3 years old. In cases where voiding dysfunction in not present, other predisposing factors must be assessed. However, only 4% of the patients did not present an apparent urologic cause for the infection.

  11. Urinary NGAL deficiency in recurrent urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Catherine S; Johnson, Kathryn; Patel, Viral; Wax, Rebecca; Rodig, Nancy; Barasch, Jonathan; Bachur, Richard; Lee, Richard S

    2017-06-01

    Children with recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTI) often show no identifiable cause of their infections. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is known to be upregulated within the uroepithelium and kidney of patients with UTI and exhibits a localized bacteriostatic effect through iron chelation. We hypothesize that some patients with rUTI without an identifiable cause of their recurrent infections have locally deficient NGAL production. We therefore explored whether a lack of NGAL production may be a factor in the pathogenesis of rUTI. Patients seen in the urology clinic for rUTI who were tract, or other reasons that predispose to UTI, such as neurogenic bladder, the need for intermittent catheterization, or unrepaired posterior urethral valves. Control patients were healthy children enrolled from the emergency department with no history of UTI or renal dysfunction, normal urinalysis at the time of enrollment, and presenting no diagnosis associated with increased NGAL levels, such as acute kidney injury or infection. NGAL was measured by immunoblot. Fifteen cases and controls were enrolled. Median urinary NGAL levels were significantly decreased in rUTI patients compared with controls [15 (14-29) ng/ml vs 30 (27-61) ng/ml; p = 0.002)] Although comparatively diminished, measurable NGAL levels were present in all patients with rUTI. Urinary NGAL is significantly decreased in patients with compared with patients without rUTI. These data suggest that some patients with rUTI may be predisposed to UTI because of a relative local deficiency in urinary NGAL production.

  12. Gram-Positive Uropathogens, Polymicrobial Urinary Tract Infection, and the Emerging Microbiota of the Urinary Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Kimberly A; Lewis, Amanda L

    2016-04-01

    Gram-positive bacteria are a common cause of urinary-tract infection (UTI), particularly among individuals who are elderly, pregnant, or who have other risk factors for UTI. Here we review the epidemiology, virulence mechanisms, and host response to the most frequently isolated Gram-positive uropathogens: Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus agalactiae. We also review several emerging, rare, misclassified, and otherwise underreported Gram-positive pathogens of the urinary tract including Aerococcus, Corynebacterium, Actinobaculum, and Gardnerella. The literature strongly suggests that urologic diseases involving Gram-positive bacteria may be easily overlooked due to limited culture-based assays typically utilized for urine in hospital microbiology laboratories. Some UTIs are polymicrobial in nature, often involving one or more Gram-positive bacteria. We herein review the risk factors and recent evidence for mechanisms of bacterial synergy in experimental models of polymicrobial UTI. Recent experimental data has demonstrated that, despite being cleared quickly from the bladder, some Gram-positive bacteria can impact pathogenic outcomes of co-infecting organisms. When taken together, the available evidence argues that Gram-positive bacteria are important uropathogens in their own right, but that some can be easily overlooked because they are missed by routine diagnostic methods. Finally, a growing body of evidence demonstrates that a surprising variety of fastidious Gram-positive bacteria may either reside in or be regularly exposed to the urinary tract and further suggests that their presence is widespread among women, as well as men. Experimental studies in this area are needed; however, there is a growing appreciation that the composition of bacteria found in the bladder could be a potentially important determinant in urologic disease, including susceptibility to UTI.

  13. Gram-Positive Uropathogens, Polymicrobial Urinary Tract Infection, and the Emerging Microbiota of the Urinary Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Kimberly A.; Lewis, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    Gram-positive bacteria are a common cause of urinary tract infection (UTI), particularly among individuals who are elderly, pregnant, or who have other risk factors for UTI. Here we review the epidemiology, virulence mechanisms, and host response to the most frequently isolated Gram-positive uropathogens: Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus agalactiae. We also review several emerging, rare, misclassified, and otherwise underreported Gram-positive pathogens of the urinary tract including Aerococcus, Corynebacterium, Actinobaculum, and Gardnerella. The literature strongly suggests that urologic diseases involving Gram-positive bacteria may be easily overlooked due to limited culture-based assays typically utilized for urine in hospital microbiology laboratories. Some UTIs are polymicrobial in nature, often involving one or more Gram-positive bacteria. We herein review the risk factors and recent evidence for mechanisms of bacterial synergy in experimental models of polymicrobial UTI. Recent experimental data has demonstrated that, despite being cleared quickly from the bladder, some Gram-positive bacteria can impact pathogenic outcomes of co-infecting organisms. When taken together, the available evidence argues that Gram-positive bacteria are important uropathogens in their own right, but that some can be easily overlooked because they are missed by routine diagnostic methods. Finally, a growing body of evidence demonstrates that a surprising variety of fastidious Gram-positive bacteria may either reside in or be regularly exposed to the urinary tract and further suggests that their presence is widespread among women, as well as men. Experimental studies in this area are needed; however, there is a growing appreciation that the composition of bacteria found in the bladder could be a potentially important determinant in urologic disease, including susceptibility to UTI. PMID:27227294

  14. Antibiogram of nosocomial urinary tract infections in Felege Hiwot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nosocomial infections increase the cost of medical care, extend hospital stay and reflect on the morbidity and mortality of the admitted patients. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common nosocomial infections in humans. Objectives: To determine the prevalence and antibiogram of nosocomial ...

  15. Prevalence of urinary tract infection among pregnant women at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy and these infections. Untreated UTI can be associated with serious obstetric complications. This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of UTI among symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women ...

  16. Pin Tract Infection after Uniplanar External Fixation of Open ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    Regionally, a study by Jellis et al in Lusaka, Zambia, compared the rate of severe pin tract infection in HIV negative and positive ... likelihood of infection such as human immunodeficiency virus infection, diabetes mellitus, liver failure, renal failure, tumours ... Combined Open Tibia-Fibular. And Femur Fractures. 2. 2.7. Totals.

  17. Emphysematous cystitis: An unusual lower urinary tract infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emphysematous cystitis: An unusual lower urinary tract infection. MA Lakmichi, M Boukhar, F Barjani, O Saghir, T Hanich, B Wakrim, M Gabsi, A Elhauos, N Charif Idrissi Genouni, N Ousehal, Z Dahami, SM Moudouni, I Sarf ...

  18. Pediatric recurrent respiratory tract infections: when and how to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pediatric recurrent respiratory tract infections: when and how to explore the immune system? (About 53 cases). Mohammed El-Azami-El-Idrissi, Mounia Lakhdar-Idrissi, Sanae Chaouki, Samir Atmani, Abdelhak Bouharrou, Moustapha Hida ...

  19. Complete Upper Urinary Tract Obstruction Caused by Penetrating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-22

    May 22, 2017 ... and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms. For reprints contact: reprints@medknow.com. How to cite this article: Gulpinar MT, Keskin SK, Yildirim A, Caskurlu T. Complete upper urinary tract obstruction caused by ...

  20. Complete upper urinary tract obstruction caused by penetrating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complete upper urinary tract obstruction caused by penetrating pellet injury of the ureter. M.T. Gulpinar, S.K. Keskin, A Yildirim, T Caskurlu. Abstract. Ureteral injuries due to gunshots are tend to be misdiagnosed because of concomitant vascular and intraabdominal organ wounds. Our case is a 23-year old man who was ...

  1. Prevention of clinical urinary tract infections in vulnerable very old persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caljouw, Monique Adriana Anna

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most frequently reported infections among older persons. UTI not only causes several days of illness but may have more severe consequences, such as a decline in functioning, as well as delirium, dehydration, urosepsis, hospitalization, or even death.

  2. Significance of Pyuria in the Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infection in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in children, especially in those with sickle cell disease, who are at higher risk of infections. It will be useful to have a simple test which can be used in resource limited health facilities as a means of screening such children for UTI with the view to ...

  3. Urinary tract infections in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: review of prevalence, diagnosis, and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitzan O

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Orna Nitzan,1–3 Mazen Elias,2,4 Bibiana Chazan,1,2 Walid Saliba2,4 1Infectious Disease Unit, Ha’emek Medical Center, Afula, Israel; 2Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion–Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel; 3Infectious Disease Unit, Padeh-Poriya Medical Center, 4Department of Internal Medicine C, Ha’emek Medical Center, Afula, Israel Abstract: Urinary tract infections are more common, more severe, and carry worse outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. They are also more often caused by resistant pathogens. Various impairments in the immune system, poor metabolic control, and incomplete bladder emptying due to autonomic neuropathy may all contribute to the enhanced risk of urinary tract infections in these patients. The new anti-diabetic sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors have not been found to significantly increase the risk of symptomatic urinary tract infections. Symptoms of urinary tract infection are similar to patients without diabetes, though some patients with diabetic neuropathy may have altered clinical signs. Treatment depends on several factors, including: presence of symptoms, severity of systemic symptoms, if infection is localized in the bladder or also involves the kidney, presence of urologic abnormalities, accompanying metabolic alterations, and renal function. There is no indication to treat diabetic patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria. Further studies are needed to improve the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes and urinary tract infections. Keywords: diabetes mellitus, diagnosis, management, prevalence, urinary tract infection

  4. A Murine Model for Escherichia coli Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Thomas J; Hunstad, David A

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most common bacterial infections of humans. The mouse provides an excellent and tractable model system for cystitis and pyelonephritis caused by Escherichia coli and other uropathogens. Using a well-established model of experimental cystitis in which the bladders of female mice are infected via transurethral catheterization, the molecular details of the pathogenesis of bacterial cystitis have been substantially illuminated in the last decade. Uropathogenic E. coli attach to bladder epithelium (both in human and mouse) via adhesive type 1 pili, establish a replicative niche within epithelial cell cytoplasm, and form intracellular bacterial communities that are protected from antibiotic effects and immune clearance. The use of different inbred and mutant mouse strains offers the opportunity to study outcomes of infection, including resolution, formation of quiescent intracellular bacterial reservoirs, chronic bacterial cystitis, and recurrent infections. Urine, bladder, and kidney tissues can be analyzed by bacterial culture, histology, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescent and confocal microscopy, electron microscopy, and flow cytometry, while a broad array of soluble markers (e.g., cytokines) can also be profiled in serum, urine, and tissue homogenates by ELISA, Western blotting, multiplex bead array, and other approaches. This model promises to afford continued opportunity for discovery of pathogenic mechanisms and evaluation of therapeutic and preventive strategies for acute, chronic, and recurrent UTI.

  5. International Spinal Cord Injury Urinary Tract Infection Basic Data Set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetz, L L; Cardenas, D D; Kennelly, M

    2013-01-01

    To develop an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Basic Data Set presenting a standardized format for the collection and reporting of a minimal amount of information on UTIs in daily practice or research.......To develop an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Basic Data Set presenting a standardized format for the collection and reporting of a minimal amount of information on UTIs in daily practice or research....

  6. Urinary Tract Infection in Children with Neurogenic Bladder Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Yu.B. Bielan; T.A. Morozova

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Among all the diseases of the urinary system, microbial-inflammatory lesions dominate, their prevalence is 29 per 1,000 of child population. Neurogenic bladder dysfunction leads to the chronicity and recurrence of urinary tract infections. Objective. To study the etiologic spectrum in children with urinary tract infection associated with neurogenic bladder dysfunction. Materials and methods. The study involved 434 children aged 4 to 15 years, who were hospitalized and out-patien...

  7. Concomitant Bacterial Meningitis in Infants With Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Joanna; Cruz, Andrea T; Nigrovic, Lise E; Freedman, Stephen B; Garro, Aris C; Ishimine, Paul T; Kulik, Dina M; Uspal, Neil G; Grether-Jones, Kendra L; Miller, Aaron S; Schnadower, David; Shah, Samir S; Aronson, Paul L; Balamuth, Fran

    2017-09-01

    To determine age-stratified prevalence of concomitant bacterial meningitis in infants ≤60 days with a urinary tract infection, we performed a 23-center, retrospective study of 1737 infants with urinary tract infection. Concomitant bacterial meningitis was rare, but more common in infants 0-28 days of age [0.9%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.4%-1.9%) compared with infants 29-60 days of age (0.2%; 95% CI: 0%-0.8%).

  8. The Effects of Oxidative Stress in Urinary Tract Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergul Belge Kurutas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to determine the effects of oxidative stress in urinary tract infection (UTI. One hundred sixty-four urine samples obtained from patients with the prediagnosis of acute UTI admitted to the Faculty of Medicine, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, were included in this study. Urine cultures were performed according to standard techniques. Urinary isolates were identified by using API ID 32E. The catalase and superoxide dismutase activity and the lipid peroxidation levels known as oxidative stress markers were measured in all urine samples. Thirty-six pathogen microorganisms were identified in positive urine cultures. These microorganisms were as follows: 23 (63.8% E coli, 5 (13.8% P mirabilis, 4 (11.1% K pneumoniae, 2 (5.5% Candida spp, 1 (2.7% S saprophyticus, and 1 (2.7% P aeruginosa. It was observed that lipid peroxidation levels were increased while catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were decreased in positive urine cultures, compared to negative cultures. We conclude that urinary tract infection causes oxidative stress, increases lipid peroxidation level, and leads to insufficiency of antioxidant enzymes.

  9. Urinary tract infections in women: etiology and treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minardi D

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Daniele Minardi, Gianluca d'Anzeo, Daniele Cantoro, Alessandro Conti, Giovanni MuzzonigroDepartment of Clinical and Specialist Sciences, Urology, Polytechnic University of the Marche Medical School and United Hospitals, Ancona, ItalyAbstract: Urinary tract infections (UTI are common among the female population. It has been calculated that about one-third of adult women have experienced an episode of symptomatic cystitis at least once. It is also common for these episodes to recur. If predisposing factors are not identified and removed, UTI can lead to more serious consequences, in particular kidney damage and renal failure. The aim of this review was to analyze the factors more commonly correlated with UTI in women, and to see what possible solutions are currently used in general practice and specialized areas, as well as those still under investigation. A good understanding of the possible pathogenic factors contributing to the development of UTI and its recurrence will help the general practitioner to interview the patient, search for causes that would otherwise remain undiscovered, and to identify the correct therapeutic strategy.Keywords: urinary tract infection, women, etiology, diagnosis, treatment

  10. Relationship among bacterial virulence, bladder dysfunction, vesicoureteral reflux and patterns of urinary tract infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Douglas W; Patel, Ashay S; Horvath, Dennis J; Li, Birong; Koff, Stephen A; Justice, Sheryl S

    2012-07-01

    We hypothesized that virulence levels of Escherichia coli isolates causing pediatric urinary tract infections differ according to severity of infection and also among various uropathies known to contribute to pediatric urinary tract infections. We evaluated these relationships using in vitro cytokine interleukin-6 elicitation. E. coli isolates were cultured from children presenting with urinary tract infections. In vitro cytokine (interleukin-6) elicitation was quantified for each isolate and the bacteria were grouped according to type of infection and underlying uropathy (neurogenic bladder, nonneurogenic bowel and bladder dysfunction, primary vesicoureteral reflux, no underlying etiology). A total of 40 E. coli isolates were collected from children with a mean age of 61.5 months (range 1 to 204). Mean level of in vitro cytokine elicitation from febrile urinary tract infection producing E. coli was significantly lower than for nonfebrile strains (p = 0.01). The interleukin-6 response to E. coli in the neurogenic bladder group was also significantly higher than in the vesicoureteral reflux (p = 0.01) and no underlying etiology groups (p = 0.02). In vitro interleukin-6 elicitation, an established marker to determine bacterial virulence, correlates inversely with clinical urinary tract infection severity. Less virulent, high cytokine producing E. coli were more likely to cause cystitis and were more commonly found in patients with neurogenic bladder and nonneurogenic bowel and bladder dysfunction, whereas higher virulence isolates were more likely to produce febrile urinary tract infections and to affect children with primary vesicoureteral reflux and no underlying etiology. These findings suggest that bacteria of different virulence levels may be responsible for differences in severity of pediatric urinary tract infections and may vary among different underlying uropathies. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by

  11. Reproductive tract infections in northern Vietnam: health providers' diagnostic dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, My Hu'o'ng; Gammeltoft, Tine; Christoffersen, Sarah Vigh

    2010-01-01

    Research was conducted on reproductive tract infections among women obtaining induced abortions at Ph[image omitted]-[image omitted] hospital in Haiphong City, a major maternity hospital in northern Vietnam. The research aimed to explore how clinicians and lab-technicians diagnose reproductive tr...... with overuse of antibiotics.......-technicians providing reproductive health services. A marked tendency was observed among both clinicians and lab-technicians to overdiagnose reproductive tract infections and to prescribe antibiotics routinely. Social, cultural, and clinical factors associated with the tendency to overdiagnose reproductive tract...

  12. [The features in preventing recurrent lower urinary tract infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzhieva, Z K; Kazilov, Yu B

    2016-08-01

    This review outlines characteristics of medications most commonly used for preventing recurrent lower urinary tract infection (UTI). It shows that the treatment and prophylaxis of UTI should be comprehensive and include the restoration of the normal urogenital tract anatomy and use in addition to antibacterial and anti-inflammatory drugs, agents, normalizing the function of the lower urinary tract, as well as drugs for local and systemic immunoprophylaxis, protection of the urothelium from recurrent infection, local hormone replacement therapy in menopause, and dietary supplements to acidify the urine.

  13. The role of imaging in adult acute urinary tract infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, J.A.W. [Diagnostic Radiology Department, St. Bartholomew`s Hospital, West Smithfield, London EC1A 7BE (United Kingdom)

    1997-08-01

    Imaging is required in only a minority of patients with urinary tract infection. Some patients who present with severe loin pain are imaged because ureteric colic is suspected. If urinary tract infection does not respond normally to antibiotics, imaging is undertaken to check for evidence of renal obstuction or sepsis. Finally, after the acute infection has been treated, imaging is required in some patients to check for factors pre-disposing to renal damage or to relapsing or recurrent infection. This review discusses the appropriate choice of imaging technique to use in each clinical situation and summarises the expected findings. (orig.). With 15 figs., 1 tab.

  14. The role of imaging in adult acute urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, J.A.W.

    1997-01-01

    Imaging is required in only a minority of patients with urinary tract infection. Some patients who present with severe loin pain are imaged because ureteric colic is suspected. If urinary tract infection does not respond normally to antibiotics, imaging is undertaken to check for evidence of renal obstuction or sepsis. Finally, after the acute infection has been treated, imaging is required in some patients to check for factors pre-disposing to renal damage or to relapsing or recurrent infection. This review discusses the appropriate choice of imaging technique to use in each clinical situation and summarises the expected findings. (orig.). With 15 figs., 1 tab

  15. Infections and infestations of the gastrointestinal tract. Part 1: Bacterial, viral and fungal infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, R., E-mail: rakslide@gmail.com [Department of Clinical Radiology, South Warwickshire NHS Foundation Trust, Warwick (United Kingdom); Rajesh, A. [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust (United Kingdom); Rawat, S. [Department of Radiology, Ruby Hall Clinic, Pune (India); Rajiah, P. [Imaging Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Ramachandran, I. [Department of Clinical Radiology, South Warwickshire NHS Foundation Trust, Warwick (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    The purpose of this article is to review the imaging findings of various infections affecting the gastrointestinal tract. Barium examinations, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasonography all play an important role in the diagnostic workup of gastrointestinal tract infections. Knowledge of differential diagnosis, sites of involvement, and typical imaging features of different infections can help in accurate diagnosis and guide treatment.

  16. Nontuberculous Mycobacterium Infections: Symptoms, Causes & Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > Nontuberculosis Mycobacteria NTM Symptoms, Causes & Risk Factors The symptoms caused by NTM infection ... Low-grade fever Night sweats Weight loss What Causes NTM Lung Infections? NTM lung infections are caused ...

  17. Comparing between results and complications of doing voiding cystourethrogram in the first week following urinary tract infection and in 2-6 weeks after urinary tract infection in children referring to a teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Dorreh, Fatemeh; Shahsavari, Someyeh; Pakniyat, Abdolghader

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is the most common genitourinary disease in children so about 40% of the children with urinary tract infection suffering from reflux that caused some consequences such as pyelonephritis and kidney parenchymal injury. This research was conducted to compare the timing of voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) in children with urinary tract infection in first week and after the first week of urinary tract infection. This research is a case-control study that both case and control groups include 208 children from 1 month to 12 years old with the complain of urinary tract infection. In case group, the VCUG was performed at the first week of infection and in control group, the VCUG was performed after the first week of infection. complication such as dysuria was observed in two-thirds of children who VCUG was performed during first week after urinary tract infection. Parents stress in case group was more than the other (P=0.015). For overall, the incidence of reflux in case and control groups was 49.5% and 50%, respectively. The mean of reflux grading in right kidney in case group was lower than control group resulting in significant differences between two groups. According to higher grade of stress in parents and complications due to VCUG at the first week of urinary tract infection, it is suggested that VCUG be conducted on selective patients in the hospital at the first week of urinary tract infection and during hospitalization.

  18. Acute bacterial infections of the lower respiratory tract in children from low-income countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleer, A; Wolf, B.H.M.

    Acute bacterial infection of the lower respiratory tract is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children and is responsible for 4 million childhood deaths each year. Most of these deaths are caused by pneumonia and occur in the youngest children in the poorest parts of the world. Severe

  19. The role of toll-like receptors (TLRs) in urinary tract infections (UTIs)

    OpenAIRE

    Behzadi, Elham; Behzadi, Payam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are caused by different types of microbial agents such as uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and Candida albicans. The presence of strong physical barriers may prevent the breach of pathogens into the urinary tract. However, sometimes the pathogenic microorganisms may pass through the barriers and stimulate the innate and adaptive responses. Among a variety of innate immune responses, Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) are one of the most unique and int...

  20. Multiple virulence factors regulated by quorum sensing may help in establishment and colonisation of urinary tract by Pseudomonas aeruginosa during experimental urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Damage caused by an organism during infection is attributed to production of virulence factors. Different virulence factors produced by the organism contribute to its pathogenicity, individually. During infectious conditions, role of virulence factors produced by the pathogen is different, depending upon the site of involvement. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic nosocomial pathogen known to cause infections of the respiratory tract, burn wound, urinary tract and eye. Importance of virulence factors produced by P. Aeruginosa during infections such as keratitis, burn wound and respiratory tract is known. The present study was designed to understand the importance of different virulence factors of P. aeruginosa in urinary tract infection in vivo. Materials and methods: An ascending urinary tract infection model was established in mice using standard parent strain PAO1 and its isogenic mutant, JP2. Mice were sacrificed at different time intervals and renal tissue homogenates were used for estimation of renal bacterial load and virulence factors. Results: Both parent and mutant strains were able to reach the renal tissue. PAO 1 PAO1was isolated from renal tissue till day 5 post-infection. However, the mutant strain was unable to colonise the renal tissue. Failure of mutant strain to colonise was attributed to its inability to produce protease, elastase and rhamnolipid. Conclusion: This study suggests that protease, elastase and rhamnolipid contribute to pathogenesis and survival of P. aeruginosa during urinary tract infection.

  1. Resistance of catheter-associated urinary tract infections to antibacterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhaz Antonija

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI are the most common nosocomial infections. The worldwide data show the increasing resistance to conventional antibiotics among urinary tract pathogens. Aim. To evaluate the adequacy of initial antimicrobial therapy in relation to the antimicrobial resistance of pathogens responsible for CAUTI in Clinical Center of Banja Luka. Methods. A retrospective study on major causes of CAUTI, antibiotic resistance and treatment principles was conducted at four departments of the Clinical Center of Banja Luka from January 1st, 2000 to April 1st, 2003. Results. The results showed that 265 patients had developed CAUTI. The seven most commonly isolated microorganisms were, in descending order: E. coli (31.0%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (13.8%, Proteus mirabilis (12.9%, Gr. Klebsiella-Enterobacter (12.3%, Enterococcus spp. (5.2%, Pseudomonas spp. (4.3%, Serratia spp. (4.0%. The most common pathogens were highly resistant to ampicillin (64−100%, gentamycin (63−100%, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (68−100%, while some bacterias, like Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia spp. showed rates of ciprofloxacin resistance as high as 42.8% and 72.7%, respectively. In 55.5% of the cases, the initial antibiotic therapy was inadequate, and was corrected latter on. There were no standard therapeutic protocols for this type of nosocomial infections. Conclusion. The results of this study emphasized an urgency of the prevention and introduction of clinical protocols for better management of CAUTI. Treatment principles should better correspond to the antibiotic sensitivity of uropathogens.

  2. Group D Salmonella Urinary Tract Infection in an Immunocompetent Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Jehangir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 62-year-old male with past medical history of benign prostatic hyperplasia presented to the emergency department with complaints of decreased urinary flow, inability to fully empty his bladder, and gross hematuria. Physical examination was unremarkable. Urinalysis revealed large amount of blood and more than 700 white blood cells suggesting a urinary tract infection. Urine culture grew group D Salmonella greater than 100,000 colony-forming units per mL. He was prescribed 6 weeks of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and had resolution of symptoms. Retrospectively, he reported a 3-day history of watery diarrhea about a week prior to onset of urinary symptoms that was presumed to be the hematogenous source in this case. Urinary tract infection from nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS is rare and is usually associated with immunosuppression, chronic diseases, such as diabetes or structural abnormalities of the genitourinary tract. Genitourinary tract abnormalities previously reported in the literature that predispose to nontyphoidal Salmonella urinary tract infection include nephrolithiasis, chronic pyelonephritis, retrovesicular fistula, urethrorectal fistula, hydrocele, and post-TURP. We present an exceedingly uncommon case of 62-year-old male with group D Salmonella urinary tract infection predisposed by his history of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  3. Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infection In A Tetiary Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The use of indwelling catheter creates an inherent risk for infection. Catheter associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) comprise perhaps the largest institutional reservoir of nosocomial antibiotic resistant pathogens. This could lead to complications such as pyelonephritis and bacteraemia. Objective: To ...

  4. Incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) among pregnant women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) among 80 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at Oluyoro Catholic Hospital (OCH), Ibadan, Nigeria, as well as the isolation and identification of the pathogens responsible for the infection. A total of 80 clean voided mid-stream urine samples were ...

  5. Urinary tract infection in renal transplant recipients | Elkehili | Arab ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the commonest bacterial infection occurring in renal transplant recipients, and it is associated with significant morbidity. This study aimed to assess the characteristics of all UTI episodes diagnosed in renal transplant patients who attended regularly for follow up in the nephrology ...

  6. [Urogenital atrophy and recurrent urinary tract infection in elderly patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvat, J; Capilna, M; Schmidt, M H

    1997-08-13

    Postmenopausal lower urinary tract atrophy and its relations to recurrent urinary infections in elderly women are studied. Clinical aspects, functional and histological aspects and hypothetic mechanisms of atrophy are reported, epidemiologic data, mechanisms of urinary infections and of estrogen effects are reviewed and reports on the results of local or systemic use of drugs from the literature are presented. Local administration of estrogen seems to be efficient on the urinary tract. Local treatment is less dangerous and cheaper than systemic treatment. Hormonal treatment is one of the preventive measures against recurrent urinary infections in elderly women.

  7. The innate immune response during urinary tract infection and pyelonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, John David; Schwaderer, Andrew L; Becknell, Brian; Watson, Joshua; Hains, David S

    2014-07-01

    Despite its proximity to the fecal flora, the urinary tract is considered sterile. The precise mechanisms by which the urinary tract maintains sterility are not well understood. Host immune responses are critically important in the antimicrobial defense of the urinary tract. During recent years, considerable advances have been made in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying immune homeostasis of the kidney and urinary tract. Dysfunctions in these immune mechanisms may result in acute disease, tissue destruction and overwhelming infection. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the innate immune response in the urinary tract in response to microbial assault. In doing so, we focus on the role of antimicrobial peptides-a ubiquitous component of the innate immune response.

  8. Antibiotic resistance in children with complicated urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildiz, B.; Kural, N.; Yarar, C.; Ak, I.; Akcar, N.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to determine the resistance of antibiotics for complicated urinary tract infection (UTI), including urinary tract anomaly (UTA), for empirical antibiotic therapy of complicated UTI. Four hundred and twenty two urine isolates were obtained from 113 patients with recurrent UTI, who used prophylactic antibiotics between February 1999 and November 2004 in the Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey. Reflux was found to be most important predisposing factor for recurrent UTI (31.9%). Renal scar was detected more in patients with UTA than without UTA (59.2% versus 12.4%, p<0.05). Gram-negative organisms were dominant in patients with and without UTA (91.5% and 79.2%). Enterococci and Candida spp. were more prevalent in children with UTA than without UTA (p<0.001). Isolates were significantly more resistant to ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, amikacin, co-amoxiclav, ticarcillin-clvalanate and piperacillin-tazobactam in patients with UTA than without UTA. We found low resistance to ciprofloxacin and nitrofurantoin in UTI with and without UTA. Enterococci spp. was highly resistance to ampicillin and amikacin in patients with UTA. Aztreonam, meropenem and ciprofloxacin seemed to be the best choice for treatment of UTI with UTA due to Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. Nitrofurantoin and nalidixic acid may be first choice antibiotics for prophylaxis in UTI with and without UTA. The UTI with UTA caused by Enterococci spp. might not benefit from a combination of amikacin and ampicillin, it could be treated with glycopeptides. (author)

  9. Development of a Vaccine against Escherichia coli Urinary Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry L. T. Mobley

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is the second most common infection in humans after those involving the respiratory tract. This results not only in huge annual economic costs, but in decreased workforce productivity and high patient morbidity. Most infections are caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC. Antibiotic treatment is generally effective for eradication of the infecting strain; however, documentation of increasing antibiotic resistance, allergic reaction to certain pharmaceuticals, alteration of normal gut flora, and failure to prevent recurrent infections represent significant barriers to treatment. As a result, approaches to prevent UTI such as vaccination represent a gap that must be addressed. Our laboratory has made progress toward development of a preventive vaccine against UPEC. The long-term research goal is to prevent UTIs in women with recurrent UTIs. Our objective has been to identify the optimal combination of protective antigens for inclusion in an effective UTI vaccine, optimal adjuvant, optimal dose, and optimal route of delivery. We hypothesized that a multi-subunit vaccine elicits antibody that protects against experimental challenge with UPEC strains. We have systematically identified four antigens that can individually protect experimentally infected mice from colonization of the bladder and/or kidneys by UPEC when administered intranasally with cholera toxin (CT as an adjuvant. To advance the vaccine for utility in humans, we will group the individual antigens, all associated with iron acquisition (IreA, Hma, IutA, FyuA, into an effective combination to establish a multi-subunit vaccine. We demonstrated for all four vaccine antigens that antigen-specific serum IgG represents a strong correlate of protection in vaccinated mice. High antibody titers correlate with low colony forming units (CFUs of UPEC following transurethral challenge of vaccinated mice. However, the contribution of cell-mediated immunity cannot

  10. Urinary glicosaminoglycans levels in women with urinary tract infection and non urinary tract infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasaribu, H. P.; Hanifa, A.; Tala, R. Z.; Ardiansyah, E.; Simanjuntak, R. Y.; Effendy, I. H.

    2018-03-01

    UTI is an infection that occurs in the urinary tract due to the proliferation of a microorganism. Female is fourteen times more vulnerable to UTI than male, because their urethra is shorter. Bladder epithelium is coated with a thin layer of glycosaminoglycans which act as a non-specific anti-adherence factor and nonspecific defense mechanisms against infection and can be found in the urine. An analytic study with cross sectional approach was conducted in 46 patients (23 with UTI and 23 non UTI) from June 2016 to determine differences in levels of urinary glycosaminoglycans between two groups. Urine samples were taken and tested for UTI and non UTI strips test. Laboratory examination of urine GAGs levels using ELISA kit for Human Glycosaminoglycans, then tabulated and analyzed using SPSS. The result showed no significant differences in the characteristics of women between two groups. There are significant differences in the mean levels of urinary GAGs in women with UTI compared with Non-UTI (69.74 ± 21.34; 21.39 ± 2.61 mg/l; p <0.001). There was no significant relationship between the sexual status and UTI incidence, with low odds ratio values and no significant difference in the mean of urinary glicosaminoglycans level based on sexual status.

  11. An Unusual Cause of Infective Endocarditis: Proteus mirabilis Bacteremia from an Infected Pressure Ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hao Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Proteus species is a common cause of urinary tract and wound infections in humans. We herein present the case of a 71-year-old male who had fever, a new-onset heart murmur, bacteremia, and a vegetation over his native aortic valve in echocardiography. This rare case demonstrated that infective endocarditis could be caused by Proteus mirabilis from an infected pressure ulcer.

  12. Evaluation of Urinary Tract Infections Due to Candida Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeser Karaca Derici

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Although urinary tract infections often caused by bacteria, fungal etiology is detected in a significant number of infections in which Candida is the leading cause. In this study we aimed to evaluate the distribution of Candida strains isolated from urine samples in our hospital. Material and Method: Candida species were identified based on germ tube test, colony morphology on chrom agar Candida (Biomerieux, France and API ID32C AUX (Biomerieux, France commercial kit. Data were analyzed with SPSS 15.0 software for data analysis. Results: During March 2011-March 2014 a total of 109662 urine cultures were evaluated and 24364 samples revealed significant growth. Of the significant growth detected 24364 (22% samples 1096 (4.5% were defined as yeasts. The isolates most frequently detected in this study were C. albicans (50.5%, C. tropicalis (15.9%, C. glabrata (12.7%, C. parapsilosis (7.2%, C. kefyr (5.8%, C. krusei (5.5%. The highest yeast growth was observed in anesthesia intensive care unit. Discussion: In our study, the most frequently isolated species of yeast in the urine was C. albicans. Determination of Candida species and their clinical distributions in hospitals is very important in terms of giving direction to the treatment and measures to be taken.

  13. Postmenopausal bleeding: causes and risk of genital tract malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawood, N.S.; Peter, K.; Ibrar, F.; Dawood, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Postmenopausal bleeding (PMB) is bleeding occurring after 6-12 months of amenorrhea in a woman of age where the menopause can be expected. Objectives of this study were to ascertain various causes and prevalence of genital organ malignancy in patients presenting with postmenopausal bleeding. Methods: A prospective observational study carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi comprising of 167 consecutive cases presenting with postmenopausal bleeding one year after menopause. Women having undergone hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy, suffered trauma to the genital tract, having coagulation disorder or on anticoagulant or hormone replacement therapy were excluded. Detailed history was obtained and a thorough clinical examination was conducted. Data were entered into hospital computer database (Medix) system. Mean +- SD were calculated for age, percentage was calculated for types of histopathological findings. Results: The commonest cause of PMB was atrophic endometritis and vaginitis 33 (21.2%). Overall incidence of various genital tract malignancies was 25 (16.0%). Conclusion: The overall incidence of genital tract malignancies in patients presenting with PMB is high (16.0%), therefore, it needs to be taken seriously and requires prompt and thorough investigations. (author)

  14. Scintigraphy findings in children presenting the first febrile infection of urinary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte Perez, Maria Caridad; Piedra Bello, Misleidys; Guillen Dosal, Ana

    2010-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the more frequent bacterial infections in childhood. The aim of present research was to know the acute phase renal alterations of the first febrile infection of urinary tract

  15. "Population structure of drug-susceptible, -resistant and ESBL-producing Escherichia coli from community-acquired urinary tract infections"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Frederik Boetius; Nielsen, Jesper Boye; Schønning, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli is the most common cause of urinary tract infection (UTI). The pathogenic isolates are becoming increasingly resistant to antibiotics; with a worldwide dissemination of resistant sequence types (ST). We characterized three different uropathogenic E. coli populations...

  16. Consultation expectations among patients with respiratory tract infection symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Lauridsen, Gitte; Sejr Sørensen, Mette; Hansen, Malene Plejdrup

    2017-01-01

    ­pretation of patients’ expectations are associated with antibiotic overuse. The aim of this study was to explore Danish patients’ expectations when consulting a general prac­titioner with symptoms of acute respiratory tract infection, and to determine predictors for these expectations. Methods: A questionnaire survey......Introduction: Antibiotic resistance is a growing threat to public health, and antibiotic prescribing increases. About 90% of antibiotics are prescribed in general practice, mostly for acute respiratory tract infections. It is well known that patient expectations and general practitioners’ misinter...... was conducted in Danish primary care during 2014. Patients aged ≥ 18 years were asked about their expectations to the consultation when consulting with symptoms of acute respiratory tract infections. Associations between socio-demographic characteristics, self-reported antibiotic prescription and patients...

  17. Consultation expectations among patients with respiratory tract infection symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Gitte Bruun; Sørensen, Mette Sejr; Hansen, Malene Plejdrup

    2017-01-01

    ' misinterpretation of patients' expectations are associated with antibiotic overuse. The aim of this study was to explore Danish patients' expectations when consulting a general practitioner with symptoms of acute respiratory tract infection, and to determine predictors for these expectations. METHODS......INTRODUCTION: Antibiotic resistance is a growing threat to public health, and antibiotic prescribing increases. About 90% of antibiotics are prescribed in general practice, mostly for acute respiratory tract infections. It is well known that patient expectations and general practitioners......: A questionnaire survey was conducted in Danish primary care during 2014. Patients aged ≥ 18 years were asked about their expectations to the consultation when consulting with symptoms of acute respiratory tract infections. Associations between socio-demographic characteristics, self-reported antibiotic...

  18. Urinary Tract Infection in Children with Neurogenic Bladder Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.B. Bielan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Among all the diseases of the urinary system, microbial-inflammatory lesions dominate, their prevalence is 29 per 1,000 of child population. Neurogenic bladder dysfunction leads to the chronicity and recurrence of urinary tract infections. Objective. To study the etiologic spectrum in children with urinary tract infection associated with neurogenic bladder dysfunction. Materials and methods. The study involved 434 children aged 4 to 15 years, who were hospitalized and out-patient treatment in Omsk from 2008 to 2014. Bacteriological urine culture on the microflora with determining the sensitivity to antibiotics was performed using Urin System Plus (Liofilchem, Italy. At the same time, the urine was examined for the presence of Cytomegalovirus, Herpes simplex virus I–II, Mycoplasma genitalium, Chlamydiae trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum by polymerase chain reaction and enzyme immunoassay. Data processing was performed using Statistica 10.0 software package. Results. It was found that in the urine microbial landscape of children with urinary tract infection and neurogenic bladder dysfunction, Staphylococcus family dominated, unlike the spectrum of uropathogens in patirnts with urinary tract infection without functional obstruction, which is characterized by the predominance of Escherichia coli. The detection rate of cytomegalovirus in the urine indicates a significant decrease in the immunity of children with urinary tract infection and neurogenic bladder dysfunction. Conclusion. The shown differences in microbial landscape of the urine in urinary tract infection associated with neurogenic bladder dysfunction and without functional obstruction must be considered in the selection of an adequate therapy for patients of different groups, including immunocorrective approaches.

  19. Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth G. Jepson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cranberries have been used widely for several decades for the prevention and treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs. This is the third update of our review first published in 1998 and updated in 2004 and 2008. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of cranberry products in preventing UTIs in susceptible populations. METHODS: Search methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library and the Internet. We contacted companies involved with the promotion and distribution of cranberry preparations and checked reference lists of review articles and relevant studies. Date of search: July 2012. Selection criteria: All randomised controlled trials (RCTs or quasi-RCTs of cranberry products for the prevention of UTIs. Data collection and analysis: Two authors independently assessed and extracted data. Information was collected on methods, participants, interventions and outcomes (incidence of symptomatic UTIs, positive culture results, side effects, adherence to therapy. Risk ratios (RR were calculated where appropriate, otherwise a narrative synthesis was undertaken. Quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool. MAIN RESULTS: This updated review includes a total of 24 studies (six cross-over studies, 11 parallel group studies with two arms; five with three arms, and two studies with a factorial design with a total of 4473 participants. Ten studies were included in the 2008 update, and 14 studies have been added to this update. Thirteen studies (2380 participants evaluated only cranberry juice/concentrate; nine studies (1032 participants evaluated only cranberry tablets/capsules; one study compared cranberry juice and tablets; and one study compared cranberry capsules and tablets. The comparison/control arms were placebo, no treatment, water, methenamine hippurate, antibiotics, or lactobacillus. Eleven studies were not included in the meta

  20. Two-picture urography in urinary tract infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laehde, S.; Standertskjoeld-Nordenstam, C.G.; Suoranta, H.; Pyhtinen, J.

    1981-01-01

    Researchers analyzed separately from a urographic series 1 radiograph of the kidneys, ureters and bladder after releasing compression. The diagnosis was compared to that of the complete series in 230 consecutive urographic studies performed for recurrent urinary tract infections. The findings were in agreement in 88 per cent of the cases and no therapeutically significant change was overlooked owing to the decrease in the number of exposures. A urographic series with 2 films is described and recommended for the screening of recurrent urinary tract infections in young patients

  1. The investigation of urinary tract infections in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carty, H.; Rangr, P.

    2002-01-01

    This article outlines the role and methods used in the investigation of urinary tract infections in children. Each modality, whether it has been used in the past or begin used currently or in the future, has been discussed, together with its advantages and pitfalls. There are no hard and fast rules in the investigation of urinary tract infections. It really depends on the clinical scenario and the child. This article will hopefully provide a basis of understanding the reasons behind each investigation and their appropriate use in the child depending on their age and clinical history. (author)

  2. POTENTIALS OF SYMPTOMATIC TREATMENT OF ACUTE RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Selimzyanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute infection of upper respiratory tract is one of the most topical medical and social problems: it is respiratory diseases that cause the majority of children’s and adults’ non-attendance of school lessons and working days. Childhood respiratory infections are characterized by prolonged clinical course. The most common causes of upper respiratory tract infections are viruses, such as rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza and parainfluenza viruses, adeno-, corona- and metapneumoviruses as well as Coxsackie virus and ECHO virus. Antiviral agents are efficient only when administered during first 24–48 hours from the onset of disease, and a number of such drugs have only specific activity, therefore the limitation of possibilities of etiotropic therapy of acute respiratory infections can be established. This often leads to excessive inappropriate usage of antibacterial drugs. Such symptoms as nasal stuffiness and cough which accompany acute respiratory tract infections, can significantly affect patients’ and his family’s quality of life. Symptomatic therapy is traditionally used in order to relieve these symptoms. The article contains data on potentials of one of such symptomatic drugs in treatment of upper respiratory tract infections.

  3. Escherichia coli clonal group A causing bacteraemia of urinary tract origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøt-Rasmussen, L; Olsen, S S; Jakobsen, L

    2013-01-01

    Clin Microbiol Infect ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli clonal group A (CgA) causes disease in humans. This is the first study investigating the prevalence of CgA among E. coli from non-urine, extraintestinal infections in a northern European country. E. coli blood (n = 196) and paired urine (n = 195...... practice and a CgA isolate from a community-dwelling human reported previously, was found, suggesting a community origin of CgA. The finding of CgA strains in 15% of the E. coli bloodstream infections with a urinary tract origin in Denmark suggests that CgA constitutes an important clonal lineage among...... extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. A reservoir of this pathogenic E. coli group in the community causing not only UTI but also more severe infections such as bacteraemia has implications for public health....

  4. Cryptosporidial Infection of Lower Respiratory Tract in a Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gharagozlou, M.J.,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporial and bacterial co-infection is reported in a budgerigar with clinical manifestations of septicemia and respiratory tract infection. Microscopically large number of round to oval 2-5μm cryptosporidial organisms were found to be lodged on the parabronchial epithelial cells of the respiratory tract. The bacterial colonies were seen around the parabronchial spaces of the lung tissue. It is suggested that the C. baileyi is the most likely cryptosporidium species which caused respiratory cryptosporidiosis in the budgerigar.

  5. Urinary tract infection in febrile under five children in Enugu, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Fever is a common symptom of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children less than 5 years of age. Little attention is however paid to UTI as a cause of fever in this age group. Objective: The objective of the following study is to determine the prevalence of UTI in febrile children less than 5 years of age and relate it to ...

  6. European multicenter study on antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from companion animal urinary tract infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marques, Cátia; Gama, Luís Telo; Belas, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    of antimicrobial resistant bacteria causing urinary tract infection (UTI) in companion animals in Europe. The antimicrobial susceptibility of 22 256 bacteria isolated from dogs and cats with UTI was determined. Samples were collected between 2008 and 2013 from 16 laboratories of 14 European countries...

  7. Isolation and characterization of an atypical Listeria monocytogenes associated with a canine urinary tract infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listeria monocytogenes, a well-described cause of encephalitis and abortion in ruminants and of food-borne illness in humans, is rarely associated with disease in companion animals. A case of urinary tract infection associated with an atypical, weakly hemolytic L. monocytogenes strain is described i...

  8. Evaluation of the Nitrite Test in Screening for Urinary Tract Infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a significant cause of morbidity in children and individuals with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) have been reported to be at increased risk. It will be useful to have a simple means of screening such children for UTI with a view to instituting prompt treatment. Objectives: The objective of ...

  9. tion of childhood urinary tract infection in Ondo, South- western Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-10

    Jun 10, 2017 ... Abstract: Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is common in children with possible severe complications, deserving public health interventions. Aims: To evaluate parental per- ception of symptoms, causes, complication and treatment of childhood UTI, and proposerele- vant interventions. Methods: This ...

  10. Renal scar formation after urinary tract infection in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Seo Park

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common bacterial illness in children. Acute pyelonephritis in children may lead to renal scarring with the risk of later hypertension, preeclampsia during pregnancy, proteinuria, and renal insufficiency. Until now, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR has been considered the most important risk factor for post-UTI renal scar formation in children. VUR predisposes children with UTI to pyelonephritis, and both are associated with renal scarring. However, reflux nephropathy is not always acquired; rather, it reflects refluxassociated congenital dysplastic kidneys. The viewpoint that chronic kidney disease results from renal maldevelopment-associated VUR has led to questioning the utility of any regimen directed at identifying or treating VUR. Despite the recognition that underlying renal anomalies may be the cause of renal scarring that was previously attributed to infection, the prevention of renal scarring remains the goal of all therapies for childhood UTI. Therefore, children at high risk of renal scar formation after UTI should be treated and investigated until a large clinical study and basic research give us more information.

  11. Pediatric febrile urinary tract infections: the current state of play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hewitt Ian K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Studies undertaken in recent years have improved our understanding regarding the consequences and management of febrile urinary tract infections (UTIs, which are amongst the most common serious bacterial infections in childhood, with renal scarring a frequent outcome. In the past pyelonephritic scarring of the kidney, often associated with vesico-ureteral reflux (reflux nephropathy was considered a frequent cause of chronic renal insufficiency in children. Increasing recognition as a consequence of improved antenatal ultrasound, that the majority of these children had congenital renal hypo-dysplasia, has resulted in a number of studies examining treatment strategies and outcomes following UTI. In recent years there is a developing consensus regarding the need for a less aggressive therapeutic approach with oral as opposed to intravenous antibiotics, and less invasive investigations, cystourethrography in particular, following an uncomplicated first febrile UTI. There does remain a concern that with this newer approach we may be missing a small subgroup of children more prone to develop severe kidney damage as a consequence of pyelonephritis, and in whom some form of intervention may prove beneficial. These concerns have meant that development of a universally accepted diagnostic protocol remains elusive.

  12. Pathogenesis and Laboratory Diagnosis of Childhood Urinary Tract Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jharna Mandal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common infections of childhood. The clinical presentations are mostly non-specific or mild. As any episode of UTI can potentially damage the kidneys, timely diagnosis and treatment are necessary to prevent renal damage. Incidence of UTI varies depending on the age, gender, and race of the child. UTIs in children are commonly caused by bacteria, though viruses, fungi, and parasites are also occasionally involved. The pathogenesis of UTI is complex where several host and pathogen factors influence the course of the disease and its outcome. Urine culture is still considered the gold standard method for the diagnosis of UTI. The means of obtaining urine samples from children for culture involves urethral catheterisation and suprapubic aspiration. The conventional methods of antibiotic susceptibility testing are labour intensive and time exhaustive. With the advent of technology, many automated platforms are available which are rapid, involve less volume of the culture or the sample, and have high accuracy.

  13. [Fosfomycin for urogenital tract infections: Advances in studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Dun-sheng; Liu, Wei; Shang, Xue-jun; Zheng, Da-dong

    2015-05-01

    Fosfomycin (FOM) is an antibiotic with a small relative molecular weight (138.1) and a long half-life, and has a unique chemical structure and antibacterial mechanisms. It exerts a bactericidal activity by inhibiting the early synthesis of bacterial cell walls. It is also a broad-spectrum antibiotic with a good drug tolerance and compliance and a low pressure to bacterial resistance, but no cross-resistance with other antibiotics. Recent studies show the effectiveness of FOM in the treatment of acute uncomplicated urinary tract infections and urogenital tract infections as well, such as prostatitis and epididymitis. This review focuses on the clinical application of FOM in the treatment of infectious diseases of the urogenital tract.

  14. New paradigms of urinary tract infections: Implications for patient management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J Horvath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs represent one of the most commonly acquired diseases among the general population as well as hospital in-patients, yet remain difficult to effectively and consistently treat. High rates of recurrence, anatomic abnormalities, and functional disturbances of the urinary tract all contribute to the difficulty in management of these infections. However, recent advances reveal important molecular and genetic factors that contribute to bacterial invasion and persistence in the urinary tract, particularly for the most common causative agent, uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Recent studies using animal models of experimental UTIs have recently provided mechanistic insight into the clinical observations that question the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy in treatment. Ultimately, continuing research will be necessary to identify the best targets for effective treatment of this costly and widespread infectious disease.

  15. Young-infant Sepsis Combined with Urinary Tract Infection Due to Hafnia alvei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Liu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Hafnia alvei infections are uncommon and occur mainly in adult patients featuring underlying illnesses. Its isolation in pediatric cases is even more unusual. We report a rare case of sepsis combined with urinary tract infection caused by H. alvei in a 39-day-old infant who did not appear to feature any underlying disease. The infant was successfully treated with ceftriaxone over a 14-day period. In this case, we want to remind clinicians that the possibility of an extraintestinal invasive infection such as bacteremia or urinary tract infection caused by H. alvei should be taken into account in young infants who feature no apparent underlying disease. [J Formos Med Assoc 2007;106(3 Suppl:S39-S43

  16. The Diagnosis, Evaluation and Treatment of Acute and Recurrent Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becknell, Brian; Schober, Megan; Korbel, Lindsey; Spencer, John David

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is one of the most common bacterial infections encountered by pediatricians. Currently, the diagnosis and management of acute urinary tract infection and recurrent urinary tract infection in children remains controversial. Recently published guidelines and large clinical trials have attempted to clarify UTI diagnostic and management strategies. In this manuscript, we review the diagnosis and management of acute and recurrent urinary tract infection in the pediatric population. PMID:25421102

  17. Comparative study of reproductive tract infections of female sex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Reproductive tract infections (RTIs) have become international public health problem. Aim: We assessed the RTIs. A community-based study was carried out among female sex workers (FSWs), gynecology clinic patients and general population in Suzhou, China to investigate the major pathogens of RTIs and ...

  18. Cranberry juice for urinary tract infection in children

    OpenAIRE

    Goldman, Ran D.

    2012-01-01

    Question Several children in my clinic are recovering from urinary tract infections (UTI). A mother of one of the children asked me if I recommended cranberry juice for children to prevent future episodes of UTI. She was given cranberry juice after she suffered from a UTI several months ago.

  19. Non-Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Urinary Tract Infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerepoot, Mariëlle; Geerlings, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Increasing antimicrobial resistance has stimulated interest in non-antibiotic prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs). Well-known steps in the pathogenesis of UTIs are urogenital colonization and adherence of uropathogens to uroepithelial cell receptors. To prevent colonization in

  20. Comparative Study on Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infection among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is associated with clinical conditions such as hypertension, anaemia, kidney failure and even death. Diagnosis and early detection of UTI are critical measures in the management of the disease. The classical microbiological culture method is hindered by long diagnostic time and characteristic ...

  1. Urinary Tract Infections in Children with Primary Nephrotic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    ABSTRACT. BACKGROUND: The occurrence of urinary tract infection. (UTI) in children with Nephrotic syndrome (NS) has been widely reported by various workers, but not much has been documented about its occurrence among children with acute glomerulonephritis (AGN). Hence, the level of susceptibility to UTI by both ...

  2. Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infection in Patients Undergoing Pelvic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Radiation therapy is known to induce the breakdown of certain body defence factors. In the patient who has carcinoma of the cervix, pelvic radiotherapy increases the risk of infection with both opportunistic and pathogenic agents,. Objectives: This study was done to determine the prevalence of urinary tract ...

  3. Management of childhood urinary tract infections: an economic modeling study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, M.; Adang, E.M.M.; Wolters, R.J.; Wouden, J.C. van der; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Wensing, M.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Childhood urinary tract infections (UTIs) can lead to renal scarring and ultimately to terminal renal failure, which has a high impact on quality of life, survival, and health-care costs. Variation in the treatment of UTIs between practices is high. OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost-effectiveness of a

  4. Seven months retrospective study on Urinary Tract Infection among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seven months retrospective study on Urinary Tract Infection among patients at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano - Nigeria. ... results showed that Escherichia coli was the most encountered uropathogen accounting for 39.8%, Proteus sp 26%, Klebsiella 21.1% while Pseudomonas sp was the least accounting for 0.8%.

  5. Prophylactic ciprofloxacin for catheter-associated urinary-tract infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wall, E. van der; Verkooyen, R.P.; Mintjes-de Groot, J.; Oostinga, J.; Dijk, Arie van; Hustinx, W.N.M.; Verbrugh, H.A.

    1992-01-01

    Patients receiving antibiotics during bladder drainage have a lower incidence of urinary-tract infections compared with similar patients not on antibiotics. However, antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with a urinary catheter is opposed because of the fear of inducing resistant bacterial strains. We

  6. Microbial resistance in patients with urinary tract infections in Al ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an aggravating and common problem in human at sometimes during their life and may give more complications. Objective: To project antimicrobial resistance in patients with UTI as a wide problem among cases referred to the National Center of Public Health Laboratories in ...

  7. Urinary Tract Infections amongst Pregnant Women Attending A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) constitutes a major health problem in pregnant women due to their relatively short urethra, which promotes the ascending of the pathogens to the bladder, urethra and the kidneys. It is also more common in pregnant women due to the anatomical and physiological changes that occur during ...

  8. Effect of pravastatin and fosinopril on recurrent urinary tract infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouwels, K.B.; Visser, Sipke; Hak, E.

    OBJECTIVES: Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a problem affecting both women and men. Animal experiments and in vitro studies indicate that statins might prevent recurrent UTIs. We assessed the effects of pravastatin on UTI antibiotic prescribing among adults. METHODS: A post hoc

  9. Urinary tract infections at Aga Khan University hospital Nairobi - A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In developing countries, most of these patients with urinary tract infections (UTI) are normally treated empirically and urine culture is usual ordered for as a last resort in patients refractory to antibiotic treatment. Objective: To explore the possibility of designing empiric antibiotic therapy for symptomatic UTI in ...

  10. Urinary Tract Infection in Children with Acute Glomerulonephritis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a prospective study of 47 cases of acute glomerunephritis seen in paediatric ward of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano over a 5year period; they were evaluated for prevalence of urinary tract infection, urine specimen were obtained by midstream urine following careful cleaning of the orifices with chlorhexidine.

  11. Urinary tract infections at aga Khan University hospital nairobi - a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-06-11

    Jun 11, 2013 ... abstract. Background: in developing countries, most of these patients with urinary tract infections. (Uti) are normally treated empirically and urine culture is usual ordered for as a last resort in patients refractory to antibiotic treatment. Objective: to explore the possibility of designing empiric antibiotic therapy ...

  12. Factors associated with community-acquired urinary tract infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Urinary tract infections (UTI) are a common medical problem affecting the general population and thus com- monly encountered in medical practice, with the global burden of UTIs at about 150 million people. Because uropathogens largely originate from colonic flora, they are easy to predict, and this is ...

  13. Antibiotic Resistance in Urinary Tract Infections in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Ronald P.; Haith, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine resistance to antibiotics of "Escherichia coli" in uncomplicated urinary tract infections (uUTIs) in female college students. Participants: Symptomatic patients presenting to a student health service from September 2008 to December 2009. Methods: Clean catch midstream urine samples were tested for urinalysis (UA) and…

  14. Antimicrobial resistance patterns in outpatient urinary tract infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. There is a global emergence of resistance against commonly prescribed antibiotics. Empirical antibiotic prescribing should be guided by local antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Aim. To identify organisms and determine antibiotic susceptibility in urinary tract infections (UTIs) at 3 Military Hospital, Bloemfontein ...

  15. Resistance of Uropathogens in Asymptomatic Urinary Tract Infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worldwide the surveillance of antimicrobial resistance among urinary tract pathogens is useful to determine the important trend and geographical variation of uropathogens. The study evaluated the pathogen frequency, resistance rate and pattern among HIV-infected Nigerians. Midstream urine samples taken for culture ...

  16. a seven months retrospective study on urinary tract infection among

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is a significant health problem world wide, affecting all ages and both sexes. It is the most common infectious complication associated with serious risk in pregnancy and responsible for a high rate of morbidity in neonates and children. Most often antibiotics are prescribed in UTI ...

  17. Metabolomics of urinary tract infection : a multiplatform approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacchiarotta, Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is a complex clinical entity a common infectious disease that encompasses a variety of clinical syndromes with a positive bacterial culture as common denominator. This thesis provides an exhaustive exploratory study of the metabolic pattern of patients affected by urinary

  18. Factors associated with community-acquired urinary tract infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Urinary tract infections (UTI) are a common medical problem affecting the general population and thus commonly encountered in medical practice, with the global burden of UTIs at about 150 million people. Because uropathogens largely originate from colonic flora, they are easy to predict, and this is the ...

  19. Acute otitis media complicating upper respiratory tract infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Upper respiratory tract infections (UTRIs), which may be complicated by acute otitis media (AOM), account for a large number of visits to the primary physician especially in the developed world. Materials and Methods: This study aims to determine the knowledge and treatment outcomes of UTRIs complicated ...

  20. Improving antibiotic use for complicated urinary tract infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoorenberg, V.

    2014-01-01

    Guidelines for antimicrobial treatment are important in the process of improving antibiotic use, because they describe appropriate antibiotic use. In this thesis, we demonstrated the value of appropriate antibiotic use (i.e. guideline adherence) in patients with a complicated urinary tract infection

  1. Rare case of urinary tract infections and the "forgotten" solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Donkelaar, Celine S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413646343; Wortel, Ruud C.; Lock, M. T W T|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/148539769

    2015-01-01

    This report presents a rare case of recurrent urinary tract infections in a kidney transplant patient. Analysis revealed a ureteral stump calculus 31 years after bilateral nephrectomy which was disintegrated by means of flexible ureteroscopy and holmium laser. In case of unexplained recurrent

  2. METABOLIC BASIS OF URINARY TRACT INFECTION PROPHYLAXIS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Kuprienko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The most essential data, predisposing to onset and recurrence of urinary tract infection in children are included in the review. Mineral, carbohydrate and purin metabolism monitoring both in active stage and remission of pyelonephritis is necessary for elaboration individual schemes of primary and secondary prophylaxis of chronic renal disease in children.

  3. Genito-urinary tract infections among males: implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Each semen sample was evaluated for sperm cell count and cultured bacteriologically for isolation of genito-urinary tract pathogens; while the blood samples were tested serologically for Treponema pallidium (syphilis) and HIV infections. Results: Of the 396 semen samples, 205(51.5%) had normal sperm counts, 63(15.8%) ...

  4. Prescription status of Respiratory tract infection – a survey report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The present study was carried out to investigate the Self-medication and non-doctor prescribing of drugs used for respiratory tract infection in developing countries. Problems and factors responsible for this practice in SouthIndia. Methods: The survey was based on the questionnaire method; it was carried out from ...

  5. Childhood Urinary Tract Infection in Abakaliki: Etiological Organisms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Childhood Urinary Tract Infection in Abakaliki: Etiological Organisms and Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern. ... Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study carried out at the Children's Outpatient Clinic and Children's Emergency Ward of Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital Abakaliki (EBSUTH). The study was ...

  6. Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of symptomatic urinary tract infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine sensitivity pattern of antimicrobial organism in women presenting with features of urinary tract infections in pregnancy in Aminu Kano teaching hospital Kano. Methods: Retrospective study carried out between January to December 2010, amongst pregnant women attending our antenatal clinic.

  7. [Characteristic features of urinary tract infection in malnourished children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stârcea, Magdalena; Munteanu, Mihaela; Brumariu, O

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to prove a relationship between urinary tract infection and malnutrition in children 0-3 years old, hospitalized in the IVI Pediatric Clinic, Hospital St. Mary Iaşi, between January 2000 and December 2004. We have made a retrospective study for 298 infant and young children with urinary tract infection, 237 eutrophic and 61 malnourished. We studied comparatively the both groups with urinary tract infection (UTI), and we applied statistic methods for results. The statistic methods prove that relative risk for UTI increases in malnutrition, predictive positive value is 72.5%. The clinical manifestation is similar in malnourished and eutrophic, but many co morbidities were associated with dystrophic status. Malformation of urinary tract was associate two times more in malnourished child. The etiology of infection was dominated by Escherichia coli, Proteus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. In malnourished children 5% of UTI was determinate by opportunist etiological agents like: Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Acinetobacter. More frequently, bacterium develops resistance of antibiotics like amino-penicilina, Trimethoprim and Cephalosporin. Accurate and fast diagnosis and treatment of UTI in infant and child with malnutrition is the best way for nutritional rehabilitation and prevention of serious consequence.

  8. Comparative study of reproductive tract infections of female sex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Background: Reproductive tract infections (RTIs) have become international public health problem. Aim: We assessed the RTIs. A community-based study was carried out among female sex workers (FSWs), gynecology clinic patients and general population in Suzhou, China to investigate the major pathogens of. RTIs and ...

  9. Urinary tract infections in children: EAU/ESPU guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Raimund; Dogan, Hasan S; Hoebeke, Piet; Kočvara, Radim; Nijman, Rien J M; Radmayr, Christian; Tekgül, Serdar

    2015-03-01

    In 30% of children with urinary tract anomalies, urinary tract infection (UTI) can be the first sign. Failure to identify patients at risk can result in damage to the upper urinary tract. To provide recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment, and imaging of children presenting with UTI. The recommendations were developed after a review of the literature and a search of PubMed and Embase. A consensus decision was adopted when evidence was low. UTIs are classified according to site, episode, symptoms, and complicating factors. For acute treatment, site and severity are the most important. Urine sampling by suprapubic aspiration or catheterisation has a low contamination rate and confirms UTI. Using a plastic bag to collect urine, a UTI can only be excluded if the dipstick is negative for both leukocyte esterase and nitrite or microscopic analysis is negative for both pyuria and bacteriuria. A clean voided midstream urine sample after cleaning the external genitalia has good diagnostic accuracy in toilet-trained children. In children with febrile UTI, antibiotic treatment should be initiated as soon as possible to eradicate infection, prevent bacteraemia, improve outcome, and reduce the likelihood of renal involvement. Ultrasound of the urinary tract is advised to exclude obstructive uropathy. Depending on sex, age, and clinical presentation, vesicoureteral reflux should be excluded. Antibacterial prophylaxis is beneficial. In toilet-trained children, bladder and bowel dysfunction needs to be excluded. The level of evidence is high for the diagnosis of UTI and treatment in children but not for imaging to identify patients at risk for upper urinary tract damage. In these guidelines, we looked at the diagnosis, treatment, and imaging of children with urinary tract infection. There are strong recommendations on diagnosis and treatment; we also advise exclusion of obstructive uropathy within 24h and later vesicoureteral reflux, if indicated. Copyright © 2014 European

  10. Randomised trial of cranberry-lingonberry juice and Lactobacillus GG drink for the prevention of urinary tract infections in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontiokari, Tero; Sundqvist, Kaj; Nuutinen, M; Pokka, T; Koskela, M; Uhari, M

    2001-01-01

    Objective To determine whether recurrences of urinary tract infection can be prevented with cranberry-lingonberry juice or with Lactobacillus GG drink. Design Open, randomised controlled 12 month follow up trial. Setting Health centres for university students and staff of university hospital. Participants 150 women with urinary tract infection caused by Escherichia coli randomly allocated into three groups. Interventions 50 ml of cranberry-lingonberry juice concentrate daily for six months or 100 ml of lactobacillus drink five days a week for one year, or no intervention. Main outcome measure First recurrence of symptomatic urinary tract infection, defined as bacterial growth ⩾105 colony forming units/ml in a clean voided midstream urine specimen. Results The cumulative rate of first recurrence of urinary tract infection during the 12 month follow up differed significantly between the groups (P=0.048). At six months, eight (16%) women in the cranberry group, 19 (39%) in the lactobacillus group, and 18 (36%) in the control group had had at least one recurrence. This is a 20% reduction in absolute risk in the cranberry group compared with the control group (95% confidence interval 3% to 36%, P=0.023, number needed to treat=5, 95% confidence interval 3 to 34). Conclusion Regular drinking of cranberry juice but not lactobacillus seems to reduce the recurrence of urinary tract infection. What is already known on this topicUp to 60% of women will have a urinary tract infection and a third of them will have several recurrencesVaccinium berries and products containing lactobacilli may affect the coliform bacteria that cause urinary tract infectionWhat this study adds50 ml of cranberry-lingonberry juice concentrate daily reduced recurrences of symptomatic urinary tract infection by about half compared with the control groupLactobacillus GG drink had no effect on recurrenceSelf treatment with cranberry juice may reduce the need for antimicrobials for recurrent urinary

  11. Urinary ATP as an indicator of infection and inflammation of the urinary tract in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, Kiren; Horsley, Harry; Kupelian, Anthony S; Baio, Gianluca; De Iorio, Maria; Sathiananamoorthy, Sanchutha; Khasriya, Rajvinder; Rohn, Jennifer L; Wildman, Scott S.P.; Malone-Lee, James

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:\\ud Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) is a neurotransmitter and inflammatory cytokine implicated in the pathophysiology of lower urinary tract disease. ATP additionally reflects microbial biomass thus has potential as a surrogate marker of urinary tract infection (UTI). The optimum clinical sampling method for ATP urinalysis has not been established. We tested the potential of urinary ATP in the assessment of lower urinary tract symptoms, infection and inflammation, and validated sam...

  12. Faecal Escherichia coli from patients with E. coli urinary tract infection and healthy controls who have never had a urinary tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen L; Dynesen, Pia; Larsen, Preben

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are primarily caused by Escherichia coli with the patient's own faecal flora acting as a reservoir for the infecting E. coli. Here we sought to characterize the E. coli faecal flora of UTI patients and healthy controls who had never had a UTI. Up to 20 E. coli...... colonies from each rectal swab were random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) typed for clonality, dominance in the sample and correlation to the infecting UTI isolate in patients. Each distinct clone was phylotyped and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Eighty-seven per cent of the UTI patients...... carried the infecting strain in their faecal flora, and faecal clones causing UTI were more often dominant in the faecal flora. Patients had a larger diversity of E. coli in their gut flora by carrying more unique E. coli clones compared to controls, and patient faecal clones were more often associated...

  13. Infective causes of congenital anomalies

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Aparecida Gomes Pinto

    1981-01-01

    Revisão sumária das causas infecciosas das anomalias congênitas englobando as malformações, que correspondem a estruturas anormais orgânicas ou tissulares decorrentes de erros primários de morfogenese embrionaria e deformações, que se instalam no período fetal da vida intrauterina, correspondentes a alterações de forma e estrutura de órgãos primitivamente bem constituidos.Review of the infective causes of Congenital Anomalies, including Malformations, which arise during the embryonic period a...

  14. The importance of hyponatremia in febrile urinary tract infection in children: brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Kompani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection is a common infectious disease in children and associated with the risk for renal scarring and long-term complications, usually consists of pyelonephritis and may cause complications such as scars in kidney, hypertension and renal failure. Some studies demonstrated association between urinary tract infection and electrolyte disturbances such as hyponatremia. The present study has been designed for assessment of association between urinary tract infection and hyponatremia in children. Methods: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study has been conducted on 120 children have referred to the Golestan Hospital, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Science from 21 March 2011 until 20 March 2013. A total of 120 children who were aged 6 months to 12 years and had febrile urinary tract infection. The study population and were classified into two group of sixty children: hyponatremic and nonhyponatremic. We compared the laboratory findings in two groups with each other. The data included serum sodiom level, white blood cell (WBC count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C-reactive protein (CRP and ddimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA scan results collected from children with febrile urinary tract infections admitted in pediatric ward. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics, chi-square and independent T-test with SPSS software, ver. 20 (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA. Results: In this study, 120 patients, 104 females (86.7% and 16 males (13.3% aged six months to 12 years were evaluated. All the patients were studied in terms of positive DMSA Scan. In the first group (hyponatremic 31, and the second group (without hyponatremia 13 patients were identified. There was a significant association between hyponatremia and WBC count, ESR, CRP, duration of fever and abnormal DMSA scan. Conclusion: We conclude that there is significant association between hyponatremia and severity of urinary tract infection in children.

  15. Intractable urinary tract infection in a renal transplant recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Renuka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are the most common bacterial infections after renal transplantation and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Recurrent or relapsing infections are not uncommon in the early post-transplant period and superadded fungal UTI can occur in these patients, posing a difficult therapeutic problem. Literature on recurrent UTI after transplant as well as the ideal approach to such patients is scanty. We present the case of a renal al-lograft recipient who presented with relapsing bacterial UTI complicated by systemic fungemia; also, a brief review of fungal UTI is attempted.

  16. Intractable urinary tract infection in a renal transplant recipient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokulnath, Renuka Satish

    2009-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common bacterial infections after renal transplantation and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Recurrent or relapsing infections are not uncommon in the early post-transplant period and superadded fungal UTI can occur in these patients, posing a difficult therapeutic problem. Literature on recurrent UTI after transplant as well as the ideal approach to such patients is scanty. We present the case of a renal allograft recipient who presented with relapsing bacterial UTI complicated by systemic fungemia; also, a brief review of fungal UTI is attempted. (author)

  17. Management of Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pain, anorexia, vomiting and possible kidney scarring.1,2,3. UTIs are usually caused by gram-negative aerobic bacilli; ... UTIs present in children as fever, anorexia, vomiting, lethargy and dysuria. Approximately 80% of the time, Escherichia ..... http://www.guiasalud.es/GPC/GPC_483_ITU_poblacion_. pediatrica_ICS_ing.pdf.

  18. Urinary Tract Infection among Renal Transplant Recipients in Yemen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan S Gondos

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is the most common complication following kidney transplantation (KT, which could result in losing the graft. This study aims to identify the prevalence of bacterial UTI among KT recipients in Yemen and to determine the predisposing factors associated with post renal transplantation UTI. A cross sectional study included of 150 patients, who underwent KT was conducted between June 2010 and January 2011. A Morning mid-stream urine specimen was collected for culture and antibiotic susceptibility test from each recipient. Bacterial UTI was found in 50 patients (33.3%. The prevalence among females 40.3% was higher than males 29%. The UTI was higher in the age group between 41-50 years with a percentage of 28% and this result was statistically significant. Predisposing factors as diabetes mellitus, vesicoureteral reflux, neurogenic bladder and polycystic kidney showed significant association. High relative risks were found for polycystic kidney = 13.5 and neurogenic bladder = 13.5. The most prevalent bacteria to cause UTI was Escherichia coli represent 44%, followed by Staphylococcus saprophyticus 34%. Amikacin was the most effective antibiotic against gram-negative isolates while Ciprofloxacin was the most effective antibiotic against Staphylococcus saprophyticus. In conclusion, there is high prevalence of bacterial UTI among KT recipients in Yemen. Diabetes mellitus, vesicoureteral reflux, neurogenic bladder, polycystic kidney and calculi were the main predisposing factors.

  19. Urinary Tract Infection among Renal Transplant Recipients in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondos, Adnan S; Al-Moyed, Khaled A; Al-Robasi, Abdul Baki A; Al-Shamahy, Hassan A; Alyousefi, Naelah A

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common complication following kidney transplantation (KT), which could result in losing the graft. This study aims to identify the prevalence of bacterial UTI among KT recipients in Yemen and to determine the predisposing factors associated with post renal transplantation UTI. A cross sectional study included of 150 patients, who underwent KT was conducted between June 2010 and January 2011. A Morning mid-stream urine specimen was collected for culture and antibiotic susceptibility test from each recipient. Bacterial UTI was found in 50 patients (33.3%). The prevalence among females 40.3% was higher than males 29%. The UTI was higher in the age group between 41-50 years with a percentage of 28% and this result was statistically significant. Predisposing factors as diabetes mellitus, vesicoureteral reflux, neurogenic bladder and polycystic kidney showed significant association. High relative risks were found for polycystic kidney = 13.5 and neurogenic bladder = 13.5. The most prevalent bacteria to cause UTI was Escherichia coli represent 44%, followed by Staphylococcus saprophyticus 34%. Amikacin was the most effective antibiotic against gram-negative isolates while Ciprofloxacin was the most effective antibiotic against Staphylococcus saprophyticus. In conclusion, there is high prevalence of bacterial UTI among KT recipients in Yemen. Diabetes mellitus, vesicoureteral reflux, neurogenic bladder, polycystic kidney and calculi were the main predisposing factors.

  20. [Bacteria and biofilm in respiratory tract infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Lorenzo

    2009-07-01

    Biofilm is a structured community of bacterial cells included in a self-produced polymeric matrix adherent to an inert or living surface. The main property of biofilm consists of making microrganisms more resistant to exogenous insults. Antibiotic therapy typically resolves symptoms determined by planktonic cells released by biofilms but is not able to eradicate and completely clear biofilm. This is why infections sustained by biofilm-producer bacteria are often recurrent, making mandatory repeated antibiotic treatments. The typical conformation of biofilm, the phenotypical and genetical features existing among the different microrganisms confer a natural resistance to a number of antimicrobials so that it is necessary to test antimicrobial activity against the microbial species itself and also against biofilm, when it is present. Comparative studies, performed on quinolones and beta-lactams, evidenced a significant activity against biofilm produced by pneumococci, haemophyli and pseudomonas as well.

  1. Infant Respiratory Tract Infections or Wheeze and Maternal Vitamin D in Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Nikolas; Søndergaard, Jens; Fisker, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are a common cause of morbidity and mortality in young children and can be associated with wheeze. Vitamin D can have a protective role against RTI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search of Pubmed, Embase and the Cochrane library was performed. Titles and ....... Future intervention studies may need to exceed current recommendations of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy to show benefit against childhood wheeze or infections.......Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are a common cause of morbidity and mortality in young children and can be associated with wheeze. Vitamin D can have a protective role against RTI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search of Pubmed, Embase and the Cochrane library was performed. Titles...... and abstracts were evaluated and selected articles were reviewed by two authors. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effect of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy on RTIs or wheeze in children of 5 years of age or younger. Observational studies on the association between...

  2. Imaging after urinary tract infection in older children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Michael P; Chow, Jeanne S; Johnson, Emilie K; Rosoklija, Ilina; Logvinenko, Tanya; Nelson, Caleb P

    2015-05-01

    There are few guidelines and little data on imaging after urinary tract infections in older children. We determined the clinical yield of renal and bladder ultrasound, and voiding cystourethrogram in older children and adolescents after urinary tract infection. We analyzed findings on voiding cystourethrogram, and renal and bladder ultrasound as well as the clinical history of patients who underwent the 2 studies on the same day between January 2006 and December 2010. We selected for study patients 5 to 18 years old who underwent imaging for urinary tract infection. Those with prior postnatal genitourinary imaging or prenatal hydronephrosis were excluded from analysis. We identified a cohort of 153 patients, of whom 74% were 5 to 8 years old, 21% were 8 to 12 years old and 5% were 12 to 18 years old. Of the patients 77% were female, 78% had a febrile urinary tract infection history and 55% had a history of recurrent urinary tract infections. Renal and bladder ultrasound findings revealed hydronephrosis in 7.8% of patients, ureteral dilatation in 3.9%, renal parenchymal findings in 20% and bladder findings in 12%. No patient had moderate or greater hydronephrosis. Voiding cystourethrogram showed vesicoureteral reflux in 34% of cases and bladder or urethral anomalies in 12%. Reflux was grade I, II-III and greater than III in 5.9%, 26% and 2% of patients, respectively. For any voiding cystourethrogram abnormality the sensitivity and specificity of any renal and bladder ultrasound abnormality were 0.49 (95% CI 0.37-0.62) and 0.76 (95% CI 0.66-0.84), respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 0.58 (95% CI 0.44-0.71) and 0.69 (0.59-0.77), respectively. In older children with a history of urinary tract infection the imaging yield is significant. However, imaging revealed high grade hydronephrosis or high grade vesicoureteral reflux in few patients. Renal ultrasound is not reliable for predicting voiding cystourethrogram findings such as vesicoureteral

  3. Four country healthcare-associated infection prevalence survey: pneumonia and lower respiratory tract infections.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Humphreys, H

    2010-03-01

    In 2006, the Hospital Infection Society was funded by the respective health services in England, Wales, Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland to conduct a prevalence survey of healthcare-associated infection (HCAI). Here, we report the prevalence of pneumonia and lower respiratory tract infection other than pneumonia (LRTIOP) in these four countries. The prevalence of all HCAIs was 7.59% (5743 out of 75 694). Nine hundred (15.7%) of these infections were pneumonia, and 402 (7.0%) were LRTIOP. The prevalence of both infections was higher for males than for females, and increased threefold from those aged <35 to those aged >85 years (P<0.001). At the time of the survey or in the preceding seven days, 23.7% and 18.2% of patients with pneumonia and LRTIOP, respectively, were mechanically ventilated compared to 5.2% of patients in the whole study population. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was the cause of pneumonia and LRTIOP in 7.6% and 18.1% of patients, respectively (P<0.001). More patients with LRTIOP (4.2%) had concurrent diarrhoea due to Clostridium difficile compared to patients with pneumonia (2.4%), but this did not reach statistical significance. Other HCAIs were present in 137 (15.2%) of patients with pneumonia and 66 (16.4%) of those with LRTIOP. The results suggest that reducing instrumentation, such as mechanical ventilation where possible, should help reduce infection. The higher prevalence of MRSA as a cause of LRTIOP suggests a lack of specificity in identifying the microbial cause and the association with C. difficile emphasises the need for better use of antibiotics.

  4. Preventing urinary tract infection: progress toward an effective Escherichia coli vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, Ariel R; Mobley, Harry LT

    2012-01-01

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common, with nearly half of all women experiencing at least one UTI in their lifetime. This high frequency of infection results in huge annual economic costs, decreased workforce productivity and high patient morbidity. At least 80% of these infections are caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). UPEC can reside side by side with commensal strains in the gastrointestinal tract and gain access to the bladder via colonization of the urethra. Antibiotics represent the current standard treatment for UTI; however, even after treatment, patients frequently suffer from recurrent infection with the same or different strains. In addition, successful long-term treatment has been complicated by a rise in both the number of antibiotic-resistant strains and the prevalence of antibiotic-resistance mechanisms. As a result, preventative approaches to UTI, such as vaccination, have been sought. This review summarizes recent advances in UPEC vaccine development and outlines future directions for the field. PMID:22873125

  5. Pin tract infection after uniplanar external fixation of open fractures at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pin tract infection after uniplanar external fixation of open fractures at a national, teaching and referral hospital. ... Background: Pin tract infection is the most common complication of external fixation accounting for 43% of complications. The presence of a pin tract infection leads to subsequent pin loosening and fixation ...

  6. 77 FR 11133 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Complicated Urinary Tract Infections: Developing Drugs for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry on Complicated Urinary Tract Infections: Developing Drugs for Treatment... Urinary Tract Infections: Developing Drugs for Treatment.'' The purpose of this guidance is to assist sponsors in the clinical development of drugs for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections (c...

  7. Causes of Acute Water Scarcity in the Barind Tract, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Bazlar Rashid

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Barind tract is an elevated landmass (about 11-48 m amsl comprised with Pleistocene terraces and is situated in the northwestern part of Bangladesh. At present, this area faces scarcity of water. The present study is an attempt to unveil the causes of water scarcity of the area. Several aspects like change in climatic condition, irrigation practice and drainage characteristics of major rivers are the prime factors for water scarcity. Interpretation of recent satellite imagery and historical records reveal that the major rivers of the area like Ganges (Padma, Tista and Kosi have remarkably migrated from Barind tract during last few hundred years. Shifting of these rivers causes great change in hydrodynamics of the Barind tract. As a result, flow of other related rivers of the area like the Mahananda, Kulic, Tangon, Punarbhaba, Atrai, Little Jamuna, Karatoya and Nagar reduces remarkably in the dry season. As a result aquifers in the area are not recharged sufficiently by river water in the dry season. India constructed Farakka barrage on the Ganges (Padma river in 1975 to divert the flow of water from Bangladesh to the other parts of India. This diversion of water also leads to the decreasing of water in the area. Climatic data interpretation of the last 50 years also reveals that annual rainfall in the area is decreasing while overall temperature is increasing. To boost up the cropping intensity (117% to 200% compared to national average of 174% and to meet present demand 74% of cultivable lands are being irrigated with 96% share of groundwater owing to unavailability or scarcity of rainfall and hence surface water. Irrigation by groundwater has dramatically been increased (250 times in the last 30 years. Due to over exploitation, water table progressively declined (av. rate 0.10 m/year which ultimately leads the area to water scarcity zone. The aquifers are confined or semi-confined and do not get appreciable vertical recharge through clay

  8. Non-Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Urinary Tract Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Mariëlle Beerepoot; Suzanne Geerlings

    2016-01-01

    Increasing antimicrobial resistance has stimulated interest in non-antibiotic prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs). Well-known steps in the pathogenesis of UTIs are urogenital colonization and adherence of uropathogens to uroepithelial cell receptors. To prevent colonization in postmenopausal women, vaginal, but not oral, estrogens have been shown to restore the vagina lactobacilli flora, reduce vaginal colonization with Enterobacteriaceae, and reduce the number of UTIs co...

  9. Urinary tract infections: etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of uropathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Laneve

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infections are a serious health problem affecting millions of people each year.They are the second most common type of infection in the body.The objective of study was to determine the etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of urinary tract infections pathogens isolated in our Patology Clinic laboratory. Materials and Methods: During the period July 2007- July 2008,were analysed 1422 urine samples.The determination of the total microbe load were acquire with an kit of the BIO-DETECTOR while the identification of germs with Apy sistem. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were assaied with the ATB UR strip. Results: About the total of samples analysed, 320 (22% had significant bacteriuria. Escherichia coli was the most common etiologic agent isolated (62%, followed by Klebsiella ssp. (10%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5,95% and Proteus mirabilis (5%. Gram-positive bacteria accounted for only 7.32% , with prevalence of Staphylococcus ssp (5,32 and Enterococcus spp (2%. The most effective antibiotics for Gram- were: Imipenem, Amikacin, Ceftazidime and Cefotaxim, while for Gram+ were: Minocyclin,Vancomycin and Oxacillin. Conclusion: Escherichia coli was the microrganism more frequently isolated between Gram negative bacteria with very susceptible to Amoxicillin. Currently, the empirical use of Cotrimoxazole and Amoxicillin is not recommended for Enterobacteriaceae. Urinary tract infections are more common in women than in men. Men are more likely to get a UTI once past the age of 65. Current data on the prevalence of multidrug resistance among urinary tract isolates should be a consideration to change the current empiric treatment of IVU.

  10. Novel Approaches to Preventing Urinary Tract Infection in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Acad Sci USA 1988;85:6157-6161. 8. Boren T, Falk P, Roth KA, Larson G, Normark S. Attachment of Helicobacter pylori to human gastric epithelium...plasma membrane. They serve as eukaryotic cell adhesion sites for many pathogens and their toxins, including E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Helicobacter ...women. Postgrad Med J 1972;48:69-75. 2. Stamm WE, McKevitt M, Roberts PL, White NJ. Natural history of recurrent urinary tract infections in women

  11. Renal scar formation after urinary tract infection in children

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Young Seo

    2012-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common bacterial illness in children. Acute pyelonephritis in children may lead to renal scarring with the risk of later hypertension, preeclampsia during pregnancy, proteinuria, and renal insufficiency. Until now, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) has been considered the most important risk factor for post-UTI renal scar formation in children. VUR predisposes children with UTI to pyelonephritis, and both are associated with renal scarring. However, reflux nephrop...

  12. Causes of gas formations in the urinary tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenett, M.; Hollihan, K.; Longin, F.

    1985-01-01

    During diagnostic procedures for various diseases, five patients underwent intravenous pyelograms which showed gas formations in the collector system, in absence of acute stmptoms. Laboratory chemical, bacteriologic and radiologic examinations explained the origin of these gas formations. In one patient with diabetes mellitus and in another with an esophageal neoplasm, infections were caused by gas forming bacteria. In three cases, bladder fistula formations were present by Crohn's disease, colon diverticulosis and a gynecological malignancy.

  13. Causes of gas formations in the urinary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenett, M.; Hollihan, K.; Longin, F.

    1985-01-01

    During diagnostic procedures for various diseases, five patients underwent intravenous pyelograms which showed gas formations in the collector system, in absence of acute stmptoms. Laboratory chemical, bacteriologic and radiologic examinations explained the origin of these gas formations. In one patient with diabetes mellitus and in another with an oesophageal neoplasm, infections were caused by gas forming bacteria. In three cases, bladder fistula formations were present by Crohn's disease, colon diverticulosis and a gynecological malignancy. (orig.) [de

  14. Risk factors for lower respiratory tract infections in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silfeler, I.; Tanidir, I.C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Acute respiratory tract infections are divided into two groups as upper and lower respiratory tract infections. These are very common diseases in childhood. In this study, we aimed to determine risk factors for lower respiratory tract in this region. Methodology: Hospital were included in our study. Their examinations, backgrounds, family histories and information about environmental factors were recorded in questionnaire forms. Results: Lack of vaccination, duration of breast feeding, onset age of cow's milk, family history for asthma and food allergy, number of hospitalized people in the same room, number of people who live in same house and smoking around the children were evaluated for the presence of LRTI, and LRTI risks of these factors were respectively observed as 1.69, 1.71, 1.61, 1.69, 1.20, 1.47, 1.56 and 2.63 fold increased. Conclusion: Standardization of clinical diagnosis, accurate and realistic use of antibiotics, correction of nutrition, improvement of socio-economic situation and the elimination of Respiratory Infections. (author)

  15. Current Concepts for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection: Diagnostics and Pathogenesis of Genital Tract Shedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Christine; Corey, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a DNA virus that is efficiently transmitted through intimate genital tract contact and causes persistent infection that cannot be eliminated. HSV-2 may cause frequent, symptomatic self-limited genital ulcers, but in most persons infection is subclinical. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the virus is frequently shed from genital surfaces even in the absence of signs or symptoms of clinical disease and that the virus can be transmitted during these periods of shedding. Furthermore, HSV-2 shedding is detected throughout the genital tract and may be associated with genital tract inflammation, which likely contributes to increased risk of HIV acquisition. This review focuses on HSV diagnostics, as well as what we have learned about the importance of frequent genital HSV shedding for (i) HSV transmission and (ii) genital tract inflammation, as well as (iii) the impact of HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition and transmission. We conclude with discussion of future areas of research to push the field forward. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Current Concepts for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection: Diagnostics and Pathogenesis of Genital Tract Shedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a DNA virus that is efficiently transmitted through intimate genital tract contact and causes persistent infection that cannot be eliminated. HSV-2 may cause frequent, symptomatic self-limited genital ulcers, but in most persons infection is subclinical. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the virus is frequently shed from genital surfaces even in the absence of signs or symptoms of clinical disease and that the virus can be transmitted during these periods of shedding. Furthermore, HSV-2 shedding is detected throughout the genital tract and may be associated with genital tract inflammation, which likely contributes to increased risk of HIV acquisition. This review focuses on HSV diagnostics, as well as what we have learned about the importance of frequent genital HSV shedding for (i) HSV transmission and (ii) genital tract inflammation, as well as (iii) the impact of HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition and transmission. We conclude with discussion of future areas of research to push the field forward. PMID:26561565

  17. Particular Distribution of Enterobacter cloacae Strains Isolated from Urinary Tract Infection within Clonal Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Majid; Bakhshi, Bita; Najar Peerayeh, Shahin

    2016-01-01

    Based on biochemical properties, Enterobacter cloacae represents a large complex of at least 13 variant species, subspecies, and genotypes that progressively identified as the most species causing hospital-acquired infections. The aim of this study was to determine the relevance between phylogenetically related strains within the E. cloacae complex and the frequency of urinary tract infection caused by them. A 268-bp fragment was obtained from hsp60 gene for 50 clinical E. cloacae isolates from urine cultures of inpatients that admitted to six hospitals in Tehran, Iran during December 2012 to November 2013. The 107 nucleotide sequences were analyzed and the evolutionary distances of sequences were computed and neighbor-joining tree was calculated. It showed that all of the genetic clusters have not an equal involvement in pathogenesis of urinary tract infections. Three superior clusters were found, together representing more than two third (80%) of the isolates (cluster VI with 25 members; clusters III and VIII with 9 and 6 members, respectively) and some genetic clusters were absent (IV, X, XII, and xiii), some of which are supposed to be associated with plants and no human infection has been reported. This study, for the first time, reports the unequal contribution of E. cloacae complex subspecies and clusters in urinary tract infections in Iran and together with studies from other countries suggest that the subspecies of E.hormaechei subsp. Oharae is the most prevalent E. cloacae complex subspecies regardless of country under study.

  18. Respiratory viruses in children hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwofie, Theophilus B; Anane, Yaw A; Nkrumah, Bernard; Annan, Augustina; Nguah, Samuel B; Owusu, Michael

    2012-04-10

    Acute respiratory tract infections are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among young children in developing countries. Information on the viral aetiology of acute respiratory infections in developing countries is very limited. The study was done to identify viruses associated with acute lower respiratory tract infection among children less than 5 years. Nasopharyngeal samples and blood cultures were collected from children less than 5 years who have been hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection. Viruses and bacteria were identified using Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and conventional biochemical techniques. Out of 128 patients recruited, 33(25.88%%, 95%CI: 18.5% to 34.2%) were positive for one or more viruses. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) was detected in 18(14.1%, 95%CI: 8.5% to 21.3%) patients followed by Adenoviruses (AdV) in 13(10.2%, 95%CI: 5.5% to 16.7%), Parainfluenza (PIV type: 1, 2, 3) in 4(3.1%, 95%CI: 0.9% to 7.8%) and influenza B viruses in 1(0.8%, 95%CI: 0.0 to 4.3). Concomitant viral and bacterial co-infection occurred in two patients. There were no detectable significant differences in the clinical signs, symptoms and severity for the various pathogens isolated. A total of 61.1% (22/36) of positive viruses were detected during the rainy season and Respiratory Syncytial Virus was the most predominant. The study has demonstrated an important burden of respiratory viruses as major causes of childhood acute respiratory infection in a tertiary health institution in Ghana. The data addresses a need for more studies on viral associated respiratory tract infection.

  19. Respiratory viruses in children hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwofie Theophilus B

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory tract infections are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among young children in developing countries. Information on the viral aetiology of acute respiratory infections in developing countries is very limited. The study was done to identify viruses associated with acute lower respiratory tract infection among children less than 5 years. Method Nasopharyngeal samples and blood cultures were collected from children less than 5 years who have been hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection. Viruses and bacteria were identified using Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and conventional biochemical techniques. Results Out of 128 patients recruited, 33(25.88%%, 95%CI: 18.5% to 34.2% were positive for one or more viruses. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV was detected in 18(14.1%, 95%CI: 8.5% to 21.3% patients followed by Adenoviruses (AdV in 13(10.2%, 95%CI: 5.5% to 16.7%, Parainfluenza (PIV type: 1, 2, 3 in 4(3.1%, 95%CI: 0.9% to 7.8% and influenza B viruses in 1(0.8%, 95%CI: 0.0 to 4.3. Concomitant viral and bacterial co-infection occurred in two patients. There were no detectable significant differences in the clinical signs, symptoms and severity for the various pathogens isolated. A total of 61.1% (22/36 of positive viruses were detected during the rainy season and Respiratory Syncytial Virus was the most predominant. Conclusion The study has demonstrated an important burden of respiratory viruses as major causes of childhood acute respiratory infection in a tertiary health institution in Ghana. The data addresses a need for more studies on viral associated respiratory tract infection.

  20. Species Identification And Antibiotic Susceptibilities Of Coagulase- Negative Staphylococci Isolated From Urinary Tract Infection Specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashmi, A.; Abdullah, F. E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the incidence of Coagulase- negative S. aureusin urinary tract infections and sensitivities of these isolates to antimicrobial agents. Study Design: Cohort study. Place and Duration of Study: Dr. Essa Laboratory and Immunology and Infectious Disease Research Laboratory (IIDRL), Microbiology Department, University of Karachi, from January 2009 to January 2010. Methodology: Urine specimens, suggestive of urinary tract infection (UTI), were identified. Speciation of isolates was done using API-20 Staph.system. Screening of extracellular products was done using SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and Hemolysin on blood-agar plates. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs) of antibiotics was estimated by microtiter well plate method. Frequency and percentages were determined and chi-square test was used for comparing proportions with significance at p < 0.05. Results: Coagulase - negative S. aureus(CONS) were the cause of urinary tract infection in 56 out of 1866 outpatient (3 percent) and 164 of 1261 in patient (13 percent), urinary tract infections (p < 0.001). Two hundred and twenty CONS isolates were identified. The most common CONS identified was S. saprophyticus (31 percent, 68 strains). The relative frequency of Coagulase - negative S. aureus was 6 percent (13 strains). All isolates were sensitive to Vancomycin and Linezolid. Resistance was 69 percent to Ampicillin, 53 percent to Methicillin, and 37.5 percent to Ciprofloxacin. Conclusion: CONS are a potential uropathogens, with capability of slime production and resistance to common empirical prescriptions. This also warrants formulation of an appropriate antibiotic policy that covers CONS. (author)

  1. Subclinical infection of the genital tract with Neisseria meningitidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina S. Lourenço

    Full Text Available We report the isolation of Neisseria meningitidis, characterized as B:NT:P1.7, from a female patient's genital tract in an outpatient clinic for HIV care. The gynecology clinic, as part of the follow up, collects specimens from all patients with HIV infection for routine exams and for early laboratory detection of sexually transmitted diseases . A Gram-negative diplococcus was isolated from the cervix of a heterosexual patient with AIDS. Based on this and other reported cases, urogenital infection with N. meningitidis can no longer be considered uncommon. The rising incidence of N. meningitidis isolated from this and similar sites has significant medical and diagnostic implications.

  2. Hospital-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections: Results of a Cohort Study Performed in an Internal Medicine Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobão, Maria João; Sousa, Paulo

    2017-09-29

    occurred in patients that had the bladder catheter placed in the emergency department, before the admission to the internal medicine ward, which highlights the need to assess the urinary catheterization practices in those departments. The high rate of catheter associated urinary tract infection that occurred in the absence of bladder placement indication reinforces the need to implement prevention strategies that contemplate the reduction of its use. Emergency departments should be part of quality improvement projects in this area. Causes for the early onset of catheter associated urinary tract infection in this cohort should be investigated.

  3. [The pathogenesis and prevention of urinary tract infection in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabad, A L; Minakov, N K; Mkrtchan, G G; Zabirov, K I; Vasil'ev, M M; Khodyreva, L A; Tolstova, S S; Kisina, V I

    1995-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) in females occurs significantly more frequently than in males because of specific anatomical and functional features of female urinary system, sequelae of pregnancy, delivery, gynecological diseases. Much controversy still exists as to pathogenesis of UTI and UTI-induced urinary inflammation. We have examined 233 females of different age with UTI and obtained evidence which shows participation of such factors as early and intensive sex, ignorance of sex hygiene, multiple pregnancies, deliveries, abortions, inflammatory gynecological diseases, anogenital infection in its pathogenesis. These factors were registered 2-4 times more frequently in UTI females than in controls without UTI. Bacteriological urinary and genital findings coincide in 80% of cases in terms of an infective agent. This suggests that it is essential to detect urogenital infection in girls and females as early as possible and to treat it adequately with antibacterial and other drugs. The leading role of an ascending urinogenic route in urinary tract infection from local sources in anogenital zone, sexual factor and the absence of relevant hygienic habits proved most contributing to UTI pathogenesis. This concept serves the basis for UTI prevention in females.

  4. Probiotic agents to protect the urogenital tract against infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, G

    2001-02-01

    The urogenital microflora of a healthy woman comprises approximately 50 species of organisms, which differ in composition according to reproductive stages and exposure to several factors, including antibiotics and spermicides. Infections are very common with > 300 million cases of urinary tract infections, bacterial vaginosis, and yeast vaginitis worldwide per annum. At the time of infection in the bladder and vagina, the urogenital flora is often dominated by the infecting pathogens, in contrast with healthy phases when indigenous organisms dominate. Premenopausal women have a flora of mostly lactobacilli, and certain properties of these strains, including adhesive ability and production of acids, bacteriocins, hydrogen peroxide, and biosurfactants, appear important in conferring protection to the host. Efforts to artificially restore an unbalanced flora with the use of probiotics have met with mixed results but research aimed at selecting scientifically based strains could well provide a reliable alternative treatment and preventive regimen to antibiotics in the future.

  5. Value of Ultrasound in Detecting Urinary Tract Anomalies After First Febrile Urinary Tract Infection in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobrial, Emad E; Abdelaziz, Doaa M; Sheba, Maha F; Abdel-Azeem, Yasser S

    2016-05-01

    Background Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract. Ultrasound is a noninvasive test that can demonstrate the size and shape of kidneys, presence of dilatation of the ureters, and the existence of anatomic abnormalities. The aim of the study is to estimate the value of ultrasound in detecting urinary tract anomalies after first attack of UTI. Methods This study was conducted at the Nephrology Clinic, New Children's Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, from August 2012 to March 2013, and included 30 children who presented with first attack of acute febrile UTI. All patients were subjected to urine analysis, urine culture and sensitivity, serum creatinine, complete blood count, and imaging in the form of renal ultrasound, voiding cysto-urethrography, and renal scan. Results All the patients had fever with a mean of 38.96°C ± 0.44°C and the mean duration of illness was 6.23 ± 5.64 days. Nineteen patients (63.3%) had an ultrasound abnormality. The commonest abnormalities were kidney stones (15.8%). Only 2 patients who had abnormal ultrasound had also vesicoureteric reflux on cystourethrography. Sensitivity of ultrasound was 66.7%, specificity was 37.5%, positive predictive value was 21.1%, negative predictive value was 81.8%, and total accuracy was 43.33%. Conclusion We concluded that ultrasound alone was not of much value in diagnosing and putting a plan of first attack of febrile UTI. It is recommended that combined investigations are the best way to confirm diagnosis of urinary tract anomalies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Risk factors for urinary tract infection after dextranomer/hyaluronic acid endoscopic injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traxel, Erica; DeFoor, William; Reddy, Pramod; Sheldon, Curtis; Minevich, Eugene

    2009-10-01

    Endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid is an option for primary vesicoureteral reflux. Few groups have assessed the rate of urinary tract infection after dextranomer/hyaluronic acid injection. We reviewed our experience with dextranomer/hyaluronic acid injection, and determined the incidence of and risk factors for postoperative urinary tract infection. A retrospective cohort study was performed of all children with primary vesicoureteral reflux treated with dextranomer/hyaluronic acid from 2002 to 2007 at a single institution. Patient demographics and clinical outcomes were abstracted from the medical record. Risk factors for postoperative urinary tract infection, including female gender, preoperative vesicoureteral reflux grade, recurrent urinary tract infection, bladder dysfunction, nephropathy and persistent vesicoureteral reflux after surgery, were analyzed in a multivariate logistic regression model. We treated 311 children, of whom 87% were female and 13% were male (464 renal units), during the study period. Mode of presentation was urinary tract infection in 85% of cases. Mean followup was 2.6 years. Postoperatively urinary tract infection developed in 40 patients (13%) and febrile urinary tract infection developed in 11 (3.5%). Of patients with urinary tract infection 26 had initially negative postoperative voiding cystourethrogram, of whom 16 underwent repeat voiding cystourethrogram and 9 showed recurrent vesicoureteral reflux. Five of these 9 patients had clinical pyelonephritis. Of assessed risk factors only preoperative recurrent urinary tract infection (OR 2.2, p = 0.03) and bladder dysfunction (OR 3.3, p = 0.001) were independent predictors of post-injection urinary tract infection. In our series urinary tract infection after dextranomer/hyaluronic acid injection was rare. Patients with recurrent urinary tract infections and bladder dysfunction preoperatively are at increased risk for urinary tract infection after treatment. Patients

  7. Antimicrobial resistance patterns in community acquired urinary tract infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilani, S.Y.H; Ahmad, N.; Shah, S.R.A.

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most frequent disease for which patients seek medical care. The antimicrobial agents causing UTI and their sensitivity patterns have remarkably changed throughout the world over the past few years. Hence, the present study was designed to explore the uropathogens and their susceptibility to various molecules in our region. Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was conducted at Medical C Unit of Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from January 2015 to January 2016. Patients with clinical features of UTI were evaluated using Urine R/E and Urine culture and sensitivity. Ten antibiotics were checked for susceptibility. Results were analysed using SPSS 17. Results: A total of 630 patients presented with urinary complaints. Of these, 236 patients had more than 8-10 pus cells on urine R/E. They were further evaluated using culture and sensitivity and positive culture was obtained in 75 patients. Of these 34 (45.3%) were males and 41 (54.7%) were females. E Coli was the predominant isolate being present in 49 (65.3%) patients. This was followed by Klebsiella in 9 (12%) patients. Tazobactam-piperacillin and cefoperazone-sulbactam were the most sensitive drugs having overall sensitivity of 96% and 93.3% respectively. The isolates were highly resistant to Fluoroquinolones 77.3% followed by Penicillins 72% and TMP-SMX 69.3%.Conclusion: Antibiotic sensitivity patterns have enormously changed over the past decade. Newer agents are quite efficacious but their use should be highly judicious to prevent the development of resistance to these molecules. (author)

  8. Prevalence and bacterial susceptibility of hospital acquired urinary tract infection

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    Dias Neto José Anastácio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Urinary tract infection is the most common nosocomially acquired infection. It is important to know the etiology and antibiotic susceptibility infectious agents to guide the initial empirical treatment. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of bacterial strains and their antibiotic susceptibility in nosocomially acquired urinary tract infection in a university hospital between January and June 2003. METHODS: We analyzed the data of 188 patients with positive urine culture (= 10(5 colony-forming units/mL following a period of 48 hours after admission. RESULTS: Half of patients were male. Mean age was 50.26 ± 22.7 (SD, range 3 months to 88 years. Gram-negative bacteria were the agent in approximately 80% of cases. The most common pathogens were E. coli (26%, Klebsiella sp. (15%, P. aeruginosa (15% and Enterococcus sp. (11%. The overall bacteria susceptibility showed that the pathogens were more sensible to imipenem (83%, second or third generation cephalosporin and aminoglycosides; and were highly resistant to ampicillin (27% and cefalothin (30%. It is important to note the low susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (42% and norfloxacin (43%. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that if one can not wait the results of urine culture, the best choices to begin empiric treatment are imipenem, second or third generation cephalosporin and aminoglycosides. Cefalothin and ampicillin are quite ineffective to treat these infections.

  9. Percutaneous balloon dilatation of stenotic calyceal diverticular infundibula in patients with recurrent urinary tract infections.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keeling, Aoife N

    2011-02-01

    Renal calyceal diverticula are usually detected as incidental findings on intravenous pyelograms (IVPs) and rarely manifest any clinical signs or symptoms. However, they can interfere with patient\\'s quality of life in a number of instances causing pain, recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs), abscess, systemic sepsis and calculus formation. The purpose of this study was to review the clinical indications, procedure technique and clinical outcome in all patients referred to Interventional Radiology for the percutaneous management of renal calyceal diverticula.

  10. The DMSA scan in paediatric urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditchfield, M.R.; Nadel, H.R.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the present paper was to review the use of the dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan in urinary tract infection at British Columbia's Children's Hospital to determine the frequency of cortical defects and the association between vesico-ureteric reflux and the presence of cortical defects in children with urinary tract infection. A total of 129 consecutive children with a urinary tract infection referred for a DMSA scan in a 2-year period (January 1992-January 1994) were retrospectively studied. The results were analysed in terms of kidneys, and the incidence of cortical defects was determined. Eighty-eight patients (68%) had a radiographic micturating cysto-urethrogram within 6 months of the DMSA scan, and in this group the relationship of defects with vesico-ureteric reflux was determined. Overall, 81/258 (31%) of kidneys had a cortical defect on a DMSA scan. Of those who had a micturating cysto-urethrogram, 53/176 (30%) kidneys had vesico-ureteric reflux, and of those that had reflux, 21/53 (40%) had a cortical defect on a DMSA scan. In the group of children without reflux, 38/123 (31%) had a cortical defect. Renal cortical scan defects are common findings in paediatric urinary infection, and frequently occur in the absence of vesico-ureteric reflux. These defects represent either established scars or acute pyelonephritis that can proceed to scarring. The micturating cysto-urethro-gram alone is insufficient as a screening modality to identify those kidneys at risk of renal scarring. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  11. Prevalence of upper urinary tract anomalies in hospitalized premature infants with urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachharajani, A; Vricella, G J; Najaf, T; Coplen, D E

    2015-05-01

    The 2011 American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines address imaging after initial febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) in infants >2 months of age. We sought to determine the frequency of upper urinary tract anomalies (hydronephrosis and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR)) in hospitalized premature infants with UTI. We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admissions at a tertiary care children's hospital between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2010. We queried the records for UTI, renal ultrasound (US) and voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG). We identified 3518 unique admissions. UTI occurred in 118 infants (3%). Sixty-nine (60%) had a normal US. Renal dilation was predominantly renal pelvic dilation (12%) and isolated caliectasis (22%). VUR was identified in 15 (14%) infants evaluated with a VCUG. VUR was identified in nine (12%) infants without and in seven (16%) with an abnormality on US. Reflux was identified in 7% of male and 38% of female infants with a UTI. Anatomic abnormalities of the upper urinary tract are uncommon in premature infants with a UTI that occurs during neonatal hospitalization. In concordance with the AAP guidelines, a VCUG may not be required in all NICU infants under age 2 months after a single UTI.

  12. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator pocket infection caused by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Like any other foreign bodies, implanted cardiac devices can become infected. Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphilococci are the most common causes of infections of pacemaker and defibrillator systems. In this case an implantable cardioverter defibrillator pocket infection caused by an extremely rare ...

  13. Chronic cheek ulcer caused by odontogenic cutaneous sinus tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoya Sato

    2015-06-01

    Odontogenic cutaneous sinus tracts are often misdiagnosed, and they lead to facial wounds and scarring. Therefore, we must be aware of the possibility of this condition. A dental origin must be considered for chronic ulcers involving the cheek, chin and submental areas. The clinical course of this patient suggests two important clinical issues for prompt diagnosis. First, physical examination, including palpation and probing, are helpful for exploration of sinus tracts. Second, computed tomography is useful to detect the sinus tract and affected teeth. Computed tomography provides radiographic evidence of the relationship between the tooth and cutaneous region, and it may be superior to radiography.

  14. Macrophages Subvert Adaptive Immunity to Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Bau, Gabriela; Platt, Andrew M; van Rooijen, Nico; Randolph, Gwendalyn J; Albert, Matthew L; Ingersoll, Molly A

    2015-07-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections with frequent recurrence being a major medical challenge. Development of effective therapies has been impeded by the lack of knowledge of events leading to adaptive immunity. Here, we establish conclusive evidence that an adaptive immune response is generated during UTI, yet this response does not establish sterilizing immunity. To investigate the underlying deficiency, we delineated the naïve bladder immune cell compartment, identifying resident macrophages as the most populous immune cell. To evaluate their impact on the establishment of adaptive immune responses following infection, we measured bacterial clearance in mice depleted of either circulating monocytes, which give rise to macrophages, or bladder resident macrophages. Surprisingly, mice depleted of resident macrophages, prior to primary infection, exhibited a nearly 2-log reduction in bacterial burden following secondary challenge compared to untreated animals. This increased bacterial clearance, in the context of a challenge infection, was dependent on lymphocytes. Macrophages were the predominant antigen presenting cell to acquire bacteria post-infection and in their absence, bacterial uptake by dendritic cells was increased almost 2-fold. These data suggest that bacterial uptake by tissue macrophages impedes development of adaptive immune responses during UTI, revealing a novel target for enhancing host responses to bacterial infection of the bladder.

  15. Pre-operative urinary tract infection: is it a risk factor for early surgical site infection with hip fracture surgery? A retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassa, Rafik Rd; Khalfaoui, Mahdi Y; Veravalli, Karunakar; Evans, D Alun

    2017-03-01

    The aims of the current study were to determine whether pre-operative urinary tract infections in patients presenting acutely with neck of femur fractures resulted in a delay to surgery and whether such patients were at increased risk of developing post-operative surgical site infections. A retrospective review of all patients presenting with a neck of femur fracture, at a single centre over a one-year period. The hospital hip fracture database was used as the main source of data. UK University Teaching Hospital. All patients ( n  = 460) presenting across a single year study period with a confirmed hip fracture. The presence of pre-operative urinary tract infection, the timing of surgical intervention, the occurrence of post-operative surgical site infection and the pathogens identified. A total of 367 patients were operated upon within 24 hours of admission. Urinary infections were the least common cause of delay. A total of 99 patients (21.5%) had pre-operative urinary tract infection. Post-operatively, a total of 57 (12.4%) patients developed a surgical site infection. Among the latter, 31 (54.4%) did not have a pre-operative urinary infection, 23 (40.4%) patients had a pre-operative urinary tract infection, 2 had chronic leg ulcers and one patient had a pre-operative chest infection. Statistically, there was a strong relationship between pre-operative urinary tract infection and the development of post-operative surgical site infection ( p -value: 0.0005). The results of our study indicate that pre-operative urinary tract infection has a high prevalence amongst those presenting with neck of femur fractures, and this is a risk factor for the later development of post-operative surgical site infection.

  16. Clinical experience with indanyl carbenicillin in urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giamarellou, E; Papazachos, G; Piperakis, G; Daikos, G

    1976-01-01

    A trial was carried out in 30 patients to assess the effectiveness of indanyl carbenicillin in acute or chronic urinary tract infections, many of which were complicated by a pathological urological or medical condition. In all patients, infection was due to a single species of pathogen: E. coli (19), Proteus (6), and Pseudomonas (5). Oral doses of 1 g indanyl carbenicillin were given 6-hourly for an average of 10 days. Results showed a clinical and bacteriological cure in 13 (43.8%) patients. In 6 patients, although there was initial clinical improvement, the pathogen developed resistance during therapy. In 7 patients, there was super-infection with another organism. Four patients were withdrawn early in treatment because of side-effects, mainly gastrointestinal in origin. Indanyl carbenicillin proved very effective in eradicating all strains of Proteus and Pseudomonas and 12 (70.6%) of the 17 strains of E. coli in patients completing the full course of treatment.

  17. Prevention of pin tract infection with titanium-copper alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Toshiharu; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Tohru; Ohtani, Kaori; Zen, Yo; Tomita, Katsuro

    2009-10-01

    The most frequent complication in external fixation is pin tract infection. To reduce the incidence of implant-associated infection, many published reports have looked at preventing bacterial adhesion by treating the pin surface. This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of a Titanium-Copper (Ti-Cu) alloy on implant infection, and to determine the potential use of the Ti-Cu alloy as a biomaterial. Two forms of Ti-Cu alloys were synthesized: one with 1% Cu and the other with 5% Cu. For analyzing infectious behavior, the implants were exposed to Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The reaction of pathogens to the Ti-Cu alloys was compared with their reaction to stainless steel and pure titanium as controls. Both Ti-Cu alloys evidently inhibited colonization by both bacteria. Conversely, cytocompatibility studies were performed using fibroblasts and colony formation on the metals was assessed by counting the number of colonies. Ti-1% Cu alloy showed no difference in the number of colonies compared with the control. External fixator pins made of Ti-Cu alloys were evaluated in a rabbit model. The tissue-implant interactions were analyzed for the presence of infection, inflammatory changes and osteoid-formation. Ti-1% Cu alloy significantly inhibited inflammation and infection, and had excellent osteoid-formation. Copper blood levels were measured before surgery and at 14 days postoperatively. Preoperative and postoperative blood copper values were not statistically different. Overall, it was concluded that Ti-Cu alloys have antimicrobial activity and substantially reduce the incidence of pin tract infection. Ti-1% Cu alloy shows particular promise as a biomaterial. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Grepafloxacin Clinical Program for Lower Respiratory Tract Infections

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    Arne C Rodloff

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper evaluates the clinical trial program in lower respiratory tract infections treated with a new fluoroquinolone antibiotic, grepafloxacin. Unlike older quinolones, grepafloxacin has excellent activity against Gram-positive organisms, which include Streptococcus pneumoniae and “atypical” pathogens Legionella species. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae. Grepafloxacin has a long half-life of 12 to 15 h, which allows once daily dosing. Six studies have been conducted regarding community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections (LRTls, four about community-acquired pneumonia (CAP and two about acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (ABECB . In these studies, grepafloxacin demonstrated clinical equivalence with standard therapies. but, in patients with documented infections. grepafloxacin was statistically superior to amoxycillin in both CAP and ABECB. The new fluoroquinolone has a good safety profile, comparable with that of ciprofloxacin. The most common adverse effects of grepafloxacin were nausea and a metallic taste; however, these effects resulted in only a few discontinuations of therapy. With the increasing prevalence of resistance in pathogens isolated from community-acquired LRTIs, grepafloxacin offers a good alternative for monotherapy in these patients.

  19. Water consumption and urinary tract infections: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ye; Cai, Xiang; Wazir, Romel; Wang, Kunjie; Li, Hong

    2016-06-01

    To address to a better understanding of whether increased water consumption is associated with beneficial effects of urinary tract infections prophylaxis and treatment, and if so, the mechanism involved in this process. Models of the catheterized bladder were infected with Escherichia coli. Artificial urine was supplied at various flow rates and various concentrations to separately assess the "flushing effect" and "dilution effect" of increased water consumption on catheter blockage time, encrustation formation, and bacterial growth. There were no statistical significances regarding catheter blockage time (P = 0.92), encrustation formation, and bacterial growth among bladder models supplied with various flow rates. When the flow rate was set as 1 ml/min, however, there showed significant decrease trend of the time to blockage (P = 0.0005), encrustation formation, and bacterial growth as the concentration of the artificial urine increased except the twofold-concentration urine group. Increased water consumption is associated with beneficial effects of urinary tract infection prophylaxis and treatment, and dilution effect of bacteria nutrition in the urine is at least partly involved in this process if not all, rather than the "flushing effect". Considering the flaws and the in vitro design of the current study, however, an in vivo study is warranted.

  20. Drug and Vaccine Development for the Treatment and Prevention of Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Brien, Valerie P.; Hannan, Thomas J.; Nielsen, Hailyn V.; Hultgren, Scott J.

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most common bacterial infections in humans, affecting millions of people every year. UTI cause significant morbidity in women throughout their lifespan, in infant boys, in older men, in individuals with underlying urinary tract abnormalities, and in those that require long-term urethral catheterization, such as patients with spinal cord injuries or incapacitated individuals living in nursing homes. Serious sequelae include frequent recurrences, pyelonephritis with sepsis, renal damage in young children, pre-term birth, and complications of frequent antimicrobial use including high-level antibiotic resistance and Clostridium difficile colitis. Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) cause the vast majority of UTI, but less common pathogens such as Enterococcus faecalis and other enterococci frequently take advantage of an abnormal or catheterized urinary tract to cause opportunistic infections. While antibiotic therapy has historically been very successful in controlling UTI, the high rate of recurrence remains a major problem, and many individuals suffer from chronically recurring UTI, requiring long-term prophylactic antibiotic regimens to prevent recurrent UTI. Furthermore, the global emergence of multi-drug resistant UPEC in the past ten years spotlights the need for alternative therapeutic and preventative strategies to combat UTI, including anti-infective drug therapies and vaccines. In this chapter, we review recent advances in the field of UTI pathogenesis, with an emphasis on the identification of promising drug and vaccine targets. We then discuss the development of new UTI drugs and vaccines, highlighting the challenges these approaches face and the need for a greater understanding of urinary tract mucosal immunity. PMID:26999391

  1. Triggered Urine Interleukin-6 Correlates to Severity of Symptoms in Nonfebrile Lower Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundén, Fredrik; Butler, Daniel; Wullt, Björn

    2017-07-01

    Objective diagnosis of symptomatic urinary tract infections in patients prone to asymptomatic bacteriuria is compromised by local host responses that are already present and the positive urine culture. We investigated interleukin-6 as a biomarker for nonfebrile urinary tract infection severity and diagnostic thresholds for interleukin-6 and 8, and neutrophils to differentiate between asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract infection. Patients with residual urine and neurogenic bladders due to spinal lesions included in a long-term Escherichia coli 83972 asymptomatic bacteriuria inoculation trial were monitored for 2 years. Symptom scoring and urine sampling to estimate interleukin-6 and 8, and neutrophils were performed regularly monthly and at urinary tract infection episodes. Patients were followed in the complete study for a mean of 19 months (range 10 to 27) and those with asymptomatic bacteriuria with E. coli 83972 were followed a mean of 11 months (range 4 to 19). A total of 37 nonfebrile urinary tract infection episodes with complete data on interleukin-6 and 8, neutrophils and symptom scoring were documented. Interleukin-6 was the only marker that persistently increased during urinary tract infection compared to asymptomatic bacteriuria in pooled and paired intra-individual comparisons (p urinary tract infection symptoms (p urinary tract infection episodes. However, in urinary tract infections with worse symptoms interleukin-6 and neutrophils demonstrated equal good/excellent outcomes. Triggered interleukin-6 correlated to urinary tract infection symptom severity and demonstrated a promising differential diagnostic capacity to discriminate urinary tract infection from asymptomatic bacteriuria. Future studies should explore interleukin-6 as a biomarker of urinary tract infection severity and assess the treatment indication in nonfebrile urinary tract infections. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by

  2. Pheochromocytoma presenting as recurrent urinary tract infections : a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEntee Gerard P

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pheochromocytomas are rare, potentially fatal, neuroendocrine tumors of the adrenal medulla or extra-adrenal paraganglia. Their clinical presentation varies greatly from the classic triad of episodic headache, diaphoresis and tachycardia to include a spectrum of non-specific symptomatology. Case presentation A 43-year-old Caucasian woman was referred to us from primary care services with a three-month history of recurrent urinary tract infections on a background of hypertension, latent autoimmune diabetes of adulthood and autoimmune hypothyroidism. At 38 years she required insulin therapy. Despite medication compliance and dietary control, she reported a recent history of increased insulin requirements and uncontrolled hypertension with concomitant recurrent urinary tract infections. A renal ultrasound examination, to rule out underlying renal pathology, revealed an incidental 8cm right adrenal mass of both solid and cystic components. A subsequent computed tomography of her abdomen and pelvis confirmed a solid heterogeneous mass consistent with a pheochromocytoma. There were no other features suggestive of multiple endocrine neoplasia. Urinary collection over 24 hours revealed grossly elevated levels of catecholamines and metabolites. Following an open right adrenalectomy, our patient's insulin requirements were significantly reduced and her symptoms resolved. Two weeks post-operatively, an iodine-131-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy was negative for residual tumor and metastatic disease. Urinary catecholamine and metabolite concentrations were within the normal range at a follow-up six months later. Conclusion Pheochromocytoma is a rare catecholamine-producing tumor requiring a high index of suspicion for early diagnosis. Our case report serves to highlight the importance of considering pheochromocytoma as a differential diagnosis in the atypical setting of recurrent urinary tract infections and concomitant autoimmune

  3. Risk Factors for Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection and Renal Scarring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, Ron; Shaikh, Nader; Pohl, Hans; Gravens-Mueller, Lisa; Ivanova, Anastasia; Zaoutis, Lisa; Patel, Melissa; deBerardinis, Rachel; Parker, Allison; Bhatnagar, Sonika; Haralam, Mary Ann; Pope, Marcia; Kearney, Diana; Sprague, Bruce; Barrera, Raquel; Viteri, Bernarda; Egigueron, Martina; Shah, Neha; Hoberman, Alejandro

    2015-07-01

    To identify risk factors for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) and renal scarring in children who have had 1 or 2 febrile or symptomatic UTIs and received no antimicrobial prophylaxis. This 2-year, multisite prospective cohort study included 305 children aged 2 to 71 months with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) receiving placebo in the RIVUR (Randomized Intervention for Vesicoureteral Reflux) study and 195 children with no VUR observed in the CUTIE (Careful Urinary Tract Infection Evaluation) study. Primary exposure was presence of VUR; secondary exposures included bladder and bowel dysfunction (BBD), age, and race. Outcomes were recurrent febrile or symptomatic urinary tract infection (F/SUTI) and renal scarring. Children with VUR had higher 2-year rates of recurrent F/SUTI (Kaplan-Meier estimate 25.4% compared with 17.3% for VUR and no VUR, respectively). Other factors associated with recurrent F/SUTI included presence of BBD at baseline (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.07 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09-3.93]) and presence of renal scarring on the baseline (99m)Tc-labeled dimercaptosuccinic acid scan (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.88 [95% CI: 1.22-6.80]). Children with BBD and any degree of VUR had the highest risk of recurrent F/SUTI (56%). At the end of the 2-year follow-up period, 8 (5.6%) children in the no VUR group and 24 (10.2%) in the VUR group had renal scars, but the difference was not statistically significant (adjusted odds ratio: 2.05 [95% CI: 0.86-4.87]). VUR and BBD are risk factors for recurrent UTI, especially when they appear in combination. Strategies for preventing recurrent UTI include antimicrobial prophylaxis and treatment of BBD. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Urinary tract infection among fistula patients admitted at Hamlin fistula hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereje, Matifan; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinesh; Asrat, Daneil; Ayenachew, Fekade

    2017-02-16

    Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) causes a serious health problem and affects millions of people worldwide. Patients with obstetric fistula usually suffer from incontinence of urine and stool, which can predispose them to frequent infections of the urinary tract. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the etiologic agents, drug resistance pattern of the isolates and associated risk factor for urinary tract infection among fistula patients in Addis Ababa fistula hospital, Ethiopia. Across sectional study was conducted from February to May 2015 at Hamlin Fistula Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Socio-demographic characteristics and other UTI related risk factors were collected from study participants using structured questionnaires. The mid-stream urine was collected and cultured on Cysteine lactose electrolyte deficient agar and blood agar. Antimicrobial susceptibility was done by using disc diffusion method and interpreted according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Data was entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Out of 210 fistula patients investigated 169(80.5%) of the patient were younger than 25 years. Significant bacteriuria was observed in 122/210(58.1%) and 68(55.7%) of the isolates were from symptomatic cases. E.coli 65(53.7%) were the most common bacterial pathogen isolated followed by Proteus spp. 31(25.4%). Statistical Significant difference was observed with history of previous UTI (P = 0.031) and history of catheterization (P = 0.001). Gram negative bacteria isolates showed high level of resistance (>50%) to gentamicin and ciprofloxacin, while all gram positive bacteria isolated were showed low level of resistance (20-40%) to most of antibiotic tested. The overall prevalence of urinary tract infection among fistula patient is 58.1%. This study showed that the predominant pathogen of UTI were E.coli followed by Proteus spp. It also showed that amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was a drug of choice for urinary tract

  5. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli metabolite-dependent quiescence and persistence may explain antibiotic tolerance during urinary tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leatham-Jensen, Mary P.; Mokszycki, Matthew E.; Rowley, David C.

    2016-01-01

    infections by interfering with quiescence and persistence. IMPORTANCE Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) affect 10 to 40% of women. In up to 77% of those cases, the recurrent infections are caused by the same uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strain that caused the initial infection. Upon infection...... that can be prevented by various combinations of lysine, methionine, and tyrosine. Moreover, the quiescent state is characteristic of ~80% of E. coli phylogenetic group B2 multilocus sequence type 73 strains, as well as 22.5% of randomly selected UPEC strains isolated from community-acquired urinary tract...... infections in Denmark. In addition, E. coli CFT073 quiescence is not limited to glucose but occurs on agar plates containing a number of other sugars and acetate as sole carbon sources. It is also shown that a number of E. coli CFT073 mini-Tn5 metabolic mutants (gnd, gdhA, pykF, sdhA, and zwf...

  6. Association of pyuria and positive urine culture in children with urinary tract infection

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    Adrian Umboh

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Infections affecting the urinary tract are commonly found in children and responsible as the second cause of morbidity after respiratory tract infections. Objective To detennine the association between pyuria and positive urine culture in children with suspected urinary tract infection (UTI. Methods We reviewed all patients who suffered from suspected UTI with pyuria, aged 1 month to 13 years at the Department of Child Health, Manado Central General Hospital from January 1999 until December 2001. Results Of the 45 patients who suffered from suspected UTI with pyuria, 33 (73% were proved to have UTI (12 males and 21 females. There was significant association between pyuria of more than 20 white cells per high power field visualized and the incidence of UTI (P <0.05, but no association was found between sex and the incidence of UTI. In patients aged 1 year and older, the rate of UTI was higher in female than male, namely 61 % of females and 30% of males had UTI. The main cause of UTI was Escherichia coli (67%. The most common symptoms were fever (94%, vomiting (76%, and upper abdominal pain (55%. Conclusion There was a significant association between patients whom suspected UTI with pyuria and incidence of UTI.

  7. Escherichia coli mediated urinary tract infections: are there distinct uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) pathotypes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrs, Carl F; Zhang, Lixin; Foxman, Betsy

    2005-11-15

    A variety of virulence genes are associated with Escherichia coli mediated urinary tract infections. Particular sets of virulence factors shared by bacterial strains directing them through a particular pathogenesis process are called a "pathotype." Comparison of co-occurrence of potential urinary tract infection (UTI) virulence genes among different E. coli isolates from fecal and UTI collections provides evidence for multiple pathotypes of uropathogenic E. coli, but current understanding of critical genetic differences defining the pathotypes is limited. Discovery of additional E. coli genes involved in uropathogenesis and determination of their distribution and co-occurrences will further define UPEC pathotypes and allow for a more detailed analysis of how these pathotypes might differ in how they cause disease.

  8. Human respiratory syncytial virus load normalized by cell quantification as predictor of acute respiratory tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Novo, Miriam; Boga, José A; Álvarez-Argüelles, Marta E; Rojo-Alba, Susana; Fernández, Ana; Menéndez, María J; de Oña, María; Melón, Santiago

    2018-01-05

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a common cause of respiratory infections. The main objective is to analyze the prediction ability of viral load of HRSV normalized by cell number in respiratory symptoms. A prospective, descriptive, and analytical study was performed. From 7307 respiratory samples processed between December 2014 to April 2016, 1019 HRSV-positive samples, were included in this study. Low respiratory tract infection was present in 729 patients (71.54%). Normalized HRSV load was calculated by quantification of HRSV genome and human β-globin gene and expressed as log10 copies/1000 cells. HRSV mean loads were 4.09 ± 2.08 and 4.82 ± 2.09 log10 copies/1000 cells in the 549 pharyngeal and 470 nasopharyngeal samples, respectively (P respiratory tract infection and 4.22 ± 2.28 log10 copies/1000 cells with upper respiratory tract infection or febrile syndrome (P < 0.05). A possible cut off value to predict LRTI evolution was tentatively established. Normalization of viral load by cell number in the samples is essential to ensure an optimal virological molecular diagnosis avoiding that the quality of samples affects the results. A high viral load can be a useful marker to predict disease progression. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Recurrent urinary tract infections in women: How promising is the use of probiotics?

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    Varsha Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs currently rank amongst the most prevalent bacterial infections, representing a major health hazard. UTIs in females usually start as vaginal infections and ascend to the urethra and bladder. Recurrent UTIs (rUTIs can be defined as at least three episodes of UTI in 1 year or two episodes in 6 months. Various antibiotics have been the mainstay of therapy in ameliorating the incidence of UTIs, but recurrent infections continue to afflict many women. It necessitates the exploitation of alternative antimicrobial therapy. Probiotics have been shown to be effective in varied clinical trials for long-term preventions of rUTI. Because Escherichia coli is the primary pathogen involved in UTIs which spreads from the rectum to vagina and then ascends up the sterile urinary tract, improving the gut or vaginal flora will thus impact the urinary tract. Since a healthy vaginal microbiota is mainly dominated by Lactobacillus species, in this context, exogenously administered probiotics containing Lactobacilli play a pivotal role in reducing the risk of rUTI. The concept of artificially boosting the Lactobacilli numbers through probiotic administration has long been conceived but has been recently shown to be possible. Lactobacilli may especially be useful for women with a history of recurrent, complicated UTIs or on prolonged antibiotic use. Probiotics do not cause antibiotic resistance and may offer other health benefits due to vaginal re-colonisation with Lactobacilli. However, more comprehensive research is still needed, to recommend for probiotics as an alternative to antibiotics.

  10. The potential of photo-deposited silver coatings on Foley catheters to prevent urinary tract infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Ian Richard; Pollini, Mauro; Paladini, Federica

    2016-01-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) represents one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality. The resistance demonstrated by many microorganisms to conventional antibiotic therapies and the increasing health-care costs have recently encouraged the definition of alternative preventive strategies, which can have a positive effect in the management of infections. Antimicrobial urinary catheters have been developed through the photo-chemical deposition of silver coatings on the external and luminal surfaces. The substrates are exposed to ultraviolet radiation after impregnation into a silver-based solution, thus inducing the in situ synthesis of silver particles. The effect of the surface treatment on the material was investigated through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and silver ion release measurements. The ability of microorganisms commonly associated with urinary tract infections was investigated in terms of bacterial viability, proliferation and biofilm development, using Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis as target organisms. The silver coatings demonstrated good distribution of silver particles to the substrate, and proved an effective antibacterial capability in simulated biological conditions. The low values of silver ion release demonstrated the optimum adhesion of the coating. The results indicated a good potential of silver-based antimicrobial materials for prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infection. - Highlights: • Silver nanocoatings were deposited on urinary catheters. • Both luminal and outer surface were successfully treated. • The treated devices demonstrated were effective against different microorganisms. • The antibacterial potential of the devices was assessed.

  11. Emerging nanotechnology based strategies for diagnosis and therapeutics of urinary tract infections: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M S; Das, A P

    2017-11-01

    At present, various diagnostic and therapeutic approaches are available for urinary tract infections. But, still the quest for development of more rapid, accurate and reliable approach is an unending process. The pathogens, especially uropathogens are adapting to new environments and antibiotics day by day rapidly. Therefore, urinary tract infections are evolving as hectic and difficult to eradicate, increasing the economic burden to the society. The technological advances should be able to compete the adaptability characteristics of microorganisms to combat their growth in new environments and thereby preventing their infections. Nanotechnology is at present an extensively developing area of immense scientific interest since it has diverse potential applications in biomedical field. Nanotechnology may be combined with cellular therapy approaches to overcome the limitations caused by conventional therapeutics. Nanoantibiotics and drug delivery using nanotechnology are currently growing areas of research in biomedical field. Recently, various categories of antibacterial nanoparticles and nanocarriers for drug delivery have shown their potential in the treatment of infectious diseases. Nanoparticles, compared to conventional antibiotics, are more beneficial in terms of decreasing toxicity, prevailing over resistance and lessening costs. Nanoparticles present long term therapeutic effects since they are retained in body for relatively longer periods. This review focuses on recent advances in the field of nanotechnology, principally emphasizing diagnostics and therapeutics of urinary tract infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Incidence and clinical implication of nosocomial infections associated with implantable biomaterials – catheters, ventilator-associated pneumonia, urinary tract infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenbichler, Josef Peter; Assadian, Ojan; Boeswald, Michael; Kramer, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Health care associated infections, the fourth leading cause of disease in industrialised countries, are a major health issue. One part of this condition is based on the increasing insertion and implantation of prosthetic medical devices, since presence of a foreign body significantly reduces the number of bacteria required to produce infection. The most significant hospital-acquired infections, based on frequency and potential severity, are those related to procedures e.g. surgical site infections and medical devices, including urinary tract infection in catheterized patients, pneumonia in patients intubated on a ventilator and bacteraemia related to intravascular catheter use. At least half of all cases of nosocomial infections are associated with medical devices. Modern medical and surgical practices have increasingly utilized implantable medical devices of various kinds. Such devices may be utilized only short-time or intermittently, for months, years or permanently. They improve the therapeutic outcome, save human lives and greatly enhance the quality of life of these patients. However, plastic devices are easily colonized with bacteria and fungi, able to be colonized by microorganisms at a rate of up to 0.5 cm per hour. A thick biofilm is formed within 24 hours on the entire surface of these plastic devices once inoculated even with a small initial number of bacteria. The aim of the present work is to review the current literature on causes, frequency and preventive measures against infections associated with intravascular devices, catheter-related urinary tract infection, ventilator-associated infection, and infections of other implantable medical devices. Raising awareness for infection associated with implanted medical devices, teaching and training skills of staff, and establishment of surveillance systems monitoring device-related infection seem to be the principal strategies used to achieve reduction and prevention of such infections. The intelligent use

  13. Infected spinal dermal sinus tract with meningitis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Min; Chuang, Ming-Jung; Cheng, Min-Hsiung

    2011-09-01

    Congenital dermal sinus tract (DST), an uncommon entity of cranial or spinal dysraphism, occurs along the midline neuraxis that may arise from nasion and occiput down to the lumbar and sacral region. It is often diagnosed in infants and children for skin signs, neurological deficits, local infection, meningitis, or abscess. For spinal DST, there is a paucity of case or series report in Taiwan. In this paper, we report a case in a 6-year-old girl. The girl presented with midline lumbar skin dimple, hypertrichosis, and history of bacterial meningitis. She was successful treated by surgical excision of the DST with local infection that ended within the subarachnoid space between L2-3 vertebrae. This case highlights the importance of a thorough examination of the midline craniospinal axis in children with meningitis or history of meningitis.

  14. A Rare Cause of Testicular Metastasis: Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Nesip Manav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic testicular cancers are rare. Primary tumor sources are prostate, lung, and gastrointestinal tract for metastatic testicular cancers. Metastasis of urothelial carcinoma (UC to the testis is extremely rare. Two-thirds of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC is of invasive stage at diagnosis and metastatic sites are the pelvic lymph nodes, liver, lung, and bone. We report a rare case of metastatic UTUC to the testis which has not been reported before, except one case in the literature. Testicular metastasis of UC should be considered in patients with hematuria and testicular swelling.

  15. Cranberry juice and combinations of its organic acids are effective against experimental urinary tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Heidi Dorthe; Struve, Carsten; Christensen, Søren Brøgger

    2017-01-01

    The antibacterial effect of cranberry juice and the organic acids therein on infection by uro28 pathogenic Escherichia coli was studied in an experimental mouse model of urinary tract infection (UTI). Reduced bacterial counts were found in the bladder (P .... coli colonization of the bladder in an experimental mouse model of urinary tract infection and that the organic acids are active agents....

  16. Urinary tract infections in women with urogynaecological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakeman, Marielle M E; Roovers, Jan-Paul W R

    2016-02-01

    Urinary tract infections are common in the field of urogynaecology. Women with persistent urinary symptoms seem more likely to have bacteriuria despite negative cultures. In this review, we will give an overview of the recent insights on the relationship between urinary tract infection and persistent urinary symptoms and possible new therapeutic options. Recently published articles evaluated the prevalence of low-count bacteriuria (≥10 CFU/ml) or intracellular bacterial communities in women with overactive bladder symptoms (OAB). Differences in urinary microbioma observed in women with and without OAB symptoms were evaluated. In the light of these findings, current screening strategies were discussed and alternative screening methods for bacteriuria developed. Low-count bacteriuria (≥10 CFU/ml) seems to be more prevalent in women with OAB. Also intracellular bacterial communities are more commonly detected in these women. The microbioma found in women with urinary symptoms appeared to differ from healthy controls. The current screening methods might be insufficient as they are targeted at detecting uropathogenic Escherichia coli, mostly using a detection threshold of at least 10 CFU/ml and failing to detect intracellular bacterial communities. Studies evaluating the efficacy of treating women with low-count bacteriuria are limited but promising.

  17. Use of Echinacea in upper respiratory tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Jamal; Carter, Ramona

    2005-03-01

    The significant burden of upper respiratory tract infection in adults and children, coupled with a lack of specific treatment options, invites the use of alternative therapies. Echinacea is an herb widely used for the prevention or treatment of upper respiratory tract infection. This review article examines the mechanism of action, dose, and types of Echinacea used for these purposes. The principal mode of action of Echinacea is through immunostimulation. Most Echinacea studies were done in Germany, but their results are difficult to interpret because of variability of experimental parameters. Types of Echinacea commonly used are Echinacea purpurea, E pallida, and E angustifolia. Both the plant's upper parts and roots are used. For oral administration, tablets, extracts, fresh pressed juice, teas, and tinctures have been used. Though studies show a beneficial effect, clear conclusions and recommendations of Echinacea use cannot be made due to a lack of standard product, variability in dose, and variability in outcome measures. Therefore, well-designed studies with consistent standardized measures are required.

  18. Canine bacterial urinary tract infections: new developments in old pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Mary F; Litster, Annette L; Platell, Joanne L; Trott, Darren J

    2011-10-01

    Uncomplicated bacterial urinary tract infections (UTIs) occur commonly in dogs. Persistent or recurrent infections are reported less frequently. They typically occur in dogs with an underlying disease and are sometimes asymptomatic, especially in dogs with predisposing chronic disease. Escherichia coli is the organism most frequently cultured in both simple and complicated UTIs. Organisms such as Enterococcus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. are less common in uncomplicated UTI, but become increasingly prominent in dogs with recurrent UTI. The ability of bacteria to acquire resistance to antimicrobials and/or to evade host immune defence mechanisms is vital for persistence in the urinary tract. Antimicrobial therapy limitations and bacterial strains with such abilities require novel control strategies. Sharing of resistant bacteria between humans and dogs has been recently documented and is of particular concern for E. coli O25b:H4-ST131 strains that are both virulent and multi-drug resistant. The epidemiology of complicated UTIs, pathogenic traits of uropathogens and new therapeutic concepts are outlined in this review. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. An unusual cause of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction

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    Shrenik R. Doshi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO has been reported with bio-prosthetic and mechanical mitral valves (MV, though it is more common with the former. The obstruction can be dynamic or fixed. We hereby report a case of fixed LVOTO following bio-prosthetic MV replacement (MVR.

  20. Urinary tract infection among women attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, E S; Fennell, C L; Stamm, W E

    1984-01-01

    The symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings for 69 women who were seen at a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic and who had acute urinary tract infection (UTI) were compared with those for women who had vaginitis, gonorrhea, or chlamydial infection. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus were the two most common causes of acute cystitis in this population and accounted for 62 (90%) of 69 infections. Forty-three percent of the women had positive tests for antibody-coated bacteria (ACB), an observation implying renal infection although symptoms of upper tract infection were infrequent. Frequency, urgency, dysuria, and suprapubic tenderness were significantly associated with cystitis, whereas vaginal discharge and vulvar itching were associated with vaginitis. There was, however, considerable overlap in symptoms among the four groups of women, and their accurate differentiation required objective information based upon pelvic examination, examination of vaginal fluid, and urinalysis. In the absence of vaginitis on wet mount and mucopurulent cervicitis on examination, pyuria, as determined by examination of centrifuged urine, had an 88% sensitivity, 76% specificity, 61% positive predictive value, and 93% negative predictive value for acute UTI. Because of the high prevalence of positive ACB tests and the possibility that infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and/or Neisseria gonorrhoeae may be mistaken for cystitis, we prefer a five- to seven-day course of antibiotics over single-dose therapy for treatment of patients with possible UTI in the setting of an STD clinic.

  1. Urinary tract infection following successful dextranomer/hyaluronic acid injection for vesicoureteral reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Andrew; Gupta, Amit; Snodgrass, Warren

    2008-05-01

    The incidence of symptomatic urinary tract infection following reflux resolution by endoscopic injection is unclear. We determined the occurrence of febrile and nonfebrile urinary tract infections, and factors relating to development of infection after reflux correction with dextranomer/hyaluronic acid injection. We identified 175 patients with more than 6 months of followup after successful dextranomer/hyaluronic acid injection by one of us (WS) to resolve vesicoureteral reflux. Of these patients data regarding post-injection symptomatic urinary tract infection could be obtained from parents and/or primary care physicians and urological records in 167, who comprised the study group. All patient reported infections were additionally verified by review of medical records. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were done, evaluating factors including gender, age, voiding dysfunction, reflux grade, unilateral vs bilateral reflux, number of pretreatment infections, number of infections within 12 months of injection and febrile vs nonfebrile urinary tract infection in predicting the likelihood of post-injection urinary tract infection. Urinary tract infection occurred in 159 patients (95%) before injection, and was febrile in 82%. With a median followup after reflux correction of 32 months (range 7 to 53) symptomatic infections developed in 40 children (24%), of which half were febrile. Multivariate analysis showed that the number of preoperative urinary tract infections best predicted the likelihood of infection after dextranomer/hyaluronic acid injection. Nearly half of the patients with febrile urinary tract infection undergoing followup cystography had recurrent reflux. Patients with more than 3 pre-injection infections were 8.5 times more likely than those with 1 pre-injection infection to have post-injection symptomatic urinary tract infection. Overall rates of symptomatic and febrile infections after dextranomer/hyaluronic acid reflux resolution

  2. Follow-up after infants younger than 2 months of age with urinary tract infection in Southern Israel: epidemiologic, microbiologic and disease recurrence characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, Evgenia; Tchernin, Dov; Schreyber, Ruth; Muller, Robert; Leibovitz, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    The timing of most recurrences after neonatal urinary tract infection is during the first year of life, with peak incidence 2-6 months after the initial infection. Information on the microbiologic characteristics of recurrent urinary tract infection episodes in relation to the microbiology of the initial episodes is limited. To analyze the epidemiologic/microbiological characteristics of 1st and recurrent urinary tract infection in infants urinary tract infection admitted during 2005-2009 and followed till the age of 1 year. 151 neonates were enrolled (2.7% of all 5617 febrile infants urinary tract infection occurring during the first 2 months of life was 151/73,480 (0.2%) live births during 2005-2009 in southern Israel (2.1 cases/1000 live births). One pathogen was isolated in 133 (88.1%); Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterococcus spp., Morganella morganii, Proteus spp., and Enterobacter spp. represented the most common pathogens (57.9%, 12.2%, 7.9%, 6.7%, 6.1%, and 5%, respectively). Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, and cefuroxime-axetil were the most commonly recommended prophylactic antibiotics (45%, 13.2%, and 8%, respectively). Twenty-three recurrent urinary tract infection episodes were recorded in 20 (13.2%) patients; 6/23 (26%) were diagnosed within one month following 1st episode. E. coli was the most frequent recurrent urinary tract infection pathogen (12/23, 52.2%). No differences were recorded in E. coli distribution between first urinary tract infection vs. recurrent urinary tract infection. Seventeen (74%) recurrent urinary tract infection episodes were caused by pathogens different (phenotypically) from those isolated in 1st episode. Recurrent urinary tract infection occurred in 25.0%, 8.3%, and 0 patients recommended trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, cefuroxime-axetil, or amoxicillin prophylaxis, respectively. (1) The study determined the incidence of urinary tract infection in febrile infants urinary tract infection; (3) recurrent

  3. Urogenital Tract Infection in Asymptomatic Male Patients with Infertility in University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State

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    Ibadin, K. O.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Urogenital tract infection (UTI contributes to the commonest single defined cause of infertility worldwide. To evaluate the role of urogenital tract infection in male with infertility and its association with sperm quality. Methodology and Results: Three hundred and twenty three (323 samples from infertile male subject were screened microbiologically for microorganisms associated with urogenital tract infection with seventy-two (72 age-matched male as controls using microbiological standard procedure. 164 (50.8% infection rate was recorded. The dorminant uropathogen detected or isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (14.0%, Chlamydia trachomatis (11.4%, Escherichia coli (4.3%, Micoplasma genitalium (4.0% Klebsielli aerogenes (4.0%. Others were Staphylococus saprophyticus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Protein mirabilis with 2.7% each respectively, Protein vulgaria treponema pallidum (2.1%, Schistosoma haematobium (0.9% Wulchereria Bancrofti (0.3%, Human immune virus (2.7%. Semen profile of the male patients with urogenital tract infection had abnormal semen quality in this study P<0.05. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Oligospermic infertile male subjects should be screened for urogenital tract infection to further enhance good quality sperms and functions.

  4. Bacterial interference in upper respiratory tract infections: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninger, Michael; Brook, Itzhak; Bernstein, Joel M; Casey, Janet R; Roos, Kristian; Marple, Bradley; Farrar, Judith R

    2011-01-01

    Published definitions of bacterial interference (BI) differ, some focusing on changes in the normal flora and others on changes in subsequent infection. A need for consensus was identified at a roundtable discussion of BI in upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). We conducted a systematic review of the available data to justify a consensus definition of BI specific to URTI as "a dynamic, antagonistic interaction between at least 2 organisms that affects the life cycle of each, changes the microenvironment, and alters the organisms' colonization, invasiveness, and ability to affect the health of the host." Continued communication among the faculty postroundtable was used to identify and refine the search criteria to (1) in vitro and in vivo studies assessing bacterial URTI, (2) BI evaluated by response to treatment of URTI with antimicrobial agents, and (3) bacterial function in relation to interactions between normal (nonpathogenic) and pathological flora. The criteria were applied to systematic searches of MEDLINE (1950 onward), EMBASE (1974 onward), and the Cochrane Library (2007). Twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria, most focused on children with recurrent infections. Qualitative analysis supports the consensus definition. Interfering organisms affected the life cycle of test pathogens and inhibited their colonization, invasiveness, and health outcomes. Data were insufficient for statistical analysis. Interactions between interfering organisms and potential pathogens isolated from the same host can alter response to infection and treatment. More studies are needed, particularly in adults, to understand the role of interfering organisms, the influence of antibiotics, and the potential for recolonization posttreatment.

  5. Recent advances in biosensor based diagnosis of urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M S; Ghosh, S; Nayak, S; Das, A P

    2016-06-15

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are potentially life threatening infections that are associated with high rates of incidence, recurrence and mortality. UTIs are characterized by several chronic infections which may lead to lethal consequences if left undiagnosed and untreated. The uropathogens are consistent across the globe. The most prevalent uropathogenic gram negative bacteria are Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia. Early detection and precise diagnosis of these infections will play a pivotal role in health care, pharmacological and biomedical sectors. A number of detection methods are available but their performances are not upto the mark. Therefore a more rapid, selective and highly sensitive technique for the detection and quantification of uropathogen levels in extremely minute concentrations need of the time. This review brings all the major concerns of UTI at one's doorstep such as clinical costs and incidence rate, several diagnostic approaches along with their advantages and disadvantages. Paying attention to detection approaches with emphasizing biosensor based recent developments in the quest for new diagnostics for UTI and the need for more sophisticated techniques in terms of selectivity and sensitivity is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk factors for symptomatic urinary tract infections in individuals with chronic neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, J; Wöllner, J; Pannek, J

    2016-09-01

    Retrospective investigation. To investigate the association of patient and injury characteristics, as well as bladder management, with the occurrence of patient-reported, symptomatic urinary tract infection(s) UTI(s) in patients with chronic neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD). Tertiary urologic referral center. The patient database was screened for patients with chronic (>12 months) NLUTD who had presented between 2008 and 2012. Patient characteristics, bladder evacuation management, the annual number of patient-reported, symptomatic UTIs and the type of prophylactic treatment to prevent UTIs were collected. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the effects of the investigated risk factors on the occurrence of symptomatic UTI(s) and recurrent symptomatic UTIs (⩾3 annual UTIs). The data of 1104 patients with a mean NLTUD duration of 20.3±11.6 years were investigated. The evacuation method was a significant (P⩽0.004) predictor for the occurrence of symptomatic UTI and recurrent symptomatic UTIs. The greatest annual number of symptomatic UTIs was observed in patients using transurethral indwelling catheters, and the odds of experiencing a UTI and recurrent UTIs were increased more than 10- and 4-fold, respectively. The odds of a UTI or recurrent UTIs were also increased significantly (P⩽0.014) in patients using intermittent catheterization (IC). Botulinum toxin injections into the detrusor increased the odds of a UTI ~10-fold (P=0.03). The bladder evacuation method is the main predictor for symptomatic UTIs in individuals with NLUTD. Transurethral catheters showed the highest odds of symptomatic UTI and should be avoided whenever possible.

  7. Foodborne urinary tract infections (FUTIs: a new paradigm for antimicrobial-resistant foodborne illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lora eNordstrom

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs are among the most common bacterial infections worldwide. Disproportionately affecting women, UTIs exact a substantial public burden each year in terms of direct medical expenses, decreased quality of life, and lost productivity. Increasing antimicrobial resistance among strains of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli challenges successful treatment of UTIs. Community-acquired UTIs were long considered sporadic infections, typically caused by the patients’ native gastrointestinal microbiota; however, the recent recognition of UTI outbreaks with probable foodborne origins has shifted our understanding of UTI epidemiology. Along with this paradigm shift come new opportunities to disrupt the infection process and possibly quell increasing resistance, including the elimination of nontherapeutic antimicrobial use in food-animal production.

  8. Prevalence of recurrent urinary tract infection in children with congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramayani, O. R.; Eyanoer, P. C.; Ritarwan, K.; Siregar, B.; Siregar, R. S.

    2018-03-01

    Prevalence of congenital abnormalities varies from 3.5% up to 43% in pediatrics.This wide interval is due to limited numbers of research. Limitation of data on recurrent urinary tract infection in CAKUT infants as well as symptoms which resemble other diseases makes it quite a challenge. A study of the prospective cohort was established to analyze the prevalence of recurrent UTI among CAKUT in children at Neonatal and Nephrology Paediatric Department of H.Adam Malik Hospital from 2016 to 2017.Urinalysis and urine culture were used to assess the presence of UTI. The result showed that the prevalence of UTI in CAKUT patients reached 64% in which 52% is the obstructive type and 12% non-obstructive type. Pelvic ureteric junction obstruction is the most common cause. Children with known urinary tract problems such as CAKUT are very prone to developing recurrent UTI. Due to a low survival rate of children with ESKD, new strategies are needed to prevent CAKUT, preserve renal function, and reduce associated cardiovascular morbidity. Meanwhile, children with CAKUT requires a multi-disciplinary and longer follow up.

  9. Congenital obstructive posterior urethral membranes and recurrent urinary tract infection: a rare case of congenital hypertrophy of the verumontanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Bancin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Congenital obstructive posterior urethral membranes (COPUM is a complex disease closely related to several pathological changes in kidney development and function, as a result of urinary reflux since in utero. This congenital anomaly of urinary tract potentially causes hydroureteronephrosis that is often associated with recurrent urinary tract infections and, ultimately, one of the most common causes of end-stage renal disease in children.1,2 Congenital hypertrophy of the verumontanum as part of COPUM is very rare. Only a few reports have been written on congenital hypertrophy of the vermontanum causing congenital obstructive uropathy.3-6

  10. Isolation and antibiotic susceptibility of E. coli from urinary tract infections in a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, Sumera; Ahmad Anjum, Aftab; Ijaz, Tayyaba; Asad Ali, Muhammad; Ur Rehman Khan, Muti; Nawaz, Muhammad

    2014-03-01

    The study was conducted to isolate and determine the antibiotic resistance in E. coli from urinary tract infections in a tertiary care hospital, Lahore. Urine samples (n=500) were collected from patients with signs and symptoms of Urinary tract infections. Bacteria were isolated and identified by conventional biochemical profile. Antibiotic resistance pattern of E. coli against different antibiotic was determined by Kirby-Baur method. Bacterial etiological agent was isolated from 402 samples with highest prevalence of E. coli (321, 80%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (9.4%), Proteus species (5.4%) and Pseudomonas species (5.2%). The E. coli were highly resistant to penicillin (100%), amoxicillin (100%) and cefotaxime (89.7%), followed by intermediate level of resistance to ceftazidime (73.8%), cephradine (73.8%), tetracycline (69.4%), doxycycline (66.6%), augmentin (62.6%), gentamycin (59.8%), cefuroxime (58.2%), ciprofloxacin (54.2%), cefaclor (50%), aztreonam (44.8%), ceftriaxone (43.3%), imipenem (43.3%), and low level of resistance to streptomycin (30%), kanamycin (19.9%), tazocin (14%), amikacin (12.7%) and lowest to norfloxacin (11.2%). Out of 321 E. coli isolates, 261 (81%) were declared as multiple drug resistant and 5 (1.5%) were extensive drug resistant. It is concluded that most of the urinary tract infections in human are caused by multiple drug resistant E. coli.

  11. "Urinary Tract Infection"-Requiem for a Heavyweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finucane, Thomas E

    2017-08-01

    "Urinary tract infection" ("UTI") is an ambiguous, expansive, overused diagnosis that can lead to marked, harmful antibiotic overtreatment. "Significant bacteriuria," central to most definitions of "UTI," has little significance in identifying individuals who will benefit from treatment. "Urinary symptoms" are similarly uninformative. Neither criterion is well defined. Bacteriuria and symptoms remit and recur spontaneously. Treatment is standard for acute uncomplicated cystitis and common for asymptomatic bacteriuria, but definite benefits are few. Treatment for "UTI" in older adults with delirium and bacteriuria is widespread but no evidence supports the practice, and expert opinion opposes it. Sensitive diagnostic tests now demonstrate that healthy urinary tracts host a ubiquitous, complex microbial community. Recognition of this microbiome, largely undetectable using standard agar-based cultures, offers a new perspective on "UTI." Everyone is bacteriuric. From this perspective, most people who are treated for a "UTI" would probably be better off without treatment. Elderly adults, little studied in this regard, face particular risk. Invasive bacterial diseases such as pyelonephritis and bacteremic bacteriuria are also "UTIs." Mindful decisions about antibiotic use will require a far better understanding of how pathogenicity arises within microbial communities. It is likely that public education and meaningful informed-consent discussions about antibiotic treatment of bacteriuria, emphasizing potential harms and uncertain benefits, would reduce overtreatment. Emphasizing the microbiome's significance and using the term "urinary tract dysbiosis" instead of "UTI" might also help and might encourage mindful study of the relationships among host, aging, microbiome, disease, and antibiotic treatment. © 2017, Copyright the Author Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  12. An unusual cause for recurrent chest infections.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lobo, Ronstan

    2012-10-01

    We present a case of an elderly non-smoking gentleman who, since 2005, had been admitted multiple times for recurrent episodes of shortness of breath, wheeze, cough and sputum. The patient was treated as exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and\\/or lower respiratory tract infections. Bronchoscopy was done which revealed multiple hard nodules in the trachea and bronchi with posterior tracheal wall sparing. Biopsies confirmed this as tracheopathia osteochondroplastica (TO). He had increasing frequency of admission due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and pseudomonas infections, which failed to clear despite intravenous, prolonged oral and nebulised antibiotics. The patient developed increasing respiratory distress and respiratory failure. The patient died peacefully in 2012. This case report highlights the typical pathological and radiological findings of TO and the pitfalls of misdiagnosing patients with recurrent chest infections as COPD.

  13. Inflammatory response to Escherichia coli urinary tract infection in the neurogenic bladder of the spinal cord injured host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Rajeev; Madden-Fuentes, Ramiro J; Ortiz, Tara K; Balsara, Zarine; Tang, Yuping; Nseyo, Unwanaobong; Wiener, John S; Ross, Sherry S; Seed, Patrick C

    2014-05-01

    Urinary tract infections cause significant morbidity in patients with spinal cord injury. An in vivo spinal cord injured rat model of experimental Escherichia coli urinary tract infection mimics human disease with enhanced susceptibility to urinary tract infection compared to controls. We hypothesized that a dysregulated inflammatory response contributes to enhanced susceptibility to urinary tract infection. Spinal cord injured and sham injured rats were inoculated transurethrally with E. coli. Transcript levels of 84 inflammatory pathway genes were measured in bladder tissue of each group before infection, 24 hours after infection and after 5 days of antibiotic therapy. Before infection quantitative polymerase chain reaction array revealed greater than twofold up-regulation in the proinflammatory factor transcripts slc11a1, ccl4 and il1β, and down-regulation of the antimicrobial peptides lcn2 and mpo in spinal cord injured vs control bladders. At 24 hours after infection spinal cord injured bladders showed an attenuated innate immune response with decreased expression of il6, slc11a1, il1β and lcn2, and decreased il10 and slpi expression compared to controls. Despite clearance of bacteriuria with antibiotics spinal cord injured rats had delayed induction of il6 transcription and a delayed anti-inflammatory response with decreased il10 and slpi transcript levels relative to controls. Spinal cord injured bladders fail to mount a characteristic inflammatory response to E. coli infection and cannot suppress inflammation after infection is eliminated. This may lead to increased susceptibility to urinary tract infection and persistent chronic inflammation through neural mediated pathways, which to our knowledge remain to be defined. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Targeting Deficiencies in the TLR5 Mediated Vaginal Response to Treat Female Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ased S M; Mowbray, Catherine; Lanz, Marcelo; Stanton, Anna; Bowen, Samantha; Varley, Claire L; Hilton, Paul; Brown, Karen; Robson, Wendy; Southgate, Jennifer; Aldridge, Phillip D; Tyson-Capper, Alison; Abraham, Soman; Pickard, Robert S; Hall, Judith

    2017-09-08

    The identification of the host defence peptides as target effectors in the innate defence of the uro-genital tract creates new translational possibilities for immunomodulatory therapies, specifically vaginal therapies to treat women suffering from rUTI, particularly those carrying the TLR5_C1174T SNP. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a microbial disease reported worldwide. Women are particularly susceptible with many suffering debilitating recurrent (r) infections. Treatment is by antibiotics, but such therapy is linked to antibiotic resistance and re-infection. This study explored the innate protective mechanisms of the urogenital tract with the aim of boosting such defences therapeutically. Modelling UTIs in vitro, human vaginal and bladder epithelial cells were challenged with uropathogenic Escherichia coli (CFT073) and microbial PAMPs including flagellin, LPS and peptidoglycan. Flagellin functioning via the TLR5/NFκB pathway was identified as the key UPEC virulence factor causing a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the production of the host-defence peptide (HDP), BD2. BD2-depleted urine samples from bladder infected mice supported increased UPEC growth, strengthening the significance of the HDPs in protecting the urogenital tissues from infection. Clinically, vaginal-douche BD2 concentrations were reduced (p < 0.05) in women suffering rUTIs, compared to age-matched healthy controls with concentrations further decreased (p < 0.05) in a TLR5 392Stop SNP rUTI subgroup. Topical vaginal estrogen treatment increased (p < 0.001) BD2 concentrations in all women, including those carrying the SNP. These data identify therapeutic and antibiotic sparing roles for vaginal immunomodulatory agents that specifically target HDP induction, facilitate bacterial killing and disrupt the UPEC infection cycle.

  15. New treatment options for lower respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, Bela; Szabo, Dora

    2017-09-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) are among the most frequent lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). They represent an increased morbidity and mortality rate in adults. Areas covered: This review describes recent advances regarding solithromycin, zabofloxacin and delafoxacin antibacterial agents that have been recently developed for treatment of CAP and in AECOPD. All of them have been introduced into phase III clinical trials. We will be summarising chemical structures, pharmacokinetics, antibacterial efficacy and toxicity of these agents. The manuscript has been prepared based on available scientific publications. Expert opinion: Novel agents of known antimicrobial classes have been developed that demonstrate treatment options in CAP and in AECOPD. Antimicrobials discussed in this review showed bactericide effect against major respiratory tract pathogens. Each has multiple targets in bacteria, thus enabling them for more potency, even against strains exhibiting resistance to commonly used antibiotics. Solithromycin, delafloxacin and zabofloxcian demonstrate broad-spectrum antibacterial activity together with other beneficial features like intracellular accumulation, anti-inflammatory effect and inhibition of biofilm production. These agents showed moderately severe or mild adverse events and demonstrated favourable tissue penetration. These features can make solithromycin, zabofloxacin and delafloxacin treatment options in LRTIs.

  16. Modern imaging technology for childhood urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccabona, M.; Fotter, R.

    2005-01-01

    Imaging in childhood urinary tract infection (UTI) is still a matter of debate. There are established guidelines, however new knowledge and the changed medical environment have enhanced this ongoing discussion. These new insights have impacted therapy and consequently the imaging algorithm. Modern imaging methods - particularly MRI and modern ultrasound (US) - are less invasive with a lower radiation burden. Additionally, it has been shown that VUR is a poor predictor for renal scarring out, which affects long-term results. Furthermore, the majority of UT malformations is depicted by prenatal US. The most crucial aspect of improving long-term outcome appears to be the early and reliable depiction of UTI and effective treatment to prevent renal scarring. This review tries to present this new knowledge and to discuss the potential of modern imaging. Recent changes in imaging algorithms are highlighted and an outcome-oriented algorithm that addresses these recent developments is proposed, without lightly abandoning established standards. It consists of an orienting US and - for depiction of renal involvement - amplitude coded color Doppler sonography or renal static scintigraphy (considered the gold standard, particularly for evaluating scars); in future MRI may play a role. Based on this concept, only patients with renal damage as well as patients with complex urinary tract malformations or intractable recurrent UTI may have to undergo VCUG. (orig.) [de

  17. Procalcitonin guided antibiotic therapy and hospitalization in patients with lower respiratory tract infections: a prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henzen Christoph

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Lower respiratory tract infections like acute bronchitis, exacerbated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and community-acquired pneumonia are often unnecessarily treated with antibiotics, mainly because of physicians' difficulties to distinguish viral from bacterial cause and to estimate disease-severity. The goal of this trial is to compare medical outcomes, use of antibiotics and hospital resources in a strategy based on enforced evidence-based guidelines versus procalcitonin guided antibiotic therapy in patients with lower respiratory tract infections. Methods and design: We describe a prospective randomized controlled non-inferiority trial with an open intervention. We aim to randomize over a fixed recruitment period of 18 months a minimal number of 1002 patients from 6 hospitals in Switzerland. Patients must be >18 years of age with a lower respiratory tract infections Discussion: Use of and prolonged exposure to antibiotics in lower respiratory tract infections is high. The proposed trial investigates whether procalcitonin-guidance may safely reduce antibiotic consumption along with reductions in hospitalization costs and antibiotic resistance. It will additionally generate insights for improved prognostic assessment of patients with lower respiratory tract infections. Trial registration: ISRCTN95122877

  18. Effect of urinary tract infection on the urinary metabolic characteristic as a risk factor in producing urolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Eskandarifar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Urinary metabolic disorders are one of the most common causes of stone formation in children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of urinary tract infections in the urinary metabolic characteristics as a risk factor in the incidence of urolithiasis. This case-control study was conducted in 222 children with urolithiasis in the range of 6 months to 16 years old in Sanandaj, Kurdistan, Iran during 2012-14. Patients were divided into two groups based on those with urinary tract infection and without urinary tract infection. Then, urine samples were collected from both groups, and levels of calcium, oxalate, citrate, uric acid, creatinine, and cysteine were measured. The collected information was analyzed using software SPSS (version 16. The ratio Average levels of calcium, magnesium, oxalate, cysteine, uric acid to creatinine in urine showed no significant difference between two groups based on statistical analysis. However, the amount of citrate to creatinine in children with urinary tract infection and urolithiasis was clearly less P=0.01. The results of this study show that the urinary tract infection cannot change the urinary metabolic characteristics, but it can be considered as a risk factor in kidney stone formation due to the reduced amount of citrate in the urine.

  19. Clinical and bacteriological effects of pivmecillinam for ESBL-producing Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae in urinary tract infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansåker, Filip; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Sjögren, Ingegerd

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae is increasing and the therapeutic options are limited, especially in primary care. Recent indications have suggested pivmecillinam to be a suitable option. Here, we...

  20. Considering Respiratory Tract Infections and Antimicrobial Sensitivity: An Exploratory Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin, R.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to observe the sensitivity and resistance of status of antibiotics for respiratory tract infection (RTI. Throat swab culture and sensitivity report of 383 patients revealed sensitivity profiles were observed with amoxycillin (7.9%, penicillin (33.7%, ampicillin (36.6%, co-trimoxazole (46.5%, azithromycin (53.5%, erythromycin (57.4%, cephalexin (69.3%, gentamycin (78.2%, ciprofloxacin (80.2%, cephradine (81.2%, ceftazidime (93.1%, ceftriaxone (93.1%. Sensitivity to cefuroxime was reported 93.1% cases. Resistance was found with amoxycillin (90.1%, ampicillin (64.1%, penicillin (61.4%, co-trimoxazole (43.6%, erythromycin (39.6%, and azithromycin (34.7%. Cefuroxime demonstrates high level of sensitivity than other antibiotics and supports its consideration with patients with upper RTI.

  1. Nosocomial urinary tract infections and resistance profile to antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Naz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the risk factors, laboratuary results, distrubition of pathogens and sensitivity to antibiotics in patients with hospital acquired urinary tract infections (HAUTI. 161 HAUTI patients were diagnosed. The most common predisposing factors were identified as long term hospitalization, urinary catheterization, hospitalization at intensive care unit and neurologic diseases. The most commom pathogens isolated were Escherichia coli 33 (29.5 %, Pseudomonas spp. 32 (28.6 % and Klebsiella spp. 12 (10.7 %. The lowest rates of resistance in E.coli, Pseudomonas spp. and Klebsiella spp. were observed to amikacin (respectively 3 %, 9 %, 8 %, to imipenem (9 %, 41 %, 8 %, to piperacilin/tazobactam (PIP/TAZ (24 %, 47 %, 17 % and to ciprofloxasin (52 %, 69 %, 25 %. Mortality was detected in 31(19% of 161 patients diagnosed with HAUTI. As a result, high rate resistance was found in bacterial microorganism, especially in Pseudomonas spp.

  2. Do pollution and climate influence respiratory tract infections in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Saulo Duarte; Gazeta, Rosa Estela; Felgueiras, Ana Paula; Beneli, Patrícia Costa; Coelho, Micheline de S Z S

    2014-01-01

    To review if pollution and climate changes can influence respiratory tract infections in children. Articles published on the subject in PubMed, SciELO, Bireme, EBSCO and UpTodate were reviewed. The following inclusion criteria were considered: scientific papers between 2002 and 2012, study design, the pediatric population, reference documents such as the CETESB and World Health Organization Summary of the data: We analyzed research that correlated respiratory viruses and climate and/or pollution changes. Respiratory syncytial virus has been the virus related most to changes in climate and humidity. Other "old and new" respiratory viruses such as Human Bocavirus, Metapneumovirus, Parechovirus and Parainfuenza would need to be investigated owing to their clinical importance. Although much has been studied with regard to the relationship between climate change and public health, specific studies about its influence on children's health remain scarce.

  3. Prevention and treatment of complicated urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Yamamoto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A complicated urinary tract infection (UTI has relapsing and refractory characteristics, and is sometimes life-threatening because of patient predisposing factors as well as the recent worldwide spread of multi-drug resistant bacteria. Patients with complicated UTI should be treated with effective antimicrobial therapy along with appropriate urological intervention to remove predisposing factors when the symptoms are associated. By contrast, routine use of antimicrobial prophylaxis for asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB is not recommended, as that would contribute to an increase in even more resistant pathogens. Here, four classifications of complicated UTI, which are considered to be clinically important for general urologists, are reviewed, including UTI in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM and those with a neurogenic bladder, as well as catheter-associated UTI (CAUTI and obstructive pyelonephritis secondary to urolithiasis. Appropriate treatment approaches can only be chosen by proper understanding of the etiologies of complicated UTI, as well as correct diagnostic strategies and treatment options.

  4. Do pollution and climate influence respiratory tract infections in children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Duarte Passos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To review if pollution and climate changes can influence respiratory tract infections in children. Data source: articles published on the subject in PubMed, SciELO, Bireme, EBSCO and UpTodate were reviewed. The following inclusion criteria were considered: scientific papers between 2002 and 2012, study design, the pediatric population, reference documents such as the CETESB and World Health Organization Summary of the data: We analyzed research that correlated respiratory viruses and climate and/or pollution changes. Respiratory syncytial virus has been the virus related most to changes in climate and humidity. Other "old and new" respiratory viruses such as Human Bocavirus, Metapneumovirus, Parechovirus and Parainfuenza would need to be investigated owing to their clinical importance. Although much has been studied with regard to the relationship between climate change and public health, specific studies about its influence on children's health remain scarce.

  5. The role of toll-like receptors (TLRs) in urinary tract infections (UTIs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Elham; Behzadi, Payam

    2016-01-01

    Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are caused by different types of microbial agents such as uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and Candida albicans. The presence of strong physical barriers may prevent the breach of pathogens into the urinary tract. However, sometimes the pathogenic microorganisms may pass through the barriers and stimulate the innate and adaptive responses. Among a variety of innate immune responses, Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) are one of the most unique and interesting molecules regarding UTIs. Thus, the authors have focused their attention on the role of TLRs in urinary tract defense against pathogenic microbial agents such as UPEC and C.albicans through this literature review. Several papers regarding UTIs and TLRs including original and review articles were searched by PubMed and Google Scholar. They were studied and the most important aspects in association with the role of TLRs in UTIs were extracted. Additionally, this paper was prepared using the experience of the authors. The TLRs 2, 4 and 5 are the most functional molecules that contribute to urinary tract defense system and UTIs. It is incredible that TLRs are able to detect and recognize different parts of microbial components relating to the same pathogen. Besides, the flexibility of the TLR molecules may lead to identification of different types of microorganisms with different signaling pathways. Our knowledge associated with TLRs and their activities against microbial causative agents of UTIs may help us to prevent, control and treat UTIs at a higher quality level.

  6. Co-existence of Enterobiasis, Urinary Tract Infection and Enuresis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enuresis was assessed using interviewer administered questionnaires. All Enterobius-and/or urinary tract infection-positive children were further evaluated to determine the combined effects of the first two problems on the occurrence of enuresis. The overall prevalence of enterobiasis, urinary tract infection, and enuresis in ...

  7. Asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract infections in women : focus on diabetes mellitus and pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneeberger, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    There is a shortage of evidence for clinical guidelines on diagnosis and management of both asymptomatic bacteriuria (the presence of bacteria in urine without symptoms of an infection) and urinary tract infections in women with diabetes and pregnant women. Asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract

  8. Plasma soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor in children with urinary tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittenhagen, Per; Andersen, Jesper Brandt; Hansen, Anita

    2011-01-01

    In this prospective study we investigated the role of plasma levels of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in children with urinary tract infection.......In this prospective study we investigated the role of plasma levels of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in children with urinary tract infection....

  9. Urinary tract infections in patients with diabetes mellitus: epidemiology, pathogenesis and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, Suzanne E.

    2008-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have a higher prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) compared with patients without DM. They also more often have bacteraemia, with the urinary tract as the most common focus for these infections, as well as

  10. Incidence and risk factors for pin tract infection in external fixation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pin tract infection is a complication when using external fixation. The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence, rate and risk factors for pin tract infections after external fixation in the orthopedics wards in a major teaching hospital in Togo (West Africa). Methods: A one year prospective cohort study ...

  11. Clinical analysis of urinary tract infection in patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y-H; Li, G-Q; Guo, S-M; Che, Y-N; Wang, X; Cheng, F-T

    2017-10-01

    To analyze the related influencing factors of urinary tract infection in patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). A total of 343 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia admitted to this hospital from January 2013 to December 2016, were selected and treated by TURP. Patients were divided into infection group and non-infection group according to the occurrence of urinary tract infection after operation. The possible influencing factors were collected to perform univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. There were 53 cases with urinary tract infection after operation among 343 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia, accounting for 15.5%. The univariate analysis displayed that the occurrence of urinary tract infection in patients undergoing TURP was closely associated with patient's age ≥ 65 years old, complicated diabetes, catheterization for urinary retention before operation, no use of antibiotics before operation and postoperative indwelling catheter duration ≥ 5 d (p urinary tract infection in patients receiving TURP (p urinary tract infection after TURP, while preoperative prophylactic utilization of anti-infective drugs can reduce the occurrence of postoperative urinary tract infection.

  12. Urinary tract infection with Pasteurella multocida in a patient with cat exposure and abnormal urinary tract physiology: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel T. Costanzo, II

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida is a gram-negative organism that commonly colonizes the mouth of cats and dogs, and is known to cause infection in humans associated with animal bites or scratches. Sites of infection other than skin and soft tissue are rare, but have been reported in patients with specific risk factors including anatomical abnormalities or immunosuppression. Herein, we report a case of a symptomatic urinary tract infection caused by P. multocida in a 59 year old female who presented to the hospital with complaints of systemic symptoms including malaise, rigors, and chills, as well as thick, malodorous urine. The patient self-catheterized multiple times daily due to urostomy with Kock pouch. Treatment with piperacillin/tazobactam followed by amoxicillin resulted in resolution of the infection.

  13. Rapid Growth of UropathogenicEscherichia coliduring Human Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Valerie S; Armbruster, Chelsie E; Smith, Sara N; Pirani, Ali; Springman, A Cody; Walters, Matthew S; Nielubowicz, Greta R; Himpsl, Stephanie D; Snitkin, Evan S; Mobley, Harry L T

    2018-03-06

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains cause most uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs). These strains are a subgroup of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) strains that infect extraintestinal sites, including urinary tract, meninges, bloodstream, lungs, and surgical sites. Here, we hypothesize that UPEC isolates adapt to and grow more rapidly within the urinary tract than other E. coli isolates and survive in that niche. To date, there has not been a reliable method available to measure their growth rate in vivo Here we used two methods: segregation of nonreplicating plasmid pGTR902, and peak-to-trough ratio (PTR), a sequencing-based method that enumerates bacterial chromosomal replication forks present during cell division. In the murine model of UTI, UPEC strain growth was robust in vivo , matching or exceeding in vitro growth rates and only slowing after reaching high CFU counts at 24 and 30 h postinoculation (hpi). In contrast, asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) strains tended to maintain high growth rates in vivo at 6, 24, and 30 hpi, and population densities did not increase, suggesting that host responses or elimination limited population growth. Fecal strains displayed moderate growth rates at 6 hpi but did not survive to later times. By PTR, E. coli in urine of human patients with UTIs displayed extraordinarily rapid growth during active infection, with a mean doubling time of 22.4 min. Thus, in addition to traditional virulence determinants, including adhesins, toxins, iron acquisition, and motility, very high growth rates in vivo and resistance to the innate immune response appear to be critical phenotypes of UPEC strains. IMPORTANCE Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains cause most urinary tract infections in otherwise healthy women. While we understand numerous virulence factors are utilized by E. coli to colonize and persist within the urinary tract, these properties are inconsequential unless bacteria can divide

  14. Diagnosis and management of urinary tract infections in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Jessica; Kitlowski, Andrew David; Ou, Derek; Bedolla, John

    2014-07-01

    Urinary tract infections are a heterogeneous group of disorders, involving infection of all or part of the urinary tract, and are defined by bacteria in the urine with clinical symptoms that may be acute or chronic. Approximately 1 million urinary tract infections are treated every year in United States emergency departments. The female-to-male ratio is 6:1. Urinary tract infections are categorized as upper versus lower tract involvement and as uncomplicated versus complicated. The emergency clinician must carefully categorize the infection and take into account patient host factors to optimally treat and disposition patients. A working knowledge of local or at least national susceptibility patterns of the most likely pathogens is essential. A variety of special populations exist that require special management, including pregnant females, patients with anatomic abnormalities, and instrumented patients.

  15. Novel Strategies in the Prevention and Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüthje, Petra; Brauner, Annelie

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are one of the most common bacterial infections, especially in women and children, frequently treated with antibiotics. The alarming increase in antibiotic resistance is a global threat to future treatment of infections. Therefore, alternative strategies are urgently needed. The innate immune system plays a fundamental role in protecting the urinary tract from infections. Antimicrobial peptides form an important part of the innate immunity. They are produced by epithelial cells and neutrophils and defend the urinary tract against invading bacteria. Since efficient resistance mechanisms have not evolved among bacterial pathogens, much effort has been put into exploring the role of antimicrobial peptides and possibilities to utilize them in clinical practice. Here, we describe the impact of antimicrobial peptides in the urinary tract and ways to enhance the production by hormones like vitamin D and estrogen. We also discuss the potential of medicinal herbs to be used in the prophylaxis and the treatment of urinary tract infections. PMID:26828523

  16. Mycobacterium fortuitum causing surgical site wound infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaleem, F.; Usman, J.; Omair, M.; Din, R.U.; Hassan, A.

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacterium fortuitum, a rapidly growing mycobacterium, is ubiquitous in nature. The organism was considered to be a harmless saprophyte but now there have been several reports from different parts of the world wherein it has been incriminated in a variety of human infections. We report a culture positive case of surgical site infection caused by Mycobacterium fortuitum, who responded well to the treatment. (author)

  17. Alimentary Tract as Entry Route for Hantavirus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    A large proportion of hantavirus patients also suffer from gastrointestinal complications of unclear cause. Puumala hantavirus (PUUV), the...in gastric juice for at least some time in pH 3 and is able to infect polarized human Caco-2 monolayers. This small intestinal cell model exhibited

  18. Intensified microbiological investigations in adult patients admitted to hospital with lower respiratory tract infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Jens; Rasmussen, TR; Sommer, T

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the diagnostic yield of a programme with intensified microbiological investigations in immunocompetent adult patients with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). Patients in the study group were included prospectively and consecutively from...... of a microbiological aetiology from 37% with no infiltrates to 62% with infiltrates and recent antibiotic therapy reduced the detection of a microbiological cause of infection from 61% in 36 patients who had not received antibiotic therapy to 39% in 31 patients who had received recent antibiotic therapy prior...... to microbiological sampling. Patients in the study group with known aetiology had higher values of inflammatory markers than patients with unknown aetiology. For Streptococcus pneumoniae infection culture and urine antigen detection were complimentary depending on recent antibiotic therapy since seven of eight...

  19. Pediatric recurrent respiratory tract infections: when and how to explore the immune system? (About 53 cases).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Azami-El-Idrissi, Mohammed; Lakhdar-Idrissi, Mounia; Chaouki, Sanae; Atmani, Samir; Bouharrou, Abdelhak; Hida, Moustapha

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent respiratory tract infections are one of the most frequent reasons for pediatric visits and hospitalization. Causes of this pathology are multiple ranging from congenital to acquired and local to general. Immune deficiencies are considered as underlying conditions predisposing to this pathology. Our work is about to determine when and how to explore the immune system when facing recurrent respiratory infections. This was based on the records of 53 children hospitalized at the pediatrics unit of Hassan II University Hospital, Fez Morocco. Thirty boys and 23 girls with age ranging from 5 months to 12 years with an average age of 2 years were involved in this study. Bronchial foreign body was the main etiology in children of 3 to 6 year old. Gastro-esophageal reflux, which in some cases is a consequence of chronic cough, as well as asthma were most frequent in infants (17 and 15% respectively). Immune deficiency was described in 7.5% of patients and the only death we deplored in our series belongs to this group. Recurrent respiratory tract infections have multiple causes. In our series they are dominated by foreign body inhalation and gastroesophageal reflux, which in some cases is a consequence of a chronic cough. Immune deficiency is not frequent but could influence the prognosis. Therefore immune explorations should be well codified.

  20. Utility of Ultrasonography for Urinary Tract Infections of Infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Chul Ho; Kim, Yun Jeong

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we investigated utility of ultrasonography for urinary tract infections of infants. The results of the research is as follows : 1. The number of infants under one year old was 100 out of 122 infants who were diagnosed as a unitary infection. The ratio of males to females was 1.7 : 1. Seventy-seven infants who underwent three kinds of radiologic examinations such as kidney sonography (51%), 99m TC DMSA-scan (42%), and VCUG (22%). 2. In comparison of correlation between kidney sonography and VCUG, the sensitivity of kidney sonography was 82% while the specificity of kidney sonography was 58%. In comparison of correlation between kidney sonography and 99m TC DMSA-scan, the sensitivity of kidney sonography was 66% while the specificity of kidney sonography was 67%. 3. Utility of kidney sonography showed the highest efficiency when we considered pain, discomfort, a sense of shame, psychological stress when infants may undergo at the examination, side-effect of a contrast agent after the examination, and complication of exposure to radiation.