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Sample records for tracking controller design

  1. Control system design for UAV trajectory tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haitao; Gao, Jinyuan

    2006-11-01

    In recent years, because of the emerging requirements for increasing autonomy, the controller of uninhabited air vehicles must be augmented with a very sophisticated autopilot design which is capable of tracking complex and agile maneuvering trajectory. This paper provides a simplified control system framework to solve UAV maneuvering trajectory tracking problem. The flight control system is divided into three subsystems including command generation, transformation and allocation. According to the kinematics equations of the aircraft, flight path angle commands can be generated by desired 3D position from path planning. These commands are transformed to body angular rates through direct nonlinear mapping, which is simpler than common multi-loop method based on time scale separation assumption. Then, by using weighted pseudo-inverse method, the control surface deflections are allocated to follow body angular rates from the previous step. In order to improve the robustness, a nonlinear disturbance observer-based approach is used to compensate the uncertainty of system. A 6DOF nonlinear UAV model is controlled to demonstrate the performance of the trajectory tracking control system. Simulation results show that the control strategy is easy to be realized and the precision of tracking is satisfying.

  2. Terminal Sliding Mode Tracking Controller Design for Automatic Guided Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongbin

    2018-03-01

    Based on sliding mode variable structure control theory, the path tracking problem of automatic guided vehicle is studied, proposed a controller design method based on the terminal sliding mode. First of all, through analyzing the characteristics of the automatic guided vehicle movement, the kinematics model is presented. Then to improve the traditional expression of terminal sliding mode, design a nonlinear sliding mode which the convergence speed is faster than the former, verified by theoretical analysis, the design of sliding mode is steady and fast convergence in the limited time. Finally combining Lyapunov method to design the tracking control law of automatic guided vehicle, the controller can make the automatic guided vehicle track the desired trajectory in the global sense as well as in finite time. The simulation results verify the correctness and effectiveness of the control law.

  3. Model tracking dual stochastic controller design under irregular internal noises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Bok; Heo, Hoon; Cho, Yun Hyun; Ji, Tae Young

    2006-01-01

    Although many methods about the control of irregular external noise have been introduced and implemented, it is still necessary to design a controller that will be more effective and efficient methods to exclude for various noises. Accumulation of errors due to model tracking, internal noises (thermal noise, shot noise and l/f noise) that come from elements such as resistor, diode and transistor etc. in the circuit system and numerical errors due to digital process often destabilize the system and reduce the system performance. New stochastic controller is adopted to remove those noises using conventional controller simultaneously. Design method of a model tracking dual controller is proposed to improve the stability of system while removing external and internal noises. In the study, design process of the model tracking dual stochastic controller is introduced that improves system performance and guarantees robustness under irregular internal noises which can be created internally. The model tracking dual stochastic controller utilizing F-P-K stochastic control technique developed earlier is implemented to reveal its performance via simulation

  4. Controlling and tracking hyperchaotic Roessler system via active backstepping design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hao; Ma Xikui; Li Ming; Zou Jianlong

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a novel active backstepping control approach for controlling hyperchaotic Roessler system to a steady state as well as tracking of any desire trajectory to be achieved in a systematic way. The proposed method is a systematic design approach and consists in a recursive procedure that interlaces the choice of a Lyapunov function with the design of active control. Numerical results show that the controller is singularity free and the closed-loop system is stable globally. Especially, the main feature of this technique is that it gives the flexibility to construct a control law. Finally, numerical experiments verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed control technique

  5. Design and control of the precise tracking bed based on complex electromechanical design theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Changzhi; Liu, Zhao; Wu, Liao; Chen, Ken

    2010-05-01

    The precise tracking technology is wide used in astronomical instruments, satellite tracking and aeronautic test bed. However, the precise ultra low speed tracking drive system is one high integrated electromechanical system, which one complexly electromechanical design method is adopted to improve the efficiency, reliability and quality of the system during the design and manufacture circle. The precise Tracking Bed is one ultra-exact, ultra-low speed, high precision and huge inertial instrument, which some kind of mechanism and environment of the ultra low speed is different from general technology. This paper explores the design process based on complex electromechanical optimizing design theory, one non-PID with a CMAC forward feedback control method is used in the servo system of the precise tracking bed and some simulation results are discussed.

  6. Design and Implementation of Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Tracking Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawaz S. Abdullah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available  The power supplied by any solar array depends upon the environmental conditions as weather conditions (temperature and radiation intensity and the incident angle of the radiant source. The work aims to study the maximum power tracking schemes that used to compare the system performance without and with different types of controllers. The maximum power points of the solar panel under test studied and compared with two controller's types.  The first controller is the proportional- integral - derivative controller type and the second is the perturbation and observation algorithm controller. The associated converter system is a microcontroller based type, whereas the results studied and compared of greatest power point of the Photovoltaic panels under the different two controllers. The experimental tests results compared with simulation results to verify accurate performance.

  7. Design of tracking mount and controller for mobile satellite laser ranging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol Hoon; Son, Young Su; Kim, Byung In; Ham, Sang Young; Lee, Sung Whee; Lim, Hyung Chul

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we have proposed and implemented a design for the tracking mount and controller of the ARGO-M (Accurate Ranging system for Geodetic Observation - Mobile) which is a mobile satellite laser ranging (SLR) system developed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) and Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM). The tracking mount comprises a few core components such as bearings, driving motors and encoders. These components were selected as per the technical specifications for the tracking mount of the ARGO-M. A three-dimensional model of the tracking mount was designed. The frequency analysis of the model predicted that the first natural frequency of the designed tracking mount was high enough. The tracking controller is simulated using MATLAB/xPC Target to achieve the required pointing and tracking accuracy. In order to evaluate the system repeatability and tracking accuracy of the tracking mount, a prototype of the ARGO-M was fabricated, and repeatability tests were carried out using a laser interferometer. Tracking tests were conducted using the trajectories of low earth orbit (LEO) and high earth orbit (HEO) satellites. Based on the test results, it was confirmed that the prototype of the tracking mount and controller of the ARGO-M could achieve the required repeatability along with a tracking accuracy of less than 1 arcsec.

  8. Design and Development of Mechanical Structure and Control System for Tracked Trailing Mobile Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Hongchuan Xu; Jianxing Ren; Rui Zhu; Zhiwei Chen

    2013-01-01

    Along with the science and technology unceasing progress, the uses of tracing robots become more and more widely. Tracked tracing robot was adopted as the research object in this paper, mechanical structure and control system of robot was designed and developmented. In mechanical structure design part, structure designed and positioned  were completed, including design of robot body, wheel, underpan, transmission structure and the positioning of batteries, control panel, sensors, etc, and the...

  9. MIMO FIR feedforward design for zero error tracking control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heertjes, M.F.; Bruijnen, D.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) finite impulse response (FIR) feedforward design. The design is intended for systems that have (non-)minimum phase zeros in the plant description. The zeros of the plant (either minimum or non-minimum phase) are used in the shaping of the

  10. Controller Design and Experiment for Tracking Mount of Movable SLR, ARGO-M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol Hoon Park

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Controller design procedure for prototype tracking mount of Movable SLR (Satellite Laser Ranging, ARGO-M is presented. Tracking mount of ARGO-M is altitude-azimuth type and it has two axes of elevation and azimuth to control its position. Controller consists of velocity and acceleration feed-forward controller, position controller at outer loop, velocity controller at inner loop. There are two kinds of position control modes. One is the pointing mode to move from one position to the other position as fast as possible and the other one is tracking mode to follow SLR trajectory as precise as possible. Because the requirement of tracking accuracy is less than 5 arcsec and it is very tight error budget, a sophisticated controller needs to be prepared to meet the accuracy. Especially, ARGO-M is using the cross-roller bearing at each axis to increase the mechanical accuracy, which requires add-on controller DOB (Disturbance observer to suppress friction load and low frequency disturbances. The pointing and tracking performance of the designed controller is simulated and visualized using MATLAB/ Simulink and SimMechanics and the experimental results using test are presented as well.

  11. Reference-tracking feedforward control design for linear dynamical systems through signal decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasemsinsup, Y.; Romagnoli, R.; Heertjes, M.F.; Weiland, S.; Butler, H.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we study a novel approach towards the reference-tracking feedforward control design for linear dynamical systems. By utilizing the superposition property and exploiting signal decomposition together with a quadratic optimization process, we obtain a feedforward design procedure for

  12. A New Robust Tracking Control Design for Turbofan Engines: H∞/Leitmann Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muxuan Pan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a H ∞ /Leitmann approach to the robust tracking control design is presented for an uncertain dynamic system. This new method is developed in the following two steps. Firstly, a tracking dynamic system with simultaneous consideration of parameter uncertainty and noise is modeled based on a linear system and a reference model. Accordingly, a “nominal system” from the tracking system is defined and controlled by a H ∞ control to obtain the asymptotical stability and noise resistance. Secondly, by making use of a Lyapunov function and the norm boundedness, a new robust control with the “Leitmann approach” is designed to cope with the uncertainty. The two controls collaborate with each other to achieve “uniform tracking boundedness” and “uniform ultimate tracking boundedness”. The new approach is then applied to an aircraft turbofan control design, and the numerical simulation results show the prescribed performances of the closed-loop system and the advantage of the developed approach.

  13. Fuzzy Controller Design Using FPGA for Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Basil M Hamed; Mohammed S. El-Moghany

    2012-01-01

    The cell has optimum operating point to be able to get maximum power. To obtain Maximum Power from photovoltaic array, photovoltaic power system usually requires Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) controller. This paper provides a small power photovoltaic control system based on fuzzy control with FPGA technology design and implementation for MPPT. The system composed of photovoltaic module, buck converter and the fuzzy logic controller implemented on FPGA for controlling on/off time of MOSF...

  14. Development of requirements tracking and verification system for the software design of distributed control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chul Hwan; Kim, Jang Yeol; Kim, Jung Tack; Lee, Jang Soo; Ham, Chang Shik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-31

    In this paper a prototype of Requirement Tracking and Verification System(RTVS) for a Distributed Control System was implemented and tested. The RTVS is a software design and verification tool. The main functions required by the RTVS are managing, tracking and verification of the software requirements listed in the documentation of the DCS. The analysis of DCS software design procedures and interfaces with documents were performed to define the user of the RTVS, and the design requirements for RTVS were developed. 4 refs., 3 figs. (Author)

  15. Development of requirements tracking and verification system for the software design of distributed control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chul Hwan; Kim, Jang Yeol; Kim, Jung Tack; Lee, Jang Soo; Ham, Chang Shik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    In this paper a prototype of Requirement Tracking and Verification System(RTVS) for a Distributed Control System was implemented and tested. The RTVS is a software design and verification tool. The main functions required by the RTVS are managing, tracking and verification of the software requirements listed in the documentation of the DCS. The analysis of DCS software design procedures and interfaces with documents were performed to define the user of the RTVS, and the design requirements for RTVS were developed. 4 refs., 3 figs. (Author)

  16. Visual Servoing Tracking Control of a Ball and Plate System: Design, Implementation and Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tzu Ho

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, implementation and validation of real-time visual servoing tracking control for a ball and plate system. The position of the ball is measured with a machine vision system. The image processing algorithms of the machine vision system are pipelined and implemented on a field programmable gate array (FPGA device to meet real-time constraints. A detailed dynamic model of the system is derived for the simulation study. By neglecting the high-order coupling terms, the ball and plate system model is simplified into two decoupled ball and beam systems, and an approximate input-output feedback linearization approach is then used to design the controller for trajectory tracking. The designed control law is implemented on a digital signal processor (DSP. The validity of the performance of the developed control system is investigated through simulation and experimental studies. Experimental results show that the designed system functions well with reasonable agreement with simulations.

  17. Design of an embedded inverse-feedforward biomolecular tracking controller for enzymatic reaction processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Mathias; Kim, Jongrae; Sawlekar, Rucha; Bates, Declan G

    2017-04-06

    Feedback control is widely used in chemical engineering to improve the performance and robustness of chemical processes. Feedback controllers require a 'subtractor' that is able to compute the error between the process output and the reference signal. In the case of embedded biomolecular control circuits, subtractors designed using standard chemical reaction network theory can only realise one-sided subtraction, rendering standard controller design approaches inadequate. Here, we show how a biomolecular controller that allows tracking of required changes in the outputs of enzymatic reaction processes can be designed and implemented within the framework of chemical reaction network theory. The controller architecture employs an inversion-based feedforward controller that compensates for the limitations of the one-sided subtractor that generates the error signals for a feedback controller. The proposed approach requires significantly fewer chemical reactions to implement than alternative designs, and should have wide applicability throughout the fields of synthetic biology and biological engineering.

  18. Disturbance Observer based internal Model Controller Design: Applications to Tracking Control of Optical Disk Drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyun Taek; Suh, Il Hong [Hanyang University (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-01

    A digital tracking controller is proposed for a precise positioning control under a large repetitive and/or non repetitive disturbances. The proposed controller consists of the internal model controller and the disturbance observer to eliminate the modeling uncertainty. A sufficient condition is given for robust stability of the proposed control system. Numerical Examples are illustrated for a precise head positioning of optical disk drives regardless of a torque disturbance and/or output disturbance. (author). 8 refs., 19 figs.

  19. Internal Model-Based Robust Tracking Control Design for the MEMS Electromagnetic Micromirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jiazheng; Sun, Weijie; Yeow, John T W

    2017-05-26

    The micromirror based on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology is widely employed in different areas, such as scanning, imaging and optical switching. This paper studies the MEMS electromagnetic micromirror for scanning or imaging application. In these application scenarios, the micromirror is required to track the command sinusoidal signal, which can be converted to an output regulation problem theoretically. In this paper, based on the internal model principle, the output regulation problem is solved by designing a robust controller that is able to force the micromirror to track the command signal accurately. The proposed controller relies little on the accuracy of the model. Further, the proposed controller is implemented, and its effectiveness is examined by experiments. The experimental results demonstrate that the performance of the proposed controller is satisfying.

  20. Design of a Discrete Tracking Controller for a Magnetic Levitation System: A Nonlinear Rational Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Gómez-Salas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes a discrete-time nonlinear rational approximate model for the unstable magnetic levitation system. Based on this model and as an application of the input-output linearization technique, a discrete-time tracking control design will be derived using the corresponding classical state space representation of the model. A simulation example illustrates the efficiency of the proposed methodology.

  1. Observer-based design of set-point tracking adaptive controllers for nonlinear chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaki-Sedigh, A.; Yazdanpanah-Goharrizi, A.

    2006-01-01

    A gradient based approach for the design of set-point tracking adaptive controllers for nonlinear chaotic systems is presented. In this approach, Lyapunov exponents are used to select the controller gain. In the case of unknown or time varying chaotic plants, the Lyapunov exponents may vary during the plant operation. In this paper, an effective adaptive strategy is used for online identification of Lyapunov exponents and adaptive control of nonlinear chaotic plants. Also, a nonlinear observer for estimation of the states is proposed. Simulation results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology

  2. Observer-based design of set-point tracking adaptive controllers for nonlinear chaotic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaki-Sedigh, A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Sayyed Khandan Bridge, Shariati Street, Tehran 16314 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: sedigh@kntu.ac.ir; Yazdanpanah-Goharrizi, A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Sayyed Khandan Bridge, Shariati Street, Tehran 16314 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: yazdanpanah@ee.kntu.ac.ir

    2006-09-15

    A gradient based approach for the design of set-point tracking adaptive controllers for nonlinear chaotic systems is presented. In this approach, Lyapunov exponents are used to select the controller gain. In the case of unknown or time varying chaotic plants, the Lyapunov exponents may vary during the plant operation. In this paper, an effective adaptive strategy is used for online identification of Lyapunov exponents and adaptive control of nonlinear chaotic plants. Also, a nonlinear observer for estimation of the states is proposed. Simulation results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  3. Dynamic surface tracking controller design for a constrained hypersonic vehicle based on disturbance observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The tracking control problem of a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle subjects to aerodynamic parameter uncertainty and input constraint is investigated by combining nonlinear disturbance observer and dynamic surface control. To design controller simply, a control-oriented model is firstly derived and divided into two subsystems, velocity subsystem and altitude subsystem based on the engineering backgrounds of flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle. In every subsystem, compounded disturbances are included to consider aerodynamic uncertainty and the effect of the flexible modes. Then, disturbance observer is not only used to handle the compounded disturbance but also to handle the input constraint, where the estimation error converges to a random small region through appropriately choosing the observer parameters. To sequel, the disturbance observer–based robust control scheme and the disturbance observer-based dynamic surface control scheme are developed for the velocity subsystem and altitude subsystem, respectively. Besides, novel filters are designed to alleviate the problem of “explosion of terms” induced by backstepping method. On the basis of Lyapunov stability theory, the presented control scheme can assure that tracking error converges to an arbitrarily small neighborhood around zero by rigorous theoretical analysis. At last, simulation result shows the effectiveness of the presented control method.

  4. Time-domain prefilter design for enhanced tracking and vibration suppression in machine motion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Matthew O. T.; Shinonawanik, Praween; Wongratanaphisan, Theeraphong

    2018-05-01

    Structural flexibility can impact negatively on machine motion control systems by causing unmeasured positioning errors and vibration at locations where accurate motion is important for task execution. To compensate for these effects, command signal prefiltering may be applied. In this paper, a new FIR prefilter design method is described that combines finite-time vibration cancellation with dynamic compensation properties. The time-domain formulation exploits the relation between tracking error and the moment values of the prefilter impulse response function. Optimal design solutions for filters having minimum H2 norm are derived and evaluated. The control approach does not require additional actuation or sensing and can be effective even without complete and accurate models of the machine dynamics. Results from implementation and testing on an experimental high-speed manipulator having a Delta robot architecture with directionally compliant end-effector are presented. The results show the importance of prefilter moment values for tracking performance and confirm that the proposed method can achieve significant reductions in both peak and RMS tracking error, as well as settling time, for complex motion patterns.

  5. Optimality based repetitive controller design for track-following servo system of optical disk drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wentao; Zhang, Weidong

    2009-10-01

    In an optical disk drive servo system, to attenuate the external periodic disturbances induced by inevitable disk eccentricity, repetitive control has been used successfully. The performance of a repetitive controller greatly depends on the bandwidth of the low-pass filter included in the repetitive controller. However, owing to the plant uncertainty and system stability, it is difficult to maximize the bandwidth of the low-pass filter. In this paper, we propose an optimality based repetitive controller design method for the track-following servo system with norm-bounded uncertainties. By embedding a lead compensator in the repetitive controller, both the system gain at periodic signal's harmonics and the bandwidth of the low-pass filter are greatly increased. The optimal values of the repetitive controller's parameters are obtained by solving two optimization problems. Simulation and experimental results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Design of a Path-Tracking Steering Controller for Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanyang Sun

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a linearization method for the vehicle and tire models under the model predictive control (MPC scheme, and proposes a linear model-based MPC path-tracking steering controller for autonomous vehicles. The steering controller is designed to minimize lateral path-tracking deviation at high speeds. The vehicle model is linearized by a sequence of supposed steering angles, which are obtained by assuming the vehicle can reach the desired path at the end of the MPC prediction horizon and stay in a steady-state condition. The lateral force of the front tire is directly used as the control input of the model, and the rear tire’s lateral force is linearized by an equivalent cornering stiffness. The course-direction deviation, which is the angle between the velocity vector and the path heading, is chosen as a control reference state. The linearization model is validated through the simulation, and the results show high prediction accuracy even in regions of large steering angle. This steering controller is tested through simulations on the CarSim-Simulink platform (R2013b, MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA, showing the improved performance of the present controller at high speeds.

  7. Lane Changing Trajectory Planning and Tracking Controller Design for Intelligent Vehicle Running on Curved Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lie Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the active safety and realize the autonomy of intelligent vehicle on highway curved road, a lane changing trajectory is planned and tracked for lane changing maneuver on curved road. The kinematics model of the intelligent vehicle with nonholonomic constraint feature and the tracking error model are established firstly. The longitudinal and lateral coupling and the difference of curvature radius between the outside and inside lane are taken into account, which is helpful to enhance the authenticity of desired lane changing trajectory on curved road. Then the trajectory tracking controller of closed-loop control structure is derived using integral backstepping method to construct a new virtual variable. The Lyapunov theory is applied to analyze the stability of the proposed tracking controller. Simulation results demonstrate that this controller can guarantee the convergences of both the relative position tracking errors and the position tracking synchronization.

  8. On the design of multi-rate tracking controllers : application to rotorcraft guidance and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerreiro Tome Antunes, D.J.; Silvestre, C.J.; Cunha, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for the design and implementation of gain-scheduled controllers for multi-rate systems. The proposed methodology provides a natural way to address the integrated guidance and control problem for autonomous vehicles when the outputs are sampled at different

  9. Tip Speed Ratio Based Maximum Power Tracking Control of Variable Speed Wind Turbines; A Comprehensive Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Karabacak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The most primitive control method of wind turbines used to generate electric energy from wind is the fixed speed control method. With this method, it is not possible that turbine input power is transferred to grid at maximum rate. For this reason, Maximum Power Tracking (MPT schemes are proposed. In order to implement MPT, the propeller has to rotate at a different speed for every different wind speed. This situation has led MPT based systems to be called Variable Speed Wind Turbine (VSWT systems. In VSWT systems, turbine input power can be transferred to grid at rates close to maximum power. When MPT based control of VSWT systems is the case, two important processes come into prominence. These are instantaneously determination and tracking of MPT point. In this study, using a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT method based on tip speed ratio, power available in wind is transferred into grid over a back to back converter at maximum rate via a VSWT system with permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG. Besides a physical wind turbine simulator is modelled and simulated. Results show that a time varying MPPT point is tracked with a high performance.

  10. Controlled ion track etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, J.; Irkens, M.; Neumann, S.; Scherer, U. W.; Srivastava, A.; Sinha, D.; Fink, D.

    2006-03-01

    It is a common practice since long to follow the ion track-etching process in thin foils via conductometry, i.e . by measurement of the electrical current which passes through the etched track, once the track breakthrough condition has been achieved. The major disadvantage of this approach, namely the absence of any major detectable signal before breakthrough, can be avoided by examining the track-etching process capacitively. This method allows one to define precisely not only the breakthrough point before it is reached, but also the length of any non-transient track. Combining both capacitive and conductive etching allows one to control the etching process perfectly. Examples and possible applications are given.

  11. Design and control of one precise tracking simulation bed for Chinese 20/30 meter optic/infrared telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Changzhi; Li, Xiaoyan; Song, Xiaoli; Niu, Yong; Li, Aihua; Zhang, Zhenchao

    2012-09-01

    Direct drive technology is the key to solute future 30-m and larger telescope motion system to guarantee a very high tracking accuracy, in spite of unbalanced and sudden loads such as wind gusts and in spite of a structure that, because of its size, can not be infinitely stiff. However, this requires the design and realization of unusually large torque motor that the torque slew rate must be extremely steep too. A conventional torque motor design appears inadequate. This paper explores one redundant unit permanent magnet synchronous motor and its simulation bed for 30-m class telescope. Because its drive system is one high integrated electromechanical system, one complexly electromechanical design method is adopted to improve the efficiency, reliability and quality of the system during the design and manufacture circle. This paper discusses the design and control of the precise tracking simulation bed in detail.

  12. Tracking Controller Design for Diving Behavior of an Unmanned Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsiang Tseng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study has investigated the almost disturbance decoupling problem of nonlinear uncertain control systems via the fuzzy feedback linearization approach. The significant dedication of this paper is to organize a control algorithm such that the closed-loop system is active for given initial condition and bounded tracking trajectory with the input-to-state stability and almost disturbance decoupling performance. This study presents a feedback linearization controller for diving control of an unmanned underwater vehicle. Unmanned underwater vehicle proposes difficult control subject due to its nonlinear dynamics, uncertain models, and the existence of disturbances that are difficult to measure. In general, while investigating the diving dynamics of an unmanned underwater vehicle, the pitch angle is always assumed to be small. This assumption is a strong restricting constraint in many interesting practical applications and will be relaxed in this study.

  13. Design of an embedded inverse-feedforward biomolecular tracking controller for enzymatic reaction processes

    OpenAIRE

    Foo, Mathias; Kim, Jongrae; Sawlekar, Rucha; Bates, Declan G.

    2017-01-01

    Feedback control is widely used in chemical engineering to improve the performance and robustness of chemical processes. Feedback controllers require a ‘subtractor’ that is able to compute the error between the process output and the reference signal. In the case of embedded biomolecular control circuits, subtractors designed using standard chemical reaction network theory can only realise one-sided subtraction, rendering standard controller design approaches inadequate. Here, we show how a b...

  14. Tracking control of air-breathing hypersonic vehicles with non-affine dynamics via improved neural back-stepping design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Xiangwei; He, Guangjun; Wang, Ke

    2018-04-01

    This study considers the design of a new back-stepping control approach for air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (AHV) non-affine models via neural approximation. The AHV's non-affine dynamics is decomposed into velocity subsystem and altitude subsystem to be controlled separately, and robust adaptive tracking control laws are developed using improved back-stepping designs. Neural networks are applied to estimate the unknown non-affine dynamics, which guarantees the addressed controllers with satisfactory robustness against uncertainties. In comparison with the existing control methodologies, the special contributions are that the non-affine issue is handled by constructing two low-pass filters based on model transformations, and virtual controllers are treated as intermediate variables such that they aren't needed for back-stepping designs any more. Lyapunov techniques are employed to show the uniformly ultimately boundedness of all closed-loop signals. Finally, simulation results are presented to verify the tracking performance and superiorities of the investigated control strategy. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. GA-optimized feedforward-PID tracking control for a rugged electrohydraulic system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, B K; Mandal, P; Saha, R; Mookherjee, S; Sanyal, D

    2013-11-01

    Rugged electrohydraulic systems are preferred for remote and harsh applications. Despite the low bandwidth, large deadband and flow nonlinearities in proportional valves valve and highly nonlinear friction in industry-grade cylinders that comprise rugged systems, their maintenance are much easier than very sophisticated and delicate servocontrol and servocylinder systems. With the target of making the easily maintainable system to perform comparably to a servosystem, a feedforward control has been designed here for compensating the nonlinearities. A PID feedback of the piston displacement has been employed in tandem for absorbing the unmodeled effects. All the controller parameters have been optimized by a real-coded genetic algorithm. The agreement between the achieved real-time responses for step and sinusoidal demands with those achieved by modern servosystems clearly establishes the acceptability of the controller design. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Design and Implementation of Neuro-Fuzzy Controller Using FPGA for Sun Tracking System

    OpenAIRE

    Ammar A. Aldair; Adel A. Obed; Ali F. Halihal

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, renewable energy is being used increasingly because of the global warming and destruction of the environment. Therefore, the studies are concentrating on gain of maximum power from this energy such as the solar energy. A sun tracker is device which rotates a photovoltaic (PV) panel to the sun to get the maximum power. Disturbances which are originated by passing the clouds are one of great challenges in design of the controller in addition to the losses power due to energy consumpti...

  17. Design and implementation of a microcontroller-based maximum power point tracking fuzzy solar-charge controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qazalbash, A.A.; Iqbal, T.; Shafiq, M.Z. [National Univ. of Sciences and Technology, Rawalpindi (Pakistan). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) solar arrays are particularly useful for electrical power generation in remote, off-grid areas in developing countries. However, PV arrays offer a small power to area ratio, resulting in the need for more PV arrays which increases the cost of the system. In order to improve the profitability of PV arrays, the power extraction from available PV array systems must be maximized. This paper presented an analysis, modeling and implementation of an efficient solar charge controller. It was shown that the maximum power of a photovoltaic system depends largely on temperature and insolation. A perturb and observe algorithm was used for maximum power point tracking (MPPT). MPPT maximizes the efficiency of a solar PV system. A solar charge controller determines the optimal values of output current and voltage of converters to maximize power output for battery charging. In order to improve performance and implement the perturb and observe algorithm, the authors designed a fuzzy rule-based system in which a solar charge controller worked with a PWM controlled DC-DC converter for battery charging. The system was implemented on a low-cost PIC microcontroller. Results were better than conventional techniques in power efficiency. Swift maximum power point tracking was obtained. 13 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  18. Reinforcement learning design-based adaptive tracking control with less learning parameters for nonlinear discrete-time MIMO systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Jun; Tang, Li; Tong, Shaocheng; Chen, C L Philip; Li, Dong-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Based on the neural network (NN) approximator, an online reinforcement learning algorithm is proposed for a class of affine multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) nonlinear discrete-time systems with unknown functions and disturbances. In the design procedure, two networks are provided where one is an action network to generate an optimal control signal and the other is a critic network to approximate the cost function. An optimal control signal and adaptation laws can be generated based on two NNs. In the previous approaches, the weights of critic and action networks are updated based on the gradient descent rule and the estimations of optimal weight vectors are directly adjusted in the design. Consequently, compared with the existing results, the main contributions of this paper are: 1) only two parameters are needed to be adjusted, and thus the number of the adaptation laws is smaller than the previous results and 2) the updating parameters do not depend on the number of the subsystems for MIMO systems and the tuning rules are replaced by adjusting the norms on optimal weight vectors in both action and critic networks. It is proven that the tracking errors, the adaptation laws, and the control inputs are uniformly bounded using Lyapunov analysis method. The simulation examples are employed to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  19. Trajectory tracking control for underactuated stratospheric airship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zewei; Huo, Wei; Wu, Zhe

    2012-10-01

    Stratospheric airship is a new kind of aerospace system which has attracted worldwide developing interests for its broad application prospects. Based on the trajectory linearization control (TLC) theory, a novel trajectory tracking control method for an underactuated stratospheric airship is presented in this paper. Firstly, the TLC theory is described sketchily, and the dynamic model of the stratospheric airship is introduced with kinematics and dynamics equations. Then, the trajectory tracking control strategy is deduced in detail. The designed control system possesses a cascaded structure which consists of desired attitude calculation, position control loop and attitude control loop. Two sub-loops are designed for the position and attitude control loops, respectively, including the kinematics control loop and dynamics control loop. Stability analysis shows that the controlled closed-loop system is exponentially stable. Finally, simulation results for the stratospheric airship to track typical trajectories are illustrated to verify effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  20. Tracking control of DC motors via mimo nonlinear fuzzy control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harb, Ahmad M.; Smadi, Issam A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposed a nonlinear controller for speed tracking of separately excited DC motors (SEDCM's) using the multi-input multi-output (MIMO) fuzzy logic controller (FLC's). Based on a nonlinear mathematical model of SEDCM, a FLC is designed to achieve high performance speed tracking through rejection load disturbance. Computer simulations are presented to show speed tracking performance and the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  1. Pareto design of state feedback tracking control of a biped robot via multiobjective PSO in comparison with sigma method and genetic algorithms: modified NSGAII and MATLAB's toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodabadi, M J; Taherkhorsandi, M; Bagheri, A

    2014-01-01

    An optimal robust state feedback tracking controller is introduced to control a biped robot. In the literature, the parameters of the controller are usually determined by a tedious trial and error process. To eliminate this process and design the parameters of the proposed controller, the multiobjective evolutionary algorithms, that is, the proposed method, modified NSGAII, Sigma method, and MATLAB's Toolbox MOGA, are employed in this study. Among the used evolutionary optimization algorithms to design the controller for biped robots, the proposed method operates better in the aspect of designing the controller since it provides ample opportunities for designers to choose the most appropriate point based upon the design criteria. Three points are chosen from the nondominated solutions of the obtained Pareto front based on two conflicting objective functions, that is, the normalized summation of angle errors and normalized summation of control effort. Obtained results elucidate the efficiency of the proposed controller in order to control a biped robot.

  2. Eye tracking in user experience design

    CERN Document Server

    Romano Bergstorm, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Eye Tracking for User Experience Design explores the many applications of eye tracking to better understand how users view and interact with technology. Ten leading experts in eye tracking discuss how they have taken advantage of this new technology to understand, design, and evaluate user experience. Real-world stories are included from these experts who have used eye tracking during the design and development of products ranging from information websites to immersive games. They also explore recent advances in the technology which tracks how users interact with mobile devices, large-screen displays and video game consoles. Methods for combining eye tracking with other research techniques for a more holistic understanding of the user experience are discussed. This is an invaluable resource to those who want to learn how eye tracking can be used to better understand and design for their users. * Includes highly relevant examples and information for those who perform user research and design interactive experi...

  3. Fast track multi-discipline treatment (FTMDT trial versus conventional treatment in colorectal cancer--the design of a prospective randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiao-Jiao

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laparoscopy-assisted surgery, fast-track perioperative treatment are both increasingly used in colorectal cancer treatment, for their short-time benefits of enhanced recovery and short hospital stays. However, the benefits of the integration of the Laparoscopy-assisted surgery, fast-track perioperative treatment, and even with the Xelox chemotherapy, are still unknown. In this study, the three treatments integration is defined as "Fast Track Multi-Discipline Treatment Model" for colorectal cancer and this model extends the benefits to the whole treatment process of colorectal cancer. The main purpose of the study is to explore the feasibility of "Fast Track Multi-Discipline Treatment" model in treatment of colorectal cancer. Methods The trial is a prospective randomized controlled study with 2 × 2 balanced factorial design. Patients eligible for the study will be randomized to 4 groups: (I Laparoscopic surgery with fast track perioperative treatment and Xelox chemotherapy; (II Open surgery with fast track perioperative treatment and Xelox chemotherapy; (III Laparoscopic surgery with conventional perioperative treatment and mFolfox6 chemotherapy; (IV Open surgery with conventional perioperative treatment and mFolfox6 chemotherapy. The primary endpoint of this study is the hospital stays. The secondary endpoints are the quality of life, chemotherapy related adverse events, surgical complications and hospitalization costs. Totally, 340 patients will be enrolled with 85 patients in each group. Conclusions The study initiates a new treatment model "Fast Track Multi-Discipline Treatment" for colorectal cancer, and will provide feasibility evidence on the new model "Fast Track Multi-Discipline Treatment" for patients with colorectal cancer. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01080547

  4. The design and construction of the ZEUS central tracking detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, B.; Malos, J.; Saxon, D.H.; Clark, D.E.; Jamdagni, A.K.; Markou, C.; Miller, D.B.; Miller, D.G.; Toudup, L.W.; Auty, C.G.; Blair, G.A.; Brooks, C.B.; Cashmore, R.J.; Hanford, A.T.; Harnew, N.; Holmes, A.R.; Linford, W.; Martin, N.C.; McArthur, I.C.; Nash, J.; Nobbs, K.N.; Wastie, R.L.; Williams, M.T.; Wilson, F.F.; Wilson, R.D.; Hart, J.C.; Hatley, R.W.; Hiddleston, J.W.; Gibson, M.D.; McCubbin, N.A.; Middleton, A.; Morrissey, M.C.; Morrow, D.; O' Brien, P.; Payne, B.T.; Roberts, J.C.H.; Shaw, T.B.; Sinclair, C.K.; Wallis, E.W.G.; White, D.J.; Yeo, K.L.; Bullock, F.W.; Dumper, J.; Fraser, T.J.; Hayes, D.; Jones, T.W.; Strachan, D.E.; Vine, I.A. (H.H. Wills Physics Lab., Univ. of Bristol (United Kingdom) Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Glasgow (United Kingdom) Blackett Lab., Physics Dept., Imperial Coll., London (United Kingdom) Dept. of Physics, Nuclear Physics Lab., Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom) Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton (United Kingdom) Dept. of Physics an

    1994-01-15

    The mechanical, electrical and electronic design and construction of the ZEUS central tracking detector are described, together with the chamber monitoring and environmental control. This cylindrical drift chamber is designed for track reconstruction, electron identification and fast event triggering in a high beam-crossing rate, high magnetic field application. (orig.)

  5. Tracking Control of Nonlinear Mechanical Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefeber, A.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the design of tracking controllers for certain classes of mechanical systems. The thesis consists of two parts. In the first part an accurate mathematical model of the mechanical system under consideration is assumed to be given. The goal is to follow a certain

  6. Quality of Slab Track Construction – Track Alignment Design and Track Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šestáková Janka

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The slab track superstructure design (without ballast is a perspective construction especially for building tunnels and bridges in the modernized sections of railway tracks in Slovakia. Monitoring of the structure described in this article is focused on the transition areas between standard structure with ballast and slab track construction.

  7. Quality of Slab Track Construction - Track Alignment Design and Track Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šestáková, Janka

    2015-05-01

    The slab track superstructure design (without ballast) is a perspective construction especially for building tunnels and bridges in the modernized sections of railway tracks in Slovakia. Monitoring of the structure described in this article is focused on the transition areas between standard structure with ballast and slab track construction.

  8. Tracking control of a closed-chain five-bar robot with two degrees of freedom by integration of an approximation-based approach and mechanical design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Long; Hou, Zeng-Guang; Tan, Min; Zhang, W J

    2012-10-01

    The trajectory tracking problem of a closed-chain five-bar robot is studied in this paper. Based on an error transformation function and the backstepping technique, an approximation-based tracking algorithm is proposed, which can guarantee the control performance of the robotic system in both the stable and transient phases. In particular, the overshoot, settling time, and final tracking error of the robotic system can be all adjusted by properly setting the parameters in the error transformation function. The radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) is used to compensate the complicated nonlinear terms in the closed-loop dynamics of the robotic system. The approximation error of the RBFNN is only required to be bounded, which simplifies the initial "trail-and-error" configuration of the neural network. Illustrative examples are given to verify the theoretical analysis and illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Finally, it is also shown that the proposed approximation-based controller can be simplified by a smart mechanical design of the closed-chain robot, which demonstrates the promise of the integrated design and control philosophy.

  9. Tracked robot controllers for climbing obstacles autonomously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Isabelle

    2009-05-01

    Research in mobile robot navigation has demonstrated some success in navigating flat indoor environments while avoiding obstacles. However, the challenge of analyzing complex environments to climb obstacles autonomously has had very little success due to the complexity of the task. Unmanned ground vehicles currently exhibit simple autonomous behaviours compared to the human ability to move in the world. This paper presents the control algorithms designed for a tracked mobile robot to autonomously climb obstacles by varying its tracks configuration. Two control algorithms are proposed to solve the autonomous locomotion problem for climbing obstacles. First, a reactive controller evaluates the appropriate geometric configuration based on terrain and vehicle geometric considerations. Then, a reinforcement learning algorithm finds alternative solutions when the reactive controller gets stuck while climbing an obstacle. The methodology combines reactivity to learning. The controllers have been demonstrated in box and stair climbing simulations. The experiments illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach for crossing obstacles.

  10. Innovative control systems for tracked vehicle platforms

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

     This book has been motivated by an urgent need for designing and implementation of innovative control algorithms and systems for tracked vehicles. Nowadays the unmanned vehicles are becoming more and more common. Therefore there is a need for innovative mechanical constructions capable of adapting to various applications regardless the ground, air or water/underwater environment. There are multiple various activities connected with tracked vehicles. They can be distributed among three main groups: design and control algorithms, sensoric and vision based in-formation, construction and testing mechanical parts of unmanned vehicles. Scientists and researchers involved in mechanics, control algorithms, image processing, computer vision, data fusion, or IC will find this book useful.

  11. Loop shaping design for tracking performance in machine axes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinstock, Dale E; Wei, Zhouhong; Yang, Tao

    2006-01-01

    A modern interpretation of classical loop shaping control design methods is presented in the context of tracking control for linear motor stages. Target applications include noncontacting machines such as laser cutters and markers, water jet cutters, and adhesive applicators. The methods are directly applicable to the common PID controller and are pertinent to many electromechanical servo actuators other than linear motors. In addition to explicit design techniques a PID tuning algorithm stressing the importance of tracking is described. While the theory behind these techniques is not new, the analysis of their application to modern systems is unique in the research literature. The techniques and results should be important to control practitioners optimizing PID controller designs for tracking and in comparing results from classical designs to modern techniques. The methods stress high-gain controller design and interpret what this means for PID. Nothing in the methods presented precludes the addition of feedforward control methods for added improvements in tracking. Laboratory results from a linear motor stage demonstrate that with large open-loop gain very good tracking performance can be achieved. The resultant tracking errors compare very favorably to results from similar motions on similar systems that utilize much more complicated controllers.

  12. Thinking Tracks for Integrated Systems Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten; Denkena, B.; Gausemeijer, J.; Scholz-Reiter, B.

    2012-01-01

    The paper investigates systems thinking and systems engineering. After a short literature review, the paper presents, as a means for systems thinking, twelve thinking tracks. The tracks can be used as creativity starter, checklist, and as means to investigate effects of design decisions taken early

  13. Neural-Network-Based Robust Optimal Tracking Control for MIMO Discrete-Time Systems With Unknown Uncertainty Using Adaptive Critic Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Wang, Zhanshan; Zhang, Huaguang

    2018-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the robust optimal tracking control strategy for a class of nonlinear multi-input multi-output discrete-time systems with unknown uncertainty via adaptive critic design (ACD) scheme. The main purpose is to establish an adaptive actor-critic control method, so that the cost function in the procedure of dealing with uncertainty is minimum and the closed-loop system is stable. Based on the neural network approximator, an action network is applied to generate the optimal control signal and a critic network is used to approximate the cost function, respectively. In contrast to the previous methods, the main features of this paper are: 1) the ACD scheme is integrated into the controllers to cope with the uncertainty and 2) a novel cost function, which is not in quadric form, is proposed so that the total cost in the design procedure is reduced. It is proved that the optimal control signals and the tracking errors are uniformly ultimately bounded even when the uncertainty exists. Finally, a numerical simulation is developed to show the effectiveness of the present approach.

  14. An Approach of Tracking Control for Chaotic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Xing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining the ergodicity of chaos and the Jacobian matrix, we design a general tracking controller for continuous and discrete chaotic systems. The control scheme has the ability to track a bounded reference signal. We prove its globally asymptotic stability and extend it to generalized projective synchronization. Numerical simulations verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  15. Maximum-power-point tracking control of solar heating system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine; Ton, Wei-Zhe; Wu, Chen-Chun; Ko, Hua-Wei; Chang, Hsien-Shun; Yen, Rue-Her; Wang, Jiunn-Cherng

    2012-01-01

    was used to determine the instantaneous tracking target Q max(t). The system transfer-function model of solar heating system was also derived experimentally using a step response test and used in the design of tracking feedback control system. The PI

  16. Maximum Power Point Tracking Control of Hydrokinetic Turbine and Low-speed High-Thrust Permanent Magnet Generator Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    MPPT control method is similar to hill-climbing used as MPPT control in photovoltaic ...climbing method used as MPPT control in photovoltaic systems. In addition, the proposed MPPT control strategy is generic to all the hydrokinetic...convert AC power from the generator into DC power and a boost converter is used to implement energy flow control . On the load side, an electronic

  17. Thinking Tracks for Multidisciplinary System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Maarten Bonnema

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Systems engineering is, for a large part, a process description of how to bring new systems to existence. It is valuable as it directs the development effort. Tools exist that can be used in this process. System analysis investigates existing and/or desired situations. However, how to create a system that instantiates the desired situation depends significantly on human creativity and insight; the required human trait here is commonly called systems thinking. In literature, this trait is regularly used, but information on how to do systems thinking is scarce. Therefore, we have introduced earlier twelve thinking tracks that are concrete and help system designers to make an optimal fit between the system under design, the identified issue, the user, the environment and the rest of the world. The paper provides the scientific rationale for the thinking tracks based on literature. Secondly, the paper presents three cases of application, leading to the conclusion that the tracks are usable and effective.

  18. Design of a Solar Tracking Interactive Kiosk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Nathaniel R.; Brunskill, Jeffrey C.

    2017-01-01

    A two-axis solar tracker and its interactive kiosk were designed by an interdisciplinary team of students and faculty. The objective was to develop a publicly accessible kiosk that would facilitate the study of energy usage and production on campus. Tracking is accomplished by an open-loop algorithm, microcontroller, and ham radio rotator. Solar…

  19. H∞ control for path tracking of autonomous underwater vehicle motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Lin Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to simplify the design of path tracking controller and solve the problem relating to nonlinear dynamic model of autonomous underwater vehicle motion planning, feedback linearization method is first adopted to transform the nonlinear dynamic model into an equivalent pseudo-linear dynamic model in horizontal coordinates. Then considering wave disturbance effect, mixed-sensitivity method of H∞ robust control is applied to design state-feedback controller for this equivalent dynamic model. Finally, control law of pseudo-linear dynamic model is transformed into state (surge velocity and yaw angular rate tracking control law of nonlinear dynamic model through inverse coordinate transformation. Simulation indicates that autonomous underwater vehicle path tracking is successfully implemented with this proposed method, and the influence of parameter variation in autonomous underwater vehicle dynamic model on its tracking performance is reduced by H∞ controller. All the results show that the method proposed in this article is effective and feasible.

  20. Position and Attitude Alternate of Path Tracking Heading Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baocheng Tan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The path tracking control algorithm is one of the key problems in the control system design of autonomous vehicle. In this paper, we have conducted dynamic modeling for autonomous vehicle, the relationship between course deviation and yaw rate and centroid deflection angle. From the angle of the dynamics and geometrical, this paper have described the path tracking problem, analyzed the emergence of the eight autonomous vehicles pose binding - position and attitude alternate control methods to identify the relationship between posture and the controlling variables, and design a controller, the experimental results verify the feasibility and effectiveness of this control method.

  1. Design and Implementation of PLC-Based Automatic Sun tracking System for Parabolic Trough Solar Concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jinping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A sun-tracking system for parabolic trough solar concentrators (PTCs is a control system used to orient the concentrator toward the sun always, so that the maximum energy can be collected. The work presented here is a design and development of PLC based sun tracking control system for PTC. Sun tracking control system consists of a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC and a single axis hydraulic drives tracking control system. Hydraulic drives and the necessary tracking angle algorithm have been designed and developed to perform the technical tasks. A PLC unit was employed to control and monitor the mechanical movement of the PTC and to collect and store data related to the tracking angle of PTC. It is found that the tracking error of the system is less than 0.6°. Field experience shows that tracking algorithm act stable and reliable and suit for PTCs.

  2. Developing a multipurpose sun tracking system using fuzzy control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alata, Mohanad [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST), PO Box 3030, Irbid 22110 (Jordan)]. E-mail: alata@just.edu.jo; Al-Nimr, M.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST), PO Box 3030, Irbid 22110 (Jordan); Qaroush, Yousef [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST), PO Box 3030, Irbid 22110 (Jordan)

    2005-05-01

    The present work demonstrates the design and simulation of time controlled step sun tracking systems that include: one axis sun tracking with the tilted aperture equal to the latitude angle, equatorial two axis sun tracking and azimuth/elevation sun tracking. The first order Sugeno fuzzy inference system is utilized for modeling and controller design. In addition, an estimation of the insolation incident on a two axis sun tracking system is determined by fuzzy IF-THEN rules. The approach starts by generating the input/output data. Then, the subtractive clustering algorithm, along with least square estimation (LSE), generates the fuzzy rules that describe the relationship between the input/output data of solar angles that change with time. The fuzzy rules are tuned by an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). Finally, an open loop control system is designed for each of the previous types of sun tracking systems. The results are shown using simulation and virtual reality. The site of application is chosen at Amman, Jordan (32 deg. North, 36 deg. East), and the period of controlling and simulating each type of tracking system is the year 2003.

  3. Evolution of the SOFIA tracking control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebig, Norbert; Jakob, Holger; Pfüller, Enrico; Röser, Hans-Peter; Wiedemann, Manuel; Wolf, Jürgen

    2014-07-01

    The airborne observatory SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) is undergoing a modernization of its tracking system. This included new, highly sensitive tracking cameras, control computers, filter wheels and other equipment, as well as a major redesign of the control software. The experiences along the migration path from an aged 19" VMbus based control system to the application of modern industrial PCs, from VxWorks real-time operating system to embedded Linux and a state of the art software architecture are presented. Further, the concept is presented to operate the new camera also as a scientific instrument, in parallel to tracking.

  4. Maximum-power-point tracking control of solar heating system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine

    2012-11-01

    The present study developed a maximum-power point tracking control (MPPT) technology for solar heating system to minimize the pumping power consumption at an optimal heat collection. The net solar energy gain Q net (=Q s-W p/η e) was experimentally found to be the cost function for MPPT with maximum point. The feedback tracking control system was developed to track the optimal Q net (denoted Q max). A tracking filter which was derived from the thermal analytical model of the solar heating system was used to determine the instantaneous tracking target Q max(t). The system transfer-function model of solar heating system was also derived experimentally using a step response test and used in the design of tracking feedback control system. The PI controller was designed for a tracking target Q max(t) with a quadratic time function. The MPPT control system was implemented using a microprocessor-based controller and the test results show good tracking performance with small tracking errors. It is seen that the average mass flow rate for the specific test periods in five different days is between 18.1 and 22.9kg/min with average pumping power between 77 and 140W, which is greatly reduced as compared to the standard flow rate at 31kg/min and pumping power 450W which is based on the flow rate 0.02kg/sm 2 defined in the ANSI/ASHRAE 93-1986 Standard and the total collector area 25.9m 2. The average net solar heat collected Q net is between 8.62 and 14.1kW depending on weather condition. The MPPT control of solar heating system has been verified to be able to minimize the pumping energy consumption with optimal solar heat collection. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Continuous fractional-order Zero Phase Error Tracking Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Tian, Siyuan; Xue, Dingyu; Zhang, Tao; Chen, YangQuan

    2018-04-01

    A continuous time fractional-order feedforward control algorithm for tracking desired time varying input signals is proposed in this paper. The presented controller cancels the phase shift caused by the zeros and poles of controlled closed-loop fractional-order system, so it is called Fractional-Order Zero Phase Tracking Controller (FZPETC). The controlled systems are divided into two categories i.e. with and without non-cancellable (non-minimum-phase) zeros which stand in unstable region or on stability boundary. Each kinds of systems has a targeted FZPETC design control strategy. The improved tracking performance has been evaluated successfully by applying the proposed controller to three different kinds of fractional-order controlled systems. Besides, a modified quasi-perfect tracking scheme is presented for those systems which may not have available future tracking trajectory information or have problem in high frequency disturbance rejection if the perfect tracking algorithm is applied. A simulation comparison and a hardware-in-the-loop thermal peltier platform are shown to validate the practicality of the proposed quasi-perfect control algorithm. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Robot trajectory tracking with self-tuning predicted control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xianzhong; Shin, Kang G.

    1988-01-01

    A controller that combines self-tuning prediction and control is proposed for robot trajectory tracking. The controller has two feedback loops: one is used to minimize the prediction error, and the other is designed to make the system output track the set point input. Because the velocity and position along the desired trajectory are given and the future output of the system is predictable, a feedforward loop can be designed for robot trajectory tracking with self-tuning predicted control (STPC). Parameters are estimated online to account for the model uncertainty and the time-varying property of the system. The authors describe the principle of STPC, analyze the system performance, and discuss the simplification of the robot dynamic equations. To demonstrate its utility and power, the controller is simulated for a Stanford arm.

  7. Modeling and Velocity Tracking Control for Tape Drive System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modeling and Velocity Tracking Control for Tape Drive System. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... The result of the study revealed that 7.07, 8 and 10 of koln values met the design goal and also resulted in optimal control performance with the following characteristics 7.31%,7.71% , 9.41% ...

  8. Two axes sun tracking system with PLC control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, Salah; Nijmeh, Salem

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, an electromechanical, two axes sun tracking system is designed and constructed. The programming method of control with an open loop system is employed where the programmable logic controller is used to control the motion of the sun tracking surface. An experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of using two axes tracking on the solar energy collected. The collected energy was measured and compared with that on a fixed surface tilted at 32 deg. towards the south. The results indicate that the measured collected solar energy on the moving surface was significantly larger than that on a fixed surface. The two axes tracking surface showed a better performance with an increase in the collected energy of up to 41.34% compared with the fixed surface

  9. Fuzzy logic control for camera tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Robert N.; Fritz, R. H.; Giarratano, J.; Jani, Yashvant

    1992-01-01

    A concept utilizing fuzzy theory has been developed for a camera tracking system to provide support for proximity operations and traffic management around the Space Station Freedom. Fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic based reasoning are used in a control system which utilizes images from a camera and generates required pan and tilt commands to track and maintain a moving target in the camera's field of view. This control system can be implemented on a fuzzy chip to provide an intelligent sensor for autonomous operations. Capabilities of the control system can be expanded to include approach, handover to other sensors, caution and warning messages.

  10. Quadrotor trajectory tracking using PID cascade control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idres, M.; Mustapha, O.; Okasha, M.

    2017-12-01

    Quadrotors have been applied to collect information for traffic, weather monitoring, surveillance and aerial photography. In order to accomplish their mission, quadrotors have to follow specific trajectories. This paper presents proportional-integral-derivative (PID) cascade control of a quadrotor for path tracking problem when velocity and acceleration are small. It is based on near hover controller for small attitude angles. The integral of time-weighted absolute error (ITAE) criterion is used to determine the PID gains as a function of quadrotor modeling parameters. The controller is evaluated in three-dimensional environment in Simulink. Overall, the tracking performance is found to be excellent for small velocity condition.

  11. Tracking Control Based on Control Allocation with an Innovative Control Effector Aircraft Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoyang Dong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a control allocation method for the tracking control problem of a class of morphing aircraft with special actuators which are different from the conventional actuation surfaces. This design of actuators can bring about some potential advantages to the flight vehicles; however, due to the integral constraints, the desired control cannot be performed accurately; therefore, it leads to undesirable tracking errors, so influencing the performance of the system. Because the system could be control allocated, based on the designed cost function that describes the tracking errors, the cuckoo search algorithm (CSA is introduced to search for the optimum solution within the calculated actuator execution commands that are equivalent to the desired commands. Several improvement measures are proposed for boosting the efficiency of the CSA and ensuring reasonable solutions. Simulation results show that the proposed control allocation method is necessary and effective, and the improvement measures are helpful in obtaining the optimum solution.

  12. Underactuated ship tracking control : theory and experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pettersen, K.Y.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2001-01-01

    We consider complete state tracking feedback control of a ship having two controls, namely surge force and yaw moment. The ship model has similarities with chained form systems but cannot directly be transformed in chained form. In particular, the model has a drift vector field as opposed to the

  13. Design of tracking photovoltaic systems with a single vertical axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzo, E. [Ciudad Universitaria, Madrid (Spain). Instituto de Energeia Solar; Perez, M. [Pol Industrial La Nava, Naavarrsa (Spain). Alternativas Energeticas Solares; Ezpeleta, A. [Energia Hidroelectrica Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Acedo, J. [Ingeteam SA, Pamplona (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    Solar tracking is used in large grid-connected photovoltaic plants to maximise solar radiation collection and, hence, to reduce the cost of delivered electricity. In particular, single vertical axis tracking, also called azimuth tracking, allows for energy gains up to 40%, compared with optimally tilted fully static arrays. This paper examines the theoretical aspects associated with the design of azimuth tracking, taking into account shadowing between different trackers and back-tracking features. Then, the practical design of the trackers installed at the 1.4 MW Tudela PV plant is presented and discussed. Finally, this tracking alternative is compared with the more conventional fully stationary approach. (author)

  14. Quantization-Based Adaptive Actor-Critic Tracking Control With Tracking Error Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Quan-Yong; Yang, Guang-Hong; Ye, Dan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the problem of adaptive actor-critic (AC) tracking control is investigated for a class of continuous-time nonlinear systems with unknown nonlinearities and quantized inputs. Different from the existing results based on reinforcement learning, the tracking error constraints are considered and new critic functions are constructed to improve the performance further. To ensure that the tracking errors keep within the predefined time-varying boundaries, a tracking error transformation technique is used to constitute an augmented error system. Specific critic functions, rather than the long-term cost function, are introduced to supervise the tracking performance and tune the weights of the AC neural networks (NNs). A novel adaptive controller with a special structure is designed to reduce the effect of the NN reconstruction errors, input quantization, and disturbances. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, the boundedness of the closed-loop signals and the desired tracking performance can be guaranteed. Finally, simulations on two connected inverted pendulums are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Robust tracking control of uncertain Duffing-Holmes control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y.-J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the notion of virtual stabilizability for dynamical systems is introduced and the virtual stabilizability of uncertain Duffing-Holmes control systems is investigated. Based on the time-domain approach with differential inequality, a tracking control is proposed such that the states of uncertain Duffing-Holmes control system track the desired trajectories with any pre-specified exponential decay rate and convergence radius. Moreover, we present an algorithm to find such a tracking control. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the use of the main results.

  16. Robust Tracking Control for Rendezvous in Near-Circular Orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neng Wan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a robust guaranteed cost tracking control problem for thrust-limited spacecraft rendezvous in near-circular orbits. Relative motion model is established based on the two-body problem with noncircularity of the target orbit described as a parameter uncertainty. A guaranteed cost tracking controller with input saturation is designed via a linear matrix inequality (LMI method, and sufficient conditions for the existence of the robust tracking controller are derived, which is more concise and less conservative compared with the previous works. Numerical examples are provided for both time-invariant and time-variant reference signals to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme when applied to the terminal rendezvous and other astronautic missions with scheduled states signal.

  17. Ultra-Wideband Tracking System Design for Relative Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jianjun David; Arndt, Dickey; Bgo, Phong; Dekome, Kent; Dusl, John

    2011-01-01

    This presentation briefly discusses a design effort for a prototype ultra-wideband (UWB) time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) tracking system that is currently under development at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The system is being designed for use in localization and navigation of a rover in a GPS deprived environment for surface missions. In one application enabled by the UWB tracking, a robotic vehicle carrying equipments can autonomously follow a crewed rover from work site to work site such that resources can be carried from one landing mission to the next thereby saving up-mass. The UWB Systems Group at JSC has developed a UWB TDOA High Resolution Proximity Tracking System which can achieve sub-inch tracking accuracy of a target within the radius of the tracking baseline [1]. By extending the tracking capability beyond the radius of the tracking baseline, a tracking system is being designed to enable relative navigation between two vehicles for surface missions. A prototype UWB TDOA tracking system has been designed, implemented, tested, and proven feasible for relative navigation of robotic vehicles. Future work includes testing the system with the application code to increase the tracking update rate and evaluating the linear tracking baseline to improve the flexibility of antenna mounting on the following vehicle.

  18. Offset Free Tracking Predictive Control Based on Dynamic PLS Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Xin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops an offset free tracking model predictive control based on a dynamic partial least square (PLS framework. First, state space model is used as the inner model of PLS to describe the dynamic system, where subspace identification method is used to identify the inner model. Based on the obtained model, multiple independent model predictive control (MPC controllers are designed. Due to the decoupling character of PLS, these controllers are running separately, which is suitable for distributed control framework. In addition, the increment of inner model output is considered in the cost function of MPC, which involves integral action in the controller. Hence, the offset free tracking performance is guaranteed. The results of an industry background simulation demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed method.

  19. A variable structure tracking controller for robot manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Hoon; Shin, Hwi Beom

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, a continuous variable structure tracking controller is designed for the purpose of the control of robot manipulators to follow a given desired planned trajectory with high accuracy. The robustness and continuity of the algorithm are much improved by means of the feedforward compensation technique based on the disturbance observer without any chattering problem. Also the stability of the algorithm is analyzed in detail, further more the usefulness and good performances are verified through computer simulation studies. (author)

  20. Laminated track design for inductrack maglev systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Richard F.

    2004-07-06

    A magnet configuration comprising a pair of Halbach arrays magnetically and structurally connected together are positioned with respect to each other so that a first component of their fields substantially cancels at a first plane between them, and a second component of their fields substantially adds at this first plane. A track is located between the pair of Halbach arrays and a propulsion mechanism is provided for moving the pair of Halbach arrays along the track. When the pair of Halbach arrays move along the track and the track is not located at the first plane, a current is induced in the windings and a restoring force is exerted on the pair of Halbach arrays.

  1. The sophisticated control of the tram bogie on track

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan DOLECEK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problems of routing control algorithms of new conception of tram vehicle bogie. The main goal of these research activities is wear reduction of rail wheels and tracks, wear reduction of traction energy losses and increasing of running comfort. The testing experimental tram vehicle with special bogie construction powered by traction battery is utilized for these purposes. This vehicle has a rotary bogie with independent rotating wheels driven by permanent magnets synchronous motors and a solid axle. The wheel forces in bogie are measured by large amounts of the various sensors placed on the testing experimental tram vehicle. Nowadays the designed control algorithms are implemented to the vehicle superset control system. The traction requirements and track characteristics have an effect to these control algorithms. This control including sophisticated routing brings other improvements which is verified and corrected according to individual traction and driving characteristics, and opens new possibilities.

  2. Transient stability improvement by nonlinear controllers based on tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Juan M. [Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados, Guadalajara, Mexico. Av. Cientifica 1145. Col. El Bajio. Zapopan, Jal. 45015 (Mexico); Arroyave, Felipe Valencia; Correa Gutierrez, Rosa Elvira [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin. Facultad de Minas, Escuela de Mecatronica (Colombia)

    2011-02-15

    This paper deals with the control problem in multi-machine electric power systems, which represent complex great scale nonlinear systems. Thus, the controller design is a challenging problem. These systems are subjected to different perturbations, such as short circuits, connection and/or disconnection of loads, lines, or generators. Then, the utilization of controllers which guarantee good performance under those perturbations is required in order to provide electrical energy to the loads with admissible stability margins. The proposed controllers are based on a systematic strategy, which calculate nonlinear controllers for generating units in a power plant, both for voltage and velocity regulation. The formulation allows designing controllers in a multi-machine power system without intricate calculations. Results on a power system of the open research indicate the proposition's suitability. The problem is formulated as a tracking problem. The designed controllers may be implemented in any electric power system. (author)

  3. Construction of a WMR for Trajectory Tracking Control: Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Silva-Ortigoza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a solution for trajectory tracking control of a differential drive wheeled mobile robot (WMR based on a hierarchical approach. The general design and construction of the WMR are described. The hierarchical controller proposed has two components: a high-level control and a low-level control. The high-level control law is based on an input-output linearization scheme for the robot kinematic model, which provides the desired angular velocity profiles that the WMR has to track in order to achieve the desired position (x*,y* and orientation (φ*. Then, a low-level control law, based on a proportional integral (PI approach, is designed to control the velocity of the WMR wheels to ensure those tracking features. Regarding the trajectories, this paper provides the solution or the following cases: (1 time-varying parametric trajectories such as straight lines and parabolas and (2 smooth curves fitted by cubic splines which are generated by the desired data points x1*,y1*,…,xn*,yn*. A straightforward algorithm is developed for constructing the cubic splines. Finally, this paper includes an experimental validation of the proposed technique by employing a DS1104 dSPACE electronic board along with MATLAB/Simulink software.

  4. Design and construction of the CDF central tracking chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedeschi, F.; Berge, J.P.; Bofill, J.; Dell'Orso, M.; Foster, G.W.; Hrycyk, M.; Kadel, R.W.; Kowalski, J.; Mukherjee, A.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Meara, J.; Patrick, J.; Tinsley, D.; Wagner, R.L.; Yarema, R.; Byon, A.

    1988-01-01

    We describe the design and construction of a large drift chamber of a novel design well adapted for operation in high magnetic fields and in the high track density environment of hadron colliders. (orig.)

  5. Distributed Systems for Problems in Robust Control and Visual Tracking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tannenbaum, Allen

    2000-01-01

    .... A key application is in controlled active vision, including visual tracking, the control of autonomous vehicles, motion planning, and the utilization of visual information in guidance and control...

  6. Attitude tracking control of flexible spacecraft with large amplitude slosh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Mingle; Yue, Baozeng

    2017-12-01

    This paper is focused on attitude tracking control of a spacecraft that is equipped with flexible appendage and partially filled liquid propellant tank. The large amplitude liquid slosh is included by using a moving pulsating ball model that is further improved to estimate the settling location of liquid in microgravity or a zero-g environment. The flexible appendage is modelled as a three-dimensional Bernoulli-Euler beam, and the assumed modal method is employed. A hybrid controller that combines sliding mode control with an adaptive algorithm is designed for spacecraft to perform attitude tracking. The proposed controller has proved to be asymptotically stable. A nonlinear model for the overall coupled system including spacecraft attitude dynamics, liquid slosh, structural vibration and control action is established. Numerical simulation results are presented to show the dynamic behaviors of the coupled system and to verify the effectiveness of the control approach when the spacecraft undergoes the disturbance produced by large amplitude slosh and appendage vibration. Lastly, the designed adaptive algorithm is found to be effective to improve the precision of attitude tracking.

  7. Adaptive tracking control of nonholonomic systems: an example

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefeber, A.A.J.; Nijmeijer, Henk

    1999-01-01

    We study an example of an adaptive (state) tracking control problem for a four-wheel mobile robot, as it is an illustrative example of the general adaptive state-feedback tracking control problem. It turns out that formulating the adaptive state-feedback tracking control problem is not

  8. Horses for Courses: Designing a GPS Tracking Data Collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinau, Kristian Hegner; Harder, Henrik; Overgård, Christian Hansen

    2014-01-01

    and practical experiences from a number of GPS tracking projects into a practical guideline. Researchers can use this model as a starting point when designing a GPS tracking data collection. The authors hope that the model can constitute a first step towards the development of best practice....

  9. Using GPS-tracking technology for urban design interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Spek, S.C.; Van Langelaar, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to express the application of tracking technologies in Urban Design and Planning. Tracking technologies can be used to monitor different user groups in different occasions. Since 2005, TU Delft has explored and developed two types of research using GPS to collect spatio

  10. Robust guaranteed cost tracking control of quadrotor UAV with uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiwei; Nian, Xiaohong; Wang, Haibo; Chen, Yinsheng

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a robust guaranteed cost controller (RGCC) is proposed for quadrotor UAV system with uncertainties to address set-point tracking problem. A sufficient condition of the existence for RGCC is derived by Lyapunov stability theorem. The designed RGCC not only guarantees the whole closed-loop system asymptotically stable but also makes the quadratic performance level built for the closed-loop system have an upper bound irrespective to all admissible parameter uncertainties. Then, an optimal robust guaranteed cost controller is developed to minimize the upper bound of performance level. Simulation results verify the presented control algorithms possess small overshoot and short setting time, with which the quadrotor has ability to perform set-point tracking task well. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cost Cumulant-Based Control for a Class of Linear Quadratic Tracking Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pham, Khanh D

    2007-01-01

    .... For instance, the present paper extends the application of cost-cumulant controller design to control of a wide class of linear-quadratic tracking systems where output measurements of a tracker...

  12. Near-Optimal Tracking Control of Mobile Robots Via Receding-Horizon Dual Heuristic Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Chuanqiang; Xu, Xin; Chen, Hong; He, Haibo

    2016-11-01

    Trajectory tracking control of wheeled mobile robots (WMRs) has been an important research topic in control theory and robotics. Although various tracking control methods with stability have been developed for WMRs, it is still difficult to design optimal or near-optimal tracking controller under uncertainties and disturbances. In this paper, a near-optimal tracking control method is presented for WMRs based on receding-horizon dual heuristic programming (RHDHP). In the proposed method, a backstepping kinematic controller is designed to generate desired velocity profiles and the receding horizon strategy is used to decompose the infinite-horizon optimal control problem into a series of finite-horizon optimal control problems. In each horizon, a closed-loop tracking control policy is successively updated using a class of approximate dynamic programming algorithms called finite-horizon dual heuristic programming (DHP). The convergence property of the proposed method is analyzed and it is shown that the tracking control system based on RHDHP is asymptotically stable by using the Lyapunov approach. Simulation results on three tracking control problems demonstrate that the proposed method has improved control performance when compared with conventional model predictive control (MPC) and DHP. It is also illustrated that the proposed method has lower computational burden than conventional MPC, which is very beneficial for real-time tracking control.

  13. Stabilization and trajectory tracking control for underactuated

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The control of quadrotor helicopter has been a great challenge for control engineers and researchers since quadrotor is an underactuated and a highly unstable nonlinear system. In this paper, the dynamic model of quadrotor has been derived and a so-called robust optimal backstepping control (ROBC) is designed to ...

  14. Dual Fine Tracking Control of a Satellite Laser Communication Uplink

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Noble, Louis A

    2006-01-01

    A dual fine tracking control system (FTCS) is developed for a single aperture optical communication receiver to compensate for high frequency disturbances affecting tracking of two incident laser communication beams...

  15. Vibro-acoustic performance of newly designed tram track structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haladin, Ivo; Lakušić, Stjepan; Ahac, Maja

    2017-09-01

    Rail vehicles in interaction with a railway structure induce vibrations that are propagating to surrounding structures and cause noise disturbance in the surrounding areas. Since tram tracks in urban areas often share the running surface with road vehicles one of top priorities is to achieve low maintenance and long lasting structure. Research conducted in scope of this paper gives an overview of newly designed tram track structures designated for use on Zagreb tram network and their performance in terms of noise and vibration mitigation. Research has been conducted on a 150 m long test section consisted of three tram track types: standard tram track structure commonly used on tram lines in Zagreb, optimized tram structure for better noise and vibration mitigation and a slab track with double sleepers embedded in a concrete slab, which presents an entirely new approach of tram track construction in Zagreb. Track has been instrumented with acceleration sensors, strain gauges and revision shafts for inspection. Relative deformations give an insight into track structure dynamic load distribution through the exploitation period. Further the paper describes vibro-acoustic measurements conducted at the test site. To evaluate the track performance from the vibro-acoustical standpoint, detailed analysis of track decay rate has been analysed. Opposed to measurement technique using impact hammer for track decay rate measurements, newly developed measuring technique using vehicle pass by vibrations as a source of excitation has been proposed and analysed. Paper gives overview of the method, it’s benefits compared to standard method of track decay rate measurements and method evaluation based on noise measurements of the vehicle pass by.

  16. Optimal Vibration Control for Tracked Vehicle Suspension Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Jun Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Technique of optimal vibration control with exponential decay rate and simulation for vehicle active suspension systems is developed. Mechanical model and dynamic system for a class of tracked vehicle suspension vibration control is established and the corresponding system of state space form is described. In order to prolong the working life of suspension system and improve ride comfort, based on the active suspension vibration control devices and using optimal control approach, an optimal vibration controller with exponential decay rate is designed. Numerical simulations are carried out, and the control effects of the ordinary optimal controller and the proposed controller are compared. Numerical simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  17. Position and attitude tracking control for a quadrotor UAV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jing-Jing; Zheng, En-Hui

    2014-05-01

    A synthesis control method is proposed to perform the position and attitude tracking control of the dynamical model of a small quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), where the dynamical model is underactuated, highly-coupled and nonlinear. Firstly, the dynamical model is divided into a fully actuated subsystem and an underactuated subsystem. Secondly, a controller of the fully actuated subsystem is designed through a novel robust terminal sliding mode control (TSMC) algorithm, which is utilized to guarantee all state variables converge to their desired values in short time, the convergence time is so small that the state variables are acted as time invariants in the underactuated subsystem, and, a controller of the underactuated subsystem is designed via sliding mode control (SMC), in addition, the stabilities of the subsystems are demonstrated by Lyapunov theory, respectively. Lastly, in order to demonstrate the robustness of the proposed control method, the aerodynamic forces and moments and air drag taken as external disturbances are taken into account, the obtained simulation results show that the synthesis control method has good performance in terms of position and attitude tracking when faced with external disturbances. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hardware accelerator design for tracking in smart camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanjay; Dunga, Srinivasa Murali; Saini, Ravi; Mandal, A. S.; Shekhar, Chandra; Vohra, Anil

    2011-10-01

    Smart Cameras are important components in video analysis. For video analysis, smart cameras needs to detect interesting moving objects, track such objects from frame to frame, and perform analysis of object track in real time. Therefore, the use of real-time tracking is prominent in smart cameras. The software implementation of tracking algorithm on a general purpose processor (like PowerPC) could achieve low frame rate far from real-time requirements. This paper presents the SIMD approach based hardware accelerator designed for real-time tracking of objects in a scene. The system is designed and simulated using VHDL and implemented on Xilinx XUP Virtex-IIPro FPGA. Resulted frame rate is 30 frames per second for 250x200 resolution video in gray scale.

  19. Angular Position Tracking Control of a Quadcopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Glazkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper dwells on tracking the quad-copter angular position with desired quality parameters of transient processes. The aerial vehicle is considered as a rigid body with six degrees of freedom.  A full rigid body quad-copter mathematical model is considered without the assumption of smallness of the Euler angles.Among the most well known methods of non-linear stabilization are feedback linearization and backstepping. The backstepping approach allows us to have an effective solution of the stabilization problems with uncertainties available in the system. However, in synthesis of the feedback through backstepping, there is still an urgent issue: how to ensure desirable quality of transients in the closed-loop system. The paper presents a solution of this problem using as an example the tracking a given (programmed change of the angular position of a quad-copter.The control algorithms obtained in this paper are implemented using the Rolling Spider MATLAB Toolbox (ROSMAT tool package on the Parrot Rolling Spider quad-copter. A numerical simulation and experiments have shown the efficiency of obtained control laws, with the transient processes taking into account the desired quality indicators. However, the experiments showed that lack of terms in the mathematical model to describe the aerodynamic effects, resulted in the instability of the quad-copter flight near the obstacle (the effect of the reflected airflow.Further research can be aimed at solving the control problem in question using a mathematical model of the quad-copter motion that takes into account various aerodynamic effects.One of the potential application areas for the theoretical results, obtained in the paper, is to solve the problems of automatic control of unmanned aerial vehicles.

  20. Strategic Mobility 21: Integrated Tracking System Analysis and Concept Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mallon, Lawrence G; Savacool, Edwin

    2007-01-01

    .... This design document supports the SM21 efforts in developing a dual-use multi-modal node at the Southern California Logistics Airport in Victorville, CA that will be supported by an Integrated Tracking System...

  1. Mass casualty tracking with air traffic control methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Jason D; Graham, Ross F; Robinson, Duane R; Lutz, Clifford C; Folio, Les R

    2009-06-01

    An intrahospital casualty throughput system modeled after air traffic control (ATC) tracking procedures was tested in mass casualty exercises. ATC uses a simple tactile process involving informational progress strips representing each aircraft, which are held in bays representing each stage of flight to prioritize and manage aircraft. These strips can be reordered within the bays to indicate a change in priority of aircraft sequence. In this study, a similar system was designed for patient tracking. We compared the ATC model and traditional casualty tracking methods of paper and clipboard in 18 four-hour casualty scenarios, each with 5 to 30 mock casualties. The experimental and control groups were alternated to maximize exposure and minimize training effects. Results were analyzed with Mann-Whitney statistical analysis with p value < 0.05 (two-sided). The ATC method had significantly (p = 0.017) fewer errors in critical patient data (eg, name, social security number, diagnosis). Specifically, the ATC method better tracked the mechanism of injury, working diagnosis, and disposition of patients. The ATC method also performed considerably better with patient accountability during mass casualty scenarios. Data strips were comparable with the control method in terms of ease of use. In addition, participants preferred the ATC method to the control (p = 0.003) and preferred using the ATC method (p = 0.003) to traditional methods in the future. The ATC model more effectively tracked patient data with fewer errors when compared with the clipboard method. Application of these principles can enhance trauma management and can have application in civilian and military trauma centers and emergency rooms.

  2. Silicon-based tracking system: Mechanical engineering and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.O.; Gamble, M.T.; Thompson, T.C.; Woloshun, K.A.; Reid, R.S.; Hanlon, J.A.; Michaud, F.D.; Dransfield, G.D.; Ziock, H.J.; Palounek, A.P.

    1992-01-01

    The Silicon Tracking System (STS) is composed of silicon strip detectors arranged by both in a cylindrical array and an array of flat panels about the interaction region. The cylindrical array is denoted the central region and the flat panel arrays, which are normal to the beam axis, we denoted the forward regions. The overall length of the silicon array is 5.16 m and the maximum diameter is 0.93 m. The Silicon Tracking System Conceptual Design Report, should be consulted for the body of analysis performed to quantify the present design concept. For the STS to achieve its physics goals, the mechanical structures and services must support 17 m 2 of silicon detectors and stabilize their positions to within 5 μm, uniformly cool the detector the system to O degrees C and at the same time potentially remove up to 13 kW of waste heat generated by the detector electronics, provide up to 3400 A of current to supply the 6.5 million electronics channels, and supply of control and data transmission lines for those channels. These objectives must be achieved in a high ionizing radiation environment, using virtually no structural mass and only low-Z materials. The system must be maintainable during its 10 year operating life

  3. Nonlinear Tracking Control of a Conductive Supercoiled Polymer Actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Tuan Anh; Cho, Kyeong Ho; Song, Min Geun; Koo, Ja Choon; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Moon, Hyungpil

    2018-04-01

    Artificial muscle actuators made from commercial nylon fishing lines have been recently introduced and shown as a new type of actuator with high performance. However, the actuators also exhibit significant nonlinearities, which make them difficult to control, especially in precise trajectory-tracking applications. In this article, we present a nonlinear mathematical model of a conductive supercoiled polymer (SCP) actuator driven by Joule heating for model-based feedback controls. Our efforts include modeling of the hysteresis behavior of the actuator. Based on nonlinear modeling, we design a sliding mode controller for SCP actuator-driven manipulators. The system with proposed control law is proven to be asymptotically stable using the Lyapunov theory. The control performance of the proposed method is evaluated experimentally and compared with that of a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller through one-degree-of-freedom SCP actuator-driven manipulators. Experimental results show that the proposed controller's performance is superior to that of a PID controller, such as the tracking errors are nearly 10 times smaller compared with those of a PID controller, and it is more robust to external disturbances such as sensor noise and actuator modeling error.

  4. Robust control of dielectric elastomer diaphragm actuator for human pulse signal tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhihang; Chen, Zheng; Asmatulu, Ramazan; Chan, Hoyin

    2017-08-01

    Human pulse signal tracking is an emerging technology that is needed in traditional Chinese medicine. However, soft actuation with multi-frequency tracking capability is needed for tracking human pulse signal. Dielectric elastomer (DE) is one type of soft actuating that has great potential in human pulse signal tracking. In this paper, a DE diaphragm actuator was designed and fabricated to track human pulse pressure signal. A physics-based and control-oriented model has been developed to capture the dynamic behavior of DE diaphragm actuator. Using the physical model, an H-infinity robust control was designed for the actuator to reject high-frequency sensing noises and disturbances. The robust control was then implemented in real-time to track a multi-frequency signal, which verified the tracking capability and robustness of the control system. In the human pulse signal tracking test, a human pulse signal was measured at the City University of Hong Kong and then was tracked using DE actuator at Wichita State University in the US. Experimental results have verified that the DE actuator with its robust control is capable of tracking human pulse signal.

  5. Nonlinear Disturbance Observer Based Robust Tracking Control of Pneumatic Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssif Mohamed Toum Elobaid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently pneumatic muscles (PMs are used in various applications due to their simple construction, lightweight, and high force-to-weight ratio. However, pneumatic muscles are facing various problems due to their nonlinear characteristics and various uncertainties in real applications. To cope with the uncertainties and strong nonlinearity of a PM model, a nonlinear disturbance observer (NDO is designed to estimate the lumped disturbance. Based on the disturbance observer, the tracking control of PM is studied. Stability analysis based on Lyapunov method with respect to our proposed control law is discussed. The simulation results show the validity, effectiveness, and enhancing robustness of the proposed methods.

  6. Tracking control of mobile robots: a case study in backstepping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Zhong-Ping; Nijmeijer, Henk

    1997-01-01

    A tracking control methodology via time-varying state feedback based on the backstepping technique is proposed for both a kinematic and simplified dynamic model of a two-degrees-of-freedom mobile robot. We first address the local tracking problem where initial tracking errors are sufficiently small.

  7. Robustness-tracking control based on sliding mode and H∞ theory for linear servo system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yan-feng; GUO Qing-ding

    2005-01-01

    A robustness-tracking control scheme based on combining H∞ robust control and sliding mode control is proposed for a direct drive AC permanent-magnet linear motor servo system to solve the conflict between tracking and robustness of the linear servo system. The sliding mode tracking controller is designed to ensure the system has a fast tracking characteristic to the command, and the H∞ robustness controller suppresses the disturbances well within the close loop( including the load and the end effect force of linear motor etc. ) and effectively minimizes the chattering of sliding mode control which influences the steady state performance of the system. Simulation results show that this control scheme enhances the track-command-ability and the robustness of the linear servo system, and in addition, it has a strong robustness to parameter variations and resistance disturbances.

  8. Control system design guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellers, David; Friedman, Hannah; Haasl, Tudi; Bourassa, Norman; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-05-01

    The ''Control System Design Guide'' (Design Guide) provides methods and recommendations for the control system design process and control point selection and installation. Control systems are often the most problematic system in a building. A good design process that takes into account maintenance, operation, and commissioning can lead to a smoothly operating and efficient building. To this end, the Design Guide provides a toolbox of templates for improving control system design and specification. HVAC designers are the primary audience for the Design Guide. The control design process it presents will help produce well-designed control systems that achieve efficient and robust operation. The spreadsheet examples for control valve schedules, damper schedules, and points lists can streamline the use of the control system design concepts set forth in the Design Guide by providing convenient starting points from which designers can build. Although each reader brings their own unique questions to the text, the Design Guide contains information that designers, commissioning providers, operators, and owners will find useful.

  9. Multi-rate h2 tracking control with mixed continuous-discrete performance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahane, A.C.; Palmor, Z.J.; Mirkin, L.

    1998-01-01

    Control goals defined both in continuous and discrete time arise naturally in many sampled-data tracking control problems. The design methods found in the literature deal with each kind of those control goals separately, over-emphasizing one kind at the expense of the other. We formulate and solve these tracking control problems as an H2 optimization problem with a mixed continuous/discrete performance criterion. It is argued that the proposed setup enables tradeoff between the various control goals in a natural manner and thus leads to better tracking characteristics

  10. Maximizing Output Power of a Solar Panel via Combination of Sun Tracking and Maximum Power Point Tracking by Fuzzy Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Taherbaneh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In applications with low-energy conversion efficiency, maximizing the output power improves the efficiency. The maximum output power of a solar panel depends on the environmental conditions and load profile. In this paper, a method based on simultaneous use of two fuzzy controllers is developed in order to maximize the generated output power of a solar panel in a photovoltaic system: fuzzy-based sun tracking and maximum power point tracking. The sun tracking is performed by changing the solar panel orientation in horizontal and vertical directions by two DC motors properly designed. A DC-DC converter is employed to track the solar panel maximum power point. In addition, the proposed system has the capability of the extraction of solar panel I-V curves. Experimental results present that the proposed fuzzy techniques result in increasing of power delivery from the solar panel, causing a reduction in size, weight, and cost of solar panels in photovoltaic systems.

  11. Pneumatic motor speed control by trajectory tracking fuzzy logic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, trajectory tracking fuzzy logic controller (TTFLC) is proposed for the speed control of a pneumatic motor (PM). A third order trajectory is defined to determine the trajectory function that has to be tracked by the PM speed. Genetic algorithm (GA) is used to find the TTFLC boundary values of membership functions ...

  12. Chattering-Free Adaptive Sliding Mode Control for Attitude Tracking of Spacecraft with External Disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuxi Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The attitude tracking problem of spacecraft in the presence of unknown disturbance is investigated. By using the adaptive control technique and the Lyapunov stability theory, a chattering-free adaptive sliding mode control law is proposed for the attitude tracking problem of spacecraft with unknown disturbance. Simulation results are employed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control design technique in this paper.

  13. Track plate enclosures: Box designs affecting attractiveness to riparian mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukmas, J.J.; Mayack, D.T.; Richmond, M.E.

    2003-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of four track plate enclosure designs for monitoring the abundance of small and medium-sized mammals along 10 streams in New York State. Box size and clarity of view through the box were evaluated as factors affecting visitation. We checked track plate stations weekly from September 1999 to March 2000. Eleven mammalian species or species groups visited the track plate stations. Raccoons (Procyon lotor) (P = 0.020) and feral cats (Felis catus) (P = 0.008) visited large enclosures significantly more than small enclosures. Feral cats visited clear-view enclosures significantly more than obstructed-view enclosures (P = 0.025). Enclosure size and view did not significantly affect visitation by other species; however, a large box with a clear view was the most effective design.

  14. Some Aspects on Filter Design for Target Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertil Ekstrand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tracking filter design is discussed. It is argued that the basis of the present stochastic paradigm is questionable. White process noise is not adequate as a model for target manoeuvring, stochastic least-square optimality is not relevant or required in practice, the fact that requirements are necessary for design is ignored, and root mean square (RMS errors are insufficient as performance measure. It is argued that there is no process noise and that the covariance of the assumed process noise contains the design parameters. Focus is on the basic tracking filter, the Kalman filter, which is convenient for clarity and simplicity, but the arguments and conclusions are relevant in general. For design the possibility of an observer transfer function approach is pointed out. The issues can also be considered as a consequence of the fact that there is a difference between estimation and design. The - filter is used for illustration.

  15. Experiment design for pilot identification in compensatory tracking tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, W. R.

    1976-01-01

    A design criterion for input functions in laboratory tracking tasks resulting in efficient parameter estimation is formulated. The criterion is that the statistical correlations between pairs of parameters be reduced in order to minimize the problem of nonuniqueness in the extraction process. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated for a lower order dynamic system.

  16. Velocity Tracking Control of Wheeled Mobile Robots by Iterative Learning Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Lu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an iterative learning control (ILC strategy to resolve the trajectory tracking problem of wheeled mobile robots (WMRs based on dynamic model. In the previous study of WMRs’ trajectory tracking, ILC was usually applied to the kinematical model of WMRs with the assumption that desired velocity can be tracked immediately. However, this assumption cannot be realized in the real world at all. The kinematic and dynamic models of WMRs are deduced in this chapter, and a novel combination of D-type ILC algorithm and dynamic model of WMR with random bounded disturbances are presented. To analyze the convergence of the algorithm, the method of contracting mapping, which shows that the designed controller can make the velocity tracking errors converge to zero completely when the iteration times tend to infinite, is adopted. Simulation results show the effectiveness of D-type ILC in the trajectory tracking problem of WMRs, demonstrating the effectiveness and robustness of the algorithm in the condition of random bounded disturbance. A comparative study conducted between D-type ILC and compound cosine function neural network (NN controller also demonstrates the effectiveness of the ILC strategy.

  17. Approximate Dynamic Programming in Tracking Control of a Robotic Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Szuster

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the implementation of an approximate dynamic programming algorithm in the discrete tracking control system of the three-degrees of freedom Scorbot-ER 4pc robotic manipulator. The controlled system is included in an articulated robots group which uses rotary joints to access their work space. The main part of the control system is a dual heuristic dynamic programming algorithm that consists of two structures designed in the form of neural networks: an actor and a critic. The actor generates the suboptimal control law while the critic approximates the difference of the value function from Bellman's equation with respect to the state. The residual elements of the control system are the PD controller, the supervisory term and an additional control signal. The structure of the supervisory term derives from the stability analysis performed using the Lyapunov stability theorem. The control system works online, the neural networks' weights-adaptation procedure is performed in every iteration step, and the neural networks' preliminary learning process is not required. The performance of the control system was verified by a series of computer simulations and experiments performed using the Scorbot-ER 4pc robotic manipulator.

  18. Observer-based linear parameter varying H∞ tracking control for hypersonic vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqing Huang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to develop observer-based linear parameter varying output feedback H∞ tracking controller for hypersonic vehicles. Due to the complexity of an original nonlinear model of the hypersonic vehicle dynamics, a slow–fast loop linear parameter varying polytopic model is introduced for system stability analysis and controller design. Then, a state observer is developed by linear parameter varying technique in order to estimate the unmeasured attitude angular for slow loop system. Also, based on the designed linear parameter varying state observer, a kind of attitude tracking controller is presented to reduce tracking errors for all bounded reference attitude angular inputs. The closed-loop linear parameter varying system is proved to be quadratically stable by Lypapunov function technique. Finally, simulation results show that the developed linear parameter varying H∞ controller has good tracking capability for reference commands.

  19. Optimum Design Of On Grid Pv System Using Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mansour

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The fossil fuel is a main issue in the world due to the increase of fossil fuel cost and the depletion of the fossil fuel with continuous increasing demand on electricity. With continuous decrease of PV panels cost it is interesting to consider generation of electricity from PV system. To provide electric energy to a load in a remote area where electric grid utility is not available or connection with grid utility is available there are two approaches of photovoltaic system PV without tracking system Fixed System and PV with tracking systems. The result shows that the energy production by using PV with tracking system generates more energy in comparison with fixed panels system. However the cost per produced KWH is less in case of using fixed panels. This is the backbone in choice between two approaches of photovoltaic system. In this work a system design and cost analysis for two approaches of photovoltaic system are considered.

  20. Development of Feedforward Control in a Dynamic Manual Tracking Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roon, Dominique; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Swinnen, Stephan P.; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C. M.

    2008-01-01

    To examine the development of feedforward control during manual tracking, 117 participants in 5 age groups (6 to 7, 8 to 9, 10 to 11, 12 to 14, and 15 to 17 years) tracked an accelerating dot presented on a monitor by moving an electronic pen on a digitizer. To remain successful at higher target velocities, they had to create a predictive model of…

  1. Sliding Mode Control for Trajectory Tracking of an Intelligent Wheelchair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan SOLEA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deal with a robust sliding-mode trajectory tracking controller, fornonholonomic wheeled mobile robots and its experimental evaluation by theimplementation in an intelligent wheelchair (RobChair. The proposed control structureis based on two nonlinear sliding surfaces ensuring the tracking of the three outputvariables, with respect to the nonholonomic constraint. The performances of theproposed controller for the trajectory planning problem with comfort constraint areverified through the real time acceleration provided by an inertial measurement unit.

  2. Control room design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinke, H.

    1980-01-01

    To control a 1300 megawatt nuclear power plant, about 15000 plant parameters must be collected together to control and operate the plant. The control room design therefore is of particular importance. The main design criteria are: Required functions of the power plant process - Level of Automation - Ergonomics - Available Technology. Extensive analysis has resulted in a control room design method. This ensures that an objective solution will be reached. Resulting from this methodical approach are: 1. Scope, position and appearance of the instrumentation. 2. Scope, position and appearance of the operator controls. Process analysis dictates what instrumentation and operator controls are needed. The priority and importance of the control and instrumentation (this we define as the utilisation areas), dictates the rough layout of the control room. (orig./RW)

  3. Applied Control Systems Design

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Magdi S

    2012-01-01

    Applied Control System Design examines several methods for building up systems models based on real experimental data from typical industrial processes and incorporating system identification techniques. The text takes a comparative approach to the models derived in this way judging their suitability for use in different systems and under different operational circumstances. A broad spectrum of control methods including various forms of filtering, feedback and feedforward control is applied to the models and the guidelines derived from the closed-loop responses are then composed into a concrete self-tested recipe to serve as a check-list for industrial engineers or control designers. System identification and control design are given equal weight in model derivation and testing to reflect their equality of importance in the proper design and optimization of high-performance control systems. Readers’ assimilation of the material discussed is assisted by the provision of problems and examples. Most of these e...

  4. Feedforward Tracking Control of Flat Recurrent Fuzzy Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gering, Stefan; Adamy, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Flatness based feedforward control has proven to be a feasible solution for the problem of tracking control, which may be applied to a broad class of nonlinear systems. If a flat output of the system is known, the control is often based on a feedforward controller generating a nominal input in combination with a linear controller stabilizing the linearized error dynamics around the trajectory. We show in this paper that the very same idea may be incorporated for tracking control of MIMO recurrent fuzzy systems. Their dynamics is given by means of linguistic differential equations but may be converted into a hybrid system representation, which then serves as the basis for controller synthesis

  5. Feedforward Tracking Control of Flat Recurrent Fuzzy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gering, Stefan; Adamy, Jürgen

    2014-12-01

    Flatness based feedforward control has proven to be a feasible solution for the problem of tracking control, which may be applied to a broad class of nonlinear systems. If a flat output of the system is known, the control is often based on a feedforward controller generating a nominal input in combination with a linear controller stabilizing the linearized error dynamics around the trajectory. We show in this paper that the very same idea may be incorporated for tracking control of MIMO recurrent fuzzy systems. Their dynamics is given by means of linguistic differential equations but may be converted into a hybrid system representation, which then serves as the basis for controller synthesis.

  6. Calculation of track and vertex errors for detector design studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harr, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Kalman Filter technique has come into wide use for charged track reconstruction in high-energy physics experiments. It is also well suited for detector design studies, allowing for the efficient estimation of optimal track covariance matrices without the need of a hit level Monte Carlo simulation. Although much has been published about the Kalman filter equations, there is a lack of previous literature explaining how to implement the equations. In this paper, the operators necessary to implement the Kalman filter equations for two common detector configurations are worked out: a central detector in a uniform solenoidal magnetic field, and a fixed-target detector with no magnetic field in the region of the interactions. With the track covariance matrices in hand, vertex and invariant mass errors are readily calculable. These quantities are particularly interesting for evaluating experiments designed to study weakly decaying particles which give rise to displaced vertices. The optimal vertex errors are obtained via a constrained vertex fit. Solutions are presented to the constrained vertex problem with and without kinematic constraints. Invariant mass errors are obtained via propagation of errors; the use of vertex constrained track parameters is discussed. Many of the derivations are new or previously unpublished

  7. Synthetic Jet Actuator-Based Aircraft Tracking Using a Continuous Robust Nonlinear Control Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ramos-Pedroza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A robust nonlinear control law that achieves trajectory tracking control for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs equipped with synthetic jet actuators (SJAs is presented in this paper. A key challenge in the control design is that the dynamic characteristics of SJAs are nonlinear and contain parametric uncertainty. The challenge resulting from the uncertain SJA actuator parameters is mitigated via innovative algebraic manipulation in the tracking error system derivation along with a robust nonlinear control law employing constant SJA parameter estimates. A key contribution of the paper is a rigorous analysis of the range of SJA actuator parameter uncertainty within which asymptotic UAV trajectory tracking can be achieved. A rigorous stability analysis is carried out to prove semiglobal asymptotic trajectory tracking. Detailed simulation results are included to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control law in the presence of wind gusts and varying levels of SJA actuator parameter uncertainty.

  8. Design Of Feedforward Controllers For Multivariable Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, Homayoun

    1989-01-01

    Controllers based on simple low-order transfer functions. Mathematical criteria derived for design of feedforward controllers for class of multiple-input/multiple-output linear plants. Represented by simple low-order transfer functions, obtained without reconstruction of states of commands and disturbances. Enables plant to track command while remaining unresponsive to disturbance in steady state. Feedback controller added independently to stabilize plant or to make control system less susceptible to variations in parameters of plant.

  9. Tool position tracking control of a nonlinear uncertain flexible robot ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Robot manipulators have become progressively important in the field of flexible ... this research, tracking of tool position and minimization of motor torque are ...... and Menhaj M B 2013a Position and current control of a permanent-magnet syn-.

  10. Photovoltaic Cells Mppt Algorithm and Design of Controller Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, X. Z.; Feng, H. B.

    2017-10-01

    This paper combined the advantages of each maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm, put forward a kind of algorithm with higher speed and higher precision, based on this algorithm designed a maximum power point tracking controller with ARM. The controller, communication technology and PC software formed a control system. Results of the simulation and experiment showed that the process of maximum power tracking was effective, and the system was stable.

  11. Optimal Trajectory Tracking Control for a Wheeled Mobile Robot Using Fractional Order PID Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameer L. Saleh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper present an optimal Fractional Order PID (FOPID controller based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO for controlling the trajectory tracking of Wheeled Mobile Robot(WMR.The issue of trajectory tracking with given a desired reference velocity is minimized to get the distance and deviation angle equal to zero, to realize the objective of trajectory tracking a two FOPID controllers are used for velocity control and azimuth control to implement the trajectory tracking control. A path planning and path tracking methodologies are used to give different desired tracking trajectories.  PSO algorithm is using to find the optimal parameters of FOPID controllers. The kinematic and dynamic models of wheeled mobile robot for desired trajectory tracking with PSO algorithm are simulated in Simulink-Matlab. Simulation results show that the optimal FOPID controllers are more effective and has better dynamic performance than the conventional methods.

  12. Cooperative Fault Tolerant Tracking Control for Multiagent Systems: An Intermediate Estimator-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun-Wei; Yang, Guang-Hong; Zhang, Wen-An; Yu, Li

    2017-10-17

    This paper studies the observer based fault tolerant tracking control problem for linear multiagent systems with multiple faults and mismatched disturbances. A novel distributed intermediate estimator based fault tolerant tracking protocol is presented. The leader's input is nonzero and unavailable to the followers. By applying a projection technique, the mismatched disturbances are separated into matched and unmatched components. For each node, a tracking error system is established, for which an intermediate estimator driven by the relative output measurements is constructed to estimate the sensor faults and a combined signal of the leader's input, process faults, and matched disturbance component. Based on the estimation, a fault tolerant tracking protocol is designed to eliminate the effects of the combined signal. Besides, the effect of unmatched disturbance component can be attenuated by directly adjusting some specified parameters. Finally, a simulation example of aircraft demonstrates the effectiveness of the designed tracking protocol.This paper studies the observer based fault tolerant tracking control problem for linear multiagent systems with multiple faults and mismatched disturbances. A novel distributed intermediate estimator based fault tolerant tracking protocol is presented. The leader's input is nonzero and unavailable to the followers. By applying a projection technique, the mismatched disturbances are separated into matched and unmatched components. For each node, a tracking error system is established, for which an intermediate estimator driven by the relative output measurements is constructed to estimate the sensor faults and a combined signal of the leader's input, process faults, and matched disturbance component. Based on the estimation, a fault tolerant tracking protocol is designed to eliminate the effects of the combined signal. Besides, the effect of unmatched disturbance component can be attenuated by directly adjusting some

  13. Control system design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David G [Tijeras, NM; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2012-02-21

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  14. Angular Position Tracking Control of a Quadcopter

    OpenAIRE

    T. V. Glazkov; A. E. Golubev

    2017-01-01

    The paper dwells on tracking the quad-copter angular position with desired quality parameters of transient processes. The aerial vehicle is considered as a rigid body with six degrees of freedom.  A full rigid body quad-copter mathematical model is considered without the assumption of smallness of the Euler angles.Among the most well known methods of non-linear stabilization are feedback linearization and backstepping. The backstepping approach allows us to have an effective solution of the s...

  15. Tracking Control for Switched Cascade Nonlinear Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of H∞ output tracking for switched cascade nonlinear systems is discussed in this paper, where not all the linear parts of subsystems are stabilizable. The conditions of the solvability for the issue are given by virtue of the structural characteristics of the systems and the average dwell time method, in which the total activation time for stabilizable subsystems is longer than that for the unstabilizable subsystems. At last, a simulation example is used to demonstrate the validity and advantages of the proposed approach.

  16. Design of a Low-cost Oil Spill Tracking Buoy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Hu, X.; Yu, F.; Dong, S.; Chen, G.

    2017-12-01

    As the rapid development of oil exploitation and transportation, oil spill accidents, such as Prestige oil spill, Gulf of Mexico oil spill accident and so on, happened frequently in recent years which would result in long-term damage to the environment and human life. It would be helpful for rescue operation if we can locate the oil slick diffusion area in real time. Equipped with GNSS system, current tracking buoys(CTB), such as Lagrangian drifting buoy, Surface Velocity Program (SVP) drifter, iSLDMB (Iridium self locating datum marker buoy) and Argosphere buoy, have been used as oil tracking buoy in oil slick observation and as validation tools for oil spill simulation. However, surface wind could affect the movement of oil slick, which couldn't be reflected by CTB, thus the oil spill tracking performance is limited. Here, we proposed an novel oil spill tracking buoy (OSTB) which has a low cost of less than $140 and is equipped with Beidou positioning module and sails to track oil slick. Based on hydrodynamic equilibrium model and ocean dynamic analysis, the wind sails and water sails are designed to be adjustable according to different marine conditions to improve tracking efficiency. Quick release device is designed to assure easy deployment from air or ship. Sea experiment was carried out in Jiaozhou Bay, Northern China. OSTB, SVP, iSLDMB, Argosphere buoy and a piece of oil-simulated rubber sheet were deployed at the same time. Meanwhile, oil spill simulation model GNOME (general NOAA operational modeling environment) was configured with the wind and current field, which were collected by an unmanned surface vehicle (USV) mounted with acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP) and wind speed and direction sensors. Experimental results show that the OSTB has better relevance with rubber sheet and GNOME simulation results, which validate the oil tracking ability of OSTB. With low cost and easy deployment, OSTB provides an effective way for oil spill numerical

  17. The design and development of a solar tracking unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, I. W.; Miller, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    The solar tracking unit was developed to support the Laser Heterodyne Spectrometer (LHS) airborne instrument, but has application to a general class of airborne solar occultation research instruments. The unit consists of a mirror mounted on two gimbals, one of which is hollow. The mirror reflects a 7.6 cm (3.0 in.) diameter beam of sunlight through the hollow gimbal into the research instrument optical axis. A portion of the reflected sunlight is directed into a tracking telescope which uses a four quadrant silicon detector to produce the servo error signals. The colinearity of the tracker output beam and the research instrument optical axis is maintained to better than + or - 1 arc-minute. The unit is microcomputer controlled and is capable of stand alone operation, including automatic Sun acquisition or operation under the control of the research instrument.

  18. Robust tracking and distributed synchronization control of a multi-motor servomechanism with H-infinity performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minlin; Ren, Xuemei; Chen, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    The multi-motor servomechanism (MMS) is a multi-variable, high coupling and nonlinear system, which makes the controller design challenging. In this paper, an adaptive robust H-infinity control scheme is proposed to achieve both the load tracking and multi-motor synchronization of MMS. This control scheme consists of two parts: a robust tracking controller and a distributed synchronization controller. The robust tracking controller is constructed by incorporating a neural network (NN) K-filter observer into the dynamic surface control, while the distributed synchronization controller is designed by combining the mean deviation coupling control strategy with the distributed technique. The proposed control scheme has several merits: 1) by using the mean deviation coupling synchronization control strategy, the tracking controller and the synchronization controller can be designed individually without any coupling problem; 2) the immeasurable states and unknown nonlinearities are handled by a NN K-filter observer, where the number of NN weights is largely reduced by using the minimal learning parameter technique; 3) the H-infinity performances of tracking error and synchronization error are guaranteed by introducing a robust term into the tracking controller and the synchronization controller, respectively. The stabilities of the tracking and synchronization control systems are analyzed by the Lyapunov theory. Simulation and experimental results based on a four-motor servomechanism are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Discovery Mondays "Controlling the accelerators: tracking the protons"

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Le Centre de contrôle des accélérateurs du CERN.Like a train of particles that picks up speed every time it passes a set of points, by the time they collide the protons and ions in the LHC will have followed their path through the six stages of the CERN accelerator complex, picking up speed at each stage. Operating the controls of this huge complex designed to accelerate the infinitesimally small are its peerless controllers. From the CERN Control Centre, they will be on duty day and night to accelerate the "wagon-loads" of particles, ensuring that they stay on track and lining them up for head-on collisions. At the next Discovery Monday you will discover the path taken by the particles through the accelerator chain. You will gain an insight into the complex work performed by those controlling the particles and learn more about the CERN accelerator complex and its Control Centre. Hop on board for a speed-of-light tour of the C...

  20. Real-time tracking control of electro-hydraulic force servo systems using offline feedback control and adaptive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Gang; Zhu, Zhencai; Zhao, Jinsong; Zhu, Weidong; Tang, Yu; Li, Xiang

    2017-03-01

    This paper focuses on an application of an electro-hydraulic force tracking controller combined with an offline designed feedback controller (ODFC) and an online adaptive compensator in order to improve force tracking performance of an electro-hydraulic force servo system (EHFS). A proportional-integral controller has been employed and a parameter-based force closed-loop transfer function of the EHFS is identified by a continuous system identification algorithm. By taking the identified system model as a nominal plant model, an H ∞ offline design method is employed to establish an optimized feedback controller with consideration of the performance, control efforts, and robustness of the EHFS. In order to overcome the disadvantage of the offline designed controller and cope with the varying dynamics of the EHFS, an online adaptive compensator with a normalized least-mean-square algorithm is cascaded to the force closed-loop system of the EHFS compensated by the ODFC. Some comparative experiments are carried out on a real-time EHFS using an xPC rapid prototype technology, and the proposed controller yields a better force tracking performance improvement. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Designing and manufacturing of solar imaging and tracking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Hosseini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – in this study, designing and manufacturing of solar imaging and tracking system in order to research and spectroscopy applications are investigated. The device has the ability to be used as a Telescope, spectroscope, spectrophotometer and spectrohelioscope. The results obtained from this device are used in the various field of research such as absorption spectra of the surface of the sun, transit of planets in front of the sun, Doppler effects, evaluation of the Fraunhofer lines, plot of intensity versus wavelength and studying of Solar Flares. In this research, design and manufacture of the device, along with some of the results, are reported.

  2. Ultra-precise tracking control of piezoelectric actuators via a fuzzy hysteresis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengzhi; Yan, Feng; Ge, Chuan; Zhang, Mingchao

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, a novel Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy system based model is proposed for hysteresis in piezoelectric actuators. The antecedent and consequent structures of the fuzzy hysteresis model (FHM) can be, respectively, identified on-line through uniform partition approach and recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm. With respect to controller design, the inverse of FHM is used to develop a feedforward controller to cancel out the hysteresis effect. Then a hybrid controller is designed for high-performance tracking. It combines the feedforward controller with a proportional integral differential (PID) controller favourable for stabilization and disturbance compensation. To achieve nanometer-scale tracking precision, the enhanced adaptive hybrid controller is further developed. It uses real-time input and output data to update FHM, thus changing the feedforward controller to suit the on-site hysteresis character of the piezoelectric actuator. Finally, as to 3 cases of 50 Hz sinusoidal, multiple frequency sinusoidal and 50 Hz triangular trajectories tracking, experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed controllers. Especially, being only 0.35% of the maximum desired displacement, the maximum error of 50 Hz sinusoidal tracking is greatly reduced to 5.8 nm, which clearly shows the ultra-precise nanometer-scale tracking performance of the developed adaptive hybrid controller.

  3. Calculations to support design of a nuclear material tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, L.L.; Eggers, R.F.; Williams, T.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company is developing a nuclear material tracking system called NTRAK for the US Department of Energy at the Savannah River site. The NTRAK system is designed to determine the position and approximate magnitude of packages of special nuclear material (SNM) moving through a nuclear plant. The NTRAK accomplishes this by using special assemblies of detectors called modules to measure the gamma radiation emitted by the SNM. After measurement, raw data are processed to determine the direction to and position of the gamma-ray source. In order for the NTRAK method of SNM tracking to work, the gamma-ray signal at the detector modules must be at least four standard deviations above background. This paper addresses the use of the Monte Carlo computer code for neutron and photon transport (MCNP) to (a) predict the radiation emitted by plutonium oxide sources and (b) predict the counting rate of NaI detectors measuring those sources

  4. Robust H(infinity) tracking control of boiler-turbine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J; Nguang, S K; Shen, J; Liu, G; Li, Y G

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, the problem of designing a fuzzy H(infinity) state feedback tracking control of a boiler-turbine is solved. First, the Takagi and Sugeno fuzzy model is used to model a boiler-turbine system. Next, based on the Takagi and Sugeno fuzzy model, sufficient conditions for the existence of a fuzzy H(infinity) nonlinear state feedback tracking control are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities. The advantage of the proposed tracking control design is that it does not involve feedback linearization technique and complicated adaptive scheme. An industrial boiler-turbine system is used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed design as compared with a linearized approach. 2010 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Track and mode controller (TMC): a software executive for a high-altitude pointing and tracking experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michnovicz, Michael R.

    1997-06-01

    A real-time executive has been implemented to control a high altitude pointing and tracking experiment. The track and mode controller (TMC) implements a table driven design, in which the track mode logic for a tracking mission is defined within a state transition diagram (STD). THe STD is implemented as a state transition table in the TMC software. Status Events trigger the state transitions in the STD. Each state, as it is entered, causes a number of processes to be activated within the system. As these processes propagate through the system, the status of key processes are monitored by the TMC, allowing further transitions within the STD. This architecture is implemented in real-time, using the vxWorks operating system. VxWorks message queues allow communication of status events from the Event Monitor task to the STD task. Process commands are propagated to the rest of the system processors by means of the SCRAMNet shared memory network. The system mode logic contained in the STD will autonomously sequence in acquisition, tracking and pointing system through an entire engagement sequence, starting with target detection and ending with aimpoint maintenance. Simulation results and lab test results will be presented to verify the mode controller. In addition to implementing the system mode logic with the STD, the TMC can process prerecorded time sequences of commands required during startup operations. It can also process single commands from the system operator. In this paper, the author presents (1) an overview, in which he describes the TMC architecture, the relationship of an end-to-end simulation to the flight software and the laboratory testing environment, (2) implementation details, including information on the vxWorks message queues and the SCRAMNet shared memory network, (3) simulation results and lab test results which verify the mode controller, and (4) plans for the future, specifically as to how this executive will expedite transition to a fully

  6. Relative tracking control of constellation satellites considering inter-satellite link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakoor, M.; Amozegary, F.; Bakhtiari, M.; Daneshjou, K.

    2017-11-01

    In this article, two main issues related to the large-scale relative motion of satellites in the constellation are investigated to establish the Inter Satellite Link (ISL) which means the dynamic and control problems. In the section related to dynamic problems, a detailed and effective analytical solution is initially provided for the problem of satellite relative motion considering perturbations. The direct geometric method utilizing spherical coordinates is employed to achieve this solution. The evaluation of simulation shows that the solution obtained from the geometric method calculates the relative motion of the satellite with high accuracy. Thus, the proposed analytical solution will be applicable and effective. In the section related to control problems, the relative tracking control system between two satellites will be designed in order to establish a communication link between the satellites utilizing analytical solution for relative motion of satellites with respect to the reference trajectory. Sliding mode control approach is employed to develop the relative tracking control system for body to body and payload to payload tracking control. Efficiency of sliding mode control approach is compared with PID and LQR controllers. Two types of payload to payload tracking control considering with and without payload degree of freedom are designed and suitable one for practical ISL applications is introduced. Also, Fuzzy controller is utilized to eliminate the control input in the sliding mode controller.

  7. Impact of magnetic saturation on the input-output linearising tracking control of an induction motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolinar, Drago; Ljusev, Petar; Stumberger, Gorazd

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the tracking control design of an induction motor, based on input-output linearization with magnetic saturation included. Magnetic saturation is represented by the nonlinear magnetizing curve of the iron core and is used in the control design, the observer of state variables......, and in the load torque estimator. An input-output linearising control is used to achieve better tracking performances of the drive. It is based on the mixed ”stator current - rotor flux linkage” induction motor model with magnetic saturation considered in the stationary reference frame. Experimental results show...... that the proposed input-output linearising tracking control with the included saturation behaves considerably better than the one without saturation, and that it introduces smaller position and speed errors, and better motor stiffness on account of the increased computational complexity....

  8. Robust intelligent backstepping tracking control for uncertain non-linear chaotic systems using H∞ control technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Y.-F.

    2009-01-01

    The cerebellar model articulation controller (CMAC) is a non-linear adaptive system with built-in simple computation, good generalization capability and fast learning property. In this paper, a robust intelligent backstepping tracking control (RIBTC) system combined with adaptive CMAC and H ∞ control technique is proposed for a class of chaotic systems with unknown system dynamics and external disturbance. In the proposed control system, an adaptive backstepping cerebellar model articulation controller (ABCMAC) is used to mimic an ideal backstepping control (IBC), and a robust H ∞ controller is designed to attenuate the effect of the residual approximation errors and external disturbances with desired attenuation level. Moreover, the all adaptation laws of the RIBTC system are derived based on the Lyapunov stability analysis, the Taylor linearization technique and H ∞ control theory, so that the stability of the closed-loop system and H ∞ tracking performance can be guaranteed. Finally, three application examples, including a Duffing-Holmes chaotic system, a Genesio chaotic system and a Sprott circuit system, are used to demonstrate the effectiveness and performance of proposed robust control technique.

  9. Feedback tracking control for dynamic morphing of piezocomposite actuated flexible wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Wenya; Wu, Zhigang

    2018-03-01

    Aerodynamic properties of flexible wings can be improved via shape morphing using piezocomposite materials. Dynamic shape control of flexible wings is investigated in this study by considering the interactions between structural dynamics, unsteady aerodynamics and piezo-actuations. A novel antisymmetric angle-ply bimorph configuration of piezocomposite actuators is presented to realize coupled bending-torsional shape control. The active aeroelastic model is derived using finite element method and Theodorsen unsteady aerodynamic loads. A time-varying linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) tracking control system is designed to enhance aerodynamic lift with pre-defined trajectories. Proof-of-concept simulations of static and dynamic shape control are presented for a scaled high-aspect-ratio wing model. Vibrations of the wing and fluctuations in aerodynamic forces are caused by using the static voltages directly in dynamic shape control. The lift response has tracked the trajectories well with favorable dynamic morphing performance via feedback tracking control.

  10. Lane changing trajectory planning and tracking control for intelligent vehicle on curved road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lukun; Zhao, Xiaoying; Su, Hao; Tang, Gongyou

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores lane changing trajectory planning and tracking control for intelligent vehicle on curved road. A novel arcs trajectory is planned for the desired lane changing trajectory. A kinematic controller and a dynamics controller are designed to implement the trajectory tracking control. Firstly, the kinematic model and dynamics model of intelligent vehicle with non-holonomic constraint are established. Secondly, two constraints of lane changing on curved road in practice (LCCP) are proposed. Thirdly, two arcs with same curvature are constructed for the desired lane changing trajectory. According to the geometrical characteristics of arcs trajectory, equations of desired state can be calculated. Finally, the backstepping method is employed to design a kinematic trajectory tracking controller. Then the sliding-mode dynamics controller is designed to ensure that the motion of the intelligent vehicle can follow the desired velocity generated by kinematic controller. The stability of control system is proved by Lyapunov theory. Computer simulation demonstrates that the desired arcs trajectory and state curves with B-spline optimization can meet the requirements of LCCP constraints and the proposed control schemes can make tracking errors to converge uniformly.

  11. Towards practical control design using neural computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troudet, Terry; Garg, Sanjay; Mattern, Duane; Merrill, Walter

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to develop neural network based control design techniques which address the issue of performance/control effort tradeoff. Additionally, the control design needs to address the important issue if achieving adequate performance in the presence of actuator nonlinearities such as position and rate limits. These issues are discussed using the example of aircraft flight control. Given a set of pilot input commands, a feedforward net is trained to control the vehicle within the constraints imposed by the actuators. This is achieved by minimizing an objective function which is the sum of the tracking errors, control input rates and control input deflections. A tradeoff between tracking performance and control smoothness is obtained by varying, adaptively, the weights of the objective function. The neurocontroller performance is evaluated in the presence of actuator dynamics using a simulation of the vehicle. Appropriate selection of the different weights in the objective function resulted in the good tracking of the pilot commands and smooth neurocontrol. An extension of the neurocontroller design approach is proposed to enhance its practicality.

  12. The Lateral Tracking Control for the Intelligent Vehicle Based on Adaptive PID Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Gaining; Fu, Weiping; Wang, Wen; Wu, Zongsheng

    2017-05-30

    The intelligent vehicle is a complicated nonlinear system, and the design of a path tracking controller is one of the key technologies in intelligent vehicle research. This paper mainly designs a lateral control dynamic model of the intelligent vehicle, which is used for lateral tracking control. Firstly, the vehicle dynamics model (i.e., transfer function) is established according to the vehicle parameters. Secondly, according to the vehicle steering control system and the CARMA (Controlled Auto-Regression and Moving-Average) model, a second-order control system model is built. Using forgetting factor recursive least square estimation (FFRLS), the system parameters are identified. Finally, a neural network PID (Proportion Integral Derivative) controller is established for lateral path tracking control based on the vehicle model and the steering system model. Experimental simulation results show that the proposed model and algorithm have the high real-time and robustness in path tracing control. This provides a certain theoretical basis for intelligent vehicle autonomous navigation tracking control, and lays the foundation for the vertical and lateral coupling control.

  13. The Lateral Tracking Control for the Intelligent Vehicle Based on Adaptive PID Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaining Han

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The intelligent vehicle is a complicated nonlinear system, and the design of a path tracking controller is one of the key technologies in intelligent vehicle research. This paper mainly designs a lateral control dynamic model of the intelligent vehicle, which is used for lateral tracking control. Firstly, the vehicle dynamics model (i.e., transfer function is established according to the vehicle parameters. Secondly, according to the vehicle steering control system and the CARMA (Controlled Auto-Regression and Moving-Average model, a second-order control system model is built. Using forgetting factor recursive least square estimation (FFRLS, the system parameters are identified. Finally, a neural network PID (Proportion Integral Derivative controller is established for lateral path tracking control based on the vehicle model and the steering system model. Experimental simulation results show that the proposed model and algorithm have the high real-time and robustness in path tracing control. This provides a certain theoretical basis for intelligent vehicle autonomous navigation tracking control, and lays the foundation for the vertical and lateral coupling control.

  14. Solar tracking control tower; Steuerungstechnik folgt der Sonne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leu, Andreas [Jetter AG, Ludwigsburg (Germany). Bereich technisches Marketing und Seminare

    2010-11-15

    The ''Gemue-Dome'' building at Waldzimmern is a unique industrial building. The research, development and innovation center has a rotary control tower equipped with solar cells which automatically tracks the sun. This automation task was a challenge for the control and power supply sections. (orig.)

  15. Model Predictive Control for Offset-Free Reference Tracking

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Belda, Květoslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2016), s. 8-13 ISSN 1805-3386 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : offset-free reference tracking * predictive control * ARX model * state-space model * multi-input multi-output system * robotic system * mechatronic system Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/AS/belda-0458355.pdf

  16. Parametric Approach to Trajectory Tracking Control of Robot Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijie Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematic description of the trajectory of robot manipulators with the optimal trajectory tracking problem is formulated as an optimal control problem, and a parametric approach is proposed for the optimal trajectory tracking control problem. The optimal control problem is first solved as an open loop optimal control problem by using a time scaling transform and the control parameterization method. Then, by virtue of the relationship between the optimal open loop control and the optimal closed loop control along the optimal trajectory, a practical method is presented to calculate an approximate optimal feedback gain matrix, without having to solve an optimal control problem involving the complex Riccati-like matrix differential equation coupled with the original system dynamics. Simulation results of 2-link robot manipulator are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. Robust Tracking Control for a Piezoelectric Actuator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salah, M; McIntyre, M; Dawson, D; Wagner, J

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a hysteresis model-based nonlinear robust controller is developed for a piezoelectric actuator, utilizing a Lyapunov-based stability analysis, which ensures that a desired displacement...

  18. Dynamic optimization and adaptive controller design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamdar, S. R.

    2010-10-01

    In this work I present a new type of controller which is an adaptive tracking controller which employs dynamic optimization for optimizing current value of controller action for the temperature control of nonisothermal continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR). We begin with a two-state model of nonisothermal CSTR which are mass and heat balance equations and then add cooling system dynamics to eliminate input multiplicity. The initial design value is obtained using local stability of steady states where approach temperature for cooling action is specified as a steady state and a design specification. Later we make a correction in the dynamics where material balance is manipulated to use feed concentration as a system parameter as an adaptive control measure in order to avoid actuator saturation for the main control loop. The analysis leading to design of dynamic optimization based parameter adaptive controller is presented. The important component of this mathematical framework is reference trajectory generation to form an adaptive control measure.

  19. Designing a Process for Tracking Business Model Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groskovs, Sergejs

    The paper has adopted a design science research approach to design and verify with key stakeholders a fundamental management process of revising KPIs (key performance indicators), including those indicators that are related to business model change. The paper proposes a general guide for such pro......The paper has adopted a design science research approach to design and verify with key stakeholders a fundamental management process of revising KPIs (key performance indicators), including those indicators that are related to business model change. The paper proposes a general guide...... for such process design, which is applicable in similar settings, i.e. other multi-subsidiary global firms operating in dynamic industries. The management of the focal case uses a set of KPIs to track performance and thus to allow for bringing about strategic and tactical changes, including the initiatives...... by establishing new KPIs on an ongoing basis together with the business units on the ground, and is thus of key importance to strategic management of the firm. The paper concludes with a discussion of its methodological compliance to design science research guidelines and revisits the literature in process...

  20. Pattern Recognition Control Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambone, Elisabeth A.

    2018-01-01

    Spacecraft control algorithms must know the expected vehicle response to any command to the available control effectors, such as reaction thrusters or torque devices. Spacecraft control system design approaches have traditionally relied on the estimated vehicle mass properties to determine the desired force and moment, as well as knowledge of the effector performance to efficiently control the spacecraft. A pattern recognition approach was used to investigate the relationship between the control effector commands and spacecraft responses. Instead of supplying the approximated vehicle properties and the thruster performance characteristics, a database of information relating the thruster ring commands and the desired vehicle response was used for closed-loop control. A Monte Carlo simulation data set of the spacecraft dynamic response to effector commands was analyzed to establish the influence a command has on the behavior of the spacecraft. A tool developed at NASA Johnson Space Center to analyze flight dynamics Monte Carlo data sets through pattern recognition methods was used to perform this analysis. Once a comprehensive data set relating spacecraft responses with commands was established, it was used in place of traditional control methods and gains set. This pattern recognition approach was compared with traditional control algorithms to determine the potential benefits and uses.

  1. Global Tracking Control of Quadrotor VTOL Aircraft in Three-Dimensional Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc Khac Do

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method to design controllers that force a quadrotor vertical take-off and landing (VTOL aircraft to globally asymptotically track a reference trajectory in three-dimensional space. Motivated by the vehicle's steering practice, the roll and pitch angles are considered as immediate controls plus the total thrust force  provided by the aircraft's four rotors to control the position and yaw angle of the aircraft. The control design is based on the newly introduced one-step ahead backstepping, the standard backstepping and Lyapunov's direct methods. A combination of Euler angles and unit-quaternion for the attitude representation of the aircraft is used to obtain global tracking control results. The paper also includes a design of observers that exponentially estimate the aircraft's linear velocity vector and disturbances. Simulations illustrate the results.

  2. Robust Optimal Adaptive Trajectory Tracking Control of Quadrotor Helicopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Navabi

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper focuses on robust optimal adaptive control strategy to deal with tracking problem of a quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV in presence of parametric uncertainties, actuator amplitude constraints, and unknown time-varying external disturbances. First, Lyapunov-based indirect adaptive controller optimized by particle swarm optimization (PSO is developed for multi-input multi-output (MIMO nonlinear quadrotor to prevent input constraints violation, and then disturbance observer-based control (DOBC technique is aggregated with the control system to attenuate the effects of disturbance generated by an exogenous system. The performance of synthesis control method is evaluated by a new performance index function in time-domain, and the stability analysis is carried out using Lyapunov theory. Finally, illustrative numerical simulations are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented approach in altitude and attitude tracking under several conditions, including large time-varying uncertainty, exogenous disturbance, and control input constraints.

  3. Design and Manufacturing of a High-Precision Sun Tracking System Based on Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kianoosh Azizi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentration solar arrays require greater solar tracking precision than conventional photovoltaic arrays. This paper presents a high precision low cost dual axis sun tracking system based on image processing for concentration photovoltaic applications. An imaging device is designed according to the principle of pinhole imaging, making sun rays to be received on a screen through pinhole and to be a sun spot. The location of the spot is used to adjust the orientation of the solar panel. A fuzzy logic controller is developed to achieve this goal. A prototype was built, and experimental results have proven the good performance of the proposed system and low error of tracking. The operation of this system is independent of geographical location, initial calibration, and periodical regulations.

  4. Robust Control of Welding Robot for Tracking a Rectangular Welding Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manh Dung Ngo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights a welding robot (WR for its end effector to track a rectangular welding line (RWL. The WR includes five actuators which use a DC motor as a power source. Two controllers are proposed to control the WR's end effector: a main controller and a servo controller. Firstly, based on WR's kinematic equations and its feedback errors using backstepping method the main controller is proposed to design the reference-inputs for the WR's actuators in order that the WR's end effector tracks the RWL. Secondly, based on the dynamic equation of WR's actuator, the servo controller is designed using an active disturbance rejection control method. Finally, a control system incorporated with the main controller and the servo controllers make the WR's end effector robustly track a RWL in the presence of the modeling uncertainty and disturbances during the welding process. In experiment, the main controller which has a function as a master of the control system links to the five servo controllers which have a function as a slave via I2C communication. The effectiveness of the proposed control system is proven through the simulation and experimental results.

  5. Robust Control of Welding Robot for Tracking a Rectangular Welding Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manh Dung Ngo

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights a welding robot (WR for its end effector to track a rectangular welding line (RWL. The WR includes five actuators which use a DC motor as a power source. Two controllers are proposed to control the WR's end effector: a main controller and a servo controller. Firstly, based on WR's kinematic equations and its feedback errors using backstepping method the main controller is proposed to design the reference-inputs for the WR's actuators in order that the WR's end effector tracks the RWL. Secondly, based on the dynamic equation of WR's actuator, the servo controller is designed using an active disturbance rejection control method. Finally, a control system incorporated with the main controller and the servo controllers make the WR's end effector robustly track a RWL in the presence of the modeling uncertainty and disturbances during the welding process. In experiment, the main controller which has a function as a master of the control system links to the five servo controllers which have a function as a slave via I2C communication. The effectiveness of the proposed control system is proven through the simulation and experimental results.

  6. Robust trajectory tracking control of a dual-arm space robot actuated by control moment gyroscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yinghong; Misra, Arun K.

    2017-08-01

    It is a new design concept to employ control moment gyroscopes (CMGs) as reactionless actuators for space robots. Such actuation has several noticeable advantages such as weak dynamical coupling and low power consumption over traditional joint motor actuation. This paper presents a robust control law for a CMG-actuated space robot in presence of system uncertainties and closed-chain constraints. The control objective is to make the manipulation variables to track the desired trajectories, and reduce the possibility of CMG saturation simultaneously. A reduced-order dynamical equation in terms of independent motion variables is derived using Kane's equations. Desired trajectories of the independent motion variables are derived by minimum-norm trajectory planning algorithm, and an adaptive sliding mode controller with improved adaptation laws is proposed to drive the independent motion variables tracking the desired trajectories. Uniformly ultimate boundedness of the closed loop system is proven using Lyapunov method. The redundancy of the full-order actual control torques is utilized to generate a null torque vector which reduces the possibility of CMG angular momentum saturation while producing no effect on the reduced-order control input. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms and the advantage of weak dynamical coupling of the CMG-actuated system.

  7. Robust Tracking Control for a Piezoelectric Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    1 ε ρ ( kzk )2 kzk2 r ¸ (31) where kr ∈ R+ is a constant gain, ε ∈ R+ is a small constant, and ρ ( kzk ) ∈ R is a function of norm z (t) ∈ R2. The...equality can be developed (see Appendix 3 for further details) ¯̄̄ Ñ ¯̄̄ ≤ ρ ( kzk ) kzk . (33) After substituting (31) into (27), the following...closed- loop error system can be obtained mṙ = ∼ N +Nd − e+ µ Tem Cc ¶ s− krr (34) −1 ε ρ ( kzk )2 kzk2 r. 3.3 Stability Analysis Theorem 1 The controller

  8. Application of new control strategy for sun tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, F.R.; Ortega, M.G.; Gordillo, F.; Lopez-Martinez, M.

    2007-01-01

    The application of high concentration solar cells technology allows a significant increase in the amount of energy collected by solar arrays per unit area. However, to make it possible, more severe specifications on the sun pointing error are required. In fact, the performance of solar cells with concentrators decreases drastically if this error is greater than a small value. These specifications are not fulfilled by simple tracking systems due to different sources of errors (e.g., small misalignments of the structure with respect to geographical north) that appear in practice in low cost, domestic applications. This paper presents a control application of a sun tracker that is able to follow the sun with high accuracy without the necessity of either a precise procedure of installation or recalibration. A hybrid tracking system that consists of a combination of open loop tracking strategies based on solar movement models and closed loop strategies using a dynamic feedback controller is presented. Energy saving factors are taken into account, which implies that, among other factors, the sun is not constantly tracked with the same accuracy, to prevent energy overconsumption by the motors. Simulation and experimental results with a low cost two axes solar tracker are exposed, including a comparison between a classical open loop tracking strategy and the proposed hybrid one

  9. Input-output linearizing tracking control of induction machine with the included magnetic saturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolinar, Drago; Ljusev, Petar; Stumberger, Gorazd

    2003-01-01

    The tracking control design of an induction motor, based on input-output linearisation with magnetic saturation included is addressed. The magnetic saturation is represented by a nonlinear magnetising curve for the iron core and is used in the control, the observer of the state variables......, and in the load torque estimator. An input-output linearising control is used to achieve better tracking performances. It is based on the mixed 'stator current - rotor flux linkage' induction motor model with magnetic saturation considered in the stationary reference frame. Experimental results show...... that the proposed input-output linearising tracking control with saturation included behaves considerably better than the one without saturation, and that it introduces smaller position and speed errors, and better motor stiffness on account of the increased computational complexity....

  10. Sliding mode control of photoelectric tracking platform based on the inverse system method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Zong Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the photoelectric tracking platform tracking performance, an integral sliding mode control strategy based on inverse system decoupling method is proposed. The electromechanical dynamic model is established based on multi-body system theory and Newton-Euler method. The coupled multi-input multi-output (MIMO nonlinear system is transformed into two pseudo-linear single-input single-output (SISO subsystems based on the inverse system method. An integral sliding mode control scheme is designed for the decoupled pseudo-linear system. In order to eliminate system chattering phenomenon caused by traditional sign function in sliding-mode controller, the sign function is replaced by the Sigmoid function. Simulation results show that the proposed decoupling method and the control strategy can restrain the influences of internal coupling and disturbance effectively, and has better robustness and higher tracking accuracy.

  11. Optimization Controller for Mechatronic Sun Tracking System to Improve Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Engin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An embedded system that contains hardware and software was developed for two-axis solar tracking system to improve photovoltaic panel utilization. The hardware section of the embedded system consists of a 32-bit ARM core microcontroller, motor driver circuits, a motion control unit, pyranometer, GPS receiver, and an anemometer. The real-time control algorithm enables the solar tracker to operate automatically without external control as a stand-alone system, combining the advantages of the open-loop and the closed-loop control methods. The pyranometer is employed to continuously send radiation data to the controller if the measured radiation is above the lower radiation limit the photovoltaic panel can generate power, guaranteeing the solar tracking process to be highly efficient. The anemometer is utilized in the system to ensure that the solar tracking procedure halts under high wind speed conditions to protect the entire system. Latitude, longitude, altitude, date, and real-time clock data are provided by GPS receiver. The algorithm calculates solar time using astronomical equations with GPS data and converts it to pulse-width modulated motor control signal. The overall objective of this study is to develop a control algorithm that improves performance and reliability of the two-axis solar tracker, focusing on optimization of the controller board, drive hardware, and software.

  12. High Precision Control of Ship-Mounted Satellite Tracking Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohsen, Soltani; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2007-01-01

    The telecommunication on a modern merchandise ship is maintained by means of satellite communication. The task of the tracking system is to position the on-board antenna toward a chosen satellite. The control system is capable of rejecting the external disturbances which affect on the under...

  13. Hydraulic actuators for flexible robots : a flatness based approach for tracking and vibration control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wey, T.; Lemmen, M.; Bernzen, W.; Wey, T.

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with an application of the differential algebraic flatness approach to hydraulic drives. Here, an elastic robot arm driven by a differential cylinder is investigated. The task is to design a suitable control law which not only tracks a given trajectory but also allows the damping of

  14. Stabilization and tracking controller for a class of nonlinear discrete-time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.B.; Kar, I.N.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We present recursive design of stabilizing controller for nonlinear discrete-time systems. → Problem of stabilizing and tracking control of single link manipulator system is addressed. → We extend the proposed results to output tracking problems. → The proposed methodology is applied satisfactorily to discrete-time chaotic maps. - Abstract: In this paper, stabilization and tracking control problem for parametric strict feedback class of discrete time systems is addressed. Recursive design of control function based on contraction theory framework is proposed instead of traditional Lyapunov based method. Explicit structure of controller is derived for the addressed class of nonlinear discrete-time systems. Conditions for exponential stability of system states are derived in terms of controller parameters. At each stage of recursive procedure a specific structure of Jacobian matrix is ensured so as to satisfy conditions of stability. The closed loop dynamics in this case remains nonlinear in nature. The proposed algorithm establishes global stability results in quite a simple manner as it does not require formulation of error dynamics. Problem of stabilization and output tracking control in case of single link manipulator system with actuator dynamics is analyzed using the proposed strategy. The proposed results are further extended to stabilization of discrete time chaotic systems. Numerical simulations presented in the end show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  15. Adaptive Tracking Control of an Electro-Pneumatic Clutch Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn-Ole Kaasa

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the application of a simple adaptive algorithm for robust tracking control of an electro-pneumatic clutch actuator with output feedback. We present a mathematical model of the strongly nonlinear system, and implement an adaptive algorithm, based on a parallel feedforward compensator (PFC to remove the relative-degree-1 restriction. We propose a practical method of constructing the PFC, and introduce a simple modification that removes an inherent restriction on bandwidth of the nonlinear system. We show that the adaptive algorithm deals well with nonlinearities, and we achieve tracking corresponding to a settling-time of 150 ms.

  16. Maneuver Planning for Conjunction Risk Mitigation with Ground-track Control Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, David

    2008-01-01

    The planning of conjunction Risk Mitigation Maneuvers (RMM) in the presence of ground-track control requirements is analyzed. Past RMM planning efforts on the Aqua, Aura, and Terra spacecraft have demonstrated that only small maneuvers are available when ground-track control requirements are maintained. Assuming small maneuvers, analytical expressions for the effect of a given maneuver on conjunction geometry are derived. The analytical expressions are used to generate a large trade space for initial RMM design. This trade space represents a significant improvement in initial maneuver planning over existing methods that employ high fidelity maneuver models and propagation.

  17. Combined Optimal Sizing and Control for a Hybrid Tracked Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei Peng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The optimal sizing and control of a hybrid tracked vehicle is presented and solved in this paper. A driving schedule obtained from field tests is used to represent typical tracked vehicle operations. Dynamics of the diesel engine-permanent magnetic AC synchronous generator set, the lithium-ion battery pack, and the power split between them are modeled and validated through experiments. Two coupled optimizations, one for the plant parameters, forming the outer optimization loop and one for the control strategy, forming the inner optimization loop, are used to achieve minimum fuel consumption under the selected driving schedule. The dynamic programming technique is applied to find the optimal controller in the inner loop while the component parameters are optimized iteratively in the outer loop. The results are analyzed, and the relationship between the key parameters is observed to keep the optimal sizing and control simultaneously.

  18. Ares I Flight Control System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jiann-Woei; Alaniz, Abran; Hall, Robert; Bedrossian, Nazareth; Hall, Charles; Ryan, Stephen; Jackson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Ares I launch vehicle represents a challenging flex-body structural environment for flight control system design. This paper presents a design methodology for employing numerical optimization to develop the Ares I flight control system. The design objectives include attitude tracking accuracy and robust stability with respect to rigid body dynamics, propellant slosh, and flex. Under the assumption that the Ares I time-varying dynamics and control system can be frozen over a short period of time, the flight controllers are designed to stabilize all selected frozen-time launch control systems in the presence of parametric uncertainty. Flex filters in the flight control system are designed to minimize the flex components in the error signals before they are sent to the attitude controller. To ensure adequate response to guidance command, step response specifications are introduced as constraints in the optimization problem. Imposing these constraints minimizes performance degradation caused by the addition of the flex filters. The first stage bending filter design achieves stability by adding lag to the first structural frequency to phase stabilize the first flex mode while gain stabilizing the higher modes. The upper stage bending filter design gain stabilizes all the flex bending modes. The flight control system designs provided here have been demonstrated to provide stable first and second stage control systems in both Draper Ares Stability Analysis Tool (ASAT) and the MSFC 6DOF nonlinear time domain simulation.

  19. Robust Model Predictive Control Schemes for Tracking Setpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Trieu Minh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly reviews the development of nontracking robust model predictive control (RMPC schemes for uncertain systems using linear matrix inequalities (LMIs subject to input saturated and softened state constraints. Then we develop two new tracking setpoint RMPC schemes with common Lyapunov function and with zero terminal equality subject to input saturated and softened state constraints. The novel tracking setpoint RMPC schemes are able to stabilize uncertain systems once the output setpoints lead to the violation of the state constraints. The state violation can be regulated by changing the value of the weighting factor. A brief comparative simulation study of the two tracking setpoint RMPC schemes is done via simple examples to demonstrate the ability of the softened state constraint schemes. Finally, some features of future research from this study are discussed.

  20. A Generic Model Based Tracking Controller for Hydraulic Valve-Cylinder Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Schmidt, Lasse; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen

    2016-01-01

    in the entire range of operation, rather than reducing stationary errors, and may be parameterized from the desired gain margin, as well as linear model parameters. The proposed control design approaches are evaluated in an experimentally validated, nonlinear simulation model of a hydraulic valve-cylinder drive......The control of hydraulic valve-cylinder drives is still an active subject of research, and various linear and particularly nonlinear approaches has been proposed, especially in the last two-three decades. In many cases the proposed controllers appear to produce excellent tracking ability due...... generally has failed to break through in industry. This paper discusses the dominant properties necessary to take into account when considering position tracking control of hydraulic valve-cylinder drives, and presents two generally applicable, generic control design approaches that combines non...

  1. Quadrotor Trajectory Tracking Based on Quasi-LPV System and Internal Model Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZeFang He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal model control (IMC design method based on quasi-LPV (Linear Parameter Varying system is proposed. In this method, the nonlinear model is firstly transformed to the linear model based on quasi-LPV method; then, the quadrotor nonlinear motion function is transformed to transfer function matrix based on the transformation model from the state space to the transfer function; further, IMC is designed to control the controlled object represented by transfer function matrix and realize quadrotor trajectory tracking. The performance of the controller proposed in this paper is tested by tracking for three reference trajectories with drastic changes. The simulation results indicate that the control method proposed in this paper has stronger robustness to parameters uncertainty and disturbance rejection performance.

  2. Approximation-Based Discrete-Time Adaptive Position Tracking Control for Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jinpeng; Shi, Peng; Yu, Haisheng; Chen, Bing; Lin, Chong

    2015-07-01

    This paper considers the problem of discrete-time adaptive position tracking control for a interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) based on fuzzy-approximation. Fuzzy logic systems are used to approximate the nonlinearities of the discrete-time IPMSM drive system which is derived by direct discretization using Euler method, and a discrete-time fuzzy position tracking controller is designed via backstepping approach. In contrast to existing results, the advantage of the scheme is that the number of the adjustable parameters is reduced to two only and the problem of coupling nonlinearity can be overcome. It is shown that the proposed discrete-time fuzzy controller can guarantee the tracking error converges to a small neighborhood of the origin and all the signals are bounded. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness and the potentials of the theoretic results obtained.

  3. A guidance and control algorithm for scent tracking micro-robotic vehicle swarms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohner, J.L.

    1998-03-01

    Cooperative micro-robotic scent tracking vehicles are designed to collectively sniff out locations of high scent concentrations in unknown, geometrically complex environments. These vehicles are programmed with guidance and control algorithms that allow inter cooperation among vehicles. In this paper a cooperative guidance and control algorithm for scent tracking micro-robotic vehicles is presented. This algorithm is comprised of a sensory compensation sub-algorithm using point source cancellation, a guidance sub-algorithm using gradient descent tracking, and a control sub-algorithm using proportional feedback. The concepts of social rank and point source cancellation are new concepts introduced within. Simulation results for cooperative vehicles swarms are given. Limitations are discussed

  4. A maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic-SPE system using a maximum current controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhida, Riza [Osaka Univ., Dept. of Physical Science, Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan); Osaka Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Park, Minwon; Dakkak, Mohammed; Matsuura, Kenji [Osaka Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Tsuyoshi, Akira; Michira, Masakazu [Kobe City College of Technology, Nishi-ku, Kobe (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    Processes to produce hydrogen from solar photovoltaic (PV)-powered water electrolysis using solid polymer electrolysis (SPE) are reported. An alternative control of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) in the PV-SPE system based on the maximum current searching methods has been designed and implemented. Based on the characteristics of voltage-current and theoretical analysis of SPE, it can be shown that the tracking of the maximum current output of DC-DC converter in SPE side will track the MPPT of photovoltaic panel simultaneously. This method uses a proportional integrator controller to control the duty factor of DC-DC converter with pulse-width modulator (PWM). The MPPT performance and hydrogen production performance of this method have been evaluated and discussed based on the results of the experiment. (Author)

  5. A guidance and control algorithm for scent tracking micro-robotic vehicle swarms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohner, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Structural Dynamics Dept.

    1998-03-01

    Cooperative micro-robotic scent tracking vehicles are designed to collectively sniff out locations of high scent concentrations in unknown, geometrically complex environments. These vehicles are programmed with guidance and control algorithms that allow inter cooperation among vehicles. In this paper a cooperative guidance and control algorithm for scent tracking micro-robotic vehicles is presented. This algorithm is comprised of a sensory compensation sub-algorithm using point source cancellation, a guidance sub-algorithm using gradient descent tracking, and a control sub-algorithm using proportional feedback. The concepts of social rank and point source cancellation are new concepts introduced within. Simulation results for cooperative vehicles swarms are given. Limitations are discussed.

  6. Approximate optimal tracking control for near-surface AUVs with wave disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing; Su, Hao; Tang, Gongyou

    2016-10-01

    This paper considers the optimal trajectory tracking control problem for near-surface autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) in the presence of wave disturbances. An approximate optimal tracking control (AOTC) approach is proposed. Firstly, a six-degrees-of-freedom (six-DOF) AUV model with its body-fixed coordinate system is decoupled and simplified and then a nonlinear control model of AUVs in the vertical plane is given. Also, an exosystem model of wave disturbances is constructed based on Hirom approximation formula. Secondly, the time-parameterized desired trajectory which is tracked by the AUV's system is represented by the exosystem. Then, the coupled two-point boundary value (TPBV) problem of optimal tracking control for AUVs is derived from the theory of quadratic optimal control. By using a recently developed successive approximation approach to construct sequences, the coupled TPBV problem is transformed into a problem of solving two decoupled linear differential sequences of state vectors and adjoint vectors. By iteratively solving the two equation sequences, the AOTC law is obtained, which consists of a nonlinear optimal feedback item, an expected output tracking item, a feedforward disturbances rejection item, and a nonlinear compensatory term. Furthermore, a wave disturbances observer model is designed in order to solve the physically realizable problem. Simulation is carried out by using the Remote Environmental Unit (REMUS) AUV model to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  7. Selection of References in Wind Turbine Model Predictive Control Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Hovgaard, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    a model predictive controller for a wind turbine. One of the important aspects for a tracking control problem is how to setup the optimal reference tracking problem, as it might be relevant to track, e.g., the three concurrent references: optimal pitch angle, optimal rotational speed, and optimal power......Lowering the cost of energy is one of the major focus areas in the wind turbine industry. Recent research has indicated that wind turbine controllers based on model predictive control methods can be useful in obtaining this objective. A number of design considerations have to be made when designing....... The importance if the individual references differ depending in particular on the wind speed. In this paper we investigate the performance of a reference tracking model predictive controller with two different setups of the used optimal reference signals. The controllers are evaluated using an industrial high...

  8. High-speed tracking control of piezoelectric actuators using an ellipse-based hysteresis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Guoying; Zhu, Limin

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, an ellipse-based mathematic model is developed to characterize the rate-dependent hysteresis in piezoelectric actuators. Based on the proposed model, an expanded input space is constructed to describe the multivalued hysteresis function H[u](t) by a multiple input single output (MISO) mapping Gamma:R(2)-->R. Subsequently, the inverse MISO mapping Gamma(-1)(H[u](t),H[u](t);u(t)) is proposed for real-time hysteresis compensation. In controller design, a hybrid control strategy combining a model-based feedforward controller and a proportional integral differential (PID) feedback loop is used for high-accuracy and high-speed tracking control of piezoelectric actuators. The real-time feedforward controller is developed to cancel the rate-dependent hysteresis based on the inverse hysteresis model, while the PID controller is used to compensate for the creep, modeling errors, and parameter uncertainties. Finally, experiments with and without hysteresis compensation are conducted and the experimental results are compared. The experimental results show that the hysteresis compensation in the feedforward path can reduce the hysteresis-caused error by up to 88% and the tracking performance of the hybrid controller is greatly improved in high-speed tracking control applications, e.g., the root-mean-square tracking error is reduced to only 0.34% of the displacement range under the input frequency of 100 Hz.

  9. Tracking control of WMRs on loose soil based on mixed H2/H∞ control with longitudinal slip ratio estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Haibo; Chen, Chao; Ding, Liang; Li, Weihua; Yu, Haitao; Xia, Kerui; Liu, Zhen

    2017-11-01

    Wheeled mobile robots (WMRs) often suffer from the longitudinal slipping when moving on the loose soil of the surface of the moon during exploration. Longitudinal slip is the main cause of WMRs' delay in trajectory tracking. In this paper, a nonlinear extended state observer (NESO) is introduced to estimate the longitudinal velocity in order to estimate the slip ratio and the derivative of the loss of velocity which are used in modelled disturbance compensation. Owing to the uncertainty and disturbance caused by estimation errors, a multi-objective controller using the mixed H2/H∞ method is employed to ensure the robust stability and performance of the WMR system. The final inputs of the trajectory tracking consist of the feedforward compensation, compensation for the modelled disturbances and designed multi-objective control inputs. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the controller, which exhibits a satisfactory tracking performance.

  10. Globally Stable Adaptive Backstepping Neural Network Control for Uncertain Strict-Feedback Systems With Tracking Accuracy Known a Priori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weisheng; Ge, Shuzhi Sam; Wu, Jian; Gong, Maoguo

    2015-09-01

    This paper addresses the problem of globally stable direct adaptive backstepping neural network (NN) tracking control design for a class of uncertain strict-feedback systems under the assumption that the accuracy of the ultimate tracking error is given a priori. In contrast to the classical adaptive backstepping NN control schemes, this paper analyzes the convergence of the tracking error using Barbalat's Lemma via some nonnegative functions rather than the positive-definite Lyapunov functions. Thus, the accuracy of the ultimate tracking error can be determined and adjusted accurately a priori, and the closed-loop system is guaranteed to be globally uniformly ultimately bounded. The main technical novelty is to construct three new n th-order continuously differentiable functions, which are used to design the control law, the virtual control variables, and the adaptive laws. Finally, two simulation examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed control method.

  11. Tracking control of time-varying knee exoskeleton disturbed by interaction torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhan; Ma, Wenhao; Yin, Ziguang; Guo, Hongliang

    2017-11-01

    Knee exoskeletons have been increasingly applied as assistive devices to help lower-extremity impaired people to make their knee joints move through providing external movement compensation. Tracking control of knee exoskeletons guided by human intentions often encounters time-varying (time-dependent) issues and the disturbance interaction torque, which may dramatically put an influence up on their dynamic behaviors. Inertial and viscous parameters of knee exoskeletons can be estimated to be time-varying due to unexpected mechanical vibrations and contact interactions. Moreover, the interaction torque produced from knee joint of wearers has an evident disturbance effect on regular motions of knee exoskeleton. All of these points can increase difficultly of accurate control of knee exoskeletons to follow desired joint angle trajectories. This paper proposes a novel control strategy for controlling knee exoskeleton with time-varying inertial and viscous coefficients disturbed by interaction torque. Such designed controller is able to make the tracking error of joint angle of knee exoskeletons exponentially converge to zero. Meanwhile, the proposed approach is robust to guarantee the tracking error bounded when the interaction torque exists. Illustrative simulation and experiment results are presented to show efficiency of the proposed controller. Additionally, comparisons with gradient dynamic (GD) approach and other methods are also presented to demonstrate efficiency and superiority of the proposed control strategy for tracking joint angle of knee exoskeleton. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. L1 Adaptive Speed Control of a Small Wind Energy Conversion System for Maximum Power Point Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design of an L1 adaptive controller for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of a small variable speed Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS). The proposed controller generates the optimal torque command for the vector controlled generator side converter (GSC) based on the wi......) is used to carry out case studies using Matlab/Simulink. The case study results show that the designed L1 adaptive controller has good tracking performance even with unmodeled dynamics and in the presence of parameter uncertainties and unknown disturbances.......This paper presents the design of an L1 adaptive controller for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of a small variable speed Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS). The proposed controller generates the optimal torque command for the vector controlled generator side converter (GSC) based on the wind...

  13. High-bandwidth and flexible tracking control for precision motion with application to a piezo nanopositioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhao; Ling, Jie; Ming, Min; Xiao, Xiao-Hui

    2017-08-01

    For precision motion, high-bandwidth and flexible tracking are the two important issues for significant performance improvement. Iterative learning control (ILC) is an effective feedforward control method only for systems that operate strictly repetitively. Although projection ILC can track varying references, the performance is still limited by the fixed-bandwidth Q-filter, especially for triangular waves tracking commonly used in a piezo nanopositioner. In this paper, a wavelet transform-based linear time-varying (LTV) Q-filter design for projection ILC is proposed to compensate high-frequency errors and improve the ability to tracking varying references simultaneously. The LVT Q-filter is designed based on the modulus maximum of wavelet detail coefficients calculated by wavelet transform to determine the high-frequency locations of each iteration with the advantages of avoiding cross-terms and segmenting manually. The proposed approach was verified on a piezo nanopositioner. Experimental results indicate that the proposed approach can locate the high-frequency regions accurately and achieve the best performance under varying references compared with traditional frequency-domain and projection ILC with a fixed-bandwidth Q-filter, which validates that through implementing the LTV filter on projection ILC, high-bandwidth and flexible tracking can be achieved simultaneously by the proposed approach.

  14. Rate control and quality assurance during rhythmic force tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Ya; Su, Jyong-Huei; Hwang, Ing-Shiou

    2014-02-01

    Movement characteristics can be coded in the single neurons or in the summed activity of neural populations. However, whether neural oscillations are conditional to the frequency demand and task quality of rhythmic force regulation is still unclear. This study was undertaken to investigate EEG dynamics and behavior correlates during force-tracking at different target rates. Fourteen healthy volunteers conducted load-varying isometric abduction of the index finger by coupling the force output to sinusoidal targets at 0.5 Hz, 1.0 Hz, and 2.0 Hz. Our results showed that frequency demand significantly affected EEG delta oscillation (1-4 Hz) in the C3, CP3, CPz, and CP4 electrodes, with the greatest delta power and lowest delta peak around 1.5 Hz for slower tracking at 0.5 Hz. Those who had superior tracking congruency also manifested enhanced alpha oscillation (8-12 Hz). Alpha rhythms of the skilled performers during slow tracking spread through the whole target cycle, except for the phase of direction changes. However, the alpha rhythms centered at the mid phase of a target cycle with increasing target rate. In conclusion, our findings clearly suggest two advanced roles of cortical oscillation in rhythmic force regulation. Rate-dependent delta oscillation involves a paradigm shift in force control under different time scales. Phasic organization of alpha rhythms during rhythmic force tracking is related to behavioral success underlying the selective use of bimodal controls (feedback and feedforward processes) and the timing of attentional focus on the target's peak velocity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Adaptive Jacobian Fuzzy Attitude Control for Flexible Spacecraft Combined Attitude and Sun Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chak, Yew-Chung; Varatharajoo, Renuganth

    2016-07-01

    Many spacecraft attitude control systems today use reaction wheels to deliver precise torques to achieve three-axis attitude stabilization. However, irrecoverable mechanical failure of reaction wheels could potentially lead to mission interruption or total loss. The electrically-powered Solar Array Drive Assemblies (SADA) are usually installed in the pitch axis which rotate the solar arrays to track the Sun, can produce torques to compensate for the pitch-axis wheel failure. In addition, the attitude control of a flexible spacecraft poses a difficult problem. These difficulties include the strong nonlinear coupled dynamics between the rigid hub and flexible solar arrays, and the imprecisely known system parameters, such as inertia matrix, damping ratios, and flexible mode frequencies. In order to overcome these drawbacks, the adaptive Jacobian tracking fuzzy control is proposed for the combined attitude and sun-tracking control problem of a flexible spacecraft during attitude maneuvers in this work. For the adaptation of kinematic and dynamic uncertainties, the proposed scheme uses an adaptive sliding vector based on estimated attitude velocity via approximate Jacobian matrix. The unknown nonlinearities are approximated by deriving the fuzzy models with a set of linguistic If-Then rules using the idea of sector nonlinearity and local approximation in fuzzy partition spaces. The uncertain parameters of the estimated nonlinearities and the Jacobian matrix are being adjusted online by an adaptive law to realize feedback control. The attitude of the spacecraft can be directly controlled with the Jacobian feedback control when the attitude pointing trajectory is designed with respect to the spacecraft coordinate frame itself. A significant feature of this work is that the proposed adaptive Jacobian tracking scheme will result in not only the convergence of angular position and angular velocity tracking errors, but also the convergence of estimated angular velocity to

  16. Designs and Algorithms to Map Eye Tracking Data with Dynamic Multielement Moving Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziho Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Design concepts and algorithms were developed to address the eye tracking analysis issues that arise when (1 participants interrogate dynamic multielement objects that can overlap on the display and (2 visual angle error of the eye trackers is incapable of providing exact eye fixation coordinates. These issues were addressed by (1 developing dynamic areas of interests (AOIs in the form of either convex or rectangular shapes to represent the moving and shape-changing multielement objects, (2 introducing the concept of AOI gap tolerance (AGT that controls the size of the AOIs to address the overlapping and visual angle error issues, and (3 finding a near optimal AGT value. The approach was tested in the context of air traffic control (ATC operations where air traffic controller specialists (ATCSs interrogated multiple moving aircraft on a radar display to detect and control the aircraft for the purpose of maintaining safe and expeditious air transportation. In addition, we show how eye tracking analysis results can differ based on how we define dynamic AOIs to determine eye fixations on moving objects. The results serve as a framework to more accurately analyze eye tracking data and to better support the analysis of human performance.

  17. Controlled neural network application in track-match problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baginyan, S.A.; Ososkov, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Track-match problem of high energy physics (HEP) data handling is formulated in terms of incidence matrices. The corresponding Hopfield neural network is developed to solve this type of constraint satisfaction problems (CSP). A special concept of the controlled neural network is proposed as a basis of an algorithm for the effective CSP solution. Results of comparable calculations show the very high performance of this algorithm against conventional search procedures. 8 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  18. Design of General SCP Servo Controller for Track Model CNC Cutting Machine Based on IPC Bus%基于工控机总线的单片机通用数控伺服控制器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周永鹏; 何顶新; 万淑芸

    2001-01-01

    为解决工控机结构的轨道式切割机数控系统与交流伺服和步进电机驱动系统的联结与精插补控制问题,提出一种基于IPC的80C196KC单片机控制系统,使系统的可靠性得到有效保证。%A control system based on 80C196KC single chip computer of IPC is proposed,the reliability of the system can be guaranteed validly.It can be used for solving couple problem between the track model CNC cutting machine based on a IPC and AC servo or stepping driving as well as elaborate interpolation control problem.

  19. Gravity Probe-B (GP-B) Mission and Tracking, Telemetry and Control Subsystem Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Paul; Bell, Joseph L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama will launch the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) space experiment in the Fall of 2002. The GP-B spacecraft was developed to prove Einstein's theory of General Relativity. This paper will provide an overview of the GPB mission and will discuss the design, and test of the spacecraft Tracking, Telemetry and Control (TT&C) subsystem which incorporates NASA's latest generation standard transponder for use with the NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS).

  20. Optimal Design of a Novel Hybrid Electric Powertrain for Tracked Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaobo Qin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tracked vehicles have been widely used in construction, agriculture, and the military. Major problems facing the industry, however, are high emissions and fuel consumption. Hybrid electric tracked vehicles have thus become increasingly popular because of their improved fuel economy and reduced emissions. While the series hybrid system has drawn the most attention and has been applied in most cases, the low efficiency caused by energy conversion losses and large propulsion motors has limited its development. A novel multi-mode powertrain with two output shafts controlling each side of the track independently is first proposed. The powertrain is a three-planetary-gear power-split system with one engine, three motors, and an ultracapacitor pack. Compared with the existing technologies, the proposed powertrain can realize skid steering without an extra steering mechanism, and significantly improve the overall efficiency. To demonstrate the advantages of the novel powertrain, a topology-control-size integrated optimization problem is solved based on drivability, fuel economy, and cost. Final simulation results show that the optimized design with downsized components can produce about a 30% improvement in drivability and a 15% improvement in fuel economy compared with the commonly used series hybrid benchmark. Moreover, the optimized design is verified to be much more economical taking cumulative cost into account, which is very attractive for potential industrial applications in the future.

  1. Nonlinear control of ships minimizing the position tracking errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svein P. Berge

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a nonlinear tracking controller with integral action for ships is presented. The controller is based on state feedback linearization. Exponential convergence of the vessel-fixed position and velocity errors are proven by using Lyapunov stability theory. Since we only have two control devices, a rudder and a propeller, we choose to control the longship and the sideship position errors to zero while the heading is stabilized indirectly. A Virtual Reference Point (VRP is defined at the bow or ahead of the ship. The VRP is used for tracking control. It is shown that the distance from the center of rotation to the VRP will influence on the stability of the zero dynamics. By selecting the VRP at the bow or even ahead of the bow, the damping in yaw can be increased and the zero dynamics is stabilized. Hence, the heading angle will be less sensitive to wind, currents and waves. The control law is simulated by using a nonlinear model of the Japanese training ship Shiojimaru with excellent results. Wind forces are added to demonstrate the robustness and performance of the integral controller.

  2. Experimentally supported control design for a direct drive robot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostic, D.; Jager, de A.G.; Steinbuch, M.

    2002-01-01

    We promote the idea of an experimentally supported control design as a successful way to achieve accurate tracking of reference robot motions, under disturbance conditions and given the uncertainties arising from modeling errors. The Hinf robust control theory is used for design of motion

  3. Multivariable Super Twisting Based Robust Trajectory Tracking Control for Small Unmanned Helicopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Fang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a highly robust trajectory tracking controller for small unmanned helicopter with model uncertainties and external disturbances. First, a simplified dynamic model is developed, where the model uncertainties and external disturbances are treated as compounded disturbances. Then the system is divided into three interconnected subsystems: altitude subsystem, yaw subsystem, and horizontal subsystem. Second, a disturbance observer based controller (DOBC is designed based upon backstepping and multivariable super twisting control algorithm to obtain robust trajectory tracking property. A sliding mode observer works as an estimator of the compounded disturbances. In order to lessen calculative burden, a first-order exact differentiator is employed to estimate the time derivative of the virtual control. Moreover, proof of the stability of the closed-loop system based on Lyapunov method is given. Finally, simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed flight control scheme.

  4. Tracking performance and global stability guaranteed neural control of uncertain hypersonic flight vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Teng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a global adaptive neural dynamic surface control with predefined tracking performance is developed for a class of hypersonic flight vehicles, whose accurate dynamics is hard to obtain. The control scheme developed in this paper overcomes the limitations of neural approximation region by employing a switching mechanism which incorporates an additional robust controller outside the neural approximation region to pull the transient state variables back when they overstep the neural approximation region, such that globally uniformly ultimately bounded stability can be guaranteed. Especially, the developed global adaptive neural control also improves the tracking performance by introducing an error transformation mechanism, such that both transient and steady-state performance can be shaped according to the predefined bounds. Simulation studies on the hypersonic flight vehicle validate that the designed controller has good velocity modulation and velocity stability performance.

  5. A model predictive speed tracking control approach for autonomous ground vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Chen, Huiyan; Xiong, Guangming

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a novel speed tracking control approach based on a model predictive control (MPC) framework for autonomous ground vehicles. A switching algorithm without calibration is proposed to determine the drive or brake control. Combined with a simple inverse longitudinal vehicle model and adaptive regulation of MPC, this algorithm can make use of the engine brake torque for various driving conditions and avoid high frequency oscillations automatically. A simplified quadratic program (QP) solving algorithm is used to reduce the computational time, and the approach has been applied in a 16-bit microcontroller. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated via simulations and vehicle tests, which were carried out in a range of speed-profile tracking tasks. With a well-designed system structure, high-precision speed control is achieved. The system can robustly model uncertainty and external disturbances, and yields a faster response with less overshoot than a PI controller.

  6. Design of automatic tracking system for electron beam welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Chengdan; Chinese Academy of Space Technology, Lanzhou; Li Heqi; Li Chunxu; Ying Lei; Luo Yan

    2004-01-01

    The design and experimental process of an automatic tracking system applied to local vacuum electron beam welding are dealt with in this paper. When the annular parts of an exactitude apparatus were welded, the centre of rotation of the electron gun and the centre of the annular weld are usually not superposed because of the machining error, workpiece's setting error and so on. In this teaching process, a little bundle of electron beam is used to scan the weld groove, the amount of the secondary electrons reflected from the workpiece is different when the electron beam scans the both sides and the centre of the weld groove. The difference can indicate the position of the weld and then a computer will record the deviation between the electron beam spot and the centre of the weld groove. The computer will analyze the data and put the data into the storage software. During the welding process, the computer will modify the position of the electron gun based on the deviation to make the electron beam spot centered on the annular weld groove. (authors)

  7. Sinusoidal visuomotor tracking: intermittent servo-control or coupled oscillations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, D M; Sternad, D

    2001-12-01

    In visuomotor tasks that involve accuracy demands, small directional changes in the trajectories have been taken as evidence of feedback-based error corrections. In the present study variability, or intermittency, in visuomanual tracking of sinusoidal targets was investigated. Two lines of analyses were pursued: First, the hypothesis that humans fundamentally act as intermittent servo-controllers was re-examined, probing the question of whether discontinuities in the movement trajectory directly imply intermittent control. Second, an alternative hypothesis was evaluated: that rhythmic tracking movements are generated by entrainment between the oscillations of the target and the actor, such that intermittency expresses the degree of stability. In 2 experiments, participants (N = 6 in each experiment) swung 1 of 2 different hand-held pendulums, tracking a rhythmic target that oscillated at different frequencies with a constant amplitude. In 1 line of analyses, the authors tested the intermittency hypothesis by using the typical kinematic error measures and spectral analysis. In a 2nd line, they examined relative phase and its variability, following analyses of rhythmic interlimb coordination. The results showed that visually guided corrective processes play a role, especially for slow movements. Intermittency, assessed as frequency and power components of the movement trajectory, was found to change as a function of both target frequency and the manipulandum's inertia. Support for entrainment was found in conditions in which task frequency was identical to or higher than the effector's eigenfrequency. The results suggest that it is the symmetry between task and effector that determines which behavioral regime is dominant.

  8. Controller design for interval plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sunni, F.M.

    2003-01-01

    We make use of celebrated Kharitoniv theorem to come up with a design procedure for the stabilization of uncertain systems in the parameters using low order controllers. The proposed design is based on classical design methods. A Non-linear programming (NLP) approach for the design of higher order controllers is also presented. We present our results and give illustrating examples. (author)

  9. An adaptive vibration control method to suppress the vibration of the maglev train caused by track irregularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Danfeng; Yu, Peichang; Wang, Lianchun; Li, Jie

    2017-11-01

    The levitation gap of the urban maglev train is around 8 mm, which puts a rather high requirement on the smoothness of the track. In practice, it is found that the track irregularity may cause stability problems when the maglev train is traveling. In this paper, the dynamic response of the levitation module, which is the basic levitation structure of the urban maglev train, is investigated in the presence of track irregularities. Analyses show that due to the structural configuration of the levitation module, the vibration of the levitation gap may be amplified and "resonances" may be observed under some specified track wavelengths and train speeds; besides, it is found that the gap vibration of the rear levitation unit in a levitation module is more significant than that of the front levitation unit, which agrees well with practice. To suppress the vibration of the rear levitation gap, an adaptive vibration control method is proposed, which utilizes the information of the front levitation unit as a reference. A pair of mirror FIR (finite impulse response) filters are designed and tuned by an adaptive mechanism, and they produce a compensation signal for the rear levitation controller to cancel the disturbance brought by the track irregularity. Simulations under some typical track conditions, including the sinusoidal track profile, random track irregularity, as well as track steps, indicate that the adaptive vibration control scheme can significantly reduce the amplitude of the rear gap vibration, which provides a method to improve the stability and ride comfort of the maglev train.

  10. Index Tracking with Control on the Number of Assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Riegel Sant'Anna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Index tracking is a passive investment strategy, which aims at generating portfolios to reproduce a specific market index’s performance. This article proposes a model for a index tracking problem with control on the number of assets in the portfolio, which corresponds to a restriction in transaction costs. The model is applied to Ibovespa (sample: 67 stocks from January/2009 to July/2012. Portfolios were formed without limiting the amount of stocks and limiting this amount to 40, 30 and 20 stocks, with rebalancing periods of 20, 40 and 60 trading days. The results were satisfactory especially for the 60 days rebalancing period, in which transaction costs become lower due to the longer rebalancing period. We also verified that changes in Cplex parameters didn’t influence the results especially in relation to the computational times. Therefore, we also conclude about the need of using heuristic approaches to form portfolios with smaller amounts of assets.

  11. Maximum Power Point Tracking Based on Sliding Mode Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimrod Vázquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar panels, which have become a good choice, are used to generate and supply electricity in commercial and residential applications. This generated power starts with the solar cells, which have a complex relationship between solar irradiation, temperature, and output power. For this reason a tracking of the maximum power point is required. Traditionally, this has been made by considering just current and voltage conditions at the photovoltaic panel; however, temperature also influences the process. In this paper the voltage, current, and temperature in the PV system are considered to be a part of a sliding surface for the proposed maximum power point tracking; this means a sliding mode controller is applied. Obtained results gave a good dynamic response, as a difference from traditional schemes, which are only based on computational algorithms. A traditional algorithm based on MPPT was added in order to assure a low steady state error.

  12. Novel high accurate sensorless dual-axis solar tracking system controlled by maximum power point tracking unit of photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathabadi, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel high accurate sensorless dual-axis solar tracker. • It has the advantages of both sensor based and sensorless solar trackers. • It does not have the disadvantages of sensor based and sensorless solar trackers. • Tracking error of only 0.11° that is less than the tracking errors of others. • An increase of 28.8–43.6% depending on the seasons in the energy efficiency. - Abstract: In this study, a novel high accurate sensorless dual-axis solar tracker controlled by the maximum power point tracking unit available in almost all photovoltaic systems is proposed. The maximum power point tracking controller continuously calculates the maximum output power of the photovoltaic module/panel/array, and uses the altitude and azimuth angles deviations to track the sun direction where the greatest value of the maximum output power is extracted. Unlike all other sensorless solar trackers, the proposed solar tracking system is a closed loop system which means it uses the actual direction of the sun at any time to track the sun direction, and this is the contribution of this work. The proposed solar tracker has the advantages of both sensor based and sensorless dual-axis solar trackers, but it does not have their disadvantages. Other sensorless solar trackers all are open loop, i.e., they use offline estimated data about the sun path in the sky obtained from solar map equations, so low exactness, cloudy sky, and requiring new data for new location are their problems. A photovoltaic system has been built, and it is experimentally verified that the proposed solar tracking system tracks the sun direction with the tracking error of 0.11° which is less than the tracking errors of other both sensor based and sensorless solar trackers. An increase of 28.8–43.6% depending on the seasons in the energy efficiency is the main advantage of utilizing the proposed solar tracking system.

  13. Real-time Non-linear Target Tracking Control of Wheeled Mobile Robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Wenyong

    2006-01-01

    A control strategy for real-time target tracking for wheeled mobile robots is presented. Using a modified Kalman filter for environment perception, a novel tracking control law derived from Lyapunov stability theory is introduced. Tuning of linear velocity and angular velocity with mechanical constraints is applied. The proposed control system can simultaneously solve the target trajectory prediction, real-time tracking, and posture regulation problems of a wheeled mobile robot. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed tracking control laws.

  14. TRACKING CONTROL FOR A HYDRAULIC DRIVE WITH A PRESSURE COMPENSATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Aranovskiy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A problem of tracking control is considered for a hydraulic drive with a pressure compensator that is widespread in the equipment of heavy-duty machines. Method. The control problem is solved by means of a switching sliding-mode controller coupled with static nonlinear compensation and desired velocity feedforward. Main Results. Mathematical model of a hydraulic drive is given in view of the pressure compensator presence. Traditional model of a hydraulic drive is formulated for a system with a spool valve; purpose and principles of operation of the pressure compensator in hydraulic systems are described, and the extended model is presented illustrating compensator contribution to overall system dynamics. It is shown that the obtained model has an input static nonlinearity; the nonlinearity cancellation method is proposed giving the possibility for injection of a desired velocity feedforward term. The control law is chosen as a switching one and two chattering attenuation methods are studied: equivalent control estimation via filtering and sign function integration. Experimental studies are performed at a forestry hydraulic crane prototype and illustrate high tracking accuracy achieved for typical crane motions. Practical Significance. The results are suitable for heavy-duty hydraulic machines automation in construction, road building and forestry.

  15. Integrated direct/indirect adaptive robust motion trajectory tracking control of pneumatic cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Deyuan; Tao, Guoliang; Zhu, Xiaocong

    2013-09-01

    This paper studies the precision motion trajectory tracking control of a pneumatic cylinder driven by a proportional-directional control valve. An integrated direct/indirect adaptive robust controller is proposed. The controller employs a physical model based indirect-type parameter estimation to obtain reliable estimates of unknown model parameters, and utilises a robust control method with dynamic compensation type fast adaptation to attenuate the effects of parameter estimation errors, unmodelled dynamics and disturbances. Due to the use of projection mapping, the robust control law and the parameter adaption algorithm can be designed separately. Since the system model uncertainties are unmatched, the recursive backstepping technology is adopted to design the robust control law. Extensive comparative experimental results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller and its performance robustness to parameter variations and sudden disturbances.

  16. Adaptive Backstepping-Based Neural Tracking Control for MIMO Nonlinear Switched Systems Subject to Input Delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ben; Li, Lu

    2018-06-01

    This brief proposes a new neural-network (NN)-based adaptive output tracking control scheme for a class of disturbed multiple-input multiple-output uncertain nonlinear switched systems with input delays. By combining the universal approximation ability of radial basis function NNs and adaptive backstepping recursive design with an improved multiple Lyapunov function (MLF) scheme, a novel adaptive neural output tracking controller design method is presented for the switched system. The feature of the developed design is that different coordinate transformations are adopted to overcome the conservativeness caused by adopting a common coordinate transformation for all subsystems. It is shown that all the variables of the resulting closed-loop system are semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded under a class of switching signals in the presence of MLF and that the system output can follow the desired reference signal. To demonstrate the practicability of the obtained result, an adaptive neural output tracking controller is designed for a mass-spring-damper system.

  17. Robust Redundant Input Reliable Tracking Control for Omnidirectional Rehabilitative Training Walker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of robust reliable tracking control on the omnidirectional rehabilitative training walker is examined. The new nonlinear redundant input method is proposed when one wheel actuator fault occurs. The aim of the study is to design an asymptotically stable controller that can guarantee the safety of the user and ensure tracking on a training path planned by a physical therapist. The redundant degrees of freedom safety control and the asymptotically zero state detectable concept of the walker are presented, the model of redundant degree is constructed, and the property of center of gravity constant shift is obtained. A controller that can satisfy asymptotic stability is obtained using a common Lyapunov function for admissible uncertainties resulting from an actuator fault. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method and verify that the walker can provide safe sequential motion when one wheel actuator is at fault.

  18. Energy Optimal Tracking Control with Discrete Fluid Power Systems using Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Asmussen, Magnus Færing; Bech, Michael Møller

    2017-01-01

    For Discrete Displacement Cylinder (DDC) drives the control task lies in choosing force level. Hence, which force level to apply and thereby which pressure level each cylinder chambers shall be connected to. The DDC system is inherently a force system why often a force reference is generated...... and compared to a PID like tracking controller combined with a FSA. The results indicate that the energy efficiency of position tracking DDC systems may be improved significantly by using the MPC algorithm....

  19. Bechtel automated control of design document data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollingshaus, H.

    1986-01-01

    Concern for nuclear power plant safety has resulted in many design features that complicate the licensing, operation, and maintenance of nuclear plants. To manage and control the design effectively, Bechtel has developed an integrated design document data base that provides efficient support of the plant during all phases of its life. The program runs on the IBM System 38, but can also be downloaded to an IBM PC to save storage and connect time. It is interactive and can accommodate multiple users at various locations. Although primarily developed to manage design changes resulting from the regulatory process and use of a fast track construction schedule, the data base will provide operations and maintenance personnel with qualifications status and pertinent data for each piece of equipment, including all electrical devices and a list of all associated design documents

  20. Adaptive Trajectory Tracking Control using Reinforcement Learning for Quadrotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Lou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Inaccurate system parameters and unpredicted external disturbances affect the performance of non-linear controllers. In this paper, a new adaptive control algorithm under the reinforcement framework is proposed to stabilize a quadrotor helicopter. Based on a command-filtered non-linear control algorithm, adaptive elements are added and learned by policy-search methods. To predict the inaccurate system parameters, a new kernel-based regression learning method is provided. In addition, Policy learning by Weighting Exploration with the Returns (PoWER and Return Weighted Regression (RWR are utilized to learn the appropriate parameters for adaptive elements in order to cancel the effect of external disturbance. Furthermore, numerical simulations under several conditions are performed, and the ability of adaptive trajectory-tracking control with reinforcement learning are demonstrated.

  1. Integrated Ultra-Wideband Tracking and Carbon Dioxide Sensing System Design for International Space Station Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jianjun (David); Hafermalz, David; Dusl, John; Barton, Rick; Wagner, Ray; Ngo, Phong

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Time-of-Arrival (TOA) tracking system has been studied at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to provide the tracking capability inside the International Space Station (ISS) modules for various applications. One of applications is to locate and report the location where crew experienced possible high level of carbon-dioxide (CO2) and felt upset. Recent findings indicate that frequent, short-term crew exposure to elevated CO2 levels combined with other physiological impacts of microgravity may lead to a number of detrimental effects, including loss of vision. To evaluate the risks associated with transient elevated CO2 levels and design effective countermeasures, doctors must have access to frequent CO2 measurements in the immediate vicinity of individual crew members along with simultaneous measurements of their location in the space environment. To achieve this goal, a small, low-power, wearable system that integrates an accurate CO2 sensor with an ultra-wideband (UWB) radio capable of real-time location estimation and data communication is proposed. This system would be worn by crew members or mounted on a free-flyer and would automatically gather and transmit sampled sensor data tagged with real-time, high-resolution location information. Under the current proposed effort, a breadboard prototype of such a system has been developed. Although the initial effort is targeted to CO2 monitoring, the concept is applicable to other types of sensors. For the initial effort, a micro-controller is leveraged to integrate a low-power CO2 sensor with a commercially available UWB radio system with ranging capability. In order to accurately locate those places in a multipath intensive environment like ISS modules, it requires a robust real-time location system (RTLS) which can provide the required accuracy and update rate. A 3D UWB TOA tracking system with two-way ranging has been proposed and studied. The designed system will be tested

  2. Design factors of sensors for the optical tracking systems of solar concentrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klychev, Sh. I.; Fazylov, A. K.; Orlov, S. A.; Burbo, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    Basic diagrams for the sensors of the optical tracking systems of solar concentrators are considered, the design factors that determine their accuracy are analyzed, a new sensor design is suggested, and its optimal parameters are determined. (authors)

  3. Active fault tolerant control of piecewise affine systems with reference tracking and input constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gholami, M.; Cocquempot, V.; Schiøler, H.

    2014-01-01

    An active fault tolerant control (AFTC) method is proposed for discrete-time piecewise affine (PWA) systems. Only actuator faults are considered. The AFTC framework contains a supervisory scheme, which selects a suitable controller in a set of controllers such that the stability and an acceptable...... performance of the faulty system are held. The design of the supervisory scheme is not considered here. The set of controllers is composed of a normal controller for the fault-free case, an active fault detection and isolation controller for isolation and identification of the faults, and a set of passive...... fault tolerant controllers (PFTCs) modules designed to be robust against a set of actuator faults. In this research, the piecewise nonlinear model is approximated by a PWA system. The PFTCs are state feedback laws. Each one is robust against a fixed set of actuator faults and is able to track...

  4. Germinal Center Optimization Applied to Neural Inverse Optimal Control for an All-Terrain Tracked Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Villaseñor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there are several meta-heuristics algorithms which offer solutions for multi-variate optimization problems. These algorithms use a population of candidate solutions which explore the search space, where the leadership plays a big role in the exploration-exploitation equilibrium. In this work, we propose to use a Germinal Center Optimization algorithm (GCO which implements temporal leadership through modeling a non-uniform competitive-based distribution for particle selection. GCO is used to find an optimal set of parameters for a neural inverse optimal control applied to all-terrain tracked robot. In the Neural Inverse Optimal Control (NIOC scheme, a neural identifier, based on Recurrent High Orden Neural Network (RHONN trained with an extended kalman filter algorithm, is used to obtain a model of the system, then, a control law is design using such model with the inverse optimal control approach. The RHONN identifier is developed without knowledge of the plant model or its parameters, on the other hand, the inverse optimal control is designed for tracking velocity references. Applicability of the proposed scheme is illustrated using simulations results as well as real-time experimental results with an all-terrain tracked robot.

  5. A deterministic - approach controller design for electrohydraulic position servo control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johari Osman

    2000-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the design of a tracking controller for controlling electrohydraulic position servo system based on a deterministic approach. The system is treated as an uncertain system with bounded uncertainties where the bounds are assumed known. It will be shown that the electrohydraulic position servo systems with the proposed controller is practically stable and tracks the desired position in spite of the uncertainties and nonlinearities present in the system (author)

  6. Visual Trajectory-Tracking Model-Based Control for Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Zdešar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a visual-control algorithm for driving a mobile robot along the reference trajectory. The configuration of the system consists of a two-wheeled differentially driven mobile robot that is observed by an overhead camera, which can be placed at arbitrary, but reasonable, inclination with respect to the ground plane. The controller must be capable of generating appropriate tangential and angular control velocities for the trajectory-tracking problem, based on the information received about the robot position obtained in the image. To be able to track the position of the robot through a sequence of images in real-time, the robot is marked with an artificial marker that can be distinguishably recognized by the image recognition subsystem. Using the property of differential flatness, a dynamic feedback compensator can be designed for the system, thereby extending the system into a linear form. The presented control algorithm for reference tracking combines a feedforward and a feedback loop, the structure also known as a two DOF control scheme. The feedforward part should drive the system to the vicinity of the reference trajectory and the feedback part should eliminate any errors that occur due to noise and other disturbances etc. The feedforward control can never achieve accurate reference following, but this deficiency can be eliminated with the introduction of the feedback loop. The design of the model predictive control is based on the linear error model. The model predictive control is given in analytical form, so the computational burden is kept at a reasonable level for real-time implementation. The control algorithm requires that a reference trajectory is at least twice differentiable function. A suitable approach to design such a trajectory is by exploiting some useful properties of the Bernstein-Bézier parametric curves. The simulation experiments as well as real system experiments on a robot normally used in the

  7. Positioning and tracking control system analysis for mobile free space optical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yushan; Refai, Hazem; Sluss, , James J., Jr.; Verma, Pramode; LoPresti, Peter

    2005-08-01

    Free Space Optical (FSO) communication has evolved to be applied to the mobile network, because it can provide up to 2.5Gbps or higher data rate wireless communication. One of the key challenges with FSO systems is to maintain the Line of Sight (LOS) between transmitter and receiver. In this paper, the feasibility and performance of applying the FSO technology to the mobile network is explored, and the design plan of the attitude positioning and tracking control system of the FSO transceiver is investigated. First, the system architecture is introduced, the requirements for the control system are analyzed, the involved reference frames and frame transformation are presented. Second, the control system bandwidth is used to evaluate the system performance in controlling a positioning system consisting of a gimbal and a steering mirror, some definitions to describe the positioning accuracy and tracking capacity are given. The attitude control of a FSO transceiver is split into 2 similar channels: pitch and yaw. Using an equivalent linear control system model, the simulations are carried out, with and without the presence of uncertainties that includes GPS data errors and sensor measurement errors. Finally, based on the simulation results in the pitch channel, the quantitative evaluation on the performance of the control system is given, including positioning accuracy, tracking capability and uncertainty tolerance.

  8. Synthetic tracked aperture ultrasound imaging: design, simulation, and experimental evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haichong K; Cheng, Alexis; Bottenus, Nick; Guo, Xiaoyu; Trahey, Gregg E; Boctor, Emad M

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasonography is a widely used imaging modality to visualize anatomical structures due to its low cost and ease of use; however, it is challenging to acquire acceptable image quality in deep tissue. Synthetic aperture (SA) is a technique used to increase image resolution by synthesizing information from multiple subapertures, but the resolution improvement is limited by the physical size of the array transducer. With a large F-number, it is difficult to achieve high resolution in deep regions without extending the effective aperture size. We propose a method to extend the available aperture size for SA-called synthetic tracked aperture ultrasound (STRATUS) imaging-by sweeping an ultrasound transducer while tracking its orientation and location. Tracking information of the ultrasound probe is used to synthesize the signals received at different positions. Considering the practical implementation, we estimated the effect of tracking and ultrasound calibration error to the quality of the final beamformed image through simulation. In addition, to experimentally validate this approach, a 6 degree-of-freedom robot arm was used as a mechanical tracker to hold an ultrasound transducer and to apply in-plane lateral translational motion. Results indicate that STRATUS imaging with robotic tracking has the potential to improve ultrasound image quality.

  9. Signal differentiation in position tracking control of dc motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltran-Carbajal, F; Valderrabano-Gonzalez, A; Rosas-Caro, J C

    2015-01-01

    An asymptotic differentiation approach with respect to time is used for on-line estimation of velocity and acceleration signals in controlled dc motors. The attractive feature of this differentiator of signals is that it does not require any system mathematical model, which allows its use in engineering systems that require the signal differentiation for its control, identification, fault detection, among other applications. Moreover, it is shown that the differentiation approach can be applied for output signals showing a chaotic behavior. In addition a differential flatness control scheme with additional integral compensation of the output error is proposed for tracking tasks of position reference trajectories for direct current electric motors using angular position measurements only

  10. [Haptic tracking control for minimally invasive robotic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhaohong; Song, Chengli; Wu, Wenwu

    2012-06-01

    Haptic feedback plays a significant role in minimally invasive robotic surgery (MIRS). A major deficiency of the current MIRS is the lack of haptic perception for the surgeon, including the commercially available robot da Vinci surgical system. In this paper, a dynamics model of a haptic robot is established based on Newton-Euler method. Because it took some period of time in exact dynamics solution, we used a digital PID arithmetic dependent on robot dynamics to ensure real-time bilateral control, and it could improve tracking precision and real-time control efficiency. To prove the proposed method, an experimental system in which two Novint Falcon haptic devices acting as master-slave system has been developed. Simulations and experiments showed proposed methods could give instrument force feedbacks to operator, and bilateral control strategy is an effective method to master-slave MIRS. The proposed methods could be used to tele-robotic system.

  11. Relay tracking control for second-order multi-agent systems with damaged agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lijing; Li, Jing; Liu, Qin

    2017-11-01

    This paper investigates a situation where smart agents capable of sensory and mobility are deployed to monitor a designated area. A preset number of agents start tracking when a target intrudes this area. Some of the tracking agents are possible to be out of order over the tracking course. Thus, we propose a cooperative relay tracking strategy to ensure the successful tracking with existence of damaged agents. Relay means that, when a tracking agent quits tracking due to malfunction, one of the near deployed agents replaces it to continue the tracking task. This results in jump of tracking errors and dynamic switching of topology of the multi-agent system. Switched system technique is employed to solve this specific problem. Finally, the effectiveness of proposed tracking strategy and validity of the theoretical results are verified by conducting a numerical simulation. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Observer-based leader-following tracking control under both fixed and switching topologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhuan WANG; Pengxiao ZHANG; Zhixin LIU; Xiaoming HU

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the tracking problem for a class of leader-follower multi-agent systems moving on the plane using observer-based cooperative control strategies. In our set-up, only a subset of the followers can obtain some relative information on the leader. We assume that the control input of the leader is not known to any of the followers while the system matrix is broadcast to all the followers. To track such a leader, an observer-based decentralized feedback controller is designed for each follower and detailed analysis for the convergence is presented for both fixed and switching interaction topologies between agents with the method of common Lyapunov function. We can also generalize the result to the higher dimension case for fixed topology and some special system matrices of the leader for switching topology.

  13. Designing and Simulation of a Two-Axis Solar Tracking System by Exact Relations of Solar Angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Esmaili Ranjbar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a system has been designed and simulated to track sunlight, which identifies sun location based on the exact relations of solar angles and without any optical sensor. In fact the relations which have been used in this study are far more accurate compared to similar cases, because of using the "equation of time" and reducing the tracking time of every 15 minutes. In this system, an economical micro-controller has been used to generate the necessary orders to control system and two stepper motors for powering solar array. By adding a real-time clock IC (RTC to angle differentiation circuit, dynamic plane has improved.

  14. Development of Intelligent Fuzzy Controller for a Two-Axis Solar Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong-Hui Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the development of a two-axis sun tracking solar energy system using fuzzy logic as intelligent quality policy. To achieve maximum efficiency for solar panels, it is necessary to follow the sun’s path in the sky. Therefore, the architecture for the two-axis sun tracking solar energy system uses software to control the hardware. The hardware comprises (i solar cells; (ii lead-acid batteries; (iii a gear box; (iv a stepping motor; and (v a light detection circuit, while the software comprises (i a detection system; (ii a fuzzy tracking controller; and (iii a database system. A fuzzy logic controller is designed as the software architecture of the system to decide the timing for tracking the sun. The nearest position that results in receiving direct sunlight is obtained from the database. Our system is fully automatic in a changing environment and takes into account meteorological changes and the effects of the external environment arising from a malfunction. This approach reduces the number of starting motors and results in smaller energy loss in cloudy, cloud mask, or unstable weather conditions.

  15. Target Tracking in 3-D Using Estimation Based Nonlinear Control Laws for UAVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousumi Ahmed

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an estimation based backstepping like control law design for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV to track a moving target in 3-D space. A ground-based sensor or an onboard seeker antenna provides range, azimuth angle, and elevation angle measurements to a chaser UAV that implements an extended Kalman filter (EKF to estimate the full state of the target. A nonlinear controller then utilizes this estimated target state and the chaser’s state to provide speed, flight path, and course/heading angle commands to the chaser UAV. Tracking performance with respect to measurement uncertainty is evaluated for three cases: (1 stationary white noise; (2 stationary colored noise and (3 non-stationary (range correlated white noise. Furthermore, in an effort to improve tracking performance, the measurement model is made more realistic by taking into consideration range-dependent uncertainties in the measurements, i.e., as the chaser closes in on the target, measurement uncertainties are reduced in the EKF, thus providing the UAV with more accurate control commands. Simulation results for these cases are shown to illustrate target state estimation and trajectory tracking performance.

  16. Application of Evolution Strategies to the Design of Tracking Filters with a Large Number of Specifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús García Herrero

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the application of evolution strategies to the design of interacting multiple model (IMM tracking filters in order to fulfill a large table of performance specifications. These specifications define the desired filter performance in a thorough set of selected test scenarios, for different figures of merit and input conditions, imposing hundreds of performance goals. The design problem is stated as a numeric search in the filter parameters space to attain all specifications or at least minimize, in a compromise, the excess over some specifications as much as possible, applying global optimization techniques coming from evolutionary computation field. Besides, a new methodology is proposed to integrate specifications in a fitness function able to effectively guide the search to suitable solutions. The method has been applied to the design of an IMM tracker for a real-world civil air traffic control application: the accomplishment of specifications defined for the future European ARTAS system.

  17. Adaptive robust motion trajectory tracking control of pneumatic cylinders with LuGre model-based friction compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Deyuan; Tao, Guoliang; Liu, Hao; Zhu, Xiaocong

    2014-07-01

    Friction compensation is particularly important for motion trajectory tracking control of pneumatic cylinders at low speed movement. However, most of the existing model-based friction compensation schemes use simple classical models, which are not enough to address applications with high-accuracy position requirements. Furthermore, the friction force in the cylinder is time-varying, and there exist rather severe unmodelled dynamics and unknown disturbances in the pneumatic system. To deal with these problems effectively, an adaptive robust controller with LuGre model-based dynamic friction compensation is constructed. The proposed controller employs on-line recursive least squares estimation (RLSE) to reduce the extent of parametric uncertainties, and utilizes the sliding mode control method to attenuate the effects of parameter estimation errors, unmodelled dynamics and disturbances. In addition, in order to realize LuGre model-based friction compensation, the modified dual-observer structure for estimating immeasurable friction internal state is developed. Therefore, a prescribed motion tracking transient performance and final tracking accuracy can be guaranteed. Since the system model uncertainties are unmatched, the recursive backstepping design technology is applied. In order to solve the conflicts between the sliding mode control design and the adaptive control design, the projection mapping is used to condition the RLSE algorithm so that the parameter estimates are kept within a known bounded convex set. Finally, the proposed controller is tested for tracking sinusoidal trajectories and smooth square trajectory under different loads and sudden disturbance. The testing results demonstrate that the achievable performance of the proposed controller is excellent and is much better than most other studies in literature. Especially when a 0.5 Hz sinusoidal trajectory is tracked, the maximum tracking error is 0.96 mm and the average tracking error is 0.45 mm. This

  18. A development of radioactive material tracking and location control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Gwang Tae; Jung Seung Yong; Song, Jung Ho

    2005-01-01

    As the whole industry fields such as construction, chemistry, machine, medicine including nuclear-related field have extended the range of radioactive material uses, it is tendency that domestic uses of radioactive material have been increased in quantity and number. In addition, as the transportation, transfer and use of radioactive material have been frequent, its loss, robbery, and carelessness of handling may cause not only employees in charge but the public to worry about damage of explosion and put an obstacle to increase trust in nuclear-related industry. At present, though the transportation, use and storage of radioactive material conform to the institution and standard of the atomic energy law, if we tracking radioactive material in real time, we can take immediate actions to prevent its loss, robbery. As our research institute developed a terminal that control location and tracking real time location for gamma-ray projector used in transporting, transferring, and using nondestructive test, we take a good look at utilities by using GPS-Cell ID bases location control

  19. The Quadrotor Dynamic Modeling and Indoor Target Tracking Control Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A reliable nonlinear dynamic model of the quadrotor is presented. The nonlinear dynamic model includes actuator dynamic and aerodynamic effect. Since the rotors run near a constant hovering speed, the dynamic model is simplified at hovering operating point. Based on the simplified nonlinear dynamic model, the PID controllers with feedback linearization and feedforward control are proposed using the backstepping method. These controllers are used to control both the attitude and position of the quadrotor. A fully custom quadrotor is developed to verify the correctness of the dynamic model and control algorithms. The attitude of the quadrotor is measured by inertia measurement unit (IMU. The position of the quadrotor in a GPS-denied environment, especially indoor environment, is estimated from the downward camera and ultrasonic sensor measurements. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed dynamic model and control algorithms are demonstrated by experimental results. It is shown that the vehicle achieves robust vision-based hovering and moving target tracking control.

  20. Design and construction of a solar energy tracking device | Ndinechi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A solar tracking device using PIC16F873 microcontroller was developed to solve the problem of adjustment of solar panels for optimum solar reception. MPLAB software was used to develop sets of instructions in an assembly language. The choice of PIC16F873 microcontroller stemmed from its flexibility in producing a ...

  1. Chemical and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Sample Tracking System Design Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargelski, C. J.; Berrett, D. E.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the system architecture of the Chemical and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Sample Tracking System at Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the course of the document observations are made concerning the objectives, constraints and limitations, technical approaches, and the technical deliverables

  2. Design of a positional tracking and radiological alarm system for transportation of radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saindane, Shashank; Pujari, R.N.; Narsaiah, M.V.R.; Chaudhury, Probal; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2016-01-01

    The safety aspects during the transport of radioactive material have to ensure that even in event of accident the potential of radiation exposure to public is extremely small. Continuous monitoring and online data transfer to emergency control room will strengthen the emergency preparedness to response to any such accident during transport of radioactive material. The paper presents the combined application of Geographical Information Systems (GIS), Global Positioning System (GPS), General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) and the Internet for tracking the shipment vehicle transporting radioactive isotopes for use in the medical industry. The key features of the prototype system designed are realtime radiological status update along with photo snap of the shipping flask at predefined interval along with positional coordinates, GIS platform and a web-based user interface. The system consists of a GM based radiation monitoring device (RMD) along with a LAN camera, GPS for tracking the shipment vehicle, a communications server, a web-server, a database server, and a map server. The RMD and tracking device mounted in the shipment vehicle collects location and radiological information on real-time via the GPS. This information is transferred continuously through GPRS to a central database. The users will be able to view the current location of the vehicle via a web-based application

  3. Intelligent Hybrid Control Strategy for Trajectory Tracking of Robot Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zuo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of robust tracking control using a PD-plus-feedforward controller and an intelligent adaptive robust compensator for a rigid robotic manipulator with uncertain dynamics and external disturbances. A key feature of this scheme is that soft computer methods are used to learn the upper bound of system uncertainties and adjust the width of the boundary layer base. In this way, the prior knowledge of the upper bound of the system uncertainties does need not to be required. Moreover, chattering can be effectively eliminated, and asymptotic error convergence can be guaranteed. Numerical simulations and experiments of two-DOF rigid robots are presented to show effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  4. Periodic reference tracking control approach for smart material actuators with complex hysteretic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhiyong; Hao, Lina; Song, Bo; Yang, Ruiguo; Cao, Ruimin; Cheng, Yu

    2016-10-01

    Micro/nano positioning technologies have been attractive for decades for their various applications in both industrial and scientific fields. The actuators employed in these technologies are typically smart material actuators, which possess inherent hysteresis that may cause systems behave unexpectedly. Periodic reference tracking capability is fundamental for apparatuses such as scanning probe microscope, which employs smart material actuators to generate periodic scanning motion. However, traditional controller such as PID method cannot guarantee accurate fast periodic scanning motion. To tackle this problem and to conduct practical implementation in digital devices, this paper proposes a novel control method named discrete extended unparallel Prandtl-Ishlinskii model based internal model (d-EUPI-IM) control approach. To tackle modeling uncertainties, the robust d-EUPI-IM control approach is investigated, and the associated sufficient stabilizing conditions are derived. The advantages of the proposed controller are: it is designed and represented in discrete form, thus practical for digital devices implementation; the extended unparallel Prandtl-Ishlinskii model can precisely represent forward/inverse complex hysteretic characteristics, thus can reduce modeling uncertainties and benefits controllers design; in addition, the internal model principle based control module can be utilized as a natural oscillator for tackling periodic references tracking problem. The proposed controller was verified through comparative experiments on a piezoelectric actuator platform, and convincing results have been achieved.

  5. Earthquake design for controlled structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos G. Pnevmatikos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An alternative design philosophy, for structures equipped with control devices, capable to resist an expected earthquake while remaining in the elastic range, is described. The idea is that a portion of the earthquake loading is under¬taken by the control system and the remaining by the structure which is designed to resist elastically. The earthquake forces assuming elastic behavior (elastic forces and elastoplastic behavior (design forces are first calculated ac¬cording to the codes. The required control forces are calculated as the difference from elastic to design forces. The maximum value of capacity of control devices is then compared to the required control force. If the capacity of the control devices is larger than the required control force then the control devices are accepted and installed in the structure and the structure is designed according to the design forces. If the capacity is smaller than the required control force then a scale factor, α, reducing the elastic forces to new design forces is calculated. The structure is redesigned and devices are installed. The proposed procedure ensures that the structure behaves elastically (without damage for the expected earthquake at no additional cost, excluding that of buying and installing the control devices.

  6. Design of an MgB2 race track coil for a wind generator pole demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Magnusson, Niklas; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2014-01-01

    An MgB2 race track coil intended for demonstrating a down scaled pole of a 10 MW direct drive wind turbine generator has been designed. The coil consists of 10 double pancake coils stacked into a race track coil with a cross section of 84 mm × 80 mm. The length of the straight section is 0.5 m...

  7. WEB ANALYTICS COMBINED WITH EYE TRACKING FOR SUCCESSFUL USER EXPERIENCE DESIGN: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena BORYS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors propose a new approach for the mobile user experience design process by means of web analytics and eye-tracking. The proposed method was applied to design the LUT mobile website. In the method, to create the mobile website design, data of various users and their behaviour were gathered and analysed using the web analytics tool. Next, based on the findings from web analytics, the mobile prototype for the website was created and validated in eye-tracking usability testing. The analysis of participants’ behaviour during eye-tracking sessions allowed improvements of the prototype.

  8. Biomimetic photo-actuation: sensing, control and actuation in sun-tracking plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicker, M P M; Bond, I P; Weaver, P M; Rossiter, J M

    2014-01-01

    Although the actuation mechanisms that drive plant movement have been investigated from a biomimetic perspective, few studies have looked at the wider sensing and control systems that regulate this motion. This paper examines photo-actuation—actuation induced by, and controlled with light—through a review of the sun-tracking functions of the Cornish Mallow. The sun-tracking movement of the Cornish Mallow leaf results from an extraordinarily complex—yet extremely elegant—process of signal perception, generation, filtering and control. Inspired by this process, a concept for a simplified biomimetic analogue of this leaf is proposed: a multifunctional structure employing chemical sensing, signal transmission, and control of composite hydrogel actuators. We present this multifunctional structure, and show that the success of the concept will require improved selection of materials and structural design. This device has application in the solar-tracking of photovoltaic panels for increased energy yield. More broadly it is envisaged that the concept of chemical sensing and control can be expanded beyond photo-actuation to many other stimuli, resulting in new classes of robust solid-state devices. (paper)

  9. Study on Oil Pressure Characteristics and Trajectory Tracking Control in Shift Process of Wet-Clutch for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqiu Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate control of oil pressure of wet-clutch is of great importance for improving shift quality. Based on dynamic models of two-gear planetary transmission and hydraulic control system, a trajectory tracking model of oil pressure was built by sliding mode control method. An experiment was designed to verify the validity of hydraulic control system, through which the relationship between duty cycle of on-off valve and oil pressure of clutch was determined. The tracking effect was analyzed by simulation. Results showed that oil pressure could follow well the optimal trajectory and the shift quality was effectively improved.

  10. Space station communications and tracking equipment management/control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapell, M. H.; Seyl, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    Design details of a communications and tracking (C and T) local area network and the distribution system requirements for the prospective space station are described. The hardware will be constructed of LRUs, including those for baseband, RF, and antenna subsystems. It is noted that the C and T equipment must be routed throughout the station to accommodate growth of the station. Configurations of the C and T modules will therefore be dependent on the function of the space station module where they are located. A block diagram is provided of a sample C and T hardware distribution configuration. A topology and protocol will be needed to accommodate new terminals, wide bandwidths, bidirectional message transmission, and distributed functioning. Consideration will be given to collisions occurring in the data transmission channels.

  11. Combating dephasing decoherence by periodically performing tracking control and projective measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ming; Dai Hongyi; Xi Zairong; Xie Hongwei; Hu Dewen

    2007-01-01

    We propose a scheme to overcome phase damping decoherence by periodically performing open loop tracking control and projective measurement. Although it is impossible to stabilize a qubit subject to Markovian dynamics only by open loop coherent control, one can attain a 'softened' control goal with the help of periodical projective measurement. The 'softened' control objective in our scheme is to keep the state of the controlled qubit to stay near a reference pure state with a high probability for a sufficiently long time. Two suboptimal control problems are given in the sense of trace distance and fidelity, respectively, and they are eventually reduced to the design of a period T. In our scheme, one can choose the period T as long as possible if the 'softened' control goal is attained. This is in contrast to the observation that quantum Zeno effect takes place only if measurements are performed in a very frequent manner, i.e., the period T must be extremely small

  12. Design and Implementation of Dual Axis Solar Tracking system

    OpenAIRE

    Sirigauri N,; Raghav S

    2015-01-01

    Solar energy is a promising technology that can have huge long term benefits. Solar cells convert the solar energy into electrical energy. Solar tracking system is the most suited technology to improve the efficiency and enhance the performance by utilizing maximum solar energy through the solar cell. In hardware development we utilize LDR’s as sensors and two servomotors to direct the position of the solar panel. The software part is implemented on a code written using an Arduino...

  13. Adaptive fuzzy tracking control for a constrained flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle based on actuator compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Fei Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The design of an adaptive fuzzy tracking control for a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle with actuator constraints is discussed. Based on functional decomposition methodology, velocity and altitude controllers are designed. Fuzzy logic systems are applied to approximate the lumped uncertainty of each subsystem of air-breathing hypersonic vehicle model. Every controllers contain only one adaptive parameter that needs to be updated online with a minimal-learning-parameter scheme. The back-stepping design is not demanded by converting the altitude subsystem into the normal output-feedback formulation, which predigests the design of a controller. The special contribution is that novel auxiliary systems are developed to compensate both the tracking errors and desired control laws, based on which the explored controller can still provide effective tracking of velocity and altitude commands when the inputs are saturated. Finally, reference trajectory tracking simulation shows the effectiveness of the proposed method in its application to air-breathing hypersonic vehicle control.

  14. Automated positioning dual-axis solar tracking system with precision elevation and azimuth angle control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidek, M.H.M.; Azis, N.; Hasan, W.Z.W.; Ab Kadir, M.Z.A.; Shafie, S.; Radzi, M.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a study on an automated positioning open-loop dual-axis solar tracking system. The solar tracker was designed and fabricated using standard cylindrical aluminium hollow and Polyuthrene (PE). The control system of the solar tracker was governed by Micro Controller Unit (MCU) with auxiliary devices which includes encoder and Global Positioning System (GPS). The sun path trajectory algorithm utilizing the astronomical equation and GPS information was also embedded in the system. The power generation performance of the dual-axis solar tracking system was compared with the fixed-tilted Photovoltaic (PV) system. It is found that the solar tracker is able to position itself automatically based on sun path trajectory algorithm with an accuracy of ±0.5°. The embedded Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) positioning system improves the tracking of elevation and azimuth angles with minimum energy consumption. It is reveals that the proposed solar tracker is able generate 26.9% and 12.8% higher power than fixed-tilted PV system on a clear and heavy overcast conditions respectively. Overall, the open-loop dual-axis solar tracker can be deployed automatically at any location on the earth with minimal configurations and is suitable for mobile solar tracking system. - Highlights: • Self-positioning dual-axis solar tracking system. • Precise control of elevation and azimuth angle. • Sun path trajectory based on astronomical equation and GPS. • Can achieve up to 26.9% higher power than fixed-tilted PV system under clear weather condition.

  15. A Unified Lorenz-Like System and Its Tracking Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chun-Lai; Zhao Yi-Bo

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the finding of a unified Lorenz-like system. By gradually tuning the only parameter d, the reported system belongs to Lorenz-type system in the sense defined by Člikovský. Meanwhile, this system belongs to Lorenz-type system, Lü-type system, Chen-type system with d less than, equivalent to and greater than 1.5, respectively, according to the classification defined by Yang. However, this system can only generate a succession of Lorenz-like attractors. Some basic dynamical properties of the system are investigated theoretically and numerically. Moreover, the tracking control of the system with exponential convergence rate is studied. Theoretical analysis and computer simulation show that the proposed scheme can allow us to drive the output variable x 1 to arbitrary reference signals exponentially, and the guaranteed exponential convergence rate can be estimated accurately. (paper)

  16. APPLICATION OF EYE TRACKING FOR MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION IN HUMAN FACTORS STUDIES IN CONTROL ROOM MODERNIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesdi, C.; Spielman, Z.; LeBlanc, K.; Rice, B.

    2017-05-01

    An important element of human factors engineering (HFE) pertains to measurement and evaluation (M&E). The role of HFE-M&E should be integrated throughout the entire control room modernization (CRM) process and be used for human-system performance evaluation and diagnostic purposes with resolving potential human engineering deficiencies (HEDs) and other human machine interface (HMI) design issues. NUREG-0711 describes how HFE in CRM should employ a hierarchical set of measures, particularly during integrated system validation (ISV), including plant performance, personnel task performance, situation awareness, cognitive workload, and anthropometric/ physiological factors. Historically, subjective measures have been primarily used since they are easier to collect and do not require specialized equipment. However, there are pitfalls with relying solely on subjective measures in M&E such that negatively impact reliability, sensitivity, and objectivity. As part of comprehensively capturing a diverse set of measures that strengthen findings and inferences made of the benefits from emerging technologies like advanced displays, this paper discusses the value of using eye tracking as an objective method that can be used in M&E. A brief description of eye tracking technology and relevant eye tracking measures is provided. Additionally, technical considerations and the unique challenges with using eye tracking in full-scaled simulations are addressed. Finally, this paper shares preliminary findings regarding the use of a wearable eye tracking system in a full-scale simulator study. These findings should help guide future full-scale simulator studies using eye tracking as a methodology to evaluate human-system performance.

  17. Tracking error constrained robust adaptive neural prescribed performance control for flexible hypersonic flight vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghua Wu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A robust adaptive neural control scheme based on a back-stepping technique is developed for the longitudinal dynamics of a flexible hypersonic flight vehicle, which is able to ensure the state tracking error being confined in the prescribed bounds, in spite of the existing model uncertainties and actuator constraints. Minimal learning parameter technique–based neural networks are used to estimate the model uncertainties; thus, the amount of online updated parameters is largely lessened, and the prior information of the aerodynamic parameters is dispensable. With the utilization of an assistant compensation system, the problem of actuator constraint is overcome. By combining the prescribed performance function and sliding mode differentiator into the neural back-stepping control design procedure, a composite state tracking error constrained adaptive neural control approach is presented, and a new type of adaptive law is constructed. As compared with other adaptive neural control designs for hypersonic flight vehicle, the proposed composite control scheme exhibits not only low-computation property but also strong robustness. Finally, two comparative simulations are performed to demonstrate the robustness of this neural prescribed performance controller.

  18. Receiver-exciter controller design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansma, P. A.

    1982-01-01

    A description of the general design of both the block 3 and block 4 receiver-exciter controllers for the Deep Space Network (DSN) Mark IV-A System is presented along with the design approach. The controllers are designed to enable the receiver-exciter subsystem (RCV) to be configured, calibrated, initialized and operated from a central location via high level instructions. The RECs are designed to be operated under the control of the DMC subsystem. The instructions are in the form of standard subsystem blocks (SSBs) received via the local area network (LAN). The centralized control provided by RECs and other DSCC controllers in Mark IV-A is intended to reduce DSN operations costs from the Mark III era.

  19. Comparing Acoustic Tag Attachments Designed for Mobile Tracking of Hatchling Sea Turtles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee L. Hoover

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The poorly understood movements of sea turtles during the “lost years” of their early life history have been characterized as a “passive drifter” stage. Biologging technology allows us to study patterns of dispersal, but the small body size of young life stages requires particular consideration that such tagging does not significantly impede animal movements. We tested the effect of instrument attachment methods for mobile acoustic tracking of hatchling sea turtles, including a design that would be suitable for leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea. We obtained 8-week-old hatchery-reared green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas (n = 12 individuals and examined the effect of attaching Vemco V5 acoustic tags. Each animal's swim speed, swimming depth, and stroke frequency were determined under three scenarios: control, direct Velcro® attachment to the carapace, and harness attachment, to determine if there was a significant difference amongst treatments. Turtle swimming speed was significantly slower during the middle period of the trial for the harness attachment compared with the control. No significant change in swim speed was observed when the tag was attached directly with Velcro®, and no significant change in dive depth was observed for either treatment compared to the control. Stroke frequency was significantly greater compared to the control at the end of the trial for the Velcro® attachment only, although there was no corresponding increase in swimming speed. This information can be used to design effective approaches for actively tracking free-ranging hatchling sea turtles to understand dispersal and survival of these vulnerable marine species.

  20. Robust finite-time tracking control for nonlinear suspension systems via disturbance compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huihui; Jing, Xingjian; Sun, Weichao

    2017-05-01

    This paper focuses on the finite-time tracking control with external disturbance for active suspension systems. In order to compensate unknown disturbance efficiently, a disturbance compensator with finite-time convergence property is studied. By analyzing the discontinuous phenomenon of classical disturbance compensation techniques, this study presents a simple approach to construct a continuous compensator satisfying the finite-time disturbance rejection performance. According to the finite-time separation principle, the design procedures of the nominal controller for the suspension system without disturbance and the disturbance compensator can be implemented in a completely independent manner. Therefore, the overall control law for the closed-loop system is continuous, which offers some distinct advantages over the existing discontinuous ones. From the perspective of practical implementation, the continuous controller can avoid effectively the unexpected chattering in active suspension control. Comparative experimental results are presented and discussed to illustrate the advantage and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  1. Experimental evaluation of feedforward control for the trajectory tracking of power in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, S.H.; Bernard, J.A.; Lanning, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on an experimental comparison of feedforward control techniques for the trajectory-tracking of neutronic power was performed on the 5-MWt MIT Research Reactor. Included in the comparison were pure feedforward control in which the actuator signal is found solely by processing a demanded output through a system model, hybrid feedforward/feedback control in which the actuator signal is obtained by summing feedforward and feedback components, and period-generated control in which feedback is used to update the demand trajectory prior to its being processed through the system model for calculation of the actuator signal. This latter approach was found to be the most effective. In addition to the experimental results, discussions are given of both the rationale for model-based, feedforward control and the designs of the various controllers

  2. Advanced Lyapunov control of a novel laser beam tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikulin, Vladimir V.; Sofka, Jozef; Skormin, Victor A.

    2005-05-01

    Laser communication systems developed for mobile platforms, such as satellites, aircraft, and terrain vehicles, require fast wide-range beam-steering devices to establish and maintain a communication link. Conventionally, the low-bandwidth, high-steering-range part of the beam-positioning task is performed by gimbals that inherently constitutes the system bottleneck in terms of reliability, accuracy and dynamic performance. Omni-WristTM, a novel robotic sensor mount capable of carrying a payload of 5 lb and providing a full 180-deg hemisphere of azimuth/declination motion is known to be free of most of the deficiencies of gimbals. Provided with appropriate controls, it has the potential to become a new generation of gimbals systems. The approach we demonstrate describes an adaptive controller enabling Omni-WristTM to be utilized as a part of a laser beam positioning system. It is based on a Lyapunov function that ensures global asymptotic stability of the entire system while achieving high tracking accuracy. The proposed scheme is highly robust, does not require knowledge of complex system dynamics, and facilitates independent control of each channel by full decoupling of the Omni-WristTM dynamics. We summarize the basic algorithm and demonstrate the results obtained in the simulation environment.

  3. The Control System for the CMS Strip Tracking Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Fahrer, Manuel; Chen, Jie; Dierlamm, Alexander; Frey, Martin; Masetti, Lorenzo; Militaru, Otilia; Shah, Yousaf; Stringer, Robert; Tsirou, Andromachi

    2008-01-01

    The Tracker of the CMS silicon strip tracking detector covers a surface of 206 m2. 9648128 channels are available on 75376 APV front-end chips on 15232 modules, built of 24328 silicon sensors. The power supply of the detector modules is split up in 1944 power supplies with two low voltage for front end power and two high voltage channels each for the bias voltage of the silicon sensors. In addition 356 low voltage channels are needed to power the control chain. The tracker will run at -20°C at low relative humidity for at least 10 years. The Tracker Control System handles all interdependencies of control, low and high voltages, as well as fast ramp downs in case of higher than allowed temperatures or currents in the detector and experimental cavern problems. This is ensured by evaluating $10^{4}$ power supply parameters, $10^{3}$ information from Tracker Safety System and $10^{5}$ information from the tracker front end.

  4. Modeling and Robust Trajectory Tracking Control for a Novel Six-Rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengshun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling and trajectory tracking control of a novel six-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV is concerned to solve problems such as smaller payload capacity and lack of both hardware redundancy and anticrosswind capability for quad-rotor. The mathematical modeling for the six-rotor UAV is developed on the basis of the Newton-Euler formalism, and a second-order sliding-mode disturbance observer (SOSMDO is proposed to reconstruct the disturbances of the rotational dynamics. In consideration of the under-actuated and strong coupling properties of the six-rotor UAV, a nested double loops trajectory tracking control strategy is adopted. In the outer loop, a position error PID controller is designed, of which the task is to compare the desired trajectory with real position of the six-rotor UAV and export the desired attitude angles to the inner loop. In the inner loop, a rapid-convergent nonlinear differentiator (RCND is proposed to calculate the derivatives of the virtual control signal, instead of using the analytical differentiation, to avoid “differential expansion” in the procedure of the attitude controller design. Finally, the validity and effectiveness of the proposed technique are demonstrated by the simulation results.

  5. Finite-time tracking control for multiple non-holonomic mobile robots based on visual servoing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Meiying; Li, Shihua; Wang, Chaoli

    2013-12-01

    This paper investigates finite-time tracking control problem of multiple non-holonomic mobile robots via visual servoing. It is assumed that the pinhole camera is fixed to the ceiling, and camera parameters are unknown. The desired reference trajectory is represented by a virtual leader whose states are available to only a subset of the followers, and the followers have only interaction. First, the camera-objective visual kinematic model is introduced by utilising the pinhole camera model for each mobile robot. Second, a unified tracking error system between camera-objective visual servoing model and desired reference trajectory is introduced. Third, based on the neighbour rule and by using finite-time control method, continuous distributed cooperative finite-time tracking control laws are designed for each mobile robot with unknown camera parameters, where the communication topology among the multiple mobile robots is assumed to be a directed graph. Rigorous proof shows that the group of mobile robots converges to the desired reference trajectory in finite time. Simulation example illustrates the effectiveness of our method.

  6. Design Method of Active Disturbance Rejection Variable Structure Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-jie Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on lines cluster approaching theory and inspired by the traditional exponent reaching law method, a new control method, lines cluster approaching mode control (LCAMC method, is designed to improve the parameter simplicity and structure optimization of the control system. The design guidelines and mathematical proofs are also given. To further improve the tracking performance and the inhibition of the white noise, connect the active disturbance rejection control (ADRC method with the LCAMC method and create the extended state observer based lines cluster approaching mode control (ESO-LCAMC method. Taking traditional servo control system as example, two control schemes are constructed and two kinds of comparison are carried out. Computer simulation results show that LCAMC method, having better tracking performance than the traditional sliding mode control (SMC system, makes the servo system track command signal quickly and accurately in spite of the persistent equivalent disturbances and ESO-LCAMC method further reduces the tracking error and filters the white noise added on the system states. Simulation results verify the robust property and comprehensive performance of control schemes.

  7. Controlling radiated emissions by design

    CERN Document Server

    Mardiguian, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The 3rd edition of Controlling Radiated Emissions by Design has been updated to reflect the latest changes in the field. New to this edition is material related to technical advances, specifically super-fast data rates on wire pairs, with no increase in RF interference. Throughout the book, details are given to control RF emissions using EMC design techniques. This book retains the step-by-step approach for incorporating EMC into every new design from the ground up. It describes the selection of quieter IC technologies, their implementation into a noise-free printed circuit layout, and the gathering of these into a low emissions package. Also included is how to design an I/O filter, along with connectors and cable considerations. All guidelines are supported throughout with comprehensive calculated examples. Design engineers, EMC specialists, and technicians will benefit from learning about the development of more efficient and economical control of emissions.

  8. Flow Control Enabled Aircraft Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nangia, Rajendar

    2004-01-01

    ...: Many future advanced aircraft concepts being considered by the Air Force fall outside the current aerodynamic design practice and will rely heavily on the use of flow control technology to optimize flight performance...

  9. Radiological controls integrated into design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindred, G.W. [Cleveland Electric Illuminating Co., Perry, OH (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Radiological controls are required by law in the design of commercial nuclear power reactor facilities. These controls can be relatively minor or significant, relative to cost. To ensure that radiological controls are designed into a project, the health physicist (radiological engineer) must be involved from the beginning. This is especially true regarding keeping costs down. For every radiological engineer at a nuclear power plant there must be fifty engineers of other disciplines. The radiological engineer cannot be an expert on every discipline of engineering. However, he must be knowledgeable to the degree of how a design will impact the facility from a radiological perspective. This paper will address how to effectively perform radiological analyses with the goal of radiological controls integrated into the design package.

  10. Computer controlled scanning systems for quantitative track measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.; Roberts, J.H.; Preston, C.C.; Ruddy, F.H.

    1982-01-01

    The status of three computer cntrolled systems for quantitative track measurements is described. Two systems, an automated optical track scanner (AOTS) and an automated scanning electron microscope (ASEM) are used for scanning solid state track recorders (SSTR). The third system, the emulsion scanning processor (ESP), is an interactive system used to measure the length of proton tracks in nuclear research emulsions (NRE). Recent advances achieved with these systems are presented, with emphasis placed upon the current limitation of these systems for reactor neutron dosimetry

  11. Tracking control of a leg rehabilitation machine driven by pneumatic artificial muscles using composite fuzzy theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ming-Kun

    2014-01-01

    It is difficult to achieve excellent tracking performance for a two-joint leg rehabilitation machine driven by pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) because the system has a coupling effect, highly nonlinear and time-varying behavior associated with gas compression, and the nonlinear elasticity of bladder containers. This paper therefore proposes a T-S fuzzy theory with supervisory control in order to overcome the above problems. The T-S fuzzy theory decomposes the model of a nonlinear system into a set of linear subsystems. In this manner, the controller in the T-S fuzzy model is able to use simple linear control techniques to provide a systematic framework for the design of a state feedback controller. Then the LMI Toolbox of MATLAB can be employed to solve linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) in order to determine controller gains based on the Lyapunov direct method. Moreover, the supervisory control can overcome the coupling effect for a leg rehabilitation machine. Experimental results show that the proposed controller can achieve excellent tracking performance, and guarantee robustness to system parameter uncertainties.

  12. Amplitude control of the track-induced self-excited vibration for a maglev system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Danfeng; Li, Jie; Zhang, Kun

    2014-09-01

    The Electromagnet Suspension (EMS) maglev train uses controlled electromagnetic forces to achieve suspension, and self-excited vibration may occur due to the flexibility of the track. In this article, the harmonic balance method is applied to investigate the amplitude of the self-excited vibration, and it is found that the amplitude of the vibration depends on the voltage of the power supplier. Based on this observation, a vibration amplitude control method, which controls the amplitude of the vibration by adjusting the voltage of the power supplier, is proposed to attenuate the vibration. A PI controller is designed to control the amplitude of the vibration at a given level. The effectiveness of this method shows a good prospect for its application to commercial maglev systems. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Predictive Sliding Mode Control for Attitude Tracking of Hypersonic Vehicles Using Fuzzy Disturbance Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianlei Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a predictive sliding mode control (PSMC scheme for attitude control of hypersonic vehicle (HV with system uncertainties and external disturbances based on an improved fuzzy disturbance observer (IFDO. First, for a class of uncertain affine nonlinear systems with system uncertainties and external disturbances, we propose a predictive sliding mode control based on fuzzy disturbance observer (FDO-PSMC, which is used to estimate the composite disturbances containing system uncertainties and external disturbances. Afterward, to enhance the composite disturbances rejection performance, an improved FDO-PSMC (IFDO-PSMC is proposed by incorporating a hyperbolic tangent function with FDO to compensate for the approximate error of FDO. Finally, considering the actuator dynamics, the proposed IFDO-PSMC is applied to attitude control system design for HV to track the guidance commands with high precision and strong robustness. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed attitude control scheme.

  14. Vision-based vehicle detection and tracking algorithm design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Junyeon; Huh, Kunsoo; Lee, Donghwi

    2009-12-01

    The vision-based vehicle detection in front of an ego-vehicle is regarded as promising for driver assistance as well as for autonomous vehicle guidance. The feasibility of vehicle detection in a passenger car requires accurate and robust sensing performance. A multivehicle detection system based on stereo vision has been developed for better accuracy and robustness. This system utilizes morphological filter, feature detector, template matching, and epipolar constraint techniques in order to detect the corresponding pairs of vehicles. After the initial detection, the system executes the tracking algorithm for the vehicles. The proposed system can detect front vehicles such as the leading vehicle and side-lane vehicles. The position parameters of the vehicles located in front are obtained based on the detection information. The proposed vehicle detection system is implemented on a passenger car, and its performance is verified experimentally.

  15. Moscow University race-track microtron control system: ideas and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chepurnov, A.S.; Gribov, I.V.; Morozov, S.Yu.; Shumakov, A.V.; Zinoviev, S.V.

    1992-01-01

    Moscow University race-track microtron (RTM) control system is a star-shape network of LSI-11 compatible microcomputers. Each of them is connected with RTM systems via CAMAC; optical fiber coupling is also used. Control system software is designed on Pascal-1, supplemented with real time modules and Macro. A unified real time technique and reenterable data acquisition drivers allow to simplify development of control drivers and algorithms. Among the latter three main types are used: DDC methods, those, based on optimization technique and algorithms, applying models of microtron's systems. Man-machine interface is based on concept of the 'world of accelerator'. It supports means to design, within hardware possibilities, various computer images of the RTM. (author)

  16. Strategic Mobility 21: Integrated Tracking System Analysis and Concept Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mallon, Lawrence G; Savacool, Edwin

    2007-01-01

    ... (ITS). This ITS design document identifies the technical and functional requirements for developing, procuring, and integrating components of an ITS capable of supporting an inland regional port, multi...

  17. Pressure tracking control of vehicle ABS using piezo valve modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Juncheol; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a wheel slip control for the ABS(anti-lock brake system) of a passenger vehicle using a controllable piezo valve modulator. The ABS is designed to optimize for braking effectiveness and good steerability. As a first step, the principal design parameters of the piezo valve and pressure modulator are appropriately determined by considering the braking pressure variation during the ABS operation. The proposed piezo valve consists of a flapper, pneumatic circuit and a piezostack actuator. In order to get wide control range of the pressure, the pressure modulator is desired. The modulator consists of a dual-type cylinder filled with different substances (fluid and gas) and a piston rod moving vertical axis to transmit the force. Subsequently, a quarter car wheel slip model is formulated and integrated with the governing equation of the piezo valve modulator. A sliding mode controller to achieve the desired slip rate is then designed and implemented. Braking control performances such as brake pressure and slip rate are evaluated via computer simulations.

  18. Autonomous tracked robots in planar off-road conditions modelling, localization, and motion control

    CERN Document Server

    González, Ramón; Guzmán, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    This monograph is framed within the context of off-road mobile robotics. In particular, it discusses issues related to modelling, localization, and motion control of tracked mobile robots working in planar slippery conditions. Tracked locomotion constitutes a well-known solution for mobile platforms operating over diverse challenging terrains, for that reason, tracked robotics constitutes an important research field with many applications (e.g. agriculture, mining, search and rescue operations, military activities). The specific topics of this monograph are: historical perspective of tracked vehicles and tracked robots; trajectory-tracking model taking into account slip effect; visual-odometry-based localization strategies; and advanced slip-compensation motion controllers ensuring efficient real-time execution. Physical experiments with a real tracked robot are presented showing the better performance of the suggested novel approaches to known techniques.   Keywords: longitudinal slip, visual odometry, slip...

  19. Adaptive Sliding-Mode Tracking Control for a Class of Nonholonomic Mechanical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the problem of finite-time tracking control for nonholonomic mechanical systems with affine constraints. The control scheme is provided by flexibly incorporating terminal sliding-mode control with the method of relay switching control and related adaptive technique. The proposed relay switching controller ensures that the output tracking error converges to zero in a finite time. As an application, a boat on a running river is given to show the effectiveness of the control scheme.

  20. Ergonomics and control room design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.C.; Story, D.T.

    1987-01-01

    The application of ergonomic principles to the design process and some aspects of the Sizewell B control room is discussed. Also outlined is the management process which ensures that these principles are applied systematically throughout the design development activity and highlights the functional requirements which must also be met in the creation of a total man-machine system package which meets all the technical design criteria. The ergonomics requirements are part of this process and extend into all aspects of design ranging from such matters as workplace organization to environmental factors, social engineering, communications and aesthetics. (author)

  1. The Design and Experiment of the Track-Type Equipment for Feeding Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaping LI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As one of the effective ways of reducing the cost and increase the revenue, feeding dairy cows with individual precision in quantity could further develop the production potential of high- yield dairy cows and improve the milk yield of every dairy cow. Therefore, based on three kinds of technologies of radio frequency identification technology, wireless transmission technology and infrared technology and grounded on the foundation of previous studies, this thesis has completed the track- type equipment for feeding dairy cows with individual precision in quantity. The equipment takes the computer as the information management platform, adopts the singly chip microcomputer as the control platform, uses the wireless module and U disk to conduct the transmission of individual feeding data of dairy cows and guides the whole process with the track. This kind of equipment could advance automatically, identify and feed dairy cows precisely during the feeding process. This thesis also designs the matching feeding technology of the equipment, and accomplishes the test of feeding outside the cowshed, which takes “TMR + precise feeding with concentrated feed” as the feeding model, so that the feeding process could be more effective and further steady.

  2. A trajectory tracking controller for an underwater hexapod vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plamondon, N; Nahon, M

    2009-09-01

    This paper describes work done in the modeling and control of a low speed underwater vehicle that uses paddles instead of thrusters to move in the water. A review of previously modeled vehicles and of controller designs for underwater applications is presented. Then, a method to accurately predict the thrust produced by an oscillating flexible paddle is developed and validated. This is followed by the development of a method to determine the ideal paddle motion to produce a desired thrust. Several controllers are then developed and tested using a numerical simulation of the vehicle. We found that some model-based controllers could improve the performance of the system while others showed no benefit. Finally, we report results from experimental trials performed in an open water environment comparing the performance of the controllers. The experimental results showed that all the model-based controllers outperform the simple proportional-derivative controller. The controller giving the best performance was the model-based nonlinear controller. We also found that the vehicle was able to follow a change of a roll angle of 90 degrees in 0.7 s and to precisely follow a sinusoidal trajectory with a period of 6.28 s and an amplitude of 5 degrees.

  3. A trajectory tracking controller for an underwater hexapod vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plamondon, N; Nahon, M

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes work done in the modeling and control of a low speed underwater vehicle that uses paddles instead of thrusters to move in the water. A review of previously modeled vehicles and of controller designs for underwater applications is presented. Then, a method to accurately predict the thrust produced by an oscillating flexible paddle is developed and validated. This is followed by the development of a method to determine the ideal paddle motion to produce a desired thrust. Several controllers are then developed and tested using a numerical simulation of the vehicle. We found that some model-based controllers could improve the performance of the system while others showed no benefit. Finally, we report results from experimental trials performed in an open water environment comparing the performance of the controllers. The experimental results showed that all the model-based controllers outperform the simple proportional-derivative controller. The controller giving the best performance was the model-based nonlinear controller. We also found that the vehicle was able to follow a change of a roll angle of 90 deg. in 0.7 s and to precisely follow a sinusoidal trajectory with a period of 6.28 s and an amplitude of 5 deg.

  4. Second Order Sliding Mode Controller Design for Pneumatic Artificial Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Ammar Al-Jodah; Laith Khames

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, first and second order sliding mode controllers are designed for a single link robotic arm actuated by two Pneumatic Artificial Muscles (PAMs). A new mathematical model for the arm has been developed based on the model of large scale pneumatic muscle actuator model. Uncertainty in parameters has been presented and tested for the two controllers. The simulation results of the second-order sliding mode controller proves to have a low tracking error and chattering effect as compar...

  5. Chaos control of chaotic dynamical systems using backstepping design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yassen, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    This work presents chaos control of chaotic dynamical systems by using backstepping design method. This technique is applied to achieve chaos control for each of the dynamical systems Lorenz, Chen and Lue systems. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, control laws are derived. We used the same technique to enable stabilization of chaotic motion to a steady state as well as tracking of any desired trajectory to be achieved in a systematic way. Numerical simulations are shown to verify the results

  6. Power Electronics Design of a Solar Powered In-car Wireless Tag for Asset Tracking and Parking Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, D; Beeby, S P; Henaut, J

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the design and testing of a power conditioning circuit for a solar powered in-car wireless tag for asset tracking and parking application. Existing long range asset tracking is based on the GSM/GPRS network, which requires expensive subscriptions. The EU FP7 project CEWITT aims at developing a credit card sized autonomous wireless tag with GNSS geo-positioning capabilities to ensure the integrity and cost effectiveness for parking applications. It was found in previous research that solar cells are the most suitable energy sources for this application. This study focused on the power electronics design for the wireless tag. A suitable solar cell was chosen for its high power density. Charging circuit, hysteresis control circuit and LDO were designed and integrated to meet the system requirement. Test results showed that charging efficiency of 80 % had been achieved

  7. Power Electronics Design of a Solar Powered In-car Wireless Tag for Asset Tracking and Parking Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, D.; Henaut, J.; Beeby, S. P.

    2014-11-01

    This paper reports the design and testing of a power conditioning circuit for a solar powered in-car wireless tag for asset tracking and parking application. Existing long range asset tracking is based on the GSM/GPRS network, which requires expensive subscriptions. The EU FP7 project CEWITT aims at developing a credit card sized autonomous wireless tag with GNSS geo-positioning capabilities to ensure the integrity and cost effectiveness for parking applications. It was found in previous research that solar cells are the most suitable energy sources for this application. This study focused on the power electronics design for the wireless tag. A suitable solar cell was chosen for its high power density. Charging circuit, hysteresis control circuit and LDO were designed and integrated to meet the system requirement. Test results showed that charging efficiency of 80 % had been achieved.

  8. HETDEX tracker control system design and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beno, Joseph H.; Hayes, Richard; Leck, Ron; Penney, Charles; Soukup, Ian

    2012-09-01

    To enable the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment, The University of Texas at Austin Center for Electromechanics and McDonald Observatory developed a precision tracker and control system - an 18,000 kg robot to position a 3,100 kg payload within 10 microns of a desired dynamic track. Performance requirements to meet science needs and safety requirements that emerged from detailed Failure Modes and Effects Analysis resulted in a system of 13 precision controlled actuators and 100 additional analog and digital devices (primarily sensors and safety limit switches). Due to this complexity, demanding accuracy requirements, and stringent safety requirements, two independent control systems were developed. First, a versatile and easily configurable centralized control system that links with modeling and simulation tools during the hardware and software design process was deemed essential for normal operation including motion control. A second, parallel, control system, the Hardware Fault Controller (HFC) provides independent monitoring and fault control through a dedicated microcontroller to force a safe, controlled shutdown of the entire system in the event a fault is detected. Motion controls were developed in a Matlab-Simulink simulation environment, and coupled with dSPACE controller hardware. The dSPACE real-time operating system collects sensor information; motor commands are transmitted over a PROFIBUS network to servo amplifiers and drive motor status is received over the same network. To interface the dSPACE controller directly to absolute Heidenhain sensors with EnDat 2.2 protocol, a custom communication board was developed. This paper covers details of operational control software, the HFC, algorithms, tuning, debugging, testing, and lessons learned.

  9. An Error-Entropy Minimization Algorithm for Tracking Control of Nonlinear Stochastic Systems with Non-Gaussian Variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yunlong; Wang, Aiping; Guo, Lei; Wang, Hong

    2017-07-09

    This paper presents an error-entropy minimization tracking control algorithm for a class of dynamic stochastic system. The system is represented by a set of time-varying discrete nonlinear equations with non-Gaussian stochastic input, where the statistical properties of stochastic input are unknown. By using Parzen windowing with Gaussian kernel to estimate the probability densities of errors, recursive algorithms are then proposed to design the controller such that the tracking error can be minimized. The performance of the error-entropy minimization criterion is compared with the mean-square-error minimization in the simulation results.

  10. An Optimal Augmented Monotonic Tracking Controller for Aircraft Engines with Output Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiakun Qin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel min-max control scheme for aircraft engines, with the aim of transferring a set of regulated outputs between two set-points, while ensuring a set of auxiliary outputs remain within prescribed constraints. In view of this, an optimal augmented monotonic tracking controller (OAMTC is proposed, by considering a linear plant with input integration, to enhance the ability of the control system to reject uncertainty in system parameters and ensure no crossing limits. The key idea is to use the eigenvalue and eigenvector placement method and genetic algorithms to shape the output responses. The approach is validated by numerical simulation. The results show that the designed OAMTC controller can achieve a satisfactory dynamic and steady performance and keep the auxiliary outputs within constraints in the transient regime.

  11. Cooperative vehicle control, feature tracking and ocean sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorelli, Edward A.

    This dissertation concerns the development of a feedback control framework for coordinating multiple, sensor-equipped, autonomous vehicles into mobile sensing arrays to perform adaptive sampling of observed fields. The use of feedback is central; it maintains the array, i.e. regulates formation position, orientation, and shape, and directs the array to perform its sampling mission in response to measurements taken by each vehicle. Specifically, we address how to perform autonomous gradient tracking and feature detection in an unknown field such as temperature or salinity in the ocean. Artificial potentials and virtual bodies are used to coordinate the autonomous vehicles, modelled as point masses (with unit mass). The virtual bodies consist of linked, moving reference points called virtual leaders. Artificial potentials couple the dynamics of the vehicles and the virtual bodies. The dynamics of the virtual body are then prescribed allowing the virtual body, and thus the vehicle group, to perform maneuvers that include translation, rotation and contraction/expansion, while ensuring that the formation error remains bounded. This methodology is called the Virtual Body and Artificial Potential (VBAP) methodology. We then propose how to utilize these arrays to perform autonomous gradient climbing and front tracking in the presence of both correlated and uncorrelated noise. We implement various techniques for estimation of gradients (first-order and higher), including finite differencing, least squares error minimization, averaging, and Kalman filtering. Furthermore, we illustrate how the estimation error can be used to optimally choose the formation size. To complement our theoretical work, we present an account of sea trials performed with a fleet of autonomous underwater gliders in Monterey Bay during the Autonomous Ocean Sampling Network (AOSN) II project in August 2003. During these trials, Slocum autonomous underwater gliders were coordinated into triangle

  12. Unified Controller Design for Intelligent Manufacturing Automation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kosut, Robert

    1997-01-01

    .... The demonstration system selected was rapid thermal processing (RTP) of semiconductor wafers. This novel approach in integrated circuit manufacturing demands fast tracking control laws that achieve near uniform spatial temperature distributions...

  13. Robust control design with MATLAB

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Da-Wei; Konstantinov, Mihail M

    2013-01-01

    Robust Control Design with MATLAB® (second edition) helps the student to learn how to use well-developed advanced robust control design methods in practical cases. To this end, several realistic control design examples from teaching-laboratory experiments, such as a two-wheeled, self-balancing robot, to complex systems like a flexible-link manipulator are given detailed presentation. All of these exercises are conducted using MATLAB® Robust Control Toolbox 3, Control System Toolbox and Simulink®. By sharing their experiences in industrial cases with minimum recourse to complicated theories and formulae, the authors convey essential ideas and useful insights into robust industrial control systems design using major H-infinity optimization and related methods allowing readers quickly to move on with their own challenges. The hands-on tutorial style of this text rests on an abundance of examples and features for the second edition: ·        rewritten and simplified presentation of theoretical and meth...

  14. WEB ANALYTICS COMBINED WITH EYE TRACKING FOR SUCCESSFUL USER EXPERIENCE DESIGN: A CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena BORYS; Monika CZWÓRNÓG; Tomasz RATAJCZYK

    2016-01-01

    The authors propose a new approach for the mobile user experience design process by means of web analytics and eye-tracking. The proposed method was applied to design the LUT mobile website. In the method, to create the mobile website design, data of various users and their behaviour were gathered and analysed using the web analytics tool. Next, based on the findings from web analytics, the mobile prototype for the website was created and validated in eye-tracking usability testing. The analy...

  15. Sliding-Mode Controller for Maximum Power Point Tracking in Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Andrea Ortiz Valencia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The maximum power point tracking (MPPT of photovoltaic systems must be as fast and accurate as possible to increase the power production, which eventually increases the PV system profitability. This paper proposes and mathematically analyses a sliding-mode controller to provide a fast and accurate maximum power point tracking in grid-connected photovoltaic systems using a single control stage. This approach avoids the circular dependency in the design of classical cascade controllers used to optimize the photovoltaic system operation, and at the same time, it reduces the number of controllers and avoids the use of linearized models to provide global stability in all the operation range. Such a compact solution also reduces the system cost and implementation complexity. To ensure the stability of the proposed solution, detailed mathematical analyses are performed to demonstrate the fulfillment of the transversality, reachability and equivalent control conditions. Finally, the performance of the proposed solution is validated using detailed simulations, executed in the power electronics simulator PSIM, accounting for both environmental and load perturbations.

  16. Vision based guidance and flight control in problems of aerial tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanyan, Vahram

    The use of visual sensors in providing the necessary information for the autonomous guidance and navigation of the unmanned-air vehicles (UAV) or micro-air vehicles (MAV) applications is inspired by biological systems and is motivated first of all by the reduction of the navigational sensor cost. Also, visual sensors can be more advantageous in military operations since they are difficult to detect. However, the design of a reliable guidance, navigation and control system for aerial vehicles based only on visual information has many unsolved problems, ranging from hardware/software development to pure control-theoretical issues, which are even more complicated when applied to the tracking of maneuvering unknown targets. This dissertation describes guidance law design and implementation algorithms for autonomous tracking of a flying target, when the information about the target's current position is obtained via a monocular camera mounted on the tracking UAV (follower). The visual information is related to the target's relative position in the follower's body frame via the target's apparent size, which is assumed to be constant, but otherwise unknown to the follower. The formulation of the relative dynamics in the inertial frame requires the knowledge of the follower's orientation angles, which are assumed to be known. No information is assumed to be available about the target's dynamics. The follower's objective is to maintain a desired relative position irrespective of the target's motion. Two types of guidance laws are designed and implemented in the dissertation. The first one is a smooth guidance law that guarantees asymptotic tracking of a target, the velocity of which is viewed as a time-varying disturbance, the change in magnitude of which has a bounded integral. The second one is a smooth approximation of a discontinuous guidance law that guarantees bounded tracking with adjustable bounds when the target's acceleration is viewed as a bounded but otherwise

  17. ISABELLE control system: design concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphrey, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    ISABELLE is a Department of Energy funded proton accelerator/storage ring being built at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Upton, Long Island, New York). It is large (3.8 km circumference) and complicated (approx. 30,000 monitor and control variables). It is based on superconducting technology. Following the example of previous accelerators, ISABELLE will be operated from a single control center. The control system will be distributed and will incorporate a local computer network. An overview of the conceptual design of the ISABELLE control system will be presented

  18. Spacecraft Design Thermal Control Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Robert N.

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal Control Subsystem engineers task is to maintain the temperature of all spacecraft components, subsystems, and the total flight system within specified limits for all flight modes from launch to end-of-mission. In some cases, specific stability and gradient temperature limits will be imposed on flight system elements. The Thermal Control Subsystem of "normal" flight systems, the mass, power, control, and sensing systems mass and power requirements are below 10% of the total flight system resources. In general the thermal control subsystem engineer is involved in all other flight subsystem designs.

  19. Design and Performance Evaluation on Ultra-Wideband Time-Of-Arrival 3D Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jianjun; Arndt, Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Dusl, John

    2012-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Time--of-Arrival (TOA) tracking system has been studied at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to provide the tracking capability inside the International Space Station (ISS) modules for various applications. One of applications is to locate and report the location where crew experienced possible high level of carbon-dioxide and felt upset. In order to accurately locate those places in a multipath intensive environment like ISS modules, it requires a robust real-time location system (RTLS) which can provide the required accuracy and update rate. A 3D UWB TOA tracking system with two-way ranging has been proposed and studied. The designed system will be tested in the Wireless Habitat Testbed which simulates the ISS module environment. In this presentation, we discuss the 3D TOA tracking algorithm and the performance evaluation based on different tracking baseline configurations. The simulation results show that two configurations of the tracking baseline are feasible. With 100 picoseconds standard deviation (STD) of TOA estimates, the average tracking error 0.2392 feet (about 7 centimeters) can be achieved for configuration Twisted Rectangle while the average tracking error 0.9183 feet (about 28 centimeters) can be achieved for configuration Slightly-Twisted Top Rectangle . The tracking accuracy can be further improved with the improvement of the STD of TOA estimates. With 10 picoseconds STD of TOA estimates, the average tracking error 0.0239 feet (less than 1 centimeter) can be achieved for configuration "Twisted Rectangle".

  20. Augmented Nonlinear Controller for Maximum Power-Point Tracking with Artificial Neural Network in Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliang Ma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV systems have non-linear characteristics that generate maximum power at one particular operating point. Environmental factors such as irradiance and temperature variations greatly affect the maximum power point (MPP. Diverse offline and online techniques have been introduced for tracking the MPP. Here, to track the MPP, an augmented-state feedback linearized (AFL non-linear controller combined with an artificial neural network (ANN is proposed. This approach linearizes the non-linear characteristics in PV systems and DC/DC converters, for tracking and optimizing the PV system operation. It also reduces the dependency of the designed controller on linearized models, to provide global stability. A complete model of the PV system is simulated. The existing maximum power-point tracking (MPPT and DC/DC boost-converter controller techniques are compared with the proposed ANN method. Two case studies, which simulate realistic circumstances, are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method. The AFL with ANN controller can provide good dynamic operation, faster convergence speed, and fewer operating-point oscillations around the MPP. It also tracks the global maxima under different conditions, especially irradiance-mutating situations, more effectively than the conventional methods. Detailed mathematical models and a control approach for a three-phase grid-connected intelligent hybrid system are proposed using MATLAB/Simulink.

  1. Robust chaotic control of Lorenz system by backstepping design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, C.-C.; Chen, C.-L.

    2008-01-01

    This work presents a robust chaotic control strategy for the Lorenz chaos via backstepping design. Backstepping technique is a systematic tool of control law design to provide Lyapunov stability. The concept of extended system is used such that a continuous sliding mode control (SMC) effort is generated using backstepping scheme. In the proposed control algorithm, an adaptation law is applied to estimate the system parameter and the SMC offers the robustness to model uncertainties and external disturbances so that the asymptotical convergence of tracking error can be achieved. Regarding the SMC, an equivalent control algorithm is chosen based on the selection of Lyapunov stability criterion during backstepping approach. The converging rate of error state is relative to the corresponding dynamics of sliding surface. Numerical simulations demonstrate its advantages to a regulation problem and an orbit tracking problem of the Lorenz chaos

  2. A process model for design team communication within fast-track building projects using project websites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otter, den A.F.H.J.; Reymen, I.M.M.J.

    2008-01-01

    The factor time within building projects is on high pressure because of the increasing need for faster delivery of buildings. Within fast track, complex building projects the design process is an important key. Through case analyses offart-hack design processes it became obvious that process and

  3. Design of a 300-Watt Isolated Power Supply for Ultra-Fast Tracking Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen-Duy, Khiem; Ouyang, Ziwei; Petersen, Lars Press

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a medium-powerrating isolated power supply for ultra-fast tracking converters and MOS-gate driver circuits in medium and high voltage applications. The key feature of the design is its very low circuit input-to-output parasitic capacitance, which maximizes its...

  4. Nuclear power control system design using genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yoon Joon; Cho, Kyung Ho

    1996-01-01

    The genetic algorithm(GA) is applied to the design of the nuclear power control system. The reactor control system model is described in the LQR configuration. The LQR system order is increased to make the tracking system. The key parameters of the design are weighting matrices, and these are usually determined through numerous simulations in the conventional design. To determine the more objective and optimal weightings, the improved GA is applied. The results show that the weightings determined by the GA yield the better system responses than those obtained by the conventional design method

  5. Sliding Mode Tracking Control of a Wire-Driven Upper-Limb Rehabilitation Robot with Nonlinear Disturbance Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Niu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Robot-aided rehabilitation has become an important technology to restore and reinforce motor functions of patients with extremity impairment, whereas it can be extremely challenging to achieve satisfactory tracking performance due to uncertainties and disturbances during rehabilitation training. In this paper, a wire-driven rehabilitation robot that can work over a three-dimensional space is designed for upper-limb rehabilitation, and sliding mode control with nonlinear disturbance observer is designed for the robot to deal with the problem of unpredictable disturbances during robot-assisted training. Then, simulation and experiments of trajectory tracking are carried out to evaluate the performance of the system, the position errors, and the output forces of the designed control scheme are compared with those of the traditional sliding mode control (SMC scheme. The results show that the designed control scheme can effectively reduce the tracking errors and chattering of the output forces as compared with the traditional SMC scheme, which indicates that the nonlinear disturbance observer can reduce the effect of unpredictable disturbances. The designed control scheme for the wire-driven rehabilitation robot has potential to assist patients with stroke in performing repetitive rehabilitation training.

  6. The Concept of Design: Are We off Track?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Andrews, Henry Mintzberg, Ludwig von Bertalanffy, Thomas Kuhn, Horst Rittel, Melvin Webber, Dietrich Dörner, and Peter Senge listed below cement a...perspective. The terms, concepts, and intellectual accessories presented in this chapter cement a deeper appreciation and understanding of design as a...thinking. Creative thinking involves generating something new or original. It involves the skills of flexibility, originality, fluency , elaboration

  7. Design and optimization of wireless sensor networks for localization and tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Pino Povedano, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the position of nodes in a WSN is crucial in most wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. The gathered information needs to be associated with a particular location in a specific time instant in order to appropiately control de surveillance area. Moreover, WSNs may be used for tracking certain objects in monitoring applications, which also requires the incorporation of location information of the sensor nodes into the tracking algorithms. These requisites ma...

  8. Path Tracking Control of Automatic Parking Cloud Model considering the Influence of Time Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiding Hua

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes the kinematic model of the automatic parking system and analyzes the kinematic constraints of the vehicle. Furthermore, it solves the problem where the traditional automatic parking system model fails to take into account the time delay. Firstly, based on simulating calculation, the influence of time delay on the dynamic trajectory of a vehicle in the automatic parking system is analyzed under the transverse distance Dlateral between different target spaces. Secondly, on the basis of cloud model, this paper utilizes the tracking control of an intelligent path closer to human intelligent behavior to further study the Cloud Generator-based parking path tracking control method and construct a vehicle path tracking control model. Moreover, tracking and steering control effects of the model are verified through simulation analysis. Finally, the effectiveness and timeliness of automatic parking controller in the aspect of path tracking are tested through a real vehicle experiment.

  9. A Low-Cost Maximum Power Point Tracking System Based on Neural Network Inverse Model Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Robles Algarín

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the design, modeling, and implementation of a neural network inverse model controller for tracking the maximum power point of a photovoltaic (PV module. A nonlinear autoregressive network with exogenous inputs (NARX was implemented in a serial-parallel architecture. The PV module mathematical modeling was developed, a buck converter was designed to operate in the continuous conduction mode with a switching frequency of 20 KHz, and the dynamic neural controller was designed using the Neural Network Toolbox from Matlab/Simulink (MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA, and it was implemented on an open-hardware Arduino Mega board. To obtain the reference signals for the NARX and determine the 65 W PV module behavior, a system made of a 0.8 W PV cell, a temperature sensor, a voltage sensor and a static neural network, was used. To evaluate performance a comparison with the P&O traditional algorithm was done in terms of response time and oscillations around the operating point. Simulation results demonstrated the superiority of neural controller over the P&O. Implementation results showed that approximately the same power is obtained with both controllers, but the P&O controller presents oscillations between 7 W and 10 W, in contrast to the inverse controller, which had oscillations between 1 W and 2 W.

  10. A study on the nondestructive test optimum design for a ground tracked combat vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim Byeong Ho; Seo, Jae Hyun; Gil, Hyeon Jun [Defence Agency for Technology and Quality, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seon Hyeong [Hanwha Techwin Co.,Ltd., Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Sang Chul [Changwon National University, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, a nondestructive test (NDT) is performed to inspect the optimal design of a ground tracked combat vehicle for self-propelled artillery, tank, and armored vehicles. The minimum qualification required for personnel performing the NDT of a ground tracked combat vehicle was initially established in US military standards, and then applied to the Korean defense specifications to develop a ground tracked combat vehicle. However, the qualification standards of an NDT inspector have been integrated into NAS410 through the military and commercial specifications unification project that were applied in the existing aerospace/defense industry public standard. The design method for this study was verified by applying the optimal design to the liquid penetrant testing Al forging used in self-propelled artillery. This confirmed the reliability and soundness of the product.

  11. Design Of Combined Stochastic Feedforward/Feedback Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halyo, Nesim

    1989-01-01

    Methodology accommodates variety of control structures and design techniques. In methodology for combined stochastic feedforward/feedback control, main objectives of feedforward and feedback control laws seen clearly. Inclusion of error-integral feedback, dynamic compensation, rate-command control structure, and like integral element of methodology. Another advantage of methodology flexibility to develop variety of techniques for design of feedback control with arbitrary structures to obtain feedback controller: includes stochastic output feedback, multiconfiguration control, decentralized control, or frequency and classical control methods. Control modes of system include capture and tracking of localizer and glideslope, crab, decrab, and flare. By use of recommended incremental implementation, control laws simulated on digital computer and connected with nonlinear digital simulation of aircraft and its systems.

  12. Bug tracking and project management system application in an electronic design company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadık ARSLAN

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, commercially available Bug Tracking and Management Information Systems has been investigated in a comprehensive manner. The systems that commonly used described in detail. Bug Tracking and Project Management Systems requirements analysis of medium-sized companies and Kentkart Ege Electronic which is an Information Technology company has been made. Obtained by the analysis requirements, the appropriate tools are selected for system application. JIRA that a product of Atlassian company was determined as a Bug Tracking and Project Management application tool. In this study, JIRA system adapted to the requirements, Bug Tracking and Project Management systems is designed in a structure which can be easily used by R&D employees. Cost-Benefit analysis is done and using this project was determined to be quite useful.

  13. Cockpit control system conceptual design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meholic, Greg; Brown, Rhonda; Hall, Melissa; Harvey, Robert; Singer, Michael; Tella, Gustavo

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to provide a means for operating the ailerons, elevator, elevator trim, rudder, nosewheel steering, and brakes in the Triton primary flight trainer. The main design goals under consideration were to illustrate system and subsystem integration, control function ability, and producibility. Weight and maintenance goals were addressed.

  14. Design studies for a tracking upgrade of the Crystal Barrel experiment at ELSA and installation of tracking test bench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winnebeck, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Ever since mankind was interested in the understanding of the universe and especially the matter in it. The fundamental building blocks of matter seem to be quarks and gluons, whose interactions are investigated in hadron physics. To study this strong interaction different experimental approaches can be used. One way is to do spectroscopy similar to atomic physics. The Crystal Barrel experiment at ELSA performs spectroscopy of nucleons to learn more about the strong interaction. A major improvement of this experimental setup will be the introducing of charged particle tracking as it is shown in this thesis. Different detector concepts are discussed concerning feasibility, material budget and especially momentum resolution. It turns out that a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the optimal solution. Then it is shown how a prototype TPC is tested using a newly installed tracking test bench with an electron beam, and obtained results are presented. The design of the final TPC and its integration into the Crystal Barrel experiment are discussed as well as methods to calibrate the detector. (orig.)

  15. Design studies for a tracking upgrade of the Crystal Barrel experiment at ELSA and installation of tracking test bench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winnebeck, Alexander

    2009-12-17

    Ever since mankind was interested in the understanding of the universe and especially the matter in it. The fundamental building blocks of matter seem to be quarks and gluons, whose interactions are investigated in hadron physics. To study this strong interaction different experimental approaches can be used. One way is to do spectroscopy similar to atomic physics. The Crystal Barrel experiment at ELSA performs spectroscopy of nucleons to learn more about the strong interaction. A major improvement of this experimental setup will be the introducing of charged particle tracking as it is shown in this thesis. Different detector concepts are discussed concerning feasibility, material budget and especially momentum resolution. It turns out that a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the optimal solution. Then it is shown how a prototype TPC is tested using a newly installed tracking test bench with an electron beam, and obtained results are presented. The design of the final TPC and its integration into the Crystal Barrel experiment are discussed as well as methods to calibrate the detector. (orig.)

  16. Design of reconfigurable logic controllers

    CERN Document Server

    Bukowiec, Arkadiusz; Doligalski, Michał; Tkacz, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the original concepts and modern techniques for specification, synthesis, optimisation and implementation of parallel logical control devices. It deals with essential problems of reconfigurable control systems like dependability, modularity and portability. Reconfigurable systems require a wider variety of design and verification options than the application-specific integrated circuits. The book presents a comprehensive selection of possible design techniques. The diversity of the modelling approaches covers Petri nets, state machines and activity diagrams. The preferences of the presented optimization and synthesis methods are not limited to increasing of the efficiency of resource use. One of the biggest advantages of the presented methods is the platform independence, the FPGA devices and single board computers are some of the examples of possible platforms. These issues and problems are illustrated with practical cases of complete control systems. If you expect a new look at the recon...

  17. Complex Dynamical Network Control for Trajectory Tracking Using Delayed Recurrent Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose P. Perez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of trajectory tracking is studied. Based on the V-stability and Lyapunov theory, a control law that achieves the global asymptotic stability of the tracking error between a delayed recurrent neural network and a complex dynamical network is obtained. To illustrate the analytic results, we present a tracking simulation of a dynamical network with each node being just one Lorenz’s dynamical system and three identical Chen’s dynamical systems.

  18. Improvement of design of a surgical interface using an eye tracking device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol Barkana, Duygun; Açık, Alper; Duru, Dilek Goksel; Duru, Adil Deniz

    2014-05-07

    Surgical interfaces are used for helping surgeons in interpretation and quantification of the patient information, and for the presentation of an integrated workflow where all available data are combined to enable optimal treatments. Human factors research provides a systematic approach to design user interfaces with safety, accuracy, satisfaction and comfort. One of the human factors research called user-centered design approach is used to develop a surgical interface for kidney tumor cryoablation. An eye tracking device is used to obtain the best configuration of the developed surgical interface. Surgical interface for kidney tumor cryoablation has been developed considering the four phases of user-centered design approach, which are analysis, design, implementation and deployment. Possible configurations of the surgical interface, which comprise various combinations of menu-based command controls, visual display of multi-modal medical images, 2D and 3D models of the surgical environment, graphical or tabulated information, visual alerts, etc., has been developed. Experiments of a simulated cryoablation of a tumor task have been performed with surgeons to evaluate the proposed surgical interface. Fixation durations and number of fixations at informative regions of the surgical interface have been analyzed, and these data are used to modify the surgical interface. Eye movement data has shown that participants concentrated their attention on informative regions more when the number of displayed Computer Tomography (CT) images has been reduced. Additionally, the time required to complete the kidney tumor cryoablation task by the participants had been decreased with the reduced number of CT images. Furthermore, the fixation durations obtained after the revision of the surgical interface are very close to what is observed in visual search and natural scene perception studies suggesting more efficient and comfortable interaction with the surgical interface. The

  19. Tracking Control of Hysteretic Piezoelectric Actuator using Adaptive Rate-Dependent Controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, U-Xuan; Latt, Win Tun; Widjaja, Ferdinan; Shee, Cheng Yap; Riviere, Cameron N; Ang, Wei Tech

    2009-03-16

    With the increasing popularity of actuators involving smart materials like piezoelectric, control of such materials becomes important. The existence of the inherent hysteretic behavior hinders the tracking accuracy of the actuators. To make matters worse, the hysteretic behavior changes with rate. One of the suggested ways is to have a feedforward controller to linearize the relationship between the input and output. Thus, the hysteretic behavior of the actuator must first be modeled by sensing the relationship between the input voltage and output displacement. Unfortunately, the hysteretic behavior is dependent on individual actuator and also environmental conditions like temperature. It is troublesome and costly to model the hysteresis regularly. In addition, the hysteretic behavior of the actuators also changes with age. Most literature model the actuator using a cascade of rate-independent hysteresis operators and a dynamical system. However, the inertial dynamics of the structure is not the only contributing factor. A complete model will be complex. Thus, based on the studies done on the phenomenological hysteretic behavior with rate, this paper proposes an adaptive rate-dependent feedforward controller with Prandtl-Ishlinskii (PI) hysteresis operators for piezoelectric actuators. This adaptive controller is achieved by adapting the coefficients to manipulate the weights of the play operators. Actual experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the adaptive controller. The main contribution of this paper is its ability to perform tracking control of non-periodic motion and is illustrated with the tracking control ability of a couple of different non-periodic waveforms which were created by passing random numbers through a low pass filter with a cutoff frequency of 20Hz.

  20. Surfactant-enhanced control of track-etch pore morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apel', P.Yu.; Blonskaya, I.V.; Didyk, A.Yu.; Dmitriev, S.N.; Orelovich, O.L.; Samojlova, L.I.; Vutsadakis, V.A.; Root, D.

    2000-01-01

    The influence of surfactants on the process of chemical development of ion tracks in polymers is studied. Based on the experimental data, a mechanism of the surfactant effect on the track-etch pore morphology is proposed. In the beginning of etching the surfactant is adsorbed on the surface and creates a layer that is quasi-solid and partially protects the surface from the etching agent. However, some etchant molecules diffuse through the barrier and react with the polymer surface. This results in the formation of a small hole at the entrance to the ion track. After the hole has attained a few annometers in diameter, the surfactant molecules penetrate into the track and cover its walls. Further diffusion of the surfactant into the growing pore is hindered. The adsorbed surfactant layer is not permeable for large molecules. In contrast, small alkali molecules and water molecules diffuse into the track and provide the etching process enlarging the pore. At this stage the transport of the surfactant into the pore channel can proceed only due to the lateral diffusion in the adsorbed layer. The volume inside the pore is free of surfactant molecules and grows at a higher rate than pore entrance. After a more prolonged etching the bottle-like (or 'cigar-like') pore channels are formed. The bottle-like shape of the pore channels depends on the etching conditions such as alkali and surfactant concentration, temperature, and type of the surfactant. The use of surfactants enables one to produce track-etch membranes with improved flow rate characteristics compared with those having cylindrical pores with the same nominal pore diameters

  1. Steering Angle Control of Car for Dubins Path-tracking Using Model Predictive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma Rahma Putri, Dian; Subchan; Asfihani, Tahiyatul

    2018-03-01

    Car as one of transportation is inseparable from technological developments. About ten years, there are a lot of research and development on lane keeping system(LKS) which is a system that automaticaly controls the steering to keep the vehicle especially car always on track. This system can be developed for unmanned cars. Unmanned system car requires navigation, guidance and control which is able to direct the vehicle to move toward the desired path. The guidance system is represented by using Dubins-Path that will be controlled by using Model Predictive Control. The control objective is to keep the car’s movement that represented by dinamic lateral motion model so car can move according to the path appropriately. The simulation control on the four types of trajectories that generate the value for steering angle and steering angle changes are at the specified interval.

  2. Tracking control of the hydraulically actuated flexible manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, D.S.; Babcock, S.M.; Burks, B.L.; Kress, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    The remediation of single-shell radioactive waste storage tanks is one of the urgent tasks of the Department of Energy that challenge state-of-the-art equipment and methods. The use of long-reach manipulators is being seriously considered for this remediation task. Because high payload capacity and high length-to-cross-section ratio requirements, these long-reach manipulator systems are expected to use hydraulic actuators and to exhibit significant structural flexibility. The controller has been designed to compensate for the hydraulic actuator dynamics by using a load-compensated velocity feedforward loop and to increase the bandwidth by using a pressure feed backloop. Shaping filter techniques have been applied as a feedforward controller to avoid structural vibrations during operation. Among various types of shaping filter methods investigated an approach, referred to as a ''feedforward simulation filter'' that uses embedded simulation, has been presented

  3. Tracking Control Based on Recurrent Neural Networks for Nonlinear Systems with Multiple Inputs and Unknown Deadzone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Humberto Pérez-Cruz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of trajectory tracking for a broad class of uncertain nonlinear systems with multiple inputs each one subject to an unknown symmetric deadzone. On the basis of a model of the deadzone as a combination of a linear term and a disturbance-like term, a continuous-time recurrent neural network is directly employed in order to identify the uncertain dynamics. By using a Lyapunov analysis, the exponential convergence of the identification error to a bounded zone is demonstrated. Subsequently, by a proper control law, the state of the neural network is compelled to follow a bounded reference trajectory. This control law is designed in such a way that the singularity problem is conveniently avoided and the exponential convergence to a bounded zone of the difference between the state of the neural identifier and the reference trajectory can be proven. Thus, the exponential convergence of the tracking error to a bounded zone and the boundedness of all closed-loop signals can be guaranteed. One of the main advantages of the proposed strategy is that the controller can work satisfactorily without any specific knowledge of an upper bound for the unmodeled dynamics and/or the disturbance term.

  4. Robust tracking control of an IPMC actuator using nonsingular terminal sliding mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawwaf, Jasim; Zheng, Jinchuan; Lu, Renquan; Al-Ghanimi, Ali; Kazem, Bahaa I.; Man, Zhihong

    2017-09-01

    Ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) is a highly innovative material that has recently gained attention in many fields such as medical, biomimetic, and micro/nano underwater applications. The main characteristic of IPMC lies in its ability to achieve a large deflection under a fairly low driving voltage. Moreover, its agile, light weight, noiseless and flexible features render it well suited for certain specific applications. Like other smart materials, such as piezoelectric ceramics, IPMC could be used in actuators or sensors. In this paper, we study the application of IPMC as an actuator for underwater use. The goal is to develop a robust feedback controller for the IPMC actuator to track a desired reference whilst dealing with the uncertainties due to the inherent actuator nonlinearity, external disturbance or the variations of working environment. To this end, we first present a nominal model of the IPMC actuator through experimental identification. Next, a nonsingular terminal sliding mode controller is proposed. Lastly, experimental studies are conducted to verify the tracking accuracy and robustness of the designed controller.

  5. Switching sliding mode force tracking control of piezoelectric-hydraulic pump-based friction element actuation systems for automotive transmissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gi-Woo; Wang, K. W.

    2009-08-01

    In this study, a nonlinear sliding-mode controller is designed for force tracking of a piezoelectric-hydraulic pump (PHP)-based actuation system, which is developed to replace the current electro-hydraulic actuation systems for automatic transmission (AT) friction elements, such as band brakes or clutches. By utilizing the PHP, one can eliminate the various hydraulic components (oil pump, regulating valve and control valve) in current ATs and achieve a simpler configuration with more efficient operation. With the derived governing equation of motion of the PHP-based actuation system integrated with the friction element (band brake), a switching control law is synthesized based on the sliding-mode theory. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed control law, its force tracking performance for the engagement of a friction element during an AT 1\\to 2 up-shift is examined experimentally. It is shown that one can successfully track the desired force trajectory for AT shift control with small tracking error. This study demonstrates the potential of the PHP as a new controllable actuation system for AT friction elements.

  6. Switching sliding mode force tracking control of piezoelectric-hydraulic pump-based friction element actuation systems for automotive transmissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gi-Woo; Wang, K W

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a nonlinear sliding-mode controller is designed for force tracking of a piezoelectric-hydraulic pump (PHP)-based actuation system, which is developed to replace the current electro-hydraulic actuation systems for automatic transmission (AT) friction elements, such as band brakes or clutches. By utilizing the PHP, one can eliminate the various hydraulic components (oil pump, regulating valve and control valve) in current ATs and achieve a simpler configuration with more efficient operation. With the derived governing equation of motion of the PHP-based actuation system integrated with the friction element (band brake), a switching control law is synthesized based on the sliding-mode theory. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed control law, its force tracking performance for the engagement of a friction element during an AT 1→2 up-shift is examined experimentally. It is shown that one can successfully track the desired force trajectory for AT shift control with small tracking error. This study demonstrates the potential of the PHP as a new controllable actuation system for AT friction elements

  7. The tracking performance of distributed recoverable flight control systems subject to high intensity radiated fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui

    It is known that high intensity radiated fields (HIRF) can produce upsets in digital electronics, and thereby degrade the performance of digital flight control systems. Such upsets, either from natural or man-made sources, can change data values on digital buses and memory and affect CPU instruction execution. HIRF environments are also known to trigger common-mode faults, affecting nearly-simultaneously multiple fault containment regions, and hence reducing the benefits of n-modular redundancy and other fault-tolerant computing techniques. Thus, it is important to develop models which describe the integration of the embedded digital system, where the control law is implemented, as well as the dynamics of the closed-loop system. In this dissertation, theoretical tools are presented to analyze the relationship between the design choices for a class of distributed recoverable computing platforms and the tracking performance degradation of a digital flight control system implemented on such a platform while operating in a HIRF environment. Specifically, a tractable hybrid performance model is developed for a digital flight control system implemented on a computing platform inspired largely by the NASA family of fault-tolerant, reconfigurable computer architectures known as SPIDER (scalable processor-independent design for enhanced reliability). The focus will be on the SPIDER implementation, which uses the computer communication system known as ROBUS-2 (reliable optical bus). A physical HIRF experiment was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center in order to validate the theoretical tracking performance degradation predictions for a distributed Boeing 747 flight control system subject to a HIRF environment. An extrapolation of these results for scenarios that could not be physically tested is also presented.

  8. Design and Analysis of Planetary Gear and Track Hybrid Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEI Ning

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the ability of obstacle negotiation and stability of mobile robot under unstructured environment, a new type of planetary gear and track hybrid mobile robot has been designed. This robot can surmount lower obstacles by its gravity and inertia of epicyclic gear train, otherwise, higher obstacles can be negotiated by the track arms. The two-part body connected by universal coupling can adjust to different terrain. Also, key parts of the robot were analyzed by ANSYS. According to the analysis results, an optimization design has been put forward .The analysis results can be concluded that the total deformation of the track arm can be reduced from 289 mm to 41.9 mm and the stiffness was improved.

  9. Design of a Load Following Controller for APR+ Nuclear Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sim Won; Kim, Jae Hwan; Kim, Dong Su; Na, Man Gyun; Yu, Keuk Jong

    2011-01-01

    The load-following operation of an APR+ nuclear plants is required to restrain the adjustment of boric acid concentration and to efficiently control the control rods for the flexibility of the operation. Especially, axial flux distribution disproportion that is usually caused by load-following operation in a reactor core induces xenon oscillation because the absorption cross-section of xenon is extremely large and its effects in a reactor are delayed by the iodine precursor. Rapid and smooth power maneuvering has its benefits in view of the economical and safe operation of reactors, so it is required that the controller is efficiently designed. Therefore, the load-following operation of an APR+ nuclear plants needs the ultimate automatic control and the advanced control method that satisfies the conditions such as the flexibility, safety and convenience. A model predictive control (MPC) method is applied to design an automatic load-following controller for the integrated thermal power level and axial shape index (ASI) control for an APR+ nuclear plants. Some tracking controllers use only the current tracking command. On the other hand, since MPC considers future commands in addition to the current tracking command, the MPC can achieve better tracking performance. Therefore, the MPC has been applied very much to the control of industrial process systems. The basic concept of the MPC is to solve an optimization problem for generating finite future control inputs at current time and to implement as the current control input only the first control input among the solutions of the finite time steps. At the next time step, the second control input is not implemented and the procedure to solve the optimization problem is then repeated. The power level and the ASI are controlled by the regulating control banks and part-strength control banks together with the automatic adjustment of boric acid concentration. The 3-dimensional MASTER code, which models the APR+ nuclear

  10. Design of a Load Following Controller for APR+ Nuclear Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sim Won; Kim, Jae Hwan; Kim, Dong Su; Na, Man Gyun [Chosun University, Gwnagju (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Keuk Jong [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    The load-following operation of an APR+ nuclear plants is required to restrain the adjustment of boric acid concentration and to efficiently control the control rods for the flexibility of the operation. Especially, axial flux distribution disproportion that is usually caused by load-following operation in a reactor core induces xenon oscillation because the absorption cross-section of xenon is extremely large and its effects in a reactor are delayed by the iodine precursor. Rapid and smooth power maneuvering has its benefits in view of the economical and safe operation of reactors, so it is required that the controller is efficiently designed. Therefore, the load-following operation of an APR+ nuclear plants needs the ultimate automatic control and the advanced control method that satisfies the conditions such as the flexibility, safety and convenience. A model predictive control (MPC) method is applied to design an automatic load-following controller for the integrated thermal power level and axial shape index (ASI) control for an APR+ nuclear plants. Some tracking controllers use only the current tracking command. On the other hand, since MPC considers future commands in addition to the current tracking command, the MPC can achieve better tracking performance. Therefore, the MPC has been applied very much to the control of industrial process systems. The basic concept of the MPC is to solve an optimization problem for generating finite future control inputs at current time and to implement as the current control input only the first control input among the solutions of the finite time steps. At the next time step, the second control input is not implemented and the procedure to solve the optimization problem is then repeated. The power level and the ASI are controlled by the regulating control banks and part-strength control banks together with the automatic adjustment of boric acid concentration. The 3-dimensional MASTER code, which models the APR+ nuclear

  11. Enhancement of tracking performance in electro-optical system based on servo control algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, WooJin; Kim, SungSu; Jung, DaeYoon; Seo, HyoungKyu

    2017-10-01

    Modern electro-optical surveillance and reconnaissance systems require tracking capability to get exact images of target or to accurately direct the line of sight to target which is moving or still. This leads to the tracking system composed of image based tracking algorithm and servo control algorithm. In this study, we focus on the servo control function to minimize the overshoot in the tracking motion and do not miss the target. The scheme is to limit acceleration and velocity parameters in the tracking controller, depending on the target state information in the image. We implement the proposed techniques by creating a system model of DIRCM and simulate the same environment, validate the performance on the actual equipment.

  12. Stability control for high speed tracked unmanned vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Olivier; Morillon, Joel G.; Houbloup, Philippe; Leveque, Stephane; Fialaire, Cecile; Gauthier, Thierry; Ropars, Patrice

    2005-05-01

    The French Military Robotic Study Program (introduced in Aerosense 2003), sponsored by the French Defense Procurement Agency and managed by Thales as the prime contractor, focuses on about 15 robotic themes which can provide an immediate "operational add-on value". The paper details the "automatic speed adjustment" behavior (named SYR4), developed by Giat Industries Company, which main goal is to secure the teleoperated mobility of high speed tracked vehicles on rough grounds; more precisely, the validated low level behavior continuously adjusts the vehicle speed taking into account the teleperator wish AND the maximum speed that the vehicle can manage safely according to the commanded radius of curvature. The algorithm is based on a realistic physical model of the ground-tracks relation, taking into account many vehicle and ground parameters (such as ground adherence and dynamic specificities of tracked vehicles). It also deals with the teleoperator-machine interface, providing a balanced strategy between both extreme behaviors: a) maximum speed reduction before initiating the commanded curve; b) executing the minimum possible radius without decreasing the commanded speed. The paper presents the results got from the military acceptance tests performed on tracked SYRANO vehicle (French Operational Demonstrator).

  13. Target tracking control and semi-physical simulation of Qball-X4 quad-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a set of integrated ground target tracking flight system has been proposed based on the Qball-X4 quad-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle hardware platform and the QuaRC software platform. Both of the hardware and software platforms are developed by Quanser Company, Canada. The proposed tracking and positioning algorithm could be divided into several stages. First, a tracker is developed based on an optical flow method to track the target; and then, in order to improve the reliability of tracking algorithm and also help in retrieving the lost target, a cascade target detector is developed; meanwhile, a model updated scheme aiming at some possible errors in tracking and detecting process is presented based on Positive-Negative (P-N learning system; at last, a monocular visual positioning system is designed based on the corresponding navigation message. In addition, the effectiveness of the proposed flight control system is verified by both simulation and hardware-in-loop system results in several tracking flight tests.

  14. Direct Adaptive Tracking Control for a Class of Pure-Feedback Stochastic Nonlinear Systems Based on Fuzzy-Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanqing Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of fuzzy-based direct adaptive tracking control is considered for a class of pure-feedback stochastic nonlinear systems. During the controller design, fuzzy logic systems are used to approximate the packaged unknown nonlinearities, and then a novel direct adaptive controller is constructed via backstepping technique. It is shown that the proposed controller guarantees that all the signals in the closed-loop system are bounded in probability and the tracking error eventually converges to a small neighborhood around the origin in the sense of mean quartic value. The main advantages lie in that the proposed controller structure is simpler and only one adaptive parameter needs to be updated online. Simulation results are used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  15. Scheduled power tracking control of the wind-storage hybrid system based on the reinforcement learning theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ze

    2017-09-01

    In allusion to the intermittency and uncertainty of the wind electricity, energy storage and wind generator are combined into a hybrid system to improve the controllability of the output power. A scheduled power tracking control method is proposed based on the reinforcement learning theory and Q-learning algorithm. In this method, the state space of the environment is formed with two key factors, i.e. the state of charge of the energy storage and the difference value between the actual wind power and scheduled power, the feasible action is the output power of the energy storage, and the corresponding immediate rewarding function is designed to reflect the rationality of the control action. By interacting with the environment and learning from the immediate reward, the optimal control strategy is gradually formed. After that, it could be applied to the scheduled power tracking control of the hybrid system. Finally, the rationality and validity of the method are verified through simulation examples.

  16. Realworld maximum power point tracking simulation of PV system based on Fuzzy Logic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Ahmed M.; El-arini, Mahdi M. M.; Ghitas, Ahmed; Fathy, Ahmed

    2012-12-01

    In the recent years, the solar energy becomes one of the most important alternative sources of electric energy, so it is important to improve the efficiency and reliability of the photovoltaic (PV) systems. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) plays an important role in photovoltaic power systems because it maximize the power output from a PV system for a given set of conditions, and therefore maximize their array efficiency. This paper presents a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) using Fuzzy Logic theory for a PV system. The work is focused on the well known Perturb and Observe (P&O) algorithm and is compared to a designed fuzzy logic controller (FLC). The simulation work dealing with MPPT controller; a DC/DC Ćuk converter feeding a load is achieved. The results showed that the proposed Fuzzy Logic MPPT in the PV system is valid.

  17. Realworld maximum power point tracking simulation of PV system based on Fuzzy Logic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Othman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, the solar energy becomes one of the most important alternative sources of electric energy, so it is important to improve the efficiency and reliability of the photovoltaic (PV systems. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT plays an important role in photovoltaic power systems because it maximize the power output from a PV system for a given set of conditions, and therefore maximize their array efficiency. This paper presents a maximum power point tracker (MPPT using Fuzzy Logic theory for a PV system. The work is focused on the well known Perturb and Observe (P&O algorithm and is compared to a designed fuzzy logic controller (FLC. The simulation work dealing with MPPT controller; a DC/DC Ćuk converter feeding a load is achieved. The results showed that the proposed Fuzzy Logic MPPT in the PV system is valid.

  18. Performance-oriented asymptotic tracking control of hydraulic systems with radial basis function network disturbance observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainties, including parametric uncertainties and uncertain nonlinearities, always exist in positioning servo systems driven by a hydraulic actuator, which would degrade their tracking accuracy. In this article, an integrated control scheme, which combines adaptive robust control together with radial basis function neural network–based disturbance observer, is proposed for high-accuracy motion control of hydraulic systems. Not only parametric uncertainties but also uncertain nonlinearities (i.e. nonlinear friction, external disturbances, and/or unmodeled dynamics are taken into consideration in the proposed controller. The above uncertainties are compensated, respectively, by adaptive control and radial basis function neural network, which are ultimately integrated together by applying feedforward compensation technique, in which the global stabilization of the controller is ensured via a robust feedback path. A new kind of parameter and weight adaptation law is designed on the basis of Lyapunov stability theory. Furthermore, the proposed controller obtains an expected steady performance even if modeling uncertainties exist, and extensive simulation results in various working conditions have proven the high performance of the proposed control scheme.

  19. Designing Visual Decision Making Support with the Help of Eye-tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Barbara; Gulden, Jens; Burattin, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Data visualizations are helpful tools to cognitively access large amounts of data and make complex relationships in data understandable. This paper shows how results from neuro-physiological measurements, more specifically eye-tracking, can support justified design decisions about improving...

  20. Design and implementation of a financial planning and tracking system for the Nova Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, F.

    1982-01-01

    The Nova project is a 185 million dollar DOE funded project to build an experimental facility to demonstrate the thermonuclear ignition of laser fusion targets. This paper describes the design and implementation considerations for the project's computerized performance measurement financial planning and tracking system and critiques its actual operation

  1. Peer Assessment of Webpage Design: Behavioral Sequential Analysis Based on Eye-Tracking Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ting-Chia; Chang, Shao-Chen; Liu, Nan-Cen

    2018-01-01

    This study employed an eye-tracking machine to record the process of peer assessment. Each web page was divided into several regions of interest (ROIs) based on the frame design and content. A total of 49 undergraduate students with a visual learning style participated in the experiment. This study investigated the peer assessment attitudes of the…

  2. Design and operation of AFC ramp plates for track clearance on longwall faces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, I R

    1975-10-01

    A study of the use of AFC ramp plates carried out in the University of Newcastle upon Tyne is reported. A 1/4-scale ramp plate test rig was designed and the effects of pushing force, ramp plate toe angle, track width and other factors were studied.

  3. Speed tracking control of pneumatic motor servo systems using observation-based adaptive dynamic sliding-mode control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Syuan-Yi; Gong, Sheng-Sian

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to develop an adaptive high-precision control system for controlling the speed of a vane-type air motor (VAM) pneumatic servo system. In practice, the rotor speed of a VAM depends on the input mass air flow, which can be controlled by the effective orifice area (EOA) of an electronic throttle valve (ETV). As the control variable of a second-order pneumatic system is the integral of the EOA, an observation-based adaptive dynamic sliding-mode control (ADSMC) system is proposed to derive the differential of the control variable, namely, the EOA control signal. In the ADSMC system, a proportional-integral-derivative fuzzy neural network (PIDFNN) observer is used to achieve an ideal dynamic sliding-mode control (DSMC), and a supervisor compensator is designed to eliminate the approximation error. As a result, the ADSMC incorporates the robustness of a DSMC and the online learning ability of a PIDFNN. To ensure the convergence of the tracking error, a Lyapunov-based analytical method is employed to obtain the adaptive algorithms required to tune the control parameters of the online ADSMC system. Finally, our experimental results demonstrate the precision and robustness of the ADSMC system for highly nonlinear and time-varying VAM pneumatic servo systems.

  4. Off-policy integral reinforcement learning optimal tracking control for continuous-time chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Qing-Lai; Song Rui-Zhuo; Xiao Wen-Dong; Sun Qiu-Ye

    2015-01-01

    This paper estimates an off-policy integral reinforcement learning (IRL) algorithm to obtain the optimal tracking control of unknown chaotic systems. Off-policy IRL can learn the solution of the HJB equation from the system data generated by an arbitrary control. Moreover, off-policy IRL can be regarded as a direct learning method, which avoids the identification of system dynamics. In this paper, the performance index function is first given based on the system tracking error and control error. For solving the Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman (HJB) equation, an off-policy IRL algorithm is proposed. It is proven that the iterative control makes the tracking error system asymptotically stable, and the iterative performance index function is convergent. Simulation study demonstrates the effectiveness of the developed tracking control method. (paper)

  5. Optimized Adaptive Perturb and Observe Maximum Power Point Tracking Control for Photovoltaic Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Piegari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The power extracted from PV arrays is usually maximized using maximum power point tracking algorithms. One of the most widely used techniques is the perturb & observe algorithm, which periodically perturbs the operating point of the PV array, sometime with an adaptive perturbation step, and compares the PV power before and after the perturbation. This paper analyses the most suitable perturbation step to optimize maximum power point tracking performance and suggests a design criterion to select the parameters of the controller. Using this proposed adaptive step, the MPPT perturb & observe algorithm achieves an excellent dynamic response by adapting the perturbation step to the actual operating conditions of the PV array. The proposed algorithm has been validated and tested in a laboratory using a dual input inductor push-pull converter. This particular converter topology is an efficient interface to boost the low voltage of PV arrays and effectively control the power flow when input or output voltages are variable. The experimental results have proved the superiority of the proposed algorithm in comparison of traditional perturb & observe and incremental conductance techniques.

  6. A Path Tracking Algorithm Using Future Prediction Control with Spike Detection for an Autonomous Vehicle Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aizzat Zakaria

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Trajectory tracking is an important aspect of autonomous vehicles. The idea behind trajectory tracking is the ability of the vehicle to follow a predefined path with zero steady state error. The difficulty arises due to the nonlinearity of vehicle dynamics. Therefore, this paper proposes a stable tracking control for an autonomous vehicle. An approach that consists of steering wheel control and lateral control is introduced. This control algorithm is used for a non-holonomic navigation problem, namely tracking a reference trajectory in a closed loop form. A proposed future prediction point control algorithm is used to calculate the vehicle's lateral error in order to improve the performance of the trajectory tracking. A feedback sensor signal from the steering wheel angle and yaw rate sensor is used as feedback information for the controller. The controller consists of a relationship between the future point lateral error, the linear velocity, the heading error and the reference yaw rate. This paper also introduces a spike detection algorithm to track the spike error that occurs during GPS reading. The proposed idea is to take the advantage of the derivative of the steering rate. This paper aims to tackle the lateral error problem by applying the steering control law to the vehicle, and proposes a new path tracking control method by considering the future coordinate of the vehicle and the future estimated lateral error. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is demonstrated by a simulation and a GPS experiment with noisy data. The approach used in this paper is not limited to autonomous vehicles alone since the concept of autonomous vehicle tracking can be used in mobile robot platforms, as the kinematic model of these two platforms is similar.

  7. Towards free 3D end-point control for robotic-assisted human reaching using binocular eye tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimon-Dror, Roni O; Fernandez-Quesada, Jorge; Zito, Giuseppe A; Konnaris, Charalambos; Dziemian, Sabine; Faisal, A Aldo

    2017-07-01

    Eye-movements are the only directly observable behavioural signals that are highly correlated with actions at the task level, and proactive of body movements and thus reflect action intentions. Moreover, eye movements are preserved in many movement disorders leading to paralysis (or amputees) from stroke, spinal cord injury, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and muscular dystrophy among others. Despite this benefit, eye tracking is not widely used as control interface for robotic interfaces in movement impaired patients due to poor human-robot interfaces. We demonstrate here how combining 3D gaze tracking using our GT3D binocular eye tracker with custom designed 3D head tracking system and calibration method enables continuous 3D end-point control of a robotic arm support system. The users can move their own hand to any location of the workspace by simple looking at the target and winking once. This purely eye tracking based system enables the end-user to retain free head movement and yet achieves high spatial end point accuracy in the order of 6 cm RMSE error in each dimension and standard deviation of 4 cm. 3D calibration is achieved by moving the robot along a 3 dimensional space filling Peano curve while the user is tracking it with their eyes. This results in a fully automated calibration procedure that yields several thousand calibration points versus standard approaches using a dozen points, resulting in beyond state-of-the-art 3D accuracy and precision.

  8. An Improvement of a Fuzzy Logic-Controlled Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithm for Photovoltic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woonki Na

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithm using a fuzzy logic controller (FLC in order to extract potential maximum power from photovoltaic cells. The objectives of the proposed algorithm are to improve the tracking speed, and to simultaneously solve the inherent drawbacks such as slow tracking in the conventional perturb and observe (P and O algorithm. The performances of the conventional P and O algorithm and the proposed algorithm are compared by using MATLAB/Simulink in terms of the tracking speed and steady-state oscillations. Additionally, both algorithms were experimentally validated through a digital signal processor (DSP-based controlled-boost DC-DC converter. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm performs with a shorter tracking time, smaller output power oscillation, and higher efficiency, compared with the conventional P and O algorithm.

  9. Wind Farm Dispatch Control for Demand Tracking and Minimized Fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juelsgaard, Morten; Schiøler, Henrik; Leth, John-Josef

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a strategy for dispatching production references to the individual turbines in a wind farm, such that an overall production demand for the farm is obeyed, while the fatigue experienced by the turbines is minimized. Using a turbine fatigue model for simulating the aging across...... the farm, we show that a 17 % reduction of the turbine aging can be obtained compared to a commonly employed industrial dispatcher, without degrading the power demand tracking....

  10. A Maximum Power Point Tracking Control Method of a Photovoltaic Power Generator with Consideration of Dynamic Characteristics of Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takashi; Yoshida, Toshiya; Ohniwa, Katsumi

    This paper discusses a new control strategy for photovoltaic power generation systems with consideration of dynamic characteristics of the photovoltaic cells. The controller estimates internal currents of an equivalent circuit for the cells. This estimated, or the virtual current and the actual voltage of the cells are fed to a conventional Maximum-Power-Point-Tracking (MPPT) controller. Consequently, this MPPT controller still tracks the optimum point even though it is so designed that the seeking speed of the operating point is extremely high. This system may suit for applications, which are installed in rapidly changeable insolation and temperature-conditions e.g. automobiles, trains, and airplanes. The proposed method is verified by experiment with a combination of this estimating function and the modified Boehringer's MPPT algorithm.

  11. Dynamic modelling and adaptive robust tracking control of a space robot with two-link flexible manipulators under unknown disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinxin; Ge, Shuzhi Sam; He, Wei

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, both the closed-form dynamics and adaptive robust tracking control of a space robot with two-link flexible manipulators under unknown disturbances are developed. The dynamic model of the system is described with assumed modes approach and Lagrangian method. The flexible manipulators are represented as Euler-Bernoulli beams. Based on singular perturbation technique, the displacements/joint angles and flexible modes are modelled as slow and fast variables, respectively. A sliding mode control is designed for trajectories tracking of the slow subsystem under unknown but bounded disturbances, and an adaptive sliding mode control is derived for slow subsystem under unknown slowly time-varying disturbances. An optimal linear quadratic regulator method is proposed for the fast subsystem to damp out the vibrations of the flexible manipulators. Theoretical analysis validates the stability of the proposed composite controller. Numerical simulation results demonstrate the performance of the closed-loop flexible space robot system.

  12. A combined stochastic feedforward and feedback control design methodology with application to autoland design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halyo, Nesim

    1987-01-01

    A combined stochastic feedforward and feedback control design methodology was developed. The objective of the feedforward control law is to track the commanded trajectory, whereas the feedback control law tries to maintain the plant state near the desired trajectory in the presence of disturbances and uncertainties about the plant. The feedforward control law design is formulated as a stochastic optimization problem and is embedded into the stochastic output feedback problem where the plant contains unstable and uncontrollable modes. An algorithm to compute the optimal feedforward is developed. In this approach, the use of error integral feedback, dynamic compensation, control rate command structures are an integral part of the methodology. An incremental implementation is recommended. Results on the eigenvalues of the implemented versus designed control laws are presented. The stochastic feedforward/feedback control methodology is used to design a digital automatic landing system for the ATOPS Research Vehicle, a Boeing 737-100 aircraft. The system control modes include localizer and glideslope capture and track, and flare to touchdown. Results of a detailed nonlinear simulation of the digital control laws, actuator systems, and aircraft aerodynamics are presented.

  13. Adaptive Tracking and Obstacle Avoidance Control for Mobile Robots with Unknown Sliding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Cui

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive control approach is proposed for trajectory tracking and obstacle avoidance for mobile robots with consideration given to unknown sliding. A kinematic model of mobile robots is established in this paper, in which both longitudinal and lateral sliding are considered and processed as three time-varying parameters. A sliding model observer is introduced to estimate the sliding parameters online. A stable tracking control law for this nonholonomic system is proposed to compensate the unknown sliding effect. From Lyapunov-stability analysis, it is proved, regardless of unknown sliding, that tracking errors of the controlled closed-loop system are asymptotically stable, the tracking errors converge to zero outside the obstacle detection region and obstacle avoidance is guaranteed inside the obstacle detection region. The efficiency and robustness of the proposed control system are verified by simulation results.

  14. EPA's Review of DOE's Inventory Tracking for TRU Wastes at Waste Control Specialists

    Science.gov (United States)

    On April 9, 2014, EPA's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste characterization team visited Waste Control Specialists (WCS) to determine whether DOE was meeting EPA's waste inventory tracking requirements at 40 CFR 194.24(c)(4).

  15. Knowledge Management for Distributed Tracking and the Next-Generation Command and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ceruti, Marion G; Wright, Tedd L

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge Management for Distributed-Tracking (KMDT) is an ongoing research and development project to improve military-information functions in the battle space, such as command, control, and decision support...

  16. Visual Servo Tracking Control of a Wheeled Mobile Robot with a Monocular Fixed Camera

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, J; Dixon, W. E; Dawson, D. M; Chitrakaran, V. K

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a visual servo tracking controller for a wheeled mobile robot (WMR) is developed that utilizes feedback from a monocular camera system that is mounted with a fixed position and orientation...

  17. Combining extremum seeking control and tracking control for high-performance CVT operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der S.H.; Jager, de A.G.; Veldpaus, F.E.; Steinbuch, M.

    2010-01-01

    The control design for the variator in a pushbelt continuously variable transmission (CVT) is investigated. The variator enables a stepless variation of the transmission ratio within a finite range. A conventional variator control design is typically obtained by the use of a variator model, which

  18. Practical design control implementation for medical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Justiniano, Jose

    2003-01-01

    Bringing together the concepts of design control and reliability engineering, this book is a must for medical device manufacturers. It helps them meet the challenge of designing and developing products that meet or exceed customer expectations and also meet regulatory requirements. Part One covers motivation for design control and validation, design control requirements, process validation and design transfer, quality system for design control, and measuring design control program effectiveness. Part Two discusses risk analysis and FMEA, designing-in reliability, reliability and design verific

  19. Design of a tracking device for on-line dose monitoring in hadrontherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battistoni, G. [INFN Sezione di Milano, Milano (Italy); Collamati, F.; De Lucia, E. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Faccini, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica, “La Sapienza” Università di Roma, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Marafini, M. [INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche “E. Fermi”, Roma (Italy); Mattei, I. [INFN Sezione di Milano, Milano (Italy); Muraro, S., E-mail: silvia.muraro@mi.infn.it [INFN Sezione di Milano, Milano (Italy); Paramatti, R. [INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Patera, V. [INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche “E. Fermi”, Roma (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per Ingegneria, “La Sapienza” Università di Roma, Roma (Italy); Pinci, D. [INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Rucinski, A. [INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per Ingegneria, “La Sapienza” Università di Roma, Roma (Italy); Russomando, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, “La Sapienza” Università di Roma, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Center for Life Nano Science@Sapienza, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Roma (Italy); and others

    2017-02-11

    Hadrontherapy is a technique for cancer treatment that exploits ion beams (mostly protons and carbons). A critical issue is the accuracy that is achievable when monitoring the dose released by the beam to the tumor and to the surrounding tissues. We present the design of a tracking device, developed in the framework of the INSIDE project , capable of monitoring in real time the longitudinal profile of the dose delivered in the patient. This is possible by detecting the secondary particles produced by the interaction of the beam in the tissues. The position of the Bragg peak can be correlated to the charged particles emission point distribution measurement. The tracking device will be able to provide a fast response on the dose pattern by tracking the secondary charged fragments. The tracks are detected using 6 planes of scintillating fibers, providing the 3D coordinates of the track intersection with each plane. The fibers planes are followed by a plastic scintillator and by a small calorimeter built with a pixelated Lutetium Fine Silicate (LFS) crystal. A complete detector simulation, followed by the event reconstruction, has been performed to determine the achievable monitoring spatial resolution. - Highlights: • On-line range monitoring in hadrontherapy. • New approach: detection of charged secondary particles escaping the patient. • Correlation of longitudinal emission profile of secondaries with the beam range. • New detector integrated in a multi-modal system to be tested in clinical operation.

  20. Modeling of Maximum Power Point Tracking Controller for Solar Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryuanto Soetedjo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT controller for solar power system is modeled using MATLAB Simulink. The model consists of PV module, buck converter, and MPPT controller. The contribution of the work is in the modeling of buck converter that allowing the input voltage of the converter, i.e. output voltage of PV is changed by varying the duty cycle, so that the maximum power point could be tracked when the environmental changes. The simulation results show that the developed model performs well in tracking the maximum power point (MPP of the PV module using Perturb and Observe (P&O Algorithm.

  1. Stair Climbing Control for 4-DOF Tracked Vehicle Based on Internal Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Endo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In search-and-rescue missions, multi-degrees-of-freedom (DOF tracked robots that are equipped with subtracks are commonly used. These types of robots have superior locomotion performance on rough terrain. However, in teleoperated missions, the performance of tracked robots depends largely on the operators’ ability to control every subtrack appropriately. Therefore, an autonomous traversal function can significantly help in the teleoperation of such robots. In this paper, we propose a planning and control method for 4-DOF tracked robots climbing up/down known stairs automatically based on internal sensors. Experimental results obtained using mockup stairs verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. Experiments in nonlinear dynamics using control-based continuation: Tracking stable and unstable response curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bureau, Emil; Schilder, Frank; Santos, Ilmar

    2014-01-01

    We show how to implement control-based continuation in a nonlinear experiment using existing and freely available software. We demonstrate that it is possible to track the complete frequency response, including the unstable branches, for a harmonically forced impact oscillator.......We show how to implement control-based continuation in a nonlinear experiment using existing and freely available software. We demonstrate that it is possible to track the complete frequency response, including the unstable branches, for a harmonically forced impact oscillator....

  3. Robust reactor power control system design by genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yoon Joon; Cho, Kyung Ho; Kim, Sin [Cheju National University, Cheju (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The H{sub {infinity}} robust controller for the reactor power control system is designed by use of the mixed weight sensitivity. The system is configured into the typical two-port model with which the weight functions are augmented. Since the solution depends on the weighting functions and the problem is of nonconvex, the genetic algorithm is used to determine the weighting functions. The cost function applied in the genetic algorithm permits the direct control of the power tracking performances. In addition, the actual operating constraints such as rod velocity and acceleration can be treated as design parameters. Compared with the conventional approach, the controller designed by the genetic algorithm results in the better performances with the realistic constraints. Also, it is found that the genetic algorithm could be used as an effective tool in the robust design. 4 refs., 6 figs. (Author)

  4. Robust reactor power control system design by genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yoon Joon; Cho, Kyung Ho; Kim, Sin [Cheju National University, Cheju (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The H{sub {infinity}} robust controller for the reactor power control system is designed by use of the mixed weight sensitivity. The system is configured into the typical two-port model with which the weight functions are augmented. Since the solution depends on the weighting functions and the problem is of nonconvex, the genetic algorithm is used to determine the weighting functions. The cost function applied in the genetic algorithm permits the direct control of the power tracking performances. In addition, the actual operating constraints such as rod velocity and acceleration can be treated as design parameters. Compared with the conventional approach, the controller designed by the genetic algorithm results in the better performances with the realistic constraints. Also, it is found that the genetic algorithm could be used as an effective tool in the robust design. 4 refs., 6 figs. (Author)

  5. Maximum power point tracking-based control algorithm for PMSG wind generation system without mechanical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Chih-Ming; Chen, Chiung-Hsing; Tu, Chia-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► This paper presents MPPT based control for optimal wind energy capture using RBFN. ► MPSO is adopted to adjust the learning rates to improve the learning capability. ► This technique can maintain the system stability and reach the desired performance. ► The EMF in the rotating reference frame is utilized in order to estimate speed. - Abstract: This paper presents maximum-power-point-tracking (MPPT) based control algorithms for optimal wind energy capture using radial basis function network (RBFN) and a proposed torque observer MPPT algorithm. The design of a high-performance on-line training RBFN using back-propagation learning algorithm with modified particle swarm optimization (MPSO) regulating controller for the sensorless control of a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). The MPSO is adopted in this study to adapt the learning rates in the back-propagation process of the RBFN to improve the learning capability. The PMSG is controlled by the loss-minimization control with MPPT below the base speed, which corresponds to low and high wind speed, and the maximum energy can be captured from the wind. Then the observed disturbance torque is feed-forward to increase the robustness of the PMSG system

  6. Design and Analysis of Morpheus Lander Flight Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jiann-Woei; Yang, Lee; Fritz, Mathew; Nguyen, Louis H.; Johnson, Wyatt R.; Hart, Jeremy J.

    2014-01-01

    The Morpheus Lander is a vertical takeoff and landing test bed vehicle developed to demonstrate the system performance of the Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) system capability for the integrated autonomous landing and hazard avoidance system hardware and software. The Morpheus flight control system design must be robust to various mission profiles. This paper presents a design methodology for employing numerical optimization to develop the Morpheus flight control system. The design objectives include attitude tracking accuracy and robust stability with respect to rigid body dynamics and propellant slosh. Under the assumption that the Morpheus time-varying dynamics and control system can be frozen over a short period of time, the flight controllers are designed to stabilize all selected frozen-time control systems in the presence of parametric uncertainty. Both control gains in the inner attitude control loop and guidance gains in the outer position control loop are designed to maximize the vehicle performance while ensuring robustness. The flight control system designs provided herein have been demonstrated to provide stable control systems in both Draper Ares Stability Analysis Tool (ASAT) and the NASA/JSC Trick-based Morpheus time domain simulation.

  7. Exploring the value of parent-tracked baby data in interactions with healthcare professionals : A data-enabled design exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kollenburg, J.W.M.; Bogers, S.J.A.; Rutjes, H.; Deckers, E.J.L.; Frens, J.W.; Hummels, C.C.M.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a designerly exploration of the potential values of parent-tracked baby data in interactions between parents and healthcare professionals (HCPs). Where previous work has used parent-tracked data as part of the solution to a problem, we contribute by starting our design

  8. On-Line Tracking Controller for Brushless DC Motor Drives Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubaai, Ahmed

    1996-01-01

    A real-time control architecture is developed for time-varying nonlinear brushless dc motors operating in a high performance drives environment. The developed control architecture possesses the capabilities of simultaneous on-line identification and control. The dynamics of the motor are modeled on-line and controlled using an artificial neural network, as the system runs. The control architecture combines the experience and dependability of adaptive tracking systems with potential and promise of the neural computing technology. The sensitivity of real-time controller to parametric changes that occur during training is investigated. Such changes are usually manifested by rapid changes in the load of the brushless motor drives. This sudden change in the external load is simulated for the sigmoidal and sinusoidal reference tracks. The ability of the neuro-controller to maintain reasonable tracking accuracy in the presence of external noise is also verified for a number of desired reference trajectories.

  9. Assisted design, implementation, and modification of procedure tracking and advisory systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson-Hine, F.A.; Boy, G.A.; Conley, J.L.; Iverson, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    Automated procedure tracking systems have been of interest in the nuclear power industry due to the huge numbers of documented procedures required for the operation and maintenance of commercial power reactors. Tools are under development at Ames Research center that form the basis of an intelligent advisory system for process control applications. Two tools, one for documentation maintenance and management and the other for automated fault diagnosis, are being integrated to build an advisory system appropriate for use in facilities that require emergency readiness and safety-critical operations. The problem of automation of documents management and maintenance has been analyzed from artificial intelligence and from human factors viewpoints. A software tool, called computer-integrated documentation (CID), has been designed and is under further development to address these issues. A fault diagnosis algorithm has been developed and implemented in a software tool called the fault-tree diagnosis system (FTDS). The algorithm uses a knowledge base that is easily changed and updated to reflect current system status. An integrated tool set consisting of CID and FTDS is being used to develop and demonstrate an intelligent advisory system for use in a flight test environment for advanced aircraft

  10. Design of a Solar Tracking System Using the Brightest Region in the Sky Image Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ching-Chuan; Song, Yu-Chang; Chang, Chia-Chi; Lin, Chuan-Bi

    2016-11-25

    Solar energy is certainly an energy source worth exploring and utilizing because of the environmental protection it offers. However, the conversion efficiency of solar energy is still low. If the photovoltaic panel perpendicularly tracks the sun, the solar energy conversion efficiency will be improved. In this article, we propose an innovative method to track the sun using an image sensor. In our method, it is logical to assume the points of the brightest region in the sky image representing the location of the sun. Then, the center of the brightest region is assumed to be the solar-center, and is mathematically calculated using an embedded processor (Raspberry Pi). Finally, the location information on the sun center is sent to the embedded processor to control two servo motors that are capable of moving both horizontally and vertically to track the sun. In comparison with the existing sun tracking methods using image sensors, such as the Hough transform method, our method based on the brightest region in the sky image remains accurate under conditions such as a sunny day and building shelter. The practical sun tracking system using our method was implemented and tested. The results reveal that the system successfully captured the real sun center in most weather conditions, and the servo motor system was able to direct the photovoltaic panel perpendicularly to the sun center. In addition, our system can be easily and practically integrated, and can operate in real-time.

  11. Design of a Solar Tracking System Using the Brightest Region in the Sky Image Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chuan Wei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is certainly an energy source worth exploring and utilizing because of the environmental protection it offers. However, the conversion efficiency of solar energy is still low. If the photovoltaic panel perpendicularly tracks the sun, the solar energy conversion efficiency will be improved. In this article, we propose an innovative method to track the sun using an image sensor. In our method, it is logical to assume the points of the brightest region in the sky image representing the location of the sun. Then, the center of the brightest region is assumed to be the solar-center, and is mathematically calculated using an embedded processor (Raspberry Pi. Finally, the location information on the sun center is sent to the embedded processor to control two servo motors that are capable of moving both horizontally and vertically to track the sun. In comparison with the existing sun tracking methods using image sensors, such as the Hough transform method, our method based on the brightest region in the sky image remains accurate under conditions such as a sunny day and building shelter. The practical sun tracking system using our method was implemented and tested. The results reveal that the system successfully captured the real sun center in most weather conditions, and the servo motor system was able to direct the photovoltaic panel perpendicularly to the sun center. In addition, our system can be easily and practically integrated, and can operate in real-time.

  12. A Design of a Hybrid Non-Linear Control Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farinaz Behrooz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the high energy consuming devices in the buildings is the air-conditioning system. Designing a proper controller to consider the thermal comfort and simultaneously control the energy usage of the device will impact on the system energy efficiency and its performance. The aim of this study was to design a Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output (MIMO, non-linear, and intelligent controller on direct expansion air-conditioning system The control algorithm uses the Fuzzy Cognitive Map method as a main controller and the Generalized Predictive Control method is used for assigning the initial weights of the main controller. The results of the proposed controller shows that the controller was successfully designed and works in set point tracking and under disturbance rejection tests. The obtained results of the Generalized Predictive Control-Fuzzy Cognitive Map controller are compared with the previous MIMO Linear Quadratic Gaussian control design on the same direct expansion air-conditioning system under the same conditions. The comparative results indicate energy savings would be achieved with the proposed controller with long-term usage. Energy efficiency and thermal comfort conditions are achieved by the proposed controller.

  13. The Design of High Performance, Low Power Triple-Track Magnetic Sensor Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junning Chen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a design of a high performance and low power consumption triple-track magnetic sensor chip which was fabricated in TSMC 0.35 μm CMOS process. This chip is able to simultaneously sense, decode and read out the information stored in triple-track magnetic cards. A reference voltage generating circuit, a low-cost filter circuit, a power-on reset circuit, an RC oscillator, and a pre-decoding circuit are utilized as the basic modules. The triple-track magnetic sensor chip has four states, i.e., reset, sleep, swiping card and data read-out. In sleep state, the internal RC oscillator is closed, which means that the digital part does not operate to optimize energy consumption. In order to improve decoding accuracy and expand the sensing range of the signal, two kinds of circuit are put forward, naming offset correction circuit, and tracking circuit. With these two circuits, the sensing function of this chip can be more efficiently and accurately. We simulated these circuit modules with TSMC technology library. The results showed that these modules worked well within wide range input signal. Based on these results, the layout and tape-out were carried out. The measurement results showed that the chip do function well within a wide swipe speed range, which achieved the design target.

  14. Region stability analysis and tracking control of memristive recurrent neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Gang; Zeng, Zhigang; Shen, Yanjun

    2018-02-01

    Memristor is firstly postulated by Leon Chua and realized by Hewlett-Packard (HP) laboratory. Research results show that memristor can be used to simulate the synapses of neurons. This paper presents a class of recurrent neural network with HP memristors. Firstly, it shows that memristive recurrent neural network has more compound dynamics than the traditional recurrent neural network by simulations. Then it derives that n dimensional memristive recurrent neural network is composed of [Formula: see text] sub neural networks which do not have a common equilibrium point. By designing the tracking controller, it can make memristive neural network being convergent to the desired sub neural network. At last, two numerical examples are given to verify the validity of our result. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Optimizing the balance between task automation and human manual control in simulated submarine track management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Stephanie I; Visser, Troy A W; Huf, Samuel; Loft, Shayne

    2017-09-01

    Automation can improve operator performance and reduce workload, but can also degrade operator situation awareness (SA) and the ability to regain manual control. In 3 experiments, we examined the extent to which automation could be designed to benefit performance while ensuring that individuals maintained SA and could regain manual control. Participants completed a simulated submarine track management task under varying task load. The automation was designed to facilitate information acquisition and analysis, but did not make task decisions. Relative to a condition with no automation, the continuous use of automation improved performance and reduced subjective workload, but degraded SA. Automation that was engaged and disengaged by participants as required (adaptable automation) moderately improved performance and reduced workload relative to no automation, but degraded SA. Automation engaged and disengaged based on task load (adaptive automation) provided no benefit to performance or workload, and degraded SA relative to no automation. Automation never led to significant return-to-manual deficits. However, all types of automation led to degraded performance on a nonautomated task that shared information processing requirements with automated tasks. Given these outcomes, further research is urgently required to establish how to design automation to maximize performance while keeping operators cognitively engaged. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Two Reconfigurable Flight-Control Design Methods: Robust Servomechanism and Control Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burken, John J.; Lu, Ping; Wu, Zheng-Lu; Bahm, Cathy

    2001-01-01

    Two methods for control system reconfiguration have been investigated. The first method is a robust servomechanism control approach (optimal tracking problem) that is a generalization of the classical proportional-plus-integral control to multiple input-multiple output systems. The second method is a control-allocation approach based on a quadratic programming formulation. A globally convergent fixed-point iteration algorithm has been developed to make onboard implementation of this method feasible. These methods have been applied to reconfigurable entry flight control design for the X-33 vehicle. Examples presented demonstrate simultaneous tracking of angle-of-attack and roll angle commands during failures of the fight body flap actuator. Although simulations demonstrate success of the first method in most cases, the control-allocation method appears to provide uniformly better performance in all cases.

  17. Attitude Dynamics and Tracking Control of Spacecraft in the Presence of Gravity Oblateness Perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim IONITA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The orbital docking represents a problem of great importance in aerospace engineering. The paper aims to perform an analysis of docking maneuvers between a chaser vehicle and a target vehicle in permanent LEO (low earth orbit. The work begins with a study of the attitude dynamics modeling intended to define the strategy that facilitates the chaser movement toward a docking part of the target. An LQR (linear quadratic regulator approach presents an optimal control design that provides linearized closed-loop error dynamics for tracking a desired quaternion. The control law formulation is combined with the control architecture based on SDRE (State Dependent Riccati equation technique for rotational maneuvers, including the Earth oblateness perturbation. The chaser body-fixed frame must coincide with the target body-fixed frame at the docking moment. Then the implementation of the control architecture based on LQR technique using the computational tool MATLAB is carried out. In simulation of the docking strategy V-R bar operations are analyzed and the minimum accelerations needs the control of chaser vehicle. The simulation analysis of those maneuvers considered for a chaser vehicle and a target vehicle in LEO orbit is validated in a case study.

  18. High precision tracking control of a servo gantry with dynamic friction compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yangming; Yan, Peng; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-05-01

    This paper is concerned with the tracking control problem of a voice coil motor (VCM) actuated servo gantry system. By utilizing an adaptive control technique combined with a sliding mode approach, an adaptive sliding mode control (ASMC) law with friction compensation scheme is proposed in presence of both frictions and external disturbances. Based on the LuGre dynamic friction model, a dual-observer structure is used to estimate the unmeasurable friction state, and an adaptive control law is synthesized to effectively handle the unknown friction model parameters as well as the bound of the disturbances. Moreover, the proposed control law is also implemented on a VCM servo gantry system for motion tracking. Simulations and experimental results demonstrate good tracking performance, which outperform traditional control approaches. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Neural network application to aircraft control system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troudet, Terry; Garg, Sanjay; Merrill, Walter C.

    1991-01-01

    The feasibility of using artificial neural network as control systems for modern, complex aerospace vehicles is investigated via an example aircraft control design study. The problem considered is that of designing a controller for an integrated airframe/propulsion longitudinal dynamics model of a modern fighter aircraft to provide independent control of pitch rate and airspeed responses to pilot command inputs. An explicit model following controller using H infinity control design techniques is first designed to gain insight into the control problem as well as to provide a baseline for evaluation of the neurocontroller. Using the model of the desired dynamics as a command generator, a multilayer feedforward neural network is trained to control the vehicle model within the physical limitations of the actuator dynamics. This is achieved by minimizing an objective function which is a weighted sum of tracking errors and control input commands and rates. To gain insight in the neurocontrol, linearized representations of the nonlinear neurocontroller are analyzed along a commanded trajectory. Linear robustness analysis tools are then applied to the linearized neurocontroller models and to the baseline H infinity based controller. Future areas of research identified to enhance the practical applicability of neural networks to flight control design.

  20. Neural network application to aircraft control system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troudet, Terry; Garg, Sanjay; Merrill, Walter C.

    1991-01-01

    The feasibility of using artificial neural networks as control systems for modern, complex aerospace vehicles is investigated via an example aircraft control design study. The problem considered is that of designing a controller for an integrated airframe/propulsion longitudinal dynamics model of a modern fighter aircraft to provide independent control of pitch rate and airspeed responses to pilot command inputs. An explicit model following controller using H infinity control design techniques is first designed to gain insight into the control problem as well as to provide a baseline for evaluation of the neurocontroller. Using the model of the desired dynamics as a command generator, a multilayer feedforward neural network is trained to control the vehicle model within the physical limitations of the actuator dynamics. This is achieved by minimizing an objective function which is a weighted sum of tracking errors and control input commands and rates. To gain insight in the neurocontrol, linearized representations of the nonlinear neurocontroller are analyzed along a commanded trajectory. Linear robustness analysis tools are then applied to the linearized neurocontroller models and to the baseline H infinity based controller. Future areas of research are identified to enhance the practical applicability of neural networks to flight control design.

  1. Robust Control Design for Uncertain Nonlinear Dynamic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Sean P.; Crespo, Luis G.; Andrews, Lindsey; Giesy, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    Robustness to parametric uncertainty is fundamental to successful control system design and as such it has been at the core of many design methods developed over the decades. Despite its prominence, most of the work on robust control design has focused on linear models and uncertainties that are non-probabilistic in nature. Recently, researchers have acknowledged this disparity and have been developing theory to address a broader class of uncertainties. This paper presents an experimental application of robust control design for a hybrid class of probabilistic and non-probabilistic parametric uncertainties. The experimental apparatus is based upon the classic inverted pendulum on a cart. The physical uncertainty is realized by a known additional lumped mass at an unknown location on the pendulum. This unknown location has the effect of substantially altering the nominal frequency and controllability of the nonlinear system, and in the limit has the capability to make the system neutrally stable and uncontrollable. Another uncertainty to be considered is a direct current motor parameter. The control design objective is to design a controller that satisfies stability, tracking error, control power, and transient behavior requirements for the largest range of parametric uncertainties. This paper presents an overview of the theory behind the robust control design methodology and the experimental results.

  2. Two non-tracking solar collectors: Design criteria and performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratismith, Wattana; Inthongkhum, Anusorn; Briggs, John

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A collector module designed to capture solar radiation efficiently is proposed. • Two different compound parabolic trough designs are examined and tested. • A novel design with a flat base trough and vertical absorber operates efficiently in direct and diffuse sunlight. - Abstract: We propose fixed (non-tracking) configurations of solar light collector modules which are designed to operate efficiently throughout the day, i.e. for varying incident angles of direct sunlight, and in conditions of diffuse solar irradiation. We present two trough designs of compound parabolic collector (CPC) type. One, a more conventional double-parabolic trough, has the absorber plate perpendicular to the vertical axis of the trough cross-section. The other, of a new flat-base shape, has the absorber plate parallel. The collectors have two novel features appropriate to non-tracking. The first is a smoothing of the power output over the day by the simple expedient of arranging three troughs tilted at different angles. The second is the original design of the flat-base trough allowing optimal interception of the caustic surfaces of this non-focussing device. By ray-tracing analysis of the different trough shapes and absorber plate orientation, we emphasise the design criteria for achievement of a high intercept factor throughout the day without tracking and demonstrate the superiority of the flat-base collector over the double-parabolic design. In test experiments we show that the high temperatures (≈180 °C) necessary for some industrial process heat applications can be achieved. Also test results of the efficiency of the proposed systems are presented which indicate that the flat-base trough with vertical absorber plate is superior to the double-parabolic trough with horizontal absorber plate

  3. Robust tracking control of two-degrees-of-freedom mobile robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oelen, W.; Oelen, W.; van Amerongen, J.

    1994-01-01

    A robust tracking controller for a mobile robot with two degrees of freedom has been developed. It is implemented and tested on a real mobile robot. Where other controllers show decreasing performance for low reference velocities, the performance of this controller depends only on the geometry of

  4. Second Order Sliding Mode Controller Design for Pneumatic Artificial Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Al-Jodah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, first and second order sliding mode controllers are designed for a single link robotic arm actuated by two Pneumatic Artificial Muscles (PAMs. A new mathematical model for the arm has been developed based on the model of large scale pneumatic muscle actuator model. Uncertainty in parameters has been presented and tested for the two controllers. The simulation results of the second-order sliding mode controller proves to have a low tracking error and chattering effect as compared to the first order one. The verification has been done by using MATLAB and Simulink software.

  5. The Automation Control System Design of Walking Beam Heating Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Yu LIU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Combining the transformation project of certain strip steel rolling production line, the techniques process of walking beam heating furnace was elaborated in this paper. The practical application of LOS-T18-2ZC1 laser detector was elaborated. The network communication model of walking beam heating furnace control system was designed. The realization method of production process automation control was elaborated. The entire automation control system allocation picture and PLC power distribution system picture of walking beam heating furnace were designed. Charge machine movement process was elaborated. Walking beam movement process was elaborated. Extractor movement process was elaborated. The hydraulic station of walking mechanism was elaborated. Relative control circuit diagram was designed. The control function of parallel shift motor, uplifted and degressive motor was elaborated. The control circuit diagram of parallel shift motor of charge machine and extractor of first heating furnace was designed. The control circuit diagram of uplifted and degressive motor of charge machine and extractor of first heating furnace was designed. The realization method of steel blank length test function was elaborated. The realization method of tracking and sequence control function of heating furnace field roller were elaborated. The design provides important reference base for enhancing walking beam heating furnace control level.

  6. HAMMLAB 1999 experimental control room: design - design rationale - experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerdestroemmen, N. T.; Meyer, B. D.; Saarni, R.

    1999-01-01

    A presentation of HAMMLAB 1999 experimental control room, and the accumulated experiences gathered in the areas of design and design rationale as well as user experiences. It is concluded that HAMMLAB 1999 experimental control room is a realistic, compact and efficient control room well suited as an Advanced NPP Control Room (ml)

  7. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A LARGE SIZE NON-TRACKING SOLAR COOKER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. NAHAR

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A large size novel non-tracking solar cooker has been designed, developed and tested. The cooker has been designed in such a way that the width to length ratio for reflector and glass window is about 4 so that maximum radiation falls on the glass window. This has helped in eliminating azimuthal tracking that is required in simple hot box solar cooker towards the Sun every hour because the width to length ratio of reflector is 1. It has been found that stagnation temperatures were 118.5oC and 108oC in large size non-tracking solar cooker and hot box solar cooker respectively. It takes about 2 h for soft food and 3 h for hard food. The cooker is capable of cooking 4.0 kg of food at a time. The efficiency of the large size non-tracking solar cooker has been found to be 27.5%. The cooker saves 5175 MJ of energy per year. The cost of the cooker is Rs. 10000.00 (1.0 US$ = Rs. 50.50. The payback period has been calculated by considering 10% annual interest, 5% maintenance cost and 5% inflation in fuel prices and maintenance cost. The payback period is least, i.e. 1.58 yr., with respect to electricity and maximum, i.e. 4.89 yr., with respect to kerosene. The payback periods are in increasing order with respect to fuel: electricity, coal, firewood, liquid petroleum gas, and kerosene. The shorter payback periods suggests that the use of large size non-tracking solar cooker is economical.

  8. Master-slave control with trajectory planning and Bouc-Wen model for tracking control of piezo-driven stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaojun; Liu, Changli; Chen, Lei

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a redundant Piezo-driven stage having 3RRR compliant mechanism is introduced, we propose the master-slave control with trajectory planning (MSCTP) strategy and Bouc-Wen model to improve its micro-motion tracking performance. The advantage of the proposed controller lies in that its implementation only requires a simple control strategy without the complexity of modeling to avoid the master PEA's tracking error. The dynamic model of slave PEA system with Bouc-Wen hysteresis is established and identified via particle swarm optimization (PSO) approach. The Piezo-driven stage with operating period T=1s and 2s is implemented to track a prescribed circle. The simulation results show that MSCTP with Bouc-Wen model reduces the trajectory tracking errors to the range of the accuracy of our available measurement.

  9. Comparison of Extremum-Seeking Control Techniques for Maximum Power Point Tracking in Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Han Wu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to Japan’s recent nuclear crisis and petroleum price hikes, the search for renewable energy sources has become an issue of immediate concern. A promising candidate attracting much global attention is solar energy, as it is green and also inexhaustible. A maximum power point tracking (MPPT controller is employed in such a way that the output power provided by a photovoltaic (PV system is boosted to its maximum level. However, in the context of abrupt changes in irradiance, conventional MPPT controller approaches suffer from insufficient robustness against ambient variation, inferior transient response and a loss of output power as a consequence of the long duration required of tracking procedures. Accordingly, in this work the maximum power point tracking is carried out successfully using a sliding mode extremum-seeking control (SMESC method, and the tracking performances of three controllers are compared by simulations, that is, an extremum-seeking controller, a sinusoidal extremum-seeking controller and a sliding mode extremum-seeking controller. Being able to track the maximum power point promptly in the case of an abrupt change in irradiance, the SMESC approach is proven by simulations to be superior in terms of system dynamic and steady state responses, and an excellent robustness along with system stability is demonstrated as well.

  10. Pulse width modulation-based temperature tracking for feedback control of a shape memory alloy actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayvali, Elif; Desai, Jaydev P

    2014-04-01

    This work presents a temperature-feedback approach to control the radius of curvature of an arc-shaped shape memory alloy (SMA) wire. The nonlinear properties of the SMA such as phase transformation and its dependence on temperature and stress make SMA actuators difficult to control. Tracking a desired trajectory is more challenging than controlling just the position of the SMA actuator since the desired path is continuously changing. Consequently, tracking the desired strain directly or tracking the parameters such as temperature and electrical resistance that are related to strain with a model is a challenging task. Temperature-feedback is an attractive approach when direct measurement of strain is not practical. Pulse width modulation (PWM) is an effective method for SMA actuation and it can be used along with a compensator to control the temperature of the SMA. Using the constitutive model of the SMA, the desired temperature profile can be obtained for a given strain trajectory. A PWM-based nonlinear PID controller with a feed-forward heat transfer model is proposed to use temperature-feedback for tracking a desired temperature trajectory. The proposed controller is used during the heating phase of the SMA actuator. The controller proves to be effective in tracking step-wise and continuous trajectories.

  11. Comparing Two Types of Text-Tracking Design for Young Learners' E-Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei-Yu

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of e-book text-tracking design on 4th graders' (10-year-old children's) learning of Chinese characters. The e-books used in this study were created with Adobe Flash CS 5.5 and Action Script 3.0. This study was guided by two main questions: (1) Is there any difference in learning achievement (Chinese character…

  12. Comparing Acoustic Tag Attachments Designed for Mobile Tracking of Hatchling Sea Turtles

    OpenAIRE

    Hoover, Aimee L.; Shillinger, George L.; Swiggs, Jennifer; Bailey, Helen

    2017-01-01

    The poorly understood movements of sea turtles during the “lost years” of their early life history have been characterized as a “passive drifter” stage. Biologging technology allows us to study patterns of dispersal, but the small body size of young life stages requires particular consideration that such tagging does not significantly impede animal movements. We tested the effect of instrument attachment methods for mobile acoustic tracking of hatchling sea turtles, including a design that wo...

  13. Control of Higher–Dimensional PDEs Flatness and Backstepping Designs

    CERN Document Server

    Meurer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This monograph presents new model-based design methods for trajectory planning, feedback stabilization, state estimation, and tracking control of distributed-parameter systems governed by partial differential equations (PDEs). Flatness and backstepping techniques and their generalization to PDEs with higher-dimensional spatial domain lie at the core of this treatise. This includes the development of systematic late lumping design procedures and the deduction of semi-numerical approaches using suitable approximation methods. Theoretical developments are combined with both simulation examples and experimental results to bridge the gap between mathematical theory and control engineering practice in the rapidly evolving PDE control area. The text is divided into five parts featuring: - a literature survey of paradigms and control design methods for PDE systems - the first principle mathematical modeling of applications arising in heat and mass transfer, interconnected multi-agent systems, and piezo-actuated smar...

  14. An adaptive unscented Kalman filter-based adaptive tracking control for wheeled mobile robots with control constrains in the presence of wheel slipping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Cui

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel control approach is proposed for trajectory tracking of a wheeled mobile robot with unknown wheels’ slipping. The longitudinal and lateral slipping are considered and processed as three time-varying parameters. The adaptive unscented Kalman filter is then designed to estimate the slipping parameters online, an adaptive adjustment of the noise covariances in the estimation process is implemented using a technique of covariance matching in the adaptive unscented Kalman filter context. Considering the practical physical constrains, a stable tracking control law for this robot system is proposed by the backstepping method. Asymptotic stability is guaranteed by Lyapunov stability theory. Control gains are determined online by applying pole placement method. Simulation and real experiment results show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control method.

  15. Optimal Control Strategy for Marine Ssp Podded Propulsion Motor Based on Strong Tracking-Epf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wenlong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the non-linearity of state equation and observation equation of SSP (Siemen Schottel Propulsor propulsion motor, an improved particle filter algorithm based on strong tracking extent Kalman filter (ST-EKF was presented, and it was imported into the marine SSP propulsion motor control system. The strong tracking filter was used to update particles in the new algorithm and produce importance densities. As a result, the problems of particle degeneracy and sample impoverishment were ameliorated, the propulsion motor states and the rotor resistance were estimated simultaneously using strong track filter (STF, and the tracking ability of marine SSP propulsion motor control system was improved. Simulation result shown that the improved EPF algorithm was not only improving the prediction accuracy of the motor states and the rotor resistance, but also it can satisfy the requirement of navigation in harbor. It had the better accuracy than EPF algorithm.

  16. A New MPPT Control for Photovoltaic Panels by Instantaneous Maximum Power Point Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokushima, Daiki; Uchida, Masato; Kanbei, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Hiroki; Naitoh, Haruo

    This paper presents a new maximum power point tracking control for photovoltaic (PV) panels. The control can be categorized into the Perturb and Observe (P & O) method. It utilizes instantaneous voltage ripples at PV panel output terminals caused by the switching of a chopper connected to the panel in order to identify the direction for the maximum power point (MPP). The tracking for the MPP is achieved by a feedback control of the average terminal voltage of the panel. Appropriate use of the instantaneous and the average values of the PV voltage for the separate purposes enables both the quick transient response and the good convergence with almost no ripples simultaneously. The tracking capability is verified experimentally with a 2.8 W PV panel under a controlled experimental setup. A numerical comparison with a conventional P & O confirms that the proposed control extracts much more power from the PV panel.

  17. Recurrent fuzzy neural network backstepping control for the prescribed output tracking performance of nonlinear dynamic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seong-Ik; Lee, Jang-Myung

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a backstepping control system that uses a tracking error constraint and recurrent fuzzy neural networks (RFNNs) to achieve a prescribed tracking performance for a strict-feedback nonlinear dynamic system. A new constraint variable was defined to generate the virtual control that forces the tracking error to fall within prescribed boundaries. An adaptive RFNN was also used to obtain the required improvement on the approximation performances in order to avoid calculating the explosive number of terms generated by the recursive steps of traditional backstepping control. The boundedness and convergence of the closed-loop system was confirmed based on the Lyapunov stability theory. The prescribed performance of the proposed control scheme was validated by using it to control the prescribed error of a nonlinear system and a robot manipulator. © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The research on algorithms for optoelectronic tracking servo control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qi-Hai; Zhao, Chang-Ming; Zhu, Zheng; Li, Kun

    2016-10-01

    The photoelectric servo control system based on PC controllers is mainly used to control the speed and position of the load. This paper analyzed the mathematical modeling and the system identification of the servo system. In the aspect of the control algorithm, the IP regulator, the fuzzy PID, the Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC) and the adaptive algorithms were compared and analyzed. The PI-P control algorithm was proposed in this paper, which not only has the advantages of the PI regulator that can be quickly saturated, but also overcomes the shortcomings of the IP regulator. The control system has a good starting performance and the anti-load ability in a wide range. Experimental results show that the system has good performance under the guarantee of the PI-P control algorithm.

  19. Technical Design Report for the Upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Abelev, B; Adamová, D; Aggarwal, M M; Aglieri Rinella, G; Agnello, M; Agostinelli, A; Agrawal, N; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad, N; Ahmad Masoodi, A; Ahmed, I; Ahn, S U; Ahn, S A; Aimo, I; Aiola, S; Ajaz, M; Akindinov, A; Aleksandrov, D; Alessandro, B; Alexandre, D; Alici, A; Alkin, A; Alme, J; Alt, T; Altini, V; Altinpinar, S; Altsybeev, I; Alves Garcia Prado, C; Anderssen, E C; Andrei, C; Andronic, A; Anguelov, V; Anielski, J; Anticic, T; Antinori, F; Antonioli, P; Aphecetche, L; Appelshäuser, H; Arbor, N; Arcelli, S; Armesto, N; Arnaldi, R; Aronsson, T; Arsene, I C; Arslandok, M; Augustinus, A; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmi, M D; Bach, M; Badalà, A; Baek, Y W; Bagnasco, S; Bailhache, R; Bairathi, V; Bala, R; Baldisseri, A; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F; Bán, J; Baral, R C; Barbera, R; Barile, F; Barnaföldi, G G; Barnby, L S; Barret, V; Bartke, J; Basile, M; Bastian Van Beelen, J; Bastid, N; Basu, S; Bathen, B; Batigne, G; Battistin, M; Batyunya, B; Batzing, P C; Baudot, J; Baumann, C; Bearden, I G; Beck, H; Bedda, C; Behera, N K; Belikov, I; Bellini, F; Bellwied, R; Belmont-Moreno, E; Bencedi, G; Benettoni, M; Benotto, F; Beole, S; Berceanu, I; Bercuci, A; Berdnikov, Y; Berenyi, D; Berger, M E; Bertens, R A; Berzano, D; Besson, A; Betev, L; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhatti, A; Bhattacharjee, B; Bhom, J; Bianchi, L; Bianchi, N; Bianchin, C; Bielcík, J; Bielcíková, J; Bilandzic, A; Bjelogrlic, S; Blanco, F; Blau, D; Blume, C; Bock, F; Boehmer, F V; Bogdanov, A; Boggild, H; Bogolyubsky, M; Boldizsár, L; Bombara, M; Book, J; Borel, H; Borissov, A; Bornschein, J; Borshchov, V N; Bortolin, C; Bossú, F; Botje, M; Botta, E; Böttger, S; Braun-Munzinger, P; Breitner, T; Broker, T A; Browning, T A; Broz, M; Bruna, E; Bruno, G E; Budnikov, D; Buesching, H; Bufalino, S; Buncic, P; Busch, O; Buthelezi, Z; Caffarri, D; Cai, X; Caines, H; Caliva, A; Calvo Villar, E; Camerini, P; Canoa Roman, V; Carena, F; Carena, W; Cariola, P; Carminati, F; Casanova Díaz, A; Castillo Castellanos, J; Casula, E A R; Catanescu, V; Caudron, T; Cavicchioli, C; Ceballos Sanchez, C; Cepila, J; Cerello, P; Chang, B; Chapeland, S; Charvet, J L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Cherney, M; Cheshkov, C; Cheynis, B; Chibante Barroso, V; Chinellato, D D; Chochula, P; Chojnacki, M; Choudhury, S; Christakoglou, P; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, S U; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Claus, G; Cleymans, J; Colamaria, F; Colella, D; Coli, S; Colledani, C; Collu, A; Colocci, M; Conesa Balbastre, G; Conesa del Valle, Z; Connors, M E; Contin, G; Contreras, J G; Cormier, T M; Corrales Morales, Y; Cortese, P; Cortés Maldonado, I; Cosentino, M R; Costa, F; Crochet, P; Cruz Albino, R; Cuautle, E; Cunqueiro, L; Dainese, A; Dang, R; Danu, A; Da Riva, E; Das, D; Das, I; Das, K; Das, S; Dash, A; Dash, S; De, S; Decosse, C; Delagrange, H; Deloff, A; Dénes, E; D'Erasmo, G; de Barros, G O V; De Caro, A; de Cataldo, G; de Cuveland, J; De Falco, A; De Gruttola, D; De Marco, N; De Pasquale, S; De Robertis, G; De Roo, K; de Rooij, R; Diaz Corchero, M A; Dietel, T; Divià, R; Di Bari, D; Di Liberto, S; Di Mauro, A; Di Nezza, P; Djuvsland, o; Dobrin, A; Dobrowolski, T; Domenicis Gimenez, D; Dönigus, B; Dordic, O; Dorheim, S; Dorokhov, A; Doziere, G; Dubey, A K; Dubla, A; Ducroux, L; Dulinski, W; Dupieux, P; Dutta Majumdar, A K; Ehlers III, R J; Elia, D; Engel, H; Erazmus, B; Erdal, H A; Eschweiler, D; Espagnon, B; Estienne, M; Esumi, S; Evans, D; Evdokimov, S; Eyyubova, G; Fabris, D; Faivre, J; Falchieri, D; Fantoni, A; Fasel, M; Fehlker, D; Feldkamp, L; Felea, D; Feliciello, A; Feofilov, G; Ferencei, J; Fernández Téllez, A; Ferreiro, E G; Ferretti, A; Festanti, A; Figiel, J; Figueredo, M A S; Filchagin, S; Finogeev, D; Fionda, F M; Fiore, E M; Fiorenza, G; Floratos, E; Floris, M; Foertsch, S; Foka, P; Fokin, S; Fragiacomo, E; Francescon, A; Franco, M; Frankenfeld, U; Fuchs, U; Furget, C; Fusco Girard, M; Gaardhoje, J J; Gagliardi, M; Gajanana, D; Gallio, M; Gangadharan, D R; Ganoti, P; Garabatos, C; 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Hwang, D S; Igolkin, S; Ijzermans, P; Ilkaev, R; Ilkiv, I; Inaba, M; Incani, E; Innocenti, G M; Ionita, C; Ippolitov, M; Irfan, M; Ivanov, M; Ivanov, V; Ivanytskyi, O; Jacholkowski, A; Jadlovsky, J; Jahnke, C; Jang, H J; Janik, M A; Jayarathna, P H S Y; Jena, S; Jimenez Bustamante, R T; Jones, P G; Jung, H; Junique, A; Jusko, A; Kalcher, S; Kalinak, P; Kalweit, A; Kamin, J; Kang, J H; Kaplin, V; Kar, S; Karasu Uysal, A; Karavichev, O; Karavicheva, T; Karpechev, E; Kebschull, U; Keidel, R; Keil, M; Ketzer, B; Khan, M Mohisin; Khan, P; Khan, S A; Khanzadeev, A; Kharlov, Y; Kileng, B; Kim, B; Kim, D; Kim, D W; Kim, D J; Kim, J S; Kim, M; Kim, M; Kim, S; Kim, T; Kirsch, S; Kisel, I; Kiselev, S; Kisiel, A; Kiss, G; Klay, J L; Klein, J; Klein-Bösing, C; Kluge, A; Knichel, M L; Knospe, A G; Kobdaj, C; Kofarago, M; Köhler, M K; Kollegger, T; Kolojvari, A; Kondratiev, V; Kondratyeva, N; Konevskikh, A; Kovalenko, V; Kowalski, M; Kox, S; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G; Kral, J; Králik, I; Kramer, F; Kravcáková, A; Krelina, M; Kretz, M; Krivda, M; Krizek, F; Krus, M; Krymov, E B; Kryshen, E; Krzewicki, M; Kucera, V; Kucheriaev, Y; Kugathasan, T; Kuhn, C; Kuijer, P G; Kulakov, I; Kumar, J; Kurashvili, P; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, A B; Kuryakin, A; Kushpil, S; Kushpil, V; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Ladron de Guevara, P; Lagana Fernandes, C; Lakomov, I; Langoy, R; Lara, C; Lardeux, A; Lattuca, A; La Pointe, S L; La Rocca, P; Lea, R; Lee, G R; Legrand, I; Lehnert, J; Lemmon, R C; Lenhardt, M; Lenti, V; Leogrande, E; Leoncino, M; León Monzón, I; Lesenechal, Y; Lévai, P; Li, S; Lien, J; Lietava, R; Lindal, S; Lindenstruth, V; Lippmann, C; Lisa, M A; Listratenko, O M; Ljunggren, H M; Lodato, D F; Loddo, F; Loenne, P I; Loggins, V R; Loginov, V; Lohner, D; Loizides, C; Lopez, X; López Torres, E; Lu, X -G; Luettig, P; Lunardon, M; Luo, J; Luparello, G; Luzzi, C; M Gago, A; M Jacobs, P; Ma, R; Maevskaya, A; Mager, M; Mahapatra, D P; Maire, A; Malaev, M; Maldonado Cervantes, I; Malinina, L; Mal'Kevich, D; 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Zimmermann, M B; Zinovjev, G; Zoccarato, Y; Zynovyev, M; Zyzak, M; CERN. Geneva. The LHC experiments Committee; LHCC

    2014-01-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is preparing a major upgrade of its experimental apparatus, planned for installation in the second long LHC shutdown (LS2) in the years 2018-2019. These plans are presented in the ALICE Upgrade Letter of Intent submitted to the LHCC in September 2012. A key element of the upgrade is the construction of a new, ultra-light, high-resolution Inner Tracking System based on monolithic pixel detectors. This Technical Design Report is an update of the Conceptual Design Report for the Upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System, which was presented to the LHCC in September 2012. The primary focus of the ITS upgrade is on the improved performance for detection of heavy-flavour hadrons, and of thermal photons and low-mass di-electrons emitted by the QGP. The Conceptual Design Report demonstrated that it is possible to build a new silicon tracker with greatly improved features in terms of determination of the distance of closest approach to the primary vertex, tracking efficiency a...

  20. Automatic tracking of laparoscopic instruments for autonomous control of a cameraman robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoiy, Keyvan Amini; Mirbagheri, Alireza; Farahmand, Farzam

    2016-01-01

    An automated instrument tracking procedure was designed and developed for autonomous control of a cameraman robot during laparoscopic surgery. The procedure was based on an innovative marker-free segmentation algorithm for detecting the tip of the surgical instruments in laparoscopic images. A compound measure of Saturation and Value components of HSV color space was incorporated that was enhanced further using the Hue component and some essential characteristics of the instrument segment, e.g., crossing the image boundaries. The procedure was then integrated into the controlling system of the RoboLens cameraman robot, within a triple-thread parallel processing scheme, such that the tip is always kept at the center of the image. Assessment of the performance of the system on prerecorded real surgery movies revealed an accuracy rate of 97% for high quality images and about 80% for those suffering from poor lighting and/or blood, water and smoke noises. A reasonably satisfying performance was also observed when employing the system for autonomous control of the robot in a laparoscopic surgery phantom, with a mean time delay of 200ms. It was concluded that with further developments, the proposed procedure can provide a practical solution for autonomous control of cameraman robots during laparoscopic surgery operations.

  1. Fractional order differentiation and robust control design crone, h-infinity and motion control

    CERN Document Server

    Sabatier, Jocelyn; Melchior, Pierre; Oustaloup, Alain

    2015-01-01

    This monograph collates the past decade’s work on fractional models and fractional systems in the fields of analysis, robust control and path tracking. Themes such as PID control, robust path tracking design and motion control methodologies involving fractional differentiation are amongst those explored. It juxtaposes recent theoretical results at the forefront in the field, and applications that can be used as exercises that will help the reader to assimilate the proposed methodologies. The first part of the book deals with fractional derivative and fractional model definitions, as well as recent results for stability analysis, fractional model physical interpretation, controllability, and H-infinity norm computation. It also presents a critical point of view on model pseudo-state and “real state”, tackling the problem of fractional model initialization. Readers will find coverage of PID, Fractional PID and robust control in the second part of the book, which rounds off with an extension of H-infinity ...

  2. Experimental Study on the Vibration Control Effect of Long Elastic Sleeper Track in Subways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopei Cai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The vibration effect of urban rail transit has gained attention from both academia and the industry sector. Long Elastic Sleeper Track (LEST is a new structure for vibration reduction which has recently been designed and applied to Chinese subways. However, little research has been devoted to its vibration reduction effect. In this study, field tests were conducted during peak transit hours on Beijing Subway Line 15 to examine the vibration reduction effects of the common ballastless track and LEST on both straight and curved sections. The results demonstrate that although LEST increases the wheel-rail vertical forces, rail vertical displacements, and rail accelerations to some extent, these effects do not threaten subway operational safety, and vibrations of track bed and tunnel wall are positively mitigated. LEST has an obvious vibration reduction effect at frequencies above 40 Hz. In straight track, the vibration of bottom of the tunnel wall measured in one-third octave bands is reduced by 10.52 dB, while the vibration at point on the tunnel wall at 1.5 m height is reduced by 9.60 dB. For the curved track, the vibrations at those two points are reduced by 9.35 dB and 8.44 dB, respectively. This indicates that LEST reduces vibrations slightly more for the straight track than for the curved track.

  3. Motion Control Design for an Omnidirectional Mobile Robot Subject to Velocity Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ollin Peñaloza-Mejía

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A solution to achieve global asymptotic tracking with bounded velocities in an omnidirectional mobile robot is proposed in this paper. It is motivated by the need of having a useful in-practice motion control scheme, which takes into account the physical limits of the velocities. To this end, a passive nonlinear controller is designed and combined with a tracking controller in a negative feedback connection structure. By using Lyapunov theory and passivity tools, global asymptotic tracking with desired bounded velocities is proved. Simulations and experimental results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposal.

  4. Adaptive estimation for control of uncertain nonlinear systems with applications to target tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madyastha, Venkatesh Kattigari

    2005-08-01

    Design of nonlinear observers has received considerable attention since the early development of methods for linear state estimation. The most popular approach is the extended Kalman filter (EKF), that goes through significant degradation in the presence of nonlinearities, particularly if unmodeled dynamics are coupled to the process and the measurement. For uncertain nonlinear systems, adaptive observers have been introduced to estimate the unknown state variables where no priori information about the unknown parameters is available. While establishing global results, these approaches are applicable only to systems transformable to output feedback form. Over the recent years, neural network (NN) based identification and estimation schemes have been proposed that relax the assumptions on the system at the price of sacrificing on the global nature of the results. However, most of the NN based adaptive observer approaches in the literature require knowledge of the full dimension of the system, therefore may not be suitable for systems with unmodeled dynamics. We first propose a novel approach to nonlinear state estimation from the perspective of augmenting a linear time invariant observer with an adaptive element. The class of nonlinear systems treated here are finite but of otherwise unknown dimension. The objective is to improve the performance of the linear observer when applied to a nonlinear system. The approach relies on the ability of the NNs to approximate the unknown dynamics from finite time histories of available measurements. Next we investigate nonlinear state estimation from the perspective of adaptively augmenting an existing time varying observer, such as an EKF. EKFs find their applications mostly in target tracking problems. The proposed approaches are robust to unmodeled dynamics, including unmodeled disturbances. Lastly, we consider the problem of adaptive estimation in the presence of feedback control for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems

  5. Adaptive tracking control of leader-following linear multi-agent systems with external disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hanquan; Wei, Qinglai; Liu, Derong; Ma, Hongwen

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the consensus problem for leader-following linear multi-agent systems with external disturbances is investigated. Brownian motions are used to describe exogenous disturbances. A distributed tracking controller based on Riccati inequalities with an adaptive law for adjusting coupling weights between neighbouring agents is designed for leader-following multi-agent systems under fixed and switching topologies. In traditional distributed static controllers, the coupling weights depend on the communication graph. However, coupling weights associated with the feedback gain matrix in our method are updated by state errors between neighbouring agents. We further present the stability analysis of leader-following multi-agent systems with stochastic disturbances under switching topology. Most traditional literature requires the graph to be connected all the time, while the communication graph is only assumed to be jointly connected in this paper. The design technique is based on Riccati inequalities and algebraic graph theory. Finally, simulations are given to show the validity of our method.

  6. Eye Tracking Based Control System for Natural Human-Computer Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuebai Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Eye movement can be regarded as a pivotal real-time input medium for human-computer communication, which is especially important for people with physical disability. In order to improve the reliability, mobility, and usability of eye tracking technique in user-computer dialogue, a novel eye control system with integrating both mouse and keyboard functions is proposed in this paper. The proposed system focuses on providing a simple and convenient interactive mode by only using user’s eye. The usage flow of the proposed system is designed to perfectly follow human natural habits. Additionally, a magnifier module is proposed to allow the accurate operation. In the experiment, two interactive tasks with different difficulty (searching article and browsing multimedia web were done to compare the proposed eye control tool with an existing system. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM measures are used to evaluate the perceived effectiveness of our system. It is demonstrated that the proposed system is very effective with regard to usability and interface design.

  7. Eye Tracking Based Control System for Natural Human-Computer Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuebai; Liu, Xiaolong; Yuan, Shyan-Ming; Lin, Shu-Fan

    2017-01-01

    Eye movement can be regarded as a pivotal real-time input medium for human-computer communication, which is especially important for people with physical disability. In order to improve the reliability, mobility, and usability of eye tracking technique in user-computer dialogue, a novel eye control system with integrating both mouse and keyboard functions is proposed in this paper. The proposed system focuses on providing a simple and convenient interactive mode by only using user's eye. The usage flow of the proposed system is designed to perfectly follow human natural habits. Additionally, a magnifier module is proposed to allow the accurate operation. In the experiment, two interactive tasks with different difficulty (searching article and browsing multimedia web) were done to compare the proposed eye control tool with an existing system. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) measures are used to evaluate the perceived effectiveness of our system. It is demonstrated that the proposed system is very effective with regard to usability and interface design.

  8. Design and optimization of a self-developing single axis tracking PV array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colozza, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a study performed in order to design a tracking PV array and optimize the design for maximum specific power. The design considerations were minimal deployment time, high reliability and small stowage volume. The array design was self-deployable, from a compact stowage configuration, using a passive pressurized gas deployment mechanism. The array structural components consist of a combination of beams, columns and cables used to deploy and orient a flexible PV blanket. Each structural component of the design was analyzed to determine the size necessary to withstand the various forces it would be subjected to. An optimization was performed to determine the array dimensions and blanket geometry which produce the maximum specific power

  9. Air-Breathing Hypersonic Vehicle Tracking Control Based on Adaptive Dynamic Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Chaoxu; Ni, Zhen; Sun, Changyin; He, Haibo

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a data-driven supplementary control approach with adaptive learning capability for air-breathing hypersonic vehicle tracking control based on action-dependent heuristic dynamic programming (ADHDP). The control action is generated by the combination of sliding mode control (SMC) and the ADHDP controller to track the desired velocity and the desired altitude. In particular, the ADHDP controller observes the differences between the actual velocity/altitude and the desired velocity/altitude, and then provides a supplementary control action accordingly. The ADHDP controller does not rely on the accurate mathematical model function and is data driven. Meanwhile, it is capable to adjust its parameters online over time under various working conditions, which is very suitable for hypersonic vehicle system with parameter uncertainties and disturbances. We verify the adaptive supplementary control approach versus the traditional SMC in the cruising flight, and provide three simulation studies to illustrate the improved performance with the proposed approach.

  10. Contour Tracking Control for the REMUS Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Reet, Alan R

    2005-01-01

    In the interest of enhancing the capabilities of autonomous underwater vehicles used in US Naval Operations, controlling vehicle position to follow depth contours presents exciting potential for navigation...

  11. Tracking local control of a parabolic trough collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajona, J.I.; Alberdi, J.; Gamero, E.; Blanco, J.

    1992-01-01

    In the local control, the sun position related to the trough collector is measured by two photo-resistors. The provided electronic signal is then compared with reference levels in order to get a set of B logical signals which form a byte. This byte and the commands issued by a programmable controller are connected to the inputs of o P.R.O.M. memory which is programmed with the logical equations of the control system. The memory output lines give the control command of the parabolic trough collector motor. (Author)

  12. Controller Design Automation for Aeroservoelastic Design Optimization of Wind Turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashuri, T.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.; Zaayer, M.B.; Van Kuik, G.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to integrate the controller design of wind turbines with structure and aerodynamic analysis and use the final product in the design optimization process (DOP) of wind turbines. To do that, the controller design is automated and integrated with an aeroelastic simulation

  13. Neuro-PID tracking control of a discharge air temperature system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaheer-uddin, M.; Tudoroiu, N.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of improving the performance of a discharge air temperature (DAT) system using a PID controller and augmenting it with neural network based tuning and tracking functions is explored. The DAT system is modeled as a SISO (single input single output) system. The architecture of the real time neuro-PID controller and simulation results obtained under realistic operating conditions are presented. The neural network assisted PID tuning method is simple to implement. Results show that the network assisted PID controller is able to track both constant and variable set point trajectories efficiently in the presence of disturbances acting on the DAT system

  14. Measuring Human Performance in Simulated Nuclear Power Plant Control Rooms Using Eye Tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesdi, Casey Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rice, Brandon Charles [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bower, Gordon Ross [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spielman, Zachary Alexander [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hill, Rachael Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); LeBlanc, Katya Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Control room modernization will be an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. As part of modernization efforts, personnel will need to gain a full understanding of how control room technologies affect performance of human operators. Recent advances in technology enables the use of eye tracking technology to continuously measure an operator’s eye movement, which correlates with a variety of human performance constructs such as situation awareness and workload. This report describes eye tracking metrics in the context of how they will be used in nuclear power plant control room simulator studies.

  15. Measuring Human Performance in Simulated Nuclear Power Plant Control Rooms Using Eye Tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovesdi, Casey Robert; Rice, Brandon Charles; Bower, Gordon Ross; Spielman, Zachary Alexander; Hill, Rachael Ann; LeBlanc, Katya Lee

    2015-01-01

    Control room modernization will be an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. As part of modernization efforts, personnel will need to gain a full understanding of how control room technologies affect performance of human operators. Recent advances in technology enables the use of eye tracking technology to continuously measure an operator's eye movement, which correlates with a variety of human performance constructs such as situation awareness and workload. This report describes eye tracking metrics in the context of how they will be used in nuclear power plant control room simulator studies.

  16. Design, Simulation, Software Development, and Testing of a Compact Aircraft Tracking Payload for the CanX-7 Nanosatellite Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ian Graham

    Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) is quickly becoming the new standard for more efficient air traffic control, but as a satellite/ground-based hybrid system it faces limitations on its usefulness over oceans and remote areas. Tracking of aircraft from space presents many challenges that if overcome will greatly increase the safety and efficiency of commercial air travel in these areas. This thesis presents work performed to develop a flight-ready ADS-B receiver payload for the CanX-7 technology demonstration satellite. Work presented includes a simulation of payload performance and coverage area, the design and testing of a single-feed circularly polarized L-band antenna, the design of software to control the payload and manage its data, and verification of the performance of the hardware prior to integration with the satellite and launch. Also included is a short overview of results from the seven-month aircraft tracking campaign conducted with the spacecraft.

  17. CONTROL DESIGN FOR UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES WITH FOUR ROTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Kotarski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Altitude and attitude controlled quadcopter model is used for the behavior and control algorithm testing, before the implementation on the experimental setup. The main objective is the control system design which will achieve good task performance in the combination with the quadcopter dynamic model. Also, for the control model, it is important to be relatively easy to modify for the use of other control algorithms and to be easy to implement on the experimental setup. At the beginning of this article, the control system design process is described. Quadcopter dynamics equations are simplified by applying several assumptions and in that form are used for the controller synthesis. Quadcopter control system is split into inner and outer control loop because the quadcopter is underactuated system which means that the direct control of all of the degrees of freedom is not possible. In the second part, the PI-D control algorithm is described which is applied on the simplified quadcopter dynamic model. The inner loop controls roll, pitch and yaw angles together with the quadcopter altitude. Its outputs are four control variables. Outer loop controls quadcopter X and Y position. Its outputs are roll and pitch desired angles. Regulated quadcopter model behavior is shown for the three types of task. First, the achieving of position in space is simulated. Second, the reference trajectory tracking is shown. Last task shown is the reference trajectory tracking with added periodical disturbances. Simulations show bounded positions error of the regulated quadcopter system using PI-D controller for the different types of tasks performed under different conditions.

  18. Second-order Sliding Mode Control of DFIG Based Variable Speed Wind Turbine for Maximum Power Point Tracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangjie Liu; Chengcheng Wang; Yaozhen Han

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a super-twisting second order sliding mode control scheme to maximize the wind energy capture of a doubly fed induction generator based variable speed wind turbine (VSWT) system, and minimize the reactive power simultaneously. Two second order sliding mode controllers are designed to achieve the control objectives, reduce mechanical stress and improve control accuracy. By regulating the generator rotor voltage, one controller makes the wind turbine rotor speed track the optimal speed, which can maximize power generation. The other maintains the rotor current at rated value to minimize the reactive power. A quadratic form Lyapunov function is adopted to determine the range of controller parameters and guarantee the finite time stability. Simulation results on a 1.5 MW doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)-based variable speed wind turbine demonstrate the validity of the proposed control strategy.

  19. Adaptive Control of Wind Turbines for Maximum Power Point Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei

    2018-01-01

    induction generator (SCIG) is used to illustrate the generator control system for a variable‐speed WECS. The chapter also presents case studies have been carried out to verify the developed adaptive controller for WECSs. WECSs are non‐linear systems with parameter uncertainties and which are subject...... to disturbances, in the form of non‐linear and unmodeled aerodynamics....

  20. Virtual decoupling flight control via real-time trajectory synthesis and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuefu

    The production of the General Aviation industry has declined in the past 25 years. Ironically, however, the increasing demand for air travel as a fast, safe, and high-quality mode of transportation has been far from satisfied. Addressing this demand shortfall with personal air transportation necessitates advanced systems for navigation, guidance, control, flight management, and flight traffic control. Among them, an effective decoupling flight control system will not only improve flight quality, safety, and simplicity, and increase air space usage, but also reduce expenses on pilot initial and current training, and thus expand the current market and explore new markets. Because of the formidable difficulties encountered in the actual decoupling of non-linear, time-variant, and highly coupled flight control systems through traditional approaches, a new approach, which essentially converts the decoupling problem into a real-time trajectory synthesis and tracking problem, is employed. Then, the converted problem is solved and a virtual decoupling effect is achieved. In this approach, a trajectory in inertial space can be predefined and dynamically modified based on the flight mission and the pilot's commands. A feedforward-feedback control architecture is constructed to guide the airplane along the trajectory as precisely as possible. Through this approach, the pilot has much simpler, virtually decoupled control of the airplane in terms of speed, flight path angle and horizontal radius of curvature. To verify and evaluate this approach, extensive computer simulation is performed. A great deal of test cases are designed for the flight control under different flight conditions. The simulation results show that our decoupling strategy is satisfactory and promising, and therefore the research can serve as a consolidated foundation for future practical applications.

  1. Design concept of Hydro cascade control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fustik, Vangel; Kiteva, Nevenka

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a design concept of the comple hydro cascade scheme is presented with the design parameters of the main technical features. The cascade control system architecture is designed considering up-to-date communication and information technology. The control algorithm is based on Pond Level Control and Economic Load Allocation concepts.

  2. 10 CFR 72.146 - Design control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Design control. 72.146 Section 72.146 Energy NUCLEAR... Design control. (a) The licensee, applicant for a license, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC... shall establish measures for the identification and control of design interfaces and for coordination...

  3. tkLayout: a design tool for innovative silicon tracking detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, G.

    2014-03-01

    A new CMS tracker is scheduled to become operational for the LHC Phase 2 upgrade in the early 2020's. tkLayout is a software package developed to create 3d models for the design of the CMS tracker and to evaluate its fundamental performance figures. The new tracker will have to cope with much higher luminosity conditions, resulting in increased track density, harsher radiation exposure and, especially, much higher data acquisition bandwidth, such that equipping the tracker with triggering capabilities is envisaged. The design of an innovative detector involves deciding on an architecture offering the best trade-off among many figures of merit, such as tracking resolution, power dissipation, bandwidth, cost and so on. Quantitatively evaluating these figures of merit as early as possible in the design phase is of capital importance and it is best done with the aid of software models. tkLayout is a flexible modeling tool: new performance estimates and support for different detector geometries can be quickly added, thanks to its modular structure. Besides, the software executes very quickly (about two minutes), so that many possible architectural variations can be rapidly modeled and compared, to help in the choice of a viable detector layout and then to optimize it. A tracker geometry is generated from simple configuration files, defining the module types, layout and materials. Support structures are automatically added and services routed to provide a realistic tracker description. The tracker geometries thus generated can be exported to the standard CMS simulation framework (CMSSW) for full Monte Carlo studies. tkLayout has proven essential in giving guidance to CMS in studying different detector layouts and exploring the feasibility of innovative solutions for tracking detectors, in terms of design, performance and projected costs. This tool has been one of the keys to making important design decisions for over five years now and has also enabled project engineers

  4. Distributed adaptive asymptotically consensus tracking control of uncertain Euler-Lagrange systems under directed graph condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wen, Changyun; Huang, Jiangshuai; Fan, Huijin

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a backstepping based distributed adaptive control scheme is proposed for multiple uncertain Euler-Lagrange systems under directed graph condition. The common desired trajectory is allowed totally unknown by part of the subsystems and the linearly parameterized trajectory model assumed in currently available results is no longer needed. To compensate the effects due to unknown trajectory information, a smooth function of consensus errors and certain positive integrable functions are introduced in designing virtual control inputs. Besides, to overcome the difficulty of completely counteracting the coupling terms of distributed consensus errors and parameter estimation errors in the presence of asymmetric Laplacian matrix, extra information transmission of local parameter estimates are introduced among linked subsystem and adaptive gain technique is adopted to generate distributed torque inputs. It is shown that with the proposed distributed adaptive control scheme, global uniform boundedness of all the closed-loop signals and asymptotically output consensus tracking can be achieved. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Adaptive PSO for optimal LQR tracking control of 2 DoF laboratory helicopter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinodh Kumar, E.; Ganapathy Subramanian, R.; Jerome, J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the attitude tracking control problem for a 2 DoF laboratory helicopter using optimal linear quadratic regulator (LQR). As the performance of the LQR controller greatly depends on the weighting matrices (Q and R), it is important to select them optimally. However, normally the

  6. The method to increase an adequacy and exactitude of the tracking of controlled airplane flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Васильєв

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The method to increase the adequacy and exactitude of trajectory estimates for tracking of controlled flight is proposed. The method of a solution of a non-linearity problem is also offered when imitate in trajectory estimation algorithm a control signal which includes nonlinear functions of restriction. The results of computer simulation are demonstrated

  7. Using eye tracking technology to compare the effectiveness of malignant hyperthermia cognitive aid design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Roderick; Hanhan, Jaber; Harrison, T Kyle; Kou, Alex; Howard, Steven K; Borg, Lindsay K; Shum, Cynthia; Udani, Ankeet D; Mariano, Edward R

    2018-05-15

    Malignant hyperthermia is a rare but potentially fatal complication of anesthesia, and several different cognitive aids designed to facilitate a timely and accurate response to this crisis currently exist. Eye tracking technology can measure voluntary and involuntary eye movements, gaze fixation within an area of interest, and speed of visual response and has been used to a limited extent in anesthesiology. With eye tracking technology, we compared the accessibility of five malignant hyperthermia cognitive aids by collecting gaze data from twelve volunteer participants. Recordings were reviewed and annotated to measure the time required for participants to locate objects on the cognitive aid to provide an answer; cumulative time to answer was the primary outcome. For the primary outcome, there were differences detected between cumulative time to answer survival curves (P typescript with minimal use of single color blocking.

  8. A Mini-Review of Track And Field’s Talent-Identification Models in Iran and Some Designated Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim Ghasemzadeh Mirkolaee; Seyed Mohammad Hossein Razavi; Saeed Amirnejad

    2013-01-01

    Talent identification and training the athletes of the basic levels in track and field requires codifying a proper model like any other system so that any duplication is prevented as well as knowing the right path. The federation of track and field started to codify the national talent-identification scheme in track and field in 1385. Hence, the present studies track-and-field talent-identification patterns in some designated countries and compare them with the codified pattern in Iran. The r...

  9. A comparison of kinesthetic-tactual and visual displays via a critical tracking task. [for aircraft control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagacinski, R. J.; Miller, D. P.; Gilson, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of using the critical tracking task to evaluate kinesthetic-tactual displays was examined. The test subjects were asked to control a first-order unstable system with a continuously decreasing time constant by using either visual or tactual unidimensional displays. The results indicate that the critical tracking task is both a feasible and a reliable methodology for assessing tactual tracking. Further, that the critical tracking methodology is as sensitive and valid a measure of tactual tracking as visual tracking is demonstrated by the approximately equal effects of quickening for the tactual and visual displays.

  10. An Enhanced Non-Coherent Pre-Filter Design for Tracking Error Estimation in GNSS Receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhibin; Ding, Jicheng; Zhao, Lin; Wu, Mouyan

    2017-11-18

    Tracking error estimation is of great importance in global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers. Any inaccurate estimation for tracking error will decrease the signal tracking ability of signal tracking loops and the accuracies of position fixing, velocity determination, and timing. Tracking error estimation can be done by traditional discriminator, or Kalman filter-based pre-filter. The pre-filter can be divided into two categories: coherent and non-coherent. This paper focuses on the performance improvements of non-coherent pre-filter. Firstly, the signal characteristics of coherent and non-coherent integration-which are the basis of tracking error estimation-are analyzed in detail. After that, the probability distribution of estimation noise of four-quadrant arctangent (ATAN2) discriminator is derived according to the mathematical model of coherent integration. Secondly, the statistical property of observation noise of non-coherent pre-filter is studied through Monte Carlo simulation to set the observation noise variance matrix correctly. Thirdly, a simple fault detection and exclusion (FDE) structure is introduced to the non-coherent pre-filter design, and thus its effective working range for carrier phase error estimation extends from (-0.25 cycle, 0.25 cycle) to (-0.5 cycle, 0.5 cycle). Finally, the estimation accuracies of discriminator, coherent pre-filter, and the enhanced non-coherent pre-filter are evaluated comprehensively through the carefully designed experiment scenario. The pre-filter outperforms traditional discriminator in estimation accuracy. In a highly dynamic scenario, the enhanced non-coherent pre-filter provides accuracy improvements of 41.6%, 46.4%, and 50.36% for carrier phase error, carrier frequency error, and code phase error estimation, respectively, when compared with coherent pre-filter. The enhanced non-coherent pre-filter outperforms the coherent pre-filter in code phase error estimation when carrier-to-noise density ratio

  11. Tool position tracking control of a nonlinear uncertain flexible robot ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Moreover, other different papers and thesis of flexible manipulators ... various applications is highly sensitive to variations of disturbance torque acting on ...... Dang X 2014 Robust adaptive sliding-mode control of condenser-cleaning mobile.

  12. Robust tracking control for linear vibrating mechanical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Beltrán-Carbajal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se propone un enfoque de control novedoso para seguimiento por realimentación de la salida para sistemas mecánicos vibratorios del tipo masa-resorte-amortiguador lineales sub-actuados. La metodología de diseño de control que se presenta considera robustez con respecto de dinámicas no modeladas y fuerzas externas. El esquema de control propuesto solamente requiere mediciones de la variable de la salida de posición. Se utiliza compensación integral del error de seguimiento de manera apropiada para evitar la estimación en tiempo real de las perturbaciones. Resultado analíticos y numéricos muestran la efectividad del esquema de control activo de vibración para atenuación de vibraciones resonantes y caóticas afectando la respuesta de la variable de salida.

  13. Nonlinear Optimal Tracking Control of a Piezoelectric Nanopositioning Stage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oates, William S; Smith, Ralph C

    2006-01-01

    ... over relatively large displacements and a broad frequency range. Piezoelectric materials, which are typically employed in nanopositioning stages, provide excellent position control when driven at relatively low frequency and low field levels...

  14. Guidelines for control room design reviews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    The control room design review is part of a broad program being undertaken by the nuclear industry and the government to ensure consideration of human factors in nuclear power plant design and operation. The purpose of the control room design review described by these guidelines is to (1) review and evaluate the control room workspace, instrumentation, controls, and other equipment from a human factors engineering point of view that takes into account both system demands and operator capabilities; and (2) to identify, assess, and implement control room design modifications that correct inadequate or unsuitable items. The scope of the control room design review described by these guidelines covers the human engineering review of completed control rooms; i.e., operational control rooms or those at that stage of the licensing process where control room design and equipment selection are committed. These guidelines should also be of use during the design process for new control rooms. However, additional analyses to optimize the allocation of functions to man and machine, and further examination of advanced control system technology, are recommended for new control rooms. Guidelines and references for comprehensive system analyses designed to incorporate human factors considerations into the design and development of new control rooms are presented in Appendix B. Where possible, a generic approach to the control room design review process is encouraged; for example, when control room designs are replicated wholly or in part in two or more units. Even when designs are not replicated exactly, generic reviews which can be modified to account for specific differences in particular control rooms should be considered. Industry organizations and owners groups are encouraged to coordinate joint efforts and share data to develop generic approaches to the design review process. The control room design review should accomplish the following specific objectives. To determine

  15. Optimal Design and Hybrid Control for the Electro-Hydraulic Dual-Shaking Table System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianpeng Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is to develop an optimal electro-hydraulic dual-shaking table system with high waveform replication precision. The parameters of hydraulic cylinders, servo valves, hydraulic supply power and gravity balance system are designed and optimized in detail. To improve synchronization and tracking control precision, a hybrid control strategy is proposed. The cross-coupled control using a novel based on sliding mode control based on adaptive reaching law (ASMC, which can adaptively tune the parameters of sliding mode control (SMC, is proposed to reduce the synchronization error. To improve the tracking performance, the observer-based inverse control scheme combining the feed-forward inverse model controller and disturbance observer is proposed. The system model is identified applying the recursive least squares (RLS algorithm and then the feed-forward inverse controller is designed based on zero phase error tracking controller (ZPETC technique. To compensate disturbance and model errors, disturbance observer is used cooperating with the designed inverse controller. The combination of the novel ASMC cross-coupled controller and proposed observer-based inverse controller can improve the control precision noticeably. The dual-shaking table experiment system is built and various experiments are performed. The experimental results indicate that the developed system with the proposed hybrid control strategy is feasible and efficient and can reduce the tracking errors to 25% and synchronization error to 16% compared with traditional control schemes.

  16. Sliding Mode Tracking Control of Manipulator Based on the Improved Reaching Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Na ZHAI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the mechanical hand often have serious uncertainty, as the state in which the different and external changes, also its parameters are changing, this is very adverse to achieve precise control. In this paper, the traditional sliding mode variable structure was improved, the sign function is replaced by saturated function based on the double power reaching law, by adjusting the values of e1, e2, a, b, g and k to effectively improve the manipulator joint reaching speed, track expected trajectory fast and shorten the system response time. Finally, the method is used for simulation of manipulator trajectory tracking, compared to two reaching law control algorithms. The simulation results show that the control algorithm has good dynamic performance, which can effectively restrain the chattering and quickly track the desired trajectory. Therefore, the improved reaching law can effectively improve the performance of robotic manipulator.

  17. Design techniques for mutlivariable flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Techniques which address the multi-input closely coupled nature of advanced flight control applications and digital implementation issues are described and illustrated through flight control examples. The techniques described seek to exploit the advantages of traditional techniques in treating conventional feedback control design specifications and the simplicity of modern approaches for multivariable control system design.

  18. Experimental evaluation of wind turbines maximum power point tracking controllers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camblong, H.; Martinez de Alegria, I.; Rodriguez, M.; Abad, G.

    2006-01-01

    Wind energy technology has experienced important improvements this last decade. The transition from fixed speed to variable speed wind turbines has been a significant element of these improvements. It has allowed adapting the turbine rotational speed to the wind speed variations with the aim of optimizing the aerodynamic efficiency. A classic controller that has slow dynamics relative to the mechanical dynamics of the drive train is implemented in commercial wind turbines. The objective of the work related in this paper has been to evaluate the implementation, on a test bench, of a controller whose dynamics can be adjusted to be faster and to compare in particular its aerodynamic efficiency with the conventional controller. In theory, the higher dynamics of the non-classic controller has to lead to a better efficiency. A 180 kW wind turbine whose simulation model has been validated with field data is emulated on an 18 kW test bench. The emulator has also been validated. Test bench trials are a very useful step between numerical simulation and trials on the real system because they allow analyzing some phenomena that may not appear in simulations without endangering the real system. The trials on the test bench show that the non-conventional controller leads to a higher aerodynamic efficiency and that this is offset by higher mechanical torque and electric power fluctuations. Nevertheless, the amplitudes of these fluctuations are relatively low compared to their rated values

  19. A fast-track preliminary thermo-mechanical design of oil export pipelines from P-56 platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solano, Rafael F.; Mendonca, Salete M. de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Franco, Luciano D.; Walker, Alastair; El-Gebaly, Sherif H. [INTECSEA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    The oil export pipelines of Marlim Sul field Module 3, Campus Basin, offshore Brazil, will operate in high pressure and temperature conditions, and will be laid on seabed crossing ten previously laid pipelines along the routes. In terms of thermo-mechanical design, these conditions turn out to be great challenges. In order to obtain initial results and recommendations for detail design, a preliminary thermo-mechanical design of pipelines was carried out as a fast-track design before the bid. This way, PETROBRAS can assess and emphasize the susceptibility of these lines to lateral buckling and pipeline walking behavior. Therefore, PETROBRAS can present a preliminary mitigation strategy for lateral buckling showing solutions based on displacement controlled criteria and by introducing buckle initiation along the pipeline using distribution buoyancy. Besides that, axial displacements and loads at the pipeline ends can be furnished also in order to provide a basis for the detailed design. The work reported in this paper follows the SAFEBUCK JIP methodology and recommendation, which were used to determine the allowable strain and maximum allowable VAS (Virtual Anchor Spacing) considered in the buckling mitigation strategy. The paper presents also the formation of uncontrolled buckles on the seabed and the propensity for pipeline walking in its sections between buckles. The buckling mitigation strategy established in this preliminary design confirms that the oil pipeline specifications are adequate to maintain integrity during design life. (author)

  20. Head-target tracking control of well drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agzamov, Z. V.

    2018-05-01

    The method of directional drilling trajectory control for oil and gas wells using predictive models is considered in the paper. The developed method does not apply optimization and therefore there is no need for the high-performance computing. Nevertheless, it allows following the well-plan with high precision taking into account process input saturation. Controller output is calculated both from the present target reference point of the well-plan and from well trajectory prediction with using the analytical model. This method allows following a well-plan not only on angular, but also on the Cartesian coordinates. Simulation of the control system has confirmed the high precision and operation performance with a wide range of random disturbance action.

  1. Fuzzy sliding mode control for maximum power point tracking of a photovoltaic pumping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabah Miqoi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new maximum power point tracking method based on fuzzy sliding mode control is proposed, and employed in a PV water pumping system based on a DC-DC boost converter, to produce maximum power from the solar panel hence more speed in the DC motor and more water quantity. This method combines two different tracking techniques sliding mode control and fuzzy logic; our controller is based on sliding mode control, then to give better stability and enhance the power production a fuzzy logic technique was added. System modeling, sliding method definition and the new control method presentation are represented in this paper. The results of the simulation that are compared to both sliding mode controller and perturbation and observation method demonstrate effectiveness and robustness of the proposed controller.

  2. Prototyping qualitative controllers for fuzzy-logic controller design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhtiari, S.; Jabedar-Maralani, P.

    1999-05-01

    Qualitative controls can be designed for linear and nonlinear models with the same computational complexity. At the same time they show the general form of the proper control. These properties can help ease the design process for quantitative controls. In this paper qualitative controls are used as prototypes for the design of linear or nonlinear, and in particular Sugeno-type fuzzy, controls. The LMS identification method is used to approximate the qualitative control with the nearest fuzzy control. The method is applied to the problem of position control in a permanent magnet synchronous motor; moreover, the performance and the robustness of the two controllers are compared

  3. Mechanical engineers' handbook, design, instrumentation, and controls

    CERN Document Server

    Kutz, Myer

    2015-01-01

    Full coverage of electronics, MEMS, and instrumentation andcontrol in mechanical engineering This second volume of Mechanical Engineers' Handbookcovers electronics, MEMS, and instrumentation and control, givingyou accessible and in-depth access to the topics you'll encounterin the discipline: computer-aided design, product design formanufacturing and assembly, design optimization, total qualitymanagement in mechanical system design, reliability in themechanical design process for sustainability, life-cycle design,design for remanufacturing processes, signal processing, dataacquisition and dis

  4. Reliable Control of Ship-mounted Satellite Tracking Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltani, Mohsen; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2010-01-01

    Motorized antenna is a key element in overseas satellite telecommunication. The control system directs the on-board antenna toward a chosen satellitewhile the high sea waves disturb the antenna. Certain faults (communication system malfunction or signal blocking) cause interruption in the communi...

  5. The Best Achievable ℋ2 Tracking Performances for SIMO Feedback Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Hara

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the inherent ℋ2 tracking performance limitation of single-input and multiple-output (SIMO linear time-invariant (LTI feedback control systems. The performance is measured by the tracking error between a step reference input and the plant output with additional penalty on control input. We employ the plant augmentation strategy, which enables us to derive analytical closed-form expressions of the best achievable performance not only for discrete-time system, but also for continuous-time system by exploiting the delta domain version of the expressions.

  6. Open-loop position tracking control of a piezoceramic flexible beam using a dynamic hysteresis compensator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Phuong-Bac; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel hysteresis compensator to enhance control accuracy in open-loop position tracking control of a piezoceramic flexible beam. The proposed hysteresis compensator consists of two components: a rate-independent hysteresis compensator and a nonlinear filter. The compensator is formulated based on the inverse Preisach model, while the weight coefficients of the filter are identified adaptively using a recursive least square (RLS) algorithm. In this work, two dynamic hysteresis compensators (or rate-independent hysteresis compensators) are developed by adopting two different nonlinear filters: Volterra and bilinear filters. In order to demonstrate the improved control accuracy of the proposed dynamic compensators, a flexible beam associated with the piezoceramic actuator is modeled using the finite element method (FEM) and Euler–Bernoulli beam theory. The beam model is then integrated with the proposed hysteresis model to achieve accurate position tracking control at the tip of the beam. An experimental investigation on the tip position tracking control is undertaken by realizing three different hysteresis compensators: a rate-independent hysteresis compensator, a rate-dependent hysteresis compensator with a Volterra nonlinear filter and a rate-independent hysteresis compensator with a bilinear nonlinear filter. It is shown that the proposed dynamic hysteresis compensators can provide much better tracking control accuracy than conventional rate-independent hysteresis compensators

  7. Design of embedded control systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adamski, M; Karatkevich, Andrei; Węgrzyn, M

    2005-01-01

    ... using some concrete technological base; efficient methods of logic synthesis, test, and verification should be developed for that. Fourth, the task of the communication between the control device and controlled objects (and maybe between different control devices) waits for its solution. All these problems are hard enough and cannot be successfull...

  8. Tracking control mechanisms for positioning automatic CRD exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Akira; Takada, Satoshi.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable completely automatic positioning for the automatic CRD (control rod drives) exchanger, as well as shorten the time for the exchanging operation and save the operator's labour. Constitution: Images of a target attached to the lower flange face of CRD are picked up by a fiber scope mounted to a mounting head. The images are converted through I.T.V. into electrical signals, passed through a cable and then sent to a pattern recognition mechanism. The position for the images of the target is calculated and the calculated position is sent to a drive control section, where the position for the images of the target is compared with a reference position for the images (exactly aligned position) and the moving amount of the mounting head is calculated to move the driving section and thereby complete the positioning. (Kawakami, Y.)

  9. Minimal-Approximation-Based Distributed Consensus Tracking of a Class of Uncertain Nonlinear Multiagent Systems With Unknown Control Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun Ho; Yoo, Sung Jin

    2017-03-28

    A minimal-approximation-based distributed adaptive consensus tracking approach is presented for strict-feedback multiagent systems with unknown heterogeneous nonlinearities and control directions under a directed network. Existing approximation-based consensus results for uncertain nonlinear multiagent systems in lower-triangular form have used multiple function approximators in each local controller to approximate unmatched nonlinearities of each follower. Thus, as the follower's order increases, the number of the approximators used in its local controller increases. However, the proposed approach employs only one function approximator to construct the local controller of each follower regardless of the order of the follower. The recursive design methodology using a new error transformation is derived for the proposed minimal-approximation-based design. Furthermore, a bounding lemma on parameters of Nussbaum functions is presented to handle the unknown control direction problem in the minimal-approximation-based distributed consensus tracking framework and the stability of the overall closed-loop system is rigorously analyzed in the Lyapunov sense.

  10. Design Characteristics of Soft Control for APR+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yongsoo; Sung, Chanho; Jung, Yeonsub [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In the global nuclear industry, the design requirements have been largely divided into the US and the European ones. The APR+ design, based on the proven APR1400 design, was developed to fully comply with the US regulatory and utility requirements. It was also developed to improve the technical competitiveness and enlarge the export market share through design uniqueness and the improvement of safety. The robust design of safety and its validation were requested Post-Fukushima accident. So MMIS design and validation for reinforcing safety were accomplished in APR+ development project. In this paper, the design characteristics of soft control for APR+ are presented to enhance the safety of MMIS design. In this paper, the major design characteristics of soft control for APR+ were introduced to increase the safety of MMIS design. In addition to the design characteristics of soft control described above, the following should be investigated closely for APR+ to get into the global nuclear industry.

  11. Design Characteristics of Soft Control for APR+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yongsoo; Sung, Chanho; Jung, Yeonsub

    2016-01-01

    In the global nuclear industry, the design requirements have been largely divided into the US and the European ones. The APR+ design, based on the proven APR1400 design, was developed to fully comply with the US regulatory and utility requirements. It was also developed to improve the technical competitiveness and enlarge the export market share through design uniqueness and the improvement of safety. The robust design of safety and its validation were requested Post-Fukushima accident. So MMIS design and validation for reinforcing safety were accomplished in APR+ development project. In this paper, the design characteristics of soft control for APR+ are presented to enhance the safety of MMIS design. In this paper, the major design characteristics of soft control for APR+ were introduced to increase the safety of MMIS design. In addition to the design characteristics of soft control described above, the following should be investigated closely for APR+ to get into the global nuclear industry

  12. Enhanced Performance Controller Design for Stochastic Systems by Adding Extra State Estimation onto the Existing Closed Loop Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yuyang; Zhang, Qichun; Wang, Hong

    2016-08-30

    To enhance the performance of the tracking property , this paper presents a novel control algorithm for a class of linear dynamic stochastic systems with unmeasurable states, where the performance enhancement loop is established based on Kalman filter. Without changing the existing closed loop with the PI controller, the compensative controller is designed to minimize the variances of the tracking errors using the estimated states and the propagation of state variances. Moreover, the stability of the closed-loop systems has been analyzed in the mean-square sense. A simulated example is included to show the effectiveness of the presented control algorithm, where encouraging results have been obtained.

  13. A comparison of vision-based tracking schemes for control of microbiorobots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dal Hyung; Steager, Edward B; Cheang, U Kei; Kim, Min Jun; Byun, Doyoung

    2010-01-01

    There has been significant recent interest in micro-nano robots operating in low Reynold's number fluidic environments. Even though recent works showed the success of controlling micro-nano robots, there are some limitations because of the tracking method. In this paper, we introduce and implement a feature-based tracking method (FTM). Scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) is a well-explored technique at much larger length scales for research fields regarding robotics and vision. Here, the technique is extensively investigated and optimized for microbiorobots (MBRs) in low Reynold's number environments. Also, we compare the FTM with the conventional tracking method for cells, which is known as the region-based tracking method (RTM). We clearly show that the FTM can track more accurate positions of the objects in comparison with the RTM in cases where objects are in close contact or overlapped. Also, we demonstrate that the FTM allows tracking microscopic objects even though illumination changes over time or portions of the object are occluded or outside the field of view.

  14. Maximum Power Point Tracking Control of a Thermoelectric Generation System Using the Extremum Seeking Control Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ssennoga Twaha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes and implements maximum power Point Tracking (MPPT control on thermoelectric generation system using an extremum seeking control (ESC algorithm. The MPPT is applied to guarantee maximum power extraction from the TEG system. The work has been carried out through modelling of thermoelectric generator/dc-dc converter system using Matlab/Simulink. The effectiveness of ESC technique has been assessed by comparing the results with those of the Perturb and Observe (P&O MPPT method under the same operating conditions. Results indicate that ESC MPPT method extracts more power than the P&O technique, where the output power of ESC technique is higher than that of P&O by 0.47 W or 6.1% at a hot side temperature of 200 °C. It is also noted that the ESC MPPT based model is almost fourfold faster than the P&O method. This is attributed to smaller MPPT circuit of ESC compared to that of P&O, hence we conclude that the ESC MPPT method outperforms the P&O technique.

  15. Modal-space reference-model-tracking fuzzy control of earthquake excited structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwan-Soon; Ok, Seung-Yong

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an adaptive modal-space reference-model-tracking fuzzy control technique for the vibration control of earthquake-excited structures. In the proposed approach, the fuzzy logic is introduced to update optimal control force so that the controlled structural response can track the desired response of a reference model. For easy and practical implementation, the reference model is constructed by assigning the target damping ratios to the first few dominant modes in modal space. The numerical simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach successfully achieves not only the adaptive fault-tolerant control system against partial actuator failures but also the robust performance against the variations of the uncertain system properties by redistributing the feedback control forces to the available actuators.

  16. Control room and ergonomic design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinz, W.

    1984-01-01

    The important basis for the configuration of the control room of a nuclear power station is the concept for controlling a fault and that for controlling normal operation. The tasks resulting from this for the control room personnel are decided by the control room concept. In this configuration process (from the division of process control tasks between the system components operators and control technology to the configuration of individual means of operation) the characteristics and capabilities of the personnel, which are subject to special requirements as regards their qualifications, are observed. New concepts which are only now technically feasible are therefore being developed for information processing and display, in order to give the personnel a better oversight of the state and trends of the plant. (orig./DG) [de

  17. Design of a tracked ultrasound calibration phantom made of LEGO bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Ryan; Soehl, Marie; Rankin, Adam; Lasso, Andras; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2014-03-01

    PURPOSE: Spatial calibration of tracked ultrasound systems is commonly performed using precisely fabricated phantoms. Machining or 3D printing has relatively high cost and not easily available. Moreover, the possibilities for modifying the phantoms are very limited. Our goal was to find a method to construct a calibration phantom from affordable, widely available components, which can be built in short time, can be easily modified, and provides comparable accuracy to the existing solutions. METHODS: We designed an N-wire calibration phantom made of LEGO® bricks. To affirm the phantom's reproducibility and build time, ten builds were done by first-time users. The phantoms were used for a tracked ultrasound calibration by an experienced user. The success of each user's build was determined by the lowest root mean square (RMS) wire reprojection error of three calibrations. The accuracy and variance of calibrations were evaluated for the calibrations produced for various tracked ultrasound probes. The proposed model was compared to two of the currently available phantom models for both electromagnetic and optical tracking. RESULTS: The phantom was successfully built by all ten first-time users in an average time of 18.8 minutes. It cost approximately $10 CAD for the required LEGO® bricks and averaged a 0.69mm of error in the calibration reproducibility for ultrasound calibrations. It is one third the cost of similar 3D printed phantoms and takes much less time to build. The proposed phantom's image reprojections were 0.13mm more erroneous than those of the highest performing current phantom model The average standard deviation of multiple 3D image reprojections differed by 0.05mm between the phantoms CONCLUSION: It was found that the phantom could be built in less time, was one third the cost, compared to similar 3D printed models. The proposed phantom was found to be capable of producing equivalent calibrations to 3D printed phantoms.

  18. Verification of design calculations of a PGNAA setup using nuclear track ejectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A. E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.sa; Fazal-ur-Rehman,; Nagadi, .M.; Maslehuddin, M.; Khateeb-ur-Rehman; Kidwai, S

    2004-02-01

    A rectangular moderator assembly has been designed for the PGNAA setup at ing Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM). The design calculations of the rectangular moderator, which were obtained through Monte Carlo simulation, have been verified experimentally through thermal neutron field measurement using CR-39 nuclear track detectors (NTDs). These measurements were carried out at the KFUPM 350 keV accelerator using 2.8 MeV pulsed neutron beam from D(d,n) reaction. The thermal neutron yield was measured inside the sample volume of the rectangular moderator by two NTDs fixed at back and front end of the sample cavity. The good agreement between he experimental results and the results of the calculations shows useful application of NTDs in verification of design calculations of a PGNAA setup.

  19. tkLayout: a Design Tool for Innovative Silicon Tracking Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    A new CMS tracker is scheduled to become operational for the LHC Phase 2 upgrade in the early 2020's. tkLayout is a software package developed to create 3d models for the design of the CMS tracker and to evaluate its fundamental performance figures. The new tracker will have to cope with much higher luminosity conditions, resulting in increased track density, harsher radiation exposure and, especially, much higher data acquisition bandwidth, such that equipping the tracker with triggering capabilities is envisaged. The design of an innovative detector involves deciding on an architecture offering the best trade-off among many figures of merit, such as tracking resolution, power dissipation, bandwidth, cost and so on. Quantitatively evaluating these figures of merit as early as possible in the design phase is of capital importance and it is best done with the aid of software models. tkLayout is a flexible modeling tool: new performance estimates and support for different detector geometries can be quickly ad...

  20. Atmospheric River Tracking Method Intercomparison Project (ARTMIP: project goals and experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Shields

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The Atmospheric River Tracking Method Intercomparison Project (ARTMIP is an international collaborative effort to understand and quantify the uncertainties in atmospheric river (AR science based on detection algorithm alone. Currently, there are many AR identification and tracking algorithms in the literature with a wide range of techniques and conclusions. ARTMIP strives to provide the community with information on different methodologies and provide guidance on the most appropriate algorithm for a given science question or region of interest. All ARTMIP participants will implement their detection algorithms on a specified common dataset for a defined period of time. The project is divided into two phases: Tier 1 will utilize the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, version 2 (MERRA-2 reanalysis from January 1980 to June 2017 and will be used as a baseline for all subsequent comparisons. Participation in Tier 1 is required. Tier 2 will be optional and include sensitivity studies designed around specific science questions, such as reanalysis uncertainty and climate change. High-resolution reanalysis and/or model output will be used wherever possible. Proposed metrics include AR frequency, duration, intensity, and precipitation attributable to ARs. Here, we present the ARTMIP experimental design, timeline, project requirements, and a brief description of the variety of methodologies in the current literature. We also present results from our 1-month proof-of-concept trial run designed to illustrate the utility and feasibility of the ARTMIP project.

  1. Fast Track to the Cloud: Design Patterns for 12-Factor Earth Sciences Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawloski, Andrew; McLaughlin, Brett; Lynnes, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    As expanding service offerings and decreasing prices make the cloud increasingly attractive to Earth Science applications, there are nontrivial practical considerations which can hinder its meaningful use. In this talk, we will discuss architectural recommendations and lessons learned while working on EOSDIS' cloud efforts, particularly the NASA-compliant General Application Platform (NGAP) and its associated applications. Prominent in our findings is the importance of 12-factor design patterns and the powerful "wins" they enable in the cloud. We will share our strategies for "fast-tracking" applications to the cloud --whether they be legacy, planned for the future, or somewhere in between.

  2. A Semiactive and Adaptive Hybrid Control System for a Tracked Vehicle Hydropneumatic Suspension Based on Disturbance Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shousong Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The riding conditions for a high-speed tracked vehicle are quite complex. To enhance the adaptability of suspension systems to different riding conditions, a semiactive and self-adaptive hybrid control strategy based on disturbance velocity and frequency identification was proposed. A mathematical model of the semiactive, self-adaptive hybrid suspension control system, along with a performance evaluation function, was established. Based on a two-degree-of-freedom (DOF suspension system, the kinematic relations and frequency zero-crossing detection method were defined, and expressions for the disturbance velocity and disturbance frequency of the road were obtained. Optimal scheduling of the semiactive hybrid damping control gain (csky, cground, chybrid and self-adaptive control gain (cv under different disturbances were realized by exploiting the particle swarm multiobjective optimization algorithm. An experimental study using a carefully designed test rig was performed under a number of typical riding conditions of tracked vehicles, and the results showed that the proposed control strategy is capable of accurately recognizing different disturbances, shifting between control modes (semiactive/self-adaptive, and scheduling the damping control gain according to the disturbance identification outcomes; hence, the proposed strategy could achieve a good trade-off between ride comfort and ride safety and efficiently increase the overall performance of the suspension under various riding conditions.

  3. Subjective evaluation with FAA criteria: A multidimensional scaling approach. [ground track control management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreifeldt, J. G.; Parkin, L.; Wempe, T. E.; Huff, E. F.

    1975-01-01

    Perceived orderliness in the ground tracks of five A/C during their simulated flights was studied. Dynamically developing ground tracks for five A/C from 21 separate runs were reproduced from computer storage and displayed on CRTS to professional pilots and controllers for their evaluations and preferences under several criteria. The ground tracks were developed in 20 seconds as opposed to the 5 minutes of simulated flight using speedup techniques for display. Metric and nonmetric multidimensional scaling techniques are being used to analyze the subjective responses in an effort to: (1) determine the meaningfulness of basing decisions on such complex subjective criteria; (2) compare pilot/controller perceptual spaces; (3) determine the dimensionality of the subjects' perceptual spaces; and thereby (4) determine objective measures suitable for comparing alternative traffic management simulations.

  4. Controlled change of transport properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) track membranes by plasma method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravets, L I; Dmitriev, S N; Drachev, A I; Gilman, A B; Lazea, A; Dinescu, G

    2007-01-01

    A process of plasma polymerization of dimethylaniline and acrylic acid vapours on the surface of poly(ethylene terephthalate) track membranes has been investigated. The surface and hydrodynamic properties of the composite membranes produced in this case have been studied. It is shown that the water permeability of the obtained polymeric membranes can be controlled by changing the filtrate pH. Membranes with such properties can be used for controllable drug delivery and in sensor control

  5. 21 CFR 820.30 - Design controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Design Controls § 820.30 Design controls. (a) General. (1) Each manufacturer of...) Devices automated with computer software; and (ii) The devices listed in the following chart. Section... in, input to the design and development process. The plans shall be reviewed, updated, and approved...

  6. LWR control assembly designs: A historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennard, M.W.; Harbottle, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    Control rod designs and materials have evolved in response to performance problems in both PWRs and BWRs. Irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) due to absorber swelling has primarily affected BWR control rods with B 4 C absorbers, but has also occurred in PWRs with Ag-In-Cd absorbers. The primary problems for some designs of PWR control rods have been wear of the rodlets against upper internal components and swelling with tip wear and cracking. Competition amongst vendors for supplying control rod reloads has also resulted in design improvements. This paper provides an historical review of PWR and BWR control rod designs, their problems and remedies. (author)

  7. Parallel Tracking and Mapping for Controlling VTOL Airframe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Jama

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a vision based system for navigation on a vertical takeoff and landing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV. This is a monocular vision based, simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM system, which measures the position and orientation of the camera and builds a map of the environment using a video stream from a single camera. This is different from past SLAM solutions on UAV which use sensors that measure depth, like LIDAR, stereoscopic cameras or depth cameras. Solution presented in this paper extends and significantly modifies a recent open-source algorithm that solves SLAM problem using approach fundamentally different from a traditional approach. Proposed modifications provide the position measurements necessary for the navigation solution on a UAV. The main contributions of this work include: (1 extension of the map building algorithm to enable it to be used realistically while controlling a UAV and simultaneously building the map; (2 improved performance of the SLAM algorithm for lower camera frame rates; and (3 the first known demonstration of a monocular SLAM algorithm successfully controlling a UAV while simultaneously building the map. This work demonstrates that a fully autonomous UAV that uses monocular vision for navigation is feasible.

  8. Semi-active control of tracked vehicle suspension incorporating magnetorheological dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ata, W. G.; Salem, A. M.

    2017-05-01

    In past years, the application of magnetorheological (MR) and electrorheological dampers in vehicle suspension has been widely studied, mainly for the purpose of vibration control. This paper presents theoretical study to identify an appropriate semi-active control method for MR-tracked vehicle suspension. Three representative control algorithms are simulated including the skyhook, hybrid and fuzzy-hybrid controllers. A seven degrees-of-freedom tracked vehicle suspension model incorporating MR dampers has been adopted for comparison between the performance of the three controllers. The model differential equations are derived based on Newton's second law of motion and the proposed control methods are developed. The performance of each control method under bump and sinusoidal road profiles for different vehicle speeds is simulated and compared with the performance of the conventional suspension system in time and frequency domains. The results show that the performance of tracked vehicle suspension with MR dampers is substantially improved. Moreover, the fuzzy-hybrid controller offers an excellent integrated performance in reducing the body accelerations as well as wheel bounce responses compared with the classical skyhook and hybrid controllers.

  9. Regulatory control of fuel design and manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The regulatory control of the design and manufacturing of the nuclear fuel and of the control rods aims to ensure conformance to set requirements during normal operating conditions, anticipated operational transients and postulated accident conditions. The regulatory control of design, manufacturing, receiving inspections and the start of operation of the nuclear fuel are specified in the guide. The regulatory control procedure also applies to the control rods and the shield elements

  10. Design of MPPT Controller Monitoring Software Based on QT Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, X. Z.; Lu, P. G.

    2017-10-01

    The MPPT controller was a hardware device for tracking the maximum power point of solar photovoltaic array. Multiple controllers could be working as networking mode by specific communicating protocol. In this article, based on C++ GUI programming with Qt frame, we designed one sort of desktop application for monitoring and analyzing operational parameter of MPPT controller. The type of communicating protocol for building network was Modbus protocol which using Remote Terminal Unit mode and The desktop application of host computer was connected with all the controllers in the network through RS485 communication or ZigBee wireless communication. Using this application, user could monitor the parameter of controller wherever they were by internet.

  11. Tracking control of concentration profiles in a fed-batch bioreactor using a linear algebra methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rómoli, Santiago; Serrano, Mario Emanuel; Ortiz, Oscar Alberto; Vega, Jorge Rubén; Eduardo Scaglia, Gustavo Juan

    2015-07-01

    Based on a linear algebra approach, this paper aims at developing a novel control law able to track reference profiles that were previously-determined in the literature. A main advantage of the proposed strategy is that the control actions are obtained by solving a system of linear equations. The optimal controller parameters are selected through Monte Carlo Randomized Algorithm in order to minimize a proposed cost index. The controller performance is evaluated through several tests, and compared with other controller reported in the literature. Finally, a Monte Carlo Randomized Algorithm is conducted to assess the performance of the proposed controller. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. ACSYNT inner loop flight control design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortins, Richard; Sorensen, John A.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center developed the Aircraft Synthesis (ACSYNT) computer program to synthesize conceptual future aircraft designs and to evaluate critical performance metrics early in the design process before significant resources are committed and cost decisions made. ACSYNT uses steady-state performance metrics, such as aircraft range, payload, and fuel consumption, and static performance metrics, such as the control authority required for the takeoff rotation and for landing with an engine out, to evaluate conceptual aircraft designs. It can also optimize designs with respect to selected criteria and constraints. Many modern aircraft have stability provided by the flight control system rather than by the airframe. This may allow the aircraft designer to increase combat agility, or decrease trim drag, for increased range and payload. This strategy requires concurrent design of the airframe and the flight control system, making trade-offs of performance and dynamics during the earliest stages of design. ACSYNT presently lacks means to implement flight control system designs but research is being done to add methods for predicting rotational degrees of freedom and control effector performance. A software module to compute and analyze the dynamics of the aircraft and to compute feedback gains and analyze closed loop dynamics is required. The data gained from these analyses can then be fed back to the aircraft design process so that the effects of the flight control system and the airframe on aircraft performance can be included as design metrics. This report presents results of a feasibility study and the initial design work to add an inner loop flight control system (ILFCS) design capability to the stability and control module in ACSYNT. The overall objective is to provide a capability for concurrent design of the aircraft and its flight control system, and enable concept designers to improve performance by exploiting the interrelationships between

  13. Design of control system for piezoelectric deformable mirror based on fuzzy self-adaptive PID control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Nan; Gao, Wei; Song, Zongxi

    2017-10-01

    With the rapid development of adaptive optics technology, it is widely used in the fields of astronomical telescope imaging, laser beam shaping, optical communication and so on. As the key component of adaptive optics systems, the deformable mirror plays a role in wavefront correction. In order to achieve the high speed and high precision of deformable mirror system tracking control, it is necessary to find out the influence of each link on the system performance to model the system and design the controller. This paper presents a method about the piezoelectric deformable mirror driving control system.

  14. Fuzzy Vector Field Orientation Feedback Control-Based Slip Compensation for Trajectory Tracking Control of a Four Track Wheel Skid-steered Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Vinh Ha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Skid-steered mobile robots have been widely used in exploring unknown environments and in military applications. In this paper, the tuning fuzzy Vector Field Orientation (FVFO feedback control method is proposed for a four track wheel skid-steered mobile robot (4-TW SSMR using flexible fuzzy logic control (FLC. The extended Kalman filter is utilized to estimate the positions, velocities and orientation angles, which are used for feedback control signals in the FVFO method, based on the AHRS kinematic motion model and velocity constraints. In addition, in light of the wheel slip and the braking ability of the robot, we propose a new method for estimating online wheel slip parameters based on a discrete Kalman filter to compensate for the velocity constraints. As demonstrated by our experimental results, the advantages of the combination of the proposed FVFO and wheel slip estimation methods overcome the limitations of the others in the trajectory tracking control problem for a 4-TW SSMR.

  15. First responder tracking and visualization for command and control toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Robert; Petrov, Plamen; Meisinger, Roger

    2010-04-01

    In order for First Responder Command and Control personnel to visualize incidents at urban building locations, DHS sponsored a small business research program to develop a tool to visualize 3D building interiors and movement of First Responders on site. 21st Century Systems, Inc. (21CSI), has developed a toolkit called Hierarchical Grid Referenced Normalized Display (HiGRND). HiGRND utilizes three components to provide a full spectrum of visualization tools to the First Responder. First, HiGRND visualizes the structure in 3D. Utilities in the 3D environment allow the user to switch between views (2D floor plans, 3D spatial, evacuation routes, etc.) and manually edit fast changing environments. HiGRND accepts CAD drawings and 3D digital objects and renders these in the 3D space. Second, HiGRND has a First Responder tracker that uses the transponder signals from First Responders to locate them in the virtual space. We use the movements of the First Responder to map the interior of structures. Finally, HiGRND can turn 2D blueprints into 3D objects. The 3D extruder extracts walls, symbols, and text from scanned blueprints to create the 3D mesh of the building. HiGRND increases the situational awareness of First Responders and allows them to make better, faster decisions in critical urban situations.

  16. Self-tracking of physical activity in people with type 2 diabetes : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooiman, Thea; de Groot, Martijn; Hoogenberg, Klaas; Krijnen, Wim P; van der Schans, Cees P; Kooy, Adriaan

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of an online self-tracking program on physical activity, glycated hemoglobin, and other health measures in patients with type 2 diabetes. Seventy-two patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. All

  17. Self-directed learning skills in air-traffic control training; An eye-tracking approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Meeuwen, Ludo; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; Bock, Jeano; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Van Meeuwen, L. W., Brand-Gruwel, S., De Bock, J. J. P. R., Kirschner, P. A., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2010, September). Self-directed Learning Skills in Air-traffic Control Training; An Eye-tracking Approach. Paper presented at the European Association for Aviation Psychology, Budapest.

  18. Expertise differences in air traffic control: An eye-tracking study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Meeuwen, Ludo; Jarodzka, Halszka; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.; De Bock, Jeano; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    Van Meeuwen, L. W., Jarodzka, H., Brand-Gruwel, S., Kirschner, P. A., De Bock, J. J. P. R., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2012, April). Expertise differences in air traffic control: An eye-tracking study. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting 2012, Vancouver,

  19. Quasi-dynamic walk of a quadruped locomotion robot using optimal tracking control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Hiroaki; Nonami, Kenzo; Chiba, Yasunori; Koyama, Kakutaro.

    1994-01-01

    Recently, many research works of quadruped locomotion robots, which are considered to be operable on irregular terrain, have been carried out. In the case of realizing ideal motion control of the quadruped locomotion robot, it is assumed that hierarchical cooperative control consisting of decentralized control and centralized control is desirable. In the case that the locomotion robot moves at high speed, it is impossible to follow the desired trajectory because using only the feedback control method includes time delay. It is known that feedforward control input is valid for such motion control. In this paper, decentralized control is realized to apply optimal tracking control using feedforward control input to the quadruped locomotion robot, as the first step. As a result, it is determined that the angle variation of the foot and the stride applying optimal tracking control input are large compared with using only feedback control. It is verified that feedforward control input is useful to control the trajectory of the tip of the foot in high speed locomotion. (author)

  20. Controller design for Robotic hand through Electroencephalogram

    OpenAIRE

    Pandelidis P.; Kiriazis N.; Orgianelis K.; Koulios N.

    2016-01-01

    - This paper deals with the designing, the construction and the control of a robotic hand via an electroencephalogram sensor. First a robotic device that is able to mimic a real human hand is constructed. A PID controller is designed in order to improve the performance of the robotic arm for grabbing objects. Furthermore, a novel design approach is presented for controlling the motion of the robotic arm using signals produced from an innovative electroencephalogram sensor that detects the con...

  1. Front tracking based modeling of the solid grain growth on the adaptive control volume grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seredyński, Mirosław; Łapka, Piotr

    2017-07-01

    The paper presents the micro-scale model of unconstrained solidification of the grain immersed in under-cooled liquid, based on the front tracking approach. For this length scale, the interface tracked through the domain is meant as the solid-liquid boundary. To prevent generation of huge meshes the energy transport equation is discretized on the adaptive control volume (c.v.) mesh. The coupling of dynamically changing mesh and moving front position is addressed. Preliminary results of simulation of a test case, the growth of single grain, are presented and discussed.

  2. Design controls for the medical device industry

    CERN Document Server

    Teixeira, Marie B

    2013-01-01

    The second edition of a bestseller, Design Controls for the Medical Device Industry provides a comprehensive review of the latest design control requirements, as well as proven tools and techniques to ensure your company's design control program evolves in accordance with current industry practice. The text assists in the development of an effective design control program that not only satisfies the US FDA Quality System Regulation (QSR) and ISO 9001 and 13485 standards, but also meets today's third-party auditor/investigator expectations and saves you valuable time and money.The author's cont

  3. Software Design of Mobile Antenna for Auto Satellite Tracking Using Modem Correction and Elevation Azimuth Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamhari Sirat

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Pointing accuracy is an important thing in satellite communication. Because the satellite’s distance to the surface of the earth's satellite is so huge, thus 1 degree of pointing error will make the antenna can not send data to satellites. To overcome this, the auto-tracking satellite controller is made. This system uses a microcontroller as the controller, with the GPS as the indicator location of the antenna, digital compass as the beginning of antenna pointing direction, rotary encoder as sensor azimuth and elevation, and modem to see Eb/No signal. The microcontroller use serial communication to read the input. Thus the programming should be focused on in the UART and serial communication software UART. This controller use 2 phase in the process of tracking satellites. Early stages is the method Elevation-Azimuth, where at this stage with input from GPS, Digital Compass, and the position of satellites (both coordinates, and height that are stored in microcontroller. Controller will calculate the elevation and azimuth angle, then move the antenna according to the antenna azimuth and elevation angle. Next stages is correction modem, where in this stage controller only use modem as the input, and antenna movement is set up to obtain the largest value of Eb/No signal. From the results of the controller operation, there is a change in the value of the original input level from -81.7 dB to -30.2 dB with end of Eb/No value, reaching 5.7 dB.

  4. Urban design and the tracking of secondary school students in the urban landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Henrik; Bro, Peter; Knudsen, Anne-Marie Sanvig

    2012-01-01

    Recent developments in the global positioning system (GPS) and the global system for mobile communications have enabled an increasingly simple and cost-effective tracking of human activity in urban areas through the use of mobile telephony for the collection of vast amounts of location-based data....... From an urban design perspective, location-based datasets concerning collective or individual spatial behaviour in urban areas are highly interesting. By combining the data with existing information on urban elements such as the location of plazas, shops, etc., infinitely detailed mappings...... of the interplay between users’ individual behaviours and urban elements can be gathered, but this requires accessible ways of representation. Further questions should address other, value-based choices concerning urban design. In the following we demonstrate a number of ways in which the collected data enable...

  5. Research of Digital Interface Layout Design based on Eye-tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to improve the low service efficiency and unsmooth human-computer interaction caused by currently irrational layouts of digital interfaces for complex systems. Also, three common layout structures for digital interfaces are to be presented and five layout types appropriate for multilevel digital interfaces are to be summarized. Based on the eye tracking technology, an assessment was conducted in advantages and disadvantages of different layout types through subjects’ search efficiency. Based on data and results, this study constructed a matching model which is appropriate for multilevel digital interface layout and verified the fact that the task element is a significant and important aspect of layout design. A scientific experimental model of research on digital interfaces for complex systems is provided. Both data and conclusions of the eye movement experiment provide a reference for layout designs of interfaces for complex systems with different task characteristics.

  6. A track chamber with controlled heat centres as a vertex detector for very high energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakov, Yu.A.

    1989-01-01

    A high-pressure vertex detector for high energy experiments is proposed on the basis of development of a new track detector of charged particles, which is a chamber with controlled centres. A possible design of this chamber is discussed. Laser illumination of a streamer chamber allows enough light for reading the information by means of a CCD device. Some characteristics of the set-up are considered in the paper. A possibility of using a new method for suppression of diffusion is discussed. 30 refs.; 7 figs.; 3 tabs

  7. The design of robust independence multivariable controller for robot manipulator using inverse dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sung Hyun

    1993-01-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to the design of multivariable control schemes for assembly robot manipulator to achieve accuracy trajectory tracking by joint angles. The proposed control scheme consists of a multivariable feedforward controller and a feedback controller. In this control scheme, the feedback controller is proportional integral-derivative type and is designed to achieve the pole placement. The feedforward controller is the inverse of the linealized model of robot manipulator dynamics. The feedback controller ensures that each joint tracks any reference trajectory. The proposed robot controller scheme has a computationally efficient schemes for either offline gain scheduling or online gain computation to account for variations in the linealized robot dynamic model due to changes in operating point. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed control schemesperporms remarkably well for parameter uncertainties and load variations. (Author)

  8. The Coordination and Activity Tracking in CHildren (CATCH) study: rationale and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairney, John; Missiuna, Cheryl; Timmons, Brian W; Rodriguez, Christine; Veldhuizen, Scott; King-Dowling, Sara; Wellman, Sarah; Le, Tuyen

    2015-12-21

    Past studies have found that children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) engage in less physical activity than typically developing children. This "activity deficit" may result in children with DCD being less physically fit and more likely to be overweight or obese, potentially increasing later risk for poor cardiovascular health. Unfortunately, the majority of DCD research has been limited to cross-sectional designs, leading to questions about the complex relationship among motor ability, inactivity and health-related fitness. Of the few longitudinal studies on the topic, determining precedence amongst these factors is difficult because study cohorts typically focus on mid to late childhood. By this age, both decreased physical fitness and obesity are often established. The Coordination and Activity Tracking in CHildren (CATCH) study will examine the pathways connecting DCD, physical activity, physical fitness, and body composition from early to middle childhood. The CATCH study is a prospective cohort study. We aim to recruit a cohort of 600 children aged 4 to 5 years (300 probable DCD [pDCD] and 300 controls) and test them once a year for 4 years. At Phase 1 of baseline testing, we assess motor skills, cognitive ability (IQ), basic anthropometry, flexibility and lower body muscle strength, while parents complete an interview and questionnaires regarding family demographics, their child's physical activity, and behavioural characteristics. Children who move on to Phase 2 (longitudinal cohort) have their body fat percentage, foot structure, aerobic and anaerobic fitness assessed. An accelerometer to measure physical activity is then given to the child and interested family members. The family also receives an accelerometer logbook and 3-day food dairy. At years 2 to 4, children in the longitudinal cohort will have all baseline assessments repeated (excluding the IQ test), and complete an additional measure of perceived self-efficacy. Parents will

  9. Assessing delay and lag in sagittal trunk control using a tracking task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, N Peter; Luis, Abraham; Chan, Elizabeth C; Sal Y Rosas, Victor G; Tanaka, Martin L

    2018-05-17

    Slower trunk muscle responses are linked to back pain and injury. Unfortunately, clinical assessments of spine function do not objectively evaluate this important attribute, which reflects speed of trunk control. Speed of trunk control can be parsed into two components: (1) delay, the time it takes to initiate a movement, and (2) lag, the time it takes to execute a movement once initiated. The goal of this study is to demonstrate a new approach to assess delay and lag in trunk control using a simple tracking task. Ten healthy subjects performed four blocks of six trials of trunk tracking in the sagittal plane. Delay and lag were estimated by modeling trunk control for predictable and unpredictable (control mode) trunk movements in flexion and extension (control direction) at movement amplitudes of 2°, 4°, and 6° (control amplitude). The main effect of control mode, direction, and amplitude of movement were compared between trial blocks to assess secondary influencers (e.g., fatigue). Only control mode was consistent across trial blocks with predictable movements being faster than unpredictable for both delay and lag. Control direction and amplitude effects on delay and lag were consistent across the first two trial blocks and less consistent in later blocks. Given the heterogeneity in the presentation of back pain, clinical assessment of trunk control should include different control modes, directions, and amplitudes. To reduce testing time and the influence of fatigue, we recommend six trials to assess trunk control. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Research on Precision Tracking on Fast Steering Mirror and Control Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Lin; Yi-ming, Wu; Fan, Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Fast steering mirror is a device used for controlling the beam direction precisely. Due to the short travel of the push-pull FSM, a compound fast steering mirror system driven by both limited-angle voice coil motor and push-pull FSM together is proposed. In the compound FSM system, limited-angle voice coil motor quickly swings at wide angle, while the push-pull FSM do high frequency movement in a small range, which provides the system with the high bandwidth and long travel. In the control strategy, the method of combining feed-forward control in Kalman filtering with auto-disturbance rejection control is used to improve trajectory tracking accuracy. The simulation result shows that tracking accuracy measured by the compound method can be improved by more than 5 times than that of the conventional PID.

  11. Tracking Control of a Magnetic Shape Memory Actuator Using an Inverse Preisach Model with Modified Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhih-Hong Lin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic shape memory (MSM alloys are a new class of smart materials with extraordinary strains up to 12% and frequencies in the range of 1 to 2 kHz. The MSM actuator is a potential device which can achieve high performance electromagnetic actuation by using the properties of MSM alloys. However, significant non-linear hysteresis behavior is a significant barrier to control the MSM actuator. In this paper, the Preisach model was used, by capturing experiments from different input signals and output responses, to model the hysteresis of MSM actuator, and the inverse Preisach model, as a feedforward control, provided compensational signals to the MSM actuator to linearize the hysteresis non-linearity. The control strategy for path tracking combined the hysteresis compensator and the modified fuzzy sliding mode control (MFSMC which served as a path controller. Based on the experimental results, it was verified that a tracking error in the order of micrometers was achieved.

  12. Tracking Control of a Magnetic Shape Memory Actuator Using an Inverse Preisach Model with Modified Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jhih-Hong; Chiang, Mao-Hsiung

    2016-08-25

    Magnetic shape memory (MSM) alloys are a new class of smart materials with extraordinary strains up to 12% and frequencies in the range of 1 to 2 kHz. The MSM actuator is a potential device which can achieve high performance electromagnetic actuation by using the properties of MSM alloys. However, significant non-linear hysteresis behavior is a significant barrier to control the MSM actuator. In this paper, the Preisach model was used, by capturing experiments from different input signals and output responses, to model the hysteresis of MSM actuator, and the inverse Preisach model, as a feedforward control, provided compensational signals to the MSM actuator to linearize the hysteresis non-linearity. The control strategy for path tracking combined the hysteresis compensator and the modified fuzzy sliding mode control (MFSMC) which served as a path controller. Based on the experimental results, it was verified that a tracking error in the order of micrometers was achieved.

  13. Dynamic Modeling and Control Strategy Optimization for a Hybrid Electric Tracked Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new hybrid electric tracked bulldozer composed of an engine generator, two driving motors, and an ultracapacitor is put forward, which can provide high efficiencies and less fuel consumption comparing with traditional ones. This paper first presents the terramechanics of this hybrid electric tracked bulldozer. The driving dynamics for this tracked bulldozer is then analyzed. After that, based on analyzing the working characteristics of the engine, generator, and driving motors, the power train system model and control strategy optimization is established by using MATLAB/Simulink and OPTIMUS software. Simulation is performed under a representative working condition, and the results demonstrate that fuel economy of the HETV can be significantly improved.

  14. Consensus seeking, formation keeping, and trajectory tracking in multiple vehicle cooperative control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei

    Cooperative control problems for multiple vehicle systems can be categorized as either formation control problems with applications to mobile robots, unmanned air vehicles, autonomous underwater vehicles, satellites, aircraft, spacecraft, and automated highway systems, or non-formation control problems such as task assignment, cooperative transport, cooperative role assignment, air traffic control, cooperative timing, and cooperative search. The cooperative control of multiple vehicle systems poses significant theoretical and practical challenges. For cooperative control strategies to be successful, numerous issues must be addressed. We consider three important and correlated issues: consensus seeking, formation keeping, and trajectory tracking. For consensus seeking, we investigate algorithms and protocols so that a team of vehicles can reach consensus on the values of the coordination data in the presence of imperfect sensors, communication dropout, sparse communication topologies, and noisy and unreliable communication links. The main contribution of this dissertation in this area is that we show necessary and/or sufficient conditions for consensus seeking with limited, unidirectional, and unreliable information exchange under fixed and switching interaction topologies (through either communication or sensing). For formation keeping, we apply a so-called "virtual structure" approach to spacecraft formation flying and multi-vehicle formation maneuvers. As a result, single vehicle path planning and trajectory generation techniques can be employed for the virtual structure while trajectory tracking strategies can be employed for each vehicle. The main contribution of this dissertation in this area is that we propose a decentralized architecture for multiple spacecraft formation flying in deep space with formation feedback introduced. This architecture ensures the necessary precision in the presence of actuator saturation, internal and external disturbances, and

  15. Indirect adaptive fuzzy fault-tolerant tracking control for MIMO nonlinear systems with actuator and sensor failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounemeur, Abdelhamid; Chemachema, Mohamed; Essounbouli, Najib

    2018-05-10

    In this paper, an active fuzzy fault tolerant tracking control (AFFTTC) scheme is developed for a class of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) unknown nonlinear systems in the presence of unknown actuator faults, sensor failures and external disturbance. The developed control scheme deals with four kinds of faults for both sensors and actuators. The bias, drift, and loss of accuracy additive faults are considered along with the loss of effectiveness multiplicative fault. A fuzzy adaptive controller based on back-stepping design is developed to deal with actuator failures and unknown system dynamics. However, an additional robust control term is added to deal with sensor faults, approximation errors, and external disturbances. Lyapunov theory is used to prove the stability of the closed loop system. Numerical simulations on a quadrotor are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Method for control-room display design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montmayeul, R.

    1988-01-01

    This document describes a method for control-room displays design. It can be used either for isolated display to add to an existing system either for the design of a full system of operator aids. The method is a top-down design with steps of possible iteration. The emphasis is put on display design rather than on system design; system aspects are just mentioned. Advantages of using a method are described [fr

  17. Hierarchically porous carbon membranes containing designed nanochannel architectures obtained by pyrolysis of ion-track etched polyimide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muench, Falk, E-mail: muench@ca.tu-darmstadt.de [Department of Material- and Geoscience, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Seidl, Tim; Rauber, Markus [Department of Material- and Geoscience, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Material Research Department, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Peter, Benedikt; Brötz, Joachim [Department of Material- and Geoscience, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Krause, Markus; Trautmann, Christina [Department of Material- and Geoscience, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Material Research Department, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Roth, Christina [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustraße 3, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Katusic, Stipan [Evonik Industries AG, Rodenbacher Chaussee 4, 63457 Hanau (Germany); Ensinger, Wolfgang [Department of Material- and Geoscience, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    Well-defined, porous carbon monoliths are highly promising materials for electrochemical applications, separation, purification and catalysis. In this work, we present an approach allowing to transfer the remarkable degree of synthetic control given by the ion-track etching technology to the fabrication of carbon membranes with porosity structured on multiple length scales. The carbonization and pore formation processes were examined with Raman, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, while model experiments demonstrated the viability of the carbon membranes as catalyst support and pollutant adsorbent. Using ion-track etching, specifically designed, continuous channel-shaped pores were introduced into polyimide foils with precise control over channel diameter, orientation, density and interconnection. At a pyrolysis temperature of 950 °C, the artificially created channels shrunk in size, but their shape was preserved, while the polymer was transformed to microporous, amorphous carbon. Channel diameters ranging from ∼10 to several 100 nm could be achieved. The channels also gave access to previously closed micropore volume. Substantial surface increase was realized, as it was shown by introducing a network consisting of 1.4 × 10{sup 10} channels per cm{sup 2} of 30 nm diameter, which more than tripled the mass-normalized surface of the pyrolytic carbon from 205 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} to 732 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. At a pyrolysis temperature of 3000 °C, membranes consisting of highly ordered graphite were obtained. In this case, the channel shape was severely altered, resulting in a pronounced conical geometry in which the channel diameter quickly decreased with increasing distance to the membrane surface. - Highlights: • Pyrolysis of ion-track etched polyimide yields porous carbon membranes. • Hierarchic porosity: continuous nanochannels embedded in a microporous carbon matrix.

  18. Hierarchically porous carbon membranes containing designed nanochannel architectures obtained by pyrolysis of ion-track etched polyimide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muench, Falk; Seidl, Tim; Rauber, Markus; Peter, Benedikt; Brötz, Joachim; Krause, Markus; Trautmann, Christina; Roth, Christina; Katusic, Stipan; Ensinger, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Well-defined, porous carbon monoliths are highly promising materials for electrochemical applications, separation, purification and catalysis. In this work, we present an approach allowing to transfer the remarkable degree of synthetic control given by the ion-track etching technology to the fabrication of carbon membranes with porosity structured on multiple length scales. The carbonization and pore formation processes were examined with Raman, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, while model experiments demonstrated the viability of the carbon membranes as catalyst support and pollutant adsorbent. Using ion-track etching, specifically designed, continuous channel-shaped pores were introduced into polyimide foils with precise control over channel diameter, orientation, density and interconnection. At a pyrolysis temperature of 950 °C, the artificially created channels shrunk in size, but their shape was preserved, while the polymer was transformed to microporous, amorphous carbon. Channel diameters ranging from ∼10 to several 100 nm could be achieved. The channels also gave access to previously closed micropore volume. Substantial surface increase was realized, as it was shown by introducing a network consisting of 1.4 × 10 10 channels per cm 2 of 30 nm diameter, which more than tripled the mass-normalized surface of the pyrolytic carbon from 205 m 2  g −1 to 732 m 2  g −1 . At a pyrolysis temperature of 3000 °C, membranes consisting of highly ordered graphite were obtained. In this case, the channel shape was severely altered, resulting in a pronounced conical geometry in which the channel diameter quickly decreased with increasing distance to the membrane surface. - Highlights: • Pyrolysis of ion-track etched polyimide yields porous carbon membranes. • Hierarchic porosity: continuous nanochannels embedded in a microporous carbon matrix. • Freely adjustable meso- or

  19. Design Of Single-Axis And Dual-Axis Solar Tracking Systems Protected Against High Wind Speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Salaheldin Elsherbiny

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is rapidly gaining ground as an important mean of expanding renewable energy use. Solar tracking is employed in order to maximize collected solar radiation by a photovoltaic panel. In this paper we present a prototype for Automatic solar tracker that is designed using Arduino UNO with Wind sensor to Cease Wind effect on panels if wind speed exceeds certain threshold. The Proposed solar tracker tracks the location of the sun anywhere in any time by calculating the position of the sun. For producing the maximum amount of solar energy a solar panel must always be perpendicular to the source of light. Because the sun motion plane varies daily and during the day it moves from east to west one needs two axis tracking to follow the suns position. Maximum possible power is collected when two axis tracking is done. However two axis tracking is relatively costly and complex. A compromise between maximum power collection and system simplicity is obtained by single axis tracking where the plane North south axis is fixed while the east west motion is accomplished. This work deals with the design of both single and two axis tracking systems. Automatic trackers is also compared to Fixed one in terms of Energy generated Efficiency Cost and System reliability.

  20. Plug-and-Play Design of Current Controllers for Grid-feeding Converters in DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Renke; Tucci, Michele; Soloperto, Raffaele

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of synthesizing decentralized current controllers for grid-feeding converters of current-controlled distributed generation units (CDGUs) in dc microgrids (MGs). Notably, a plug-and-play (PnP) design procedure is proposed to achieve grid-feeding current tracking...