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  1. Urinary tract infections in hospital pediatrics: many previous antibiotherapy and antibiotics resistance, including fluoroquinolones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraffo, A; Marguet, C; Checoury, A; Boyer, S; Gardrat, A; Houivet, E; Caron, F

    2014-02-01

    We studied antibiotic resistance in pediatric UTIs and we evaluated the impact of antibiotic exposure in the previous 12 months, very little French data being available for this population. We conducted a multicenter prospective study including children consulting for, or admitted in 2 hospitals. Prior antibiotic exposure was documented from their health record. One hundred and ten patients (73 girls), 11 days to 12 years of age, were included in 10 months. Ninety-six percent presented with pyelonephritis, associated to uropathy for 25%. Escherichia coli was predominant (78%), followed by Proteus spp. and Enterococcus spp. The antibiotic resistance rate of E. coli was high and close to that reported for adults with complicated UTIs: amoxicillin 60%, amoxicillin-clavulanate 35%, cefotaxim 5%, trimethoprim-sulfametoxazole 26%, nalidixic acid 9%, ciprofloxacin 7%, gentamycin 1%, nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin 0%. The antibiotic exposure in the previous 12 months involved 62 children (56%) most frequently with β-lactams (89%) for a respiratory tract infection (56%). A clear relationship between exposure and resistance was observed for amoxicillin (71% vs. 46%), first generation (65% vs. 46%) and third generation (9% vs. 3%) cephalosporins, or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (36% vs. 15%). However, antibiotic exposure could not account alone for the results, as suggested by the 7% of ciprofloxacin resistance, observed without any identified previous treatment. Bacterial species and antibiotic resistance level in children are similar to those reported for adults. Antibiotic exposure in the previous 12 months increases the risk of resistance but other factors are involved (previous antibiotic therapies and fecal-oral or mother-to-child transmission). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. 26 CFR 48.6420(a)-2 - Gasoline includible in claim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Refunds and Other Administrative Provisions of Special Application to Retailers and Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6420(a)-2 Gasoline includible in... which was “used on a farm for farming purposes” as defined in paragraph (a) of § 48.6420(c)-1. The type...

  3. Cloning of synthetic gene including antigens against Urinary Tract Infections in pET28a+ vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Haghri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many different bacterial infections in the world that patients are suffering from and research teams are trying to find suitable ways to prevent and treat them. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs are most important infections in the world , and they are more common among women because vaginal cavity is near to urethral opening. The aim of this study is cloning of synthetic gene include antigens against UTIs in pET28a+ vector. Antibiotic resistant has been increasing because of antibiotic overuse recently, so It shows the necessity of developing a vaccine against these infections. There for, it will be imperative to develop a vaccine instead of antibiotics. This infection causes by many organisms, most important of which are Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC, Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae Uropathogenic Escherichia .coli is the most important microorganism that causes these infections more than other bacteria, so in developing a vaccine it is the most important one, that have to be considered. The synthetic Gene which was designed against these three bacteria including antigens which are important and common to cause these infections. This gene has involved 1293bp. It was ordered to Gene Ray Biotechnology. Primers were designed by Gene Runner. Gene and pET28a+ vector was checked by SnappGene. Synthetic gene was multiplied by PCR and cloned in pET28a+ vector. Construct was transformed into E. coli TOP10.The clone was confirmed by PCR, Digestion. This data indicates that this gene can be expressed and it might be a vaccine candidate to protect people from these infections in the future.

  4. [Impact of corrective measures on fluoroquinolones prescriptions for urinary tract infections during a 2-round relevance study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendrin, V; Letranchant, L; Hénard, S; Frentiu, E; Demore, B; Burty, C; May, T; Doco-Lecompte, T

    2012-01-01

    Evaluating the impact of corrective measures on fluoroquinolones (FQ) prescriptions for urinary tract infections (UTI) during a 2-round relevance study on a regional scale. FQ prescriptions of voluntary hospitals were checked by an infectious diseases physician and a pharmacist according to regional guidelines. A first round (R1) took place in January 2008, with feedback and proposal for personalized corrective measures in January 2009. A second round (R2) was organized in June 2009. UTI data were extracted and the results of the two rounds were compared. Four hundred and thirty-five and 302 FQ prescriptions for UTI, coming from 28 and 24 different hospitals, were analyzed at R1 and R2, respectively. Thirty-six percent and 55% of these prescriptions were entirely in accordance with regional guidelines, at respectively R1 and R2 (PUTI through better adhesion to the regional guidelines between the two rounds. This is probably due to first turn results feedback, and corrective measures suggestion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. A cross-sectional study to assess the long-term health status of patients with lower respiratory tract infections, including Q-fever.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, A.S.G. van; Loenhout, J.A.F. van; Peters, J.B.; Rietveld, A.; Paget, W.J.; Akkermans, R.P.; Olde Loohuis, A.; Hautvast, J.L.A.; Velden, J. van der

    2015-01-01

    Patients with a lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) might be at risk for long-term impaired health status. We assessed whether LRTI patients without Q fever are equally at risk for developing long-term symptoms compared to LRTI patients with Q fever. The study was a cross-sectional cohort

  6. Lesion of the commissural nucleus of the solitary tract/A2 noradrenergic neurons facilitates the activation of angiotensinergic mechanisms in response to hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiria-Oliveira, A H; Blanch, G T; De Paula, P M; Menani, J V; Colombari, D S A

    2013-12-19

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of lesions of A2 neurons of the commissural nucleus of the solitary tract (cNTS) alone or combined with the blockade of angiotensinergic mechanisms on the recovery of arterial pressure (AP) to hemorrhage in conscious rats. Male Holtzman rats (280-320g) received an injection of anti-dopamine-beta-hydroxylase-saporin (12.6ng/60nl; cNTS/A2-lesion, n=28) or immunoglobulin G (IgG)-saporin (12.6ng/60nl, sham, n=24) into the cNTS and 15-21days later had a stainless steel cannula implanted in the lateral ventricle. After 6days, rats were submitted to hemorrhage (four blood withdrawals, 2ml/300g of body weight every 10min). Both cNTS/A2-lesioned and sham rats had similar hypotension to hemorrhage (-62±7 and -73±7mmHg, respectively), however cNTS/A2-lesioned rats rapidly recovered from hypotension (-5±3mmHg at 30min), whereas sham rats did not completely recover until the end of the recording (-20±3mmHg at 60min). Losartan (angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonist) injected intracerebroventricularly (100μg/1μl) or intravenously (i.v.) (10mg/kg of body weight) impaired the recovery of AP in cNTS/A2-lesioned rats (-24±6 and -35±7mmHg at 30min, respectively). In sham rats, only i.v. losartan affected the recovery of AP (-39±6mmHg at 60min). The results suggest that lesion of the A2 neurons in the cNTS facilitates the activation of the angiotensinergic pressor mechanisms in response to hemorrhage. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Nephroid metaplasia of the urinary tract. A survey of the literature, with the contribution of 5 new immunohistochemically studied cases, including one case examined by electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Jacobsen, F; Nielsen, J B

    1987-01-01

    Nephroid metaplasia is an unusual lesion confined to the lamina propria of the lower urinary tract. It is defined by a characteristic histologic picture of tubular structures, formed by a single layer of cuboidal cells, surrounded by a thick basement membrane. Two main theories concerning...... the histogenesis of the condition have been proposed: embryonic origin, or metaplasia. Five cases of nephroid metaplasia were studied light-microscopically and by immunohistochemistry for the content of Tamm Horsfall's uromucoprotein. In addition, one case was examined by electron microscopy. The results were...

  8. Including local rainfall dynamics and uncertain boundary conditions into a 2-D regional-local flood modelling cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez, María; Neal, Jeffrey C.; Bates, Paul D.; Coxon, Gemma; Freer, Jim E.; Cea, Luis; Puertas, Jerónimo

    2016-04-01

    flood extent data and measured water levels from a 2007 summer flood event on the river Severn. The area of interest is a 7 km reach in which the river passes through the city of Worcester, a low water slope, subcritical reach in which backwater effects are significant. For this domain, the catchment area between flow gauging stations extends over 540 km2. Four hydrological models from the FUSE framework (Framework for Understanding Structural Errors) were set up to simulate the rainfall-runoff process over this area. At this regional scale, a 2-dimensional hydraulic model that solves the local inertial approximation of the shallow water equations was applied to route the flow, whereas the full form of these equations was solved at the local scale to predict the urban flow field. This nested approach hence allows an examination of water fluxes from the catchment to the building scale, while requiring short setup and computational times. An accurate prediction of the magnitude and timing of the flood peak was obtained with the proposed method, in spite of the unusual structure of the rain episode and the complexity of the River Severn system. The findings highlight the importance of estimating boundary condition uncertainty and local rainfall contribution for accurate prediction of river flows and inundation.

  9. 2005-2006 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) Lidar: Polk County (Including Hampton, Judy, Lake Wales, Peace River (North), and Polk District Remainder Tracts)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is one component of a digital terrain model (DTM) for the SWFWMD Polk District. This record includes information about the LiDAR data for the following...

  10. Upper respiratory tract (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major passages and structures of the upper respiratory tract include the nose or nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat (pharynx), and voice box (larynx). The respiratory system is lined with a mucous membrane that ...

  11. Potash: a global overview of evaporate-related potash resources, including spatial databases of deposits, occurrences, and permissive tracts: Chapter S in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orris, Greta J.; Cocker, Mark D.; Dunlap, Pamela; Wynn, Jeff C.; Spanski, Gregory T.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Gass, Leila; Bliss, James D.; Bolm, Karen S.; Yang, Chao; Lipin, Bruce R.; Ludington, Stephen; Miller, Robert J.; Słowakiewicz, Mirosław

    2014-01-01

    Potash is mined worldwide to provide potassium, an essential nutrient for food crops. Evaporite-hosted potash deposits are the largest source of salts that contain potassium in water-soluble form, including potassium chloride, potassium-magnesium chloride, potassium sulfate, and potassium nitrate. Thick sections of evaporitic salt that form laterally continuous strata in sedimentary evaporite basins are the most common host for stratabound and halokinetic potash-bearing salt deposits. Potash-bearing basins may host tens of millions to more than 100 billion metric tons of potassium oxide (K2O). Examples of these deposits include those in the Elk Point Basin in Canada, the Pripyat Basin in Belarus, the Solikamsk Basin in Russia, and the Zechstein Basin in Germany.

  12. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Urinary tract infections Urinary tract infections > A-Z Health Topics Urinary tract infections (PDF, ... Embed Subscribe To receive Publications email updates Submit Urinary tract infections Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are most often caused ...

  13. Efficacy and safety of ceftazidime-avibactam versus imipenem-cilastatin in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections, including acute pyelonephritis, in hospitalized adults: results of a prospective, investigator-blinded, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, José A; González Patzán, Luis Demetrio; Stricklin, David; Duttaroy, Dipesh D; Kreidly, Zouheir; Lipka, Joy; Sable, Carole

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this prospective phase II, randomized, investigator-blinded study (NCT00690378) was to compare the efficacy and safety of ceftazidime-avibactam and imipenem-cilastatin in hospitalized adults with serious complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI) due to Gram-negative pathogens. Patients aged between 18 and 90 years with cUTI were enrolled and stratified by infection type (acute pyelonephritis or other cUTI) and randomized 1:1 to receive intravenous ceftazidime 500 mg plus avibactam 125 mg every 8 hours or imipenem-cilastatin 500 mg every 6 hours. Patients meeting pre-specified improvement criteria after 4 days could be switched to oral ciprofloxacin. Patients were treated for a total of 7-14 days. The primary efficacy objective was a favorable microbiological response at the test-of-cure (TOC) visit 5-9 days post-therapy in microbiologically evaluable (ME) patients. Overall, 135 patients received study therapy (safety population); 62 were included in the ME population (ceftazidime-avibactam, n = 27; imipenem-cilastatin, n = 35). The predominant uropathogen was Escherichia coli. Favorable microbiological response was achieved in 70.4% of ME patients receiving ceftazidime-avibactam and 71.4% receiving imipenem-cilastatin at the TOC visit (observed difference -1.1% [95% CI: -27.2%, 25.0%]). Among ME patients with ceftazidime-resistant uropathogens, response was observed in 6/7 (85.7%) receiving ceftazidime-avibactam. Adverse events were observed in 67.6% and 76.1% of patients receiving ceftazidime-avibactam and imipenem-cilastatin, respectively. Limitations of the study include the small number of patients in the ME population. The results suggest that the efficacy and safety of ceftazidime-avibactam may be similar to that of imipenem-cilastatin.

  14. Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  15. gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolandas Vaicekauskas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Accurate diagnosis of subepithelial lesions (SELs in the gastrointestinal tract depends on a variety of methods: endoscopy, endoscopic ultrasound and different types of biopsy. Making an error-free diagnosis is vital for the subsequent application of an appropriate treatment. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of deep biopsy via the endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD technique for SELs in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Material and methods: It was a case series study. Deep biopsy via the ESD technique was completed in 38 patients between November 2012 and October 2014. Thirty-eight SELs in the upper gastrointestinal tract of varying size (very small ≤ 1 cm, small 1–2 cm and large ≥ 2 cm by means of the ESD technique after an incision with an electrosurgical knife of the overlying layers and revealing a small part of the lesion were biopsied under direct endoscopic view. Results: Deep biopsy via the ESD technique was diagnostic in 28 of 38 patients (73.3%; 95% CI: 59.7–89.7%. The diagnostic yield for SELs with a clear endophytic shape increased to 91.3%. An evident endophytic appearance of a subepithelial lesion, the mean number of biopsied samples (6.65 ±1.36 and the total size in length of all samples per case (19.88 ±8.07 mm were the main criteria influencing the positiveness of deep biopsy in the diagnostic group compared to the nondiagnostic one (p = 0.001; p = 0.025; p = 0.008. Conclusions : Deep biopsy via the ESD technique is an effective and safe method for the diagnosis of SELs especially with a clear endophytic appearance in a large number of biopsied samples.

  16. Digestive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.F.G. da

    1976-01-01

    Scintiscanning of salivary glands with (sup 99m)Tc is commented. The uses of triolein - and oleic acid labelled with 131 I, 125 I or 82 Br are discussed in the study of fat absorption, as well as 14 C and 191 Y. The use of 57 Co as a radiotracer in the intestinal absorption of vitamin B 12 is analysed. Orientation is given about 51 Cr - albumin clearance in the study of plasmatic protein loss by digestive tract. The radiotracers 131 I, 125 I and 51 Cr are pointed out in the investigation of immunoglobulins. Consideration is given to the quantification of digestive bleedings by the use of 51 Cr [pt

  17. Urinary Tract Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... related to the urinary tract health of women: Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) and Urinary Incontinence (UI). For information on a range of urinary tract health issues for women, men, and children, visit the National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information ...

  18. The genitourinary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currarino, G.

    1985-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the field of pediatric uroradiology, as in most other aspects of radiology, since the last edition of this text was published in 1978. To a large extent, this progress was due to the remarkable advances in, and an increased application of, ultrasound, computed tomography, and nuclear imaging. In this section, an attempt has been made to incorporate and illustrate some of the applications of these diagnostic modalities to pediatric urology. The subjects discussed in this section include a brief account of the major radiologic procedures used in pediatric urology, followed by a review of the most common congenital and acquired diseases of the urinary tract and of the male and female genital tract, precocious puberty and intersex conditions, and disorders of the adrenal glands and related structures

  19. Radiology illustrated. Gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byung Ihn

    2015-01-01

    Radiology Illustrated: Gastrointestinal Tract is the second of two volumes designed to provide clear and practical guidance on the diagnostic imaging of abdominal diseases. The book presents approximately 300 cases with 1500 carefully selected and categorized illustrations of gastrointestinal tract diseases, along with key text messages and tables that will help the reader easily to recall the relevant images as an aid to differential diagnosis., Essential points are summarized at the end of each text message to facilitate rapid review and learning. Additionally, brief descriptions of each clinical problem are provided, followed by case studies of both common and uncommon pathologies that illustrate the roles of the different imaging modalities, including ultrasound, radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

  20. Radiology illustrated. Gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Ihn (ed.) [Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2015-02-01

    Radiology Illustrated: Gastrointestinal Tract is the second of two volumes designed to provide clear and practical guidance on the diagnostic imaging of abdominal diseases. The book presents approximately 300 cases with 1500 carefully selected and categorized illustrations of gastrointestinal tract diseases, along with key text messages and tables that will help the reader easily to recall the relevant images as an aid to differential diagnosis., Essential points are summarized at the end of each text message to facilitate rapid review and learning. Additionally, brief descriptions of each clinical problem are provided, followed by case studies of both common and uncommon pathologies that illustrate the roles of the different imaging modalities, including ultrasound, radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

  1. Gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.D.; Pointon, R.C.S.

    1985-01-01

    At the time of writing, radiotherapy is of only minor use in the management of adenocarcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract, for a number of reasons. First, an exploratory laparotomy is generally needed for diagnosis, and if possible the tumour is resected or by-passed. Second, radiotherapy planning in the upper abdomen is complicated by the proximity of small bowel, kidneys, and spinal cord. Third, it has been assumed that these tumours cause death largely as a result of distant metastases, so that local radiotherapy, even if effective, would contribute little to survival. The continued interest in radiotherapy for this group of tumours arises out of the poor survival rates following surgery, which have not changed for many years, and the morbidity associated with their resection. It was hoped that the addition of cytotoxic agents to radical surgery would improve survival rates in carcinoma of the stomach and intraperitoneal colon. Despite a large number of well-organised prospective trials, using a variety of cytotoxic drugs, there is so far no evidence that the addition of chemotherapy to radical surgery improves survival for either tumour site. The authors are therefore faced with a group of tumours which are not only common, but commonly fatal and many surgeons would accept that a new approach using modern radiotherapy techniques may well be justified. There is evidence that this movement is already taking place for carcinoma of the rectum, and the indications for radiotherapy in this condition will be dealt with below. Before considering these it is worth dwelling briefly on recent changes in surgical and radiological practices which, if they fulfil expectations, might allow radiotherapy to be used for carcinoma of the colon, stomach, and pancreas as it is now used for rectal cancer

  2. Development of a 2-h suicide prevention program for medical staff including nurses and medical residents: A two-center pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagami, Yukako; Kubo, Hiroaki; Katsuki, Ryoko; Sakai, Tomomichi; Sugihara, Genichi; Naito, Chisako; Oda, Hiroyuki; Hayakawa, Kohei; Suzuki, Yuriko; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Naoki; Kobara, Keiji; Cho, Tetsuji; Kuga, Hironori; Takao, Kiyoshi; Kawahara, Yoko; Matsumura, Yumi; Murai, Toshiya; Akashi, Koichi; Kanba, Shigenobu; Otsuka, Kotaro; Kato, Takahiro A

    2018-01-01

    Suicide is a crucial global health concern and effective suicide prevention has long been warranted. Mental illness, especially depression is the highest risk factor of suicide. Suicidal risk is increased in people not only with mental illness but also with physical illnesses, thus medical staff caring for physically-ill patients are also required to manage people with suicidal risk. In the present study, we evaluated our newly developed suicide intervention program among medical staff. We developed a 2-h suicide intervention program for medical staff, based on the Mental Health First Aid (MHFA), which had originally been developed for the general population. We conducted this program for 74 medical staff members from 2 hospitals. Changes in knowledge, perceived skills, and confidence in early intervention of depression and suicide-prevention were evaluated using self-reported questionnaires at 3 points; pre-program, immediately after the program, and 1 month after program. This suicide prevention program had significant effects on improving perceived skills and confidence especially among nurses and medical residents. These significant effects lasted even 1 month after the program. Design was a single-arm study with relatively small sample size and short-term follow up. The present study suggests that the major target of this effective program is nurses and medical residents. Future research is required to validate the effects of the program with control groups, and also to assess long-term effectiveness and actual reduction in suicide rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Urinary tract infections in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michno, Mikolaj; Sydor, Antoni

    Review of urinary tract infections in adults including etiology, pathogenesis, classification and the most important therapeutic recommendations. Urinary tract infections are still a common clinical problem occurring more often in sexually active women, pregnancy, elderly , after catherization of a urinary bladder and urological surgery as well as in the co-existence of diabetes or nephrolithiasis. Due to the anatomical differences, women suffer more often than men. The main etiological factor is Escherichia coli, even though it plays a lesser role in the complicated infections, than in non-complicated ones. Apart from that, the infections may also be caused by atypical microbes, viruses and fungi. Relapses as well as reinfections are typical features of urinary tract infections and in some cases prolonged infections can spread from lower to upper urinary tract contributing to pyelonephritis, urosepsis or even death. These long-term infections can progress in a hidden, insidious, oligosymptomatic or asymptomatic manner leading to irreversible, progressive deterioration of renal function. They can also mask other diseases such as tuberculosis or neoplasms of the urinary tract, which leads to the delayed diagnosis and treatment. Diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections is a complex problem, often requiring specialized procedures as well as hospitalization. The choice of a therapy is determined by the type of infection, general condition, age and coexisting diseases. Rapid diagnosis and implementation of proper pharmacotherapy may shorten the time of treatment and hospitalization, preventing serious complications and reinfections.

  4. Genitourinary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pointon, R.C.S.

    1985-01-01

    The three principal renal tumours are: 1) Renal carcinoma; 2) Carcinoma of the renal pelvis; 3) Wilms' tumour. The first two are discussed in this chapter. Investigations of these tumours include intravenous pyelography, ultrasound and studies and CT scanning

  5. Qualified Census Tracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — A Qualified Census Tract (QCT) is any census tract (or equivalent geographic area defined by the Census Bureau) in which at least 50% of households have an income...

  6. Kidneys and Urinary Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Kidneys and Urinary Tract KidsHealth / For Teens / Kidneys and Urinary Tract What's ... a sign of diabetes . What the Kidneys and Urinary Tract Do Although the two kidneys work together to ...

  7. Genital and Urinary Tract Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... conditions > Genital and urinary tract defects Genital and urinary tract defects E-mail to a friend Please fill ... and extra fluids. What problems can genital and urinary tract defects cause? Genital and urinary tract defects affect ...

  8. Prevalence of urinary tract infection and vesicoureteral reflux in children with lower urinary tract dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Batavia, Jason P; Ahn, Jennifer J; Fast, Angela M; Combs, Andrew J; Glassberg, Kenneth I

    2013-10-01

    Lower urinary tract dysfunction is a common pediatric urological problem that is often associated with urinary tract infection. We determined the prevalence of a urinary tract infection history in children with lower urinary tract dysfunction and its association, if any, with gender, bowel dysfunction, vesicoureteral reflux and specific lower urinary tract conditions. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of children diagnosed with and treated for lower urinary tract dysfunction, noting a history of urinary tract infection with or without fever, gender, bowel dysfunction and vesicoureteral reflux in association with specific lower urinary tract conditions. Of the 257 boys and 366 girls with a mean age of 9.1 years 207 (33%) had a urinary tract infection history, including 88 with at least 1 febrile infection. A total of 64 patients underwent voiding cystourethrogram/videourodynamics, which revealed reflux in 44 (69%). In 119 of the 207 patients all infections were afebrile and 18 underwent voiding cystourethrogram/videourodynamics, which revealed reflux in 5 (28%). A urinary tract infection history was noted in 53% of girls but only 5% of boys (p infection history than patients with idiopathic detrusor overactivity disorder or primary bladder neck dysfunction (each p urinary tract dysfunction have a much higher urinary tract infection incidence than males. This association was most often noted for lower urinary tract conditions in which urinary stasis occurs, including detrusor underutilization disorder and dysfunctional voiding. Reflux was found in most girls with a history of febrile infections. Since reflux was identified in more than a quarter of girls with only afebrile infections who were evaluated for reflux, it may be reasonable to perform voiding cystourethrogram or videourodynamics in some of them to identify reflux. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Childhood Midline Tract Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood midline tract carcinoma occurs in the respiratory tract or other places along the center line of the body. It is sometimes caused by a change in the NUT gene (NUT midline carcinoma). Get information about childhood midline tract carcinoma, including symptoms, tests, and multimodality treatment in this expert-reviewed summary.

  10. [Genes in the development of female genital tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Na; Zhu, Lan; Lang, Jing-he

    2013-12-01

    Female genital tract, which includes oviduct, uterus, and vagina, is critical for female reproduction. In recent years, animal experiments using knockout mice and genetic studies on patients with female genital malformations have contributed substantially to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms in the female genital tract development. Here we review genes that are involved in various stages of female genital tract formation and development.

  11. Odontogenic sinus tracts: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutzky-Goldberg, Iris; Tsesis, Igor; Slutzky, Hagay; Heling, Ilana

    2009-01-01

    To determine the prevalence,location, and distribution of sinus tracts in patients referred for endodontic consultation. This cohort study included 1,119 subjects referred for endodontic consultation, 108 of whom presented with sinus tracts. Following clinical and radiographic examination, the diameter of the rarifying osteitis lesion on the radiograph was measured and the path and origin of the sinus tracts determined. Signs and symptoms, tooth site,buccal/lingual location, and diameter were recorded. Data were statistically analyzed using Pearson chi-square test. Sinus tracts originated mainly from maxillary teeth (63.1%); only 38.9% originated from mandibular teeth. Chronic periapical abscess was the most prevalent diagnosed origin (71.0%). Broken restorations were highly associated with the presence of sinus tracts (53.0%). The most frequent site of orifices was buccal(82.4%), followed by lingual or palatal (12.0%). Orifices on the lingual aspect of the gingiva were observed in mandibularmolars. There was an 86.8% correlation between the occurrence of an apically located sinus tract and apical rarifying osteitis(P<.01). Sinus tract in the lingual or palatal aspect of the gingiva is relatively common. Practitioners should look for signs of sinus tract during routine examination

  12. Treatment ofurinary tract infection inchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Zwolińska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection is the most frequent bacterial infection in children. Its prevalence in the population younger than 14 years of age has been estimated at 5–10%. Its high recurrence, especially in patients with risk factors, poses a significant problem. The risk factors most common in the group of children ≤3 years are congenital defects blocking the flow of urine to the bladder, whereas in older children they most typically include a tendency for constipation and dysfunction of the lower urinary tract. The clinical picture is variable and depends on the child’s age, immunity status, pathogen virulence and localisation of infection. The mildest form of urinary tract infection is asymptomatic bacteriuria, whereas more severe presentations include acute pyelonephritis, acute focal bacterial nephritis and urosepsis. Prognosis is usually good, but under certain circumstances hypertension, proteinuria and chronic kidney disease may develop. Therefore, early introduced appropriate treatment is essential. According to the Polish Society for Paediatric Nephrology guidelines, asymptomatic bacteriuria does not warrant treatment, whereas febrile patients (>38°C under 24 months old with a suspicion for urinary tract infection must be promptly administered antibiotic therapy, after a urine specimen has been obtained for culture. For many years, urinary tract infection has remained a topic of controversy in terms of therapy duration and administration route. Inpatient treatment of children under 3 months of age is an accepted rule. Acute pyelonephritis necessitates a longer therapy, lasting from 7 to 10 days, whereas the duration of treatment of lower urinary tract infection has been cut down to 3 up to 5 days. Routine prophylactic antimicrobial therapy is not recommended following the initial urinary tract infection episode, yet should be considered in special circumstances. Alternative

  13. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... urinary tract infection, or UTI, you're probably thinking about peeing quite a lot. Why? Because it ... Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys ...

  14. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals ... Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Urinary Tract ...

  15. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & ... Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Urinary Tract ...

  16. Frailty and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suskind, Anne M

    2017-09-01

    The incidence of both frailty and lower urinary tract symptoms, including urinary incontinence, overactive bladder, underactive bladder, and benign prostatic hyperplasia, increases with age. However, our understanding of the relationship between frailty and lower urinary tract symptoms, both in terms of pathophysiology and in terms of the evaluation and management of such symptoms, is greatly lacking. This brief review will summarize definitions and measurement tools associated with frailty and will also review the existing state of the literature on frailty and lower urinary tract symptoms in older individuals.

  17. Urinary tract infections during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Jennifer; Briggs, Gerald G; McKeown, Anna; Bustillo, Gerardo

    2004-10-01

    To provide a comprehensive review of urinary tract infections (UTIs) during pregnancy. All aspects of UTIs, including epidemiology, pathogenesis, resistance, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, were reviewed. MEDLINE (1966-August 2003) and Cochrane Library searches were performed using the key search terms urinary tract infection, pyelonephritis, cystitis, asymptomatic bacteriuria, and resistance. All article abstracts were evaluated for relevance. Only articles pertaining to pregnancy were included. The majority of published literature were review articles; the number of original clinical studies was limited. UTIs are the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy. They are characterized by the presence of significant bacteria anywhere along the urinary tract. Pyelonephritis is the most common severe bacterial infection that can lead to perinatal and maternal complications including premature delivery, infants with low birth weight, fetal mortality, preeclampsia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and transient renal insufficiency. Enterobacteriaceae account for 90% of UTIs. The common antibiotics used are nitrofurantoin, cefazolin, cephalexin, ceftriaxone, and gentamicin. Therapeutic management of UTIs in pregnancy requires proper diagnostic workup and thorough understanding of antimicrobial agents to optimize maternal outcome, ensure safety to the fetus, and prevent complications that lead to significant morbidity and mortality in both the fetus and the mother.

  18. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with Neurogenic Bladder and Bowel Why is it important to begin urologic care in infancy and ...

  19. Urinary tract infection - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    UTI - children; Cystitis - children; Bladder infection - children; Kidney infection - children; Pyelonephritis - children ... Craig JC. Long-term antibiotics for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2011;(3):CD001534. PMID: ...

  20. Urinary Tract Infections (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections KidsHealth / For Teens / Urinary Tract Infections What's ... especially girls — visit a doctor. What Is a Urinary Tract Infection? A bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) is ...

  1. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections ( ... Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made ...

  2. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections ( ... Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made ...

  3. Clinical implications of the microbiome in urinary tract diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiergeist, Andreas; Gessner, André

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to outline and evaluate the most recent literature on the role of the microbiome in urinary tract diseases. High throughput molecular DNA sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes enabled the analysis of complex microbial communities inhabiting the human urinary tract. Several recent studies have identified bacterial taxa of the urinary microbiome to impact urinary tract diseases including interstitial cystitis, urgency urinary incontinence or calcium oxalate stone formation. Furthermore, treatment of urinary tract infections by antibiotics globally impacts community profiles of the intestinal microbiota and might indirectly influence human health. Alternative treatment options like application of probiotics for the treatment of urinary tract infections are currently under investigation. The urinary microbiome and its relationship to urinary tract diseases is currently under comprehensive investigation. Further studies are needed to shed light on the role of commensal microbiota for urinary tract infections.

  4. Pediatric urinary tract infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blickman, J.G.

    1991-02-06

    Acute urinary tract infection (UTI) is an important cause of morbidity in children and may be complicated by congenital urinary tract abnormalities of a functional or anatomic nature which, predispose to recurrent UTI's that in turn may lead to renal failure and hypertension. Early radiologic and ultrasonographic investigations may reveal these anatomic anomalies in particular because the urinary tract, specifically in children, is not readily accessible to adequate clinical examinations Excretory urography (EU) has been considered as the 'gold standard' of upper urinary tract visualization, while the voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) was thought to be the preferential method of imaging of the lower urinary tract. Recently, major technical advances have altered this commonly accepted diagnostic workup. Although ultrasonography, radio-nuclide scanning and urodynamics have become important contributors to the understanding of pathophysiology of UTI's their value and place in assessment of the sequence of imaging has not been comprehensively studied. This thesis deals about the optimization of the choice and the order of the different imaging techniques used in the evaluation of children, younger than six year with UTI. (author). 243 refs.; 23 figs.; 8 tabs.

  5. Pediatric urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blickman, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    Acute urinary tract infection (UTI) is an important cause of morbidity in children and may be complicated by congenital urinary tract abnormalities of a functional or anatomic nature which, predispose to recurrent UTI's that in turn may lead to renal failure and hypertension. Early radiologic and ultrasonographic investigations may reveal these anatomic anomalies in particular because the urinary tract, specifically in children, is not readily accessible to adequate clinical examinations Excretory urography (EU) has been considered as the 'gold standard' of upper urinary tract visualization, while the voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) was thought to be the preferential method of imaging of the lower urinary tract. Recently, major technical advances have altered this commonly accepted diagnostic workup. Although ultrasonography, radio-nuclide scanning and urodynamics have become important contributors to the understanding of pathophysiology of UTI's their value and place in assessment of the sequence of imaging has not been comprehensively studied. This thesis deals about the optimization of the choice and the order of the different imaging techniques used in the evaluation of children, younger than six year with UTI. (author). 243 refs.; 23 figs.; 8 tabs

  6. Upper urinary tract tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandrup, Karen L; Nordling, Jørgen; Balslev, Ingegerd

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Computed tomography urography (CTU) is used widely in the work-up of patients with symptoms of urinary tract lesions. Preoperative knowledge of whether a tumor is invasive or non-invasive is important for the choice of surgery. So far there are no studies about the distinction...... of invasive and non-invasive tumors in ureter and renal pelvis based on the enhancement measured with Hounsfield Units. PURPOSE: To examine the value of CTU using split-bolus technique to distinguish non-invasive from invasive urothelial carcinomas in the upper urinary tract. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients...... obtained at CTU could distinguish between invasive and non-invasive lesions. No patients had a CTU within the last year before the examination that resulted in surgery. CONCLUSION: A split-bolus CTU cannot distinguish between invasive and non-invasive urothelial tumors in the upper urinary tract...

  7. UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT HEMORRHAGE AND NONSTEROIDALANTIINFLAMMATORY DRUGS (NSAIDs – A 5-YEAR PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Skok

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adverse effects of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are a common cause of digestive tract hemorrhage.Study aims. The purpose of the study was to ascertain the percent of patients taking NSAIDs with upper digestive tract hemorrhage.Type of study. Prospective, analytical.Patients and methods. The study includes patients in which urgent endoscopic investigations of the upper digestive tract were carried out due to gastrointestinal hemorrhage between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 1998.Results. 3366 patients were investigated: 1222 women and 2144 men; the average age of our patients was 57.5 years (SD ± 17.1, a 2–97 year span. In 2905 patients (86.3% the source of bleeding was confirmed in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Among our patients 55% were aged over 60 years, 26.7% were older than 80 years. Sequelae of peptic ulcer disease were the most significant cause of gastrointestinal hemorrhage, in 47.7% of our patients (1387/2905. In the last week prior to bleeding, 19% of patients (552/2905 were taking regularly NSAIDs, corticosteroids, salycilates or anticoagulant therapy at least in single daily dose. The majority of patients, 94.5%, were taking NSAIDs or salycilates. Among NSAIDs they were taking most often ketoprofen, diclofenac or naproxen/ naproxen natrium, less often ibuprofen, nabumeton, etodolac or piroxicam.Conclusions. Upper digestive tract hemorrhage is a serious complication of NSAIDs medication, particularly in older patients

  8. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys ... topic for: Kids Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting View more Partner Message ...

  9. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys ... topic for: Kids Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting View more About Us ...

  10. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an infection somewhere in your urinary tract. Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? ... bladder, your brain tells you it's time to find a bathroom. Once you're ready to pee, ...

  11. 500 Cities: Census Tract Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This census tract shapefile for the 500 Cities project was extracted from the Census 2010 Tiger/Line database and modified to remove portions of census tracts that...

  12. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is ...

  13. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) ... How Do I Know if I Have a UTI? You may notice signs of a urinary tract ...

  14. Urinary Tract and How It Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... VUR) The Urinary Tract & How It Works The Urinary Tract & How It Works On this page: What is ... a person produces? Clinical Trials What is the urinary tract and how does it work? The urinary tract ...

  15. An Evidence-Based Protocol for Antibiotic Use Prior to Cystoscopy Decreases Antibiotic Use without Impacting Post-Procedural Symptomatic Urinary Tract Infection Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Justin R; Bhalla, Rohan G; Cook, J Paul; Kang, Caroline; Dmochowski, Roger; Talbot, Thomas R; Barocas, Daniel A

    2018-04-01

    Symptomatic urinary tract infection is a complication of office based cystourethroscopy. Studies are mixed regarding the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent urinary tract infections. Our aim was to develop and evaluate an evidence-based protocol that reduces unnecessary antibiotic use while avoiding an increase in urinary tract infections. We created a clinic antibiogram based on all urology office visits performed during a 2-year period. Bacterial resistance rates, institutional risk related data and clinical guidelines were applied to create a protocol for antibiotic administration before cystourethroscopy. We then analyzed 1,245 consecutive patients without a renal transplant who underwent outpatient cystourethroscopy, including 610 after protocol initiation. Urinary tract infection rates and antibiotic use were analyzed for an association with the protocol change using the Fisher exact test. Cultures had an overall 20% rate of resistance to fluoroquinolones, representing 40% of the cultures that grew Escherichia coli. Before the protocol change 602 of 635 patients (94.8%) received a preprocedural antibiotic compared to 426 of 610 (69.9%) after protocol initiation (p urinary tract infection prior to the protocol change while 16 (2.6%) had a urinary tract infection after the change (p = 0.69). Regarding resistance, fluoroquinolone resistant organisms grew in the cultures of 12 of 19 patients (63.2%) with a urinary tract infection before the protocol change compared to 5 of 16 (31.3%) with a urinary tract infection after the change. Recent antibiotic administration, hospitalization and chronic catheterization were associated with urinary tract infection in the entire cohort (all p ≤0.01). A local antibiogram with infection related risk data effectively risk stratifies patients before cystourethroscopy, decreasing the use of antibiotics without increasing the rate of symptomatic urinary tract infection. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association

  16. Managing urinary tract infections

    OpenAIRE

    Saadeh, Sermin A.; Mattoo, Tej K.

    2011-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in childhood. Presence of pyuria and bacteriuria in an appropriately collected urine sample are diagnostic of UTI. The risk of UTI is increased with an underlying urological abnormality such as vesicoureteral reflux, constipation, and voiding dysfunction. Patients with acute pyelonephritis are at risk of renal scarring and subsequent complications such as hypertension, proteinuria with and without FSGS, pregnancy-related complications and even end-sta...

  17. Female genital tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, M.P.; Hunter, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter is concerned with cancers of the cervix uteri, the corpus uteri, the ovary, vulva, and vagina. Radiotherapy has an important place in the management of patients with cancers of the genital tract but the radiotherapist must collaborate closely with surgical colleagues, both gynaecological and urological. Each must appreciate the merits and limitations of surgery and radiation therapy, whether used alone or in combination, with curative intent or in a supportive role

  18. Lower urinary tract development and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouly, Hila Milo; Lu, Weining

    2013-01-01

    Congenital Anomalies of the Lower Urinary Tract (CALUT) are a family of birth defects of the ureter, the bladder and the urethra. CALUT includes ureteral anomalies such as congenital abnormalities of the ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) and ureterovesical junction (UVJ), and birth defects of the bladder and the urethra such as bladder-exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC), prune belly syndrome (PBS), and posterior urethral valves (PUV). CALUT is one of the most common birth defects and is often associated with antenatal hydronephrosis, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), urinary tract obstruction, urinary tract infections (UTI), chronic kidney disease and renal failure in children. Here, we discuss the current genetic and molecular knowledge about lower urinary tract development and genetic basis of CALUT in both human and mouse models. We provide an overview of the developmental processes leading to the formation of the ureter, bladder, and urethra, and different genes and signaling pathways controlling these developmental processes. Human genetic disorders that affect the ureter, bladder and urethra and associated gene mutations are also presented. As we are entering the post-genomic era of personalized medicine, information in this article may provide useful interpretation for the genetic and genomic test results collected from patients with lower urinary tract birth defects. With evidence-based interpretations, clinicians may provide more effective personalized therapies to patients and genetic counseling for their families. PMID:23408557

  19. Diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections across age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Christine M; Lowder, Jerry L

    2018-01-02

    Urinary tract infections are the most common outpatient infections, but predicting the probability of urinary tract infections through symptoms and test results can be complex. The most diagnostic symptoms of urinary tract infections include change in frequency, dysuria, urgency, and presence or absence of vaginal discharge, but urinary tract infections may present differently in older women. Dipstick urinalysis is popular for its availability and usefulness, but results must be interpreted in context of the patient's pretest probability based on symptoms and characteristics. In patients with a high probability of urinary tract infection based on symptoms, negative dipstick urinalysis does not rule out urinary tract infection. Nitrites are likely more sensitive and specific than other dipstick components for urinary tract infection, particularly in the elderly. Positive dipstick testing is likely specific for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy, but urine culture is still the test of choice. Microscopic urinalysis is likely comparable to dipstick urinalysis as a screening test. Bacteriuria is more specific and sensitive than pyuria for detecting urinary tract infection, even in older women and during pregnancy. Pyuria is commonly found in the absence of infection, particularly in older adults with lower urinary tract symptoms such as incontinence. Positive testing may increase the probability of urinary tract infection, but initiation of treatment should take into account risk of urinary tract infection based on symptoms as well. In cases in which the probability of urinary tract infection is moderate or unclear, urine culture should be performed. Urine culture is the gold standard for detection of urinary tract infection. However, asymptomatic bacteriuria is common, particularly in older women, and should not be treated with antibiotics. Conversely, in symptomatic women, even growth as low as 10 2 colony-forming unit/mL could reflect infection. Resistance is

  20. Febrile urinary tract infections: pyelonephritis and urosepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneeberger, Caroline; Holleman, Frits; Geerlings, Suzanne E.

    2016-01-01

    Complicated infections of the urinary tract (UTI) including pyelonephritis and urosepsis are also called febrile UTI. This review describes insights from the literature on this topic since July 2014. Recent studies regarding risk factors and consequences of febrile UTI confirmed existing knowledge.

  1. VIRAL ETIOLOGY OF RECURRENT URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Ibishev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Recurrent urinary tract infection is an actual problem of modern urology.Objective. Complex investigation of urinary tract infections including viral etiology for chronic recurrent cystitis in womenMaterials and methods. The study included 31 women with recurrent infection of urinary tract. Inclusion criteria were the presence of lower urinary tract symptoms caused by infection, severe recurrent course, the lack of anatomical and functional disorders of the urinary tract, the absence of bacterial pathogens during the study, taking into account the culture of aerobic and anaerobic culturing techniques.Results. The analysis of the clinical manifestations, the dominant in the study group were pain and urgency to urinate at 100% and 90% of women surveyed, respectively, and less frequent urination were recorded in 16.1% of patients. In general clinical examination of urine in all cases identified leukocyturia and 90% of the hematuria. By using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR in midstream urine of all examined was verified 10 types of human papilloma virus (HPV with the predominance of 16 and 18 types . Considering the presence of recurrent infectious and inflammatory processes of the urinary tract, cystoscopy with bladder biopsy was performed for all patients. When histomorphological biopsies of all patients surveyed noted the presence of the specific characteristics of HPV: papillary hyperplasia with squamous koilocytosis, pale cytoplasm and shrunken kernels. When analyzing the results of PCR biopsy data corresponded with the results of PCR in midstream urine in all biopsies was detected HPV.Conclusions. Human papillomavirus infection may be involved in the development of viral cystitis. In the etiological structure of viral cystitis, both highly oncogenic and low oncogenic HPV types can act.

  2. CDBG Activity Funding by Tract

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — All CDBG activities in the categories of acquisition, economic development, housing, public improvements, public services, and other summarized by Census Tract.

  3. Radiopharmaceuticals and the gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frier, M. [Radiopharmacy Unit, Dept. of Medical Physics, Queens Medical Centre, Univ. Hospital Nottingham (United Kingdom); Perkins, A.C. [Radiopharmacy Unit, Dept. of Medical Physics, Queens Medical Centre, Univ. Hospital Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    1994-11-01

    A review is presented of the design of radiolabelled test meals for the evaluation of gastrointestinal function, including oesophageal transit, gastro-oesophageal reflux, gastric emptying, enterogastric reflux and transit through the whole bowel. Descriptions of different systems are presented, together with validations of the procedures used. Published methods for assessment of oesophageal transit show a marked degree of consistency, whereas gastric emptying studies employ a wide range of both liquid and solid test meals. Recommendations are made concerning the optimal system for investigation of each part of the gastrointestinal tract, but whichever system is adopted, it is important to employ some validation procedures, and to establish normal ranges in the population under study. (orig.)

  4. Urinary tract infection in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, L.; Janko, V.

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections in children which can be a source of significant morbidity. For as yet unknown reasons a minority of UTIs in children progress to renal scarring, hypertension and renal insufficiency. Clinical presentation of UTI in children may be nonspecific, and the appropriateness of certain diagnostic tests remains controversial. The diagnostic work-up should be tailored to uncover functional and structural abnormalities such as dysfunctional voiding, vesicoureteral reflux and obstructive uropathy. A more aggressive work-up is recommended for patients at greater risk for pyelonephritis and renal scarring, including infants less than one year of age. Early sequential (intravenous treatment followed by oral antibiotics) antibacterial therapy is recommended to prevent renal scarring. Routine antibiotic prophylaxis is not recommended, it may be used in patients with higher grade reflux, obstructive uropathy or recurring UTI who are at greater risk for subsequent infections and complications. (author)

  5. Upper urinary tract damage caused by ketamine snorting—A report of nine cases

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiang-Ying Lee; Yu-Chao Hsu; Chao-Yu Hsu; Eric Chieh-Lung Chou; Ching-Chia Li; Yung-Shun Juan; Mei-Yu Jang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The toxicity of ketamine to genitourinary system not only involved in lower urinary tract, which include urinary frequency, urgency, suprapubic pain, dysuria and hematuria, but also upper urinary tracts. However, the reports of ketmaine-induced upper urinary tract damage were rare. Materials and methods: Herein, we reported nine ketamine abusers presented with moderate flank pain with hydronephrosis and lower urinary tract symptoms from three medical centers located around Taiwa...

  6. Urinary tract trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.E. (Sunnybrook Medical Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1983-09-01

    From a practical point of view, a woman who has blunt injury to the pelvic area with hematuria from the lower urinary tract, has a contused or ruptured bladder. In a man, such a situation calls for retrograde urethrography to determine if the injury is in the urethra or the bladder because the two organs are investigated differently. In both sexes, such injuries are usually associated with pelvic fractures. Massive bladder displacement and severe hemorrhage should alert one to the need for pelvic angiography to find and embolize the bleeding site within the first 24 hours after injury. For blunt trauma to the upper urinary tract an intravenous urogram with tomography is still the main examination. However, a normal intravenous urogram does not exclude serious injury. Therefore, if signs or symptoms persist, a computerized tomographic (CT) examination should be performed if available. Otherwise, a radionuclide study is advisable. Non-excretion on intravenous urography with tomography calls for selective renal arteriography to delineate the etiology. There can be serious renal trauma in the absence of hematuria, which may occur with renal pedicle injury or avulsion of the ureter. Minor forniceal ruptures may occasionally mask severe posterior renal lacerations.

  7. Neonatal Staphylococcus lugdunensis urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Itaru; Hataya, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Hanako; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Toshiro

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a known pathogen of infective endocarditis, but not of urinary tract infection. We report a previously healthy neonate without congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract who developed urinary tract infection due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis, illustrating that Staphylococcus lugdunensis can cause urinary tract infection even in those with no urinary tract complications. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  8. Lower urinary tract symptoms after subtotal versus total abdominal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lea Laird; Møller, Lars Mikael Alling; Gimbel, Helga

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are common after hysterectomy and increase after menopause. We aimed to compare subtotal with total abdominal hysterectomy regarding LUTS, including urinary incontinence (UI) subtypes, 14 years after hysterectomy. Main results from...

  9. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys two ureters (say: ... Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting View more ... & Terms of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web ...

  10. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? ...

  11. Urinary Tract Infection in Children: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Hamid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common paediatric infections. By the time children are 5 years old, about 8% of girls and about 1-2% of boys have had at least one episode of UTI. UTIs are caused mainly by colonic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, followed by Klebsiella and Proteus. However, any organism that gains access to the urinary tract system may cause infection, including fungi (Candida species and viruses. In some instances, UTI results in recognition of an important underlying structural abnormality of the urinary tract. The febrile infant or child with clinically significant bacteriuria and no other site of infection to explain the fever, even in the absence of systemic symptoms has UTI. Signs and symptoms of UTIs vary depending on the child's age and on which part of the urinary tract is infected. The diagnosis of UTI is based on routine microscopic examination and culture of a properly collected urine specimen. Imaging studies are done in selected patients to identify anatomic abnormalities. Most cases of uncomplicated UTI respond readily to outpatient antibiotic treatment without further sequelae. All patients should have close follow-up to evaluate response to antibiotics and to prevent the development of long term complication.

  12. Intestinal tract diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenshtraukh, L.S.

    1985-01-01

    Roentgenoanatomy and physiology of the small intestine are described. Indications for radiological examinations and their possibilities in the diagnosis of the small intestine diseases are considered.Congenital anomalies and failures in the small intestine development, clinical indications and diagnosis methods for the detection of different aetiology enteritis are described. Characteristics of primary malabsorption due to congenital or acquired inferiority of the small intestine, is provided. Radiological picture of intestinal allergies is described. Clinical, morphological, radiological pictures of Crohn's disease are considered in detail. Special attention is paid to the frequency of primary and secondary tuberculosis of intestinal tract. The description of clinical indications and frequency of benign and malignant tumours of the small intestine, methods for their diagnosis are given. Radiological pictures of parasitogenic and rare diseases of the small intestine are presented. Changes in the small intestine as a result of its reaction to pathological processes, developing in other organs and systems of the organism, are described

  13. The gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Else M.; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2009-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has always been and remains a major source of interest in terms of both its function, and its malfunction. Our current knowledge of age-related changes in this system, as well as drug-food interactions, however, remains relatively limited. Paradoxically, the GIT......-related GIT damage and dysfunction. New and novel aspects of drug delivery and drug-dietary supplement interactions are discusses and much needed areas of focus in terms of drug GIT testing are identified....... is not one of the core battery of tests that pharmaceutical companies are obliged to investigate as part of drug development. This review aims to cover the basics of GIT function before highlighting aspects of relevance for safety pharmacology in terms of age, cancerogenesis, and noth drug and diet...

  14. The urinary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornbury, J.R.; Weiss, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    Introduction of new methods and enhancement of traditional radiologic methods have greatly influenced the use of imaging to diagnose and treat patients who have urinary tract disease. In the past, plain films of the abdomen and excretory urography were the starting point in the diagnostic imaging process. Today, either computed tomography (CT) or ultrasonography may be requested initially. Choosing the appropriate method has become more complex because of the variety that confronts the physician. If physicians think critically about the selection of patients before requesting an imaging examination, they can improve their use of such examinations. First, the physician must hypothesize a differential diagnosis. Particularly important is the action of linking the use of the diagnostic test to the choice of treatment. The following paragraphs present the most frequently used (or most useful) examinations for the specific diagnostic problem situations that are discussed subsequently

  15. The Genetics of Urinary Tract Infections and the Innate Defense of the Kidney and Urinary tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambite, Ines; Rydstrom, Gustav; Schwaderer, Andrew L.; Hains, David S.

    2015-01-01

    The urinary tract is a sterile organ system. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common and often serious infections. Research has focused on uropathogen, environment, and host factors leading to UTI pathogenesis. A growing body of evidence exists implicating genetic factors that can contribute to UTI risks. In this review, we highlight genetic variations in aspects of the innate immune system critical to the host response to uropathogens. This overview includes genetic variations in pattern recognition receptor molecules, chemokines/cytokines, and neutrophil activation. We also comprehensively cover murine knockout models of UTI, genetic variations involved in renal scarring as a result of ascending UTIs, and asymptomatic bacteriuria. PMID:27617139

  16. Asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic urinary tract infections during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macejko, Amanda M; Schaeffer, Anthony J

    2007-02-01

    Urinary tract infections are common complications of pregnancy; upper tract infections in particular may lead to significant morbidity for both the mother and fetus. Bacteriuria is a significant risk factor for developing pyelonephritis in pregnant women. Therefore, proper screening and treatment of bacteriuria during pregnancy is necessary to prevent complications. All women should be screened for bacteriuria in the first trimester, and women with a history of recurrent urinary tract infections or anomalies should have repeat bacteriuria screening throughout pregnancy. Treatment of bacteriuria should include 3-day therapy with appropriate antimicrobials, and women should be followed closely after treatment because recurrence may occur in up to one third of patients.

  17. [The features in preventing recurrent lower urinary tract infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzhieva, Z K; Kazilov, Yu B

    2016-08-01

    This review outlines characteristics of medications most commonly used for preventing recurrent lower urinary tract infection (UTI). It shows that the treatment and prophylaxis of UTI should be comprehensive and include the restoration of the normal urogenital tract anatomy and use in addition to antibacterial and anti-inflammatory drugs, agents, normalizing the function of the lower urinary tract, as well as drugs for local and systemic immunoprophylaxis, protection of the urothelium from recurrent infection, local hormone replacement therapy in menopause, and dietary supplements to acidify the urine.

  18. Complementary and integrative therapies for lower urinary tract diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raditic, Donna M

    2015-07-01

    Consumer use of integrative health care is growing, but evidence-based research on its efficacy is limited. Research of veterinary lower urinary tract diseases could be translated to human medicine because veterinary patients are valuable translational models for human urinary tract infection and urolithiasis. An overview of complementary therapies for lower urinary tract disease includes cranberry supplements, mannose, oral probiotics, acupuncture, methionine, herbs, or herbal preparations. Therapies evaluated in dogs and cats, in vitro canine cells, and other relevant species, in vivo and in vitro, are presented for their potential use as integrative therapies for veterinary patients and/or translational research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Chronic cheek ulcer caused by odontogenic cutaneous sinus tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoya Sato

    2015-06-01

    Odontogenic cutaneous sinus tracts are often misdiagnosed, and they lead to facial wounds and scarring. Therefore, we must be aware of the possibility of this condition. A dental origin must be considered for chronic ulcers involving the cheek, chin and submental areas. The clinical course of this patient suggests two important clinical issues for prompt diagnosis. First, physical examination, including palpation and probing, are helpful for exploration of sinus tracts. Second, computed tomography is useful to detect the sinus tract and affected teeth. Computed tomography provides radiographic evidence of the relationship between the tooth and cutaneous region, and it may be superior to radiography.

  20. Management of urinary tract infections in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgman, D E

    1994-06-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most frequent complications of pregnancy. When the lower UTIs of asymptomatic bacteriuria and cystitis are not eradicated, the subsequent risk of the development of pyelonephritis is increased. The associated decreased maternal morbidity and fetal prematurity are the goals of a screening and treatment program for pregnant women. This clinical article presents information on the etiology, incidence, diagnosis, and management of asymptomatic bacteriuria and cystitis. Nursing implications regarding teaching are included.

  1. Spinal tract pathology in AIDS: postmortem MRI correlation with neuropathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santosh, C.G. [City Hospital, Edinburgh (United Kingdom). MRI Unit; Bell, J.E. [Western General Hospital, Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Neuropathology Lab.; Best, J.J.K. [City Hospital, Edinburgh (United Kingdom). MRI Unit

    1995-02-01

    Vacuolar myelopathy (VM) and tract pallor are poorly understood spinal tract abnormalities in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We studied the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect these changes in spinal cord specimens postmortem and whether criteria could be formulated which would allow these conditions to be differentiated from other lesions of the spinal cord in AIDS, such as lymphoma, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) myelitis. We imaged 38 postmortem specimens of spinal cord. The MRI studies were interpreted blind. The specimens included cases of VM myelin pallor. CMV myeloradiculitis, HIV myelitis, lymphoma as well as normal cords, both HIV+ve and HIV-ve. MRI showed abnormal signal, suggestive of tract pathology, in 10 of the 14 cases with histopathological evidence of tract changes. The findings in VM and tract pallor on proton-density and T{sub 2}-weighted MRI were increased signal from the affected white-matter tracts, present on multiple contiguous slices and symmetrical in most cases. The pattern was sufficiently distinct to differentiate spinal tract pathology from other spinal cord lesions in AIDS. (orig.)

  2. Diagnosis and clinical management of urinary tract infection

    OpenAIRE

    Heilberg, Ita Pfeferman; Schor, Nestor

    2003-01-01

    A review about recent aspects on diagnosis and clinical management of urinary tract infection (UTI) is presented. There is a wide variation in clinical presentation of UTI which include different forms as cystitis, pyelonephritis, urethral syndrome and the clinical relevance of asymptomatic bacteriuria and low-count bacteriuria that must be distinguished from contamination. Pathogenetic aspects concerning bacterial virulence as well as host factors in susceptibility to UTI as urinary tract ob...

  3. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... urinary tract infection, or UTI, you're probably thinking about peeing quite a lot. Why? Because it ... you have a bladder infection, your doctor will order some medicine for you to take to kill ...

  4. URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN ADULTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Infection of the urinary tract (UTI) is frequently encountered in clinical practice — in the USA these ... Asymptomatic UTI is identified when organisms can be isolated in appropriate numbers .... Pregnancy ... men, so pre-treatment urine culture is.

  5. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Illnesses & Injuries Relax & Unwind People, Places & Things That Help Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for ... ll never want to have one again! To help keep those bacteria out of your urinary tract, ...

  6. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract Troubles Girls are more likely than boys to get a UTI. That's because their urethras are much shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get ...

  7. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... when you do, phew! Your pee smells bad. These things happen because bacteria have caused an infection ... tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys two ureters (say: YUR- ...

  8. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body. Ahhh! That feels better. Urinary Tract Troubles Girls are more likely than boys to get a ... away properly, they stay on your skin. In girls, this means they can grow near the opening ...

  9. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & ... KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is a Urinary ...

  10. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... five to six times a day but never think twice about? Answer: Pee! But if you have ... urinary tract infection, or UTI, you're probably thinking about peeing quite a lot. Why? Because it ...

  11. Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Taskesen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are frequent conditions in children. Untreated urinary tract infections can lead to serious kidney problems that could threaten the life of the child. Therefore, early detection and treatment of urinary tract infection is important. In older children, urinary tract infections may cause obvious symptoms such as stomach ache and disuria. In infants and young children, UTIs may be harder to detect because of less specific symptoms. Recurrences are common in children with urinary abnormalities such as neurogenic bladder, vesicourethral reflux or those with very poor toilet and hygiene habits. This article reviews the diagnostic approach and presents the current data related to the roles of radiologic imaging, surgical correction and antibiotic prophylaxis of UTIs in children. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(2.000: 57-69

  12. Urinary tract infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedberry-Ross, Sherry; Pohl, Hans G

    2008-03-01

    Urinary tract infections can be a significant source of morbidity in the pediatric population. The mainstay of evaluating urinary tract infections in children has been physical examination, urinalysis and culture, and renal and bladder sonography and contrast cystography. However, novel clinical paradigms now consider the importance of various risk factors, such as bacterial virulence and antibiotic-resistance patterns, elimination disorders, and the role of innate immunity and inflammation in determining the likelihood of renal cortical scarring.

  13. Computed tomography of the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megibow, A.J.; Balthazar, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    New generation CT scans combined with high-detail barium studies have now allowed radiologists to see and gain a more complete understanding of the wall and surrounding structures of the gastrointestinal tract. The editors state that their intent is to ''present in a comprehensive volume an up-to-date evaluation o the role, significance, indications, and limitations of computed tomography of the gastrointestinal tract.'' There is an initial chapter on CT scanning techniques and the use of oral contrast agents. Chapters follow on Ct of the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, small bowel, and colon. The chapters start with a description of the anatomic structures and then cover in detail common pathologic conditions that affect the organ. Indications for examinations are also included in many chapters. There are final chapters on percutaneous drainage of abscesses and fluid collections and on radiologic-patholoic correlation of some of the more common entities

  14. Proteus mirabilis and Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Jessica N.; Pearson, Melanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a Gram-negative bacterium which is well-known for its ability to robustly swarm across surfaces in a striking bulls’-eye pattern. Clinically, this organism is most frequently a pathogen of the urinary tract, particularly in patients undergoing long-term catheterization. This review covers P. mirabilis with a focus on urinary tract infections (UTI), including disease models, vaccine development efforts, and clinical perspectives. Flagella-mediated motility, both swimming and swarming, is a central facet of this organism. The regulation of this complex process and its contribution to virulence is discussed, along with the type VI-secretion system-dependent intra-strain competition which occurs during swarming. P. mirabilis uses a diverse set of virulence factors to access and colonize the host urinary tract, including urease and stone formation, fimbriae and other adhesins, iron and zinc acquisition, proteases and toxins, biofilm formation, and regulation of pathogenesis. While significant advances in this field have been made, challenges remain to combatting complicated UTI and deciphering P. mirabilis pathogenesis. PMID:26542036

  15. Proteus mirabilis and Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Jessica N; Pearson, Melanie M

    2015-10-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a Gram-negative bacterium and is well known for its ability to robustly swarm across surfaces in a striking bulls'-eye pattern. Clinically, this organism is most frequently a pathogen of the urinary tract, particularly in patients undergoing long-term catheterization. This review covers P. mirabilis with a focus on urinary tract infections (UTI), including disease models, vaccine development efforts, and clinical perspectives. Flagella-mediated motility, both swimming and swarming, is a central facet of this organism. The regulation of this complex process and its contribution to virulence is discussed, along with the type VI-secretion system-dependent intra-strain competition, which occurs during swarming. P. mirabilis uses a diverse set of virulence factors to access and colonize the host urinary tract, including urease and stone formation, fimbriae and other adhesins, iron and zinc acquisition, proteases and toxins, biofilm formation, and regulation of pathogenesis. While significant advances in this field have been made, challenges remain to combatting complicated UTI and deciphering P. mirabilis pathogenesis.

  16. Foreign bodies in gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Kefeli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ingested foreign bodies in gastrointestinal tract are a common event which can cause serious morbidity and mortality in the children and adult population. For this reason, early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for preventing these life threatening complications. In this study, we aimed to analyze the characteristics of the patients with upper gastrointestinal foreign bodies that were treated in our department. Methods: Patients diagnosed with upper gastrointestinal foreign bodies who were admitted to our hospital between February 2010 and August2013 were evaluated retrospectively. The data regarding their age, gender, clinical profile, type and localization of the esophageal foreign body, performed endoscopic procedure and initial symptoms of the patients were noted and analyzed statistically. Results: Thirty-eight patients with a diagnosis of gastrointestinal foreign body were included in this study. Of these patients, 21 were male and 17 were female. The youngest patient was 17 years old and the oldest patient was 79 years old. Most of the foreign bodies (%55.3 detected in the stomach. Food waste and metallic objects in 21 and 16 patients respectively. The most common complaint was dysphagia (%50. After endoscopic intervention three of the patients were directed to surgery. Conclusion: Early recognition and treatment of gastrointestinal foreign bodies is important as their complications are life threatening. The best method of removal of foreign bodies is controversial. Early management with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is the most efficient and safe treatment method in current conditions.

  17. Main features of the proposed NCRP respiratory tract model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phalen, R.F.; Fisher, G.L.; Moss, O.R.; Schlesinger, R.B.; Swift, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The proposed NCRP respiratory tract dosimetry model regions include the naso-oro-pharyngo-laryngeal (NOPL), the tracheobronchial (TB), the pulmonary (P), and the lymph nodes (LN). Input aerosol concentrations are derived from a consideration of particle-size-dependent inspirability. Particle deposition in the respiratory tract is modelled using the mechanisms of inertial impaction, sedimentation and diffusion. The rates of absorption of particles, and transport to the blood, have been derived from clearance data from people and laboratory animals. The effect of body growth on particle deposition is considered. Particle clearance rates are assumed to be independent of age. The proposed respiratory tract model differs significantly from the 1966 Task Group Model in that (1) inspirability is considered; (2) new sub-regions of the respiratory tract are considered; (3) absorption of materials by the blood is treated in a more sophisticated fashion; and (4) body size (and thus age) is taken into account. (author)

  18. Visceral pain originating from the upper urinary tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Katja Venborg; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Frimodt-Møller, Poul Christian

    2010-01-01

    Pain originating from the upper urinary tract is a common problem and stone colic is one of the most intense pain conditions that can be experienced in the clinic. The pain is difficult to alleviate and often leads to medical attention. In humans, pain mechanisms of the upper urinary tract pain...... are still poorly understood, which often leads to a trial and error approach in clinical pain management. Pain from the upper urinary tract seems to have all the characteristics of pure visceral pain, including referred pain with or without hyperalgesia/trophic changes in somatic tissues and viscero......-visceral hyperalgesia. However, further studies are needed to better understand these visceral pain mechanisms with regard to optimising pain management. This review gives an introduction to visceral pain in general and upper urinary tract pain in particular, with special reference to pain pathways and pharmacological...

  19. Survey of risk factors urinary tract infection

    OpenAIRE

    A Dehghani; M zahedi; M moezzi; M dafei; H Falahzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Women are very susceptible to urinary tract infections and pregnancy raises the risk of urinary tract infection. In general, little information on the risk factors of urinary tract infection in pregnancy is underway. Urinary tract infection in pregnancy is an important risk factor for pregnancy dire consequences. The purpose of this study is to find risk factors associated with urinary tract infection in pregnant women. Methods: The study was observational and retrospective ...

  20. [COMPLICATED URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN THE ELDERLY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćosić, I; Ćosić, V

    2016-12-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common bacterial infections involving lower (cystitis, prostatitis) or upper (pyelonephritis, renal abscess, perinephric abscess) urinary tract. Differentiation of complicated and uncomplicated UTI is usually based on the presence of structural or functional urinary tract abnormalities, which can increase the risk of treatment failure and development of serious complications. Factors that increase the risk are foreign bodies, stones, obstruction, neurogenic bladder, kidney transplantation, immunosuppression, and pregnancy. Complicated UTI includes a spectrum of conditions that increase the risk of treatment failure, as well as of serious complications such as bacteremia and sepsis, perinephric abscess, renal impairment and emphysematous pyelonephritis. To avoid the potentially devastating outcomes, appropriate diagnostic procedures, antibiotic and surgical treatment, and appropriate follow-up are required. The incidence of complicated UTI will grow in the future due to general aging of the population, increasing incidence of diabetes, and ever growing number of immunocompromised and immunosuppressed patients. It is of key importance to recognize complicated UTI on time, and treat it wisely and aggressively to reduce duration of the disease and the risk of antibiotic resistance.

  1. Antimicrobial Stewardship and Urinary Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian M. Abbo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections are the most common bacterial infections encountered in ambulatory and long-term care settings in the United States. Urine samples are the largest single category of specimens received by most microbiology laboratories and many such cultures are collected from patients who have no or questionable urinary symptoms. Unfortunately, antimicrobials are often prescribed inappropriately in such patients. Antimicrobial use, whether appropriate or inappropriate, is associated with the selection for antimicrobial-resistant organisms colonizing or infecting the urinary tract. Infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant organisms are associated with higher rates of treatment failures, prolonged hospitalizations, increased costs and mortality. Antimicrobial stewardship consists of avoidance of antimicrobials when appropriate and, when antimicrobials are indicated, use of strategies to optimize the selection, dosing, route of administration, duration and timing of antimicrobial therapy to maximize clinical cure while limiting the unintended consequences of antimicrobial use, including toxicity and selection of resistant microorganisms. This article reviews successful antimicrobial stewardship strategies in the diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections.

  2. Gastrointestinal tract sonography in fetuses and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, Alain; Baud, Catherine; Ferran, Jean Louis; Saguintaah, Magali; Veyrac, Corinne [Hopital Arnaud de Villeneuve, 34 - Montpellier (France). Service de Radiologie Pediatrique

    2008-07-01

    Sonography of the gastrointestinal tract in fetuses, neonates and children entails no known biological risk, permits serial scanning and can provide information unobtainable with any other imaging modality. In experienced hands it can be used as the initial imaging technique in a number of gastrointestinal diseases and conditions. This book provides a comprehensive account of the current state of the art regarding sonography in this context. An introductory chapter compares the merits of sonography and magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal gastrointestinal tract. Subsequent chapters focus on the technique, pitfalls and findings in a wide variety of applications, including antropyloric diseases, bowel obstruction, bowel wall thickening, colitis, appendicitis, some types of intussusception, abdominal wall and umbilical abnormalities, intraperitoneal tumors, and trauma. In each case the sonographic morphology is considered in depth with the aid of high-quality illustrations. A concluding chapter comprises a quiz based on 15 case reports. Gastrointestinal Tract Sonography in Fetuses and Children will be of value to all with an interest in this field. (orig.)

  3. Cold stress induces lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Tetsuya; Ishizuka, Osamu; Nishizawa, Osamu

    2013-07-01

    Cold stress as a result of whole-body cooling at low environmental temperatures exacerbates lower urinary tract symptoms, such as urinary urgency, nocturia and residual urine. We established a model system using healthy conscious rats to explore the mechanisms of cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity. In this review, we summarize the basic findings shown by this model. Rats that were quickly transferred from room temperature (27 ± 2°C) to low temperature (4 ± 2°C) showed detrusor overactivity including increased basal pressure and decreased voiding interval, micturition volume, and bladder capacity. The cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity is mediated through a resiniferatoxin-sensitve C-fiber sensory nerve pathway involving α1-adrenergic receptors. Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 channels, which are sensitive to thermal changes below 25-28°C, also play an important role in mediating the cold stress responses. Additionally, the sympathetic nervous system is associated with transient hypertension and decreases of skin surface temperature that are closely correlated with the detrusor overactivity. With this cold stress model, we showed that α1-adrenergic receptor antagonists have the potential to treat cold stress-exacerbated lower urinary tract symptoms. In addition, we showed that traditional Japanese herbal mixtures composed of Hachimijiogan act, in part, by increasing skin temperature and reducing the number of cold sensitive transient receptor potential melastatin channels in the skin. The effects of herbal mixtures have the potential to treat and/or prevent the exacerbation of lower urinary tract symptoms by providing resistance to the cold stress responses. Our model provides new opportunities for utilizing animal disease models with altered lower urinary tract functions to explore the effects of novel therapeutic drugs. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  4. Characteristics of chitinase isolated from different part of snakehead fish (Channa striata) digestive tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baehaki, A.; Lestari, S. D.; Wahidman, Y.; Gofar, N.

    2018-01-01

    Naturally, snakehead fish (Channa striata) is a prodigious carnivore feeding mainly on live animals, including small shrimp. Based on its feeding habits, the digestrive tracts of snakehead is considered as auspicious source of various enzumes including chitinase. The purpose of this study was to partially characterize chitinase enzyme isolated from digestive tract of snakehead fish. Two parts of digestive tract, stomach and intestine were used as enzymes’ source. The results showed that chitinase activity from the stomach was higher than chitinase activity from the intestine. The pH and temperature optimum of chitinase activity from digestive tract (the stomach and the intestine) were 6.0 and 70 °C, respectively.

  5. Potential Misclassification of Urinary Tract-Related Bacteremia Upon Applying the 2015 Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection Surveillance Definition From the National Healthcare Safety Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, M Todd; Ratz, David; Meddings, Jennifer; Fakih, Mohamad G; Saint, Sanjay

    2016-04-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently updated the surveillance definition of catheter-associated urinary tract infection to include only urine culture bacteria of at least 1 × 10(5) colony-forming units/mL. Our findings suggest that the new surveillance definition may fail to capture clinically meaningful catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

  6. Respiratory tract infection during Hajj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzeer Abdulaziz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory tract infection during Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca is a common illness, and it is responsible for most of the hospital admissions. Influenza virus is the leading cause of upper respiratory tract infection during Hajj, and pneumonia can be serious. Taking into account the close contacts among the pilgrims, as well as the crowding, the potential for transmission of M. tuberculosis is expected to be high. These pilgrims can be a source for spreading infection on their return home. Although vaccination program for influenza is implemented, its efficacy is uncertain in this religious season. Future studies should concentrate on prevention and mitigation of these infections.

  7. Biomechanical Remodeling of the Diabetic Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jingbo; Liao, Donghua; Yang, Jian

    2010-01-01

    several years, several studies demonstrated that experimental diabetes induces GI morphological and biomechanical remodeling. Following the development of diabetes, the GI wall becomes thicker and the stiffness of the GI wall increases in a time-dependent manner. It is well known that mechanosensitive...... the biomechanical environment of the mechanosensitive nerve endings, therefore, the structure as well as the tension, stress and strain distribution in the GI wall is important for the sensory and motor function. Biomechanical remodeling of diabetic GI tract including alterations of residual strain and increase...

  8. GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF CLARIAS GARIEPINUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    one hundred and ninety nine (199) were infested fish samples from gills and gastrointestinal tract .... Body cavity of fish were dissected using a pair of scissors and different portion of the gut (Oesophagus, stomach, intestine and rectum) were isolated and kept in .... Arme, C. and Wakey, M. (1970): The physiology of fishes.

  9. Urinary tract infections in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovalle, A; Levancini, M

    2001-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are very common during pregnancy. Escherichia coli is the most common pathogen isolated from pregnant women. Ampicillin should not be used because of its high resistance to Escherichia coli. Pyelonephritis can cause morbidity and can be life-threatening to both mother and fetus. Second and third-generation cephalosporins are recommended for treatment, administered initially intravenously during hospitalization. Cultures and the study of virulence factors of uropathogenic Escherichia coli are recommended for the adequate management of pyelonephritis. The lower genital tract infection associated with pyelonephritis is responsible for the failure of antibiotic treatment. Asymptomatic bacteriuria can evolve into cystitis or pyelonephritis. All pregnant women should be routinely screened for bacteriuria using urine culture, and should be treated with nitrofurantoin, sulfixosazole or first-generation cephalosporins. Recurrent urinary infection should be treated with prophylactic antibiotics. Pregnant women who develop urinary tract infections with group B streptococcal infection should be treated with prophylactic antibiotics during labour to prevent neonatal sepsis. Preterm delivery is frequent. Evidence suggests that infection plays a role in the pathogenesis of preterm labour. Experimental models in pregnant mice support the theory that Escherichia coli propagated by the transplacental route, involving bacterial adhesins, induces preterm delivery, but this has not been demonstrated in humans. Ascending lower genital tract infections are the most probable cause of preterm delivery, but this remains to be proved.

  10. Urinary tract infections in women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common bacterial infections in women, with ... Acute cystitis refers to symptomatic infection of the bladder in the lower ... lungs in a patient with pneumonia.4. Risk factors ... use of antimicrobial agents for community-acquired UTIs has resulted in the emergence of antimicrobial resistance.

  11. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For ... Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...

  12. Imaging of the Urinary Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... day urinary urgency—the inability to delay urination urinary incontinence—the accidental loss of urine blockage of urine ... can use several different imaging techniques depending on factors such as the ... urinary tract symptoms. Conventional Radiology X-ray machines have ...

  13. Gas in the urinary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba, F.J.; Peka, J. de la; Perez, S.; Rodriguez, M.; Sahagun, E.

    1996-01-01

    The causes of gas in the urinary tract and the radiologic procedures employed to detect it are reviewed. The value of each in determining the diagnosis and extension of the pathological process is discussed. The characteristic images of this disorder as represented by the different techniques, are presented. (Author) 18 refs,

  14. Dosimetry of the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, M.

    1996-01-01

    A new dosimetric model of the human respiratory tract has been recently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, in ICRP Publication 66. This model was intended to update the previous lung model of the Task Group on Lung Dynamics that was adopted by ICRP in Publication 30. With this aim, extensive reviews of the available knowledge were made for anatomy and physiology of the respiratory tract and for deposition, clearance and biological effects of inhaled radionuclides. Finally, expanded dosimetry requirements resulted in a widely different approach from the former model. The main features of the new model are the followings: instead of calculating the average dose to the total mass of blood filled lung, the model takes account of differences in radiosensitivity of the venous respiratory tract tissues. It applies not only to adult workers but also to all members of the population, and provides reference values for children aged 3 months, 1, 5, 10, and 15 years, and adults. Deposition modelling of airborne gases and aerosols associates age dependent breathing rates, airway dimensions and physical activity, to particle size, density and chemical form of inhaled material. Clearance results of competition between mechanical transport clearance and absorption to blood. At each step of the calculation, adjustment guidance is provided to account for use of exact values of particle sizes and specific dissolution rates of inhaled material in order to calculate their own parameter of retention in the airways, and to assess accurately doses to the respiratory tract. Possible influence of smoking, of respiratory tract diseases and of eventual exposure to airborne toxicants is also addressed. (author)

  15. Triggered Urine Interleukin-6 Correlates to Severity of Symptoms in Nonfebrile Lower Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundén, Fredrik; Butler, Daniel; Wullt, Björn

    2017-07-01

    Objective diagnosis of symptomatic urinary tract infections in patients prone to asymptomatic bacteriuria is compromised by local host responses that are already present and the positive urine culture. We investigated interleukin-6 as a biomarker for nonfebrile urinary tract infection severity and diagnostic thresholds for interleukin-6 and 8, and neutrophils to differentiate between asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract infection. Patients with residual urine and neurogenic bladders due to spinal lesions included in a long-term Escherichia coli 83972 asymptomatic bacteriuria inoculation trial were monitored for 2 years. Symptom scoring and urine sampling to estimate interleukin-6 and 8, and neutrophils were performed regularly monthly and at urinary tract infection episodes. Patients were followed in the complete study for a mean of 19 months (range 10 to 27) and those with asymptomatic bacteriuria with E. coli 83972 were followed a mean of 11 months (range 4 to 19). A total of 37 nonfebrile urinary tract infection episodes with complete data on interleukin-6 and 8, neutrophils and symptom scoring were documented. Interleukin-6 was the only marker that persistently increased during urinary tract infection compared to asymptomatic bacteriuria in pooled and paired intra-individual comparisons (p urinary tract infection symptoms (p urinary tract infection episodes. However, in urinary tract infections with worse symptoms interleukin-6 and neutrophils demonstrated equal good/excellent outcomes. Triggered interleukin-6 correlated to urinary tract infection symptom severity and demonstrated a promising differential diagnostic capacity to discriminate urinary tract infection from asymptomatic bacteriuria. Future studies should explore interleukin-6 as a biomarker of urinary tract infection severity and assess the treatment indication in nonfebrile urinary tract infections. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by

  16. Intrahepatic biliary tract adenocarcinoma. Review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Encalada, Edmundo; Engracia, Ruth; Calle, Carlos; Rivera, Tania; Marengo, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    A seven years old patient, with a biliary tract tumoration, diagnosed by computerized tomography and eco, which had practice an exploratory laparotomy, finding an intrahepatic tumor at the left hepatic tract level, with a pathological diagnosis of papillary adenocarcinoma moderately differentiated the biliary tract. The surgery is the main treatment, auxiliary treatments with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. (The author)

  17. Kidneys and Urinary Tract (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Kidneys and Urinary Tract KidsHealth / For Parents / Kidneys and Urinary Tract What's ... Los riñones y las vías urinarias Kidneys and Urinary Tract Basics Our bodies produce several kinds of wastes, ...

  18. Radionuclide imaging of the lower genitourinary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowery, P.A.; Pjura, G.A.; Kin, E.E.; Brown, W.D.

    1988-01-01

    The major use of radionuclide cystography is in the management of children with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Reflux is common, occurring in one-third to one-half of children with urinary tract infection. The significance of VUR lies in its associated symptoms and consequences, which include impaired renal growth and function, vague ill health, renal pain, and more importantly the development of reflux nephropathy, a significant cause of end-stage renal disease and hypertension in children. Although reflux may resolve spontaneously, particularly milder degrees of reflux, the age at which this may occur is unpredictable and repeated follow-up cystography over a number of years may be necessary. Therefore, it is important to minimize radiation to the child while providing accurate diagnostic information. This paper discusses how the technique of radionuclide cystography compares favorably with routine contrast voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) in these respects, and in addition can provide quantitative information not obtained by radiographic techniques. Other indications may include screening siblings of patients known to have reflux, follow-up of antireflux surgery and occasionally screening for reflux in children who have had urinary tract infection

  19. Genital tract malign ancies in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khursheed, F.; Jatoi, N.; Das, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The most common malignancy in women is breast carcinoma. The next common cancer is genital tract malignancies which constitute 14% of cancers in women. Objective of this study was to determine the type and frequency of genital tract malignancy in postmenopausal women and to find the age distribution of genital tract malignancies. Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in Department of Obstetrics ad Gynaecology Unit-II at Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro. All postmenopausal women, admitted in the unit due to various pathologies (abdominal masses, bleeding P/V etc.) from January 2005 to December 2007 were included in the study. Clinical evaluation and investigations were done on all patients. Those women who had benign diseases were excluded from the study. Malignancy was confirmed from histopathology report of biopsy specimen. These women were divided into 3 age groups: group I 70 years. Results: Out of 265 postmenopausal women admitted in ward during the study period, malignancy was confirmed in 68 cases (25.66%). The type of malignancy was cervical carcinoma (41, 60.28%), ovarian carcinoma (11, 16.17%), endometrial carcinoma (8, 11.76%), vulval carcinoma (5, 7.35%) vaginal carcinoma (2, 2.94%), and leiomyosarcoma of uterus (1, 1.47%). Increased frequency of cervical and endometrial carcinomas were seen in Group-I cases, while vulval carcinoma was seen more commonly in Group-II cases ( p =0.004). Conclusion: A very high frequency of cervical carcinoma was seen in our patients. There is need for more public awareness to integrate routine Gynae-Pap screening. (author)

  20. [Urinary tract infection in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herráiz, Miguel Angel; Hernández, Antonio; Asenjo, Eloy; Herráiz, Ignacio

    2005-12-01

    Urinary tract infections, asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB), acute cystitis (AC) and acute pyelonephritis (AP), are favored by the morphological and functional changes involved in pregnancy. AB increases the risk of preterm labor, low birth weight and AP. AB should be detected by uroculture (other methods are not sufficiently effective) and treated early. Approximately 80% of cases are caused by Escherichia coli. The risks and effectiveness of the distinct antibiotic regimens should be evaluated: fosfomycin trometamol in monotherapy or as short course therapy is safe and effective for the treatment of AB and AC. AP is the most frequent cause of hospital admission for medical reasons in pregnant women and can lead to complications in 10% of cases, putting the lives of the mother and fetus at risk. Currently outpatient treatment of AP is recommended in selected cases. Adequate follow-up of pregnant women with urinary tract infections is required due to frequent recurrence.

  1. Marijuana: respiratory tract effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Kelly P; Sutter, Mark E; Albertson, Timothy E

    2014-02-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used drug of abuse in the USA. It is commonly abused through inhalation and therefore has effects on the lung that are similar to tobacco smoke, including increased cough, sputum production, hyperinflation, and upper lobe emphysematous changes. However, at this time, it does not appear that marijuana smoke contributes to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Marijuana can have multiple physiologic effects such as tachycardia, peripheral vasodilatation, behavioral and emotional changes, and possible prolonged cognitive impairment. The carcinogenic effects of marijuana are unclear at this time. Studies are mixed on the ability of marijuana smoke to increase the risk for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, lung cancer, prostate cancer, and cervical cancer. Some studies show that marijuana is protective for development of malignancy. Marijuana smoke has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on the immune system. Components of cannabis are under investigation as treatment for autoimmune diseases and malignancy. As marijuana becomes legalized in many states for medical and recreational use, other forms of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) have been developed, such as food products and beverages. As most research on marijuana at this time has been on whole marijuana smoke, rather than THC, it is difficult to determine if the currently available data is applicable to these newer products.

  2. Extensive upper respiratory tract sarcoidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Mafalda Trindade; Sousa, Carolina; Garanito, Luísa; Freire, Filipe

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology. It can affect any part of the organism, although the lung is the most frequently affected organ. Upper airway involvement is rare, particularly if isolated. Sarcoidosis is a diagnosis of exclusion, established by histological evidence of non-caseating granulomas and the absence of other granulomatous diseases. The authors report a case of a man with sarcoidosis manifesting as a chronic inflammatory stenotic condition of the upper respiratory tract and trachea. PMID:27090537

  3. Serine-Rich Repeat Proteins and Pili Promote Streptococcus agalactiae Colonization of the Vaginal Tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheen, Tamsin R.; Jimenez, Alyssa; Wang, Nai-Yu; Banerjee, Anirban; van Sorge, Nina M.; Doran, Kelly S.

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) is a Gram-positive bacterium found in the female rectovaginal tract and is capable of producing severe disease in susceptible hosts, including newborns and pregnant women. The vaginal tract is considered a major reservoir for GBS, and maternal

  4. Renal tract anomalies in the human fetus : prenatal ultrasound and genetic aspects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Reuss (Annette)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis, attention will be focused on:(i) ultrasonic imaging of normal and abnormal fetal urinary tract anatomy;(ii) the reduced diagnostic potential of ultrasound in oligohydramnios, including methods to circumvent this problem; (iii) the association of ren al tract malforma

  5. Pediatric urinary tract infection as a cause of outpatient clinic visits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Failure to timely diagnose and treat urinary tract infections is associated with grave long term consequences. The objectives of this study included assessing the proportion and predictors of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) as a cause of pediatric outpatient department (OPD) visits and determining common ...

  6. Value of Ultrasound in Detecting Urinary Tract Anomalies After First Febrile Urinary Tract Infection in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobrial, Emad E; Abdelaziz, Doaa M; Sheba, Maha F; Abdel-Azeem, Yasser S

    2016-05-01

    Background Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract. Ultrasound is a noninvasive test that can demonstrate the size and shape of kidneys, presence of dilatation of the ureters, and the existence of anatomic abnormalities. The aim of the study is to estimate the value of ultrasound in detecting urinary tract anomalies after first attack of UTI. Methods This study was conducted at the Nephrology Clinic, New Children's Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, from August 2012 to March 2013, and included 30 children who presented with first attack of acute febrile UTI. All patients were subjected to urine analysis, urine culture and sensitivity, serum creatinine, complete blood count, and imaging in the form of renal ultrasound, voiding cysto-urethrography, and renal scan. Results All the patients had fever with a mean of 38.96°C ± 0.44°C and the mean duration of illness was 6.23 ± 5.64 days. Nineteen patients (63.3%) had an ultrasound abnormality. The commonest abnormalities were kidney stones (15.8%). Only 2 patients who had abnormal ultrasound had also vesicoureteric reflux on cystourethrography. Sensitivity of ultrasound was 66.7%, specificity was 37.5%, positive predictive value was 21.1%, negative predictive value was 81.8%, and total accuracy was 43.33%. Conclusion We concluded that ultrasound alone was not of much value in diagnosing and putting a plan of first attack of febrile UTI. It is recommended that combined investigations are the best way to confirm diagnosis of urinary tract anomalies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Margieva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues of diagnosing and treating urinary tract infections and their role in development of renal injury are being actively discussed by scientists and practicing pediatricians. The article presents the most recent data on etiological factors, pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of this disease. It provides recommendations on diagnosis and management of patients depending on their age. The article presents a discussion of antibacterial therapy course duration and indications for anti-relapse treatment. The study demonstrates that intravenous antibacterial therapy must be launched immediately in neonates in the event of pyretic fever; empirical antibacterial therapy must be launched immediately in older children after diagnosis of the urinary tract infection has been confirmed; subsequently, treatment ought to be corrected depending on the results of a bacteriological trial, sensitivity to antibiotics and effectiveness of the prescribed antibiotic. Along with normalization of urination rhythm and water intake schedule, antibacterial preventive therapy might be considered, if effective, in the event of recurrent nature of the urinary tract infection. 

  8. The Urinary Tract Microbiome in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón, Isabel M; Herrera-Imbroda, Bernardo; Queipo-Ortuño, María I; Castillo, Elisabeth; Del Moral, Julia Sequeira-García; Gómez-Millán, Jaime; Yucel, Gozde; Lara, María F

    2016-11-14

    The urinary tract, previously considered a sterile body niche, has emerged as the host of an array of bacteria in healthy individuals, revolutionizing the urology research field. To review the literature on microbiome implications in the urinary tract and the usefulness of probiotics/prebiotics and diet as treatment for urologic disorders. A systematic review was conducted using PubMed and Medline from inception until July 2016. The initial search identified 1419 studies and 89 were included in this systematic review. Specific bacterial communities have been found in the healthy urinary tract. Changes in this microbiome have been observed in certain urologic disorders such as urinary incontinence, urologic cancers, interstitial cystitis, neurogenic bladder dysfunction, sexually transmitted infections, and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. The role of probiotics, prebiotics, and diet as treatment or preventive agents for urologic disorders requires further investigation. There is a microbiome associated with the healthy urinary tract that can change in urologic disorders. This represents a propitious context to identify new diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive microbiome-based biomarkers that could be used in clinical urology practice. In addition, probiotics, prebiotics, and diet modifications appear to represent an opportunity to regulate the urinary microbiome. We review the urinary microbiome of healthy individuals and its changes in relation to urinary disorders. The question to resolve is how we can modulate the microbiome to improve urinary tract health. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Occipital White Matter Tracts in Human and Macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Hiromasa; Pestilli, Franco; Weiner, Kevin S; Keliris, Georgios A; Landi, Sofia M; Sliwa, Julia; Ye, Frank Q; Barnett, Michael A; Leopold, David A; Freiwald, Winrich A; Logothetis, Nikos K; Wandell, Brian A

    2017-06-01

    We compare several major white-matter tracts in human and macaque occipital lobe using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging. The comparison suggests similarities but also significant differences in the tracts. There are several apparently homologous tracts in the 2 species, including the vertical occipital fasciculus (VOF), optic radiation, forceps major, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF). There is one large human tract, the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, with no corresponding fasciculus in macaque. We could identify the macaque VOF (mVOF), which has been little studied. Its position is consistent with classical invasive anatomical studies by Wernicke. VOF homology is supported by similarity of the endpoints in V3A and ventral V4 across species. The mVOF fibers intertwine with the dorsal segment of the ILF, but the human VOF appears to be lateral to the ILF. These similarities and differences between the occipital lobe tracts will be useful in establishing which circuitry in the macaque can serve as an accurate model for human visual cortex. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Fungal Urinary Tract Infection in Burn Patients‎

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suad Yousuf Aldorkee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection is the most common hospital-acquired infection. Fungal species are unusual causes of urinary tract infection in healthy individuals, but common in the hospital setting or among patients with predisposing diseases and structural abnormalities of the kidney and collecting system. Burn patients are susceptible to nosocomial infections owing to the immunocompromising effects of burn injury, cutaneous and respiratory tract injury, prolonged intensive care unit stays and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. Objective: The study population includes adult patients of both genders who presented with different percentages of body burns. Urine sample was collected from each patient at the time of admission and weekly thereafter for 6 weeks and sent for general urine examination and urine culture to test for the possibility of fungal growth. Those who found to develop fungal UTI by urine culture during their hospitalization and had no infection at the time of admission were selected as subjects for our study. Results: 28 (18.6% patients had positive fungal culture during their hospitalization, 11 of them were males and 17 were females, the most common age of presentation was 41-50 years and the mean age ± SD was (44.4 ± 10.7 years. The most common isolated fungi were Candida albicans (64.3%, followed by Candida glabrata (21.4% and Candida tropicalis (7.1%. The majority of patients developed infection within the 2nd and 3rd weeks of hospitalization, however, those who presented with total body surface area burned > 40% developed an earlier infection within the 1st week. Female gender, urethral catheterization and diabetes mellitus were significantly associated with higher risk of infection as the P values were 0.03, 0.005 and 0.004 respectively. Conclusion: Fungal urinary tract infection occurred in 18.6% of burn patients. The most common causative fungi are candida species. Advanced age, female gender, high percentage of

  11. Prenatal suspicion and postnatal diagnosis of urinary tract malformation in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krzemien, G.; Roszkowska-Blaim, M.; Szmigielska, A.; Wojnar, J.; Kostro, I.; Sekowska, R.; Karpinska, M.; Madzik, J.; Biejat, A.; Majkowska, Z.; Marcinski, A.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction of prenatal ultrasonography (USG) in fetus diagnostic caused early detection of congenital urinary tract abnormalities. Dilatation of renal pelvis, which is detected in ultrasonography from 16 week of gestational age is the most common abnormality in fetal urinary tract. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of congenital abnormalities in urinary tract in children with prenatal suspicion of anomalies. The retrospective study included 100 children with prenatal suspicion of congenital abnormalities in urinary tract. Changes in urinary tract were detected in ultrasonography between 18-41 (mean 32,6±5,6) week of gestational age. Unilateral dilatation of urinary tract was found in 57% fetuses, bilateral dilatation in 31%, others anomalies in 12% fetuses. Ultrasonography of urinary tract was done in all children in 1-122 (mean 17,5±20,5) day of life, cystourethrography in 93% of children, renal dynamic scintygraphy in 52%, renal static scintygraphy in 16% and urography in 39% of children. Congenital urinary tract abnormalities were detected in 63% of children. Transient dilatation of renal pelvis was observed in 25% of children. We didn't find any abnormalities in 12% patients. The most common changes in urinary tract were: ureteropelvic junction obstruction (22%), vesicoureteral reflux (15%), ureterovesical junction obstruction (7%), posterior urethral valve (7%) and polycystic renal dysplasia (7%). 33% children were qualified for invasive treatment. 1. Prenatal and postnatal ultrasonography of urinary tract allows detecting congenital abnormalities of urinary tract early age of life. 2. High percentage of abnormalities in urinary tract detected in prenatal ultrasonography orders cooperation between neonatologist, urologist and nephrologist. (author)

  12. International urinary tract imaging basic spinal cord injury data set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, F; Craggs, M; Kennelly, M

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To create an International Urinary Tract Imaging Basic Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Data Set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets. SETTING: An international working group. METHODS: The draft of the Data Set was developed by a working group comprising members appointed...... of comparable minimal data. RESULTS: The variables included in the International Urinary Tract Imaging Basic SCI Data Set are the results obtained using the following investigations: intravenous pyelography or computer tomography urogram or ultrasound, X-ray, renography, clearance, cystogram, voiding cystogram...

  13. Development of a revised mathematical model of the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, A.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this research are as follows. First, to incorporate new biological data into a revised mathematical adult gastrointestinal tract model that includes: ingestion in both liquid and solid forms; consideration of absorption in the stomach, small intestine, ascending colon, transverse colon or not at all; gender and age of the adult; and whether the adult is a smoker or not. Next, to create a computer program in basic language for calculating residence times in each anatomical section of the GI tract for commonly used radionuclides. Also, to compare and contrast the new model with the ICRP 30 GI tract model in terms of physiological concepts, mathematical concepts, and revised residence times for several commonly used radionuclides. Finally, to determine whether the new model is sufficiently better than the current model to warrant its use as a replacement for the Eve model

  14. Analysis of lower urinary tract disease of dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Iveth Mendóza-López

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Lower urinary tract diseases (LUTD include different conditions that affect the urinary bladder, urethra and prostate. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of different related diseases, to characterize the population affected, and to determine risk factors in dogs. The clinical cases were diagnosed with LUTD through physical examination, and clinical laboratory and imaging studies. Male dogs had a greater predisposition to present a LUTD. Dogs from 3 months to 18 years with a median of 8 years were affected, and the most affected breeds were Poodle, Labrador, German shepherd, Schnauzer, Cocker Spaniel and Chihuahua. The LUTD presented with the following frequencies: bacterial urinary tract infection 34.02%; micturition disorders 22.68%; urolithiasis 20.61%; prostatic disease 14.43%; traumatic problems 8.24%. Sixty-seven per cent of the cases were specific diseases, such as uncomplicated and complicated bacterial urinary tract infections, urinary retention of neurologic origin and silica urolithiasis.

  15. Dynamic study on digital cineangiography of acute digestive tract hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jianming; Feng Gansheng; Zeng Jun; Xu Caiyuan

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study dynamically acute gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage with digital cine angiography. Methods: Fifty patients with acute gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage were performed with digital cineangiography and observed dynamically during arterial, capillary and venous phases. Results: Among 50 cases, there were positive results in 44 ones including gastrointestinal hemorrhage in 14, biliary hemorrhage in 2, splenic arterial bleeding in 3, left gastric arterial bleeding in 4, right gastroepiploic arterial bleeding in 5, SMA bleeding in 7 and IMA bleeding in 9.17 cases underwent a permanent embolization through artery and 11 with temporary embolization as well as 9 with infusion of hemostatic agent via artery. Conclusions: Serial digital cineangiogram can dynamically show acute digestive tract hemorrhage within different phase. It is helpful to detect the location and cause of hemorrhage

  16. Biofabrication and biomaterials for urinary tract reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsawy MM

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Moustafa M Elsawy,1–3 Achala de Mel1 1Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, Royal Free Hospital, NHS Trust, University College London (UCL, 2Division of Reconstructive Urology, University College London Hospitals (uclh, London, UK; 3Urology Department, School of Medicine, Alexandria, University, Alexandria, EgyptAbstract: Reconstructive urologists are constantly facing diverse and complex pathologies that require structural and functional restoration of urinary organs. There is always a demand for a biocompatible material to repair or substitute the urinary tract instead of using patient’s autologous tissues with its associated morbidity. Biomimetic approaches are tissue-engineering tactics aiming to tailor the material physical and biological properties to behave physiologically similar to the urinary system. This review highlights the different strategies to mimic urinary tissues including modifications in structure, surface chemistry, and cellular response of a range of biological and synthetic materials. The article also outlines the measures to minimize infectious complications, which might lead to graft failure. Relevant experimental and preclinical studies are discussed, as well as promising biomimetic approaches such as three-dimensional bioprinting. Keywords: reconstruction, biofunctionalization, tissue engineering, urinary tract

  17. Multiscale Systems Modeling of Male Reproductive Tract ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reproductive tract is a complex, integrated organ system with diverse embryology and unique sensitivity to prenatal environmental exposures that disrupt morphoregulatory processes and endocrine signaling. U.S. EPA’s in vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) database (ToxCastDB) was used to profile the bioactivity of 54 chemicals with male developmental consequences across ~800 molecular and cellular features [Leung et al., accepted manuscript]. The in vitro bioactivity on molecular targets could be condensed into 156 gene annotations in a bipartite network. These results highlighted the role of estrogen and androgen signaling pathways in male reproductive tract development, and importantly, broadened the list of molecular targets to include GPCRs, cytochrome-P450s, vascular remodeling proteins, and retinoic acid signaling. A multicellular agent-based model was used to simulate the complex interactions between morphoregulatory, endocrine, and environmental influences during genital tubercle (GT) development. Spatially dynamic signals (e.g., SHH, FGF10, and androgen) were implemented in the model to address differential adhesion, cell motility, proliferation, and apoptosis. Urethral tube closure was an emergent feature of the model that was linked to gender-specific rates of ventral mesenchymal proliferation and urethral plate endodermal apoptosis, both under control of androgen signaling [Leung et al., manuscript in preparation]. A systemic parameter sweep w

  18. Interventions for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneeberger, Caroline; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Middleton, Philippa; Crowther, Caroline A.

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) are common in women who are pregnant and may cause serious adverse pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child including preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age babies. Interventions used to prevent RUTI in women who are pregnant can be pharmacological

  19. Interventions for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneeberger, Caroline; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Middleton, Philippa; Crowther, Caroline A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) are common in women who are pregnant and may cause serious adverse pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child including preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age babies. Interventions used to prevent RUTI in women who are pregnant can be

  20. Interventions for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneeberger, Caroline; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Middleton, Philippa; Crowther, Caroline A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) are common in women who are pregnant and may cause serious adverse pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child including preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age babies. Interventions used to prevent RUTI in women who are pregnant can be

  1. Management of non-catheter-associated complicated urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dielubanza, Elodi J; Mazur, Daniel J; Schaeffer, Anthony J

    2014-03-01

    This article presents an overview of non-catheter-associated complicated urinary tract infection (UTI) from a urologic point of view. Discussion includes the evaluation and workup a complicated UTI through history, physical examination, laboratory analysis, and radiographic studies. Specific types of complicated UTI, such as urinary obstruction and renal abscess, are reviewed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Neuropeptides in Lower Urinary Tract (LUT) Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arms, Lauren; Vizzard, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous neuropeptide/receptor systems including vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance P, neurokinin A, bradykinin, and endothelin-1 are expressed in the lower urinary tract (LUT) in both neural and non-neural (e.g., urothelium) components. LUT neuropeptide immunoreactivity is present in afferent and autonomic efferent neurons innervating the bladder and urethra and in the urothelium of the urinary bladder. Neuropeptides have tissue-specific distributions and functions in the LUT and exhibit neuroplastic changes in expression and function with LUT dysfunction following neural injury, inflammation and disease. LUT dysfunction with abnormal voiding including urinary urgency, increased voiding frequency, nocturia, urinary incontinence and pain may reflect a change in the balance of neuropeptides in bladder reflex pathways. LUT neuropeptide/receptor systems may represent potential targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:21290237

  3. Individual Neurons Confined to Distinct Antennal-Lobe Tracts in the Heliothine Moth: Morphological Characteristics and Global Projection Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ian, Elena; Zhao, Xin C.; Lande, Andreas; Berg, Bente G.

    2016-01-01

    To explore fundamental principles characterizing chemosensory information processing, we have identified antennal-lobe projection neurons in the heliothine moth, including several neuron types not previously described. Generally, odor information is conveyed from the primary olfactory center of the moth brain, the antennal lobe, to higher brain centers via projection neuron axons passing along several parallel pathways, of which the medial, mediolateral, and lateral antennal-lobe tract are considered the classical ones. Recent data have revealed the projections of the individual tracts more in detail demonstrating three main target regions in the protocerebrum; the calyces are innervated mainly by the medial tract, the superior intermediate protocerebrum by the lateral tract exclusively, and the lateral horn by all tracts. In the present study, we have identified, via iontophoretic intracellular staining combined with confocal microscopy, individual projection neurons confined to the tracts mentioned above, plus two additional ones. Further, using the visualization software AMIRA, we reconstructed the stained neurons and registered the models into a standard brain atlas, which allowed us to compare the termination areas of individual projection neurons both across and within distinct tracts. The data demonstrate a morphological diversity of the projection neurons within distinct tracts. Comparison of the output areas of the neurons confined to the three main tracts in the lateral horn showed overlapping terminal regions for the medial and mediolateral tracts; the lateral tract neurons, on the contrary, targeted mostly other output areas in the protocerebrum. PMID:27822181

  4. URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Sivalingam

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections frequently affect pregnant mothers. This problem causes significant morbidity and healthcare expenditure. Three common clinical manifestations of UTIs in pregnancy are: asymptomatic bacteriuria, acute cystitis and acute pyelonephritis. Escherichia coli remains the most frequent organism isolated in UTIs. All pregnant mothers should be screened for UTIs in pregnancy and antibiotics should be commenced without delay. Urine culture and sensitivity is the gold standard in diagnosing UTIs. Without treatment, asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy is associated with preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, maternal hypertension, pre-eclampsia and anaemia. Acute pyelonephritis can lead to maternal sepsis. Recurrent UTIs in pregnancy require prophylactic antibiotic treatment.

  5. Surgical management for upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Bhavan Prasad; Shelley, Mike; Coles, Bernadette; Biyani, Chandra S; El-Mokadem, Ismail; Nabi, Ghulam

    2011-04-13

    Upper tract transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) are uncommon and aggressive tumours. There are a number of surgical approaches to manage this condition including open radical nephroureterectomy and laparoscopic procedures. To determine the best surgical management option for upper tract transitional cell carcinoma. A sensitive search strategy was developed to identify relevant studies for inclusion in this review. The following databases were searched for randomised trials evaluating surgical approaches to the management of upper tract TCC: Medline EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), CINAHL, British Nursing Index, AMED, LILACS, Web of Science®, Scopus, Biosis, TRIP, Biomed Central, Dissertation Abstracts, and ISI Proceedings. The following criteria that were considered for this review.Types of studies - All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing the various surgical methods and approaches for the management of localised upper tract transitional cell carcinoma. Types of participants - All adult patients with localised transitional cell carcinoma. Localised disease was defined as limited to the kidney or ureter with no gross regional lymph nodal enlargement on imaging. Types of interventions - Any surgical method or approach for managing localised upper tract transitional cell carcinoma. Types of outcome measures - Overall and cancer-specific survival were primary outcomes. Surgery-related morbidity. Quality of life and health economics outcomes were secondary outcomes. Two review authors examined the search results independently to identify trials for inclusion. We identified one randomised controlled trial that met our inclusion criteria. The trial showed that the laparoscopic approach had superior peri-operative outcomes compared to open approach. Laparoscopic was superior and statistically significant for blood loss (104 mL (millilitres) versus 430 mL, P management of upper tract transitional cell carcinoma

  6. Multidetector CT and MRI in diseases of the GI tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruel, J.M.; Gallix, B.

    2003-01-01

    With the introduction of spiral scanning then multidetector technologies, the accuracy for diagnosing digestive tract diseases with CT has been highly improved, and CT is used more and more in the evaluation of patients with suspected gastrointestinal disorders. CT is able to demonstrate both the intramural and the extra-mural components of the disease, and has a major role in the preoperative staging and the follow-up Improvements of CT protocols, such as CT-enteroclysis, or multiplanar 2D and 3D post-processing, including now techniques for 'virtual endoscopy', lead to discuss new indications in which CT could now compete with conventional X-rays series and video-endoscopy. This precise study of the digestive wall, the peri-digestive fat, the digestive tract blood supply, may be performed by MRI, under the condition of access to high level machines and standardized protocols. MR-enteroclysis and MR-virtual colonoscopy could be performed with much lower risk for the patient, in terms of radiation dose or contrast adverse effects. Endo-luminal coils should give to MR an ultra-high resolution for analysing the different layers of the gastrointestinal wall. Learning objectives: to review how to perform CT and MRI protocols for digestive tract imaging, to recognize the CT arid MR patterns of the main digestive tract diseases, to discuss the value, limits and role of CT and MR in digestive tract diseases, to discuss the potential role of CT and MR new technological developments for digestive tract imaging in the upcoming future Conclusion: CT is nowadays a modality of choice for digestive imaging. Improvements in technologies and indications, the necessary discussion of the risks and benefits for the patient should let the radiologists consider MRI in gastrointestinal disorders as an important part of the routine activity in clinical MRI. (authors)

  7. Biliary tract duplication cyst with gastric heterotopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grumbach, K.; Baker, D.H.; Weigert, J.; Altman, R.P.

    1988-05-01

    Cystic duplications of the biliary tract are rare anomalies, easily mistaken for choledochal cysts. Surgical drainage is the preferred therapy for choledochal cyst, but cystic duplication necessitates surgical excision as duplications may contain heterotopic gastric mucosa leading to peptic ulceration of the biliary tract. We report a case of biliary tract duplication cyst containing heterotopic alimentary mucosa which had initially been diagnosed and surgically treated as a choledochal cyst.

  8. Biliary tract duplication cyst with gastric heterotopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grumbach, K.; Baker, D.H.; Weigert, J.; Altman, R.P.

    1988-01-01

    Cystic duplications of the biliary tract are rare anomalies, easily mistaken for choledochal cysts. Surgical drainage is the preferred therapy for choledochal cyst, but cystic duplication necessitates surgical excision as duplications may contain heterotopic gastric mucosa leading to peptic ulceration of the biliary tract. We report a case of biliary tract duplication cyst containing heterotopic alimentary mucosa which had initially been diagnosed and surgically treated as a choledochal cyst. (orig.)

  9. Study of females genital tract microflora diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Vertelytė, Justina

    2016-01-01

    Study of females genital tract microflora diversity SUMMARY Study of female genital tract microflora diversity Authors of Master’s degree scientific research work: Justina Vertelytė Head of Master’s degree scientific research work: dr Silvija Kiverytė Vilnius, 2016 The aim of research work was to investigate and analyze the composition of the microflora of the female genital tract using the methods of microbiological smear, vaginal wet mount and PCR. The objectives of the work were to evaluat...

  10. Reliability of dipstick assay in predicting urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anith Kumar Mambatta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Urine dipstick analysis is a quick, cheap and a useful test in predicting Urinary Tract Infection (UTI in hospitalized patients. Our aim is to evaluate the reliability (sensitivity of urine dipstick analysis against urine culture in the diagnosis of UTI. Materials and Methods: Patients admitted to our hospital suspected of having UTI, with positive urine cultures were included in this study from a 2-year period (January 2011 to December 2012. Dipstick urinalysis was done using multistix 10 SG (Siemens and clinitek advantus analyzer. The sensitivity of dipstick nitrites, leukocyte esterase and blood in these culture-positive UTI patients was calculated retrospectively. Results: Urine dipstick analysis of 635 urine culture-positive patients was studied. The sensitivity of nitrite alone and leukocyte esterase alone were 23.31% and 48.5%, respectively. The sensitivity of blood alone in positive urine culture was 63.94%, which was the highest sensitivity for a single screening test. The presence of leukocyte esterase and/or blood increased the sensitivity to 72.28%. The sensitivity was found to be the highest when nitrite, leukocyte and blood were considered together. Conclusions: Nitrite test and leukocyte esterase test when used individually is not reliable to rule out UTI. Hence, symptomatic UTI patients with negative dipstick assay should be subjected to urine culture for a proper management.

  11. Corrosive injuries of the upper gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Lal Meena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosive injury of the upper gastrointestinal tract is a worldwide clinical problem, mostly occurring in children. Alkaline agents produce deeper injuries whereas acidic agents produce superficial injuries usually. Hoarseness, stridor, and respiratory distress indicate airway injury. Dysphagia, odynophagia, and drooling of saliva suggest esophageal injury whereas abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting are indicative of stomach injury. X-rays should be done to rule out perforation. Endoscopy is usually recommended in the first 12–48 h although it is safe up to 96 h after caustic ingestion. Endoscopy should be performed with caution and gentle insufflation. Initial management includes getting intravenous access and replacement of fluids. Hyperemia and superficial ulcerations have excellent recovery while deeper injuries require total parenteral nutrition or feeding jejunostomy. Patients suspected of perforation should be subjected to laparotomy. Common complications after corrosive injury are esophageal stricture, gastric outlet obstruction, and development of esophageal and gastric carcinoma.

  12. Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infection Prevention bundle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Zarkotou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI are among the most common healthcare-associated infections, and potentially lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Multifaceted infection control strategies implemented as bundles can prevent nosocomial infections associated with invasive devices such as CAUTIs. The components of the CAUTI bundle proposed herein, include appropriate indications for catheterization and recommendations for the procedures of catheter insertion and catheter maintenance and care. Avoiding unnecessary urinary catheter use is the most effective measure for their prevention. To minimize the risk of CAUTI, urinary catheters should be placed only when a clinical valid indication is documented and they should be removed as soon as possible; alternatives to catheterization should also be considered. Aseptic insertion technique, maintenance of closed drainage system and strict adherence to hand hygiene are essential for preventing CAUTI. The successful implementation of the bundle requires education and training for all healthcare professionals and evaluation of surveillance data.

  13. Gram-Positive Uropathogens, Polymicrobial Urinary Tract Infection, and the Emerging Microbiota of the Urinary Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Kimberly A; Lewis, Amanda L

    2016-04-01

    Gram-positive bacteria are a common cause of urinary-tract infection (UTI), particularly among individuals who are elderly, pregnant, or who have other risk factors for UTI. Here we review the epidemiology, virulence mechanisms, and host response to the most frequently isolated Gram-positive uropathogens: Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus agalactiae. We also review several emerging, rare, misclassified, and otherwise underreported Gram-positive pathogens of the urinary tract including Aerococcus, Corynebacterium, Actinobaculum, and Gardnerella. The literature strongly suggests that urologic diseases involving Gram-positive bacteria may be easily overlooked due to limited culture-based assays typically utilized for urine in hospital microbiology laboratories. Some UTIs are polymicrobial in nature, often involving one or more Gram-positive bacteria. We herein review the risk factors and recent evidence for mechanisms of bacterial synergy in experimental models of polymicrobial UTI. Recent experimental data has demonstrated that, despite being cleared quickly from the bladder, some Gram-positive bacteria can impact pathogenic outcomes of co-infecting organisms. When taken together, the available evidence argues that Gram-positive bacteria are important uropathogens in their own right, but that some can be easily overlooked because they are missed by routine diagnostic methods. Finally, a growing body of evidence demonstrates that a surprising variety of fastidious Gram-positive bacteria may either reside in or be regularly exposed to the urinary tract and further suggests that their presence is widespread among women, as well as men. Experimental studies in this area are needed; however, there is a growing appreciation that the composition of bacteria found in the bladder could be a potentially important determinant in urologic disease, including susceptibility to UTI.

  14. A practice pattern assessment of members of the Society of Pediatric Urology for evaluation and treatment of urinary tract dilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jessica N; Zee, Rebecca S; Martin, Allison N; Corbett, Sean T; Herndon, C D Anthony

    2017-12-01

    Over the last decade the literature, including a multidisciplinary consensus statement, has supported a paradigm shift in management of urinary tract dilation, yet the impact on practice patterns has not been well documented. This study aims to elucidate specific practice patterns for treatment of prenatal unilateral urinary tract dilation and to assess surgical intervention patterns for ureteropelvic junction obstruction. An online survey was distributed to 234 pediatric urologists through the Society of Pediatric Urology. The survey was composed of five clinical case scenarios addressing evaluation and management of unilateral urinary tract dilation. The response rate was 71% (n = 168). Circumcision status, gender, and grade were significant factors in recommending prophylactic antibiotics for newborn urinary tract dilation. Prophylactic antibiotic use in the uncircumcised male and female was twice that of a circumcised male for grade 3 (Table). This difference was minimized for grade 4. Use of VCUG was high for circumcised males with grade 3 or 4 (Table). The choice of minimally invasive surgery for ureteropelvic junction repair increased with age from 19% for a 5-month-old, 49% for a 2-year-old, and 85% for a 10-year-old. Notably, 44% of respondents would observe a 10-year-old with intermittent obstruction. Retrograde pyelography was recommended in conjunction with repair in 65% of respondents. Antegrade stent placement was the most common choice (38-47%) for urinary diversion after pyeloplasty. Regarding postoperative imaging, only 5% opted for routine renal scan whereas most would perform renal ultrasound alone. Practice patterns seen for use of prophylactic antibiotics are in agreement with the literature, which promotes selective use in those at highest risk for urinary tract infections. Interestingly, use of aggressive screening was not concordant with this literature. Several studies have indicated an increased usage of robotic pyeloplasty; however

  15. An association between Helicobacter pylori and upper respiratory tract disease: Fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariya, Shin; Okano, Mitsuhiro; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major cause of chronic gastritis and gastric ulcers and considerable evidence supports the notion that infection with this bacterium is also associated with gastric malignancy in addition to various other conditions including pulmonary, vascular and autoimmune disorders. Gastric juice infected with H. pylori might play an important role in upper respiratory tract infection. Although direct and/or indirect mechanisms might be involved in the association between H. pylori and upper respiratory tract diseases, the etiological role of H. pylori in upper respiratory tract disorders has not yet been fully elucidated. Although various studies over the past two decades have suggested a relationship between H. pylori and upper respiratory tract diseases, the findings are inconsistent. The present overview describes the outcomes of recent investigations into the impact of H. pylori on upper respiratory tract and adjacent lesions. PMID:24587622

  16. Tissue engineering for urinary tract reconstruction and repair: Progress and prospect in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Qingsong; Fu, Qiang

    2018-04-01

    Several urinary tract pathologic conditions, such as strictures, cancer, and obliterations, require reconstructive plastic surgery. Reconstruction of the urinary tract is an intractable task for urologists due to insufficient autologous tissue. Limitations of autologous tissue application prompted urologists to investigate ideal substitutes. Tissue engineering is a new direction in these cases. Advances in tissue engineering over the last 2 decades may offer alternative approaches for the urinary tract reconstruction. The main components of tissue engineering include biomaterials and cells. Biomaterials can be used with or without cultured cells. This paper focuses on cell sources, biomaterials, and existing methods of tissue engineering for urinary tract reconstruction in China. The paper also details challenges and perspectives involved in urinary tract reconstruction.

  17. International lower urinary tract function basic spinal cord injury data set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craggs, M.; Kennelly, M.; Schick, E.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To create the International Lower Urinary Tract Function Basic Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Data Set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets. SETTING: International working group. METHODS: The draft of the Data Set was developed by a working group consisting of the members......:Variables included in the International Lower Urinary Tract Function Basic SCI Data Set are as follows: date of data collection, urinary tract impairment unrelated to spinal cord lesion, awareness of the need to empty the bladder, bladder emptying, average number of voluntary bladder emptyings per day during...... the last week, incontinence within the last 3 months, collecting appliances for urinary incontinence, any drugs for the urinary tract within the last year, surgical procedures on the urinary tract and any change in urinary symptoms within the last year. Complete instruction for data collection, data sheet...

  18. Circumvention of chaperone requirement for aggregate formation of a short polyglutamine tract by the co-expression of a long polyglutamine tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yoko; Koitabashi, Sumiko; Kakizuka, Akira; Fujita, Takashi

    2002-10-04

    Polyglutamine disease is now recognized as one of the conformational, amyloid-related diseases. In this disease, polyglutamine expansion in proteins has toxic effects on cells and also results in the formation of aggregates. Polyglutamine aggregate formation is accompanied by conversion of the polyglutamine from a soluble to an insoluble form. In yeast, the efficiency of the aggregate formation is determined by the balance of various parameters, including the length of the polyglutamine tract, the function of Hsp104, and the level of polyglutamine expression. In this study, we found that the co-expression of a long polyglutamine tract, which formed aggregates independently of the function of Hsp104, enhanced the formation of aggregates of a short polyglutamine tract in wild-type cells as well as in Deltahsp104 mutant cells. Thus, the expression of a long polyglutamine tract would be an additional parameter determining the efficiency of aggregate formation of a short polyglutamine tract. The co-localization of aggregates of long and short polyglutamine tracts suggests the possibility that the enhancement occurs due to the seeding of aggregates of the long polyglutamine tracts.

  19. EnviroAtlas - Residential vacancy rate by Census Tract for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset portrays the vacancy rate for residential addresses for each Census Tract for each year from 2010-2014. Vacant buildings are included if...

  20. EnviroAtlas - Business vacancy rate by Census Tract for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset portrays the vacancy rate for business addresses for each Census Tract for each year from 2010-2014. Vacant buildings are included if they...

  1. Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Tom P. V. M.; Klijn, Aart J.; Vijverberg, Marianne A. W.

    2012-01-01

    Up to 10% of school-age children suffer from recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) and/or urinary incontinence. Lower urinary tract problems are, together with asthma, the most important chronic disease of the pediatric age group. Diagnosis must discriminate among those children with functional

  2. Peptide Hormones in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasi...

  3. Typology of double-tract units in multi family dwellings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfirević Đorđe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The double-tract unit is a rather rare typological shape in residential architecture in the world, and this is why it has not been explored extensively in the field of habitology, although it is known that the first examples of double-tract units in multi- family dwellings were implemented back in XIX century. Every attempt at typology depends on the angle of analysis of a given subject, as well as the selection and hierarchy of the criteria and categorization of individual elements. This makes it hard to tell whether it is feasible to establish universal typology for all architectural patterns. Typology of residential types in architecture is mostly set according to current patterns (most often, only those that were executed. However, since the shape of double-tract unit is quite rare in the world, in most cases it was not even recorded, and even when it was, it was most often included as part of some other category or terminological definition. The aim of this paper is to outline the typology for the double-tract units in multi-family dwellings with an overview of current, established patterns (designed and executed, but also those which could yet be taken into consideration.

  4. Interventional drainage technique for patients with multiple biliary tracts obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Zonggui; Yi Yuhai; Zhang Xuping; Zhang Lijun

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the methodology and effectiveness of interventional biliary drainage for patients with multiple biliary tract obstruction (MBO). Methods: Twenty-one patients with MBO caused by cholangiocarcinoma in 13 cases, primary hepatocellular carcinoma in 5 cases and porta hepatic metastases in 3 cases were included. According to types of biliary tract occlusion, the authors performed different combined interventional draining procedures. That is, thirteen cases were performed with right and left bile duct stent implantation respectively; three cases with stent insertion between left and right bile ducts and catheter for external draining in right bile duct; three cases with right bile duct stent placement and catheter for external draining in left bile duct; two cases with anterior right bile tract stent placement and posterior right bile tract for external draining while left bile duct for internal (one case) or external (one case) draining. Results: All together 36 stents were implanted in 21 patients. 35 stents have obtained satisfactory internal draining function and one stent has not shown function due to malposition. Jaundice disappeared completed in 19 of 21 cases, and disappeared incompletely in 2 cases. Conclusions: Multiform biliary internal and/or external drainage is effective for most patients with MBO

  5. Managing lower urinary tract symptoms in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Kenneth R; Aning, Jonathan J

    2016-04-01

    Male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are common and increase in prevalence with age. Up to 90% of men aged 50 to 80 may suffer from troublesome LUTS. Men may attend expressing direct concern about micturition, describing one or more LUTS and the related impact on their quality of life. Frequently men may present for other medical or urological reasons such as concern regarding their risk of having prostate cancer or erectile dysfunction but on taking a history bothersome LUTS are identified. Men may present late in the community with urinary retention: the inability to pass urine. A thorough urological history is essential to inform management. It is important to determine whether men have storage or voiding LUTS or both. All patients must have a systematic comprehensive examination including genitalia and a digital rectal examination. Investigations performed in primary care should be guided by the history and examination findings, taking into account the impact of the LUTS on the individual's quality of life. Current NICE guidelines recommend the following to be performed at initial assessment: frequency volume chart (FVC); urine dipstick to detect blood, glucose, protein, leucocytes and nitrites; and prostate specific antigen. Men should be referred for urological review if they have: bothersome LUTS which have not responded to conservative management or medical therapy; LUTS in association with recurrent or persistent UTIs; urinary retention; renal impairment suspected to be secondary to lower urinary tract dysfunction; or suspected urological malignancy. All patients not meeting criteria for immediate referral to urology can be managed initially in primary care. Based on history, examination and investigation findings an individualised management plan should be formulated. Basic lifestyle advice should be given regarding reduction or avoidance of caffeinated products and alcohol. The FVC should guide advice regarding fluid intake management and all

  6. Urinary tract infection in the neurogenic bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Humberto R.

    2016-01-01

    There is a high incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract function. This results in significant morbidity and health care utilization. Multiple well-established risk factors unique to a neurogenic bladder (NB) exist while others require ongoing investigation. It is important for care providers to have a good understanding of the different structural, physiological, immunological and catheter-related risk factors so that they may be modified when possible. Diagnosis remains complicated. Appropriate specimen collection is of paramount importance and a UTI cannot be diagnosed based on urinalysis or clinical presentation alone. A culture result with a bacterial concentration of ≥103 CFU/mL in combination with symptoms represents an acceptable definition for UTI diagnosis in NB patients. Cystoscopy, ultrasound and urodynamics should be utilized for the evaluation of recurrent infections in NB patients. An acute, symptomatic UTI should be treated with antibiotics for 5–14 days depending on the severity of the presentation. Antibiotic selection should be based on local and patient-based resistance patterns and the spectrum should be as narrow as possible if there are no concerns regarding urosepsis. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) should not be treated because of rising resistance patterns and lack of clinical efficacy. The most important preventative measures include closed catheter drainage in patients with an indwelling catheter and the use of clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) over other methods of bladder management if possible. The use of hydrophilic or impregnated catheters is not recommended. Intravesical Botox, bacterial interference and sacral neuromodulation show significant promise for the prevention of UTIs in higher risk NB patients and future, multi-center, randomized controlled trials are required. PMID:26904414

  7. Malignant tumors of gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    International histological classification and classification according to TNM systems, domestic clinical classification according to stages of carcinoma of stomach, large intestine and rectum are presented. Diagnosis of tumoral processes of the given localizations should be based on complex application of diagnostic methods: clinical, ultrasonic, radiological and others. Surgical method and variants of surgical method with preoperative radiotherapy play a leading role in treatment of mentioned tumors. Combined method of treatment-surgical intervention with postoperation intravenous injection of colloid 198 Au - is applied for preventing propagation of stomach cancer metastases. Advisability of combining operations with radiological and antitumoral medicamentous therapy is shown. Reliable results of treatment of malignant tumors of gastrointestinal tract are presented

  8. Metastases of the digestive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caramella, E.; Bruneton, J.N.; Roux, P.; Aubanel, D.; Lecomte, P.

    1983-01-01

    In addition to personal observations of 77 patients with one or more metastatic sites in the gastrointestinal tract, the authors reviewed over 1000 similar cases in the literature. The general radiologic aspects of each location (oesophagus, stomach, intestine, colon/rectum) are discussed. The pathophysiology of this type of metastasis explains the radiologic images obtained during barium transit examinations. The lymphatic type of spread observed in the oesophageal region in connection with carcinoma of the breast is the origin of stenosis of the middle third. The haematogenous type of diffusion encountered during melanomas creates intramural or intraluminal radiologic images. Two means of spread can be observed in the stomach. Haematogenous spread can result in frequently multiple and ulcerated nodular submucosal lesions from melanomas and bronchogenic carcinomas; it can also cause a more or less stenotic invasive image, especially in connection with carcinoma of the breast. Dissemination by means of the mesenteric reflections, and in particular around the gastrocolic ligament, explains the spread of a carcinoma of the transverse colon towards the stomach. The most frequent secondary sites in the gastrointestinal tract occur in the small intestine, the majority of these metastases being caused by pelvic tumours. Whether occurring in the small intestine or the colon, the patophysiology is similar: direct invasion by a non-contiguous primary carcinoma along the fascias and mesenteric attachments (more rarely by lymphatic permeation), dissemination by the peritoneal fluid or haematogenuous spread. In the first two types of dissemination cited, the image encountered is often hard to differentiate from radiation-induced lesions. (orig.)

  9. PATTERN OF ANTIMICROBIAL USE FOR URINARY TRACT INFECTION DURING PREGNANCY IN A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    Haldia Priyanka, Sharma Taruna, Nautiyal Ruchira

    2015-01-01

    Background: Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) may be classified as lower (cystitis and asymptomatic bacteriuria) or upper urinary tract infections (pyelonephritis). The recommended antibiotics for use in pregnancy for management of ASB include amoxicillin, oral cephalosporins and nitrofurantoin; and for the treatment of lower UTI during pregnancy include penicillins, oral cephalosporins. Data from the antibiotic usage study in UTI during pregnancy will help in establishing a proper antibiotic uti...

  10. Survey on lower urinary tract symptoms and sleep disorders in patients treated at urology departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu N

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nobutaka Shimizu,1 Yasuharu Nagai,1 Yutaka Yamamoto,1 Takafumi Minami,1 Taiji Hayashi,1 Hidenori Tsuji,1 Masahiro Nozawa,1 Kazuhiro Yoshimura,1 Tokumi Ishii,1 Hirotsugu Uemura,1 Takashi Oki,2 Koichi Sugimoto,2 Kazuhiro Nose,2 Tsukasa Nishioka21Department of Urology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka, Japan; 2Department of Urology, Sakai Hospital, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka, JapanObjectives: This study examined the association between sleep disorders and lower urinary tract symptoms in patients who had visited urology departments.Methods: This was an independent cross-sectional, observational study. Outpatients who had visited the urology departments at the Kinki University School of Medicine or the Sakai Hospital, Kinki University School of Medicine, between August 2011 and January 2012 were assessed using the Athens Insomnia Scale and the International Prostate Symptom Score.Results: In total, 1174 patients (mean age, 65.7 ± 13.7 years, with 895 men (67.1 ± 13.2 years old and 279 women (61.4 ± 14.6 years old, were included in the study. Approximately half of these patients were suspected of having a sleep disorder. With regard to the International Prostate Symptom Score subscores, a significant increase in the risk for suspected sleep disorders was observed among patients with a post-micturition symptom (the feeling of incomplete emptying subscore of ≥1 (a 2.3-fold increase, a storage symptom (daytime frequency + urgency + nocturia subscore of ≥5 (a 2.7-fold increase, a voiding symptom (intermittency + slow stream + hesitancy subscore of ≥2 (a 2.6-fold increase, and a nocturia subscore of ≥2 (a 1.9-fold increase.Conclusion: The results demonstrated that the risk factors for sleep disorders could also include voiding, post-micturition, and storage symptoms, in addition to nocturia.Keywords: lower urinary tract symptoms, sleep disturbance, urological disease

  11. Survey of risk factors urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dehghani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Women are very susceptible to urinary tract infections and pregnancy raises the risk of urinary tract infection. In general, little information on the risk factors of urinary tract infection in pregnancy is underway. Urinary tract infection in pregnancy is an important risk factor for pregnancy dire consequences. The purpose of this study is to find risk factors associated with urinary tract infection in pregnant women. Methods: The study was observational and retrospective analysis was carried on in the winter of which 310 pregnant women participated in 11 health centers in Shahrekord. Of these 155 cases (patients and 155 controls (healthy that were matched for age Information required from the health records of pregnant women and complete Czech list of researcher whose validity was confirmed by experts were gathered. Information needed by pregnant women health records and complete list researcher was collected. Czech list contains a number of possible risk factors for illness and demographic characteristics of the study participants was Statistical analysis software spss version 16 by using chi square tests and logistic regression and t analysis was performed. Results: Among the variables vomiting (p = 0/00 a history of urinary tract infection in a previous pregnancy (P =.001, CI = 1.508-4.408, OR = 2.578 abortion own history (P =.014, CI = 1.165 -3.847, OR = 2.117, respectively, the most important risk factors for urinary tract infection in pregnant women were determined. Conclusion: Prevention and treatment of vomiting in pregnancy prevention of urinary tract infections during pregnancy. Prevention of abortion can play an important role in the prevention of urinary tract infection and its complications in pregnancy. The study also revealed a number of factors can have an impact on urinary tract infection in pregnancy that has not been enough attention and it is necessary that more attention be placed on health programs and

  12. Bladder Infection (Urinary Tract Infection - UTI) in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Urinary Tract & How It Works Bladder Infection (Urinary Tract Infection—UTI) in Adults View or Print All ... Bladder infections are the most common type of urinary tract infection (UTI), but any part of your urinary ...

  13. Distribution of female genital tract anomalies in two classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Pentti K

    2016-11-01

    This study assessed the distribution of Müllerian duct anomalies in two verified classifications of female genital tract malformations, and the presence of associated renal defects. 621 women with confirmed female genital tract anomalies were retrospectively grouped under the European (ESHRE/ESGE) and the American (AFS) classification. The diagnosis of uterine malformation was based on findings in hysterosalpingography, two-dimensional ultrasonography, endoscopies, laparotomy, cesarean section and magnetic resonance imaging in 97.3% of cases. Renal status was determined in 378 patients, including 5 with normal uterus and vagina. The European classification covered all 621 women studied. Uterine anomalies without cervical or vaginal anomaly were found in 302 (48.6%) patients. Uterine anomaly was associated with vaginal anomaly in 45.2%, and vaginal anomaly alone was found in 26 (4.2%) cases. Septate uterus was the most common (49.1%) of all genital tract anomalies, followed by bicorporeal uteri (18.2%). The American classification covered 590 (95%) out of the 621 women with genital tract anomalies. The American system did not take into account vaginal anomalies in 170 (34.7%) and cervical anomalies in 174 (35.5%) out of 490 cases with uterine malformations. Renal abnormalities were found in 71 (18.8%) out of 378 women, unilateral renal agenesis being the most common defect (12.2%), also found in 4 women without Müllerian duct anomaly. The European classification sufficiently covered uterine and vaginal abnormalities. The distribution of the main uterine anomalies was equal in both classifications. The American system missed cervical and vaginal anomalies associated with uterine anomalies. Evaluation of renal system is recommended for all patients with genital tract anomalies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Urinary tract injuries in laparoscopic hysterectomy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Marisa R; Bardsley, Tyler R; Sharp, Howard T

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review was to estimate the incidence of urinary tract injuries associated with laparoscopic hysterectomy and describe the long-term sequelae of these injuries and the impact of early recognition. Studies were identified by searching the PubMed database, spanning the last 10 years. The key words "ureter" or "ureteral" or "urethra" or "urethral" or "bladder" or "urinary tract" and "injury" and "laparoscopy" or "robotic" and "gynecology" were used. Additionally, a separate search was done for "routine cystoscopy" and "gynecology." The inclusion criteria were published articles of original research referring to urologic injuries occurring during either laparoscopic or robotic surgery for gynecologic indications. Only English language articles from the past 10 years were included. Studies with less than 100 patients and no injuries reported were excluded. No robotic series met these criteria. A primary search of the database yielded 104 articles, and secondary cross-reference yielded 6 articles. After reviewing the abstracts, 40 articles met inclusion criteria and were reviewed in their entirety. Of those 40 articles, 3 were excluded because of an inability to extract urinary tract injuries from total injuries. Statistical analysis was performed using a generalized linear mixed effects model. The overall urinary tract injury rate for laparoscopic hysterectomy was 0.73%. The bladder injury rate ranged from 0.05% to 0.66% across procedure types, and the ureteral injury rate ranged from 0.02% to 0.4% across procedure type. In contrast to earlier publications, which cited unacceptably high urinary tract injury rates, laparoscopic hysterectomy appears to be safe regarding the bladder and ureter. Copyright © 2014 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. New seismograph includes filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-02

    The new Nimbus ES-1210 multichannel signal enhancement seismograph from EG and G geometrics has recently been redesigned to include multimode signal fillers on each amplifier. The ES-1210F is a shallow exploration seismograph for near subsurface exploration such as in depth-to-bedrock, geological hazard location, mineral exploration, and landslide investigations.

  16. Ab initio calculations on the X (2)B1 and A (2)A1 states of AsH2, and Franck-Condon simulation, including anharmonicity, of the A(0,0,0)-X single vibronic level emission spectrum of AsH2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Edmond P F; Mok, Daniel K W; Chau, Foo-Tim; Dyke, John M

    2010-06-21

    Restricted-spin coupled-cluster single-double plus perturbative triple excitation {RCCSD(T)} calculations were carried out on the X (2)B(1) and A (2)A(1) states of AsH(2) employing the fully relativistic small-core effective core potential (ECP10MDF) for As and basis sets of up to the augmented correlation-consistent polarized valence quintuple-zeta (aug-cc-pV5Z) quality. Minimum-energy geometrical parameters and relative electronic energies were evaluated, including contributions from extrapolation to the complete basis set limit and from outer core correlation of the As 3d(10) electrons employing additional tight 4d3f2g2h functions designed for As. In addition, simplified, explicitly correlated CCSD(T)-F12 calculations were also performed employing different atomic orbital basis sets of up to aug-cc-pVQZ quality, and associated complementary auxiliary and density-fitting basis sets. The best theoretical estimate of the relative electronic energy of the A (2)A(1) state of AsH(2) relative to the X (2)B(1) state including zero-point energy correction (T(0)) is 19,954(32) cm(-1), which agrees very well with available experimental T(0) values of 19,909.4531(18) and 19,909.4910(17) cm(-1) obtained from recent laser induced fluorescence and cavity ringdown absorption spectroscopic studies. In addition, potential energy functions (PEFs) of the X (2)B(1) and A (2)A(1) states of AsH(2) were computed at different RCCSD(T) and CCSD(T)-F12 levels. These PEFs were used in variational calculations of anharmonic vibrational wave functions, which were then utilized to calculate Franck-Condon factors (FCFs) between these two states, using a method which includes allowance for anharmonicity and Duschinsky rotation. The A(0,0,0)-X single vibronic level (SVL) emission spectrum of AsH(2) was simulated using these computed FCFs. Comparison between simulated and available experimental vibrationally resolved spectra of the A(0,0,0)-X SVL emission of AsH(2), which consist essentially of

  17. [Clinical studies on flomoxef in respiratory tract infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanegae, H; Yamada, H; Yamaguchi, T; Kuroki, S; Katoh, O

    1987-10-01

    Flomoxef (FMOX, 6315-S) is a new oxacephem with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. We used FMOX for treatment of 13 patients with respiratory tract infections including 4 cases of pneumonia, 5 of lung abscess and 4 of exacerbation of the chronic airway diseases. FMOX showed excellent in vitro antimicrobial activities against clinical isolates including 4 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, 2 strains of Haemophilus influenzae and each one strain of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Clinical responses were excellent in 3 cases, good in 7 and fair or poor in 3. No side effect was observed, but abnormal laboratory findings caused by FMOX administration were found in 2 cases; hypertransaminasemia and eosinophilia. However, neither of them was severe. From the above results, it is considered that FMOX will be useful for treatment of patients with respiratory tract infections.

  18. Gastroesophageal reflux disease and non-digestive tract diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying

    2015-05-01

    Over the past decade, incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) showed an increasing trend resulting from factors, including lifestyle and dietary habits; however, both etiology and pathological mechanisms remain controversial. GERD occurs as a result of a variety of mechanisms and there is no single factor. Symptoms of GERD are often non-typical, with a likelihood of being overlooked by non-gastroenterology professionals. Therefore, improving GERD awareness in non-gastroenterology practitioners, along with early diagnosis and treatment, provide potential benefit to clinicians and patients alike. Increasing evidence suggests GERD has specific connections with a variety of non-digestive tract conditions, may contribute an aggravating compounding effect on other diseases, prolong hospitalization, and increase subsequent medical costs. This review considers and emphasizes the association between GERD and non-digestive tract conditions, including atrial fibrillation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, primary pulmonary fibrosis and energy metabolism related to diet.

  19. Are probiotics effective in preventing urinary tract infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, Juan; Rada, Gabriel

    2018-04-04

    Urinary tract infection is the most common bacterial infection and recurrences are common. Probiotics have been proposed as an alternative to decrease this risk. However, it is not clear if they are really effective. To answer this question we used Epistemonikos, the largest database of systematic reviews in health, which is maintained by screening multiple information sources, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, among others. We extracted data from the systematic reviews, reanalyzed data of primary studies, conducted a meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table using the GRADE approach. We identified six systematic reviews including nine studies overall, of which seven were randomized trials. We concluded it is not clear whether probiotics decrease the risk of symptomatic urinary tract infection, because the certainty of the evidence is very low.

  20. The ICRP task group respiratory tract model - an age-dependent dosimetric model for general application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, M.R.; Birchall, A.

    1992-01-01

    The ICRP Task Group on Human Respiratory Tract Models for Radiological Protection has developed a revised dosimetric model for the respiratory tract. Papers outlining the model, and describing each aspect of it were presented at the Third International Workshop on Respiratory Tract Dosimetry (Albuquerque 1-3 July 1990), the Proceedings of which were recently published in Radiation Protection Dosimetry Volume 38 Nos 1-3 (1991). Since the model had not changed substantially since the Workshop at Albuquerque, only a summary of the paper presented at Schloss Elmau is included in these Proceedings. (author)

  1. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Totero Gongora, Juan Sebastian; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Candeloro, Patrizio; Cuda, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  2. Saskatchewan resources. [including uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    The production of chemicals and minerals for the chemical industry in Saskatchewan are featured, with some discussion of resource taxation. The commodities mentioned include potash, fatty amines, uranium, heavy oil, sodium sulfate, chlorine, sodium hydroxide, sodium chlorate and bentonite. Following the successful outcome of the Cluff Lake inquiry, the uranium industry is booming. Some developments and production figures for Gulf Minerals, Amok, Cenex and Eldorado are mentioned.

  3. [Urinary tract infection in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Geraldo; Marcolin, Alessandra Cristina; Quintana, Silvana Maria; Cavalli, Ricardo Carvalho

    2008-02-01

    Several factors cause urinary tract infection (UTI) to be a relevant complication of the gestational period, aggravating both the maternal and perinatal prognosis. For many years, pregnancy has been considered to be a factor predisposing to all forms of UTI. Today, it is known that pregnancy, as an isolated event, is not responsible for a higher incidence of UTI, but that the anatomical and physiological changes imposed on the urinary tract by pregnancy predispose women with asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) to become pregnant women with symptomatic UTI. AB affects 2 to 10% of all pregnant women and approximately 30% of these will develop pyelonephritis if not properly treated. However, a difficult-to-understand resistance against the identification of AB during this period is observed among prenatalists. The diagnosis of UTI is microbiological and it is based on two urine cultures presenting more than 10(5) colonies/mL urine of the same germ. Treatment is facilitated by the fact that it is based on an antibiogram, with no scientific foundation for the notion that a pre-established therapeutic scheme is an adequate measure. For the treatment of pyelonephritis, it is not possible to wait for the result of culture and previous knowledge of the resistance profile of the antibacterial agents available for the treatment of pregnant women would be the best measure. Another important variable is the use of an intravenous bactericidal antibiotic during the acute phase, with the possibility of oral administration at home after clinical improvement of the patient. At our hospital, the drug that best satisfies all of these requirements is cefuroxime, administered for 10-14 days. Third-generation cephalosporins do not exist in the oral form, all of them involving the inconvenience of parenteral administration. In view of their side effects, aminoglycosides are considered to be inadequate for administration to pregnant women. The inconsistent insinuation of contraindication of

  4. Predictors Of Non-Escherichia Coli Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Nader; Wald, Ellen R; Keren, Ron; Gotman, Nathan; Ivanova, Anastasia; Carpenter, Myra A; Moxey-Mims, Marva; Hoberman, Alejandro

    2016-11-01

    We aimed to determine which children are prone to non-Escherichia coli urinary tract infection (UTIs). We included 769 children with UTI. We found that circumcised males, Hispanic children, children without fever and children with grades 3 and 4 vesicoureteral reflux were more likely to have a UTI caused by organisms other than E. coli. This information may guide clinicians in their choice of antimicrobial therapy.

  5. Preoperative Quantitative MR Tractography Compared with Visual Tract Evaluation in Patients with Neuropathologically Confirmed Gliomas Grades II and III: A Prospective Cohort Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, Anna F.; Nilsson, Markus; Latini, Francesco; Mårtensson, Johanna; Zetterling, Maria; Berntsson, Shala G.; Alafuzoff, Irina; Lätt, Jimmy; Larsson, Elna-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Low-grade gliomas show infiltrative growth in white matter tracts. Diffusion tensor tractography can noninvasively assess white matter tracts. The aim was to preoperatively assess tumor growth in white matter tracts using quantitative MR tractography (3T). The hypothesis was that suspected infiltrated tracts would have altered diffusional properties in infiltrated tract segments compared to noninfiltrated tracts. Materials and Methods. Forty-eight patients with suspected low-grade glioma were included after written informed consent and underwent preoperative diffusion tensor imaging in this prospective review-board approved study. Major white matter tracts in both hemispheres were tracked, segmented, and visually assessed for tumor involvement in thirty-four patients with gliomas grade II or III (astrocytomas or oligodendrogliomas) on postoperative neuropathological evaluation. Relative fractional anisotropy (rFA) and mean diffusivity (rMD) in tract segments were calculated and compared with visual evaluation and neuropathological diagnosis. Results. Tract segment infiltration on visual evaluation was associated with a lower rFA and high rMD in a majority of evaluated tract segments (89% and 78%, resp.). Grade II and grade III gliomas had similar infiltrating behavior. Conclusion. Quantitative MR tractography corresponds to visual evaluation of suspected tract infiltration. It may be useful for an objective preoperative evaluation of tract segment involvement

  6. Treatments for symptomatic urinary tract infections during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Juan C; Abalos, Edgardo

    2011-01-19

    Urinary tract infections, including pyelonephritis, are serious complications that may lead to significant maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. There is a large number of drugs, and combination of them, available to treat urinary tract infections, most of them tested in non-pregnant women. Attempts to define the optimal antibiotic regimen for pregnancy have, therefore, been problematic. The objective of this review was to determine, from the best available evidence from randomised controlled trials, which agent is the most effective for the treatment of symptomatic urinary tract infections during pregnancy in terms of cure rates, recurrent infection, incidence of preterm delivery and premature rupture of membranes, admission to neonatal intensive care unit, need for change of antibiotic, and incidence of prolonged pyrexia. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group Trials Register (November 2009) and reference lists of articles. We considered all trials where the intention was to allocate participants randomly to one of at least two alternative treatments for any symptomatic urinary tract infection. Both review authors assessed trial quality and extracted data. We included 10 studies, recruiting a total of 1125 pregnant women. In most of the comparisons there were no significant differences between the treatments under study with regard to cure rates, recurrent infection, incidence of preterm delivery, admission to neonatal intensive care unit, need for change of antibiotic and incidence of prolonged pyrexia. When cefuroxime and cephradine were compared, there were better cure rates (29/49 versus 41/52) and fewer recurrences (20/49 versus 11/52) in the cefuroxime group. There was only one other statistically significant difference when comparing outpatient versus inpatient treatment. Gestational age at birth was greater in women from the outpatient group (38.86 versus 37.21), while birthweight was on average greater in the inpatient group

  7. Urinary Tract Infection and Bacteriuria in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Alexander P; Schaeffer, Anthony J

    2015-11-01

    Bacteriuria during pregnancy may be classified as asymptomatic bacteriuria, infections of the lower urinary tract (cystitis), or infections of the upper urinary tract (pyelonephritis). Lower tract bacteriuria is associated with an increased risk of developing pyelonephritis in pregnancy, which is itself associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Pregnant women should be screened for the presence of bacteriuria early in pregnancy. All bacteriuria in pregnancy should be treated, and antimicrobial choice in pregnancy should reflect safety for both the mother and the fetus. After treatment of bacteriuria, patients should be followed closely due to risk of recurrent bacteriuria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Diagnosis of liver, biliary tract and gastrointestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aburano, Tamio

    1981-01-01

    The role of RI imaging in the diagnosis of lesions of the liver, biliary tracts and gastrointestinal tracts are reviewed, and representative cases are shown. Liver scintigraphy was of value for the diagnosis of lesions limitted to the liver such as primary and metastatic liver cancer and inflammatory liver diseases. However, RI methods were less useful in the diagnosis of lesions of the biliary tracts and stomach. RI scintigraphy was more sensitive than angiography in the detection of Meckel's deverticulum, Ballet's esophagus, and gastrointestinal hemorrhage. (Tsunoda, M.)

  9. Granular cells Tumor in the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castano LL, Rodrigo; Gaitan B, Maria H; Juliao E, Fabian

    2005-01-01

    Granular cells tumors are ubiquitous lesions in the gastrointestinal tract, are rare and asymptomatic and they are generally an incidental discovery at gastroduodenoscopy or colonoscopy. In the gastrointestinal tract they are more frequently located in the esophagus, right colon and rectum, stomach, appendix, small intestine or biliopancreatic tract. This article describes three patients with four tumors of granular cells in rectum, esophagus (2 lesions) and appendix. It becomes special emphasis in their neural origin, their benign behavior that justifies the endoscopic resections or limited surgical excisions and the necessity of a pursuit for the possibility, although little, of malignant transformation

  10. Immunoscintigraphy of gastrointestinal tract carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mladenov, B.; Peshev, N.

    1995-01-01

    The results of labelled monoclonal antibodies (MoA) immunoscintigraphy in malignant tumors involving the gastrointestinal tract are presented. The obtained data have an essential practical bearing on the early diagnosis and radical treatment undertaken. Immunoscintigraphy is performed with Imacis-I ( 131 I, monoclonal antibody, 19-9 F(ab') 2 anti-CEA F(ab') 2 ) obtained from the CIS company, and Jodomab-R-2( 131 I, anti-CEA monoclonal antibody F(ab') 2 ) of the Sorin Biomedica Company, inserted at activity ranging from 11 to 185 MBq. Scanning by a planar gamma-camera is performed at 72 hours. A total of twenty-four patients are examined: 14 preoperatively (with gastric cancer - 2, pancreatic cancer - 1 and location of the neoplasm in different segments of the colon - 11), and ten postoperatively. Positive results are obtained in twenty-two (92 per cent) of the total number of patients under study. In twelve (86 per cent) of those examined preoperatively intensive accumulation of labelled autoantibodies in the cancer area is documented with a negative result recorded in two cases only. Metastases are found in two patients operated on, while in the remainder the results are negative and consistent with those of the other methods of examination. 13 refs., 4 figs. (author)

  11. Current concepts in urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D H; Schaeffer, A J

    2004-03-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common infectious diseases that can be associated with substantial morbidity and significant expenditures. This review highlights the current concepts and recent advances in our understanding and management of this condition. Specific topics include pathogenesis, host factors, antimicrobial resistance, recurrent UTIs in women, diagnosis, treatment of uncomplicated and complicated UTIs, prophylaxis, catheter associated bacteriuria, pregnancy, diabetes, UTIs in men, prostatitis, and the chronic pelvic pain syndrome. UTIs can be viewed as an interaction between specific bacterial virulence factors and the patient. A new model explaining the pathogenesis of recurrent UTIs has been presented. There is a need to reconsider traditional treatment recommendations in the face of local resistance patterns, as well as the need to make better use of drugs that are currently available. Prospects for prevention of recurrent UTI include natural compounds, bacterial interference and immunization. With regard to UTI risk in women, patients can be classified based on age, and functional and hormonal status. Appropriate treatment approaches must be based on this classification. In contrast to uncomplicated UTIs, management of most complicated infections depends on clinical experience and resources at individual institutions rather than on evidence based guidelines. Asymptomatic bacteriuria generally should not be treated except in high-risk catheterized patients and in pregnancy. UTIs in men generally require formal urologic evaluation. Our understanding of the etiologies, diagnostic strategies, and treatment options for prostatitis and the chronic pelvic pain syndrome in men continues to evolve.

  12. Recurrent urinary tract infections in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Abdullatif; Ahmed, Kamran; Zaman, Iftikhar; Khan, Muhammad Shamim; Dasgupta, Prokar

    2015-06-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) are more common in women and are frequently defined as ≥2 episodes in the last 6 months or ≥3 episodes in the last 12 months. In a primary care setting, 53 % of women above the age of 55 years and 36 % of younger women report a recurrence within 1 year. Thus, management and prevention of recurrent UTI is of utmost significance. This review aims to highlight the latest research in prevention strategies and suggest a management pathway. A search was conducted on MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews databases for the latest systematic reviews and high-quality randomized controlled trials. Special emphasis was placed on the remit "recurrent" and strongly adhered to. Furthermore, a Google search was conducted for current guidelines on the management of UTIs. Current prevention strategies include eliminating risk factors that increase the risk of acquiring recurrent UTI and continuous, post-coital and self-initiated antimicrobial prophylaxis. Other prospective preventative strategies, currently under trial, include use of vaccinations, D-mannose and lactobacillus (probiotics). Although risk factors should be identified and addressed accordingly, individualized antibiotic prophylaxis remains the most effective method of management. Non-antibiotic prevention strategies such as cranberry, vitamin C and methenamine salts lack strong evidence to be introduced as routine management options and as alternatives to antibiotics. Based on current evidence and guidelines, a management pathway is recommended. Emerging therapies require further evaluation before they can be recommended.

  13. White matter tracts associated with set-shifting in healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Michele E; McDonald, Carrie R; Hagler, Donald J; Gharapetian, Lusineh; Kuperman, Joshua M; Koyama, Alain K; Dale, Anders M; McEvoy, Linda K

    2009-11-01

    Attentional set-shifting ability, commonly assessed with the Trail Making Test (TMT), decreases with increasing age in adults. Since set-shifting performance relies on activity in widespread brain regions, deterioration of the white matter tracts that connect these regions may underlie the age-related decrease in performance. We used an automated fiber tracking method to investigate the relationship between white matter integrity in several cortical association tracts and TMT performance in a sample of 24 healthy adults, 21-80 years. Diffusion tensor images were used to compute average fractional anisotropy (FA) for five cortical association tracts, the corpus callosum (CC), and the corticospinal tract (CST), which served as a control. Results showed that advancing age was associated with declines in set-shifting performance and with decreased FA in the CC and in association tracts that connect frontal cortex to more posterior brain regions, including the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), uncinate fasciculus (UF), and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). Declines in average FA in these tracts, and in average FA of the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), were associated with increased time to completion on the set-shifting subtask of the TMT but not with the simple sequencing subtask. FA values in these tracts were strong mediators of the effect of age on set-shifting performance. Automated tractography methods can enhance our understanding of the fiber systems involved in performance of specific cognitive tasks and of the functional consequences of age-related changes in those systems.

  14. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...... community politics. On the one hand, their mobility and decision-making powers decrease with the increase in the labor mobility of men and their newly gained education is politically devalued when compared to the informal education that men gain through mobility, but on the other hand, schooling strengthens...

  15. Surgical Outcomes of Urinary Tract Deep Infiltrating Endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Basma; Stochino-Loi, Emanuela; Pasquier, Geoffroy; Dugardin, Fabrice; Defortescu, Guillaume; Abo, Carole; Roman, Horace

    To report the outcomes of surgical management of urinary tract endometriosis. Retrospective study based on prospectively recorded data (NCT02294825) (Canadian Task Force classification II-3). University tertiary referral center. Eighty-one women treated for urinary tract endometriosis between July 2009 and December 2015 were included, including 39 with bladder endometriosis, 31 with ureteral endometriosis, and 11 with both ureteral and bladder endometriosis. Owing to bilateral ureteral localization in 8 women, 50 different ureteral procedures were recorded. Procedures performed included resection of bladder endometriosis nodules, advanced ureterolysis, ureteral resection followed by end-to-end anastomosis, and ureteroneocystostomy. The main outcome measure was the outcome of the surgical management of urinary tract endometriosis. Fifty women presented with deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) of the bladder and underwent either full-thickness excision of the nodule (70%) or excision of the bladder wall without opening of the bladder (30%). Ureteral lesions were treated by ureterolysis in 78% of the patients and by primary segmental resection in 22%. No patient required nephrectomy. Histological analysis revealed intrinsic ureteral endometriosis in 54.5% of cases. Clavien-Dindo grade III complications were present in 16% of the patients who underwent surgery for ureteral nodules and in 8% of those who underwent surgery for bladder endometriosis. Overall delayed postoperative outcomes were favorable regarding urinary symptoms and fertility. Patients were followed up for a minimum of 12 months and a maximum of 7 years postoperatively, with no recorded recurrences. Surgical outcomes of urinary tract endometriosis are generally satisfactory; however, the risk of postoperative complications should be taken into consideration. Therefore, all such procedures should be managed by an experienced multidisciplinary team. Copyright © 2017 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc

  16. Subtotal obstruction of the male reproductive tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, F.H.; Dohle, G.R.; Roijen, J.H. van; Vreeburg, J.T.M.; Weber, R.F.A.

    2003-01-01

    Bilateral obstruction of the male reproductive tract is suspected in men with azoospermia, normal testicular volume and normal FSH. A testicular biopsy is required to differentiate between an obstruction and a testicular insufficiency. Unilateral or subtotal bilateral obstructions and epididymal

  17. Nuclear medicine in the nephrourinary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jofre M, M.Josefina; Sierralta C, Paulina

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear medicine images play an important role in the evaluation of urinary tract pathologies. Radionuclide imaging studies (DMSA scan, DTPA/MAG3 renography, radionuclide cistography) are reviewed, analyzing their indications (au)

  18. urinary tract infections amongst pregnant women attending

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) constitutes a major health problem in pregnant women due to their relatively short urethra, which ... the urine samples of pregnant women prior to treatment. ... Of 500 asymptomatic pregnant women screened, 433.

  19. Real-Time Vocal Tract Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Benkrid

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available To date, most speech synthesis techniques have relied upon the representation of the vocal tract by some form of filter, a typical example being linear predictive coding (LPC. This paper describes the development of a physiologically realistic model of the vocal tract using the well-established technique of transmission line modelling (TLM. This technique is based on the principle of wave scattering at transmission line segment boundaries and may be used in one, two, or three dimensions. This work uses this technique to model the vocal tract using a one-dimensional transmission line. A six-port scattering node is applied in the region separating the pharyngeal, oral, and the nasal parts of the vocal tract.

  20. Management of Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are a common occurrence in paediatrics. ... Ceftriaxone, ampicillin, cefotaxime and gentamycin are the recommended parenteral antibiotics, ... and/or oral medication) and hydration status (in the case of.

  1. Radiological examination of the urinary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudmundsen, T.E.; Vinje, B.; Bloerstad, Oe.; Pedersen, H.K.

    1992-01-01

    Procedures for imaging the urinary tract have been recorded in six Norwegian hospitals for the last 24 years. For three of the hospitals, data were collected from 1965 to 1989, and for the other three from 1966, 1971 and 1975, respectively. There was a significant reduction in the number of intravenous pyelograms, voiding cystograms, and renal angiograms, but the number of retrograde pyelograms and plain radiographs of the urinary tract remained constant. Computed tomography of the urinary tract increased during the first years, but after the introduction of ultrasonography, the number of computed tomograms decreased. Ultrasonographic examinations of the urinary tract are still rapidly increasing, and seem to have replaced some of the other imaging techniques. The present results should be taken into consideration when planning the health care for the future. (au)

  2. Neighborhood Stabilization Program (NSP) Activities by Tract

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The data being displayed are census tract level counts of NSP-funded activities and is derived from an extract of HUD's Community Planning and Development’s (CPD)...

  3. Inconsistency in the definition of urinary tract infection after intravesical botulinum toxin A injection: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Andrew W; Adelstein, Sarah A; Chen, Andrew; Lucioni, Alvaro; Kobashi, Kathleen C; Lee, Una J

    2018-04-10

    In order to more accurately examine the rate of urinary tract infection following onabotulinumtoxinA injection of the bladder, we systematically reviewed the literature for definitions of urinary tract infection utilized in series that reported on onabotulinumtoxinA injections and assessed them for consistency with guideline statements defining urinary tract infections. A systematic review of the literature was performed via query using MEDLINE and EMBASE. We included original studies that reported on adult idiopathic overactive bladder and/or neurogenic detrusor overactivity patients who underwent cystoscopy with injection of onabotulinumtoxinA and had urinary tract infection as a reported outcome. 299 publications were identified, of which 50 met the inclusion criteria. 27 studies (54%) defined their urinary tract infection diagnostic criteria, and 10 different definitions were noted amongst these studies. None of the OAB studies used a definition which met the European Association of Urology criteria for urinary tract infection. Only 2 of the 10 studies on neurogenic bladder patients used a urinary tract infection definition consistent with National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research standards. Definitions for urinary tract infections are heterogeneous and frequently absent in the literature reporting on onabotulinumtoxinA for the treatment of overactive bladder and/or neurogenic bladder. Given the potential for post procedure urinary symptoms in this setting, explicit criteria are imperative to establish the true urinary tract infection rate following treatment with onabotulinumtoxinA. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Endometrioid carcinoma of the upper urinary tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni Jagdeesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report a second case of endometrioid carcinoma of the upper urinary tract presenting 17 years after hysterectomy for high grade adenocarcinoma of ovary. A 51-year-old nullipara presented to us with a complaint of hematuria. After complete work up, she underwent right radical nephro-ureterectomy with bladder cuff excision. The histology showed endometrioid carcinoma of upper urinary tract without any evidence of endometriosis.

  5. [Mechanisms of urinary tract sterility maintenance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okrągła, Emilia; Szychowska, Katarzyna; Wolska, Lidia

    2014-06-02

    Physiologically, urine and the urinary tract are maintained sterile because of physical and chemical properties of urine and the innate immune system's action. The urinary tract is constantly exposed to the invasion of microorganisms from the exterior environment, also because of the anatomical placement of the urethra, in the vicinity of the rectum. Particularly vulnerable to urinary tract infections (UTI) are women (an additional risk factor is pregnancy), but also the elderly and children. The main pathogens causing UTI are bacteria; in 70-95% of cases it is the bacterium Escherichia coli. Infections caused by viruses and fungi are less common and are associated with decreased immunity, pharmacotherapy, or some diseases. Bacteria have evolved a number of factors that facilitate the colonization of the urinary tract: the cover and cell membrane antigens O and K1, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), fimbriae, pile and cilia. On the other hand, the human organism has evolved mechanisms to hinder colonization of the urinary tract: mechanisms arising from the anatomical structure of the urinary tract, the physicochemical properties of the urine and the activity of the innate immune system, also known as non-specific, which isolates and destroys pathogens using immunological processes, and the mechanisms for release of antimicrobial substances such as Tamm-Horsfall protein, mucopolysaccharides, immunoglobulins IgA and IgG, lactoferrin, lipocalin, neutrophils, cytokines and antimicrobial peptides. This review aims to analyze the state of knowledge on the mechanisms to maintain the sterility of the urinary tract used by the human organism and bacterial virulence factors to facilitate the colonization of the urinary tract.

  6. Mechanisms of urinary tract sterility maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Okrągła

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Physiologically, urine and the urinary tract are maintained sterile because of physical and chemical properties of urine and the innate immune system’s action. The urinary tract is constantly exposed to the invasion of microorganisms from the exterior environment, also because of the anatomical placement of the urethra, in the vicinity of the rectum. Particularly vulnerable to urinary tract infections (UTI are women (an additional risk factor is pregnancy, but also the elderly and children. The main pathogens causing UTI are bacteria; in 70-95% of cases it is the bacterium Escherichia coli. Infections caused by viruses and fungi are less common and are associated with decreased immunity, pharmacotherapy, or some diseases. Bacteria have evolved a number of factors that facilitate the colonization of the urinary tract: the cover and cell membrane antigens O and K1, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, fimbriae, pile and cilia. On the other hand, the human organism has evolved mechanisms to hinder colonization of the urinary tract: mechanisms arising from the anatomical structure of the urinary tract, the physicochemical properties of the urine and the activity of the innate immune system, also known as non-specific, which isolates and destroys pathogens using immunological processes, and the mechanisms for release of antimicrobial substances such as Tamm-Horsfall protein, mucopolysaccharides, immunoglobulins IgA and IgG, lactoferrin, lipocalin, neutrophils, cytokines and antimicrobial peptides. This review aims to analyze the state of knowledge on the mechanisms to maintain the sterility of the urinary tract used by the human organism and bacterial virulence factors to facilitate the colonization of the urinary tract.

  7. [Diagnosis and clinical management of urinary tract infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilberg, Ita Pfeferman; Schor, Nestor

    2003-01-01

    A review about recent aspects on diagnosis and clinical management of urinary tract infection (UTI) is presented. There is a wide variation in clinical presentation of UTI which include different forms as cystitis, pyelonephritis, urethral syndrome and the clinical relevance of asymptomatic bacteriuria and low-count bacteriuria that must be distinguished from contamination. Pathogenetic aspects concerning bacterial virulence as well as host factors in susceptibility to UTI as urinary tract obstruction, vesicoureteral reflux, indwelling bladder catheters, pregnancy, diabetes mellitus, sexual activity, contraceptive methods, prostatism, menopause, advanced age and renal transplantation are discussed. Diagnostic criteria and the most common tests utilized for differentiation between lower and upper UTI have been reviewed. The authors conclude that a careful evaluation of the underlying factors is required for the correct diagnosis of UTI and to prevent recurrence and that appropriate strategies and specific therapeutic regimens may maximize the benefit while reducing costs and adverse reactions.

  8. [Lower urinary tract infections in men. Urethritis, cystitis and prostatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanella, Marie-Céline; Schoofs, Fabian; Huttner, Benedikt; Huttner, Angela

    2017-04-12

    Recommendations for the treatment of lower non-catheter-related urinary tract infection (UTI) in men are rarely evidence-based. Their management requires the localization of the site of infection, whether it be the urethra, bladder or prostate, and includes antibiotic therapy and in most cases urological assessment. They are often associated with urinary tract procedures or anatomical or functional abnormalities. Nearly 80 % of male UTIs are caused by Enterobacteriaceae. The prevalence of broad-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing strains (ESBL) and quinolone-resistant strains is increasing. The aim of this article is to define three types of lower, non-catheter-related UTI in men - urethritis, cystitis and prostatitis - their microbiology and management in Switzerland.

  9. Upper aerodigestive tract disorders and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciorba, Andrea; Bianchini, Chiara; Zuolo, Michele; Feo, Carlo Vittorio

    2015-02-16

    A wide variety of symptoms and diseases of the upper aerodigestive tract are associated to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). These disorders comprise a large variety of conditions such as asthma, chronic otitis media and sinusitis, chronic cough, and laryngeal disorders including paroxysmal laryngospasm. Laryngo-pharyngeal reflux disease is an extraoesophageal variant of GORD that can affect the larynx and pharynx. Despite numerous research efforts, the diagnosis of laryngopharyngeal reflux often remains elusive, unproven and controversial, and its treatment is then still empiric. Aim of this paper is to review the current literature on upper aerodigestive tract disorders in relation to pathologic gastro-oesophageal reflux, focusing in particular on the pathophysiology base and results of the surgical treatment of GORD.

  10. Lessons from Digestive-Tract Symbioses Between Bacteria and Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Joerg

    2016-09-08

    In most animals, digestive tracts harbor the greatest number of bacteria in the animal that contribute to its health: by aiding in the digestion of nutrients, provisioning essential nutrients and protecting against colonization by pathogens. Invertebrates have been used to enhance our understanding of metabolic processes and microbe-host interactions owing to experimental advantages. This review describes how advances in DNA sequencing technologies have dramatically altered how researchers investigate microbe-host interactions, including 16S rRNA gene surveys, metagenome experiments, and metatranscriptome studies. Advantages and challenges of each of these approaches are described herein. Hypotheses generated through omics studies can be directly tested using site-directed mutagenesis, and findings from transposon studies and site-directed experiments are presented. Finally, unique structural aspects of invertebrate digestive tracts that contribute to symbiont specificity are presented. The combination of omics approaches with genetics and microscopy allows researchers to move beyond correlations to identify conserved mechanisms of microbe-host interactions.

  11. Urinary tract infections during pregnancy - an updated overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szweda, Hanna; Jóźwik, Marcin

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common type of infection during pregnancy, affecting up to 10% of pregnant women. They are also recognized as the second most common ailment of pregnancy, after anemia. Three clinical types of pregnancy-related UTI are distinguished: asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB), cystitis, and pyelonephritis. A particular form of ASB is the presence of Group B streptococci in the urinary tract of the pregnant woman. All clinical types of UTI may lead to serious maternal and fetal complications. Therefore, unlike in the nonpregnant female patient, all UTIs during pregnancy, including the asymptomatic infection, require treatment. In some patients, antibiotic prophylaxis should also be introduced. In the present work, we collectively summarize current practical recommendations from a number of international bodies and organizations.

  12. Pathology of Neuroendocrine Tumours of the Female Genital Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howitt, Brooke E; Kelly, Paul; McCluggage, W Glenn

    2017-09-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours are uncommon or rare at all sites in the female genital tract. The 2014 World Health Organisation (WHO) Classification of neuroendocrine tumours of the endometrium, cervix, vagina and vulva has been updated with adoption of the terms low-grade neuroendocrine tumour and high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma. In the endometrium and cervix, high-grade neoplasms are much more prevalent than low-grade and are more common in the cervix than the corpus. In the ovary, low-grade tumours are more common than high-grade carcinomas and the term carcinoid tumour is still used in WHO 2014. The term ovarian small-cell carcinoma of pulmonary type is included in WHO 2014 for a tumour which in other organs is termed high small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Neuroendocrine tumours at various sites within the female genital tract often occur in association with other neoplasms and more uncommonly in pure form.

  13. Longer Duration of Urinary Catheterization Increases Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection in PICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Kahoru; Furuichi, Mihoko; Ito, Kenta; Morikawa, Yoshihiko; Watanabe, Ichiro; Shimizu, Naoki; Horikoshi, Yuho

    2018-06-13

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections account for 30% of healthcare-associated infections. To date, few studies have addressed pediatric catheter-associated urinary tract infection in PICUs. The aim of our study was to assess the risk of catheter-associated urinary tract infection in relation to the duration of catheterization in the PICU. Retrospective cohort study. PICU at a tertiary children's hospital. Our study was conducted between April 2012 and June 2015 at Tokyo Metropolitan Children's Medical Center in Japan. Children in the PICU with an urethral catheter were included. Catheter-associated urinary tract infection cases were defined according to the National Healthcare Safety Network criteria. The patients' demographic data and isolated organisms were reviewed. Duration of catheterization and the catheter-associated urinary tract infection occurrence rate were analyzed. None. Among 1,890 catheterizations, 23 catheter-associated urinary tract infection cases were identified. The overall occurrence rate was 2.35/1,000 catheter-days. Among the patients with catheter-associated urinary tract infection, 13 were boys. The median age was 11 months (interquartile range, 7-35 mo), and the median duration of catheterization was 7 days (interquartile range, 5-12 d). The isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli (26.5%), Enterococcus faecalis (17.6%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (11.8%). Two species were isolated in each of 11 cases (47.8%). Each additional day of catheterization increased the risk of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (odds ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02-1.10, and odds ratio adjusted for contact precaution status and surgical procedures was 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01-1.09). Longer duration of catheterization increased the risk of catheter-associated urinary tract infection by 5% each day at the PICU. Prompt removal of the urethral catheter is strongly recommended whenever feasible.

  14. Contemporary surgical trends in the management of upper tract calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlin, Daniel T; Flum, Andrew S; Bachrach, Laurie; Matulewicz, Richard S; Flury, Sarah C

    2015-03-01

    Upper tract nephrolithiasis is a common surgical condition that is treated with multiple surgical techniques, including shock wave lithotripsy, ureteroscopy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy. We analyzed case logs submitted to the ABU by candidates for initial certification and recertification to help elucidate the trends in management of upper tract urinary calculi. Annualized case logs from 2003 to 2012 were analyzed. We used logistic regression models to assess how surgeon specific attributes affected the way that upper tract stones were treated. Cases were identified by the CPT code of the corresponding procedure. A total of 6,620 urologists in 3 certification groups recorded case logs, including 2,275 for initial certification, 2,381 for first recertification and 1,964 for second recertification. A total of 441,162 procedures were logged, of which 54.2% were ureteroscopy, 41.3% were shock wave lithotripsy and 4.5% were percutaneous nephrolithotomy. From 2003 to 2013 there was an increase in ureteroscopy from 40.9% to 59.6% and a corresponding decrease in shock wave lithotripsy from 54% to 36.3%. For new urologists ureteroscopy increased from 47.6% to 70.9% of all stones cases logged and for senior clinicians ureteroscopy increased from 40% to 55%. Endourologists performed a significantly higher proportion of percutaneous nephrolithotomies than nonendourologists (10.6% vs 3.69%, p <0.0001) and a significantly smaller proportion of shock wave lithotripsies (34.2% vs 42.2%, p = 0.001). Junior and senior clinicians showed a dramatic adoption of endoscopic techniques. Treatment of upper tract calculi is an evolving field and provider specific attributes affect how these stones are treated. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Stenting Prior to Cystectomy is an Independent Risk Factor for Upper Urinary Tract Recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Bernhard; Furrer, Marc A; Wuethrich, Patrick Y; Burkhard, Fiona C; Thalmann, George N; Roth, Beat

    2017-12-01

    Patients with bladder cancer who present with hydronephrosis may require drainage of the affected kidney before receiving further cancer treatment. Drainage can be done by retrograde stenting or percutaneously. However, retrograde stenting carries the risk of tumor cell spillage to the upper urinary tract. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether patients with bladder cancer are at higher risk for upper urinary tract recurrence if retrograde stenting has been performed prior to radical cystectomy. We retrospectively analyzed the records of 1,005 consecutive patients with bladder cancer who underwent radical cystectomy at our department between January 2000 and June 2016. Negative intraoperative ureteral margins were mandatory for study inclusion. Patients received regular followup according to our institutional protocol, including imaging of the upper urinary tract and urine cytology. Preoperative drainage of the upper urinary tract was performed in 114 of the 1,005 patients (11%), including in 53 (46%) by Double-J® stenting and in 61 (54%) by percutaneous nephrostomy. Recurrence developed in the upper urinary tract in 31 patients (3%) at a median of 17 months after cystectomy, including 7 of 53 (13%) in the Double-J group, 0% in the nephrostomy group and 24 of 891 (3%) in the no drainage group. Multivariate regression analysis revealed a higher risk of upper urinary tract recurrence if patients underwent Double-J stenting (HR 4.54, 95% CI 1.43-14.38, p = 0.01) and preoperative intravesical instillations (HR 2.94, 95% CI 1.40-6.16, p = 0.004). Patients who undergo Double-J stenting prior to radical cystectomy are at higher risk for upper urinary tract recurrence. If preoperative upper urinary tract drainage is required, percutaneous drainage might be recommended. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The nature of immune responses to urinary tract infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Soman N.; Miao, Yuxuan

    2016-01-01

    The urinary tract is constantly exposed to microorganisms that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract, but generally the urinary tract resists infection by gut microorganisms. This resistance to infection is mainly ascribed to the versatility of the innate immune defences in the urinary tract as the adaptive immune responses are limited, particularly when only the lower urinary tract is infected. In recent years, as the strengths and weaknesses of the immune system of the urinary tract have emerged and as the virulence attributes of uropathogens are recognized, several potentially effective and unconventional strategies to contain or prevent urinary tract infections have emerged. PMID:26388331

  17. Adipokines and the Female Reproductive Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Reverchon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that adipose tissue can influence puberty, sexual maturation, and fertility in different species. Adipose tissue secretes molecules called adipokines which most likely have an endocrine effect on reproductive function. It has been revealed over the last few years that adipokines are functionally implicated at all levels of the reproductive axis including the gonad and hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Many studies have shown the presence and the role of the adipokines and their receptors in the female reproductive tract of different species. These adipokines regulate ovarian steroidogenesis, oocyte maturation, and embryo development. They are also present in the uterus and placenta where they could create a favorable environment for embryonic implantation and play a key role in maternal-fetal metabolism communication and gestation. Reproductive functions are strongly dependent on energy balance, and thereby metabolic abnormalities can lead to the development of some pathophysiologies such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Adipokines could be a link between reproduction and energy metabolism and could partly explain some infertility related to obesity or PCOS.

  18. Staphylococcus aureus urinary tract infections in children are associated with urinary tract abnormalities and vesico-ureteral reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megged, Orli

    2014-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an uncommon cause of pediatric urinary tract infection (UTI). Data regarding urinary tract malformations in children with S. aureus UTI is limited. The medical records of all children aged 0 to 16 years at Shaare Zedek Medical Center between 2001 and 2013 and who were diagnosed with S. aureus UTI were reviewed for demographic, clinical, and laboratory data. Patients with Escherichia coli UTIs during the same period were included as controls. S. aureus was the cause of UTI in 26 children, of whom six were bacteremic. Compared to children with E. coli UTI, children with S. aureus had higher rates of abnormal findings in ultrasound (77 vs. 22%; p UTI had abnormal voiding cystourethrogram (53 vs. 23%; p UTI was significantly longer than for patients with E. coli UTI (8 vs. 2.3 days; p = 0.0003). S. aureus is an uncommon urinary pathogen among children. The finding of S. aureus UTI requires thorough search for urinary abnormalities.

  19. Vocal tract shapes in different singing functions used in musical theater singing-a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echternach, Matthias; Popeil, Lisa; Traser, Louisa; Wienhausen, Sascha; Richter, Bernhard

    2014-09-01

    Singing styles in Musical Theater singing might differ in many ways from Western Classical singing. However, vocal tract adjustments are not understood in detail. Vocal tract shapes of a single professional Music Theater female subject were analyzed concerning different aspects of singing styles using dynamic real-time magnetic resonance imaging technology with a frame rate of 8 fps. The different tasks include register differences, belting, and vibrato strategies. Articulatory differences were found between head register, modal register, and belting. Also, some vibrato strategies ("jazzy" vibrato) do involve vocal tract adjustments, whereas others (classical vibrato) do not. Vocal tract shaping might contribute to the establishment of different singing functions in Musical Theater singing. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Efficacy and tolerance of fenspiride in adult patients with acute respiratory tract infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płusa, T; Nawacka, D

    1998-12-01

    Fenspiride is an antiinflammatory drug targeted for the respiratory tract. In our study clinical efficacy and tolerance of drug were evaluated in 392 adult patients with acute respiratory tract infections. According to clinical criteria all observed symptoms were classified as mild, moderate and severe. The most of observed patients were included into moderate symptom score. Cough and nose obturation were dominant symptoms. All noticed changes in the upper respiratory tract were decreased after fenspiride therapy in 7 days trial. In 168 observed patients systemic and in 60 local acting antibiotics were successfully applied. Excellent tolerance of fenspiride was documented in 59% and good tolerance --in 34% of patients. Observed adverse reactions were classified as mild and in 20 patients fenspiride was rejected. Authors suggest that fenspiride therapy is save and successful in patient with acute respiratory tract infection. Good results in patients with bronchitis in decreasing of bronchospasm indicate fenspiride as a good tool in bronchial infection.

  1. Vocal tract length and formant frequency dispersion correlate with body size in rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, W T

    1997-08-01

    Body weight, length, and vocal tract length were measured for 23 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) of various sizes using radiographs and computer graphic techniques. linear predictive coding analysis of tape-recorded threat vocalizations were used to determine vocal tract resonance frequencies ("formants") for the same animals. A new acoustic variable is proposed, "formant dispersion," which should theoretically depend upon vocal tract length. Formant dispersion is the averaged difference between successive formant frequencies, and was found to be closely tied to both vocal tract length and body size. Despite the common claim that voice fundamental frequency (F0) provides an acoustic indication of body size, repeated investigations have failed to support such a relationship in many vertebrate species including humans. Formant dispersion, unlike voice pitch, is proposed to be a reliable predictor of body size in macaques, and probably many other species.

  2. Chronic Infections of the Urinary Tract and Bladder Cancer Risk: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Otunu, Oghenetejiri; Akhtar, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Literature on the relationship between recurrent urinary tract infections and urinary bladder carcinoma risk has been inconsistent. Therefore, we carried out this systematic review of observational studies to ascertain if there is any association between chronic urinary tract infection and urinary bladder carcinoma. A total of 10 databases were searched using Boolean: CINAHL, PUBMED, Google Scholar, Medline, Science Direct, SCIRUS, Cochrane, UK PubMed central, NHS evidence and WHO-website. The search yielded an initial hit of 3,518 articles and after screening and critical appraisal, seven studies were included for this review. Four articles reported an association between chronic urinary tract infections and bladder cancer while three concluded a weak or no association at least in one gender. Main findings in this review were that most of the studies reported an association between chronic urinary tract infections and bladder cancer risk. However, inferences about the causal association between chronic urinary tract infections and bladder cancer risk should be drawn cautiously considering the methodological limitations of case-control studies included in this review. Therefore, more empirical evidence is needed to determine the causal nature of relationships between chronic urinary tract infections and bladder cancer risk.

  3. Development and validation of a nomogram predicting recurrence risk in women with symptomatic urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tommaso; Mazzoli, Sandra; Migno, Serena; Malossini, Gianni; Lanzafame, Paolo; Mereu, Liliana; Tateo, Saverio; Wagenlehner, Florian M E; Pickard, Robert S; Bartoletti, Riccardo

    2014-09-01

    To develop and externally validate a novel nomogram predicting recurrence risk probability at 12 months in women after an episode of urinary tract infection. The study included 768 women from Santa Maria Annunziata Hospital, Florence, Italy, affected by urinary tract infections from January 2005 to December 2009. Another 373 women with the same criteria enrolled at Santa Chiara Hospital, Trento, Italy, from January 2010 to June 2012 were used to externally validate and calibrate the nomogram. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression models tested the relationship between urinary tract infection recurrence risk, and patient clinical and laboratory characteristics. The nomogram was evaluated by calculating concordance probabilities, as well as testing calibration of predicted urinary tract infection recurrence with observed urinary tract infections. Nomogram variables included: number of partners, bowel function, type of pathogens isolated (Gram-positive/negative), hormonal status, number of previous urinary tract infection recurrences and previous treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria. Of the original development data, 261 out of 768 women presented at least one episode of recurrence of urinary tract infection (33.9%). The nomogram had a concordance index of 0.85. The nomogram predictions were well calibrated. This model showed high discrimination accuracy and favorable calibration characteristics. In the validation group (373 women), the overall c-index was 0.83 (P = 0.003, 95% confidence interval 0.51-0.99), whereas the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.85 (95% confidence interval 0.79-0.91). The present nomogram accurately predicts the recurrence risk of urinary tract infection at 12 months, and can assist in identifying women at high risk of symptomatic recurrence that can be suitable candidates for a prophylactic strategy. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  4. Degeneration of pyramidal tract of MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagami, Tatsuhito; Harada, Noboru; Gotoh, Yasunobu; Imataka, Kiyoharu; Kinuta, Yuji; Okumura, Teizo; Niijima, Kyo; Taki, Waro; Kikuchi, Haruhiko.

    1988-01-01

    MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) examinaion was performed on cases of hemiplegia and hemiparesis. These included seven cases of intracerebral hemorrhage, four cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage, one case of cerebral infarct, and two cases of head trauma. The pyramidal tract in the brain stem was studied in five patients with complete hemiplegia and in nine with incomplete hemiparesis. The scanner of the MRI was a resistive type operating at a field of 0.2 Tesla. The inversion recovery (IR) and saturation recovery (SR) techniques were utilized. The pyramidal tract at the level of the midbrain and the pons was recognized as a low intensity area on the T 1 image (IR 1500/43) in the cases of complete hemiplegia. However, it was recognized as a high intensity area on the SR image (SR 1000/60) and the T 2 image (SR 2000/100). No abnormal signal intensity was found in the cases of incomplete hemiparesis. A low intensity area on the T 1 image and a high intensity area on the T 2 image were recognized in the ventral portion of the midbrain and the pons on the affected side. These findings indicate a degeneration of the pyramidal tract at the level of the brain stem in patients with complete hemiplegia. (author)

  5. Lower urinary tract dysfunction in patients with dysautonomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, Melissa St; Shridharani, Anand; Barboi, Alexandru C; Guralnick, Michael L; Jaradeh, Safwan S; Prieto, Thomas E; O'Connor, R Corey

    2015-12-01

    With the goal of better defining the types of bladder dysfunction observed in this population, we present the chief urologic complaints, results of urodynamic studies, and treatments of patients with dysautonomia-related urinary symptoms. All patients with dysautonomia referred to our neurourology clinic between 2005 and 2015 for management of lower urinary tract dysfunction were retrospectively reviewed. Each patient's chief urologic complaint was recorded and used to initially characterize the bladder storage or voiding symptoms. Patient evaluation included history and physical examination, urinalysis, post void bladder ultrasound, and urodynamic studies. Successful treatment modalities that subjectively or objectively improved symptoms were recorded. Of 815 patients with the diagnosis of dysautonomia, 82 (10 %) were referred for evaluation of lower urinary tract dysfunction. Mean age was 47 years (range 12-83) and 84 % were female. The chief complaint was urinary urgency ± incontinence in 61 % and hesitancy in 23 % of patients. Urodynamic findings demonstrated detrusor overactivity ± incontinence in 50 % of patients, although chief complaint did not reliably predict objective findings. Successful objective and subjective treatments were multimodal and typically non-operative. Lower urinary tract dysfunction may develop in at least 10 % of patients with dysautonomia, predominantly females. Bladder storage or voiding complaints do not reliably predict urodynamic findings. Urodynamically, most patients exhibited detrusor overactivity. The majority of patients were successfully managed with medical or physical therapy.

  6. Urinary tract infection in children: Role of ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hye Won; Lee, Sun Wha; Ko, Young Tae; Lim, Joo Won

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate diagnostic usefulness of ultrasonography(US) in pediatric patient with urinary tract infection. Fifty-five children with urinary tract infection underwent renal ultrasonography and voiding cystourethrography(VCUG). The imaging findings were analyzed retrospectively. Renal sonograms were normal in 34 of 55 children(62%). Five of 34 patients with normal sonogram had vesicoureteral reflux of grade I and III on VCUG. Renal sonograms were abnormal in 21 of 55 children(38%). Sonographic findings included hydronephrosis, hyperechoic kidney, nephromegaly, altrophic kidney, renal abscess, and duplex ureter. Eleven of 21 patient with abnormal sonogram had vesicoureteral reflux of grade I to IV on VCUG. Ultrasonography is an useful and reliable initial screening examination in the investigation of children with UTI. Unfortunately US is neither sufficiently sensitive nor specific for detecting VUR. VCUG provides confirmative and valuable information about vesicoureteral reflux, and VCUG should be considered as a next modality for UTI. The combined use of sonography and VCUG provides more valuable information in urinary tract infection

  7. Risk factors for lower respiratory tract infections in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silfeler, I.; Tanidir, I.C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Acute respiratory tract infections are divided into two groups as upper and lower respiratory tract infections. These are very common diseases in childhood. In this study, we aimed to determine risk factors for lower respiratory tract in this region. Methodology: Hospital were included in our study. Their examinations, backgrounds, family histories and information about environmental factors were recorded in questionnaire forms. Results: Lack of vaccination, duration of breast feeding, onset age of cow's milk, family history for asthma and food allergy, number of hospitalized people in the same room, number of people who live in same house and smoking around the children were evaluated for the presence of LRTI, and LRTI risks of these factors were respectively observed as 1.69, 1.71, 1.61, 1.69, 1.20, 1.47, 1.56 and 2.63 fold increased. Conclusion: Standardization of clinical diagnosis, accurate and realistic use of antibiotics, correction of nutrition, improvement of socio-economic situation and the elimination of Respiratory Infections. (author)

  8. Glucosensing in the gastrointestinal tract: Impact on glucose metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournel, Audren; Marlin, Alysson; Abot, Anne; Pasquio, Charles; Cirillo, Carla; Cani, Patrice D.

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is an important interface of exchange between ingested food and the body. Glucose is one of the major dietary sources of energy. All along the gastrointestinal tube, e.g., the oral cavity, small intestine, pancreas, and portal vein, specialized cells referred to as glucosensors detect variations in glucose levels. In response to this glucose detection, these cells send hormonal and neuronal messages to tissues involved in glucose metabolism to regulate glycemia. The gastrointestinal tract continuously communicates with the brain, especially with the hypothalamus, via the gut-brain axis. It is now well established that the cross talk between the gut and the brain is of crucial importance in the control of glucose homeostasis. In addition to receiving glucosensing information from the gut, the hypothalamus may also directly sense glucose. Indeed, the hypothalamus contains glucose-sensitive cells that regulate glucose homeostasis by sending signals to peripheral tissues via the autonomous nervous system. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which glucosensors along the gastrointestinal tract detect glucose, as well as the results of such detection in the whole body, including the hypothalamus. We also highlight how disturbances in the glucosensing process may lead to metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. A better understanding of the pathways regulating glucose homeostasis will further facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of metabolic diseases. PMID:26939867

  9. Glucosensing in the gastrointestinal tract: Impact on glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournel, Audren; Marlin, Alysson; Abot, Anne; Pasquio, Charles; Cirillo, Carla; Cani, Patrice D; Knauf, Claude

    2016-05-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is an important interface of exchange between ingested food and the body. Glucose is one of the major dietary sources of energy. All along the gastrointestinal tube, e.g., the oral cavity, small intestine, pancreas, and portal vein, specialized cells referred to as glucosensors detect variations in glucose levels. In response to this glucose detection, these cells send hormonal and neuronal messages to tissues involved in glucose metabolism to regulate glycemia. The gastrointestinal tract continuously communicates with the brain, especially with the hypothalamus, via the gut-brain axis. It is now well established that the cross talk between the gut and the brain is of crucial importance in the control of glucose homeostasis. In addition to receiving glucosensing information from the gut, the hypothalamus may also directly sense glucose. Indeed, the hypothalamus contains glucose-sensitive cells that regulate glucose homeostasis by sending signals to peripheral tissues via the autonomous nervous system. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which glucosensors along the gastrointestinal tract detect glucose, as well as the results of such detection in the whole body, including the hypothalamus. We also highlight how disturbances in the glucosensing process may lead to metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. A better understanding of the pathways regulating glucose homeostasis will further facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Regulation of UDP glucuronosyltransferases in the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, Philip A.; Lewinsky, Rikke H.; Gardner-Stephen, Dione A.; Mackenzie, Peter I.

    2004-01-01

    The UDP glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract have a crucial role in protection against the toxic effects of lipophilic chemicals in the environment. UGTs such as UGT1A7, UGT1A8, and UGT1A10 are exclusively expressed in gastrointestinal tissues, each with a unique tissue distribution pattern that is subject to interindividual variation. The factors regulating this tissue-specific expression and that contribute to variability are beginning to be elucidated. Studies on the UGT1A7, 1A8, 1A9, and 1A10 gene promoters in Caco-2 cells, an in vitro model of enterocytes of the gastrointestinal tract, have identified the caudal homeodomain transcription factor, Cdx2, as an important regulator of the UGT1A8 and 1A10 gene proximal promoters. This transcription factor is found exclusively in the small intestine and colon: it is absent in the gastric epithelium and the esophagus. Cdx2 regulates the UGT1A8 and 1A10 promoters in cooperation with hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF1α). It is noteworthy that UGT1A7 is not expressed in gastrointestinal tissue distal to the gastric mucosa and does not contain a Cdx2 binding site in its proximal promoter. Transcription factors, including Sp1, which differentially bind to the initiator regions of the UGT1A8, 1A9, and 1A10 promoters, also contribute to the differences in expression of these UGTs in Caco-2 cells. The identification of important regulatory regions of UGT genes expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, and the transcription factors that bind to these regions, will aid in the elucidation of factors that contribute to interindividual differences in gastrointestinal UGT expression. In turn, this will lead to further understanding of interindividual variation in the capacity of the GI tract to metabolize lipophilic chemicals and to act as a barrier to dietary toxins and orally administered drugs

  11. Mutations in DSTYK and dominant urinary tract malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna-Cherchi, Simone; Sampogna, Rosemary V; Papeta, Natalia; Burgess, Katelyn E; Nees, Shannon N; Perry, Brittany J; Choi, Murim; Bodria, Monica; Liu, Yan; Weng, Patricia L; Lozanovski, Vladimir J; Verbitsky, Miguel; Lugani, Francesca; Sterken, Roel; Paragas, Neal; Caridi, Gianluca; Carrea, Alba; Dagnino, Monica; Materna-Kiryluk, Anna; Santamaria, Giuseppe; Murtas, Corrado; Ristoska-Bojkovska, Nadica; Izzi, Claudia; Kacak, Nilgun; Bianco, Beatrice; Giberti, Stefania; Gigante, Maddalena; Piaggio, Giorgio; Gesualdo, Loreto; Vukic, Durdica Kosuljandic; Vukojevic, Katarina; Saraga-Babic, Mirna; Saraga, Marijan; Gucev, Zoran; Allegri, Landino; Latos-Bielenska, Anna; Casu, Domenica; State, Matthew; Scolari, Francesco; Ravazzolo, Roberto; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Al-Awqati, Qais; D'Agati, Vivette D; Drummond, Iain A; Tasic, Velibor; Lifton, Richard P; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco; Gharavi, Ali G

    2013-08-15

    Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and the urinary tract are the most common cause of pediatric kidney failure. These disorders are highly heterogeneous, and the etiologic factors are poorly understood. We performed genomewide linkage analysis and whole-exome sequencing in a family with an autosomal dominant form of congenital abnormalities of the kidney or urinary tract (seven affected family members). We also performed a sequence analysis in 311 unrelated patients, as well as histologic and functional studies. Linkage analysis identified five regions of the genome that were shared among all affected family members. Exome sequencing identified a single, rare, deleterious variant within these linkage intervals, a heterozygous splice-site mutation in the dual serine-threonine and tyrosine protein kinase gene (DSTYK). This variant, which resulted in aberrant splicing of messenger RNA, was present in all affected family members. Additional, independent DSTYK mutations, including nonsense and splice-site mutations, were detected in 7 of 311 unrelated patients. DSTYK is highly expressed in the maturing epithelia of all major organs, localizing to cell membranes. Knockdown in zebrafish resulted in developmental defects in multiple organs, which suggested loss of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling. Consistent with this finding is the observation that DSTYK colocalizes with FGF receptors in the ureteric bud and metanephric mesenchyme. DSTYK knockdown in human embryonic kidney cells inhibited FGF-stimulated phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK), the principal signal downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases. We detected independent DSTYK mutations in 2.3% of patients with congenital abnormalities of the kidney or urinary tract, a finding that suggests that DSTYK is a major determinant of human urinary tract development, downstream of FGF signaling. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).

  12. Co-circulation of genetically distinct human metapneumovirus and human bocavirus strains in young children with respiratory tract infections in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappa, Alessandra; Canuti, Marta; Frati, Elena; Pariani, Elena; Perin, Silvana; Ruzza, Maria Lorena; Farina, Claudio; Podestà, Alberto; Zanetti, Alessandro; Amendola, Antonella; Tanzi, Elisabetta

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of human Metapneumovirus (hMPV) and human Bocavirus (hBoV) identified the etiological causes of several cases of acute respiratory tract infections in children. This report describes the molecular epidemiology of hMPV and hBoV infections observed following viral surveillance of children hospitalized for acute respiratory tract infections in Milan, Italy. Pharyngeal swabs were collected from 240 children ≤3 years of age (130 males, 110 females; median age, 5.0 months; IQR, 2.0-12.5 months) and tested for respiratory viruses, including hMPV and hBoV, by molecular methods. hMPV-RNA and hBoV-DNA positive samples were characterized molecularly and a phylogenetical analysis was performed. PCR analysis identified 131/240 (54.6%) samples positive for at least one virus. The frequency of hMPV and hBoV infections was similar (8.3% and 12.1%, respectively). Both infections were associated with lower respiratory tract infections: hMPV was present as a single infectious agent in 7.2% of children with bronchiolitis, hBoV was associated with 18.5% of pediatric pneumonias and identified frequently as a single etiological agent. Genetically distinct hMPV and hBoV strains were identified in children examined with respiratory tract infections. Phylogenetic analysis showed an increased prevalence of hMPV genotype A (A2b sublineage) compared to genotype B (80% vs. 20%, respectively) and of the hBoV genotype St2 compared to genotype St1 (71.4% vs. 28.6%, respectively). Interestingly, a shift in hMPV infections resulting from A2 strains has been observed in recent years. In addition, the occurrence of recombination events between two hBoV strains with a breakpoint located in the VP1/VP2 region was identified. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Congenital anomalies of the urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Hans G; Belman, A Barry

    2014-01-01

    The upper urinary tract forms as a consequence of the reciprocal inductive signals between the metanephric mesenchyme and ureteric bud. A clue to the timing of events leading to an abnormality of the upper urinary tract can be the presence also of associated anomalies of internal genitalia since separation of these systems occurs at about the 10th week of gestation. Prenatal sonography has facilitated the detection of urological abnormalities presenting with hydronephrosis. Hydronephrosis suggests obstruction, but by itself cannot be equated with it. Instead, further radiographic imaging is required to delineate anatomy and function. Now, moreover, non-surgical management of CAKUT should be considered whenever possible. Despite the widespread use of prenatal screening sonography that usually identifies the majority of congenital anomalies of the urinary tract, many children still present with febrile urinary tract infection (UTI). Regardless of the etiology for the presentation, the goal of management is preservation of renal function through mitigation of the risk for recurrent UTI and/or obstruction. In the past many children underwent surgical repair aimed at normalization of the appearance of the urinary tract. Today, management has evolved such that in most cases surgical reconstruction is performed only after a period of observation - with or without urinary prophylaxis. The opinions presented in this section are not espoused by all pediatric urologists but represent instead the practice that has evolved at Children's National Medical Center (Washington DC) based significantly on information obtained by nuclear renography, in addition to sonography and contrast cystography.

  14. Imaging of transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary tracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozmen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common urothelial neoplasm to involve the upper urinary tract and bladder. Prognosis significantly worsens with deeper invasion. The role of imaging is to detect the tiniest urothelial neoplasms while still potentially resectable and curable. In case of advance disease, imaging should identify the extent of disease. Intravenous or retrograde urography, ultrasonography, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging have been used for diagnosis of TCC. The diagnostic performances of these imaging modalities differ from each other. A recent review regarding imaging of TCC by Razavi et al states that the retrieved sensitivity/specificity for the detection of TCC of upper urinary tract for CT urography (CTU), MR urography, excretory urography, and retrograde urography were 96%/99%, 69%/97%, 80%/81%, and 96%/96%, respectively. For detecting bladder cancer, the retrieved sensitivity/specificity for CT cystography, MR cystography, and ultrasonography were 94%/98%, 91%/95%, and 78%/96%, respectively. They conclude that CT urography is the best imaging technique for confirming or excluding malignancy in the upper urinary tract, whereas CT cystography has the best diagnostic performance for diagnosing bladder cancer. While cystoscopy is still considered by most to be the gold-standard for evaluation of the urinary bladder, CTU is playing an increasing role in the detection of urinary bladder urothelial neoplasms. As with the upper urinary tract, bladder urothelial neoplasms typically present as a filling defect, a focal mass, or an area of abnormal focal wall thickening. Magnetic resonance imaging is superior for evaluation of the depth of tumour invasion into the bladder wall, but this knowledge may not ultimately affect treatment as feasibility for radical cystectomy depends on staging by a combination of clinical, histopathological and imaging findings. Radical cystectomy may include resection of adjacent organs

  15. Comparing between results and complications of doing voiding cystourethrogram in the first week following urinary tract infection and in 2-6 weeks after urinary tract infection in children referring to a teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Dorreh, Fatemeh; Shahsavari, Someyeh; Pakniyat, Abdolghader

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is the most common genitourinary disease in children so about 40% of the children with urinary tract infection suffering from reflux that caused some consequences such as pyelonephritis and kidney parenchymal injury. This research was conducted to compare the timing of voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) in children with urinary tract infection in first week and after the first week of urinary tract infection. This research is a case-control study that both case and control groups include 208 children from 1 month to 12 years old with the complain of urinary tract infection. In case group, the VCUG was performed at the first week of infection and in control group, the VCUG was performed after the first week of infection. complication such as dysuria was observed in two-thirds of children who VCUG was performed during first week after urinary tract infection. Parents stress in case group was more than the other (P=0.015). For overall, the incidence of reflux in case and control groups was 49.5% and 50%, respectively. The mean of reflux grading in right kidney in case group was lower than control group resulting in significant differences between two groups. According to higher grade of stress in parents and complications due to VCUG at the first week of urinary tract infection, it is suggested that VCUG be conducted on selective patients in the hospital at the first week of urinary tract infection and during hospitalization.

  16. Zika Virus in the Male Reproductive Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesel Stassen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses are resurging across the globe. Zika virus (ZIKV has caused significant concern in recent years because it can lead to congenital malformations in babies and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. Unlike other arboviruses, ZIKV can be sexually transmitted and may persist in the male reproductive tract. There is limited information regarding the impact of ZIKV on male reproductive health and fertility. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie persistent ZIKV infections in men is critical to developing effective vaccines and therapies. Mouse and macaque models have begun to unravel the pathogenesis of ZIKV infection in the male reproductive tract, with the testes and prostate gland implicated as potential reservoirs for persistent ZIKV infection. Here, we summarize current knowledge regarding the pathogenesis of ZIKV in the male reproductive tract, the development of animal models to study ZIKV infection at this site, and prospects for vaccines and therapeutics against persistent ZIKV infection.

  17. Interventional studies of the upper gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, B.; Gross, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine studies of the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract provide a means whereby physiologic and pathophysiologic features can be observed from a unique and noninvasive perspective. While nuclear medicine studies by their very nature lack the high spatial resolution of the radiographic approach, the data derived are readily quantitated and presented in numerical fashion to provide functional and dynamic information in which the influences of interventions may be observed. This chapter outlines the scope of such interventions in studies of the upper GI tract with emphasis on examinations for gastroesophageal reflux and gastric emptying. The interactions of nutrients, physical maneuvers of pharmacologic agents on nuclear medicine studies of the upper GI tract may be intentional to render a test more sensitive or to evaluate the effect of therapy, or may represent an unintentional side effect that must be taken into account if misinterpretation is to be avoided

  18. New ICRP human respiratory tract model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    The new ICRP dosimetric model for the human respiratory tract is based on the premise that the large differences in radiation sensitivity of respiratory tract tissues, and the wide range of doses they receive argue for calculating specific tissue doses rather than average lung doses. The model is also directly applicable to the worldwide population of both workers and the public. The requirement to describe intake, and deposition, clearance and dosimetry in each respiratory tract region, for a wide range of subjects at various levels of exercise necessarily means that the model is more complex than that of ICRP Publication 30. The widespread use of powerful personal computers, and the availability of user-friendly software to implement the model, however, will make it widely and readily accessible when the report is published. (Author)

  19. Streptococcus pneumoniae urinary tract infection in pedeatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pougnet, Richard; Sapin, Jeanne; De Parscau, Loïc; Pougnet, Laurence

    2017-06-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae infections in children are most often lung infections or meningitis. Urinary tract infections are much rarer. We present the case of a urinary tract infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae. The clinical picture was classical. The urine culture showed the presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in urine (10 4 UFC/mL; with 2 × 10 4 leucocytes/mL). The literature mentions a few cases of such infections. In some studies, the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in urine of children is less than 1%. Those children mostly present abnormalities of urinary tract. In our case, urinary ultrasound scan have shown the presence of an ectopic kidney in this child. The discussion between the clinician and the biologist has contributed to the discovery of this renal anomaly.

  20. Risk factors for febrile urinary tract infection in infants with prenatal hydronephrosis: comprehensive single center analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareba, Piotr; Lorenzo, Armando J; Braga, Luis H

    2014-05-01

    We assessed risk factors for urinary tract infection in children with prenatal hydronephrosis We identified 376 infants with prenatal hydronephrosis in an institutional database. The occurrence of febrile urinary tract infection in the first 2 years of life was ascertained by chart review. Febrile urinary tract infection was defined as a positive culture from a catheterized urine specimen in a patient with a fever of 38.0C or greater. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess gender, circumcision status, hydronephrosis grade, vesicoureteral reflux grade and antibiotic prophylaxis as predictors of the risk of urinary tract infection. Included in analysis were 277 males and 99 females. Hydronephrosis was high grade in 128 infants (34.0%) and vesicoureteral reflux was present in 79 (21.0%). Antibiotic prophylaxis was prescribed in 60.4% of patients, preferentially to females vs males (70.7% vs 56.7%), those with high vs low grade hydronephrosis (70.3% vs 55.2%) and those with vs without vesicoureteral reflux (96.2% vs 50.8%). On multivariate analysis there was an association between high grade hydronephrosis and an increased risk of urinary tract infection (adjusted OR 2.40, 95% CI 1.26-4.56). Females (adjusted OR 3.16, 95% CI 0.98-10.19) and uncircumcised males (adjusted OR 3.63, 95% CI 1.18-11.22) were also at higher risk than circumcised males. Antibiotic prophylaxis was not associated with a decreased risk of urinary tract infection (adjusted OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.45-1.94). High grade hydronephrosis, female gender and uncircumcised status in males are independent risk factors for febrile urinary tract infection in infants with prenatal hydronephrosis. Antibiotic prophylaxis did not reduce the risk of urinary tract infection in the study group. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pathophysiology of nocturnal lower urinary tract symptoms in older patients with urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denys, Marie-Astrid; Decalf, Veerle; Kumps, Candy; Petrovic, Mirko; Goessaert, An-Sofie; Everaert, Karel

    2017-11-01

    To explore the mismatch between functional bladder capacity and nocturnal urine production, and to study the pathophysiology of an increased nocturnal urine production in older patients with urinary incontinence. The present prospective observational study included adults aged ≥65 years with urinary incontinence. Participants completed questionnaires, frequency volume charts and renal function profiles. The nocturnal lower urinary tract symptom index was defined as nocturnal urine output/maximum voided volume; the nocturnal polyuria index as nocturnal/24 h urine output. The median age (n = 95) was 74 years (69-79), 87% were women and 73% had nocturnal lower urinary tract symptoms (nocturnal urinary incontinence or nocturia ≥2). Participants with nocturnal lower urinary tract symptoms had a significantly higher nocturnal urine output (809 mL vs 650 mL; P = 0.001) and no significant difference in maximum voided volume (350 mL vs 437 mL; P = 0.079) compared with participants without nocturnal lower urinary tract symptoms. Participants (nocturnal polyuria index >33% [n = 56], nocturnal polyuria index >40% [n = 42], nocturnal lower urinary tract symptom index >1.87 [n = 51]) showed higher night-time diuresis rates, free water and sodium clearance compared with during the daytime. Controls (nocturnal polyuria index ≤33% [n = 26], nocturnal polyuria index ≤40% [n = 40], nocturnal lower urinary tract symptom index ≤1.87 [n = 44]) had no circadian rhythm in their diuresis rate or sodium clearance, but more nocturnal free water clearance compared with during the daytime. The majority of older adults with urinary incontinence present nocturnal lower urinary tract symptoms. An increased nocturnal sodium diuresis seems to be the only mechanism differentiating patients with nocturnal lower urinary tract symptoms from controls. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  2. Long-Term Outcomes of Renal Transplant in Recipients With Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rebekah S; Courtney, Aisling E; Ko, Dicken S C; Maxwell, Alexander P; McDaid, James

    2018-01-02

    Lower urinary tract dysfunction can lead to chronic kidney disease, which, despite surgical intervention, will progress to end-stage renal disease, requiring dialysis. Urologic pathology may damage a transplanted kidney, limiting patient and graft survival. Although smaller studies have suggested that urinary tract dysfunction does not affect graft or patient survival, this is not universally accepted. Northern Ireland has historically had the highest incidence of neural tube defects in Europe, giving rich local experience in caring for patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction. Here, we analyzed outcomes of renal transplant recipients with lower urinary tract dysfunction versus control recipients. We identified 3 groups of kidney transplant recipients treated between 2001 and 2010; those in group 1 had end-stage renal disease due to lower urinary tract dysfunction with prior intervention (urologic surgery, long-term catheter, or intermittent self-catheterization), group 2 had end-stage renal disease secondary to lower urinary tract dysfunction without intervention, and group 3 had end-stage renal disease due to polycystic kidney disease (chosen as a relatively healthy control cohort without comorbid burden of other causes of end-stage renal disease such as diabetes). The primary outcome measured, graft survival, was death censored, with graft loss defined as requirement for renal replacement therapy or retransplant. Secondary outcomes included patient survival and graft function. In 150 study patients (16 patients in group 1, 64 in group 2, and 70 in group 3), 5-year death-censored graft survival was 93.75%, 90.6%, and 92.9%, respectively, with no significant differences in graft failure among groups (Cox proportional hazards model). Five-year patient survival was 100%, 100%, and 94.3%, respectively. Individuals with a history of lower urinary tract dysfunction had graft and patient survival rates similar to the control group. When appropriately treated, lower

  3. Outcomes of targeted treatment for vesicoureteral reflux in children with nonneurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Angela M; Nees, Shannon N; Van Batavia, Jason P; Combs, Andrew J; Glassberg, Kenneth I

    2013-09-01

    There is a known association between nonneurogenic lower urinary tract conditions and vesicoureteral reflux. Whether reflux is secondary to the lower urinary tract condition or coincidental is controversial. We determined the rate of reflux resolution in patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction using targeted treatment for the underlying condition. Patients diagnosed and treated for a lower urinary tract condition who had concomitant vesicoureteral reflux at or near the time of diagnosis were included. Patients underwent targeted treatment and antibiotic prophylaxis, and reflux was monitored with voiding cystourethrography or videourodynamics. Vesicoureteral reflux was identified in 58 ureters in 36 females and 5 males with a mean age of 6.2 years. After a mean of 3.1 years of treatment reflux resolved with targeted treatment in 26 of 58 ureters (45%). All of these patients had a history of urinary tract infections before starting targeted treatment. Resolution rates of vesicoureteral reflux were similar for all reflux grades. Resolution or significant improvement of reflux was greater in the ureters of patients with dysfunctional voiding (70%) compared to those with idiopathic detrusor overactivity disorder (38%) or detrusor underutilization (40%). Vesicoureteral reflux associated with lower urinary tract conditions resolved with targeted treatment and antibiotic prophylaxis in 45% of ureters. Unlike the resolution rates reported in patients with reflux without a coexisting lower urinary tract condition, we found that there were no differences in resolution rates among grades I to V reflux in patients with lower urinary tract conditions. Patients with dysfunctional voiding had the most improvement and greatest resolution of reflux. Additionally grade V reflux resolved in some patients. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. An Investigation of Vocal Tract Characteristics for Acoustic Discrimination of Pathological Voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Won Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effectiveness of measures related to vocal tract characteristics in classifying normal and pathological speech. Unlike conventional approaches that mainly focus on features related to the vocal source, vocal tract characteristics are examined to determine if interaction effects between vocal folds and the vocal tract can be used to detect pathological speech. Especially, this paper examines features related to formant frequencies to see if vocal tract characteristics are affected by the nature of the vocal fold-related pathology. To test this hypothesis, stationary fragments of vowel /aa/ produced by 223 normal subjects, 472 vocal fold polyp subjects, and 195 unilateral vocal cord paralysis subjects are analyzed. Based on the acoustic-articulatory relationships, phonation for pathological subjects is found to be associated with measures correlated with a raised tongue body or an advanced tongue root. Vocal tract-related features are also found to be statistically significant from the Kruskal-Wallis test in distinguishing normal and pathological speech. Classification results demonstrate that combining the formant measurements with vocal fold-related features results in improved performance in differentiating vocal pathologies including vocal polyps and unilateral vocal cord paralysis, which suggests that measures related to vocal tract characteristics may provide additional information in diagnosing vocal disorders.

  5. Overview of the Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT) Full Scale Crash Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, Martin; Littell, Justin

    2015-01-01

    The Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT) full-scale tests were performed at NASA Langley Research Center's Landing and Impact Research Facility in 2013 and 2014. Two CH-46E airframes were impacted at 33-ft/s forward and 25-ft/s vertical combined velocities onto soft soil, which represents a severe, but potentially survivable impact scenario. TRACT 1 provided a baseline set of responses, while TRACT 2 included retrofits with composite subfloors and other crash system improvements based on TRACT 1. For TRACT 2, a total of 18 unique experiments were conducted to evaluate Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) responses, seat and restraint performance, cargo restraint effectiveness, patient litter behavior, and activation of emergency locator transmitters and crash sensors. Combinations of Hybrid II, Hybrid III, and ES-2 ATDs were placed in forward and side facing seats and occupant results were compared against injury criteria. The structural response of the airframe was assessed based on accelerometers located throughout the airframe and using three-dimensional photogrammetric techniques. Analysis of the photogrammetric data indicated regions of maximum deflection and permanent deformation. The response of TRACT 2 was noticeably different in the horizontal direction due to changes in the cabin configuration and soil surface, with higher acceleration and damage occurring in the cabin. Loads from ATDs in energy absorbing seats and restraints were within injury limits. Severe injury was likely for ATDs in forward facing passenger seats.

  6. High EDSS can predict risk for upper urinary tract damage in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ineichen, Benjamin V; Schneider, Marc P; Hlavica, Martin; Hagenbuch, Niels; Linnebank, Michael; Kessler, Thomas M

    2018-04-01

    Neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) is very common in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), and it might jeopardize renal function and thereby increase mortality. Although there are well-known urodynamic risk factors for upper urinary tract damage, no clinical prediction parameters are available. We aimed to assess clinical parameters potentially predicting urodynamic risk factors for upper urinary tract damage. A consecutive series of 141 patients with MS referred from neurologists for primary neuro-urological work-up including urodynamics were prospectively evaluated. Clinical parameters taken into account were age, sex, duration, and clinical course of MS and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Multivariate modeling revealed EDSS as a clinical parameter significantly associated with urodynamic risk factors for upper urinary tract damage (odds ratio = 1.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.06-1.71, p = 0.02). Using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves, an EDSS of 5.0 as cutoff showed a sensitivity of 86%-87% and a specificity of 52% for at least one urodynamic risk factor for upper urinary tract damage. High EDSS is significantly associated with urodynamic risk factors for upper urinary tract damage and allows a risk-dependent stratification in daily neurological clinical practice to identify MS patients requiring further neuro-urological assessment and treatment.

  7. Risk Factors for Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection and Renal Scarring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, Ron; Shaikh, Nader; Pohl, Hans; Gravens-Mueller, Lisa; Ivanova, Anastasia; Zaoutis, Lisa; Patel, Melissa; deBerardinis, Rachel; Parker, Allison; Bhatnagar, Sonika; Haralam, Mary Ann; Pope, Marcia; Kearney, Diana; Sprague, Bruce; Barrera, Raquel; Viteri, Bernarda; Egigueron, Martina; Shah, Neha; Hoberman, Alejandro

    2015-07-01

    To identify risk factors for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) and renal scarring in children who have had 1 or 2 febrile or symptomatic UTIs and received no antimicrobial prophylaxis. This 2-year, multisite prospective cohort study included 305 children aged 2 to 71 months with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) receiving placebo in the RIVUR (Randomized Intervention for Vesicoureteral Reflux) study and 195 children with no VUR observed in the CUTIE (Careful Urinary Tract Infection Evaluation) study. Primary exposure was presence of VUR; secondary exposures included bladder and bowel dysfunction (BBD), age, and race. Outcomes were recurrent febrile or symptomatic urinary tract infection (F/SUTI) and renal scarring. Children with VUR had higher 2-year rates of recurrent F/SUTI (Kaplan-Meier estimate 25.4% compared with 17.3% for VUR and no VUR, respectively). Other factors associated with recurrent F/SUTI included presence of BBD at baseline (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.07 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09-3.93]) and presence of renal scarring on the baseline (99m)Tc-labeled dimercaptosuccinic acid scan (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.88 [95% CI: 1.22-6.80]). Children with BBD and any degree of VUR had the highest risk of recurrent F/SUTI (56%). At the end of the 2-year follow-up period, 8 (5.6%) children in the no VUR group and 24 (10.2%) in the VUR group had renal scars, but the difference was not statistically significant (adjusted odds ratio: 2.05 [95% CI: 0.86-4.87]). VUR and BBD are risk factors for recurrent UTI, especially when they appear in combination. Strategies for preventing recurrent UTI include antimicrobial prophylaxis and treatment of BBD. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Lower tract neoplasm: Update of imaging evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Robert; Kawashima, Akira

    2017-12-01

    Cancers of the lower urinary tract can arise from the bladder, urachus or urethra. Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) is the most common of these. The presentation of bladder, urachal and urethral cancers can differ but many result in hematuria as an initial indication. The diagnosis and staging of these cancers often necessitate radiologic imaging often in the form of cross-section CT urography or MR urography. The following article reviews the specific nature of lower tract cancers and their imaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dacher, Jean-Nicolas [University of Rouen, Quant-IF Laboratory, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Rouen (France); Rouen University Hospital Charles Nicolle, Department of Radiology, Rouen (France); UFR Medecine Pharmacie de Rouen, Laboratoire Quant-If, Rouen (France); Hitzel, Anne; Vera, Pierre [University of Rouen, Quant-IF Laboratory, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Rouen (France); CRLCC Henri Becquerel, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rouen (France); Avni, Fred E. [Free University of Brussels, Department of Radiology, Erasmus Hospital, Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    This article is focused on the controversial topic of imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection. A review of the recent literature illustrates the complementary roles of ultrasound, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. The authors stress the key role of ultrasound which has recently been debated. The commonly associated vesicoureteric reflux has to be classified as congenital or secondary due to voiding dysfunction. A series of frequently asked questions are addressed in a second section. The proposed answers are not the product of a consensus but should rather be considered as proposals to enrich the ongoing debate concerning the evaluation of urinary tract infection in children. (orig.)

  10. Imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dacher, Jean-Nicolas; Hitzel, Anne; Vera, Pierre; Avni, Fred E.

    2005-01-01

    This article is focused on the controversial topic of imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection. A review of the recent literature illustrates the complementary roles of ultrasound, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. The authors stress the key role of ultrasound which has recently been debated. The commonly associated vesicoureteric reflux has to be classified as congenital or secondary due to voiding dysfunction. A series of frequently asked questions are addressed in a second section. The proposed answers are not the product of a consensus but should rather be considered as proposals to enrich the ongoing debate concerning the evaluation of urinary tract infection in children. (orig.)

  11. Imaging of the urinary tract in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslaksen, A.; Hunskaar, S.; Hoeisaeter, P.Aa.

    1990-01-01

    This article discusses the indications for imaging of the urinary tract from the general practitioners' point of view. Urography should be used in the control of patients with previous attacks of ureteral colic, in patients presenting macroscopic hematuria and as a preoperative investigation prior to extracorporal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Ultrasound should be chosen in patients with microscopic hematuria and non-specific abdominal pain. Computerized tomography should be used in cases with non-specific findings using urography and ultrasound. There are no indications for imaging in women with recurrent urinary tract infection, in men with benign prostatic hypertrophy and in the evaluation of hypertension. 14 refs., 5 tabs

  12. [Sarcoidosis of the female genital tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šefčíková, A; Turková, M; Žurková, M

    To present the findings of sarcoidosis on female genital tract. Review. Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Silesian Hospital Opava. Overview of published findings from case studies. Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder of unclear cause. It typically involves the lymph nodes of mediastinum, predominantly billateral and/or pulmonary infiltrates. We find extrapulmonary involvement in 30-50% of cases. Sarcoidosis of the female reproductive system is a rare, it represent less than 1% cases of sarcoidosis. Lesions there may affect any organ, including the vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tube and ovary, but also for example placenta and breast. There is also recorded the incidence of multiple localization on female genitalia. Since sarcoidosis of this area is so rare, often proceeds asymptomatic and recognized only as an incidental finding, there are mention only the case histories in literature yet.Clinical symptoms may be non-specific, often imitating a tumor, or tend to be specific, depending on the localization of disability such as perineal pain, pain in the scar after the previous birth trauma, persistent pruritus, itching, irritation, dyspareunia, menstrual cycle disorders, menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, postmenopausal bleeding, amenorrhoe, abdominal pain, endometrial polypoid lesions, recurrent or persistent serometra or discharge. The diagnosis is made up of histologically - we are demonstrating noncaseating granulomas.The therapy is difficult, there are no available official guidelines. If the lesions are clinically silent, we can observed them because they may spontaneously disappear. If we are embarking on medical therapy, we start from a local application, and if this is unsuccessful then we approach the systemic administration. Corticosteroids are the drug of choice. If we diagnose the sarcoidosis of the female genital organs we must exclude systemic disease of sarcoidosis. The prognosis of disease is good.

  13. Proteomes of the Female Genital Tract During the Oestrous Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleilhavoup, Clement; Riou, Cindy; Tsikis, Guillaume; Labas, Valerie; Harichaux, Gregoire; Kohnke, Philippa; Reynaud, Karine; de Graaf, Simon P; Gerard, Nadine; Druart, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The female genital tract includes several anatomical regions whose luminal fluids successively interact with gametes and embryos and are involved in the fertilisation and development processes. The luminal fluids from the inner cervix, the uterus and the oviduct were collected along the oestrous cycle at oestrus (Day 0 of the cycle) and during the luteal phase (Day 10) from adult cyclic ewes. The proteomes were assessed by GeLC-MS/MS and quantified by spectral counting. A set of 940 proteins were identified including 291 proteins differentially present along the cycle in one or several regions. The global analysis of the fluid proteomes revealed a general pattern of endocrine regulation of the tract, with the cervix and the oviduct showing an increased differential proteins abundance mainly at oestrus while the uterus showed an increased abundance mainly during the luteal phase. The proteins more abundant at oestrus included several families such as the heat shock proteins (HSP), the mucins, the complement cascade proteins and several redox enzymes. Other proteins known for their interaction with gametes such as oviductin (OVGP), osteopontin, HSPA8, and the spermadhesin AWN were also overexpressed at oestrus. The proteins more abundant during the luteal phase were associated with the immune system such as ceruloplasmin, lactoferrin, DMBT1, or PIGR, and also with tissue remodeling such as galectin 3 binding protein, alkaline phosphatase, CD9, or fibulin. Several proteins differentially abundant between estrus and the luteal phase, such as myosin 9 and fibronectin, were also validated by immunohistochemistry. The potential roles in sperm transit and uterine receptivity of the proteins differentially regulated along the cycle in the female genital tract are discussed. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. The DMSA scan in paediatric urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditchfield, M.R.; Nadel, H.R.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the present paper was to review the use of the dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan in urinary tract infection at British Columbia's Children's Hospital to determine the frequency of cortical defects and the association between vesico-ureteric reflux and the presence of cortical defects in children with urinary tract infection. A total of 129 consecutive children with a urinary tract infection referred for a DMSA scan in a 2-year period (January 1992-January 1994) were retrospectively studied. The results were analysed in terms of kidneys, and the incidence of cortical defects was determined. Eighty-eight patients (68%) had a radiographic micturating cysto-urethrogram within 6 months of the DMSA scan, and in this group the relationship of defects with vesico-ureteric reflux was determined. Overall, 81/258 (31%) of kidneys had a cortical defect on a DMSA scan. Of those who had a micturating cysto-urethrogram, 53/176 (30%) kidneys had vesico-ureteric reflux, and of those that had reflux, 21/53 (40%) had a cortical defect on a DMSA scan. In the group of children without reflux, 38/123 (31%) had a cortical defect. Renal cortical scan defects are common findings in paediatric urinary infection, and frequently occur in the absence of vesico-ureteric reflux. These defects represent either established scars or acute pyelonephritis that can proceed to scarring. The micturating cysto-urethro-gram alone is insufficient as a screening modality to identify those kidneys at risk of renal scarring. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  15. Syndromes that Link the Endocrine System and Genitourinary Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özlük, Yasemin; Kılıçaslan, Işın

    2015-01-01

    The endocrine system and genitourinary tract unite in various syndromes. Genitourinary malignancies may cause paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes by secreting hormonal substances. These entities include Cushing`s syndrome, hypercalcemia, hyperglycemia, polycythemia, hypertension, and inappropriate ADH or HCG production. The most important syndromic scenarios that links these two systems are hereditary renal cancer syndromes with specific genotype/phenotype correlation. There are also some very rare entities in which endocrine and genitourinary systems are involved such as Carney complex, congenital adrenal hyperplasia and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. We will review all the syndromes regarding manifestations present in endocrine and genitourinary organs.

  16. [Application value of magnetic compression anastomosis in digestive tract reconstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xilin; Fan, Chao; Zhang, Hongke; Lu, Jianguo

    2014-05-01

    Magnetic compression anastomosis can compress tissues together and restore the continuity. Magnetic compression anastomosis mainly experienced three stages: magnetic ring, magnetic ring and column, and smart self-assembling magnets for endoscopy (SAMSEN). Nowadays, the magnetic compression anastomosis has been applied in vascular and different digestive tract surgeries, especially for complex surgery, such as anastomotic stenosis of biliary ducts after liver transplantation or congenital esophageal stenosis. Although only case reports are available at present, the advantages of the magnetic compression anastomosis includes lower cost, simplicity, individualization, good efficacy, safety, and minimally invasiveness. We are building a better technical platform to make magnetic compression anastomosis more advanced and popularized.

  17. Duplication of the Hindgut and Lower Urinary. Tract. Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Vanessa; Tamayo, Margarita; Montoya, Claudia; Acosta, Federico; Cano, Julian; Mejia, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    A 13 year female consulted to Heatup Pad's surgery department with a history of pelvic malformations since she was born and complaining about a colostomy done five years ago. On clinical examination an anal fistula was seen as well as perineal organs duplicated including: vulva - four labia, clitoris, vaginal canal, urethra, also double gluteal cleft. Several diagnostic modalities were performed (voiding cystourethrography, urodynamic, renal scan, CT and MRI) having a diagnosis of complete duplication of the hindgut and lower urinary tract, a rare congenital anomaly that has fewer than 50 cases reported in the literature. During hospitalization she underwent successful abdominopelvic surgical Correction.

  18. Computed tomography of the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishman, E.K.; Jones, B.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 11 chapters and five case studies. Some of the chapter titles are: CT of the Stomach; CT and Other Inflammatory Bowel Disease; Evaluation of Crohn's Disease; Periotoneal Metastasis; CT and MRI Correlation of the Gastrointestinal Tract; CT of Acute Gastrointestinal Abnormlities; and CT of Colorectal Cancer

  19. Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common occurrence in children. The management and laboratory diagnosis of these infections pose unique challenges that are not encountered in adults. Important factors, such as specimen collection, urinalysis interpretation, culture thresholds, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, require special consideration in children and will be discussed in detail in the following review. PMID:27053673

  20. [Fungal infections of the gastrointestinal tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragkoudakis, Emmanouil; Realdi, Giuseppe; Dore, Maria Pina

    2005-06-01

    In immunocompetent subjects fungal infections of the gastrointestinal tract are uncommon. Candida esophagitis remains the single most common fungal infection in immunocompromised hosts or in H. pylori- infected patients who receive antibiotic therapy. Enteric fungal infections are uncommon even in HIV-infected patients. Antifungal agents such as amphotericin B, ketoconazole, fluconazole, and the various formulations of itraconazole are effective for most cases.

  1. Asymptomatic urinary tract infection among pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A good proportion of pregnant women patronize traditional birth homes in Nigeria for ante-natal care. This study aimed at determining the prevalence, risk factors, and susceptibility profile of etiologic agents of urinary tract infection among ante-natal attendees in a traditional birth home in Benin City, Nigeria.

  2. Targeted Therapy for Biliary Tract Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuse, Junji; Okusaka, Takuji

    2011-01-01

    It is necessary to establish effective chemotherapy to improve the survival of patients with biliary tract cancer, because most of these patients are unsuitable candidates for surgery, and even patients undergoing curative surgery often have recurrence. Recently, the combination of cisplatin plus gemcitabine was reported to show survival benefits over gemcitabine alone in randomized clinical trials conducted in the United Kingdom and Japan. Thus, the combination of cisplatin plus gemcitabine is now recognized as the standard therapy for unresectable biliary tract cancer. One of the next issues that need to be addressed is whether molecular targeted agents might also be effective against biliary tract cancer. Although some targeted agents have been investigated as monotherapy for first-line chemotherapy, none were found to exert satisfactory efficacy. On the other hand, monoclonal antibodies such as bevacizumab and cetuximab have also been investigated in combination with a gemcitabine-based regimen and have been demonstrated to show promising activity. Furthermore, clinical trials using new targeted agents for biliary tract cancer are also proposed. This cancer is a relatively rare and heterogeneous tumor consisting of cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder carcinoma. Therefore, a large randomized clinical trial is necessary to confirm the efficacy of chemotherapy, and international collaboration is important

  3. Medical Prescription Pitfalls of Uncomplicated Urinary Tract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The aim of this evaluation was to identify pitfalls in medical prescriptions of uncomplicated urinary tract infections in government healthcare facilities in Zambia. Design: This was a cross sectional and government healthcare facilities were conveniently sampled. Main outcome measures: Rate of compliance to ...

  4. Bifidobacteria in the digestive tract of bumblebees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Killer, Jiří; Kopečný, Jan; Mrázek, Jakub; Rada, V.; Dubá, S.; Marounek, Milan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 2 (2010), s. 165-170 ISSN 1075-9964 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD525/08/H060 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Bifidobacteria * Bumblebee * Digestive tract Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 2.448, year: 2010

  5. Urinary tract infection in Children Hospitalized at Constanta Clinical Infectious Diseases Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pînzaru Anca Daniela

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In pediatrics, the urinary tract infection is one of the most frequent bacterial infection, representing an important health problem due to its high incidence, wide etiology, asymptomatic evolution, and multiple and sever complications, relapses and sequelae.” Material and Method: We evaluated 45 children, aged between 6 months and 16 years, diagnosed and treated for urinary tract infection at the Clinical Infectious Diseases Hospital, of Constanta County, in a period of 3 years and 6 months. Results: During studied period, between January 2014 and June 2017 from a total of 9343 patients admitted to the Constanta Clinical Infectious Diseases Hospital, we selected 45 children (4.81‰ diagnosed with urinary tract infection. The average age of children with urinary tract infections was 5 years and 5 months. The gender distribution revealed a 2:1 balance in girl’s favor. The most affected group of age was 1-3 years. Fever was the dominating symptom. Urine cultures were positive for 37 cases, meanwhile for eight cases had been negative. The predominant germs are E. coli for female and for male Proteus. We noticed that for E. coli the highest sensitivity is preserved to Ertapenem -15 cases, followed by Ceftriaxone and Ciprofloxacin -10 cases each, and Gentamycin -9 cases. Conclusions: Pediatric urinary tract infection should be considered in every patient under 3 years with unexplained fever.

  6. The Relationship between Sleep Disorders and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: Results from the NHANES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantus, Richard J; Packiam, Vignesh T; Wang, Chi H; Erickson, Bradley A; Helfand, Brian T

    2018-07-01

    It is well established that sleep disorders are associated with the nocturia prevalence in men. While previous literature supports that patients with sleep disorders are at increased risk for nocturia, the risk of daytime lower urinary tract symptoms has not been well established. We examined the NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) database between 2006 and 2008. Men older than 40 years who completed the sleep, prostate and kidney questionnaires were included in study. The presence of lower urinary tract symptoms was defined as 2 or more symptoms, including hesitancy, incomplete emptying and/or nocturia. Multivariable models using logistic regression were constructed to compare groups of men with and without a sleep disorder. Of the 3,071 men who completed all survey questions 270 (8.8%) reported a sleep disorder. Men with a sleep disorder had a significantly higher body mass index (30.8 vs 27.4 kg/m 2 ), a greater likelihood of reporting diabetes (20.3% vs 10.2%) and more comorbidities (72.6% vs 45.2%, all p urinary tract symptoms (OR 1.12) and daytime lower urinary tract symptoms (OR 1.27, all p urinary tract symptoms independent of body mass index, diabetes and an increased number of comorbidities. Based on the current data clinicians should consider assessing lower urinary tract symptoms in men with a sleep disorder since intervention could improve lower urinary tract symptoms and sleep disorders as well as daytime urinary symptoms. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Antibiotic resistance in community-acquired urinary tract infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of community-acquired UTI organisms to amoxycillin and co-trimoxazole was .... Treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection in non-pregnant women. Postgrad ... Single-dose antibiotic treatment for symptomatic uri- nary tract infections in ...

  8. Evaluation of Screening Methods for the Detection of Urinary Tract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2000-05-30

    screening testsfor urinary tract infection was donefrom March 20 to May 30, 2000. A cross sectional study ... the diagnosis of urinary tract infection on the basis of pyuria alone. The minimum number of ..... infection Complicating. Pregnancy J.

  9. urinary tract infections in symptomatic pregnant women attending

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    bacterial infections in the elderly but also the most common and ... For pregnant women, urinary tract infection is the most common ... causing arthropathy in children. Urinary tract ... resistance in our environment, resistance such as β-. Urinary ...

  10. Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of organisms causing urinary tract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of organisms causing urinary tract infection in ... out on bacterial isolates from the urine of febrile children with sickle cell anemia ... of childhood urinary tract infections (UTI) in this environment are resistant to ...

  11. Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of organisms causing urinary tract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... Objective: The knowledge of antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of common etiological ... of childhood urinary tract infections (UTI) in this environment are resistant to most ... causing urinary tract infection in children with sickle.

  12. Childhood urinary tract infection in Benin City: pathogens and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Childhood urinary tract infection in Benin City: pathogens and antimicrobial ... of bacterial isolates implicated in urinary tract infection (UTI) amongst children was ... There is also an emerging resistance of common pathogens to azithromycin ...

  13. Minimally Invasive Treatment of Male Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.; Gravas, Stavros; Fitzpatrick, John M.

    2008-01-01

    During the past decade, increasing numbers of minimally invasive treatments for managing male lower urinary tract symptoms caused by urinary tract obstruction have been positioned. On one hand, transurethral needle ablation and transurethral microwave thermotherapy bridge the gap between medical

  14. Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Related Conditions (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Related Conditions KidsHealth / For Parents / Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Related Conditions What's in this article? ...

  15. Urinary tract infection in women - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by bacteria that enter the urethra and travel to the bladder. ... BATHING AND HYGIENE To prevent future urinary tract infections, ... believe make infections more likely. Change your pad each time ...

  16. Urinary Tract Infection in Febrile Children with Sickle Cell Anaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Nigeria. Children with this disease have increased tendency to develop frequent and severe infections especially of the urinary tract, bones and lungs. The prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI) has however not been reported in this part ...

  17. Diabetes and Risk of Community-Acquired Respiratory Tract Infections, Urinary Tract Infections, and Bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Reimar W.; Mor, Anil

    2013-01-01

    This review provides an update on the risk of several important community-acquired infections seen in patients with diabetes: respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and bacteremia. Respiratory tract infections: Recent epidemiological evidence shows a modest (1.25 to 1.75-fold) risk...... increase for hospitalization with pneumonia associated with diabetes. The increase of risk for tuberculosis is of similar magnitude in highly developed countries, and possibly higher in low-income countries. Poor glycemic control and long diabetes duration predict higher risk for both pneumonia...... and tuberculosis. Limited data is available for diabetes and influenza, yet both influenza and pneumococcal vaccination is recommended in patients with diabetes. Urinary tract infections: The risk of asymptomatic bacteriuria and cystitis is 1.5 to 2 times increased in diabetes patients, while their risk...

  18. Natural approaches to prevention and treatment of infections of the lower urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Kathleen A

    2008-09-01

    Infections of the lower urinary tract are common occurrences in young women, during pregnancy, and in peri- and postmenopausal women. Because of the chronic nature of urinary tract infections (UTIs) and the potential for antibiotic resistance, a natural approach to prevention and treatment is desirable. Clinical research suggests the best natural options for long-term prevention include cranberry, mannose, and probiotics. Botanicals that can be effective at the first sign of an infection and for short-term prophylaxis include berberine and uva ursi. Estriol cream and vitamins A and C have also been shown to prevent UTIs, while potassium salts can alkalinize the urine and reduce dysuria.

  19. Guideline for fluoroscopy of low gastrointestinal tract in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yun Woo; Jeon, Tae Yeon; Kim, Ji Hye; Lee, Mi Jung; Lim, Yun Jung; Yoon, Hye Kyung; Lim, Gye Yeon; Lee, Hee Jung

    2015-01-01

    Although the availability of CT, MRI and endoscopy has resulted in a marked decline in fluoroscopic procedures in adult patients, fluoroscopy remains an important and frequently used procedure in pediatric patients because there is no appropriate choice of diagnostic imaging or treatment modality for certain diseases. The Korean Society of Pediatric Radiology has formulated evidence-based guidelines for fluoroscopy of the lower intestinal tract in the pediatric population (under age 18 including neonates) in order to assist physicians in clinical practice. The guidelines offer standards of examination practice including radiation doses that are as low as reasonably achievable for children under 18 years old, including neonates, for fluoroscopy of the lower intestinal tract, which has typically used relatively high doses. The recommendations of these guidelines should not be used as an absolute standard, and physicians should always refer to methods that do not adhere to the guidelines when those methods are considered more reasonable and beneficial to an individual patient's medical situation

  20. Dishevelled 2 is essential for cardiac outflow tract development, somite segmentation and neural tube closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblet, Natasha S; Lijam, Nardos; Ruiz-Lozano, Pilar; Wang, Jianbo; Yang, Yasheng; Luo, Zhenge; Mei, Lin; Chien, Kenneth R; Sussman, Daniel J; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony

    2002-12-01

    The murine dishevelled 2 (Dvl2) gene is an ortholog of the Drosophila segment polarity gene Dishevelled, a member of the highly conserved Wingless/Wnt developmental pathway. Dvl2-deficient mice were produced to determine the role of Dvl2 in mammalian development. Mice containing null mutations in Dvl2 present with 50% lethality in both inbred 129S6 and in a hybrid 129S6-NIH Black Swiss background because of severe cardiovascular outflow tract defects, including double outlet right ventricle, transposition of the great arteries and persistent truncus arteriosis. The majority of the surviving Dvl2(-/-) mice were female, suggesting that penetrance was influenced by sex. Expression of Pitx2 and plexin A2 was attenuated in Dvl2 null mutants, suggesting a defect in cardiac neural crest development during outflow tract formation. In addition, approximately 90% of Dvl2(-/-) mice have vertebral and rib malformations that affect the proximal as well as the distal parts of the ribs. These skeletal abnormalities were more pronounced in mice deficient for both Dvl1 and Dvl2. Somite differentiation markers used to analyze Dvl2(-/-) and Dvl1(-/-);Dvl2(-/-) mutant embryos revealed mildly aberrant expression of Uncx4.1, delta 1 and myogenin, suggesting defects in somite segmentation. Finally, 2-3% of Dvl2(-/-) embryos displayed thoracic spina bifida, while virtually all Dvl1/2 double mutant embryos displayed craniorachishisis, a completely open neural tube from the midbrain to the tail. Thus, Dvl2 is essential for normal cardiac morphogenesis, somite segmentation and neural tube closure, and there is functional redundancy between Dvl1 and Dvl2 in some phenotypes.

  1. Radiological diagnostics in oncology. Vol. 2. Gasterointestinal tract, urogenital tract, retroperitoneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layer, G.

    2008-01-01

    The radiological diagnostics is of main importance for identification, status classification, therapy planning and control and aftertreatment of tumor diseases; therefore there is a need for appropriate requirements dependent on the specific case. The volume contains the following contributions: oesophasus carcinoma, stomach carcinoma, small intestine carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, liver carcinoma, gall bladder and biliary tract carcinoma, exocrine pancreas carcinoma, kidney and urinary tract carcinomas, testicular carcinoma, prostate carcinoma, malign tumor in the adrenal gland, uterus carcinoma, uterine carcinoma

  2. Urinary tract infection in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Raul

    2011-12-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infection in women in general and in postmenopausal women in particular. Two groups of elderly women with recurrent UTI should be differentiated regarding age and general status: healthy, young postmenopausal women aged 50 to 70 years who are neither institutionalized or catheterized and elderly institutionalized women with or without a catheter. Bacteriuria occurs more often in elderly functionally impaired women, but in general it is asymptomatic. However, the risk factors associated with recurrent UTI in elderly women are not widely described. In a multivariate analysis it was found that urinary incontinence, a history of UTI before menopause, and nonsecretor status were strongly associated with recurrent UTI in young postmenopausal women. Another study described the incidence and risk factors of acute cystitis among nondiabetic and diabetic postmenopausal women. Independent predictors of infection included insulin-treated patients and a lifetime history of urinary infection. Borderline associations included a history of vaginal estrogen cream use in the past month, kidney stones, and asymptomatic bacteriuria at baseline. Another important factor in postmenopausal women is the potential role that estrogen deficiency plays in the development of bacteriuria. There are at least two studies showing a beneficial effect of estrogen in the management of recurrent bacteriuria in elderly women. One of these studies showed that vaginal estrogen cream reduced vaginal pH from 5.5±0.7 to 3.6±1.0, restored lactobacillus, and decreased new episodes of UTI. Another study reported similar results using an estriol vaginal ring. However, contradictory results are found in the literature. For example, additional studies found that the use of estriol-containing vaginal pessaries was less effective than oral nitrofurantoin macrocrystals in preventing UTI in postmenopausal women. Two other studies also did not find any

  3. 36 CFR 254.42 - Valuation of tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Valuation of tracts. 254.42 Section 254.42 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Conveyance of Small Tracts § 254.42 Valuation of tracts. (a) Approximately equal value shall be...

  4. The microbiota of the respiratory tract : Gatekeeper to respiratory health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Man, Wing Ho; De Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A.A.; Bogaert, Debby

    2017-01-01

    The respiratory tract is a complex organ system that is responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. The human respiratory tract spans from the nostrils to the lung alveoli and is inhabited by niche-specific communities of bacteria. The microbiota of the respiratory tract probably acts

  5. Urinary tract infections in symptomatic pregnant women attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Several notable human pathogens cause urinary tract infections. Several factors are known to predispose an individual to developing urinary tract infections; one of the factors is pregnancy. Therefore, this research set out to determine the bacteriologic profile of urinary tract infection and the susceptibility pattern ...

  6. Urinary Tract Infections in Children : EAU/ESPU Guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, Raimund; Dogan, Hasan S.; Hoebeke, Piet; Kocvara, Radim; Nijman, Rien J. M.; Radmayr, Christian; Tekgul, Serdar

    Context: In 30% of children with urinary tract anomalies, urinary tract infection (UTI) can be the first sign. Failure to identify patients at risk can result in damage to the upper urinary tract. Objective: To provide recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment, and imaging of children presenting

  7. [Impact of pharmaceutical interventions on antibiotic therapy of urinary tract infections in rehabilitation center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochefolle, A; Maison, O; Chazaud, C; Rioufol, C; Rode, G; Luaute, J; Jacquin-Courtois, S; Guinet-Lacoste, A; Carré, E

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of medico-pharmaceutical partnership on the quality of antibiotic treatment in urinary tract infection (UTI) within rehabilitation center. All antibiotic prescriptions were validated by the pharmacist at the start of treatment and twice a week. All patients with symptomatic urinary tract infection between January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2015 were included in this study. Addition to awareness among specifiers to promoting the appropriate use of antibiotics, the pharmacist suggested pharmaceutical interventions (PI) in order to improve the quality of antibiotic treatments. At the same time, 3 quality indicators (QI) were followed: duration, dosage, antibiotic susceptibility. The compliance rates of this 3 QI allowed to assess the quality of the antibiotic treatment in urinary tract infection. The study population included 154 patients corresponding to 252 UTI. Sixty-eight PI were made by pharmacist about urinary tract infection treatment (overdosage or under-dosing, duration unknown, inadequate route of administration). These QI achieved 96.4% compliance with duration, 98.8% compliance with dosage and 99.2% with the antibiotic susceptibility. This study allowed showing the medico-pharmaceutical impact on the quality of antibiotic treatments in UTI. The awareness among specifiers with a daily validation of prescription by the pharmacist allowed to improve urinary tract infections care in rehabilitation center. 4. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Lower Genital Tract Trauma in A Tertiary Care Centre in Mid-Western Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, A K; Dutta, M; Das, C R

    2017-01-01

    The study of lower genital tract trauma has become important in gynaecological practice. There is paucity of reports on this clinical entity from our settings. The main aim of this study is to document injuries in female lower genital tract in Mid-Western Nepal. Sixty female patients admitted to the hospital with genital tract injuries caused by coitus or accidents were included in the study. Details of the causes of trauma clinical presentations and management were recorded. These injuries were grouped according to etiological factors. This study included 33 (55%) coital injuries and 27 (45%) non- coital injuries. Out of coital injury, 12 cases were criminal assault (rape) in age group of 4 to 18 years. Four unmarried girls had consensual sex. Non-coital injuries were due to fall from height, cattle horn injuries, straddle type of trauma, vulvar haematoma and anorectal injuries. Appropriate surgical intervention can avert morbidity and mortality.

  9. A holistic approach to CAKUT (Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Masnata

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The urinary tract malformations, today called CAKUT (Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract, include a range of morphological and/or functional abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract diseases, apart from being the main cause of renal failure in children. The frequency of these birth defects is around 2% of pregnancies and many genetic syndromes may include CAKUT: about 500 of them have been described. The CAKUT concern localized alterations at different levels of the urinary system: hydronephrosis, vesicoureteral reflux, duplex collecting system, megaureter, kidney dysplasia. In the approach to the child with CAKUT it is important to identify a population at risk, distinguishing between CAKUT with and without clinical significance, applying a tailored approach to the individual patient, avoiding unnecessary investigations and treatments.

  10. Significance of X-ray examinations of patients with Crohn's disease after intestinal-tract resections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulke, H.; Hoerl, M.; Kasper, H.; Auer, I.O.

    1988-12-01

    After intestinal tract resection, the status of the intestinal tract of patients with Crohn's disease who had recurrent anastomoses versus those that did not analyzed using standardized procedures of stomach X-ray with small bowel follow through, barium enema and fistulography. The intestinal tract resections included ileostomy, transverse ileostomy, rectal ileostomy, and atypical procedures. The anstomoses and surrounding tissue were evaluated. The results were discussed and the X-ray characteristics of the current anastomosis and the existing changes in its environment were analyzed.

  11. The significance of X-ray examinations of patients with Crohn's disease after intestinal-tract resections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulke, H.; Hoerl, M.; Kasper, H.; Auer, I.O.

    1988-01-01

    After intestinal tract resection, the status of the intestinal tract of patients with Crohn's disease who had recurrent anastomoses versus those that did not analyzed using standardized procedures of stomach X-ray with small bowel follow through, barium enema and fistulography. The intestinal tract resections included ileostomy, transverse ileostomy, rectal ileostomy, and atypical procedures. The anstomoses and surrounding tissue were evaluated. The results were discussed and the X-ray characteristics of the current anastomosis and the existing changes in its environment were analyzed. (orig.) [de

  12. Respiratory Tract Infections and Voice Quality in 4-Year-old Children in the STEPS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallvik, Emma; Toivonen, Laura; Peltola, Ville; Kaljonen, Anne; Simberg, Susanna

    2018-03-02

    Health-related factors are part of the multifactorial background of dysphonia in children. Respiratory tract infections affect the same systems and structures that are used for voice production. The purpose of this study was to investigate if the number of respiratory tract infections or the viral etiology were significant predictors for a more hoarse voice quality. The participants were 4-year-old children who participated in the multidisciplinary STEPS study (Steps to the Healthy Development and Well-being of Children) where they were followed up from pregnancy or birth to 4 years of age. Data were collected through questionnaires and a health diary filled in by the parents. Some of the children were followed up more intensively for respiratory tract infections during the first 2 years of life, and nasal swab samples were taken at the onset of respiratory symptoms. Our participants were 489 of these children who had participated in the follow-up for at least 1 year and for whom data on respiratory tract infections and data on voice quality were available. The number of hospitalizations due to respiratory tract infections was a significant predictor for a more hoarse voice quality. Neither the number of rhinovirus infections nor the number of respiratory syncytial virus infections was statistically significant predictors for a more hoarse voice quality. Based on our results, we would suggest including questions on the presence of respiratory tract infections that have led to hospitalization in the pediatric voice anamnesis. Whether the viral etiology of respiratory tract infections is of importance or not requires further research. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Extraction Strings for Ureteric Stents: Is There an Increased Risk for Urinary Tract Infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Maryna; Fehr, Jan; Sulser, Tullio; Eberli, Daniel; Mortezavi, Ashkan

    To evaluate urinary tract infections associated with placement of ureteric stents, we performed a retrospective study and compared rates between patients with and patients without an extraction string attached to the ureteric stent. Indwelling ureteric stents are routinely removed by cystoscopy. If an extraction string has been connected to the stent at the time of placement, however, the removal can be performed without an invasive procedure. Concerns exist regarding the risk for an unintentional dislocation, increased stent-related discomfort, or an increase of the post-operative urinary tract infection rate. All elective transurethral ureteric stent placements performed between November 2011 and December 2012 in our department were included for this investigation. Urinary tract infection was defined according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) surveillance definition of health-care-associated infections. Patients with an existing urinary tract infection at the time of admission were excluded from the analysis. A total of 342 patients receiving ureteric stents were evaluated regarding post-operative urinary tract infections. Of these patients, 127 (37.1%) had an extraction string and 215 (62.9%) a stent without a string. The total urinary tract infection rate was 6.4% with no significant difference between the two groups (7.9% vs. 5.6%, p = 0.49). In the present study, we did not observe an increased rate of post-operative urinary tract infections in patients with an extraction string attached to the ureteral stent. Extraction string is a good option for patients to avoid cystoscopic stent removal.

  14. Evaluation of Urinary Tract Dilation Classification System for Grading Postnatal Hydronephrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodhod, Amr; Capolicchio, John-Paul; Jednak, Roman; El-Sherif, Eid; El-Doray, Abd El-Alim; El-Sherbiny, Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    We assessed the reliability and validity of the Urinary Tract Dilation classification system as a new grading system for postnatal hydronephrosis. We retrospectively reviewed charts of patients who presented with hydronephrosis from 2008 to 2013. We included patients diagnosed prenatally and those with hydronephrosis discovered incidentally during the first year of life. We excluded cases involving urinary tract infection, neurogenic bladder and chromosomal anomalies, those associated with extraurinary congenital malformations and those with followup of less than 24 months without resolution. Hydronephrosis was graded postnatally using the Society for Fetal Urology system, and then the management protocol was chosen. All units were regraded using the Urinary Tract Dilation classification system and compared to the Society for Fetal Urology system to assess reliability. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the validity of the Urinary Tract Dilation classification system in predicting hydronephrosis resolution and surgical intervention. A total of 490 patients (730 renal units) were eligible to participate. The Urinary Tract Dilation classification system was reliable in the assessment of hydronephrosis (parallel forms 0.92). Hydronephrosis resolved in 357 units (49%), and 86 units (12%) were managed by surgical intervention. The remainder of renal units demonstrated stable or improved hydronephrosis. Multivariate analysis revealed that the likelihood of surgical intervention was predicted independently by Urinary Tract Dilation classification system risk group, while Society for Fetal Urology grades were predictive of likelihood of resolution. The Urinary Tract Dilation classification system is reliable for evaluation of postnatal hydronephrosis and is valid in predicting surgical intervention. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Microstructure, length, and connection of limbic tracts in normal human brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaowen eYu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The cingulum and fornix play an important role in memory, attention, spatial orientation and feeling functions. Both microstructure and length of these limbic tracts can be affected by mental disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, depression, autism, anxiety, and schizophrenia. To date, there has been little systematic characterization of their microstructure, length and functional connectivity in normally developing brains. In this study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI data from 65 normally developing right-handed subjects from birth to young adulthood was acquired. After cingulate gyrus part of the cingulum (cgc, hippocampal part of the cingulum (cgh and fornix (fx were traced with DTI tractography, absolute and normalized tract lengths and DTI-derived metrics including fractional anisotropy, mean, axial and radial diffusivity were measured for traced limbic tracts. Free water elimination (FWE algorithm was adopted to improve accuracy of the measurements of DTI-derived metrics. The role of these limbic tracts in the functional network at birth and adulthood was explored. We found a logarithmic age-dependent trajectory for FWE-corrected DTI metric changes with fast increase of microstructural integrity from birth to 2-year-old followed by a slow increase to 25-year-old. Normalized tract length of cgc increases with age, while no significant relationship with age was found for normalized tract lengths of cgh and fx. Stronger microstructural integrity on the left side compared to that of right side was found. With integrated DTI and rs-fMRI, the key connectional role of cgc and cgh in the default mode network (DMN was confirmed as early as birth. Systematic characterization of length and DTI metrics after FWE correction of limbic tracts offers insight into their morphological and microstructural developmental trajectories. These trajectories may serve as a normal reference for pediatric patients with

  16. Urologic evaluation of urinary tract infection in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diokno, A C; Compton, A; Seski, J; Vinson, R

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-three antepartum patients with urinary tract infections underwent urologic evaluation as soon as the infection had been successfully treated. The evaluation included history of voiding habits, cystometry, urethral calibration and cystourethroscopy. A second phase of the urologic evaluation included an excretory urogram and repeat cystometry 10-12 weeks postpartum. Sixty percent had a history of infrequent voiding, and 90% of them had a bladder capacity greater than 450 mL. Forty-one percent of the patients had a normal bladder capacity (less than 450 mL), and 85% of this group did not have any history of infrequent voiding. The radiographic evaluation postpartum in 18 of 33 patients revealed major abnormalities in 50%. These abnormalities were seen as often and were as significant in women with asymptomatic bacteriuria as in those who presented with acute pyelonephritis. The results suggest that the large bladder seen in pregnant women may be secondary to the chronic, unphysiologic habit of infrequent voiding. Furthermore, this study reinforced the fact that most pregnant women with urinary tract infection have preexisting chronic bladder or renal abnormalities that predispose them to infection. Those at risk should be identified early through a careful history and urinalysis to determine which ones need urinary prophylaxis during pregnancy. Postpartum urologic investigation should be carried out to identify any structural or functional problems; understanding them is helpful in present and future management.

  17. Urinary Tract Infections in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, Lona; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTIs) in older women are commonly encountered in outpatient practice. OBJECTIVE To review management of asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic UTI and review prevention of recurrent UTIs in older community-dwelling women. EVIDENCE REVIEW A search of Ovid (Medline, PsycINFO, Embase) for English-language human studies conducted among adults aged 65 years and older and published in peer-reviewed journals from 1946 to November 20, 2013. RESULTS The clinical spectrum of UTIs ranges from asymptomatic bacteriuria, to symptomatic and recurrent UTIs, to sepsis associated with UTI requiring hospitalization. Recent evidence helps differentiate asymptomatic bacteriuria from symptomatic UTI. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is transient in older women, often resolves without any treatment, and is not associated with morbidity or mortality. The diagnosis of symptomatic UTI is made when a patient has both clinical features and laboratory evidence of a urinary infection. Absent other causes, patients presenting with any 2 of the following meet the clinical diagnostic criteria for symptomatic UTI: fever, worsened urinary urgency or frequency, acute dysuria, suprapubic tenderness, or costovertebral angle pain or tenderness. A positive urine culture (≥105 CFU/mL) with no more than 2 uropathogens and pyuria confirms the diagnosis of UTI. Risk factors for recurrent symptomatic UTI include diabetes, functional disability, recent sexual intercourse, prior history of urogynecologic surgery, urinary retention, and urinary incontinence. Testing for UTI is easily performed in the clinic using dipstick tests. When there is a low pretest probability of UTI, a negative dipstick result for leukocyte esterase and nitrites excludes infection. Antibiotics are selected by identifying the uropathogen, knowing local resistance rates, and considering adverse effect profiles. Chronic suppressive antibiotics for 6 to 12 months and

  18. Clinical features of human metapneumovirus genotypes in children with acute lower respiratory tract infection in Changsha, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Sai-Zhen; Xiao, Ni-Guang; Zhong, Li-Li; Yu, Tian; Zhang, Bing; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2015-11-01

    To explore the epidemiological and clinical features of different human metapneumovirus (hMPV) genotypes in hospitalized children. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or PCR was employed to screen for both hMPV and other common respiratory viruses in 2613 nasopharyngeal aspirate specimens collected from children with lower respiratory tract infections from September 2007 to February 2011 (a period of 3.5 years). The demographics and clinical presentations of patients infected with different genotypes of hMPV were compared. A total of 135 samples were positive for hMPV (positive detection rate: 5.2%). Co-infection with other viruses was observed in 45.9% (62/135) of cases, and human bocavirus was the most common additional respiratory virus. The most common symptoms included cough, fever, and wheezing. The M gene was sequenced for 135 isolates; of these, genotype A was identified in 72.6% (98/135) of patients, and genotype B was identified in 27.4% (37/135) of patients. The predominant genotype of hMPV changed over the 3.5-year study period from genotype A2b to A2b or B1 and then to predominantly B1. Most of clinical features were similar between patients infected with different hMPV genotypes. These results suggested that hMPV is an important viral pathogen in pediatric patients with acute lower respiratory tract infection in Changsha. The hMPV subtypes A2b and B1 were found to co-circulate. The different hMPV genotypes exhibit similar clinical characteristics. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Recurrent branchial sinus tract with aberrant extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, J P

    2004-01-01

    Second branchial cysts are the commonest lesions among congenital lateral neck anomalies. Good knowledge of anatomy and embryology are necessary for proper treatment. Surgical treatment involves resection of all branchial remnants, which extend laterally in the neck, medial to the sternocleidomastoid muscle with cranial extension to the pharynx and ipsilateral tonsillar fosa. However, infections and previous surgery can distort anatomy, making the approach to branchial anomalies more difficult. We present a case of a 17-year-old patient who presented with a second branchial tract anomaly with an aberrant extension to the midline and part of the contralateral neck. Previous surgical interventions and chronic infections may have been the primary cause for this aberrant tract. All head and neck surgeons should bear in mind that aberrant presentations may exist when reoperating on chronic branchial cysts fistulas.

  20. Rationale diagnostic approach to biliary tract imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmberger, H.; Huppertz, A.; Ruell, T.; Zillinger, C.; Ehrenberg, C.; Roesch, T.

    1998-01-01

    Since the introduction of MR cholangiography (MRC) diagnostic imaging of the biliary tract has been significantly improved. While percutaneous ultrasonography is still the primary examination, computed tomography (CT), conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as well as the direct imaging modalities of the biliary tract - iv cholangiography, endoscopic-retrograde-cholangiography (ERC), and percutaneous-transhepatic-cholangiography (PTC) are in use. This article discusses the clinical value of the different diagnostic techniques for the various biliary pathologies with special attention to recent developments in MRC techniques. An algorithm is presented offering a rational approach to biliary disorders. With further technical improvement shifts from ERC(P) to MRC(P) for biliary imaging could be envisioned, ERCP further concentrating on its role as a minimal invasive treatment option. (orig.) [de

  1. Radiodiagnosis of tumours of gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, Yu.N.; Antonovich, V.B.

    1981-01-01

    Systematic description of X-ray picture of tumours of gastrointestinal tract organs is given. The possibilities of contemporary methods of X-ray examination in their revealing are shown. Clinical and X-ray trend of tumour diagnosis is underlined. The basic and accessory symptoms are analyzed from which X-ray semiotics of tumours is turned out. The expressiveness of X-ray symptoms is shown in relation to morphological forms and localization of the tumours. Much attention is given to radiodiagnosis of early tumours of stomach. Differential diagnosis of tumours with non-tumoural diseases is given. X-ray semiotics of lesions of gastrointestinal tract organs in malignant diseases of blood system is presented [ru

  2. Urinary tract infection in kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón-Mora, Natalia; Pachón Díaz, Jerónimo; Cordero Matía, Elisa

    2017-04-01

    Infectious complications remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality among transplant recipients. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infectious complication in kidney transplant recipients with a reported incidence from 25% to 75%, varies widely likely due to differences in definition, diagnostic criteria, study design, and length of observation. We sought reviews the incidence and importance of urinary tract infection on graft survival, the microbiology with special emphasis on multidrug resistant microorganisms, the therapeutic management of UTI and the prophylaxis of recurrent UTI among solid organ transplant recipients, highlighting the need for prospective clinical trials to unify the clinical management in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  3. Carcinoids tumors of the digestive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, S.M.R. de; Prais, M.; Matushita, J.P.K.; Matushita, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    Eighteen cases of carcinoid tumors in the digestive tract have been analyzed. They have been selected at Hospital dos Servidores do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, taking into account patients, age and sex, lesions' location and size, clinical manifestations, presence of metastases as well as a classical carcinoid syndrome establisment. Carcinoid tumors come from the digestive tract 'argenta fim'' cells, the ones which produce endocrines. Such endocrines are responsible for a great number of clinical manifestations. The classical syndrome is directly related to the presence of hepatic metastases. The authors propose to correlate what has been found with descriptions in medical literature emphasizing the radiographic aspects which have been observed. A frequent ''apendicular'' location and the difficulty of giving a precise diagnosis before surgery is also emphasized. (author) [pt

  4. Imaging in childhood urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccabona, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common query in pediatric radiology. Imaging for and after UTI is still a heavily debated topic with different approaches, as thorough evidence to decide upon a definite algorithm is scarce. This review article tries to address the clinical rational of the various approaches (general imaging, top-down or bottom-up, selected and individualized imaging concepts…), describes the available imaging modalities and the respective findings in imaging children with UTI, and proposes an imaging algorithm for the work-up of children during and after UTI discussing the "pros and cons" of the different attitudes. In summary, imaging by US is generally considered for all infants and children with a febrile or complicated (upper) UTI, particularly without previously known urinary tract anatomy. The further work-up (searching for renal scarring and assessment of vesico-ureteric reflux) is then decided according to these initial findings as well as the clinical presentation, course, and scenario.

  5. Chlamydia and Male Lower Urinary Tract Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Young-Suk; Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Of the chlamydia species that can cause infections in humans, C. trachomatis is responsible for lower urinary tract diseases in men and women. C. trachomatis infections are prevalent worldwide, but current research is focused on females, with the burden of disease and infertility sequelae considered to be a predominantly female problem. However, a role for this pathogen in the development of male urethritis, epididymitis, and orchitis is widely accepted. Also, it can cause complications such ...

  6. Diagnosis of pediatric urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng-Daw Tsai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is the second common infection in children. The diagnosis of UTI in infants and children can be difficult. Good history taking and physical examination are corner stones of good care of UTI. In addition, this article reviewed current evident on the methods of urine specimen collection and various diagnostic criteria to reach the diagnosis of UTI. Asian Guideline for UTI in children is highlighted to increase consensus of the diagnosis of UTI.

  7. Diagnosis of pediatric urinary tract infections

    OpenAIRE

    Jeng-Daw Tsai; Chun-Chen Lin; Stephan S. Yang

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the second common infection in children. The diagnosis of UTI in infants and children can be difficult. Good history taking and physical examination are corner stones of good care of UTI. In addition, this article reviewed current evident on the methods of urine specimen collection and various diagnostic criteria to reach the diagnosis of UTI. Asian Guideline for UTI in children is highlighted to increase consensus of the diagnosis of UTI.

  8. AxTract: Toward microstructure informed tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Gabriel; Daducci, Alessandro; Petit, Laurent; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Whittingstall, Kevin; Deriche, Rachid; Wassermann, Demian; Descoteaux, Maxime

    2017-11-01

    Diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tractography has become the tool of choice to probe the human brain's white matter in vivo. However, tractography algorithms produce a large number of erroneous streamlines (false positives), largely due to complex ambiguous tissue configurations. Moreover, the relationship between the resulting streamlines and the underlying white matter microstructure characteristics remains poorly understood. In this work, we introduce a new approach to simultaneously reconstruct white matter fascicles and characterize the apparent distribution of axon diameters within fascicles. To achieve this, our method, AxTract, takes full advantage of the recent development DW-MRI microstructure acquisition, modeling, and reconstruction techniques. This enables AxTract to separate parallel fascicles with different microstructure characteristics, hence reducing ambiguities in areas of complex tissue configuration. We report a decrease in the incidence of erroneous streamlines compared to the conventional deterministic tractography algorithms on simulated data. We also report an average increase in streamline density over 15 known fascicles of the 34 healthy subjects. Our results suggest that microstructure information improves tractography in crossing areas of the white matter. Moreover, AxTract provides additional microstructure information along the fascicle that can be studied alongside other streamline-based indices. Overall, AxTract provides the means to distinguish and follow white matter fascicles using their microstructure characteristics, bringing new insights into the white matter organization. This is a step forward in microstructure informed tractography, paving the way to a new generation of algorithms able to deal with intricate configurations of white matter fibers and providing quantitative brain connectivity analysis. Hum Brain Mapp 38:5485-5500, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Acute Korsakoff syndrome following mammillothalamic tract infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneoka, Yuichiro; Takeda, Norio; Inoue, Akira; Ibuchi, Yasuo; Kumagai, Takashi; Sugai, Tsutomu; Takeda, Ken-ichiro; Ueda, Kaoru

    2004-01-01

    There are limited case reports of structural lesions causing Korsakoff syndrome. This report describes acute Korsakoff syndrome following localized, bilateral infarction of the mammillothalamic tracts (MTTs). Axial T2-weighted imaging revealed the lesions at the lateral wall level of the third ventricle and diffusion-weighted imaging confirmed that the left lesion was new and the right old. Korsakoff syndrome persisted 6 months after the onset. This case suggests that bilateral MTT dysfunction can lead to Korsakoff syndrome.

  10. Acute respiratory tract obstruction in children

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Zahoor

    1999-01-01

    35 cases of acute respiratory tract obstruction in paediatric age group who needed surgical intervention in the form of bronchoscopy, tracheostomy or both are reviewed here. All these patients were seen and managed at National Iranian Oil company Hospital Ummeidiya Khouzestan Iran, from April 1985 to April 1988. The results obtained with a review of use of instruments is described. Most of the patients presented with foreign body inhalations, some due to allergic oedema and one case had laryn...

  11. Pancreatic cancer seeding of percutaneous needle tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Zhou, MD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year old African-American female presents with biliary ductal dilatation due to an obstructive pancreatic head mass. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiogram performed and biliary drainage catheter placement for decompression of the biliary system. The patient had a Whipple procedure performed several months later. On follow up CT imaging, there was interval development and enlargement of a subcutaneous lesion by the right oblique muscles. Biopsy of this lesion revealed pancreatic adenocarcinoma from percutaneous seeding of the transhepatic needle tract.

  12. Assessment of infective urinary tract disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixt, R.; Stokland, E.

    1998-01-01

    Urinary tracts infection (UTI) is common in children, particularly in the youngest age groups. There is a risk for progressive deterioration of renal function in these children if aggravating factors such as gross reflux and/or outflow obstruction of the urinary tract are present. In this review the pros and cons of available scintigrafic and radiological imaging techniques for the work-up of these children are presented. Ultrasound can be used in the acute phase to exclude obstruction but can not reliably show transient or permanent parenchymal lesions. The presence of reflux can be established with X-ray or direct nuclide cystography. The X-ray technique gives good morphological information and has a grading system with prognostic relevance. Both techniques are invasive and great care must be taken to keep the radiation burden down with the X-ray technique. Indirect nuclide cystography following a renographic study is non-invasive but has a lower sensitivity than direct techniques. More experience is needed with the indirect technique to evaluate the consequences of its apparently low sensitivity. Urography has a limited place in the acute work-up of urinary tract infection but can be used to look for renal scarring 1-2 years after an acute pyelonephritis. The 99m Tc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan can be used during the acute UTI to show pyelonephritic lesions with good accuracy and/or during the follow-up after six months to show permanent lesions. The acute DMSA scan can be omitted

  13. Conservative treatment of perforated upper gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naoi, Daishi; Sano, Wataru; Nakata, Yasuyuki; Yano, Kentaro; Suzuki, Takeshi; Chiku, Tsuyoshi; Tashiro, Tsuguhiko

    2009-01-01

    In order to clarify the validity of indication criteria of the conservative treatment for perforated upper gastrointestinal tract, a retrospective study was carried out. We enrolled 28 patients with perforation of the gastrointestinal tract who were determined to receive conservative treatment at the time of hospitalization from January 2000 to December 2007. When the following criteria were satisfied, we treated the patients by the conservative treatment after informed consent was gained from them and their families: stable condition of vital signs; peritoneal signs localized in the upper abdomen; and no or slight fluid collection at the Douglas' pouch determined by computed tomography. Patients who showed changes for the worse of peritonitis or increased fluid collection during follow-up were promptly converted to surgery. Six patients were converted to surgery, but all of them were discharged very much improved. We compared patient's data of the conservative treatment group and the converted surgery group at the time of consultation. All data were not statistically different between two groups. If all criteria are satisfied, it seemed that we can start conservative treatment for perforated gastrointestinal tract with careful observation and the system of prompt conversion to operation for patients who showed changes for the worse of peritonitis or increased fluid collection. (author)

  14. No. 250-Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Annette; Larochelle, Annick

    2017-10-01

    To provide an update of the definition, epidemiology, clinical presentation, investigation, treatment, and prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections in women. Continuous antibiotic prophylaxis, post-coital antibiotic prophylaxis, and acute self-treatment are all efficient alternatives to prevent recurrent urinary tract infection. Vaginal estrogen and cranberry juice can also be effective prophylaxis alternatives. A search of PubMed and The Cochrane Library for articles published in English identified the most relevant literature. Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date restrictions. This update is the consensus of the Sub-Committee on Urogynaecology of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Recommendations were made according to the guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). Recurrent urinary tract infections need careful investigation and can be efficiently treated and prevented. Different prophylaxis options can be selected according to each patient's characteristics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Neural Control of the Lower Urinary Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groat, William C.; Griffiths, Derek; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes anatomical, neurophysiological, pharmacological, and brain imaging studies in humans and animals that have provided insights into the neural circuitry and neurotransmitter mechanisms controlling the lower urinary tract. The functions of the lower urinary tract to store and periodically eliminate urine are regulated by a complex neural control system in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral autonomic ganglia that coordinates the activity of smooth and striated muscles of the bladder and urethral outlet. The neural control of micturition is organized as a hierarchical system in which spinal storage mechanisms are in turn regulated by circuitry in the rostral brain stem that initiates reflex voiding. Input from the forebrain triggers voluntary voiding by modulating the brain stem circuitry. Many neural circuits controlling the lower urinary tract exhibit switch-like patterns of activity that turn on and off in an all-or-none manner. The major component of the micturition switching circuit is a spinobulbospinal parasympathetic reflex pathway that has essential connections in the periaqueductal gray and pontine micturition center. A computer model of this circuit that mimics the switching functions of the bladder and urethra at the onset of micturition is described. Micturition occurs involuntarily in infants and young children until the age of 3 to 5 years, after which it is regulated voluntarily. Diseases or injuries of the nervous system in adults can cause the re-emergence of involuntary micturition, leading to urinary incontinence. Neuroplasticity underlying these developmental and pathological changes in voiding function is discussed. PMID:25589273

  16. New markers of urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masajtis-Zagajewska, Anna; Nowicki, Michal

    2017-08-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infection independent of age. It is also one of the most common causes of hospitalizations for infections among elderly people and the most common indication for antibiotic prescriptions in primary care. Both diagnostics and management of lower and upper urinary tract infections provide challenges in clinical practice due to their high prevalence and recurrence, and worldwide increase of antibiotic resistance. The clinical symptoms of UTI are often uncharacteristic or asymptomatic. The accurate diagnosis and early treatment are crucial due to risk of septicaemia and long-term consequences. Currently the diagnosis of urinary tract infection is based on the presence of clinical symptoms in combination with the results of nitrite strip test indicating the presence of bacteria in urine and semi-quantitative measurement of white blood cells count in urine. Although urine culture is the gold standard in UTI diagnostics it is both time-consuming and costly. Searching for novel biomarkers of UTI has attracted much attention in recent years. The article reviews several promising serum and urine biomarkers of UTI such as leukocyte esterase, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, interleukins, elastase alpha (1)-proteinase inhibitor, lactofferin, secretory immunoglobulin A, heparin-binding protein, xanthine oxidase, myeloperoxidase, soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1, α-1 microglobulin (α1Mg) and tetrazolium nitroblue test (TNB). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mechanosensitive Piezo Channels in the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaino, C; Farrugia, G; Beyder, A

    2017-01-01

    Sensation of mechanical forces is critical for normal function of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and abnormalities in mechanosensation are linked to GI pathologies. In the GI tract there are several mechanosensitive cell types-epithelial enterochromaffin cells, intrinsic and extrinsic enteric neurons, smooth muscle cells and interstitial cells of Cajal. These cells use mechanosensitive ion channels that respond to mechanical forces by altering transmembrane ionic currents in a process called mechanoelectrical coupling. Several mechanosensitive ionic conductances have been identified in the mechanosensory GI cells, ranging from mechanosensitive voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels to the mechanogated ion channels, such as the two-pore domain potassium channels K2P (TREK-1) and nonselective cation channels from the transient receptor potential family. The recently discovered Piezo channels are increasingly recognized as significant contributors to cellular mechanosensitivity. Piezo1 and Piezo2 are nonselective cationic ion channels that are directly activated by mechanical forces and have well-defined biophysical and pharmacologic properties. The role of Piezo channels in the GI epithelium is currently under investigation and their role in the smooth muscle syncytium and enteric neurons is still not known. In this review, we outline the current state of knowledge on mechanosensitive ion channels in the GI tract, with a focus on the known and potential functions of the Piezo channels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Recurrent urinary tract infections in females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohsin, R.; Siddiqui, K.M.

    2010-01-01

    Uncomplicated Urinary tract infections are common in adult women across the entire age spectrum, with mean annual incidence of 15% and 10% in those aged 15-39 and 40-79 years, respectively. Urinary tract infection (UTI), with its diverse clinical syndromes and affected host groups, remains one of the most common but widely misunderstood and challenging infectious diseases encountered in clinical practice. Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) present a significant problem for women and a challenge for the doctors who care for them. The diagnosis of uncomplicated UTI can be achieved best by a thorough assessment of patient symptoms with or without the addition of a urine dipstick test. Treatment should be based on the most recent guidelines, taking into account resistance patterns in the local community. The patient who suffers from recurrent UTIs can be treated safely and effectively with continuous antibiotic prophylaxis, post-coital therapy, or self-initiated treatment. This review article covers the latest trends in the management of recurrent UTI among women. Further research is needed regarding rapid diagnosis of UTI, accurate presumptive identification of patients with resistant pathogens, and development of new antimicrobials for drug-resistant UTI. (author)

  19. MR urography versus retrograde pyelography/ureteroscopy for the exclusion of upper urinary tract malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.S., E-mail: kslee@bidmc.harvard.ed [Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Zeikus, E. [Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); DeWolf, W.C. [Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Rofsky, N.M.; Pedrosa, I. [Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Aim: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance urography (MRU) versus retrograde pyelography and/or ureteroscopy (RPU) in the detection of upper urinary tract neoplasms. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 35 patients with suspected upper urinary tract malignancy who underwent MRU and RPU within 6-months in our institution during the study period (February 2002 to January 2007). MRU and RPU reports were reviewed and results recorded. For each patient, the urinary tract was sub-divided into four regions for analysis: left kidney/renal pelvis, left ureter, right kidney/renal pelvis, and right ureter. MRU and RPU results for each patient were compared to a reference standard and the diagnostic performance of both techniques was compared. Results: A total of 113 regions were analysed on MRU and 90 regions on RPU. Nineteen neoplasms were identified. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for the detection of urinary tract neoplasms were 63, 91, 60, and 92% for MRU, respectively, and 53, 97, 83, and 88% for RPU, respectively. These differences were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The high negative predictive value of MRU in the present series supports its use as a non-invasive screening examination for excluding the presence of upper urinary tract malignancy.

  20. Changes in Bacterial Resistance Patterns of Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Rationale for Empirical Antibiotic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Gökçe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The causative agent spectrum and resistance patterns of urinary tract infections in children are affected by many factors. Aims: To demonstrate antibiotic resistance in urinary tract infections and changing ratio in antibiotic resistance by years. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: We analysed antibiotic resistance patterns of isolated Gram (- bacteria during the years 2011-2014 (study period 2 in children with urinary tract infections. We compared these findings with data collected in the same centre in 2001-2003 (study period 1. Results: Four hundred and sixty-five uncomplicated community-acquired Gram (- urinary tract infections were analysed from 2001-2003 and 400 from 2011-2014. Sixty-one percent of patients were female (1.5 girls : 1 boy. The mean age of children included in the study was 3 years and 9 months. Escherichia coli was the predominant bacteria isolated during both periods of the study (60% in study period 1 and 73% in study period 2. Bacteria other than E. coli demonstrated a higher level of resistance to all of the antimicrobials except trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole than E. coli bacteria during the years 2011-2014. In our study, we found increasing resistance trends of urinary pathogens for cefixime (from 1% to 15%, p0.05. Conclusion: In childhood urinary tract infections, antibiotic resistance should be evaluated periodically and empiric antimicrobial therapy should be decided according to antibiotic sensitivity results

  1. Study on types of vaginitis and association between bacterial vaginosis and urinary tract infection in pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Lamichhane, Pramila; Joshi, Dev Raj; Subedi, Yagya Prasad; Thapa, Rekha; Acharya, Ganesh Prasad; Lamsal, Apsana; Upadhaya, Sweety; Pokhrel, Sandip

    2014-01-01

    AbstractIntroduction:  Infectious vaginitis which includes bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidiasis and trichomoniasis are common disorder in women.  Both vaginitis and Urinary Tract Infection during pregnancy have risk to lives of both the mother and fetus. Present study was done to assess type of vaginitis and to evaluate the risk of urinary tract infections in pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis.Methods: Cross sectional descriptive study of 230 pregnant women was done from 1st Jul...

  2. Phytase in non-ruminant animal nutrition: a critical review on phytase activities in the gastrointestinal tract and influencing factors

    OpenAIRE

    Dersjant-Li, Yueming; Awati, Ajay; Schulze, Hagen; Partridge, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on phytase functionality in the digestive tract of farmed non-ruminant animals and the factors influencing in vivo phytase enzyme activity. In pigs, feed phytase is mainly active in the stomach and upper part of the small intestine, and added phytase activity is not recovered in the ileum. In poultry, feed phytase activities are mainly found in the upper part of the digestive tract, including the crop, proventriculus and gizzard. For fish with a stomach, phytase activities...

  3. Functional modifications associated with gastrointestinal tract organogenesis during metamorphosis in Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Ana S; Kamisaka, Yuko; Harboe, Torstein; Power, Deborah M; Rønnestad, Ivar

    2014-02-19

    Flatfish metamorphosis is a hormone regulated post-embryonic developmental event that transforms a symmetric larva into an asymmetric juvenile. In altricial-gastric teleost fish, differentiation of the stomach takes place after the onset of first feeding, and during metamorphosis dramatic molecular and morphological modifications of the gastrointestinal (GI-) tract occur. Here we present the functional ontogeny of the developing GI-tract from an integrative perspective in the pleuronectiforme Atlantic halibut, and test the hypothesis that the multiple functions of the teleost stomach develop synchronously during metamorphosis. Onset of gastric function was determined with several approaches (anatomical, biochemical, molecular and in vivo observations). In vivo pH analysis in the GI-tract lumen combined with quantitative PCR (qPCR) of α and β subunits of the gastric proton pump (H+/K+-ATPase) and pepsinogen A2 indicated that gastric proteolytic capacity is established during the climax of metamorphosis. Transcript abundance of ghrelin, a putative orexigenic signalling molecule produced in the developing stomach, correlated (p metamorphosis, and was thus independent of this event. Mechanical breakdown of food and transportation of chyme through the GI-tract was observed in vivo and resulted from phasic and propagating contractions established well before metamorphosis. The number of contractions in the midgut decreased at metamorphic climax synchronously with establishment of the stomach's proteolytic capacity and its increased peristaltic activity. Putative osmoregulatory competence of the GI-tract, inferred by abundance of Na+/K+-ATPase α transcripts, was already established at the onset of exogenous feeding and was unmodified by metamorphosis. The functional specialization of the GI-tract was not exclusive to metamorphosis, and its osmoregulatory capacity and reservoir function were established before first feeding. Nonetheless, acid production and the

  4. The Vocal Tract Organ: A New Musical Instrument Using 3-D Printed Vocal Tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David M

    2017-10-27

    The advent and now increasingly widespread availability of 3-D printers is transforming our understanding of the natural world by enabling observations to be made in a tangible manner. This paper describes the use of 3-D printed models of the vocal tract for different vowels that are used to create an acoustic output when stimulated with an appropriate sound source in a new musical instrument: the Vocal Tract Organ. The shape of each printed vocal tract is recovered from magnetic resonance imaging. It sits atop a loudspeaker to which is provided an acoustic L-F model larynx input signal that is controlled by the notes played on a musical instrument digital interface device such as a keyboard. The larynx input is subject to vibrato with extent and frequency adjustable as desired within the ranges usually found for human singing. Polyphonic inputs for choral singing textures can be applied via a single loudspeaker and vocal tract, invoking the approximation of linearity in the voice production system, thereby making multiple vowel stops a possibility while keeping the complexity of the instrument in reasonable check. The Vocal Tract Organ offers a much more human and natural sounding result than the traditional Vox Humana stops found in larger pipe organs, offering the possibility of enhancing pipe organs of the future as well as becoming the basis for a "multi-vowel" chamber organ in its own right. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The clinical study of interventional therapy of advanced and late staged carcinoma of digestive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zengrong; Ren Shuiming; Luo Xiuzhen; Liu Fang; Liu Junxiang; Han Liping

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the transarterial chemoembotherapy in the treatment of advanced or late staged digestive tract carcinoma. Methods: One hundred fifty-one patients with advanced or late staged digestive tract carcinoma (including 20 cases of esophageal carcinoma, 29 cases of cardia carcinoma, 71 cases of gastric carcinoma and 31 cases of large intestinal carcinoma) underwent super selective transarterial chemoembotherapy. Results: Interventions were successful. Symptoms were apparently improved in all cases. Decreased diameter of tumor was seen in all cases. Half-year survival rate was 95% (144/151); one year survival was 86% (130/150); two year survival rate was 66% (99/151); and three year survival rate was 29% (44/151). Conclusion: The transarterial chemoembotherapy is an effective treatment of advanced or late staged digestive tract carcinoma. In patients with metastases, the intervention is especially valuable for both primary and metastatic lesions

  6. Long-Term Lithium Use and Risk of Renal and Upper Urinary Tract Cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, Anton; Hallas, Jesper; Jensen, Boye L

    2015-01-01

    Lithium induces proliferation in the epithelium of renal collecting ducts. A recent small-scale cohort study reported a strong association between use of lithium and increased risk of renal neoplasia. We therefore conducted a large-scale pharmacoepidemiologic study of the association between long...... stratified by stage and subtype of upper urinary tract cancer revealed slight but nonsignificant increases in the ORs for localized disease (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 0.8-3.0) and for renal pelvis/ureter cancers (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 0.5-5.4). In conclusion, in our nationwide case-control study, use of lithium......-term use of lithium and risk of upper urinary tract cancer, including renal cell cancer and cancers of the renal pelvis or ureter. We identified all histologically verified upper urinary tract cancer cases in Denmark between 2000 and 2012 from the Danish Cancer Registry. A total of 6477 cases were matched...

  7. Effective the ultrasonography in the diagnosis of the affections of the digestive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Allende, Miguel A.; Nunnez Guerrero, Carlos; Parrilla Delgado, Maria; De Leon Rubio, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    A prospective work was made to highlight the value of the ultrasonido in the diagnosis of the affections of the digestive tract. In total 282 patients were explored constituted in 2 groups integrated by 82 and 200 sick persons, respectively. In the first group they were included patient to those that were detected a lesion of the digestive tract during an exploration ultrasonografica in a casual way. In the second group there are 100 patients that have previous diagnosis of lesion of the digestive tract and that they were studied later on with ultrasonido and 100 healthy to those that equally were carried out a study ultrasonografico. The results were: sensibility of 100%, specificity of 97%, value positive predictivos of 98,7%

  8. Interactions between lower urinary tract symptoms and cardiovascular risk factors determine distinct patterns of erectile dysfunction: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, João A B A; Muracca, Eduardo; Nakano, Élcio; Assalin, Adriana R; Cordeiro, Paulo; Paranhos, Mario; Cury, José; Srougi, Miguel; Antunes, Alberto A

    2013-12-01

    An epidemiological association between lower urinary tract symptoms and erectile dysfunction is well established. However, interactions among multiple risk factors and the role of each in pathological mechanisms are not fully elucidated We enrolled 898 men undergoing prostate cancer screening for evaluation with the International Prostate Symptom Score (I-PSS) and simplified International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) questionnaires. Age, race, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, serum hormones and anthropometric parameters were also evaluated. Risk factors for erectile dysfunction were identified by logistic regression. The 333 men with at least mild to moderate erectile dysfunction (IIEF 16 or less) were included in a latent class model to identify relationships across erectile dysfunction risk factors. Age, hypertension, diabetes, lower urinary tract symptoms and cardiovascular event were independent predictors of erectile dysfunction (pclasses of patients with erectile dysfunction (R2 entropy=0.82). Latent class 1 had younger men at low cardiovascular risk and a moderate/high prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms. Latent class 2 had the oldest patients at moderate cardiovascular risk with an increased prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms. Latent class 3 had men of intermediate age with the highest prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and lower urinary tract symptoms. Erectile dysfunction severity and lower urinary tract symptoms increased from latent class 1 to 3. Risk factor interactions determined different severities of lower urinary tract symptoms and erectile dysfunction. The effect of lower urinary tract symptoms and cardiovascular risk outweighed that of age. While in the youngest patients lower urinary tract symptoms acted as a single risk factor for erectile dysfunction, the contribution of vascular disease resulted in significantly more severe dysfunction. Applying a risk factor

  9. Are physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption associated with lower urinary tract symptoms in men or women? Results from a population based observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maserejian, Nancy N; Kupelian, Varant; Miyasato, Gavin; McVary, Kevin T; McKinlay, John B

    2012-08-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms are highly prevalent and reduce quality of life. Lifestyle behaviors and the development of lower urinary tract symptoms have been largely unexamined. We investigated physical activity, smoking and alcohol drinking in relation to the development of lower urinary tract symptoms in men and women. Data were obtained from the BACH (Boston Area Community Health) Survey, a longitudinal observational study. Baseline (2002 to 2005) in-person interviews assessed activity, smoking and alcohol consumption. Five-year followup interviews (2006 to 2010 in 4,145) assessed new reports of moderate to severe lower urinary tract symptoms defined by the AUASI (AUA symptom index). Analysis was conducted using multivariable logistic regression. Lower urinary tract symptoms developed in 7.7% and 12.7% of at-risk men and women, respectively. Women were 68% less likely to experience lower urinary tract symptoms (OR 0.32; 95% CI 0.17, 0.60; p physical activity. Although the association was similar among men, it was not statistically significant upon adjustment for medical or sociodemographic characteristics in the multivariable model. Women smokers were twice as likely to experience lower urinary tract symptoms, particularly storage symptoms (OR 2.15; 95% CI 1.30, 3.56; p = 0.003), compared to never smokers. Among men, smoking was not associated with lower urinary tract symptoms. Results for alcohol intake were inconsistent by intake level and symptom subtype. A low level of physical activity was associated with a 2 to 3 times greater likelihood of lower urinary tract symptoms. Smoking may contribute to the development of lower urinary tract symptoms in women but not in men. Clinicians should continue to promote physical activity and smoking cessation, noting the additional potential benefits of the prevention of lower urinary tract symptoms, particularly for women. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by

  10. Is the role of human female reproductive tract microbiota underestimated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamińska, D; Gajecka, M

    2017-05-30

    An issue that is currently undergoing extensive study is the influence of human vaginal microbiota (VMB) on the health status of women and their neonates. Healthy women are mainly colonised with lactobacilli such as Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus jensenii, and Lactobacillus iners; however, other bacteria may be elements of the VMB, particularly in women with bacterial vaginosis. The implementation of culture-independent molecular methods in VMB characterisation, especially next-generation sequencing, have provided new information regarding bacterial diversity in the vagina, revealing a large number of novel, fastidious, and/or uncultivated bacterial species. These molecular studies have contributed new insights regarding the role of bacterial community composition. In this study, we discuss recent findings regarding the reproductive tract microbiome. Not only bacteria but also viruses and fungi constitute important components of the reproductive tract microbiome. We focus on aspects related to the impact of the maternal microbiome on foetal development, as well as the establishment of the neonatal microbiomes, including the placenta microbiome, and the haematogenous source of intrauterine infection. We also discuss whether the role of the vaginal microbiome is currently understood and appreciated.

  11. [Treatment of fungal infections of upper respiratory tract and ear].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnatowski, Piotr; Kurnatowska, Agnieszka K

    2007-01-01

    Fungi, in comparison with other pathogenic factors, have high pathogenicity. The number of fungal species which are able to infect people is over 500. The upper respiratory tract and ear have permanent contact with external environment which makes their ontocenoses open to continuous exchange of microorganisms of which they consist. In etiology of inflammatory processes 21 species which belonging to 3 genera (Zygomycota, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota) of fungi play important role. Administration of antifungal drugs can be: prophylactic, empiric preemptive and therapeutic. Physicians may prescribe antibiotics (mainly pollens: amphotericin B, natamycin and nystatin) and chemiotherapeutics (mainly azoles and fluorpirymidins, pigments, chlorhexidine and chlorquinaldol). In ENT practice topical and systemic drugs can be administrated. Topical lozenges include amphotericin B, clotrimazole, chlorhexidine or chlorquinaldol and oral gels: nystatin and miconazole. Some of drugs are in the form of suspension/solution, which can be used for inhalation, into the sinus, for swabbing or for lavage: amphotericin B, natamycin, nystatin, clotrimazol, flucytosine, miconazole, fluconazole, vorykonazole, caspofungin. It should be underlined that only a few of dugs can be absorbed from the digestive tract: flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, vorykonazole.

  12. Grepafloxacin Clinical Program for Lower Respiratory Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne C Rodloff

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper evaluates the clinical trial program in lower respiratory tract infections treated with a new fluoroquinolone antibiotic, grepafloxacin. Unlike older quinolones, grepafloxacin has excellent activity against Gram-positive organisms, which include Streptococcus pneumoniae and “atypical” pathogens Legionella species. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae. Grepafloxacin has a long half-life of 12 to 15 h, which allows once daily dosing. Six studies have been conducted regarding community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections (LRTls, four about community-acquired pneumonia (CAP and two about acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (ABECB . In these studies, grepafloxacin demonstrated clinical equivalence with standard therapies. but, in patients with documented infections. grepafloxacin was statistically superior to amoxycillin in both CAP and ABECB. The new fluoroquinolone has a good safety profile, comparable with that of ciprofloxacin. The most common adverse effects of grepafloxacin were nausea and a metallic taste; however, these effects resulted in only a few discontinuations of therapy. With the increasing prevalence of resistance in pathogens isolated from community-acquired LRTIs, grepafloxacin offers a good alternative for monotherapy in these patients.

  13. The Effects of Oxidative Stress in Urinary Tract Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergul Belge Kurutas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to determine the effects of oxidative stress in urinary tract infection (UTI. One hundred sixty-four urine samples obtained from patients with the prediagnosis of acute UTI admitted to the Faculty of Medicine, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, were included in this study. Urine cultures were performed according to standard techniques. Urinary isolates were identified by using API ID 32E. The catalase and superoxide dismutase activity and the lipid peroxidation levels known as oxidative stress markers were measured in all urine samples. Thirty-six pathogen microorganisms were identified in positive urine cultures. These microorganisms were as follows: 23 (63.8% E coli, 5 (13.8% P mirabilis, 4 (11.1% K pneumoniae, 2 (5.5% Candida spp, 1 (2.7% S saprophyticus, and 1 (2.7% P aeruginosa. It was observed that lipid peroxidation levels were increased while catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were decreased in positive urine cultures, compared to negative cultures. We conclude that urinary tract infection causes oxidative stress, increases lipid peroxidation level, and leads to insufficiency of antioxidant enzymes.

  14. Digestive tract neural control and gastrointestinal disorders in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Liubiana A; Silva, Luciana R; Mendes, Fabiana A A

    2012-01-01

    To examine the neural control of digestive tract and describe the main gastrointestinal disorders in cerebral palsy (CP), with attention to the importance of early diagnosis to an efficient interdisciplinary treatment. Systematic review of literature from 1997 to 2012 from Medline, Lilacs, Scielo, and Cochrane Library databases. The study included 70 papers, such as relevant reviews, observational studies, controlled trials, and prevalence studies. Qualitative studies were excluded. The keywords used were: cerebral palsy, dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, constipation, recurrent respiratory infections, and gastrostomy. The appropriate control of the digestive system depends on the healthy functioning and integrity of the neural system. Since CP patients have structural abnormalities of the central and peripheral nervous system, they are more likely to develop eating disorders. These range from neurological immaturity to interference in the mood and capacity of caregivers. The disease has, therefore, a multifactorial etiology. The most prevalent digestive tract disorders are dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and constipation, with consequent recurrent respiratory infections and deleterious impact on nutritional status. Patients with CP can have neurological abnormalities of digestive system control; therefore, digestive problems are common. The issues raised in the present study are essential for professionals within the interdisciplinary teams that treat patients with CP, concerning the importance of comprehensive anamnesis and clinical examination, such as detailed investigation of gastrointestinal disorders. Early detection of these digestive problems may lead to more efficient rehabilitation measures in order to improve patients' quality of life.

  15. Antibiotic resistance in children with complicated urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildiz, B.; Kural, N.; Yarar, C.; Ak, I.; Akcar, N.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to determine the resistance of antibiotics for complicated urinary tract infection (UTI), including urinary tract anomaly (UTA), for empirical antibiotic therapy of complicated UTI. Four hundred and twenty two urine isolates were obtained from 113 patients with recurrent UTI, who used prophylactic antibiotics between February 1999 and November 2004 in the Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey. Reflux was found to be most important predisposing factor for recurrent UTI (31.9%). Renal scar was detected more in patients with UTA than without UTA (59.2% versus 12.4%, p<0.05). Gram-negative organisms were dominant in patients with and without UTA (91.5% and 79.2%). Enterococci and Candida spp. were more prevalent in children with UTA than without UTA (p<0.001). Isolates were significantly more resistant to ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, amikacin, co-amoxiclav, ticarcillin-clvalanate and piperacillin-tazobactam in patients with UTA than without UTA. We found low resistance to ciprofloxacin and nitrofurantoin in UTI with and without UTA. Enterococci spp. was highly resistance to ampicillin and amikacin in patients with UTA. Aztreonam, meropenem and ciprofloxacin seemed to be the best choice for treatment of UTI with UTA due to Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. Nitrofurantoin and nalidixic acid may be first choice antibiotics for prophylaxis in UTI with and without UTA. The UTI with UTA caused by Enterococci spp. might not benefit from a combination of amikacin and ampicillin, it could be treated with glycopeptides. (author)

  16. Identification of Lactobacillus plantarum genes that are induced in the gastrointestinal tract of mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, P.A.; Grangette, C.; Mercenier, A.M.E.; Vos, de W.M.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2004-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is a flexible and versatile microorganism that inhabits a variety of environmental niches, including the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Moreover, this lactic acid bacterium can survive passage through the human or mouse stomach in an active form. To investigate the

  17. Predictors of long length of stay in infants hospitalized with urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Janet A; Mahant, Sanjay; DeGroot, Julie M; Stephens, Derek; Parkin, Patricia C

    2014-09-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common serious bacterial infection in infants. To use resources optimally, factors contributing to costs through length of stay (LOS) must be identified. This study sought to identify clinical and health system factors associated with long LOS in infants with UTI. Using a case-control design, we included infants Pediatrics.

  18. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Two Semi-Occluded Vocal Tract Voice Therapy Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapsner-Smith, Mara R.; Hunter, Eric J.; Kirkham, Kimberly; Cox, Karin; Titze, Ingo R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Although there is a long history of use of semi-occluded vocal tract gestures in voice therapy, including phonation through thin tubes or straws, the efficacy of phonation through tubes has not been established. This study compares results from a therapy program on the basis of phonation through a flow-resistant tube (FRT) with Vocal…

  19. Small cell carcinoma of the gynecologic tract: a multifaceted spectrum of lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atienza-Amores, Maria; Guerini-Rocco, Elena; Soslow, Robert A; Park, Kay J; Weigelt, Britta

    2014-08-01

    Small cell carcinoma (SmCC) of the female genital tract constitutes a diagnostic and clinical challenge given its rarity and the lack of standardized therapeutic approaches. Here we review the morphological, clinical and molecular features of gynecologic SmCCs and discuss potential areas for future research. Data for this review article were identified by searches of PubMed, EMBASE and the Internet using the search terms "small cell carcinoma" or "neuroendocrine carcinoma" and "gynecologic", "uterine cervix", "cervix", "uterus", "endometrium", "ovary", "vagina", "fallopian tube" or "vulva", and research articles published in English between 1972 and February 2014 were included. SmCCs arising from different organs within the gynecologic tract share the same histopathologic characteristics, which closely resemble those of small cell lung carcinoma. The expression of at least one immunohistochemical neuroendocrine marker is a common finding. The uterine cervix is the most frequent site of SmCC in the female genital tract. HPV infection seems to play a role in the development of cervical SmCC but not in cancers of other gynecologic sites. FIGO stage is an established prognostic factor, in particular in SCCs of the cervix. Irrespective of the site, SmCCs of the gynecologic tract display an aggressive clinical behavior with few reported long-term survivors. The therapeutic management includes surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Despite the potential differences in etiology and risk factors, SmCCs from different sites of the gynecologic tract have similar morphologic appearances and clinical behavior. Recent genomic analyses of small cell carcinoma of the lung have revealed potential driver genomic alterations. We posit that the comprehensive genomic characterization of gynecologic SmCCs may lead to the identification of markers that result in an improvement of diagnostic reproducibility of SmCCs of the gynecologic tract, and of molecular aberrations that may be

  20. The effect of XPD polymorphisms on digestive tract cancers risk: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Haina; Guo, Nannan; Shi, Bin; Zhang, Qian; Chen, Zhipeng; Lu, Kai; Shu, Yongqian; Chen, Tao; Zhu, Lingjun

    2014-01-01

    The Xeroderma pigmento-sum group D gene (XPD) plays a key role in nucleotide excision repair. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) located in its functional region may alter DNA repair capacity phenotype and cancer risk. Many studies have demonstrated that XPD polymorphisms are significantly associated with digestive tract cancers risk, but the results are inconsistent. We conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis to assess the association between XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism and digestive tract cancers risk. The digestive tract cancers that our study referred to, includes oral cancer, esophageal cancer, gastric cancer and colorectal cancer. We searched PubMed and EmBase up to December 31, 2012 to identify eligible studies. A total of 37 case-control studies including 9027 cases and 16072 controls were involved in this meta-analysis. Statistical analyses were performed with Stata software (version 11.0, USA). Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of the association. The results showed that XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism was associated with the increased risk of digestive tract cancers (homozygote comparison (GlnGln vs. LysLys): OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.01-1.24, P = 0.029, P heterogeneity = 0.133). We found no statistical evidence for a significantly increased digestive tract cancers risk in the other genetic models. In the subgroup analysis, we also found the homozygote comparison increased the susceptibility of Asian population (OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.01-1.63, P = 0.045, P heterogeneity = 0.287). Stratified by cancer type and source of control, no significantly increased cancer risk was found in these subgroups. Additionally, risk estimates from hospital-based studies and esophageal studies were heterogeneous. Our meta-analysis suggested that the XPD 751Gln/Gln genotype was a low-penetrate risk factor for developing digestive tract cancers, especially in Asian populations.

  1. The effect of XPD polymorphisms on digestive tract cancers risk: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haina Du

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Xeroderma pigmento-sum group D gene (XPD plays a key role in nucleotide excision repair. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP located in its functional region may alter DNA repair capacity phenotype and cancer risk. Many studies have demonstrated that XPD polymorphisms are significantly associated with digestive tract cancers risk, but the results are inconsistent. We conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis to assess the association between XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism and digestive tract cancers risk. The digestive tract cancers that our study referred to, includes oral cancer, esophageal cancer, gastric cancer and colorectal cancer. METHODS: We searched PubMed and EmBase up to December 31, 2012 to identify eligible studies. A total of 37 case-control studies including 9027 cases and 16072 controls were involved in this meta-analysis. Statistical analyses were performed with Stata software (version 11.0, USA. Odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to assess the strength of the association. RESULTS: The results showed that XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism was associated with the increased risk of digestive tract cancers (homozygote comparison (GlnGln vs. LysLys: OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.01-1.24, P = 0.029, P heterogeneity = 0.133. We found no statistical evidence for a significantly increased digestive tract cancers risk in the other genetic models. In the subgroup analysis, we also found the homozygote comparison increased the susceptibility of Asian population (OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.01-1.63, P = 0.045, P heterogeneity = 0.287. Stratified by cancer type and source of control, no significantly increased cancer risk was found in these subgroups. Additionally, risk estimates from hospital-based studies and esophageal studies were heterogeneous. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis suggested that the XPD 751Gln/Gln genotype was a low-penetrate risk factor for developing digestive tract cancers, especially in Asian populations.

  2. Surgical Management of Neurogenic Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gor, Ronak A; Elliott, Sean P

    2017-08-01

    Surgery for patients with neurogenic urinary tract dysfunction (nLUTD) is indicated when medical therapy fails, to correct conditions affecting patient safety, or when surgery can enhance the quality of life better than nonoperative management. Examples include failure of maximal medical therapy, inability to perform or aversion to clean intermittent catheterization, refractory incontinence, and complications from chronic, indwelling catheters. Adults with nLUTD have competing risk factors, including previous operations, obesity, poor nutritional status, complex living arrangements, impaired dexterity/paralysis, and impaired executive and cognitive function. Complications are common in this subgroup of patients requiring enduring commitments from surgeons, patients, and their caretakers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Urinary tract infection after voiding cystourethrogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E K; Malhotra, N R; Shannon, R; Jacobson, D L; Green, J; Rigsby, C K; Holl, J L; Cheng, E Y

    2017-08-01

    Reported rates of post-procedural urinary tract infection (ppUTI) after voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) are highly variable (0-42%). This study aimed to determine the risk of ppUTI after cystogram, and evaluate predictors of ppUTI. A retrospective cohort study of children undergoing VCUG or radionuclide cystogram (henceforth 'cystogram') was conducted. Children with neurogenic bladder who underwent cystogram in the operating room and without follow-up at the study institution were excluded. Incidence of symptomatic ppUTI within 7 days after cystogram was recorded. Predictors of ppUTI were evaluated using univariate statistics. A total of 1108 children (54% female, median age 1.1 years) underwent 1203 cystograms: 51% were on periprocedural antibiotics, 75% had a pre-existing urologic diagnosis (i.e., vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) or hydronephrosis; not UTI alone), and 18% had a clinical UTI within 30 days before cystogram. Of the cystograms, 41% had an abnormal cystogram and findings included VUR (82%), ureterocele (6%), and diverticula (6%). Twelve children had a ppUTI (1.0%; four girls, five uncircumcised boys, three circumcised boys; median age 0.9 years). Factors significantly associated with diagnosis of a ppUTI (Summary fig.) included: pre-existing urologic diagnosis prior to cystogram (12/12, 100% of patients with ppUTI), abnormal cystogram results (11/12, 92%), and use of periprocedural antibiotics (11/12, 92%). All 11 children with an abnormal cystogram had VUR ≥ Grade III. However, among all children with VUR ≥ Grade III, 4% (11/254) had a ppUTI. This is the largest study to date that has examined incidence and risk factors for ppUTI after cystogram. The retrospective nature of the study limited capture of some clinical details. This study demonstrated that the risk of ppUTI after a cystogram is very low (1.0% in this cohort). Having a pre-existing urologic diagnosis such as VUR or hydronephrosis was associated with ppUTI; therefore, children with

  4. Probiotics in the prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Zwolińska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent urinary tract infections are a serious clinical problem both in adults and children. Febrile episodes of recurrent urinary tract infections may lead to the formation of renal scars and development of chronic kidney disease. Traditionally, management involved antibiotic prophylaxis introduced after a first febrile episode. Recently, however, the indications for antibiotic therapy have been narrowed down to treat cases of recurrent urinary tract infections and disorders which pose a significant risk for their development. In the current era of the ubiquitous use of antibiotics, bacterial resistance is an increasingly alarming problem, hence the recent search for alternative methods of prophylactic treatment. For many reasons, probiotics appear to be an excellent alternative. The microbiome of the human gastrointestinal tract and urogenital tract consists of a multitude of helpful probiotic bacteria, including the especially beneficial Lactobacillus strain. A significant relationship has been confirmed to exist between infections of the urinary tract and a decreased number of lactobacilli. Their antibacterial properties include their ability to  secrete numerous substances inhibiting the growth of  pathogenic microorganisms and to form a biofilm preventing the adhesion of uropathogens to the epithelium of the urinary tract as well as, indirectly, their immunomodulatory potential. This study is aimed at discussing the existing evidence supporting the effectiveness of probiotics in the prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections, with special emphasis on the paediatric population. Probiotics make an excellent and safe alternative for the traditional prophylactic antibiotic therapy.

  5. Assessment of infective urinary tract disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sixt, R.; Stokland, E. [Goteborg, Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital/Ostra (Sweden). Dept. of Pediatric Clinical Physiology and Dept. of Pediatric Radiology

    1998-06-01

    Urinary tracts infection (UTI) is common in children, particularly in the youngest age groups. There is a risk for progressive deterioration of renal function in these children if aggravating factors such as gross reflux and/or outflow obstruction of the urinary tract are present. In this review the pros and cons of available scintigrafic and radiological imaging techniques for the work-up of these children are presented. Ultrasound can be used in the acute phase to exclude obstruction but can not reliably show transient or permanent parenchymal lesions. The presence of reflux can be established with X-ray or direct nuclide cystography. The X-ray technique gives good morphological information and has a grading system with prognostic relevance. Both techniques are invasive and great care must be taken to keep the radiation burden down with the X-ray technique. Indirect nuclide cystography following a renographic study is non-invasive but has a lower sensitivity than direct techniques. More experience is needed with the indirect technique to evaluate the consequences of its apparently low sensitivity. Urography has a limited place in the acute work-up of urinary tract infection but can be used to look for renal scarring 1-2 years after an acute pyelonephritis. The {sup 99m}Tc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan can be used during the acute UTI to show pyelonephritic lesions with good accuracy and/or during the follow-up after six months to show permanent lesions. The acute DMSA scan can be omitted.

  6. [Urinary tract infection in pregnancy and menopause].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broseta Rico, Enrique; Jiménez Cruz, Juan Fernando

    2002-11-01

    To review the topic of urinary tract infections (UTI) during pregnancy and menopause. UTI during pregnancy and menopause have great relevance in the field of urologic infections; during pregnancy because of the particularities involved in its diagnosis and treatment and potential consequences to the fetus and mother; menopausal UTI because this group of women is numerous and represents a growing section of the general population pyramid, due to the aging of population in developed countries associated with longer life expectancies and grater demand for quality of life. We performed a bibliographic review combined with our personal experience. During pregnancy there are several functional and anatomical changes that condition not only a higher risk of UTI, but also an additional treatment difficulty due to antimicrobial pharmacokinetics alterations and potential damage to the fetus. Despite efforts to find an easy, fast and reliable test for bacteriuria detection, urine culture continues to be the first diagnostic test for its detection and follow up during pregnancy. Penicillin derivates and cephalosporins continue to be the first choice because their lack of adverse effects on either fetus or mother. Alternative options like phosphomicin and aztreonam although they show low toxicity there is need for more studies supporting their suitability for the treatment of pregnancy UTIs. Menopausal female UTI have their different features from those in younger women. Hormonal alterations derived from gonadal atrophy associate functional changes in the vaginal ecosystem, making it prone to enterobacteriaceae colonization as a first step up to the urinary tract. This associated with genitourinary tract anatomical alterations inherent t aging make UTI extraordinary prevalent in this growing segment of population. Treatment lines focus on hormonal alteration correction and proper antimicrobial prophylaxis and vaccines in a close future. UTIs during pregnancy and menopause have

  7. Application of colon capsule endoscopy (CCE to evaluate the whole gastrointestinal tract: a comparative study of single-camera and dual-camera analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remes-Troche JM

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available José María Remes-Troche,1 Victoria Alejandra Jiménez-García,2 Josefa María García-Montes,2 Pedro Hergueta-Delgado,2 Federico Roesch-Dietlen,1 Juan Manuel Herrerías-Gutiérrez2 1Digestive Physiology and Motility Lab, Medical Biological Research Institute, Universidad Veracruzana, Veracruz, México; 2Gastroenterology Service, Virgen Macarena University Hospital, Seville, Spain Background and study aims: Colon capsule endoscopy (CCE was developed for the evaluation of colorectal pathology. In this study, our aim was to assess if a dual-camera analysis using CCE allows better evaluation of the whole gastrointestinal (GI tract compared to a single-camera analysis. Patients and methods: We included 21 patients (12 males, mean age 56.20 years submitted for a CCE examination. After standard colon preparation, the colon capsule endoscope (PillCam Colon™ was swallowed after reinitiation from its “sleep” mode. Four physicians performed the analysis: two reviewed both video streams at the same time (dual-camera analysis; one analyzed images from one side of the device (“camera 1”; and the other reviewed the opposite side (“camera 2”. We compared numbers of findings from different parts of the entire GI tract and level of agreement among reviewers. Results: A complete evaluation of the GI tract was possible in all patients. Dual-camera analysis provided 16% and 5% more findings compared to camera 1 and camera 2 analysis, respectively. Overall agreement was 62.7% (kappa = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.373–0.510. Esophageal (kappa = 0.611 and colorectal (kappa = 0.595 findings had a good level of agreement, while small bowel (kappa = 0.405 showed moderate agreement. Conclusion: The use of dual-camera analysis with CCE for the evaluation of the GI tract is feasible and detects more abnormalities when compared with single-camera analysis. Keywords: capsule endoscopy, colon, gastrointestinal tract, small bowel

  8. Urinary Tract Infections in the Older Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, Lindsay E

    2016-08-01

    Urinary infection is the most common bacterial infection in elderly populations. The high prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in both men and women is benign and should not be treated. A diagnosis of symptomatic infection for elderly residents of long-term care facilities without catheters requires localizing genitourinary findings. Symptomatic urinary infection is overdiagnosed in elderly bacteriuric persons with nonlocalizing clinical presentations, with substantial inappropriate antimicrobial use. Residents with chronic indwelling catheters experience increased morbidity from urinary tract infection. Antimicrobial therapy is selected based on clinical presentation, patient tolerance, and urine culture results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Upper respiratory tract infections in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Clifton L; Diehl, Jason J

    2007-07-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) represent the most common acute illnesses in the general population and account for the leading acute diagnoses in the outpatient setting. Given the athlete's expectation to return to activity as soon as possible, the sports medicine physician should be able to accurately diagnose and aggressively treat these illnesses. This article discusses the common pathogens, diagnosis, treatment options, and return-to-play decisions for URTIs, with a focus on the common cold, sinusitis, pharyngitis, and infectious mononucleosis in the athlete.

  10. The Vaginal Microbiota and Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Ann E

    2016-12-01

    The vagina is a key anatomical site in the pathogenesis of urinary tract infection (UTI) in women, serving as a potential reservoir for infecting bacteria and a site at which interventions may decrease the risk of UTI. The vaginal microbiota is a dynamic and often critical factor in this pathogenic interplay, because changes in the characteristics of the vaginal microbiota resulting in the loss of normally protective Lactobacillus spp. increase the risk of UTI. These alterations may result from the influence of estrogen deficiency, antimicrobial therapy, contraceptives, or other causes. Interventions to reduce adverse effects on the vaginal microbiota and/or to restore protective lactobacilli may reduce the risks of UTI.

  11. Urinary Tract Infection and Neurogenic Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, Maxim J; Seed, Patrick; Ross, Sherry S; Borawski, Kristy M

    2015-11-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are frequent, recurrent, and lifelong for patients with neurogenic bladder and present challenges in diagnosis and treatment. Patients often present without classic symptoms of UTI but with abdominal or back pain, increased spasticity, and urinary incontinence. Failure to recognize and treat infections can quickly lead to life-threatening autonomic dysreflexia or sepsis, whereas overtreatment contributes to antibiotic resistance, thus limiting future treatment options. Multiple prevention methods are used but evidence-based practices are few. Prevention and treatment of symptomatic UTI requires a multimodal approach that focuses on bladder management as well as accurate diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Urinary Tract Infection: Pathogenesis and Outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Lisa K; Hunstad, David A

    2016-11-01

    The clinical syndromes comprising urinary tract infection (UTI) continue to exert significant impact on millions of patients worldwide, most of whom are otherwise healthy women. Antibiotic therapy for acute cystitis does not prevent recurrences, which plague up to one fourth of women after an initial UTI. Rising antimicrobial resistance among uropathogenic bacteria further complicates therapeutic decisions, necessitating new approaches based on fundamental biological investigation. In this review, we highlight contemporary advances in the field of UTI pathogenesis and how these might inform both our clinical perspective and future scientific priorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Malignancies of gastrointestinal tract in geriatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystricky, B.

    2017-01-01

    Incidence of gastrointestinal cancer rises with age. In spite of this fact, older patients are underrepresented in clinical trials. We need to take into account several variables prior to selection of therapy in these patients. These are physiologic aging processes, comorbidities, functional and cognitive status. There are several assessment tools in geriatric population – the most used is comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA). A close cooperation with geriatrician is useful before starting cancer treatment. This article reviews treatment algorithms in selected malignancies of GI tract in geriatric patients. (author)

  14. Urinary Tract Infection: Pathogenesis and Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Lisa K.; Hunstad, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The clinical syndromes comprising urinary tract infection (UTI) continue to exert significant impact on millions of patients worldwide, most of whom are otherwise healthy women. Antibiotic therapy for acute cystitis does not prevent recurrences, which plague up to one fourth of women after an initial UTI. Rising antimicrobial resistance among uropathogenic bacteria further complicates therapeutic decisions, necessitating new approaches based on fundamental biological investigation. In this review, we highlight contemporary advances in the field of UTI pathogenesis and how these might inform both our clinical perspective and future scientific priorities. PMID:27692880

  15. Hand hygiene to reduce community transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infection: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren‐Gash, Charlotte; Fragaszy, Ellen; Hayward, Andrew C.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Warren‐Gash et al. (2012) Hand hygiene to reduce community transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infection: a systematic review. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: 10.1111/irv.12015. Hand hygiene may be associated with modest protection against some acute respiratory tract infections, but its specific role in influenza transmission in different settings is unclear. We aimed to review evidence that improving hand hygiene reduces primary and secondary transmission of (i) influenza and (ii) acute respiratory tract infections in community settings. We searched Medline, Embase, Global Health and Cochrane databases up to 13 February 2012 for reports in any language of original research investigating the effect of hand hygiene on influenza or acute respiratory tract infection where aetiology was unspecified in community settings including institutions such as schools, and domestic residences. Data were presented and quality rated across outcomes according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. Sixteen articles met inclusion criteria. There was moderate to low‐quality evidence of a reduction in both influenza and respiratory tract infection with hand hygiene interventions in schools, greatest in a lower–middle‐income setting. There was high‐quality evidence of a small reduction in respiratory infection in childcare settings. There was high‐quality evidence for a large reduction in respiratory infection with a hand hygiene intervention in squatter settlements in a low‐income setting. There was moderate‐ to high‐quality evidence of no effect on secondary transmission of influenza in households that had already experienced an index case. While hand hygiene interventions have potential to reduce transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infections, their effectiveness varies depending on setting, context and compliance. PMID:23043518

  16. Hepatic Tract Plug-Embolisation After Biliary Stenting. Is It Worthwhile?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, Adam P.; Khan, Rafeh; Mathew, Anup; Hersey, Naomi O.; Peck, Robert; Lee, Frederick; Goode, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    PurposePTC and stenting procedures are associated with significant risks including life-threatening haemorrhage, sepsis, renal failure and high mortality rates. PTC tract closure methods are utilised to reduce haemorrhagic complications despite little evidence to support their use. The current study assesses the incidence of haemorrhagic complications following PTC and stenting procedures, both prior to and following the introduction of a dedicated expanding gelatin foam-targeted embolisation liver tract closure technique.Materials and MethodsHaemorrhagic complications were retrospectively identified in patients undergoing PTC procedures both prior to (subgroup 1) and following (subgroup 2) the introduction of a dedicated targeted liver tract closure method between 9/11/2010 and 10/08/2012 in a single tertiary referral centre. Mean blood Hb decrease following PTC was established in subgroups 1 and 2. Kaplan–Meier life-table analysis was performed to compare survival outcomes between subgroups using the log-rank test.ResultsHaemorrhagic complications were significantly reduced following the introduction of the targeted PTC tract closure method [(12 vs. 3 % of subgroups 1 (n = 101) and 2 (n = 92), respectively (p = 0.027)]. Mean blood Hb decrease following PTC was 1.40 versus 0.68 g/dL in subgroups 1 and 2, respectively (p = 0.069). 30-day mortality was 14 and 12 % in subgroups 1 and 2, respectively. 50 % of the entire cohort had died by 174 days post-PTC.ConclusionIntroduction of liver tract embolisation significantly reduced haemorrhagic complications in our patient cohort. Utilisation of this method has the potential to reduce the morbidity and mortality burden associated with post-PTC haemorrhage by preventing bleeding from the liver access tract

  17. Hepatic Tract Plug-Embolisation After Biliary Stenting. Is It Worthwhile?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Adam P., E-mail: adamdale@doctors.org.uk [Basingstoke and North Hampshire Hospital, Department of Medical Microbiology (United Kingdom); Khan, Rafeh, E-mail: rafeh.khan@yahoo.com; Mathew, Anup, E-mail: anup.mathew@sth.nhs.uk; Hersey, Naomi O., E-mail: Naomi.Hersey@sth.nhs.uk; Peck, Robert, E-mail: Robert.Peck@sth.nhs.uk; Lee, Frederick, E-mail: fred.lee@sth.nhs.uk [Northern General Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Goode, Stephen D., E-mail: S.Goode@sheffield.ac.uk [Northern General Hospital, Sheffield Vascular Institute (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    PurposePTC and stenting procedures are associated with significant risks including life-threatening haemorrhage, sepsis, renal failure and high mortality rates. PTC tract closure methods are utilised to reduce haemorrhagic complications despite little evidence to support their use. The current study assesses the incidence of haemorrhagic complications following PTC and stenting procedures, both prior to and following the introduction of a dedicated expanding gelatin foam-targeted embolisation liver tract closure technique.Materials and MethodsHaemorrhagic complications were retrospectively identified in patients undergoing PTC procedures both prior to (subgroup 1) and following (subgroup 2) the introduction of a dedicated targeted liver tract closure method between 9/11/2010 and 10/08/2012 in a single tertiary referral centre. Mean blood Hb decrease following PTC was established in subgroups 1 and 2. Kaplan–Meier life-table analysis was performed to compare survival outcomes between subgroups using the log-rank test.ResultsHaemorrhagic complications were significantly reduced following the introduction of the targeted PTC tract closure method [(12 vs. 3 % of subgroups 1 (n = 101) and 2 (n = 92), respectively (p = 0.027)]. Mean blood Hb decrease following PTC was 1.40 versus 0.68 g/dL in subgroups 1 and 2, respectively (p = 0.069). 30-day mortality was 14 and 12 % in subgroups 1 and 2, respectively. 50 % of the entire cohort had died by 174 days post-PTC.ConclusionIntroduction of liver tract embolisation significantly reduced haemorrhagic complications in our patient cohort. Utilisation of this method has the potential to reduce the morbidity and mortality burden associated with post-PTC haemorrhage by preventing bleeding from the liver access tract.

  18. An Investigation of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Women Aged 40 and Over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Neziha; Oskay, Umran

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and associated risk factors in women aged 40 years and over. The study was carried out with a total of 312 women. The data were collected between 1 January 2009 and 30 July 2010. As research instruments, an interview form of 19 questions that questioned personal characteristics and was developed by researchers, and the Bristol Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (BFLUTS) Questionnaire evaluating lower urinary tract symptoms were used. Linear regression analysis was used to detect associated risk factors. The rates of urgency, urinary incontinence, nocturia, and frequency symptoms were 61.5, 52.2, 18.9, and 25%, respectively. BFLUTS total scores increased with age, but the present study has detected no statistically significant differences (P > 0.05). BFLUTS scores of the women demonstrated statistically significant differences according to several risk factors including menopause status (P = 0.03), presence of chronic illness (P = 0.000), medicine use (P = 0.000), recurrent urinary tract infections (P = 0.000), body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.004), delivery number (P = 0.005) and chronic constipation (P = 0.002). Multiple linear regression analysis determined that frequent urinary tract infections, presence of chronic illness, chronic constipation, BMI and number of deliveries were significantly related to LUTS development. The most common LUTS was urgency in women aged 40 years and older. Recurrent urinary tract infection was determined as the most significant risk factor for LUTS, followed by chronic illness, chronic constipation, higher BMI and parity. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Premenopausal women with recurrent urinary tract infections have lower quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Siobhan S; Guo, Huifang; Raman, Lata; Tambyah, Paul A; Chen, Swaine L; Tiong, Ho Yee

    2018-05-22

    To examine the impact on quality of life of recurrent acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection among premenopausal Singaporean women, and to determine the risk factors for lower quality of life among these patients. A total of 85 patients with recurrent acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection who were referred to the Urology Department at the National University Hospital, Singapore, were prospectively recruited over a 3-year period to complete the validated Short Form 36 Health Survey version 1. In addition, demographic and clinical details including symptomology and medical history were analyzed for factors impacting quality of life. Short Form 36 Health Survey version 1 results were compared with published population norms. After adjusting for age, gender and race, recurrent acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection patients had significantly lower quality of life on seven out of eight Short Form 36 Health Survey version 1 domains when compared with age-, gender- and race-adjusted population norms for Singapore. Among those with recurrent acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection, those who also reported caffeine consumption had significantly lower Short Form 36 Health Survey version 1 scores than those who did not. Those who reported chronic constipation also had consistently lower Short Form 36 Health Survey version 1 scores across all domains. Recurrent acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection has a negative impact on the quality of life of premenopausal, otherwise healthy women. Recurrent acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection patients who also have chronic constipation or consume caffeine have lower quality of life than those who do not. More studies are required to understand the relationships between these common problems and risk factors. © 2018 The Japanese Urological Association.

  20. Urinary tract injuries during cesarean section in patients with morbid placental adherence: retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanwar, Ahmed; Al-Sayed, Helmy M; Ibrahim, Ahmed M; Elkotb, Ahmed M; Abdelshafy, Ahmed; Abdelhadi, Rasha; Abbas, Ahmed M; Abdelmenam, Hend S; Fares, Tamer; Nossair, Wael; Abdallah, Ameer A; Sabaa, Haitham; Nawara, Maii

    2017-12-03

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the cases of lower urinary tract injuries during cesarean section with or without hysterectomy in cases with morbid placental adherence. This record based retrospective study was conducted at Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital in Cairo, Egypt during the period between January 2014 and December 2016. It included all patients who had urinary tract injuries during cesarean section with or without hysterectomy in the cases with morbid placental adherence and they were collected from files of pregnant women who were admitted at hospital planned for termination of pregnancy. Patients were enrolled in four groups, Group 1: cases without urinary tract injuries. Group 2: cases with injuries to the bladder. Group 3: cases with injuries of the ureter. Group 4: cases with injuries to the bladder and ureter. This study gave us new information about the incidence of urinary tract injuries during cesarean section with morbid adherence placenta was 21.7% (Bladder 11.7%, Ureter 4.7%, and bladder with ureter 5.3%). There were various types of repair of urinary tract injury, as the following, bladder repair 10.8%, ureteric catheterization 0.9%, ureterovesical repair or reimplantation 1.5%, bladder repair and ureterovesical 1.2%, bladder repair and ureteric catheterization 2.3%, ureteric catheterization and ureterovesical 1.5 and 6.4% of cases needed urologic consultations. There is a real relation between urinary tract injury and obesity (55.3%). Bladder invasion was found in only 26.9% of all cases according to sonography findings. Most of the cases were delivered by cesarean section in 67.5%, and the remainders were delivered by cesarean hysterectomy 32.5%. About 96.5% of cases needed a blood transfusion. The morbid adherent placenta is still a challenge, which faces us as obstetricians, due to high morbidity and mortality. A multidisciplinary team is mandatory to avoid complications.

  1. Neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and dysfunction of the female lower urinary tract: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Cécile A; Tunitsky-Bitton, Elena; Muffly, Tyler; Barber, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    The 2 major functions of the lower urinary tract are the storage and emptying of urine. These processes are controlled by complex neurophysiologic mechanisms and are subject to injury and disease. When there is disruption of the neurologic control centers, dysfunction of the lower urinary tract may occur. This is sometimes referred to as the "neurogenic bladder." The manifestation of dysfunction depends on the level of injury and severity of disruption. Patients with lesions above the spinal cord often have detrusor overactivity with no disruption in detrusor-sphincter coordination. Patients with well-defined suprasacral spinal cord injuries usually present with intact reflex detrusor activity but have detrusor sphincter dyssynergia, whereas injuries to or below the sacral spinal cord usually lead to persistent detrusor areflexia. A complete gynecologic, urologic, and neurologic examination should be performed when evaluating patients with neurologic lower urinary tract dysfunction. In addition, urodynamic studies and neurophysiologic testing can be used in certain circumstances to help establish diagnosis or to achieve better understanding of a patient's vesicourethral functioning. In the management of neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction, the primary goal is improvement of a patient's quality of life. Second to this is the prevention of chronic damage to the bladder and kidneys, which can lead to worsening impairment and symptoms. Treatment is often multifactorial, including behavioral modifications, bladder training programs, and pharmacotherapy. Surgical procedures are often a last resort option for management. An understanding of the basic neurophysiologic mechanisms of the lower urinary tract can guide providers in their evaluation and treatment of patients who present with lower urinary tract disorders. As neurologic diseases progress, voiding function often changes or worsens, necessitating a good understanding of the underlying physiology in question.

  2. Urinary tract infection in full-term newborn infants: risk factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falcão Mário Cícero

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the correlation of risk factors to the occurrence of urinary tract infection in full-term newborn infants. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective study (1997 including full-term infants having a positive urine culture by bag specimen. Urine collection was based on: fever, weight loss > 10% of birth weight, nonspecific symptoms (feeding intolerance, failure to thrive, hypoactivity, debilitate suction, irritability, or renal and urinary tract malformations. In these cases, another urine culture by suprapubic bladder aspiration was collected to confirm the diagnosis. To compare and validate the risk factors in each group, the selected cases were divided into two groups: Group I - positive urine culture by bag specimen collection and negative urine culture by suprapubic aspiration, and Group II - positive urine culture by bag specimen collection and positive urine culture by suprapubic aspiration . RESULTS: Sixty one infants were studied, Group I, n = 42 (68.9% and Group II, n = 19 (31.1%. The selected risk factors (associated infectious diseases, use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, renal and urinary tract malformations, mechanical ventilation, parenteral nutrition and intravascular catheter were more frequent in Group II (p<0.05. Through relative risk analysis, risk factors were, in decreasing importance: parenteral nutrition, intravascular catheter, associated infectious diseases, use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, mechanical ventilation, and renal and urinary tract malformations. CONCLUSION: The results showed that parenteral nutrition, intravascular catheter, and associated infectious diseases contributed to increase the frequency of neonatal urinary tract infection, and in the presence of more than one risk factor, the occurrence of urinary tract infection rose up to 11 times.

  3. Fetal Urinary Tract Anomalies: Review of Pathophysiology, Imaging, and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileto, Achille; Itani, Malak; Katz, Douglas S; Siebert, Joseph R; Dighe, Manjiri K; Dubinsky, Theodore J; Moshiri, Mariam

    2018-05-01

    Common fetal anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract encompass a complex spectrum of abnormalities that can be detected prenatally by ultrasound. Common fetal anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract can affect amniotic fluid volume production with the development of oligohydramnios or anhydramnios, resulting in fetal pulmonary hypoplasia and, potentially, abnormal development of other fetal structures. We provide an overview of common fetal anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract with an emphasis on sonographic patterns as well as pathologic and postnatal correlation, along with brief recommendations for postnatal management. Of note, we render an updated classification of fetal abnormalities of the kidneys and urinary tract based on the presence or absence of associated urinary tract dilation. In addition, we review the 2014 classification of urinary tract dilation based on the Linthicum multidisciplinary consensus panel.

  4. Postpartum urinary tract infection by mode of delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundersen, Tina Djernis; Krebs, Lone; Loekkegaard, Ellen Christine Leth

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between postpartum urinary tract infection and intended mode of delivery as well as actual mode of delivery. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: All live births in Denmark between 2004 and 2010 (n=450 856). Births were classified...... was postpartum urinary tract infection (n=16 295) within 30 days post partum, defined as either a diagnosis of urinary tract infection in the National Patient Registry or redemption of urinary tract infection-specific antibiotics recorded in the Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. RESULTS: We found that 4.......6% of women with intended caesarean delivery and 3.5% of women with intended vaginal delivery were treated for postpartum urinary tract infection.Women with intended caesarean delivery had a significantly increased risk of postpartum urinary tract infection compared with women with intended vaginal delivery...

  5. Reasons for Seeking Clinical Care for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, James W; Messersmith, Emily E; Gillespie, Brenda W; Wiseman, Jonathan B; Flynn, Kathryn E; Kirkali, Ziya; Kusek, John W; Bavendam, Tamara; Cella, David; Kreder, Karl J; Nero, Jasmine J; Corona, Maria E; Bradley, Catherine S; Kenton, Kimberly S; Helfand, Brian T; Merion, Robert M; Weinfurt, Kevin P

    2018-02-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate reasons for seeking care among men and women with lower urinary tract symptoms. Participants were recruited from urology and urogynecology clinics, and the community. The sample was enriched with persons expected to have abnormal or diminished bladder sensations (eg participants with lower back surgery and participants 65 years old or older). Interviews were performed in person beginning with an open-ended assessment of urinary symptoms and associated bother followed by more directed questions, including reasons for seeking or not seeking treatment. We also examined the relationship between symptom frequency and bother using the LUTS (Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms) Tool. A total of 88 participants, including 38 men and 50 women, with a mean ± SD age of 52.2 ± 14.3 years provided information about urinary symptoms, including a range of quality of life consequences and coping behaviors. They sought treatment mostly because of new, continuing or bothersome symptoms. Factors associated with not seeking treatment included low symptom severity and concerns about the costs vs the benefits of treatment (eg side effects of medication). Symptom frequency and bother were associated with each other across symptoms assessed by the LUTS Tool. In this large qualitative study we obtained useful insights into the impact of lower urinary tract symptoms from the perspective of the person with the symptoms. Removing barriers and misconceptions about the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms may increase the number of people who seek clinical care and improve the clinical course of men and women who experience lower urinary tract symptoms. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cranberry in prevention of urinary tract Infections in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda-Machado Pablo Andrés

    2011-01-01

    The urinary infection tract is the most common infectious complication in pregnancy.The aim was to conduct a literature review of the evidence on effectiveness, safetyand cost effectiveness of cranberry products in preventing urinary tract infection inpregnancy. Studies suggest a potential protective effect of cranberry products againsturinary tract infection in pregnancy and there is no documented evidence of danger orcontraindication in pregnancy or lactation. The cost effectiveness of cran...

  7. Acoustic vocal tract model of one-year-old children

    OpenAIRE

    Vojnović, Milan; Bogavac, Ivana; Dobrijević, Ljiljana

    2014-01-01

    The physical shape of vocal tract and its formant (resonant) frequencies are directly related. The study of this functional connectivity is essential in speech therapy practice with children. Most of the perceived children’s speech anomalies can be explained on a physical level: malfunctioning movement of articulation organs. The current problem is that there is no enough data on the anatomical shape of children’s vocal tract to create its acoustic model. Classical techniques for vocal tract...

  8. Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth G. Jepson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cranberries have been used widely for several decades for the prevention and treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs. This is the third update of our review first published in 1998 and updated in 2004 and 2008. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of cranberry products in preventing UTIs in susceptible populations. METHODS: Search methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library and the Internet. We contacted companies involved with the promotion and distribution of cranberry preparations and checked reference lists of review articles and relevant studies. Date of search: July 2012. Selection criteria: All randomised controlled trials (RCTs or quasi-RCTs of cranberry products for the prevention of UTIs. Data collection and analysis: Two authors independently assessed and extracted data. Information was collected on methods, participants, interventions and outcomes (incidence of symptomatic UTIs, positive culture results, side effects, adherence to therapy. Risk ratios (RR were calculated where appropriate, otherwise a narrative synthesis was undertaken. Quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool. MAIN RESULTS: This updated review includes a total of 24 studies (six cross-over studies, 11 parallel group studies with two arms; five with three arms, and two studies with a factorial design with a total of 4473 participants. Ten studies were included in the 2008 update, and 14 studies have been added to this update. Thirteen studies (2380 participants evaluated only cranberry juice/concentrate; nine studies (1032 participants evaluated only cranberry tablets/capsules; one study compared cranberry juice and tablets; and one study compared cranberry capsules and tablets. The comparison/control arms were placebo, no treatment, water, methenamine hippurate, antibiotics, or lactobacillus. Eleven studies were not included in the meta

  9. Acute ingestion dosimetry using the ICRP 30 gastrointestinal tract model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassels, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the gastrointestinal (GI) tract model used for dosimetry as outlined in ICRP30, to allow quick calculations of effective dose equivalents for acute radionuclide ingestion. A computer program has been developed to emulate the GI tract model. The program and associated data files are structured so that the GI tract model parameters can be varied, while the file structure and algorithm for the GI tract model should require minimal modification to allow the same theories that apply in this model to be used for other dosimetric models

  10. A prospective study of urinary tract infection during pelvic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialas, I.; Bessell, E.M.; Sokal, M.

    1989-01-01

    The frequency of urinary tract infection before and during pelvic radiotherapy was studied prospectively in 172 patients who were not catherised and had not had instrumentation for at least 4 weeks prior to radiotherapy. The incidence of urinary tract infection prior to radiotherapy was 17% and a further 17% of patients develped a urinary tract infection during radiotherapy. Mid-stream specimens of urine (MSU) should be examined for infection on a weekly basis during pelvic radiotherapy not only to identify this additional 17% of patients but also to detect those patients who have persistent urinary tract infection in spite of treatment with appropriate antibiotics. (author). 6 refs.; 1 fig.; 4 tabs

  11. Review of the gastrointestinal tract: from macro to micro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Kathleen K; Wickham, Rita

    2009-02-01

    To review the normal anatomy and physiology of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, the malignant transformations in GI cancers, and the rationale for targeted therapy for these cancers. Published articles, book chapters and web sources. Oncology nurses require an understanding of normal GI anatomy and physiology, along with an understanding of malignant transformations at the cellular and molecular level, to effectively educate and care for the patient with a diagnosis of a GI cancer. Challenges for the oncology nurse include continuing education related to GI cancer, the development of effective patient education skills, ensuring safe administration of oral agents and remaining current regarding GI clinical trial opportunities. Education of nursing colleagues, development of an area of expertise through specialization, and development of leadership skills are opportunities associated with practicing in the dynamic environment of oncology nursing.

  12. Lysophosphatidic Acid (LPA Signaling in Human and Ruminant Reproductive Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Wocławek-Potocka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA through activating its G protein-coupled receptors (LPAR 1–6 exerts diverse cellular effects that in turn influence several physiological processes including reproductive function of the female. Studies in various species of animals and also in humans have identified important roles for the receptor-mediated LPA signaling in multiple aspects of human and animal reproductive tract function. These aspects range from ovarian and uterine function, estrous cycle regulation, early embryo development, embryo implantation, decidualization to pregnancy maintenance and parturition. LPA signaling can also have pathological consequences, influencing aspects of endometriosis and reproductive tissue associated tumors. The review describes recent progress in LPA signaling research relevant to human and ruminant reproduction, pointing at the cow as a relevant model to study LPA influence on the human reproductive performance.

  13. Stenting of the Lower Gastrointestinal Tract: Current Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsanos, Konstantinos; Sabharwal, Tarun; Adam, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Colon obstruction due to colorectal cancer is a major surgical emergency. Patients with acute bowel obstruction are usually poor surgical candidates with 10–20% operative mortality and 40–50% operative morbidity rates. Colorectal stenting is an image-guided, minimally invasive procedure, and typical indications include either palliation of inoperable malignant disease or temporary bowel decompression as a bridge to surgery. Colorectal stenting allows the patient to recover before definite elective surgical resection, reducing perioperative morbidity and mortality, overall hospital stay, and associated health care costs. Palliative stenting improves quality of life compared to surgery. A concise review is provided of contemporary stenting practice of the lower gastrointestinal tract, the colon in particular, and both palliative and preoperative adjuvant procedures are evaluated in terms of relevant patient oncology, insertion technique, available stent designs, technical and clinical outcomes, associated complications, and cost–benefit analysis.

  14. Laboratory Diagnosis of Parasites from the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Lynne S; Arrowood, Michael; Kokoskin, Evelyne; Paltridge, Graeme P; Pillai, Dylan R; Procop, Gary W; Ryan, Norbert; Shimizu, Robyn Y; Visvesvara, Govinda

    2018-01-01

    This Practical Guidance for Clinical Microbiology document on the laboratory diagnosis of parasites from the gastrointestinal tract provides practical information for the recovery and identification of relevant human parasites. The document is based on a comprehensive literature review and expert consensus on relevant diagnostic methods. However, it does not include didactic information on human parasite life cycles, organism morphology, clinical disease, pathogenesis, treatment, or epidemiology and prevention. As greater emphasis is placed on neglected tropical diseases, it becomes highly probable that patients with gastrointestinal parasitic infections will become more widely recognized in areas where parasites are endemic and not endemic. Generally, these methods are nonautomated and require extensive bench experience for accurate performance and interpretation. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. Inflammatory Pseudotumor Originating from the Right Ventricular Outflow Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohita Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Inflammatory pseudotumor is an uncommon entity, and its cardiac origin is exceedingly rare. Case History. A previously healthy 27-year-old man was found to have a systolic murmur during preemployment screening evaluation. A transthoracic echocardiogram revealed a 4 × 2.5 cm mass originating from the right ventricle (RV outflow tract extending into the aortic root. A computed tomography guided biopsy confirmed an IgG4-related inflammatory pseudotumor. Patient was started on oral prednisone with subsequent reduction in mass size. Conclusion. Cardiac inflammatory pseudotumors are markedly rare tumors that should be considered in the differential of intracardiac tumors which otherwise includes cardiac fibromas, myxomas, and sarcomas.

  16. Lower urinary tract symptoms after total and subtotal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimbel, Helga; Zobbe, Vibeke; Andersen, Birthe Jakobsen

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this Danish multicenter trial was to compare the proportion of women with lower urinary tract symptoms after total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) and subtotal abdominal hysterectomy (SAH) for benign uterine disorders. A total of 319 women were randomized to TAH (n = 158) or SAH (n = 161......). Women were followed up for 1 year by strict data collection procedures, including postal questionnaires. Results were analyzed by intention-to-treat analyses. Urinary incontinence was found less often among TAH women than among SAH women. This was due to a larger reduction of the number of women...... with stress and urinary incontinence in the TAH group. No other differences were found between the two operation methods. The number of women with urinary incontinence and frequency was reduced from study entry for follow-up, while double/triple voiding was increased. Incontinent women had significantly lower...

  17. Role of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Virulence Factors in Development of Urinary Tract Infection and Kidney Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bien, Justyna; Sokolova, Olga; Bozko, Przemyslaw

    2012-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is a causative agent in the vast majority of urinary tract infections (UTIs), including cystitis and pyelonephritis, and infectious complications, which may result in acute renal failure in healthy individuals as well as in renal transplant patients. UPEC expresses a multitude of virulence factors to break the inertia of the mucosal barrier. In response to the breach by UPEC into the normally sterile urinary tract, host inflammatory responses are triggered leading to cytokine production, neutrophil influx, and the exfoliation of infected bladder epithelial cells. Several signaling pathways activated during UPEC infection, including the pathways known to activate the innate immune response, interact with calcium-dependent signaling pathways. Some UPEC isolates, however, might possess strategies to delay or suppress the activation of components of the innate host response in the urinary tract. Studies published in the recent past provide new information regarding how virulence factors of uropathogenic E. coli are involved in activation of the innate host response. Despite numerous host defense mechanisms, UPEC can persist within the urinary tract and may serve as a reservoir for recurrent infections and serious complications. Presentation of the molecular details of these events is essential for development of successful strategies for prevention of human UTIs and urological complications associated with UTIs. PMID:22506110

  18. In vitro activity of vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) on urinary tract pathogens in uncomplicated urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukhari, S.; Tariq, S.; Alam, M.A.; Chiragh, S.; Wazir, M.S.; Suleman, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Urinary tract infection is the most common bacterial infection in the community, mainly caused by Escherichia coli (E coli). Due to its high incidence and recurrence, problems are faced in the treatment with antibiotics. Cranberry being herbal remedy have long been the focus of interest for their beneficial effects in preventing urinary tract infections. This study was conducted to analyse in vitro activity of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) on uropathogenic E coli in uncomplicated urinary tract infections. Method: In this laboratory based single group experimental study, anti-bacterial activity of Vaccinium macrocarpon concentrate on urinary tract E coli was investigated, in vitro. Ninety-six culture positive cases of different uropathogens were identified. Vaccinium macrocarpon concentrate at different concentrations was prepared in distilled water and put in wells punched in nutrient agar. E coli isolates were inoculated on the plates and incubated at 37 Degree C for 24 hours. A citric acid solution of the same pH as that of Vaccinium macrocarpon was used and put in a well on the same plate to exclude the effect of pH. Results: A total of 35 isolates of E coli were identified out of 96 culture positive specimens of urine and found sensitive to Vaccinium macrocarpon (p<0.000). Results revealed that Vaccinium macrocarpon has antibacterial effect against E coli. Furthermore the antibacterial activity of Vaccinium macrocarpon has dose response relationship. Acidic nature of Vaccinium macrocarpon due to its pH is not contributory towards its antibacterial effect. Conclusion: Vaccinium macrocarpon concentrate may be used in urinary tract infection caused by E coli. (author)

  19. How to include the variability of TMS responses in simulations: a speech mapping case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geeter, N.; Lioumis, P.; Laakso, A.; Crevecoeur, G.; Dupré, L.

    2016-11-01

    When delivered over a specific cortical site, TMS can temporarily disrupt the ongoing process in that area. This allows mapping of speech-related areas for preoperative evaluation purposes. We numerically explore the observed variability of TMS responses during a speech mapping experiment performed with a neuronavigation system. We selected four cases with very small perturbations in coil position and orientation. In one case (E) a naming error occurred, while in the other cases (NEA, B, C) the subject appointed the images as smoothly as without TMS. A realistic anisotropic head model was constructed of the subject from T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI. The induced electric field distributions were computed, associated to the coil parameters retrieved from the neuronavigation system. Finally, the membrane potentials along relevant white matter fibre tracts, extracted from DTI-based tractography, were computed using a compartmental cable equation. While only minor differences could be noticed between the induced electric field distributions of the four cases, computing the corresponding membrane potentials revealed different subsets of tracts were activated. A single tract was activated for all coil positions. Another tract was only triggered for case E. NEA induced action potentials in 13 tracts, while NEB stimulated 11 tracts and NEC one. The calculated results are certainly sensitive to the coil specifications, demonstrating the observed variability in this study. However, even though a tract connecting Broca’s with Wernicke’s area is only triggered for the error case, further research is needed on other study cases and on refining the neural model with synapses and network connections. Case- and subject-specific modelling that includes both electromagnetic fields and neuronal activity enables demonstration of the variability in TMS experiments and can capture the interaction with complex neural networks.

  20. Subtotal obstruction of the male reproductive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohle, G R; van Roijen, J H; Pierik, F H; Vreeburg, J T M; Weber, R F A

    2003-03-01

    Bilateral obstruction of the male reproductive tract is suspected in men with azoospermia, normal testicular volume and normal FSH. A testicular biopsy is required to differentiate between an obstruction and a testicular insufficiency. Unilateral or subtotal bilateral obstructions and epididymal dysfunction may cause severe oligozoospermia in men with a normal spermatogenesis. However, information on spermatogenesis in oligozoospermic men is lacking, since testicular biopsy is not routinely performed. Men with a sperm concentration of scoring method. A testicular biopsy was performed in 78 men with severe oligozoospermia. The medical history showed male accessory gland infection in 12.8%, previous hernia repair in 14.1% and a history of cryptorchidism in 12.8%. A normal or slightly disturbed spermatogenesis (Johnsen score >8) was present in 39/78 (50%) of the men. Hernia repair occurred more often in men with normal spermatogenesis. A varicocele was predominantly seen in men with a disturbed spermatogenesis. FSH was significantly lower ( Preproductive tract is a frequent cause of severe oligozoospermia in men with a normal testicular volume and a normal FSH. In other cases, an epididymal dysfunction might explain the oligozoospermia in men with a normal testicular biopsy score.

  1. TRP channel functions in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoyun; Yu, Mingran; Liu, Yingzhe; Yu, Shaoyong

    2016-05-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are predominantly distributed in both somatic and visceral sensory nervous systems and play a crucial role in sensory transduction. As the largest visceral organ system, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract frequently accommodates external inputs, which stimulate sensory nerves to initiate and coordinate sensory and motor functions in order to digest and absorb nutrients. Meanwhile, the sensory nerves in the GI tract are also able to detect potential tissue damage by responding to noxious irritants. This nocifensive function is mediated through specific ion channels and receptors expressed in a subpopulation of spinal and vagal afferent nerve called nociceptor. In the last 18 years, our understanding of TRP channel expression and function in GI sensory nervous system has been continuously improved. In this review, we focus on the expressions and functions of TRPV1, TRPA1, and TRPM8 in primary extrinsic afferent nerves innervated in the esophagus, stomach, intestine, and colon and briefly discuss their potential roles in relevant GI disorders.

  2. Oncologic imaging of the genitourinary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClennan, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    Malignant neoplasms of the genitourinary (GU) tract account for a significant number of cancer-related deaths in man. For example, prostate cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death in adult males. Early diagnosis and treatment can have a profound effect on patient prognosis and survival. This paper examines the large body of information related to primary tumors of the kidney, bladder, and prostate, and their pattern of spread. Tumor oncology is discussed and related to the utility of available techniques, such as CT, MR imaging, and US. Imaging strategies are discussed that stress consideration of therapeutic efficacy and patient outcome. Current tumor staging and classification is presented and the various imaging strategies keyed to detection, definition, and treatment options for GU tract tumors. The strengths and limitations of modern imaging techniques are reviewed. An optimal approach to effective workup is developed with regard to availability, evolving technology, and cost efficacy. The controversies and conflicts in imaging and treatment options are explored while constructing a step-by-step approach that is both flexible and pragmatic for the clinician and radiologist faced daily with oncologic management choices

  3. Lymphoma and metastases in the urinary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruneton, J.N.; Drouillard, J.

    1989-01-01

    Kidneys lymphomas are mainly secondary and represent the most frequent localizations in the urinary tract (68%). The appearance most frequently observed with computed tomography (CT) as well as ultrasound is that of multinodular involvement or, less frequently, of contiguous involvement from retroperitoneal adenopathy in an isolate nodular or tumoral form or in an infiltrating form. The lesions are most often bilateral and involve the lymph nodes, the liver and/or the spleen, especially when the tumor is a metastasis. Lymphoma in the excreting cavities of the bladder is much less frequent. The frequent stasis does no allow obtaining satisfactory urograms for the exploration of the ureters, so that antegrade or retrograde pyelography is often necessary. The lesions of the bladder are well demonstrated by ultrasound and CT exploration. The metastases of lymphoma in the urinary tract are most frequently located in the kidneys, and represent the most frequent malignant kidney tumors. They are often non recognized clinically since they occur at late stages in cancer evolution. Their usual appearance with ultrasound and CT is that of multiple solid-type tumors. Metastases in the excreting cavities of the bladder are very rare [fr

  4. Urinary Tract Infection Antibiotic Trial Study Design: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basmaci, Romain; Vazouras, Konstantinos; Bielicki, Julia; Folgori, Laura; Hsia, Yingfen; Zaoutis, Theoklis; Sharland, Mike

    2017-12-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) represent common bacterial infections in children. No guidance on the conduct of pediatric febrile UTI clinical trials (CTs) exist. To assess the criteria used for patient selection and the efficacy end points in febrile pediatric UTI CTs. Medline, Embase, Cochrane central databases, and clinicaltrials.gov were searched between January 1, 1990, and November 24, 2016. We combined Medical Subject Headings terms and free-text terms for "urinary tract infections" and "therapeutics" and "clinical trials" in children (0-18 years), identifying 3086 articles. Two independent reviewers assessed study quality and performed data extraction. We included 40 CTs in which a total of 4381 cases of pediatric UTIs were investigated. Positive urine culture results and fever were the most common inclusion criteria (93% and 78%, respectively). Urine sampling method, pyuria, and colony thresholds were highly variable. Clinical and microbiological end points were assessed in 88% and 93% of the studies, respectively. Timing for end point assessment was highly variable, and only 3 studies (17%) out of the 18 performed after the Food and Drug Administration 1998 guidance publication assessed primary and secondary end points consistently with this guidance. Our limitations included a mixed population of healthy children and children with an underlying condition. In 6 trials, researchers studied a subgroup of patients with afebrile UTI. We observed a wide variability in the microbiological inclusion criteria and the timing for end point assessment. The available guidance for adults appear not to be used by pediatricians and do not seem applicable to the childhood UTI. A harmonized design for pediatric UTIs CT is necessary. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Language, aging, and cognition: frontal aslant tract and superior longitudinal fasciculus contribute toward working memory performance in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizio, Avery A; Diaz, Michele T

    2016-06-15

    Previous research has documented change in white matter tract integrity with increasing age. Both interhemispheric and intrahemispheric tracts that underlie language processing are susceptible to these age-related changes. The aim of the current study was to explore age and white matter integrity in language-related tracts as predictors of cognitive task performance in younger and older adults. To this end, we carried out principal component analyses of white matter tracts and confirmatory factor analysis of neuropsychological measures. We next carried out a series of regression analyses that used white matter components to predict scores on each of the neuropsychological components. For both younger and older adults, age was a significant predictor of processing speed and working memory. However, white matter integrity did not contribute independently toward these models. In older adults only, both age and a white matter component that included the bilateral frontal aslant tract and left superior longitudinal fasciculus were significant predictors of working memory. Taken together, these results extend our understanding of the contributions of language-related white matter structure to cognitive processing and highlight the effects of age-related differences in both frontal and dorsal tracts.

  6. Flexible Vesiculovasoscopy Using a Microoptical System in a Human Cadaver Model: An Experimental Approach for Atraumatic Endoscopy of the Seminal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlager, Daniel; Maas, Moritz; Hein, Simon; Adams, Fabian; Schoenthaler, Martin; Wetterauer, Ulrich; Diemer, Thorsten; Weidner, Wolfgang; Miernik, Arkadiusz

    2016-08-01

    The most common pathologies of the seminal tract are persistent hematospermia, seminal vesicle stones, and seminal duct obstruction. Endoscopic diagnostic work-up of the seminal tract is impeded by complex anatomy and lack of technical equipment. To date, there is no standardized endoscopic approach. The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability and feasibility of a flexible microoptical device for atraumatic endoscopy of the seminal tract in a male human cadaver. The transurethral endoscopic examination was performed on a male cadaver. No premortal interventions or diseases of the genitourinary tract had been reported. The seminal orifice was identified via cystoscopy and accessed by the Seldinger technique using a hydrophilic guidewire and ureteral catheter. Retrograde endoscopic inspection of the distal seminal tract was performed using a miniaturized flexible endoscope. An antegrade endoscopic inspection of the seminal tract was carried out via high scrotal access to the vas deferens. Structures of the seminal tract, such as the ejaculatory duct, seminal vesicles, and distal portion of the ductus deferentes, were visualized using the miniaturized endoscope. Image quality allowed identification of anatomical structures and characterization of tissue properties. The technical limitations we observed involved the system's maneuverability. Initial results of this novel endoscopic approach to the seminal tract using a flexible microoptical system are encouraging. However, considerable anatomical limitations of the targeted organs necessitate further refinements of the technical equipment. This approach might improve diagnostics and treatment of genitourinary diseases. Future surgical techniques may include intraseminal laser therapy or endoocclusion to monitor fertility in men.

  7. Rhinovirus genome variation during chronic upper and lower respiratory tract infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Tapparel

    Full Text Available Routine screening of lung transplant recipients and hospital patients for respiratory virus infections allowed to identify human rhinovirus (HRV in the upper and lower respiratory tracts, including immunocompromised hosts chronically infected with the same strain over weeks or months. Phylogenetic analysis of 144 HRV-positive samples showed no apparent correlation between a given viral genotype or species and their ability to invade the lower respiratory tract or lead to protracted infection. By contrast, protracted infections were found almost exclusively in immunocompromised patients, thus suggesting that host factors rather than the virus genotype modulate disease outcome, in particular the immune response. Complete genome sequencing of five chronic cases to study rhinovirus genome adaptation showed that the calculated mutation frequency was in the range observed during acute human infections. Analysis of mutation hot spot regions between specimens collected at different times or in different body sites revealed that non-synonymous changes were mostly concentrated in the viral capsid genes VP1, VP2 and VP3, independent of the HRV type. In an immunosuppressed lung transplant recipient infected with the same HRV strain for more than two years, both classical and ultra-deep sequencing of samples collected at different time points in the upper and lower respiratory tracts showed that these virus populations were phylogenetically indistinguishable over the course of infection, except for the last month. Specific signatures were found in the last two lower respiratory tract populations, including changes in the 5'UTR polypyrimidine tract and the VP2 immunogenic site 2. These results highlight for the first time the ability of a given rhinovirus to evolve in the course of a natural infection in immunocompromised patients and complement data obtained from previous experimental inoculation studies in immunocompetent volunteers.

  8. Cleavage/alteration of interleukin-8 by matrix metalloproteinase-9 in the female lower genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zariffard, M Reza; Anastos, Kathryn; French, Audrey L; Munyazesa, Elisaphane; Cohen, Mardge; Landay, Alan L; Spear, Gregory T

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8, CXCL8) plays important roles in immune responses at mucosal sites including in the lower genital tract. Since several types of bacteria produce proteases that cleave IL-8 and many types of bacteria can be present in lower genital tract microbiota, we assessed genital fluids for IL-8 cleavage/alteration. Genital fluids collected by lavage from 200 women (23 HIV-seronegative and 177 HIV-seropositive) were tested for IL-8 cleavage/alteration by ELISA. IL-8 cleaving/altering activity was observed in fluids from both HIV-positive (28%) and HIV-negative women (35%). There was no clear relationship between the activity and the types of bacteria present in the lower genital tract as determined by high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Protease inhibitors specific for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) reduced the activity and a multiplex assay that detects both inactive and active MMPs showed the presence of multiple MMPs, including MMP-1, -3, -7, -8, -9, -10 and -12 in genital secretions from many of the women. The IL-8-cleaving/altering activity significantly correlated with active MMP-9 as well as with cleavage of a substrate that is acted on by several active MMPs. These studies show that multiple MMPs are present in the genital tract of women and strongly suggest that MMP-9 in genital secretions can cleave IL-8 at this mucosal site. These studies suggest that MMP-mediated cleavage of IL-8 can modulate inflammatory responses in the lower genital tract.

  9. Baseline Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Patients Enrolled in LURN: A Prospective, Observational Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Anne P; Lewicky-Gaupp, Christina; Smith, Abigail R; Helfand, Brian T; Gore, John L; Clemens, J Quentin; Yang, Claire C; Siddiqui, Nazema Y; Lai, H Henry; Griffith, James W; Andreev, Victor P; Liu, Gang; Weinfurt, Kevin; Amundsen, Cindy L; Bradley, Catherine S; Kusek, John W; Kirkali, Ziya

    2018-04-01

    We described and compared the frequency and type of lower urinary tract symptoms reported by men and women at the time that they were recruited from urology and urogynecology clinics into the Symptoms of Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction Research Network multicenter, prospective, observational cohort study. At 6 research sites treatment seeking men and women were enrolled who reported any lower urinary tract symptoms at a frequency more than rarely during the last month on the LUTS (Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms) Tool. At baseline the study participants underwent a standardized clinical evaluation and completed validated questionnaires. Urological tests were performed, including pelvic/rectal examination, post-void residual urine measurement and urinalysis. A total of 545 women and 519 men were enrolled in the study. Mean ± SD age was 58.8 ± 14.1 years. At baseline nocturia, frequency and a sensation of incomplete emptying were similar in men and women but men experienced more voiding symptoms (90% vs 85%, p = 0.007) and women reported more urgency (85% vs 66%, p urinary incontinence than men (82% vs 51% p urinary incontinence, including post-void dribbling in 44% and urgency incontinence in 46%. Older participants had higher odds of reporting symptoms of nocturia and urgency. In this large, treatment seeking cohort of men and women lower urinary tract symptoms varied widely by gender and age. Men reported more voiding symptoms and nonstress or urgency urinary incontinence while women reported more incontinence overall and urgency. Older participants had greater odds of urgency and nocturia. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the gastrointestinal tract in clinically normal alpacas and llamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieger-Vanegas, Susanne M; Cebra, Christopher K

    2013-01-15

    To assess the feasibility and usefulness of CT enterography to evaluate the gastrointestinal tract in clinically normal llamas and alpacas. Prospective observational study. 7 clinically normal alpacas and 8 clinically normal llamas. The imaging protocol included orogastric administration of iodinated contrast material mixed with water. Three hours later, helical CT scanning was performed of the entire abdomen with transverse and multiplanar sagittal and dorsal projections before and after IV iodinated contrast agent injection. Both oral and IV contrast agents were well tolerated, and no adverse reactions were observed. Transverse images depicted the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas in the short axis; however, dorsal and sagittal projections aided in localizing and differentiating the various gastrointestinal segments, including the pancreas. In all camelids, the wall of the gastrointestinal tract was well differentiated. In all but 2 camelids, all gastrointestinal segments were well visualized and differentiated. In those 2 animals, the cecum was difficult to identify. Good distention of the small intestine was achieved by use of the oral contrast agent. The dorsal projections were useful to identify the pancreas in its entire length. The present study supplied new information about gastrointestinal wall thickness, intestinal diameter, and location of the pancreas and ileocecocolic junction in alpacas and llamas. Multiplanar contrast-enhanced CT was useful to reveal the various segments of the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and abdominal lymph nodes. The shorter time delay before imaging, compared with the delay with conventional barium studies, makes this technique complementary or superior to conventional radiographic or ultrasonographic studies for evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract.

  11. Genital tract morphometry and haematology of male rabbits fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genital tract morphometry and haematology of male rabbits fed graded levels of cassava leaf meal. ... It was concluded that the inclusion of up to 27% of CLM in bucks' diets is not detrimental to good health and normal reproductive tract development. It is recommended that further studies on the feeding potentials of ...

  12. Urinary tract infections in women with urogynaecological symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakeman, Marielle M. E.; Roovers, Jan-Paul W. R.

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are common in the field of urogynaecology. Women with persistent urinary symptoms seem more likely to have bacteriuria despite negative cultures. In this review, we will give an overview of the recent insights on the relationship between urinary tract infection and

  13. Contrast media for radiological examination in gastrointestinal tract leakage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.Z. Ginai (Abida)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this investigation has been to find a safe and suitable contrast medium for radiological evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract in cases where leakage outside the GIT can be suspected. Leakage outside the gastro-intestinal tract lumen can occur in many ways eg.,

  14. The Frequency and Pattern of Female Genital Tract Malignancies at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Female genital tract malignancy is common in our low resource setting. Options now exist for prevention, detection, treatment, and palliative care for the wide spectrum of female genital tract malignancies. Women will continue to die from these cancers unless health professionals and civil society adopt means ...

  15. Anatomy and histology of the lower urinary tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pradidarcheep, Wisuit; Wallner, Christian; Dabhoiwala, Noshir F.; Lamers, Wouter H.

    2011-01-01

    The function of the lower urinary tract is basically storage of urine in the bladder and the at-will periodic evacuation of the stored urine. Urinary incontinence is one of the most common lower urinary tract disorders in adults, but especially in the elderly female. The urethra, its sphincters, and

  16. Anatomical studies of the gastrointestinal tract of the striped sand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out on the gross anatomical, morphometric features and histology of the gastrointestinal tract of the Striped Sand Snake (Psammophis sibilans). Ten snakes (five males and five females) were euthanized and dissected for the study. The gastrointestinal tract appeared as a straight tubular organ from oral ...

  17. Cranberry for Urinary Tract Infection: From Bench to Bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Sureda, Antoni; Daglia, Maria; Izadi, Morteza; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are common infectious diseases which can occur in any part of the urinary tract such as bladder, kidney, ureters, and urethra. They are commonly caused by bacteria that enter through the urethra. Urinary tract infections commonly develop in the bladder and spread to renal tissues. Up to now, there are different antimicrobial agents which have beneficial role on urinary tract infections. However, most of them cause different adverse effects and therefore, much attention has been paid to the search for effective therapeutic agents with negligible adverse effects. Cranberry is known as one of the most important edible plants, which possesses potent antimicrobial effects against the bacteria responsible for urinary tract infections. Growing evidence has shown that cranberry suppresses urinary tract infections and eradicates the bacteria. Therefore, the aim of this study is to critically review the available literature regarding the antimicrobial activities of cranberry against urinary tract infection microorganisms. In addition, we discuss etiology, epidemiology, risk factors, and current drugs of urinary tract infections to provide a more complete picture of this disease.

  18. Bacterial Uropathogens in Urinary Tract Infection and Antibiotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections encountered by clinicians in developing countries. Area-specific monitoring studies aimed to gain knowledge about the type of pathogens responsible for urinary tract infections and their resistance patterns may help the clinician to ...

  19. Female genital tract cancers in Sagamu, southwest, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To describe pattern of female genital tract cancers seen at Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital (OOUTH), Sagamu, Nigeria. Design: This is a retrospective review of all cases of female genital tract cancers managed at the Gynaecology department of OOUTH, Sagamu, Nigeria. Setting: OOUTH is a ...

  20. Vocal Tract Images Reveal Neural Representations of Sensorimotor Transformation During Speech Imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Daniel; Miquel, Marc E.; Evans, Bronwen G.; Adank, Patti; McGettigan, Carolyn

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Imitating speech necessitates the transformation from sensory targets to vocal tract motor output, yet little is known about the representational basis of this process in the human brain. Here, we address this question by using real-time MR imaging (rtMRI) of the vocal tract and functional MRI (fMRI) of the brain in a speech imitation paradigm. Participants trained on imitating a native vowel and a similar nonnative vowel that required lip rounding. Later, participants imitated these vowels and an untrained vowel pair during separate fMRI and rtMRI runs. Univariate fMRI analyses revealed that regions including left inferior frontal gyrus were more active during sensorimotor transformation (ST) and production of nonnative vowels, compared with native vowels; further, ST for nonnative vowels activated somatomotor cortex bilaterally, compared with ST of native vowels. Using test representational similarity analysis (RSA) models constructed from participants’ vocal tract images and from stimulus formant distances, we found that RSA searchlight analyses of fMRI data showed either type of model could be represented in somatomotor, temporal, cerebellar, and hippocampal neural activation patterns during ST. We thus provide the first evidence of widespread and robust cortical and subcortical neural representation of vocal tract and/or formant parameters, during prearticulatory ST. PMID:28334401

  1. [Recurrent urinary tract infection due to enterovesical fistula secondary to colon diverticular disease: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Natália Silva; da Silva, Lorena Luryann Cartaxo; da Silva, Leonardo Sales; da Fonseca, Luiz Antonio Cavalcante; Alexandre, Cristianne da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Enterovesical fistula are pathological connections between the bladder and pelvic intestinal segments. It consists of a rare complication of neoplastic and inflammatory pelvic disorders, in addition to iatrogenic or traumatic injuries, and correlates with both high morbidity and mortality indexes. Male patient, 61 years old, admitted at the hospital clinics featuring abdominal pain and distension, vomiting and fecal retention. Patient's pathological precedents include high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, vesical dysfunction and recurrent urinary tract infection on the past three years. Magnetic resonance imaging of abdomen and pelvis revealed enterovesical fistula in association with colon diverticular disease of the sigmoid. Management of choice consisted of partial colectomy with bowel lowering and partial cystectomy with surgical double-J stent insertion. Although consisting of a gastrointestinal primary affection, patients with enterovesical fistula usually search for medical help charging urinary tract features. In this particular case, our patient was admitted with gastrointestinal symptoms, reasoned by diagnostic delay, as the patient had already attended at multiple centers with urinary symptoms. Despite being an unusual affection, recurrent urinary tract infection associated with colon diverticular disease must always be considered at differential diagnosis of recurrent urinary tract infection as it concurs with high morbidity and mortality.

  2. EOSINOPHILIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASES OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AND FOOD ALLERGY AMONG CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. Shumilov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the structure of the inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract among children, one may single out a specific group of the chronic pathology of the digestive apparatus — eosinophilic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and gastroenterological manifestations of the food allergy. The food allergy is characterized by the pathologic immune reactivity among commonly genetically predisposed people. Depending on the peculiarities of the immune reactivity of a sick person and the nature of the allergen, the allergic reaction may evolve with primary involvement of the different mechanisms or th2 IgE-mediated, or Th1 non-igecmediated. Clinical picture of the food allergy is the manifestation of the immunoinflammatory process caused by the interaction of the food antigens with the structures of the lymphoid tissues associated with the mucous membranes of this or that target organ. The morphological basis of the clinical picture is mostly immune inflammation with primarily eosinophilic tissue infiltration. The eosinophilic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract include eosinophilic esophagitis, eosinophilic gastroenteritis, eosinophilic enteritis, eosinophilic colitis, eosinophilic proctitis and other states. During the food allergy each of the clinical forms of the gastrointestinal tract lesion has its own peculiarities with regards to the primary development mechanism, age of manifestation, character of the run and behaviour tactics.Key words: eosinophilic inflammation, esophagitis, gastroenteritis, colitis, food allergy.

  3. Managing therapeutic competition in patients with heart failure, lower urinary tract symptoms and incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Cara; Johnell, Kristina

    2014-02-01

    Up to 50% of heart failure patients suffer from lower urinary tract symptoms. Urinary incontinence has been associated with worse functional status in patients with heart failure, occurring three times more frequently in patients with New York Heart Association Class III and IV symptoms compared with those with milder disease. The association between heart failure and urinary symptoms may be directly attributable to worsening heart failure pathophysiology; however, medications used to treat heart failure may also indirectly provoke or exacerbate urinary symptoms. This type of drug-disease interaction, in which the treatment for heart failure precipitates incontinence, and removal of medications to relieve incontinence worsens heart failure, can be termed therapeutic competition. The mechanisms by which heart failure medication such as diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and β-blockers aggravate lower urinary tract symptoms are discussed. Initiation of a prescribing cascade, whereby antimuscarinic agents or β3-agonists are added to treat symptoms of urinary urgency and incontinence, is best avoided. Recommendations and practical tips are provided that outline more judicious management of heart failure patients with lower urinary tract symptoms. Compelling strategies to improve urinary outcomes include titrating diuretics, switching ACE inhibitors, treating lower urinary tract infections, appropriate fluid management, daily weighing, and uptake of pelvic floor muscle exercises.

  4. International urinary tract imaging basic spinal cord injury data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biering-Sørensen, F; Craggs, M; Kennelly, M; Schick, E; Wyndaele, J-J

    2009-05-01

    To create an International Urinary Tract Imaging Basic Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Data Set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets. An international working group. The draft of the Data Set was developed by a working group comprising members appointed by the Neurourology Committee of the International Continence Society, the European Association of Urology, the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA), the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) and a representative of the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets. The final version of the Data Set was developed after review and comments by members of the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets, the ISCoS Scientific Committee, ASIA Board, relevant and interested international organizations and societies (around 40), individual persons with specific expertise and the ISCoS Council. Endorsement of the Data Sets by relevant organizations and societies will be obtained. To make the Data Set uniform, each variable and each response category within each variable have been specifically defined in a way that is designed to promote the collection and reporting of comparable minimal data. The variables included in the International Urinary Tract Imaging Basic SCI Data Set are the results obtained using the following investigations: intravenous pyelography or computer tomography urogram or ultrasound, X-ray, renography, clearance, cystogram, voiding cystogram or micturition cystourogram or videourodynamics. The complete instructions for data collection and the data sheet itself are freely available on the websites of both ISCoS (http://www.iscos.org.uk) and ASIA (http://www.asia-spinalinjury.org).

  5. Urinary tract infections in extended care facilities: preventive management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regal, Randolph E; Pham, Co Q D; Bostwick, Thomas R

    2006-05-01

    To provide health care professionals with an overview of interventions that may be done to reduce the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in elderly patients, especially those residing in extended care facilities. A Medline search of the English literature was performed from 1980 to January 2006 to find literature relevant to urinary tract prophylaxis. Further references were hand-searched from relevant sources. When assessing the effectiveness of various clinical interventions for reducing the incidence of UTIs in the elderly, preference was given to more recent, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized studies, but studies of less robust design also were included in the discussions when the former were lacking. Where possible, recent publications were favored over older studies. References were all reviewed by the authors and chosen to present key citations. Data selection was prioritized to address specific subtopics. Though still frequent in occurrence and quite costly in terms of morbidity, mortality, and cost to the health care system, numerous measures may be taken to ameliorate the incidence of UTIs in elderly, institutionalized residents. First and foremost, establishing and adhering to good infection-control practices by health care givers and minimizing the use of indwelling catheters are essential. Adequate staffing and training are germane to this effort. Reasonably well-designed clinical studies also give credence to the use of topical estrogens and lactobacillus "probiotics" for female subgroups and cranberry juice for a wider array of patients. Vitamin C is of no proven benefit. With regard to antibiotics, with the relative paucity of data available for this patient population, concerns for resistance proliferation must be balanced against perceived gains in UTI reduction.

  6. Upper tract urothelial carcinomas: frequency of association with mismatch repair protein loss and lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Holly L; McKenney, Jesse K; Heald, Brandie; Stephenson, Andrew; Campbell, Steven C; Plesec, Thomas; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Increased risk for upper tract urothelial carcinoma is described in patients with Lynch syndrome, caused by germline mutations in mismatch repair genes. We aimed to identify the frequency of mismatch repair protein loss in upper tract urothelial carcinoma and its potential for identifying an association with Lynch syndrome. We queried our database to identify upper tract urothelial carcinomas. Patients were cross-referenced for history of colorectal carcinoma or other common Lynch syndrome-associated neoplasms to enrich for potential Lynch syndrome cases. Tumor histopathologic characteristics were reviewed and each case was analyzed for loss of mismatch repair proteins, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2, by immunohistochemistry. Of 444 patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma, a subset of 215 (encompassing 30 with upper tract urothelial carcinoma and another common Lynch syndrome-associated neoplasm) was analyzed for loss of mismatch repair protein expression. Of 30 patients with Lynch syndrome-associated neoplasms, six had documented Lynch syndrome, including two with Muir-Torre syndrome. Mismatch repair protein loss was identified in 7% of total upper tract urothelial carcinomas and 30% of patients with Lynch syndrome-associated neoplasms (including all patients with Lynch syndrome/Muir-Torre syndrome). Of patients without history of Lynch syndrome-associated neoplasms, 5 of 184 (2.7%) had loss of mismatch repair protein expression. Twelve cases with mismatch repair protein loss demonstrated loss of MSH2 and MSH6, and 2 had isolated loss of MSH6. MLH1 and PMS2 expression were consistently retained. Although increased intratumoral lymphocytes, inverted growth, pushing tumor-stromal interface, and lack of nuclear pleomorphism were more commonly seen in cases with mismatch repair protein loss, only intratumoral lymphocytes and presence of pushing borders were statistically significant. MLH1 and PMS2 testing appear to have little utility in upper tract urothelial

  7. [Upper respiratory tract infections and sports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffi El Amari, Emmanuelle

    2010-08-11

    Upper respiratory tract infections are frequent in athletes. Mainly of viral origin, they are treated symptomatically. Infectious mononucleosis is associated with an estimated 2% per hundred risk of splenic rupture, which occurs between day four and twenty one of the illness. Therefore return to play guidelines recommend avoiding, exercice during the first twenty one days. Physical exercise seems to influence the immune system, depending on the intensity and length of it. But the relationship between physical exercise and risk of infections remains controversial: some articles showing an increase in risk, whereas others suggesting a certain degree of protection, in athletes. The actual generally accepted working theory is the J-curve proposed by Nieman. This model remains to be formally proven.

  8. Urinary tract infections in the infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Mehreen; Seed, Patrick C

    2015-03-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) in an infant may be the first indication of an underlying renal disorder. Early recognition and initiation of adequate therapy for UTI is important to reduce the risk of long-term renal scarring. Ampicillin and gentamicin are traditionally the empiric treatment of choice; however, local antibiotic resistance patterns should be considered. Maternal antibiotics during pregnancy also increase the risk of resistant pathogens during neonatal UTI. Long-term management after the first UTI in infants remains controversial because of lack of specific studies in this age group and the risk-benefit issues for antibiotic prophylaxis between reduced recurrent disease and emergent antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hepatic echinococcosis ruptured into the biliary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Steenbergen, W.; Fevery, J.; Broeckaert, L.; Ponette, E.; Marchal, G.; Baert, A.; Penninckx, F.; Kerremans, R.; De Groote, J.

    1987-01-01

    Three patients are described with hepatic involvement by Echinococcus granulosus, complicated by spontaneous rupture into the biliary tract. Abdominal computed tomography, showing the cystic wall, the presence of wall calcifications, daughter cysts and wall enhancement, provided a correct diagnosis of hepatic hydatidosis in all patients. Dilatation of the bile ducts with the presence of intraluminal material was clearly shown by sonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. On sonography, the intraluminal material appeared as amorphous, sludge-like hydatid sand, and as daughter cysts. On ERCP, the intrabiliary parasitic material appeared as non-homogeneous, irregularly shaped and mobile filling defects. Other findings at ERCP were displacement and distortion of intrahepatic bile ducts by the hepatic cysts and a mild dilatation of the pancreatic duct. (Auth.)

  10. Antibiotic Resistance in Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stultz, Jeremy S; Doern, Christopher D; Godbout, Emily

    2016-12-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common problem in pediatric patients. Resistance to common antibiotic agents appears to be increasing over time, although resistance rates may vary based on geographic region or country. Prior antibiotic exposure is a pertinent risk factor for acquiring resistant organisms during a first UTI and recurrent UTI. Judicious prescribing of antibiotics for common pediatric conditions is needed to prevent additional resistance from occurring. Complex pediatric patients with histories of hospitalizations, prior antibiotic exposure, and recurrent UTIs are also at high risk for acquiring UTIs due to extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing organisms. Data regarding the impact of in vitro antibiotic susceptibility testing interpretation on UTI treatment outcomes is lacking.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of the genitourinary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strake, L. te; Persijn van Meerten, E.L. van; Trimbos, J.B.M.Z.; Paul, L.C.; Langeveld, J.W.; Bloem, J.L.; Bluemm, R.G.; Doornbos, J.

    1986-01-01

    This is an overview of the current applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the genitourinary tract based on the experience with the 0.5-Tesla MR scanner (Gyroscan, Philips) at the Leiden University Hospital and on reports in the literature. MRI appears to share some of the limitations of CT. MRI cannot reliably differentiate between a malignant and a benign tumor. In the staging of ovarian malignancies by means of MRI, bowel preparation would be desirable. On the other hand, the soft-tissue contrast resolution of MRI is superior to that of CT and images can be obtained in any plane. Thus MRI promises to be an accurate method for staging malignancies. The results in the examination of transplant kidneys are encouraging. It is expected that there will be a place for MRI as a complementary technique to ultrasonography in the diagnosis of scrotal disease. (Auth.)

  12. Novel management of urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Douglas W; Patel, Ashay S; Koff, Stephen A; Justice, Sheryl S

    2011-07-01

    To highlight observations that have suggested the need for changing the conventional approach to the evaluation and management of urinary tract infections (UTIs) and vesicoureteral reflux in children and examine new alternative approaches to prevention of UTI and renal scarring based on research into host-pathogen interaction. Recent studies have questioned the traditional approach of using prophylactic antibiotics to prevent recurrence of UTI and development of renal scarring in children with vesicoureteral reflux. Ongoing research on host-pathogen interactions reveals a promising capability to analyze virulence factors in bacteria causing UTIs in children, identify highly virulent bacteria capable of causing pyelonephritis and renal injury, and to selectively target the gastrointestinal reservoirs of these bacteria for elimination using probiotics. Promising experimental studies correlating bacterial virulence with pattern of UTI and identification and characterization of a newly available probiotic capable of eradicating uropathogenic bacteria make targeted probiotic prevention of renal injury-inducing UTIs a potential therapeutic reality.

  13. Vocal tract dynamics in an adult stutterer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Wolk

    1981-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was motivated by the clinical observation of "laryngeal spasms" during dysfluency in an adult female  stutterer. The flexible fiberoptic nasolaryngoscope was employed in an attempt to assess this phenomenon objectively. Findings from fiberscopic and spectrographic investigations provided evidence for a disturbance in laryngeal behaviour, and in turn served to determine the nature of the treatment programme. Asymmetry of the vocal folds  and partial abductory laryngeal behaviour, reflecting  a conflict between adductory and abductory forces, characterized the dysfluency  in this patient. A subjective evaluation after treatment revealed a reduction in both severity and frequency of stuttering behaviour. Furthermore, fiberscopic examination carried out after treatment revealed an absence of the laryngeal disturbances noted previously. Results are considered in terms of vocal tract dynamics in stuttering and its clinical applicability.

  14. Epidemiology of urinary tract infections in Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, L R; Phair, J P; Seki, Masafumi; Hamilton, H B; Nefzger, M D

    1964-08-19

    The present study was conducted at ABCC on a sample of Hiroshima residents systematically seleced for determining the influence on general health status of exposure to the atomic bomb of 1945. A survey for urinary infections was taken on persons in the sample examined in the ABCC clinic over a 1-year period: approximately 3000 women and 2000 men. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of urinary infection and to study the relation between bacteriuria and various aspects of the general examination, particularly blood pressure. In addition, the rates of urinary tract infection in the clinic were compared with the rates of chronic pyelonephritis at autopsy. Results showed that infections were much more common in women than in men and rose with age in both sexes. The greatest increase in the prevalence was found in women age 60 years and over was due to coliform bacteria in all but a few instances. There was no difference in hematuria, glycosuria, diabetes, serum cholesterol, blood groups, electrocardiograms, audiometry, vibrometry, hemoglobin levels or height-weight ratios. Blood pressure is higher in infected women as compared with noninfected women and the finding of higher rates for cardiac enlargement suggests that this small difference in blood pressures may have biological significance. However, the data do not permit a conclusion as to whether the urinary infections were responsible for the higher blood pressure levels, or whether the higher blood pressure levels increased the frequency of detectable infection. The difference between the clinical rates of urinary infection in men and women, and the pathological diagnosis of pyelonephritis in the same population, supports a previous suggestion that much of what is called pyelonephritis at autopsy is not due to urinary tract infection. 27 references, 2 figures, 10 tables.

  15. Oncolytic virotherapy in upper gastrointestinal tract cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoda R

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Raquel Yokoda,1 Bolni M Nagalo,1 Mansi Arora,1 Jan B Egan,1 James M Bogenberger,1 Thomas T DeLeon,1 Yumei Zhou,1 Daniel H Ahn,1 Mitesh J Borad1–3 1Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ, 2Department of Molecular Medicine, Center for Individualized Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, 3Department of Oncology, Mayo Clinic Cancer Center, Phoenix, AZ, USA Abstract: Upper gastrointestinal tract malignancies are among the most challenging cancers with regard to response to treatment and prognosis. Cancers of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, liver, and biliary tree have dismal 5-year survival, and very modest improvements in this rate have been made in recent times. Oncolytic viruses are being developed to address these malignancies, with a focus on high safety profiles and low off-target toxicities. Each viral platform has evolved to enhance oncolytic potency and the clinical response to either single-agent viral therapy or combined viral treatment with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. A panel of genomic alterations, chimeric proteins, and pseudotyped capsids are the breakthroughs for vector success. This article revisits developments for each viral platform to each tumor type, in an attempt to achieve maximum tumor selectivity. From the bench to clinical trials, the scope of this review is to highlight the beginnings of translational oncolytic virotherapy research in upper gastrointestinal tract malignancies and provide a bioengineering perspective of the most promising platforms. Keywords: oncolytic viruses, hepatopancreatobiliary, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, liver cancer, biliary cancer

  16. Prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenlehner, F M E; Vahlensieck, W; Bauer, H W; Weidner, W; Piechota, H J; Naber, K G

    2013-03-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most frequent bacterial infections in the community and health care setting. Mostly young and, to some extent, postmenopausal women are affected by recurrent UTI (rUTI) defined as ≥3 UTI/year or ≥2 UTI/half year. In contrast, rUTI is rare in healthy men. On the other hand, rUTI are frequently found in female and male patients with complicating urological factors, e.g. urinary catheters, infection stones. Remediable predisposing factors in uncomplicated rUTI in women are rare. In complicated rUTI the success depends mainly on the possibility to eliminate or at leastimprove the complicating risk factors. Continuous antibiotic prophylaxis or postcoital prophylaxis, if there is close correlation with sexual intercourse, are most effective to prevent rUTI. Nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim (or cotrimoxazole), and fosfomycin trometamol are available as first-line drugs. Oral cephalosporins and quinolones should be restricted to specific indications. Antibiotic prophylaxis reduces the number of uropathogens in the gut and/or vaginal flora and reduces bacterial "fitness". Given the correct indication, the recurrence rate of rUTI can be reduced by about 90%. Due to possible adverse events and the concern of selecting resistant pathogens, according to the guidelines of the European Association of Urology antimicrobial prophylaxis should be considered only after counselling, behavioural modification and non-antimicrobial measures have been attempted. In postmenopausal patients vaginal substitution of oestriol should be started first. Oral or parenteral immunoprophylaxis is another option in patients with rUTI. Other possibilities with varying scientific evidence are prophylaxis with cranberry products, specific plant combinations or probiotics. The prophylaxis of catheter-associated UTI should employ strategies which result in a reduction of frequency and duration of catheter drainage of the urinary tract. The currently available

  17. Dependence of paracentric inversion rate on tract length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    York, Thomas L; Durrett, Rick; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We develop a Bayesian method based on MCMC for estimating the relative rates of pericentric and paracentric inversions from marker data from two species. The method also allows estimation of the distribution of inversion tract lengths. RESULTS: We apply the method to data from...... Drosophila melanogaster and D. yakuba. We find that pericentric inversions occur at a much lower rate compared to paracentric inversions. The average paracentric inversion tract length is approx. 4.8 Mb with small inversions being more frequent than large inversions.If the two breakpoints defining...... a paracentric inversion tract are uniformly and independently distributed over chromosome arms there will be more short tract-length inversions than long; we find an even greater preponderance of short tract lengths than this would predict. Thus there appears to be a correlation between the positions...

  18. The innate immune response during urinary tract infection and pyelonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, John David; Schwaderer, Andrew L; Becknell, Brian; Watson, Joshua; Hains, David S

    2014-07-01

    Despite its proximity to the fecal flora, the urinary tract is considered sterile. The precise mechanisms by which the urinary tract maintains sterility are not well understood. Host immune responses are critically important in the antimicrobial defense of the urinary tract. During recent years, considerable advances have been made in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying immune homeostasis of the kidney and urinary tract. Dysfunctions in these immune mechanisms may result in acute disease, tissue destruction and overwhelming infection. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the innate immune response in the urinary tract in response to microbial assault. In doing so, we focus on the role of antimicrobial peptides-a ubiquitous component of the innate immune response.

  19. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  20. Pituitary apoplexy with optic tract oedema and haemorrhage in a patient with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenthall, R.; Jaspan, T.

    2001-01-01

    Bilateral optic tract oedema, left optic tract haemorrhage and subarachnoid haemorrhage occurred in a 70-year-old man with pituitary apoplexy associated with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Left optic tract haemorrhage was confirmed on MRI. (orig.)

  1. Cutaneous sinus tracts (or emerging sinus tracts of odontogenic origin: a report of 3 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald S Brown

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Ronald S Brown1, Robert Jones2, Tawana Feimster3, Frances E Sam21Department of Oral Diagnostic Services, Howard University College of Dentistry, Washington, DC, USA; 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Howard University College of Dentistry, Washington, DC, USA; 3Department of Endodontics, Howard University College of Dentistry, Washington, DC, USAAbstract: Three cases are presented in which patients presented with either cutaneous swelling or cutaneous sinus tracts of odontogenic origin. A cutaneous sinus tract of odontogenic origin is a pathway through the alveolar bone that typically begins at the apex of an infected tooth or of an infected portion of the dental alveolus and empties infected material (pus through the skin. Where as the more common finding of an oral fistula is a pathway from the apical periodontal area of a tooth to the surface of the oral mucous membrane, permitting the discharge of suppurative material. Diagnosis, etiology and treatment are discussed with reference to patient history, clinical examinations, imaging, and treatment perspectives.Keywords: dental abscess, fistula, cutaneous sinus tract, odotogenic infection

  2. Prevalence of upper urinary tract anomalies in hospitalized premature infants with urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachharajani, A; Vricella, G J; Najaf, T; Coplen, D E

    2015-05-01

    The 2011 American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines address imaging after initial febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) in infants >2 months of age. We sought to determine the frequency of upper urinary tract anomalies (hydronephrosis and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR)) in hospitalized premature infants with UTI. We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admissions at a tertiary care children's hospital between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2010. We queried the records for UTI, renal ultrasound (US) and voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG). We identified 3518 unique admissions. UTI occurred in 118 infants (3%). Sixty-nine (60%) had a normal US. Renal dilation was predominantly renal pelvic dilation (12%) and isolated caliectasis (22%). VUR was identified in 15 (14%) infants evaluated with a VCUG. VUR was identified in nine (12%) infants without and in seven (16%) with an abnormality on US. Reflux was identified in 7% of male and 38% of female infants with a UTI. Anatomic abnormalities of the upper urinary tract are uncommon in premature infants with a UTI that occurs during neonatal hospitalization. In concordance with the AAP guidelines, a VCUG may not be required in all NICU infants under age 2 months after a single UTI.

  3. Theory including future not excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagao, K.; Nielsen, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    We study a complex action theory (CAT) whose path runs over not only past but also future. We show that, if we regard a matrix element defined in terms of the future state at time T and the past state at time TA as an expectation value in the CAT, then we are allowed to have the Heisenberg equation......, Ehrenfest's theorem, and the conserved probability current density. In addition,we showthat the expectation value at the present time t of a future-included theory for large T - t and large t - T corresponds to that of a future-not-included theory with a proper inner product for large t - T. Hence, the CAT...

  4. Expression and antimicrobial function of beta-defensin 1 in the lower urinary tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Becknell

    Full Text Available Beta defensins (BDs are cationic peptides with antimicrobial activity that defend epithelial surfaces including the skin, gastrointestinal, and respiratory tracts. However, BD expression and function in the urinary tract are incompletely characterized. The purpose of this study was to describe Beta Defensin-1 (BD-1 expression in the lower urinary tract, regulation by cystitis, and antimicrobial activity toward uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC in vivo. Human DEFB1 and orthologous mouse Defb1 mRNA are detectable in bladder and ureter homogenates, and human BD-1 protein localizes to the urothelium. To determine the relevance of BD-1 to lower urinary tract defense in vivo, we evaluated clearance of UPEC by Defb1 knockout (Defb1(-/- mice. At 6, 18, and 48 hours following transurethral UPEC inoculation, no significant differences were observed in bacterial burden in bladders or kidneys of Defb1(-/- and wild type C57BL/6 mice. In wild type mice, bladder Defb1 mRNA levels decreased as early as two hours post-infection and reached a nadir by six hours. RT-PCR profiling of BDs identified expression of Defb3 and Defb14 mRNA in murine bladder and ureter, which encode for mBD-3 and mBD-14 protein, respectively. MBD-14 protein expression was observed in bladder urothelium following UPEC infection, and both mBD-3 and mBD-14 displayed dose-dependent bactericidal activity toward UPEC in vitro. Thus, whereas mBD-1 deficiency does not alter bladder UPEC burden in vivo, we have identified mBD-3 and mBD-14 as potential mediators of mucosal immunity in the lower urinary tract.

  5. Discrete potentials guided radiofrequency ablation for idiopathic outflow tract ventricular arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Enzhao; Xu, Gang; Liu, Tong; Ye, Lan; Zhang, Qitong; Zhao, Yanshu; Li, Guangping

    2015-03-01

    Discrete potentials (DPs) have been recorded and targeted as the site of ablation of the outflow tract arrhythmias. The aim of the present study was to investigate the significance of DPs with respect to mapping and ablation for idiopathic outflow tract premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) or ventricular tachycardias (VTs). Seventeen consecutive patients with idiopathic right or left ventricular outflow tract PVCs/VTs who underwent radiofrequency catheter ablation were included. Intracardiac electrograms during the mapping and ablation were analysed. During sinus rhythm, sharp high-frequency DPs that displayed double or multiple components were recorded following or buried in the local ventricular electrograms in all of the 17 patients, peak amplitude 0.51 ± 0.21 mV. The same potential was recorded prior to the local ventricular potential of the PVCs/VTs. Spontaneous reversal of the relationship of the DPs to the local ventricular electrogram during the arrhythmias was noted. The DPs were related to a region of low voltage showed by intracardiac high-density contact mapping. At the sites with DPs, lower unipolar and bipolar ventricular voltage of sinus beats were noted compared with the adjacent regions without DPs (unipolar: 6.1 ± 1.8 vs. 8.3 ± 2.3 mV, P Discrete potentials were not present in seven controls. Discrete potentials and related low-voltage regions were common in idiopathic outflow tract ventricular arrhythmias. Discrete potential- and substrate-guided ablation strategy will help to reduce the recurrence of idiopathic outflow tract arrhythmias. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. International lower urinary tract function basic spinal cord injury data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biering-Sørensen, F; Craggs, M; Kennelly, M; Schick, E; Wyndaele, J-J

    2008-05-01

    To create the International Lower Urinary Tract Function Basic Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Data Set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets. International working group. The draft of the Data Set was developed by a working group consisting of the members appointed by the International Continence Society, the European Association of Urology, the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA), the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) and a representative of the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets. The final version of the Data Set was developed after review and comments by the members of the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets, the ISCoS Scientific Committee, ASIA Board, relevant and interested (international) organizations and societies (around 40) and persons, and the ISCoS Council. Endorsement of the Data Set by relevant organizations and societies will be obtained. To make the Data Set uniform, each variable and each response category within each variable have been specifically defined in a way that is designed to promote the collection and reporting of comparable minimal data. Variables included in the International Lower Urinary Tract Function Basic SCI Data Set are as follows: date of data collection, urinary tract impairment unrelated to spinal cord lesion, awareness of the need to empty the bladder, bladder emptying, average number of voluntary bladder emptyings per day during the last week, incontinence within the last 3 months, collecting appliances for urinary incontinence, any drugs for the urinary tract within the last year, surgical procedures on the urinary tract and any change in urinary symptoms within the last year. Complete instruction for data collection, data sheet and training cases available at the website of ISCoS (www.iscos.org.uk) and ASIA (www.asia-spinalinjury.org).

  7. Hand hygiene to reduce community transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infection: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren-Gash, Charlotte; Fragaszy, Ellen; Hayward, Andrew C

    2013-09-01

    Hand hygiene may be associated with modest protection against some acute respiratory tract infections, but its specific role in influenza transmission in different settings is unclear. We aimed to review evidence that improving hand hygiene reduces primary and secondary transmission of (i) influenza and (ii) acute respiratory tract infections in community settings. We searched Medline, Embase, Global Health and Cochrane databases up to 13 February 2012 for reports in any language of original research investigating the effect of hand hygiene on influenza or acute respiratory tract infection where aetiology was unspecified in community settings including institutions such as schools, and domestic residences. Data were presented and quality rated across outcomes according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. Sixteen articles met inclusion criteria. There was moderate to low-quality evidence of a reduction in both influenza and respiratory tract infection with hand hygiene interventions in schools, greatest in a lower-middle-income setting. There was high-quality evidence of a small reduction in respiratory infection in childcare settings. There was high-quality evidence for a large reduction in respiratory infection with a hand hygiene intervention in squatter settlements in a low-income setting. There was moderate- to high-quality evidence of no effect on secondary transmission of influenza in households that had already experienced an index case. While hand hygiene interventions have potential to reduce transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infections, their effectiveness varies depending on setting, context and compliance. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Specific absorbed fractions for photons emitted in the walls of the GI tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deus, S.F.; Provenzano, V.; Snyder, W.S.

    1978-01-01

    Although the sections of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are represented as source organs in MIRD Pamphlet No. 5, the wall and contents were not separated in the model. Thus, the absorbed fractions given in that publication are perhaps more representative of the contents than of the wall. A new model is given in ORNL-5000 where the contents and the wall defined separately but only absorbed fractions (or specific absorbed fractions) are given for the source in the contents. Specific absorbed fractions for the source uniformly distributed in the wall of each of the three sections of the tract, namely, stomach, upper large intestine and lower large intestine are given. The same 12 energies are used for the sources as in the other publications and data are given for all target organs included previously. Each computer run used a sample of 60,000 photons and all calculations were done at the IEA at Sao Paulo, Brazil. When the statistics of the estimate are poor, a value obtained by use of Berger s build-up factor is substituted. Thus, a complete table of values is obtained. Activity in the walls of the tract has been reported for gallium and a check on the dose values reported by Cloutier et al. (MIRD73) reveals that the comulated activity (μCi-days) in the contents overwhelms those from the tract and the total dose from the tract and the total dose values are not greatly affected. However, differences of a factor of 2 or 3 are present when considering the contribution from activity in the walls alone

  9. Serine-rich repeat proteins and pili promote Streptococcus agalactiae colonization of the vaginal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Tamsin R; Jimenez, Alyssa; Wang, Nai-Yu; Banerjee, Anirban; van Sorge, Nina M; Doran, Kelly S

    2011-12-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) is a Gram-positive bacterium found in the female rectovaginal tract and is capable of producing severe disease in susceptible hosts, including newborns and pregnant women. The vaginal tract is considered a major reservoir for GBS, and maternal vaginal colonization poses a significant risk to the newborn; however, little is known about the specific bacterial factors that promote GBS colonization and persistence in the female reproductive tract. We have developed in vitro models of GBS interaction with the human female cervicovaginal tract using human vaginal and cervical epithelial cell lines. Analysis of isogenic mutant GBS strains deficient in cell surface organelles such as pili and serine-rich repeat (Srr) proteins shows that these factors contribute to host cell attachment. As Srr proteins are heavily glycosylated, we confirmed that carbohydrate moieties contribute to the effective interaction of Srr-1 with vaginal epithelial cells. Antibody inhibition assays identified keratin 4 as a possible host receptor for Srr-1. Our findings were further substantiated in an in vivo mouse model of GBS vaginal colonization, where mice inoculated with an Srr-1-deficient mutant exhibited decreased GBS vaginal persistence compared to those inoculated with the wild-type (WT) parental strain. Furthermore, competition experiments in mice showed that WT GBS exhibited a significant survival advantage over the ΔpilA or Δsrr-1 mutant in the vaginal tract. Our results suggest that these GBS surface proteins contribute to vaginal colonization and may offer new insights into the mechanisms of vaginal niche establishment.

  10. Serine-Rich Repeat Proteins and Pili Promote Streptococcus agalactiae Colonization of the Vaginal Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Tamsin R.; Jimenez, Alyssa; Wang, Nai-Yu; Banerjee, Anirban; van Sorge, Nina M.; Doran, Kelly S.

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) is a Gram-positive bacterium found in the female rectovaginal tract and is capable of producing severe disease in susceptible hosts, including newborns and pregnant women. The vaginal tract is considered a major reservoir for GBS, and maternal vaginal colonization poses a significant risk to the newborn; however, little is known about the specific bacterial factors that promote GBS colonization and persistence in the female reproductive tract. We have developed in vitro models of GBS interaction with the human female cervicovaginal tract using human vaginal and cervical epithelial cell lines. Analysis of isogenic mutant GBS strains deficient in cell surface organelles such as pili and serine-rich repeat (Srr) proteins shows that these factors contribute to host cell attachment. As Srr proteins are heavily glycosylated, we confirmed that carbohydrate moieties contribute to the effective interaction of Srr-1 with vaginal epithelial cells. Antibody inhibition assays identified keratin 4 as a possible host receptor for Srr-1. Our findings were further substantiated in an in vivo mouse model of GBS vaginal colonization, where mice inoculated with an Srr-1-deficient mutant exhibited decreased GBS vaginal persistence compared to those inoculated with the wild-type (WT) parental strain. Furthermore, competition experiments in mice showed that WT GBS exhibited a significant survival advantage over the ΔpilA or Δsrr-1 mutant in the vaginal tract. Our results suggest that these GBS surface proteins contribute to vaginal colonization and may offer new insights into the mechanisms of vaginal niche establishment. PMID:21984789

  11. Risk factors for febrile urinary tract infection in children with prenatal hydronephrosis: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Luis H; Farrokhyar, Forough; D'Cruz, Jennifer; Pemberton, Julia; Lorenzo, Armando J

    2015-05-01

    We prospectively investigated the impact of risk factors for febrile urinary tract infection in infants with postnatally confirmed prenatal hydronephrosis. Patients seen for prenatal hydronephrosis from 2010 to 2013 were prospectively followed. Those with ectopic ureters and ureteroceles, posterior urethral valves and neuropathic bladders were excluded. The primary outcome was febrile catheter specimen urinary tract infection. We performed univariate analysis of 7 a priori risk factors, including age, hydronephrosis grade (low-I or II vs high-III or IV), type (isolated hydronephrosis vs hydroureteronephrosis), continuous antibiotic prophylaxis, vesicoureteral reflux grade, gender and circumcision status. Time to febrile urinary tract infection curves analyzed by Cox proportional regression were generated to adjust for confounders. We collected data on 334 patients, of whom 78% were male. A febrile urinary tract infection developed in 65 patients (19%) at a median of 4 months (range 1 to 31). High grade hydronephrosis was present in 192 infants (57%). Continuous antibiotic prophylaxis was prescribed in 96 cases (29%). Of patients on continuous antibiotic prophylaxis 69% had high grade hydronephrosis. Vesicoureteral reflux was identified in 57 of 238 patients in whom voiding cystourethrogram was done. Reflux was grade I to III in 14 cases and grade IV or V in 43. Two-thirds of the patients with reflux were on continuous antibiotic prophylaxis. Circumcision was performed in 95 males (36%). Cox proportional regression identified female gender (HR 3.3, p = 0.02), uncircumcised males (HR 3.2, p = 0.02), hydroureteronephrosis (HR 10.9, p hydronephrosis was also a significant risk factor (HR 3.0, p = 0.04). After patients with vesicoureteral reflux were excluded from the study, females and uncircumcised males with high grade hydroureteronephrosis had significantly higher febrile urinary tract infection rates. Therefore, those patients may benefit from continuous

  12. Clinical analysis of primary primitive neuroectodermal tumors in the female genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Changji; Zhao, Jing; Guo, Peng; Wang, Dan; Zhao, Dachun; Ren, Tong; Yang, Jiaxin; Shen, Keng; Lang, Jinghe; Xiang, Yang; Cui, Quancai

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) in the female genital tract. From April 2001 to May 2013, the clinicopathologic characteristics, treatments, outcomes, and prognosis of 11 patients with PNET in the female genital tract were analyzed retrospectively at our hospital. The location of PNET in the 11 patients presented here included vulva (2 patients), cervix (2 patients), uterus and its ligament (5 patients), and the ovaries (2 patients). Ages ranged from 18 to 59 years (median, 31 years).The main clinical manifestations of PNET in the female genital tract are irregular vaginal bleeding (6 patients), pelvic mass, uterine enlargement, and rapidly increasing vulvar mass (8 patients), and vulvar pain and lower abdominal pain (5 patients). The CA125 levels of 8 patients were elevated before the operations and reduced to normal when the diseases were controlled, while the levels increased as the tumor was progressive. Results for the most commonly used immunohistochemistry studies revealed CD99 in 11 of the 11 tumors, synaptophysin in 6 of the 7 positive tumors, and neuron-specific enolase in 6 of the 6 tumors. Ten patients underwent surgical resection. Nine of them underwent preoperative or/and postoperative combination chemotherapy. The follow-up of 10 patients were available and ranged from 1 to 145 months (median, 30.5 months), 3 of whom experiencing recurrence. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor is very rare and can originate from any part of the female genital tract. The tumors had different manifestations but the same pathologic features. CA125 may be an important marker for prognosis and follow-up of PNET of the female internal genital tract.

  13. Recurrent urinary tract infections in young children: role of DMSA scintigraphy in detecting vesicoureteric reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awais, Muhammad; Rehman, Abdul; Nadeem, Naila; Zaman, Maseeh Uz

    2015-01-01

    Performing micturiting cystourethrography (MCUG) in young children with recurrent urinary tract infections is controversial with discrepancy among the major guidelines. Previous studies have shown that a normal dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy may avoid the need of performing MCUG for detecting vesicoureteric reflux in children with first febrile urinary tract infection. However, the role of DMSA for ruling out vesicoureteric reflux in children with recurrent urinary tract infections has not been studied. Approval from institutional ethical review committee was sought and the requirement of informed consent was waived. A total of 50 children under the age of 10 years with recurrent urinary tract infections underwent MCUG scan within 3 months of DMSA scan from January 2011 to September 2012 at our institution. Diagnosis of recurrent urinary tract infections and grading of vesicoureteric reflux was according to previously established standards. Abnormalities on DMSA scan - scarring, hydronephrosis and reduced differential renal function - were compared with presence of vesicoureteric reflux on MCUG. High-grade vesicoureteric reflux was noted on MCUG in 22 (44%) cases. The findings on DMSA included hydronephrosis and scarring in 25 (50%) and 25 (50%) cases, respectively. Abnormalities on DMSA scan for detecting the presence of high-grade vesicoureteric reflux on MCUG examination had sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 95.45%, 35.71%, 53.85% and 90.91%, respectively. The positive and negative likelihood ratios were 1.48 and 0.13 respectively. DMSA scan had high overall sensitivity and negative predictive value with a low negative likelihood ratio for ruling out high-grade vesicoureteric reflux on MCUG, which may obviate the need of invasive MCUG along with its associated drawbacks. (orig.)

  14. Recurrent urinary tract infections in young children: role of DMSA scintigraphy in detecting vesicoureteric reflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awais, Muhammad; Rehman, Abdul; Nadeem, Naila [Aga Khan University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Karachi (Pakistan); Zaman, Maseeh Uz [Aga Khan University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Karachi (Pakistan)

    2014-07-04

    Performing micturiting cystourethrography (MCUG) in young children with recurrent urinary tract infections is controversial with discrepancy among the major guidelines. Previous studies have shown that a normal dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy may avoid the need of performing MCUG for detecting vesicoureteric reflux in children with first febrile urinary tract infection. However, the role of DMSA for ruling out vesicoureteric reflux in children with recurrent urinary tract infections has not been studied. Approval from institutional ethical review committee was sought and the requirement of informed consent was waived. A total of 50 children under the age of 10 years with recurrent urinary tract infections underwent MCUG scan within 3 months of DMSA scan from January 2011 to September 2012 at our institution. Diagnosis of recurrent urinary tract infections and grading of vesicoureteric reflux was according to previously established standards. Abnormalities on DMSA scan - scarring, hydronephrosis and reduced differential renal function - were compared with presence of vesicoureteric reflux on MCUG. High-grade vesicoureteric reflux was noted on MCUG in 22 (44%) cases. The findings on DMSA included hydronephrosis and scarring in 25 (50%) and 25 (50%) cases, respectively. Abnormalities on DMSA scan for detecting the presence of high-grade vesicoureteric reflux on MCUG examination had sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 95.45%, 35.71%, 53.85% and 90.91%, respectively. The positive and negative likelihood ratios were 1.48 and 0.13 respectively. DMSA scan had high overall sensitivity and negative predictive value with a low negative likelihood ratio for ruling out high-grade vesicoureteric reflux on MCUG, which may obviate the need of invasive MCUG along with its associated drawbacks. (orig.)

  15. Changes in Bacterial Resistance Patterns of Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Rationale for Empirical Antibiotic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçe, İbrahim; Çiçek, Neslihan; Güven, Serçin; Altuntaş, Ülger; Bıyıklı, Neşe; Yıldız, Nurdan; Alpay, Harika

    2017-09-29

    The causative agent spectrum and resistance patterns of urinary tract infections in children are affected by many factors. To demonstrate antibiotic resistance in urinary tract infections and changing ratio in antibiotic resistance by years. Retrospective cross-sectional study. We analysed antibiotic resistance patterns of isolated Gram (-) bacteria during the years 2011-2014 (study period 2) in children with urinary tract infections. We compared these findings with data collected in the same centre in 2001-2003 (study period 1). Four hundred and sixty-five uncomplicated community-acquired Gram (-) urinary tract infections were analysed from 2001-2003 and 400 from 2011-2014. Sixty-one percent of patients were female (1.5 girls : 1 boy). The mean age of children included in the study was 3 years and 9 months. Escherichia coli was the predominant bacteria isolated during both periods of the study (60% in study period 1 and 73% in study period 2). Bacteria other than E. coli demonstrated a higher level of resistance to all of the antimicrobials except trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole than E. coli bacteria during the years 2011-2014. In our study, we found increasing resistance trends of urinary pathogens for cefixime (from 1% to 15%, pUrinary pathogens showed a decreasing trend for nitrofurantoin (from 17% to 7%, p=0.0001). No significant trends were detected for ampicillin (from 69% to 71%), amoxicillin-clavulanate (from 44% to 43%), cefazolin (from 39% to 32%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (from 32% to 31%), cefuroxime (from 21% to 18%) and ceftriaxone (from 10% to 14%) between the two periods (p>0.05). In childhood urinary tract infections, antibiotic resistance should be evaluated periodically and empiric antimicrobial therapy should be decided according to antibiotic sensitivity results.

  16. Expression and Antimicrobial Function of Beta-Defensin 1 in the Lower Urinary Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becknell, Brian; Spencer, John David; Carpenter, Ashley R.; Chen, Xi; Singh, Aspinder; Ploeger, Suzanne; Kline, Jennifer; Ellsworth, Patrick; Li, Birong; Proksch, Ehrhardt; Schwaderer, Andrew L.; Hains, David S.; Justice, Sheryl S.; McHugh, Kirk M.

    2013-01-01

    Beta defensins (BDs) are cationic peptides with antimicrobial activity that defend epithelial surfaces including the skin, gastrointestinal, and respiratory tracts. However, BD expression and function in the urinary tract are incompletely characterized. The purpose of this study was to describe Beta Defensin-1 (BD-1) expression in the lower urinary tract, regulation by cystitis, and antimicrobial activity toward uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) in vivo. Human DEFB1 and orthologous mouse Defb1 mRNA are detectable in bladder and ureter homogenates, and human BD-1 protein localizes to the urothelium. To determine the relevance of BD-1 to lower urinary tract defense in vivo, we evaluated clearance of UPEC by Defb1 knockout (Defb1 -/-) mice. At 6, 18, and 48 hours following transurethral UPEC inoculation, no significant differences were observed in bacterial burden in bladders or kidneys of Defb1 -/- and wild type C57BL/6 mice. In wild type mice, bladder Defb1 mRNA levels decreased as early as two hours post-infection and reached a nadir by six hours. RT-PCR profiling of BDs identified expression of Defb3 and Defb14 mRNA in murine bladder and ureter, which encode for mBD-3 and mBD-14 protein, respectively. MBD-14 protein expression was observed in bladder urothelium following UPEC infection, and both mBD-3 and mBD-14 displayed dose-dependent bactericidal activity toward UPEC in vitro. Thus, whereas mBD-1 deficiency does not alter bladder UPEC burden in vivo, we have identified mBD-3 and mBD-14 as potential mediators of mucosal immunity in the lower urinary tract. PMID:24204930

  17. Visibility of the urethral meatus and risk of urinary tract infections in uncircumcised boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrovsky, Alexander Sasha; Foster, Bethany J.; Jednak, Roman; Mok, Elise; McGillivray, David

    2012-01-01

    Background: Uncircumcised boys are at higher risk for urinary tract infections than circumcised boys. Whether this risk varies with the visibility of the urethral meatus is not known. Our aim was to determine whether there is a hierarchy of risk among uncircumcised boys whose urethral meatuses are visible to differing degrees. Methods: We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study in one pediatric emergency department. We screened 440 circumcised and uncircumcised boys. Of these, 393 boys who were not toilet trained and for whom the treating physician had requested a catheter urine culture were included in our analysis. At the time of catheter insertion, a nurse characterized the visibility of the urethral meatus (phimosis) using a 3-point scale (completely visible, partially visible or nonvisible). Our primary outcome was urinary tract infection, and our primary exposure variable was the degree of phimosis: completely visible versus partially or nonvisible urethral meatus. Results: Cultures grew from urine samples from 30.0% of uncircumcised boys with a completely visible meatus, and from 23.8% of those with a partially or nonvisible meatus (p = 0.4). The unadjusted odds ratio (OR) for culture growth was 0.73 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.35–1.52), and the adjusted OR was 0.41 (95% CI 0.17–0.95). Of the boys who were circumcised, 4.8% had urinary tract infections, which was significantly lower than the rate among uncircumcised boys with a completely visible urethral meatus (unadjusted OR 0.12 [95% CI 0.04–0.39], adjusted OR 0.07 [95% CI 0.02–0.26]). Interpretation: We did not see variation in the risk of urinary tract infection with the visibility of the urethral meatus among uncircumcised boys. Compared with circumcised boys, we saw a higher risk of urinary tract infection in uncircumcised boys, irrespective of urethral visibility. PMID:22777988

  18. Re: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations of Sexual Function with Urinary Tract Symptoms in Men with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fwu C-W

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study authors examine the cross-sectional associations between baseline characteristics and sexual function and the longitudinal associations between change in lower urinary tract symptoms and change in sexual function among men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. The cross-sectional cohort included 2.916 men who completed Brief Male Sexual Function Inventory (BMSFI at baseline. The longitudinal cohort included 672 men who were randomized to placebo. Increased age, less education, obesity and severe lower urinary tract symptoms were found significantly associated poorer sexual drive, erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory function, sexual problem assessment and overall satisfaction. However, none of these baseline characteristics predicted change in sexual function in the longitudinal cohort. The decline in sexual dysfunction associated with worsening of lower urinary tract symptoms in men assigned to placebo was small.

  19. Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Antibiotic Treatment of Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, U-Syn; Lee, Seung-Ju; Yeo, Jeong Kyun; Min, Seung Ki; Lee, Heeyoung

    2018-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are infectious diseases that commonly occur in communities. Although several international guidelines for the management of UTIs have been available, clinical characteristics, etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns may differ from country to country. This work represents an update of the 2011 Korean guideline for UTIs. The current guideline was developed by the update and adaptation method. This clinical practice guideline provides recommendations for the diagnosis and management of UTIs, including asymptomatic bacteriuria, acute uncomplicated cystitis, acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis, complicated pyelonephritis related to urinary tract obstruction, and acute bacterial prostatitis. This guideline targets community-acquired UTIs occurring among adult patients. Healthcare-associated UTIs, catheter-associated UTIs, and infections in immunocompromised patients were not included in this guideline. PMID:29637759

  20. Acoustic Vocal Tract Model of One-year-old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vojnović

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The physical shape of vocal tract and its formant (resonant frequencies are directly related. The study of this functional connectivity is essential in speech therapy practice with children. Most of the perceived children’s speech anomalies can be explained on a physical level: malfunctioning movement of articulation organs. The current problem is that there is no enough data on the anatomical shape of children’s vocal tract to create its acoustic model. Classical techniques for vocal tract shape imaging (X-ray, magnetic resonance, etc. are not appropriate for children. One possibility is to start from the shape of the adult vocal tract and correct it based on anatomical, morphological and articulatory differences between children and adults. This paper presents a method for vocal tract shape estimation of the child aged one year. The initial shapes of the vocal tract refer to the Russian vowels spoken by an adult male. All the relevant anatomical and articulation parameters, that influence the formant frequencies, are analyzed. Finally, the hypothetical configurations of the children’s vocal tract, for the five vowels, are presented.

  1. Microflora of hydrobionts digestive tract in Kaunas water storage reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyvokiene, J.; Mickiene, L.; Mileriene, E.

    1996-01-01

    Microbiological and ichthiological investigations carried out in 1990 and 1992 showed the variability of bacterial cenoses in the digestive tract of hydrobionts before and after setting in motion Kruonis hydro pumped storage. The studies also showed that microorganisms of the digestive tract of the hydrobionts investigated were involved in the degradation of nutritional substrates and could serve as indicators of an anthropogenic effect. Before setting in motion the hydro pumped storage hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (HDB) were detected in the digestive tract of the freshwater shrimps, opossum shrimps, sticklebacks, zebra mussels and roaches. The greatest number of HDB was found in the digestive tract of the roach while in perches they were not detected. However after setting in motion the hydro pumped storage , high numbers of HDB were determined in the digestive tracts of all the hydrobionts investigated. It has been shown that the function of bacterial digestion is conditioned not only by the nutrition specificity of the macroorganism, but on its environment as well. With the aid of enzymes secreted by microorganisms organic compounds difficult to assimilate are transformed into valuable nutrients. Besides, the functional activity of microorganisms of the digestive tract of the hydrobionts indicate the intensity of the digestive process and physiological state of their organism. Therefore, when investigating fish stocks in hydrosystems one must evaluate inner resources of their organism, i.e. functional activities and the activity of digestive tract microorganisms, their quantitative and qualitative composition, relationship with the macroorganism, its growth rate and environment. (author). 15 refs., 5 tabs

  2. Measurement of optic tracts in normal Chinese adults of the Han nationality based on the high-resolution MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Changying; Shi Linping; Zhang Yang; Wang Jian; Chen Nan; Wang Xing; Li Kuncheng; Zhuo Yan; Chen Lin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the morphological characteristics of optic tracts in healthy Chinese Han adults on the high-resolution MRI and fill the database of Chinese standard brain with morphological data of optic tracts. Methods: Cerebral MRI scans with T 1 WI 3D MPRAGE sequence of 1000 healthy Chinese volunteers from 15 hospitals were divided into five stages, ranging in age from 18 to 70. With the technique of multi-baseline, structure and morphology of optic tracts were displayed optimally on the images with multiplanar reconstruction. Data were measured as following: transverse distance of the cisternal optic tract (TD1) and peri-crural optic tract (TD2), length from the cisternal optic tract to the peri-crural optic tract (L), angle between optic tract(AOT) and height of optic tract from its first segment to plane of anterior commissure (H) including H1, H2, H3, H4 and H5. The measurements of optic tracts between sexualities and among age groups were compared by anasis of covariance; those among five age groups were compared pairwisedly by least significant difference analysis (LSD); and the differences of measurements between left and right optic tracts were analyzed using paired t test. Results: (1) Comparisons of optic tract structures between male and female: the mean optic tract length of male [(11.69±1.45),(11.56±1.44) mm] was significant longer than that of female [(10.58±1.29), (10.40±1.34) mm] (F=22.236, 29.703, P=0.000); the mean H1 of male [(2.56±0.28), (2.60±0.29) mm] and female [(2.57±0.31), (2.63±0.32) mm] were significantly different (F= 11.130,7.805, P=0.000, 0.005). No significant differences of the other measurements were found between male and female (P>0.05). (2) Comparisons among age groups: among 5 age groups, TD1 of both sides [left TD1 :(4.64 ± 0.51) ,(4.64 ± 0.57), (4.55 ± 0.58), (4.39 ± 0.53), (4.36 ± 0.58) mm; right TD1: (4.84 ± 0.53), (4.80 ± 0.60 ), (4.77 ± 0.65), (4.60 ± 0.59), (4.57 ± 0.59) mm ] and the right TD2

  3. Medical conditions, family history of cancer, and the risk of biliary tract cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosato, Valentina; Bosetti, Cristina; Dal Maso, Luigino; Montella, Maurizio; Serraino, Diego; Negri, Eva; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2016-06-02

    Scanty data exist on the role of personal medical conditions, except for gallstones, and family history of cancer on the risk of biliary tract cancers (BTC). We analyzed this issue using data from two Italian case-control studies, including 159 cases of BTC and 795 matched hospital controls. Odds ratios (ORs) of BTC and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multiple logistic regression models. Gallstones were associated with a 2-fold excess risk of BTC (95% CI 1.24-3.45). No significant associations were observed with other conditions investigated, including diabetes (OR 1.15, 95% CI 0.63-2.11), hypertension (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.39-1.11), hyperlipidemia (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.31-1.21), allergy (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.29-1.40), gastroduodenal ulcer (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.24-1.12), hepatitis (OR 2.02, 95% CI 0.35-11.67), benign thyroid diseases (OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.56-2.40), hysterectomy (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.53-2.68), unilateral oophorectomy (OR 1.75, 95% CI 0.44-6.93), and bilateral oophorectomy (OR 2.48, 95% CI 0.79-7.82). We found an excess risk of BTC in relation to family history of any cancer (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.03-2.24) and family history of gallbladder cancer (OR 3.83, 95% CI 0.59-24.75). The present study confirms a strong association between BTC and history of gallstones, and provides further evidence of a positive association with family history of cancer.

  4. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area......The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of the test sample by movement of the probe relative to the surface of the test sample into the specific orientation.; The probe may further comprise a contact detector (14) extending from the supporting body arranged so as to contact the surface of the test sample prior to any one of the plurality...

  5. Neoclassical transport including collisional nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, J; Belli, E A

    2011-06-10

    In the standard δf theory of neoclassical transport, the zeroth-order (Maxwellian) solution is obtained analytically via the solution of a nonlinear equation. The first-order correction δf is subsequently computed as the solution of a linear, inhomogeneous equation that includes the linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator. This equation admits analytic solutions only in extreme asymptotic limits (banana, plateau, Pfirsch-Schlüter), and so must be solved numerically for realistic plasma parameters. Recently, numerical codes have appeared which attempt to compute the total distribution f more accurately than in the standard ordering by retaining some nonlinear terms related to finite-orbit width, while simultaneously reusing some form of the linearized collision operator. In this work we show that higher-order corrections to the distribution function may be unphysical if collisional nonlinearities are ignored.

  6. Artemisia vulgaris pollen allergoids digestibility in the simulated conditions of the gastrointestinal tract

    OpenAIRE

    RATKO M. JANKOV; NATALIJA DJ. POLOVIC; MARIJA DJ. GAVROVIC-JANKULOVIC; LIDIJA BURAZER; DANICA DJERGOVIC-PETROVIC; OLGA VUCKOVIC; OLIKA DROBNJAK; ZORICA SPORCIC; MARINA ATANASKOVIC-MARKOVIC; RATKO M. JANKOV

    2006-01-01

    Chemically modified allergens (allergoids) have found use in both traditional and novel forms of immunotherapy of allergic disorders. Novel forms of immunotherapy include local allergen delivery, via the gastrointestinal tract. This study conveys the gastrointestinal stability of three types ofmugwort pollen allergoids under simulated conditions of the gut. Allergoids of the pollen extract of Artemisia vulgaris were obtained by means of potassium cyanate, succinic and maleic anhydride. Gastro...

  7. The Effects of Oxidative Stress in Urinary Tract Infection During Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Ciragil, Pinar; Belge Kurutas, Ergul; Gul, Mustafa; Kilinc, Metin; Aral, Murat; Guven, Alanur

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of urinary tract infection (UTI) on antioxidant systems and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels during pregnancy. We also investigated if these antioxidant systems and LPO levels differed in each trimester. One hundred forty-three nonpregnant women, as a control group, and 77 pregnant women were included in the study. Urine cultures were performed according to standard techniques. Catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and LPO levels were...

  8. Risk Factors for Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction and Symptoms After Successful Renal Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsui, Takahiko; Moriya, Kimihiko; Morita, Ken; Iwami, Daiki; Kitta, Takeya; Kanno, Yukiko; Takeda, Masayuki; Shinohara, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigated risk factors for lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction and LUT symptoms in patients who successfully underwent renal transplantation (RTX). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety-five patients (54 males and 41 females) undergoing RTX (median age: 45 years old) at Hokkaido University Hospital were included in this study. Uroflowmetry (UFM), postvoid residual urine volume (PVR), and 24-h bladder diaries were performed. We analyzed risk factors for voiding dysfunction, urinary ...

  9. Diagnosis of aetiology and complications of relapsing urinary tract infections via imaging methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieden, K.; Mende, U.

    1985-01-01

    The indication and efficiency of various radiological examination methods in relapsing infections of the urinary tract, as well as the complications of such infections, are described, and characteristic and pathognomical findings are demonstrated. The diagnostic accuracy of the individual imaging methods depends on the site, size, and density of the pathological process. Accurate diagnosis also requires the incorporation of clinical findings including those established by means of clinical pathology setups. (orig.) [de

  10. Antivirulence effects of pomegranate peel extracts on most common urinary tract infection pathogens in pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Wafaa Sadeq Al-Wazni; Bashair Sami Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study includes the investigation of antibacterial and antivirulence activities of three types of pomegranate peel extracts and then determines the interaction between the extracts and antibiotic in vitro. Methods The ability of most common isolated bacteria from urinary tract infection (UTI) to produce different virulence factors were tested and the effect of plant extracts on virulence factors were determined; in addition the correlation between extracts and antibioti...

  11. Garenoxacin in uncomplicated urinary tract infection – a case study report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pukar M, Shah JP, HajareA, Krishnaprasad K, Bhargava

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is a global problem which has increased the morbidity and mortality in both men and women. Strategies which are proposed in the management of UTIs include the use of empirical antibiotics with a broader spectrum of coverage. Urine specimen culture is of significant importance to evaluate the organism responsible in the pathogenesis. Garenoxacin, a newer fluoroquinolone with unique structural advantage appears to a suitable drug in the treatment of UTIs.

  12. Evaluation of lower urinary tract dysfunction in Turkish primary schoolchildren: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Selçuk; Yurdakul, Ayşe Çolpan; Zencir, Mehmet; Çördük, Nergül

    2014-12-01

    The aim was to determine the prevalence of voiding dysfunction and its related risk factors in Turkish schoolchildren. A randomly selected, cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered and previously validated questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of two parts. The first part included personal demographic and familial information, and the second part included the Dysfunctional Voiding and Incontinence Scoring System (DVISS). The questionnaires were given to 4668 children between 6 and 15 years of age, which were completed by the parents and children together. The children with a score of ≥9 were accepted as having lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD). The data were collected from 4016 children (the response rate was 86.0%), including 48.6% boys and 51.4% girls. The mean age was 10.5±2.2 years. The overall frequency of LUTD was 9.3%. While the 6-year-old children had the highest frequency (23.1%) of LUTD, this rate was 7.9% at the age of 10, and the children aged 14 years had the lowest frequency (4.9%), (purinary tract symptoms were significantly more common in girls (7.6%) than in boys (3.2%) only for the older age group (between 12 and 15 years of age). Compared with normal children, those with LUTD (with a score of ≥9) had the following risk factors: less educated parents, a parent that had lower urinary tract symptoms when he or she was a child, more persons per room (≥2 persons), more siblings (≥4 siblings) at home, past medical history of urinary tract infections, and squatting position (in girls). Lower urinary tract problems are one of the most important and ongoing health problems in childhood. Determining the prevalence of lower urinary tract problems in children and their related risk factors is the first step to managing and reducing the number of children suffering from voiding problems. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Management of radiation injuries of 10 cases of gastrointestinal tracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomida, Takashi; Yano, Takashi; Hidaka, Naoaki; Okada, Yoshikatsu; Iwasaki, Makoto; Goshima, Hiromichi.

    1984-01-01

    Ten cases of delayed radiation injuries of the gastrointestinal tracts (consisting of 2 with peptic ulcer, 4 with intestinal obstruction, and 4 with rectal bleeding) are reported. Although conservative therapy or artificial colostomy was undertaken in all cases, satisfactory results were not obtained. In four cases in which subsequent resection of the gastrointestinal tracts was performed, the prognosis was favorable, but various symptoms still continued in the other non-resected cases. Delayed radiation injuries are progressive lesions involving the vasculo-connective tissue, so that cure can not be achieved. Resection of the damaged gastrointestinal tract is recommended, however, this is difficult to do in many cases. (Namekawa, K.)

  14. Management of radiation injuries of 10 cases of gastrointestinal tracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomida, Takashi; Yano, Takashi; Hidaka, Naoaki; Okada, Yoshikatsu; Iwasaki, Makoto; Goshima, Hiromichi

    1984-11-01

    Ten cases of delayed radiation injuries of the gastrointestinal tracts (consisting of 2 with peptic ulcer, 4 with intestinal obstruction, and 4 with rectal bleeding) are reported. Although conservative therapy or artificial colostomy was undertaken in all cases, satisfactory results were not obtained. In four cases in which subsequent resection of the gastrointestinal tracts was performed, the prognosis was favorable, but various symptoms still continued in the other non-resected cases. Delayed radiation injuries are progressive lesions involving the vasculo-connective tissue, so that cure can not be achieved. Resection of the damaged gastrointestinal tract is recommended, however, this is difficult to do in many cases. (Namekawa, K.).

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging in lower urinary tract endometriosis: iconographic essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Claudio Marcio Amaral de Oliveira; Coutinho, Elisa Pompeu Dias; Ribeiro, Erica Barreiros; Domingues, Marisa Nassar Aidar; Junqueira, Flavia Pegado; Coutinho Junior, Antonio Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of functional endometrial tissue outside the endometrial cavity and myometrium. Although this is a frequent disease with multifactorial causes, involvement of the lower urinary tract is rare. Magnetic resonance imaging is highly sensitive, specific and accurate in the diagnosis of endometriosis in the lower urinary tract, especially for allowing the identification of lesions obscured by adhesions or with subperitoneal extension. The present iconographic essay presents the main magnetic resonance imaging findings of the lower urinary tract involvement by endometriosis. (author)

  16. Artificially lengthened and constricted vocal tract in vocal training methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Irene Velsvik

    2005-01-01

    It is common practice in vocal training to make use of vocal exercise techniques that involve partial occlusion of the vocal tract. Various techniques are used; some of them form an occlusion within the front part of the oral cavity or at the lips. Another vocal exercise technique involves lengthening the vocal tract; for example, the method of phonation into small tubes. This essay presents some studies made on the effects of various vocal training methods that involve an artificially lengthened and constricted vocal tract. The influence of sufficient acoustic impedance on vocal fold vibration and economical voice production is presented.

  17. Risk of urinary tract infection in infants and children with acute bronchiolitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendaus, Mohamed A; Alhammadi, Ahmed H; Khalifa, Mohamed S; Muneer, Eshan; Chandra, Prem

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of urinary tract infection in infants and children with bronchiolitis. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study involving patients zero to 24 months of age who were hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis was conducted. RESULTS: A total of 835 paediatric patients with acute bronchiolitis were admitted to the paediatric ward between January 2010 and December 2012. The mean (± SD) age at diagnosis was 3.47±2.99 months. There were 325 (39%) girls and 510 (61%) boys. For the purpose of data analysis, the patient population was divided into three groups: group 1 included children hospitalized with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis; group 2 included children hospitalized with clinical bronchiolitis with no virus detected; and group 3 included children hospitalized with clinical bronchiolitis due to a respiratory virus other than RSV. Results revealed that urinary tract infection was present in 10% of patients, and was most common in group 3 (13.4%) followed by group 2 (9.7%), and was least common in group 1 (6%) (P=0.030). CONCLUSIONS: The possibility of a urinary tract infection should be considered in a febrile child with a diagnosis of bronchiolitis, particularly if the trigger is a respiratory virus other than RSV. PMID:26175566

  18. Common bacterial urinary tract infections in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, J E

    1976-09-01

    Unfortunately, there is no general consensus as to how long patients with bacteriuria or urinary tract infections should be monitored and certainly there is no agreement on how long recurrent episodes should be treated beyond ten days to two weeks. The most important points to remember are: 1. Culture the urine both at the time of therapy and during follow-up. The patient should be examined periodically for the presence of bacteruria. If bacteria cannot be eradicated, at least the physician is aware of the organism most likely causing the patient's symptoms. 2. Do not subject the patient with frequent recurrent (chronic) and complicated infections to continual antibacterial therapy, but rather, manage the acute episodes. 3. Use prophylaxis, particularly single bed-time doses for dysuria and frequency symptoms. 4. Screen for bacteriuria during pregnancy. 5. Avoid the use of catheters except where absolutely necessary. 6. Avoid systemic prophylaxis of infection in patients with catheters; rather, use closed-system drainage with antibacteri-irrigation. It is to be hoped within the next few years, studies now underway will allow specific recommendations regarding the management of asymptomatic bacteruria, the duration of therapy for recurrent infections, the prevention and treatment of L-form bacterial infections, and indications for urologic procedures.

  19. Pediatric urinary tract infections: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsori, Maria; Galanakis, Emmanouil

    2012-10-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common serious bacterial infection in childhood. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are required for the optimal clinical outcome and the prevention of long-term morbidity and sequelae. Diagnosis and treatment of UTI may seem to be easy tasks, but they remain among the most controversial issues in pediatrics. Consequently, children suspected for UTIs are investigated and treated differently in different settings. The absence of typical clinical presentation and the uncertainties in setting the index of suspicion, collecting appropriate urine samples and interpreting results, combined with different antibiotic policies in the face of increasing resistance of uropathogens, contribute to the controversy. Recently issued guidelines have attempted to settle several thorny aspects in diagnosis and treatment, but quite a few issues still remain controversial. In this review, the authors explore the current situation on diagnosis and treatment of childhood UTI in better understanding their pathogenesis and prevalence in different child populations, discuss recently evaluated diagnostic tests and the new management guidelines.

  20. Work up of Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copp, Hillary L.; Schmidt, Bogdana

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric UTI costs the healthcare system upwards of 180 million dollars annually, and accounts for over 1.5 million clinician visits per year. Accurate and timely diagnosis of these infections is important for determining appropriate treatment and preventing long-term complications such as renal scarring, hypertension, and end-stage renal disease. Outside of the first 12 months, girls are more likely to be diagnosed with a UTI. About half of boys with UTI will be diagnosed within the first 12 months of life. The prevalence and incidence of pediatric UTI varies by age, race/ethnicity, sex and circumcision status. Diagnosis of UTI is made based on history and exam findings and confirmed with appropriately collected urine. If a bag specimen is negative, this can be used to rule out UTI without the need for confirmatory culture; however positive urinalysis tests from bag specimen warrant further investigation with a catheterized specimen or suprapubic aspiration. Urine culture is the gold standard for diagnosing UTI: Greater than 50,000 CFU on a catheterized specimen or suprapubic aspiration indicate presence of a UTI. Greater than 100,000 CFU on a voided specimen is considered a positive culture. There is no consensus on the need and optimal strategy for imaging in the setting of urinary tract infection in the pediatric population. Prompt recognition of UTI and antibiogram-based, empiric treatment or culture-based, targeted treatment should be initiated within 72 of presentation. PMID:26475948

  1. Validity of the international consultation on incontinence questionnaire-pediatric lower urinary tract symptoms: a screening questionnaire for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gennaro, Mario; Niero, Mauro; Capitanucci, Maria Luisa; von Gontard, Alexander; Woodward, Mark; Tubaro, Andrea; Abrams, Paul

    2010-10-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms are common in pediatric patients. To our knowledge no validated instruments properly designed to screen lower urinary tract symptoms in the pediatric population have been published to date. In the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Committee the psychometric properties of a screening questionnaire for pediatric lower urinary tract symptoms were assessed. The 12-item International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Pediatric Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms was developed in child and parent self-administered versions, and produced in English, Italian and German using a standard cross-cultural adaptation process. The questionnaire was self-administered to children 5 to 18 years old and their parents presenting for lower urinary tract symptoms (cases) or to pediatric/urological clinics for other reasons (controls). A case report form included history, urinalysis, bladder diary, flowmetry/post-void residual urine volume and clinician judgment on whether each child did or did not have lower urinary tract symptoms. Questionnaire psychometric properties were evaluated and data were stratified into 3 age groups, including 5 to 9, 10 to 13 and 14 to 18 years. A total of 345 questionnaires were completed, of which 147 were negative and 198 were positive for lower urinary tract symptoms. A mean of 1.67% and 2.10% of items were missing in the child and parent versions, respectively. Reliability (Cronbach's α) was unacceptable in only the 5 to 9-year-old group. The high ICC of 0.847 suggested fair child/parent equivalence. Sensitivity and specificity were 89% and 76% in the child version, and 91% and 73.5% in the parent version, respectively. The questionnaire is an acceptable, reliable tool with high sensitivity and specificity to screen for lower urinary tract symptoms in pediatric practice. Problems related to literacy suggest use of the child versions for patients older than 9 years. In research this questionnaire

  2. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Is Associated With Genital Tract Mucosal Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhatre, Mohak; McAndrew, Thomas; Carpenter, Colleen; Burk, Robert D.; Einstein, Mark H.; Herold, Betsy C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical studies demonstrate increased prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated disease in HIV-infected individuals and an increased risk of HIV acquisition in HPV-infected individuals. The mechanisms underlying this synergy are not defined. We hypothesize that women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) will exhibit changes in soluble mucosal immunity that may promote HPV persistence and facilitate HIV infection. Methods The concentrations of immune mediators and endogenous anti-Escherichia coli activity in genital tract secretions collected by cervicovaginal lavage were compared in HIV-negative women with high-risk HPV-positive (HRHPV+) CIN-3 (n = 37), HRHPV+ CIN-1 (n = 12), or PAP-negative control subjects (n = 57). Results Compared with control subjects, women with CIN-3 or CIN-1 displayed significantly higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, and IL-8 (P < 0.002) and significantly lower levels of anti-inflammatory mediators and antimicrobial peptides, including IL-1 receptor antagonist, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (P < 0.01), and human β defensins 2 and 3 (P < 0.02). There was no significant difference in endogenous anti-E. coli activity after controlling for age and sample storage time. Conclusion HRHPV+ CIN is characterized by changes in soluble mucosal immunity that could contribute to HPV persistence. The observed mucosal inflammation suggests a mechanism that may also contribute to the epidemiologic link between persistent HPV and HIV. PMID:22801340

  3. Proposals for setting possible limits on intake of transuranium radionuclides absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalikin, G.A.; Nisimov, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    The absorption of transuranium elements ( 238 Pu, 241 Am, 252 Cf) from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract as influenced by physiological factors (e.g. age) and physical and chemical properties of compounds incorporated has been studied in 600 white mongrel rats. Average values of absorption have been determined for simple salts and a complex citrate. A number of factors increasing absorption have been found. Thus, originally bound compounds contained in the meat of animals incorporated with 238 Pu and 241 Am when alive, 241 Am-containing potato juice and green oat stalks enhanced absorption by a factor of 5 to 30 as compared with an adequate control. Ethanol administered orally as a 20% solution increased the absorption of americium nitrate by 60% and that of citrate by 23%. Oral administratio of 241 Am nitrate solution together with ferric chloride changes the metabolic kinetics of the nuclide completely. The total absorption of americium from DI tract is 7.1 times that of the control, but a considerable fraction absorbed into blood is excreted with urine (4.2% over 8 days). Among physiological factors age effects the absorption of transuranics from the GI tract to acertain degree. The absorption of 252 Cf in 7 day-old young rats proves to be 8.1 times that of adults. Gestation brought about a 2.7 fold increase of 241 Am absorption

  4. Button battery injuries in the pediatric aerodigestive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettyreddy, Abhinav R; Georg, Matthew W; Chi, David H; Gaines, Barbara A; Simons, Jeffrey P

    2015-12-01

    Children with a button battery impaction present with nonspecific symptoms that may account for a delay in medical care. We conducted a retrospective study of the clinical presentation, management, and complications associated with button battery ingestion in the pediatric aerodigestive tract and to evaluate the associated long-term morbidity. We reviewed the medical records of 23 patients who were treated for button battery impaction at our tertiary care children's hospital from Jan. 1, 2000, through July 31, 2013. This population was made up of 14 boys and 9 girls, aged 7 days to 12 years (mean: 4 yr). Patients were divided into three groups based on the site of impaction; there were 9 impactions in the esophagus and 7 each in the nasal cavity and stomach. We compiled information on the type and size of each battery, the duration of the impaction, presenting symptoms, treatment, and outcomes. The mean duration of battery impaction was 40.6, 30.7, and 21.0 hours in the esophagus, nasal cavity, and stomach, respectively. We were able to identify the specific type of battery in 13 cases; 11 of these cases (85%) involved a 3-V 20-mm lithium ion battery, including all cases of esophageal impaction in which the type of battery was identified. The most common presenting signs and symptoms were vomiting (n = 7 [30%]), difficulty feeding (n = 5 [22%]), cough (n = 5), and bloody nasal discharge (n = 5); none of the presenting signs and symptoms predicted the severity of the injury or the outcome. The median length of hospital stay was far greater in the esophageal group (12 days) than in the nasal and stomach groups (1 day each; p = 0.006). Battery impaction in the esophagus for more than 15 hours was associated with a significantly longer postoperative hospital stay than impaction for less than 15 hours (p = 0.04). Esophageal complications included strictures (n = 5), perforation (n = 3), and tracheoesophageal fistula formation (n = 2). Clinicians should consider battery

  5. Drug and Vaccine Development for the Treatment and Prevention of Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Brien, Valerie P.; Hannan, Thomas J.; Nielsen, Hailyn V.; Hultgren, Scott J.

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most common bacterial infections in humans, affecting millions of people every year. UTI cause significant morbidity in women throughout their lifespan, in infant boys, in older men, in individuals with underlying urinary tract abnormalities, and in those that require long-term urethral catheterization, such as patients with spinal cord injuries or incapacitated individuals living in nursing homes. Serious sequelae include frequent recurrences, pyelonephritis with sepsis, renal damage in young children, pre-term birth, and complications of frequent antimicrobial use including high-level antibiotic resistance and Clostridium difficile colitis. Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) cause the vast majority of UTI, but less common pathogens such as Enterococcus faecalis and other enterococci frequently take advantage of an abnormal or catheterized urinary tract to cause opportunistic infections. While antibiotic therapy has historically been very successful in controlling UTI, the high rate of recurrence remains a major problem, and many individuals suffer from chronically recurring UTI, requiring long-term prophylactic antibiotic regimens to prevent recurrent UTI. Furthermore, the global emergence of multi-drug resistant UPEC in the past ten years spotlights the need for alternative therapeutic and preventative strategies to combat UTI, including anti-infective drug therapies and vaccines. In this chapter, we review recent advances in the field of UTI pathogenesis, with an emphasis on the identification of promising drug and vaccine targets. We then discuss the development of new UTI drugs and vaccines, highlighting the challenges these approaches face and the need for a greater understanding of urinary tract mucosal immunity. PMID:26999391

  6. Executive deficits, not processing speed relates to abnormalities in distinct prefrontal tracts in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Lewis D; Bastin, Mark E; Smith, Colin; Bak, Thomas H; Gillingwater, Thomas H; Abrahams, Sharon

    2013-11-01

    Cognitive impairment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is characterized by deficits on tests of executive function; however, the contribution of abnormal processing speed is unknown. Methods are confounded by tasks that depend on motor speed in patients with physical disability. Structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have revealed multi-system cerebral involvement, with evidence of reduced white matter volume and integrity in predominant frontotemporal regions. The current study has two aims. First, to investigate whether cognitive impairments in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are due to executive dysfunction or slowed processing speed using methodology that accommodates motor disability. This is achieved using a dual-task paradigm and tasks that manipulate stimulus presentation times and do not rely on response motor speed. Second, to identify relationships between specific cognitive impairments and the integrity of distinct white matter tracts. Thirty patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 30 age- and education-matched control subjects were administered an experimental dual-task procedure that combined a visual inspection time task and digit recall. In addition, measures of executive function (including letter fluency) and processing speed (visual inspection time and rapid serial letter identification) were administered. Integrity of white matter tracts was determined using region of interest analyses of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging data. Patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis did not show impairments on tests of processing speed, but executive deficits were revealed once visual inspection time was combined with digit recall (dual-task) and in letter fluency. In addition to the corticospinal tracts, significant differences in fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity were found between groups in a number of prefrontal and temporal white matter tracts including the anterior cingulate, anterior thalamic radiation

  7. The peculiarities of food allergies in accordance with the level of injury of respiratory tract in children of Eastern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Borisova

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the course of food allergy in accordance with the level of respiratory tract injury in children of Eastern Siberia. Design of the research. We have examined 70 children aged 2–16, who have food sensibilization. We divided them into 2 groups: group I (n=32 with diseases of the upper and middle respiratory tract; and group II (n=38 with diseases of the lower respiratory tract. Methods. Allergological medical history, clinical laboratory examination and immunological examination, including the determination of IgA, IgM, IgG and IgE in blood serum. In cases where causal allergens were found, elimination diets were recommended. Results. Onset of upper respiratory tract injury in group I was more often registered in children aged 0–1; in group II, it was in the 3–7 age group. Isolated food sensibilization was more often marked in group I as compared to group II. Atopic mechanisms of respiratory tract injuries were more often registered in group II children. In the course of the elimination diet, we marked positive dynamics in 100% of group I and in 75% of group II. Conclusion. The most frequent allergens that cause respiratory forms of food allergy are hen eggs, cow milk, nutritive cereals, vegetables and fruit. Indices of a humoral link of immunity in the examined patients were more often registered as normal or their level is increased. Timely etiotropic therapy in the majority of cases allows for a stabilization of allergic inflammation.

  8. Distribution of CD163-positive cell and MHC class II-positive cell in the normal equine uveal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yuto; Matsuda, Kazuya; Okamoto, Minoru; Takehana, Kazushige; Hirayama, Kazuko; Taniyama, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the uveal tract participate in ocular immunity including immune homeostasis and the pathogenesis of uveitis. In horses, although uveitis is the most common ocular disorder, little is known about ocular immunity, such as the distribution of APCs. In this study, we investigated the distribution of CD163-positive and MHC II-positive cells in the normal equine uveal tract using an immunofluorescence technique. Eleven eyes from 10 Thoroughbred horses aged 1 to 24 years old were used. Indirect immunofluorescence was performed using the primary antibodies CD163, MHC class II (MHC II) and CD20. To demonstrate the site of their greatest distribution, positive cells were manually counted in 3 different parts of the uveal tract (ciliary body, iris and choroid), and their average number was assessed by statistical analysis. The distribution of pleomorphic CD163- and MHC II-expressed cells was detected throughout the equine uveal tract, but no CD20-expressed cells were detected. The statistical analysis demonstrated the distribution of CD163- and MHC II-positive cells focusing on the ciliary body. These results demonstrated that the ciliary body is the largest site of their distribution in the normal equine uveal tract, and the ciliary body is considered to play important roles in uveal and/or ocular immune homeostasis. The data provided in this study will help further understanding of equine ocular immunity in the normal state and might be beneficial for understanding of mechanisms of ocular disorders, such as equine uveitis.

  9. Effect of Antifungal Treatment in a Diet-Based Murine Model of Disseminated Candidiasis Acquired via the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najvar, Laura K.; Bocanegra, Rosie; Olivo, Marcos; Kirkpatrick, William R.; Wiederhold, Nathan P.; Patterson, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans, normally found as a commensal in the gut, is a major human fungal pathogen responsible for both mucosal and systemic infections in a wide variety of immunocompromised individuals, including cancer patients and organ transplant recipients. The gastrointestinal tract represents a major portal of entry for the establishment of disseminated candidiasis in many of these individuals. Here we report the development of a diet-based mouse model for disseminated candidiasis acquired via the gastrointestinal tract. Using this model, as well as an appropriate immunosuppression regimen, we demonstrate that dissemination of C. albicans from the gastrointestinal tract can result in mortality within 30 days postinfection. We also show a significant increase in fungal burden in systemic organs, but not gastrointestinal tract organs, upon immunosuppression. Importantly, we demonstrate that the administration of two widely used antifungals, fluconazole and caspofungin, either pre- or postimmunosuppression, significantly reduces fungal burdens. This model should prove to be of significant value for testing the ability of both established and experimental therapeutics to inhibit C. albicans dissemination from the gastrointestinal tract in an immunocompromised host as well as the subsequent mortality that can result from disseminated candidiasis. PMID:27572393

  10. Seasonal and pandemic human influenza viruses attach better to human upper respiratory tract epithelium than avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riel, Debby; den Bakker, Michael A; Leijten, Lonneke M E; Chutinimitkul, Salin; Munster, Vincent J; de Wit, Emmie; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; Fouchier, Ron A M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Kuiken, Thijs

    2010-04-01

    Influenza viruses vary markedly in their efficiency of human-to-human transmission. This variation has been speculated to be determined in part by the tropism of influenza virus for the human upper respiratory tract. To study this tropism, we determined the pattern of virus attachment by virus histochemistry of three human and three avian influenza viruses in human nasal septum, conchae, nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, and larynx. We found that the human influenza viruses-two seasonal influenza viruses and pandemic H1N1 virus-attached abundantly to ciliated epithelial cells and goblet cells throughout the upper respiratory tract. In contrast, the avian influenza viruses, including the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus, attached only rarely to epithelial cells or goblet cells. Both human and avian viruses attached occasionally to cells of the submucosal glands. The pattern of virus attachment was similar among the different sites of the human upper respiratory tract for each virus tested. We conclude that influenza viruses that are transmitted efficiently among humans attach abundantly to human upper respiratory tract, whereas inefficiently transmitted influenza viruses attach rarely. These results suggest that the ability of an influenza virus to attach to human upper respiratory tract is a critical factor for efficient transmission in the human population.

  11. The peculiarities of food allergies in accordance with the level of injury of respiratory tract in children of Eastern Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Irina V; Smirnova, Svetlana V

    2013-01-01

    To determine the course of food allergy in accordance with the level of respiratory tract injury in children of Eastern Siberia. We have examined 70 children aged 2-16 , who have food sensibilization. We divided them into 2 groups: group I (n = 32) with diseases of the upper and middle respiratory tract; and group II (n = 38) with diseases of the lower respiratory tract. Allergological medical history, clinical laboratory examination and immunological examination, including the determination of IgA, IgM, IgG and IgE in blood serum. In cases where causal allergens were found, elimination diets were recommended. Onset of upper respiratory tract injury in group I was more often registered in children aged 0-1; in group II, it was in the 3-7 age group. Isolated food sensibilization was more often marked in group I as compared to group II. Atopic mechanisms of respiratory tract injuries were more often registered in group II children. In the course of the elimination diet, we marked positive dynamics in 100% of group I and in 75% of group II. The most frequent allergens that cause respiratory forms of food allergy are hen eggs, cow milk, nutritive cereals, vegetables and fruit. Indices of a humoral link of immunity in the examined patients were more often registered as normal or their level is increased. Timely etiotropic therapy in the majority of cases allows for a stabilization of allergic inflammation.

  12. Interventions for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberger, Caroline; Geerlings, Suzanne E; Middleton, Philippa; Crowther, Caroline A

    2012-11-14

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) are common in women who are pregnant and may cause serious adverse pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child including preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age babies. Interventions used to prevent RUTI in women who are pregnant can be pharmacological (antibiotics) or non-pharmacological (cranberry products, acupuncture, probiotics and behavioural modifications). So far little is known about the best way to prevent RUTI in pregnant women. To assess the effects of interventions for preventing recurrent urinary tract infections in pregnant women.The primary maternal outcomes were RUTI before birth (variously defined) and preterm birth (before 37 weeks). The primary infant outcomes were small-for-gestational age and total mortality. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (8 June 2012) and reference lists of retrieved articles. Published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, clustered-randomised trials and abstracts of any intervention (pharmacological and non-pharmacological) for preventing RUTI during pregnancy (compared with another intervention, placebo or with usual care). Two review authors independently evaluated the one identified trial for inclusion and assessed trial quality. Two review authors extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. The review included one trial involving 200 women. The trial compared a daily dose of nitrofurantoin and close surveillance (regular clinic visit, urine cultures and antibiotics when a positive culture was found) with close surveillance only. No significant differences were found for the primary outcomes: recurrent pyelonephritis (risk ratio (RR) 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.31 to 2.53, one study, 167 women), recurrent urinary tract infection before birth (RR 0.30, 95% CI 0.06 to 1.38; one study 167 women) and preterm birth (before 37 weeks) (RR 1.18, 95% CI 0.42 to 3.35; one study 147 women). The

  13. Potential latitudinal variation in orodigestive tract cancers in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A latitudinal relationship has been found between the ... Africa should be focused in terms of regional variations to make best use of the fiscal allocation ..... Squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract: Precursors and problematic.

  14. Association rule mining data for census tract chemical exposure analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Chemical concentration, exposure, and health risk data for U.S. census tracts from National Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA). This dataset is associated with the...

  15. Risk factors for extrahepatic biliary tract carcinoma in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrens, Wolfgang; Timmer, Antje; Vyberg, Mogens

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors of carcinoma of the extrahepatic biliary tract in men. METHODS: Newly diagnosed and histologically confirmed patients, 35-70 years old, were interviewed between 1995 and 1997 in Denmark, Sweden, France, Germany and Italy. Population controls were frequency...... for extrahepatic biliary tract carcinoma in men (odds ratio 2.49; 95% confidence interval 1.32-4.70), particularly for gall bladder tumors (odds ratio 4.68; 95% confidence interval 1.85-11.84). For a body mass index [height (m) divided by squared weight (kg)] >30 at age 35 years, an excess risk was observed (odds...... as a strong risk factor for extrahepatic biliary tract carcinoma, whereas we did not find any strong lifestyle-associated risk factors. Inconsistent results across studies concerning the association of extrahepatic biliary tract carcinoma with overweight and obesity may be explained by the different...

  16. Management of upper respiratory tract infections in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) occurs commonly in both children and adults and is a major ... by a watery nasal discharge, which after one to three days becomes .... iron supplementation is remarkably effective in areas where iron.

  17. Signs and symptoms of developmental abnormalities of the genitourinary tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Koch Nogueira

    2016-05-01

    Conclusion: The suggestions shown here can help the pediatrician to establish clinical hypotheses for the early diagnosis of developmental abnormalities of the genitourinary tract without resorting to expensive and invasive procedures.

  18. Radiology of trauma to kidney and lower urinary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorph, S.

    1995-01-01

    The contents are trauma to kidney, imaging of kidney trauma, management of renal trauma, delayed complications, trauma to the lower urinary tract, trauma to urinary bladder, radiologic diagnosis, ethiology of blunt bladder injury, urethal injury (6 refs.)

  19. Upper Respiratory Tract Diseases in Athletes in Different Sports Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałązka-Franta, Anna; Jura-Szołtys, Edyta; Smółka, Wojciech; Gawlik, Radosław

    2016-12-01

    Upper respiratory tract diseases in athletes are a very common medical problem. Training conditions in different sports disciplines increase the risk of upper respiratory disease. Epidemiological evidence suggests that heavy acute or chronic exercise is related to an increased incidence of upper respiratory tract infections in athletes. Regular physical exercise at high intensity may lead to transient immunosuppression due to high prevalence of allergic diseases in athletes. Regardless of the cause they can exclude athletes from the training program and significantly impair their performance. In the present work, the most common upper respiratory tract diseases in athletes taking into account the disciplines in which they most often occur were presented. The focus was laid on symptoms, diagnostic methods and pharmacotherapy. Moreover, preventive procedures which can help reduce the occurrence of upper respiratory tract disease in athletes were presented. Management according to anti-doping rules, criteria for return to training and competition as an important issues of athlete's health were discussed.

  20. Census Tracts & Block Groups, 2004, East Baton Rouge, Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a graphical polygon dataset depicting the polygon boundaries of 107 semi-permanent census tracts and the census blocks within the Parish of East Baton Rouge....

  1. Tract specific analysis in patients with sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Yaqiong; Coloigner, Julie; Qu, Xiaoping; Choi, Soyoung; Bush, Adam; Borzage, Matt; Vu, Chau; Lepore, Natasha; Wood, John

    2015-12-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a hereditary blood disorder in which the oxygen-carrying hemoglobin molecule in red blood cells is abnormal. It affects numerous people in the world and leads to a shorter life span, pain, anemia, serious infections and neurocognitive decline. Tract-Specific Analysis (TSA) is a statistical method to evaluate white matter alterations due to neurocognitive diseases, using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance images. Here, for the first time, TSA is used to compare 11 major brain white matter (WM) tracts between SCD patients and age-matched healthy subjects. Alterations are found in the corpus callosum (CC), the cortico-spinal tract (CST), inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFO), inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), and uncinated fasciculus (UNC). Based on previous studies on the neurocognitive functions of these tracts, the significant areas found in this paper might be related to several cognitive impairments and depression, both of which are observed in SCD patients.

  2. Microflora of urogenital tract in pregnancy with asymptomatic bacterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullaeva, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    The article contains results of research interrelationship from colonization of vagina and urinary tract diseases. E.coli one of the main factors in development asymptomatic bacterium. Presented high effects of penicillin medicaments and nitrofurans in treatment of asymptomatic bacterium

  3. Seagrass from Unified Florida Reef Tract Map (NODC Accession 0123059)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a subset of the Unified Map representing Seagrass areas. Version 1.1 - December 2013. The Unified Florida Reef Tract Map (Unified Reef Map) provides...

  4. a seven months retrospective study on urinary tract infection among

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is a significant health problem world wide, ... responsible for a high rate of morbidity in neonates and children. ... predominant bacterial pathogens and their sensitivity to antibiotics so as to guide ... resistant strains.

  5. Reproductive tract infections in northern Vietnam: health providers' diagnostic dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, My Hu'o'ng; Gammeltoft, Tine; Christoffersen, Sarah Vigh

    2010-01-01

    Research was conducted on reproductive tract infections among women obtaining induced abortions at Ph[image omitted]-[image omitted] hospital in Haiphong City, a major maternity hospital in northern Vietnam. The research aimed to explore how clinicians and lab-technicians diagnose reproductive...... tract infections and the difficulties they experience in establishing exact diagnoses. A combination of both quantitative and qualitative research methodologies was employed. The quantitative research involved 748 abortion-seeking women; the qualitative research was conducted with 10 doctors and 10 lab......-technicians providing reproductive health services. A marked tendency was observed among both clinicians and lab-technicians to overdiagnose reproductive tract infections and to prescribe antibiotics routinely. Social, cultural, and clinical factors associated with the tendency to overdiagnose reproductive tract...

  6. Emphysematous cystitis: An unusual lower urinary tract infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emphysematous cystitis: An unusual lower urinary tract infection. MA Lakmichi, M Boukhar, F Barjani, O Saghir, T Hanich, B Wakrim, M Gabsi, A Elhauos, N Charif Idrissi Genouni, N Ousehal, Z Dahami, SM Moudouni, I Sarf ...

  7. Bacteraemia, urinary tract infection and malaria in hospitalised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . However, it remains unclear whether such infections are attributable to the malaria, other risk factors, or are coincidental. Objective: To determine the prevalence of bacteraemia and urinary tract infections (UTI) in febrile hospitalised children ...

  8. Radiology of trauma to kidney and lower urinary tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorph, S [Herlev University Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-12-31

    The contents are trauma to kidney, imaging of kidney trauma, management of renal trauma, delayed complications, trauma to the lower urinary tract, trauma to urinary bladder, radiologic diagnosis, ethiology of blunt bladder injury, urethal injury (6 refs.).

  9. Comparative Screening of Digestion Tract Toxic Genes in Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaolu; Lin, Yiman; Qiu, Yaqun; Li, Yinghui; Jiang, Min; Chen, Qiongcheng; Jiang, Yixiang; Yuan, Jianhui; Cao, Hong; Hu, Qinghua; Huang, Shenghe

    2016-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a common urinary tract pathogen, and may induce various inflammation symptoms. Its notorious ability to resist multiple antibiotics and to form urinary tract stones makes its treatment a long and painful process, which is further challenged by the frequent horizontal gene transferring events in P. mirabilis genomes. Three strains of P. mirabilis C02011/C04010/C04013 were isolated from a local outbreak of a food poisoning event in Shenzhen, China. Our hypothesis is that new genes may have been acquired horizontally to exert the digestion tract infection and toxicity. The functional characterization of these three genomes shows that each of them independently acquired dozens of virulent genes horizontally from the other microbial genomes. The representative strain C02011 induces the symptoms of both vomit and diarrhea, and has recently acquired a complete type IV secretion system and digestion tract toxic genes from the other bacteria.

  10. Pediatric recurrent respiratory tract infections: when and how to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pediatric recurrent respiratory tract infections: when and how to explore the immune system? (About 53 cases). Mohammed El-Azami-El-Idrissi, Mounia Lakhdar-Idrissi, Sanae Chaouki, Samir Atmani, Abdelhak Bouharrou, Moustapha Hida ...

  11. Degradation of blood in the human digestive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moerup, S.; Johansen, C.

    1986-01-01

    Samples of human faeces from patients suffering from intestinal bleeding have been studied by use of Moessbauer spectroscopy. It is shown that it is possible to follow the degradation of blood in the digestive tract. (Auth.)

  12. SnapShot: Hormones of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coate, Katie C; Kliewer, Steven A; Mangelsdorf, David J

    2014-12-04

    Specialized endocrine cells secrete a variety of peptide hormones all along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, making it one of the largest endocrine organs in the body. Nutrients and developmental and neural cues trigger the secretion of gastrointestinal (GI) hormones from specialized endocrine cells along the GI tract. These hormones act in target tissues to facilitate digestion and regulate energy homeostasis. This SnapShot summarizes the production and functions of GI hormones. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Biotinylated dextran amine anterograde tracing of the canine corticospinal tract?

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Xiao; Lv, Guangming; Wu, Huiqun; Ji, Dafeng; Sun, Zhou; Li, Yaofu; Tang, Lemin

    2012-01-01

    In this study, biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) was microinjected into the left cortical motor area of the canine brain. Fluorescence microscopy results showed that a large amount of BDA-labeled pyramidal cells were visible in the left cortical motor area after injection. In the left medulla oblongata, the BDA-labeled corticospinal tract was evenly distributed, with green fluorescence that had a clear boundary with the surrounding tissue. The BDA-positive corticospinal tract entered into the ...

  14. Endocrine disruptors in female reproductive tract development and carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Liang

    2009-01-01

    Growing concerns over endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and their effects on human fetal development and adult health have promoted research into the underlying molecular mechanisms of endocrine disruption. Gene targeting technology has allowed insight into the genetic pathways governing reproductive tract development and how exposure to EDCs during a critical developmental window can alter reproductive tract development, potentially forming the basis for adult diseases. This review prima...

  15. Review of Topical Treatment of Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth G. Nepple

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A select group of patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma may be appropriate candidates for minimally invasive management. Organ-preserving endoscopic procedures may be appropriate for patients with an inability to tolerate major surgery, solitary kidney, bilateral disease, poor renal function, small tumor burden, low-grade disease, or carcinoma in situ. We review the published literature on the use of topical treatment for upper tract urothelial carcinoma and provide our approach to treatment in the office setting.

  16. Narcotic smuggling and radiography of the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamilo, M.; Suoranta, H.; Suramo, I.

    1986-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is being used to an increasing extent as a route for smuggling narcotics. Small, swallowed packages overwrapped with condoms or other materials are usually not detected by the customs authorities. Conventional abdominal radiography may indicate foreign bodies surrounded by a characteristic thin layer of gas and located in the gastrointestinal tract. Some short case histories, and the radiologic findings in four heroin 'body packers' are presented. (orig.)

  17. Upper Respiratory Tract Diseases in Athletes in Different Sports Disciplines

    OpenAIRE

    Ga??zka-Franta, Anna; Jura-Szo?tys, Edyta; Sm??ka, Wojciech; Gawlik, Rados?aw

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Upper respiratory tract diseases in athletes are a very common medical problem. Training conditions in different sports disciplines increase the risk of upper respiratory disease. Epidemiological evidence suggests that heavy acute or chronic exercise is related to an increased incidence of upper respiratory tract infections in athletes. Regular physical exercise at high intensity may lead to transient immunosuppression due to high prevalence of allergic diseases in athletes. Regardle...

  18. International Spinal Cord Injury Urinary Tract Infection Basic Data Set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetz, L L; Cardenas, D D; Kennelly, M

    2013-01-01

    To develop an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Basic Data Set presenting a standardized format for the collection and reporting of a minimal amount of information on UTIs in daily practice or research.......To develop an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Basic Data Set presenting a standardized format for the collection and reporting of a minimal amount of information on UTIs in daily practice or research....

  19. Renal scintigraphy in children with first febrile urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte Perez, Maria Caridad; Guillen Dosal, Ana; Martinez Silva, Magaly; Hernandez Robledo, Ernesto

    2012-01-01

    The urinary tract infection is one of the most frequent bacterial infections in the childhood. Two hundred eleven children diagnosed as first febrile urinary tract infection patients were studied and performed Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in the acute phase of infection. The results were correlated to the duration and intensity of the fever before the diagnosis, to the acute phase reactants (hemogram, erythrosedimentation and reactive-C protein) and to the results of imaging studies (renal ultrasound and mictional uretrocystography)

  20. Diagnosis and Management of Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Robert C; Ryan, Stephen T

    2016-06-01

    Lower urinary tract dysfunction is an umbrella diagnosis that covers difficulty evacuating urine from the bladder. In its most simple form, it is either an inability to store urine or an inability to empty the bladder of urine appropriately. The normal and the abnormal bladder, the role of urodynamics in evaluation of lower urinary tract dysfunction, and the medical and behavioral management of some of these disorders are reviewed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.