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Sample records for trachomatis mycoplasma genitalium

  1. Prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis and Chlamydia trachomatis among Danish patients requesting abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Agata; Hvid, Malene; Lamy, P

    2008-01-01

    . There was no correlation between the presence of genital infection with C. trachomatis and genital mycoplasmas and no correlation between the presence of antibodies to these bacteria. In conclusion, in Danish patients it is not necessary to test for M. genitalium before abortion since less than 1% were found positive....... The prevalence of genital C. trachomatis infections was high among the abortion-seeking patients....

  2. Urethral inflammatory response to ureaplasma is significantly lower than to Mycoplasma genitalium and Chlamydia trachomatis.

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    Moi, Harald; Reinton, Nils; Randjelovic, Ivana; Reponen, Elina J; Syvertsen, Line; Moghaddam, Amir

    2017-07-01

    A non-syndromic approach to treatment of people with non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) requires identification of pathogens and understanding of the role of those pathogens in causing disease. The most commonly detected and isolated micro-organisms in the male urethral tract are bacteria belonging to the family of Mycoplasmataceae, in particular Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum. To better understand the role of these Ureaplasma species in NGU, we have performed a prospective analysis of male patients voluntarily attending a drop in STI clinic in Oslo. Of 362 male patients who were tested for NGU using microscopy of urethral smears, we found the following sexually transmissible micro-organisms: 16% Chlamydia trachomatis, 5% Mycoplasma genitalium, 14% U. urealyticum, 14% U. parvum and 5% Mycoplasma hominis. We found a high concordance in detecting in turn U. urealyticum and U. parvum using 16s rRNA gene and ureD gene as targets for nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT). Whilst there was a strong association between microscopic signs of NGU and C. trachomatis infection, association of M. genitalium and U. urealyticum infections in turn were found only in patients with severe NGU (>30 polymorphonuclear leucocytes, PMNL/high powered fields, HPF). U. parvum was found to colonise a high percentage of patients with no or mild signs of NGU (0-9 PMNL/HPF). We conclude that urethral inflammatory response to ureaplasmas is less severe than to C. trachomatis and M. genitalium in most patients and that testing and treatment of ureaplasma-positive patients should only be considered when other STIs have been ruled out.

  3. Mycoplasma genitalium Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-02-08

    Dr. Lisa Manhart, a professor of Epidemiology and Global Health with the Center for AIDS and STD at the University of Washington, discusses Mycoplasma genitalium Infections.  Created: 2/8/2018 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/8/2018.

  4. Study of the prevalence and association of ocular chlamydial conjunctivitis in women with genital infection by Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium and Candida albicans attending outpatient clinic.

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    Khattab, Rania Abdelmonem; Abdelfattah, Maha Mohssen

    2016-01-01

    To determine the association between chlamydial conjunctivitis and genital infection by Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium and Candida albicans, in addition to the possible relationship between cultured bacterial pathogens and oculogenital chlamydial infection. This study was performed on 100 (50 symptomatic and 50 asymptomatic) women attending the Gynecological and Obstetric outpatient clinic of Alzahra hospital, Alazhar University. Simultaneously a conjunctival swab was taken from these patients. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was done on DNA extracted from both vaginal and conjunctival swab samples. Culture for both vaginal and conjunctival swabs was also done. Candida albicans was the predominant organism isolated by culture in 20% and 40% of conjunctival and vaginal swabs respectively. By the PCR method, ocular Chlamydia trachomatis was present in 60% of symptomatic women, while genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection was present in 30% of symptomatic women. The results of this method also indicated that 25/50 (50%) vaginal swabs were positive with PCR for Candida albicans versus 15/50 (30%) were PCR positive in conjunctival swab. Mycoplasma genitalium was present in only 10% of vaginal swabs. Concomitant oculogenital PCR positive results for Chlamydia trachomatis and Candida albicans were 30% and 28% respectively. Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis was associated with genital Chlamydia trachomatis in a high percentage of women followed by Candida albicans. Cultured bacterial organisms do not play a role in enhancement of Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

  5. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma spp., Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma hominis among outpatients in central Greece: absence of tetracycline resistance gene tet(M over a 4-year period study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ikonomidis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 301 men and women attending local urologists and gynaecologists in the state of Thessaly, central Greece, were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma spp., Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma hominis DNA. Investigation of the tet(M gene, which confers tetracycline resistance in these genera, was also performed. Low incidence of C. trachomatis and Mycoplasma spp. as well as high prevalence of Ureaplasma spp., especially among women, were found. The tet(M gene was absent in all cases, notably in a region where doxycycline administration remains the first therapeutic option unless special medical conditions direct otherwise.

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Trichomonas vaginalis Infections in Men With Nongonococcal Urethritis: Predictors and Persistence After Therapy

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    Seña, Arlene C.; Lensing, Shelly; Rompalo, Anne; Taylor, Stephanie N.; Martin, David H.; Lopez, Laureen M.; Lee, Jeannette Y.; Schwebke, Jane R.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) are sexually transmitted infections (STIs) associated with nongonococcal urethritis (NGU). We assessed their predictors and persistence after treatment. Methods. We analyzed data from an NGU treatment trial among symptomatic heterosexual men aged 16–45 years from STI clinics. Nucleic acid amplification tests detected CT, MG, and TV at baseline and at 1 and 4 weeks after therapy. Associations between variables and STI detection were investigated. Results. Among 293 participants, 44% had CT, 31% had MG, and 13% had TV at baseline. In multivariate analysis, CT infection was associated with young age and STI contact. Young age was also associated with MG, and having ≥1 new partner was negatively associated with TV. We detected persistent CT in 12% and MG in 44% of participants at 4 weeks after therapy, which were associated with signs and symptoms of NGU. Persistent CT was detected in 23% of participants after azithromycin treatment vs 5% after doxycycline treatment (P = .011); persistent MG was detected in 68% of participants after doxycycline vs 33% after azithromycin (P = .001). All but 1 TV infection cleared after tinidazole. Conclusions. Persistent CT and MG after treatment of NGU are common, and were associated with clinical findings and drug regimen. PMID:22615318

  7. The vaginal microbiota and its association with Human Papillomavirus, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhea and Mycoplasma genitalium infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Tamarelle, Jeanne; Thiébaut, Anne C M; de Barbeyrac, Bertille; Bébéar, Cécile; Ravel, Jacques; Delarocque-Astagneau, Elisabeth

    2018-05-02

    The vaginal microbiota may modulate susceptibility to Human papillomavirus, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhea and Mycoplasma genitalium infections. The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the association between these infections and the vaginal microbiota. The search (2000-2016) yielded 1054 articles, of which 39 articles meeting the inclusion criteria were analyzed. The vaginal microbiota was dichotomized into high-Lactobacillus vaginal microbiota (HL-VMB) and low-Lactobacillus vaginal microbiota (LL-VMB), using either Nugent score, Amsel's criteria, presence of clue cells or gene sequencing. Measures of association with LL-VMB ranged from 0.6 (95% Confidence Interval 0.3, 1.2) to 2.8 (0.3, 28.0), 0.7 (0.4, 1.2) to 5.2 (1.9, 14.8), 0.8 (0.5, 1.4) to 3.8 (0.4, 36.2), and 0.4 (0.1, 1.5) to 6.1 (2.0, 18.5) for HPV, C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhea and M. genitalium infections respectively. While no clear trend for N. gonorrhea and M. genitalium infections could be detected, our results support a protective role of HL-VMB for HPV and C. trachomatis. Overall, these findings advocate for the use of high-resolution characterization methods for the vaginal microbiota to lay the foundation for its integration in prevention and treatment strategies. Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mycoplasma genitalium: An Emerging Cause of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine L. Haggerty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma genitalium is a sexually transmitted pathogen that is increasingly identified among women with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID. Although Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae frequently cause PID, up to 70% of cases have an unidentified etiology. This paper summarizes evidence linking M. genitalium to PID and its long-term reproductive sequelae. Several PCR studies have demonstrated that M. genitalium is associated with PID, independent of gonococcal and chlamydial infection. Most have been cross-sectional, although one prospective investigation suggested that M. genitalium was associated with over a thirteenfold risk of endometritis. Further, a nested case-control posttermination study demonstrated a sixfold increased risk of PID among M. genitalium positive patients. Whether or not M. genitalium upper genital tract infection results in long-term reproductive morbidity is unclear, although tubal factor infertility patients have been found to have elevated M. genitalium antibodies. Several lines of evidence suggest that M. genitalium is likely resistant to many frequently used PID treatment regimens. Correspondingly, M. genitalium has been associated with treatment failure following cefoxitin and doxycycline treatment for clinically suspected PID. Collectively, strong evidence suggests that M. genitalium is associated with PID. Further study of M. genitalium upper genital tract infection diagnosis, treatment and long-term sequelae is warranted.

  9. Mycoplasma genitalium attaches to human spermatozoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Helle Friis; Fedder, Jens; Abraham-Peskir, Joanna

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma genitalium causes urogenital diseases in men and women and is presumed to be sexually transmitted. We wanted to investigate whether spermatozoa could serve as vectors for M.genitalium in order to cause upper genital diseases in women. METHODS: By use of Nomarski light...... microscopy and transmission X-ray microscopy, the attachment of M.genitalium to spermatozoa was studied. Semen was incubated in vitro with M.genitalium. Purified, motile spermatozoa were examined for attachment of M.genitalium by immunofluorescence microscopy. RESULTS: Mycoplasma genitalium was shown...... to adhere to the head, midpiece and tail of the spermatozoa. The spermatozoa became immotile when many M.genitalium were attached. However, the motile spermatozoa were demonstrated to carry M.genitalium and in this case the mycoplasmas were seen to attach mostly to the midpiece or neck region. Occasionally...

  10. Reactive arthritis associated with Mycoplasma genitalium urethritis.

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    Chrisment, D; Machelart, I; Wirth, G; Lazaro, E; Greib, C; Pellegrin, J-L; Bébéar, C; Peuchant, O

    2013-11-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is an important cause of sexually transmitted infections that is gaining recognition and is an independent cause of acute and chronic nongonococcal urethritis in men. M. genitalium has been implicated as a possible causative factor in reactive arthritis. We report a case of reactive arthritis complicating M. genitalium urethritis in an HLA-B27-positive patient. © 2013.

  11. Mycoplasma genitalium in male urethritis: diagnosis and treatment in Japan.

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    Hamasuna, Ryoichi

    2013-07-01

    Male urethritis is a common disease for urologists, with the most common pathogens being, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. When the tests fail to detect these pathogens, the presented urethritis is called non-chlamydial non-gonococcal urethritis. Mycoplasma genitalium is one of the pathogens for non-chlamydial non-gonococcal urethritis. The test for detecting M. genitalium, which is commercially available in Japan, is not accepted by the Japanese insurance system now. The detection rate of M. genitalium from patients with non-gonococcal urethritis is 10-20% in Japan. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for M. genitalium showed that macrolide has the strongest activity and the minimum inhibitory concentrations of tetracyclines were not substantially lower. Some kinds of fluoroquinolones, such as sitafloxacin and moxifloxacin, have stronger activities against M. genitalium. For non-gonococcal urethritis, macrolides and tetracycline are recommended in some guidelines. In clinical studies, tetracyclines are less effective against M. genitalium than azithromycin, and azithromycin regimens including 1 g stat or 2 g stat are now recommended for urethritis with M. genitalium. However, macrolide-resistant M. genitalium strains have recently emerged and are spreading worldwide. This macrolide-resistance is closely related to mutations on the 23S rRNA gene. Sitafloxacin and moxifloxacin have shown good efficacies for M. genitalium in some clinical studies. If the azithromycin regimens fail, we must consider the use of fluoroquinolones, such as sitafloxacin, in Japan. The most important issues include the acceptance of M. genitalium examinations by the national insurance system and the individual treatment of C. trachomatis and M. genitalium in the not-too-distant future. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  12. Evaluation of the new AmpliSens multiplex real-time PCR assay for simultaneous detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Trichomonas vaginalis.

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    Rumyantseva, Tatiana; Golparian, Daniel; Nilsson, Christian S; Johansson, Emma; Falk, My; Fredlund, Hans; Van Dam, Alje; Guschin, Alexander; Unemo, Magnus

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we performed an evaluation of the new CE-marked multiplex real-time AmpliSens N.gonorrhoeae/C.trachomatis/M.genitalium/T.vaginalis-MULTIPRIME-FRT PCR assay compared to APTIMA tests, i.e., APTIMA COMBO 2 assay, APTIMA Trichomonas vaginalis assay (FDA-approved), and two different APTIMA Mycoplasma genitalium assays (research use only; one of them only used for discrepancy analysis). Vaginal swabs (n = 209) and first-void urine (FVU) specimens from females (n = 498) and males (n = 554), consecutive attendees (n = 1261) at a dermatovenerological clinic in Sweden, were examined. The sensitivity of the AmpliSens PCR assay for detection of C. trachomatis (6.3% prevalence), M. genitalium (5.7% prevalence), N. gonorrhoeae (0.3% prevalence), and T. vaginalis (0.08% prevalence) was 97.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 91.2-99.6%), 81.9% (95% CI: 70.7-89.7%), 100% (95% CI: 40.2-100%) and 100% (95% CI: 16.5-100%), respectively. The specificity of the AmpliSens PCR assay was 100% (95% CI: 99.6-100%) for all agents. The analytical sensitivity and specificity for N. gonorrhoeae detection was excellent, i.e., 55 international gonococcal strains detected and 135 isolates of 13 non-gonococcal Neisseria species were negative. In conclusion, the multiplex real-time AmpliSens N.gonorrhoeae/C.trachomatis/M.genitalium/T.vaginalis-MULTIPRIME-FRT PCR assay demonstrated high sensitivity and excellent specificity for the detection of C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, and T. vaginalis, and excellent specificity but suboptimal sensitivity for M. genitalium detection. © 2015 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Association of genital mycoplasmas including Mycoplasma genitalium in HIV infected men with nongonococcal urethritis attending STD & HIV clinics.

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    Manhas, Ashwini; Sethi, Sunil; Sharma, Meera; Wanchu, Ajay; Kanwar, A J; Kaur, Karamjit; Mehta, S D

    2009-03-01

    Acute nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) is one of the commonest sexually transmitted infections affecting men. The role of genital mycoplasmas including Mycoplasma genitalium in HIV infected men with NGU is still not known. The aim of this study was to determine the isolation pattern/detection of genital mycoplasma including M. genitalium in HIV infected men with NGU and to compare it with non HIV infected individuals. One hundred male patients with NGU (70 HIV positive, 30 HIV negative) were included in the study. Urethral swabs and urine samples obtained from patients were subjected to semi-quantitative culture for Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasama urealyticum, whereas M. genitalium was detected by PCR from urine. The primers MgPa1 and MgPa3 were selected to identify 289 bp product specific for M. genitalium. Chalmydia trachomatis antigen detection was carried out by ELISA. M. genitalium and M. hominis were detected/isolated in 6 per cent of the cases. M. genitalium was more common amongst HIV positive cases (7.1%) as compared to HIV negative cases (3.3%) but difference was not statistically significant. Co-infection of C. trachomatis and U. urealyticum was found in two HIV positive cases whereas, C. trachomatis and M. hominis were found to be coinfecting only one HIV positive individual. M. genitalium was found to be infecting the patients as the sole pathogen. Patients with NGU had almost equal risk of being infected with M. genitalium, U. urealyticum or M. hominis irrespective of their HIV status. M.genitalium constitutes one of the important causes of NGU besides other genital mycoplasmas.

  14. Mycoplasma genitalium: An Emerging Sexually Transmitted Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz, Jessian L.; Goje, Oluwatosin Jaiyeoba

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium has been recognized as a cause of male urethritis, and there is now evidence suggesting that it causes cervicitis and pelvic inflammatory disease in women. M. genitalium is a slow growing organism, and, with the advent of nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT), more studies are being performed, and knowledge about the pathogenicity of this organism elucidated. With NAAT detection, treatment modalities have been studied, and the next challenge is to determine the most eff...

  15. Mycoplasma genitalium: from Chrysalis to multicolored butterfly.

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    Taylor-Robinson, David; Jensen, Jørgen Skov

    2011-07-01

    The history, replication, genetics, characteristics (both biological and physical), and factors involved in the pathogenesis of Mycoplasma genitalium are presented. The latter factors include adhesion, the influence of hormones, motility, possible toxin production, and immunological responses. The preferred site of colonization, together with current detection procedures, mainly by PCR technology, is discussed. The relationships between M. genitalium and various diseases are highlighted. These diseases include acute and chronic nongonococcal urethritis, balanoposthitis, chronic prostatitis, and acute epididymitis in men and urethritis, bacterial vaginosis, vaginitis, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and reproductive disease in women. A causative relationship, or otherwise strong association, between several of these diseases and M. genitalium is apparent, and the extent of this, on a subjective basis, is presented; also provided is a comparison between M. genitalium and two other genital tract-orientated mollicutes, namely, Mycoplasma hominis, the first mycoplasma of human origin to be discovered, and Ureaplasma species. Also discussed is the relationship between M. genitalium and infertility and also arthritis in both men and women, as is infection in homosexual and immunodeficient patients. Decreased immunity, as in HIV infections, may enhance mycoplasmal detection and increase disease severity. Finally, aspects of the antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance of M. genitalium, together with the treatment and possible prevention of mycoplasmal disease, are discussed.

  16. Mycoplasma genitalium: Should We Treat and How?

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    Broad, Jennifer M.; Golden, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is associated with acute and chronic urethritis in men. Existing data on infection in women are limited and inconsistent but suggest that M. genitalium is associated with urethritis, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and possibly female infertility. Data are inconclusive regarding the role of M. genitalium in adverse pregnancy outcomes and ectopic pregnancy. Available data suggest that azithromycin is superior to doxycycline in treating M. genitalium infection. However, azithromycin-resistant infections have been reported in 3 continents, and the proportion of azithromycin-resistant M. genitalium infection is unknown. Moxifloxacin is the only drug that currently seems to uniformly eradicate M. genitalium. Detection of M. genitalium is hampered by the absence of a commercially available diagnostic test. Persons with persistent pelvic inflammatory disease or clinically significant persistent urethritis or cervicitis should be tested for M. genitalium, if possible. Infected persons who have not previously received azithromycin should receive that drug. Persons in whom azithromycin therapy fails should be treated with moxifloxicin. PMID:22080266

  17. Azithromycin Failure in Mycoplasma genitalium Urethritis

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    Jensen, Jorgen S.; Tabrizi, Sepehr N.; Read, Timothy R.H.; Garland, Suzanne M.; Hopkins, Carol A.; Moss, Lorna M.; Fairley, Christopher K.

    2006-01-01

    We report significant failure rates (28%, 95% confidence interval 15%–45%) after administering 1 g azithromycin to men with Mycoplasma genitalium–positive nongonococcal urethritis. In vitro evidence supported reduced susceptibility of M. genitalium to macrolides. Moxifloxacin administration resulted in rapid symptom resolution and eradication of infection in all cases. These findings have implications for management of urethritis. PMID:16836839

  18. Morphology of human Fallopian tubes after infection with Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma hominis--in vitro organ culture study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Agata; Funch, P; Fedder, J

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Female infertility can be caused by scarring and occlusion of the Fallopian tubes. Sexually transmitted bacteria can damage the delicate epithelial layer of human Fallopian tubes (HFT). Genital mycoplasmas are associated with human reproductive failure. Yet, there is not enough evidence...... that mycoplasmas can cause tubal factor infertility. We analysed the effects of infections with Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma genitalium on the HFT epithelium and compared them with the effects of infections with genital pathogens: Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. METHODS: We used an in vitro...

  19. Mycoplasma genitalium: An Emerging Sexually Transmitted Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessian L. Munoz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma genitalium has been recognized as a cause of male urethritis, and there is now evidence suggesting that it causes cervicitis and pelvic inflammatory disease in women. M. genitalium is a slow growing organism, and, with the advent of nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT, more studies are being performed, and knowledge about the pathogenicity of this organism elucidated. With NAAT detection, treatment modalities have been studied, and the next challenge is to determine the most effective antimicrobial therapy. Doxycycline, the first-line antibiotic for urethritis, is largely ineffective in the treatment of M. genitalium and furthermore, resistance to macrolide has also emerged. The most effective drug is Moxifloxacin although there are emerging reports of resistance to it in various parts of the world. This paper not only highlights the current research and knowledge, but also reviews the diversity of health implications on the health of men and women infected with M. genitalium. Alternate antibiotics and the impact of M. genitalium on infertility are areas that require more studies as we continue to research into this microorganism.

  20. [Validation of the Kit for Detecting Mycoplasma Genitalium from the Male Urethritis].

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    Hamasuna, Ryoichi; Matsumoto, Masahiro; Thi LE, Phuong; Fujimoto, Naohiro; Matsumoto, Tetsuro

    Mycoplasma genitalium is one of the pathogenic microorganisms in male urethritis as a sexually transmitted infection (STI). M.genitalium is detected in the urine specimens of 15-25% male patients with urethritis. The emergence of macrolide- or fluoroquinolone-resistant M.genitalium has become a serious problem in the treatment of male urethritis worldwide, but there is no commercial-based detecting kits accepted by the national insurance in Japan. In this study, we tested the validity of a molecular kit for detecting seven microorganisms related to STI (Anyplex™ II STI-7 Detection which detects Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, M.genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum, Trichomonas vaginalis) produced by Seegene company in Korea. Seventeen M.genitalium strains were used to determine the detection limit of M.genitalium. M.genitalium DNA samples were extracted from M.genitalium strains and the diluted DNA samples were reacted to detect M.genitalium by the Anyplex™ II STI-7 Detection. The detection limit was determined as the maximum dilution of DNA samples and the number of M.genitalium DNA copies calculated. In this study, the minimum DNA copies to detect M.genitalium by the Anyplex™ II STI-7 Detection was determined to be around 50 per reaction. The detection rates of M.genitalium in urine specimens were compared between MgPa gene PCR and the Anyplex™ II STI-7 Detection. The positive and negative concordant rates were high as 96.4% (27/28) and 98.6% (71/72), respectively. The validity of the kit for detecting seven microorganisms related to STI (Anyplex™ II STI-7 Detection) was high and thought to be useful for clinical uses.

  1. Prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium in men with urethritis and in high risk asymptomatic males in Tel Aviv: a prospective study.

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    Gottesman, Tamar; Yossepowitch, Orit; Samra, Zmira; Rosenberg, Shoshana; Dan, Michael

    2017-02-01

    We sought to investigate the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis in men presenting to a sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic, with special attention to M. genitalium, its occurrence in Israeli patients, coinfections, and risk factors. In a cross-sectional study, 259 men were successively enrolled in the Tel Aviv Levinsky Clinic for STIs between November 2008 and November 2010. There were 118 men with urethritis and 141 high-risk men without symptoms. M. genitalium, C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, and T. vaginalis were detected using nucleic acid amplification tests. Demographic characteristics and risk factors were documented. The overall prevalence of infection with M. genitalium, C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, and T. vaginalis, were 6.6%, 12.7%, 23.1%, and 0%, respectively. Prevalences in men with urethritis were 11.9%, 22%, and 49%, for M. genitalium, C. trachomatis, and N. gonorrhoeae, respectively. Prevalences in men without symptoms were 2.1%, 5.0%, and 1.4%, for M. genitalium, C. trachomatis, and N. gonorrhoeae, respectively. Co-infections were found only in symptomatic individuals, in whom 5.9% were infected concomitantly with C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae, and 2.5% had dual infection with M. genitalium and N. gonorrhoeae. N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, and M. genitalium were significantly more prevalent in patients with urethritis. M. genitalium was significantly more prevalent in the heterosexual population than in homosexual males. To conclude, we have found that M. genitalium infection is associated with urethritis in Israeli men, and more so in the heterosexual population. Testing men for M. genitalium as a cause of non-gonococcal urethritis is warranted, particularly because of its poor response to doxycycline and possible failure of azithromycin.

  2. Should Female Partners of Men With Non-Gonococcal Urethritis, Negative for Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium, Be Informed and Treated? Clinical Outcomes From a Partner Study of Heterosexual Men With NGU.

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    Ong, Jason J; Sarumpaet, Angela; Chow, Eric P F; Bradshaw, Catriona; Chen, Marcus; Read, Tim; Fairley, Christopher K

    2017-02-01

    To determine if female partners of men with pathogen-negative non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) are at risk of genital infection. Secondary data analysis using health records from a large sexually transmitted disease clinic in Melbourne of 1710 men and their female partners attending on the same day from January 2006 to April 2015. Proportions of female partners with symptoms suggesting genital infection or pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) were determined for: (1) men with NGU and no Chlamydia trachomatis or Mycoplasma genitalium (referred to as pathogen-negative NGU) (n = 91); 2) men with urethral C. trachomatis (n = 176); 3) men with urethral M. genitalium (n = 26); and 4) asymptomatic men (n = 652). Female partners of men with pathogen-negative NGU experienced deep pelvic pain (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-4.4), post coital bleeding (AOR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2-4.9), and dysuria (AOR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.6-8.6) more commonly and were diagnosed with PID more commonly (AOR, 4.8; 95% CI, 2.1-11.3) than the female partners of asymptomatic men. Pelvic inflammatory disease was not more likely to be diagnosed in the female partners of men with genital warts (AOR, 1.4; 95% CI, 0.5-4.4) or candidiasis (AOR, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.4-3.5) than the female partners of asymptomatic men. The female partners of men with chlamydia experienced post coital bleeding more (AOR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.0-3.6) and were more likely to be diagnosed with PID (AOR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.6-8.0). The female partners of men with pathogen-negative NGU may be at increased risk of genital infection, even if a recognised pathogen is not identified in the man.

  3. Effect of gatifloxacin against Mycoplasma genitalium-related urethritis: an open clinical trial

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    Takahashi, Satoshi; Kiyota, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Hayami, Hiroshi; Arakawa, Soichi; Tomono, Kazunori; Matsumoto, Tetsuro

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Mycoplasma genitalium and Chlamydia trachomatis are the primary pathogens detected from non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU). In this study, the efficacy of gatifloxacin was examined against M genitalium-related urethritis. Methods The study was an open clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of gatifloxacin with 200 mg doses twice a day for 7 days against male NGU. Results Between March and September 2008, 169 male patients were enrolled, and microbiological and clinical cure rates could be evaluated in 86 patients detected with C trachomatis or M genitalium and in 135 with NGU, respectively. Microbiological cure rates of gatifloxacin against C trachomatis and M genitalium were 100% and 83%, respectively, and the total clinical cure rate was 99%. Conclusion Analysis of in-vivo and in-vitro data from the literature of fluoroquinolone efficacies against M genitalium suggests that a MIC90 of 0.125 μg/ml or less may be useful for optimal activity against M genitalium infection. PMID:21531704

  4. Mycoplasma genitalium: prevalence in men presenting with urethritis to a South Australian public sexual health clinic.

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    Mezzini, T M; Waddell, R G; Douglas, R J; Sadlon, T A

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium infection among male patients with dysuria and/or urethral discharge. An analysis of the clinical, demographic and microbiological factors associated with M. genitalium infection was also conducted. From May 2007 to June 2011, men presenting to the clinic with self-reported symptoms of dysuria and/or urethral discharge were identified and underwent urethral swab, which was microscopically assessed for objective non-gonococcal urethritis. A first-void urine sample was tested for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae using the Aptima Combo-2 assay. A portion of the urine sample was sent for polymerase chain reaction analysis for M. genitalium. One thousand, one hundred and eighty-two men with dysuria and/or urethral discharge were tested for M. genitalium. Of those, 96 men (8.1%) were positive for M. genitalium. Men identifying as solely MSM (men who have sex with men) constituted 16.3% (n = 193) of the sample. Their infection rate was 3.1% (n = 6). The infection rate for heterosexual and bisexual men was 9.1%. For all men, the M. genitalium co-infection rate was 14.6% (n = 14) with C. trachomatis and 3.1% (n = 3) with N. gonorrhoeae. Factors associated with M. genitalium infection were analysed by univariate analysis. We determined that five investigated predictors were significantly associated with M. genitalium infection, urethral discharge, non-gonococcal urethritis on Gram stain of urethral smears, identification as heterosexual or bisexual, and absence of co-infection with C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae. In Adelaide, M. genitalium is an important sexually transmitted infection among men with dysuria and/or urethral discharge, and is primarily an infection of heterosexual and bisexual men. © 2013 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  5. Mycoplasma genitalium compared to chlamydia, gonorrhoea and trichomonas as an aetiological agent of urethritis in men attending STD clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaydos, C; Maldeis, N E; Hardick, A; Hardick, J; Quinn, T C

    2009-10-01

    To investigate prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Trichomonas vaginalis in men, frequency of co-infections, and association of organisms with urethritis in men. This was a cross-sectional study of 290 men (age range 19-34 years) attending Baltimore City STD clinics. M genitalium, C trachomatis, N gonorrhoeae and T vaginalis, during 2004 were detected using nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) (153 with urethritis and 137 without urethritis). Demographic characteristics and risk factors were ascertained. The overall prevalences of infection with C trachomatis, N gonorrhoeae, T vaginalis and M genitalium were 20.3%, 12.8%, 3.4% and 15.2%, respectively. Prevalences in men with urethritis were 32.7%, 24.2%, 5.2% and 22.2% for C trachomatis, N gonorrhoeae, T vaginalis and M genitalium, respectively. Percentages of co-infections were high. All men with N gonorrhoeae had urethritis. C trachomatis and M genitalium were found to be significantly associated with urethritis in univariate analysis and in multiple logistic regression analysis. The association of M genitalium with urethritis in this study provides confirmation of the importance of screening men for M genitalium as a cause of non-gonococcal urethritis and supports treatment considerations for urethritis for agents other than gonococci and chlamydia.

  6. Prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium and other sexually transmitted infections causing urethritis among high-risk heterosexual male patients in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjagur, Stanislav; Mändar, Reet; Punab, Margus

    2018-02-01

    We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI, including Mycoplasma genitalium, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis) among high-risk heterosexual male patients and to clarify their potency to cause complaints and inflammation. The study group included 825 men (18.0-49.5 y) consulting andrologist at Tartu University Hospital (Estonia) due to subjectively perceived risk of STI. Patients completed STI risk behaviour questionnaire. First voided urine was analysed for white blood cells and STIs. In total 193 (23.4%) patients were positive for one or multiple STI. The prevalence of C. trachomatis, M. genitalium, N. gonorrhoeae, T. vaginalis and combined STI was 14.3%, 4.4%, 2.7%, 0.7% and 1.3%, respectively. N. gonorrhoeae had the highest potency to generate inflammatory reaction in first voided urine (100%) followed by C. trachomatis (72.0%), M. genitalium (63.9%) and T. vaginalis (33.3%). N. gonorrhoeae and T. vaginalis caused the highest mean number of complaints while half of T. vaginalis cases and nearly fifth of M. genitalium and C. trachomatis cases were asymptomatic. C. trachomatis has the highest prevalence among Estonian high-risk men but M. genitalium holds an important second place. Prevalence of combined STIs is low. N. gonorrhoeae has the highest potency to generate urethral inflammation followed by C. trachomatis and M. genitalium. The highest number of complaints is also associated with N. gonorrhoeae while half of T. vaginalis cases and nearly a fifth of M. genitalium and C. trachomatis cases are asymptomatic.

  7. Detecting of Mycoplasma genitalium in male patients with urethritis symptoms in Turkey by polymerase chain reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolapci, Istar; Tekeli, Alper; Ozsan, Murat; Elhan, Atilla; Yaman, Onder; Ergin, Sureyya

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of Mycoplasma genitalium in the urine samples of 63 male patients who had urethritis symptoms. Along with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N. gonorrhoeae) and Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis). We also investigated Mycoplasma hominis (M. hominis) and Ureaplasma urealyticum (U. urealyticum), both of which are known to cause urethritis. Microorganisms were investigated in urine samples of the patients with polymerase chain reaction. The study was conducted between September 2003 - February 2004 at the Department of Microbiology and Clinical Microbiology Ankara University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey. A total of 63 urine samples were analyzed and 6 (9.52%) patients had N. gonorrhoeae, 4 (6.34%) had C. trachomatis, while 4 (6.34%) urines were positive in terms of M. genitalium. Nevertheless, 3 (4.76%) patients had U. urealyticum and 2 (3.17%) patients had M. hominis. One urine sample was positive in terms of both N. gonorrhoeae and U. urealyticum, and another urine sample was positive in terms of both M. hominis and U. urealyticum. The results were compared with the control group and found no statistically significant difference. Mycoplasma species are found in normal flora of urogenital system and also as an agent of urogenital infection. In our study, we found low microorganism rates when compared with Europe and America. This difference may be due to the conservative sexual behavior in Turkey. (author)

  8. Large two-centre study into the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium and Trichomonas vaginalis in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, A S; Rahamat-Langendoen, J C; van Alphen, Ptw; Hilt, N; van Herk, Cmc; Pont, Sbeh; Melchers, Wjg; van de Bovenkamp, Jhb

    2016-09-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium and Trichomonas vaginalis are common sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In the Netherlands, testing for M. genitalium and T. vaginalis is not recommended for first-line STI screening. Recent reports about the increasing antimicrobial resistance in M. genitalium raise concern about the adequacy of current empirical treatment regimens. It is necessary to have insight in the prevalence of M. genitalium and T. vaginalis in order to evaluate current first-line STI screening and treatment protocols. During a five-month period, samples sent to two large medical microbiology diagnostic centres in the Netherlands for STI screening (Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae) were retrospectively tested for the prevalence of M. genitalium and T. vaginalis using the Diagenode S-DiaMGTV kit. A total of 1569 samples from 1188 unique patients (55.4% female) were tested. M. genitalium was the second most prevalent STI detected (4.5% of the patients), after C. trachomatis (8.3%). T. vaginalis was detected in 1.4% of the patients, comparable to the prevalence of N. gonorrhoeae (1.3%). Dual infections were only detected in a small number of patients (1.0%). Incorporation of M. genitalium into routine STI screening should be considered, because of its relatively high prevalence, the consequences of its detection for antibiotic treatment and because of the availability of easy-to-use molecular diagnostic tests. For T. vaginalis, routine screening may be considered, depending on local prevalence and (sub)population. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Persistence of Mycoplasma genitalium following azithromycin therapy.

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    Catriona S Bradshaw

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To determine clinical outcomes and cure rates for M.genitalium genital infection in men and women following azithromycin 1 g. METHODOLOGY: Patients attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between March 2005 and November 2007 with urethritis/epididymitis, cervicitis/pelvic inflammatory disease and sexual contacts of M.genitalium were tested for M.genitalium by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. M.genitalium-infection was treated with 1 g of azithromycin and a test-of-cure (toc was performed one month post-azithromycin. Response to azithromycin, and response to moxifloxacin (400 mg daily for 10 days in individuals with persistent infection post-azithromycin, was determined. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of 1538 males and 313 females tested, 161 males (11% and 30 females (10% were infected with M.genitalium. A toc was available on 131 (69% infected individuals (median = 36 days [range 12-373]. Of 120 individuals prescribed azithromycin only pre-toc, M.genitalium was eradicated in 101 (84%, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 77-90% and persisted in 19 (16%, 95% CI: 10-23%. Eleven individuals with persistent infection (9%, 95% CI: 5-15% had no risk of reinfection from untreated-partners, while eight (7%, 95% CI: 3-12% may have been at risk of reinfection from doxycycline-treated or untreated-partners. Moxifloxacin was effective in eradicating persistent infection in all cases not responding to azithromycin. Patients with persistent-M.genitalium were more likely to experience persistent symptoms (91%, compared to patients in whom M.genitalium was eradicated (17%, p<0.0001. CONCLUSION: Use of azithromycin 1 g in M.genitalium-infected patients was associated with unacceptable rates of persistent infection, which was eradicated with moxifloxacin. These findings highlight the importance of follow-up in M.genitalium-infected patients prescribed azithromycin, and the need to monitor for the development of resistance. Research to determine optimal first and

  10. Routine testing of Mycoplasma genitalium and Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenniskens, Marieke L M; Veerbeek, Jan H W; Deurloo, Koen L; van Hannen, Erik J; Thijsen, Steven F T

    2017-06-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) are common sexual transmitted infections (STI). However, most STI screening programmes do not include routinely detection of these pathogens. Consequently, epidemiological data about MG and TV in the general population is lacking. The current study aims to give insight into the prevalence of both infections, thereby guiding decisions whether testing for these pathogens should be included routinely. Between February 2013 and August 2015, all samples sent to the laboratory of Diakonessenhuis Utrecht for STI testing (i.e. testing for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG)) were additionally examined for the presence of MG and TV by means of a laboratory-developed RT-PCR. Samples were collected by our hospital or by regional general practitioners. A total of 5628 PCR's were evaluated. In 7.5%, one or more STI were detected. CT was found in 5% and MG was positive in 1.9%. NG was detected in 0.5% and TV was detected in 0.6% of the samples. CT was found more often in primary care than in hospital setting (9.7% vs. 3.0%, p < .05). The same was shown for NG (1.1% vs. 0.2%, p < .05). More men than women were positive for CT (11.2% vs. 3.8%, p < .05) and NG (1.4% vs. 0.3%, p < .05). MG is more prevalent than NG and TV in a regional Dutch population. Furthermore, TV is equally common as NG. Based on our prevalence data, including MG and TV in STI testing protocols should be considered in the future.

  11. MYCOPLASMA GENITALIUM INFECTION PREVALENCE IN PATIENTS WITH HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS

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    Rini Rasianti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium (M. genitalium infection in HIV positive patients by PCR examination in Teratai Clinic of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung in order to reduce sexually transmitted diseases, especially M. genitalium infection in HIV positive patients. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study with consecutive sampling methods. Eighty one HIV positive patients attending the Teratai Clinic of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung were recruited to be the subjects of this study. All subjects underwent history taking, physical examination, and PCR examination for M. genitalium. Specimens were taken from cervical smear in females and first void urine in male. Results: The prevalence of M. genitalium based on the PCR examination in HIV positive patients attended to Teratai Clinic Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung was 9%. Conclusions: Mycoplasmal infection identification based on PCR examination should be considered for routine screening test to reduce the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in HIV positive patients.

  12. Mycoplasma genitalium infections: current treatment options and resistance issues

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    Sethi S

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sunil Sethi, Kamran Zaman, Neha Jain Department of Medical Microbiology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India Abstract: Mycoplasma genitalium is one of the important causes of non-gonococcal urethritis. Rising incidence and emerging antimicrobial resistance are a major concern these days. The poor clinical outcomes with doxycycline therapy led to the use of azithromycin as the primary drug of choice. Single-dose azithromycin regimen over a period of time was changed to extended regimen following studies showing better clinical cures and less risk of resistance development. However, emerging macrolide resistance, either due to transmission of resistance or drug pressure has further worsened the management of this infection. The issues of drug resistance and treatment failures also exist in cases of M. genitalium infection. At present, the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR M. genitalium strains is an alarming sign for its treatment and the associated public health impact due to its complications. However, newer drugs like pristinamycin, solithromycin, sitafloxacin, and others have shown a hope for the clinical cure, but need further clinical trials to optimize the therapeutic dosing schedules and formulate appropriate treatment regimens. Rampant and inappropriate use of these newer drugs will further sabotage future attempts to manage MDR strains. There is currently a need to formulate diagnostic algorithms and etiology-based treatment regimens rather than the syndromic approach, preferably using combination therapy instead of a monotherapy. Awareness about the current guidelines and recommended treatment regimens among clinicians and local practitioners is of utmost importance. Antimicrobial resistance testing and global surveillance are required to assess the efficacy of current treatment regimens and for guiding future research for the early detection and management of MDR M. genitalium infections

  13. Treatment of Mycoplasma genitalium. Observations from a Swedish STD clinic.

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    Carin Anagrius

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate therapy for Mycoplasma genitalium infection with doxycycline or azithromycin 1 g compared to five days of azithromycin (total dose 1.5 g. METHODS: A retrospective case study was performed among patients attending the STD-clinic in Falun, Sweden 1998-2005. All patients with a positive PCR test for M. genitalium were routinely offered a test of cure (toc. Response to doxycycline for 9 days, azithromycin 1 g single dose and extended azithromycin (500 mg on day 1 followed by 250 mg o.d. for 4 days was determined. In patients with treatment failure after azithromycin, macrolide resistance was monitored before and after treatment. Furthermore, the rate of macrolide resistance was monitored for positive specimens available from 2006-2011. RESULTS: The eradication rate after doxycycline was 43% (48% for women and 38% for men, for azithromycin 1 g 91% (96% for women and 88% for men and for extended azithromycin 99% (100% for women and 93% for men. Macrolide resistance developed in 7/7 examined (100% of those testing positive after azithromycin 1 g, but in none of those treated with extended azithromycin. Macrolide resistance before treatment increased from 0% in 2006 and 2007 to 18% in 2011. CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm the results from other studies showing that doxycycline is inefficient in eradicating M. genitalium. Although azithromycin 1 g was not significantly less efficient than extended dosage, it was associated with selection of macrolide resistant M. genitalium strains and should not be used as first line therapy for M. genitalium. Monitoring of M. genitalium macrolide resistance should be encouraged.

  14. High prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Mycoplasma genitalium in nongonococcal urethritis: the need for routine testing and the inadequacy of current treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pond, Marcus J; Nori, Achyuta V; Witney, Adam A; Lopeman, Rose C; Butcher, Philip D; Sadiq, Syed Tariq

    2014-03-01

     Empirical antibiotic therapy for nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) and cervicitis is aimed at Chlamydia trachomatis, but Mycoplasma genitalium, which also commonly causes undiagnosed NGU, necessitates treatment with macrolides or fluoroquinolones rather than doxycycline, the preferred chlamydia treatment. Prevalence of M. genitalium and associated genotypic markers of macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance among men symptomatic of urethritis were investigated. Genetic diversity of M. genitalium populations was determined to infer whether findings were applicable beyond our setting.  Mycoplasma genitalium and other NGU pathogens were detected using nucleic acid amplification methods, and DNA sequencing was used to detect genotypic resistance markers of macrolide and fluoroquinolone antibiotics in 23S ribosomal RNA, gyrA, gyrB, and parC genes. MG191 single-nucleotide polymorphism typing and MG309 variable number tandem analysis were combined to assign a dual locus sequence type (DLST) to each positive sample.  Among 217 men, M. genitalium prevalence was 16.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.5%-24.0%) and C. trachomatis prevalence was 14.7% (95% CI, 7.8%-21.6%) in NGU cases. Nine of 22 (41%; 95% CI, 20%-62%) patients with M. genitalium were infected with DLSTs possessing genotypic macrolide resistance and 1 patient was infected with a DLST having genotypic fluoroquinolone resistance. Typing assigned M. genitalium DLSTs to 2 major clusters, broadly distributed among previously typed international strains. Genotypic macrolide resistance was spread within these 2 clusters.  Mycoplasma genitalium is a frequent undiagnosed cause of NGU in this population with rates of macrolide resistance higher than those previously documented. Current guidelines for routine testing and empirical treatment of NGU should be modified to reduce treatment failure of NGU and the development of further resistance.

  15. Mycoplasma genitalium and Trichomonas vaginalis in France: a point prevalence study in people screened for sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyre, S; Laurier Nadalié, C; Bébéar, C

    2017-02-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium and Trichomonas vaginalis are common causes of sexually transmitted infections, but limited prevalence data are available in France. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of M. genitalium and T. vaginalis infections and to assess prevalence by gender, age, sample collection sites and clinical symptoms. A multicentre collection of specimens was intended to obtain a nationwide overview of the epidemiology. Between September 2014 and January 2015, a total of 2652 consecutive urogenital specimens submitted to the microbiology diagnostic departments of 16 French university hospitals for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae detection were collected. M. genitalium and T. vaginalis prevalence were evaluated using a commercial real-time PCR kit. Clinical data from patients were anonymously collected. T. vaginalis and M. genitalium prevalence were 1.7% (95% confidence interval 1.3-2.4) and 3.4% (95% confidence interval 2.8-4.2), respectively, and did not differ between gender or age groups, except M. genitalium prevalence between men and women in the 35- to 44-year age group (5.9 vs. 1.5%; p 0.03). M. genitalium prevalence was significantly higher in patients receiving care in sexually transmitted infection clinics, abortion centres, family planning clinics and prisons than in gynaecologic, obstetric and reproduction centres (4.0 vs. 1.7%, p 0.009). Among M. genitalium- and T. vaginalis-positive patients, 70.9 and 61.5% were asymptomatic, respectively. The low T. vaginalis prevalence does not justify systematic screening for this organism in France. Conversely, selective screening for M. genitalium may be warranted in care settings that receive presumably high-risk sexual behaviour patients, regardless of symptoms. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Genital mycoplasma & Chlamydia trachomatis infections in treatment naïve HIV-1 infected adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arnab; Dhawan, Benu; Chaudhry, Rama; Vajpayee, Madhu; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) enhance the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Thus, screening for STIs is a routine component of primary HIV care. There are limited data for selective screening guidelines for genital mycoplasmas and Chlamydia trachomatis in HIV-infected adults. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of genital infections with Ureaplasma spp., Mycoplasma hominis, M. genitalium and C. trachomatis in treatment naïve asymptomatic HIV-1 - infected adults and study their association with CD4+ T-cell count. Methods: First-void urine samples were collected from 100 treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected adults and 50 healthy volunteers. C. trachomatis and M. genitalium were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Ureaplasma spp. and M. hominis were detected by both culture and PCR. Circulating CD4+ cell counts of HIV-1-infected patients were determined from peripheral blood by flow-cytometry. Results: C. trachomatis was detected in 7 per cent of HIV-1-infected adults compared to none in control population. Ureaplasma spp. and M. hominis showed infection rates of 6 and 1 per cent in the HIV group and 2 and 0 per cent in the control group, respectively. None of the individuals from the patient and control groups was tested positive for M. genitalium. A significant association was found between CD4 cell count and detection of C. trachomatis in HIV-infected adults (P = 0.01). Interpretation & conclusions: Screening of HIV-infected individuals for C. trachomatis infection could be recommended as a routine component of HIV care. The role of mycoplasmas as co-pathogens of the genitourinary tract in HIV-1 infected patients seems to be unlikely. Further longitudinal studies need to be done to confirm these findings. PMID:22310829

  17. Detection of T. vaginalis,M. hominis,M. genitalium, C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae and U. urealyticum using Multiplex PCR

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    Tamara Brunelli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Intoduction. The sexually transmitted diseases include a large group of infections affecting both the sexes. In this study we evaluated the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Ureaplasma urealyticum in the Prato area during the period September 2010 – July 2011. Methods.We analysed different kind of samples (urine, endocervical swabs, urethral swabs, seminal fluids from hospitalized patients or referred to the Prato clinic subjects.The DNA was obtained using EZ1-DNA extraction kit and EZ1 instrument.The DNA was then amplified using the Seeplex STD6 kit (Seegene, Korea, identifying multiple pathogens simultaneously (T. vaginalis, M. hominis, M. genitalium, C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae e U. urealyticum. The revelation was performed by electrophoresis on microchip (instrument Multina, Shimadzu, Japan. Results. 1136 samples from Italian and foreign patients were examined: 876 were endocervical swabs (77%, 103 urethral swabs (9%, 103 seminal fluids (9%, and 54 urines (5%. The number of females was higher than males [894 (78.7% vs 242 (21.3%]; the mean age of females was 37.0±11.6 years, whereas that of males was 41.5 ±12.63 years.The prevalence of urogenital pathogens was: 15 positive samples for T. vaginalis (1.3%, 56 for M. hominis (4.9%, 13 for M. genitalium (1.1%, 28 for C. trachomatis (2.5%, 8 for N. gonorrhoeae (0.7% and 87 for U. urealyticum (7.7%.Among all positive, 25 subjects were positive for more than one pathogen and in particular: one was positive for the presence of 4 pathogens, five presented 3 pathogens simultaneously and the remaining nineteen for 2 pathogens. Conclusions. This study provides data on the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in the hospital of Prato.

  18. Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Diagnosis of Mycoplasma genitalium Infection in South African Men With and Without Symptoms of Urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Roux, Marie Cecilia; Hoosen, Anwar Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    This study was done to diagnose Mycoplasma genitalium infection based on bacterial load in urine specimens from symptomatic and asymptomatic men. Urine specimens from 94 men with visible urethral discharge, 206 with burning on micturition and 75 without symptoms presenting to a family practitioner were tested for M. genitalium as well as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis by transcription-mediated amplification assays. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay was used to determine the bacterial load for all specimens in which M. genitalium was the only organism detected. Among the 375 specimens collected, M. genitalium was detected in 59 (15.7%) men (both symptomatic and asymptomatic) using the transcription-mediated amplification assay, and in 45 (12.0%) of the total population, it was the only pathogen detected. One or more pathogens were detected in 129 (43%) of the symptomatic men, with N. gonorrhoeae in 50 (16.7%); C. trachomatis in 37 (12.3%) and T. vaginalis present in 24 (8.0%) patients. Among the 17 patients where mixed infections were detected, M. genitalium with N. gonorrhoeae was the most common (11/17; 64.7%). Patients with visible urethral discharge had significantly higher M. genitalium concentrations than those with burning on micturition. The median M. genitalium load in symptomatic men was significantly higher than that in asymptomatic men. This study confirms the high prevalence of M. genitalium among men with urethritis in South Africa and demonstrates that there is a strong association with M. genitalium bacterial load and clinical urethritis. As the number of organisms increased, the severity of the symptoms increased, an indication of the role that the organism plays in disease progression.

  19. Mycoplasma genitalium: prevalence and behavioural risk factors in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Berit; Sokolowski, Ineta; Østergaard, Lars

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma genitalium has been shown to cause urethritis in men and cervicitis in women and may also be a causative agent in female infertility. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of urogenital M genitalium infection and identify sexual behavioural risk factors in the general...

  20. Prevalence and significance of Mycoplasma genitalium in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anne Marie Rosendahl; Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Lebech, Anne-Mette

    2017-01-01

    has been suggested as part of HIV prevention strategies. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of M. genitalium in women living with HIV (WLWH) in Denmark, and to compare the result with data on symptoms from the lower abdomen, sexual habits and immune status. 234 women...... were of Asian origin, sexually active, and on antiretroviral treatment with supressed HIV RNA and CD4 count >350 cells/µL. None reported symptoms from the lower abdomen. The prevalence of M. genitalium infection in WLWH in Denmark is low, thus systematic screening for M. genitalium in this group does......OBJECTIVE: Mycoplasma genitalium (M. genitalium) is a sexually transmitted pathogen associated with urethritis, cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease. Previous studies have shown a strong association between M. genitalium and HIV infection, therefore screening and treatment for M. genitalium...

  1. A case-control study of men with non-gonococcal urethritis at Auckland Sexual Health Service: rates of detection of Mycoplasma genitalium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Jackie; Azariah, Sunita; Reid, Murray

    2010-03-01

    Previous studies have identified Mycoplasma genitalium as a cause of urethritis in men. As there is no New Zealand data, a case-control study was conducted to determine whether this organism is a significant cause of urethritis in men presenting to Auckland Sexual Health Service. Enrollment for the study commenced in March 2006 and finished in February 2008. Inclusion criteria for cases of non-gonococcal urethritis were onset of urethritis symptoms within one month confirmed by urethral Gram staining showing >or=10 polymorphonuclear leucocytes per high-powered field. Controls were men presenting during the same time period for asymptomatic sexual health screening. All participants were tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, M. genitalium, and Chlamydia trachomatis. Information regarding symptoms, sexual behaviour and treatment was collected using a standard questionnaire. We recruited 209 cases and 199 controls with a participation rate of 96%. The prevalence of C. trachomatis and M. genitalium in non-gonococcal urethritis cases was 33.5% and 10% respectively. Co-infection with these organisms was uncommon (1.9%). C. trachomatis and M. genitalium were diagnosed in 4% and 2% of controls, respectively, and both infections were detected significantly less often than in the cases (P urethritis was a significant predictor of current symptoms (P urethritis in men presenting to our service.

  2. High levels of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma genitalium in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trembizki, Ella; Buckley, Cameron; Bletchly, Cheryl; Nimmo, Graeme R; Whiley, David M

    2017-10-01

    The macrolide azithromycin is recommended for treatment of Mycoplasma genitalium infection; however, M. genitalium strains possessing macrolide resistance-mediating mutations (MRMMs) are increasingly being reported. Here, we used the SpeeDx ResistancePlus MG kit, which provides simultaneous detection of M. genitalium and MRMMs, to assess MRMM carriage among M. genitalium infections in Queensland, Australia. Performance characteristics of the ResistancePlus MG kit for M. genitalium detection were compared to in-house PCR. Available M. genitalium PCR-positive (n=67) and negative (n=281) samples from the years 2011 to 2017 were tested using the SpeeDx ResistancePlus MG kit. In total, 63.6 % M. genitalium-positive samples were indicated to harbour MRMMs. The ResistancePlus MG method provided sensitivity and specificity of 97 and 99.6 % respectively compared to in-house PCR for M. genitalium detection. Such high levels of macrolide-resistant M. genitalium raise further concerns over future use of azithromycin for treatment of M. genitalium infection.

  3. Large two-centre study into the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium and Trichomonas vaginalis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.S. de; Rahamat-Langendoen, J.C.; Alphen, P. van; Hilt, N.; Herk, C. van; Pont, S.; Melchers, W.; Bovenkamp, J. van de

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium and Trichomonas vaginalis are common sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In the Netherlands, testing for M. genitalium and T. vaginalis is not recommended for first-line STI screening. Recent reports about the increasing antimicrobial resistance in M. genitalium raise

  4. Clinical and analytical evaluation of the new Aptima Mycoplasma genitalium assay, with data on M. genitalium prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in M. genitalium in Denmark, Norway and Sweden in 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unemo, M.; Salado-Rasmussen, K.; Hansen, M.

    2017-01-01

    Européene (CE)/. in vitro diagnostics (IVD) Aptima Mycoplasma genitalium assay (CE/IVD AMG; Hologic); the prevalence of MG, Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG); and MG resistance to azithromycin and moxifloxacin in Denmark, Norway and Sweden in 2016. Methods: From February 2016......B quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Resistance-associated mutations were determined by sequencing. Strains of MG and other mycoplasma species in different concentrations were also tested. Results: In total 5269 patients were included. The prevalence of MG was 7.2% (382/5269; 4.9-9.8% in the countries...

  5. Ureaplasma parvum and Mycoplasma genitalium are found to be significantly associated with microscopy-confirmed urethritis in a routine genitourinary medicine setting.

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    Cox, Ciara; McKenna, James P; Watt, Alison P; Coyle, Peter V

    2016-09-01

    Inflammation of the urethra defined by an excess of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the absence of sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae is called non-chlamydial non-gonococcal urethritis (NCNGU). Although Mycoplasma genitalium is now recognised as causing a sexually transmitted infection, the clinical significance of the other Mollicute species is less clear. This study used specific real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays to detect and quantify four Mollicute species, M. genitalium, M. hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum and U. parvum, in urine specimens from men with and without NCNGU. A total of 165 urine specimens from male patients attending a genitourinary medicine clinic were eligible for the study, with microscopy-confirmed (≥5 polymorphonuclear leukocytes in urethral swab) NCNGU in 75 (45.5%) and non-confirmed NCNGU in 90 (54.5%). Chi-squared statistical analysis indicated a significantly higher prevalence of U. parvum (17.3% vs. 5.6%; p = 0.03) and M. genitalium (12% vs. 0%; p < 0.001) in NCNGU. In a subset analysis, M. genitalium was also significantly (p = 0.03) higher in men who have sex with men (MSM; 13.5%) compared to non-MSM (3.1%). No significant associations were reported for U. urealyticum and M. hominis In conclusion, this study supports a clinically significant role in NGNCU for both U. parvum and M. genitalium. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Identification and characterization of immunogenic proteins of Mycoplasma genitalium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Helle Friis; Jensen, J.S.; Gevaert, K.

    2006-01-01

    serum against M. genitalium G37, determine their identity by mass spectrometry, and develop an M. genitalium-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) free from cross-reactivity with M. pneumoniae antibodies. Using recombinant fragments of the C-terminal part of MgPa (rMgPa), we developed....... genitalium strains were isolated (J. S. Jensen, H. T. Hansen, and K. Lind, J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:286-291, 1996). The objective of this study was to characterize immunogenic proteins of M. genitalium by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting by using a hyperimmune rabbit...

  7. Mycoplasma genitalium Compared to Chlamydia, Gonorrhea and Trichomonas as an Etiologic Agent of Urethritis in Men Attending STD Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaydos, Charlotte; Maldeis, Nancy E.; Hardick, Andrew; Hardick, Justin; Quinn, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives This purpose of this study was to investigate prevalence of M. genitalium C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, and T. vaginalis in men, frequency of coinfections, and relationships among organisms with urethritis in men. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 290 men (age range 19-34 yr) attending Baltimore City STD Clinics. M. genitalium, C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, and T. vaginalis, during 2004 were detected using nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs). (N = 153 with urethritis and 137 without urethritis). Demographic characteristics and risk factors were ascertained. Results The overall prevalences of infection with C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, T. vaginalis, and M. genitalium, were 20.3%, 12.8%, 3.4%, and 15.2% respectively. Prevalences in men with urethritis were 32.7%, 24.2%, 5.2%, and 22.2% for C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, T. vaginalis, and M. genitalium, respectively. Percentages of coinfections were high. All men with N. gonorrhoeae had urethritis. C. trachomatis and M. genitalium were found to be significantly associated with urethritis in univariate analysis and in multiple logistic regression analysis. Conclusion The association of M. genitalium with urethritis in this study provides confirmation of the importance of screening men for M. genitalium as a cause of non-gonococcal urethritis and supports treatment considerations for urethritis for agents other than gonococci and chlamydia. Short Summary Men attending STD clinics were found to have high prevalences of M. genitalium (MG), C. trachomatis (CT), and N. gonorrhoeae (NG); moderate prevalence of T. vaginalis. MG was associated with urethritis in addition to NG and CT. PMID:19383597

  8. Longitudinal Quantitative Detection by Real-Time PCR of Mycoplasma genitalium in First-Pass Urine of Men with Recurrent Nongonococcal Urethritis

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    Deguchi, Takashi; Yoshida, Takashi; Yokoi, Shigeaki; Ito, Masayasu; Tamaki, Masayoshi; Ishiko, Hiroaki; Maeda, Shin-Ichi

    2002-01-01

    By using a TaqMan assay we monitored longitudinal changes in Mycoplasma genitalium loads in five men with recurrent M. genitalium-positive nongonococcal urethritis. We observed regrowth of M. genitalium persisting in hosts after treatment and a possible association of the increase in the M. genitalium load with emergence of symptoms and signs of nongonococcal urethritis in four of these patients. PMID:12354899

  9. Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma genitalium in the Vaginal Microbiota and Persistent High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infection

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    Sally N. Adebamowo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundRecent studies have suggested that the vaginal microenvironment plays a role in persistence of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV infection and thus cervical carcinogenesis. Furthermore, it has been shown that some mycoplasmas are efficient methylators and may facilitate carcinogenesis through methylation of hrHPV and cervical somatic cells. We examined associations between prevalence and persistence of Mycoplasma spp. in the vaginal microbiota, and prevalent as well as persistent hrHPV infections.MethodsWe examined 194 Nigerian women who were tested for hrHPV infection using SPF25/LiPA10 and we identified Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma hominis in their vaginal microbiota established by sequencing the V3–V4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. We defined the prevalence of M. genitalium, M. hominis, and hrHPV based on positive result of baseline tests, while persistence was defined as positive results from two consecutive tests. We used exact logistic regression models to estimate associations between Mycoplasma spp. and hrHPV infections.ResultsThe mean (SD age of the study participants was 38 (8 years, 71% were HIV positive, 30% M. genitalium positive, 45% M. hominis positive, and 40% hrHPV positive at baseline. At follow-up, 16% of the women remained positive for M. genitalium, 30% for M. hominis, and 31% for hrHPV. There was a significant association between persistent M. hominis and persistent hrHPV (OR 8.78, 95% CI 1.49–51.6, p 0.01. Women who were positive for HIV and had persistent M. hominis had threefold increase in the odds of having persistent hrHPV infection (OR 3.28, 95% CI 1.31–8.74, p 0.008, compared to women who were negative for both.ConclusionWe found significant association between persistent M. hominis in the vaginal microbiota and persistent hrHPV in this study, but we could not rule out reverse causation. Our findings need to be replicated in larger, longitudinal studies and if confirmed

  10. Mycoplasma genitalium infection: current treatment options, therapeutic failure, and resistance-associated mutations

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    Couldwell DL

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Deborah L Couldwell,1,2 David A Lewis1,21Western Sydney Sexual Health Centre, Parramatta, 2Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology and Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, Westmead Clinical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Mycoplasma genitalium is an important cause of non-gonococcal urethritis, cervicitis, and related upper genital tract infections. The efficacy of doxycycline, used extensively to treat non-gonococcal urethritis in the past, is relatively poor for M. genitalium infection; azithromycin has been the preferred treatment for several years. Research on the efficacy of azithromycin has primarily focused on the 1 g single-dose regimen, but some studies have also evaluated higher doses and longer courses, particularly the extended 1.5 g regimen. This extended regimen is thought to be more efficacious than the 1 g single-dose regimen, although the regimens have not been directly compared in clinical trials. Azithromycin treatment failure was first reported in Australia and has subsequently been documented in several continents. Recent reports indicate an upward trend in the prevalence of macrolide-resistant M. genitalium infections (transmitted resistance, and cases of induced resistance following azithromycin therapy have also been documented. Emergence of antimicrobial-resistant M. genitalium, driven by suboptimal macrolide dosage, now threatens the continued provision of effective and convenient treatments. Advances in techniques to detect resistance mutations in DNA extracts have facilitated correlation of clinical outcomes with genotypic resistance. A strong and consistent association exists between presence of 23S rRNA gene mutations and azithromycin treatment failure. Fluoroquinolones such as moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, and sitafloxacin remain highly active against most macrolide-resistant M. genitalium. However, the first clinical cases of moxifloxacin treatment

  11. Mycoplasma genitalium in Spain: prevalence of genital infection and frequency of resistance to macrolides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asenjo, Alejandra; Kusters, Johannes G; Severs, Tim T; Alós, Juan-Ignacio

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium infection and the resistance to macrolides within a general population in Madrid in 2015. We collected 359 urine samples from a general population with symptoms of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). All samples underwent a real-time PCR. For the detection of macrolide resistance, a 283bp fragment of region V of the 23S rRNA gene of M. genitalium was amplified and sequenced. We found a prevalence of 3.34% of M. genitalium and a macrolide resistance rate of 20%. In males, the prevalence was 6.62% and in women 0.96%, being significantly higher in males. The prevalence obtained shows that it is a pathogen to consider in our environment. These findings stress the need for routine testing of M. genitalium infections and would seem to suggest the advisability of resistance testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  12. Cloning, Expression, Purification, Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Analysis of Mycoplasma Genitalium Protein MG289

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sippel, K.; Boehlein, S; Sakai, Y; Quirit, J; Agbandje-McKenna, M; Rosser, C; McKenna, R

    2009-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is a human pathogen that is associated with nongonococcal urethritis in men and cervicitis in women. The cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of the protein MG289 from M. genitalium strain G37 are reported here. Crystals of MG289 diffracted X-rays to 2.8 {angstrom} resolution. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 49.7, b = 90.9, c = 176.1 {angstrom}. The diffraction data after processing had an overall R{sub merge} of 8.7%. The crystal structure of Cypl, the ortholog of MG289 from M. hyorhinis, has recently been determined, providing a reasonable phasing model; molecular replacement is currently under way.

  13. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma genitalium and Ureaplasma urealyticum in men with urethritis attending an urban sexual health clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, N; Bradbury, C; Chalker, V; Koh, G C K W; Smit, E; Wilson, S; Watson, J

    2015-05-01

    We conducted a study to determine the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) and Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) in men with urethritis, attending an urban sexual health clinic, in order to inform screening and treatment policies. Men attending an urban sexual health clinic between June 2011 and January 2012 were evaluated. Urine samples were collected from men with urethritis and tested for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) and TV using transcription-mediated amplification and for MG and UU using polymerase chain reaction. Eighty-three samples were analysed. The prevalence of CT was 33.7% (28/83), GC was 16.8% (14/83), TV was 3.6% (3/83), MG was 12.0% (10/83) and UU was 4.8% (4/83). Fifteen men had recurrent urethritis. Of these, three were found to have had TV, five to have had MG and none to have had UU, at initial presentation. Given the prevalence of MG in this study, there is an urgent need for further larger studies looking at optimal treatment regimens and screening strategies in urethritis. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  14. Identification of treatment strategies for Mycoplasma genitalium-related urethritis in male patients by culturing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasuna, Ryoichi

    2013-02-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium was first isolated from urethral swab specimens of male patients with non-gonococcal urethritis. However, the isolation of M. genitalium strains from clinical specimens has been difficult. Co-cultivation with Vero cells is one available technique for the isolation of M. genitalium. The strains that can be used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing by broth dilution or agar dilution methods are limited. Macrolides, such as azithromycin (AZM), have the strongest activity against M. genitalium. However, AZM-resistant strains have emerged and spread. Mutations in the 23S rRNA gene contribute to the organism's macrolide resistance, which is similar to the effects of the mutations in macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Of the fluoroquinolones, moxifloxacin (MFLX) and sitafloxacin have the strongest activities against M. genitalium, while levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin are not as effective. Some clinical trials on the treatment of M. genitalium-related urethritis are available in the literature. A doxycycline regimen was microbiologically inferior to an AZM regimen. For cases of treatment failure with AZM regimens, MFLX regimens were effective.

  15. Macrolide and quinolone-resistant Mycoplasma genitalium in a man with persistent urethritis: the tip of the British iceberg?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Suneeta; Parkhouse, Andy; Dean, Gillian

    2017-12-01

    There is growing concern worldwide for macrolide resistance in M. genitalium following liberal use of 1 g azithromycin to treat non-gonococcal urethritis and confirmed C. trachomatis infection. Moxifloxacin is the second-line treatment for M. genitalium and still has excellent efficacy against it. However, recent reports indicating that quinolone resistance is more prevalent than previously thought are worrying. Routine testing of symptomatic men and women for M. genitalium is not currently recommended in BASHH guidelines, and attempts to implement such testing have been hampered by a lack of commercially available assays. We present a case of M. genitalium urethritis which failed to respond to four different antibiotic regimens, resulting in multiple visits to the clinic and anxiety for the patient. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. PCR-Múltiple para el diagnóstico de Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum y Ureaplasma urealyticum

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    Nadia Rodríguez-Preval

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum y Ureaplasma urealyticum son especies relacionadas con enfermedades del tracto genitourinario, y particularmente con la uretritis no gonocócica (UNG en el hombre. Los cultivos de estos microorganismos resultan complicados, por lo que las técnicas moleculares, principalmente la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR, se han convertido en el principal método de detección de estos organismos. Objetivo: Implementar un método molecular basado en tecnología de genes para el diagnóstico de estas cuatro especies de micoplasmas genitales, aplicándolo en muestras clínicas de pacientes con UNG. Material y métodos: Se crearon las condiciones para un PCR-Múltiple para identificar estas especies empleando como muestra ADN de referencia, utilizando los juegos de cebadores complementarios a fragmentos de los genes de la proteína adhesiva de M. genitalium (MgPa, ARN ribosomal 16S de M. hominis, región espaciadora entre los genes del ARN ribosomal 16S y 23S de U. parvum, y de la región espaciadora adyacente al gen de la ureasa y específico para U. urealyticum, siendo un método específico y sensible. Resultados: Al analizar 34 muestras de exudado uretral, 27 correspondieron a la clase Mollicutes, obteniéndose 14,8% de positividad a M. genitalium, 18,5% a M. hominis, 11,1% a U. urealyticum y 3,7%. a U. parvum. Con este trabajo se realizó por primera vez el diagnóstico de M. genitalium, M. hominis, U. parvum y U. urealyticum en muestras uretrales de pacientes cubanos. Conclusión: Se recomienda incluir el diagnóstico de estas especies en un mayor número de pacientes cubanos con síntomas uretrales, para validar el método propuesto y conocer la relación de estos microorganismos con la UNG.

  17. Prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium in men with urethritis in a large public hospital in Brussels, Belgium: An observational, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libois, Agnès; Hallin, Marie; Crucitti, Tania; Delforge, Marc; De Wit, Stéphane

    2018-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) is a cause of urethritis. While resistance to azithromycin is increasing, routine detection of MG is not performed in Belgium, where its prevalence is unknown. The aim of this study is to determine prevalence of MG in men with urethritis. An "in-house" amplification assay detecting MG was performed on urine of men with complaints of urethritis who consulted the emergency unit or the Sexually Transmitted Infection clinic of our public hospital in Brussels. Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) were tested on the same sample. A total of 187 men were tested. Prevalence of MG was 9% (95% Confidence Interval: 5 to 13.2%). CT was detected in 20%, NG in 22% and 56% of samples were negative for these three pathogens. Neither age, ethnic origin, sexual orientation nor HIV infection were associated with MG urethritis. M. genitalium was identified in 9% of men with complaints of urethritis indicating that amplification assay detecting MG should be implemented in routine testing for those patients.

  18. Diagnóstico de Mycoplasma genitalium por amplificación de los genes MgPa y ARN ribosomal 16S Diagnosis of Mycoplasma genitalium by MgPa and rRNA 16S gene amplification

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    Carmen Fernández-Molina

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: El microorganismo Mycoplasma genitalium se ha relacionado con la uretritis no gonocócica (UNG. La técnica de PCR se ha convertido en el principal método de detección de este patógeno. En consecuencia, debe aplicarse un método de diagnóstico mediante la amplificación de fragmentos de ADN por la técnica PCR. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se seleccionaron los cebadores MGF-MGR y MgPaF-MgPaR, complementarios de los genes de ARNr 16S y MgPa de M. genitalium, respectivamente. Se efectuaron ensayos de especificidad y sensibilidad y se estudiaron muestras clínicas. RESULTADOS: La PCR con cada grupo de cebadores utilizado fue específica sólo para M. genitalium y la sensibilidad fue mayor con el grupo de cebadores MGF-MGR. En el estudio de 34 muestras clínicas, 18.5% fue positivo a M. genitalium y se encontró un mayor número de muestras positivas al utilizar los cebadores MgPaF-MgPaR. CONCLUSIONES: Debe aplicarse en la práctica clínica el diagnóstico de M. genitalium mediante la amplificación del ADN por PCR en los pacientes con UNG.OBJECTIVE: Mycoplasma genitalium has been associated with nongonococcal urethritis (NGU. Diagnosis by PCR has become the primary detection method for this organism. Thus, diagnosis by DNA amplification using the PCR technique should be utilized. MATERIAL AND METHODS: GMF/GMR and MgpF/MgpR primer pairs, complementary to the M. genitalium 16S rRNA and MgPa genes, respectively, were selected. Specificity and sensibility assays were conducted and clinical samples were studied. RESULTS: The PCR with each primer pair was specific only for M. genitalium, and the sensibility was higher with the GMF/GMR primers. In the study of 34 clinical samples, 18,5% were positive for M. genitalium, with more positive samples when the MgpF/MgpR primers were used. CONCLUSIONS: DNA amplification by PCR should be applied in clinical practice to the diagnosis of M. genitalium in patients with NGU should using.

  19. Prediction of the persistence of Mycoplasma genitalium after antimicrobial chemotherapy by quantification of leukocytes in first-void urine from patients with non-gonococcal urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shin; Mizutani, Kohsuke; Seike, Kensaku; Sugawara, Takashi; Tsuchiya, Tomohiro; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Yokoi, Shigeaki; Nakano, Masahiro; Deguchi, Takashi

    2014-05-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is regarded as another pathogen of male non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU). Failure to eradicate this mycoplasma is associated with persistent or recurrent NGU, but this mycoplasma is not routinely examined in clinical practice. In cases of M. genitalium-positive NGU, therefore, some criteria are needed to assess the success or failure of antimicrobial chemotherapy other than microbiological outcomes. We enrolled 49 men with M. genitalium-positive non-chlamydial NGU. At successive visits after treatment, we inquired about their symptoms, observed their urethral meatus for urethral discharge, and examined their first-void urine (FVU) for quantification of leukocytes and for the persistence of M. genitalium. M. genitalium was eradicated in 34 patients after treatment, whereas the mycoplasma persisted in 15. Urethritis symptoms and urethral discharges were not found to be predictors of the persistence of M. genitalium up to the 25th day after the start of treatment. Leukocyte counts in FVU from the patients with persistence of M. genitalium were significantly higher than those from the patients with eradication of the mycoplasma. Leukocyte counts of 10 leukocytes/μl or more between the 18th and 24th day after the start of treatment were most significantly associated with the persistence of M. genitalium. Quantification of leukocytes in FVU would appear to be crucial to judge the outcome of treatment in patients with non-chlamydial NGU and could be helpful to predict the persistence of M. genitalium after treatment when M. genitalium is not routinely examined in clinical specimens in clinical practice. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium in different population groups: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Lukas; Cina, Manuel; Egli-Gany, Dianne; Goutaki, Myrofora; Halbeisen, Florian S; Lohrer, Gian-Reto; Ali, Hammad; Scott, Pippa; Low, Nicola

    2018-02-09

    Mycoplasma genitalium is a common cause of non-gonococcal non-chlamydial urethritis and cervicitis. Testing of asymptomatic populations has been proposed, but prevalence in asymptomatic populations is not well established. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of M. genitalium in the general population, pregnant women, men who have sex with men (MSM), commercial sex workers (CSWs) and clinic-based samples, METHODS: We searched Embase, Medline, IndMED, African Index Medicus and LILACS from 1 January 1991 to 12 July 2016 without language restrictions. We included studies with 500 participants or more. Two reviewers independently screened and selected studies and extracted data. We examined forest plots and conducted random-effects meta-analysis to estimate prevalence, if appropriate. Between-study heterogeneity was examined using the I 2 statistic and meta-regression. Of 3316 screened records, 63 were included. In randomly selected samples from the general population, the summary prevalence was 1.3% (95% CI 1.0% to 1.8%, I 2 41.5%, three studies, 9091 people) in countries with higher levels of development and 3.9% (95% CI 2.2 to 6.7, I 2 89.2%, three studies, 3809 people) in countries with lower levels. Prevalence was similar in women and men (P=0.47). In clinic based samples, prevalence estimates were higher, except in asymptomatic patients (0.8%, 95% CI 0.4 to 1.4, I 2 0.0%, three studies, 2889 people). Summary prevalence estimates were, in the following groups: pregnant women 0.9% (95% CI 0.6% to 1.4%, I 2 0%, four studies, 3472 people), MSM in the community 3.2% (95% CI 2.1 to 5.1, I 2 78.3%, five studies, 3012 people) and female CSWs in the community 15.9% (95% CI 13.5 to 18.9, I 2 79.9%, four studies, 4006 people). This systematic review can inform testing guidelines for M. genitalium . The low estimated prevalence of M. genitalium in the general population, pregnant women and asymptomatic attenders at clinics does not support expansion of testing to these

  1. Genital Mycoplasma and Chlamydia trachomatis infections in patients with genital tract infections attending a tertiary care hospital of North India

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    Karnika Saigal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited data are available on the prevalence of genital mycoplasmas and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT among Indian patients with genital tract infections. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU, Mycoplasma hominis (MH, Mycoplasma genitalium (MG, and CT in patients with genital tract infections. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of UU and MH were also assessed. Endocervical swabs/urethral swabs and first void urine samples of patients (n = 164 were collected. UU and MH were detected by culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR. MG and CT were identified by PCR. Ureaplasma isolates were further biotyped and serotyped. Antimicrobial susceptibility was done by microbroth dilution method. UU, MH, MG, and CT were detected in 15.2%, 5.4%, 1.2%, and 6% patients, respectively. Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3/14 was the most prevalent. All isolates of UU and MH were uniformly susceptible to doxycycline and josamycin. Routine screening for these pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility testing is warranted to prevent sequel of infections and formulate treatment guidelines.

  2. Treatment efficacy, treatment failures and selection of macrolide resistance in patients with high load of Mycoplasma genitalium during treatment of male urethritis with josamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guschin, Alexander; Ryzhikh, Pavel; Rumyantseva, Tatiana; Gomberg, Mikhail; Unemo, Magnus

    2015-02-03

    Azithromycin has been widely used for Mycoplasma genitalium treatment internationally. However, the eradication efficacy has substantially declined recent decade. In Russia, josamycin (another macrolide) is the recommended first-line treatment for M. genitalium infections, however, no data regarding treatment efficacy with josamycin and resistance in M. genitalium infections have been internationally published. We examined the M. genitalium prevalence in males attending an STI clinic in Moscow, Russia from December 2006 to January 2008, investigated treatment efficacy with josamycin in male urethritis, and monitored the M. genitalium DNA eradication dynamics and selection of macrolide resistance in M. genitalium during this treatment. Microscopy and real-time PCRs were used to diagnose urethritis and non-viral STIs, respectively, in males (n = 320). M. genitalium positive patients were treated with recommended josamycin regimen and treatment efficacy was monitored using quantitative real-time PCR. Macrolide resistance mutations were identified using sequencing of the 23S rRNA gene. Forty-seven (14.7%) males were positive for M. genitalium only and most (85.1%) of these had symptoms and signs of urethritis. Forty-six (97.9%) males agreed to participate in the treatment efficacy monitoring. All the pre-treatment M. genitalium specimens had wild-type 23S rRNA. The elimination of M. genitalium DNA was substantially faster in patients with lower pre-treatment M. genitalium load, and the total eradication rate was 43/46 (93.5%). Of the six patients with high pre-treatment M. genitalium load, three (50%) remained positive post-treatment and these positive specimens contained macrolide resistance mutations in the 23S rRNA gene, i.e., A2059G (n = 2) and A2062G (n = 1). M. genitalium was a frequent cause of male urethritis in Moscow, Russia. The pre-treatment M. genitalium load might be an effective predictor of eradication efficacy with macrolides (and possibly

  3. Chlamydia trachomatis and Genital Mycoplasmas: Pathogens with an Impact on Human Reproductive Health

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    Sunčanica Ljubin-Sternak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The most prevalent, curable sexually important diseases are those caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis and genital mycoplasmas. An important characteristic of these infections is their ability to cause long-term sequels in upper genital tract, thus potentially affecting the reproductive health in both sexes. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID, tubal factor infertility (TFI, and ectopic pregnancy (EP are well documented complications of C. trachomatis infection in women. The role of genital mycoplasmas in development of PID, TFI, and EP requires further evaluation, but growing evidence supports a significant role for these in the pathogenesis of chorioamnionitis, premature membrane rupture, and preterm labor in pregnant woman. Both C. trachomatis and genital mycoplasmas can affect the quality of sperm and possibly influence the fertility of men. For the purpose of this paper, basic, epidemiologic, clinical, therapeutic, and public health issue of these infections were reviewed and discussed, focusing on their impact on human reproductive health.

  4. Frequency Determination of Ureaplasma and Mycoplasma Genitalium Species in Female with Vaginitis Infection using Real- Time PCR

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    Mina Zolfaghari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Ureaplasma and M. genitalium species belong to a kind of bacteria that are sexually transmitted and are the possible cause of pelvic inflammatory disease and nongonococcal urethritis, and et al. The aim of this study was to determine the urea plasma and Mycoplasma genitalium species frequency in women with vaginal infection and various sexual partners who referred to women, s health promotion and treatment center in Arak. Materials and Methods: Endocervical swab samples from 110 women with vaginal infections referred to women’s health promotion and treatment center in Arak, were prepared. Patients’ personal information and identities during reception process were registered. The samples were transferred to the laboratory in the transport environment and after DNA extraction, were evaluated according to Real-time PCR assay. Results: Urea plasma and Mycoplasma genitalium bacteria existed in 96(87.27% and 4(3.63% of patients, respectively. Among them, 4 cases had both bacteria infections. The amount of isolation in young women between 30-39 years old was more than others. Conclusion: The results show that the colonization of urea plasma species in adult women is 40-80% and in studied group is 87.27%. These results indicate that with due attention to the increasing number of sexual partners and the increase of sexual activity, the urea plasma colonization of women will increase. In view of the potential influence of mycoplasma species on side effects resulted from pregnancy infection of mothers and mortality, on-time diagnosis and treatment will be increasingly essential.

  5. The use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Mycoplasma hominis antibodies in infertile women serum samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Agata; Friis Svenstrup, Helle; Fedder, Jens

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Besides Chlamydiae trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis may also cause infertility due to damage of the Fallopian tubes. Therefore serum samples from infertile women were analyzed for antibodies to M. hominis. METHODS: Sera from 304 infertile women were investigat...

  6. Simultaneous and rapid differential diagnosis of Mycoplasma genitalium and Ureaplasma urealyticum based on a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism

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    R Mirnejad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this investigation was to simultaneously detect and differentiate Mycoplasma genitalium and Ureaplasma urealyticum in female patients suffering from genital complications by polymerase chain reaction (PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP. Materials and Methods : Genital swabs were taken from 210 patients. They were transported to the laboratory in phosphate-buffered saline. For PCR, samples were analysed with genus-specific MyUu-R and MyUu-F primers. This primer set, which was originally designed in our laboratory, amplified a 465 bp fragment (M. genitalium and a 559 bp fragment (U. urealyticum. Samples containing a band of the expected sizes for the Mycoplasma strains were subjected to digestion with a restriction endonuclease enzyme of TaqI and Cac8I. Results: Of the 210 samples, a total of 100 (47.6% samples were found to be positive for Mycoplasmas (seven M. genitalium isolates, 3.3%; and 89 U. urealyticum isolates, 42.4%, and coinfections with both species were detected in four samples (1.9%. The PCR-RFLP results showed that M. genitalium and U. urealyticum are different by enzyme patterns. Conclusion: PCR-RFLP offers a rapid and easily applicable protocol to simultaneous detection and differentiation of M. genitalium and U. urealyticum from clinical samples when specific primers and restriction enzymes are used.

  7. Prevalence and significance of Mycoplasma genitalium in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anne Marie Rosendahl; Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Lebech, Anne-Mette

    2017-01-01

    were of Asian origin, sexually active, and on antiretroviral treatment with supressed HIV RNA and CD4 count >350 cells/µL. None reported symptoms from the lower abdomen. The prevalence of M. genitalium infection in WLWH in Denmark is low, thus systematic screening for M. genitalium in this group does...

  8. P110 and P140 cytadherence-related proteins are negative effectors of terminal organelle duplication in Mycoplasma genitalium.

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    Oscar Q Pich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The terminal organelle is a complex structure involved in many aspects of the biology of mycoplasmas such as cell adherence, motility or cell division. Mycoplasma genitalium cells display a single terminal organelle and duplicate this structure prior to cytokinesis in a coordinated manner with the cell division process. Despite the significance of the terminal organelle in mycoplasma virulence, little is known about the mechanisms governing its duplication. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we describe the isolation of a mutant, named T192, with a transposon insertion close to the 3' end of the mg192 gene encoding for P110 adhesin. This mutant shows a truncated P110, low levels of P140 and P110 adhesins, a large number of non-motile cells and a high frequency of new terminal organelle formation. Further analyses revealed that the high rates of new terminal organelle formation in T192 cells are a direct consequence of the reduced levels of P110 and P140 rather than to the expression of a truncated P110. Consistently, the phenotype of the T192 mutant was successfully complemented by the reintroduction of the mg192 WT allele which restored the levels of P110 and P140 to those of the WT strain. Quantification of DAPI-stained DNA also showed that the increase in the number of terminal organelles in T192 cells is not accompanied by a higher DNA content, indicating that terminal organelle duplication does not trigger DNA replication in mycoplasmas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate the existence of a mechanism regulating terminal organelle duplication in M. genitalium and strongly suggest the implication of P110 and P140 adhesins in this mechanism.

  9. Trichomonas vaginalis and Mycoplasma genitalium: age-specific prevalence and disease burden in men attending a sexually transmitted infections clinic in Amsterdam, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veer, C.; van Rooijen, M. S.; Himschoot, M.; de Vries, H. J. C.; Bruisten, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    Men are not routinely tested for Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) in the Netherlands and, therefore, very few studies have looked into their prevalence and/or role in urogenital complaints in the Dutch male population. To describe the age-specific prevalence and disease

  10. Prevalence and significance of Mycoplasma genitalium in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anne Marie Rosendahl; Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Lebech, Anne-Mette

    2017-01-01

    has been suggested as part of HIV prevention strategies. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of M. genitalium in women living with HIV (WLWH) in Denmark, and to compare the result with data on symptoms from the lower abdomen, sexual habits and immune status. 234 women......, recruited from Danish HIV centres as part of a larger observational study on aspects of living with HIV as a woman (the SHADE study), were included. RESULTS: We tested cervical samples for M. genitalium by specific PCR. We found three samples positive (1.3%). The women were between 30 and 50 years old, all...... were of Asian origin, sexually active, and on antiretroviral treatment with supressed HIV RNA and CD4 count >350 cells/µL. None reported symptoms from the lower abdomen. The prevalence of M. genitalium infection in WLWH in Denmark is low, thus systematic screening for M. genitalium in this group does...

  11. Transmission and selection of macrolide resistant Mycoplasma genitalium infections detected by rapid high resolution melt analysis.

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    Jimmy Twin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma genitalium (MG causes urethritis, cervicitis and pelvic inflammatory disease. The MG treatment failure rate using 1 g azithromycin at an Australian Sexual Health clinic in 2007-9 was 31% (95%CI 23-40%. We developed a rapid high resolution melt analysis (HRMA assay targeting resistance mutations in the MG 23S rRNA gene, and validated it against DNA sequencing by examining pre- and post-treatment archived samples from MG-infected patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Available MG-positive pre-treatment (n = 82 and post-treatment samples from individuals with clinical treatment failure (n = 20 were screened for 23S rRNA gene mutations. Sixteen (20% pre-treatment samples possessed resistance mutations (A2058G, A2059G, A2059C, which were significantly more common in patients with symptomatic azithromycin-treatment failure (12/26; 44% than in those clinically cured (4/56; 7%, p<0.001. All 20 patients experiencing azithromycin-failure had detectable mutations in their post-treatment samples. In 9 of these cases, the same mutational types were present in both pre- and post-treatment samples indicating transmitted resistance, whilst in 11 of these cases (55%, mutations were absent in pre-treatment samples indicating likely selection of resistant isolates have occurred. HRMA was able to detect all mutational changes determined in this study by DNA sequencing. An additional HRMA assay incorporating an unlabelled probe was also developed to detect type 4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms found in other populations, with a slightly lower sensitivity of 90%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Treatment failure is associated with the detection of macrolide resistance mutations, which appear to be almost equally due to selection of resistant isolates following exposure to 1 g azithromycin and pre-existing transmitted resistance. The application of a rapid molecular assay to detect resistance at the time of initial detection of infection allows

  12. Clinical and analytical evaluation of the new Aptima Mycoplasma genitalium assay, with data on M. genitalium prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in M. genitalium in Denmark, Norway and Sweden in 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unemo, M.; Salado-Rasmussen, K.; Hansen, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) causes urethritis and cervicitis, potentially causing reproductive complications. Resistance in MG to first-line (azithromycin) and second-line (moxifloxacin) treatment has increased. We examined the clinical and analytical performance of the new Conformité ...

  13. Molecular Diagnostics Update for the Emerging (If Not Already Widespread) Sexually Transmitted Infection Agent Mycoplasma genitalium: Just About Ready for Prime Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Erik

    2017-10-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is an important and emerging agent of sexually transmitted infection in females and males, carrying the potential for postinfection genital tract sequelae. Past efforts to identify this organism on a routine basis, which were problematic due to the fastidious nature of the bacterium and its antigenic intricacies, have recently become supplemented by molecular diagnostics. A number of these assays are available commercially. This minireview describes the format and performance indices of a number of M. genitalium DNA- and RNA-based amplification assays; many of these assays have contributed to an improved clinical and epidemiologic understanding of this organism. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. Molecular detection of Chlamydia Trachomatis and Mycoplasma Hominis in endometriosis lesions

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    F. Azizvakili

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Retrograde of menstrual blood into the peritoneal cavity is one of the accepted theories for initiation of endometriosis although indicated that other factors are involved in pathogenesis. Investigation of infectious agents is important in this regard. Objective: To investigate the presence of bacterial infections; Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma Hominis as risk factors in endometriosis lesions. Methods: This case-control study was conducted in Sarem Hospital in 2014. DNA was extracted from 90 paraffin-embedded blocks included 40 endometriosis tissue samples, 23 samples of endometrial tissue from the same patients and 27 samples of endometrial tissue of the patients without endometriosis, and molecular analysis were performed using polymerase chain reaction. Results were analyzed by Fisher Exact Test and McNemar Test. Findings: Chlamydia trachomatis infection was seen in 11 (27.5% endometriosis tissue, 3 (13% normal tissue from patients and 10 (37% in patient without endometriosis. Mycoplasma hominis was diagnosed in 11 (27.5% endometriosis tissue, 7 (30.4% of normal tissue from patients and one patient without endometriosis (3.7%. These differences show significant relations between infection with Mycoplasma hominis and endometriosis. Conclusion: The findings of this study did not show significant association between Chlamydia trachomatis infections and endometriosis. However; it seems Mycoplasma hominis infection can increase the risk of endometriosis incidence.

  15. Clinical laboratory assessments for Mycoplasma genitalium in a high-prevalence sexually-transmitted infection community reveal epidemiologic dichotomies with Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Erik; Munson, Kimber L; Schell, Ronald F

    2017-02-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is an emerging agent of sexually-transmitted infection and is responsible for clinically-significant genital tract disease in both females and males. Similar to scenarios recently experienced with the urogenital flagellate Trichomonas vaginalis, an evolving molecular diagnostic reference standard based on transcription-mediated amplification allows for accurate detection of the organism, plus additional insight into disease epidemiology. Areas covered. The basis for this article includes primary peer-reviewed literature plus compilations of data derived from routine clinical laboratory screening of females and males for agents of sexually-transmitted infection. Introductory laboratory and epidemiologic data related to T. vaginalis provides not only a foreshadowing to the dichotomies inherent to M. genitalium prevalence but also advocacy of a common non-invasive specimen source that could be used to screen females for both agents. This review also documents increased prevalence rates of M. genitalium in both females and males by way of transcription-mediated amplification. Expert commentary. Molecular detection of M. genitalium should be a consideration in the development of comprehensive sexually-transmitted infection screening programs for both females and males. Transcription-mediated amplification has additionally identified novel facets of M. genitalium and T. vaginalis epidemiology that warrant further investigation.

  16. Estudio de la expresión génica y la división celular en Mycoplasma genitalium

    OpenAIRE

    Lluch Senar, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Descripció del recurs: el 27 de juny de 2011 Los micoplasmas son bacterias sin pared celular que pertenecen a la clase Mollicutes. Estos microorganismos se caracterizan por su pequeño tamaño y por tener un genoma reducido con un bajo porcentaje de C+G. Muchas especies de mycoplasma actúan como parásitos y patógenos de un amplio rango de huéspedes, causando enfermedades comunes en humanos. Por ejemplo, Mycoplasma genitalium, objeto de esta tesis, es el causante de la uretritis no gonocócica...

  17. Proximal Region of the Gene Encoding Cytadherence-Related Protein Permits Molecular Typing of Mycoplasma genitalium Clinical Strains by PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musatovova, Oxana; Herrera, Caleb; Baseman, Joel B.

    2006-01-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the PCR-amplified proximal region of the gene encoding cytadherence accessory protein P110 (MG192) revealed DNA sequence divergences among 54 Mycoplasma genitalium clinical strains isolated from the genitourinary tracts of women attending a sexually transmitted disease-related health clinic, plus one from the respiratory tract and one from synovial fluid. Seven of 56 (12.5%) strains exhibited RFLPs following digestion of the proximal region with restriction endonuclease MboI or RsaI, or both. No sequence variability was detected in the distal portion of the gene. PMID:16455921

  18. Detección de Mycoplasma genitalium mediante Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa en muestras urogenitales de individuos cubanos sexualmente activos

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    Brian Arturo Mondeja-Rodríguez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available El diagnóstico de las infecciones por Mycoplasma genitalium mediante métodos bacteriológicos tradicionales resulta laborioso y poco práctico. Es por ello que los métodos moleculares basados en la amplificación del ADN se utilizan con fines diagnósticos de las infecciones causadas por este microorganismo. En Cuba se han realizado pocos estudios sobre la presencia de M. genitalium en el tracto urogenital. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue detectar M. genitalium en individuos cubanos sexualmente activos mediante la implementación de métodos de PCR simple. Se implementaron dos PCR simples para la detección de fragmentos de 427 pb del gen ARN ribosomal 16S y 281 pb del gen de la adhesina celular MgPa de M. genitalium, que se evaluaron en muestras de exudado endocervical provenientes de 300 mujeres con sintomatología urogenital y muestras de orina de 49 hombres asintomáticos sexualmente activos. Se logró un límite de detección de la PCR del ARNr 16S de aproximadamente 5 copias de genoma por reacción, mientras que para la PCR MgPa se logró la amplificación de solo 50 copias de genoma por reacción. El 3% (10/300 de los exudados endocervicales y el 24,5% (12/49 de las muestras de orina de hombres asintomáticos resultaron positivas mediante ambas PCR. El mayor porcentaje de muestras positivas correspondió a las muestras de orina provenientes de hombres asintomáticos, que resultó superior a lo esperado. El presente trabajo permitirá realizar estudios futuros de caracterización genética y antigénica de las cepas de Mycoplasma genitalium circulantes en Cuba, útiles para conformar un inmunógeno vacunal.

  19. Detection of Mycoplasma genitalium in female cervical samples by Multitarget Real-Time PCR

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    Sabina Mahmutović-Vranić

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma genitalum (MG is associated with variety of urogenital infections such as non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU, endometritis and cervicitis. The objective of this study was to demonstrate and evaluate a research polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay, for the detection of MG in cervical samples of a tested population of women attending gynecology clinics in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Multitarget Real-Time (MTRT PCR, utilizing the ABI 7900HT, the sequence detection system, was performed for the detection of MG. Cervical samples (N=97 from females were divided into three types of patient groups: Group 1: patients who had known abnormal clinical cytology reports (N=34; Group 2: patients who reported a history of genitourinary infections (N=22; and Group 3: patients not in either groups 1 or 2 (N=41. Overall, 14,43% (14/97 of those tested were positive for MG. A positive sample was defined as having a cycle threshold cross point (Ct < 40,0 with a fluorescent detection comparable to the low positive control utilized during the run. This study validated the use of MTRT PCR as a reliable method for the detection of MG in clinical specimens and should facilitate large-scale screening for this organism.

  20. Apparently-Different Clearance Rates from Cohort Studies of Mycoplasma genitalium Are Consistent after Accounting for Incidence of Infection, Recurrent Infection, and Study Design.

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    Timo Smieszek

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma genitalium is a potentially major cause of urethritis, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and increased HIV risk. A better understanding of its natural history is crucial to informing control policy. Two extensive cohort studies (students in London, UK; Ugandan sex workers suggest very different clearance rates; we aimed to understand the reasons and obtain improved estimates by making maximal use of the data from the studies. As M. genitalium is a sexually-transmitted infectious disease, we developed a model for time-to-event analysis that incorporates the processes of (reinfection and clearance, and fitted to data from the two cohort studies to estimate incidence and clearance rates under different scenarios of sexual partnership dynamics and study design (including sample handling and associated test sensitivity. In the London students, the estimated clearance rate is 0.80 p.a. (mean duration 15 months, with incidence 1.31%-3.93% p.a. Without adjusting for study design, corresponding estimates from the Ugandan data are 3.44 p.a. (mean duration 3.5 months and 58% p.a. Apparent differences in clearance rates are probably mostly due to lower testing sensitivity in the Uganda study due to differences in sample handling, with 'true' clearance rates being similar, and adjusted incidence in Uganda being 28% p.a. Some differences are perhaps due to the sex workers having more-frequent antibiotic treatment, whilst reinfection within ongoing sexual partnerships might have caused some of the apparently-persistent infection in the London students. More information on partnership dynamics would inform more accurate estimates of natural-history parameters. Detailed studies in men are also required.

  1. Intrastrain heterogeneity of the mgpB gene in Mycoplasma genitalium is extensive in vitro and in vivo and suggests that variation is generated via recombination with repetitive chromosomal sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson-Cabral, Stefanie L; Astete, Sabina G; Cohen, Craig R; Rocha, Eduardo P C; Totten, Patricia A

    2006-07-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is associated with reproductive tract disease in women and may persist in the lower genital tract for months, potentially increasing the risk of upper tract infection and transmission to uninfected partners. Despite its exceptionally small genome (580 kb), approximately 4% is composed of repeated elements known as MgPar sequences (MgPa repeats) based on their homology to the mgpB gene that encodes the immunodominant MgPa adhesin protein. The presence of these MgPar sequences, as well as mgpB variability between M. genitalium strains, suggests that mgpB and MgPar sequences recombine to produce variant MgPa proteins. To examine the extent and generation of diversity within single strains of the organism, we examined mgpB variation within M. genitalium strain G-37 and observed sequence heterogeneity that could be explained by recombination between the mgpB expression site and putative donor MgPar sequences. Similarly, we analyzed mgpB sequences from cervical specimens from a persistently infected woman (21 months) and identified 17 different mgpB variants within a single infecting M. genitalium strain, confirming that mgpB heterogeneity occurs over the course of a natural infection. These observations support the hypothesis that recombination occurs between the mgpB gene and MgPar sequences and that the resulting antigenically distinct MgPa variants may contribute to immune evasion and persistence of infection.

  2. Clinical and sexual risk correlates of Mycoplasma genitalium in urban pregnant and non-pregnant young women: cross-sectional outcomes using the baseline data from the Women's BioHealth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Maria; Coleman, Jenell S; Hardick, Justin; Perin, Jamie; Tabacco, Lisa; Huettner, Steven; Ronda, Jocelyn; Felter-Wernsdorfer, Rebecca; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2018-03-29

    Research exploring the clinical and sexual risk correlates is essential to define universal standards for screening and management for Mycoplasma genitalium (MG). The objective of this study is to determine the baseline prevalence of MG and associated clinical risks using cross-sectional data. Adolescent and young adult women 13-29 years were recruited during clinical visits during which biological specimens were collected for Neisseriagonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) testing to provide vaginal specimens for MG and Trichomonasvaginalis (TV) testing. Demographic, clinical and sexual risk data were collected after obtaining written consent. MG was tested using the Hologic Gen-Probe transcription-mediated amplification-MG analyte-specific reagent assay and TV by the Aptima TV assay. Bivariate analyses were used to evaluate differences in MG prevalence based on pregnancy status, demographic factors, clinical symptoms, concurrent STI and sexual risk behaviour quiz score (maximum score=10). 483 patients with a mean age of 22.4 years (SD 3.6) were enrolled. Most participants were not pregnant (66%) and asymptomatic (59%). MG was the most common STI (MG 16%, TV 9%, CT 8%, NG 1%). Neither pregnancy nor symptoms were predictive of STI positivity. Thirty-five percent of non-pregnant and 45% of pregnant adolescents ≤19 years were positive for any STI. Participants with MG were 3.4 times more likely to be co-infected with other STIs compared with those with other STIs (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.17 to 10.3, P=0.021). Mean risk quiz scores for STI positive women were six points higher than those who were STI negative (β=0.63, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.90, P<0.001). There were no differences in risk scores for MG-positive participants compared with other STI positivity. MG infection was common, associated with STI co-infection and often asymptomatic, and pregnancy status did not confer protection. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of

  3. "The rate of Chlamydia Trachomatis, Mycoplasma Hominis and Ureaplasma Urealyticum in females with habitual abortion and its comparison with control group "

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    Salari MH

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Females abortion is one of the most important sequela of genital infection with chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum.In this study frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum was studied in 125 females with habitual abortion by direct and indirect immunofluorescence tests and culture method and compared with 250 normal population. The results obtained were as follow: Mycoplasma hominis was isolated from 18 (14.4% females with habitual abortion and 18 (7.2% normal population (P=0.0139. Ureaplasma urealyticum was isolated from 39(31.2% females with habitual aboration and 48 (19.2% normal population (P=0.0045. Chlamydia trachomatis was detected by direct immunofluorescence test in 9 (7.2% of cases and 2 (0.8% of control groups (P=0.0002. the antibody titer against D-K serotypes of Chlamydia trachomatis was also measured. The valuable titer of antibody (>1/16 was detected in 15 (12% of cases and 8 (3.2% of control groups (P=0.0004.The results show that chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum may be responsible for some cases of abortion.

  4. Detecção de Mycoplasma genitalium, M. fermentans e M. penetrans em pacientes com sintomas de uretrite e em indivíduos infectados pelo HIV-1 no Brasil Detection of Mycoplasma genitalium, M. fermentans and M. penetrans in patients with symptoms of urethritis and in HIV-1 infected persons in Brazil

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    Caio Mauricio Mendes de Cordova

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho investigamos a prevalência de três espécies de micoplasma recém-identificadas como patógenos humanos, M. genitalium, implicado em casos de uretrite não-gonocócica, e M. fermentans e M. penetrans, isolados de pacientes imunodeprimidos, e das duas espécies mais freqüentes no trato geniturinário, M. hominis e U. urealyticum. Foram estudados 110 pacientes com sintomas de uretrite (grupo A e 106 indivíduos infectados pelo HIV-1 (grupo B. M. genitalium foi detectado em 10,9% das amostras de raspado uretral do grupo A, e em 1,9% das amostras de raspado uretral e 0,9% das amostras de urina do grupo B. M. fermentans foi detectado em 0,9% e 5,7% das amostras de raspado uretral dos grupos A e B, respectivamente. M. penetrans foi detectado em 6,6% das amostras de urina somente do grupo B. M. hominis e U. urealyticum tiveram taxas de infecção de 0,9% e 14,5% no grupo A, e de 7,5% e 18,9% no grupo B, respectivamente. A relevante prevalência da infecção por estas novas espécies, em comparação aos micoplasmas mais conhecidos do trato urogenital, sugere que a magnitude do papel destes microrganismos no âmbito das doenças sexualmente transmissíveis (DST e da infecção pelo HIV pode estar sendo subestimada em nossa população.In this work the prevalence of three mycoplasma species recently identified as human pathogens was investigated: M. genitalium, involved in cases of non-gonococcal urethritis, and M. fermentans and M. penetrans, isolated from immunosupressed individuals, and the 2 species more frequently isolated from the urogenital tract: M. hominis and U. urealyticum. Studied groups were composed by 110 patients with symptoms of urethritis (group A and 106 HIV-1-infected individuals (group B. M. genitalium was detected in 10.9% of the urethral swab samples from the group A, and in 1.9% of the urethral swab samples and 0.9% of the urine samples from the group B. M. fermentans was detected in 0.9% and 5.7% of the

  5. Mycoplasma genitalium From Basic Science to Public Health: Summary of the Results From a National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disesases Technical Consultation and Consensus Recommendations for Future Research Priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, David H; Manhart, Lisa E; Workowski, Kimberly A

    2017-07-15

    This article lays out the research priorities for Mycoplasma genitalium research agreed upon by the participants in a 2016 National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases-funded Technical Consultation focused on this organism. The state of current knowledge concerning the microbiology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations of infection, treatment, and public health significance of M. genitalium reviewed at the meeting is described in detail in the individual articles included in this supplemental edition of the Journal of Infectious Diseases. Here we summarize the points made in these articles most relevant to the formulation of the research priorities listed in this article. The most important recommendation resulting from this Technical Consultation is the initiation of clinical trials designed to determine definitively whether screening for and treatment of M. genitalium infections in women and their sexual partners improve reproductive health in women and/or prevent human immunodeficiency virus transmission. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Molecular detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and other sexually transmitted bacteria in semen of male partners of infertile couples in Tunisia: the effect on semen parameters and spermatozoa apoptosis markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanen Sellami

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasmas, and Ureaplasmas in semen samples of the male partners of infertile couples and to investigate whether Chlamydia trachomatis could initiate apoptosis in human spermatozoa. A total of 85 males partners of infertile couples undergoing routine semen analysis according to World Health Organization guidelines were included. Specimens were examined for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum by Real time PCR (qPCR. Semen specimens were analysed for the appearance of apoptotic markers (sperm DNA fragmentation, activated caspase 3 levels, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm using flow cytometry. C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, U. urealyticum, M genitalium were detected in semen samples of 13 (15.2%, 5 (5.8%, 5 (5.8% and 3 (3.5% male partners of infertile couples, respectively. M. hominis and U. parvum were detected in semen sample of only one patient (1.1%. The semen of infertile men positive for C. trachomatis showed lower mean of semen count and lower rapid progressive motility (category [a] of spermatozoa compared to uninfected men with statistically significances (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively. Flow cytometry analyses demonstrated a significant increase of the mean rate of semen with low ΔΨm and caspase 3 activation of infertile men positive for C. trachomatis compared to uninfected men (p = 0.006 and p = 0.001, respectively. DNA fragmentation was also increased in sperm of infertile men positive for C. trachomatis compared to uninfected men but without statistical significances (p = 0.62. Chlamydial infection was associated to loss of ΔΨm and caspase 3activation. Thus, C. trachomatis infection could be incriminated in apoptosis induction of spermatozoa. These effects may explain the negative direct impact of C

  7. Co-infections with Ureaplasma parvum, Mycoplasma hominis and Chlamydia trachomatis in a human immunodeficiency virus positive woman with vaginal discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arnab; Rawre, Jyoti; Khanna, Neena; Dhawan, Benu

    2013-01-01

    A 30-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infected woman presented with vaginal discharge and associated vulval irritation. The vaginal swabs tested positive for Ureaplasma parvum and Mycoplasma hominis by both culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The specimen also tested positive for Chlamydia trachomatis deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) by cryptic plasmid and omp1 gene PCR assays. The patient was successfully treated with azithromycin based on the antibiotic susceptibility testing results of U. parvum and M. hominis by microbroth dilution. Since sexually transmitted infections enhance the transmission of HIV, HIV-positive patients should be screened routinely for these pathogens.

  8. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN CONTEMPORARY METHODS IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS UROGENITAL INFECTIONS.

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    Ilko Bakardzhiev

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this study were 486 outpatients between the ages of 17 and 62, diagnosed with urethritis, epidydimitis, prostatitis, cervicitis, endocervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease and sterility. The following tests were used to make the diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis: Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA, Enzyme-Linked Fluorescent Assay (ELFA, Polymerase Chain Reaction DNA amplification for Chlamydia Trachomatis, Neisseria Gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma Genitalium and Ureaplasma Urealyiticum. Comparison PCR and EIA showed statistically significant difference between the positive results obtained by the two methods (p0,1. EIA is a method that gives a higher percentage of nonspecific positive reactions, while the results obtained from ELFA are much closer to the ones obtained by PCR. According to contemporary evidence based medicine, the developmet of unified standard methods for diagnosis and evaluation is of vital importance, not only for the patient and the treating physician but also concerns for the healthcare system, the general public and the pharmaceutical companies as well.

  9. Association of human papillomavirus and Chlamydia trachomatis with intraepithelial alterations in cervix samples

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    Denise Wohlmeister

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different infectious agents and their association with human papillomavirus (HPV in cervical carcinogenesis have not been completely elucidated. This study describes the association between cytological changes in cervical epithelium and the detection of the most relevant aetiological agents of sexually transmitted diseases. Samples collected from 169 patients were evaluated by conventional cytology followed by molecular analysis to detect HPV DNA, Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus 1 and 2,Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, andTreponema pallidum, besides genotyping for most common high-risk HPV. An association between cytological lesions and different behavioural habits such as smoking and sedentariness was observed. Intraepithelial lesions were also associated with HPV and C. trachomatis detection. An association was also found between both simple and multiple genotype infection and cytological changes. The investigation of HPV and C. trachomatisproved its importance and may be considered in the future for including in screening programs, since these factors are linked to the early diagnosis of patients with precursor lesions of cervical cancer.

  10. Amplified-fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting of Mycoplasma species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokotovic, Branko; Friis, N.F.; Jensen, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    Amplified-fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) is a whole-genome fingerprinting method based on selective amplification of restriction fragments. The potential of the method for the characterization of mycoplasmas was investigated in a total of 50 strains of human and animal origin, including...... Mycoplasma genitalium (n = 11), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (n = 5), Mycoplasma hominis (n = 5), Mycoplasma hyopneunmoniae (n = 9), Myco plasma flocculare (n = 5), Mycoplasma hyosynoviae (n = 10), and Mycoplasma dispar (n = 5), AFLP templates were prepared by the digestion of mycoplasmal DNA with BglII and Mfe...... to discriminate the analyzed strains at species and intraspecies levels as well, Each of the tested Mycoplasma species developed a banding pattern entirely different from those obtained from other species under analysis, Subtle intraspecies genomic differences were detected among strains of all of the Mycoplasma...

  11. [Chlamydia trachomatis and urogenital mycoplasms in nonconococcal urethritis in men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesić, Sonja; Vukićević, Jelica; Gvozdenović, Eleonora; Skiljević, Dusan; Janosević, Slobodanka; Medenica, Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Nongonococcal urethritis is the most common sexually transmitted infection in men, with vast majority of the etiological agents such as Chlamydia trachomatis, followed by urogenital mycoplasmas. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis in nongonococcal urethritis in men, and to examine infections associated with these agents. Material and methods 299 sexually active, heterosexual men with nongonococcal urethritis were included into the study. Urethral samples were taken with a dacron swab placed into the urethra up to 2-3 cm. The Direct immunofluorescence technique was performed for identification of Chlamydia trachomatis. Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis were detected with Mycoplasma IST assay. Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in 22.75%, Uraeplasma urealyticum in 21.08% and Mycoplasma hominis in 8.02% cases. We found no significant differences in prevalence between Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticym (p > 0.05). Monoinfections were found in 51.85% with significantly higher rate (p urethritis with prevalence of 51.85% in monoinfections and 11.70% in associated infections. In 36.45% of cases the etiology of urethritis was not elucidated. These results suggest that more sensitive diagnostic tool should be applied when searching for the derailed etiology of nongonococcal urethritis.

  12. Mycoplasma and ureaplasma infection and male infertility: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C; Zhu, H L; Xu, K R; Wang, S Y; Fan, L Q; Zhu, W B

    2015-09-01

    The relationship between mycoplasma and ureaplasma infection and male infertility has been studied widely; however, results remain controversial. This meta-analysis investigated the association between genital ureaplasmas (Ureaplasma urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum) and mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium), and risk of male infertility. Differences in prevalence of ureaplasma and mycoplasma infection between China and the rest of the world were also compared. Study data were collected from PubMed, Embase and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure. Summary odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was applied to assess the relationship. Heterogeneity testing and publication bias testing were also performed. A total of 14 studies were used: five case-control studies with 611 infertile cases and 506 controls featuring U. urealyticum infection, and nine case-control studies with 2410 cases and 1223 controls concerning M. hominis infection. Two other infection (U. parvum and M. genitalium) were featured in five and three studies, respectively. The meta-analysis results indicated that U. parvum and M. genitalium are not associated with male infertility. However, a significant relationship existed between U. urealyticum and M. hominis and male infertility. Comparing the global average with China, a significantly higher positive rate of U. urealyticum, but a significantly lower positive rate of M. hominis, was observed in both the infertile and control groups in China. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  13. Deteccion de Chlamydia trachomatis en muestras uretrales mediante inmunofluorescencia directa Detecção de Chlamydia trachomatis em amostras uretrais mediante imunofluorescência direta Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urethral samples by means of direct immunofluorescence

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    Myra Wilson Schuster

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 82 pacientes con uretritis para la búsqueda de Chlamydia trachomatis mediante inmunofluorescencia directa, Neisscria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplastna y Ureaplasma mediante métodos estándar. Se encontró un 19,5% de Chlamydia trachomatis y en 11 de ellos (68,8% se encontró asociada a otras bacterias y estos pacientes presentó una secreción escasa-gelatinosa.Em 82 doentes com uretrite foi pesquisada a presença de Chlamydia trachomatis, utilizando a prova da imunofluorescência direta, e de Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma e Ureaplasma, utilizando os métodos padrões. Ch. trachomatis foi encontrada em 19,5% dos casos, sendo que em 11 deles (68,8% observou-se associação entre Chlamydia e as outras bactérias pesquisadas. Nesses pacientes observou-se presença de secreção uretral escassa e de aspecto gelatinoso.The presence of Chlamydia trachomatis was studied by the direct immunofluorescence test, as also was that of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma by the standard methods, in 82 patients with urethral discharge. Ch. trachomatis was found in 19.5% (16 of the cases and in 11 of them (68.8% there was association with the other bacteria investigated. This eleven patients presented a scanty gelatinous discharge.

  14. Reporting detection of Chlamydia trachomatis DNA in tissues of neonatal death cases

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    Maria Hernandez Trejo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to determine whether C. trachomatis was present in neonates with infection, but without an isolated pathogen, who died during the first week of life. METHODS: early neonatal death cases whose causes of death had been previously adjudicated by the institutional mortality committee were randomly selected. End-point and real-time polymerase chain reaction of the C. trachomatis omp1 gene was used to blindly identify the presence of chlamydial DNA in the paraffinized samples of five organs (from authorized autopsies of each of the dead neonates. Additionally, differential diagnoses were conducted by amplifying a fragment of the 16S rRNA of Mycoplasma spp. RESULTS: in five cases (35.7%, C. trachomatis DNA was found in one or more organs. Severe neonatal infection was present in three cases; one of them corresponded to genotype D of C. trachomatis. Interestingly, another case fulfilled the same criteria but had a positive polymerase chain reaction for Mycoplasma hominis, a pathogen known to produce sepsis in newborns. CONCLUSION: the use of molecular biology techniques in these cases of early infant mortality demonstrated that C. trachomatis could play a role in the development of severe infection and in early neonatal death, similarly to that observed with Mycoplasma hominis. Further study is required to determine the pathogenesis of this perinatal infection.

  15. Genetic variability of genital mycoplasmas and its clinical value

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    K. I. Plakhova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents data on genetic variability of genital mycoplasmas. The author presents the results of genetic variability studies for M. hominis, gene vaa, U. parvum, gene mba, and M. genitalium, gene mg192, sampled from women with different clinical manifestations of inflammatory diseases of the urogenital system. Based on the molecular typing results for 138 samples of genital mycoplasmas, the author revealed a relationship between clinical manifestations of inflammatory diseases of the urogenital system caused by U. parvum and different U. parvum serovars as well as different genetic variations of M. hominis.Infection with 6 U. parvum serovar results in the development of inflammatory diseases of the urogenital tract accompanied by subjective manifestations (р < 0.05. Genetic variant II of М. hominis was revealed more often in patients with clinical manifestations of inflammatory diseases while variant I was revealed more often in patients infected with М. hominis without any signs of inflammation (р < 0.05. Genetic variants of M. genitalium were determined; no significant differences in terms of their prevalence in the examined patients were revealed.

  16. Vertical Transmission of Bacterial Eye Infections, Angola, 2011–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Isabel; Martínez, Prudencio; Sanz, Iván; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Ana; Fernandez, Itziar; Pastor, Jose Carlos; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    To determine transmission rates for neonatal conjunctivitis causative microorganisms in Angola, we analyzed 312 endocervical and 255 conjunctival samples from mothers and newborns, respectively, during 2011–2012. Transmission rates were 50% for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae and 10.5% for Mycoplasma genitalium. Possible pathogenic effects of M. genitalium in children’s eyes are unknown. PMID:25695394

  17. Surgical infections with Mycoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Prag, Jørgen Brorson; Jensen, J S

    1997-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are common inhabitants of the human genital tract. Evidence for an aetiological role in pyelonephritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, post-abortion and post-partum fever has been presented. There are sporadic reports of Mycoplasma causing serious...... extragenital infection such as septicemia, septic arthritis, neonatal meningitis and encephalitis. We review 38 cases of surgical infections with Mycoplasma....

  18. Life on arginine for Mycoplasma hominis: clues from its minimal genome and comparison with other human urogenital mycoplasmas.

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    Sabine Pereyre

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma hominis is an opportunistic human mycoplasma. Two other pathogenic human species, M. genitalium and Ureaplasma parvum, reside within the same natural niche as M. hominis: the urogenital tract. These three species have overlapping, but distinct, pathogenic roles. They have minimal genomes and, thus, reduced metabolic capabilities characterized by distinct energy-generating pathways. Analysis of the M. hominis PG21 genome sequence revealed that it is the second smallest genome among self-replicating free living organisms (665,445 bp, 537 coding sequences (CDSs. Five clusters of genes were predicted to have undergone horizontal gene transfer (HGT between M. hominis and the phylogenetically distant U. parvum species. We reconstructed M. hominis metabolic pathways from the predicted genes, with particular emphasis on energy-generating pathways. The Embden-Meyerhoff-Parnas pathway was incomplete, with a single enzyme absent. We identified the three proteins constituting the arginine dihydrolase pathway. This pathway was found essential to promote growth in vivo. The predicted presence of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase suggested that arginine catabolism is more complex than initially described. This enzyme may have been acquired by HGT from non-mollicute bacteria. Comparison of the three minimal mollicute genomes showed that 247 CDSs were common to all three genomes, whereas 220 CDSs were specific to M. hominis, 172 CDSs were specific to M. genitalium, and 280 CDSs were specific to U. parvum. Within these species-specific genes, two major sets of genes could be identified: one including genes involved in various energy-generating pathways, depending on the energy source used (glucose, urea, or arginine and another involved in cytadherence and virulence. Therefore, a minimal mycoplasma cell, not including cytadherence and virulence-related genes, could be envisaged containing a core genome (247 genes, plus a set of genes required for

  19. Epidemiology of Mycoplasma acquisition in male HIV-1 infected patients: a multistage cross-sectional survey in Jiangsu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L-S; Wu, J-R; Wang, B; Yang, T; Yuan, R; Zhao, Y-Y; Xu, J-S; Guo, H-X; Huan, X-P

    2015-11-01

    Mycoplasma infections are most frequently associated with disease in the urogenital or respiratory tracts and, in most cases, mycoplasmas infect the host persistently. In HIV-infected individuals the prevalence and role of genital mycoplasmas has not been well studied. To investigate the six species of Mycoplasma and the risk factors for infection in Jiangsu province, first-void urine and venous blood samples were collected and epidemiological questionnaires were administered after informed consent. A total of 1541 HIV/AIDS patients were recruited in this study. The overall infection rates of six Mycoplasma species were: Ureaplasma urealyticum (26·7%), Mycoplasma hominis (25·3%), M. fermentans (5·1%), M. genitalium (20·1%), M. penetrans (1·6%) and M. pirum (15·4%). The Mycoplasma infection rate in the unmarried group was lower than that of the married, divorced and widowed groups [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1·432, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·077-1·904, P HIV/AIDS populations.

  20. Regulation of gene expression in Mycoplasmas: contribution from Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma synoviae genome sequences

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    Humberto Maciel França Madeira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the transcription apparatus of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (strains J and 7448 and Mycoplasma synoviae, using a comparative genomics approach to summarize the main features related to transcription and control of gene expression in mycoplasmas. Most of the transcription-related genes present in the three strains are well conserved among mycoplasmas. Some unique aspects of transcription in mycoplasmas and the scarcity of regulatory proteins in mycoplasma genomes are discussed.

  1. Molecular Methods for the Detection of Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma Infections in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waites, Ken B.; Xiao, Li; Paralanov, Vanya; Viscardi, Rose M.; Glass, John I.

    2012-01-01

    Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma species are well-known human pathogens responsible for a broad array of inflammatory conditions involving the respiratory and urogenital tracts of neonates, children, and adults. Greater attention is being given to these organisms in diagnostic microbiology, largely as a result of improved methods for their laboratory detection, made possible by powerful molecular-based techniques that can be used for primary detection in clinical specimens. For slow-growing species, such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma genitalium, molecular-based detection is the only practical means for rapid microbiological diagnosis. Most molecular-based methods used for detection and characterization of conventional bacteria have been applied to these organisms. A complete genome sequence is available for one or more strains of all of the important human pathogens in the Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma genera. Information gained from genome analyses and improvements in efficiency of DNA sequencing are expected to significantly advance the field of molecular detection and genotyping during the next few years. This review provides a summary and critical review of methods suitable for detection and characterization of mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas of humans, with emphasis on molecular genotypic techniques. PMID:22819362

  2. Human pathogenic Mycoplasma species induced cytokine gene expression in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive lymphoblastoid cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäffner, E; Opitz, O; Pietsch, K; Bauer, G; Ehlers, S; Jacobs, E

    1998-04-01

    We addressed the question whether the in vitro interaction of two Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-genome-positive B cell lines (EB-3 and HilB-gamma) with either Mycoplasma pneumoniae or M. hominis, with the mycoplasma species (M. fermentans, M. fermentans subsp. incognitus, M. penetrans, M. genitalium) or with mycoplasma species known to be mere commensals of the respiratory tract (M. orale and M. salivarium) would result in expression of mRNAs for IL-2, IL-2R, IL-4 and IL-6 as determined by reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR after 4 and 24 h of cocultivation. The pattern of cytokine gene expression observed depended on (i) the origin of the transformed cell line, (ii) the pathogenicity of the Mycoplasma species, and (iii) the length of cocultivation. The EBV-immortalized lymphoblastoid cell line HilB-gamma showed mRNA expression for IL-2, IL-2-receptor, IL-4 and IL-6 peaking 24 h after stimulation with M. pneumoniae and all AIDS-related mycoplasma species tested. The Burkitt lymphoma cell line EB-3 showed a distinct and isolated strong II-2/IL-2 R-mRNA expression within 4 h after contact with the pathogenic and all of the AIDS related mycoplasma species. In neither EBV-containing cell line cytokine was gene expression detectable after stimulation with the commensal mycoplasma species, M. orale and M. salivarium, indicating species differences in the ability of mycoplasmas to interact with and stimulate B-cell lines. Our data suggest that some mcyoplasma species may act as immunomodulatory cofactors by eliciting inappropriate cytokine gene expression in B cells latently infected with EBV. Therefore, this cultivation model may prove useful in evaluating the pathogenetic potential of novel isolated mycoplasma species. Copyright 1998 Academic Press Limited.

  3. Mycoplasma in Methanosarcina cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhilina, T.N.; Zavarzin, G.A.

    1979-05-01

    As was shown on ultra-thin sections of Methanosarcina, biotype 3, its aggregates can be subjected to lysis by Mycoplasma and substituted by it. Mycoplasma cells are located predominantly in the intercellular space and do not penetrate the cytoplasmic membrane of the Methanosarcina cells.

  4. Molecular biology of Mycoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Gunna; Jensen, Lise T.; Boesen, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Mycoplasmas are the smallest free living microorganisms with the smallest genome. The G+C content is in general low (25-33%) and the coding capacity is about 600 proteins. Mycoplasma species are phylogenetically related, they use the genetic codon UGA for tryptophan, and show rapid evolution, wit...

  5. [Mycoplasma pneumoniae meningoencephalitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambonie, G; Sarran, N; Leboucq, N; Luc, F; Bongrand, A F; Slim, G; Lassus, P; Fournier-Favre, S; Montoya, F; Astruc, J; Rieu, D

    1999-03-01

    Severe central nervous system diseases, such as encephalitis, have been reported in association with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections. After an ENT infection, a 9-year-old boy with Down's syndrome developed encephalitis revealed by an acute alteration in consciousness. Head computed tomography showed, after 2 weeks, an infiltration in the basal ganglia region. The diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae encephalitis was made; recovery was complete in a few weeks. Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection should be considered in all cases of acute encephalopathy; yet the pathogenesis of the disorder is unknown and the treatment uncertain.

  6. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification on Crude DNA as a Point-of-Care Test for the Diagnosis of Mycoplasma-Related Vaginitis During Early Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yichao; Zhang, Bumei; Sun, Yan; Liu, Yunde; Gu, Yajun

    2017-12-20

    Mycoplasma-related vaginitis gradually has been growing as a threat in adults-genitourinary infection contributes to funisitis, spontaneous abortion, and low birth weight. Until now, use of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) to detect Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), Mycoplasma hominis (MH), or Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) has been reported by some researchers. However, previous studies focused on purified DNA as the template for LAMP assay, which is usually extracted via commercial kit. We developed a LAMP assay for rapid detection of UU, MH, and MG genital mycoplasmas using a simple boiling method for DNA extraction, in a cohort of pregnant women with mycoplasma-related vaginitis. We monitored amplicons with the naked eye using SYBR Green I. The cohort in our study showed a prevalence of 22.6% in pregnant women, as detected by UU-LAMP assay. Compared to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test with purified DNA, the sensitivity of the UU-LAMP in clinical specimens with crude DNA was 87.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 64.6%->99.9). For crude DNA specimens, UU-LAMP was more sensitive and reliable than PCR, with a higher agreement rate (96.8%) and Youden index value (0.88). As a point-of-care test, LAMP is a useful, specific, and efficient way to detect genital mycoplasmas in resource-limited settings, especially for crude DNA. © American Society for Clinical Pathology 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. [Efficacy and safety of levofloxacin to non-gonorrheal urethritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Shoichi; Onoe, Yasuhiko; Hosobe, Takahide; Kato, Tetsuro; Yoshida, Masaki

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the efficacy and safety of levofloxacin (LVFX) 500mg once a day in patients with non-gonorrheal urethritis. Men, aged 20 years or older, with urethritis symptoms, and detection of Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) or Mycoplasma genitalium (M. genitalium) by a microbiological examination were eligible for this study. Patients were administered LVFX 500mg, orally, once a day and the dosage period was seven days. We assumed 22 patients for a safety and efficacy analysis. In 22 patients, 17 patients had urethritis with C. trachomatis, 4 patients urethritis with M. genitalium, and one patient mixed infection of C. trachomatis and M. genitalium. In the clinial study, the primary endpoint was set as the bacteriological eradication rate at two to four weeks after completion of treatment. The bacterial eradication rate in the urethritis was 86.4% (19/22). The bacterial eradication rate in the urethritis with C. trachomatis, M. genitalium, and mixed infection of C. trachomatis and M. genitalium were 94.1% (16/17), 50.0% (2/4), 100% (1/1), respectively. A significant difference was not recognized among the three groups. The clinical efficacy at two to four weeks after completion of treatment was 90.9% (20/22). The clinical efficacy rates in the urethritis with C. trachomatis, M. genitalium, and mixed infection of C. trachomatis and M. genitalium were 100% (17/17), 50.0% (2/4), 100% (1/1), respectively. The efficacy rate of urethritis with M. genitalium was significantly low. No adverse drug reactions were observed. These results suggest that once-a-day levofloxacin (500mg) is effective and safe treatment for non-gonorrheal urethritis.

  8. Genital Mycoplasmas in Placental Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Stein

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The involvement of the genital mycoplasmas Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis in complications of pregnancy has remained controversial especially because these microorganisms are frequent colonizers of the lower genital tract. Recovery of bacteria from the placenta appears to be the sole technique to represent a true infection and not vaginal contamination. Therefore, we investigated the presence of genital mycoplasmas, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and fungi in human placentas and evaluated their association with morbidity and mortality of pregnancy.

  9. Postabortal endometritis and isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbacci, M B; Spence, M R; Kappus, E W; Burkman, R C; Rao, L; Quinn, T C

    1986-11-01

    A prospective study of 505 unselected women presenting for induced abortion was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and to determine if cervical isolation of C trachomatis before abortion increases the risk of postabortal endometritis. A comparison of direct fluorescent antibody (slide) test with tissue culture for diagnosing C trachomatis infection also was evaluated in this population. C trachomatis was identified by culture in 89 patients (17.6%) and by direct slide test in 85 patients (16.8%). Six of 17 patients with postabortal endometritis were culture positive for C trachomatis, with a significant correlation between C trachomatis infection and development of endometritis observed (P less than .05). These data suggest C trachomatis may play an important role in postabortal endometritis.

  10. Mycoplasma pneumoniae encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, H.; Korinthenberg, R.; Fahrendorf, G.

    1987-07-01

    Clinical, CT and, in one case, autopsy findings indicated a diagnosis of a severe necrotising encephalitis in two patients. Although usually herpes simplex virus is blamed for this form of encephalitis, it was possible to prove in these two patients that mycoplasma was the causative agent of the disease. It is concluded that this organism can produce a serious disease in the central nervous system similar to that caused by herpes simplex.

  11. Mycoplasma pneumoniae encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, H.; Korinthenberg, R.; Fahrendorf, G.; Muenster Univ.

    1987-01-01

    Clinical, CT and, in one case, autopsy findings indicated a diagnosis of a severe necrotising encephalitis in two patients. Although usually herpes simplex virus is blamed for this form of encephalitis, it was possible to prove in these two patients that mycoplasma was the causative agent of the disease. It is concluded that this organism can produce a serious disease in the central nervous system similar to that caused by herpes simplex. (orig.) [de

  12. Screening on urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis

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    Busse, Reinhard

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Around 92 million urogenital infections are caused yearly by Chlamydia trachomatis worldwide [1]. The overall incidence of sexually transmitted diseases is increasing, as shown by the increases in the number of reported cases of syphilis and gonorrhea [2]. Chlamydia trachomatis infections are associated with various serious diseases in women, men and newborns, which could be, at least partially, avoided by means of early diagnosis and therapy. The Federal Joint Committee - responsible for decision-making concerning the benefit package of the German Social Health Insurance - has publicly announced the starting of deliberations on the issue of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis. Research Questions: The leading question to be answered is whether screening for Chlamydia trachomatis should be included in the German benefit basket. The aim of this report is to provide a summary of the available evidence concerning the issue of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis. Methods: The summary of published scientific evidence, including HTA reports, systematic reviews, guidelines and primary research is represented. The synthesis follows the structure given by the criteria of Wilson and Jungner [3] for the introduction of screening in a population: relevance of the condition, availability of an adequate test, effectiveness of screening, acceptance of the programme, and economical issues. A literature search was conducted for each aspect of the synthesis and the evidence has been summarised in evidence tables. Results: We identified five HTA reports from three European agencies [4], [5], [6], [7] and one from the USA [8]. In addition, we identified four guidelines from Northamerica [9], [10], [11], [12] and one from Europe [13]. A total of 56 primary research publications were included: relevance of the disease (n=26, availability of test (n=1, effectiveness of screening (n=11, acceptance of the programme (n=11, economical issues (n=7. Discussion

  13. The Phospholipid Profile of Mycoplasmas

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    Jonathan D. Kornspan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The de novo synthesized polar lipids of Mycoplasma species are rather simple, comprising primarily of the acidic glycerophospholipids PG and CL. In addition, when grown in a medium containing serum, significant amounts of PC and SPM are incorporated into the mycoplasma cell membrane although these lipids are very uncommon in wall-covered bacteria. The exogenous lipids are either incorporated unchanged or the PC incorporated is modified by a deacylation-acylation enzymatic cycle to form disaturated PC. Although their small genome, in some Mycoplasma species, other genes involved in lipid biosynthesis were detected, resulting in the synthesis of a variety of glycolipis, phosphoglycolipids and ether lipids. We suggest that analyses and comparisons of mycoplasma polar lipids may serve as a novel and useful tool for classification. Nonetheless, to evaluate the importance of polar lipids in mycoplasma, further systematic and extensive studies on more Mycoplasma species are needed. While studies are needed to elucidate the role of lipids in the mechanisms governing the interaction of mycoplasmas with host eukaryotic cells, the finding that a terminal phosphocholine containing glycolipids of M. fermentans serves both as a major immune determinants and as a trigger of the inflammatory responses, and the findings that the fusogenicity of M. fermentans with host cells is markedly stimulated by lyso-ether lipids, are important steps toward understanding the molecular mechanisms of M. fermentans pathogenicity.

  14. AB38. Microorganisms in Chronic prostatitis in outpatient clinic Mongolia

    OpenAIRE

    Samdankhuu, Khongorzul; Sanjmyatav, Purevjal; Damiran, Naransukh; Naidan, Nansalmaa

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent years, morbidity of chronic prostatis is increasing in Mongolia. Most common cause of the chronic prostatis is Non-Gonococcal Urethritis (NGU) such as chlamydia trachomatis, mycoplasma hominis, mycoplasma genitalium, ureaplasma urealyticum and ureaplasma parvum or mixed infections. Purpose The purpose of the study was to research possible relationships between signs or symptoms of the chronic prostatitis and its cause. Method A total of 466 males who have possible signs of c...

  15. Vascular graft infections with Mycoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Skov Jensen, J; Prag, J

    1995-01-01

    laboratory techniques, the percentage of culture-negative yet grossly infected vascular grafts seems to be increasing and is not adequately explained by the prior use of antibiotics. We have recently reported the first case of aortic graft infection with Mycoplasma. We therefore suggest the hypothesis...... that the large number of culture-negative yet grossly infected vascular grafts may be due to Mycoplasma infection not detected with conventional laboratory technique....

  16. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in genital samples collected over 6 years at a Serbian university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Skiljevic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are implicated in a wide array of infectious diseases in adults and children. Since some species have innate or acquired resistance to certain types of antibiotics, antibiotic susceptibility testing of mycoplasma isolated from the urogenital tract assumes increasing importance. Aims: To evaluate the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of M. hominis and U. urealyticum in genital samples collected between 2007 and 2012. Methods: Three hundred and seventy three patients presenting with symptoms of sexually transmitted diseases, infertility or risky sexual behaviour, who had not taken antibiotics in the previous 6 weeks and had ≥10 WBC per high power field on genital smears were studied. Urethral samples were taken in men and endocervical samples in women. The mycoplasma IST-2 kit was used for organism identification and for testing susceptibility to doxycycline, josamycin, ofloxacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, clarithromycin and pristinamycin. Results: U. urealyticum was isolated from 42 patients and M. hominis from 11 patients. From 9.8% of isolates, both organisms were grown. All M. hominis isolates were resistant to tetracycline, clarithromycin and erythromycin while U. urealyticum was highly resistant to clarithromycin (94.6%, tetracycline (86.5%, ciprofloxacin (83.8% and erythromycin (83.8%. M. hominis was sensitive to doxycycline (83.3% and ofloxacin (66.7% while most U. urealyticum strains were sensitive to doxycycline (94.6%. Limitations: Inability of the commercial kit used in the study to detect other potentially pathogenic urogenital mycoplasmas (Ureaplasma parvum, Mycoplasma genitalium. Conclusion: There is significant resistance of U. urealyticum and M. hominis to tetracycline and macrolides. The most active tetracycline for genital mycoplasmas was found to be doxycycline, which continues to be the drug of first choice.

  17. Prevalence of Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection among Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    prevalence of and predictive risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduate students of ... manage and associated with severe sequelae. Key Words: – Prevalence; Chlamydia trachomatis; ... genital infection during pregnancy increases the risk of spontaneous abortion, premature delivery and ...

  18. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection among Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection was investigated among 100 women attending infertility clinics and compared with another subset of 100 pregnant women who served as control. Chlamydia trachomatis antigen detection cassette supplied by Biomil Diagnostics was used to detect the presence of ...

  19. Genital chlamydia trachomatis infection among female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. There is little information about this infection in Nigeria. This study determined the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduates of University of Port Harcourt and ...

  20. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in symptomatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a ubiquitous human pathogen that is responsible for the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Studies show that polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is more sensitive than cellular culture for detection of C. trachomatis infections. The aim of this study is to compare different ...

  1. Cost-effectiveness of microscopy of urethral smears for asymptomatic Mycoplasma genitalium urethritis in men in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Andrew J; Roberts, Tracy E; Jackson, Louise; Saunders, John; White, Peter J; Birger, Ruthie; Estcourt, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    The objective was to determine whether or not the limited use of urethral microscopy to diagnose asymptomatic and symptomatic non-chlamydial, non-gonococcal urethritis (NCNGU) in men is a cost-effective strategy to avert pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy or infertility in female partners. Outputs from a transmission dynamic model of NCNGU in a population of 16-30 year olds in England simulating the number of consultations, PID cases and patients treated over time amongst others, were used along with secondary data to undertake a cost-effectiveness analysis carried out from a health care provider perspective. The main outcome measure was cost per case of PID averted. A secondary outcome measure was cost per major outcome averted, where a major outcome is a case of symptomatic PID, ectopic pregnancy, or infertility. Offering a limited number of asymptomatic men urethral microscopy was more effective than the current practice of no microscopy in terms of reducing the number of cases of PID with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £15,700, meaning that an investment of £15,800 is required to avert one case of PID. For major outcomes averted, offering some asymptomatic men urethral microscopy was again found to be more effective than no microscopy, but here an investment of £49,900 is required to avert one major outcome. Testing asymptomatic men for NCNGU in a small number of genitourinary medicine settings in England is not cost-effective, and thus by maintaining the current practice of not offering this patient group microscopy, this continues to make savings for the health care provider.

  2. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Malhotra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of curable bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI worldwide. It manifests primarily as urethritis in males and endocervicitis in females. Untreated chlamydial infection in man can cause epididymitis and proctitis. Though most women with Chlamydia infection are asymptomatic or have minimal symptoms, some develop salpingitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID, ectopic pregnancy and tubal factor infertility. It is associated with an increased risk for the transmission or acquisition of HIV and is also attributed to be a risk factor for the development of cervical carcinoma. Early diagnosis and treatment of infected individuals is required to prevent the spread of the disease and severe sequelae. Traditionally, tissue culture was considered the gold standard for the diagnosis. However, with the availability of newer diagnostic techniques particularly molecular methods which are not only highly sensitive and specific but are cost-effective also, the diagnosis has became fast and easy. The purpose of this review is to study the various aspects of genital C. trachomatis infection. Also the advances related to the clinical picture, various diagnostic modalities, prevention, treatment, drug resistance and control measures will be dealt with.

  3. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among patients attending infertility and sexually transmitted diseases clinic (STD) in Kano, North Western Nigeria. ... A higher percentage of the patients (95.2%) were not aware of the existence of ...

  4. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sexually transmitted diseases clinic (STD) in Kano, North Western Nigeria. ... A higher percentage of the patients (95.2%) were not aware of the existence of ... Key words: Chlamydia trachomatis, Prevalence, risk factors, Infertility, STD, Kano.

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis Mip-like protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundemose, AG; Rousch, DA; Birkelund, Svend

    1992-01-01

    A 27 kDa Chlamydia trachomatis Mip-like protein with homology of a 175-amino-acid C-terminal fragment to the surface-exposed Legionella pneumophila mip-gene product has previously been described. In this paper the entire chlamydia Mip-like sequence of C. trachomatis serovar L2 (lymphogranuloma...... venereum (LGV) biovar) is presented. The sequence shows high similarity to the legionella Mip protein and its C-terminal region, like that of the legionella Mip, has high amino acid similarity to eukaryotic and prokaryotic FK506-binding proteins. The chlamydial mip-like gene was detected by polymerase...... chain reaction (PCR) in other C. trachomatis serovars and by sequencing of the mip-like genes of serovars B and E (trachoma biovar) was shown to be highly conserved within the two major biovars of C. trachomatis. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies raised against the recombinant Mip-like protein failed...

  6. Clinical and microbiological outcomes in treatment of men with non-gonococcal urethritis with a 100-mg twice-daily dose regimen of sitafloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shin; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Seike, Kensaku; Sugawara, Takashi; Tsuchiya, Tomohiro; Yokoi, Shigeaki; Nakano, Masahiro; Deguchi, Takashi

    2012-06-01

    Several microorganisms cause non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU). Failure to eradicate Mycoplasma genitalium from the urethra could be associated with persistent or recurrent urethritis; thus, the choice of antibiotics with activities potent enough to eradicate M. genitalium is crucial in the treatment of NGU. In in vitro studies, sitafloxacin has been shown to be highly active against Chlamydia trachomatis and M. genitalium. We treated 89 males with NGU, including 15 patients with persistent or recurrent NGU and 1 patient with post-gonococcal urethritis, with a 100-mg twice-daily dose regimen of sitafloxacin to assess its efficacy against NGU. We examined first-void urine samples for the presence of C. trachomatis, M. genitalium, Ureaplasma parvum, and Ureaplasma urealyticum. After treatment, we evaluated 73 patients for clinical outcomes and 44 for microbiological outcomes. Symptoms were alleviated in 62 (84.9%) patients, who were judged clinically cured. Microorganisms detected before treatment were eradicated in 42 (95.5%) patients, who were judged microbiologically cured. Regarding microbiological outcomes of specific microorganisms, eradication rates of C. trachomatis (n = 33), M. genitalium (n = 11), and U. urealyticum (n = 10) were 100%, 100%, and 80.0%, respectively. In all 5 patients with M. genitalium-positive persistent or recurrent NGU who had experienced treatment failures with antibiotics, the mycoplasma was eradicated. These results suggested that the sitafloxacin regimen used, which was effective on both M. genitalium and C. trachomatis infections, could be useful as an appropriate option as first- and second-line treatment of NGU.

  7. Chlamydia trachomatis in non-specific urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terho, P

    1978-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from 58.5% of 159 patients with non-specific urethritis (NSU) using irradiated McCoy cell cultures. Patients with persistent Chlamydia-positive NSU remained Chlamydia-positive each time they were examined before treatment and patients with Chlamydia-negative NSU remained Chlamydia-negative during the course of the illness. Neither the duration of symptoms of urethritis nor a history of previous urethritis affected the chlamydial isolation rate significantly. Of 40 patients with severe discharge 30 (75%) harboured C. trachomatis. One-third of the Chlamydia-positive patients had a severe urethral discharge, while this was present in only 15% of Chlamydia-negative patients. Complications--such as conjunctivitis, arthritis, and epididymitis--were more severe in men with Chlamdia-positive NSU than in those with Chlamydia-negative NSU. Of 64 men matched for sexual promiscuity but without urethritis, none harboured C. trachomatis in his urethra. This differs significantly (P less than 0.001) when compared with patients with NSU. C. trachomatis was isolated from the urogenital tract in 24 (42%) out of 57 female sexual contacts of patients with NSU. The presence of C. trachomatis in the women correlated significantly (P less than 0.001) with the isolation of the agent from their male contacts. These findings give further evidence for the aetiological role of C. trachomatis in non-specific urethritis and its sexual transmission. PMID:678958

  8. Genital infections mycoplasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urošević R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the retrospective study, which was conducted in the period from 01.01. to 31.12.2012, we have examined 1035 samples of vaginal secretions, cervical swabs and urethral swab the UU and Mh. The main objective of the study was to determine the incidence of mycoplasma infections, the distribution by sex, age of patients, the clinical diagnosis for which it was conducted microbiological testing of patients and determine the sensitivity of the isolated pathogens to antibiotics. From a total of 1035 samples tested positive findings were in 331 patients, of which 316 (95.5% women and 15 (4.5% males. The difference was statistically significant. There were no statistically significant differences in average age among women (29 years and women (30. Infection with a UU was statistically significantly higher (70.1% compared to the MH (5.4% and a mixed infection (24.5%. The incidence of infections caused by UU in females was 70% and 80% in males. Males and females do not differ significantly according to the frequency of infections caused by UU. The highest incidence of female patients, was diagnosed with vulvovaginitis 34% Colpitis had 22%; Colpitis and cervicitis-17%, while only Cervicitis was diagnosed in 10% of patients. The difference in the incidence of clinical diagnosis was statistically significant. The difference in the incidence of clinical diagnosis was statistically significant. All pathogens isolated showed significantly greater osteljivost three or more antibiotics. The sensitivity of the three or more antibiotics is not significantly associated with the cause of the infection.

  9. Carboxypeptidase activity in human mycoplasmas.

    OpenAIRE

    Shibata, K; Watanabe, T

    1986-01-01

    Mycoplasma salivarium produced citrulline, ammonia, and ATP from N-benzoylglycyl-L-arginine. The activity was inhibited by EDTA and was therefore concluded to be due to an arginine-specific carboxypeptidase. The activity was also found to exist in M. orale, M. buccale, M. faucium, and M. hominis.

  10. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3375 Mycoplasma... fluorescent dye (immunofluorescent reagents) used to identify Mycoplasma spp. directly from clinical specimens...

  11. Chlamydia trachomatis Infections: Implications for Pregnant Adolescents and Their Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Melzer-Lange

    1994-01-01

    trachomatis in pregnant adolescents. This study was undertaken to determine if aggressive screening for C. trachomatis in pregnant adolescents and early treatment with erythromycin can prevent complications in their newborn infants.

  12. Genes involved in translation of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma synoviae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica de Oliveira Santos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a report on the analysis of genes involved in translation of the complete genomes of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strain J and 7448 and Mycoplasma synoviae. In both genomes 31 ORFs encoding large ribosomal subunit proteins and 19 ORFs encoding small ribosomal subunit proteins were found. Ten ribosomal protein gene clusters encoding 42 ribosomal proteins were found in M. synoviae, while 8 clusters encoding 39 ribosomal proteins were found in both M. hyopneumoniae strains. The L33 gene of the M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448 presented two copies in different locations. The genes encoding initiation factors (IF-1, IF-2 and IF-3, elongation factors (EF-G, EF-Tu, EF-Ts and EF-P, and the genes encoding the ribosome recycling factor (frr and one polypeptide release factor (prfA were present in the genomes of M. hyopneumoniae and M. synoviae. Nineteen aminoacyl-tRNA synthases had been previously identified in both mycoplasmas. In the two strains of M. hyopneumoniae, J and 7448, only one set of 5S, 16S and 23S rRNAs had been identified. Two sets of 16S and 23S rRNA genes and three sets of 5S rRNA genes had been identified in the M. synoviae genome.

  13. The laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max A Chernesky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Lower genital tract infections with Chlamydia trachomatis are predominantly asymptomatic in men and women. Diagnostic technology has provided several approaches to the diagnosis of C trachomatis. Outside of cells, Chlamydia can die or degrade without optimal storage and transportation. Because some of the other assays perform better on certain specimen types, it is important for laboratories to recognize these differences and provide advice to physicians and nurses collecting patient specimens, with the objective of diagnosing lower genital tract infections to prevent transmission and upper tract damage. Most invasive specimens, such as cervical or urethral swabs, may be collected for culture, antigen or nucleic acid detection. Noninvasive samples such as first-void urine and vaginal swabs can be easily collected by the patient; these samples must be tested by more sensitive nucleic acid amplification tests. These newer investigative strategies should enable implementation of screening programs to identify and treat partners. Serology has not been particularly useful for the diagnosis of acute C trachomatis infections in adults. Presently, it appears that antibiotic-resistant C trachomatis is not a clinical problem. Laboratories providing C trachomatis diagnosis require participation in continuous quality improvement programs.

  14. Mycoplasmas, plants, insect vectors: a matrimonial triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, M; Foissac, X; Gaurivaud, P; Laigret, F; Renaudin, J; Saillard, C; Bové, J M

    2001-10-01

    Plant pathogenic mycoplasmas were discovered by electron microscopy, in 1967, long after the discovery and culture in 1898 of the first pathogenic mycoplasma of animal origin, Mycoplasma mycoides. Mycoplasmas are Eubacteria of the class Mollicutes, a group of organisms phylogenetically related to Gram-positive bacteria. Their more characteristic features reside in the small size of their genomes, the low guanine (G) plus cytosine (C) content of their genomic DNA and the lack of a cell wall. Plant pathogenic mycoplasmas are responsible for several hundred diseases and belong to two groups: the phytoplasmas and the spiroplasmas. The phytoplasmas (previously called MLOs, for mycoplasma like organisms) were discovered first; they are pleiomorphic, and have so far resisted in vitro cultivation. Phytoplasmas represent the largest group of plant pathogenic Mollicutes. Only three plant pathogenic spiroplasmas are known today. Spiroplasma citri, the agent of citrus stubborn was discovered and cultured in 1970 and shown to be helical and motile. S. kunkelii is the causal agent of corn stunt. S. phoeniceum, responsible for periwinkle yellows, was discovered in Syria. There are many other spiroplasmas associated with insects and ticks. Plant pathogenic mycoplasmas are restricted to the phloem sieve tubes in which circulates the photosynthetically-enriched sap, the food for many phloem-feeding insects (aphids, leafhoppers, psyllids, etc.). Interestingly, phytopathogenic mycoplasmas are very specifically transmitted by leafhoppers or psyllid species. In this paper, the most recent knowledge on phytopathogenic mycoplasmas in relation with their insect and plant habitats is presented as well as the experiments carried out to control plant mycoplasma diseases, by expression of mycoplasma-directed-antibodies in plants (plantibodies).

  15. Chlamydia trachomatis Genotypes and the Swedish New Variant among Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis Strains in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Niemi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aims were to genotype Chlamydia trachomatis strains present in urogenital samples and to investigate the occurrence of the Swedish new variant of C. trachomatis in Finland. We genotyped 160 C. trachomatis positive samples with ompA real-time PCR and analyzed 495 samples for the new variant. The three most prevalent genotypes were E (40%, F (28%, and G (13%. Only two specimens containing bacteria with the variant plasmid were detected. It seems that in Finland the percentage of infections due to genotypes F and G has slightly increased during the last 20 years. Genotypes E and G appear to be more common, and genotypes J/Ja and I/Ia appear to be less common in Europe than in the USA. Although the genotype E was the most common genotype among C. trachomatis strains, the new variant was rarely found in Finland.

  16. In situ hybridisation for identification and differentiation of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma hyosynoviae and Mycoplasma hyorhinis in formalin-fixed porcine tissue sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boye, Mette; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Ahrens, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Oligonucleotide probes targeting 16S ribosomal RNA were designed for species-specific identification of the porcine mycoplasmas Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma hyorhinis and Mycoplasma hyosynoviae using a fluorescent in situ hybridisation assay. The specificity of the probes was evaluated...... using pure cultures as well as porcine tissue sections with artificial presence of mycoplasma, and the probes were found specific for the target organisms. The assay was applied on sections of 28 tissue samples from pigs infected with one or more of the three Mycoplasma species as determined...

  17. In vitro development of resistance to enrofloxacin, erythromycin, tylosin, tiamulin and oxytetracycline in Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma iowae and Mycoplasma synoviae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier-Bouchardon, A V; Reinhardt, A K; Kobisch, M; Kempf, I

    2002-08-02

    The in vitro emergence of resistance to enrofloxacin, erythromycin, tylosin, tiamulin, and oxytetracycline in three avian Mycoplasma species, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma iowae was studied. Mutants were selected stepwise and their MICs were determined after 10 passages in subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotic. High-level resistance to erythromycin and tylosin developed within 2-6 passages in the three Mycoplasma species. Resistance to enrofloxacin developed more gradually. No resistance to tiamulin or oxytetracycline could be evidenced in M. gallisepticum or M. synoviae after 10 passages whereas, resistant mutants were obtained with M. iowae. Cross-sensitivity tests performed on mutants demonstrated that mycoplasmas made resistant to tylosin were also resistant to erythromycin, whereas mutants made resistant to erythromycin were not always resistant to tylosin. Some M. iowae tiamulin-resistant mutants were also resistant to both macrolide antibiotics. Enrofloxacin and oxytetracycline did not induce any cross-resistance to the other antibiotics tested. These results show that Mycoplasma resistance to macrolides can be quickly selected in vitro, and thus, providing that similar results could be obtained under field conditions, that development of resistance to these antibiotics in vivo might also be a relatively frequent event.

  18. Chemical cross-linking of Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend; Lundemose, AG; Christiansen, Gunna

    1988-01-01

    Purified elementary bodies (EBs) of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 were analyzed by chemical cross-linking with disuccinimidyl selenodipropionate. The effect of the cross-linking was analyzed by immunoblotting sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-separated components which...

  19. CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS IgG ANTIBODIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-12-31

    Dec 31, 2014 ... humans caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. .... more people were living inside the school hostel in FCETU (45; 45.0%) .... seroprevalence than their counterparts with less risky behaviours ..... Janet S.B, Stephen A.M. Medical Microbiology 24th Edition, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. USA, ...

  20. Typing of lymphogranuloma venereum Chlamydia trachomatis strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christerson, Linus; de Vries, Henry J. C.; de Barbeyrac, Bertille; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Henrich, Birgit; Hoffmann, Steen; Schachter, Julius; Thorvaldsen, Johannes; Vall-Mayans, Martí; Klint, Markus; Herrmann, Björn; Morré, Servaas A.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed by multilocus sequence typing 77 lymphogranuloma venereum Chlamydia trachomatis strains from men who have sex with men in Europe and the United States. Specimens from an outbreak in 2003 in Europe were monoclonal. In contrast, several strains were in the United States in the 1980s,

  1. Typing of Lymphogranuloma Venereum Chlamydia trachomatis Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christerson, Linus; de Vries, Henry J.C.; de Barbeyrac, Bertille; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Henrich, Birgit; Hoffmann, Steen; Schachter, Julius; Thorvaldsen, Johannes; Vall-Mayans, Martí; Klint, Markus; Morré, Servaas A.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed by multilocus sequence typing 77 lymphogranuloma venereum Chlamydia trachomatis strains from men who have sex with men in Europe and the United States. Specimens from an outbreak in 2003 in Europe were monoclonal. In contrast, several strains were in the United States in the 1980s, including a variant from Europe. PMID:21029543

  2. Impact of antiseptics on Chlamydia trachomatis growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Párducz, L; Eszik, I; Wagner, G; Burián, K; Endrész, V; Virok, D P

    2016-10-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is a frequent dysbiosis, where the normal lactobacillus-dominated flora is replaced by an anaerob/aerob polymicrobial flora. Bacterial vaginosis increases the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STI) including the most frequent Chlamydia trachomatis infections. Intravaginal antiseptics are part of the bacterial vaginosis treatment, and ideally they should also inhibit the bacterial vaginosis-related STI. Therefore, we tested the antichlamydial activity of four antiseptics: iodine aqueous solution, povidone-iodine, chlorhexidine and borax. First, we measured the impact of antiseptics on the viability of the HeLa cervical epithelial cells, and calculated the maximum nontoxic concentrations. Next, we infected the cells with C. trachomatis preincubated for 1 h with the particular antiseptic. The chlamydial growth was measured by direct quantitative PCR (qPCR) of the infected cells. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine were 3·91 and 97 μg ml(-1) respectively; however, the MIC of chlorhexidine was close to its maximum nontoxic concentration. The iodine aqueous solution and the borax showed no antichlamydial activity. Our in vitro studies showed that chlorhexidine and particularly povidone-iodine are potentially able to limit the bacterial vaginosis-related C. trachomatis infection. We measured the antichlamydial effects of various antiseptics. These antiseptics are being used for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis, but their effect on the bacterial vaginosis-related sexually transmitted infections, particularly the most frequent Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) infections has not been investigated. We showed that povidone-iodine (Betadine) inhibited the chlamydial growth in concentrations that was not toxic to the epithelial cells. We concluded that due to its additional antichlamydial effect, povidone-iodine could be a preferable antiseptic in bacterial vaginosis treatment.

  3. Seroprevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in Enugu, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeme, A C; Ezegwui, H U; Ikeako, L C; Agbata, I; Agbata, E

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia infections in women cause pelvic inflammatory disease, which often results in devastating consequences of infertility, ectopic pregnancy, or chronic pelvic pain. The infection is largely asymptomatic. To determine the seroprevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in Enugu, South Eastern Nigeria. A population-based prospective study comprising female residents of Enugu, South Eastern Nigeria. Indirect solid phase enzyme immunoassay of Chlamydia antibodies was done using ImmunoComb C0. Trachomatis IgG Kit (Orgenics). The population comprised 136 female undergraduate students and 150 non-student women. The overall prevalence of C. trachomatis in the population studied was 29.4%. The percentage of subjects who admitted to be having multiple sexual partners was higher among the student population (71.2%) compared to those from the non-student population (28.8%). The highest percentage of seroprevalence was 28 (33.3%) in the age group of 20-24 years for the student population and 18 (21.4%) in the age group of 25-29 years for the non-student population. The highest seroprevalence of C. trachomatis antibodies (69.0%) in both populations was observed in females without any history of infection. Females that had pelvic inflammatory disease, sexually transmitted infection, and secondary infertility assayed for C. trachomatis had seroprevalence levels of 19%, 9.5%, and 2.4%, respectively. There was a positive correlation between positive Chlamydia assay and the type of subject population (student or non-student) with r2 value of 1.55 at P Nigeria.

  4. Mycoplasmas and Non-gonococcal Urethritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhushan Kumar

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 692 heterosexual males which included 130 men with non-gonoccal urethritis (NGU and 562 age-matched controls, were studied. Mycoplasmas were cultivated in liquid PPLO medium tubes containing arionine and urea. Mycoplasmas were isolated in 24 (18.59o of the 130 patients and 76 (13.60/o of the 562 controls. Ureaplasma urealyticum was isolated in 18 (13.9% gatients with NGU and in 21 (3.8% controls. Mycoplasma hominiq was isolated in 6 (4.6% patientuft NGU and in 55 (9.8% controls. Ureaplasma urealyticurm has a definite in NGU.

  5. Mycoplasma contamination of Chlamydia pneumoniae isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huniche, BS; Jensen, Lise Torp; Birkelund, Svend

    1998-01-01

    media, immunoblotting, polymerase chain reaction and pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Two of the 6 ATCC isolates [ATCC VR1355 (TWAR strain 2043) and ATCC VR1356 (TWAR strain 2023)] were infected with Mycoplasma hominis and 1 isolate [ATCC VR2282 (TWAR strain TW183)] was contaminated with both...... Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma orale, whereas 3 of the ATCC isolates [ATCC VR1310, ATCC VR1360 (TWAR strain CM-1) and ATCC 53592 (TWAR strain AR39)] were not contaminated. The Finnish C. pneumoniae isolates Kajaani 6 and Parola were found to be contaminated with M. hominis and M. orale, respectively...

  6. UV survival of human mycoplasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shigeji; Ito, Shoko; Watanabe, Takehiko

    1979-01-01

    The inactivation by ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation of mycoplasma cells of five human strains was monitored by investigating the colony-forming ability. The survival curves of five strains tested indicated that the cells of Mycoplasma buccale only are single and homogenously susceptible to UV light. The effect of the repair inhibitor, caffeine, on the colony-forming ability of UV-irradiated cells was investigated with M. buccale because of its homogeneous susceptibility to UV light. The colony formation of irradiated cells was markedly depressed by post-irradiation treatment with caffeine at concentration that had little or no effect on the colony formation of unirradiated cells. The colony-forming units (CFU) of UV-irradiated cells which were kept in broth without caffeine in the dark increased without a lag as the time in the dark increased. The colony-forming ability of the irradiated cells completely recovered after 3 hr in the dark. However, when irradiated cells were kept in the presence of caffeine, no increase in their CFU was observed. The mode of action of caffeine on UV-irradiated cells closely resembles that described for other organisms which possess dark reactivation systems for UV-induced damage in deoxyribonucleic acid. Thus, the results obtained provide evidence for the existence of a dark repair function in M. buccale. (author)

  7. Detection of mycoplasmas in goat milk by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Patricia; Davey, Hazel M; Rosales, Ruben S; Antunes, Nuno T; de la Fe, Christian; Ramirez, Ana S; de Galarreta, Carlos M Ruiz; Poveda, Jose B

    2007-12-01

    The detection of mycoplasma in milk can be performed by either culture techniques or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods. Although PCR can reduce the average diagnostic time to 5 h in comparison with the several days for the isolation of the agent, there is still a need to develop methods, which could give earlier results. For this purpose, we tested the ability of flow cytometry (FC) to detect mycoplasmas in milk samples. Milk samples inoculated with four different mycoplasmas, Mycoplasma agalactiae, Mycoplasma putrefaciens, Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. Capricolum, or Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides large-colony type, known to cause contagious agalactia in goats, were stained with the DNA stain SYBR Green I and analyzed by FC. Three goat milk samples, from which mycoplasmas have been isolated in broth medium were also analyzed. All mycoplasmas were easily distinguished from debris of milk samples, but it was not possible to distinguish between the different mycoplasma species. In our conditions, the detection limit of the technique was of the order of 10(3)-10(4) cells ml(-1). Furthermore, mycoplasmas were also distinguished from Staphylococcus aureus. FC together with SYBR Green I was able to distinguish between mycoplasma cells and debris present in milk samples and gave results in 20-30 min. This is an important first step in developing a robust, routine flow cytometric method for the detection of mycoplasmas in milk samples. (c) 2007 International Society for Analytical Cytology

  8. Prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae : A cause for community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae : A cause for community‑acquired ... Atypical pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a leading cause of ... microscopic and biochemical studies for better diagnosis of these pathogens.

  9. Prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae: A cause for community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Atypical pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a leading cause of ... causing bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary ..... Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a frequent cause of exacerbation of bronchial asthma ...

  10. Epidemiology of Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma mycoides cluster in flocks of northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Batista dos Santos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to investigate contagious agalactia (CA in flocks from Pernambuco State. The study involved 225 goats and 63 ewes; 288 milk samples and 100 vaginal swabs were collected in total. The PCR assays were carried out using specific primers to Mycoplasma agalactiae and the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster. Among the goat’s milk samples,12.0% (27/225 were positive for Mycoplasma agalactiae DNA, while 5.3% (12/225 contained the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster. Of the vaginal swabs taken from goats, 15.4% (12/78 were positive for Mycoplasma agalactiae DNA and 3.8% (3/78 contained the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster. In the case of ewes, 4.3% (1/23 of the milk samples contained Mycoplasma agalactiae DNA, and 7.5% (3/40 were positive for the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster. Vaginal swabs taken from sheep´s were negative. Analysis of risk factors for mycoplasmosis, showed that goats and sheep flocks on the extensive breeding system are more likely to have mycoplasmosis than those on the intensive breeding system (odds ratio (OR 6.2; p=0.004; meat goat and sheep flocks are more likely to have infection compared to dairy flocks (OR 4.8; p=0.011; unclean animal housing increases the chances of infection (OR 5.0; p=0.031 and not performing quarantine increases the chances of mycoplasmosis (OR 4.6; p=0.042. Based on these findings we conclude that CA syndrome in the semiarid region of Pernambuco state can be associated with Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma mycoides cluster.

  11. Use of polymerase chain reaction for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars; Birkelund, Svend; Christiansen, Gunna

    1990-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis DNA. From the published sequence of the common C. trachomatis plasmid, two primer sets were selected. Detection of amplified sequences was done by agarose gel electrophoresis of cleaved or uncleaved...

  12. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of sexually transmitted diseases that is not of viral origin and there is accumulating evidence of a significant role played by this pathogen in causing male factor infertility. This study thus aimed to determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis among infertile males and to ...

  13. Seroevidence Of Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection In Infertile Male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given the lack of information concerning the role of Chlamydia trachomatis in male infertility, it has become imperative to analyse the quality of semen of male with seroevidence of antibody to Chlamydia trachomatis infection. A total of 156 male patients attending the Human Reproduction Research Programme/Invitro ...

  14. 9 CFR 113.28 - Detection of mycoplasma contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detection of mycoplasma contamination... REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.28 Detection of mycoplasma contamination. The heart infusion test, using... for mycoplasma contamination is prescribed in an applicable Standard Requirement or in the filed...

  15. Horizontal Gene Transfers in Mycoplasmas (Mollicutes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citti, C; Dordet-Frisoni, E; Nouvel, L X; Kuo, C H; Baranowski, E

    2018-04-12

    The class Mollicutes (trivial name "mycoplasma") is composed of wall-less bacteria with reduced genomes whose evolution was long thought to be only driven by gene losses. Recent evidences of massive horizontal gene transfer (HGT) within and across species provided a new frame to understand the successful adaptation of these minimal bacteria to a broad range of hosts. Mobile genetic elements are being identified in a growing number of mycoplasma species, but integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) are emerging as pivotal in HGT. While sharing common traits with other bacterial ICEs, such as their chromosomal integration and the use of a type IV secretion system to mediate horizontal dissemination, mycoplasma ICEs (MICEs) revealed unique features: their chromosomal integration is totally random and driven by a DDE recombinase related to the Mutator-like superfamily. Mycoplasma conjugation is not restricted to ICE transmission, but also involves the transfer of large chromosomal fragments that generates progenies with mosaic genomes, nearly every position of chromosome being mobile. Mycoplasmas have thus developed efficient ways to gain access to a considerable reservoir of genetic resources distributed among a vast number of species expanding the concept of minimal cell to the broader context of flowing information.

  16. Genes involved in cell division in mycoplasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Alarcón

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial cell division has been studied mainly in model systems such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, where it is described as a complex process with the participation of a group of proteins which assemble into a multiprotein complex called the septal ring. Mycoplasmas are cell wall-less bacteria presenting a reduced genome. Thus, it was important to compare their genomes to analyze putative genes involved in cell division processes. The division and cell wall (dcw cluster, which in E. coli and B. subtilis is composed of 16 and 17 genes, respectively, is represented by only three to four genes in mycoplasmas. Even the most conserved protein, FtsZ, is not present in all mycoplasma genomes analyzed so far. A model for the FtsZ protein from Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma synoviae has been constructed. The conserved residues, essential for GTP/GDP binding, are present in FtsZ from both species. A strong conservation of hydrophobic amino acid patterns is observed, and is probably necessary for the structural stability of the protein when active. M. synoviae FtsZ presents an extended amino acid sequence at the C-terminal portion of the protein, which may participate in interactions with other still unknown proteins crucial for the cell division process.

  17. Novel overlapping coding sequences in Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Klaus Thorleif; Petersen, Lise; Falk, Søren

    2006-01-01

    that are in agreement with the primary annotation. Forty two genes from the primary annotation are not predicted by EasyGene. The majority of these genes are listed as hypothetical in the primary annotation. The 15 novel predicted genes all overlap with genes on the complementary strand. We find homologues of several...... of the novel genes in C. trachomatis Serovar A and Chlamydia muridarum. Several of the genes have typical gene-like and protein-like features. Furthermore, we confirm transcriptional activity from 10 of the putative genes. The combined evidence suggests that at least seven of the 15 are protein coding genes...

  18. Immunoelectron microscopy of lipopolysaccharide in Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend; Lundemose, AG; Christiansen, Gunna

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) specific for Chlamydia trachomatis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and major outer membrane protein (MOMP) were used for immunoelectron microscopy analysis. MAb specific for MOMP showed strong reaction with the chlamydial surface, whereas MAb specific for LPS showed strong...... association of gold particles with the periphery of the chlamydial body. After fixation of the chlamydia cells, the reactivity was, however, similar to the anti-MOMP reactivity. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that MAb specific for LPS could remove LPS from the chlamydial membrane....

  19. Performance evaluation of automated urine microscopy as a rapid, non-invasive approach for the diagnosis of non-gonococcal urethritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pond, Marcus J; Nori, Achyuta V; Patel, Sheel; Laing, Ken; Ajayi, Margarita; Copas, Andrew J; Butcher, Philip D; Hay, Phillip; Sadiq, Syed Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Gram-stained urethral smear (GSUS), the standard point-of-care test for non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) is operator dependent and poorly specific. The performance of rapid automated urine flow cytometry (AUFC) of first void urine (FVU) white cell counts (UWCC) for predicting Mycoplasma genitalium and Chlamydia trachomatis urethral infections was assessed and its application to asymptomatic infection was evaluated. Methods Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, determining FVU-UWCC threshold for predicting M. genitalium or C. trachomatis infection was performed on 208 ‘training’ samples from symptomatic patients and subsequently validated using 228 additional FVUs obtained from prospective unselected patients. Results An optimal diagnostic threshold of >29 UWC/µL gave sensitivities and specificities for either infection of 81.5% (95% CI 65.1% to 91.6%) and 85.8% (79.5% to 90.4%), respectively, compared with 86.8% (71.1% to 95%) and 64.7% (56.9% to 71.7%), respectively, for GSUS, using the training set samples. FVU-UWCC demonstrated sensitivities and specificities of 69.2% (95% CI 48.1% to 84.9%) and 92% (87.2% to 95.2%), respectively, when using validation samples. In asymptomatic patients where GSUS was not used, AUFC would have enabled more infections to be detected compared with clinical considerations only (71.4% vs 28.6%; p=0.03). The correlation between UWCC and bacterial load was stronger for M. genitalium compared with C. trachomatis (τ=0.426, p≤0.001 vs τ=0.295, p=0.022, respectively). Conclusions AUFC offers improved specificity over microscopy for predicting C. trachomatis or M. genitalium infection. Universal AUFC may enable non-invasive diagnosis of asymptomatic NGU at the PoC. The degree of urethral inflammation exhibits a stronger association with pathogen load for M. genitalium compared with C. trachomatis. PMID:25614466

  20. Effects of vaginal lactobacilli in Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastromarino, Paola; Di Pietro, Marisa; Schiavoni, Giovanna; Nardis, Chiara; Gentile, Massimo; Sessa, Rosa

    2014-07-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that abnormal vaginal flora lacking lactobacilli facilitates the acquisition of several sexually transmitted diseases including Chlamydia trachomatis. C. trachomatis, the most common bacterial agent of genital infections worldwide, can progress from the lower to upper reproductive tract and induce severe sequelae. The ability of C. trachomatis to develop into a persistent form has been suggested as key pathogenetic mechanism underlying chronic infections and sequelae. The aim of our study was to investigate the C. trachomatis interaction with vaginal microbiota analyzing the effects of Lactobacillus strains (L. brevis and L. salivarius) on the different phases of C. trachomatis developmental cycle. In addition, the effect of lactobacilli on persistent chlamydial forms induced by HSV-2 coinfection has also been evaluated. Our results demonstrated significant inhibition of C. trachomatis multiplication by vaginal lactobacilli. L. brevis was significantly more effective than L. salivarius (pinfection cycle suggesting that the ability of lactobacilli to protect from infection is strain-dependent. Lactobacilli had an adverse effect on elementary chlamydial bodies (pvaginal microbiota can reduce the risk of acquiring C. trachomatis infection and counteract the development of persistent chlamydial forms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Mycoplasma gallopavonis in eastern wild turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttrell, M P; Eleazer, T H; Kleven, S H

    1992-04-01

    Serum samples and tracheal cultures were collected from eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris) trapped for relocation in South Carolina (USA) during 1985 to 1990. Sera were tested for Mycoplasma gallisepticum and M. synoviae by the rapid plate agglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests and were found to be negative. Tracheal cultures were negative for all pathogenic Mycoplasma spp., including M. gallisepticum, M. synoviae, M. meleagridis, and M. iowae. However, M. gallopavonis was isolated from every group of wild turkeys tested in 1986 to 1990. These data suggest that M. gallopavonis, which is generally considered nonpathogenic, may be a common microorganism in eastern wild turkeys.

  2. Ny Mycoplasma Hyosynoviae vaccine forebygger ikke halthed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Elisabeth Okholm; Lauritsen, Klara Tølbøll; Jungersen, Gregers

    Vaccination af smågrise mod Mykoplasma-ledbetændelser viste sig ikke at kunne forebyggede halthed hos slagtesvin. Smitte med Mycoplasma hyosynoviae (M. hyosynoviae) er ofte årsag til ledbetændelse hos slagtesvin. Der er ingen kommerciel vaccine til grise, der beskytter mod mykoplasma-ledbetændels......Vaccination af smågrise mod Mykoplasma-ledbetændelser viste sig ikke at kunne forebyggede halthed hos slagtesvin. Smitte med Mycoplasma hyosynoviae (M. hyosynoviae) er ofte årsag til ledbetændelse hos slagtesvin. Der er ingen kommerciel vaccine til grise, der beskytter mod mykoplasma...

  3. Identification of the GTPase superfamily in Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Luiz Borges

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasmas are the smallest known prokaryotes with self-replication ability. They are obligate parasites, taking up many molecules of their hosts and acting as pathogens in men, animals, birds and plants. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the infective agent of swine mycoplasmosis and Mycoplasma synoviae is responsible for subclinical upper respiratory infections that may result in airsacculitis and synovitis in chickens and turkeys. These highly infectious organisms present a worldwide distribution and are responsible for major economic problems. Proteins of the GTPase superfamily occur in all domains of life, regulating functions such as protein synthesis, cell cycle and differentiation. Despite their functional diversity, all GTPases are believed to have evolved from a single common ancestor. In this work we have identified mycoplasma GTPases by searching the complete genome databases of Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, J (non-pathogenic and 7448 (pathogenic strains. Fifteen ORFs encoding predicted GTPases were found in M. synoviae and in the two strains of M. hyopneumoniae. Searches for conserved G domains in GTPases were performed and the sequences were classified into families. The GTPase phylogenetic analysis showed that the subfamilies were well resolved into clades. The presence of GTPases in the three strains suggests the importance of GTPases in 'minimalist' genomes.

  4. Secretomes of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma flocculare reveal differences associated to pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, Jéssica A; Lorenzatto, Karina R; de Moraes, Sofia N; Moura, Hercules; Barr, John R; Ferreira, Henrique B

    2017-02-10

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma flocculare cohabit the porcine respiratory tract. However, M. hyopneumoniae causes the porcine enzootic pneumonia, while M. flocculare is a commensal bacterium. Comparative analyses demonstrated high similarity between these species, which includes the sharing of all predicted virulence factors. Nevertheless, studies related to soluble secretomes of mycoplasmas were little known, although they are important for bacterial-host interactions. The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis between the soluble secreted proteins repertoires of the pathogenic Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and its closely related commensal Mycoplasma flocculare. For that, bacteria were cultured in medium with reduced serum concentration and secreted proteins were identified by a LC-MS/MS proteomics approach. Altogether, 62 and 26 proteins were identified as secreted by M. hyopneumoniae and M. flocculare, respectively, being just seven proteins shared between these bacteria. In M. hyopneumoniae secretome, 15 proteins described as virulence factors were found; while four putative virulence factors were identified in M. flocculare secretome. For the first time, clear differences related to virulence were found between these species, helping to elucidate the pathogenic nature of M. hyopneumoniae to swine hosts. For the first time, the secretomes of two porcine respiratory mycoplasmas, namely the pathogenic M. hyopneumoniae and the commensal M. flocculare were compared. The presented results revealed previously unknown differences between these two genetically related species, some of which are associated to the M. hyopneumoniae ability to cause porcine enzootic pneumonia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Immune Thrombocytopenia Associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Gouveia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP related to Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection is a rare condition and usually associated with a severe clinical course. We here report a case of a young man with a clinical diagnosis of severe ITP secondary to M. pneumoniae infection. The clinical features, therapy and outcome are presented.

  6. Molecular design of Mycoplasma hominis Vaa adhesin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Thomas; Fedosova, Natalya U.; Kjeldgaard, Morten

    2001-01-01

    The variable adherence-associated (Vaa) adhesin of the opportunistic human pathogen Mycoplasma hominis is a surface-exposed, membrane-associated protein involved in the attachment of the bacterium to host cells. The molecular masses of recombinant 1 and 2 cassette forms of the protein determined...

  7. Neonate with Mycoplasma hominis meningoencephalitis given moxifloxacin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildenbeest, Joanne G.; Said, Ines; Jaeger, Bregje; van Hest, Reinier M.; van de Beek, Diederik; Pajkrt, Dasja

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis is a commensal organism in the genitourinary tract that can cause life-threatening CNS infections in neonates after intrauterine infection or through vertical transmission during birth. We present a case of an 11-day-old neonate presenting with fever and supporting laboratory

  8. Ekstrapulmonale komplikationer ved mycoplasma pneumoniae-infektioner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anne-Mette Bay; Lebech, Anne-Mette K

    2002-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of atypical pneumonia in children and young adults. The infection is generally mild and only a very few patients are admitted to hospital. However, extrapulmonary complications are well recognised--mostly as manifestations from the central nervous system (CNS)....

  9. Restriction-modification systems in Mycoplasma spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Brocchi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Restriction and Modification (R-M systems are present in all Mycoplasma species sequenced so far. The presence of these genes poses barriers to gene transfer and could protect the cell against phage infections. The number and types of R-M genes between different Mycoplasma species are variable, which is characteristic of a polymorphism. The majority of the CDSs code for Type III R-M systems and particularly for methyltransferase enzymes, which suggests that functions other than the protection against the invasion of heterologous DNA may exist. A possible function of these enzymes could be the protection against the invasion of other but similar R-M systems. In Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strain J, three of the putative methyltransferase genes were clustered in a region forming a genomic island. Many R-M CDSs were mapped in the vicinity of transposable elements suggesting an association between these genes and reinforcing the idea of R-M systems as mobile selfish DNA. Also, many R-M genes present repeats within their coding sequences, indicating that their expression is under the control of phase variation mechanisms. Altogether, these data suggest that R-M systems are a remarkable characteristic of Mycoplasma species and are probably involved in the adaptation of these bacteria to different environmental conditions.

  10. Isolation of a mycoplasma from sarcoid tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, E; Hannuksela, M; Eklund, H; Halme, H; Tuuri, S

    1972-10-01

    Using a modified cell-free culture medium, a mycoplasma was isolated from sarcoid lymph nodes in two cases and from sarcoid skin lesions in four out of seven cases of chronic sarcoidosis. Growth inhibition tests showed that the isolates were related to Mycoplasma orale type 1. By the indirect haemagglutination method, 244 cases of definite or probable sarcoidosis, 160 patients with other diseases, and 355 blood donors were tested for antibodies against an isolated mycoplasma (strain 215-M). Titres [unk] 16 were found in 14% of the patients with sarcoidosis and in 8% of the patients with other diseases but only in 0.6% of the blood donors. The proportion of patients with high antibody titres among those with sarcoidosis and erythema nodosum was smaller (8%) than among those with other forms of sarcoidosis (17%). The role of the mycoplasmas isolated from sarcoid tissues remains obscure, but it is possible that these organisms are only an expression of altered immunity in sarcoidosis.

  11. NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia trachomatis infection to Coccidioidomycosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia trachomatis infection to Coccidioidomycosis - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases...

  12. Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence in North-West Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grio, R; Bello, L; Smirne, C; D'Addato, F; Latino, M A; Corvetto, L; De Intinis, G; Spagnolo, E; Maffei, S; Leotta, E

    2004-10-01

    Chlamydia (C.) trachomatis infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease (STD) among sexually active adolescents and young adults in Europe. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis among sexually active women in Piedmont, Italy and the correlation between some risk factors and C. trachomatis infection. In our study 31,419 sexually active women aged 12-55 were screened for C. trachomatis by Abbott's ligase chain reaction (LCR) using cervical swabs during the period 1997-2001 at St. Anna Obstetric-Gynecological Hospital, Turin. All the patients answered a specific questionnaire. In our analysis the prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was found to be 1.23%, and the average age among the infected patients was 36.98 years. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi squared test; a peducation (pcitizenship (p<0.001). No statistically significant differences were found among the contraceptive methods used, whether an hormonal or a barrier type; a marked increment of the risk was observed when no contraception was used. Frequent microbiological examinations are desirable for patients whose anamnesis shows an augmented risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections in order to avoid long term complications from misdiagnosed or asymptomatic pathologies, as often happens with C. trachomatis.

  13. Demonstration of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp capripneumoniae and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp mycoides, small colony type in outbreaks of caprine pleuropneumonia in eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusiluka, L.J.M.; Semuguruka, W.D.; Kazwala, R.R.

    2000-01-01

    by different degrees of vasculitis, and fibrinocellular exudation into the alveolar septae and lumina, and into interlobular septae and pleura. Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, Small Colony type Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Mycoplasma arginini were isolated...... from some of the examined goats including a case with a sequestrum which yielded Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, Small Colony type. This work reports the first description of an outbreak of caprine pleuropneumonia in Tanzania in which M. capripneumoniae and M. mycoides subsp. mycoides, Small...

  14. Detection of PCR inhibitors in cervical specimens by using the AMPLICOR Chlamydia trachomatis assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.A.J. Verkooyen (Roel); A. Luijendijk (Ad); W.M. Huisman; W.H.F. Goessens (Wil); J.A.J.W. Kluytmans (Jan); J.H. van Rijsoort-Vos; H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractTo determine that susceptibility of AMPLICOR Chlamydia trachomatis PCR to inhibitory factors possibly present in cervical specimens, we obtained cervical specimens from 200 gynecology patients attending our outpatient clinic. The prevalence of C. trachomatis

  15. Characterization of Mycoplasma penetrans and Mycoplasma fermentans immunodominant proteins Caracterização de proteinas imunodominantes de Mycoplasma penetrans e Mycoplasma fermentans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Bruder

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasmas are a heterogeneous group of the smallest organisms capable of self replication and are known to cause many detrimental diseases in both animals and humans. These wall-less prokaryotes are enveloped by a lipoprotein membrane and their small genomes are sufficient to synthesize molecules required for growth and self-replication. Among sixteen species isolated from humans, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, an agent of primary atypical pneumonia, and the urogenital tract species Mycoplasma hominis,Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum have been confirmed to be pathogenic. Mycoplasma penetrans and Mycoplasma fermentans, which are species associated with HIV, have been investigated mainly in research laboratories. In this study we have characterized lipid-associated membrane proteins (LAMP of Mycoplasma penetrans and Mycoplasma fermentans, in view of the importance of mycoplasmas in human diseases and the peculiar antigenic variation observed in these species. To characterize proteins with possible diagnostic value, we used ELISA and Western blot in sera of pregnant women whose cervical samples were positive for these species of mycoplasmas when tested by PCR. ELISA showed IgG anti-LAMP-M. fermentans antibodies to be present in 57.5% of cases and IgM antibodies to be present in 74.5% of cases. The three samples that were PCR positive for M. penetrans showed IgG anti-LAMP-M. penetrans antibodies, and one sample was positive for IgM. No IgA antibodies against either species were detected in any of the samples. LAMP analysis by Western blot revealed the 35, 38, 42, 61 and 103 kDa proteins of M. penetrans and the 29, 38, 41, 61, 78 and 95 kDa proteins of M. fermentans. Among these, will be considered p35 to M. penetrans and 29 kDa protein to M. fermentans, the main immunoreactive proteins and therefore useful markers for further laboratory diagnosis.Micoplasmas são procariotos diminutos, desprovidos de parede celular e envoltos por uma membrana

  16. Mycoplasma pneumoniae meningoencephalitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Selçuk Bektaş

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nervous system is the most affected area in mycoplasma pneumoniae infections with exception of respiratory system. It is an important agent of childhood acute encephalitis and respiratory system infections in school-age children and young adults. Routine clinical and laboratory findings to identify spesific diagnosis is limited. Twelve-year-old female patient was admitted with fever, fatigue, sore throat, slipping the right eye, withdrawal of the mouth from the right and right hemiclonic seizures. Test of anti-Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae IgM was positive and IgG antibodies were found to be 4-fold increase in the sera of follow-up. This article was presented with the aim of remembering M. pneumoniae to be an differential diagnosis in children with acute encephalitis.

  17. Sen debut af neonatal pneumoni forårsaget af Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Birgitte Johanne; Hermansen, Mette Nortman

    2013-01-01

    A newborn colonized with Chlamydia trachomatis will often show symptoms of conjunctivitis and/or pneumonia. We report a case of interstitial pneumonia caused by C. trachomatis in a 2-month-old boy admitted with RSV. We point to the importance of C. trachomatis in the differential diagnostics...

  18. Low prevalence of the new variant of Chlamydia trachomatis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.S.; Westh, Henrik T.

    2008-01-01

    We estimated the prevalence of the new variant of Chlamydia trachomatis in Denmark. Fifty consecutive C trachomatis urine samples from each of the 14 regional microbiology laboratories were initially tested and re-analysed with a real-time C trachomatis PCR assay targeting the 16S rRNA gene...

  19. Development of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Recombinant Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchioro, Silvana Beutinger; Simionatto, Simone; Dellagostin, Odir

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiological agent of swine enzootic pneumonia (EP), a disease that affects swine production worldwide. Vaccination is the most cost-effective strategy for the control and prevention of the disease. Research using genome-based approach has the potential to elucidate the biology and pathogenesis of M. hyopneumoniae and contribute to the development of more effective vaccines. Here, we describe the protocol for developing M. hyopneumoniae recombinant vaccines using reverse vaccinology approaches.

  20. Susceptibilities of Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma dispar, and Ureaplasma diversum strains to antimicrobial agents in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    ter Laak, E A; Noordergraaf, J H; Verschure, M H

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the susceptibility of various strains of Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma dispar, and Ureaplasma diversum, which are prevalent causes of pneumonia in calves, to 16 antimicrobial agents in vitro. The MICs of the antimicrobial agents were determined by a serial broth dilution method for 16 field strains and the type strain of M. bovis, for 19 field strains and the type strain of M. dispar, and for 17 field strains of U. diversum. Final MICs for M. bovis an...

  1. Flavonoid Naringenin: A Potential Immunomodulator for Chlamydia trachomatis Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebayehu N. Yilma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis, the agent of bacterial sexually transmitted infections, can manifest itself as either acute cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, or a chronic asymptomatic infection. Inflammation induced by C. trachomatis contributes greatly to the pathogenesis of disease. Here we evaluated the anti-inflammatory capacity of naringenin, a polyphenolic compound, to modulate inflammatory mediators produced by mouse J774 macrophages infected with live C. trachomatis. Infected macrophages produced a broad spectrum of inflammatory cytokines (GM-CSF, TNF, IL-1β, IL-1α, IL-6, IL-12p70, and IL-10 and chemokines (CCL4, CCL5, CXCL1, CXCL5, and CXCL10 which were downregulated by naringenin in a dose-dependent manner. Enhanced protein and mRNA gene transcript expressions of TLR2 and TLR4 in addition to the CD86 costimulatory molecule on infected macrophages were modulated by naringenin. Pathway-specific inhibition studies disclosed that p38 mitogen-activated-protein kinase (MAPK is involved in the production of inflammatory mediators by infected macrophages. Notably, naringenin inhibited the ability of C. trachomatis to phosphorylate p38 in macrophages, suggesting a potential mechanism of its attenuation of concomitantly produced inflammatory mediators. Our data demonstrates that naringenin is an immunomodulator of inflammation triggered by C. trachomatis, which possibly may be mediated upstream by modulation of TLR2, TLR4, and CD86 receptors on infected macrophages and downstream via the p38 MAPK pathway.

  2. Mycoplasma alkalescens demonstrated in bronchoalveolar lavage of cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokotovic, Branko; Friis, Niels F.; Ahrens, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Mycoplasma alkalescens is an arginine-metabolizing mycoplasma, which has been found in association with mastitis and arthritis in cattle. Routine bacteriological examination of 17 bronchoalveolar lavage samples from calves with pneumonia in a single herd in Denmark, identified M. alkalescens...

  3. Two different nervous system complications of mycoplasma pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Faruk İncecik; M. Özlem Hergüner; Şakir Altunbaşak

    2010-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an important agent of the lower and upper respiratory system infections. It may resultin some complications and clinical conditions other than infections. Meningoencephalitis, encephalitis, transversemyelitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, cerebral infarction and Gullian-Barre syndrome are major neurological complications.We present here two cases with meningoencephalitis and Gullian-Barre syndrome secondary to Mycoplasma pneumoniaeinfection.

  4. Two different nervous system complications of mycoplasma pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk İncecik

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an important agent of the lower and upper respiratory system infections. It may resultin some complications and clinical conditions other than infections. Meningoencephalitis, encephalitis, transversemyelitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, cerebral infarction and Gullian-Barre syndrome are major neurological complications.We present here two cases with meningoencephalitis and Gullian-Barre syndrome secondary to Mycoplasma pneumoniaeinfection.

  5. Molecular study and phylogenetic analysis of Mycoplasma synoviae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) is one of the important pathogens in chicken and turkey which cause great economic losses in poultry industry. M. synoviae has one serotype but there is heterogeneity among MS strains. The aim of this study was to analyze the DNA sequence of Mycoplasma synoviae isolates from Mazandran ...

  6. Genital Mycoplasma Infections Among Women In An Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    those who presented with vaginal discharge were infected with Mycoplasma spp. (P< 0.05); also, the incidence of infection among the separated/divorce/widowed group was significantly higher than the married group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Mycoplasmas are common genital organisms, hence should be sought out for from ...

  7. Increasing prevalence of Mycoplasma bovis in Danish cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusiluka, L.J.M.; Ojeniyi, B.; Friis, N.F.

    2000-01-01

    A study on the prevalence of mycoplasmas in pneumonic bovine lungs was performed on material submitted for diagnostic pul poses at the Danish Veterinary Laboratory, Copenhagen. Among the 50 examined cases 43 (86.0%) were found to be infected with mycoplasmas. The predominant mycoplasmas were...... Ureaplasma spp. (72.0%), M dispar (48.0%) and M. bovis (24.0%). Other mycoplasmas were M. bovirhinis (20.0%) and M. bovigenitalium (6.0%). Among the infected lungs multiple species infections were predominant (76.7%) over single species infections (23.3%) with M.dispar-Ureaplasma (25.6%), M. bovis......-Ureaplasma (18.6%) and M. dispar-M. bovirhinis-Ureaplasma (11.6%) infections being the most frequently encountered combinations. There appears to be an increasing prevalence of Al. bovis (24.0%) as compared to earlier reports (0.6-2.0%), thus calling fur special attention upon this mycoplasma. Pulsed field gel...

  8. Diagnostic Procedures to Detect Chlamydia trachomatis Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Meyer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The intracellular life style of chlamydia and the ability to cause persistent infections with low-grade replication requires tests with high analytical sensitivity to directly detect C. trachomatis (CT in medical samples. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs are the most sensitive assays with a specificity similar to cell culture and are considered the method of choice for CT detection. In addition, NAATs can be performed on various clinical specimens that do not depend on specific transport and storage conditions, since NAATs do not require infectious bacteria. In the case of lower genital tract infections, first void urine and vaginal swabs are the recommended specimens for testing males and females, respectively. Infections of anorectal, oropharyngeal and ocular epithelia should also be tested by NAAT analysis of corresponding mucosal swabs. In particular, anorectal infections of men who have sex with men (MSM should include evaluation of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV by identification of genotypes L1, L2 or L3. Detection of CT antigens by enzyme immunoassay (EIAs or rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs are unsuitable due to insufficient sensitivity and specificity. Recent PCR-based RDTs, however, are non-inferior to standard NAATs, and might be used at the point-of-care. Serology finds application in the diagnostic work-up of suspected chronic CT infection but is inappropriate to diagnose acute infections.

  9. Hemotropic mycoplasmas in little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarelli, Patricia E; Keel, Michael K; Yabsley, Michael; Last, Lisa A; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Maggi, Ricardo G

    2014-03-24

    Hemotropic mycoplasmas are epicellular erythrocytic bacteria that can cause infectious anemia in some mammalian species. Worldwide, hemotropic mycoplasmas are emerging or re-emerging zoonotic pathogens potentially causing serious and significant health problems in wildlife. The objective of this study was to determine the molecular prevalence of hemotropic Mycoplasma species in little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) with and without Pseudogymnoascus (Geomyces) destrucans, the causative agent of white nose syndrome (WNS) that causes significant mortality events in bats. In order to establish the prevalence of hemotropic Mycoplasma species in a population of 68 little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) with (n = 53) and without (n = 15) white-nose syndrome (WNS), PCR was performed targeting the 16S rRNA gene. The overall prevalence of hemotropic Mycoplasmas in bats was 47%, with similar (p = 0.5725) prevalence between bats with WNS (49%) and without WNS (40%). 16S rDNA sequence analysis (~1,200 bp) supports the presence of a novel hemotropic Mycoplasma species with 91.75% sequence homology with Mycoplasma haemomuris. No differences were found in gene sequences generated from WNS and non-WNS animals. Gene sequences generated from WNS and non-WNS animals suggest that little brown bats could serve as a natural reservoir for this potentially novel Mycoplasma species. Currently, there is minimal information about the prevalence, host-specificity, or the route of transmission of hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. among bats. Finally, the potential role of hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. as co-factors in the development of disease manifestations in bats, including WNS in Myotis lucifugus, remains to be elucidated.

  10. Chlamydia trachomatis detection in cervical PreservCyt specimens from an Irish urban female population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keegan, H

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in urban women undergoing routine cervical cytological screening and to investigate the relationship with age, cytology, smoking status and concurrent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. METHODS: A total of 996 women (age range 16-69 years) attending general practitioners for routine liquid-based cervical smear screening in the Dublin area were recruited in the study of prevalence of C. trachomatis. Informed consent was obtained and liquid-based cytology (LBC) specimens were sent for cytological screening. DNA was extracted from residual LBC and tested for C. trachomatis by PCR using the highly sensitive C. trachomatis plasmid (CTP) primers and for HPV infection using the MY09\\/11 primers directed to the HPV L1 gene in a multiplex format. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of C. trachomatis was 5.4%. Prevalence was highest in the <25 years age group (10%). Coinfection with HPV and C. trachomatis occurred in 1% of the screening population. A higher rate of smoking was observed in women positive for C. trachomatis, HPV infections or those with abnormal cervical cytology. Chlamydia trachomatis infection was not associated with abnormal cytology. CONCLUSIONS: Women (5.4%) presenting for routine cervical screening are infected with C. trachomatis. Opportunistic screening for C. trachomatis from PreservCyt sample taken at the time of cervical cytological screening may be a possible strategy to screen for C. trachomatis in the Irish female population.

  11. Typing Chlamydia trachomatis: from egg yolk to nanotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lisbeth Nørum; Herrmann, Bjørn; Møller, Jens Kjølseth

    2009-01-01

    A historical review is provided of the various methods used for half a century to differentiate and type Chlamydia trachomatis strains. Typing of C. trachomatis is an important tool for revealing transmission patterns in sexual networks, and enabling association with clinical manifestations......, insufficient epidemiological resolution is achieved by characterization of both MOMP and omp1. This calls for new high-resolution genotyping methods applying for example a multilocus variable number tandem repeat assay (MLVA) or multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The futuristic nanotechnology already seems...

  12. Clinical efficacy of sitafloxacin 100 mg twice daily for 7 days for patients with non-gonococcal urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Satoshi; Hamasuna, Ryoichi; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Ito, Shin; Ito, Kenji; Kawai, Shuichi; Yamaguchi, Takamasa; Satoh, Takashi; Sunaoshi, Kenichi; Takeda, Koichi; Suzuki, Nobukazu; Maeda, Shinichi; Nishimura, Hirofumi; Fukuda, Souichirou; Matsumoto, Tetsuro

    2013-10-01

    To clarify the clinical efficacy of STFX for patients with non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU), including chlamydial urethritis and Mycoplasma genitalium-positive urethritis, this study included male patients with NGU who were 20 years old or older. The pathogens, including Chlamydia trachomatis, M. genitalium and Ureaplasma urealyticum, were detected by nucleic acid amplification tests and the patients were treated with sitafloxacin 100 mg twice daily for 7 days. Microbiological and clinical efficacies were assessed for the patients with NGU posttreatment. Among the 208 patients enrolled in this study, data for a total of 118 patients could be analyzed. The median age was 32 (20-61) years. The median duration from the completion of treatment to the second visit was 21 (14-42) days. There were 68 pathogen-positive NGU cases and 50 with NGU without any microbial detection. Microbiological cure was achieved in 95.6% of the pathogen-positive NGU patients. Total clinical cure was achieved in 91.3% (105/115). In this study, STFX was able to eradicate 95.7% of C. trachomatis, 93.8% of M. genitalium and 100% of U. urealyticum. The results of our clinical research indicate that the STFX treatment regimen should become a standard regimen recommended for patients with NGU. In addition, this regimen is recommended for patients with M. genitalium-positive NGU.

  13. Molecular analysis of field strains of Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae and Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides, small colony type isolated from goats in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusiluka, L.J.M.; Ojeniyi, B.; Friis, N.F.

    2001-01-01

    A molecular analysis of strains of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp, capripneumoniae (M. capripneumoniae) and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, small colony type (M. mycoides SQ isolated from goats was performed using the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and pulsed-field gel...

  14. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae 名詞 一般 * * * * Mycoplasma ovipneum...oniae ... MeSH D045802 200906092922912910 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae

  15. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Mycoplasma pneumoniae [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Mycoplasma pneumoniae 名詞 一般 * * * * Mycoplasma pneumonia...e ... MeSH D009177 200906010320106380 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Mycoplasma pneumoniae

  16. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae 名詞 一般 * * * * Mycoplasma hyopneum...oniae ... MeSH D045705 200906033834508852 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

  17. MYCOPLASMA INFECTION IN CHILDREN: CURRENT DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Harlamova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Presents literary and own data (52 patients on the role of mycoplasma infection. Mycoplasma infection is associated with long-term antigenemia in children, causes recurrent disease and autoimmunity. Among the 52 examined patients diagnosed with pneumonia in 17, bronchitis — from 19, rhinosinusitis  — at 11, StevensJohnson syndrome — in 2 children.  In half the cases mycoplasmosis occurs against the backdrop of persistent active herpes virus infection (in 27 children (52%. To optimize the causal and pathogenetic therapy mycoplasma requires correction of immune disorders.

  18. The role of Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma in adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtha, Amy P; Edwards, James M

    2014-12-01

    Genital mycoplasmas are frequently found in the vaginal flora across socioeconomic and ethnic groups and have been demonstrated to be involved in adverse perinatal outcomes. Both Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma spp cause inflammation potentially leading to spontaneous preterm birth and PPROM as well as postdelivery infectious complications and neonatal infections. Herein we have provided an overview of the existing literature and supportive evidence for genital mycoplasma's role in perinatal complications. Future research will need to focus on clearly delineating the species, allowing for discrimination of their effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of a Mycoplasma hominis-like Mycoplasma on the infection of HEp-2 cells by the TW-183 strain of Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, E A; Wadowsky, R M

    2000-02-01

    We isolated a Mycoplasma hominis-like mycoplasma from a stock culture of Chlamydia pneumoniae TW-183 obtained from the American Type Culture Collection and eradicated the contaminant by treating the stock suspension with a nonionic detergent, Igepal CA-630. The M. hominis-like mycoplasma neither inhibits nor enhances the infectivity of C. pneumoniae for HEp-2 cells.

  20. Effect of a Mycoplasma hominis-Like Mycoplasma on the Infection of HEp-2 Cells by the TW-183 Strain of Chlamydia pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Castilla, Elias A.; Wadowsky, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    We isolated a Mycoplasma hominis-like mycoplasma from a stock culture of Chlamydia pneumoniae TW-183 obtained from the American Type Culture Collection and eradicated the contaminant by treating the stock suspension with a nonionic detergent, Igepal CA-630. The M. hominis-like mycoplasma neither inhibits nor enhances the infectivity of C. pneumoniae for HEp-2 cells.

  1. Comparison between ICT and PCR for diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, E R; Hossain, M A; Paul, S K; Mahmud, C; Hasan, M M; Rahman, M M; Nahar, K; Kubayashi, N

    2012-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular gram-negative bacterium which is the most prevalent cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STI). The present study was carried to diagnose genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among women of reproductive age, attending Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, during July 2009 to June 2010 by Immunochromatographic test (ICT) and Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 70 females were included in this study. Out of 70 cases 56 were symptomatic and 14 asymptomatic. Endocervical swabs were collected from each of the cases and examined by Immunochromatographic test (ICT) for antigen detection and Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of endogenous plasmid-based nucleic acid. A total 29(41.4%) of the cases were found positive for C. trachomatis either by ICT or PCR. Of the 56 symptomatic cases, 19(33.9%) were found ICT positive and 17(30.4%) were PCR positive. Among 14 asymptomatic females, 2(14.3%) were ICT positive and none were PCR positive. Though PCR is highly sensitive but a total of twelve cases were found ICT positive but PCR negative. It may be due to presence of plasmid deficient strain of C trachomatis which could be amplified by ompA based (Chromosomal gene) multiplex PCR.

  2. Molecular detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jens Kjølseth; Herrmann, B; Jensen, K.T.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter highlights the use of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for the molecular diagnosis of gonorrhoea and chlamydia infection. In addition, good laboratory practice and issues that should be considered before and after implementation of NAATs for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae...

  3. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtinen, Matti; Ault, Kevin A; Lyytikainen, Erika

    2011-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is the primary cause of cervical cancer. As Chlamydia trachomatis is also linked to cervical cancer, its role as a potential co-factor in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or higher was examined....

  4. Computed tomographic study on Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Koba, Hiroyuki; Mori, Takuji; Mori, Masaki; Tsunematsu, Kazunori; Natori, Hiroshi; Asakawa, Mitsuo; Suzuki, Akira; Doi, Mikio.

    1985-01-01

    Serologically proven 21 patients with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia that showed infiltrative shadows on chest radiograms were studied by computed tomography (CT). Localization of the lesion and the fashion of its progression through the lung were analyzed. Following 3 loci were defined on the basis of the investigations of critical analysis of the chest radiograms, and of radiopathological analysis of the experimental animal model of mycoplasmal pneumonia with soft X-ray image. I: Peribronchial and periarterial interstitium. II: Bronchiole and its surroundings. III: Lung parenchyma, on hilar area as IIIh, on marginal area as IIIm. Even in the early phase of this disease, radiopathological findings on CT have been distributed in all loci mentioned above. The Shadow disappeared from locus III approximately 14th day from the onset. The shadow have remained, however, loci I, II for a long period. Those findings suggest that locus I and II are one of the major focus of Mycoplasma neumoniae pneumonia. Volume loss in the locus III was observed 78 % of the cases at 28th day from the onset. The shadow on locus IIIh was more prominent than locus IIIm. Reported analytical method with CT could be widely applied to disclose a radiopathological details in other infectious diseases of the lung. (author)

  5. Intrinsic terminators in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Tiago Ebert; Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Schrank, Irene Silveira

    2015-04-08

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, an important pathogen of swine, exhibits a low guanine and cytosine (GC) content genome. M. hyopneumoniae genome is organised in long transcriptional units and promoter sequences have been mapped upstream of all transcription units. These analysis provided insights into the gene organisation and transcription initiation at the genome scale. However, the presence of transcriptional terminator sequences in the M. hyopneumoniae genome is poorly understood. In silico analyses demonstrated the presence of putative terminators in 82% of the 33 monocistronic units (mCs) and in 74% of the 116 polycistronic units (pCs) considering different classes of terminators. The functional activity of 23 intrinsic terminators was confirmed by RT-PCR and qPCR. Analysis of all terminators found by three software algorithms, combined with experimental results, allowed us to propose a pattern of RNA hairpin formation during the termination process and to predict the location of terminators in the M. hyopneumoniae genome sequence. The stem-loop structures of intrinsic terminators of mycoplasma diverge from the pattern of terminators found in other bacteria due the low content of guanine and cytosine. In M. hyopneumoniae, transcription can end after a transcriptional unit and before its terminator sequence and can also continue past the terminator sequence with RNA polymerases gradually releasing the RNA.

  6. Repetitive Elements in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Transcriptional Regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Malvessi Cattani

    Full Text Available Transcriptional regulation, a multiple-step process, is still poorly understood in the important pig pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Basic motifs like promoters and terminators have already been described, but no other cis-regulatory elements have been found. DNA repeat sequences have been shown to be an interesting potential source of cis-regulatory elements. In this work, a genome-wide search for tandem and palindromic repetitive elements was performed in the intergenic regions of all coding sequences from M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448. Computational analysis demonstrated the presence of 144 tandem repeats and 1,171 palindromic elements. The DNA repeat sequences were distributed within the 5' upstream regions of 86% of transcriptional units of M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448. Comparative analysis between distinct repetitive sequences found in related mycoplasma genomes demonstrated different percentages of conservation among pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains. qPCR assays revealed differential expression among genes showing variable numbers of repetitive elements. In addition, repeats found in 206 genes already described to be differentially regulated under different culture conditions of M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 showed almost 80% conservation in relation to M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448 repeats. Altogether, these findings suggest a potential regulatory role of tandem and palindromic DNA repeats in the M. hyopneumoniae transcriptional profile.

  7. Repetitive Elements in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Transcriptional Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani, Amanda Malvessi; Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Guedes, Rafael Lucas Muniz; Schrank, Irene Silveira

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation, a multiple-step process, is still poorly understood in the important pig pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Basic motifs like promoters and terminators have already been described, but no other cis-regulatory elements have been found. DNA repeat sequences have been shown to be an interesting potential source of cis-regulatory elements. In this work, a genome-wide search for tandem and palindromic repetitive elements was performed in the intergenic regions of all coding sequences from M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448. Computational analysis demonstrated the presence of 144 tandem repeats and 1,171 palindromic elements. The DNA repeat sequences were distributed within the 5' upstream regions of 86% of transcriptional units of M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448. Comparative analysis between distinct repetitive sequences found in related mycoplasma genomes demonstrated different percentages of conservation among pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains. qPCR assays revealed differential expression among genes showing variable numbers of repetitive elements. In addition, repeats found in 206 genes already described to be differentially regulated under different culture conditions of M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 showed almost 80% conservation in relation to M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448 repeats. Altogether, these findings suggest a potential regulatory role of tandem and palindromic DNA repeats in the M. hyopneumoniae transcriptional profile.

  8. Kinases of two strains of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and a strain of Mycoplasma synoviae: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Melo Bailão

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae are wall-less eubacteria belonging to the class of Mollicutes. These prokaryotes have a reduced genome size and reduced biosynthetic machinery. They cause great losses in animal production. M. synoviae is responsible for an upper respiratory tract disease of chickens and turkeys. M. hyopneumoniae is the causative agent of enzootic pneumonia in pigs. The complete genomes of these organisms showed 17 ORFs encoding kinases in M. synoviae and 15 in each of the M. hyopneumoniae strain. Four kinase genes were restricted to the avian pathogen while three were specific to the pig pathogen when compared to each other. All deduced kinases found in the non pathogenic strain (J[ATCC25934] were also found in the pathogenic M. hyopneumoniae strain. The enzymes were classified in nine families composing five fold groups.

  9. Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma gallisepticum at Batna Commercial poultry farms in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouzha Heleili

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to know the seroprevalence of Mycoplasma synoviae (MS and Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG in broiler and layer chickens in the area of Batna, eastern Algeria. This investigation was conducted during the period from 2008 to 2011. Materials and Methods: A total of 505 sera samples were collected and tested by serum plate agglutination (SPA test using Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae antigens (Soleil Diagnostic to detect the presence of antibodies against MS and MG. Results: The overall prevalence of MS and MG infection in the 27 flocks visited in this investigation were recorded as 66.33% and 69.90% respectively. Seroprevalence of MG infection was found significantly (p<0.05 higher during winter season (61.48% than in summer (47.74% while MS infection is more dominant in summer (91.25% against 46.69%. Again this was recorded in different age groups, with significantly higher occurrence in young compared to adult with 85.14% in layer hens and 90.73% in broiler chickens. On the other hand, the seroprevalence of MG and MS infection was found little (p>0.05 higher in large flocks (76.97% in comparison to small flocks (63.63%. The highest prevalence (76.59% of mycoplasmal infection in layer hens was found in Lohman strain. Conclusion: It has been found that MG and MS infections are still important disease problems in poultry farms in Algeria. [Vet World 2012; 5(12.000: 709-712

  10. Susceptibilities of Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma dispar, and Ureaplasma diversum strains to antimicrobial agents in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Laak, E A; Noordergraaf, J H; Verschure, M H

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the susceptibility of various strains of Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma dispar, and Ureaplasma diversum, which are prevalent causes of pneumonia in calves, to 16 antimicrobial agents in vitro. The MICs of the antimicrobial agents were determined by a serial broth dilution method for 16 field strains and the type strain of M. bovis, for 19 field strains and the type strain of M. dispar, and for 17 field strains of U. diversum. Final MICs for M. bovis and M. dispar were read after 7 days and final MICs for U. diversum after 1 to 2 days. All strains tested were susceptible to tylosin, kitasamycin, and tiamulin but were resistant to nifuroquine and streptomycin. Most strains of U. diversum were intermediately susceptible to oxytetracycline but fully susceptible to chlortetracycline; most strains of M. bovis and M. dispar, however, were resistant to both agents. Strains of M. dispar and U. diversum were susceptible to doxycycline and minocycline, but strains of M. bovis were only intermediately susceptible. Susceptibility or resistance to chloramphenicol, spiramycin, spectinomycin, lincomycin, or enrofloxacin depended on the species but was not equal for the three species. The type strains of M. bovis and M. dispar were more susceptible to various antimicrobial agents, including tetracyclines, than the field strains. This finding might indicate that M. bovis and M. dispar strains are becoming resistant to these agents. Antimicrobial agents that are effective in vitro against all three mycoplasma species can be considered for treating mycoplasma infections in pneumonic calves. Therefore, tylosin, kitasamycin, and tiamulin may be preferred over oxytetracycline and chlortetracycline.

  11. Eriksson in de kuif gepikt; over een mycoplasma-theorie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadoks, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Wetenschapelijke haarkloverij over gele roest (Puccinia striiformis) in tarwe. De Zweed J. Erikson beschreef "latente kiemen" van de gele roest van tarwe in 1901 als "mycoplasma". Hij wilde hiermee de overwintering van de gele roest verklaren. Hij had ongelijk

  12. Mycoplasma canis and urogenital disease in dogs in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    L'Abee-Lund, T.M.; Heiene, R.; Friis, N.F.

    2003-01-01

    Mycoplasmas identified as Mycoplasma canis were isolated from nine dogs with clinical signs of urogenital disease in Norway over a period of 20 months. Some of the dogs had been treated unsuccessfully with antibiotics, and three were euthanased as a result of severe persistent disease. Seven...... of the dogs had a urinary tract infection, one had chronic purulent epididymitis and one had chronic prostatitis. Overt haematuria was frequently observed among the dogs with cystitis. M canis was isolated in pure culture from seven of the dogs and in mixed culture from the other two. In three cases...... the mycoplasma was cultivated only from urinary sediment, and it was typically obtained in smaller numbers than would be considered indicative of a urinary tract infection. In contrast with most mycoplasmas, the M canis isolated from all the dogs grew on ordinary blood agar plates used for routine...

  13. Mycoplasma hominis Induces Mediastinitis after a Tonsillar Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grancini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma hominis is commonly involved in genitourinary tract infections. We report a 59-year-old man who developed a M. hominis-associated mediastinitis following acute tonsillar infection.

  14. Mycoplasma insons sp. nov., a twisted mycoplasma from green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Meghan; Ortiz, G Javier; Wendland, Lori D; Rotstein, David S; Relich, Ryan F; Balish, Mitchell F; Brown, Daniel R

    2007-09-01

    Mycoplasma insons sp. nov., first cultured from the choanae and tracheae of healthy green iguanas (Iguana iguana) from El Salvador, was readily distinguished from all previously described mollicutes and assigned to the Mycoplasma fastidiosum phylogenetic cluster by 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons. Growth inhibition assays distinguished the isolates serologically from the other two members of that cluster. Many M. insons cells exhibit a remarkable twisted rod morphology despite lacking a cell wall. The organism is nonmotile, produces acid from glucose, but does not hydrolyze arginine, esculin, or urea. Mycoplasma insons 16S rRNA gene was also detected by PCR in packed blood cells from culture-negative iguanas. The type strain I17P1(T) has been deposited with the Mollicutes Collection at Purdue University and with the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC BAA-1435) in the USA. A limited number of cultures generated by the authors have also been deposited with the Culture Collection, University of Göteborg, in Sweden (CCUG 53461).

  15. ABC transporters in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma synoviae: insights into evolution and pathogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Fabiana Nicolás

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available ABC transporters represent one of the largest superfamilies of active membrane transport proteins (MTPs with a highly conserved ATPase domain that binds and hydrolyzes ATP, supplying energy for the uptake of a variety of nutrients and for the extrusion of drugs and metabolic wastes. The complete genomes of a non-pathogenic (J and pathogenic (7448 strain of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, as well as of a pathogenic (53 strain of Mycoplasma synoviae have been recently sequenced. A detailed study revealed a high percentage of CDSs encoding MTPs in M. hyopneumoniae strains J (13.4%, 7448 (13.8%, and in M. synoviae 53 (11.2%, and the ABC systems represented from 85.0 to 88.6% of those CDSs. Uptake systems are mainly involved in cell nutrition and some might be associated with virulence. Exporter systems include both drug and multidrug resistant systems (MDR, which may represent mechanisms of resistance to toxic molecules. No relation was found between the phylogeny of the ATPase domains and the lifestyle or pathogenicity of Mycoplasma, but several proteins, potentially useful as targets for the control of infections, were identified.

  16. Prevalence of C.Trachomatis Infection among Ahvaz Females with Vaginal Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Samarbaf-Zadeh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: C. trachomatis is one of the most important agents of sexually transmitted diseases(STD. Untreated cases of vaginal infection with this bacterium may end up with infertility, scaring andectopic pregnancy. In most cases infection with C. trachomatis is silent (70-80% but when overtinfection occurs the symptoms include: cervicitis, urethritis, and endometritis.Since prevalence of C. trachomatis was not studied in our city, this project was performed to evaluatethe role of this bacterial agent in vaginosis.Material and Methods: Two hundred and two specimens from vaginal discharge of out-patientsreferring to gynecology ward of Ahvaz hospitals were collected and tested for C. trachomatis by PCR.Results: Out of 202 specimens, 33 (16.3% were positive for C. trachomatis.Conclusion: The findings of this study show a high prevalence of C. trachomatis which indicates thatspecial attention must be paid to detection and management of this infection.

  17. Undersøgelse for Mycoplasma bovis i praksislaboratoriet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Kaspar; Kokotovic, Branko; Voss, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    Mycoplasma anses for at være en medvirkende årsag til en lang række sygdomsforløb hos kvæg og andre dyrearter.......Mycoplasma anses for at være en medvirkende årsag til en lang række sygdomsforløb hos kvæg og andre dyrearter....

  18. Haemotrophic mycoplasmas in South American camelids in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, C; Meli, Marina L; Robert, N; Willi, Barbara; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Wengi, Nicole; Lutz, Hans; Zanolari, P

    2007-01-01

    The red blood cell parasite 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae', formerly Eperythrozoon, is known to be widespread in South American camelids in the USA, causing anaemia in affected animals. Up to now, haemotrophic mycoplasmas were not observed in South American camelids in Europe; however, they were known in a herd of alpacas in Switzerland and to identify them as 'Candidatus M. haemolamae'. Possible ways of transmission are discussed.

  19. Analysis of the mycoplasma genome by recombinant DNA technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, C; Frydenberg, Jane; Christiansen, G

    1984-01-01

    A library of DNA fragments from Mycoplasma sp. strain PG50 has been made in the vector pBR325. Analysis in Escherichia coli minicells of randomly picked clones from this library demonstrated that many plasmids can promote synthesis of mycoplasma protein in the E. coli genetic background. Screening....... The DNA sequence of 16S rRNA and the surrounding control regions has been determined....

  20. A Mycoplasma species of Emydidae turtles in the northeastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossiboff, Robert J; Raphael, Bonnie L; Ammazzalorso, Alyssa D; Seimon, Tracie A; Niederriter, Holly; Zarate, Brian; Newton, Alisa L; McAloose, Denise

    2015-04-01

    Mycoplasma infections can cause significant morbidity and mortality in captive and wild chelonians. As part of a health assessment of endangered bog turtles (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) in the northeastern US, choanal and cloacal swabs from these and other sympatric species, including spotted turtles (Clemmys guttata), eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina), wood turtles (Glyptemys insculpta), and common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) from 10 sampling sites in the states (US) of Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, were tested by PCR for Mycoplasma. Of 108 turtles tested, 63 (58.3%) were PCR positive for Mycoplasma including 58 of 83 bog turtles (70%), three of three (100%) eastern box turtles, and two of 11 (18%) spotted turtles; all snapping turtles (n = 7) and wood turtles (n = 4) were negative. Sequence analysis of portions of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region and the 16S ribosomal RNA gene revealed a single, unclassified species of Mycoplasma that has been previously reported in eastern box turtles, ornate box turtles (Terrapene ornata ornata), western pond turtles (Emys marmorata), and red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans). We document a high incidence of Mycoplasma, in the absence of clinical disease, in wild emydid turtles. These findings, along with wide distribution of the identified Mycoplasma sp. across a broad geographic region, suggest this bacterium is likely a commensal inhabitant of bog turtles, and possibly other species of emydid turtles, in the northeastern US.

  1. Resolution of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection Is Associated with a Distinct T Cell Response Profile

    OpenAIRE

    Picard, Michele D.; Bodmer, Jean-Luc; Gierahn, Todd M.; Lee, Alexander; Price, Jessica; Cohane, Kenya; Clemens, Veronica; DeVault, Victoria L.; Gurok, Galina; Kohberger, Robert; Higgins, Darren E.; Siber, George R.; Flechtner, Jessica Baker; Geisler, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the causative agent of the most frequently reported bacterial sexually transmitted infection, the total burden of which is underestimated due to the asymptomatic nature of the infection. Untreated C. trachomatis infections can cause significant morbidities, including pelvic inflammatory disease and tubal factor infertility (TFI). The human immune response against C. trachomatis, an obligate intracellular bacterium, is poorly characterized but is thought to rely on cel...

  2. Cytological and histopathological abnormalities of the cervix in genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevenini, R; Costa, S; Rumpianesi, F; Donati, M; Guerra, B; Diana, R; Antonini, M P

    1981-10-01

    Since genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis may be associated with cervical abnormalities 160 patients with grandular ectopia attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic were examined for antibodies against C trachomatis, the presence of C trachomatis infection, and cytological and histopathological abnormalities of the cervix.A significantly higher incidence of histological dysplasia was found in women with glandular ectopia who had antichlamydial antibodies than in those without.

  3. HRCT findings of adult mycoplasma pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Beom; Hwang, Jung Hwa; Park, Jai Soung; Lee, Soo Kyung; Im, Han Hyek; Kim, Young Tong; Choi, Deuk Lin [Soonchunhyang Univ. Hospital, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-03-01

    To analyze the HRCT findings of adult mycoplasma pneumonia and correlate these with clinical information. HRCT was performed in 17 cases of 15 adult patients (M:F=5:10) in whom mycoplasma pneumonia had been serologically confirmed. The pattern, extent and distribution of abnormalities were reviewed retrospectively and a changing pattern of abnormalities during the course of the disease was correlated with clinical symptoms. Unilateral(n=11) and lower lobe(n=12) involvement and multiplicity in involved lobes(n=10) were the most common abnormalities. Abnormalities on HRCT were as follows:nodules(n=15), areas of consolidation(n=14), nodules and areas of consolidation(n=13). Most abnormalities(n=11) were segmental or subsegmental in distribution. The most common nodular pattern was centrilobular micronodules(<5mm) or branching linear structures(n=15). An air-bronchogram in areas of consolidation was noted in 13 of 14 cases (92.9%). Areas of ground-glass attenuation, bronchial wall thickening and dilatation were observed in 11 cases as part of a mixed pattern. Additional findings were interlobular septal thickening(n=9), air-trapping(n=1), pleural effusion(n=2), and mediastinal lymphadenopathy(n=1). The relationship between the pattern of abnormalities and duration of the disease(from the onset of symptoms to the time of HRCT scan) was as follows. Group 1 (similar area ratio of consolidation and nodules) was predominant at 1 week, Group 2 (prominent areas of consolidation(>2/3)) at 2 weeks, and Group 3(prominent areas of nodules(>2/3)) over 3 weeks. The main findings of adult mycoplasma pneumonia were nodules or areas of consolidation with segmental or subsegmental distribution. The early stage of the disease may show a pattern of a similar prapertion of areas of consolidation and of nodules, followed by increase in the propertion of areas of consolidation(>2/3) as the disease progresses. At the resolvtion stage, the extent of lesions will decrease and nodules will be

  4. Viral and bacterial aetiologies of male urethritis: findings of a high prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntsson, M; Löwhagen, G-B; Bergström, T; Dubicanac, L; Welinder-Olsson, C; Alvengren, G; Tunbäck, P

    2010-03-01

    Male urethritis is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, the aetiology is still unclear in many cases. In this study the prevalences of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), HSV-2, cytomegalovirus (CMV), adenovirus, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium and Ureaplasma urealyticum (including subtyping) were investigated. Samples from 112 male STI attendants with microscopically verified urethritis and from a control group of 103 men without clinical or microscopic signs of urethritis were analysed. Prevalences in the urethritis group compared with the controls were as follows: EBV 21%, 6% (P urethritis and may play a role in its pathogenesis.

  5. Animal models for studying female genital tract infection with Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Evelien; Kalmar, Isabelle; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2013-09-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen. It is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the world, with more than 100 million new cases of genital tract infections with C. trachomatis occurring each year. Animal models are indispensable for the study of C. trachomatis infections and the development and evaluation of candidate vaccines. In this paper, the most commonly used animal models to study female genital tract infections with C. trachomatis will be reviewed, namely, the mouse, guinea pig, and nonhuman primate models. Additionally, we will focus on the more recently developed pig model.

  6. Radiographic findings of mycoplasma pneumonia in adult

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Jin; Kim, Mi Hye; Choe, Kyu Ok [College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-05-15

    Mycoplasma pneumonia has known to be a not uncommon disease. However, the differential diagnosis of mycoplasm pneumonia with other viral pneumonia is difficult because of its variable clinical symptoms and atypical radiologic findings. A retrospective review was made of plain chest radiologic findings and clinical manifestations of 33 patients, who were admitted at Yonsei University Hospital from January, 1985 to February, 1990. The most prevalent age was 4th decade (33%) and main symptoms were cough (24/33), fever (2/33) and sputum (20/22). The most frequent season was winter (50%). The radiologic patterns were predominently interstitial (15/33), combined (13/33) and predominently alveolar (5/33) lesion. In alveolar infiltration cases (n 18), unilateral single lobe involvement was the most common (17/18) and left lower lobe (8/18) was predominently involved. Associated radiologic findings were hilar lymphadenopathy (4/33), pleural effusion (4/33) and cardiomegaly (7/33)

  7. Lung abscess caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omae, Takashi; Matsubayashi, Tadashi

    2015-08-01

    A 10-year-old boy with West syndrome was referred to hospital because of high fever and cough. Chest X-ray and computed tomography showed consolidation with an abscess in the right upper lobe. Laboratory data indicated cytokine storm. Various antibacterial agents and additional corticosteroid were unable to control the hypercytokinemia, which was suppressed after cyclosporine A was started. The lung abscess remained, however, and right upper lobectomy was performed. Culture from the abscess showed no growth, while polymerase chain reaction assay indicated Mycoplasma pneumoniae DNA. Serum passive agglutinin titer for M. pneumoniae was significantly elevated in the convalescent phase. These findings are strong evidence that the lung abscess was caused by M. pneumoniae infection. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  8. Determination of recombination in Mycoplasma hominis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Iben Søgaard; Boesen, Thomas; Mygind, Tina

    2002-01-01

    disequilibrium and distance between the segregating sites, by the homoplasy ratio (H ratio), and by compatibility matrices. The gap gene showed well-supported evidence for high levels of recombination, whereas recombination was less frequent and not significant within the other genes. The analysis revealed......B-hitL, excinuclease ABC subunit A (uvrA) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gap) genes. The level of variability of these M. hominis genes was low compared with the housekeeping genes from Helicobacter pylori and Neisseria meningitidis, but only few M. hominis isolates had identical sequences in all genes...... intergenic and intragenic recombination in M. hominis and this may explain the high intraspecies variability. The results obtained in the present study may be of importance for future population studies of Mycoplasma species....

  9. High-Resolution Typing Reveals Distinct Chlamydia trachomatis Strains in an At-Risk Population in Nanjing, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bom, Reinier J. M.; van den Hoek, Anneke; Wang, Qianqiu; Long, Fuquan; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Bruisten, Sylvia M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated Chlamydia trachomatis strains from Nanjing, China, and whether these strains differed from Amsterdam, the Netherlands. C. trachomatis type was determined with multilocus sequence typing. Most strains were specific to Nanjing, but some clustered with strains from Amsterdam. This

  10. Chalmydia trachomatis infection among asymptomatic males in an infertility clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mania - Pramanik J

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis can lead to a variety of complications including tubal infertility. Similarly asymptomatic infection in male partner can also hinder conception. The prevalence of this infection among the infertile female in the Institute′s Infertility Clinic was observed to be 34%. Hence the present study was undertaken to find out these infection among the asymptomatic male partners of these infected women. Fifteen asymptomatic males who were not treated with any antibiotics in recent past were enrolled. First voided urine, semen and blood were collected from each individual for diagnosis of this infection. Chlamydia antigen was detected in 33.3% while Chlamydia antibody was detected in seven (46.7% of these cases. Of these seven, three cases were positive for antigen. This preliminary observation suggests that amongst the infertile couple a sizable percentage (60% of asymptomatic male partners remain infected with Chlamydia trachomatis.

  11. Chlamydia trachomatis Serology in Women with and without Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta B. Ness

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Pelvic inflammation has been implicated in the genesis of ovarian cancer. We conducted serologic measurements of Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies as a surrogate marker of chlamydial pelvic inflammatory disease. Women with ovarian cancer (n=521 and population-based controls (n=766 were tested. IgG antibodies to serovar D of chlamydia elementary bodies (EBs were detected using an ELISA assay. The odds of having ovarian cancer among women with the highest titers (≥0.40 OD units were 0.6 (95% CI 0.4–0.9. These data do not support our earlier finding of elevated titers for antibodies to C. trachomatis among women with ovarian cancer.

  12. Mycoplasma contamination in cell cultures treated with ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin: brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Soltanian

    2015-02-01

    Conclusion: Our results showed that 20 μg/ml of ciprofloxacin was the dilution of choice for mycoplasma elimination followed by 200 μg/ml of ciprofloxacin. Concentrations of 3, 30 and 300 of enrofloxacin, respectively, are appropriate for mycoplasma removal. More detailed works would be needed to verify the authenticity of the proposed simple and affordable way of mycoplasma elimination.

  13. Frequency of urogenital mycoplasma detection in women of Dnipropetrovsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Bubalo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of urogenital mycoplasmas detection in women of different ages was studied in culture with the help of DUO test-system in order to determine their etiological significance in the development of inflammatory processes of women urogenital tract. We identified the researched cultures Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum in the diagnostic titer >104 TEM/ml indicating severe contamination by microorganisms, and in the titer 104 TEM/ml, 104 TEM/ml was observed in 55 women (46% and 20 women (17%, respectively, and the titer of <103 CFU/ml U. urealyticum was observed in 20 women (17%, and M. hominis in 18 women (15%. Analysis of genital mycoplasmas distribution among women of different ages has shown that there was the certain correlation between the patient age and frequency of genital mycoplasmas detection: the highest detection rate was observed in women age of 24–29. The dominant pathogen of urogenital tract inflammatory processes in women in 24–29 age group is U. urealyticum. The comparison of DUO test-system and PCR data has shown that DUO test-system in culture allowed more sensitive quantitave characterization of mycoplasmas, however, for the more effective laboratory diagnostics it was necessary to use complex methods to increase the probability of pathogen detection. Incidence of mycoplasmas in women with the presence of inflammation was higher than in women having the inflammation in the genital tract. In this case, potential symptom-free carriers exist for the development of inflammation of urogenital tract of women. Scientists have proved that mycoplasma could cause vulvovaginitis, urethritis, paraurethritis, bartholinitis, adnexitis, salpingitis, endometritis, and ovaritis.

  14. Natural Products for the Treatment of Trachoma and Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Potroz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The neglected tropical disease (NTD trachoma is currently the leading cause of eye disease in the world, and the pathogenic bacteria causing this condition, Chlamydia trachomatis, is also the most common sexually transmitted pathogenic bacterium. Although the serovars of this bacterial species typically vary between ocular and genital infections there is a clear connection between genital C. trachomatis infections and the development of trachoma in infants, such that the solutions to these infections are closely related. It is the unique life cycle of the C. trachomatis bacteria which primarily leads to chronic infections and challenges in treatment using conventional antibiotics. This life cycle involves stages of infective elementary bodies (EBs and reproductive reticulate bodies (RBs. Most antibiotics only target the reproductive RBs and this often leads to the need for prolonged therapy which facilitates the development of drug resistant pathogens. It is through combining several compounds to obtain multiple antimicrobial mechanisms that we are most likely to develop a reliable means to address all these issues. Traditional and ethnobotanical medicine provides valuable resources for the development of novel formulations and treatment regimes based on synergistic and multi-compound therapy. In this review we intend to summarize the existing literature on the application of natural compounds for controlling trachoma and inhibiting chlamydial bacteria and explore the potential for the development of new treatment modalities.

  15. Antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis heat shock proteins in women with tubal factor infertility are associated with prior infection by C. trachomatis but not by C. pneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, K; Osser, S; Birkelund, Svend

    1999-01-01

    The antibody response to heat shock proteins 60 and 10 were studied in 163 patients with tubal factor infertility and in 163 age-matched pregnant women. The associations of these antibodies with specific antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis and to Chlamydia pneumoniae as well as with antibodies...... proteins and to C. trachomatis but no independent influence of antibodies to C. pneumoniae. No interaction between C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae suggesting a synergistic effect was found although the heat shock proteins from these two organisms are immunologically similar. Antibodies to the chlamydial...

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma bovis isolated in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Ulrich; de Jong, Anno; Moyaert, Hilde; El Garch, Farid; Leon, Rocio; Richard-Mazet, Alexandra; Rose, Markus; Maes, Dominiek; Pridmore, Andrew; Thomson, Jill R; Ayling, Roger D

    2017-05-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in pigs and Mycoplasma bovis in cattle are major pathogens affecting livestock across Europe and are the focus of the MycoPath pan-European antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring programme. Fifty M. hyopneumoniae isolates from Belgium, Spain and the United Kingdom (UK), and 156 M. bovis isolates from France, Hungary, Spain and the UK that met specific criteria were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility in a central laboratory by using a microbroth dilution method. Specific isolate criteria included recovery from animals not recently treated with antimicrobials, isolates from different locations within each country and retaining only one isolate per farm. MIC 50/ MIC 90 values were 0.031/0.5, 0.031/0.5, 0.062/0.25, ≤0.001/0.004, 0.031/0.125, 0.25/0.5 and 0.062/0.25mg/L for enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin, spiramycin, tulathromycin, tylosin, florfenicol and oxytetracycline respectively against M. hyopneumoniae and 0.25/4, 1/4, 4/16, >64/ >64, 32/ >64, 2/4 and 4/64mg/L, respectively against M. bovis. MIC 50 /MIC 90 values for tiamulin and valnemulin against M. hyopneumoniae were 0.016/0.062 and ≤0.001/ ≤0.001mg/L respectively. The MIC 50 /MIC 90 values of danofloxacin and gamithromycin for M. bovis were 0.25/1 and >64/ >64mg/L respectively. The highest MIC 90 values for M. hyopneumoniae were found in the UK at 1.0mg/L for enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin and florfenicol. In contrast, for M. bovis the lowest MIC 90 value was 1.0mg/L, but ranged to >64mg/L. Specific laboratory standards and clinical breakpoints for veterinary Mycoplasma species are required as no independently validated clinical breakpoints are specified for veterinary Mycoplasma species, which makes data interpretation and correlation to in vivo efficacy difficult. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Inorganic pyrophosphatase in uncultivable hemotrophic mycoplasmas: identification and properties of the enzyme from Mycoplasma suis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wittenbrink Max M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasma suis belongs to a group of highly specialized hemotrophic bacteria that attach to the surface of host erythrocytes. Hemotrophic mycoplasmas are uncultivable and the genomes are not sequenced so far. Therefore, there is a need for the clarification of essential metabolic pathways which could be crucial barriers for the establishment of an in vitro cultivation system for these veterinary significant bacteria. Inorganic pyrophosphatases (PPase are important enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of inorganic pyrophosphate PPi to inorganic phosphate Pi. PPases are essential and ubiquitous metal-dependent enzymes providing a thermodynamic pull for many biosynthetic reactions. Here, we describe the identification, recombinant production and characterization of the soluble (sPPase of Mycoplasma suis. Results Screening of genomic M. suis libraries was used to identify a gene encoding the M. suis inorganic pyrophosphatase (sPPase. The M. suis sPPase consists of 164 amino acids with a molecular mass of 20 kDa. The highest identity of 63.7% was found to the M. penetrans sPPase. The typical 13 active site residues as well as the cation binding signature could be also identified in the M. suis sPPase. The activity of the M. suis enzyme was strongly dependent on Mg2+ and significantly lower in the presence of Mn2+ and Zn2+. Addition of Ca2+ and EDTA inhibited the M. suis sPPase activity. These characteristics confirmed the affiliation of the M. suis PPase to family I soluble PPases. The highest activity was determined at pH 9.0. In M. suis the sPPase builds tetramers of 80 kDa which were detected by convalescent sera from experimentally M. suis infected pigs. Conclusion The identification and characterization of the sPPase of M. suis is an additional step towards the clarification of the metabolism of hemotrophic mycoplasmas and, thus, important for the establishment of an in vitro cultivation system. As an antigenic and conserved

  18. The humoral immune response to Chlamydia trachomatis in patients with acute reactive arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, B; Birkelund, Svend; Mordhorst, CH

    1994-01-01

    . trachomatis cysteine rich outer membrane protein 2 (Omp2) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were detected in 10 patients. Thus 40% of the patients presented antibodies specific for C. trachomatis. There was no correlation between acute reactive arthritis and antibodies to heat-shock proteins GroEL, GroES and DnaK....

  19. IL-10 polymorphism and cell-mediated immune response to Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, H.; Tiitinen, A; Halttunen, M.

    2006-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection induces an inflammatory response that is crucial in resolving acute infection but may also play a key role in the pathogenesis of C trachomatis associated infertility. The immune response is linked to cytokine secretion pattern which is influenced by the host genetic...

  20. HPV/Chlamydia trachomatis co-infection: metagenomic analysis of cervical microbiota in asymptomatic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Marisa; Filardo, Simone; Porpora, Maria Grazia; Recine, Nadia; Latino, Maria Agnese; Sessa, Rosa

    2018-01-01

    HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis are the most common causes of sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. Most infections are asymptomatic and left untreated lead to severe reproductive tract sequelae such as cervical cancer and infertility. Interestingly, C. trachomatis may also increase the susceptibility to HPV infection as well as contribute to viral persistence. Recently, a growing body of evidence has suggested that the composition of the cervico-vaginal microbiota plays a key role in the susceptibility and outcome of genital infections caused by several pathogens, including HPV and C. trachomatis. The aim of our study was to undertake a metagenomic analysis of sequenced 16s rRNA gene amplicons to characterize the cervical microbiota from asymptomatic women with HPV/C. trachomatis co-infection. The composition of the cervical microbiota from HPV-positive or C. trachomatis-positive women was also analysed. The main finding of our study showed that the cervical microbiota in HPV/C. trachomatis co-infected women had a higher microbial diversity than the cervical microbiota in healthy controls (pHPV/C. trachomatis co-infected women and the detection of potential microbiological biomarkers of C. trachomatis infection will open the way to innovative approaches that may be helpful to identify women at risk of co-infection.

  1. Chlamydia trachomatis and genital human papillomavirus infections in female university students in Honduras.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabora, N.; Zelaya, A.; Bakkers, J.; Melchers, W.J.; Ferrera, A.

    2005-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections are a serious health problem in Honduras. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis are major causes of sexually transmitted diseases. To determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis and HPV in young women, 100 female university students in Honduras were

  2. Changing Pattern of Chlamydia trachomatis Strains in Lymphogranuloma Venereum Outbreak, France, 2010–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touati, Arabella; Sperandio, Clément; Hénin, Nadège; Laurier-Nadalié, Cécile; Bébéar, Cécile; de Barbeyrac, Bertille

    2016-01-01

    We describe a change in the molecular epidemiology of Chlamydia trachomatis strains involved in an outbreak of rectal lymphogranuloma venereum in France during January 2010–April 2015. Until 2012, the C. trachomatis L2b strain predominated; however, starting in 2013, most cases involved the L2 strain. We also identified 4 genetic L2b ompA variants. PMID:27767927

  3. Changing Pattern of Chlamydia trachomatis Strains in Lymphogranuloma Venereum Outbreak, France, 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peuchant, Olivia; Touati, Arabella; Sperandio, Clément; Hénin, Nadège; Laurier-Nadalié, Cécile; Bébéar, Cécile; de Barbeyrac, Bertille

    2016-11-01

    We describe a change in the molecular epidemiology of Chlamydia trachomatis strains involved in an outbreak of rectal lymphogranuloma venereum in France during January 2010-April 2015. Until 2012, the C. trachomatis L2b strain predominated; however, starting in 2013, most cases involved the L2 strain. We also identified 4 genetic L2b ompA variants.

  4. A case of lymphogranuloma venereum of 20 years' duration. Isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis from perianal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, M; Rotmensch, H H; Eylan, E; Rubinstein, A; Ginsberg, R; Liron, M

    1980-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from perianal lesions in a patient in whom lymphogranuloma venereum had been diagnosed 20 years previously. Treatment with tetracycline resulted in a pronounced improvement. Although C trachomatis is known to persist for a long time in the host, isolation of the micro-organism from infected tissues after such a prolonged period has not previously been reported. Images PMID:7427708

  5. Early Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection presenting as multiple pulmonary masses: an unusual presentation in a child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Edward; Altes, Talissa; Anupindi, Sudha A. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a major cause of community-acquired pneumonia. Because most children are not imaged prior to onset of clinical symptoms, the appearance of early Mycoplasma infection has not been extensively studied. We present the case of an 11-year-old boy with large pulmonary masses incidentally detected during spine MRI evaluation for scoliosis. Eight days later, the patient developed acute respiratory symptoms, and the masses seen previously had evolved into a diffuse bronchiolitis. Diagnostic testing identified Mycoplasma pneumoniae as the likely etiology. We briefly review chest CT findings of infection by Mycoplasma and compare them to this unusual presentation of Mycoplasma pneumonia with subclinical imaging findings. (orig.)

  6. Early Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection presenting as multiple pulmonary masses: an unusual presentation in a child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Edward; Altes, Talissa; Anupindi, Sudha A.

    2008-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a major cause of community-acquired pneumonia. Because most children are not imaged prior to onset of clinical symptoms, the appearance of early Mycoplasma infection has not been extensively studied. We present the case of an 11-year-old boy with large pulmonary masses incidentally detected during spine MRI evaluation for scoliosis. Eight days later, the patient developed acute respiratory symptoms, and the masses seen previously had evolved into a diffuse bronchiolitis. Diagnostic testing identified Mycoplasma pneumoniae as the likely etiology. We briefly review chest CT findings of infection by Mycoplasma and compare them to this unusual presentation of Mycoplasma pneumonia with subclinical imaging findings. (orig.)

  7. [Expression of gamma interferon during HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in cervical samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colín-Ferreyra, María Del Carmen; Mendieta-Zerón, Hugo; Romero-Figueroa, María Del Socorro; Martínez-Madrigal, Migdania; Martínez-Pérez, Sergio; Domínguez-García, María Victoria

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to mesure the expression of gamma interferon in HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in squamous intraepithelial lesions. Samples from 100 patients diagnosed by colposcopy with or without squamous intraepithelial lesions were used in the present study. Each patient was found to be infected by HPV and C.trachomatis. Relative gamma interferon mRNA expression was assessed using a real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay (RT-PCR). The relative units of expression of gamma interferon mRNA were 13, 1.8 and 0.3, for HPV and C.trachomatis co-infection, or HPV or C.trachomatis infection, respectively. HPV and C.trachomatis could overstimulate the expression of gamma interferon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  8. Detection and differentiation of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviaeby PCR from tracheal swabs from birds with respiratory symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventura, Cesar E; Ramirez, Gloria; Vera, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Mycoplasmas are worldwide pathogens that affect the poultry industry causing respiratory illness which cause a negative economic impact. Two mycoplasmas species are the most important in the commercial poultry: mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) and mycoplasma synoviae (MS). By its importance and necessity to know and differentiate between mycoplasmas species in local's poultry houses this study used the PCR technique like a diagnosis tool, using tracheal swabs from bird with respiratory symptoms. A total of 91 samples from broilers, layers and breeders farms located in the departments of Cundinamarca and Boyaca was processed. The punctual prevalence founded in this study was 39.6 % for mg and 47.3 % for MS. statistical differences for type of production and positive samples for mg y MS (p < 0.05) were founded, a bigger number of positive samples from layers and breeder in comparison to broilers were found. In the same way, the positive samples for the layers and breeder from the age group between 20 and 60 weeks was greater, while for the broilers group most of the positive samples were from five weeks old birds for mg and two weeks old birds for MS.

  9. Genomic and gene variation in Mycoplasma hominis strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Gunna; Andersen, H; Birkelund, Svend

    1987-01-01

    DNAs from 14 strains of Mycoplasma hominis isolated from various habitats, including strain PG21, were analyzed for genomic heterogeneity. DNA-DNA filter hybridization values were from 51 to 91%. Restriction endonuclease digestion patterns, analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis, revealed...... no identity or cluster formation between strains. Variation within M. hominis rRNA genes was analyzed by Southern hybridization of EcoRI-cleaved DNA hybridized with a cloned fragment of the rRNA gene from the mycoplasma strain PG50. Five of the M. hominis strains showed identical hybridization patterns....... These hybridization patterns were compared with those of 12 other mycoplasma species, which showed a much more complex band pattern. Cloned nonribosomal RNA gene fragments of M. hominis PG21 DNA were analyzed, and the fragments were used to demonstrate heterogeneity among the strains. A monoclonal antibody against...

  10. Lung abscess in a child secondary to Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini, E; De Petris, L; Candelotti, P; Tulli, M; Sabatini, M R; Luciani, L; Carlucci, A

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of a lung abscess in a child 6-year-old admitted with a history of right hemithorax pain lasting for 15 days and the onset of mild fever in the last two days. Etiological research showed positivity of IgM antibodies to Mycoplasma pneumoniae after seven days of admission. The child has been successfully treated with antibiotic therapy, without the use of macrolides, for a duration of 4 weeks. Our study suggests that the Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection may predispose to severe infections, such as lung abscess, caused by typical respiratory pathogens. The reported case of lung abscess is one of the few reported in the literature in the modern antibiotic era and is the first preceded by Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.

  11. Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma, and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: A Fresh Look

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Larsen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent work on the Molicutes that associate with genital tract tissues focuses on four species that may be of interest in potential maternal, fetal, and neonatal infection and in contributing to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum have historically been the subject of attention, but Mycoplasma genitalis which causes male urethritis in addition to colonizing the female genital tract and the division of Ureaplasma into two species, urealyticum and parvum, has also added new taxonomic clarity. The role of these genital tract inhabitants in infection during pregnancy and their ability to invade and infect placental and fetal tissue is discussed. In particular, the role of some of these organisms in prematurity may be mechanistically related to their ability to induce inflammatory cytokines, thereby triggering pathways leading to preterm labor. A review of this intensifying exploration of the mycoplasmas in relation to pregnancy yields several questions which will be important to examine in future research.

  12. 'Candidatus mycoplasma haemodidelphidis' sp. nov., 'Candidatus mycoplasma haemolamae' sp. nov. and Mycoplasma haemocanis comb. nov., haemotrophic parasites from a naturally infected opossum (Didelphis virginiana), alpaca (Lama pacos) and dog (Canis familiaris): phylogenetic and secondary structural relatedness of their 16S rRNA genes to other mycoplasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messick, Joanne B; Walker, Pamela G; Raphael, William; Berent, Linda; Shi, Xun

    2002-05-01

    The 16S rRNA sequence of newly characterized haemotrophic bacteria in an opossum (Didelphis virginiana) and alpaca (Lama pacos) was determined. In addition, the 16S rRNA sequence of a haemotrophic parasite in the dog (Canis familiaris) was determined. Sequence alignment and evolutionary analysis as well as secondary structural similarity and signature nucleotide sequence motifs of their 16S rRNA genes, positioned these organisms in the genus Mycoplasma. The highest scoring sequence similarities were 16S rRNA genes from haemotrophic mycoplasma species (Haemobartonella and Eperythrozoon spp.). However, the lack of several higher-order structural idiosyncrasies used to define the pneumoniae group, suggests that these organisms and related haemotrophic mycoplasmas represent a new group of mycoplasmas. It is recommended that the organisms be named 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemodidelphidis', 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae' and Mycoplasma haemocanis comb. nov., to provide some indication of the target cell and host species of these parasites, and to reflect their phylogenetic affiliation.

  13. Metabolomics reveals mycoplasma contamination interferes with the metabolism of PANC-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tao; Wang, Yongtao; Zhang, Huizhen; Johnson, Caroline H; Jiang, Yiming; Li, Xiangjun; Wu, Zeming; Liu, Tian; Krausz, Kristopher W; Yu, Aiming; Gonzalez, Frank J; Huang, Min; Bi, Huichang

    2016-06-01

    Mycoplasma contamination is a common problem in cell culture and can alter cellular functions. Since cell metabolism is either directly or indirectly involved in every aspect of cell function, it is important to detect changes to the cellular metabolome after mycoplasma infection. In this study, liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS)-based metabolomics was used to investigate the effect of mycoplasma contamination on the cellular metabolism of human pancreatic carcinoma cells (PANC-1). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that mycoplasma contamination induced significant metabolic changes in PANC-1 cells. Twenty-three metabolites were identified and found to be involved in arginine and purine metabolism and energy supply. This study demonstrates that mycoplasma contamination significantly alters cellular metabolite levels, confirming the compelling need for routine checking of cell cultures for mycoplasma contamination, particularly when used for metabolomics studies. Graphical abstract Metabolomics reveals mycoplasma contamination changes the metabolome of PANC-1 cells.

  14. Selective medium for culture of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Beth S; Beddow, Jessica G; Manso-Silván, Lucía; Maglennon, Gareth A; Rycroft, Andrew N

    2016-11-15

    The fastidious porcine respiratory pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae has proven difficult to culture since it was first isolated in 1965. A reliable solid medium has been particularly challenging. Moreover, clinical and pathological samples often contain the fast-growing M. hyorhinis which contaminates and overgrows M. hyopneumoniae in primary culture. The aim of this study was to optimise the culture medium for recovery of M. hyopneumoniae and to devise a medium for selection of M. hyopneumoniae from clinical samples also containing M. hyorhinis. The solid medium devised by Niels Friis was improved by use of Purified agar and incorporation of DEAE-dextran. Addition of glucose or neutralization of acidity in liquid medium with NaOH did not improve the final yield of viable organisms or alter the timing of peak viability. Analysis of the relative susceptibility of M. hyopneumoniae and M. hyorhinis strains to four antimicrobials showed that M. hyopneumoniae is less susceptible than M. hyorhinis to kanamycin. This was consistent in all UK and Danish strains tested. A concentration of 2μg/ml of kanamycin selectively inhibited the growth of all M. hyorhinis tested, while M. hyopneumoniae was able to grow. This forms the basis of an effective selective culture medium for M. hyopneumoniae. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mix-ups and mycoplasma: the enemies within.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Hans G; Uphoff, Cord C; Dirks, Willy G; MacLeod, Roderick A F

    2002-04-01

    Human leukemia-lymphoma (LL) cell lines represent important tools for experimental research. Among the various problems associated with cell lines, the two most common concern contaminations: (1) cross-contamination with unrelated cells and (2) contamination with microorganisms, in particular mycoplasma. The bad news is that about one-third of the cell lines are either cross-contaminated or mycoplasma-infected or both. The good news is that there are means to recognize and overcome these problems. In cases where, during attempts to establish new LL cell lines, primary LL cultures are cross-contaminated with continuous cell lines, intended new cell lines simply cannot be established ("early" cross-contamination). In cases of "late" cross-contamination of existing LL cell lines where the intrusive cells have a growth advantage, the original ("uncontaminated") cell lines may still be available elsewhere. DNA fingerprinting and cytogenetic analysis appear to be the most suitable approaches to detect cross-contaminations and to authenticate LL cell lines. A different but related aspect of "false" LL cell lines is the frequent misclassification of cell lines whereby the actual cell type of the cell line does not correspond to the purported model character of the cell line. Mycoplasma infection can have a multitude of effects on the eukaryotic cells which, due to the variety of infecting mycoplasma species and many other contributing parameters, cannot be predicted, rendering resulting data questionable at best. Practical procedures for the detection and elimination of mycoplasma contamination have been developed. Diagnostic and preventive strategies in order to hem the alarming increase in "false" and mycoplasma-positive LL cell lines are recommended.

  16. Obliterative bronchiolitis due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in a child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isles, A.F.; Masel, J.; O' Duffy, J.

    1987-02-01

    A six-year-old girl presented with Mycoplasma pneumoniae involving the right upper and lower lobes. She made a slow but complete recovery with resolution of the radiological changes. She represented 5 years later with a productive cough, recurrent wheezing and physical and radiological signs suggestive of obliterative bronchiolitis. This diagnosis was confirmed by ventilation - perfusion (dV/dt/dQ/dt) lung scan, and bronchography. The case highlights the value of dV/dt/dQ/dt scanning in the diagnosis of obliterative bronchiolitis and confirms the previous reports that mycoplasma infections are not always benign.

  17. Cross-Genome Comparisons of Newly Identified Domains in Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Domain Architectures with Other Mycoplasma species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Sekhar Reddy Chilamakuri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate functional annotation of protein sequences is hampered by important factors such as the failure of sequence search methods to identify relationships and the inherent diversity in function of proteins related at low sequence similarities. Earlier, we had employed intermediate sequence search approach to establish new domain relationships in the unassigned regions of gene products at the whole genome level by taking Mycoplasma gallisepticum as a specific example and established new domain relationships. In this paper, we report a detailed comparison of the conservation status of the domain and domain architectures of the gene products that bear our newly predicted domains amongst 14 other Mycoplasma genomes and reported the probable implications for the organisms. Some of the domain associations, observed in Mycoplasma that afflict humans and other non-human primates, are involved in regulation of solute transport and DNA binding suggesting specific modes of host-pathogen interactions.

  18. Identification of Mycoplasma bovigenitalium and Mycoplasma canadense from outbreaks of granulopapular vulvovaginitis in dairy cattle in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysnyansky, I; Brenner, J; Alpert, N; Benjamin, A; Bernstein, M; Elad, D; Blum, S; Friedgut, O; Rotenberg, D

    2009-09-12

    A syndrome in which white foci and granulopustular lesions appeared on the vaginal mucous membranes of Holstein cows in several dairy herds in Israel is described. During clinical and diagnostic investigations, Mycoplasma bovigenitalium was isolated from 11 of 20 clinical cases. Vaginal swabs taken from the same cows yielded three isolates of Mycoplasma canadense, which were all associated with the M bovigenitalium infection. Two isolates of small, round, non-enveloped viral particles were approximately 25 nm in diameter and characteristic of enteroviruses on negative-staining electron microscopy.

  19. Resolution of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection Is Associated with a Distinct T Cell Response Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Michele D; Bodmer, Jean-Luc; Gierahn, Todd M; Lee, Alexander; Price, Jessica; Cohane, Kenya; Clemens, Veronica; DeVault, Victoria L; Gurok, Galina; Kohberger, Robert; Higgins, Darren E; Siber, George R; Flechtner, Jessica Baker; Geisler, William M

    2015-11-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the causative agent of the most frequently reported bacterial sexually transmitted infection, the total burden of which is underestimated due to the asymptomatic nature of the infection. Untreated C. trachomatis infections can cause significant morbidities, including pelvic inflammatory disease and tubal factor infertility (TFI). The human immune response against C. trachomatis, an obligate intracellular bacterium, is poorly characterized but is thought to rely on cell-mediated immunity, with CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells implicated in protection. In this report, we present immune profiling data of subjects enrolled in a multicenter study of C. trachomatis genital infection. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from subjects grouped into disease-specific cohorts were screened using a C. trachomatis proteomic library to identify the antigen specificities of recall T cell responses after natural exposure by measuring interferon gamma (IFN-γ) levels. We identified specific T cell responses associated with the resolution of infection, including unique antigens identified in subjects who spontaneously cleared infection and different antigens associated with C. trachomatis-related sequelae, such as TFI. These data suggest that novel and unique C. trachomatis T cell antigens identified in individuals with effective immune responses can be considered as targets for vaccine development, and by excluding antigens associated with deleterious sequelae, immune-mediated pathologies may be circumvented. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Chlamydia trachomatis Frequency in a Cohort of HPV-Infected Colombian Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Margarita Quinónez-Calvache

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis, an obligate intracellular bacterium, is the commonest infectious bacterial agent of sexual transmission throughout the world. It has been shown that the presence of this bacteria in the cervix represents a risk regarding HPV persistence and, thereafter, in developing cervical cancer (CC. Prevalence rates may vary from 2% to 17% in asymptomatic females, depending on the population being analysed. This study reports the identification of C. trachomatis in a cohort of 219 HPV-infected Colombian females.C. trachomatis infection frequency was determined during each of the study's follow-up visits; it was detected by amplifying the cryptic plasmid sequence by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using two sets of primers: KL5/KL6 and KL1/KL2. Infection was defined as a positive PCR result using either set of primers at any time during the study. Cox proportional risk models were used for evaluating the association between the appearance of infection and a group of independent variables.Base line C. trachomatis infection frequency was 28% (n = 61. Most females infected by C. trachomatis were infected by multiple types of HPV (77.42%, greater prevalence occurring in females infected with HPV-16 (19.18%, followed by HPV-58 (17.81%. It was observed that females having had the most sexual partners (HR = 6.44: 1.59-26.05 95%CI or infection with multiple types of HPV (HR = 2.85: 1.22-6.63 95%CI had the greatest risk of developing C. trachomatis.The study provides data regarding the epidemiology of C. trachomatis /HPV coinfection in different population groups of Colombian females and contributes towards understanding the natural history of C. trachomatis infection.

  1. Performance evaluation of automated urine microscopy as a rapid, non-invasive approach for the diagnosis of non-gonococcal urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pond, Marcus J; Nori, Achyuta V; Patel, Sheel; Laing, Ken; Ajayi, Margarita; Copas, Andrew J; Butcher, Philip D; Hay, Phillip; Sadiq, Syed Tariq

    2015-05-01

    Gram-stained urethral smear (GSUS), the standard point-of-care test for non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) is operator dependent and poorly specific. The performance of rapid automated urine flow cytometry (AUFC) of first void urine (FVU) white cell counts (UWCC) for predicting Mycoplasma genitalium and Chlamydia trachomatis urethral infections was assessed and its application to asymptomatic infection was evaluated. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, determining FVU-UWCC threshold for predicting M. genitalium or C. trachomatis infection was performed on 208 'training' samples from symptomatic patients and subsequently validated using 228 additional FVUs obtained from prospective unselected patients. An optimal diagnostic threshold of >29 UWC/µL gave sensitivities and specificities for either infection of 81.5% (95% CI 65.1% to 91.6%) and 85.8% (79.5% to 90.4%), respectively, compared with 86.8% (71.1% to 95%) and 64.7% (56.9% to 71.7%), respectively, for GSUS, using the training set samples. FVU-UWCC demonstrated sensitivities and specificities of 69.2% (95% CI 48.1% to 84.9%) and 92% (87.2% to 95.2%), respectively, when using validation samples. In asymptomatic patients where GSUS was not used, AUFC would have enabled more infections to be detected compared with clinical considerations only (71.4% vs 28.6%; p=0.03). The correlation between UWCC and bacterial load was stronger for M. genitalium compared with C. trachomatis (τ=0.426, p≤0.001 vs τ=0.295, p=0.022, respectively). AUFC offers improved specificity over microscopy for predicting C. trachomatis or M. genitalium infection. Universal AUFC may enable non-invasive diagnosis of asymptomatic NGU at the PoC. The degree of urethral inflammation exhibits a stronger association with pathogen load for M. genitalium compared with C. trachomatis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Biosecurity and geospatial analysis of mycoplasma infections in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geospatial database of farm locations and biosecurity measures are essential to control disease outbreaks. A study was conducted to establish geospatial database on poultry farms in Al-Jabal Al-Gharbi region of Libya, to evaluate the biosecurity level of each farm and to determine the seroprevalence of mycoplasma and ...

  3. Genetic variations among Mycoplasma bovis strains isolated from Danish cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusiluka, L.J.M.; Kokotovic, Branko; Ojeniyi, B.

    2000-01-01

    The genetic heterogeneity of Mycoplasma bovis strains isolated in Denmark over a 17-year period was investigated. Forty-two field strains isolated from different geographic locations and specimens, including strains from 21 herds involved in two outbreaks of M. bovis-induced mastitis, and the type...

  4. Aerosol challenge of calves with Haemophilus somnus and Mycoplasma dispar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, C.; Angen, Øystein; Grell, S.N.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the ability of Haemophilus somnus and Mycoplasma dispar to induce pneumonia in healthy calves under conditions closely resembling the supposed natural way of infection, viz, by inhalation of aerosol droplets containing the microorganisms. The infections were...

  5. Diagnosis and antimicrobial therapy of Mycoplasma hominis meningitis in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Elisabeth H. L.; Winter, Heinrich L. J.; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Metzemaekers, Joannes D. M.; Arends, Jan P.

    2012-01-01

    Meningitis in adults due to infection with Mycoplasma hominis is rarely reported. Here, we document the third case of M. hominis meningitis in an adult individual, developed upon neurosurgery following a subarachnoid haemorrhage. Our findings are noteworthy, because the presence of M. hominis in

  6. Mycoplasma hyosynoviae arthritis in grower-finisher pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, E.O.; Nielsen, N.C.; Friis, N.F.

    2001-01-01

    pigs had soft fluctuating joint swellings (odds ratio (OR), 7.21; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.40-15.47). No indication of suppurative arthritis was observed. Joint infection with Mycoplasma hysoynoviae was found by culture in 20% (17 of 86) of the lame pigs and in 8% (seven of 83) of the non...

  7. Typing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae by PCR-mediated DNA fingerprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursi, D; Ieven, M; van Bever, H; Quint, W; Niesters, H G; Goossens, H

    PCR fingerprinting was used to characterize clinical isolates of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Among 24 strains tested, two types were distinguished. Nineteen strains belonged to type 1, whereas only 5 strains belonged to type 2. The majority of strains isolated since 1991 in Belgium belong to type 1. No

  8. Epidemic of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in Denmark, 2010 and 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldum, S A; Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Gahrn-Hansen, Bente

    2012-01-01

    Denmark experienced two waves of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection during autumn and early winter in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Both affected the whole country. The proportion of positive results was almost the same for both, indicating that the two waves were probably of equal size. High macrolide...

  9. Analysis of a Mycoplasma hominis membrane protein, P120

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Gunna; Mathiesen, SL; Nyvold, Charlotte Guldborg

    1994-01-01

    The monoclonal antibody mAb 26.7D generated against a clinical isolate of Mycoplasma hominis 7488 was shown to react with a surface-exposed epitope on a 120-kDa protein (P120). The gene encoding the protein was cloned and sequenced, and the transcriptional start point was determined by primer...

  10. Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Bo Zhai

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we report one case of a three-year-old boy infected with Mycoplasma pneumonia (MP and presenting concomitant multiple organ damage of the heart, kidney, lung and liver, among others, together with a brief review for the diagnosis and treatment of MP infection with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS.

  11. Mycoplasma haemocanis: Sub-clinical and haematological findings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report the appearance of Mycoplasma haemocanis in a mongrel dog, which has been documented previously in different parts of the world, yet never in Nigeria. An apparently and clinically healthy mongrel was presented for Distemper, Hepatitis, Leptospirosis, Parvoviral enteritis, Parainfluenza (DHLPP) vaccination in ...

  12. The Mycoplasma hominis vaa gene displays a mosaic gene structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Thomas; Emmersen, Jeppe M. G.; Jensen, Lise T.

    1998-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis contains a variable adherence-associated (vaa) gene. To classify variants of the vaa genes, we examined 42 M. hominis isolated by PCR, DNA sequencing and immunoblotting. This uncovered the existence of five gene categories. Comparison of the gene types revealed a modular...

  13. Typing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae by PCR-mediated DNA fingerprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursi, D; Ieven, M; van Bever, H; Quint, W; Niesters, H G; Goossens, H

    1994-01-01

    PCR fingerprinting was used to characterize clinical isolates of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Among 24 strains tested, two types were distinguished. Nineteen strains belonged to type 1, whereas only 5 strains belonged to type 2. The majority of strains isolated since 1991 in Belgium belong to type 1. No

  14. Systems analysis of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae to improve vaccine production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, Tjerko

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) is a bacterial pathogen that has evolved from a gram-positive ancestor and specifically colonizes the lower respiratory tract of pigs where it causes enzootic pneumonia and plays a major role in the development of respiratory disease

  15. Advances in diagnostics and molecular typing of Mycoplasma synoviae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, Remco

    2016-01-01

    The increased clinical and economic relevance of M. synoviae a poultry pathogen causing arthritis and eggshell apex abnormalities and egg production drops prompted the Dutch poultry industry to launch a mandatory control and eradication programme for this mycoplasma species in 2013 This programme is

  16. Prevalence of genital Mycoplasmas among patients with discharge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (20- 24 years of age), married, nonemployed and non educated. The main complaint was whitish mucoid urethral or vaginal discharge without other significant symptoms or signs. Amongst patients with Mycoplasma infection, gonorrhoea was detected in 3 patients, syphilis in 3 and trichomonas vaginalis in one patient.

  17. Antigenic and genomic homogeneity of successive Mycoplasma hominis isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lise Torp; Thorsen, P; Møller, B

    1998-01-01

    Sixty Mycoplasma hominis isolates were obtained from the cervices of pregnant women and from the ears or pharynges of their newborn babies. The isolates were examined by SDS-PAGE and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Antigenic and genomic profiles were obtained for 16 series with two or more...

  18. 21 CFR 864.2360 - Mycoplasma detection media and components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mycoplasma detection media and components. 864.2360 Section 864.2360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products...

  19. Mycoplasma mastitis in cattle: To cull or not to cull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Robin A J; Fox, Larry K; Lysnyansky, Inna

    2016-10-01

    Bovine mastitis caused by mycoplasmas, in particular Mycoplasma bovis, is a major problem for milk production and animal welfare in large dairy herds in the USA and a serious, although sporadic, disease in Europe and the Middle East. It causes severe damage to the udder of cattle and is largely untreatable by chemotherapy. Mycoplasma mastitis has a distinct epidemiology and a unique set of risk factors, the most important of which is large herd size. The disease is often self-limiting, disappearing within months of outbreaks, sometimes without deliberate intervention. Improved molecular diagnostic tests are leading to more rapid detection of mycoplasmas. Typing tests, such as multi-locus sequence typing, can help trace the source of outbreaks. An approach to successful control is proposed, which involves regular monitoring and rapid segregation or culling of infected cows. Serious consideration should be given by owners of healthy dairy herds to the purchase of M. bovis-free replacements. Increased cases of disease could occur in Europe and Israel if the trend for larger dairy herds continues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Unravelling the transcriptome profile of the Swine respiratory tract mycoplasmas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Maboni Siqueira

    Full Text Available The swine respiratory ciliary epithelium is mainly colonized by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma flocculare and Mycoplasma hyorhinis. While colonization by M. flocculare is virtually asymptomatic, M. hyopneumoniae and M. hyorhinis infections may cause respiratory disease. Information regarding transcript structure and gene abundance provides valuable insight into gene function and regulation, which has not yet been analyzed on a genome-wide scale in these Mycoplasma species. In this study, we report the construction of transcriptome maps for M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis, which represent data for conducting comparative studies on the transcriptional repertory. For each species, three cDNA libraries were generated, yielding averages of 415,265, 695,313 and 93,578 reads for M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis, respectively, with an average read length of 274 bp. The reads mapping showed that 92%, 98% and 96% of the predicted genes were transcribed in the M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis genomes, respectively. Moreover, we showed that the majority of the genes are co-expressed, confirming the previously predicted transcription units. Finally, our data defined the RNA populations in detail, with the map transcript boundaries and transcription unit structures on a genome-wide scale.

  1. Unravelling the Transcriptome Profile of the Swine Respiratory Tract Mycoplasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Gerber, Alexandra Lehmkuhl; Guedes, Rafael Lucas Muniz; Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga; Schrank, Irene Silveira; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro; Zaha, Arnaldo

    2014-01-01

    The swine respiratory ciliary epithelium is mainly colonized by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma flocculare and Mycoplasma hyorhinis. While colonization by M. flocculare is virtually asymptomatic, M. hyopneumoniae and M. hyorhinis infections may cause respiratory disease. Information regarding transcript structure and gene abundance provides valuable insight into gene function and regulation, which has not yet been analyzed on a genome-wide scale in these Mycoplasma species. In this study, we report the construction of transcriptome maps for M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis, which represent data for conducting comparative studies on the transcriptional repertory. For each species, three cDNA libraries were generated, yielding averages of 415,265, 695,313 and 93,578 reads for M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis, respectively, with an average read length of 274 bp. The reads mapping showed that 92%, 98% and 96% of the predicted genes were transcribed in the M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis genomes, respectively. Moreover, we showed that the majority of the genes are co-expressed, confirming the previously predicted transcription units. Finally, our data defined the RNA populations in detail, with the map transcript boundaries and transcription unit structures on a genome-wide scale. PMID:25333523

  2. Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma bovis infection in dairy cows in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma bovis infection in dairy cows in subtropical southern China. ... Dairy cows with the history of 5 pregnancies had the highest seroprevalence (33.3%). However, no statistically significant association was found between M. bovis infection and age or number of pregnancies (p > 0.05). All the ...

  3. Identification and characterization of a novel Chlamydia trachomatis reticulate body protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Allan C; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Roepstorff, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The genome of the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis comprises 894 genes predicted by computer-based analysis. As part of a large-scale proteome analysis of C. trachomatis, a small abundant protein encoded by a previously unrecognized novel 204-bp open reading frame was identi...... cycle. The protein is rapidly degraded and is only present in reticulate or intermediate bodies, suggesting a possible function in the intracellular stage of C. trachomatis development. We have termed the protein '7-kDa reticulate body protein'....

  4. Analysis of glycosidases activity in Chlamydia trachomatis L2 serotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sanjiv Rughooputh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydiae are prokaryotic, gram negative, intracellular parasites, causing a number of human diseases with serious sequelae. The exact mechanism of chlamydial attachment and entry into the host cell is still unclear. Chlamydia trachomatis, SA2F (L2 was tested for the activity of glycosidases. Glycosidases are involved in the synthesis and breakdown of cell-wall polysaccharides, and have a pivotal role in attachment to the surface of host cells as well as in the invasion process of other infective agents. For these reasons, glycosidases are likely to provide important information regarding the general behaviour of this bacterium. Ten different glycosides bound to p-nitrophenol (pNP substrate were tested. Assays were performed on lysed and unlysed chlamydial extracts.Our results provided strong evidence for the existence of glycosidase activity in C.trachomatis, strain SA2F peaking at pH 5.0 and pH 7.5-8.0 There was a high enzymatic activity against p-NPa mannopyranoside and p-NP b-N acetylglucosamine with a recovery of 88% suggesting that the enzymes were present on the bacterial surface. Activity against these sugars, which form part of either the extracellular filler or in endoplasmic reticulum may suggest of a possible mechanism of cellular invasion.

  5. Comparison of detection procedures of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma hyosynoviae, and Mycoplasma hyorhinis in lungs, tonsils, and synovial fluid of slaughtered pigs and their distributions in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhanon, Metta; Tummaruk, Padet; Thongkamkoon, Pacharee; Thanawongnuwech, Roongroje; Prapasarakul, Nuvee

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether direct PCR (DP) gave similar results to culture prior to PCR (CPP) for detecting mycoplasmas in different types of pig tissues. A total of 724 samples obtained from lungs, tonsils, or synovial fluids from 270 slaughtered pigs were used. The history of clinical signs, lung score, and the presence of joint lesions were recorded during sample collection. The rates of detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma hyosynoviae, and Mycoplasma hyorhinis using both procedures were evaluated. The overall prevalences of M. hyopneumoniae, M. hyosynoviae, and M. hyorhinis were 40.3%, 12.3%, and 64.6%, respectively, and the detection rate depended on the sample type and the procedure used. With lung tissue, DP gave a higher detection rate for M. hyopneumoniae (77.4%) than CPP (38.5%). M. hyorhinis was detected by CPP at 15.6% and 18.1% and by DP at 31.5% and 5.2%, respectively. The positive rate derived from tonsil from CPP was closed to that of DP. Using synovial fluid could not yield any positive M. hyorhinis from CPP whereas 37.2% was positive from DP. In contrast, using sample tissue from lung and tonsil by CPP could show much higher positive number than that of DP. There was a significant relationship between joint lesion and M. hyorhinis detection by DP (P hyopneumoniae and M. hyorhinis detection by DP and CPP, respectively. Tonsil was likely the community of persistent M. hyosynoviae and M. hyorhinis with highly detection by CPP. Synovial fluid was apparently unsuitable for mycoplasmal culture. The accuracy of mycoplasmal detection may depend upon the type of sample relevant to the detection procedure used.

  6. The first report: An analysis of bacterial flora of the first voided urine specimens of patients with male urethritis using the 16S ribosomal RNA gene-based clone library method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Chunlin; Hamasuna, Ryoichi; Ogawa, Midori; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Hachisuga, Toru; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Taniguchi, Hatsumi

    2016-06-01

    To analyse the bacterial flora of urine from patients with male urethritis using the clone library method. Urine specimens from patients with urethritis were used. The bacterial flora was analysed according to the 16S ribosomal RNA gene-based clone library method. In addition, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum or Ureaplasma parvum were detected by the conventional PCR methods (TMA or real-time PCR) and data from the clone library and conventional PCR methods were compared. Among 58 urine specimens, 38 were successfully analysed using the clone library method. From the specimens, 2427 clones were evaluated and 95 bacterial phylotypes were detected. N. gonorrhoeae was detected from 6 specimens and as the predominant bacterial species in 5 specimens. M. genitalium was detected from 5 specimens and as the predominant bacterial species in 3 specimens. C. trachomatis was detected from 15 specimens using the TMA method, but was detected from only 1 specimen using the clone library method. U. parvum was detected from only 2 specimens using the clone library method. In addition, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis were also detected in 8 and 1 specimens, respectively. Gardnerella vaginalis, which is a potential pathogen for bacterial vaginitis in women, was detected in 10 specimens. The clone library method can detect the occupancy rate of each bacteria species among the bacterial flora and may be a new method for bacterial analyses in male urethritis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Advances in the Understanding and Treatment of Male Urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Laura H; Manhart, Lisa E; Martin, David H; Seña, Arlene C; Dimitrakoff, Jordan; Jensen, Jørgen Skov; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2015-12-15

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis are well-documented urethral pathogens, and the literature supporting Mycoplasma genitalium as an etiology of urethritis is growing. Trichomonas vaginalis and viral pathogens (herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and adenovirus) can cause urethritis, particularly in specific subpopulations. New data are emerging regarding the potential role of bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria in urethritis, although results are inconsistent regarding the pathogenic role of Ureaplasma urealyticum in men. Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma parvum do not appear to be pathogens. Men with suspected urethritis should undergo evaluation to confirm urethral inflammation and etiologic cause. Although nucleic acid amplification testing would detect N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis (or T. vaginalis if utilized), there is no US Food and Drug Administration-approved clinical test for M. genitalium available in the United States at this time. The varied etiologies of urethritis and lack of diagnostic options for some organisms present treatment challenges in the clinical setting. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. In vitro susceptibilities to fluoroquinolones in current and archived Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae isolates from meat-type turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerchman, Irina; Lysnyansky, Inna; Perk, Shimon; Levisohn, Sharon

    2008-10-15

    Monitoring of susceptibility to antibiotics in field isolates of pathogenic avian mycoplasmas is important for appropriate choice of treatment. Our study compared in vitro susceptibility to enrofloxacin and difloxacin in recent (2005-2006) isolates of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae from meat-type turkey flocks with archived (1997-2003) isolates and reference strains. Comparison of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values determined by microtest, agar dilution and commercial Etest showed good agreement, but underscored the need for standardized methods for testing. Notably, while the commercial Etest was convenient and accurate for determining MICs for enrofloxacin in the range 0.002-0.094microg/ml, the endpoint of inhibition for M. gallisepticum and M. synoviae strains with MIC values > or =1.0microg/ml could not be determined. A decrease in susceptibility to both fluoroquinolones was detected in archived strains but to a greater degree in recent isolates, most of which had MICs above the NCCLS susceptibility breakpoint for these antibiotics (meat-type turkeys suggests that these strains have become established in Israel, necessitating a reevaluation of antibiotic therapy. Periodic survey of MICs in field isolates of avian mycoplasmas to monitor for the possible appearance of resistant strains is recommended.

  9. Relationship between serum Chlamydia trachomatis antibody titer and tubal block in infertile Egyptian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Khairy Makled

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: ELISA can be used as a simple, noninvasive screening test for C. trachomatis IgG antibodies, with a high predictive value for tubal occlusion in infertile Egyptian women, however larger studies are needed to confirm our results.

  10. A correlative study of Papanicolaou smear, fluorescent antibody, and culture for the diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, M R; Barbacci, M; Kappus, E; Quinn, T

    1986-11-01

    A prospective study of 300 patients undergoing therapeutic termination of pregnancy was conducted. A Papanicolaou smear was obtained and a clinical evaluation of the cervix was made. Specimens from the cervix were examined by both direct fluorescent antibody and culture techniques for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis. The presence of inflammation on Papanicolaou smear could be correlated with C trachomatis isolation. Papanicolaou smear findings consistent with C trachomatis lacked both sensitivity and specificity when compared with direct fluorescent antibody and/or culture techniques. A correlation was found between the clinical diagnosis of cervicitis and C trachomatis. This interrelationship was absent when the component findings of cervicitis (ectopy, friability, and purulent mucus) were examined independently.

  11. Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis Infections among Ethnic Groups in Paramaribo, Suriname; Determinants and Ethnic Sexual Mixing Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Helm, Jannie J.; Bom, Reinier J. M.; Grünberg, Antoon W.; Bruisten, Sylvia M.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Sabajo, Leslie O. A.; de Vries, Henry J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection (chlamydia) in Suriname. Suriname is a society composed of many ethnic groups, such as Creoles, Maroons, Hindustani, Javanese, Chinese, Caucasians, and indigenous Amerindians. We estimated determinants for

  12. Multi locus sequence typing of Chlamydiales: clonal groupings within the obligate intracellular bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannekoek, Yvonne; Morelli, Giovanna; Kusecek, Barica; Morré, Servaas A.; Ossewaarde, Jacobus M.; Langerak, Ankie A.; van der Ende, Arie

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The obligate intracellular growing bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis causes diseases like trachoma, urogenital infection and lymphogranuloma venereum with severe morbidity. Several serovars and genotypes have been identified, but these could not be linked to clinical disease or outcome.

  13. Diversity of Cervical Microbiota in Asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infection: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Filardo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection continues to be an important public health problem worldwide due to its increasing incidence. C. trachomatis infection can lead to severe sequelae, such as pelvic inflammatory disease, obstructive infertility, and preterm birth. Recently, it has been suggested that the cervico-vaginal microbiota may be an important defense factor toward C. trachomatis infection as well as the development of chronic sequelae. Therefore, the investigation of microbial profiles associated to chlamydial infection is of the utmost importance. Here we present a pilot study aiming to characterize, through the metagenomic analysis of sequenced 16s rRNA gene amplicons, the cervical microbiota from reproductive age women positive to C. trachomatis infection. The main finding of our study showed a marked increase in bacterial diversity in asymptomatic C. trachomatis positive women as compared to healthy controls in terms of Shannon's diversity and Shannon's evenness (P = 0.031 and P = 0.026, respectively. More importantly, the cervical microbiota from C. trachomatis positive women and from healthy controls significantly separated into two clusters in the weighted UniFrac analysis (P = 0.0027, suggesting that differences between the two groups depended entirely on the relative abundance of bacterial taxa rather than on the types of bacterial taxa present. Furthermore, C. trachomatis positive women showed an overall decrease in Lactobacillus spp. and an increase in anaerobes. These findings are part of an ongoing larger epidemiological study that will evaluate the potential role of distinct bacterial communities of the cervical microbiota in C. trachomatis infection.

  14. Chlamydia trachomatis Serovar Distribution and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Coinfection in Male Patients with Urethritis in Greece▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadogeorgakis, Helen; Pittaras, Theodore E.; Papaparaskevas, Joseph; Pitiriga, Vassiliki; Katsambas, Andreas; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis serovars and Neisseria gonorrhoeae coinfection was studied in a group of 100 C. trachomatis-positive males with urethritis in Greece. The serovar distribution revealed that apart from the predominant worldwide types E and F, the relatively uncommon type G is also prevalent. Gonococcal coinfection was frequent (30%) and was associated with genovariant Ja (75%, P = 0.008). PMID:20357220

  15. Microarray-based genomic surveying of gene polymorphisms in Chlamydia trachomatis

    OpenAIRE

    Brunelle, Brian W; Nicholson, Tracy L; Stephens, Richard S

    2004-01-01

    By comparing two fully sequenced genomes of Chlamydia trachomatis using competitive hybridization on DNA microarrays, a logarithmic correlation was demonstrated between the signal ratio of the arrays and the 75-99% range of nucleotide identities of the genes. Variable genes within 14 uncharacterized strains of C. trachomatis were identified by array analysis and verified by DNA sequencing. These genes may be crucial for understanding chlamydial virulence and pathogenesis.

  16. Burden of recurrent Chlamydia trachomatis infections in young women: further uncovering the "hidden epidemic".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niccolai, Linda M; Hochberg, Abby L; Ethier, Kathleen A; Lewis, Jessica B; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2007-03-01

    To determine the frequency and patterns of recurrent Chlamydia trachomatis infections, the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection in young women. Cohort study using different data collection methods, including face-to-face interviews, medical record reviews, urine-based screening for C trachomatis infections, and a review of state health department reports of C trachomatis diagnoses. Ten community-based health centers that provided reproductive health care from June 1998 to September 2001. Eligibility criteria included being nulliparous, between the ages of 14 and 19 years, and human immunodeficiency virus-negative, all at the time of recruitment. This convenience sample (N = 411) was recruited by word of mouth, clinician referrals, and advertisements in the clinics. Prospective follow-up data were available for 93.9% (386/411) of the sample. The exposure of interest was prior chlamydia infection. Main Outcome Measure Diagnosis of recurrent C trachomatis infection. During the follow-up period of 23 318 person-months (mean, 4.7 years per person), 216 participants (52.6%) were diagnosed as having C trachomatis infection, and 123 participants (29.9% of the total sample and 56.9% of those with initial infections) were diagnosed as having recurrent C trachomatis infections. Of 456 C trachomatis diagnoses made during the study period, 241 (52.9%) were recurrent infections. The rate of recurrent infections was 42.1 per 1000 person-months. The median time to recurrent infection was 5.2 months. Recurrent C trachomatis infections comprise a substantial health burden among young women, possibly higher than previously recognized in this vulnerable population.

  17. Screening for abnormal vaginal microflora by self-assessed vaginal pH does not enable detection of sexually transmitted infections in Ugandan women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, Gilbert G G; Donders, Francesca; Bellen, Gert; Depuydt, Christophe; Eggermont, Natalie; Michiels, Thirsa; Lule, John; Byamughisa, Jacobat

    2016-06-01

    Is self-assessed vaginal pH measurement to detect abnormal vaginal bacterial microflora (AVF) an adequate prescreening method for detection of genital sexually transmitted infections (STIs)? A total of 360 Ugandan women tested themselves with a gloved finger and a pH color strip. PCR for bacterial vaginosis (BV)-associated bacteria was tested by PCR for Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and/or Atopobium vaginae, while the STIs were diagnosed by positive PCR for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, and/or Trichomonas vaginalis. A strong correlation was found between self-assessed pH values and BV-associated bacteria (Pvaginal pH correlated well with markers of high-risk microflora types such as BV or aerobic vaginitis, but not with STIs. Hence, in a screening program addressing AVF in low-resource countries, extra specific tests are required to exclude STIs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Generation of a Monoclonal Antibody against Mycoplasma spp. following Accidental Contamination during Production of a Monoclonal Antibody against Lawsonia intracellularis

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Jeong-Min; Lee, Ji-Hye; Yeh, Jung-Yong

    2012-01-01

    This report describes Mycoplasma contamination of Lawsonia intracellularis cultures that led to the unintended acquisition of a monoclonal antibody against Mycoplasma spp. during the attempted generation of a monoclonal antibody against L. intracellularis.

  19. Mastite bovina por Mycoplasma bovis em rebanhos leiteiros Mastitis caused by Mycoplasma bovis in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucienne G. Pretto

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinadas 713 vacas de três rebanhos leiteiros localizados na região norte do Estado do Paraná e sudoeste do Estado de São Paulo, das quais 137 apresentaram mastite. Nas três propriedades foram detectados oito animais (1,12% com mastite clínica por Mycoplasma bovis. Destes animais, quatro tratados com oxitetraciclina e tilosina e três com enrofloxacina, não responderam ao tratamento e foram descartados no decorrer da lactação. Uma vaca medicada com enrofloxacina recuperou quase que totalmente a secreção láctea mas a eliminação de M. bovis persistiu por toda lactação. Esta vaca apresentou cura bacteriológica na lactação seguinte. O descarte dos animais positivos, monitora-mento bacteriológico e a aplicação correta das medidas de prevenção para as mastites contagiosas controlaram a disseminação de M. bovis nos rebanhos.In this study 713 cows were examined. The animals were from three dairy farms in northern Paraná and the southwest of the State of São Paulo. From these cows, 137 had mastitis. On the three farms, 8 cows (1.12% with Mycoplasma bovis mastitis were detected. Four were treated with tylosin and oxytetracyclin and three with enrofloxacin. There was no response to the treatments, and these animals were culled during the lactation period. One cow treated with enrofloxacin almost totally recovered milk production, but elimination of M. bovis continued during the lactation, and there was no bacteriological cure. This cow had a normal milk production in the next lactation period, without elimination of M. bovis. Culling of positive animals, the bacteriological study and correct application of preventive practices for contagious mastitis controlled the dissemination of M. bovis to other animals.

  20. The molecular biology and diagnostics of Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend

    1992-01-01

    The rapid development of biotechnological methods provides the potential of dissecting the molecular structure of microorganisms. In this review the molecular biology of chlamydia is described. The genus Chlamydia contains three species C. trachomatis, C. psittaci, and C. pneumonia which all...... are important human pathogens. Chlamydia is obligate intracellular bacteria with a unique biphasic life cycle. The extracellularly chlamydial elementary bodies (EB) are small, metabolic inactive, infectious particles with a tight outer cell membrane. After internalization into host cells the chlamydial...... of chlamydia have not yet been found. The adhesin(s) is unknown, and no factor of importance for the inhibition of fusion between phagosome and host cell lysosomes has been described. A protein similar to the mip gene product of Legionella pneumofila may be a possible candidate for a pathogenicity factor...

  1. Frequency of anti-Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies in infertile women referred to Tabriz Al-Zahra hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahtab Sattari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility is one of the major issues in society and its incidence is estimated to be almost 10-15%. Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis is an important cause of sexually transmitted diseases leading to infertility. Objective: This study was designed to determine the frequency of anti-C. trachomatis antibodies in infertile women at Al-zahra hospital, Tabriz, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the blood samples were collected randomly from 184 infertile women (case group and 100 pregnant women (control group. The frequency of specific IgG and IgM anti-C. trachomatis antibodies were evaluated using ELISA method. Results: The frequency of IgG anti-C. trachomatis antibody in the control and case groups was 18% and 35.88%, respectively. IgM anti-C. trachomatis antibody was found in 2% of controls and 5.44% of infertile women. Our results showed the significant differences between the case and control groups in anti-C. trachomatis antibodies (IgG, p=0.035 and IgM, p=0.004. Also, no significant relation was seen between the frequency of anti-C. trachomatis antibodies and age, location, and tubal factor infertility in our two study groups. Conclusion: According to high frequency of antibody anti-C. trachomatis among infertile women in competition to the control group, evaluation and treatment of Chlamydia infections is necessary in these patients

  2. Acute pancreatitis caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae: an unusual etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés Lacasa, Teresa; Duarte Borges, María Alejandra; García Marín, Alicia; Gómez Cuervo, Covadonga

    2017-06-01

    It is well known that the most important etiologies of acute pancreatitis are gallstones and alcohol consumption. Once these causes have been ruled out, especially in young adults, it is important to consider less frequent etiologic factors such as drugs, trauma, malformations, autoimmunity or systemic diseases. Other rare and less well studied causes of this pathology are infections, among which Mycoplasma pneumoniae has been reported to cause acute pancreatitis as an unusual extrapulmonary manifestation. Here, we report the case of a 21-year-old patient who had acute idiopathic pancreatitis associated with an upper respiratory tract infection. After an in-depth study, all other causes of pancreatitis were ruled out and Mycoplasma was established as the clinical etiology.

  3. Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum as the presenting sign of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SP results from nontraumatic mediastinal air leakage. It is uncommon in children requiring a high index of suspicion. Case Report: A 17-year-old tall thin boy, light smoker, with no history of trauma or lung disease presented to our emergency room with symptoms dominated by chest pain and mild dyspnea. He reported a violent cough event in the previous hours. Pneumomediastinum was suspected considering the presence of subcutaneous air in the supraclavicular region, and was confirmed by chest radiograph, which showed mediastinal air. Serology study was positive for Mycoplasma pneumoniae and therefore a macrolide was added to symptomatic treatment, with a complete recovery. Discussion/Conclusion: SP is a diagnosis to consider when facing an adolescent with acute chest pain. This condition is possibly underdiagnosed, given its benign course and mild symptoms. Smoking acts as a predisposing factor. SP has only exceptionally been described in Mycoplasma infection.

  4. Search for OIE-listed ruminant mycoplasma diseases in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahir, W; Omar, O; Rosales, R S; Hlusek, M; Ziay, G; Schauwers, W; Whatmore, A M; Nicholas, R A J

    2017-05-30

    Little is known about the occurrence of important diseases of ruminants in Afghanistan because of the conflict affecting the country over the last 40 years. To address this discrepancy, ruminant herds in Afghanistan were screened for OIE-listed mycoplasma diseases, contagious bovine (CBPP) and caprine pleuropneumonias (CCPP). Of the 825 samples from 24 provinces tested for serological evidence of CBPP caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp.mycoides, 20 (3.4%) had ELISA values greater than the positive threshold of 50% though all were less than 55%. Repeat testing of these suspect sera gave values below 50. A smaller number of sera (330) from cattle in nine provinces were also tested by the rapid latex agglutination test (LAT) for CBPP, 10 of which were considered suspect. However, no positive bands were seen when immunoblotting was carried out on all sera that gave suspect results. Serological evidence of Mycoplasma bovis was detected in half of 28 herds in eight provinces. The cause of CCPP, M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae was not detected in any of the 107 nasal swabs and lung tissue collected from goats in seven provinces though sample handling and storage were not optimal. However, strong serological evidence was detected in goat herds in several villages near Kabul some of which were over 50% seropositive by LAT and ELISAs for CCPP; immunoblotting confirmed positive results on a selection of these sera. The data presented here provide a first assessment of the occurrence of the two OIE listed mycoplasma diseases in Afghanistan. From the results of the testing bovine sera from the majority of provinces there is no evidence of the presence of CBPP in Afghanistan. However the samples tested represented only 0.03% of the cattle population so a larger survey is required to confirm these findings. Serological, but not bacterial, evidence was produced during this investigation to show that CCPP is highly likely to be present in parts of Afghanistan.

  5. Atypical Pneumonia: Updates on Legionella, Chlamydophila, and Mycoplasma Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Lokesh; Losier, Ashley; Tolbert, Thomas; Dela Cruz, Charles S; Marion, Chad R

    2017-03-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has multiple causes and is associated with illness that requires admission to the hospital and mortality. The causes of atypical CAP include Legionella species, Chlamydophila, and Mycoplasma. Atypical CAP remains a diagnostic challenge and, therefore, likely is undertreated. This article reviews the advancements in the evaluation and treatment of patients and discusses current conflicts and controversies of atypical CAP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative in vitro activities of investigational peptide deformylase inhibitor NVP LBM-415 and other agents against human mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waites, Ken B; Reddy, Nipun B; Crabb, Donna M; Duffy, Lynn B

    2005-06-01

    Peptide deformylase inhibitor LBM-415 and seven other drugs were tested against Mycoplasma pneumoniae (100 isolates), Mycoplasma hominis (20 isolates), Mycoplasma fermentans (10 isolates), and Ureaplasma species (50 isolates). LBM-415 was active against M. pneumoniae (MICs,

  7. 9 CFR 147.16 - Procedure for the evaluation of mycoplasma reactors by in vivo bio-assay (enrichment).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... mycoplasma reactors by in vivo bio-assay (enrichment). 147.16 Section 147.16 Animals and Animal Products... the evaluation of mycoplasma reactors by in vivo bio-assay (enrichment). This procedure has been shown... publications: (a) Bigland, C. H. and A. J. DaMassa, “A Bio-Assay for Mycoplasma Gallisepticum.” In: United...

  8. Hemotropic mycoplasma infection in wild black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iso, Takehiro; Suzuki, Jin; Sasaoka, Fumina; Sashida, Hinako; Watanabe, Yusaku; Fujihara, Masatoshi; Nagai, Kazuya; Harasawa, Ryô

    2013-04-12

    This is the first report on Mycoplasma infection in wild bears. We report a novel hemotropic Mycoplasma (also called hemoplasma) detected in a free-ranging black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) in Japan. We then used real-time PCR to look for hemoplasma DNA in blood samples collected from 15 bears and found that eight (53%) were positive. Among these eight PCR samples, seven showed a melting temperature of around 85.5°C, while the remaining one showed a single peak at 82.26°C. Almost the entire region of the 16S rRNA gene as well as the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region from the sample that showed a melting temperature of 82.26°C was successfully amplified by means of end-point PCR. The nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and the ITS region were then determined and compared with those of authentic Mycoplasma species. Our examinations revealed the presence of a novel hemoplasma in Japanese black bears. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. An emerging mycoplasma associated with trichomoniasis, vaginal infection and disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Fettweis

    Full Text Available Humans are colonized by thousands of bacterial species, but it is difficult to assess the metabolic and pathogenic potential of the majority of these because they have yet to be cultured. Here, we characterize an uncultivated vaginal mycoplasma tightly associated with trichomoniasis that was previously known by its 16S rRNA sequence as "Mnola." In this study, the mycoplasma was found almost exclusively in women infected with the sexually transmitted pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis, but rarely observed in women with no diagnosed disease. The genomes of four strains of this species were reconstructed using metagenome sequencing and assembly of DNA from four discrete mid-vaginal samples, one of which was obtained from a pregnant woman with trichomoniasis who delivered prematurely. These bacteria harbor several putative virulence factors and display unique metabolic strategies. Genes encoding proteins with high similarity to potential virulence factors include two collagenases, a hemolysin, an O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase and a feoB-type ferrous iron transport system. We propose the name "Candidatus Mycoplasma girerdii" for this potential new pathogen.

  10. An emerging mycoplasma associated with trichomoniasis, vaginal infection and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettweis, Jennifer M; Serrano, Myrna G; Huang, Bernice; Brooks, J Paul; Glascock, Abigail L; Sheth, Nihar U; Strauss, Jerome F; Jefferson, Kimberly K; Buck, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    Humans are colonized by thousands of bacterial species, but it is difficult to assess the metabolic and pathogenic potential of the majority of these because they have yet to be cultured. Here, we characterize an uncultivated vaginal mycoplasma tightly associated with trichomoniasis that was previously known by its 16S rRNA sequence as "Mnola." In this study, the mycoplasma was found almost exclusively in women infected with the sexually transmitted pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis, but rarely observed in women with no diagnosed disease. The genomes of four strains of this species were reconstructed using metagenome sequencing and assembly of DNA from four discrete mid-vaginal samples, one of which was obtained from a pregnant woman with trichomoniasis who delivered prematurely. These bacteria harbor several putative virulence factors and display unique metabolic strategies. Genes encoding proteins with high similarity to potential virulence factors include two collagenases, a hemolysin, an O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase and a feoB-type ferrous iron transport system. We propose the name "Candidatus Mycoplasma girerdii" for this potential new pathogen.

  11. Detection of infectious bronchitis virus 793B, avian metapneumovirus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae in poultry in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, S; Bettridge, J; Christley, R; Habte, T; Ganapathy, K

    2017-02-01

    A survey was conducted into respiratory infectious diseases of poultry on a chicken breeder farm run by the Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR), located in Debre Zeit, Ethiopia. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from 117 randomly selected birds, and blood was taken from a subset of 73 of these birds. A combination of serological and molecular methods was used for detection of pathogens. For the first time in Ethiopia, we report the detection of variant infectious bronchitis virus (793B genotype), avian metapneumovirus subtype B and Mycoplasma synoviae in poultry. Mycoplasma gallisepticum was also found to be present; however, infectious laryngotracheitis virus was not detected by PCR. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was not detected by PCR, but variable levels of anti-NDV HI antibody titres shows possible exposure to virulent strains or poor vaccine take, or both. For the burgeoning-intensive industry in Ethiopia, this study highlights several circulating infectious respiratory pathogens that can impact on poultry welfare and productivity.

  12. Host Cell Responses to Persistent Mycoplasmas - Different Stages in Infection of HeLa Cells with Mycoplasma hominis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfe, Miriam; Deenen, René; Degrandi, Daniel; Köhrer, Karl; Henrich, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis is a facultative human pathogen primarily associated with bacterial vaginosis and pelvic inflammatory disease, but it is also able to spread to other sites, leading to arthritis or, in neonates, meningitis. With a minimal set of 537 annotated genes, M. hominis is the second smallest self-replicating mycoplasma and thus an ideal model organism for studying the effects of an infectious agent on its host more closely. M. hominis adherence, colonisation and invasion of HeLa cells were characterised in a time-course study using scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy and microarray-based analysis of the HeLa cell transcriptome. At 4 h post infection, cytoadherence of M. hominis to the HeLa cell surface was accompanied by differential regulation of 723 host genes (>2 fold change in expression). Genes associated with immune responses and signal transduction pathways were mainly affected and components involved in cell-cycle regulation, growth and death were highly upregulated. At 48 h post infection, when mycoplasma invasion started, 1588 host genes were differentially expressed and expression of genes for lysosome-specific proteins associated with bacterial lysis was detected. In a chronically infected HeLa cell line (2 weeks), the proportion of intracellular mycoplasmas reached a maximum of 10% and M. hominis-filled protrusions of the host cell membrane were seen by confocal microscopy, suggesting exocytotic dissemination. Of the 1972 regulated host genes, components of the ECM-receptor interaction pathway and phagosome-related integrins were markedly increased. The immune response was quite different to that at the beginning of infection, with a prominent induction of IL1B gene expression, affecting pathways of MAPK signalling, and genes connected with cytokine-cytokine interactions and apoptosis. These data show for the first time the complex, time-dependent reaction of the host directed at mycoplasmal clearance and the counter measures of

  13. Mycoplasmal adherence with particular reference to the pathogenicity of Mycoplasma Pulmonis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Robinson, D.; Furr, P.M.; Davies, H.A. (Medical Research Council, Harrow (UK). Clinical Research Centre); Manchee, R.J. (Water Pollution Research Lab., Watford (UK)); Mouches, C.; Bove, J.M. (INRA, Laboratoire de Biologie Cellulaire et Moleculaire, Pont de la Maye, France)

    1981-07-01

    Various eucaryotic cells adhere to colonies of some mycoplasmas (adsorption). The chemical nature of the receptors on the cells is not the same for all mycoplasma species, nor are the binding sites on different mycoplasmas the same. Some receptors comprise sialic acid, but in the case of Mycoplasma pulmonis, for example, attachment to cells is not mediated in this way. Nevertheless, adherence seems to be an important factor in the pathogenicity of this mycoplasma. Strain JB caused pneumonia in mice when inoculated intranasally, and colonies of this strain on agar absorbed erythrocytes (hemadsorption) strongly. After multiple passes in mycoplasma liquid medium, the strain lost its hemadsorbing capacity and also its mouse virulence, suggesting that the ability to attach to cells is a virulence factor. Examination by electron microscopy of the virulent mycoplasma and its induced avirulent form after ruthenium-red staining showed that the stain was less thick on the surface of the avirulent form. In addition, the protein pattern of the avirulent mycoplasma, demonstrated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was deficient in three bands. These observations suggest that a glycosylated protein may form the binding site on M. pulmonis organisms that mediates their attachment to cells.

  14. Prevalence of Mycoplasma bovis in Respiratory Tract of Cattle Slaughtered in Balochistan, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cattle lungs (n=1200 obtained from abattoir of 10 districts of Balochistan were processed for isolation and identification of Mycoplasma species. A total of 156 isolates produced typical fried egg colonies on Modified Hayflick’s agar medium and 87.8% were preliminarily identified as Mycoplasma species, 12.2% species were Acholeplasmas. All the digitonin sensitive isolates were further subjected to different biochemical and PCR tests for further identification. Overall prevalence of M. bovis lungs samples obtained from slaughter house samples was 9%. Among the Mycoplasma isolates; 108 M. bovis, 29 Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc and 16 M. arginini were identified through the biochemical tests. M. bovis and Mycoplasma mycoides subcluster members were further validated through PCR and RFLP. Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides small colony type (Mmm SC was not isolated from any of the lung samples. Among the Mycoplasma bovis species isolated, the highest number was observed from Quetta district (16% followed by Pishin (15%, Zhob (11 % and Kalat (10%. Conversely the lowest number of M. bovis isolates was found in Bolan (2% district followed by Jaffarabad (3%, 4%, each from Khuzdar, Mustung, Killasaifullah and 7% in Sibi district. Statistical analysis using chi square test, showed a significance difference (χ²=33.38 in the recovery of Mycoplasma bovis from the lungs of cattle slaughtered in 10 districts of Balochistan.

  15. Mycoplasmal adherence with particular reference to the pathogenicity of Mycoplasma Pulmonis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor-Robinson, D.; Furr, P.M.; Davies, H.A.; Mouches, C.; Bove, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    Various eucaryotic cells adhere to colonies of some mycoplasmas (adsorption). The chemical nature of the receptors on the cells is not the same for all mycoplasma species, nor are the binding sites on different mycoplasmas the same. Some receptors comprise sialic acid, but in the case of Mycoplasma pulmonis, for example, attachment to cells is not mediated in this way. Nevertheless, adherence seems to be an important factor in the pathogenicity of this mycoplasma. Strain JB caused pneumonia in mice when inocu lated intranasally, and colonies of this strain on agar absorbed erythrocytes (hemadsorption) strongly. After multiple passes in mycoplasma liquid medium, the strain lost its hemadsorbing capacity and also its mouse virulence, suggesting that the ability to attach to cells is a virulence factor. Examination by electron microscopy of the virulent mycoplasma and its induced avirulent form after ruthenium-red staining showed that the stain was less thick on the surface of the avirulent form. In addition, the protein pattern of the avirulent mycoplasma, demonstrated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was deficient in three bands. These observations suggest that a glycosylated protein may form the binding site on M. pulmonis organisms that mediates their attachment to cells. (author)

  16. Draft genome sequence of the first human isolate of the ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seersholm, Frederik Valeur; Fischer, Anne; Heller, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum is a well-known pathogen of small ruminants. A recent human case of septicemia involving this agent raised the question of its potential pathogenicity to humans. We present the first draft genome sequence of a human Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum...

  17. Chlamydia trachomatis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected men treated at a referral hospital for sexually transmitted diseases in the Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Panizza Jalkh

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: The high prevalence of C. trachomatis infection among human immunodeficiency virus-infected men highlights that screening human immunodeficiency virus-infected men for C. trachomatis, especially among men having sex with men, is paramount to control the spread of C. trachomatis infection.

  18. Effects of interferon gamma on Chlamydia trachomatis serovar A and L2 protein expression investigated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, A; Christiansen, Gunna; Birkelund, Svend

    1999-01-01

    ]methionine and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis with immobilized pH gradients in order to investigate changes in the protein expression of C. trachomatis serovar A and L2 caused by treatment with IFN-gamma. In contrast to what was observed in C. trachomatis L2, our results showed that, in C. trachomatis A, down...

  19. Survival and replication of Mycoplasma species in recycled bedding sand and association with mastitis on dairy farms in Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice-Allen, A; Trujillo, J; Corbett, R; Harding, R; Goodell, G; Wilson, D

    2010-01-01

    Mycoplasma spp., usually Mycoplasma bovis, are important bovine pathogens that can cause mastitis, metritis, pneumonia, and arthritis. The currently documented routes of transmission of Mycoplasma spp. are through contaminated milking equipment and by direct animal contact. The existence of environmental sources for Mycoplasma spp. and their role in transmission and clinical disease is poorly characterized. Mycoplasma spp. (confirmed as M. bovis in 2 of 4 samples tested using PCR) was found in recycled bedding sand originating from a dairy experiencing an outbreak of clinical mycoplasma mastitis. Mycoplasma spp. were subsequently found in bedding sand from 2 other dairies whose bulk-tank milk was mycoplasma-positive. The association between the occurrence of Mycoplasma spp. in recycled bedding sand and mycoplasma mastitis in cows was further investigated using a pile of recycled sand from dairy 1. Study objectives included the determination of factors associated with the concentration of Mycoplasma spp. in recycled bedding sand and the duration of survival of mycoplasmas in the sand. We also evaluated the efficacy of 2 disinfectants at 2 different concentrations each for the elimination of Mycoplasma spp. from contaminated sand. Mycoplasma spp. survived in the sand pile for 8 mo. The concentration of Mycoplasma spp. within the sand pile was directly related to temperature and precipitation. It was also positively associated with the growth of gram-negative microorganisms, suggesting the possibility of the formation of a biofilm. Ideal temperatures for replication of Mycoplasma spp. occurred between 15 and 20 degrees C. Moisture in the sand and movement of the sand pile also appeared to play a role in replication of mycoplasmas. We found that 0.5% sodium hypochlorite or 2% chlorhexidine were efficacious in eliminating Mycoplasma spp. from contaminated bedding sand. Recycled bedding sand could be an environmental source of Mycoplasma spp., including M. bovis

  20. Electrophoretic analysis of proteins from Mycoplasma capricolum and related serotypes using extracts from intact cells and from minicells containing cloned mycoplasma DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H; Christiansen, Gunna; Christiansen, C

    1984-01-01

    The acidic proteins of six different mycoplasma serotypes causing bovine or caprine pleuropneumonia were compared by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of extracts of 35S-labelled cells. The organisms investigated were Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (PG1), M. mycoides subsp. mycoides (Y......, whereas the two M. mycoides subspecies appeared to be quite distant from M. capricolum and F38. The representative strain of the bovine serogroup 7 of Leach was equally distant from F38, M. capricolum and the three strains of M. mycoides. Strikingly, all six mycoplasma strains apparently shared six...... proteins in the two-dimensional gels. In Escherichia coli minicells, DNA from strain PG50 cloned in the vector pBR325 gave rise to incorporation of radioactive label into proteins which were identified as mycoplasma proteins by two-dimensional electrophoresis and immunoprecipitation....

  1. Isolation of Mycoplasma gallopavonis from free-ranging wild turkeys in coastal North Carolina seropositive and culture-negative for Mycoplasma gallisepticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, D T; Ley, D H; Doerr, P D

    1992-01-01

    Serum samples and choanal cleft swabs were collected from livetrapped and hunter killed wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) from Martin and Bertie counties, North Carolina (USA). Sera were tested for antibodies to Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma meleagridis by hemagglutination inhibition (HI). Sera from 33% (five of 15) of livetrapped turkeys were positive for antibodies to M. gallisepticum by HI, and all were negative for antibodies to M. synoviae and M. meleagridis. Choanal cleft swabs from 22 livertrapped and five hunter killed wild turkeys cultured in Frey's broth medium resulted in 23 mycoplasma isolations. Using direct immunofluorescence, 74% (17/23) were M. gallopavonis, and 26% (six of 23) were unidentified; no isolate was identified as M. gallisepticum, M. synoviae or M. meleagridis.

  2. Development and host compatibility of plasmids for two important ruminant pathogens, Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma agalactiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukriti Sharma

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma bovis is a cause of pneumonia, mastitis, arthritis and otitis media in cattle throughout the world. However, despite its clinical significance, there is a paucity of tools to genetically manipulate it, impeding our capacity to further explore the molecular basis of its virulence. To address this limitation, we developed a series of homologous and heterologous replicable plasmids from M. bovis and M. agalactiae. The shortest replicable oriC plasmid based on the region downstream of dnaA in M. bovis was 247 bp and contained two DnaA boxes, while oriC plasmids based on the region downstream of dnaA in M. agalactiae strains 5632 and PG2 were 219 bp and 217 bp in length, respectively, and contained only a single DnaA box. The efficiency of transformation in M. bovis and M. agalactiae was inversely correlated with the size of the oriC region in the construct, and, in general, homologous oriC plasmids had a higher transformation efficiency than heterologous oriC plasmids. The larger pWholeoriC45 and pMM21-7 plasmids integrated into the genomic oriC region of M. bovis, while the smaller oriC plasmids remained extrachromosomal for up to 20 serial passages in selective media. Although specific gene disruptions were not be achieved in M. bovis in this study, the oriC plasmids developed here could still be useful as tools in complementation studies and for expression of exogenous genes in both M. bovis and M. agalactiae.

  3. Development and Host Compatibility of Plasmids for Two Important Ruminant Pathogens, Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma agalactiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shukriti; Citti, Chistine; Sagné, Eveline; Marenda, Marc S.

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a cause of pneumonia, mastitis, arthritis and otitis media in cattle throughout the world. However, despite its clinical significance, there is a paucity of tools to genetically manipulate it, impeding our capacity to further explore the molecular basis of its virulence. To address this limitation, we developed a series of homologous and heterologous replicable plasmids from M. bovis and M. agalactiae. The shortest replicable oriC plasmid based on the region downstream of dnaA in M. bovis was 247 bp and contained two DnaA boxes, while oriC plasmids based on the region downstream of dnaA in M. agalactiae strains 5632 and PG2 were 219 bp and 217 bp in length, respectively, and contained only a single DnaA box. The efficiency of transformation in M. bovis and M. agalactiae was inversely correlated with the size of the oriC region in the construct, and, in general, homologous oriC plasmids had a higher transformation efficiency than heterologous oriC plasmids. The larger pWholeoriC45 and pMM21-7 plasmids integrated into the genomic oriC region of M. bovis, while the smaller oriC plasmids remained extrachromosomal for up to 20 serial passages in selective media. Although specific gene disruptions were not be achieved in M. bovis in this study, the oriC plasmids developed here could still be useful as tools in complementation studies and for expression of exogenous genes in both M. bovis and M. agalactiae. PMID:25746296

  4. Chitosan-adjuvanted Mycoplasma gallisepticum bacterin via intraocular administration enhances Mycoplasma gallisepticum protection in commercial layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limsatanun, A; Sasipreeyajan, J; Pakpinyo, S

    2018-06-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) causes respiratory signs and economic losses in the poultry industry. MG vaccination is one of the effective prevention and control measures that have been used around the world. Our previous study demonstrated that chitosan-adjuvanted MG bacterin could effectively reduce pathological lesions induced by MG and that chitosan could be used as an adjuvant in MG bacterin. The present study determining the efficacy of MG bacterins against the Thai MG strain was based on vaccine programs. Seven groups (25 layers/group) were received MG bacterins containing 0.5% chitosan or a commercial bacterin via intramuscular (IM) or intraocular (IO) route at 6 and 10 wk of age. Sham-negative and sham-positive controls were groups 1 and 2, respectively. Group 3: IM route of chitosan bacterin followed by IM route of chitosan bacterin; group 4: commercial bacterin via IM route followed by chitosan bacterin via IO route; group 5: commercial bacterin via IM route followed by commercial bacterin via IM route; group 6: chitosan bacterin via IM followed by chitosan bacterin via IO route; and group 7: chitosan bacterin via IO route followed by chitosan bacterin via IO route were determined. At 16 wk of age, all groups, excluding group 1, were challenged intratracheally with 0.1 mL containing Thai MG strain 107 colony-forming unit. At 17, 18, and 20 wk of age, 5 birds in each group were bled for serological testing and swabbed at the choanal cleft for the quantitative real-time PCR assay, the euthanized and necropsied. The results showed that birds vaccinated with a commercial intramuscular bacterin followed by an intraocularly chitosan adjuvant bacterin showed the best protection against the MG challenge. The study indicated that chitosan could be the effective mucosal adjuvant and increased the effectiveness of MG bacterin.

  5. Antibody responses of swine following infection with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, M. hyorhinis, M. hyosynoviae and M. flocculare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes Neto, João Carlos; Strait, Erin L; Raymond, Matthew; Ramirez, Alejandro; Minion, F Chris

    2014-11-07

    Several mycoplasma species possessing a range of virulence have been described in swine. The most commonly described are Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma hyorhinis, Mycoplasma hyosynoviae, and Mycoplasma flocculare. They are ubiquitious in many pig producing areas of the world, and except for M. hyopneumoniae, commercial antibody-based assays are lacking for most of these. Antibody cross-reactivity among these four mycoplasma species is not well characterized. Recently, the use of pen-based oral fluids for herd surveillance is of increasing interest. Thus, this study sought to measure pig antibody responses and the level of cross-reactivity in serum and pen-based oral fluids after challenge with four species of swine mycoplasmas. Four groups of four mycoplasma-free growing pigs were separately inoculated with the different mycoplasma species. Pen-based oral fluids and serum samples were collected weekly until necropsy. Species-specific Tween 20 ELISAs were used to measure antibody responses along with four other commercial M. hyopneumoniae ELISAs. Animals from all groups seroconverted to the challenge species of mycoplasma and no evidence of cross-contamination was observed. A delayed antibody response was seen with all but M. hyorhinis-infected pigs. Cross-reactive IgG responses were detected in M. hyopneumoniae- and M. flocculare-infected animals by the M. hyorhinis Tween 20 ELISA, while sera from M. hyosynoviae and M. flocculare-infected pigs were positive in one commercial assay. In pen-based oral fluids, specific anti-M. hyopneumoniae IgA responses were detected earlier after infection than serum IgG responses. In summary, while some antibody-based assays may have the potential for false positives, evidence of this was observed in the current study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. RNA interference screen identifies Abl kinase and PDGFR signaling in Chlamydia trachomatis entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherilyn A Elwell

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The strain designated Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 that was used for experiments in this paper is Chlamydia muridarum, a species closely related to C. trachomatis (and formerly termed the Mouse Pneumonitis strain of C. trachomatis. This conclusion was verified by deep sequencing and by PCR using species-specific primers. All data presented in the results section that refer to C. trachomatis should be interpreted as referring to C. muridarum. Since C. muridarum TARP lacks the consensus tyrosine repeats present in C. trachomatis TARP, we cannot make any conclusions about the role of TARP phosphorylation and C. muridarum entry. However, the conclusion that C. trachomatis L2 TARP is a target of Abl kinase is still valid as these experiments were performed with C. trachomatis L2 TARP [corrected]. To elucidate the mechanisms involved in early events in Chlamydia trachomatis infection, we conducted a large scale unbiased RNA interference screen in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells. This allowed identification of candidate host factors in a simple non-redundant, genetically tractable system. From a library of 7,216 double stranded RNAs (dsRNA, we identified approximately 226 host genes, including two tyrosine kinases, Abelson (Abl kinase and PDGF- and VEGF-receptor related (Pvr, a homolog of the Platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR. We further examined the role of these two kinases in C. trachomatis binding and internalization into mammalian cells. Both kinases are phosphorylated upon infection and recruited to the site of bacterial attachment, but their roles in the infectious process are distinct. We provide evidence that PDGFRbeta may function as a receptor, as inhibition of PDGFRbeta by RNA interference or by PDGFRbeta neutralizing antibodies significantly reduces bacterial binding, whereas depletion of Abl kinase has no effect on binding. Bacterial internalization can occur through activation of PDGFRbeta or through independent

  7. Interplay of recombination and selection in the genomes of Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Deborah

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterial parasite, which causes several severe and debilitating diseases in humans. This study uses comparative genomic analyses of 12 complete published C. trachomatis genomes to assess the contribution of recombination and selection in this pathogen and to understand the major evolutionary forces acting on the genome of this bacterium. Results The conserved core genes of C. trachomatis are a large proportion of the pan-genome: we identified 836 core genes in C. trachomatis out of a range of 874-927 total genes in each genome. The ratio of recombination events compared to mutation (ρ/θ was 0.07 based on ancestral reconstructions using the ClonalFrame tool, but recombination had a significant effect on genetic diversification (r/m = 0.71. The distance-dependent decay of linkage disequilibrium also indicated that C. trachomatis populations behaved intermediately between sexual and clonal extremes. Fifty-five genes were identified as having a history of recombination and 92 were under positive selection based on statistical tests. Twenty-three genes showed evidence of being under both positive selection and recombination, which included genes with a known role in virulence and pathogencity (e.g., ompA, pmps, tarp. Analysis of inter-clade recombination flux indicated non-uniform currents of recombination between clades, which suggests the possibility of spatial population structure in C. trachomatis infections. Conclusions C. trachomatis is the archetype of a bacterial species where recombination is relatively frequent yet gene gains by horizontal gene transfer (HGT and losses (by deletion are rare. Gene conversion occurs at sites across the whole C. trachomatis genome but may be more often fixed in genes that are under diversifying selection. Furthermore, genome sequencing will reveal patterns of serotype specific gene exchange and selection that will generate important

  8. Disappointing performance of literature-derived selective screening criteria for asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infection in an inner-city population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Valkengoed, I G; Boeke, A J; Morré, S A; van den Brule, A J; Meijer, C J; Devillé, W; Bouter, L M

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In an inner-city population with a low prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection, selective screening may be indicated to increase the efficiency of screening. GOAL: To evaluate the performance of sets of selective screening criteria for asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infection

  9. The Role of Surinamese Migrants in the Transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis between Paramaribo, Suriname and Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bom, Reinier J. M.; van der Helm, Jannie J.; Bruisten, Sylvia M.; Grünberg, Antoon W.; Sabajo, Leslie O. A.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; de Vries, Henry J. C.

    2013-01-01

    The large Surinamese migrant population in the Netherlands is a major risk group for urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Suriname, a former Dutch colony, also has a high prevalence of C. trachomatis. Surinamese migrants travel extensively between the Netherlands and Suriname. Our objective

  10. Rapid Determination of Lymphogranuloma Venereum Serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis by Quantitative High-Resolution Melt Analysis (HRMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Matthew P.; Garland, Suzanne M.; Zaia, Angelo M.; Tabrizi, Sepehr N.

    2012-01-01

    A quantitative high-resolution melt analysis assay was developed to differentiate lymphogranuloma venereum-causing serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis (L1 to L3) from other C. trachomatis serovars (D to K). The detection limit of this assay is approximately 10 copies per reaction, comparable to the limits of other quantitative-PCR-based methods. PMID:22933594

  11. Mycoplasma bovis infections and co-infections with other Mycoplasma spp. with different clinical manifestations in affected cattle herds in eastern region of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szacawa Ewelina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the presence of Mycoplasma bovis infection and co-infections with other Mycoplasma spp. infections in cattle. The tested population was one in the eastern region of Poland containing 66 dairy cows and 23 calves showing different clinical signs and suffering from pneumonia, mastitis, and arthritis. The incidence of M. bovis in co-infections with other Mycoplasma spp. was examined using serological traditional mycoplasma culture methods, and the molecular methods - PCR and polymerase chain reaction/denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR/DGGE. The PCR/DGGE method for detecting Mycoplasma spp. in cattle was used for the first time in Poland. The seroprevalence of M. bovis in the affected cattle herds in the eastern region of Poland was 47.8% in calves and 19.7% in dairy cows. The direct detection and identification of M. bovis from nasopharyngeal swabs by PCR revealed that 56.5% of calves were positive, but all of the dairy cows were negative. The PCR/DGGE identified eight (34.8% instances of M. arginini and eight (26.1% instances of M. bovirhinis co-infecting with M. bovis in ten calves. The seroprevalence of M. bovis in the tested population was 33.7%. Any future attempts to control mycoplasma infections require an insight into the current epidemiological situation of M. bovis infection and its relationship to other mycoplasmas in causing clinical disease in cattle. Using these diagnostic methods we have demonstrated that mycoplasmal infections are often caused by multiple species of Mycoplasma and not just the primary M. bovis pathogen.

  12. Chlamydia trachomatis infections in Greece: first prevalence study using nucleic acid amplification tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levidiotou, S; Vrioni, G; Papadogeorgaki, H; Avdeliodi, K; Kada, H; Kaparos, G; Kouskouni, E; Fragouli, E; Legakis, N J

    2005-03-01

    The present retrospective study was initiated to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and to assess the risk factors for infection in adult women and men presenting to general practitioners, gynecologists, dermatologists, and family-planning centers in Greece. The study was carried out in four different Greek hospital centers using highly sensitive nucleic acid amplification techniques. Altogether, 16,834 women and 1,035 men were enrolled from October 1998 to April 2004. Two types of specimens were collected from each patient: cervical swabs from women, urethral swabs from men, and first-catch urine from women and men. All specimens were examined with the Cobas Amplicor C. trachomatis polymerase chain reaction assay (Roche Molecular Systems, Branchburg, NJ, USA) or the LC x C. trachomatis ligase chain reaction assay (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA). Demographic and behavioral data were collected by clinicians using a standardized questionnaire. A total of 704 (3.9%) patients were infected with C. trachomatis. The prevalence among female patients was 3.5% and that among male patients 11.2%. Among infected patients, 88% were under 30 years of age, 71% reported more than one sexual partner, and 91% reported a new sexual partner within the last year. In conclusion, the prevalence of C. trachomatis infection in Greece is low. Young age and new and multiple sexual partners within the last year were factors consistently associated with an increased risk of chlamydial infection.

  13. Microbiological study of neonatal conjunctivitis with special reference to chlamydia trachomatis.

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    Mohile Mukula

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the microbial agents, chiefly Chlamydia trachomatis and other bacteria, in neonatal conjunctivitis. METHODS: Conjunctival specimens from 70 newborns with conjunctivitis were subjected to bacterial culture and sensitivity testing, monoclonal antibody based C. trachomatis antigen detection test and species-specific Chlamydia antibody detection in the sera of babies and their mothers, by micro-immunofluorescence assay. RESULTS: Bacteria were isolated from 35 (50% babies; the majority (20, 57.14% were Staphylococcus epidermidis. C. trachomatis antigen was detected in conjunctival smears of 17 (24% babies, and 6 (35.29% of them were positive for other bacteria. Six babies and their mothers tested positive for C. trachomatis Ig G antibodies. At follow-up after 14 weeks, 6 (35.29% of the Chlamydia antigen-positive babies were found to have developed recurrent conjunctivitis. CONCLUSION: C. trachomatis is responsible for almost a quarter of all cases of neonatal conjunctivitis, with recurrences in 35% of cases. Bacteria could be isolated from 50% of the patients though the exact role of Staphylococcus epidermidis, isolated from 28.65% of the neonatal conjunctivitis cases, remains unclear.

  14. Severe Sepsis and Acute Myocardial Dysfunction in an Adolescent with Chlamydia Trachomatis Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ashley M; Roden, R Claire; Matson, Steven C; Wallace, Grant M; Lange, Hannah L H; Bonny, Andrea E

    2018-04-01

    Although generally asymptomatic, severe Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) infections have been documented. C. trachomatis has been associated with myocarditis as well as sepsis. A 19-year-old girl with type 1 diabetes mellitus developed sudden-onset mental status change and shock after resolution of diabetic ketoacidosis. Abdominal and pelvic imaging showed uterine and adnexal inflammation, and pelvic examination confirmed a diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease. The patient was intubated, required vasopressor support, and developed severe biventricular myocardial dysfunction. Infectious myocarditis workup was negative. Nucleic acid amplification testing from vaginal discharge was positive for C. trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis and negative for Neisseria gonorrhoeae. C. trachomatis should be considered in the workup of septic shock, particularly in populations at high risk for sexually transmitted infections. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Trachoma: protective and pathogenic ocular immune responses to Chlamydia trachomatis.

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    Victor H Hu

    Full Text Available Trachoma, caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct, is the leading infectious blinding disease worldwide. Chronic conjunctival inflammation develops in childhood and leads to eyelid scarring and blindness in adulthood. The immune response to Ct provides only partial protection against re-infection, which can be frequent. Moreover, the immune response is central to the development of scarring pathology, leading to loss of vision. Here we review the current literature on both protective and pathological immune responses in trachoma. The resolution of Ct infection in animal models is IFNγ-dependent, involving Th1 cells, but whether this is the case in human ocular infection still needs to be confirmed. An increasing number of studies indicate that innate immune responses arising from the epithelium and other innate immune cells, along with changes in matrix metalloproteinase activity, are important in the development of tissue damage and scarring. Current trachoma control measures, which are centred on repeated mass antibiotic treatment of populations, are logistically challenging and have the potential to drive antimicrobial resistance. A trachoma vaccine would offer significant advantages. However, limited understanding of the mechanisms of both protective immunity and immunopathology to Ct remain barriers to vaccine development.

  16. Characterization of interactions between inclusion membrane proteins from Chlamydia trachomatis

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    Emilie eGauliard

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular pathogens of eukaryotes. The bacteria grow in an intracellular vesicle called an inclusion, the membrane of which is heavily modified by chlamydial proteins called Incs (Inclusion membrane proteins. Incs represent 7-10% of the genomes of Chlamydia and, given their localization at the interface between the host and the pathogen, likely play a key role in the development and pathogenesis of the bacterium. However, their functions remain largely unknown. Here, we characterized the interaction properties between various Inc proteins of C. trachomatis, using a bacterial two-hybrid (BACTH method suitable for detecting interactions between integral membrane proteins. To validate this approach, we first examined the oligomerization properties of the well-characterized IncA protein and showed that both the cytoplasmic domain and the transmembrane region independently contribute to IncA oligomerization. We then analyzed a set of Inc proteins and identified novel interactions between these components. Two small Incs, IncF and Ct222, were found here to interact with many other Inc proteins and may thus represent interaction nodes within the inclusion membrane. Our data suggest that the Inc proteins may assemble in the membrane of the inclusion to form specific multi-molecular complexes in an hierarchical and temporal manner. These studies will help to better define the putative functions of the Inc proteins in the infectious process of Chlamydia.

  17. Human antibody and antigen response to IncA antibody of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, P Y; Hsu, M C; Huang, C T; Li, S Y

    2007-01-01

    The high prevalence of C. trachomatis worldwide has underscored the importance of identifying specific immunogenic antigens in facilitating diagnosis as well as vaccine development. The aim of this study is to evaluate IncA antibody and antigen production in natural human infections. Our temporal expression study showed that IncA transcription and protein expression could be detected as early as 4 hours after the start of infection. Antibody responses could be detected in urine and genital swab samples from C. trachomatis-positive patients. It is especially interesting to note that the IncA antigen could be detected in urine. In conclusion, we have identified IncA as an important antigen in human. The potential applicability of the IncA antibody or antigen in the diagnosis as well as to vaccine development for C. trachomatis is also discussed.

  18. Characterization of two conformational epitopes of the Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 DnaK immunogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend; Mygind, P; Holm, A

    1996-01-01

    this protein. By use of recombinant DNA techniques, we located the epitopes for two MAbs in the C-terminal variable part. Although the antibodies reacted in an immunoblot assay, it was not possible to map the epitopes completely by use of 16-mer synthetic peptides displaced by one amino acid corresponding......Chlamydia trachomatis DnaK is an important immunogen in chlamydial infections. DnaK is composed of a conserved N-terminal ATP-binding domain and a variable C-terminal peptide-binding domain. To locate the immunogenic part of C. trachomatis Dnak, we generated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against...... with the two antibodies. The epitopes were found not to overlap. To obtain DnaK fragments recognized by the antibodies with the same affinity as native C. trachomatis DnaK, it was necessary to express, respectively, regions of 127 and 77 amino acids. The MAbs described in this study thus recognized...

  19. IL-10 polymorphism and cell-mediated immune response to Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, H.; Tiitinen, A; Halttunen, M.

    2006-01-01

    background. To study a relationship between interleukin-10 (IL-10) promoter -1082 polymorphism and cell-mediated immune response during C trachomatis infection in vitro, lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine (IL-10, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-5) secretion were analysed in subjects with different...... IL-10 genotypes. Enhanced IL-10 secretion and reduced antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferative and IFN-gamma responses were found in subjects with IL-10 -1082 GG genotype when compared to those with -1082 AA genotype. CD14+ monocytes were main source of IL-10 indicating that these cells...... are important regulators of the antigen-specific cell-mediated responses during active C trachomatis infection. We conclude that impaired cell-mediated response to C trachomatis is associated with IL-10 genotype in subjects with high IL-10 producing capacity. A comparison of immune markers between subjects...

  20. Development and validation of an attenuated Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae aerosol vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhi-Xin; Wei, Yan-Na; Li, Gui-Lan; Lu, Xiao-Ming; Wan, Xiu-Feng; Pharr, G Todd; Wang, Zhan-Wei; Kong, Meng; Gan, Yuan; Bai, Fang-Fang; Liu, Mao-Jun; Xiong, Qi-Yan; Wu, Xu-Su; Shao, Guo-Qing

    2013-12-27

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) causes a chronic respiratory disease with high morbidity and low mortality in swine, and has been presented as a major cause of growth retardation in the swine industry. Aerosol vaccination presents a needle free, high throughput, and efficient platform for vaccine delivery, and has been widely applied in poultry vaccination. However, aerosol vaccines have rarely been used in swine vaccination primarily because the long and curving respiratory track of swine presents a barrier for vaccine particle delivery. To develop an effective M. hyopneumoniae aerosol vaccine, three major barriers need to be overcome: to optimize particle size for aerosol delivery, to maintain the viability of mycoplasma cells in the vaccine, and to optimize the environmental conditions for vaccine delivery. In this study, an aerosol mycoplasma vaccine was successfully developed based on a conventional live attenuated M. hyopneumoniae vaccine. Specifically, the Pari LCD nebulizer was used to produce an aerosol vaccine particle size less than 5 μm; and a buffer with 5% glycerol was developed and optimized to prevent inactivation of M. hyopneumoniae caused by aerosolization and evaporation. Before nebulization, the room temperature and relative humidity were control to 20-25 °C and 70-75%, respectively, which helped maintain the viability of aerosol vaccine. Animal experiments demonstrated that this newly developed aerosol vaccine was effectively delivered to swine low respiratory track, being confirmed by nested-PCR, in situ hybridization and scanning electron microscope. Moreover, M. hyopneumoniae specific sIgA secretion was detected in the nasal swab samples at 14 days post-immunization. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a live M. hyopneumoniae aerosol vaccine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence of Chlamydia Trachomatis, Neisseria Gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas Vaginalis Infection in Chilean Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huneeus, Andrea; Schilling, Andrea; Fernandez, Mario I

    2018-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis infection in sexually active Chilean adolescents and young adults. A comparative analysis was performed between genders to identify demographic, clinical, and sexual behavior characteristics to predict the occurrence of C trachomatis. Analytical observational study. Santiago, Chile. Two hundred eighty-six sexually active volunteers aged 24 years or younger (171 female and 115 male); 82.9% (237/286) of them were classified as having high socioeconomic status. Confidential survey and self-collected samples (urine for men and vaginal swabs for women). Prevalence, demographic characteristics, symptoms, and sexual behavior characteristics. The prevalence rate of C trachomatis was 8.7% (10/115) in men and 8.8% (15/171) in women (P = .58). N gonorrhoeae was detected in 1 subject, whereas no T vaginalis cases were detected. In multivariate analysis, having some college education was protective (odds ratio [OR], 0.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09-0.89), whereas having a higher number of sexual partners was a risk factor (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.1-1.3) for C trachomatis infection. The latter was also predicted by postcoital bleeding (OR, 4.6; 95% CI, 1.30-16.23) in the female model. C trachomatis infection rates were similar between both genders. Protective characteristics for the occurrence of this infection were having some college education, lower number of sexual partners, and if female, the absence of postcoital bleeding. This study highlights the importance of C trachomatis screening among the Chilean affluent population younger than 25 years. However, further studies are needed in a more diverse and representative sample to recommend universal screening in Chilean adolescents and young adults. Copyright © 2018 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of patients with dry eye disease for conjunctival Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelfattah, Maha Mohssen; Khattab, Rania Abdelmonem; Mahran, Magda H; Elborgy, Ebrahim S

    2016-01-01

    To determine the possibility of the development of dry eye disease (DED) as a result of persistent infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in the conjunctiva of patients. This study was conducted on 58 patients of age range 20-50y, diagnosed with DED confirmed by Schirmer I test and tear breakup time. The non-dry eye control group included 27 subjects of the same age. Ocular specimens were collected as conjunctival scrapings and swabs divided into three groups: the first used for bacterial culture, the second and third taken to detect Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum by direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in 65.5% and 76% of DED patients by DFA and PCR methods respectively. Ureaplasma urealyticum was found in 44.8% of DED infected patients using the PCR method. Both organisms were identified in only 37.9% of DED patients found to be infected. Control subjects had a 22% detection rate of Chlamydia trachomatis by DFA assay versus a 7% detection rate by PCR; while Ureaplasma urealyticum was detected in 3.7% of the controls by PCR method. The conjunctival culture revealed that gram positive microorganisms represented 75% of isolates with coagulase negative Staphylococci the most common (50%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (20%), whereas gram negative microorganisms occurred in 25% of cases, isolating Moraxella spp. as the most frequent organism. Our results tend to point out that Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum were detected in a moderate percentage of patients with DED, and could be a fair possibility for its development. PCR is more reliable in detecting Chlamydia trachomatis than DFA technique. The presence of isolated conjunctival bacterial microflora can be of some potential value.

  3. Mycoplasmas isolated from stone curlews (Burhinus oedicnemus) used in falconry in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Volker; Spergser, Joachim; Cramer, Kerstin; Di Somma, Antonio; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Bailey, Tom

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of transmission of Mycoplasma spp. from quarry to hunting falcons in the Middle East. Groups of 17 houbara bustards (Chlamydotis undulata) and 29 stone curlews (Burhinus oedicnemus) kept at three different private collections in Dubai were evaluated for the presence of Mycoplasma. Additionally, 10 falcons used for hunting were investigated for comparison. The falcons showed no clinical signs and were examined within the scope of a routine health check. From all birds, conjunctival and choanal swabs were taken and analyzed via polymerase chain reaction and culture. Although mycoplasmas were not recovered from choanal and conjunctival swabs taken from the houbara bustards, Mycoplasma gypis and M. falconis were isolated from the majority (28/29; 97%) of the stone curlews from choanal and conjunctival swabs. Most of the birds had no associated pathologic findings. Mycoplasma falconis was also detected in samples collected from 2 of the 10 falcons, and M. buteonis was isolated from the majority of falcons (6/10 falcons) from choanal (n = 5) and conjunctival (n = 1) swabs. Mycoplasma gypis could also be isolated from tissue samples (liver, oviduct, syrinx) of one dead stone curlew. This study presents the first isolation of mycoplasmas from stone curlews.

  4. The effects of mycoplasma contamination upon the ability to form bioengineered 3D kidney cysts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa M DesRochers

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma contamination of cell cultures is a pervasive, often undiagnosed and ignored problem in many laboratories that can result in reduced cell proliferation and changes in gene expression. Unless contamination is specifically suspected, it is often undetected in two dimensional (2D cultures and the resulting effects of mycoplasma contamination are rarely appreciated and can lead to incorrect conclusions. Three dimensional (3D tissue cultures are increasingly utilized to explore tissue development and phenotype. However, 3D cultures are more complex than 2D cell cultures and require a more controlled cellular environment in order to generate structures necessary to mimic in vivo responses and are often maintained for longer time periods. Changes to the microenvironment are assumed to have a more extreme effect upon the success of 3D tissue cultures than 2D cell cultures, but the effects of mycoplasma have not been studied. To test this hypothesis, we grew 2D cell cultures and 3D tissues from pig kidney epithelial cells (LLC-PK1 that were contaminated with mycoplasma and the same stock of cells after mycoplasma removal. We did not observe an effect of mycoplasma contamination on proliferation in 2D monolayer cell culture. However, cyst formation in 3D tissues was altered, with effects upon the number, size and structure of cysts formed. These data serve to reinforce the necessity of testing cell stocks for mycoplasma contamination.

  5. Mycoplasma hominis periaortic abscess following heart-lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiya, Hideharu; Yoshida, Hisao; Yamamoto, Norihisa; Kimura, Keigo; Ueda, Akiko; Nishi, Isao; Akeda, Yukihiro; Tomono, Kazunori

    2017-06-01

    We report the first case of Mycoplasma hominis periaortic abscess after heart-lung transplantation. The absence of sternal wound infection delayed the diagnosis, but the patient successfully recovered with debridement surgeries and long-term antibiotic therapy. Owing to the difficulty in detection and the intrinsic resistance to beta-lactams, M. hominis infections are prone to being misdiagnosed and undertreated. M. hominis should be suspected in cases where conventional microbiological identification and treatment approaches fail. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Sensitivity of some local isolates of Mycoplasma gallisepticum against antibiotics

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    Sutiastuti Wahyuwardani

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity of five local isolates ofMycoplasma gallisepticum (MG strain and two standard MG isolates obtained from Australia were tested against antibiotics of oxytetracycline, doxycycline, erythromycin, bacitracin, vancomycin, methicillin and penicillin using antibiogram disc method. The result showed that one, 2 and 3 local MG isolates were resistent to doxycycline, erythromycin and oxytetracycline respectively . MG isolate of ADA7 from Australia was found to be resistent to all antibiotics tested. None ofthe local MG isolates were sensitive against bacitracin, vancomycin, methicillin and penicillin.

  7. Overexpression and surface localization of the Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koehler, JF; Birkelund, Svend; Stephens, RS

    1992-01-01

    The Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein (MOMP) is the quantitatively predominant surface protein which has important functional, structural and antigenic properties. We have cloned and overexpressed the MOMP in Escherichia coli. The MOMP is surface exposed in C. trachomatis....... The induction of MOMP expression had a rapidly lethal effect on the L2rMOMP E. coli clone. Although no genetic system exists for Chlamydia, development of a stable, inducible E. coli clone which overexpresses the chlamydial MOMP permits a study of the biological properties of the MOMP, including...

  8. Characterization of a linear epitope on Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 DnaK-like protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozkokmen, D; Birkelund, Svend; Christiansen, Gunna

    1994-01-01

    A cytoplasmic 75-kDa immunogen from Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 has previously been characterized as being similar to the Escherichia coli heat shock protein DnaK. We have localized a linear epitope for one monoclonal antibody specific for C. trachomatis DnaK. By use of a recombinant DNA...... technique, the epitope was limited to 14 amino acids. With synthetic peptides, the epitope was further limited to eight amino acids. Six of these amino acids are conserved in bovine HSP70, which has a known three-dimensional structure. The amino acid sequence homologous to the epitope is located in a linear...

  9. Rapid imaging of mycoplasma in solution using Atmospheric Scanning Electron Microscopy (ASEM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Chikara, E-mail: ti-sato@aist.go.jp [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan); Manaka, Sachie [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan); Nakane, Daisuke [Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Nishiyama, Hidetoshi; Suga, Mitsuo [Advanced Technology Division, JEOL Ltd., Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Nishizaka, Takayuki [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Gakushuin University, 1-5-1 Mejiro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 171-8588 (Japan); Miyata, Makoto [Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Maruyama, Yuusuke [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan)

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mycoplasma mobile was observed in buffer with the Atmospheric Scanning Electron Microscope. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characteristic protein localizations were visualized using immuno-labeling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer M. mobile attached to sialic acid on the SiN film surface within minutes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cells were observed at low concentrations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ASEM should promote study and early-stage diagnosis of mycoplasma. -- Abstract: Mycoplasma is a genus of bacterial pathogen that causes disease in vertebrates. In humans, the species Mycoplasma pneumoniae causes 15% or more of community-acquired pneumonia. Because this bacterium is tiny, corresponding in size to a large virus, diagnosis using optical microscopy is not easy. In current methods, chest X-rays are usually the first action, followed by serology, PCR amplification, and/or culture, but all of these are particularly difficult at an early stage of the disease. Using Mycoplasma mobile as a model species, we directly observed mycoplasma in buffer with the newly developed Atmospheric Scanning Electron Microscope (ASEM). This microscope features an open sample dish with a pressure-resistant thin film window in its base, through which the SEM beam scans samples in solution, from below. Because of its 2-3 {mu}m-deep scanning capability, it can observe the whole internal structure of mycoplasma cells stained with metal solutions. Characteristic protein localizations were visualized using immuno-labeling. Cells were observed at low concentrations, because suspended cells concentrate in the observable zone by attaching to sialic acid on the silicon nitride (SiN) film surface within minutes. These results suggest the applicability of the ASEM for the study of mycoplasmas as well as for early-stage mycoplasma infection diagnosis.

  10. Detecting the Diversity of Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma Endosymbionts Hosted by Trichomonas vaginalis Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, Anastasios; Papaioannou, Panagiota; Magiorkinis, Emmanouil; Magana, Maria; Ioannidou, Vasiliki; Tzanetou, Konstantina; Burriel, Angeliki R.; Tsironi, Maria; Chatzipanagiotou, Stylianos

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The symbiosis of Trichomonas vaginalis and Mycoplasma hominis is the first described association between two obligate human parasites. Trichomonas is the niche and the vector for the transmission of M. hominis infection. This clinically significant symbiosis may affect T. vaginalis virulence and susceptibility to treatment. The aims of this study were to investigate the intracellularly present Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma species in T. vaginalis strains isolated from the vaginal discharge of infected women as well as to trace the diversity pattern among the species detected in the isolated strains. Methods: Hundred pure T. vaginalis cultures were isolated from ~7,500 patient specimens presented with clinical purulent vaginitis. PCR and sequencing for Mycoplasma/Ureaplasma spp. were performed in DNA extracted from the pure cultures. In addition, vaginal discharge samples were cultured for the presence of M. hominis and U. urealyticum. Phylogenetic analysis assisted the identification of interspecies relationships between the Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma isolates. Results: Fifty four percentage of T. vaginalis isolates were harboring Mycoplasma spp. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three distinct clusters, two with already characterized M. hominis and Ureaplasma spp. (37% of total Mycoplasma spp.), whereas one group formed a distinct cluster matched with the newly identified species Candidatus Mycoplasma girerdii (59.3%) and one or more unknown Mycoplasma spp. (3.7%). Conclusions: T. vaginalis strains associated with vaginal infection might host intracellular mycoplasmas or ureaplasmas. Intracellular Mollicutes that remain undetected in the extracellular environment when conventional diagnostic methods are implemented may comprise either novel species, such as Candidatus M. giredii, or unknown species with yet unexplored clinical significance. PMID:28702014

  11. Detecting the Diversity of Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma Endosymbionts Hosted by Trichomonas vaginalis Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios Ioannidis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The symbiosis of Trichomonas vaginalis and Mycoplasma hominis is the first described association between two obligate human parasites. Trichomonas is the niche and the vector for the transmission of M. hominis infection. This clinically significant symbiosis may affect T. vaginalis virulence and susceptibility to treatment. The aims of this study were to investigate the intracellularly present Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma species in T. vaginalis strains isolated from the vaginal discharge of infected women as well as to trace the diversity pattern among the species detected in the isolated strains.Methods: Hundred pure T. vaginalis cultures were isolated from ~7,500 patient specimens presented with clinical purulent vaginitis. PCR and sequencing for Mycoplasma/Ureaplasma spp. were performed in DNA extracted from the pure cultures. In addition, vaginal discharge samples were cultured for the presence of M. hominis and U. urealyticum. Phylogenetic analysis assisted the identification of interspecies relationships between the Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma isolates.Results: Fifty four percentage of T. vaginalis isolates were harboring Mycoplasma spp. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three distinct clusters, two with already characterized M. hominis and Ureaplasma spp. (37% of total Mycoplasma spp., whereas one group formed a distinct cluster matched with the newly identified species Candidatus Mycoplasma girerdii (59.3% and one or more unknown Mycoplasma spp. (3.7%.Conclusions:T. vaginalis strains associated with vaginal infection might host intracellular mycoplasmas or ureaplasmas. Intracellular Mollicutes that remain undetected in the extracellular environment when conventional diagnostic methods are implemented may comprise either novel species, such as Candidatus M. giredii, or unknown species with yet unexplored clinical significance.

  12. THE METHODS OF LABORATORY DIAGNOSTICS OF UROGENITAL INFECTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH MYCOPLASMA HOMINIS AND UREAPLASMA SPP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Zarucheynova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wide distribution of urogenital mycoplasmas in the population, the high frequency of carrier state and a long asymptomatic course of disease, the lack of specific clinical symptoms making the diagnosis impossible without using of special laboratory tests. The review focuses on indications for mycoplasma infection screening and for an appointmentof antibiotic therapy. The most commonly used laboratory diagnostic methods of urogenital infections, associated with Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma spp., with their characteristics, advantages and disadvantages are described.

  13. Mycoplasmas and their host: emerging and re-emerging minimal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citti, Christine; Blanchard, Alain

    2013-04-01

    Commonly known as mycoplasmas, bacteria of the class Mollicutes include the smallest and simplest life forms capable of self replication outside of a host. Yet, this minimalism hides major human and animal pathogens whose prevalence and occurrence have long been underestimated. Owing to advances in sequencing methods, large data sets have become available for a number of mycoplasma species and strains, providing new diagnostic approaches, typing strategies, and means for comprehensive studies. A broader picture is thus emerging in which mycoplasmas are successful pathogens having evolved a number of mechanisms and strategies for surviving hostile environments and adapting to new niches or hosts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mycoplasma testing of cell substrates and biologics: Review of alternative non-microbiological techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volokhov, Dmitriy V; Graham, Laurie J; Brorson, Kurt A; Chizhikov, Vladimir E

    2011-01-01

    Mycoplasmas, particularly species of the genera Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma, are known to be occasional microbial contaminants of cell cultures that produce biologics. This presents a serious concern regarding the risk of mycoplasma contamination for research laboratories and commercial facilities developing and manufacturing cell-derived biological and biopharmaceutical products for therapeutic use. Potential undetected contamination of these products or process intermediates with mycoplasmas represents a potential safety risk for patients and a business risk for producers of biopharmaceuticals. To minimize these risks, monitoring for adventitious agents, such as viruses and mycoplasmas, is performed during the manufacture of biologics produced in cell culture substrates. The "gold standard" microbiological assay, currently recommended by the USP, EP, JP and the US FDA, for the mycoplasma testing of biologics, involves the culture of viable mycoplasmas in broth, agar plates and indicator cells. Although the procedure enables highly efficient mycoplasma detection in cell substrates and cell-derived products, the overall testing strategy is time consuming (a minimum of 28 days) and requires skilled interpretation of the results. The long time period required for these conventional assays does not permit their use for products with short shelf-lives or for timely 'go/no-go' decisions during routine in-process testing. PCR methodology has existed for decades, however PCR based and other alternative methods for mycoplasma detection have only recently been considered for application to biologics manufacture. The application of alternative nucleic acid-based, enzyme-based and/or recombinant cell-culture methods, particularly in combination with efficient sample preparation procedures, could provide advantages over conventional microbiological methods in terms of analytical throughput, simplicity, and turnaround time. However, a challenge to the application of alternative

  15. Mycoplasmas isolated from the respiratory tract of cattle and goats in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusiluka, L.J.M.; Ojeniyi, B.; Friis, N.F.

    2000-01-01

    A microbiological study of the mycoplasma flora in the respiratory tracts of cattle and goats in selected regions of Tanzania is described. In the examination of cattle, mycoplasmas were isolated from 60 (17.8%) of the 338 examined lung samples, 8 (47.1%) of the 17 lymph nodes, 4 (13.3%) of the 30...... from samples originating from Dodoma, Iringa, Mbeya, Morogoro and Shinyanga regions where outbreaks of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia had been reported. In the examination of goats, mycoplasmas were isolated from 54 (34.0%) of the 159 examined lung samples, 41 (18.1%) of the 226 nasal swabs and 4...

  16. Prevalence of mycoplasmas in the semen and vaginal swabs of Danish stallions and mares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Agata; Fedder, J.; Schougaard, H.

    2006-01-01

    may occur. Mycoplasmas have been implicated in genital disorders and infertility of many species including humans and horses. However, their role as commensals or pathogens of the genital tract of horses is still not determined. Bacteriological examinations made on the fossa glandis, urethra, penis...... and semen of stallions, showed the presence of different Mycoplasma species. Therefore our study aimed to find the prevalence of Mycoplasma species and a possible association with fertility problems in Danish riding horses. Eighty semen samples from stallions and 19 vaginal swab samples from mares were...

  17. Prevalence of mycoplasmas in the semen and vaginal swabs of Danish stallions and mares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Agata; Fedder, J; Schougaard, H

    2007-01-01

    may occur. Mycoplasmas have been implicated in genital disorders and infertility of many species including humans and horses. However, their role as commensals or pathogens of the genital tract of horses is still not determined. Bacteriological examinations made on the fossa glandis, urethra, penis...... and semen of stallions, showed the presence of different Mycoplasma species. Therefore our study aimed to find the prevalence of Mycoplasma species and a possible association with fertility problems in Danish riding horses. Eighty semen samples from stallions and 19 vaginal swab samples from mares were...

  18. Symptoms of non-gonococcal urethritis in heterosexual men: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iser, P; Read, Tr H; Tabrizi, S; Bradshaw, C; Lee, D; Horvarth, L; Garland, S; Denham, I; Fairley, C K

    2005-04-01

    To determine microbial and behavioural factors contributing to non-gonococcal urethral symptoms in men. Case-control study of heterosexual men with non-gonococcal urethral symptoms (cases) and without urethral symptoms (controls) attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Australia. Sexual behaviour and condom use were measured by questionnaire. First stream urine was tested for potential pathogens: Chlamydia trachomatis (ligase chain reaction), Mycoplasma genitalium (polymerase chain reaction, PCR), Ureaplasma urealyticum (culture and PCR), and Streptococcus spp, Gardnerella vaginalis, and Haemophilus species (culture). Urethral smears from cases were examined for polymorphonuclear leucocytes. 80 cases and 79 controls were recruited over 4 months in 2002-3. 49 cases (61%) had urethritis by microscopic criteria, 17 (21%) had Chlamydia trachomatis (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 27 (95% confidence interval (CI): 3.4 to 222)), five (6%) had Mycoplasma genitalium (OR 6.1 (95% CI: 0.6 to 61)), and 11 (14%) had Gardnerella vaginalis (OR 9.0 (95% CI: 1.6 to 52)). Other organisms were not significantly associated with urethral symptoms. The presence of urethritis on urethral smear did not predict the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis (OR 1.7 (95% CI: 0.5 to 5.4)). Urethral symptoms were significantly associated with unprotected vaginal sex with more than one casual partner (OR 9.3 (95% CI: 1.3 to 65)) and unprotected anal sex with a regular partner in the past month (OR 3.5 (95% CI: 1.0 to 13)). Gardnerella vaginalis and unprotected anal sex may cause symptoms of non-gonococcal urethritis. Microscopy of the urethral smear to diagnose urethritis in this population does not help to identify which men with urethral symptoms require treatment for chlamydia.

  19. Prevalencia de infección por Chlamydia trachomatis en prostitutas registradas de la ciudad de Durango, México Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in registered prostitutes of Durango City, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de infección por Chlamydia trachomatis en prostitutas registradas de la ciudad de Durango, Durango y establecer si existe alguna correlación entre los datos epidemiológicos y la infección. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Fueron estudiadas 247 prostitutas y se obtuvieron muestras endocervicales y datos epidemiológicos. La prueba Chlamydiazyme (Abbott Laboratories, EUA fue usada para detectar el antígeno de C. trachomatis. RESULTADOS: Fueron positivas para C. trachomatis 41 prostitutas (16.6%, y 37 de ellas habían tenido actividad sexual en diferentes estados de la República mexicana, en comparación con las 206 mujeres negativas, entre las que sólo 109 habían tenido relaciones sexuales fuera de Durango (pOBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among registered prostitutes of Durango City and to establish whether there is a correlation between epidemiological factors and infection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two-hundred-and-forty-seven registered prostitutes of Durango city were studied. Endocervical samples and epidemiological data were obtained. C. trachomatis antigen was detected with the Chlamydiazyme test (Abbott Laboratories, USA. RESULTS: Forty-one (16.6% out of 247 prostitutes were positive to C. trachomatis. Thirty-seven out of the 41 positive women had had sexual activity on several States of Mexico (95.1%, as compared to only 109 out of 206 negative women (53.0% (p<.0001. Prostitutes positive to C. trachomatis (39/41, 95.1% were more likely to belong to low socioeconomic level than negatives (171/206, 83% (p=0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was 16.6%. C. trachomatis infection was associated with sexual activity in multiple States of Mexico, and had a tendency to be associated with low socioeconomic level.

  20. 2016 European guideline on the management of non-gonococcal urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Patrick J; Blee, Karla; Falk, Lars; van der Meijden, Willem; Moi, Harald

    2016-10-01

    We present the updated International Union against Sexually Transmitted Infections (IUSTI) guideline for the management of non-gonococcal urethritis in men. This guideline recommends confirmation of urethritis in symptomatic men before starting treatment. It does not recommend testing asymptomatic men for the presence of urethritis. All men with urethritis should be tested for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae and ideally Mycoplasma genitalium using a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) as this is highly likely to improve clinical outcomes. If a NAAT is positive for gonorrhoea, a culture should be performed before treatment. In view of the increasing evidence that azithromycin 1 g may result in the development of antimicrobial resistance in M. genitalium, azithromycin 1 g is no longer recommended as first line therapy, which should be doxycycline 100 mg bd for seven days. If azithromycin is to be prescribed an extended course of 500 mg stat, then 250 mg daily for four days is to be preferred over 1 g stat. In men with persistent NGU, M. genitalium NAAT testing is recommended if not previously undertaken, as is Trichomonas vaginalis NAAT testing in populations where T. vaginalis is detectable in >2% of symptomatic women. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis & herpes simplex virus in males with urethritis & females with cervicitis attending STD clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malathi, J; Madhavan, H N; Therese, K L; Rinku, J P; Narendar, K P

    2002-08-01

    Cervicitis and urethritis due to Chlamydia trachomatis are common sexually transmitted diseases. However, there is a paucity of information on urethritis and mucopurulent cervicitis due to herpes simplex virus (HSV) from India. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to find out the prevalence of C. trachomatis and HSV associated urethritis in males and mucopurulent cervicitis in females attending a sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic. Twenty five endocervical swabs from 25 women with mucopurulent cervicitis and 75 urethral swabs from 72 males with urethritis were processed for the detection of C. trachomatis and HSV by antigen detection by fluorescent antibody test (FAT), culture and PCR. Among the 25 women, one (4.0%) was positive for C. trachomatis and 3 (12.0%) were positive for HSV by PCR. FAT and culture were negative. Nine (12.0%) of the 75 urethral swabs were positive for C. trachomatis and 5 (6.6%) were positive for HSV by PCR. Among the 9 positive by PCR for C. trachomatis, 3 (4.0%) were positive by FAT. Cultures for both organisms were negative. Endocervicitis and male urethritis due to C. trachomatis and HSV are not uncommon among high-risk individuals. The diagnosis could be established mainly by PCR.

  2. Lack of Significant Effects of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection on Cervical Adenocarcinoma Risk: Nested Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Smelov

    Full Text Available A role of Chlamydia trachomatis in HPV-induced cervical carcinogenesis has been reported for cervical cancer but studies on cervical adenocarcinoma are limited.A total of 1,553 cervical smears taken up to 26 years before diagnosis in a large population-based nested case-control study of cervical adenocarcinoma (AC, 132 cases with matched controls, and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS, 159 cases with matched controls were tested for C. trachomatis and HPV DNA by a type-specific PCR bead-based multiplex genotyping (TS-MPG assay.Only 1.7% of samples were positive for C. trachomatis, with no significant differences between AC/AIS cases and controls. HPV-positivity was detected in 49.3% of C. trachomatis-negative and 65.4% C. trachomatis-positive samples, respectively.A large prospective study did not find any risk for cervical adenocarcinoma and/or AIS conferred by C. trachomatis infection.C. trachomatis appears not to be involved in cervical adenocarcinomas.

  3. Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia: CT features in 16 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Inho; Kim, Tae Sung; Yoon, Hye-Kyung [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea)

    2006-03-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the computed tomography (CT) features of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. We retrospectively reviewed CT findings of 16 patients (M:F=9:7, age range 1-74 years, median 9 years) with serologically proven Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia and with chest CT scan available. Two distinctive patterns of CT features of M. pneumoniae pneumonia were noted between the paediatric (age <18 years) and the adult (age {>=}18 years) groups. The pediatric group (n=11) showed lobar or segmental consolidation (100%) with frequent pleural effusion (82%) and regional lymphadenopathy (82%) and mild volume decrease of the involved lobe (73%), while four of the five adult patients showed diffuse and/or multifocal, centrilobular or peribronchovascular areas of ground-glass attenuation (80%) with a lobular distribution, and frequent thickening of interlobular septa (60%) and the bronchial walls (40%) were also detected at high-resolution CT. The CT finding of a lobar or segmental consolidation with a parapneumonic effusion seen in our children with M. pneumoniae pneumonia was similar to that of bacterial lobar pneumonia. In contrast, the CT findings noted in our adult patients consisted of a mixture of a bacterial bronchopneumonia pattern and a viral interstitial pneumonia pattern. (orig.)

  4. Radiologic and clinical findings of mycoplasma pneumonia in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Jin; Oh, Ki Keun [College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-06-15

    Mycoplasma Pneumonia is a cause of primary atypical pneumonia, but it is asymptomatic mostly or may cause of only mild symptoms. School-aged children experienced high attack rate and manifestation if 'unusual pneumonia' are noted. So authors reviewed clinical and radiological features of 110 cases of serologically proven Mycoplasma pneumonia in hospitalized children between November 1984 and January 1987 retrospectively. The results were as follows ; 1. The sex distribution was 57:53 (1.1:1) in male to female ratio and 47% of them were 5 though 8 years old of age with peak incidence between 5 and 6 years old of age. 2. The symptoms were cough, fever, and sore throat in descending order of frequency and mean symptom duration before admission was 8.1 day. The prevalent season was earlier winter. 3. The radiologic findings were air-space consolidation with lobar, segmental distribution in 68%, interstitial infiltration in 12%, bronchopneumonia in 12%, chronic bronchitis pattern in 3.6%, normal in 4.5%, hilar LN enlargement in 37%, pleural effusion in 12%. 4. Radiologic resolution period was usually 10 days around (4-25 days) and after complete recovery, scarring change or calcification was not seen. 5. Extrapulmonary manifestations were uncommon but hepatitis, hematuria, skin rash, gastroenteritis, myocarditis, otitis media occurred. 6. With administration of tetracyclin and erythromycin, clinical and radiologic responses were promptly seen.

  5. Quality Control of Biotechnological Inputs DetectingMycoplasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Netto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR as a tool of quality control of bovine sera and cellular cultures used in the biotechnological industry. A total of 46 samples of bovine sera derived from two slaughterhouses and 33 samples of BHK21 cells derived from two biotechnological industries were evaluated using the primers GPO-3 (sense and MGSO (antisense. The PCR technique sensibility analysis showed that 280 bp were amplified for the quantities of 50 ng to 0.006 ng of Micoplasma DNA. The primers specificity was confirmed in the test using Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilisand Candida albicans; except by the positive control, none of the samples showed amplification. The presence of Mycoplasma in bovine sera and in the cultures of BHK21 cells showed that 56.5 and 15.2%, respectively, were contaminated. Thus, it was possible to conclude that PCR was a fast and confident technique to detect mycoplasma and that it could be used to control the quality of immunobiological products and inputs, such as sera and cultures of BHK21 cells.

  6. Prevalence of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in desert bighorn sheep in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice-Allen, Anne E.; Luedtke, Clint J.; Overstreet, Matthew; Cain, James W.; Stephenson, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the potential for an epizootic of pneumonia to result from either natural immigration or translocation, we compared the seroprevalence to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in several populations of desert bighorn sheep in Arizona. We collected blood samples and nasal or oropharyngeal swabs from 124 desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) from 6 populations in Arizona in 2009 and 2010. M. ovipneumoniae organisms were detected by PCR in 22%, whereas antibodies to M. ovipneumoniae were detected in 47% of tested bighorn sheep. Mycoplasma antibodies were not found in 2 of 6 populations, indicating some bighorn sheep populations in Arizona are naïve to this bacterium. In contrast, others had seroprevalence rates up to 80%. We were able to compare seroprevalence rates and titers over time in 9 individuals (7 individuals included in the 124 bighorn sheep sampled in 2009 and 2010, and 2 individuals originally captured in 2006). Antibody titers persisted for 12 months in individuals from the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge (n = 7) while antibody titers appeared to decline in the Kanab Creek population (n = 2). M. ovipneumoniae is present or has been present in several, but not all, populations of bighorn sheep in Arizona. The results demonstrate the importance of routine health testing for future translocation efforts to reduce disease risk for naive populations.

  7. Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia: CT features in 16 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Inho; Kim, Tae Sung; Yoon, Hye-Kyung

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the computed tomography (CT) features of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. We retrospectively reviewed CT findings of 16 patients (M:F=9:7, age range 1-74 years, median 9 years) with serologically proven Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia and with chest CT scan available. Two distinctive patterns of CT features of M. pneumoniae pneumonia were noted between the paediatric (age <18 years) and the adult (age ≥18 years) groups. The pediatric group (n=11) showed lobar or segmental consolidation (100%) with frequent pleural effusion (82%) and regional lymphadenopathy (82%) and mild volume decrease of the involved lobe (73%), while four of the five adult patients showed diffuse and/or multifocal, centrilobular or peribronchovascular areas of ground-glass attenuation (80%) with a lobular distribution, and frequent thickening of interlobular septa (60%) and the bronchial walls (40%) were also detected at high-resolution CT. The CT finding of a lobar or segmental consolidation with a parapneumonic effusion seen in our children with M. pneumoniae pneumonia was similar to that of bacterial lobar pneumonia. In contrast, the CT findings noted in our adult patients consisted of a mixture of a bacterial bronchopneumonia pattern and a viral interstitial pneumonia pattern. (orig.)

  8. Radiologic and clinical findings of mycoplasma pneumonia in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Jin; Oh, Ki Keun [College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-06-15

    Mycoplasma Pneumonia is a cause of primary atypical pneumonia, but it is asymptomatic mostly or may cause of only mild symptoms. School-aged children experienced high attack rate and manifestation if 'unusual pneumonia' are noted. So authors reviewed clinical and radiological features of 110 cases of serologically proven Mycoplasma pneumonia in hospitalized children between November 1984 and January 1987 retrospectively. The results were as follows ; 1. The sex distribution was 57:53 (1.1:1) in male to female ratio and 47% of them were 5 though 8 years old of age with peak incidence between 5 and 6 years old of age. 2. The symptoms were cough, fever, and sore throat in descending order of frequency and mean symptom duration before admission was 8.1 day. The prevalent season was earlier winter. 3. The radiologic findings were air-space consolidation with lobar, segmental distribution in 68%, interstitial infiltration in 12%, bronchopneumonia in 12%, chronic bronchitis pattern in 3.6%, normal in 4.5%, hilar LN enlargement in 37%, pleural effusion in 12%. 4. Radiologic resolution period was usually 10 days around (4-25 days) and after complete recovery, scarring change or calcification was not seen. 5. Extrapulmonary manifestations were uncommon but hepatitis, hematuria, skin rash, gastroenteritis, myocarditis, otitis media occurred. 6. With administration of tetracyclin and erythromycin, clinical and radiologic responses were promptly seen.

  9. Differential metabolism of Mycoplasma species as revealed by their genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio B.M. Arraes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The annotation and comparative analyses of the genomes of Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma hyopneumonie, as well as of other Mollicutes (a group of bacteria devoid of a rigid cell wall, has set the grounds for a global understanding of their metabolism and infection mechanisms. According to the annotation data, M. synoviae and M. hyopneumoniae are able to perform glycolytic metabolism, but do not possess the enzymatic machinery for citrate and glyoxylate cycles, gluconeogenesis and the pentose phosphate pathway. Both can synthesize ATP by lactic fermentation, but only M. synoviae can convert acetaldehyde to acetate. Also, our genome analysis revealed that M. synoviae and M. hyopneumoniae are not expected to synthesize polysaccharides, but they can take up a variety of carbohydrates via the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PEP-PTS. Our data showed that these two organisms are unable to synthesize purine and pyrimidine de novo, since they only possess the sequences which encode salvage pathway enzymes. Comparative analyses of M. synoviae and M. hyopneumoniae with other Mollicutes have revealed differential genes in the former two genomes coding for enzymes that participate in carbohydrate, amino acid and nucleotide metabolism and host-pathogen interaction. The identification of these metabolic pathways will provide a better understanding of the biology and pathogenicity of these organisms.

  10. Unveiling Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Promoters: Sequence Definition and Genomic Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Shana de Souto; Sant'Anna, Fernando Hayashi; Schrank, Irene Silveira

    2012-01-01

    Several Mycoplasma species have had their genome completely sequenced, including four strains of the swine pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Nevertheless, little is known about the nucleotide sequences that control transcriptional initiation in these microorganisms. Therefore, with the objective of investigating the promoter sequences of M. hyopneumoniae, 23 transcriptional start sites (TSSs) of distinct genes were mapped. A pattern that resembles the σ70 promoter −10 element was found upstream of the TSSs. However, no −35 element was distinguished. Instead, an AT-rich periodic signal was identified. About half of the experimentally defined promoters contained the motif 5′-TRTGn-3′, which was identical to the −16 element usually found in Gram-positive bacteria. The defined promoters were utilized to build position-specific scoring matrices in order to scan putative promoters upstream of all coding sequences (CDSs) in the M. hyopneumoniae genome. Two hundred and one signals were found associated with 169 CDSs. Most of these sequences were located within 100 nucleotides of the start codons. This study has shown that the number of promoter-like sequences in the M. hyopneumoniae genome is more frequent than expected by chance, indicating that most of the sequences detected are probably biologically functional. PMID:22334569

  11. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Transcription Unit Organization: Genome Survey and Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Schrank, Augusto; Schrank, Irene Silveira

    2011-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is associated with swine respiratory diseases. Although gene organization and regulation are well known in many prokaryotic organisms, knowledge on mycoplasma is limited. This study performed a comparative analysis of three strains of M. hyopneumoniae (7448, J and 232), with a focus on genome organization and gene comparison for open read frame (ORF) cluster (OC) identification. An in silico analysis of gene organization demonstrated 117 OCs and 34 single ORFs in M. hyopneumoniae 7448 and J, while 116 OCs and 36 single ORFs were identified in M. hyopneumoniae 232. Genomic comparison revealed high synteny and conservation of gene order between the OCs defined for 7448 and J strains as well as for 7448 and 232 strains. Twenty-one OCs were chosen and experimentally confirmed by reverse transcription–PCR from M. hyopneumoniae 7448 genome, validating our prediction. A subset of the ORFs within an OC could be independently transcribed due to the presence of internal promoters. Our results suggest that transcription occurs in ‘run-on’ from an upstream promoter in M. hyopneumoniae, thus forming large ORF clusters (from 2 to 29 ORFs in the same orientation) and indicating a complex transcriptional organization. PMID:22086999

  12. Radiologic and clinical findings of mycoplasma pneumonia in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong Jin; Oh, Ki Keun

    1987-01-01

    Mycoplasma Pneumonia is a cause of primary atypical pneumonia, but it is asymptomatic mostly or may cause of only mild symptoms. School-aged children experienced high attack rate and manifestation if 'unusual pneumonia' are noted. So authors reviewed clinical and radiological features of 110 cases of serologically proven Mycoplasma pneumonia in hospitalized children between November 1984 and January 1987 retrospectively. The results were as follows ; 1. The sex distribution was 57:53 (1.1:1) in male to female ratio and 47% of them were 5 though 8 years old of age with peak incidence between 5 and 6 years old of age. 2. The symptoms were cough, fever, and sore throat in descending order of frequency and mean symptom duration before admission was 8.1 day. The prevalent season was earlier winter. 3. The radiologic findings were air-space consolidation with lobar, segmental distribution in 68%, interstitial infiltration in 12%, bronchopneumonia in 12%, chronic bronchitis pattern in 3.6%, normal in 4.5%, hilar LN enlargement in 37%, pleural effusion in 12%. 4. Radiologic resolution period was usually 10 days around (4-25 days) and after complete recovery, scarring change or calcification was not seen. 5. Extrapulmonary manifestations were uncommon but hepatitis, hematuria, skin rash, gastroenteritis, myocarditis, otitis media occurred. 6. With administration of tetracyclin and erythromycin, clinical and radiologic responses were promptly seen

  13. 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos': Transplacental transmission in dairy cows (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto-Soares, Aline; Soares, João Fabio; Bogado, Alexey Leon Gomel; de Macedo, César Augusto Barbosa; Sandeski, Lígia Mara; Garcia, João Luis; Vidotto, Odilon

    2016-11-15

    'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos' is a haemotropic mycoplasma that can produce various clinical signs in cattle, but abortive potential of the parasite is unknown, as well as the frequency of transplacental transmission in cattle. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the frequency of detection of 'C. M. haemobos' in aborted fetuses and the blood of dairy cows. Blood samples of 22 dairy cows that aborted and pool tissues (brain, lung, heart and liver) of their respective aborted fetuses were tested by conventional PCR. The occurrence of 'C. M. haemobos' DNA in adult animals was 40.9% (9/22) and in the fetuses was 18.2% (4/22). Two fetuses that contained 'C. M. haemobos' DNA were derived from cows which were PCR negative. When stratifying by breed, it was observed that Jersey cows had a higher proportion of positive animals (8/11; 72.7%) as compared to Holstein (1/9; 11.1% P<0.01). The results of this study suggest that this parasite can be transferred via the placenta, but it is not certain if the abortions were due to 'C. M. haemobos'. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Differences in Treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis by Ambulatory Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, William S; Gift, Thomas L; Leichliter, Jami S; Jenkins, Wiley D

    2015-12-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most commonly reported sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the US and timely, correct treatment can reduce CT transmission and sequelae. Emergency departments (ED) are an important location for diagnosing STIs. This study compared recommended treatment of CT in EDs to treatment in physician offices. Five years of data (2006-2010) were analyzed from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, and the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys (NHAMCS), including the Outpatient survey (NHAMCS-OPD) and Emergency Department survey (NHAMCS-ED). All visits with a CT diagnosis and those with a diagnosis of unspecified venereal disease were selected for analysis. Differences in receipt of recommended treatments were compared between visits to physician offices and emergency departments using Chi square tests and logistic regression models. During the 5 year period, approximately 3.2 million ambulatory care visits had diagnosed CT or an unspecified venereal disease. A greater proportion of visits to EDs received the recommended treatment for CT compared to visits to physician offices (66.1 vs. 44.9 %, p < .01). When controlling for patients' age, sex and race/ethnicity, those presenting to the ED with CT were more likely to receive the recommended antibiotic treatment than patients presenting to a physician's office (OR 2.16; 95 % CI 1.04-4.48). This effect was attenuated when further controlling for patients' expected source of payment. These analyses demonstrate differences in the treatment of CT by ambulatory care setting as well as opportunities for increasing use of recommended treatments for diagnosed cases of this important STI.

  15. Chlamydia trachomatis infection of the male genital tract: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackern-Oberti, Juan Pablo; Motrich, Rubén Darío; Breser, María Laura; Sánchez, Leonardo Rodolfo; Cuffini, Cecilia; Rivero, Virginia Elena

    2013-11-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most prevalent cause of sexually transmitted diseases. Although the prevalence of chlamydial infection is similar in men and women, current research and screening are still focused on women, who develop the most severe complications, leaving the study of male genital tract (MGT) infection underrated. Herein, we reviewed the literature on genital CT infection with special focus on the MGT. Data indicate that CT certainly infects different parts of the MGT such as the urethra, seminal vesicles, prostate, epididymis and testis. However, whether or not CT infection has detrimental effects on male fertility is still controversial. The most important features of CT infection are its chronic nature and the presence of a mild inflammation that remains subclinical in most individuals. Chlamydia antigens and pathogen recognition receptors (PRR), expressed on epithelial cells and immune cells from the MGT, have been studied in the last years. Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression has been observed in the testis, epididymis, prostate and vas deferens. It has been demonstrated that recognition of chlamydial antigens is associated with TLR2, TLR4, and possibly, other PRRs. CT recognition by PRRs induces a local production of cytokines/chemokines, which, in turn, provoke chronic inflammation that might evolve in the onset of an autoimmune process in genetically susceptible individuals. Understanding local immune response along the MGT, as well as the crosstalk between resident leukocytes, epithelial, and stromal cells, would be crucial in inducing a protective immunity, thus adding to the design of new therapeutic approaches to a Chlamydia vaccine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Chlamydia trachomatis and chlamydial heat shock protein 60-specific antibody and cell-mediated responses predict tubal factor infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiitinen, A.; Surcel, H.-M.; Halttunen, M.

    2006-01-01

    60)-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies were analysed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Proliferative reactivity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was studied in vitro against Chlamydia elementary body (EB) and recombinant CHSP60 antigens. RESULTS: C. trachomatis......BACKGROUND: To evaluate the role of Chlamydia trachomatis-induced humoral and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses in predicting tubal factor infertility (TFI). METHODS: Blood samples were taken from 88 women with TFI and 163 control women. C. trachomatis and chlamydial heat shock protein 60 (CHSP...

  17. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma flocculare differential domains from orthologous surface proteins induce distinct cellular immune responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Fernanda Munhoz Dos Anjos; Virginio, Veridiana Gomes; Martello, Carolina Lumertz; Paes, Jéssica Andrade; Borges, Thiago J; Jaeger, Natália; Bonorino, Cristina; Ferreira, Henrique Bunselmeyer

    2016-07-15

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma flocculare are two genetically close species found in the swine respiratory tract. Despite their similarities, while M. hyopneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia, M. flocculare is a commensal bacterium. Genomic and transcriptional comparative analyses so far failed to explain the difference in pathogenicity between these two species. We then hypothesized that such difference might be, at least in part, explained by amino acid sequence and immunological or functional differences between ortholog surface proteins. In line with that, it was verified that approximately 85% of the ortholog surface proteins from M. hyopneumoniae 7448 and M. flocculare present one or more differential domains. To experimentally assess possible immunological implications of this kind of difference, the extracellular differential domains from one pair of orthologous surface proteins (MHP7448_0612, from M. hyopneumoniae, and MF_00357, from M. flocculare) were expressed in E. coli and used to immunize mice. The recombinant polypeptides (rMHP61267-169 and rMF35767-196, respectively) induced distinct cellular immune responses. While, rMHP61267-169 induced both Th1 and Th2 responses, rMF35767-196 induced just an early pro-inflammatory response. These results indicate that immunological properties determined by differential domains in orthologous surface protein might play a role in pathogenicity, contributing to elicit specific and differential immune responses against each species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Isolation and identification of Mycoplasma mycoides cluster strains from goats in Chongqing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Haoju

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the prevalence of the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster in goats in Chongqing, China, an epidemiological survey in this area was carried out. A total of 68 samples were subjected to bacteria isolation on Hartley’s medium. Four isolates (three from lung tissue and one from nasal discharges were recovered from the samples and identified as the Mycoplasma species by their morphological and biochemical characteristics. They were further confirmed by PCR using 16S rRNA specific primer pairs and by restriction enzyme analysis. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates indicated that some strains had developed resistance to the antibiotics tested. This is the first report on the isolation, identification, and molecular characterisation of Mycoplasma species isolated from goats in Chongqing. This study also revealed a prevalence of Mycoplasma species infection in goats in this area.

  19. Mycoplasma pneumoniae-udløst autoimmun hæmolyse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Anne Lisbeth; Aagaard, Thomas Granum; Birgens, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is naturally resistant to betalactamase antibiotics but is sensitive to macrolides. Occasionally, infections with M. pneumoniae can lead to severe anaemia due to its ability to cause haemolysis when cold agglutination occurs. Increasing bacterial resistance to macrolid...

  20. Molecular biology of mycoplasmas: from the minimum cell concept to the artificial cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, Caio M M; Hoeltgebaum, Daniela L; Machado, Laís D P N; Santos, Larissa Dos

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasmas are a large group of bacteria, sorted into different genera in the Mollicutes class, whose main characteristic in common, besides the small genome, is the absence of cell wall. They are considered cellular and molecular biology study models. We present an updated review of the molecular biology of these model microorganisms and the development of replicative vectors for the transformation of mycoplasmas. Synthetic biology studies inspired by these pioneering works became possible and won the attention of the mainstream media. For the first time, an artificial genome was synthesized (a minimal genome produced from consensus sequences obtained from mycoplasmas). For the first time, a functional artificial cell has been constructed by introducing a genome completely synthesized within a cell envelope of a mycoplasma obtained by transformation techniques. Therefore, this article offers an updated insight to the state of the art of these peculiar organisms' molecular biology.

  1. The infection of Mycoplasma hominis after total knee replacement: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Jiu Qiu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Mycoplasma hominis infection is a rare postoperative complication after joint replacement. Based on our knowledge, there were only two cases reported by Korea all over the world currently. A case of postoperative Mycoplasma hominis infection after total knee replacement in our hospital was reported in this article. It was confirmed through mass spectrometer and Mycoplasma cultivation and treated by the first stage debridement, polyethylene insert replacement, and then drainage and irrigation combined with sensitive antibiotics after the operation. We observed that the C reactive protein (CRP level correlates with the development of disease, while the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR remains at a high level, indicating the relevance between the Mycoplasma hominis infection caused by knee joint replacement and CRP. This study aims to report the case and review relevant literature.

  2. Conjuntivitis folicular por Chlamydia trachomatis: frecuencia y pruebas diagnósticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Muñoz Z

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available La Chlamydia trachomatis es la principal causa infecciosa de ceguera en el mundo, que empieza como conjuntivitis folicular. En el Perú se han realizado pocos estudios, debido a su dificultad diagnóstica. Se realizó un estudio en 55 pacientes de 18 a 68 años con diagnóstico de conjuntivitis folicular atendidos en el Instituto Nacional de Oftalmología (Lima, Perú durante los años 2005 y 2006, con el objetivo de determinar la frecuencia de infección por Chlamydia trachomatis y evaluar la utilidad de la tinción de Giemsa y la inmunofluorescencia directa (IFD para el diagnóstico de C. trachomatis en relación con el cultivo celular. La frecuencia de C. trachomatis en muestras de secreciones de conjuntivitis folicular fue de 13% (7/55 por cultivo celular, 20% (11/55 por IFD y de 9%(5/55 por Giemsa; los signos y síntomas más frecuentes fueron la presencia de secreciones y fotofobia. Todos los casos fueron varones y manifestaron no tener antecendentes de infecciones de transmisión sexual previas. Se encontró una sensibilidad de 42,9 y 85,7 % y una especificidad de 98,8 y 89,6% para la tinción Giemsa e IFD respectivamente.

  3. Comparative proteome analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar A, D and L2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Allan C; Gevaert, Kris; Demol, Hans

    2002-01-01

    chlamydial diseases, was investigated using a proteomics approach. Based on silver stained two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE), gels with purified elementary bodies (EB) and auto-radiography of gels with 35S-labeled C. trachomatis proteins up to 700 protein spots were detectable...

  4. Chlamydia trachomatis serovar G infection in a bisexual male with urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawre, Jyoti; Dhawan, Benu; Saigal, Karnika; Khanna, Neena

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar G urogenital tract infection in a 33-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) seropositive Indian bisexual male. This case highlights the emergence of a new serovar in India. The patient was tested positive for C. trachomatis by both cryptic plasmid and omp A gene polymerase chain reaction (PCR). On further characterization using polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and omp A gene sequencing, the strain was found to be C. trachomatis serovar G. His spouse was also found to be infected with C. trachomatis serovar G. Phylogenetic analysis was performed on the clinical isolates obtained from both partners and were found to be identical to the isolates available in GenBank. The sexual network could not be traced further. Detection of a new genotype suggests importation of a new strain into the population probably by sexual contact with a person from a geographical area where the strain is common. Identifying circulating genotypes in the community can assist in developing strategies for improved sexually transmitted disease control.

  5. Systematic screening for Chlamydia trachomatis : Estimating cost-effectiveness using dynamic modeling and Dutch data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, R.; Van Bergen, J.E.A.M.; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje; Postma, Maarten

    2006-01-01

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of a systematic one-off Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) screening program including partner treatment for Dutch young adults. Data on infection prevalence, participation rates, and sexual behavior were obtained from a large pilot study conducted in The Netherlands.

  6. Systematic screening for Chlamydia trachomatis: estimating cost-effectiveness using dynamic modeling and Dutch data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Robin; van Bergen, Jan E. A. M.; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T. W.; Postma, Maarten J.

    2006-01-01

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of a systematic one-off Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) screening program including partner treatment for Dutch young adults. Data on infection prevalence, participation rates, and sexual behavior were obtained from a large pilot study conducted in The Netherlands.

  7. Incidence of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in the provinces of Novara and VCO: one year of observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Andreoni

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis infections represent the most common sexually transmitted diseases.The lack of growth of these microorganisms on common media and the roundabout research by immunofluorescence, has meant that, until now, these special-lived intracellular microorganisms have played a role probably underestimated in cases of infections affecting the sexual organs.The introduction of molecular biology has made possible their research in a much more simple, reliable and standardized methods. The study was carried out on endocervical samples, male urethral swabs and urine samples of men and women, determining the C. trachomatis DNA amplified using the BD ProbeTec ET system. This system uses technology SDA (Strand Displacement Amplification - Elongationcrowding of the blanks. The study was conducted from June 2008 to june 2009. Symptomatic and asyntptomatic patients residents in the provinces of Novara and the Verbano-Cusio-Ossola were considered. In this period 784 determinations were made in molecular biology. Chlamydia trachomatis was found in 26 cases equal to a percentage of 3.32%. While considering these preliminary data, however, we can estimate the rate of detection of C. trachomatis as a good starting point, because we have the impression that improved procedures particularly relate to the techniques for sampling and for storage and transport of the sample, can undoubtedly lead to much higher percentages.

  8. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in the general population of women in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Thani, Asma; Abdul-Rahim, Hanan; Alabsi, Enas; Bsaisu, Haneen N; Haddad, Pascale; Mumtaz, Ghina R; Abu-Raddad, Laith J

    2013-11-01

    The Arabian Gulf region has limited epidemiological data related to sexually transmitted infections. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among general population women in Doha, Qatar. Endocervical swabs were collected from healthy women attending primary healthcare centres in Doha, June-December 2008. The specimens were tested for C trachomatis by a commercially available PCR-based assay. Data on basic socio-demographic characteristics, medical history and sexual behaviour were obtained using self-administered questionnaires. The prevalence of C trachomatis and of background variables were stratified by nationality, Qatari nationals versus non-Qatari residents. A total of 377 women were enrolled in the study, out of whom 351 (37.9% Qataris, 62.1% non-Qataris) were tested for the presence of C trachomatis in their specimens. The mean age of participants was 41.2 years, and the vast majority (93%, 95% CI 90.3 to 95.7) were married. The mean age at sexual debut was significantly lower among Qatari women compared with non-Qatari women (19.2 vs 22.2 years, respectively pnationals and expatriate residents. The higher prevalence may reflect, in part, the limited access to and use of chlamydia screening and management.

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis serotype A infections in the Amazon region of Brazil: prevalence, entry and dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chlamydia infection is associated with debilitating human diseases including trachoma, pneumonia, coronary heart disease and urogenital diseases. Serotypes of C. trachomatis show a fair correlation with the group of diseases they cause, and their distribution follows a well-described geographic pattern. Serotype A, a trachoma-associated strain, is known for its limited dissemination in the Middle East and Northern Africa. However, knowledge on the spread of bacteria from the genus Chlamydia as well as the distribution of serotypes in Brazil is quite limited. METHODS: Blood samples of 1,710 individuals from ten human population groups in the Amazon region of Brazil were examined for antibodies to Chlamydia using indirect immunofluorescence and microimmunofluorescence assays. RESULTS: The prevalence of antibodies to Chlamydia ranged from 23.9% (Wayana-Apalai to 90.7% (Awa-Guaja with a mean prevalence of 50.2%. Seroreactivity was detected to C. pneumoniae and to all serotypes of C. trachomatis tested; furthermore, we report clear evidence of the as-yet-undescribed occurrence of serotype A of C. trachomatis. CONCLUSIONS: Specific seroreactivity not only accounts for the large extent of dissemination of C. trachomatis in the Amazon region of Brazil but also shows an expanded area of occurrence of serotype A outside the epidemiological settings previously described. Furthermore, these data suggest possible routes of Chlamydia introduction into the Amazon region from the massive human migration that occurred during the 1,700s.

  10. Chlamydia trachomatis contains a protein similar to the Legionella pneumophila mip gene product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundemose, AG; Birkelund, Svend; Fey, SJ

    1991-01-01

    A 27kDa Chlamydia trachomatis L2 protein was characterized by the use of monoclonal antibodies and by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The protein was shown to be located in the membrane of reticulate bodies as well as elementary bodies. Its synthesis could be detected from 10 hours post-infe...... potentiator (mip) gene of Legionella pneumophila....

  11. Chlamydia trachomatis antibody detection in home-collected blood samples for use in epidemiological studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenderboom, B M; van Ess, E F; van den Broek, I V F; van Loo, I H M; Hoebe, C J P A; Ouburg, S; Morré, S A

    Capillary blood collected in serum tubes was subjected to centrifugation delay while stored at room temperature. Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) IgG concentrations in aliquoted serum of these blood samples remained stable for seven days after collection. CT IgG concentrations can reliably be measured in

  12. Topological analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 outer membrane protein 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, P; Christiansen, Gunna; Birkelund, Svend

    1998-01-01

    Using monospecific polyclonal antisera to different parts of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 outer membrane protein 2 (Omp2), we show that the protein is localized at the inner surface of the outer membrane. Omp2 becomes immunoaccessible when Chlamydia elementary bodies are treated with dithiothreitol...

  13. Interleukin-1 is the initiator of Fallopian tube destruction during Chlamydia trachomatis infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Malene; Baczynska, Agata; Deleuran, Bent

    2007-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection is associated with severe Fallopian tube tissue damage leading to tubal infertility and ectopic pregnancy. To explore the molecular mechanisms behind infection an ex vivo model was established from human Fallopian tubes and examined by scanning electron microscopy...

  14. Analysis of proteins in Chlamydia trachomatis L2 outer membrane complex, COMC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend; Morgan-Fisher, Marie; Timmerman, Evy

    2009-01-01

    The protein composition and N-terminal sequences of proteins in the outer membrane of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 were analysed following isolation of N-terminal peptides using combined fractional diagonal chromatography and identification by liquid chromatography tandem MS. Acetylation of primary a...

  15. High-resolution typing of Chlamydia trachomatis: epidemiological and clinical uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Henry J C; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F; Bruisten, Sylvia M

    2015-02-01

    A state-of-the-art overview of molecular Chlamydia trachomatis typing methods that are used for routine diagnostics and scientific studies. Molecular epidemiology uses high-resolution typing techniques such as multilocus sequence typing, multilocus variable number of tandem repeats analysis, and whole-genome sequencing to identify strains based on their DNA sequence. These data can be used for cluster, network and phylogenetic analyses, and are used to unveil transmission networks, risk groups, and evolutionary pathways. High-resolution typing of C. trachomatis strains is applied to monitor treatment efficacy and re-infections, and to study the recent emergence of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) amongst men who have sex with men in high-income countries. Chlamydia strain typing has clinical relevance in disease management, as LGV needs longer treatment than non-LGV C. trachomatis. It has also led to the discovery of a new variant Chlamydia strain in Sweden, which was not detected by some commercial C. trachomatis diagnostic platforms. After a brief history and comparison of the various Chlamydia typing methods, the applications of the current techniques are described and future endeavors to extend scientific understanding are formulated. High-resolution typing will likely help to further unravel the pathophysiological mechanisms behind the wide clinical spectrum of chlamydial disease.

  16. Population Genomics of Chlamydia trachomatis: Insights on Drift, Selection, Recombination, and Population Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joseph, Sandeep J.; Didelot, Xavier; Rothschild, James; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Morré, Servaas A.; Read, Timothy D.; Dean, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The large number of sexually transmitted diseases and ocular trachoma cases that are caused globally each year by Chlamydia trachomatis has made this organism a World Health Organization priority for vaccine development. However, there is no gene transfer system for Chlamydia to help identify

  17. Epidemiological studies on urogenital infection with chlamydia trachomatis and its sequelae for human fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, Gijsbertus Joannes Henri Marie

    1990-01-01

    During the 20th century much of the pathogenic properties of Chlamydía trachomatis have become clear. Its epidemiological behavior as a sexually transmitted agent has also been elucidated to a great extent. In the western hemisphere, of which The Netherlands is a part, it may be assumed that about

  18. Influence of volume of sample processed on detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urogenital samples by PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goessens, W H; Kluytmans, J A; den Toom, N; van Rijsoort-Vos, T H; Niesters, B G; Stolz, E; Verbrugh, H A; Quint, W G

    In the present study, it was demonstrated that the sensitivity of the PCR for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis is influenced by the volume of the clinical sample which is processed in the PCR. An adequate sensitivity for PCR was established by processing at least 4%, i.e., 80 microliters, of

  19. Follow-up, treatment, and reinfection rates among asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis cases in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Valkengoed, Irene G.M.; Morré, Servaas A.; Van Den Brule, Adriaan J.C.; Meijer, Chris J.L.M.; Bouter, Lex M.; Van Eijk, Jacques Th M.; Boeke, A. Joan P.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Adequate treatment and follow-up of patients is essential to the success of a screening programme for Chlamydia trachomatis. There has been a lack of data on follow-up, confirmation of infections, and reinfection rates among asymptomatic patients in general practice. Aim: To study the

  20. Follow-up, treatment, and reinfection rates among asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis cases in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Valkengoed, Irene G.M.; Morré, Servaas A.; Van Den Brule, Adriaan J.C.; Meijer, Chris J.L.M.; Bouter, Lex M.; Van Eijk, Jacques Th M.; Boeke, A. Joan P.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adequate treatment and follow-up of patients is essential to the success of a screening programme for Chlamydia trachomatis. There has been a lack of data on follow-up, confirmation of infections, and reinfection rates among asymptomatic patients in general practice. AIM: 7b study the

  1. Follow-up, treatment, and reinfection rates among asymptomatic chlamydia trachomatis cases in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.; Morré, Servaas A.; van den Brule, Adriaan J. C.; Meijer, Chris J. L. M.; Bouter, Lex M.; van Eijk, Jacques Th M.; Boeke, A. Joan P.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adequate treatment and follow-up of patients is essential to the success of a screening programme for Chlamydia trachomatis. There has been a lack of data on follow-up, confirmation of infections, and reinfection rates among asymptomatic patients in general practice. AIM: 7b study the

  2. Reproducibility Problems with the Abbott Laboratories LCx Assay for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    OpenAIRE

    Gronowski, Ann M.; Copper, Susan; Baorto, David; Murray, Patrick R.

    2000-01-01

    This study demonstrates that significant reproducibility problems can occur during routine use of the Abbott Laboratories LCx assay for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. These problems can go undetected by the quality control procedures outlined in the manufacturer's package insert. We outline here procedures for detecting and preventing contamination and reproducibility problems.

  3. A novel guinea pig model of Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, M.I.; Keizer, S.A.; El Moussaoui, H.M.; van Dorsten, L.; Azzawi, R.; van Zuilekom, H.I.; Peters, P.P.; van Opzeeland, F.J.; Dijk, L..; Nieuwland, R.; Roosenboom-Theunissen, H.W.; Vrijenhoek, M.P.; Debyser, I.; Verwey, P.J.; van Duijnhoven, W.G.; van den Bosch, J.F.; Nuijten, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections often result in pelvic inflammatory disease and sequelae including infertility and ectopic pregnancies. In addition to the already established murine models, the development of other animal models is necessary to study the safety and efficacy of prototype

  4. Direct amplification, sequencing and profiling of Chlamydia trachomatis strains in single and mixed infection clinical samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep J Joseph

    Full Text Available Sequencing bacterial genomes from DNA isolated directly from clinical samples offers the promise of rapid and precise acquisition of informative genetic information. In the case of Chlamydia trachomatis, direct sequencing is particularly desirable because it obviates the requirement for culture in mammalian cells, saving time, cost and the possibility of missing low abundance strains. In this proof of concept study, we developed methodology that would allow genome-scale direct sequencing, using a multiplexed microdroplet PCR enrichment technology to amplify a 100 kb region of the C. trachomatis genome with 500 1.1-1.3 kb overlapping amplicons (5-fold amplicon redundancy. We integrated comparative genomic data into a pipeline to preferentially select conserved sites for amplicon design. The 100 kb target region could be amplified from clinical samples, including remnants from diagnostics tests, originating from the cervix, urethra and urine, For rapid analysis of these data, we developed a framework for whole-genome based genotyping called binstrain. We used binstrain to estimate the proportion of SNPs originating from 14 C. trachomatis reference serotype genomes in each sample. Direct DNA sequencing methods such as the one described here may have an important role in understanding the biology of C. trachomatis mixed infections and the natural genetic variation of the species within clinically relevant ecological niches.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors for trachoma and ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, A; Nassirou, B; Kadri, B; Moussa, F; Munoz, B E; Opong, E; West, S K

    2007-01-01

    To determine the association of personal and household risk factors for trachoma and ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Niger. 12 villages were randomly selected. A census of all households was carried out, and 651 children aged 1-5 years were randomly selected and examined. Household and personal characteristics were determined, trachoma was clinically assessed and a swab for ocular C trachomatis infection was taken. The prevalence of trachoma was 43% (95% confidence interval (CI) 39% to 47%) and of infection was 21% (95% CI 18% to 24%). Children aged 3-5 years had a stronger association of clinical signs with infection, compared with those aged 1-2 years. Those with unclean faces were three times more likely to have clinical trachoma or ocular C trachomatis infection, compared with those with clean faces (OR 3.1 (95% CI 1.6 to 6.2) and 3.0 (95% CI 1.4 to 6.3), respectively). 75% of compounds were within 30 min of a water source. Flies on the face were a risk factor for trachoma but not for C trachomatis infection. The different association of clinical signs with infection in younger versus older children may be an age-dependent difference in the duration of clinical disease. In Niger, unclean faces are a major risk factor for trachoma. The ready availability of water for washing suggests that further research on the effect of a strong health education campaign promoting clean children is warranted in this area.

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis in Cervical Lymph Node of Man with Lymphogranuloma Venereum, Croatia, 20141.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjurašin, Branimir; Lepej, Snježana Židovec; Cole, Michelle J; Pitt, Rachel; Begovac, Josip

    2018-04-01

    We report an HIV-infected person who was treated for lymphogranuloma venereum cervical lymphadenopathy and proctitis in Croatia in 2014. Infection with a variant L2b genovar of Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in a cervical lymph node aspirate. A prolonged course of doxycycline was required to cure the infection.

  7. An Epidemiologic Analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infections in Female Federal Prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    lymphogranuloma venereum (caused by serotypes L1, L2, and L3). Endemic trachoma leads to blindness, whereas inclusion conjunctivitis is associated with the...infection caused by C. trachomatis, lymphogranuloma venereum , is characterized by a swelling of the lymph nodes in the groin area. This can lead to

  8. Cost-effectiveness of partner pharmacotherapy in screening women for asymptomatic infection with Chlamydia Trachomatis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Maarten; Welte, R; van den Hoek, J A; van Doornum, G J; Jager, H C; Coutinho, R A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost-effectiveness of pharmacotherapy for male partners in screening women for asymptomatic infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT). METHODS AND DATA: A pharmacoeconomic decision analysis model was constructed for the health outcomes of a CT screening program, such as

  9. Urethritis-associated Pathogens in Urine from Men with Non-gonococcal Urethritis: A Case-control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frølund, Maria; Lidbrink, Peter; Wikström, Arne; Cowan, Susan; Ahrens, Peter; Jensen, Jørgen Skov

    2016-06-15

    The aetiology of non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) remains unexplained in 30-40% of patients. Urine samples from men attending Swedish sexually transmitted disease clinics were examined by species-specific quantitative PCRs for Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, U. parvum, adenovirus, herpes simplex virus, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. A total of 187 men with acute NGU (symptoms ≤ 30 days) and 24 with chronic NGU (symptoms < 30 days) were cases, and 73 men without NGU were controls. Number of lifetime sexual partners was negatively associated with U. urealyticum bacterial load. C. trachomatis and M. genitalium were associated with NGU, as was U. urealyticum, with bacterial loads ≥ 1.3 × 103 genome equivalents/ml urine. Virus and H. influenzae might explain a few NGU cases, but the aetiology in at least 24% of patients with acute NGU was unexplained. In multivariate analysis, detection of U. urealyticum was significantly more common in acute NGU (20%) compared with controls (11%).

  10. Ureaplasma urealyticum is significantly associated with non-gonococcal urethritis in heterosexual Sydney men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couldwell, D L; Gidding, H F; Freedman, E V; McKechnie, M L; Biggs, K; Sintchenko, V; Gilbert, G L

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the prevalence of various genital organisms in 268 men with (cases) and 237 men without (controls) urethral symptoms/signs (urethral discharge, dysuria and/or urethral irritation) from two sexual health clinics in Sydney between April 2006 and November 2007. The presence of urethral symptoms/signs was defined as non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) for this study. Specific aims were to investigate the role of Ureaplasma urealyticum in NGU and the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium in our population. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based reverse line blot (mPCR/RLB) assay was performed to detect 14 recognized or putative genital pathogens, including Chlamydia trachomatis, M. genitalium, U. urealyticum and U. parvum. U. urealyticum was associated with NGU in men without another urethral pathogen (odds ratio [OR] 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-3.8; P = 0.04); this association remained after controlling for potential confounding by age and history of unprotected vaginal sex in the last four weeks (OR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1-3.9; P = 0.03). C. trachomatis (OR 7.5, P urethral pathogens. Further research should investigate the role of U. urealyticum subtypes among heterosexual men with NGU.

  11. Clinical efficacy of levofloxacin 500 mg once daily for 7 days for patients with non-gonococcal urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Satoshi; Ichihara, Kohji; Hashimoto, Jiro; Kurimura, Yuichiro; Iwasawa, Akihiko; Hayashi, Kenji; Sunaoshi, Kenichi; Takeda, Koichi; Suzuki, Nobukazu; Satoh, Takashi; Tsukamoto, Taiji

    2011-06-01

    To confirm the efficacy of the treatment regimen with oral levofloxacin (LVFX) 500 mg once daily for 7 days for patients with non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU), we evaluated the microbiological and clinical outcomes of the regimen in those patients. We finally evaluated 53 patients with symptomatic NGU and 5 patients with asymptomatic NGU. As a result of microbiological examinations, 19 of the symptomatic patients were diagnosed as having non-gonococcal chlamydial urethritis (NGCU); 13 had non-gonococcal non-chlamydial urethritis (NGNCU), and 21 had urethritis without any microbial detection. Five of the asymptomatic patients were diagnosed as having NGCU. Microbiological cure was achieved in 91% of the 32 patients with symptomatic NGU and in 80% of the 5 patients with asymptomatic NGCU. Clinical cure was obtained in 92% of the 53 patients with symptomatic NGU. The microbiological eradication rate for Chlamydia trachomatis was 92% in 24 patients. As for other organisms, the microbiological eradication rate for Mycoplasma genitalium was 60% in 5 patients and that for Ureaplasma urealyticum was 100% in 10. The microbiological and clinical efficacy of oral LVFX 500 mg once daily for 7 days for the patients with NGU was the same for the azithromycin (AZM) 1,000 mg single dose that we previously reported. The eradication rates of C. trachomatis and U. urealyticum in the treatment regimen with LVFX 500 mg were high enough in the clinical setting; however, for M. genitalium, the rate was relatively inferior to that with AZM.

  12. Evaluation of effects of Mycoplasma mastitis on milk composition in dairy cattle from South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farha, Abd Al-Bar; Hemmatzadeh, Farhid; Khazandi, Manouchehr; Hoare, Andrew; Petrovski, Kiro

    2017-11-25

    Mycoplasma mastitis is increasingly posing significant impact on dairy industry. Although the effects of major conventional mastitis pathogens on milk components has been widely addressed in the literature, limited data on the effects of different Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma spp. on milk quality and quantity is available. The aim of this study was to determine the casual relationship of Mycoplasma spp. and A. laidlawii to mastitis and compare them to subclinical mastitis caused by conventional mastitis pathogens from a single dairy herd in South Australia; Mycoplasma spp. and A. laidlawii were detected using PCR applied directly to milk samples. The herd had mastitis problem with high somatic cell count and low response rate to conventional antimicrobial therapy. A total of 288 cow-level milk samples were collected aseptically and used in this study. Conventional culture showed a predominance of coagulase-negative staphylococci, followed by coagulase-positive staphylococci, Streptococcus spp., Enterococcus spp., E. coli, and Klebsiella spp. PCR results showed a high prevalence of mycoplasmas (76.7%), including A. laidlawii (10.8%), M. bovis (6.2%), M. bovirhinis (5.6%), M. arginini (2%), and (52.1%) of cows were co-infected with two or more Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma species. Mycoplasma co-infection significantly increased somatic cell counts (SCC) similar to conventional mastitis pathogens and compared to non-infected cows with 389.3, 550.3 and 67.3 respectively; and decreased the milk yield with 29.0, 29.9 and 34.4 l, respectively. Mycoplasma co-infection caused significant increase in protein percentage, and significant decrease in fat percentage and total milk solids, similar to other conventional mastitis pathogens. In contrast, changes in milk composition and yield caused by various individual Mycoplasma species were non-significant. Mycoplasma mastitis had on-farm economic consequences similar to common conventional mastitis pathogens. Results of our study

  13. Electron microscopic observation of the respiratory tract of SPF piglets inoculated with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, B.; Vena, M.M.; Cavalier, A.; Lannic, J. Le; Gouranton, J.; Kobisch, M.

    1992-01-01

    Seven hysterectomy derived piglets were repeatedly challenged with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae during the first week of life. Samples of trachea, bronchi and lung tissue collected 2-11 weeks post-inoculation (p.i.) were examined using light and electron microscopy. Autoradiography was used to study in more detail the site of M. hyopneumoniae multiplication. Gross lesions were observed in lung tissue and were characterized by hyperplasia of the epithelium and an increased mononuclear cell accumulation in perivascular and peribronchiolar areas. Mild lesions of the trachea and the bronchi, including epithelial hyperplasia and infiltration of the lamina propria by inflammatory cells, were noted. Electron microscopy showed that, 2-6 weeks p.i., changes in the mid-trachea and bronchi surface consisted of the loss of cilia. Mycoplasmas covered tufts of cilia remaining on the epithelial cell surface. Scanning and transmission electron micrographs showed that they were predominantly found closely associated with the top of cilia. No specialized terminal structure could be seen and no mycoplasma cells were identified lying free in the lumen nor in close contact with the plasma membrane of cells or microvilli. Some fine fibrils radiating from one mycoplasma to another or to cilia were seen at higher magnification by scanning electron microscopy. Six to eleven weeks p.i., a disrupted epithelial surface lacking cilia was observed. Cells were desquamated and shed into the lumen with cellular remains containing droplets of mucus. Autoradiography revealed that label corresponded to the observed mycoplasma distribution. At the top of cilia, a high density of labeling was visible in the zone of high mycoplasma concentration. Therefore, incorporation of the label in the mycoplasma is proof or their multiplication in the trachea. The intimate association between the mycoplasma and cilia may be an important factor in the pathogenesis of the disease caused by M. hyopneumoniae (swine

  14. Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Profiles of Tiamulin in an Experimental Intratracheal Infection Model of Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Xia; Sun, Jian; Yang, Tao; Fang, Xi; Cheng, Jie; Xiong, Yan Q.; Liu, Ya-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum is the most important pathogen in poultry among four pathogenic Mycoplasma species. Tiamulin is a pleuromutilin antibiotic that shows a great activity against M. gallisepticum and has been approved for use in veterinary medicine particularly for poultry. However, the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) profiles of tiamulin against M. gallisepticum are not well understood. Therefore, in the current studies, we investigated the in vivo PK/PD profiles of tiamulin us...

  15. Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Profiles of Tiamulin in an Experimental Intratracheal Infection Model of Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    OpenAIRE

    Xia Xiao; Xia Xiao; Jian Sun; Tao Yang; Xi Fang; Jie Cheng; Yan Q. Xiong; Yan Q. Xiong; Ya-Hong Liu; Ya-Hong Liu

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum is the most important pathogen in poultry among four pathogenic Mycoplasma species. Tiamulin is a pleuromutilin antibiotic that shows a great activity against M. gallisepticum and has been approved for use in veterinary medicine particularly for poultry. However, the Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) profiles of tiamulin against M. gallisepticum are not well understood. Therefore, in the current studies, we investigated the in vivo PK/PD profiles of tiamulin us...

  16. Suitability of peracetic acid for sterilization of media for mycoplasma cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutzler, P; Sprössig, M; Peterseim, H

    1975-01-01

    The utility of peracetic acid for sterilization of serum and yeast extract additions to mycoplasma medium was studied by culturing six Mycoplasma species. Culture media containing additions that had been sterilized with peracetic acid proved to be as good as filtered components. The use of 0.05 to 0.1% peracetic acid is recommended to sterilize the serum and yeast extract additions since savings in time and equipment can be accomplished. PMID:1100656

  17. Mycoplasma in urine and blood following catheterisation of patients undergoing vascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi, N; Eiberg, J; Skov Jensen, J

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if mycoplasmas enter the bloodstream after urinary tract catheterisation in patients undergoing vascular surgery in order to evaluate the efficiency of the routine prophylactic antibiotic treatment.......The purpose of this investigation was to determine if mycoplasmas enter the bloodstream after urinary tract catheterisation in patients undergoing vascular surgery in order to evaluate the efficiency of the routine prophylactic antibiotic treatment....

  18. Effects of mycoplasma contamination on phenotypic expression of mitochondrial mutants in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doersen, C J; Stanbridge, E J

    1981-04-01

    HeLa cells sensitive to the mitochondrial protein synthesis inhibitors erythromycin (ERY) and chloramphenicol (CAP) and HeLa variants resistant to the effects of these drugs were purposefully infected with drug-sensitive and -resistant mycoplasma strains. Mycoplasma hyorhinis and the ERY-resistant strain of Mycoplasma orale, MO-ERYr, did not influence the growth of HeLa and ERY-resistant ERY2301 cells in the presence or absence of ERY. M. hyorhinis also did not affect the growth of HeLa and CAP-resistant Cap-2 cells in the presence or absence of CAP. However, both HeLa and Cap-2 cells infected with the CAP-resistant strain of M. hyorhinis, MH-CAPr, were more sensitive to the cytotoxic effect of CAP. This may be due to the glucose dependence of the cells, which was compromised by the increased utilization of glucose by MH-CAPr in these infected cell cultures. In vitro protein synthesis by isolated mitochondria was significantly altered by mycoplasma infection of the various cell lines. A substantial number of mycoplasmas copurified with the mitochondria, resulting in up to a sevenfold increase in the incorporation of [3H]leucine into the trichloroacetic acid-insoluble material. More importantly, the apparent drug sensitivity or resistance of mitochondrial preparations from mycoplasma-infected cells reflected the drug sensitivity or resistance of the contaminating mycoplasmas. These results illustrate the hazards in interpreting mitochondrial protein synthesis data derived from mycoplasma-infected cell lines, particularly putative mitochondrially encoded mutants resistant to inhibitors of mitochondrial protein synthesis.

  19. Simultaneous Identification of Potential Pathogenicity Factors of Mycoplasma agalactiae in the Natural Ovine Host by Negative Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Hegde, Shivanand; Hegde, Shrilakshmi; Zimmermann, Martina; Flöck, Martina; Spergser, Joachim; Rosengarten, Renate; Chopra-Dewasthaly, Rohini

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasmas possess complex pathogenicity determinants that are largely unknown at the molecular level. Mycoplasma agalactiae serves as a useful model to study the molecular basis of mycoplasma pathogenicity. The generation and in vivo screening of a transposon mutant library of M. agalactiae were employed to unravel its host colonization factors. Tn4001mod mutants were sequenced using a novel sequencing method, and functionally heterogeneous pools containing 15 to 19 selected mutants were sc...

  20. Clinical Efficacy of a Single Two Gram Dose of Azithromycin Extended Release for Male Patients with Urethritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Takahashi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the clinical efficacy of a single oral 2 g dose of azithromycin extended-release for heterosexual male patients with urethritis, and the current antimicrobial sensitivity of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to azithromycin, a prospective clinical trial was conducted from 2011–2013. In patients with gonococcal urethritis, the eradication rate was 90.9% (30 of 33. The susceptibility rates of isolated Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains to ceftriaxone, spectinomycin, cefixime and azithromycin were 100%, 100%, 95.3% (41/43 and 37.2% (16/43, respectively. In the patients with nongonococcal urethritis, the eradication rate was 90.0% (45 of 50. The microbiological eradication rates for the pathogens were 90.9% (30/33 for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 91.5% (43/47 for Chlamydia trachomatis, 71.4% (5/7 for Mycoplasma genitalium, and 100% (13/13 for Ureaplasma urealyticum. The main adverse event was diarrhea and its manifestation rate was 35.2% (32 of 120. The symptom of diarrhea was mostly temporary and resolved spontaneously. The conclusion was that the treatment regimen with a single oral 2 g dose of azithromycin extended-release would be effective for patients with urethritis. However, the antimicrobial susceptibilities of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Mycoplasma genitalium should be carefully monitored because of possible treatment failure.

  1. Clinical Efficacy of a Single Two Gram Dose of Azithromycin Extended Release for Male Patients with Urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Satoshi; Kiyota, Hiroshi; Ito, Shin; Iwasawa, Akihiko; Hiyama, Yoshiki; Uehara, Teruhisa; Ichihara, Koji; Hashimoto, Jiro; Masumori, Naoya; Sunaoshi, Kenichi; Takeda, Koichi; Suzuki, Nobukazu; Hosobe, Takahide; Goto, Hirokazu; Suzuki, Hidenori; Onodera, Shoichi

    2014-04-02

    To clarify the clinical efficacy of a single oral 2 g dose of azithromycin extended-release for heterosexual male patients with urethritis, and the current antimicrobial sensitivity of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to azithromycin, a prospective clinical trial was conducted from 2011-2013. In patients with gonococcal urethritis, the eradication rate was 90.9% (30 of 33). The susceptibility rates of isolated Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains to ceftriaxone, spectinomycin, cefixime and azithromycin were 100%, 100%, 95.3% (41/43) and 37.2% (16/43), respectively. In the patients with nongonococcal urethritis, the eradication rate was 90.0% (45 of 50). The microbiological eradication rates for the pathogens were 90.9% (30/33) for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 91.5% (43/47) for Chlamydia trachomatis, 71.4% (5/7) for Mycoplasma genitalium, and 100% (13/13) for Ureaplasma urealyticum. The main adverse event was diarrhea and its manifestation rate was 35.2% (32 of 120). The symptom of diarrhea was mostly temporary and resolved spontaneously. The conclusion was that the treatment regimen with a single oral 2 g dose of azithromycin extended-release would be effective for patients with urethritis. However, the antimicrobial susceptibilities of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Mycoplasma genitalium should be carefully monitored because of possible treatment failure.

  2. Intramuscular Immunisation with Chlamydial Proteins Induces Chlamydia trachomatis Specific Ocular Antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Badamchi-Zadeh

    Full Text Available Ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis can cause trachoma, which is the leading cause of blindness due to infection worldwide. Despite the large-scale implementation of trachoma control programmes in the majority of countries where trachoma is endemic, there remains a need for a vaccine. Since C. trachomatis infects the conjunctival epithelium and stimulates an immune response in the associated lymphoid tissue, vaccine regimens that enhance local antibody responses could be advantageous. In experimental infections of non-human primates (NHPs, antibody specificity to C. trachomatis antigens was found to change over the course of ocular infection. The appearance of major outer membrane protein (MOMP specific antibodies correlated with a reduction in ocular chlamydial burden, while subsequent generation of antibodies specific for PmpD and Pgp3 correlated with C. trachomatis eradication.We used a range of heterologous prime-boost vaccinations with DNA, Adenovirus, modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA and protein vaccines based on the major outer membrane protein (MOMP as an antigen, and investigated the effect of vaccine route, antigen and regimen on the induction of anti-chlamydial antibodies detectable in the ocular lavage fluid of mice.Three intramuscular vaccinations with recombinant protein adjuvanted with MF59 induced significantly greater levels of anti-MOMP ocular antibodies than the other regimens tested. Intranasal delivery of vaccines induced less IgG antibody in the eye than intramuscular delivery. The inclusion of the antigens PmpD and Pgp3, singly or in combination, induced ocular antigen-specific IgG antibodies, although the anti-PmpD antibody response was consistently lower and attenuated by combination with other antigens.If translatable to NHPs and/or humans, this investigation of the murine C. trachomatis specific ocular antibody response following vaccination provides a potential mouse model for the rapid and high throughput

  3. Formulation, characterization, and expression of a recombinant MOMP Chlamydia trachomatis DNA vaccine encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cambridge CD

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Chino D Cambridge, Shree R Singh, Alain B Waffo, Stacie J Fairley, Vida A DennisCenter for NanoBiotechnology Research (CNBR, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL, USAAbstract: Chlamydia trachomatis is a bacterial sexually transmitted infection affecting millions of people worldwide. Previous vaccination attempts have employed the recombinant major outer membrane protein (MOMP of C. trachomatis nonetheless, with limited success, perhaps, due to stability, degradation, and delivery issues. In this study we cloned C. trachomatis recombinant MOMP DNA (DMOMP and encapsulated it in chitosan nanoparticles (DMCNP using the complex coacervation technique. Physiochemical characterizations of DMCNP included transmission and scanning electron microcopy, Fourier transform infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and zeta potential. Encapsulated DMOMP was 167–250 nm, with a uniform spherical shape and homogenous morphology, and an encapsulation efficiency > 90%. A slow release pattern of encapsulated DMOMP, especially in acidic solution, was observed over 7 days. The zeta potential of DMCNP was ~8.80 mV, which indicated that it was highly stable. Toxicity studies of DMCNP (25–400 µg/mL to Cos-7 cells using the MTT assay revealed minimal toxicity over 24–72 hours with >90% viable cells. Ultra-violet visible (UV-vis spectra indicated encapsulated DMOMP protection by chitosan, whereas agarose gel electrophoresis verified its protection from enzymatic degradation. Expression of MOMP protein in DMCNP-transfected Cos-7 cells was demonstrated via Western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. Significantly, intramuscular injection of BALB/c mice with DMCNP confirmed the delivery of encapsulated DMOMP, and expression of the MOMP gene transcript in thigh muscles and spleens. Our data show that encapsulation of DMOMP in biodegradable chitosan nanoparticles imparts stability and protection from enzymatic digestion, and enhances delivery and

  4. Lactobacilli inactivate Chlamydia trachomatis through lactic acid but not H2O2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Gong

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus species dominate the microbiome in the lower genital tract of most reproductive-age women. Producing lactic acid and H2O2, lactobacilli are believed to play an important role in prevention of colonization by and growth of pathogens. However, to date, there have been no reported studies characterizing how lactobacilli interact with Chlamydia trachomatis, a leading sexually transmitted bacterium. In this report, we demonstrate inactivation of C. trachomatis infectivity by culture media conditioned by Lactobacillus crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii, known to be dominating organisms in the human vaginal microbiome. Lactobacillus still cultures produced lactic acid, leading to time- and concentration-dependent killing of C. trachomatis. Neutralization of the acidic media completely reversed chlamydia killing. Addition of lactic acid into Lactobacillus-unconditioned growth medium recapitulated the chlamydiacidal activity of conditioned media. The H2O2 concentrations in the still cultures were found to be comparable to those reported for the cervicovaginal fluid, but insufficient to inactivate chlamydiae. Aeration of Lactobacillus cultures by shaking markedly induced H2O2 production, but strongly inhibited Lactobacillus growth and lactic acid production, and thus severely affected acidification, leading to significantly reduced chlamydiacidal efficiency. These observations indicate lactobacilli inactivate chlamydiae primarily through maintaining acidity in a relatively hypoxic environment in the vaginal lumen with limited H2O2, which is consistent with the notion that women with higher vaginal pH are more prone to sexually transmitted C. trachomatis infection. In addition to lactic acid, formic acid and acetic acid also exhibited potent chlamydiacidal activities. Taken together, our findings imply that lowering the vaginal pH through engineering of the vaginal microbiome and other means will make women less susceptible to C

  5. Management of Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infection: screening and treatment challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandie D Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brandie D Taylor, Catherine L HaggertyUniversity of Pittsburgh, Department of Epidemiology, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: Chlamydia trachomatis is a prevalent sexually transmitted infection that can lead to serious reproductive morbidity. Management and control of C. trachomatis is a challenge, largely due to its asymptomatic nature and our incomplete understanding of its natural history. Although chlamydia screening programs have been implemented worldwide, several countries have observed increasing rates of reported chlamydia cases. We reviewed the literature relating to the long-term complications of C. trachomatis, as well as screening strategies, treatment, and prevention strategies for reducing chlamydia in the population. Articles from 1950–2010 were identified through a Medline search using the keyword “Chlamydia trachomatis” combined with “screening”, “pelvic inflammatory disease”, “endometritis”, “salpingitis”, “infertility”, "ectopic pregnancy”, “urethritis”, “epididymitis”, “proctitis”, “prostatitis”, “reinfection”, “cost-effectiveness”, “treatment”, “vaccines”, or “prevention”. Progression of C. trachomatis varies, and recurrent infections are common. Currently, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of chlamydia screening. Higher quality studies are needed to determine the efficacy of more frequent screening, on a broader range of sequelae, including infertility and ectopic pregnancy, in addition to pelvic inflammatory disease. Studies should focus on delineating the natural history of recurrent infections, paying particular attention to treatment failures. Furthermore, alternatives to screening, such as vaccines, should continue to be explored.Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis, sexually transmitted disease, chlamydia screening, chlamydia treatment

  6. Characteristics of acute nongonococcal urethritis in men differ by sexual preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Vinita S; Fairley, Christopher K; Weerakoon, Ajith; Read, Timothy H; Fehler, Glenda; Chen, Marcus Y; Bradshaw, Catriona S

    2014-08-01

    Nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) is a common clinical syndrome, but no etiological agent is identified in a significant proportion of cases. Whether the spectrum of pathogens differs between heterosexual men (MSW) and men who have sex with men (MSM) is largely unstudied but of considerable clinical relevance. A retrospective review was done using the electronic medical record database of Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Australia. Cases were first presentations of symptomatic acute NGU with ≥ 5 polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL)/high-powered field (HPF) on urethral Gram stain between January 2006 and December 2011. First-stream urine was tested for Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium by PCR. Demographic, laboratory, and behavioral characteristics of cases were examined by univariate and multivariable analyses. Of 1,295 first presentations of acute NGU, 401 (32%; 95% confidence interval [CI] of 29 to 34%) had C. trachomatis and 134 (11%; 95% CI of 9 to 13%) had M. genitalium detected. MSM with acute NGU were less likely to have C. trachomatis (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.4; 95% CI of 0.3 to 0.6) or M. genitalium (AOR = 0.5; 95% CI of 0.3 to 0.8) and more likely to have idiopathic NGU (AOR = 2.4; 95% CI of 1.8 to 3.3), to report 100% condom use for anal/vaginal sex (AOR = 3.6; 95% CI of 2.7 to 5.0), or to have engaged in sexual activities other than anal/vaginal sex (AOR = 8.0; 95% CI of 3.6 to 17.8). Even when C. trachomatis or M. genitalium was detected, MSM were more likely than MSW to report consistent condom use (OR = 4.7; 95% CI of 2.6 to 8.3). MSM with acute NGU are less likely to have the established bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and more likely to report protected anal sex or sexual activity other than anal sex prior to symptom onset than MSW. These data suggest that the etiologic spectrum of pathogens differs between MSM and MSW in acute NGU and that relatively low-risk practices are capable of inducing acute NGU. Copyright

  7. Identification of Chlamydiae and Mycoplasma species in ruminants with ocular infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S; Chahota, R; Bhardwaj, B; Malik, P; Verma, S; Sharma, M

    2015-02-01

    Infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) is a highly contagious ocular inflammatory condition, which is often reported in domestic small and large ruminants. Multiple infectious aetiologies are reported to be involved, but information about the role of certain fastidious bacterial pathogens such as chlamydiae and mycoplasmas is limited in India. Hence, this study was performed to determine the role of these pathogens and their identification by molecular approach. A total of 53 samples from 31 ovine, 14 caprine and eight bovine having clinical symptoms were collected and tested using species-specific PCR tests for chlamydiae and mycoplasmas followed by nucleotide sequence analysis. The results showed 77.41, 14.29 and 25% samples were chlamydiae positive in ovine, caprine and bovine, respectively, whereas 41.93, 14.29 and 37.5% prevalence of mycoplasma infection was detected in ovine, caprine and bovines, respectively. Chlamydophila abortus, Chlamydophila psittaci, Mycoplasma arginini and Mycoplasma hyorhinis were detected from tested samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time these species are identified in IKC cases from India. Coinfection of both chlamydial and mycoplasmal species was detected in eight IKC cases of ovine which suggest synergistic roles played by both chlamydiae and mycoplasma in IKC samples. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. The Proteome of the Isolated Chlamydia trachomatis Containing Vacuole Reveals a Complex Trafficking Platform Enriched for Retromer Components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Aeberhard

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is an important human pathogen that replicates inside the infected host cell in a unique vacuole, the inclusion. The formation of this intracellular bacterial niche is essential for productive Chlamydia infections. Despite its importance for Chlamydia biology, a holistic view on the protein composition of the inclusion, including its membrane, is currently missing. Here we describe the host cell-derived proteome of isolated C. trachomatis inclusions by quantitative proteomics. Computational analysis indicated that the inclusion is a complex intracellular trafficking platform that interacts with host cells' antero- and retrograde trafficking pathways. Furthermore, the inclusion is highly enriched for sorting nexins of the SNX-BAR retromer, a complex essential for retrograde trafficking. Functional studies showed that in particular, SNX5 controls the C. trachomatis infection and that retrograde trafficking is essential for infectious progeny formation. In summary, these findings suggest that C. trachomatis hijacks retrograde pathways for effective infection.

  9. Mycoplasma bovis: Mechanisms of Resistance and Trends in Antimicrobial Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysnyansky, Inna; Ayling, Roger D

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a cell-wall-less bacterium and belongs to the class Mollicutes. It is the most important etiological agent of bovine mycoplasmoses in North America and Europe, causing respiratory disease, mastitis, otitis media, arthritis, and reproductive disease. Clinical disease associated with M. bovis is often chronic, debilitating, and poorly responsive to antimicrobial therapy, resulting in significant economic loss, the full extent of which is difficult to estimate. Until M. bovis vaccines are universally available, sanitary control measures and antimicrobial treatment are the only approaches that can be used in attempts to control M. bovis infections. However, in vitro studies show that many of the current M. bovis isolates circulating in Europe have high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for many of the commercially available antimicrobials. In this review we summarize the current MIC trends indicating the development of antimicrobial resistance in M. bovis as well as the known molecular mechanisms by which resistance is acquired.

  10. Mycoplasma bovis: mechanisms of resistance and trends in antimicrobial susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna eLysnyansky

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma bovis is a cell-wall-less bacterium and belongs to the class Mollicutes. It is the most important etiological agent of bovine mycoplasmoses in North America and Europe, causing respiratory disease, mastitis, otitis media, arthritis, and reproductive disease. Clinical disease associated with M. bovis is often chronic, debilitating, and poorly responsive to antimicrobial therapy, resulting in significant economic loss, the full extent of which is difficult to estimate. Until M. bovis vaccines are universally available, sanitary control measures and antimicrobial treatment are the only approaches that can be used in attempts to control M. bovis infections. However, in vitro studies show that many of the current M. bovis isolates circulating in Europe have high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC for many of the commercially available antimicrobials. In this review we summarize the current MIC trends indicating the development of antimicrobial resistance in M. bovis as well as the known molecular mechanisms by which resistance is acquired.

  11. Characterization of Elongation Factor Tu of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae

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    Xuan Zhang, Yue-feng Chu, Ping Zhao, Peng-cheng Gao, Ying He, Nu Wang and Zhong-xin Lu*

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae is considered as an important pathogen of small ruminants, but its antigenic proteins are not well known so far. In this study, we cloned the EF-Tu gene of M. ovipneumoniae and analyzed the molecular features of the gene and its coding protein for the first time. The gene was then expressed in E.coli and the antigenicity of the coding protein was evaluated as well. The EF-Tu gene of M. ovipneumoniae is 1209 bp in length, encodes 402 amino acids, and shares the highest DNA sequence identity of 87.5% and deduced amino acid sequence identity of 97.8% with those of M. hyopneumoniae, respectively. The recombinant EF-Tu protein can react with the polyclonal antiserum of M. ovipneumoniae and can induce humoral immune responses in mice, which indicated that the EF-Tu may be used as a candidate protein in developing the technologies to control the disease.

  12. Mycoplasmas hyorhinis in different regions of cuba: diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Lobo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available M. hyorhinis is considered one of the etiological agents of arthritis in sucking pigs, but recently as seen, some strains can produce pneumonia that could not be distinguished from the mycoplasmosis caused by M. hyopneumoniae. The study was conducted to research the presence of Mycoplasma hyorhinis (M. hyorhinis in different regions of the country from exudates of pig lungs with typical EP lesions. Exudates from 280 pig lungs with typical EP lesions were studied using molecular techniques such as PCR, real time PCR and amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA. It was detected that the 66% of the samples studied resulted positive to M. hyorhinis, and the presence of this species was detected in all the provinces. Amplification and studies on the intergenic region 16S-23S of M. hyorhinis rRNA demonstrated the existing variability among strains of a same species. This study is the first report on M. hyorhinis detection in Cuba.

  13. Experimental arthritis induced by a clinical Mycoplasma fermentans isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giono Silvia

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasma fermentans has been associated with rheumatoid arthritis. Recently, it was detected in the joints and blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, but it is not clear yet how the bacteria enter the body and reach the joints. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of M. fermentans to induce experimental arthritis in rabbits following inoculation of the bacteria in the trachea and knee joints. Methods P-140 and PG-18 strains were each injected in the knee joints of 14 rabbits in order to evaluate and compare their arthritogenicity. P-140 was also injected in the trachea of 14 rabbits in order to test the ability of the bacteria to reach the joints and induce arthritis. Results M. fermentans produced an acute arthritis in rabbits. Joint swelling appeared first in rabbits injected with P-140, which caused a more severe arthritis than PG-18. Both strains were able to migrate to the uninoculated knee joints and they were detected viable in the joints all along the duration of the experiment. Changes in the synovial tissue were more severe by the end of the experiment and characterized by the infiltration of neutrophils and substitution of adipose tissue by connective tissue. Rabbits intracheally injected with P-140 showed induced arthritis and the bacteria could be isolated from lungs, blood, heart, kidney, spleen, brain and joints. Conclusion M. fermentans induced arthritis regardless of the inoculation route. These findings may help explain why mycoplasmas are commonly isolated from the joints of rheumatic patients.

  14. Interaction between Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Swine Influenza Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Eileen L.; Thacker, Brad J.; Janke, Bruce H.

    2001-01-01

    An experimental respiratory model was used to investigate the interaction between Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and swine influenza virus (SIV) in the induction of pneumonia in susceptible swine. Previous studies demonstrated that M. hyopneumoniae, which produces a chronic bronchopneumonia in swine, potentiates a viral pneumonia induced by the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). In this study, pigs were inoculated with M. hyopneumoniae 21 days prior to inoculation with SIV. Clinical disease as characterized by the severity of cough and fever was evaluated daily. Percentages of lung tissue with visual lesions and microscopic lesions were assessed upon necropsy at 3, 7, 14, and 21 days following SIV inoculation. Clinical observations revealed that pigs infected with both SIV and M. hyopneumoniae coughed significantly more than pigs inoculated with a single agent. Macroscopic pneumonia on necropsy at days 3 and 7 was greatest in both SIV-infected groups, with minimal levels of pneumonia in the M. hyopneumoniae-only-infected pigs. At 14 days post-SIV inoculation, pneumonia was significantly more severe in pigs infected with both pathogens. However, by 21 days postinoculation, the level of pneumonia in the dual-infected pigs was similar to that of the M. hyopneumoniae-only-infected group, and the pneumonia in the pigs inoculated with only SIV was nearly resolved. Microscopically, there was no apparent increase in the severity of pneumonia in pigs infected with both agents compared to that of single-agent-challenged pigs. The results of this study found that while pigs infected with both agents exhibited more severe clinical disease, the relationship between the two pathogens lacked the profound potentiation found with dual infection with M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV. These findings demonstrate that the relationship between mycoplasmas and viruses varies with the individual agent. PMID:11427564

  15. Inhibition of Fusion of Chlamydia trachomatis Inclusions at 32°C Correlates with Restricted Export of IncA

    OpenAIRE

    Fields, K. A.; Fischer, E.; Hackstadt, T.

    2002-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium that develops within a parasitophorous vacuole termed an inclusion. The inclusion is nonfusogenic with lysosomes but intercepts lipids from a host cell exocytic pathway. Initiation of chlamydial development is concurrent with modification of the inclusion membrane by a set of C. trachomatis-encoded proteins collectively designated Incs. One of these Incs, IncA, is functionally associated with the homotypic fusion of inclusions. Incl...

  16. Topical tenofovir protects against vaginal simian HIV infection in macaques coinfected with Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Natalia; Henning, Tara; Taylor, Andrew; Dinh, Chuong; Lipscomb, Jonathan; Aubert, Rachael; Hanson, Debra; Phillips, Christi; Papp, John; Mitchell, James; McNicholl, Janet; Garcia-Lerma, Gerardo J; Heneine, Walid; Kersh, Ellen; Dobard, Charles

    2017-03-27

    Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis, two prevalent sexually transmitted infections, are known to increase HIV risk in women and could potentially diminish preexposure prophylaxis efficacy, particularly for topical interventions that rely on local protection. We investigated in macaques whether coinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis reduces protection by vaginal tenofovir (TFV) gel. Vaginal TFV gel dosing previously shown to provide 100 or 74% protection when applied either 30 min or 3 days before simian HIV(SHIV) challenge was assessed in pigtailed macaques coinfected with Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis and challenged twice weekly with SHIV162p3 for up to 10 weeks (two menstrual cycles). Three groups of six macaques received either placebo or 1% TFV gel 30 min or 3 days before each SHIV challenge. We additionally assessed TFV and TFV diphosphate concentrations in plasma and vaginal tissues in Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis coinfected (n = 4) and uninfected (n = 4) macaques. Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis coinfections were maintained during the SHIV challenge period. All macaques that received placebo gel were SHIV infected after a median of seven challenges (one menstrual cycle). In contrast, no infections were observed in macaques treated with TFV gel 30 min before SHIV challenge (P vaginal lymphocytes were significantly higher in Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis coinfected compared with Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis uninfected macaques. Our findings in this model suggest that Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis coinfection may have little or no impact on the efficacy of highly effective topical TFV modalities and highlight a significant modulation of TFV pharmacokinetics.

  17. Seroevidence of Chlamydia Trachomatis Antibody in Infertile Women in University of Benin Teaching Hospital (Ubth Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibadin, K. O.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of Chlamydia trachomatis in the pathogenesis of Pelvic inflammatory disease and majority of cases of salpinigitis are well acknowledged in women. A total of 213 sera from infertile women were tested for antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis by using an indirect solid phases enzyme Immuno absorbent commercial ELISA test. Women with confirmed Hysterosalpinographic report suggesting tubal occlusion (tubal factor infertility had 92 (43.2% followed by 63 (29.6% infertile women with infertile male partner and 58 (27.2% were having unexplained infertility. Out of the tubal factor (TF infertile women 40 (18.8% were seropositive for Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies, as against 19 (8.9% in the group of women with normal patent tubes and 10 (4.6% women with infertile male partner. In this study there was a statistical significant correlation between the infertile women with tubal factor infertility in relation to seroevidence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection with p<0.05. There was no age bias in the serodetection of Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies. The seropositivity of Chlamydia trachomatis is an indication that the organism may be an independent risk factor in the development of an inflammatory process leading to scaring of the uterine tubes in women and thereby causing infertility.

  18. [Co-occurence of indol-producing bacterial strains in the vagina of women infected with Chlamydia trachomatis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanik, Małgorzata; Martirosian, Gayane; Wojciechowska-Wieja, Anna; Cieślik, Katarzyna; Kaźmierczak, Wojciech

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if cervicitis, caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis), has an influence on the frequency of occurrence of selected aerobic and anaerobic bacterial strains, connected with etiology of aerobic vaginitis (AV) and bacterial vaginosis (BV). Indole-producing bacteria have received particular attention due to their possibly inductive role in chronic cervicitis caused by C. trachomatis. The swabs from vagina and cervical canal have been obtained from 122 women (aged 18-40). The presence of C. trachomatis antigen had been detected and diagnosed with the help of direct immunofluorescence, BV with Amesl and Nugent criteria, whereas the AV with Donders criteria. The identification of the bacterial strains isolated from vagina has been performed according to classical microbiological diagnostics. Disruption of vaginal microflora (4-10 in Nugent score) was determined in 11,5% of observed women. AV was diagnosed in 4.5% women with chlamydial cervicitis, BV was diagnosed in 10.9% and 5.45% of these women, on the basis of Amsel and Nugent criteria respectively. Indole-producing bacterial strains connected with BV and AV (Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, Propionibacterium acnes, Escherichia coli) have been isolated significantly more often from vagina of women infected with C trachomatis (p = 0.0405, chi2 = 4.20) and these findings confirm co-importance of indole-producing bacterial strains in cervicitis caused by C trachomatis .

  19. Prevalence of plasmid-bearing and plasmid-free Chlamydia trachomatis infection among women who visited obstetrics and gynecology clinics in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Yeow, Tee Cian; Wong, Won Fen; Sabet, Negar Shafiei; Sulaiman, Sofiah; Shahhosseini, Fatemeh; Tan, Grace Min Yi; Movahed, Elaheh; Looi, Chung Yeng; Shankar, Esaki M.; Gupta, Rishien; Arulanandam, Bernard P.; Hassan, Jamiyah; Abu Bakar, Sazaly

    2016-01-01

    Background The 7.5?kb cryptic plasmid of Chlamydia trachomatis has been shown to be a virulence factor in animal models, but its significance in humans still remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and potential involvement of the C. trachomatis cryptic plasmid in causing various clinical manifestations; including infertility, reproductive tract disintegrity, menstrual disorder, and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) among genital C. trachomatis?infected patie...

  20. Mycoplasma suis infection results endothelial cell damage and activation: new insight into the cell tropism and pathogenicity of hemotrophic mycoplasma

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    Sokoli Albina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hemotrophic mycoplasmas (HM are highly specialized red blood cell parasites that cause infectious anemia in a variety of mammals, including humans. To date, no in vitro cultivation systems for HM have been available, resulting in relatively little information about the pathogenesis of HM infection. In pigs, Mycoplasma suis-induced infectious anemia is associated with hemorrhagic diathesis, and coagulation dysfunction. However, intravasal coagulation and subsequent consumption coagulopathy can only partly explain the sequence of events leading to hemorrhagic diathesis manifesting as cyanosis, petechial bleeding, and ecchymosis, and to disseminated coagulation. The involvement of endothelial activation and damage in M. suis-associated pathogenesis was investigated using light and electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and cell sorting. M. suis interacted directly with endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Endothelial activation, widespread endothelial damage, and adherence of red blood cells to the endothelium were evident in M. suis-infected pigs. These alterations of the endothelium were accompanied by hemorrhage, intravascular coagulation, vascular occlusion, and massive morphological changes within the parenchyma. M. suis biofilm-like microcolonies formed on the surface of endothelial cells, and may represent a putative persistence mechanism of M. suis. In vitro analysis demonstrated that M. suis interacted with the endothelial cytoskeletal protein actin, and induced actin condensation and activation of endothelial cells, as determined by the up-regulation of ICAM, PECAM, E-selectin, and P-selectin. These findings demonstrate an additional cell tropism of HM for endothelial cells and suggest that M. suis interferes with the protective function of the endothelium, resulting in hemorrhagic diathesis.

  1. Pulmonary tuberculosis with airspace consolidation vs mycoplasma pneumonia in adults: high-resolution CT findings

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    Cha, Chull Hee; Choi, Gyo Chang; Park, Jai Soung; Hwang, Jung Hwa; Kim, Kyung Rak; Im, Han Haek; Kim, Dae Ho; Choi, Deuk Lin [Soonchunghyang Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-01

    To analyse and compare high-resolution CT findings of pulmonary tuberculosis with consolidation and mycoplasma pneumonia. Twenty patients with pulmonary tuberculosis [confirmed by sputum culture (n=9) and bronchoscopic biopsy (n=11)] and airspace consolidation on high-resolution CT and 17 patients with mycoplasma pneumonia, confirmed by serologic test, were included in this study. High-resolution CT findings were analyzed in terms of ground-glass opacities, distribution of consolidation, type of nodules, cavities, interlobular septal thickening, bronchial dilatations, bronchial wall thickening and pleural effusion. In patients with tuberculosis, average age was 33.5 years (range, 20-67); in those with mycoplasma pneumonia it was 32.5 years (range, 17-74). Segmental and subsegmental distributions were most common in both diseases; the preferred site of consolidation was different, however; for tuberculosis it was the upper lobes (13 cases, 65%; bilateral involvement, 7 cases); for mycoplasma pneumonia it was the lower lobes (11 cases, 64.7%). Non-segmental (diffuse and random) distribution of ground-glass opacities were seen in two patients(11.8%) with mycoplasma pneumonia. Centrilobular nodules, branching linear opacities and alveolar nodules were not different in both diseases, but there were nodules above 10mm in 14 cases of tuberculosis and in only one case of mycoplasma pneumonia. Tree-in-bud appearances were seen in five cases of tuberculosis. Cavities without air-fluid level were noted in ten cases of tuberculosis. Other interlobular septal thickening, bronchial wall thickening, bronchial dilatation and pleural effusion were not different in both diseases. There was considerable overlap between high resolution CT findings of tuberculosis with airspace consolidation and those of mycoplasma pneumonia. The location of consolidation, type of nodules, and the presence of tree-in-bud appearance and cavities help in the differentiation of the two diseases, however.

  2. Pulmonary tuberculosis with airspace consolidation vs mycoplasma pneumonia in adults: high-resolution CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Chull Hee; Choi, Gyo Chang; Park, Jai Soung; Hwang, Jung Hwa; Kim, Kyung Rak; Im, Han Haek; Kim, Dae Ho; Choi, Deuk Lin

    1997-01-01

    To analyse and compare high-resolution CT findings of pulmonary tuberculosis with consolidation and mycoplasma pneumonia. Twenty patients with pulmonary tuberculosis [confirmed by sputum culture (n=9) and bronchoscopic biopsy (n=11)] and airspace consolidation on high-resolution CT and 17 patients with mycoplasma pneumonia, confirmed by serologic test, were included in this study. High-resolution CT findings were analyzed in terms of ground-glass opacities, distribution of consolidation, type of nodules, cavities, interlobular septal thickening, bronchial dilatations, bronchial wall thickening and pleural effusion. In patients with tuberculosis, average age was 33.5 years (range, 20-67); in those with mycoplasma pneumonia it was 32.5 years (range, 17-74). Segmental and subsegmental distributions were most common in both diseases; the preferred site of consolidation was different, however; for tuberculosis it was the upper lobes (13 cases, 65%; bilateral involvement, 7 cases); for mycoplasma pneumonia it was the lower lobes (11 cases, 64.7%). Non-segmental (diffuse and random) distribution of ground-glass opacities were seen in two patients(11.8%) with mycoplasma pneumonia. Centrilobular nodules, branching linear opacities and alveolar nodules were not different in both diseases, but there were nodules above 10mm in 14 cases of tuberculosis and in only one case of mycoplasma pneumonia. Tree-in-bud appearances were seen in five cases of tuberculosis. Cavities without air-fluid level were noted in ten cases of tuberculosis. Other interlobular septal thickening, bronchial wall thickening, bronchial dilatation and pleural effusion were not different in both diseases. There was considerable overlap between high resolution CT findings of tuberculosis with airspace consolidation and those of mycoplasma pneumonia. The location of consolidation, type of nodules, and the presence of tree-in-bud appearance and cavities help in the differentiation of the two diseases, however

  3. Risk of Mycoplasma bovis transmission from contaminated sand bedding to naive dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D J; Justice-Allen, A; Goodell, G; Baldwin, T J; Skirpstunas, R T; Cavender, K B

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible transmission of Mycoplasma bovis from positive sand bedding to naïve dairy calves. Twelve preweaned Holstein bull calves were blocked in pairs and randomly assigned as unexposed controls (n=6) bedded with control sand, or exposed calves (n=6) bedded with sand previously positive for M. bovis at a dairy farm. Bedding sand was cultured weekly. Nasal and ear swabs and sera were collected weekly, tracheal swabs were collected monthly, and by the end of the 105-d study, all calves were euthanized (n=10) or died (n=2). Sera were tested for M. bovis-specific antibody. Mycoplasma spp. culture was performed on nasal and ear swabs; culture and a PCR differentiating multiple Mycoplasma spp. were performed on postmortem samples of lung, retropharyngeal lymph node, and trachea from each calf. A complete necropsy also was performed. During 6 wk, mycoplasma concentration in exposed group sand was between 200 and 32,000 cfu/g. All 166 tracheal swabs, nasal and ear swabs, and postmortem tests from all calves were negative for mycoplasma. All 94 sera were negative for M. bovis-specific antibody. No gross pathology suggestive of mycoplasma disease was detected. The probability of mycoplasma detection, if an exposed calf had become infected 4 wk after exposure, ranged between 97 and 99% depending on time of exposure for individual calves. There was no evidence that sand bedding contaminated with M. bovis might serve as a source of transmission to naïve dairy calves. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Chlamydia trachomatis IncA Is Localized to the Inclusion Membrane and Is Recognized by Antisera from Infected Humans and Primates†

    OpenAIRE

    Bannantine, John P.; Stamm, Walter E.; Suchland, Robert J.; Rockey, Daniel D.

    1998-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci produces a collection of proteins, termed IncA, IncB, and IncC, that are localized to the chlamydial inclusion membrane. In this report we demonstrate that IncA is also produced by Chlamydia trachomatis. C. trachomatis IncA is structurally similar to C. psittaci IncA and is also localized to the inclusion membrane. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that sera from C. trachomatis-infected patients and from experimentally infected monkeys both recognized C. trachomatis IncA.

  5. Dysuria in the Emergency Department: Missed Diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan D. Wilbanks

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The clinical presentation of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection (chlamydia in women is often indistinguishable from a urinary tract infection. While merited in the setting of dysuria, emergency department (ED clinicians do not routinely test for chlamydia in women. The primary aim of our study was to evaluate the frequency of chlamydia testing among women presenting to the ED with dysuria. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of women 19-25 years of age presenting with dysuria to an urban ED and who had been coded with urinary tract infection (UTI as their primary diagnosis (ICD-9 599.0 from October 2005 to March 2011. We excluded women who were pregnant, had underlying anatomical or neurological urinary system pathology, had continuation of symptoms from UTI or a sexually transmitted infection (STI diagnosed elsewhere, or were already on antibiotics for a UTI or STI. We identified the rates of sexual history screening, pelvic examination and chlamydia assay testing and evaluated predictors using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Of 280 women with dysuria and a UTI diagnosis, 17% were asked about their sexual history, with 94% reporting recent sexual activity. Pelvic examination was performed in 23%. We were unable to determine the overall chlamydia prevalence as only 20% of women in the cohort were tested. Among the 20% of women tested for chlamydia infection, 21% tested positive. Only 42% of chlamydia-positive women were prescribed treatment effective for chlamydia (azithromycin or doxycycline at their visit; the remaining were prescribed UTI treatment not effective against chlamydia. Predictors of sexual history screening included vaginal bleeding (OR 5.4, 95% CI=1.5 to 19.6 and discharge (OR 2.8, 95% CI=1.1 to 6.9. Predictors of a pelvic examination being performed included having a complaint of vaginal discharge (OR 11.8, 95% CI=4.2 to 32.9, a sexual history performed (OR 2.5, 95% CI=1.1 to 5

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis immunoglobulin G3 seropositivity is a predictor of reproductive outcomes in infertile women with patent fallopian tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Anne Z; Diamond, Michael P; Legro, Richard S; Schlaff, William D; Barnhart, Kurt T; Casson, Peter R; Christman, Gregory M; Alvero, Ruben; Hansen, Karl R; Geisler, William M; Thomas, Tracey; Santoro, Nanette; Zhang, Heping; Eisenberg, Esther

    2015-12-01

    To determine if Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) seropositivity, as detected by the C. trachomatis elementary body (EB)-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [EB ELISA] predicts pregnancy and pregnancy outcome among infertile women with documented tubal patency. Cohort study. Outpatient clinics. In all, 1,250 infertile women with documented tubal patency enrolled in 1 of 2 randomized controlled trials: Pregnancy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome II; and the Assessment of Multiple Intrauterine Gestations From Ovarian Stimulation. Sera were analyzed for anti-C. trachomatis immunoglobulin G (IgG)1 and IgG3 antibodies, using a research C. trachomatis EB ELISA. The optical density (OD)405 readings of ≥ 0.35 and ≥ 0.1 were considered positive for IgG1 and IgG3, respectively. Primary outcomes included pregnancy, live birth, and ectopic pregnancy. Log-linear regression was used to determine the relative risk after adjusting for age, race, treatment medication, smoking status, and current alcohol use. A total of 243 (19%) women were seropositive for anti-C. trachomatis IgG3. They tended to be nonwhite and smokers. Anti-C. trachomatis IgG3 seropositive women were significantly less likely to conceive (risk ratio [RR] 0.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.52-0.83) or to have a live birth (RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.43-0.80); these associations were weakened after adjusting for number of hysterosalpingography-documented patent tubes (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.56-0.97) and (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.50-1.04), respectively. Anti-C. trachomatis IgG3 seropositive women who conceived had a ×2.7 risk (95% CI 1.40-5.34) of ectopic pregnancy. Even in the presence of tubal patency, anti-C. trachomatis IgG3 seropositivity is associated with a lower likelihood of pregnancy. Anti-C. trachomatis IgG3 seropositive women have as high as 3 times the risk of ectopic pregnancy. PPCOSII: NCT00719186 and AMIGOS: NCT01044862. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  7. Chlamydia trachomatis co-opts GBF1 and CERT to acquire host sphingomyelin for distinct roles during intracellular development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherilyn A Elwell

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The strain designated Chlamydia trachomatis serovar that was used for experiments in this paper is Chlamydia muridarum, a species closely related to C. trachomatis (and formerly termed the Mouse Pneumonitis strain of C. trachomatis. [corrected]. The obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis replicates within a membrane-bound inclusion that acquires host sphingomyelin (SM, a process that is essential for replication as well as inclusion biogenesis. Previous studies demonstrate that SM is acquired by a Brefeldin A (BFA-sensitive vesicular trafficking pathway, although paradoxically, this pathway is dispensable for bacterial replication. This finding suggests that other lipid transport mechanisms are involved in the acquisition of host SM. In this work, we interrogated the role of specific components of BFA-sensitive and BFA-insensitive lipid trafficking pathways to define their contribution in SM acquisition during infection. We found that C. trachomatis hijacks components of both vesicular and non-vesicular lipid trafficking pathways for SM acquisition but that the SM obtained from these separate pathways is being utilized by the pathogen in different ways. We show that C. trachomatis selectively co-opts only one of the three known BFA targets, GBF1, a regulator of Arf1-dependent vesicular trafficking within the early secretory pathway for vesicle-mediated SM acquisition. The Arf1/GBF1-dependent pathway of SM acquisition is essential for inclusion membrane growth and stability but is not required for bacterial replication. In contrast, we show that C. trachomatis co-opts CERT, a lipid transfer protein that is a key component in non-vesicular ER to trans-Golgi trafficking of ceramide (the precursor for SM, for C. trachomatis replication. We demonstrate that C. trachomatis recruits CERT, its ER binding partner, VAP-A, and SM synthases, SMS1 and SMS2, to the inclusion and propose that these proteins establish an on-site SM biosynthetic

  8. Diagnostic efficacy of a real time-PCR assay for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in infertile women in north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benu Dhawan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Little is known about the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Indian women with infertility. To improve the diagnosis of C. trachomatis infection in developing countries, there is an urgent need to establish cost-effective molecular test with high sensitivity and specificity. This study was conducted to determine the diagnostic utility of a real time-PCR assay for detention of C. trachomatis infection in infertile women attending an infertility clinic in north India. The in house real time-PCR assay was also compared with a commercial real-time PCR based detection system. Methods: Endocervical swabs, collected from 200 infertile women were tested for C. trachomatis by three different PCR assays viz. in-house real time-PCR targeting the cryptic plasmid using published primers, along with omp1 gene and cryptic plasmid based conventional PCR assays. Specimens were also subjected to direct fluorescence assay (DFA and enzyme immunoassay (EIA Performance of in-house real time-PCR was compared with that of COBAS Taqman C. trachomatis Test, version 2.0 on all in-house real time-PCR positive sample and 30 consecutive negative samples. Results: C. trachomatis infection was found in 13.5 per cent (27/200 infertile women by in-house real time-PCR, 11.5 per cent (23/200 by cryptic plasmid and/or omp1 gene based conventional PCR, 9 per cent (18/200 by DFA and 6.5 per cent (7/200 by EIA. The in-house real time-PCR exhibited a sensitivity and specificity of 100 per cent, considering COBAS Taqman CT Test as the gold standard. The negative and positive predictive values of the in-house real time-PCR were 100 per cent. The in-house real time-PCR could detect as low as 10 copies of C. trachomatis DNA per reaction. Interpretation & conclusions: In-house real time-PCR targeting the cryptic plasmid of C. trachomatis exhibited an excellent sensitivity and specificity similar to that of COBAS Taqman CT Test, v2.0 for detection of C

  9. The Etiology of Vaginal Discharge Syndrome in Zimbabwe Results from the Zimbabwe STI Etiology Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirenje, Z Mike; Dhibi, Nicholas; Handsfield, H Hunter; Gonese, Elizabeth; Barr, Beth Tippett; Gwanzura, Lovemore; Latif, Ahmed S; Maseko, Dumisili Venessa; Kularatne, Ranmini S; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Kilmarx, Peter H; Machiha, Anna; Mugurungi, Owen; Rietmeijer, Cornelis A

    2017-11-29

    Symptomatic vaginal discharge is a common gynecological condition managed syndromically in most developing countries. In Zimbabwe, women presenting with symptomatic vaginal discharge are treated with empirical regimens that commonly cover both sexually transmitted infections (STI) and reproductive tract infections, typically including a combination of an intramuscular injection of kanamycin, and oral doxycycline and metronidazole regimens. This study was conducted to determine the current etiology of symptomatic vaginal discharge and assess adequacy of current syndromic management guidelines. We enrolled 200 women with symptomatic vaginal discharge presenting at 6 STI clinics in Zimbabwe. Microscopy was used to detect bacterial vaginosis and yeast infection. Nucleic acid amplifications tests were used to detect Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis and Mycoplasma genitalium. In addition, serologic testing was performed to detect HIV infection. Of the 200 women, 146 (73%) had an etiology detected, including bacterial vaginosis (24.7%); N. gonorrhoeae (24.0%); yeast infection (20.7%); T. vaginalis (19.0%); C. trachomatis (14.0%) and M. genitalium (7.0%). Among women with STIs (N=90), 62 (68.9%) had a single infection, 18 (20.0%) had a dual infection and 10 (11.1%) had three infections.Of 158 women who consented to HIV testing, 64 (40.5%) were HIV infected.The syndromic management regimen covered 115 (57.5%) of the women in the sample who had gonorrhea, chlamydia, M. genitalium, or bacterial vaginosis, while 85 (42.5%) of women were treated without such diagnosis. Among women presenting with symptomatic vaginal discharge, bacterial vaginosis was the most common etiology and gonorrhea was the most frequently detected STI. The current syndromic management algorithm is suboptimal for coverage of women presenting with symptomatic vaginal discharge; addition of point of care testing could compliment the effectiveness of the syndromic approach.

  10. Persistence of functional protein domains in mycoplasma species and their role in host specificity and synthetic minimal life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, Tjerko; Koehorst, Jasper J.; Vermeij, Paul; Slagman, Simen Jan; Santos, dos Vitor A.P.M.; Bijlsma, Jetta J.E.; Schaap, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasmas are the smallest self-replicating organisms and obligate parasites of a specific vertebrate host. An in-depth analysis of the functional capabilities of mycoplasma species is fundamental to understand how some of simplest forms of life on Earth succeeded in subverting complex hosts with

  11. Mycoplasma detection by triplex real-time PCR in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from bovine respiratory disease complex cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, Jan B.W.J.; Bree, de Freddy M.; Wal, van der Fimme J.; Kooij, Engbert A.; Koene, Miriam G.J.; Bossers, Alex; Smid, Bregtje; Antonis, Adriaan F.; Wisselink, Henk J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In this study we evaluated the RespoCheck Mycoplasma triplex real-time PCR for the detection in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of Mycoplasma (M.) dispar, M. bovis and M. bovirhinis, all three associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Primers and probes of the RespoCheck

  12. Mycoplasma hyorhinis-Contaminated Cell Lines Activate Primary Innate Immune Cells via a Protease-Sensitive Factor.

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    Simon Heidegger

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma are a frequent and occult contaminant of cell cultures, whereby these prokaryotic organisms can modify many aspects of cell physiology, rendering experiments that are conducted with such contaminated cells problematic. Chronic Mycoplasma contamination in human monocytic cells lines has been associated with suppressed Toll-like receptor (TLR function. In contrast, we show here that components derived from a Mycoplasma hyorhinis-infected cell line can activate innate immunity in non-infected primary immune cells. Release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 by dendritic cells in response to Mycoplasma hyorhinis-infected cell components was critically dependent on the adapter protein MyD88 but only partially on TLR2. Unlike canonical TLR2 signaling that is triggered in response to the detection of Mycoplasma infection, innate immune activation by components of Mycoplasma-infected cells was inhibited by chloroquine treatment and sensitive to protease treatment. We further show that in plasmacytoid dendritic cells, soluble factors from Mycoplasma hyorhinis-infected cells induce the production of large amounts of IFN-α. We conclude that Mycoplasma hyorhinis-infected cell lines release protein factors that can potently activate co-cultured innate immune cells via a previously unrecognized mechanism, thus limiting the validity of such co-culture experiments.

  13. Effects on goat milk quality of the presence of Mycoplasma spp. in herds without symptoms of contagious agalactia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fe, Christian; Sánchez, Antonio; Gutierrez, Aldo; Contreras, Antonio; Carlos Corrales, Juan; Assunçao, Patricia; Poveda, Carlos; Poveda, José B

    2009-02-01

    This study was designed to assess the possible effects of mycoplasmas on the quality of milk produced by goat herds in a contagious agalactia (CA) endemic area with absence of classical symptoms. Several factors related to milk quality (percentages of fat, total protein, lactose and total solids, standard plate counts (SPC) and presence of Staphylococcus aureus) were compared in mycoplasma-infected and non-infected herds. To define the CA status of 26 herds on the island of Lanzarote (Spain), where CA is endemic, 570 individual milk samples and 266 bulk tank milk (BTM) samples were microbiologically analysed for the presence of Mycoplasma spp. A herd was considered infected by mycoplasmas when at least a sample (individual or BTM) was positive. BTM samples were also used to determine milk quality parameters. Mycoplasma infection was confirmed in 13 herds. A total of 31, 10 and 11 strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides LC (MmmLC), Mp. agalactiae and Mp. capricolum subsp. capricolum were isolated. No significant differences were observed between the least square means of the variables fat, total protein, lactose and total solids or SPC recorded for the infected v. non-infected herds. The Staph. aureus status of a herd was also found to be independent of the presence of Mycoplasma spp. Our findings indicate that neither the presence of mycoplasmas in a goat herd with absence of classical symptoms seem to compromise the quality of the BTM.

  14. General N-and O-Linked Glycosylation of Lipoproteins in Mycoplasmas and Role of Exogenous Oligosaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daubenspeck, James M; Jordan, David S; Simmons, Warren; Renfrow, Matthew B; Dybvig, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The lack of a cell wall, flagella, fimbria, and other extracellular appendages and the possession of only a single membrane render the mycoplasmas structurally simplistic and ideal model organisms for the study of glycoconjugates. Most species have genomes of about 800 kb and code for few proteins predicted to have a role in glycobiology. The murine pathogens Mycoplasma arthritidis and Mycoplasma pulmonis have only a single gene annotated as coding for a glycosyltransferase but synthesize glycolipid, polysaccharide and glycoproteins. Previously, it was shown that M. arthritidis glycosylated surface lipoproteins through O-linkage. In the current study, O-linked glycoproteins were similarly found in M. pulmonis and both species of mycoplasma were found to also possess N-linked glycans at residues of asparagine and glutamine. Protein glycosylation occurred at numerous sites on surface-exposed lipoproteins with no apparent amino acid sequence specificity. The lipoproteins of Mycoplasma pneumoniae also are glycosylated. Glycosylation was dependent on the glycosidic linkages from host oligosaccharides. As far as we are aware, N-linked glycoproteins have not been previously described in Gram-positive bacteria, the organisms to which the mycoplasmas are phylogenetically related. The findings indicate that the mycoplasma cell surface is heavily glycosylated with implications for the modulation of mycoplasma-host interactions.

  15. The 75-kilodalton cytoplasmic Chlamydia trachomatis L2 polypeptide is a DnaK-like protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend; Lundemose, AG; Christiansen, Gunna

    1990-01-01

    ,980-base-pair open reading frame revealed 94% homology with a 75-kilodalton protein from C. trachomatis serovar D and 57% homology with the DnaK proteins of E. coli and of Bacillus megaterium, while amino acid homology with human heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) was 42%. The promoter region was identified......The gene coding for the 75-kilodalton cytoplasmic Chlamydia trachomatis L2 polypeptide has been cloned in Escherichia coli, and the nucleotide sequence has been determined. The cloned DNA fragment contained the coding region as well as the putative promoter. The deduced amino acid sequence of the 1...... by computer search and by primer extension of mRNA synthesized in recombinant E. coli. The promoter region which differed from the putative promoter region in serovar D was shown to be a mixed promoter type in which the -10 region showed a regular TATA box configuration while the -35 region showed high...

  16. [FEMALE STEROID HORMONES - MODULATORS OF IMMUNE RESPONSE TO GENITAL CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS INFECTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovachev, E; Ivanov, S; Bechev, B; Angelova, M; Grueva, E; Kolev, N; Ivanova, V

    In the recent years according to WHO, genital chlamydia is the mos't common sexually transmitted infection. Chlamydia Trachomatis is an intracellular parasite which target are the tubular epithelial cells of the urethra, endocervix, endometrium, endosalpinx, conjunctiva, synovial lining of the joints, Glisson's capsule of the liver Our study, as well as some international researches, shows that in the cases of genital chlamydia there are changes in the ovarian hormones (estradiol and progesterone), their impact on the immune system and their importance for the development and the complications of the infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. The physiological level of the steroid hormones in its turn contributes for the normalization of the local immunity and reduces the possibility of recurrences.

  17. Golgi-associated Rab14, a new regulator for Chlamydia trachomatis infection outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, Anahí; Leiva, Natalia; Damiani, María Teresa

    2011-09-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the causing agent of the most frequent bacterial sexually-transmitted diseases worldwide and is an underlying cause of chronic pelvic inflammatory diseases and cervical cancer. It is an obligate intracellular bacterium that establishes a close relationship with the Golgi complex and parasites the biosynthetic machinery of host cells. In a recent study, we have demonstrated that Rab14, a newly-described Golgi-associated Rab, is involved in the delivery of sphingolipids to the growing bacteria-containing vacuole. The interference with Rab14-controlled trafficking pathways delays chlamydial inclusion enlargement, decreases bacterial lipid uptake, negatively impact on bacterial differentiation, and reduces bacterial progeny and infectivity. C. trachomatis manipulation of host trafficking pathways for the acquisition of endogenously-biosynthesized nutrients arises as one of the characteristics of this highly evolved pathogen. The development of therapeutic strategies targeted to interfere with bacterium-host cell interaction is a new challenge for pharmacological approaches to control chlamydial infections.

  18. Occurrence of Mycoplasma synoviae on commercial poultry farms of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mércia R. Barros

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The state of Pernambuco is the largest producer of eggs in the North and Northeast of Brazil and second one in the broiler production. Mycoplasmas are important avian pathogens, which cause respiratory and joint diseases that result in large economic losses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS in broilers and commercial laying hens in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Tracheal fragments were analyzed from 55 healthy broilers, 35 broilers with respiratory signs and 30 commercial laying hens with respiratory signs, from 24 commercial poultry farms, each sample was composed of a pool of five birds. The bacteriological exam, PCR and nested PCR were used for the detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS. All samples were negative in bacteriological isolation. In the PCR analyses, seven samples from birds with respiratory signs were positive for MS and one was positive for MG, the latter of which was confirmed as the MG-F vaccine strain. The occurrence of MS in chickens with respiratory signs may indicate inadequate sanitary management on poultry farms, favoring the propagation of mycoplasmosis.

  19. Co-occurrence of Mycoplasma Species and Pigeon Herpesvirus-1 Infection in Racing Pigeons ( Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellebuyck, Tom; Göbel, Stephan; Pasmans, Frank; Adriaensen, Connie; Martel, An

    2017-12-01

    Oropharyngeal swab samples were collected from 438 live racing pigeons ( Columba livia), with and without signs of respiratory disease, that were housed in 220 lofts in 3 provinces in the western part of the Netherlands. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to identify Mycoplasma species and pigeon herpesvirus-1 (PHV-1) from the samples. In 8.6% of the pigeon lofts tested, signs of respiratory disease were present in pigeons at sampling, and in 30.9% of the sampled pigeon lofts, respiratory signs were observed in pigeons during the 6-month period immediately before sampling. A total of 39.8% of tested pigeons (54.5% of tested lofts) were positive for Mycoplasma species, and 30.6% of tested pigeons (48.6% of tested lofts) were positive for PHV-1. In 15.8% of the tested pigeons (26.8% of tested pigeon lofts), coinfection by Mycoplasma species and PHV-1 was identified. The number of pigeon lofts having pigeons coinfected by Mycoplasma species and PHV-1 was higher than that where only one of the infections was identified. Neither the presence of Mycoplasma species, PHV-1, nor the co-occurrence of both infections was significantly associated with signs of respiratory disease.

  20. Plasmids in Mycoplasma species isolated from goats and sheep and their preliminary typing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento Elmiro R.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available One-hundred-five (105 clinical isolates of mycoplasma from caprine origin and one isolate from ovine were surveyed for plasmids, which were present in thirty-three (31% of them. These mycoplasmas originated from 13 herds. Ten of them were symptomatic for mycoplasmal disease (mastitis, polyarthritis, septicemia and three herds were asymptomatic, i.e., clinically normal. Twenty-eight isolates were Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides LC (large colony or caprine biotype, four were Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum and one was Mycoplasma cottewii. The isolated plasmids were linearized by EcoRI, EcoRV, EcoRI and EcoRV or BamHI and EcoRV, and were of five sizes (1.1, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, and 1.9 Kbp. Based on restriction enzyme digestion and size of the linearized supercoiled extrachromosomal DNA, five plasmid types were recovered (p1II, p2III, p2V, p3I, and p4IV. The small size of these DNA elements probably exclude replicative forms of DNA virus, which are equal or larger than 8.0 Kbp.

  1. Comparative genomics of Mycoplasma: analysis of conserved essential genes and diversity of the pan-genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma, the smallest self-replicating organism with a minimal metabolism and little genomic redundancy, is expected to be a close approximation to the minimal set of genes needed to sustain bacterial life. This study employs comparative evolutionary analysis of twenty Mycoplasma genomes to gain an improved understanding of essential genes. By analyzing the core genome of mycoplasmas, we finally revealed the conserved essential genes set for mycoplasma survival. Further analysis showed that the core genome set has many characteristics in common with experimentally identified essential genes. Several key genes, which are related to DNA replication and repair and can be disrupted in transposon mutagenesis studies, may be critical for bacteria survival especially over long period natural selection. Phylogenomic reconstructions based on 3,355 homologous groups allowed robust estimation of phylogenetic relatedness among mycoplasma strains. To obtain deeper insight into the relative roles of molecular evolution in pathogen adaptation to their hosts, we also analyzed the positive selection pressures on particular sites and lineages. There appears to be an approximate correlation between the divergence of species and the level of positive selection detected in corresponding lineages.

  2. Chlamydia trachomatis Is Responsible for Lipid Vacuolation in the Amniotic Epithelium of Fetal Gastroschisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldkamp, Marcia L; Ward, Diane M; Pysher, Theodore J; Chambers, Christina T

    2017-07-17

    Vacuolated amniotic epithelium with lipid droplets in gastroschisis placentas is an unusual finding. Mass spectrometry of lipid droplets identified triglycerides, ester-linked to an unusual pattern of fatty acids. We hypothesize that these findings result from a Chlamydia trachomatis infection during the periconceptional period. The rising incidence of chlamydia infections has paralleled the increasing prevalence of gastroschisis among women less than 25 years of age. Histologically, young women are at greatest risk for a chlamydia infection due to their immature columnar epithelium, the preferential site for attachment of Chlamydia trachomatis infectious particle (elementary body). Chlamydia trachomatis survive in an inclusion, relying on its host to acquire essential nutrients, amino acids, and nucleotides for survival and replication. If essential nutrients are not available, the bacteria cannot replicate and may be trafficked to the lysosome for degradation or remain quiescent, within the inclusion, subverting innate immunologic clearance. Chlamydiae synthesize several lipids (phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and phosphoatidylglycerol); however, their lipid content reveal eukaryotic lipids (sphingomyelin, cholesterol, phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidylinositol), evidence that chlamydiae "hijack" host lipids for expansion and replication. The abnormal amniotic epithelial findings are supported by experimental evidence of the trafficking of host lipids into the chlamydiae inclusion. If not lethal, what harm will elementary bodies inflict to the developing embryo? Do these women have a greater pro-inflammatory response to an environmental exposure, whether cigarette smoking, change in partner, or a pathogen? Testing the hypothesis that Chlamydia trachomatis is responsible for amniotic epithelium vacuoles will be a critical first step. Birth Defects Research 109:1003-1010, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Intra-articular co-infection by Borrelia burgdorferi and Chlamydia trachomatis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putschky, N; Schnarr, S; Wollenhaupt, J; Zeidler, H; Kuipers, J

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Chlamydia trachomatis and Borrelia burgdorferi infections are frequently the cause of unexplained oligoarthritis, as shown by identification of bacteria specific DNA in joint material from patients with reactive arthritis, Lyme arthritis, and undifferentiated oligoarthritis. The aim of this study was to determine whether the two organisms occur simultaneously in joint material from patients with arthritis.
METHODS—Seventy six patients with unexplained arthritis were prospectively studied. Synovial fluid was obtained from all patients and examined for DNA from C trachomatis and B burgdorferi using specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocols. Data concerning prior genitourinary infection or a history of tick bite were recorded and serum antibodies to C trachomatis and B burgdorferi were determined.
RESULTS—Six patients (8%) had DNA from both C trachomatis and B burgdorferi in the same synovial fluid specimen (mean leucocyte count 11.925/mm3, 65% granulocytes). These patients (four men, two women; mean age 33.7 years) all had oligoarthritis of the knee, ankle, or both (mean disease duration 11.3 months). From the history and serological examination, four patients had some evidence of actual or previous infection with one or other of the bacteria, while the other two patients had a positive serological test for Chlamydia only.
CONCLUSIONS—DNA from two different microorganisms which are known to be triggering agents for arthritis may be present simultaneously in joint material from patients with unexplained oligoarthritis. This finding raises the question as to whether, in such cases, one or both bacteria contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease or whether they are only innocent bystanders.

 PMID:11350854

  4. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections among men with urethritis in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sweih, N A; Khan, S; Rotimi, V O

    2011-09-01

    Chlamydial non-gonococcal urethritis and gonorrhoea are the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infections worldwide. Data on these infections are scanty in the Islamic world, especially Kuwait. The objective of this study was to establish the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among men with symptomatic urethritis in Kuwait. Men with urethral discharge seen and managed at eight governmental hospitals were recruited into the study. A pair of urethral swab and first-voided urine sample were taken from the patients and sent immediately to the laboratory where they were processed using strand displacement nucleic acid amplification kits (SDA; ProbeTec, Becton Dickinson); one pair per patient was studied. A total of 426 symptomatic men were studied, out of whom 155 (36.4%) were infected by either C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae, or both. The overall prevalence rates of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae were 12.4% and 23.9%, respectively. There was no significant difference in chlamydial and gonococcal prevalence between Kuwaiti men and non-Kuwaitis (P>0.05). Infection rates were much lower in married men than unmarried men. Men in the age range of 21-35 years were more vulnerable to both infections. The findings show that N. gonorrhoeae and, to a lesser extent, C. trachomatis are common in men with urethritis in Kuwait. Appropriate preventive strategies that conform to Islamic rules and values should be of highest priority of the policymakers. Copyright © 2011 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Inhibition of Wnt Signaling Pathways Impairs Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Endometrial Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintner, Jennifer; Moore, Cheryl G; Whittimore, Judy D; Butler, Megan; Hall, Jennifer V

    2017-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infections represent the predominant cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infections. As an obligate intracellular bacterium, C. trachomatis is dependent on the host cell for survival, propagation, and transmission. Thus, factors that affect the host cell, including nutrition, cell cycle, and environmental signals, have the potential to impact chlamydial development. Previous studies have demonstrated that activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling benefits C. trachomatis infections in fallopian tube epithelia. In cervical epithelial cells chlamydiae sequester β-catenin within the inclusion. These data indicate that chlamydiae interact with the Wnt signaling pathway in both the upper and lower female genital tract (FGT). However, hormonal activation of canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways is an essential component of cyclic remodeling in another prominent area of the FGT, the endometrium. Given this information, we hypothesized that Wnt signaling would impact chlamydial infection in endometrial epithelial cells. To investigate this hypothesis, we analyzed the effect of Wnt inhibition on chlamydial inclusion development and elementary body (EB) production in two endometrial cell lines, Ishikawa (IK) and Hec-1B, in nonpolarized cell culture and in a polarized endometrial epithelial (IK)/stromal (SHT-290) cell co-culture model. Inhibition of Wnt by the small molecule inhibitor (IWP2) significantly decreased inclusion size in IK and IK/SHT-290 cultures ( p Wnt inhibition caused chlamydiae to become aberrant in morphology. EB formation was also impaired in IK, Hec-1B and IK/SHT-290 cultures regardless of whether Wnt inhibition occurred throughout, in the middle (24 hpi) or late (36 hpi) during the development cycle. Overall, these data lead us to conclude that Wnt signaling in the endometrium is a key host pathway for the proper development of C. trachomatis .

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in asymptomatic family planning patients in rural New Mexico.

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, T A; Ebenezer, M R

    1989-01-01

    We tested 98 asymptomatic women seen in state-funded contraception clinics in rural New Mexico. A fluorescein-conjugated monoclonal antibody stain revealed Chlamydia trachomatis infection in 25% of asymptomatic unmarried women and 3% of married women (P = .03). Neisseria gonorrhoeae was detected in only one woman. As in urban clinics providing contraception, the prevalence of gonorrhea is rare in rural New Mexico, but chlamydial infections are common in young unmarried women.

  7. Evaluation of a high resolution genotyping method for Chlamydia trachomatis using routine clinical samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibing Wang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Genital chlamydia infection is the most commonly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection in the UK. C. trachomatis genital infections are usually caused by strains which fall into two pathovars: lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV and the genitourinary genotypes D-K. Although these genotypes can be discriminated by outer membrane protein gene (ompA sequencing or multi-locus sequence typing (MLST, neither protocol affords the high-resolution genotyping required for local epidemiology and accurate contact-tracing.We evaluated variable number tandem repeat (VNTR and ompA sequencing (now called multi-locus VNTR analysis and ompA or "MLVA-ompA" to study local epidemiology in Southampton over a period of six months. One hundred and fifty seven endocervical swabs that tested positive for C. trachomatis from both the Southampton genitourinary medicine (GUM clinic and local GP surgeries were tested by COBAS Taqman 48 (Roche PCR for the presence of C. trachomatis. Samples tested as positive by the commercial NAATs test were genotyped, where possible, by a MLVA-ompA sequencing technique. Attempts were made to isolate C. trachomatis from all 157 samples in cell culture, and 68 (43% were successfully recovered by repeatable passage in culture. Of the 157 samples, 93 (i.e. 59% were fully genotyped by MLVA-ompA. Only one mixed infection (E & D in a single sample was confirmed. There were two distinct D genotypes for the ompA gene. Most frequent ompA genotypes were D, E and F, comprising 20%, 41% and 16% of the type-able samples respectively. Within all genotypes we detected numerous MLVA sub-types.Amongst the common genotypes, there are a significant number of defined MLVA sub-types, which may reflect particular background demographics including age group, geography, high-risk sexual behavior, and sexual networks.

  8. Trichomonas vaginalis infection: How significant is it in men presenting with recurrent or persistent symptoms of urethritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Andrea; Ross, Jonathan D C

    2016-01-01

    Persistent or recurrent non-gonococcal urethritis has been reported to affect up to 10-20% of men attending sexual health clinics. An audit was undertaken to review the management of persistent or recurrent non-gonococcal urethritis in men presenting at Whittall Street Clinic, Birmingham, UK. Detection of Trichomonas vaginalis infection was with the newly-introduced nucleic acid amplification test. A total of 43 (8%) of 533 men treated for urethritis re-attended within three months with persistent or recurrent symptoms. Chlamydia trachomatis infection was identified in 13/40 (33%), T. vaginalis in 1/27 (4%) and Mycoplasma genitalium in 6/12 (50%). These findings suggest that the prevalence of T. vaginalis infection remains low in our clinic population and may not contribute significantly to persistent or recurrent non-gonococcal urethritis. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad Hossein; Mirsalehian, Akbar; Bahador, Abbas

    2015-09-01

    To determine the overall prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in Iranian males and females and to find out the effect of this bacterium on fertility potential and its association with urogenital symptoms. We searched both English and Persian electronic databases using keywords 'Chlamydia', 'Chlamydia trachomatis', 'prevalence', 'incidence', 'frequency', 'epidemiology' and 'Iran'. Finally, after some exclusion, 34 studies from different regions of Iran were included in our study, and a meta-analysis was performed to determine pooled prevalence estimates for each group. C. trachomatis prevalence for women and men was high and ranged from 0 to 32.7% and 0 to 23.3%, respectively (95% CI). The pooled prevalence of the bacterium in the female population was 12.3% (95% CI: 10.6-14.2%) and in men was 10.9% (95% CI: 7.6-15.4%). A high level of heterogeneity was seen for both men (I(2)  = 77.4%; P females analysis of symptomatic/infertile group with asymptomatic/fertile group in females, the overall OR was above 1 and the overall P-value was below zero. This bacterium may play a role in female infertility or be associated with clinical manifestations; thus, planning national programmes for adequate diagnosis of genital infections caused by this pathogen is necessary. Furthermore, screening strategies, particularly for asymptomatic individuals, and treatment of infected people can reduce consequent complications.

  10. T Lymphocyte Immunity in Host Defence against Chlamydia trachomatis and Its Implication for Vaccine Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X Yang

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes several significant human infectious diseases, including trachoma, urethritis, cervicitis and salpingitis, and is an important cofactor for transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. Until very recently, over three decades of research effort aimed at developing a C trachomatis vaccine had failed, due mainly to the lack of a precise understanding of the mechanisms for protective immunity. Although most studies concerning protective immunity to C trachomatis have focused on humoral immune responses, recent studies have clearly shown that T helper-1 (Th1-like CD4 T cell-mediated immune responses play the dominant role in protective immunity. These studies suggest a paradigm for chlamydial immunity and pathology based on the concept of heterogeneity (Th1/Th2 in CD4 T cell immune responses. This concept for chlamydial immunity offers a rational template on which to base renewed efforts for development of a chlamydial vaccine that targets the induction of cell-mediated Th1 immune responses.

  11. Individual and population level effects of partner notification for Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian L Althaus

    Full Text Available Partner notification (PN or contact tracing is an important aspect of treating bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs, such as Chlamydia trachomatis. It facilitates the identification of new infected cases that can be treated through individual case management. PN also acts indirectly by limiting onward transmission in the general population. However, the impact of PN, both at the level of individuals and the population, remains unclear. Since it is difficult to study the effects of PN empirically, mathematical and computational models are useful tools for investigating its potential as a public health intervention. To this end, we developed an individual-based modeling framework called Rstisim. It allows the implementation of different models of STI transmission with various levels of complexity and the reconstruction of the complete dynamic sexual partnership network over any time period. A key feature of this framework is that we can trace an individual's partnership history in detail and investigate the outcome of different PN strategies for C. trachomatis. For individual case management, the results suggest that notifying three or more partners from the preceding 18 months yields substantial numbers of new cases. In contrast, the successful treatment of current partners is most important for preventing re-infection of index cases and reducing further transmission of C. trachomatis at the population level. The findings of this study demonstrate the difference between individual and population level outcomes of public health interventions for STIs.

  12. [Performance of a standardized interrogation to improve the screening of Chlamydia trachomatis infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandcolin, S; de Hauteclocque, A; Lafoscade, A; Fritel, X

    2015-10-01

    To estimate the performance of a standardized interrogation tool facilitating the detection and screening of patients for the Chlamydia trachomatis infection, to estimate the prevalence of the infection in the family planning population studied. Prospective observational study, including the patients who had a consultation in the abortion center in the CHU of Poitiers. A sampling of the cervix was systematically carried out after the standardized interrogation in search of four clinical signs. The samples were analyzed by genetic amplification. Three hundred and eighty-six women were included and 56 (14.5 %) infections were identified. The medical history questionnaire was relatively effective for 2 or 3 clinical signs. The positive predictive value (PPV) was respectively 34.8 % and 53.8 % and was very relevant for 4 clinical signs with PPV at 83.3 % [CI 95 %: 74-93 %]. Among the infected women, 48.2 % had no clinical sign revealed by the medical history questionnaire. The presence of any clinical sign was strongly associated with the C. trachomatis infection (Pinterrogation are all significantly associated with the C. trachomatis infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Multinucleation during C. trachomatis infections is caused by the contribution of two effector pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M Brown

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen and the second leading cause of sexually transmitted infections in the US. Infections cause significant morbidity and can lead to serious reproductive sequelae, including an epidemiological link to increased rates of reproductive cancers. One of the overt changes that infected cells exhibit is the development of genomic instability leading to multinucleation. Here we demonstrate that the induction of multinucleation is not conserved equally across chlamydial species; C. trachomatis L2 caused high levels of multinucleation, C. muridarum intermediate levels, and C. caviae had very modest effects on multinucleation. Our data show that at least two effector pathways together cause genomic instability during infection leading to multinucleation. We find that the highly conserved chlamydial protease CPAF is a key effector for one of these pathways. CPAF secretion is required for the loss of centrosome duplication regulation as well as inducing early mitotic exit. The second effector pathway involves the induction of centrosome position errors. This function is not conserved in three chlamydial species tested. Together these two pathways contribute to the induction of high levels of genomic instability and multinucleation seen in C. trachomatis infections.

  14. Laser therapy in women genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection complicated with PID and infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinzan, Daniela; Paiusan, Lucian; Smeu, Claudia-Ramona

    2018-04-01

    Genital Chlamydia Trachomatis infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections with more than 50 million new cases occurred globally every year. Underdiagnosed and untreated, it can generate long term severe complications including PID, infertility, ectopic pregnancy and chronic pelvic pain. Among 20 patients diagnosed with PID and infertility in our medical office during one year, we selected a study group of 10 patients with genital Chlamydia Trachomatis infection. The diagnostic methods used were anamnesis, clinical examination, Pap smear, bacteriological and serological tests, ultra sound examination. The group of patients selected was monitored for one year. The treatment took into account general measures for both partners and specific measures (antibiotic treatment and focused laser therapy). The initial group was split in two, group A treated only with antibiotics and group B treated with both antibiotics and laser therapy. All the 5 patients of group B presented an improvement of the clinical manifestations and 3 of them ended up with pregnancy. On the other hand, in group B, only one patient manifested total disappearance of pains and the infertility persisted for all. It is noteworthy that the association of laser therapy in the treatment of Chlamydia Trachomatis infection has brought significant improvement in the inflammatory processes of internal genitalia (PID) and in the fertility of the couple.

  15. Antigenic specificity and morphologic characteristics of Chlamydia trachomatis, strain SFPD, isolated from hamsters with proliferative ileitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J G; Stills, H F; Paster, B J; Dewhirst, F E; Yan, L; Palley, L; Prostak, K

    1993-10-01

    Profound diarrhea associated with proliferating intestinal cells containing intraepithelial campylobacter-like organisms (ICLO) occurs in a variety of mammalian hosts, particularly swine and hamsters. Recently, intracellular bacteria were isolated from proliferative intestinal tissue of hamsters and propagated in intestine cell line 407. Oral inoculation of hamsters with cell culture lysates containing these organisms reproduced the disease in susceptible hamsters. In the present study, an intracellular bacterium from the INT 407 cell line was shown by a variety of techniques to be a member of the genus Chlamydia and has been designated Chlamydia sp. strain SFPD. McCoy cells infected with Chlamydia sp. strain SFPD demonstrated bright fluorescent-stained intracytoplasmic inclusions when examined with fluorescein-labeled species-specific C. trachomatis monoclonal antibodies. The organism also reacted to fluorescein-labeled polyclonal but not monoclonal ICLO "omega" antisera. Ultrastructural examination of the Chlamydia sp. strain SFPD from McCoy cells revealed electrondense elementary bodies and a less electron-dense reticulate-like body that was circular; both features are consistent in morphology to developmental forms of Chlamydia and do not conform to ICLO morphology. Molecular studies, 16S ribosomal sequence analysis, and sequencing of the outer membrane protein confirmed that the isolate is a C. trachomatis closely related to the mouse pneumonitis strain of C. trachomatis.

  16. Isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis or Ureaplasma urealyticum from the synovial fluid of patients with Reiter's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlica Ljiljana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to contribute to the insight of the role of the infectious agent in ethiopathogenesis of the Reiter’s syndrome development, which could directly influence the choise of treatment of these patients. Methods. Eighteen patients with urogenital form of the Reiter’s syndrome and 16 controls (6 with rheumatoid arthritis and 10 with pigmented villonodular synovitis were included in the study. In all patients standard laboratory analyses of the blood, urine and stool were made; antibody titer to Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum was determined in synovial fluid and serum; isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in urethral, cervical and conjunctival swabs, as well as in prostatic and synovial fluid, was also made. HLA typing was done, too. Chlamydia was isolated in the McCoy cell culture treated with cycloheximide while Ureaplasma was identified according to its biochemical properties grown on cell-free liquid medium. Results. Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from the synovial fluid of 4 patients with Reiter's syndrome 22.2%, while Ureaplasma urealyticum was isolated in 7 of them (38.9%. These microorganisms were not found in any synovial fluid of the control group patients. Conclusion. Presence of these bacteria in the inflamed joint might be an important factor in etiopathogenesis of this disease, and it supports the hypothesis that arthritis in Reiter's syndrome is probably of the infectious origin.

  17. Development of a transformation system for Chlamydia trachomatis: restoration of glycogen biosynthesis by acquisition of a plasmid shuttle vector.

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    Yibing Wang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis remains one of the few major human pathogens for which there is no transformation system. C. trachomatis has a unique obligate intracellular developmental cycle. The extracellular infectious elementary body (EB is an infectious, electron-dense structure that, following host cell infection, differentiates into a non-infectious replicative form known as a reticulate body (RB. Host cells infected by C. trachomatis that are treated with penicillin are not lysed because this antibiotic prevents the maturation of RBs into EBs. Instead the RBs fail to divide although DNA replication continues. We have exploited these observations to develop a transformation protocol based on expression of β-lactamase that utilizes rescue from the penicillin-induced phenotype. We constructed a vector which carries both the chlamydial endogenous plasmid and an E.coli plasmid origin of replication so that it can shuttle between these two bacterial recipients. The vector, when introduced into C. trachomatis L2 under selection conditions, cures the endogenous chlamydial plasmid. We have shown that foreign promoters operate in vivo in C. trachomatis and that active β-lactamase and chloramphenicol acetyl transferase are expressed. To demonstrate the technology we have isolated chlamydial transformants that express the green fluorescent protein (GFP. As proof of principle, we have shown that manipulation of chlamydial biochemistry is possible by transformation of a plasmid-free C. trachomatis recipient strain. The acquisition of the plasmid restores the ability of the plasmid-free C. trachomatis to synthesise and accumulate glycogen within inclusions. These findings pave the way for a comprehensive genetic study on chlamydial gene function that has hitherto not been possible. Application of this technology avoids the use of therapeutic antibiotics and therefore the procedures do not require high level containment and will allow the analysis of genome

  18. The role of Surinamese migrants in the transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis between Paramaribo, Suriname and Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bom, Reinier J M; van der Helm, Jannie J; Bruisten, Sylvia M; Grünberg, Antoon W; Sabajo, Leslie O A; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F; de Vries, Henry J C

    2013-01-01

    The large Surinamese migrant population in the Netherlands is a major risk group for urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Suriname, a former Dutch colony, also has a high prevalence of C. trachomatis. Surinamese migrants travel extensively between the Netherlands and Suriname. Our objective was to assess whether the Surinamese migrants in the Netherlands form a bridge population facilitating transmission of C. trachomatis between Suriname and the Netherlands. If so, joint prevention campaigns involving both countries might be required. Between March 2008 and July 2010, participants were recruited at clinics in Paramaribo, Suriname and in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Participants were grouped as native Surinamese, native Dutch, Surinamese migrant, Dutch migrant, or Other, based on country of residence and country of birth of the participant and of their parents. Risk behavior, such as sexual mixing between ethnic groups, was recorded and C. trachomatis positive samples were typed through multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A minimum spanning tree of samples from 426 participants showed four MLST clusters. The MLST strain distribution of Surinamese migrants differed significantly from both the native Surinamese and Dutch populations, but was not an intermediate state between these two populations. Sexual mixing between the Surinamese migrants and the Dutch and Surinamese natives occurred frequently. Yet, the MLST cluster distribution did not differ significantly between participants who mixed and those who did not. Sexual mixing occurred between Surinamese migrants in Amsterdam and the native populations of Suriname and the Netherlands. These migrants, however, did not seem to form an effective bridge population for C. trachomatis transmission between the native populations. Although our data do not seem to justify the need for joint campaigns to reduce the transmission of C. trachomatis strains between both countries, intensified preventive campaigns to

  19. Proteogenomic mapping of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae virulent strain 232.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendarvis, Ken; Padula, Matthew P; Tacchi, Jessica L; Petersen, Andrew C; Djordjevic, Steven P; Burgess, Shane C; Minion, F Chris

    2014-07-08

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae causes respiratory disease in swine and contributes to the porcine respiratory disease complex, a major disease problem in the swine industry. The M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 genome is one of the smallest and best annotated microbial genomes, containing only 728 annotated genes and 691 known proteins. Standard protein databases for mass spectrometry only allow for the identification of known and predicted proteins, which if incorrect can limit our understanding of the biological processes at work. Proteogenomic mapping is a methodology which allows the entire 6-frame genome translation of an organism to be used as a mass spectrometry database to help identify unknown proteins as well as correct and confirm existing annotations. This methodology will be employed to perform an in-depth analysis of the M. hyopneumoniae proteome. Proteomic analysis indicates 483 of 691 (70%) known M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 proteins are expressed under the culture conditions given in this study. Furthermore, 171 of 328 (52%) hypothetical proteins have been confirmed. Proteogenomic mapping resulted in the identification of previously unannotated genes gatC and rpmF and 5-prime extensions to genes mhp063, mhp073, and mhp451, all conserved and annotated in other M. hyopneumoniae strains and Mycoplasma species. Gene prediction with Prodigal, a prokaryotic gene predicting program, completely supports the new genomic coordinates calculated using proteogenomic mapping. Proteogenomic mapping showed that the protein coding genes of the M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 identified in this study are well annotated. Only 1.8% of mapped peptides did not correspond to genes defined by the current genome annotation. This study also illustrates how proteogenomic mapping can be an important tool to help confirm, correct and append known gene models when using a genome sequence as search space for peptide mass spectra. Using a gene prediction program which scans for a wide variety of

  20. Mycoplasma columbinum Isolated From a Racing Pigeon ( Columba livia ) With Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellebuyck, Tom; Garmyn, An; De Cooman, Lien; Boyen, Filip; Pasmans, Frank; Martel, An

    2014-09-01

    A juvenile racing pigeon ( Columba livia ) was presented with drooping of the wing and inability to fly. On physical examination, the right shoulder joint was swollen. The pigeon was euthanatized and submitted for necropsy. An excessive amount of fibrin was present in the canalis triosseus with severe arthritis of the affected shoulder joint. A pure growth of Mycoplasma-like colonies was obtained on microbiological culture of the shoulder joint. A 16S ribosomal RNA gene-specific polymerase chain reaction assay was performed on the isolate and revealed 100% similarity with Mycoplasma columbinum . Although infectious arthritis in homing pigeons is primarily associated with paratyphoid and Streptococcus gallolyticus infection, clinical practitioners should consider the potential role of Mycoplasma columbinum in arthritis in pigeons.

  1. Mycoplasma orale infection affects K+ and Cl- currents in the HSG salivary gland cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izutsu, K T; Fatherazi, S; Belton, C M; Oda, D; Cartwright, F D; Kenny, G E

    1996-06-01

    The relations between K+ channel and Cl- channel currents and mycoplasma infection status were studied longitudinally in HSG cells, a human submandibular gland cell line. The K+ channel currents were disrupted by the occurrence of mycoplasma infection: muscarinic activation of K+ channels and K+ channel expression as estimated by ionomycin- or hypotonically induced K+ current responses were all decreased. Similar decreases in ionomycin- and hypotonically induced responses were observed for Cl- channels, but only the latter decrease was statistically significant. Also, Cl- currents could be elicited more frequently than K+ currents (63% of cases versus 0%) in infected cells when tested by exposure to hypotonic media, indicating that mycoplasma infection affects K+ channels relatively more than Cl- channels. These changes occurred in the originally infected cells, were ameliorated when the infection was cleared with sparfloxacin, and recurred when the cells were reinfected. Such changes would be expected to result in hyposecretion of salivary fluid if they occurred in vivo.

  2. Multi locus sequence typing of Chlamydiales: clonal groupings within the obligate intracellular bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannekoek, Yvonne; Morelli, Giovanna; Kusecek, Barica; Morré, Servaas A; Ossewaarde, Jacobus M; Langerak, Ankie A; van der Ende, Arie

    2008-02-28

    The obligate intracellular growing bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis causes diseases like trachoma, urogenital infection and lymphogranuloma venereum with severe morbidity. Several serovars and genotypes have been identified, but these could not be linked to clinical disease or outcome. The related Chlamydophila pneumoniae, of which no subtypes are recognized, causes respiratory infections worldwide. We developed a multi locus sequence typing (MLST) scheme to understand the population genetic structure and diversity of these species and to evaluate the association between genotype and disease. A collection of 26 strains of C. trachomatis of different serovars and clinical presentation and 18 strains of C. pneumoniae were included in the study. For comparison, sequences of C. abortus, C. psittaci, C. caviae, C. felis, C. pecorum (Chlamydophila), C. muridarum (Chlamydia) and of Candidatus protochlamydia and Simkania negevensis were also included. Sequences of fragments (400 - 500 base pairs) from seven housekeeping genes (enoA, fumC, gatA, gidA, hemN, hlfX, oppA) were analysed. Analysis of allelic profiles by eBurst revealed three non-overlapping clonal complexes among the C. trachomatis strains, while the C. pneumoniae strains formed a single group. An UPGMA tree produced from the allelic profiles resulted in three groups of sequence types. The LGV strains grouped in a single cluster, while the urogenital strains were distributed over two separated groups, one consisted solely of strains with frequent occurring serovars (E, D and F). The distribution of the different serovars over the three groups was not consistent, suggesting exchange of serovar encoding ompA sequences. In one instance, exchange of fumC sequences between strains of different groups was observed. Cluster analyses of concatenated sequences of the Chlamydophila and Chlamydia species together with those of Candidatus Protochlamydia amoebophila and Simkania negevensis resulted in a tree identical to that

  3. Multi locus sequence typing of Chlamydiales: clonal groupings within the obligate intracellular bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langerak Ankie A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The obligate intracellular growing bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis causes diseases like trachoma, urogenital infection and lymphogranuloma venereum with severe morbidity. Several serovars and genotypes have been identified, but these could not be linked to clinical disease or outcome. The related Chlamydophila pneumoniae, of which no subtypes are recognized, causes respiratory infections worldwide. We developed a multi locus sequence typing (MLST scheme to understand the population genetic structure and diversity of these species and to evaluate the association between genotype and disease. Results A collection of 26 strains of C. trachomatis of different serovars and clinical presentation and 18 strains of C. pneumoniae were included in the study. For comparison, sequences of C. abortus, C. psittaci, C. caviae, C. felis, C. pecorum (Chlamydophila, C. muridarum (Chlamydia and of Candidatus protochlamydia and Simkania negevensis were also included. Sequences of fragments (400 – 500 base pairs from seven housekeeping genes (enoA, fumC, gatA, gidA, hemN, hlfX, oppA were analysed. Analysis of allelic profiles by eBurst revealed three non-overlapping clonal complexes among the C. trachomatis strains, while the C. pneumoniae strains formed a single group. An UPGMA tree produced from the allelic profiles resulted in three groups of sequence types. The LGV strains grouped in a single cluster, while the urogenital strains were distributed over two separated groups, one consisted solely of strains with frequent occurring serovars (E, D and F. The distribution of the different serovars over the three groups was not consistent, suggesting exchange of serovar encoding ompA sequences. In one instance, exchange of fumC sequences between strains of different groups was observed. Cluster analyses of concatenated sequences of the Chlamydophila and Chlamydia species together with those of Candidatus Protochlamydia amoebophila and Simkania

  4. Diagnosis of common bacterial causes of urethritis in men by Gram stain, culture and multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, F; Shamsuzzaman, S M; Akter, S

    2014-12-01

    Urethritis is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The aim of this study was to detect common bacterial causes of urethritis in men by Gram stain, culture and multiplex PCR.185 male patients who presented at the Skin and venereal clinic of the Dhaka Medical College, Bangladesh with clinical symptoms suggestive of urethritis were enrolled in this study. Urethral discharges were tested for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by Gram stain, culture and PCR. Multiplex PCR assay was done to detect DNA of Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma genitalium. Out of 185 participants, 30.27% and 14.6% were infected by Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis respectively. None of the individuals was found positive for either Ureaplasma urealyticum or Mycoplasma genitalium. Among the Neisseria gonorrhoeae positive patients 27.57% were positive from Gram stain, 26.49% were culture positive, 30.27% were positive by PCR (p<0.001). 32.65% of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates were penicillinase producers and 83.67% were susceptible to ceftriaxone. Considering culture as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of PCR for the detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae was 100%, and 94.85% respectively with an accuracy of 96.22%. 3.73% of the 134 smear negative and 5.15% of the 136 culture negative samples were positive by PCR. PCR was the most sensitive and rapid method for the diagnosis of urethritis. Multiplex PCR may be a useful approach to laboratory diagnosis of urethritis in men for its high sensitivity and specificity.

  5. Involvement of Mycoplasma synoviae in Respiratory Distress Cases of Broilers

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    S. Ehtisham-ul-Haque*, S. U. Rahman, M. Siddique and A. S. Qureshi1

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma synoviae (MS is an important pathogen of poultry worldwide, causing respiratory tract infection and infectious synovitis in chickens and turkeys. The study was designed to detect M. synoviae through serology, culture isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay to document the involvement of MS infection in respiratory distress cases of broiler birds. The validated PCR assay amplifying the conserved gene region of 16SrRNA gene was applied for the detection of M. synoviae from culture as well as in clinical samples. The results indicated that 04 out of total 17 commercial broiler flocks showing respiratory distress signs were found positive with M. synoviae infection indicating 76.57% sero-positivity as, determined with rapid serum agglutination (RSA test. Out of 85 clinical specimens (collected from sero-positive birds; M. synoviae culture isolation was successfully attained in 36 (42.35% samples. Whereas, PCR test has detected 84 (98.82% positive cases. The prevalence of MS in broiler birds was observed maximum as measured through PCR. It is suggested that the true prevalence of MS may best be reflected by combining RSA and PCR test findings.

  6. Molecular diagnostics of swine infection caused by Mycoplasma suis

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    Potkonjak Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of two types of haemoplasm can be established in the swine population. Pathogenic haemoplasm, named Mycoplasma suis (previously called Eperythrozoon suis is the cause of swine eperythrozoonosis or swine ichtheroanaemia. The cause of this disease can also infect humans. The disease has spread all over the world. The most frequent form is latent infection of swine caused by M. suis. The disease is clinically manifest following action by the stress factor. The acute course of the disease is characterized by the occurrence of a febrile condition and ichtheroanaemia. The disease is usually diagnosed based on an epizootiological poll, a clinical examination, and a microscopic examination of a blood smear stained most often according to Giemsa. Contemporary methods of molecular biology have been developed, such as PCR, which are more sensitive and specific in making a diagnosis of swine infection caused by M. suis. In these investigations, the presence of M. suis on pig farms in the Republic of Serbia has been determined using the PCR test. .

  7. Change in antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma gallisepticum field isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaibeh, Saad; Al-Rashdan, Mohammad

    2011-06-02

    This study compares the antimicrobial susceptibility over time between two groups of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) isolates from the same geographical area. Minimum inhibitory concentration of 13 antimicrobials was determined against two groups of MG isolates from chickens. Group 1 strains (n=22) were isolated in 2004-2005 while group 2 strains (n=7) were isolated in 2007-2008. Minimum inhibitory concentration 50 for group 1 versus group 2 was 4/4, 0.5/0.5, ≤ 0.031/≥ 64, ≤ 0.031/2, ≤ 0.031/0.125, 1/0.5, 1/1, ≤ 0.031/≤ 0.031, ≤ 0.031/2, ≤ 0.031/2, 1/4, ≤ 0.031/0.062, and 0.062/2 μg/ml against gentamicin, spectinomycin, erythromycin, tilmicosin, tylosin, florfenicol, thiamphenicol, tiamulin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, and oxytetracycline, respectively. There was a statistically significant increase in resistance of group 2 to erythromycin, tilmicosin, tylosin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, and oxytetracycline. This dramatic increase in resistance against 8 antimicrobials belonging to three different families of antimicrobials in a relatively short period of time appears to be rare and of concern. The cause of this increased resistance observed in group 2 of MG isolates was not determined and should be further investigated. Monitoring of MG field strain susceptibility is highly recommended to implement successful treatment and prophylaxis programs in endemic areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Atopy: a risk factor of refractory mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yi-Xiao; Li, Jing; Tian, Ye; Liu, Quang-Hua; Bao, Jun

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the relationship of pathogen DNA copies with clinic and laboratory features among children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) pneumonia. A total of 95 enrolled children with MP pneumonia were assigned into the high-MP-load group (>10 6 /mL) and the low-MP-load group (≤10 6 /mL) according to MP-DNA copies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Clinical characteristics and any allergy history were collected. Aeroallergens and food allergens were detected with a skin test. Serum IgE and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) were assessed using enzyme immunoassay. BALF levels of IL-4, IFN-γ, IL-8 and TNF-α were assessed by ELISA. Compared with the low-MP-load group, 72.7% in the high-MP-load group developed refractory MP pneumonia who failed to respond to at least 1-week treatment with macrolides (72.7% vs 41.9%, P = 0.005). More children in the high-load group than those in the low-load group presented with extrapulmonary manifestations, lung consolidation, pleural effusion and atopic conditions including any allergy history, positive findings of aeroallergen test and increased serum IgE and ECP (P  0.05). Atopy may be a risk factor for the presence and severity of refractory MP pneumonia due to the high pathogen load in airway. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Experimental Mycoplasma gallisepticum infections in captive-reared wild turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Yuill, Thomas M.; Amundson, Terry E.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infections on egg production, fertility, and hatchability were studied in captive-reared wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). Three groups of adult birds, each consisting of four hens and two toms, were exposed to MG by the respiratory route at the beginning of their breeding season. Fourteen control birds received sterile growth medium. Although no mortality of infected or control birds occurred, egg production during the first breeding season after infection was reduced. The mean number of eggs/hen/day produced by infected groups the first breeding season postexposure (PE) was significantly lower than the control value. The mean number of eggs produced daily by the same hens 1 yr later was unaffected by MG infection. The pecentage of fertile eggs produced by infected groups was slightly reduced in both the first and second breeding seasons PE. Hatchability of fertile eggs from infected hens was significantly lower than eggs from control hens. Productivity may be impaired if MG infections occur in free-ranging wild turkey populations.

  10. Drug Resistance Mechanisms of Mycoplasma pneumoniae to Macrolide Antibiotics

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    Xijie Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Throat swabs from children with suspected Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae infection were cultured for the presence of M. pneumoniae and its species specificity using the 16S rRNA gene. Seventy-six M. pneumoniae strains isolated from 580 swabs showed that 70 were erythromycin resistant with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC around 32–512 mg/L. Fifty M. pneumoniae strains (46 resistant, 4 sensitive were tested for sensitivity to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and gentamicin. Tetracycline and ciprofloxacin had some effect, and gentamicin had an effect on the majority of M. pneumoniae strains. Domains II and V of the 23S rRNA gene and the ribosomal protein L4 and L22 genes, both of which are considered to be associated with macrolide resistance, were sequenced and the sequences were compared with the corresponding sequences in M129 registered with NCBI and the FH strain. The 70 resistant strains all showed a 2063 or 2064 site mutation in domain V of the 23S rRNA but no mutations in domain II. Site mutations of L4 or L22 can be observed in either resistant or sensitive strains, although it is not known whether this is associated with drug resistance.

  11. Detection of mycoplasma infection in circulating tumor cells in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hong Seo; Lee, Hyun Min; Kim, Won-Tae; Kim, Min Kyu [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Institute of Bioscience, Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Hee Jin [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital of National Cancer Center, Goyang-si (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hye Ran [Department of Internal Medicine, Inje University Ilsan Paik Hospital, Goyang-si (Korea, Republic of); Joh, Jae-Won [Department of Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Shick, E-mail: oncorkim@skku.edu [Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Chun Jeih, E-mail: cjryu@sejong.ac.kr [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Institute of Bioscience, Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • This study generates a monoclonal antibody CA27 against the mycoplasmal p37 protein. • CA27 isolates circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from the blood of liver cancer patients. • Results show the first evidence for mycoplasma infected-CTCs in cancer patients. - Abstract: Many studies have shown that persistent infections of bacteria promote carcinogenesis and metastasis. Infectious agents and their products can modulate cancer progression through the induction of host inflammatory and immune responses. The presence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is considered as an important indicator in the metastatic cascade. We unintentionally produced a monoclonal antibody (MAb) CA27 against the mycoplasmal p37 protein in mycoplasma-infected cancer cells during the searching process of novel surface markers of CTCs. Mycoplasma-infected cells were enriched by CA27-conjugated magnetic beads in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and analyzed by confocal microscopy with anti-CD45 and CA27 antibodies. CD45-negative and CA27-positive cells were readily detected in three out of seven patients (range 12–30/8.5 ml blood), indicating that they are mycoplasma-infected circulating epithelial cells. CA27-positive cells had larger size than CD45-positive hematological lineage cells, high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratios and irregular nuclear morphology, which identified them as CTCs. The results show for the first time the existence of mycoplasma-infected CTCs in patients with HCC and suggest a possible correlation between mycoplasma infection and the development of cancer metastasis.

  12. Late lung parenchymal changes on HRCT in children with mycoplasma pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soo Hyeon; Kim, Joung Sook; Yoon, Jung Hee; Hur, Gham; Kim, Chang Gun [Inje Univ. Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-01

    To evaluate late lung parenchymal change, as seen on high-resolution CT(HRCT) in children with mycoplasma pneumonia. Twenty-three patients [15 boys and 8 girls aged two to 13 (mean, 6) years] with mycoplasma pneumonia underwent HRCT four to 39 (mean, 10) months after initial infection. Using increased mycoplasma antibody titer( > 1;640) mycoplasma pneumonia was diagnosed, and patients were divided into two groups : high titer group (antibody titer > 1:5120), and lower titer group ( < 1:5120). CT scans were performed using 2mm collimation and 5-10mm interval from apex to diaphragm. In seven patients who were cooperative, both inspiratory scans were obtained at a window width of 1600 HU and level of 700. HRCT findings of mosaic low attenuations and changes in bronchioles and bronchial walls were assessed by three radiologists and correlated with initial chest radiographic findings. On HRCT, 17 of 23 patients (74%) demonstrated abnormal findings. These included mosaic attenuation of lung density alone in 11 of 17 patients (65%), mosaic attenuation associated with bronchiectasis in five(29%), and bronchiectasis only in one(6%). Mosaic attenuation was more accentuated on expiratory scans than on inspiratory. These findings were obtained in 10 of 12 high titer group and in 7 of 11 in the lower titer group. In 15 of 23 patients(65%), involved areas seen on HRCT exactly corresponded with initially involved areas seen on chest radiographs (CXR). Two patients in whom findings on initial CXR were normal showed mosaic attenuation on HRCT. Six patients in whom such findings were abnormal showed normal findings on HRCT, a fact which reflected their complete recovery. The most common late parenchymal change in mycoplasma pneumonia, as seen on HRCT, was mosaic attenuation of lung density followed by bronchiectasis. The latter is presumably due to bronchiolitis obliterans, a well-known complication. We believe that HRCT is very useful for the evaluation of long-term sequelae of

  13. Late lung parenchymal changes on HRCT in children with mycoplasma pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soo Hyeon; Kim, Joung Sook; Yoon, Jung Hee; Hur, Gham; Kim, Chang Gun

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate late lung parenchymal change, as seen on high-resolution CT(HRCT) in children with mycoplasma pneumonia. Twenty-three patients [15 boys and 8 girls aged two to 13 (mean, 6) years] with mycoplasma pneumonia underwent HRCT four to 39 (mean, 10) months after initial infection. Using increased mycoplasma antibody titer( > 1;640) mycoplasma pneumonia was diagnosed, and patients were divided into two groups : high titer group (antibody titer > 1:5120), and lower titer group ( < 1:5120). CT scans were performed using 2mm collimation and 5-10mm interval from apex to diaphragm. In seven patients who were cooperative, both inspiratory scans were obtained at a window width of 1600 HU and level of 700. HRCT findings of mosaic low attenuations and changes in bronchioles and bronchial walls were assessed by three radiologists and correlated with initial chest radiographic findings. On HRCT, 17 of 23 patients (74%) demonstrated abnormal findings. These included mosaic attenuation of lung density alone in 11 of 17 patients (65%), mosaic attenuation associated with bronchiectasis in five(29%), and bronchiectasis only in one(6%). Mosaic attenuation was more accentuated on expiratory scans than on inspiratory. These findings were obtained in 10 of 12 high titer group and in 7 of 11 in the lower titer group. In 15 of 23 patients(65%), involved areas seen on HRCT exactly corresponded with initially involved areas seen on chest radiographs (CXR). Two patients in whom findings on initial CXR were normal showed mosaic attenuation on HRCT. Six patients in whom such findings were abnormal showed normal findings on HRCT, a fact which reflected their complete recovery. The most common late parenchymal change in mycoplasma pneumonia, as seen on HRCT, was mosaic attenuation of lung density followed by bronchiectasis. The latter is presumably due to bronchiolitis obliterans, a well-known complication. We believe that HRCT is very useful for the evaluation of long-term sequelae of

  14. Isolation and prevalence of Mycoplasma agalactiae in Kurdish sheep in Kurdistan, Iran

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    Mohammad Khezri

    Full Text Available Aim: Ruminant Mycoplasmosis are important diseases worldwide and several are listed by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE to be of major economic significant. The aim of this study was to isolation mycoplasmas from sheep presenting contagious agalactiae (CA in Kurdistan in the West of Iran. Materials and Methods: Sixty-nine samples included (milk, conjuctiva swabs, synovial fluid and ear canal swabs were examined by PCR assay during 2011-2012. DNA was extracted from enriched samples. Two primers (forward and reverse amplify a 163bp region of 16S rRNA gene of Mycoplasma genus and two primers amplify 375bp region of 16S rRNA gene of Mycoplasma agalactiae (M. agalactiae species were used. Results: This proved that 46 samples (66.7% were infected with Mycoplasma in culture and PCR test, respectively. On the PCR test, 15 isolates (32.6% examined were positive for M. agalactiae that showed specific amplicon at 375bp. All Mycoplasma positive samples were analyzed for M. agalactiae infection by PCR method and 31 isolates (67.4% examined were negative for M. agalactiae. The finding of other mycoplasmas with significant epidemiology challenges existing plans for the control of CA in sheep population in Iran. Conclusion: The results of the present study show that M. agalactiae in CA disease in Kurdistan Province, 32.6% involved. In Iran, only M. agalactiae vaccines are commercially available, thus, the animals are not protected against these other species. [Vet World 2012; 5(12.000: 727-731

  15. Chlamydia trachomatis IgG seropositivity is associated with lower natural conception rates in ovulatory subfertile women without visible tubal pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppus, S. F. P. J.; Land, J. A.; Opmeer, B. C.; Steures, P.; Eijkemans, M. J. C.; Hompes, P. G. A.; Bossuyt, P. M. M.; van der Veen, F.; Mol, B. W. J.; van der Steeg, J. W.

    2011-01-01

    The relation between Chlamydia trachomatis infection and subsequent tubal damage is widely recognized. As such, C. trachomatis antibody (CAT) testing can be used to triage women for immediate tubal testing with hysterosalpingography (HSG) or laparoscopy. However, once invasive tubal testing has

  16. Combination of PCR targeting the VD2 of omp1 and reverse line blot analysis for typing of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis serovars in cervical scrape specimens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molano, M; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Morre, S.A.; Pol, R; Brule, van den AJ

    2004-01-01

    50% contained both serovars D and E. The nested VD2 PCR-RLB developed is a simple, fast, and specific method for the identification of individual urogenital C. trachomatis serovars previously detected by using plasmid PCR. Moreover, it is an appropriate method for studying multiple C. trachomatis

  17. Nonactivated titanium-dioxide nanoparticles promote the growth of Chlamydia trachomatis and decrease the antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, A; Janovák, L; Lantos, I; Endrész, V; Sebők, D; Szabó, T; Dékány, I; Deák, J; Rázga, Z; Burián, K; Virok, D P

    2017-11-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis and herpes simplex virus (HSV) are the most prevalent bacterial and viral sexually transmitted infections. Due to the chronic nature of their infections, they are able to interact with titanium-dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles (NPs) applied as food additives or drug delivery vehicles. The aim of this study was to describe the interactions of these two prevalent pathogens with the TiO 2 NPs. Chlamydia trachomatis and HSV-2 were treated with nonactivated TiO 2 NPs, silver NPs and silver decorated TiO 2 NPs before infection of HeLa and Vero cells. Their intracellular growth was monitored by quantitative PCR. Unexpectedly, the TiO 2 NPs (100 μg ml -1 ) increased the growth of C. trachomatis by approximately fourfold, while the HSV-2 replication was not affected. Addition of TiO 2 to silver NPs decreased their antimicrobial activity against C. trachomatis up to 27·92-fold. In summary, nonactivated TiO 2 NPs could increase the replication of C. trachomatis and decrease the antimicrobial activity of silver NPs. The food industry or drug delivery use of TiO 2 NPs could enhance the growth of certain intracellular pathogens and potentially worsen disease symptoms, a feature that should be further investigated. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. In-house polymerase chain reaction for affordable and sustainable Chlamydia trachomatis detection in Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampersad, Joanne; Wang, Xiaohui; Gayadeen, Helen; Ramsewak, Samuel; Ammons, David

    2007-11-01

    To provide a preliminary assessment of in-house polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as an alternative to the more costly commercial test for detection of asymptomatic infection by Chlamydia trachomatis and to provide much needed demographic data on infection indicators within the Trinidad and Tobago public health care system. An inexpensive in-house nested-PCR with an Internal Amplification Control was used to detect C. trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in urine samples collected from 273 apparently healthy, pregnant women from March-September 2004 in Trinidad, West Indies. Demographic information on participants was collected and subjected to statistical analyses. C. trachomatis was detected in 57/273 (21%) samples, of which 5 (2%) were also positive for N. gonorrhoeae. Infection correlated well with certain demographic parameters, with the highest incidence of C. trachomatis infection found among pregnant women that were single or of African descent. Given the lack of commercial tests in Trinidad, in-house PCR is an inexpensive alternative that can be used to detect asymptomatic infections of C. trachomatis and to provide demographic information needed for interventions by the public health care system.

  19. Prevalencia de infección por Chlamydia trachomatis en prostitutas registradas de la ciudad de Durango, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarado-Esquivel Cosme

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de infección por Chlamydia trachomatis en prostitutas registradas de la ciudad de Durango, Durango y establecer si existe alguna correlación entre los datos epidemiológicos y la infección. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Fueron estudiadas 247 prostitutas y se obtuvieron muestras endocervicales y datos epidemiológicos. La prueba Chlamydiazyme (Abbott Laboratories, EUA fue usada para detectar el antígeno de C. trachomatis. RESULTADOS: Fueron positivas para C. trachomatis 41 prostitutas (16.6%, y 37 de ellas habían tenido actividad sexual en diferentes estados de la República mexicana, en comparación con las 206 mujeres negativas, entre las que sólo 109 habían tenido relaciones sexuales fuera de Durango (p<0.0001. El nivel socioeconómico bajo fue más frecuentemente observado en prostitutas C. trachomatis positivas (39/41, 95.1% que en las negativas (171/206, 83% (p=0.05. CONCLUSIONES: Encontramos una prevalencia de infección por C. trachomatis de 16.6%, la cual se asoció a una actividad sexual de las prostitutas en diversas entidades federativas, y se pudo observar que el padecimiento tiende a presentarse más frecuentemente en mujeres de un nivel socioeconómico bajo.

  20. Inhibitory effect of mycoplasma-released arginase. Activity in mixed-lymphocyte and tumour cell cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claesson, M H; Tscherning, T; Nissen, Mogens Holst

    1990-01-01

    inhibition can be reversed by addition of excess arginine to the culture medium. Antisera raised against non-fermenting, but not against fermenting, mycoplasma species block the inhibitory effect of MAE. SDS-PAGE separation of MAE disclosed a broad band at 60 kDa which contained arginase activity when...... assayed in MLC and cell proliferation culture. SDS-PAGE followed by western blotting and reaction with antisera raised against non-fermenting mycoplasma species demonstrated a band at 43 kDa common for these micro-organisms....