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Sample records for tracheal-bronchial epithelium absence

  1. Fetal-juvenile origins of point mutations in the adult human tracheal-bronchial epithelium: Absence of detectable effects of age, gender or smoking status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, Hiroko; Li-Sucholeiki, Xiao-Cheng; Marcelino, Luisa A.; Gruhl, Amanda N.; Herrero-Jimenez, Pablo; Zarbl, Helmut; Willey, James C.; Furth, Emma E.; Morgenthaler, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Allele-specific mismatch amplification mutation assays (MAMA) of anatomically distinct sectors of the upper bronchial tracts of nine nonsmokers revealed many numerically dispersed clusters of the point mutations C742T, G746T, G747T of the TP53 gene, G35T of the KRAS gene and G508A of the HPRT1 gene. Assays of these five mutations in six smokers have yielded quantitatively similar results. One hundred and eighty four micro-anatomical sectors of 0.5-6 x 10 6 tracheal-bronchial epithelial cells represented en toto the equivalent of approximately 1.7 human smokers' bronchial trees to the fifth bifurcation. Statistically significant mutant copy numbers above the 95% upper confidence limits of historical background controls were found in 198 of 425 sector assays. No significant differences (P = 0.1) for negative sector fractions, mutant fractions, distributions of mutant cluster size or anatomical positions were observed for smoking status, gender or age (38-76 year). Based on the modal cluster size of mitochondrial point mutants, the size of the adult bronchial epithelial maintenance turnover unit was estimated to be about 32 cells. When data from all 15 lungs were combined the log 2 of nuclear mutant cluster size plotted against log 2 of the number of clusters of a given cluster size displayed a slope of ∼1.1 over a range of cluster sizes from ∼2 6 to 2 15 mutant copies. A parsimonious interpretation of these nuclear and previously reported data for lung epithelial mitochondrial point mutant clusters is that they arose from mutations in stem cells at a high but constant rate per stem cell doubling during at least ten stem cell doublings of the later fetal-juvenile period. The upper and lower decile range of summed point mutant fractions among lungs was about 7.5-fold, suggesting an important source of stratification in the population with regard to risk of tumor initiation

  2. Absence of Fungal Spore Internalization by Bronchial Epithelium in Mouse Models Evidenced by a New Bioimaging Approach and Transmission Electronic Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammaert, Blandine; Jouvion, Grégory; de Chaumont, Fabrice; Garcia-Hermoso, Dea; Szczepaniak, Claire; Renaudat, Charlotte; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Chrétien, Fabrice; Dromer, Françoise; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2015-09-01

    Clinical data and experimental studies suggest that bronchial epithelium could serve as a portal of entry for invasive fungal infections. We therefore analyzed the interactions between molds and the bronchial/bronchiolar epithelium at the early steps after inhalation. We developed invasive aspergillosis (Aspergillus fumigatus) and mucormycosis (Lichtheimia corymbifera) murine models that mimic the main clinical risk factors for these infections. Histopathology studies were completed with a specific computer-assisted morphometric method to quantify bronchial and alveolar spores and with transmission electron microscopy. Morphometric analysis revealed a higher number of bronchial/bronchiolar spores for A. fumigatus than L. corymbifera. The bronchial/bronchiolar spores decreased between 1 and 18 hours after inoculation for both fungi, except in corticosteroid-treated mice infected with A. fumigatus, suggesting an effect of cortisone on bronchial spore clearance. No increase in the number of spores of any species was observed over time at the basal pole of the epithelium, suggesting the lack of transepithelial crossing. Transmission electron microscopy did not show spore internalization by bronchial epithelial cells. Instead, spores were phagocytized by mononuclear cells on the apical pole of epithelial cells. Early epithelial internalization of fungal spores in vivo cannot explain the bronchial/bronchiolar epithelium invasion observed in some invasive mold infections. The bioimaging approach provides a useful means to accurately enumerate and localize the fungal spores in the pulmonary tissues. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Engineering Airway Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Soleas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Airway epithelium is constantly presented with injurious signals, yet under healthy circumstances, the epithelium maintains its innate immune barrier and mucociliary elevator function. This suggests that airway epithelium has regenerative potential (I. R. Telford and C. F. Bridgman, 1990. In practice, however, airway regeneration is problematic because of slow turnover and dedifferentiation of epithelium thereby hindering regeneration and increasing time necessary for full maturation and function. Based on the anatomy and biology of the airway epithelium, a variety of tissue engineering tools available could be utilized to overcome the barriers currently seen in airway epithelial generation. This paper describes the structure, function, and repair mechanisms in native epithelium and highlights specific and manipulatable tissue engineering signals that could be of great use in the creation of artificial airway epithelium.

  4. [Regeneration of airway epithelium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, D; Perotin, J-M; Lebargy, F; Birembaut, P; Deslée, G; Coraux, C

    2014-04-01

    Epithelial regeneration is a complex process. It can lead to the remodeling of the airway epithelium as in asthma, COPD or cystic fibrosis. The development of in vivo and in vitro models has allowed the analysis of remodeling mechanisms and showed the role of components of extracellular matrix, proteases, cytokines and growth factors. Airway epithelial progenitors and stems cells have been studied in these models. However, their identification remains difficult. Identification and characterization of airway epithelial progenitor/stem-cells, and a better knowledge of the regeneration process may allow the development of new therapeutic strategies for airway epithelial reconstitution. Copyright © 2013 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Work Absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna; Wallette, Mårten

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates whether low levels of absence increase the probability of permanent employment and reduce that of unemployment for Swedish temporary workers. We investigate two reasons for absence: worker sickness and sickness of a dependent child. Using a competing risk estimation model......, we find that sick leave reduces the probability of permanent employment for women and increases the probability of unemployment for men. Absence due to child sickness increases the risk of unemployment for women. Although the influence of sick leave varies substantially among different temporary jobs...

  6. Narrative Absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Ravinder

    2008-01-01

    examples of successful refugee resettlement and national self-assertion. Within the master narrative of Partition migration history, however, the experiences of forced movement and resettlement suffered by the ‘Untouchables' are obscured. Popular accounts of violence, forced movement and suffering...... are largely built around the narratives produced by upper caste and upper middle-class migrants and exclude the experiences of Untouchable migrants. This narrative absence becomes a gauge of both the discursive and physical exclusion of ‘Untouchable' refugees from the legitimate community of Partition...... migrants. Such a meta-version of Partition history constitutes the realm of the normal outside which ‘Untouchable' narratives exist as an aberration in the theme of modern citizen-making in post-colonial India. In this article, I examine these ‘aberrations' to provide an alternate reading that helps us...

  7. Drusenoid retinal pigment epithelium detachments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Hage Amaro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The authors make a review of drusenoid retinal pigment epithelium detachments(DPDs, a form of retinal pigment epithelium detachment(PED that evolves from confluent and large soft drusen.Drusenoidretinal pigment epithelial detachments are a recognized element of the "dry" AMD. Until now, no treatment is indicated in drusenoid PEDs. The authors describe the clinical characteristics of drusenoid retinal pigment epithelium detachments (DPEDs and make a review of the DPEDs related in the international literature. We related in this revision paper the multimodal advanced image exams in two cases of dusenoid retinal pigment epithelium detachments (DPEDs and the general characteristics of thisfinding associated with Dry Macular degeneration.Upon examination of the ocular fundusDPEDs emerge as well-circumscribed yellow or yellow–white elevations of the RPE that are usually found within the macula.They may show scalloped borders and a slightly irregular surface. When visualized using fluorescein angiography (FA,DPEDs are typically described as faint hyper-fluorescent in the early phase followed by a slow increase in fluorescence throughout the transit stage of the study without late leakage. With optical coherence tomography (OCT, drusenoid PEDs usually show a smooth contour of the detached hyperreflective RPE band that may have an undulating appearance.Drusenoid PEDs encompass far above the ground possibility type of "dry" AMD that develops in relationship with large confluent soft drusen.At this point no treatment is utilized in drusenoid retinal pigment epithelium detachment(DPEDs.

  8. Microbes and Gut-Epithelium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 6. Microbes and Gut-Epithelium : More than ... Author Affiliations. Sarita Ahlawat1. Research Associate Malaria Group International Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB) Aruna Asaf Ali Marg New Delhi 110067, India.

  9. Microbes and Gut-Epithelium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Healthy interaction between microbes and the intestinal epithelium is essential for the normal development of the gut-immune system and overall health of the organism. Diseases such as obesity, diabetes, asthma, inflammatory bowel syndrome, and some forms of cancer are increasingly being linked to imbalances in the ...

  10. Glucose metabolism in rat retinal pigment epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffe, Víctor; Carbajal, Raymundo C; Salceda, Rocío

    2006-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is the major transport pathway for exchange of metabolites and ions between choroidal blood supply and the neural retina. To gain insight into the mechanisms controlling glucose metabolism in RPE and its possible relationship to retinopathy, we studied the influence of different glucose concentrations on glycogen and lactate levels and CO(2) production in RPE from normal and streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats. Incubation of normal RPE in the absence of glucose caused a decrease in lactate production and glycogen content. In normal RPE, increasing glucose concentrations from 5.6 mM to 30 mM caused a four-fold increase in glucose accumulation and CO(2) yield, as well as reduction in lactate and glycogen production. In RPE from diabetic rats glucose accumulation did not increase in the presence of high glucose substrate, but it showed a four- and a seven-fold increase in CO(2) production through the mitochondrial and pentose phosphate pathways, respectively. We found high glycogen levels in RPE which can be used as an energy reserve for RPE itself and/or neural retina. Findings further show that the RPE possesses a high oxidative capacity. The large increase in glucose shunting to the pentose phosphate pathway in diabetic retina exposed to high glucose suggests a need for reducing capacity, consistent with increased oxidative stress.

  11. Multiple roles and interactions of Tbx4 and Tbx5 in development of the respiratory system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ripla Arora

    Full Text Available Normal development of the respiratory system is essential for survival and is regulated by multiple genes and signaling pathways. Both Tbx4 and Tbx5 are expressed throughout the mesenchyme of the developing lung and trachea; and, although multiple genes are known to be required in the epithelium, only Fgfs have been well studied in the mesenchyme. In this study, we investigated the roles of Tbx4 and Tbx5 in lung and trachea development using conditional mutant alleles and two different Cre recombinase transgenic lines. Loss of Tbx5 leads to a unilateral loss of lung bud specification and absence of tracheal specification in organ culture. Mutants deficient in Tbx4 and Tbx5 show severely reduced lung branching at mid-gestation. Concordant with this defect, the expression of mesenchymal markers Wnt2 and Fgf10, as well as Fgf10 target genes Bmp4 and Spry2, in the epithelium is downregulated. Lung branching undergoes arrest ex vivo when Tbx4 and Tbx5 are both completely lacking. Lung-specific Tbx4 heterozygous;Tbx5 conditional null mice die soon after birth due to respiratory distress. These pups have small lungs and show severe disruptions in tracheal/bronchial cartilage rings. Sox9, a master regulator of cartilage formation, is expressed in the trachea; but mesenchymal cells fail to condense and consequently do not develop cartilage normally at birth. Tbx4;Tbx5 double heterozygous mutants show decreased lung branching and fewer tracheal cartilage rings, suggesting a genetic interaction. Finally, we show that Tbx4 and Tbx5 interact with Fgf10 during the process of lung growth and branching but not during tracheal/bronchial cartilage development.

  12. Reinstatement of "germinal epithelium" of the ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishida Naoyo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The existing dogma that the former term ovarian "germinal epithelium" resulted from a mistaken belief that it could give rise to new germ cells is now strongly challenged. Discussion Two years ago, a research group of the University of Tennessee led by Antonin Bukovsky successfully demonstrated the oogenic process from the human ovarian covering epithelium now commonly called the ovarian surface epithelium. They showed the new oocyte with zona pellucida and granulosa cells, both originated from the surface epithelium arising from mesenchymal cells in the tunica albuginea, and stressed that the human ovary could form primary follicles throughout the reproductive period. This gives a big impact not only to the field of reproductive medicine, but also to the oncologic area. The surface epithelium is regarded as the major source of ovarian cancers, and most of the neoplasms exhibit the histology resembling müllerian epithelia. Since the differentiating capability of the surface epithelium has now expanded, the histologic range of the neoplasms in this category may extend to include both germ cell tumors and sex cord-stromal cell tumors. Summary Since the oogenic capability of ovarian surface cells has been proven, it is now believed that the oocytes can originate from them. The term "germinal epithelium", hence, might reasonably be reinstated.

  13. Permeability and ultrastructure of human bladder epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, J; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Nielsen, S L

    1983-01-01

    Leakage of tight junctions as observed with electron microscopy and demonstration of solute transport across bladder epithelium was investigated in 13 patients with different bladder diseases: urinary retention and infection, bladder tumours and interstitial cystitis. The latter group showed cons...

  14. Cellular chloride and bicarbonate retention alters intracellular pH regulation in Cftr KO crypt epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Nancy M; Liu, Jinghua; Stein, Sydney R; Stefanski, Casey D; Strubberg, Ashlee M; Clarke, Lane L

    2016-01-15

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an anion channel providing a major pathway for Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) efflux across the apical membrane of the epithelium. In the intestine, CF manifests as obstructive syndromes, dysbiosis, inflammation, and an increased risk for gastrointestinal cancer. Cftr knockout (KO) mice recapitulate CF intestinal disease, including intestinal hyperproliferation. Previous studies using Cftr KO intestinal organoids (enteroids) indicate that crypt epithelium maintains an alkaline intracellular pH (pHi). We hypothesized that Cftr has a cell-autonomous role in downregulating pHi that is incompletely compensated by acid-base regulation in its absence. Here, 2',7'-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein microfluorimetry of enteroids showed that Cftr KO crypt epithelium sustains an alkaline pHi and resistance to cell acidification relative to wild-type. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that Cftr KO enteroids exhibit downregulated transcription of base (HCO3 (-))-loading proteins and upregulation of the basolateral membrane HCO3 (-)-unloader anion exchanger 2 (Ae2). Although Cftr KO crypt epithelium had increased Ae2 expression and Ae2-mediated Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange with maximized gradients, it also had increased intracellular Cl(-) concentration relative to wild-type. Pharmacological reduction of intracellular Cl(-) concentration in Cftr KO crypt epithelium normalized pHi, which was largely Ae2-dependent. We conclude that Cftr KO crypt epithelium maintains an alkaline pHi as a consequence of losing both Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) efflux, which impairs pHi regulation by Ae2. Retention of Cl(-) and an alkaline pHi in crypt epithelium may alter several cellular processes in the proliferative compartment of Cftr KO intestine. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Analyses of Sickness Absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, S.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Sickness absence is an empirical phenomenon of all time. Generally, it has a medical cause. However, other factors also appear to have an impact on the actual rate of sickness absence, such as the institutional setting, the business cycle and the economic structure. Many questions on the different

  16. Epithelial maturation pattern of dysplastic epithelium and normal oral epithelium exposed to tobacco and alcohol: a scanning electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, Nithya; Ramani, Pratibha; Premkumar, Priya; Natesan, Anuja; Sherlin, Herald J

    2013-05-01

    The detection of oral cancer at an early stage is an optimal strategy and is the most effective approach for preventing further progression. The rationale of the study was to evaluate the epithelial maturation pattern in oral mucosa exposed to tobacco/alcohol and on dysplastic oral mucosa using the scanning electron microscope. Fifteen subjects were selected based on clinical examination and divided into three groups: group 1-patients with apparently normal oral mucosa; group 2-patients with oral mucosa exposed to tobacco/alcohol; group 3-patients with clinical diagnosis of leukoplakia. An incisional biopsy was performed from the buccal mucosa. One part of the specimen was prepared for light microscopy and the other part was prepared for scanning electron microscopy. Light microscopy revealed nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium in group 1, while group 2 demonstrated hyperparakeratinized stratified squamous epithelium with mild cytological atypia, and group 3 showed architectural and cytological changes. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated flat-surfaced cells with equidistant parallel microridges in group 1, while group 2 showed irregular and widened microridges with numerous pits and absence of honeycomb pattern. Group 3 showed irregularly arranged broad and swollen cells with numerous pits and irregular microvilli projecting over the surface. The present study establishes the relationship of the surface abnormalities to the tendency of the cells to become malignant and thus serves as a tool in early detection of squamous cell carcinoma. It also emphasizes the need of routine follow-up in these high-risk patients for progression of carcinoma.

  17. Neoplasia versus hyperplasia of the retinal pigment epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen; Larsen, J.N.B.; Fledelius, Hans C.

    2001-01-01

    ophthalmology, retinal pigment epithelium, adenoma, tumor-like hyperplasia, histology, immunohistochemistry, tumor, neoplasm, ultrasonography......ophthalmology, retinal pigment epithelium, adenoma, tumor-like hyperplasia, histology, immunohistochemistry, tumor, neoplasm, ultrasonography...

  18. FGF10 maintains distal lung bud epithelium and excessive signaling leads to progenitor state arrest, distalization, and goblet cell metaplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobberup Sune

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interaction with the surrounding mesenchyme is necessary for development of endodermal organs, and Fibroblast growth factors have recently emerged as mesenchymal-expressed morphogens that direct endodermal morphogenesis. The fibroblast growth factor 10 (Fgf10 null mouse is characterized by the absence of lung bud development. Previous studies have shown that this requirement for Fgf10 is due in part to its role as a chemotactic factor during branching morphogenesis. In other endodermal organs Fgf10 also plays a role in regulating differentiation. Results Through gain-of-function analysis, we here find that FGF10 inhibits differentiation of the lung epithelium and promotes distalization of the embryonic lung. Ectopic expression of FGF10 in the lung epithelium caused impaired lung development and perinatal lethality in a transgenic mouse model. Lung lobes were enlarged due to increased interlobular distance and hyperplasia of the airway epithelium. Differentiation of bronchial and alveolar cell lineages was inhibited. The transgenic epithelium consisted predominantly of proliferating progenitor-like cells expressing Pro-surfactant protein C, TTF1, PEA3 and Clusterin similarly to immature distal tip cells. Strikingly, goblet cells developed within this arrested epithelium leading to goblet cell hyperplasia. Conclusion We conclude that FGF10 inhibits terminal differentiation in the embryonic lung and maintains the distal epithelium, and that excessive levels of FGF10 leads to metaplastic differentiation of goblet cells similar to that seen in chronic inflammatory diseases.

  19. Intestinal epithelium in inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet eCoskun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelium has a strategic position as a protective physical barrier to luminal microbiota and actively contributes to the mucosal immune system. This barrier is mainly formed by a monolayer of specialized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs that are crucial in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Therefore, dysregulation within the epithelial layer can increase intestinal permeability, lead to abnormalities in interactions between IECs and immune cells in underlying lamina propria, and disturb the intestinal immune homeostasis, all of which are linked to the clinical disease course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Understanding the role of the intestinal epithelium in IBD pathogenesis might contribute to an improved knowledge of the inflammatory processes and the identification of potential therapeutic targets.

  20. Intrinsic Defense Mechanisms of the Intestinal Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanan, Deepshika; Cadwell, Ken

    2016-04-13

    The intestinal epithelium is a single cell layer that facilitates the absorption of nutrients but also provides a tight barrier to prevent pathogen invasion and dissemination of commensal microbes. Specialized epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract achieve this frontline defense by working in concert with lymphoid, myeloid, and stromal cells to secrete an array of factors that limit direct contact between the epithelium and infectious agents. The importance of these mechanisms is underscored by the ability of enteric pathogens to target these mechanisms to achieve invasion and dissemination. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of these intricate molecular and cellular mechanisms adopted by these cells to promote spatial segregation and barrier maintenance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prostaglandin E2 release from dermis regulates sodium permeability of frog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytved, Klaus A.; Brodin, Birger; Nielsen, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Arachidonic acid, cAMP, epithelium, frog skin, intracellular calcium, prostaglandin E*U2, sodium transport, tight epithelium.......Arachidonic acid, cAMP, epithelium, frog skin, intracellular calcium, prostaglandin E*U2, sodium transport, tight epithelium....

  2. Trpm5 expression in the olfactory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrski, Martina; Eckstein, Eugenia; Schmid, Andreas; Bufe, Bernd; Weiss, Jan; Chubanov, Vladimir; Boehm, Ulrich; Zufall, Frank

    2017-04-01

    The Ca 2+ -activated monovalent cation channel Trpm5 is a key element in chemotransduction of taste receptor cells of the tongue, but the extent to which Trpm5 channels are expressed in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) of the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) of adult mice as part of a specific pheromonal detection system is debated. Here, we used a novel Trpm5-IRES-Cre knockin strain to drive Cre recombinase expression, employed previously validated Trpm5 antibodies, performed in situ hybridization experiments to localize Trpm5 RNA, and searched extensively for Trpm5 splice variants in genetically-labeled, Trpm5-expressing MOE cells. In contrast to previous reports, we find no evidence for the existence in adult mouse OSNs of the classical Trpm5 channel known from taste cells. We show that Trpm5-expressing adult OSNs express a novel Trpm5 splice variant, Trpm5-9, that is unlikely to form a functional cation channel by itself. We also demonstrate that Trpm5 is transiently expressed in a subpopulation of mature OSNs in the embryonic olfactory epithelium, indicating that Trpm5 channels could play a specific role in utero during a narrow developmental time window. Ca 2+ imaging with GCaMP3 under the control of the Trpm5-IRES-Cre allele using a newly developed MOE wholemount preparation of the adult olfactory epithelium reveals that Trpm5-GCaMP3 OSNs comprise a heterogeneous group of sensory neurons many of which can detect general odorants. Together, these studies are essential for understanding the role of transient receptor potential channels in mammalian olfaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Intestinal epithelium in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coskun, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    homeostasis. Therefore, dysregulation within the epithelial layer can increase intestinal permeability, lead to abnormalities in interactions between IECs and immune cells in underlying lamina propria, and disturb the intestinal immune homeostasis, all of which are linked to the clinical disease course......The intestinal epithelium has a strategic position as a protective physical barrier to luminal microbiota and actively contributes to the mucosal immune system. This barrier is mainly formed by a monolayer of specialized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) that are crucial in maintaining intestinal...

  4. Evidence of Absence software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalthorp, Daniel; Huso, Manuela M. P.; Dail, David; Kenyon, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Evidence of Absence software (EoA) is a user-friendly application used for estimating bird and bat fatalities at wind farms and designing search protocols. The software is particularly useful in addressing whether the number of fatalities has exceeded a given threshold and what search parameters are needed to give assurance that thresholds were not exceeded. The software is applicable even when zero carcasses have been found in searches. Depending on the effectiveness of the searches, such an absence of evidence of mortality may or may not be strong evidence that few fatalities occurred. Under a search protocol in which carcasses are detected with nearly 100 percent certainty, finding zero carcasses would be convincing evidence that overall mortality rate was near zero. By contrast, with a less effective search protocol with low probability of detecting a carcass, finding zero carcasses does not rule out the possibility that large numbers of animals were killed but not detected in the searches. EoA uses information about the search process and scavenging rates to estimate detection probabilities to determine a maximum credible number of fatalities, even when zero or few carcasses are observed.

  5. The Dynamics of Absence Behaviour: Interrelations between Absence from Class and Absence in Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonasson, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Background: Studies of absence in educational settings have primarily been concerned with the causes for and results of student absence. However, recent research has argued that distinguishing between different forms of absence could be important. In consequence, studying the way in which different forms of absence are interrelated provides…

  6. Acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation in human cataractous lens epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasavada Abhay

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The anterior lens epithelial cells undergo a variety of degenerative and proliferative changes during cataract formation. Acid phosphatase is primarily responsible for tissue regeneration and tissue repair. The lipid hydroperoxides that are obtained by lipid peroxidation of polysaturated or unsaturated fatty acids bring about deterioration of biological membranes at cellular and tissue levels. Acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation activities were studied on the lens epithelial cells of nuclear cataract, posterior subcapsular cataract, mature cataract, and mixed cataract. Of these, mature cataractous lens epithelium showed maximum activity for acid phosphatase (516.83 moles of p-nitrophenol released/g lens epithelium and maximum levels of lipid peroxidation (86.29 O.D./min/g lens epithelium. In contrast, mixed cataractous lens epithelium showed minimum activity of acid phosphatase (222.61 moles of p-nitrophenol released/g lens epithelium and minimum levels of lipid peroxidation (54.23 O.D./min/g lens epithelium. From our study, we correlated the maximum activity of acid phosphatase in mature cataractous lens epithelium with the increased areas of superimposed cells associated with the formation of mature cataract. Likewise, the maximum levels of lipid peroxidation in mature cataractous lens epithelium was correlated with increased permeability of the plasma membrane. Conversely, the minimum levels of lipid peroxidation in mixed cataractous lens epithelium makes us presume that factors other than lipid peroxidation may also account for the formation of mixed type of cataract.

  7. The return of dissociation as absence within absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, Hayuta

    2014-12-01

    My aim is to translate Ferenczi's central concepts of the intrapsychic impact and imprint of early developmental trauma into both revived and contemporary conceptualizations. The concept of dissociation was renounced by Freud, yet it is returning as a cornerstone of recent trauma theories. Ferenczi used the concept of "repression," but used it in the sense of an intrapsychic imprint of early external trauma that fragments consciousness, that is, as dissociation. Furthermore, early trauma is double: an absence of protection that threatens existence of the self, combined with an absence of attachment and of recognition of this threat and terror; thus it is an absence-within-absence. This contemporary conceptualization entails a widening of the intrapsychic realm to include an intersubjective one, and regards dissociation as a unique and complex intrapsychic absence, which is a negative of the external absence-within-absence in the early environment.

  8. Deterioration of epithelium mediated mechanisms in diabetic-antigen sensitized airways of guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bano, Saidullah; Swati, Omanwar; Kambadur, Muralidhar; Mohammad, Fahim

    2016-01-01

    The onset of diabetes causes disruption of respiratory epithelial mediators. The present study investigates whether diabetes modifies the epithelium mediated bronchial responses in hyper-reactive airway smooth muscle (ASM) primarily through nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase (COX), and epithelium derived hyperpolarizing factor (EpDHF) pathways. Experimental model of guinea pigs having hyper-reactive airways with or without diabetes were developed. The responses of tracheal rings to cumulative concentrations of acetylcholine (ACh) and isoproterenol (IP) in the presence and absence of epithelium and before and after incubation with NO, K + ATP and COX inhibitors, N-(ω)-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 100 μM), glybenclamide (10 μM) and indomethacin (100 μM) were assessed. In diabetic guinea pigs with hyper-reactive airways, a decrease in ACh induced bronchoconstriction was observed after epithelium removal and after incubation with L-NAME/indomethacin, suggesting damage to NO/COX pathways. Hyper-reactivity did not alter the response of trachea to ACh but affected the response to IP which was further reduced in hyper-reactive animals with diabetes. The ASM response to IP after glybenclamide treatment did not alter in hyper-reactive guinea pigs and diabetic guinea pigs with hyper-reactive airways, suggesting damage to the EpDHF pathway. Treatment with indomethacin reduced IP response in the hyper-reactive model, and did not produce any change in diabetic model with hyper-reactive airways, indicating further disruption of the COX pathway. EpDHF pathway is damaged in hyper-reactive guinea pigs and in diabetic guinea pigs with hyper-reactive airways. Diabetes further aggravates the NO and COX mediated pathways in diabetic guinea pigs with hyper-reactive airways.

  9. Degeneration and recovery of rat olfactory epithelium following inhalation of dibasic esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, C M; Kelly, D P; Bogdanffy, M S

    1990-08-01

    Dibasic esters (DBE) are solvent mixtures used in the paint and coating industry. To evaluate the potential subchronic toxicity of DBE, groups of male and female rats were exposed for periods of up to 13 weeks to DBE concentrations of 0, 20, 76, or 390 mg/m3. After approximately 7 and 13 weeks of exposure, 10 rats per sex per group were subjected to clinical chemical, hematological, and urine analyses. Following 7 or 13 weeks of exposure, 10 or 20 rats per sex per group, respectively, were euthanized. An additional 10 rats were euthanized following a 6-week recovery period. A standard profile of tissues, including four levels of nasal cavity, was evaluated histopathologically. After 7 weeks of exposure, slight degeneration of the olfactory epithelium was observed in both male and female rats at 76 and 390 mg/m3. After 13 weeks, degeneration of the olfactory epithelium was present at all DBE concentrations in female rats, but only at the mid and high concentrations in male rats. The severity and incidence of the lesions were concentration related for both sexes with female rats being more sensitive than males. Following the recovery period, histological changes compatible with repair in the olfactory mucosa included an absence of degeneration, focal disorganization of the olfactory epithelium, and respiratory metaplasia. All other tissues were macroscopically normal. No other signs of toxicity were indicated by the other parameters evaluated. Inhalation studies of other esters demonstrate similar pathology in the olfactory epithelium. Since olfactory mucosa is rich in carboxylesterase activity, acids may be the toxic metabolites of these compounds. This hypothetical mechanism may explain the sensitivity of olfactory tissue to the effects of DBE.

  10. Revisiting the human seminiferous epithelium cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihi, F; Gomes, M L M; Carvalho, F A R; Reis, A B; Martello, R; Melo, R C N; Almeida, F R C L; Chiarini-Garcia, H

    2017-06-01

    Can all types of testicular germ cells be accurately identified by microscopy techniques and unambiguously distributed in stages of the human seminiferous epithelium cycle (SEC)? By using a high-resolution light microscopy (HRLM) method, which enables an improved visualization of germ cell morphological features, we identified all testicular germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium and precisely grouped them in six well-delimitated SEC stages, thus providing a reliable reference source for staging in man. Morphological characterization of germ cells in human has been done decades ago with the use of conventional histological methods (formaldehyde-based fixative -Zenker-formal- and paraffin embedding). These early studies proposed a classification of the SEC in six stages. However, the use of stages as baseline for morphofunctional evaluations of testicular parenchyma has been difficult because of incomplete morphological identification of germ cells and their random distribution in the human SEC. Testicular tissue from adult and elderly donors with normal spermatogenesis according to Levin's, Johnsen's and Bergmann's scores were used to evaluate germ cell morphology and validate their distribution and frequency in stages throughout human spermatogenesis. Testicular tissue from patients diagnosed with congenital bilateral agenesis of vas deferens (n = 3 adults) or prostate cancer (n = 3 elderly) were fixed in glutaraldehyde and embedded in araldite epoxy resin. Morphological analyses were performed by both light and transmission electron microscopy. HRLM method enabled a reliable morphological identification of all germ cells (spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids) based on high-resolution aspects of euchromatin, heterochromatin and nucleolus. Moreover, acrosomal development of spermatids was clearly revealed. Altogether, our data redefined the limits of each stage leading to a more reliable determination of the SEC in man. Occasionally, germ cells can be

  11. Past absence as a predictor of present absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke Møller, Ann-Kristina Løkke

    2014-01-01

    that past days and past spells have an equal potential of predicting present absent. Past absence behaviour can thus be used as an early warning for managers. The study also confirms that personal characteristics such as age and seniority also influence absence duration. Moreover, job characteristics...

  12. Ultraviolet induced lysosome activity in corneal epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    A 5.000 W Xe-Hg high pressure lamp and a double monochromator were used to produce a 3.3 nm half-bandpass ultraviolet radiation at 295 nm. Pigmented rabbit eyes were irradiated with radiant exposures from 140 Jm -2 to 10.000 Jm -2 and evaluated by slit-lamp biomicroscopy, light and electron microscopy. Corneal threshold (Hsub(c) was 200 Jm -2 and lens threshold (Hsub(L)) was 7.500 Jm -2 . The most repeatable and reliable corneal response to these levels of UV was the development of corneal epithelial granules. Histological changes included a loss of superficial epithelial cells and selective UV induced autolysis of the wing cells. It is suggested that the biomicroscopically observed granules are the clinical manifestation of the secondary lysosomes revealed by light and electron microscopy. It is proposed that UV breaks down the primary lysosome membranes to release hydrolytic enzymes which in turn form the secondary lysosomes during autolysis. Extreme levels of radiant exposure at 295 nm result in indiscriminate destruction of all layers of the corneal epithelium, but the posterior cornea was spared. (orig.) [de

  13. EP3 receptors inhibit antidiuretic-hormone-dependent sodium transport across frog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytved, Klaus A.; Nielsen, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Antidiuretic hormone; tight epithelium; prostaglandin receptors; sulprostone; misoprostol; cAMP; cellular Ca2+......Antidiuretic hormone; tight epithelium; prostaglandin receptors; sulprostone; misoprostol; cAMP; cellular Ca2+...

  14. Electroclinical Features of Absence Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-01-01

    Clinical and EEG features of absence seizures in 47 children with newly diagnosed, untreated childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) were analyzed using video-EEG recordings, in a study at University of Otago, Wellington, New Zealand; British Columbia Children’s Hospital, Vancouver, BC, Canada; and Royal Children’s Hospital, Melbourne, Australia.

  15. Buccal Epithelium in treating Ocular Surface Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas KR

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Background - Ocular surface disorders due to limbal stem cell deficiency are an important cause of ocular morbidity and visual loss. Although autologous limbal stem cell transplants have helped in the management of unilateral disease, allografts in those with bilateral disease often fail due to immunological reasons. The use of autologous buccal epithelium cultivated on amniotic membrane has been described as a useful approach in the management of this condition. It is the purpose of this study to explore the feasibility of using a novel thermo-gelatin polymer (TGP as a substrate to culture these cells, and to characterize them using RNA extraction and RT-PCR. Methods - Oral cheek mucosal biopsies were obtained from 5 adult patients undergoing Modified Osteo-Odonto Keratoprosthesis surgery. The specimens were transported to the laboratory in transport medium. The cells were released using enzymatic digestion and seeded in both convention culture medium and TGP. The resulting cellular growth was characterized using RNA extraction and RT-PCR. Results - Cells could be cultured from 4 of the 5 specimens. In one specimen, contamination occurred and this was discarded. In the other specimens, the cheek epithelial cells could be cultured in both the conventional culture medium and TGP, with equal ease. RT-PCR revealed the presence of K3, a marker for epithelial cells, and GAPDH indicating the presence of some adipose tissue as well. Conclusions - It is possible to culture autologous cheek mucosal epithelial cells using TGP, a synthetic scaffold, without the need for other biological substrates. Since the specimens are obtained from the oral cavity, stringent asepsis is required. Further studies are required for histopathological characterization of the cultured cells and to create a model for delivery onto the ocular surface of eyes with bilateral surface disease due to limbal stem cell deficiency.

  16. Mechanisms underlying epithelium-dependent relaxation in rat bronchioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroigaard, Christel; Dalsgaard, Thomas; Simonsen, Ulf

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanisms underlying epithelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EpDHF)-type relaxation in rat bronchioles. Immunohistochemistry was performed, and rat bronchioles and pulmonary arteries were mounted in microvascular myographs for functional studies. An opener of small...

  17. Corneal epithelium and UV-protection of the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringvold, A

    1998-04-01

    To study UV-absorption and UV-induced fluorescence in the bovine corneal epithelium. Spectrophotometry and spectrofluorimetry. The corneal epithelium absorbs UV-B radiation mainly owing to its content of protein, RNA, and ascorbate. Some of the absorbed energy is transformed to the less biotoxic UV-A radiation by fluorescence. RNA and ascorbate reduce tissue fluorescence. The corneal epithelium acts as a UV-filter, protecting internal eye structures through three different mechanisms: (1) Absorption of UV-B roughly below 310 nm wavelength. (2) Fluorescence-mediated ray transformation to longer wavelengths. (3) Fluorescence reduction. The extremely high ascorbate concentration in the corneal epithelium has a key role in two of these processes.

  18. The dynamics of absence behaviour: Interrelations between absence from class and absence in class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasson, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    performance. It is helpful to describe these findings using theoretical frameworks from sociology and psychology: specifically, spill-over theory and symbolic capital theory. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated how different forms of absence become dynamically interrelated through ongoing negotiations...

  19. Azithromycin ameliorates airway remodeling via inhibiting airway epithelium apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanqi; Pu, Yue; Li, Diandian; Zhou, Liming; Wan, Lihong

    2017-02-01

    Azithromycin can benefit treating allergic airway inflammation and remodeling. In the present study, we hypothesized that azithromycin alleviated airway epithelium injury through inhibiting airway epithelium apoptosis via down regulation of caspase-3 and Bax/Bcl2 ratio in vivo and in vitro. Ovalbumin induced rat asthma model and TGF-β1-induced BEAS-2B cell apoptosis model were established, respectively. In vivo experiments, airway epithelium was stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) to histologically evaluate the airway inflammation and remodeling. Airway epithelium apoptotic index (AI) was further analyzed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), while expression of apoptosis related gene (Bax, Bcl2, Caspase-3) in lungs were measured by qRT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. In vitro experiments, apoptosis were evaluated by Flow cytometry (FCM) and TUNEL. Above apoptosis related gene were also measured by qRT-PCR and western blotting. Compared with the OVA group, azithromycin significantly reduced the inflammation score, peribronchial smooth muscle layer thickness, epithelial thickening and goblet cell metaplasia (Pazithromycin-treated rats (Pazithromycin significantly suppressed TGF-β1-induced BEAS-2B cells apoptosis (PAzithromycin is an attractive treatment option for reducing airway epithelial cell apoptosis by improving the imbalance of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and inhibiting Caspase-3 level in airway epithelium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Non-Thermal Electromagnetic Radiation Damage to Lens Epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Bormusov, Elvira; P.Andley, Usha; Sharon, Naomi; Sch?chter, Levi; Lahav, Assaf; Dovrat, Ahuva

    2008-01-01

    High frequency microwave electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones and other modern devices has the potential to damage eye tissues, but its effect on the lens epithelium is unknown at present. The objective of this study was to investigate the non-thermal effects of high frequency microwave electromagnetic radiation (1.1GHz, 2.22 mW) on the eye lens epithelium in situ. Bovine lenses were incubated in organ culture at 35?C for 10-15 days. A novel computer-controlled microwave source was us...

  1. [Absence epilepsy models in rodents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguibar, José R; Cortés, M del Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Animal models are a useful tool because it is possible to perform neuroanatomical, electrophysiological and pharmacological studies throughout their development. The most common models for experimental studies of absence seizures are the GAERS (Genetic Absence Epilepsy rat from Strasbourg) and the WAG/Rij (Wistar Absence Glaxo from Rijswik) rats. In WAG/RU rats it has been demonstrated that the perioral region in the somatosensorial cortex shows a zone with hyperexcitability which is the origin of spike wave discharges (SWD). In fact, this cortical area shows modifications in sodium channels which increase the excitability of cortical neurons; for this reason, local application of phenytoin or lidocaine, which block sodium channels, reduce SWD. Ethosuximide decreases and pentylenetetrazol increases SWD in GAERS and WAG/Rij rats. At the Institute of Physiology in the Benemérita Autonomous University of Puebla we have obtained a myelin mutant rat called "taiep", which is the acronym of tremor, ataxia, immobility episodes, epilepsy, and paralysis. This model shows a SWD with higher frequency during awaking periods; the SWD increases with systemic administration of pentylenetetrazol and decreases with ethosuximide. All these findings in animal models are susceptible to be tested in human beings through magneto- and electro-encephalographic recording techniques to discern the source of this type of epilepsy. Thus, in biomedical research, animal models are useful tools to discern the neural and network alterations responsible for the absence seizures, and allow to design of more specific therapeutic options with fewer side effects.

  2. Thalamic stimulation in absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttjohann, A.K.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The site specific effects of two different types of electrical stimulation of the thalamus on electroencephalic epileptic activity as generated in the cortico-thalamo-cortical system were investigated in genetic epileptic WAG/Rij rats, a well characterized and validated absence

  3. Ultrastructure of the lingual epithelium of adult scincine lizard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present investigation, the histological and histochemical characteristics, as well as the ultrastructure of the lingual epithelium of the adult lizard Chalcides ocellatus, were investigated by light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Histological examination revealed taste buds and sensory papillae ...

  4. Adhesion of Porphyromonas gingivalis serotypes to pocket epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierickx, K; Pauwels, M; Laine, ML; Van Eldere, J; Cassiman, JJ; van Winkelhoff, AJ; van Steenberghe, D; Quirynen, M

    Background: Porphyromonas gingivalis, a key pathogen in periodontitis, is able to adhere to and invade the pocket epithelium. Different capsular antigens of P gingivalis have been identified (K-serotyping). These P gingivalis capsular types show differences in adhesion capacity to human cell lines

  5. Wnt signaling in the intestinal epithelium: from endoderm to cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gregorieff, A.; Clevers, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    The Wnt pathway controls cell fate during embryonic development. It also persists as a key regulator of homeostasis in adult self-renewing tissues. In these tissues, mutational deregulation of the Wnt cascade is closely associated with malignant transformation. The intestinal epithelium represents

  6. Structure and development of the saccular sensory epithelium in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Structure and development of the saccular sensory epithelium in relation to otolith growth in the perch Perca fluviatilis (Telostei) ... Electron microscopy indicated: 1) The apical surface of each hair cell is covered with a ciliary bundle which varies in length in different epithelial regions. Each bundle is formed from a long ...

  7. Quantum Dot Distribution in the Olfactory Epithelium After Nasal Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzotto, D.; De Marchis, S.

    2010-10-01

    Nanoparticles are used in a wide range of human applications from industrial to bio-medical fields. However, the unique characteristics of nanoparticles, such as the small size, large surface area per mass and high reactivity raises great concern on the adverse effects of these particles on ecological systems and human health. There are several pioneer studies reporting translocation of inhaled particulates to the brain through a potential neuronal uptake mediated by the olfactory nerve (1, 2, 3). However, no direct evidences have been presented up to now on the pathway followed by the nanoparticles from the nose to the brain. In addition to a neuronal pathway, nanoparticles could gain access to the central nervous system through extracellular pathways (perineuronal, perivascular and cerebrospinal fluid paths). In the present study we investigate the localization of intranasally delivered fluorescent nanoparticles in the olfactory epithelium. To this purpose we used quantum dots (QDs), a model of innovative fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals commonly used in cell and animal biology (4). Intranasal treatments with QDs were performed acutely on adult CD1 mice. The olfactory epithelium was collected and analysed by confocal microscopy at different survival time after treatment. Data obtained indicate that the neuronal components of the olfactory epithelium are not preferentially involved in QDs uptake, thus suggesting nanoparticles can cross the olfactory epithelium through extracellular pathways.

  8. Hedgehog Signaling and Maintenance of Homeostasis in the Intestinal Epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büller, Nikè V. J. A.; Rosekrans, Sanne L.; Westerlund, Jessica; van den Brink, Gijs R.

    2012-01-01

    Homeostasis of the rapidly renewing intestinal epithelium depends on a balance between cell proliferation and loss. Indian hedgehog (Ihh) acts as a negative feedback signal in this dynamic equilibrium. We discuss recent evidence that Ihh may be one of the key epithelial signals that indicates

  9. The multi-tasking gut epithelium of insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jia-Hsin; Jing, Xiangfeng; Douglas, Angela E

    2015-12-01

    The insect gut epithelium plays a vital role in multiple processes, including nutrition, immunity and osmoregulation. Recent research is revealing the molecular and biochemical basis of these functions. For example, the pattern of nutrient acquisition by the gut epithelium is integrated into the overall regulation of nutrient allocation, as illustrated by evidence for systemic controls over expression of key genes coding digestive enzymes and transporters in carbohydrate acquisition; and the abundance and diversity of microorganisms in the gut lumen is regulated by multiple molecular properties of the gut epithelial cells, including the synthesis of enzymes that produce reactive oxygen species and anti-microbial peptides. These traits are underpinned by the function of the gut epithelium as a selective barrier which mediates the controlled movement of water, ions, metabolites and macromolecules between the gut lumen and insect tissues. Breakdown of the gut epithelial barrier has been implicated in muscle paralysis of insects at low temperatures (chill coma) and in aging. The key challenge for future research is to understand how the multiple functions of the insect gut epithelium are integrated by signaling interactions among epithelial cells, the gut microbiota and other insect organs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The ultrastructure of the midgut epithelium in millipedes (Myriapoda, Diplopoda)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sosinka, A.; Rost-Roszkowska, M.M.; Vilímová, J.; Tajovský, Karel; Kszuk-Jendrysik, M.; Chajec, Ł.; Sonakowska, L.; Kamińska, K.; Hyra, M.; Poprawa, I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 5 (2014), s. 477-492 ISSN 1467-8039 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : digestive cells * midgut epithelium * millipedes * regenerative cells * secretory cells * ultrastructure Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.650, year: 2014

  11. DIFFERENTIAL HISTOMORPHOMETRIC CHANGES IN NORMAL AND INFLAMED GINGIVAL EPITHELIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaskovic Stankovic Sanja

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and aim: In recent decades, many factors such as smoking, unhealthy diet as well as high alcohol intake were marked as risk factors that can lead to increased incidence of malignant alterations, gingivitis, periodontal disease and other oral epithelium pathological changes. Having in mind that in the group of non-malignant and non-dental oral pathology gingivitis and periodontal disease are the most common oral mucosa alterations aim of our research was to investigate histomorphometric characteristics of healthy and altered oral and gingival epithelium. Material and methods: Tissue samples of 24 oral and gingival mucosa specimens were collected. Samples were fixed in 10% buffered paraformaldehyde, routinely processed and embedded in paraffin blocks. From each block sections 5 micrometer thin were made and standard H/E staining as well as immunocytochemical detection of Ki-67 proliferation marker and CD79a lymphocyte marker were performed. Measurements and image analysis was performed with Image Pro Plus software (Media Cybernetics, USA and Axiovision (Ziess, USA. Results: We showed that inflamed gingival epithelium is increasing its thickness in proportion to the severity of adjacent inflammation. Furthermore, mitotic index is rising (up to 132% in the same manner as well as basal lamina length (up to 70% when normal and inflamed gingiva is compared. Architecture of epithelial ridges is changed from straightforward to mesh-like. Conclusion: Assessment of the free gingival epithelium thickness is directly related to the severity of the inflammation process i

  12. Radioautographic DNA synthesis study on mice Mus musculus gingival epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira Tarelho, Z.V. da; Hetem, S.

    1984-01-01

    The DNA-synthetizing cells frequency in the gingival epithelium basal layer of the first lower molar region in young and adult mice were studied. The 3H-thymidine and radioautography were used. The labeled cells frequency was determined by calculating their proportions. The data were statiscally analysed. (M.A.C.) [pt

  13. The distribution of free calcium ions in the cholesteatoma epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane-Knudsen, Viggo; Rasmussen, Gurli; Ottosen, Peter D

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of free calcium ions in normal skin and cholesteatoma epithelium was investigated using the oxalate precipitation method. In agreement with previous observations, we could demonstrate a calcium ion gradient in normal epidermis where the cells in stratum basale and spinosum reside...

  14. Amniotic membrane inhibits squamous metaplasia of human conjunctival epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yehui; Qiu, Fangfang; Qu, Yang-Luowa; Li, Cheng; Shao, Yi; Xiao, Qiguo; Liu, Zuguo; Li, Wei

    2011-07-01

    Squamous metaplasia is a common pathological process that occurs in the ocular surface epithelium. At present, there is no effective treatment for this abnormality. In the current study, we established an ex vivo conjunctival squamous metaplasia model by culturing human conjunctival tissues at an air-liquid interface for durations of up to 12 days. We then investigated the effects of amniotic membrane (AM) on squamous metaplasia through coculture of conjunctival tissues with AM or AM extract. We found that metaplasia features such as hyperproliferation and abnormal epidermal differentiation of conjunctival epithelium could be inhibited by AM or its extract. In addition, existing squamous metaplasia of conjunctival epithelium could be reversed to a nearly normal phenotype by AM. The mechanism by which AM prevents squamous metaplasia may involve downregulation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and Wnt signaling pathways, which were activated in conjunctival explants cultured with an airlift technique. In conclusion, AM can inhibit and reverse squamous metaplasia of conjunctival epithelium. This finding may shed new light on prevention and treatment of diseases that involve epithelial squamous metaplasia.

  15. Histomorphology of the corneal epithelium of anastrozole treated rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, A.; Qamar, K.; Butt, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of prolonged use of anastrozole as an endocrine treatment of breast cancer on the corneal epithelium in an animal model. Study Design: Laboratory based randomized control trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anatomy, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi in collaboration with National Institute of Health, Islamabad, six months from Jun 2012 to Nov 2012. Material and Methods: Twenty adult female NewZealand white rabbits were taken. Ten rabbits were placed in control group taking normal diet and 10 were given anastrozole orally in the normal dose of 1 mg/day (0.02 mg/kg/day). After the completion of the study, corneas were removed and grossly examined. The specimen were fixed and slides prepared for histomorphological examination. The epithelium in each slide was examined for any deposits, edema or increase in stratification and the height of the epithelium was measured for each eye. The results were compared between the groups for statistical significance. Results: The epithelium had normal shape with no areas of any deposits, edema or ulceration. The mean epithelial height in the control group was 21.25 +- 4.29 mu m and 21.00 +- 4.28 mu m in the right corneas and left corneas, respectively. The mean epithelial height taken from the experimental group was 20.50 +- 4.97 mu m and 21.00 +- 4.28 mu m in right sided and left sided corneas, respectively. The p value was calculated to be 0.722 and 1.00 for the right and left corneas, respectively and no statistical significance was found in between the two groups. Conclusion: Long term administration of anastrozole has no effect on the histological morphology of the corneal epithelium. (author)

  16. Kinetics of corneal epithelium turnover in vivo. Studies of lovastatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cenedella, R.J.; Fleschner, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    The authors developed a direct chemical approach for estimating the rate of turnover of the corneal epithelium in vivo. The method was used to examine the effects of lovastatin, a potent inhibitor of cholesterol biosynthesis, on proliferation and turnover of the epithelium. Corneal DNA was labeled by pulse injection (IP) of the rat with 3H-thymidine, and 3H-labeled DNA was recovered from peripheral and central corneas over the next 15 days. Only the epithelium became labeled, and the loss of label by cell desquamation began 3 days after injection. The loss of 3H-DNA from the cornea (peripheral plus central region) followed first-order kinetics. The half-life of the disappearance was about 3 days. The peripheral cornea became more highly labeled than the central cornea and began to lose 3H-DNA before the central cornea. These observations support the possibility of a higher mitotic rate in the peripheral region and the centripetal movement of a population of peripheral epithelial cells in the normal cornea. The half-lives of the disappearance of 3H-DNA from peripheral and central corneas measured between days 5 and 15 postinjection were identical, both at 3 days. Complete turnover of the corneal epithelium would, therefore, require about 2 weeks (4-5 half-lives). Treatment of the rat with lovastatin had no obvious effects upon the proliferation or turnover of the corneal epithelium. Although lovastatin inhibited corneal 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, the key regulatory enzyme of cholesterol synthesis, the cornea compensated by induction of this enzyme so that there was no net inhibition of cholesterol synthesis in the cornea

  17. Pax9 is required for filiform papilla development and suppresses skin-specific differentiation of the mammalian tongue epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Leon; Kist, Ralf; Aw, Andrew; Wappler, Ilka; Peters, Heiko

    2004-11-01

    The epidermis is a derivative of the surface ectoderm. It forms a protective barrier and specific appendages including hair, nails, and different eccrine glands. The surface ectoderm also forms the epithelium of the oral cavity and tongue, which develop a slightly different barrier and form different appendages such as teeth, filiform papillae, taste papillae, and salivary glands. How this region-specific differentiation is genetically controlled is largely unknown. We show here that Pax9, which is expressed in the epithelium of the tongue but not in skin, regulates several aspects of tongue-specific epithelial differentiation. In Pax9-deficient mice filiform papillae lack the anterior-posterior polarity, a defect that is associated with temporal-spatial changes in Hoxc13 expression. Barrier formation is disturbed in the mutant tongue and genome-wide expression profiling revealed that the expression of specific keratins (Krt), keratin-associated proteins, and members of the epidermal differentiation complex is significantly down-regulated. In situ hybridization demonstrated that several 'hard' keratins, Krt1-5, Krt1-24, and Krt2-16, are not expressed in the absence of Pax9. Notably, specific 'soft' keratins, Krt2-1 and Krt2-17, normally weakly expressed in the tongue but present at high levels in skin and in orthokeratinized oral dysplasia are up-regulated in the mutant tongue epithelium. This result indicates a partial trans-differentiation to an epithelium with skin-specific characteristics. Together, our findings show that Pax9 regulates appendage formation in the mammalian tongue and identify Pax9 as an important factor for the region-specific differentiation of the surface ectoderm.

  18. Loss of Aβ-nerve endings associated with the Merkel cell-neurite complex in the lesional oral mucosa epithelium of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión, Daniela Calderón; Korkmaz, Yüksel; Cho, Britta; Kopp, Marion; Bloch, Wilhelm; Addicks, Klaus; Niedermeier, Wilhelm

    2016-03-30

    The Merkel cell-neurite complex initiates the perception of touch and mediates Aβ slowly adapting type I responses. Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease with T-cell-mediated inflammation, whereas hyperkeratosis is characterized with or without epithelial dysplasia in the oral mucosa. To determine the effects of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis on the Merkel cell-neurite complex, healthy oral mucosal epithelium and lesional oral mucosal epithelium of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis patients were stained by immunohistochemistry (the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex and double immunofluorescence methods) using pan cytokeratin, cytokeratin 20 (K20, a Merkel cell marker), and neurofilament 200 (NF200, a myelinated Aβ- and Aδ-nerve fibre marker) antibodies. NF200-immunoreactive (ir) nerve fibres in healthy tissues and in the lesional oral mucosa epithelium of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis were counted and statistically analysed. In the healthy oral mucosa, K20-positive Merkel cells with and without close association to the intraepithelial NF200-ir nerve fibres were detected. In the lesional oral mucosa of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis patients, extremely rare NF200-ir nerve fibres were detected only in the lamina propria. Compared with healthy tissues, lichen planus and hyperkeratosis tissues had significantly decreased numbers of NF200-ir nerve fibres in the oral mucosal epithelium. Lichen planus and hyperkeratosis were associated with the absence of Aβ-nerve endings in the oral mucosal epithelium. Thus, we conclude that mechanosensation mediated by the Merkel cell-neurite complex in the oral mucosal epithelium is impaired in lichen planus and hyperkeratosis.

  19. Dissociation of rod and cone sensitivity by acute localized retinal pigment epithelium loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøyer, Kristian; la Cour, Morten; Larsen, Michael

    2008-01-01

    To assess the impact of acute retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) loss on photopic and scotopic sensitivity.......To assess the impact of acute retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) loss on photopic and scotopic sensitivity....

  20. Absence of satellites of asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrels, T.; Drummond, J.D.; Levenson, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    The absence of satellites within 0.1-7.0 arcmin of minor planets noted in the present CCD imaging survey is judged consistent with previous theoretical studies of collisions in which it is held that satellites would have to be larger than about 30 km in order to be collisionally stable. In view of tidal stability, the only main belt asteroid satellites which could conceivably possess stability over eons are near-contact binaries. Any recent collisional debris would be chaotic and collisionally unstable. 15 references

  1. Nanoparticle incorporation of melittin reduces sperm and vaginal epithelium cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jallouk, Andrew P; Moley, Kelle H; Omurtag, Kenan; Hu, Grace; Lanza, Gregory M; Wickline, Samuel A; Hood, Joshua L

    2014-01-01

    Melittin is a cytolytic peptide component of bee venom which rapidly integrates into lipid bilayers and forms pores resulting in osmotic lysis. While the therapeutic utility of free melittin is limited by its cytotoxicity, incorporation of melittin into the lipid shell of a perfluorocarbon nanoparticle has been shown to reduce its toxicity in vivo. Our group has previously demonstrated that perfluorocarbon nanoparticles containing melittin at concentrations HIV infectivity in vitro. In the current study, we assessed the impact of blank and melittin-containing perfluorocarbon nanoparticles on sperm motility and the viability of both sperm and vaginal epithelial cells. We found that free melittin was toxic to sperm and vaginal epithelium at concentrations greater than 2 µM (pHIV infectivity. Melittin nanoparticles were toxic to vaginal epithelium at equivalent melittin concentrations ≥20 µM (pHIV serodiscordant couples seeking to achieve natural pregnancy.

  2. Entamoeba histolytica: Host parasite interactions at the colonic epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornick, Steve; Chadee, Kris

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Entamoeba histolytica (Eh) is the protozoan parasite responsible for intestinal amebiasis and interacts dynamically with the host intestinal epithelium during disease pathogenesis. A multifaceted pathogenesis profile accounts for why 90% of individuals infected with Eh are largely asymptomatic. For 100 millions individuals that are infected each year, key interactions within the intestinal mucosa dictate disease susceptibility. The ability for Eh to induce amebic colitis and disseminate into extraintestinal organs depends on the parasite competing with indigenous bacteria and overcoming the mucus barrier, binding to host cells inducing their cell death, invasion through the mucosa and outsmarting the immune system. In this review we summarize how Eh interacts with the intestinal epithelium and subverts host defense mechanisms in disease pathogenesis. PMID:28452682

  3. Nanoparticle incorporation of melittin reduces sperm and vaginal epithelium cytotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Jallouk

    Full Text Available Melittin is a cytolytic peptide component of bee venom which rapidly integrates into lipid bilayers and forms pores resulting in osmotic lysis. While the therapeutic utility of free melittin is limited by its cytotoxicity, incorporation of melittin into the lipid shell of a perfluorocarbon nanoparticle has been shown to reduce its toxicity in vivo. Our group has previously demonstrated that perfluorocarbon nanoparticles containing melittin at concentrations <10 µM inhibit HIV infectivity in vitro. In the current study, we assessed the impact of blank and melittin-containing perfluorocarbon nanoparticles on sperm motility and the viability of both sperm and vaginal epithelial cells. We found that free melittin was toxic to sperm and vaginal epithelium at concentrations greater than 2 µM (p<0.001. However, melittin nanoparticles were not cytotoxic to sperm (p = 0.42 or vaginal epithelium (p = 0.48 at an equivalent melittin concentration of 10 µM. Thus, nanoparticle formulation of melittin reduced melittin cytotoxicity fivefold and prevented melittin toxicity at concentrations previously shown to inhibit HIV infectivity. Melittin nanoparticles were toxic to vaginal epithelium at equivalent melittin concentrations ≥20 µM (p<0.001 and were toxic to sperm at equivalent melittin concentrations ≥40 µM (p<0.001. Sperm cytotoxicity was enhanced by targeting of the nanoparticles to the sperm surface antigen sperm adhesion molecule 1. While further testing is needed to determine the extent of cytotoxicity in a more physiologically relevant model system, these results suggest that melittin-containing nanoparticles could form the basis of a virucide that is not toxic to sperm and vaginal epithelium. This virucide would be beneficial for HIV serodiscordant couples seeking to achieve natural pregnancy.

  4. Nanoparticle Incorporation of Melittin Reduces Sperm and Vaginal Epithelium Cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jallouk, Andrew P.; Moley, Kelle H.; Omurtag, Kenan; Hu, Grace; Lanza, Gregory M.; Wickline, Samuel A.; Hood, Joshua L.

    2014-01-01

    Melittin is a cytolytic peptide component of bee venom which rapidly integrates into lipid bilayers and forms pores resulting in osmotic lysis. While the therapeutic utility of free melittin is limited by its cytotoxicity, incorporation of melittin into the lipid shell of a perfluorocarbon nanoparticle has been shown to reduce its toxicity in vivo. Our group has previously demonstrated that perfluorocarbon nanoparticles containing melittin at concentrations <10 µM inhibit HIV infectivity in vitro. In the current study, we assessed the impact of blank and melittin-containing perfluorocarbon nanoparticles on sperm motility and the viability of both sperm and vaginal epithelial cells. We found that free melittin was toxic to sperm and vaginal epithelium at concentrations greater than 2 µM (p<0.001). However, melittin nanoparticles were not cytotoxic to sperm (p = 0.42) or vaginal epithelium (p = 0.48) at an equivalent melittin concentration of 10 µM. Thus, nanoparticle formulation of melittin reduced melittin cytotoxicity fivefold and prevented melittin toxicity at concentrations previously shown to inhibit HIV infectivity. Melittin nanoparticles were toxic to vaginal epithelium at equivalent melittin concentrations ≥20 µM (p<0.001) and were toxic to sperm at equivalent melittin concentrations ≥40 µM (p<0.001). Sperm cytotoxicity was enhanced by targeting of the nanoparticles to the sperm surface antigen sperm adhesion molecule 1. While further testing is needed to determine the extent of cytotoxicity in a more physiologically relevant model system, these results suggest that melittin-containing nanoparticles could form the basis of a virucide that is not toxic to sperm and vaginal epithelium. This virucide would be beneficial for HIV serodiscordant couples seeking to achieve natural pregnancy. PMID:24748389

  5. Measurement of the thickness of the bronchial epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, D.H.; Baldwin, F.

    1989-02-01

    Cancer of the lung in uranium miners is thought to be related to the inhalation of gaseous radon daughters which become attached to molecules of water vapour or to dust particles. Since, the depth of tissue penetration by alpha particles is short, the thickness of the epithelium that lines the bronchial tree may be a critical factor in the development of cancers at specific sites in the lung. The objectives of the present study were: 1) to measure the thickness of human bronchial epithelium; 2) to determine the distribution and depth of the nuclei of basal cells in the bronchial epithelium; and 3) to compare these parameters in groups of smokers and non-smokers. Twenty-nine surgically removed specimens of the lung were examined (26 smokers, 3 non-smokers). The specimens were fixed and prepared for examination by light and electron microscopy. Blocks of tissue were oriented so that the maximum number of bronchi were cut in cross-section; measurements included bronchi of all sizes from bronchial generations (1≥ 9.01 mm) diameter to the smallest bronchioles, generations 7 - 16 (0.26 - 2.0 mm). Comparison of measurements in smokers and non-smokers show no significant differences, so that the 29 cases are considered to represent a homogeneous group. With progressive divisions of the bronchi, the epithelium decreases in thickness. Of more importance are the figures relating to the distance from the cell surface to the underlying nucleus. Here too, with the exception of goblet cells, the measurements are significantly smaller in generations 7 - 16 than in generation 1

  6. Initial effects of ionizing radiation on epithelium of the cornea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogita, S.; Oinaka, M.; Harada, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Initial effects of ionizing radiation - 3,000 rads of gamma rays from a 60 Co source - on the cornea were examined by SEM. Early changes in the epithelium of the cornea could be detected prior to the appearance of any other biomicroscopical findings. Remarkable changes were noted 48 hr after irradiation, and severe damages such as irregularity and disappearance of cell boundaries, irregularity in the size and form of nuclei and changes in the cytoplasm surrounding the nucleus were observed. (Auth.)

  7. Effect of carbonated drinks on wound healing of oral epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahim, Ayesha; Ilyas, Muhammad Sharjeel; Jafari, Fahim Haider; Farzana, Fauzia

    2016-01-01

    Carbonated drinks are the second most consumed non-alcoholic beverages in the world after tea. The effects of these drinks on hard tissues and vital organs of the body have been proved beyond doubt. This study, however, explains the effect of these drinks on wound healing of oral epithelium. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were considered for the study. A circular wound of 3.0 mm was created on the buccal mucosa of all animals and they were divided into two groups. Animals in group 1 were fed with chow pellet and water, while those in group 2 were fed with a commercially available carbonated drink instead of water. Six animals from each group were euthanized at 0, 7, and 21 days. Wound site was histologically assessed for differences in thickness and characteristics of the regenerating epithelium between two groups. There was a marked difference in the healing pattern between the two groups. Animals in group 1 showed a normal healing pattern at the end of day 21. In the group 2, the regenerated epithelium showed hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis along with acanthosis at the end of the experiment with a subsequent delayed inflammatory reaction at day 21. Consumption of carbonated drinks can disrupt oral wound healing. The contents in carbonated drinks have a proinflammatory action on the soft tissue. Results suggest that epithelial changes seen in experimental group 2 could be a result of constant irritation by the acidic and fizzy nature of carbonated drinks.

  8. Cigarette smoke facilitates allergen penetration across respiratory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangl, K; Reininger, R; Bernhard, D; Campana, R; Pree, I; Reisinger, J; Kneidinger, M; Kundi, M; Dolznig, H; Thurnher, D; Valent, P; Chen, K-W; Vrtala, S; Spitzauer, S; Valenta, R; Niederberger, V

    2009-03-01

    The association between cigarette smoke exposure and allergic airway disease is a matter for debate. We sought to investigate in an in vitro system whether active smoking reduces the integrity and barrier function of the respiratory epithelium and thus facilitates allergen penetration. We cultured the human bronchial epithelial cell line 16HBE14o- in a transwell culture system as a surrogate for the intact respiratory epithelium. The cell monolayer was exposed to standardized cigarette smoke extract (CSE). The extent and effects of trans-epithelial allergen penetration were measured using 125I-labelled purified major respiratory allergens (rBet v 1, rPhl p 5 and rDer p 2) and histamine release experiments. Exposure of cells to concentrations of CSE similar to those found in smokers induced the development of para-cellular gaps and a decrease in trans-epithelial resistance. CSE exposure induced a more than threefold increase in allergen penetration. Increased subepithelial allergen concentrations provoked a substantial augmentation of histamine release from sensitized basophils. Our results indicate that cigarette smoke is a potent factor capable of reducing the barrier function of the respiratory epithelium for allergens and may contribute to increased allergic inflammation, exacerbation of allergic disease and boosting of IgE memory.

  9. The Absence of Structural Americanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    2013-01-01

    use, and funding for public service media from a strategic sample of six countries to test the structural version of the convergence hypothesis, looking at the period from 2000 to 2009. (The countries included are Finland, France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, and the United States......Several comparative media researchers have hypothesized that the media systems of affluent Western democracies are becoming more and more structurally homogeneous—that they are becoming “Americanized.” This article uses data on newspaper industry revenues, commercial television revenues, Internet.......) The analysis demonstrates an “absence of Americanization” as the six media systems have not become structurally more similar over the last decade. Instead, developments are summarized as a combination of (1) parallel displacements, (2) persistent particularities, and (3) the emergence of some new peculiarities...

  10. Cytogenetic damage and postradiation restoration of eye cornea epithelium of Rodentia characterizing by different radiosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popova, M.F.; Bulyakova, N.V. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Ehvolyutsionnoj Morfologii i Ehkologii Zhivotnykh)

    1983-01-01

    Intensity of beam damage and reparation of eye cornea epithelium of animals inhabiting under different conditions and differing by radiosensitivity has been studied. Mice differing by high radiosensitivity have the hardest cytogenetic damage. Cornea epithelium of bank voles is more radiostable than that of mice. The most negligible damages of cornea epithelium is observed in Mongolian sandwort despite the fact that their total radiation stability is lower than that of bank voles. High protective-restoring properties of eye cornea epithelium of Mongolian sandwort are explained by the structure of epithelium cells differing by a large number of cytoplasm.

  11. Job demands, health perception and sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.; Koopmans, P.C.; de Graaf, J.H.; van Zandbergen, J.W.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    Background Investigation of the relations between job demands, health and sickness absence is required to design a strategy for the prevention of absence and disability. Aim To study the relationships between (physical and psychological) job demands, health perception and sickness absence. Methods

  12. STUDIES ON HUMAN FALLOPIAN TUBAL EPITHELIUM IN DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS The “fallopian tubes” (oviducts or uterine tubes are long paired flexuous reproductive organ which transports ova, spermatozoa, zygotes, the pre-implantation morulae and blastocyst. It has major role during reproductive period, but it remains as if vestigial organ before puberty and after menopause. Due to increasing rate of tubal block and infertility, oviducts and their structures gaining importance and have become a subject of research in present days particularly epithelium. The aim of the study is to ascertain any histological difference of tubal epithelium in different age groups and the research work could be utilized for investigation and management of infertility. MATERIALS AND METHODS Seven samples of each group i.e., prereproductive, reproductive & postmenopausal were collected from fresh unembalmed human cadavers received in the department of Anatomy, FAA Medical College, Barpeta, Assam. The slides were prepared using the standard laboratory procedure. Under low and high power objectives the type of cells were observed and epithelial height was measured in the different segments. Stress was given for any significant difference of epithelial height between the different age groups. RESULTS Study revealed that among the groups within the same segment, epithelial height was recorded highest (33.57µm in reproductive group as against the lowest (22.91µm in post-menopausal group. Epithelial structures of the prereproductive and reproductive groups were significantly differed (p<0.01 from the postmenopausal group. CONCLUSIONS From the findings of the present study it can be concluded that: 1. In all the groups fallopian tubal epithelium is of simple columnar type and contains three types of cells. Cells are ciliated, secretory & peg (intercalary cells. 2. In all the groups same type of increasing trend of epithelial height from intramural segment to ampullary segment was recorded. 3. In intergroup comparison of

  13. Response of macaque bronchiolar epithelium to ambient concentrations of ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkema, J.R.; Plopper, C.G.; Hyde, D.M.; St. George, J.A.; Wilson, D.W.; Dungworth, D.L. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Recently, we reported that exposure to ambient concentrations of ozone, near the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standard (0.12 ppm), induced significant nasal epithelial lesions in a non-human primate, the bonnet monkey. The present study defines the effects of ambient concentrations of ozone on the surface epithelium lining respiratory bronchioles and on the underlying bronchiolar interstitium in these same monkeys. Bonnet monkeys were exposed to filtered air or to 0.15 or 0.30 ppm ozone 8 hours/day for 6 or 90 days. At the end of exposures, monkeys were anesthetized and killed by exsanguination. Microdissected bronchiolar airways of infusion-fixed lungs were evaluated morphometrically by light microscopy and quantitatively by scanning and transmission electron microscopy for ozone-induced epithelial changes. Hyperplasia of nonciliated, cuboidal epithelial cells and intraluminal accumulation of macrophages characterized ozone-induced lesions in respiratory bronchioles. There were no significant differences in epithelial thickness or cell numbers among ozone-exposed groups. Ozone-exposed epithelium was composed of 80% cuboidal and 20% squamous cells compared with 40% cuboidal and 60% squamous cells in filtered air controls. In addition, the arithmetic mean thickness of the surface epithelium, a measure of tissue mass per unit area of basal lamina, was significantly increased in all of the ozone-exposed groups. The number of cuboidal epithelial cells per surface area of basal lamina was increased above control values by 780% after 6 days exposure to 0.15 ppm, 777% after 90 days to 0.15 ppm, and 996% after 90 days exposure to 0.30 ppm. There was also a significant ozone-induced increase in the thickness of the bronchiolar interstitium that was due to an increase in both cellular and acellular components.

  14. Bacillus licheniformis in geogenic dust induces inflammation in respiratory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Janessa; Teo, Teck Hui; Thornton, Ruth B; Kirkham, Lea-Ann; Zosky, Graeme R; Clifford, Holly D

    2018-07-01

    Exposure to environmental geogenic (or earth-derived) dust can lead to more frequent and severe infections in the human airway. Particulate matter Bacillus licheniformis, a spore-forming, environmentally abundant bacterium. We next investigated the interaction of B. licheniformis with respiratory epithelium in vitro to determine whether this exacerbated infection with a bacterial respiratory pathogen (non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae, NTHi). Heat treatment (100 °C) of all PM 10 samples eliminated B. licheniformis contamination and reduced epithelial inflammatory responses, suggesting that heat-labile and/or microbial factors were involved in the host response to geogenic dust PM 10 . We then exposed NuLi-1 epithelium to increasing doses of the isolated Bacillus licheniformis (multiplicity of infection of 10:1, 1:1 or 0.1:1 bacteria: cells) for 1, 3, and 24 h. B. licheniformis and NTHi infection (association and invasion) was assessed using a standard gentamicin survival assay, and epithelial release of IL-6 and IL-8 was measured using a bead based immunoassay. B. licheniformis was cytotoxic to NuLi-1 cells at 24 h. At 3 h post-challenge, B. licheniformis elicited high IL-6 and IL-8 inflammatory responses from NuLi-1 cells compared with cells treated with heat-treated geogenic dust PM 10 (p licheniformis increased inflammation, this did not make the cells more susceptible to NTHi infection. This study highlights that geogenic dust PM 10 can harbour viable bacterial spores that induce inflammation in respiratory epithelium. The impact on respiratory health from inhalation of bacterial spores in PM 10 in arid environments may be underestimated. Further investigation into the contribution of B. licheniformis and the wider dust microbiome to respiratory infection is warranted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mucosal adenosine stimulates chloride secretion in canine tracheal epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, A.D.; Clancy, G.; Welsh, M.J.

    1986-08-01

    Adenosine is a local regulator of a variety of physiological functions in many tissues and has been observed to stimulate secretion in several Cl-secreting epithelia. In canine tracheal epithelium the authors found that adenosine stimulates Cl secretion from both the mucosal and submucosal surfaces. Addition of adenosine, or its analogue 2-chloroadenosine, to the mucosal surface potently stimulated Cl secretion with no effect on the rate of Na absorption. Stimulation resulted from an interaction of adenosine with adenosine receptors, because it was blocked by the adenosine receptor blocker, 8-phenyltheophylline. The adenosine receptor was a stimulatory receptor as judged by the rank-order potency of adenosine and its analogues and by the increase in cellular adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate levels produced by 2-chloroadenosine. Adenosine also stimulated Cl secretion when it was added to the submucosal surface, although the maximal increase in secretion was less and it was much less potent. The observation that mucosal 8-phenyletheophylline blocked the effect of submucosal 2-chloroadenosine, whereas submucosal 8-phenyltheophylline did not prevent a response to mucosal or submucosal 2-chloroadenosine, suggests that adenosine receptors are located on the mucosal surface. Thus submucosal adenosine may stimulate secretion by crossing the epithelium and interacting with receptors located on the mucosal surface. Because adenosine can be released from mast cells located in the airway lumen in response to inhaled material, and because adenosine stimulated secretion from the mucosal surface, it may be in a unique position to control the epithelium on a regional level.

  16. Lack of Dystrophin Affects Bronchial Epithelium in mdx Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morici, Giuseppe; Rappa, Francesca; Cappello, Francesco; Pace, Elisabetta; Pace, Andrea; Mudò, Giuseppa; Crescimanno, Grazia; Belluardo, Natale; Bonsignore, Maria R

    2016-10-01

    Mild exercise training may positively affect the course of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Training causes mild bronchial epithelial injury in both humans and mice, but no study assessed the effects of exercise in mdx mice, a well known model of DMD. The airway epithelium was examined in mdx (C57BL/10ScSn-Dmdmdx) mice, and in wild type (WT, C57BL/10ScSc) mice either under sedentary conditions (mdx-SD, WT-SD) or during mild exercise training (mdx-EX, WT-EX). At baseline, and after 30 and 45 days of training (5 d/wk for 6 weeks), epithelial morphology and markers of regeneration, apoptosis, and cellular stress were assessed. The number of goblet cells in bronchial epithelium was much lower in mdx than in WT mice under all conditions. At 30 days, epithelial regeneration (PCNA positive cells) was higher in EX than SD animals in both groups; however, at 45 days, epithelial regeneration decreased in mdx mice irrespective of training, and the percentage of apoptotic (TUNEL positive) cells was higher in mdx-EX than in WT-EX mice. Epithelial expression of HSP60 (marker of stress) progressively decreased, and inversely correlated with epithelial apoptosis (r = -0.66, P = 0.01) only in mdx mice. Lack of dystrophin in mdx mice appears associated with defective epithelial differentiation, and transient epithelial regeneration during mild exercise training. Hence, lack of dystrophin might impair repair in bronchial epithelium, with potential clinical consequences in DMD patients. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2218-2223, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. TRPM5-expressing microvillous cells in the main olfactory epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liman Emily R

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main olfactory epithelium (MOE in the nasal cavity detects a variety of air borne molecules that provide information regarding the presence of food, predators and other relevant social and environmental factors. Within the epithelium are ciliated sensory neurons, supporting cells, basal cells and microvillous cells, each of which is distinct in morphology and function. Arguably, the least understood, are the microvillous cells, a population of cells that are small in number and whose function is not known. We previously found that in a mouse strain in which the TRPM5 promoter drives expression of the green fluorescent protein (GFP, a population of ciliated olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs, as well as a population of cells displaying microvilli-like structures is labeled. Here we examined the morphology and immunocytochemical properties of these microvillous-like cells using immunocytochemical methods. Results We show that the GFP-positive microvillous cells were morphologically diversified and scattered throughout the entire MOE. These cells immunoreacted to an antibody against TRPM5, confirming the expression of this ion channel in these cells. In addition, they showed a Ca2+-activated non-selective cation current in electrophysiological recordings. They did not immunoreact to antibodies that label cell markers and elements of the transduction pathways from olfactory sensory neurons and solitary chemosensory cells of the nasal cavity. Further, the TRPM5-expressing cells did not display axon-like processes and were not labeled with a neuronal marker nor did trigeminal peptidergic nerve fibers innervate these cells. Conclusion We provide morphological and immunocytochemical characterization of the TRPM5-expressing microvillous cells in the main olfactory epithelium. Our data demonstrate that these cells are non-neuronal and in terms of chemosensory transduction do not resemble the TRPM5-expressing olfactory sensory neurons

  18. TRPM5-expressing microvillous cells in the main olfactory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Weihong; Ezekwe, Ejiofor A D; Zhao, Zhen; Liman, Emily R; Restrepo, Diego

    2008-11-24

    The main olfactory epithelium (MOE) in the nasal cavity detects a variety of air borne molecules that provide information regarding the presence of food, predators and other relevant social and environmental factors. Within the epithelium are ciliated sensory neurons, supporting cells, basal cells and microvillous cells, each of which is distinct in morphology and function. Arguably, the least understood, are the microvillous cells, a population of cells that are small in number and whose function is not known. We previously found that in a mouse strain in which the TRPM5 promoter drives expression of the green fluorescent protein (GFP), a population of ciliated olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), as well as a population of cells displaying microvilli-like structures is labeled. Here we examined the morphology and immunocytochemical properties of these microvillous-like cells using immunocytochemical methods. We show that the GFP-positive microvillous cells were morphologically diversified and scattered throughout the entire MOE. These cells immunoreacted to an antibody against TRPM5, confirming the expression of this ion channel in these cells. In addition, they showed a Ca2+-activated non-selective cation current in electrophysiological recordings. They did not immunoreact to antibodies that label cell markers and elements of the transduction pathways from olfactory sensory neurons and solitary chemosensory cells of the nasal cavity. Further, the TRPM5-expressing cells did not display axon-like processes and were not labeled with a neuronal marker nor did trigeminal peptidergic nerve fibers innervate these cells. We provide morphological and immunocytochemical characterization of the TRPM5-expressing microvillous cells in the main olfactory epithelium. Our data demonstrate that these cells are non-neuronal and in terms of chemosensory transduction do not resemble the TRPM5-expressing olfactory sensory neurons and nasal solitary chemosensory cells.

  19. ISOLATION AND PRIMARY CULTURES OF HUMAN INTRAHEPATIC BILE DUCTULAR EPITHELIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetris, A. J.; Markus, B. H.; Saidman, S.; Fung, J. J.; Makowka, L.; Graner, S.; Duquesnoy, R.; Starzl, T. E.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY A technique for the isolation of human intrahepatic bile ductular epithelium, and the establishment of primary cultures using a serum- and growth-factor-supplemented medium combined with a connective tissue substrata is described. Initial cell isolates and monolayer cultures display phenotypic characteristics of biliary epithelial cells (low molecular weight prekeratin positive; albumin, alphafetoprotein, and Factor VIII-related antigen negative). Ultrastructural features of the cultured cells show cell polarization with surface microvilli, numerous interepithelial junctional complexes and cytoplasmic intermediate prekeratin filaments. PMID:3131298

  20. Immune defense mechanisms in the Caenorhabditis elegans intestinal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukkila-Worley, Read; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2012-02-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells provide an essential line of defense for Caernohabditis elegans against ingested pathogens. Because nematodes consume microorganisms as their food source, there has presumably been selection pressure to evolve and maintain immune defense mechanisms within the intestinal epithelium. Here we review recent advances that further define the immune signaling network within these cells and suggest mechanisms used by the nematode to monitor for infection. In reviewing studies of pathogenesis that use this simple model system, we hope to illustrate some of the basic principles of epithelial immunity that may also be of relevance in higher order hosts. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Regional variations of cell surface carbohydrates in human oral stratified epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedtofte, P; Dabelsteen, Erik; Hakomori, S

    1984-01-01

    The distribution of blood group carbohydrate chains with antigen A, B, H type 2 chain (A and B precursor), and N-acetyllactosamine (H type 2 precursor) specificity was studied in human oral epithelium from different anatomical regions. These represented various epithelial differentiation patterns...... such as non-keratinized, parakeratinized, and orthokeratinized stratified squamous epithelium. The material included buccal and palatal epithelium from 20 persons with blood group A or O, gingival, and alveolar epithelium from 10 persons with blood group A or B, and buccal metaplastically keratinized......-acetyllactosamine by murine monoclonal antibodies. Each antigen showed a similar staining pattern in buccal and alveolar epithelium (non-keratinized) which differed considerably from that seen in palatal and gingival epithelium (ortho- and parakeratinized). The expression of blood group antigens A or B and the precursor...

  2. Nanotopography follows force in TGF-{beta}1 stimulated epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoelking, Gerold; Oberleithner, Hans; Riethmuller, Christoph [Institute of Physiology II, University of Muenster (Germany); Reiss, Bjoern [Institute of Biochemistry, University of Muenster (Germany); Wegener, Joachim [Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Chemo- and Biosensors, University of Regensburg (Germany); Pavenstaedt, Hermann, E-mail: chrth@serend-ip.de [Department of Medicine D, Division of General Internal Medicine and Nephrology, University Hospital Muenster (Germany)

    2010-07-02

    Inflammation and cellular fibrosis often imply an involvement of the cytokine TGF-{beta}1. TGF-{beta}1 induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT), a term describing the loss of epithelium-specific function. Indicative for this process are an elongated cell shape parallel to stress fibre formation. Many signalling pathways of TGF-{beta}1 have been discovered, but mechanical aspects have not yet been investigated. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to analyse surface topography and mechanical properties of EMT in proximal kidney tubule epithelium (NRK52E). Elongated cells, an increase of stress fibre formation and a loss of microvillus compatible structures were observed as characteristic signs of EMT. Furthermore, AFM could identify an increase in stiffness by 71% after six days of stimulation with TGF-{beta}1. As a novel topographical phenomenon, nodular protrusions emerged at the cell-cell junctions. They occurred preferentially at sites where stress fibres cross the border. Since these nodular protrusions were sensitive to inhibitors of force generation, they can indicate intracellular tension. The results demonstrate a manifest impact of elevated tension on the cellular topography.

  3. The epithelium in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: breaking the barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana eCamelo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive disease of unknown etiology characterised by a dysregulated wound healing response that leads to fatal accumulation of fibroblasts and extracellular matrix in the lung, which compromises tissue architecture and lung function capacity. Injury to type II alveolar epithelial cells is thought to be the key event for the initiation of the disease, and so far both genetic factors, such as mutations in telomerase and MUC5b genes as well as environmental components, like cigarette smoking, exposure to asbestos and viral infections have been implicated as potential initiating triggers. The injured epithelium then enters a state of senescence-associated secretory phenotype whereby it produces both pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic factors that contribute to the wound healing process in the lung. Immune cells, like macrophages and neutrophils as well as activated myofibroblasts then perpetuate this cascade of epithelial cell apoptosis and proliferation by release of pro-fibrotic TGF-β and continuous deposition of extracellular matrix stiffens the basement membrane, altogether having a deleterious impact on epithelial cell function. In this review we describe the role of the epithelium as both a physical and immunological barrier between environment and self in the homeostatic versus diseased lung and explore the potential mechanisms of epithelial cell injury and the impact of loss of epithelial cell permeability and function on cytokine production, inflammation and myofibroblast activation in the fibrotic lung.

  4. The innate immune response of the respiratory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, G; Legarda, D; Ryan, L K

    2000-02-01

    The respiratory epithelium maintains an effective antimicrobial environment to prevent colonization by microorganisms in inspired air. In addition to constitutively present host defenses which include antimicrobial peptides and proteins, the epithelial cells respond to the presence of microbes by the induction two complementary parts of an innate immune response. The first response is the increased production of antimicrobial agents, and the second is the induction of a signal network to recruit phagocytic cells to contain the infection. Inflammatory mediators released by the recruited cells as well as from the epithelium itself further induce the expression of the antimicrobial agents. The result is an effective prevention of microbial colonization. The epithelial cells recognize the pathogen-associated patterns on microbes by surface receptors such as CD14 and Toll-like receptors. Subsequent signal transduction pathways have been identified which result in the increased transcription of host defense response genes. Diseases such as cystic fibrosis, or environmental exposures such as the inhalation of air pollution particles, may create an environment that impairs the expression or activity of the host defenses in the airway. This can lead to increased susceptibility to airway infections.

  5. An in vitro model of murine middle ear epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apoorva Mulay

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Otitis media (OM, or middle ear inflammation, is the most common paediatric disease and leads to significant morbidity. Although understanding of underlying disease mechanisms is hampered by complex pathophysiology it is clear that epithelial abnormalities underpin the disease. There is currently a lack of a well-characterised in vitro model of the middle ear (ME epithelium that replicates the complex cellular composition of the middle ear. Here, we report the development of a novel in vitro model of mouse middle ear epithelial cells (mMECs at an air–liquid interface (ALI that recapitulates the characteristics of the native murine ME epithelium. We demonstrate that mMECs undergo differentiation into the varied cell populations seen within the native middle ear. Proteomic analysis confirmed that the cultures secrete a multitude of innate defence proteins from their apical surface. We showed that the mMECs supported the growth of the otopathogen, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi, suggesting that the model can be successfully utilised to study host–pathogen interactions in the middle ear. Overall, our mMEC culture system can help to better understand the cell biology of the middle ear and improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of OM. The model also has the potential to serve as a platform for validation of treatments designed to reverse aspects of epithelial remodelling that underpin OM development.

  6. Study of the olfactory epithelium in the developing sturgeon. Characterization of the crypt cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Susana; Ostos-Garrido, M V; Domezain, A; Carmona, R

    2010-02-01

    In acipenserids, crypt cells (CCs) have only been observed in juvenile specimens, and it has not been clarified whether they differentiate along with olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) during the lecithotrophic stage or during later development stages. Furthermore, no detailed optical microscopy (OM) or electron microscopy study on the development of CCs has been published to date. In the present study, we used OM and electron microscopy to follow the development of CCs in Acipenser naccarii from hatching to the establishment of exogenous feeding. Based on these observations, we can affirm that CCs are present from the first few posthatching (PH) days. CCs appear with their nucleus close to the basal lamina of the epithelium and enveloped by supporting cells. In addition, from the beginning of day 2 PH, we observed cells with highly similar characteristics to those of CCs (absence of knob, abundant mitochondria and filamentous material in apical cytoplasm, numerous microtubules, and envelopment by supporting cells) but with cilia still remaining on their noninvaginated apical surface. We conclude that these cells may correspond to immature CCs in which the crypt, the final feature of their morphological differentiation, has not yet formed.

  7. Bmi1 regulates stem cells and proliferation and differentiation of committed cells in mammary epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietersen, Alexandra M; Evers, Bastiaan; Prasad, Asheeta A; Tanger, Ellen; Cornelissen-Steijger, Paulien; Jonkers, Jos; van Lohuizen, Maarten

    2008-07-22

    PolycombGroup (PcG) proteins are epigenetic silencers involved in maintaining cellular identity, and their deregulation can result in cancer [1]. Mice without the PcG gene Bmi1 are runted and suffer from progressive loss of hematopoietic and neural stem cells [2-4]. Here, we assess the effects of Bmi1 on stem cells and differentiation of an epithelial tissue in vivo. We chose the mammary gland because it allows limiting dilution transplantations [5, 6] and because Bmi1 is overexpressed in breast cancer [7, 8]. Our analyses show that Bmi1 is expressed in all cells of the mouse mammary gland and is especially high in luminal cells. Loss of Bmi1 results in a severe mammary-epithelium growth defect, which can be rescued by codeletion of the Ink4a/Arf locus or pregnancy. Even though mammary stem cells are present in the absence of Bmi1, their activity is reduced, and this is only partially due to Ink4a/Arf expression. Interestingly, loss of Bmi1 causes premature lobuloalveolar differentiation, whereas overexpression of Bmi1 inhibits lobuloalveolar differentiation induced by pregnancy hormones. Because Bmi1 affects not only mammary stem cells but also more committed cells, our data warrant a more detailed analysis of the different roles of Bmi1 in breast-cancer etiology.

  8. Topical Dexamethasone Administration Impairs Protein Synthesis and Neuronal Regeneration in the Olfactory Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Crisafulli

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammatory process in the nasal mucosa is correlated with poor smell perception. Over-activation of immune cells in the olfactory epithelium (OE is generally associated with loss of olfactory function, and topical steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been largely used for treating such condition. Whether this therapeutic strategy could directly affect the regenerative process in the OE remains unclear. In this study, we show that nasal topical application of dexamethasone (DEX; 200 or 800 ng/nostril, a potent synthetic anti-inflammatory steroid, attenuates OE lesion caused by Gram-negative bacteria lipopolysaccharide (LPS intranasal infusion. In contrast, repeated DEX (400 ng/nostril local application after lesion establishment limited the regeneration of olfactory sensory neurons after injury promoted by LPS or methimazole. Remarkably, DEX effects were observed when the drug was infused as 3 consecutive days regimen. The anti-inflammatory drug does not induce OE progenitor cell death, however, disturbance in mammalian target of rapamycin downstream signaling pathway and impairment of protein synthesis were observed during the course of DEX treatment. In addition, in vitro studies conducted with OE neurospheres in the absence of an inflammatory environment showed that glucocorticoid receptor engagement directly reduces OE progenitor cells proliferation. Our results suggest that DEX can interfere with the intrinsic regenerative cellular mechanisms of the OE, raising concerns on the use of topical anti-inflammatory steroids as a risk factor for progressive olfactory function impairment.

  9. Expression of laminin 5, fibronectin, and epithelium-associated integrins in recurrent aphthous ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, D W; MacPhail, L A; Dekker, N; Greenspan, D; Greenspan, J S; Lozada-Nur, F; Regezi, J A

    1996-07-01

    Recurrent aphthous ulceration (RAU) is characterized by an ulcerated lesion that persists longer than traumatic ulcers of similar size. This delayed healing phase of the lesion was investigated for extracellular matrix components and matrix receptors (integrins). The hypothesis tested was that aphthous ulcers may lack key extracellular matrix components, or their receptors, that are necessary for the migration of marginal keratinocytes from the ulcer edge. We immunocytochemically stained biopsy specimens of RAUs and non-involved mucosal specimens from HIV+ and non-infected individuals to investigate the presence and distribution of molecules reported to be associated with reepithelialization of mucosal and cutaneous wounds. Fibronectin, laminin type 5 (kalinin), and integrin subunits beta 1, beta 4, alpha 6, and alpha v were consistently found at the margins of RAU, as they are in traumatic ulcers. The alpha 5 and beta 6 subunits were not always present. We also found alpha v in the intact stratified squamous epithelium adjacent to ulcers. Immunohistochemical stains showed distruption in the deposition of laminin 5 and an apparent lack of fibronectin at the edges of some ulcers. Although these tissue results do not determine which integrin subunits are paired with each other, they do show some alterations in their expression in RAU. Absence of one or more of these molecules at the migrating front may contribute to delayed epithelial regeneration. It is likely that the absence or inappropriate expression of keratinocyte integrins or their extracellular matrix receptors occurs after the causative factors (currently unknown) of the lesion are gone. The reason for the altered expression of these molecules may be related to the secretory products (including lymphokines and proteinases) of the lymphocytic infiltrate.

  10. The Phototoxicity of Blue Light on the Functional Properties of the Retinal Pigment Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    The phototoxic effect of blue light on isolated pigment epithelium will be investigated. The emphasis will be on functional changes rather than a...integrity of the barrier system and the transport system and the transport systems known to operate in the pigment epithelium. The effects of blue ... light on leucine transport across the isolated bovine retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) have been continued to determine if Vitamin E and melatonin

  11. Cloning, purification and structure determination of the HIV integrase-binding domain of lens epithelium-derived growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Clare; Cruz-Migoni, Abimael; Platonova, Olga; Owen, Robin L; Nettleship, Joanne E; Miller, Ami; Carr, Stephen B; Harris, Gemma; Rabbitts, Terence H; Phillips, Simon E V

    2018-03-01

    Lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF)/p75 is the dominant binding partner of HIV-1 integrase in human cells. The crystal structure of the HIV integrase-binding domain (IBD) of LEDGF has been determined in the absence of ligand. IBD was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized by sitting-drop vapour diffusion. X-ray diffraction data were collected at Diamond Light Source to a resolution of 2.05 Å. The crystals belonged to space group P2 1 , with eight polypeptide chains in the asymmetric unit arranged as an unusual octamer composed of four domain-swapped IBD dimers. IBD exists as a mixture of monomers and dimers in concentrated solutions, but the dimers are unlikely to be biologically relevant.

  12. Can a Proper T-Cell Development Occur in an Altered Thymic Epithelium? Lessons From EphB-Deficient Thymi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Muñoz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, the effects of distinct Eph tyrosine kinase receptors and their ligands, ephrins on the structure, immunophenotype, and development of thymus and their main cell components, thymocytes (T and thymic epithelial cells (TECs, have been studied. In recent years, the thymic phenotype of mutant mice deficient in several Ephs and ephrins B has been determined. Remarkably, thymic stroma in these animals exhibits important defects that appear early in ontogeny but little alterations in the proportions of distinct lymphoid cell populations. In the present manuscript, we summarize and extend these results discussing possible mechanisms governing phenotypical and functional thymocyte maturation in an absence of the critical T–TEC interactions, concluding that some signaling mediated by key molecules, such as MHCII, CD80, β5t, Aire, etc. could be sufficient to enable a proper maturation of thymocytes, independently of morphological alterations affecting thymic epithelium.

  13. Relative Deprivation and Sickness Absence in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Helgertz, Jonas; Hess, Wolfgang; Scott, Kirk

    2013-01-01

    Background: A high prevalence of sickness absence in many countries, at a substantial societal cost, underlines the importance to understand its determining mechanisms. This study focuses on the link between relative deprivation and the probability of sickness absence. Methods: 184,000 men and women in Sweden were followed between 1982 and 2001. The sample consists of working individuals between the ages of 19 and 65. The outcome is defined as experiencing more than 14 days of sickness absenc...

  14. [Ultrastructure of epithelium and ciliary receptors in the parasitic turbellarian Urastoma cyprinae (Turbellaria, "Prolecithophora") and position of the species within Platyhelminthes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornakova, E E

    2002-01-01

    be the preadaptation to the endoparasitic mode of life in Fecampiida. The differencies in ultrastructure of epithelium in U. cyprinae from the White Sea and from Mediterranean Sea (Noury-Sraïri e. a., 1990) may be explained by the differences in the method of fixation or by the parasitizing the another host--the mollusk Mytilus galloprovincialis. The ciliary receptors of five types were revealed in U. cyprinae (fig. 3, e, [symbol: see text]; 4; 5; 6). They differ in the shape and length of the ciliary rootlets and in the content of the nerve processes. All receptors lack of the real collars typical for the receptors of Neodermata. Urastoma is most close to the Neodermata amond parasitic turbellarians studied thus far, and the absence of collars in receptors of this species testifies that the collars are the veritable synapomorphy of the Neodermata. The diversity in the ultrastructure and possible functions of receptors correspond to the complicated adaptations of this species. The modern molecular data as well as the ultrastructural evidence attest that parasitic turbellarians of the genera Urastoma, Genostoma and Ichthyophaga are relatives and cannot be included in any turbellarian order known. Therefore Urastoma, Genostoma and Ichthyophaga have been erected in the separate order Urastomida ord. nov. The diagnosis of the new order is given.

  15. Non-thermal electromagnetic radiation damage to lens epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormusov, Elvira; P Andley, Usha; Sharon, Naomi; Schächter, Levi; Lahav, Assaf; Dovrat, Ahuva

    2008-05-21

    High frequency microwave electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones and other modern devices has the potential to damage eye tissues, but its effect on the lens epithelium is unknown at present. The objective of this study was to investigate the non-thermal effects of high frequency microwave electromagnetic radiation (1.1GHz, 2.22 mW) on the eye lens epithelium in situ. Bovine lenses were incubated in organ culture at 35°C for 10-15 days. A novel computer-controlled microwave source was used to investigate the effects of microwave radiation on the lenses. 58 lenses were used in this study. The lenses were divided into four groups: (1) Control lenses incubated in organ culture for 10 to15 days. (2) Electromagnetic radiation exposure group treated with 1.1 GHz, 2.22 mW microwave radiation for 90 cycles of 50 minutes irradiation followed by 10 minutes pause and cultured up to 10 days. (3) Electromagnetic radiation exposure group treated as group 2 with 192 cycles of radiation and cultured for 15 days. (4) Lenses exposed to 39.5°C for 2 hours 3 times with 24 hours interval after each treatment beginning on the second day of the culture and cultured for 11 days. During the culture period, lens optical quality was followed daily by a computer-operated scanning laser beam. At the end of the culture period, control and treated lenses were analyzed morphologically and by assessment of the lens epithelial ATPase activity. Exposure to 1.1 GHz, 2.22 mW microwaves caused a reversible decrease in lens optical quality accompanied by irreversible morphological and biochemical damage to the lens epithelial cell layer. The effect of the electromagnetic radiation on the lens epithelium was remarkably different from those of conductive heat. The results of this investigation showed that electromagnetic fields from microwave radiation have a negative impact on the eye lens. The lens damage by electromagnetic fields was distinctly different from that caused by conductive heat.

  16. Reduced MBD2 expression enhances airway inflammation in bronchial epithelium in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng ZL

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Zhilin Zeng,1,2 Miao Li,1 Jinkun Chen,3 Qinghai Li,1 Qin Ning,2 Jianping Zhao,1 Yongjian Xu,1 Jungang Xie,1 Jun Yu4 1Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, National Clinical Research Center of Respiratory Disease, 2Department of Infectious Disease, Institute of Infectious Disease, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China; 3Acadia Junior High School, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 4Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a common inflammatory lung disease characterized by inflammatory cells activation and production of inflammatory mediators. Methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 2 (MBD2 plays an important role in diverse immunological disorders by regulating immune cell functions, such as differentiation and mediator secretion. However, the role of MBD2 in COPD remains unknown.Methods: MBD2 protein expression in lung tissues of patients with COPD and cigarette smoke (CS-exposed mice were evaluated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The role of MBD2 in cigarette smoke extract (CSE-induction of inflammatory mediator expression in the human bronchial epithelial (HBE cell line was assessed by silencing MBD2 expression in vitro. The involvement of signaling pathways in mediation of inflammation was tested with signaling inhibitors.Results: Compared with controls, MBD2 expression was distinctly reduced in the bronchial epithelium of both patients with COPD and CS-exposed mice. Moreover, MBD2 expression was decreased in HBE after CSE stimulation in vitro. Moreover, MBD2 knockdown enhanced interleukin (IL-6 and IL-8 expression in HBE in the presence and absence of CSE treatment by the ERK signaling pathway.Conclusion: MBD2 protein expression was reduced in the airway epithelium of COPD. In

  17. Piezoelectric materials mimic the function of the cochlear sensory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaoka, Takatoshi; Shintaku, Hirofumi; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Kawano, Satoyuki; Ogita, Hideaki; Sakamoto, Tatsunori; Hamanishi, Shinji; Wada, Hiroshi; Ito, Juichi

    2011-11-08

    Cochlear hair cells convert sound vibration into electrical potential, and loss of these cells diminishes auditory function. In response to mechanical stimuli, piezoelectric materials generate electricity, suggesting that they could be used in place of hair cells to create an artificial cochlear epithelium. Here, we report that a piezoelectric membrane generated electrical potentials in response to sound stimuli that were able to induce auditory brainstem responses in deafened guinea pigs, indicating its capacity to mimic basilar membrane function. In addition, sound stimuli were transmitted through the external auditory canal to a piezoelectric membrane implanted in the cochlea, inducing it to vibrate. The application of sound to the middle ear ossicle induced voltage output from the implanted piezoelectric membrane. These findings establish the fundamental principles for the development of hearing devices using piezoelectric materials, although there are many problems to be overcome before practical application.

  18. Ciliary function of the frog oro-pharyngeal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, E; Sleigh, M

    1977-03-09

    The palate epithelium of the frog was examined by scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy and high speed cine micrography. The cilia remain stationary for much of time in the end-of-effective stroke position. Each beat cycle begins with a forwardly-directed recovery stroke lasting about 60 ms, followed by an effective stroke towards the oesophagus lasting about 12 ms. Activity can often be correlated with the presence of mucus, which is carried as strands on the tips of the ciliary effective strokes whilst the recovery strokes move beneath the mucus. Coordination of ciliary activity was very variable; local antiplectic metachrony of the recovery strokes could almost always be seen, and on very active epithelia effective strokes were associated with approximately diaplectic waves (either to left or right), but any particular pattern of coordinated activity was transient and quickly transformed to another pattern. Beating and coordination of these short cilia were compared with those of cilia propelling water.

  19. Waterpipe smoking induces epigenetic changes in the small airway epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Walters

    Full Text Available Waterpipe (also called hookah, shisha, or narghile smoking is a common form of tobacco use in the Middle East. Its use is becoming more prevalent in Western societies, especially among young adults as an alternative form of tobacco use to traditional cigarettes. While the risk to cigarette smoking is well documented, the risk to waterpipe smoking is not well defined with limited information on its health impact at the epidemiologic, clinical and biologic levels with respect to lung disease. Based on the knowledge that airway epithelial cell DNA methylation is modified in response to cigarette smoke and in cigarette smoking-related lung diseases, we assessed the impact of light-use waterpipe smoking on DNA methylation of the small airway epithelium (SAE and whether changes in methylation were linked to the transcriptional output of the cells. Small airway epithelium was obtained from 7 nonsmokers and 7 light-use (2.6 ± 1.7 sessions/wk waterpipe-only smokers. Genome-wide comparison of SAE DNA methylation of waterpipe smokers to nonsmokers identified 727 probesets differentially methylated (fold-change >1.5, p<0.05 representing 673 unique genes. Dominant pathways associated with these epigenetic changes include those linked to G-protein coupled receptor signaling, aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling and xenobiotic metabolism signaling, all of which have been associated with cigarette smoking and lung disease. Of the genes differentially methylated, 11.3% exhibited a corresponding significant (p<0.05 change in gene expression with enrichment in pathways related to regulation of mRNA translation and protein synthesis (eIF2 signaling and regulation of eIF4 and p70S6K signaling. Overall, these data demonstrate that light-use waterpipe smoking is associated with epigenetic changes and related transcriptional modifications in the SAE, the cell population demonstrating the earliest pathologic abnormalities associated with chronic cigarette smoking.

  20. Asymmetric [14C]albumin transport across bullfrog alveolar epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.J.; LeBon, T.R.; Shinbane, J.S.; Crandall, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    Bullfrog lungs were prepared as planar sheets and bathed with Ringer solution in Ussing chambers. In the presence of a constant electrical gradient (20, 0, or -20 mV) across the tissue, 14 C-labeled bovine serum albumin or inulin was instilled into the upstream reservoir and the rate of appearance of the tracer in the downstream reservoir was monitored. Two lungs from the same animal were used to determine any directional difference in tracer fluxes. An apparent permeability coefficient was estimated from a relationship between normalized downstream radioactivities and time. Results showed that the apparent permeability of albumin in the alveolar to pleural direction across the alveolar epithelial barrier is 2.3 X 10(-7) cm/s, significantly greater (P less than 0.0005) than that in the pleural to alveolar direction (5.3 X 10(-8) cm/s) when the tissue was short circuited. Permeability of inulin, on the other hand, did not show any directional dependence and averaged 3.1 X 10(-8) cm/s in both directions. There was no effect on radiotracer fluxes permeabilities of different electrical gradients across the tissue. Gel electrophoretograms and corresponding radiochromatograms suggest that the large and asymmetric isotope fluxes are not primarily due to digestion or degradation of labeled molecules. Inulin appears to traverse the alveolar epithelial barrier by simple diffusion through hydrated paracellular pathways. On the other hand, [ 14 C]albumin crosses the alveolar epithelium more rapidly than would be expected by simple diffusion. These asymmetric and large tracer fluxes suggest that a specialized mechanism is present in alveolar epithelium that may be capable of helping to remove albumin from the alveolar space

  1. Passive ionic properties of frog retinal pigment epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S S; Steinberg, R H

    1977-09-15

    The isolated pigment epithelium and choroid of frog was mounted in a chamber so that the apical surfaces of the epithelial cells and the choroid were exposed to separate solutions. The apical membrane of these cells was penetrated with microelectrodes and the mean apical membrane potential was --88 mV. The basal membrane potential was depolarized by the amount of the transepithelial potential (8--20 mV). Changes in apical and basal cell membrane voltage were produced by changing ion concentrations on one or both sides of the tissue. Although these voltage changes were altered by shunting and changes in membrane resistance, it was possible to estimate apical and basal cell membrane and shunt resistance, and the relative ionic conductance Ti of each membrane. For the apical membrane: TK approximately equal to 0.52, THCO3 approximately equal to 0.39 and TNa approximately equal to 0.05, and its specific resistance was estimated to be 6000--7000 omega cm2. For the basal membrane: TK approximately equal to 0.90 and its specific resistance was estimated to be 400--1200 omega cm2. From the basal potassium voltage responses the intracellular potassium concentration was estimated at 110 mM. The shunt resistance consisted of two pathways: a paracellular one, due to the junctional complexes and another, around the edge of the tissue, due to the imperfect nature of the mechanical seal. In well-sealed tissues, the specific resistance of the shunt was about ten times the apical plus basal membrane specific resistances. This epithelium, therefore, should be considered "tight". The shunt pathway did not distinguish between anions (HCO--3, Cl--, methylsulfate, isethionate) but did distinguish between Na+ and K+.

  2. 47 CFR 32.24 - Compensated absences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS... shall record a liability and charge the appropriate expense accounts for compensated absences (vacations... liability that exists for compensated absences which is not yet recorded on the books as of the effective...

  3. Effects of temperature, amebic strain, and carbohydrates on Acanthamoeba adherence to corneal epithelium in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, L D; McLaughlin, G L; Whiteley, H E

    1991-01-01

    An in vitro coincubation assay was used to measure adhesion of radiolabeled Acanthamoeba trophozoites to corneal epithelium. Adhesion of amebae to corneal epithelium was higher at 25 degrees C than at 37 or 4 degrees C, did not consistently correlate with the reported pathogenicity of the strain of Acanthamoeba, and was inhibited by mannose and by methyl-alpha-D-mannopyranoside. PMID:1894379

  4. Urbanization and the incidence of abnormalities of squamous and glandular epithelium of the cervix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, ME; Claasen, HHV; van Westering, RP; Kok, LP

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The large data bases of the Dutch cervical screening program can be exploited to establish the relation between urbanization and the incidence of abnormalities of the squamous and glandular epithelium, including mild or greater changes of the squamous and glandular epithelium of the

  5. A mathematical model of amphibian skin epithelium with two types of transporting cellular units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Rasmussen, B E

    1985-01-01

    A computer model of ion transport across amphibian skin epithelium containing two types of cellular units, their relative number and sizes, and a paracellular pathway has been developed. The two cellular units are, a large Na+ transporting compartment representing the major epithelium from stratum...

  6. Explaining the gender gap in sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østby, K A; Mykletun, A; Nilsen, W

    2018-04-17

    In many western countries, women have a much higher rate of sickness absence than men. To what degree the gender differences in sickness absence are caused by gender differences in health is largely unknown. To assess to what degree the gender gap in sickness absence can be explained by health factors and work- and family-related stressors. Norwegian parents participating in the Tracking Opportunities and Problems (TOPP) study were asked about sickness absence and a range of factors possibly contributing to gender differences in sickness absence, including somatic and mental health, sleep problems, job control/demands, work-home conflicts, parent-child conflicts and stressful life events. Using a cross-sectional design, we did linear regression analyses, to assess the relative contribution from health and stressors. There were 557 study participants. Adjusting for health factors reduced the gender difference in sickness absence by 24%, while adjusting for stressors in the family and at work reduced the difference by 22%. A simultaneous adjustment for health factors and stressors reduced the difference in sickness absence by about 28%. Despite adjusting for a large number of factors, including both previously well-studied factors (e.g. health, job control/demands) and lesser-studied factors (parent-child conflict and sexual assault), this study found that most of the gender gap in sickness absence remains unexplained. Gender differences in health and stressors account for only part of the differences in sickness absence. Other factors must, therefore, exist outside the domains of health, work and family stressors.

  7. How do your contacts (or their absence) shape your fate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonney, Emmanuel; Speight, Pam; Kapus, András

    2013-01-01

    Tissue accumulation of contractile myofibroblasts is a key feature of a multitude of fibrotic diseases. Myofibroblast generation either from epithelial or mesenchymal precursors involves the activation of a myogenic program, hallmarked by the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (SMA). Recent research suggests that this robust phenotypic reprogramming requires two critical inputs: the fibrogenic cytokine transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ) and an injury (or absence) of intercellular junctions. This two-hit paradigm of epithelial-myofibroblast transition (EMyT) postulates that the injured (contact-deprived) epithelium is locally and selectively sensitive (topically susceptible) to the transforming effect of TGFβ, while the intact areas are quite resistant to the phenotype-changing effect of this cytokine. Searching for molecular mechanisms underlying the synergy between contact injury and TGFβ, we found that an interplay among three multifunctional transcriptional (co)activators, the junction component β-catenin, the TGFβ receptor target Smad3, and the actin cytoskeleton-regulated myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF) controls the magnitude and timing of SMA expression.(1) Moreover, this regulation is realized not only at the transcriptional level. Notably, these factors form a pretranscriptional circuit, in which they impact each other's activity and stability. Based on this recent paper we ponder about the mechanisms of cellular plasticity in the context of EMyT. We propose that topical susceptibility to TGFβ, triggered by cell contact-modulated pretranscriptional and transcriptional control is realized through the crosstalk of a few master regulators, whose coordinated action tailors SMA expression and contributes to the major decision of whether injury leads to healing or fibrosis.

  8. Epithelium percentage estimation facilitates epithelial quantitative protein measurement in tissue specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Toghi Eshghi, Shadi; Bova, George Steven; Li, Qing Kay; Li, Xingde; Zhang, Hui

    2013-12-01

    The rapid advancement of high-throughput tools for quantitative measurement of proteins has demonstrated the potential for the identification of proteins associated with cancer. However, the quantitative results on cancer tissue specimens are usually confounded by tissue heterogeneity, e.g. regions with cancer usually have significantly higher epithelium content yet lower stromal content. It is therefore necessary to develop a tool to facilitate the interpretation of the results of protein measurements in tissue specimens. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and cathepsin L (CTSL) are two epithelial proteins whose expressions in normal and tumorous prostate tissues were confirmed by measuring staining intensity with immunohistochemical staining (IHC). The expressions of these proteins were measured by ELISA in protein extracts from OCT embedded frozen prostate tissues. To eliminate the influence of tissue heterogeneity on epithelial protein quantification measured by ELISA, a color-based segmentation method was developed in-house for estimation of epithelium content using H&E histology slides from the same prostate tissues and the estimated epithelium percentage was used to normalize the ELISA results. The epithelium contents of the same slides were also estimated by a pathologist and used to normalize the ELISA results. The computer based results were compared with the pathologist's reading. We found that both EpCAM and CTSL levels, measured by ELISA assays itself, were greatly affected by epithelium content in the tissue specimens. Without adjusting for epithelium percentage, both EpCAM and CTSL levels appeared significantly higher in tumor tissues than normal tissues with a p value less than 0.001. However, after normalization by the epithelium percentage, ELISA measurements of both EpCAM and CTSL were in agreement with IHC staining results, showing a significant increase only in EpCAM with no difference in CTSL expression in cancer tissues. These results

  9. Intranasal location and immunohistochemical characterization of the equine olfactory epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Kupke

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The olfactory epithelium (OE is the only body site where neurons contact directly the environment and are therefore exposed to a broad variation of substances and insults. It can serve as portal of entry for neurotropic viruses which spread via the olfactory pathway to the central nervous system (CNS. For horses, it has been proposed and concluded mainly from rodent studies that different viruses, e.g. Borna disease virus (BoDV, equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1, hendra virus, influenza virus, rabies virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV can use this route. However, little is yet known about cytoarchitecture, protein expression and the intranasal location of the equine OE. Revealing differences in cytoarchitecture or protein expression pattern in comparison to rodents, canines or humans might help to explain varying susceptibility to certain intranasal virus infections. On the other hand, disclosing similarities especially between rodents and other species, e.g. horses would help to underscore transferability of rodent models. Analysis of the complete noses of 5 adult horses revealed that in the equine OE two epithelial subtypes with distinct marker expression exist, designated as types a and b which resemble those previously described in dogs. Detailed statistical analysis was carried out to confirm the results obtained on the descriptive level. The equine OE was predominantly located in caudodorsal areas of the nasal turbinates with a significant decline in rostroventral direction, especially for type a. Immunohistochemically, olfactory marker protein (OMP and doublecortin (DCX expression was found in more cells of OE type a, whereas expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA was present in more cells of type b. Accordingly, type a resembles the mature epithelium, in contrast to the more juvenile type b. Protein expression profile was comparable to canine and rodent OE but equine type a and b were

  10. Source and sink nodes in absence seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Abner C; Machado, Birajara S; Caboclo, Luis Otavio S F; Fujita, Andre; Baccala, Luiz A; Sameshima, Koichi

    2016-08-01

    As opposed to focal epilepsy, absence seizures do not exhibit a clear seizure onset zone or focus since its ictal activity rapidly engages both brain hemispheres. Yet recent graph theoretical analysis applied to absence seizures EEG suggests the cortical focal presence, an unexpected feature for this type of epilepsy. In this study, we explore the characteristics of absence seizure by classifying the nodes as to their source/sink natures via weighted directed graph analysis based on connectivity direction and strength estimation using information partial directed coherence (iPDC). By segmenting the EEG signals into relatively short 5-sec-long time windows we studied the evolution of coupling strengths from both sink and source nodes, and the network dynamics of absence seizures in eight patients.

  11. Trends in sickness absence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kristina; Bihrmann, Kristine; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Based on the prevailing view that it has become a more common behavior, sickness absence is -presently a topic of considerable concern in many European countries. Using sickness absence data from Denmark, we aimed to show whether this assumption holds true or not. METHODS: We used...... a linear regression analysis to analyze time trends in sickness absence based on datasets from the Danish Employers Confederation, the State Employer's Authority, the Labour Force Survey, and Statistics Denmark. RESULTS: The findings from the Confederation of Danish Employers, the State Employer......'s Authority, and the Labor Force Survey indicated a stable and largely unaltered pattern of sickness absence during the last 20 years. Findings from Statistics Denmark showed an increase in the cumulative incidence proportion from 6.6 to 7.5% among employed people between 2000 and 2007. CONCLUSION: Our data...

  12. Effect of absence of vision on posture

    OpenAIRE

    Alotaibi, Abdullah Z.; Alghadir, Ahmad; Iqbal, Zaheen A.; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The visual system is one of the sensory systems that enables the body to assess and process information about the external environment. In the absence of vision, a blind person loses contact with the outside world and develops faulty motor patterns, which results in postural deficiencies. However, literature regarding the development of such deficiencies is limited. The aim of this study was to discuss the effect of absence of vision on posture, the possible biomechanics behind the ...

  13. Socio-economic determinants of sickness absence

    OpenAIRE

    Piha, Kustaa

    2013-01-01

    Socio-economic inequalities in health are a remarkable public health issue. There is abundant evidence showing that low socio-economic position is associated with poor health. Sickness absence is a well-established health-related measure, which causes substantial direct and indirect costs. Sickness absence is associated with other health indicators, such as self-rated health, disability pension, and mortality. Low socio-economic position, as measured by education, occupational class, and inco...

  14. Evaluation of different toxicity assays applied to proliferating cells and to stratified epithelium in relation to permeability enhancement with glycocholate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eirheim, Heidi Ugelstad; Bundgaard, Christoffer; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate different toxicity assays for use on proliferating buccal TR146 cells and on stratified TR146 epithelium and to compare these results to the permeability enhancing effect of glycocholate (GC). Both the proliferating cells and the epithelium were...... across the epithelium concurrent with a decrease in the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) was also determined. The robustness of the epithelium was significantly higher than that of the proliferating cells (P...

  15. Relative Deprivation and Sickness Absence in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Helgertz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A high prevalence of sickness absence in many countries, at a substantial societal cost, underlines the importance to understand its determining mechanisms. This study focuses on the link between relative deprivation and the probability of sickness absence. Methods: 184,000 men and women in Sweden were followed between 1982 and 2001. The sample consists of working individuals between the ages of 19 and 65. The outcome is defined as experiencing more than 14 days of sickness absence during a year. Based on the complete Swedish population, an individual’s degree of relative deprivation is measured through income compared to individuals of the same age, sex, educational level and type. In accounting for the possibility that sickness absence and socioeconomic status are determined by common factors, discrete-time duration models were estimated, accounting for unobserved heterogeneity through random effects. Results: The results confirm that the failure to account for the dynamics of the individual’s career biases the influence from socioeconomic characteristics. Results consistently suggest a major influence from relative deprivation, with a consistently lower risk of sickness absence among the highly educated. Conclusions: Altering individual’s health behavior through education appears more efficient in reducing the reliance on sickness absence, rather than redistributive policies.

  16. Relative deprivation and sickness absence in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgertz, Jonas; Hess, Wolfgang; Scott, Kirk

    2013-08-29

    A high prevalence of sickness absence in many countries, at a substantial societal cost, underlines the importance to understand its determining mechanisms. This study focuses on the link between relative deprivation and the probability of sickness absence. 184,000 men and women in Sweden were followed between 1982 and 2001. The sample consists of working individuals between the ages of 19 and 65. The outcome is defined as experiencing more than 14 days of sickness absence during a year. Based on the complete Swedish population, an individual's degree of relative deprivation is measured through income compared to individuals of the same age, sex, educational level and type. In accounting for the possibility that sickness absence and socioeconomic status are determined by common factors, discrete-time duration models were estimated, accounting for unobserved heterogeneity through random effects. The results confirm that the failure to account for the dynamics of the individual's career biases the influence from socioeconomic characteristics. Results consistently suggest a major influence from relative deprivation, with a consistently lower risk of sickness absence among the highly educated. Altering individual's health behavior through education appears more efficient in reducing the reliance on sickness absence, rather than redistributive policies.

  17. Smoking influences on the thickness of marginal gingival epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villar Cristina Cunha

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoking patients show reduction of inflammatory clinical signs that might be associated with local vasoconstriction and an increased gingival epithelial thickness. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the thickness of the marginal gingival oral epithelium in smokers and non-smokers, with clinically healthy gingivae or with gingivitis. Twenty biopsies were obtained from four different groups. Group I: non-smokers with clinically healthy gingivae (n = 5. Group II: non-smokers with gingivitis (n = 5. Group III: smokers with clinically healthy gingivae (n = 5. Group IV: smokers with gingivitis (n = 5. These biopsies were histologically processed, serially sectioned at 5 mm, stained with H. E., and examined by image analysis software (KS400, which was used to perform the morphometric evaluation and the quantification of the major epithelial thickness, the epithelial base thickness and the external and internal epithelial perimeters. Differences between the four groups were analyzed using ANOVA test and Tukey's test. The criteria for statistical significance were accepted at the probability level p < 0.05. A greater epithelial thickness was observed in smokers independent of the gingival health situation.

  18. Paraoxonase Enzyme Protects Retinal Pigment Epithelium from Chlorpyrifos Insult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasna, Jagan Mohan; Anandbabu, Kannadasan; Bharathi, Subramaniam Rajesh; Angayarkanni, Narayanasamy

    2014-01-01

    Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) provides nourishment and protection to the eye. RPE dysfunction due to oxidative stress and inflammation is one of the major reason for many of the retinal disorders. Organophosphorus pesticides are widely used in the agricultural, industrial and household activities in India. However, their effects on the eye in the context of RPE has not been studied. In this study the defense of the ARPE19 cells exposed to Chlorpyrifos (1 nM to 100 µM) in terms of the enzyme paraoxonase (PON) was studied at 24 hr and 9 days of treatment. Chlorpyrifos was found to induce oxidative stress in the ARPE19 cells as seen by significant increase in ROS and decrease in glutathione (GSH) levels without causing cell death. Tissue resident Paraoxonase 2 (PON2) mRNA expression was elevated with chlorpyrifos exposure. The three enzymatic activities of PON namely, paraoxonase (PONase), arylesterase (PON AREase) and thiolactonase (PON HCTLase) were also found to be significantly altered to detoxify and as an antioxidant defense. Among the transcription factors regulating PON2 expression, SP1 was significantly increased with chlorpyrifos exposure. PON2 expression was found to be crucial as ARPE19 cells showed a significant loss in their ability to withstand oxidative stress when the cells were subjected to chlorpyrifos after silencing PON2 expression. Treatment with N-acetyl cysteine positively regulated the PON 2 expression, thus promoting the antioxidant defense put up by the cells in response to chlorpyrifos. PMID:24979751

  19. Histone Deacetylase Inhibition Restores Retinal Pigment Epithelium Function in Hyperglycemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Desjardins

    Full Text Available In diabetic individuals, macular edema is a major cause of vision loss. This condition is refractory to insulin therapy and has been attributed to metabolic memory. The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is central to maintaining fluid balance in the retina, and this function is compromised by the activation of advanced glycation end-product receptors (RAGE. Here we provide evidence that acute administration of the RAGE agonist, glycated-albumin (gAlb or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, increased histone deacetylase (HDAC activity in RPE cells. The administration of the class I/II HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin-A (TSA, suppressed gAlb-induced reductions in RPE transepithelial resistance (in vitro and fluid transport (in vivo. Systemic TSA also restored normal RPE fluid transport in rats with subchronic hyperglycemia. Both gAlb and VEGF increased HDAC activity and reduced acetyl-α-tubulin levels. Tubastatin-A, a relatively specific antagonist of HDAC6, inhibited gAlb-induced changes in RPE cell resistance. These data are consistent with the idea that RPE dysfunction following exposure to gAlb, VEGF, or hyperglycemia is associated with increased HDAC6 activity and decreased acetyl-α-tubulin. Therefore, we propose inhibiting HDAC6 in the RPE as a potential therapy for preserving normal fluid homeostasis in the hyperglycemic retina.

  20. Transduction of normal and malignant oral epithelium by particle bombardment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillitoe, E J; Noonan, S; Hinkle, C C; Marini, F C; Kellman, R M

    1998-01-01

    Although genetic approaches to the treatment and prevention of oral cancer are being developed, there are no suitable methods of transduction of the oral mucosa or early cancers. We therefore tested the technique of particle bombardment for its ability to transduce oral cancer cells in vitro and normal epithelium of the hamster cheek pouch in vivo. A gene gun was used to transfer a plasmid that encoded a marker/suicide fusion gene, beta-galactosidase-thymidine kinase (GAL-TEK), under control of a CMV promoter. For comparison we used the method of lipofection and an adenovirus vector. Particle bombardment transduced up to 13% of cells in culture, resulting in a 24.3% reduction in growth in the presence of ganciclovir. The efficiency of transduction was similar to that of lipofection but was much less than that of the adenovirus vector, which transduced 54% of cells and completely inhibited their growth in the presence of ganciclovir. Transduction of the hamster cheek pouch by particle bombardment produced expression of beta-galactosidase as judged by macroscopic staining, for up to 5 days. However, histological examination showed that the transduced cells were rare and superficial, and that administration of systemic ganciclovir did not lead to any changes in the tissue. Improvements in efficiency are necessary before the gene gun can be used in the management of oral cancer.

  1. Integrin expression on normal and neoplastic human breast epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damjanovich, L; Fülöp, B; Adány, R; Nemes, Z

    1997-01-01

    Integrin adhesion receptor expression of different benign and malignant breast tumours was examined by means of immunohistochemical techniques. A panel of seven different anti-alpha and two different anti-beta subunit antibodies was used. Normal breast epithelium displayed a well characterized and constant pattern of integrin expression consisting of strong alpha 1,2,3,6 and alpha v, and a relatively weaker beta 1 and beta 3 staining. No staining for alpha 4 or alpha 5 could be detected on the epithelial cells. Benign fibroadenomas did not show changes in their receptor expression compared to normal tissues. In the cases of different types of breast cancer, there was a significant downregulation of all subunits. The staining pattern was distinct if there could a basement membrane like structure be detected around the invading tumour nodules. When laminin and collagen type IV surrounded the tumour cells, those cells in contact with the extracellular matrix components still displayed strong positivity for the integrin subunits. Other cells inside the tumour cell nests or not surrounded by basement membrane did not express integrins. The positively staining cells might be more differentiated owing to the effect the basement membrane. Myoepithelial labeling of the integrin expressing cells gave negative results. The observed integrin expression heterogeneity renders the histologic picture difficult to interpret with regard to clinical behavior of the tumour.

  2. LOCALIZATION OF PERMEABILITY BARRIERS IN THE FROG SKIN EPITHELIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Palomo, A.; Erlij, D.; Bracho, H.

    1971-01-01

    Ruthenium red and colloidal lanthanum were used to determine the site of the structural barriers to diffusion within the intercellular spaces of frog skin epithelium. Electron micrographs show that occluding zonules located at the outer border of the stratum corneum and at the outer layer of the stratum granulosum are true tight junctions since they are impermeable to these tracers. Measurement of 140La uptake by the living skin shows that lanthanum moves across the external surface of the skin readily, into and out of a compartment that has a limited capacity and is bounded on its internal side by a barrier impermeable to lanthanum. Examination of these skins with the electron microscope suggests that the compartment is localized between the external membrane of the cells at the outer layer of the s. granulosum and at the outermost surface of the skin. These observations and other findings described in the literature indicate that the site of the external high resistance barrier of the frog skin is localized at the outer border of the s. granulosum. PMID:4329611

  3. Regeneration of stem-cells in intestinal epithelium after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Stem-cells can be defined as pluripotent progenitor cells, capable of both self-renewal and differentitation into all the functional end-cells typical of that cell family. Intestinal crypts contain population of cells which is capable of a) self-renewal following the severe depletion after radiation injury, b) replacing all other cypt cell types, and c) regeneration following repeated depletion (in colon). These are the properties of stem cells. Most measurements of the rate of regeneration of these cells following the severe depletion by radiation have been made by employing large test dose at increasing times. Such measurements have produced widely differing rates of increase in the survival under the test dose, from 4 hours (macrocolonies in jejunum) to 43 hours (microcolonies in stomach). In other tissues, large single test doses have been used to derive the time of doubling survival ratio e.g. for epidermal clones. Although cryptogenic cell number per crypt can be virtually restored by day 4 after a single dose and probably after many such doses, the status quo cannot be reached until the number of crypts is restored to normal. Stem cell numbers form a necessary part of the integrity of epitheliums. The quality of the stem cell function of survivors as expressed in the differentiated progeny, and the maintenance of function of the supportive environment are equally important for late radiation damage. (Yamashita, S.)

  4. Expression profile of maize (Zea mays) scutellar epithelium during imbibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tnani, Hedia; García-Muniz, Nora; Vicient, Carlos M; López-Ribera, Ignacio

    2012-09-15

    The scutellum is a shield-shaped structure surrounding the embryo axis in grass species. The scutellar epithelium (Sep) is a monolayer of cells in contact with the endosperm. The Sep plays an important role during seed germination in the secretion of gibberellins and hydrolytic enzymes and in the transport of the hydrolized products to the growing embryo. We identified 30 genes predominantly expressed after imbibition in the Sep as compared to other parts of the scutellum. A high proportion of these genes is involved in metabolic processes. Some other identified genes are involved in the synthesis or modification of cell walls, which may be reflected in the changes of cell shape and cell wall composition that can be observed during imbibition. One of the genes encodes a proteinase that belongs to a proteinase family typical of carnivorous plants. Almost nothing is known about their role in other plants or organs, but the scutellar presence may point to a "digestive" function during germination. Genes involved in the production of energy and the transport of peptides were also identified. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Scanning electron microscopy of human uterine epithelium influenced by the TCu intrauterine contraceptive device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, O; Hagenfeldt, K

    1973-10-15

    Biopsies were taken from 3 healthy controls and 4 women who had used the Copper TCu device to determine the influence of the IUD on the secretory mechanism of the uterine epithelium. The normal endometrium possessed apical protrusions containing glycogen and its degradation products. Endometrial biopsies from women with an intrauterine Tatum-T device with copper had these protrusions infrequently. The reduction in apical protrusions was the one structural difference observed between control and TCu-influenced luminal epithelium. This finding might support the view that one effect of the TCu device is to interfere with the secretion of carbohydrates by the epithelium.

  6. Palatal shelf epithelium: a morphologic and histochemical study in X-irradiated and normal mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gartner, L.P.; Hiatt, J.L.; Provenza, D.V.

    1978-01-01

    The palatal shelf epithelium of normal and irradiated mice was examined morphologically and histochemically, utilizing the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) technique for the demonstration of the basement membrane and the Nitro BT method for succinate dehydrogenase activity in order to demonstrate the metabolic competence of its cells. The 'programmed cell death theory' was not supported by the present investigation, since the cells of the medial ridge epithelium retained their structural and metabolic integrity even subsequent to the formation of cell nests. Additionally, the medial ridge epithelium of mice with radiation-induced cleft palates demonstrated normal structural and metabolic integrity long past the prospective time of fusion. (author)

  7. Effects of formaldehyde on the frog's mucociliary epithelium as a surrogate to evaluate air pollution effects on the respiratory epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Fló-Neyret

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of alcohol as an alternative fuel to gasoline or diesel can increase emission of formaldehyde, an organic gas that is irritant to the mucous membranes. The respiratory system is the major target of air pollutants and its major defense mechanism depends on the continuous activity of the cilia and the resulting constant transportation of mucous secretion. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of formaldehyde on the ciliated epithelium through a relative large dose range around the threshold limit value adopted by the Brazilian legislation, namely 1.6 ppm (1.25 to 5 ppm. For this purpose, the isolated frog palate preparation was used as the target of toxic injury. Four groups of frog palates were exposed to diluted Ringer solution (control, N = 8 and formaldehyde diluted in Ringer solution at three different concentrations (1.25, 2.5 and 5.0 ppm, N = 10 for each group. Mucociliary clearance and ciliary beat frequency decreased significantly in contact with formaldehyde at the concentrations of 2.5 and 5.0 ppm after 60 min of exposure (P<0.05. We conclude that relatively low concentrations of formaldehyde, which is even below the Brazilian threshold limit value, are sufficient to cause short-term mucociliary impairment.

  8. Documentation Requirements, Intrinsic Motivation, and Worker Absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pedersen, Lene Holm

    2015-01-01

    Command systems are widely used to monitor public service provision, but little is known about unintended effects on individual workers’ motivation and work effort. Using insights from motivation crowding theory, we estimate a SEM model that captures how Danish childcare assistants and social...... and higher sickness absence. The association is statistically significant, but very small in substantive terms. The result is nevertheless consistent with the expectation in motivation crowding theory and contributes to the literature by including a new, reliable behavioral variable—sickness absence....../healthcare assistants perceive documentation requirements. We analyze how this perception relates to intrinsic motivation measured in a survey and sickness absence as reported in administrative registers, and find that individuals who perceive documentation requirements as controlling have lower intrinsic motivation...

  9. Phagocytosis-dependent ketogenesis in retinal pigment epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Reveles, Juan; Dhingra, Anuradha; Alexander, Desiree; Bragin, Alvina; Philp, Nancy J; Boesze-Battaglia, Kathleen

    2017-05-12

    Daily, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) ingests a bolus of lipid and protein in the form of phagocytized photoreceptor outer segments (OS). The RPE, like the liver, expresses enzymes required for fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis. This suggests that these pathways play a role in the disposal of lipids from ingested OS, as well as providing a mechanism for recycling metabolic intermediates back to the outer retina. In this study, we examined whether OS phagocytosis was linked to ketogenesis. We found increased levels of β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB) in the apical medium following ingestion of OS by human fetal RPE and ARPE19 cells cultured on Transwell inserts. No increase in ketogenesis was observed following ingestion of oxidized OS or latex beads. Our studies further defined the connection between OS phagocytosis and ketogenesis in wild-type mice and mice with defects in phagosome maturation using a mouse RPE explant model. In explant studies, the levels of β-HB released were temporally correlated with OS phagocytic burst after light onset. In the Mreg -/- mouse where phagosome maturation is delayed, there was a temporal shift in the release of β-HB. An even more pronounced shift in maximal β-HB production was observed in the Abca4 -/- RPE, in which loss of the ATP-binding cassette A4 transporter results in defective phagosome processing and accumulation of lipid debris. These studies suggest that FAO and ketogenesis are key to supporting the metabolism of the RPE and preventing the accumulation of lipids that lead to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Age-related changes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorong Gu

    Full Text Available Age-related changes in the retina are often accompanied by visual impairment but their mechanistic details remain poorly understood.Proteomic studies were pursued toward a better molecular understanding of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE aging mechanisms. RPE cells were isolated from young adults (3-4 month-old and old (24-25 month-old F344BN rats, and separated into subcellular fractions containing apical microvilli (MV and RPE cell bodies (CB lacking their apical microvilli. Proteins were extracted in detergent, separated by SDS-PAGE, digested in situ with trypsin and analyzed by LC MS/MS. Select proteins detected in young and old rat RPE were further studied using immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis.A total of 356 proteins were identified in RPE MV from young and 378 in RPE MV from old rats, 48% of which were common to each age group. A total of 897 proteins were identified in RPE CB from young rats and 675 in old CB, 56% of which were common to each age group. Several of the identified proteins, including proteins involved in response to oxidative stress, displayed both quantitative and qualitative changes in overall abundance during RPE aging. Numerous proteins were identified for the first time in the RPE. One such protein, collectrin, was localized to the apical membrane of apical brush border of proximal tubules where it likely regulates several amino acid transporters. Elsewhere, collectrin is involved in pancreatic β cell proliferation and insulin secretion. In the RPE, collectrin expression was significantly modulated during RPE aging. Another age-regulated, newly described protein was DJ-1, a protein extensively studied in brain where oxidative stress-related functions have been described.The data presented here reveals specific changes in the RPE during aging, providing the first protein database of RPE aging, which will facilitate future studies of age-related retinal diseases.

  11. Human Milk Hyaluronan Enhances Innate Defense of the Intestinal Epithelium*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David R.; Rho, Hyunjin K.; Kessler, Sean P.; Amin, Ripal; Homer, Craig R.; McDonald, Christine; Cowman, Mary K.; de la Motte, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    Breast-feeding is associated with enhanced protection from gastrointestinal disease in infants, mediated in part by an array of bioactive glycan components in milk that act through molecular mechanisms to inhibit enteric pathogen infection. Human milk contains hyaluronan (HA), a glycosaminoglycan polymer found in virtually all mammalian tissues. We have shown that synthetic HA of a specific size range promotes expression of antimicrobial peptides in intestinal epithelium. We hypothesize that hyaluronan from human milk also enhances innate antimicrobial defense. Here we define the concentration of HA in human milk during the first 6 months postpartum. Importantly, HA isolated from milk has a biological function. Treatment of HT-29 colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA at physiologic concentrations results in time- and dose-dependent induction of the antimicrobial peptide human β-defensin 2 and is abrogated by digestion of milk HA with a specific hyaluronidase. Milk HA induction of human β-defensin 2 expression is also reduced in the presence of a CD44-blocking antibody and is associated with a specific increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting a role for the HA receptor CD44. Furthermore, oral administration of human milk-derived HA to adult, wild-type mice results in induction of the murine Hβ D2 ortholog in intestinal mucosa and is dependent upon both TLR4 and CD44 in vivo. Finally, treatment of cultured colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA enhances resistance to infection by the enteric pathogen Salmonella typhimurium. Together, our observations suggest that maternally provided HA stimulates protective antimicrobial defense in the newborn. PMID:23950179

  12. Optical modulation of transgene expression in retinal pigment epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanker, D.; Lavinsky, D.; Chalberg, T.; Mandel, Y.; Huie, P.; Dalal, R.; Marmor, M.

    2013-03-01

    Over a million people in US alone are visually impaired due to the neovascular form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The current treatment is monthly intravitreal injections of a protein which inhibits Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, thereby slowing progression of the disease. The immense financial and logistical burden of millions of intravitreal injections signifies an urgent need to develop more long-lasting and cost-effective treatments for this and other retinal diseases. Viral transfection of ocular cells allows creation of a "biofactory" that secretes therapeutic proteins. This technique has been proven successful in non-human primates, and is now being evaluated in clinical trials for wet AMD. However, there is a critical need to down-regulate gene expression in the case of total resolution of retinal condition, or if patient has adverse reaction to the trans-gene products. The site for genetic therapy of AMD and many other retinal diseases is the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). We developed and tested in pigmented rabbits, an optical method to down-regulate transgene expression in RPE following vector delivery, without retinal damage. Microsecond exposures produced by a rapidly scanning laser vaporize melanosomes and destroy a predetermined fraction of the RPE cells selectively. RPE continuity is restored within days by migration and proliferation of adjacent RPE, but since the transgene is not integrated into the nucleus it is not replicated. Thus, the decrease in transgene expression can be precisely determined by the laser pattern density and further reduced by repeated treatment without affecting retinal structure and function.

  13. Pigment epithelium-derived factor protects retinal ganglion cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleenor Debra L

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs are responsible for the transmission of visual signals to the brain. Progressive death of RGCs occurs in glaucoma and several other retinal diseases, which can lead to visual impairment and blindness. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF is a potent antiangiogenic, neurotrophic and neuroprotective protein that can protect neurons from a variety of pathologic insults. We tested the effects of PEDF on the survival of cultured adult rat RGCs in the presence of glaucoma-like insults, including cytotoxicity induced by glutamate or withdrawal of trophic factors. Results Cultured adult rat RGCs exposed to glutamate for 3 days showed signs of cytotoxicity and death. The toxic effect of glutamate was concentration-dependent (EC50 = 31 μM. In the presence of 100 μM glutamate, RGC number decreased to 55 ± 4% of control (mean ± SEM, n = 76; P 50 values of 13.6 ng/mL (glutamate and 3.4 ng/mL (trophic factor withdrawal, respectively. At 100 ng/mL, PEDF completely protected the cells from both insults. Inhibitors of the nuclear factor κB (NFκB and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2 significantly reduced the protective effects of PEDF. Conclusion We demonstrated that PEDF potently and efficaciously protected adult rat RGCs from glutamate- and trophic factor withdrawal-mediated cytotoxicity, via the activation of the NFκB and ERK1/2 pathways. The neuroprotective effect of PEDF represents a novel approach for potential treatment of retinopathies, such as glaucoma.

  14. Functional annotation of the human retinal pigment epithelium transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorgels Theo GMF

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine level, variability and functional annotation of gene expression of the human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE, the key tissue involved in retinal diseases like age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. Macular RPE cells from six selected healthy human donor eyes (aged 63–78 years were laser dissected and used for 22k microarray studies (Agilent technologies. Data were analyzed with Rosetta Resolver, the web tool DAVID and Ingenuity software. Results In total, we identified 19,746 array entries with significant expression in the RPE. Gene expression was analyzed according to expression levels, interindividual variability and functionality. A group of highly (n = 2,194 expressed RPE genes showed an overrepresentation of genes of the oxidative phosphorylation, ATP synthesis and ribosome pathways. In the group of moderately expressed genes (n = 8,776 genes of the phosphatidylinositol signaling system and aminosugars metabolism were overrepresented. As expected, the top 10 percent (n = 2,194 of genes with the highest interindividual differences in expression showed functional overrepresentation of the complement cascade, essential in inflammation in age-related macular degeneration, and other signaling pathways. Surprisingly, this same category also includes the genes involved in Bruch's membrane (BM composition. Among the top 10 percent of genes with low interindividual differences, there was an overrepresentation of genes involved in local glycosaminoglycan turnover. Conclusion Our study expands current knowledge of the RPE transcriptome by assigning new genes, and adding data about expression level and interindividual variation. Functional annotation suggests that the RPE has high levels of protein synthesis, strong energy demands, and is exposed to high levels of oxidative stress and a variable degree of inflammation. Our data sheds new light on the molecular composition of BM, adjacent to the

  15. Keratinization of the esophageal epithelium of domesticated mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Wilfried; Schoennagel, Britta; Kacza, Johannes; Busche, Roger; Hornickel, Isabelle Nina; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion; Schnapper, Anke

    2014-01-01

    We studied the esophageal epithelium for keratinization characteristics from samples of domesticated mammals of three nutrition groups (herbivores: horse, cattle, sheep; omnivores: pig, dog, rat; carnivores: cat) using histochemistry (keratins, disulfides), sulfur measurements, and cryo-SEM. Keratins were found in all esophageal layers of all species, except for the equine Stratum corneum. The positive reaction staining of Pan-keratin was remarkable, but decreased in intensity toward the outer layers, whereas in the pig and cat, staining was confined to the corneal layer. The herbivores revealed positive staining reactions in the upper Stratum spinosum, particularly in the sheep. Regarding single keratins, CK6 immunostating was found in most esophageal layers, but only weakly or negatively in the porcine and equine Stratum corneum. CK13 staining was restricted to the sheep and here was found in all layers. CK14 could be detected in the equine and feline Stratum basale, and upper vital layers of the dog and rat. CK17 appeared only in the Stratum spinosum and Stratum granulosum, but in all layers of the dog and cat. Disulfides reacted strongest in the Stratum corneum of the herbivores, as corroborated by the sulfur concentrations in the esophagus. Our study emphasized that keratins are very important for the mechanical stability of the epithelial cells and cell layers of the mammalian esophagus. The role of these keratins in the esophageal epithelia is of specific interest owing to the varying feed qualities and mechanical loads of different nutrition groups, which have to be countered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Shigella infection of intestinal epithelium and circumvention of the host innate defense system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Michinaga; Mimuro, Hitomi; Sasakawa, Chihiro

    2009-01-01

    Shigella, Gram-negative bacteria closely related to Escherichia coli, are highly adapted human pathogens that cause bacillary dysentery. Although Shigella have neither adherence factors nor flagella required for attaching or accessing the intestinal epithelium, Shigella are capable of colonizing the intestinal epithelium by exploiting epithelial-cell functions and circumventing the host innate immune response. During Shigella infection, they deliver many numbers of effectors through the type III secretion system into the surrounding space and directly into the host-cell cytoplasm. The effectors play pivotal roles from the onset of bacterial infection through to the establishment of the colonization of the intestinal epithelium, such as bacterial invasion, intracellular survival, subversion of the host immune defense response, and maintenance of the infectious foothold. These examples suggest that Shigella have evolved highly sophisticated infectious and intracellular strategies to establish replicative niches in the intestinal epithelium.

  17. The ultrastructural localization of gross cystic disease fluid protein (GCDFP-15) in breast epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazoujian, G.; Warhol, M. J.; Haagensen, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    GCDFP-15 is a major constituent protein of 15,000-dalton monomer size present in breast gross cystic disease fluid. Immunoperoxidase staining of GCDFP-15 has shown the protein to be present in normal apocrine epithelium, metaplastic apocrine epithelium of the breast, and breast carcinomas with apocrine features. To delineate ultrastructurally the localization of GCDFP-15 in benign breast epithelium, a low-temperature embedding colloidal gold technique was used. Metaplastic apocrine epithelium of the breast showed GCDFP-15 to be localized in Golgi vesicles and cytoplasmic granules. At the cell apices these granules were contained in vacuoles and appeared to be released by exocytosis. There was labeling of cyst fluid within microcyst lumens. This report is the first to ultrastructurally characterize this protein and its mode of secretion. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 6 PMID:6205595

  18. The cytological status of the nasal mucosa and the buccal epithelium in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.T. Bazeliuk; B.M. Salimbaeva

    2006-11-15

    Sixty-four persons were examined. The examination was undertaken to study the cytomophological parameters of the cells of the nasal mucosa and the buccal epithelium in coal miners. Group 1 consisted of 18 donors without contact with industrial dust; Group 2 comprised 24 apparently healthy miners; Group 3 included 22 workers (drift miners) with Stage 1 anthracosilicosis, grade 1 respiratory failure. The patients with Stage 1 anthracosilicosis had noticeably worse morphofunctional characteristics of the epithelium that displayed extensive fields with pronounced structural changes, such as destruction and desquamation of the integumentary epithelium of the nasal mucosa. Nasal mucosal atrophic changes were observed in 50% of the examined miners. Examination of the buccal epithelium in apparently healthy miners (code 0) and in workers with Stage I anthracosilicosis revealed the increased proportion of microfloral (Streptococcus) contamination by 79% and 3.7 times, respectively.

  19. Does autophagy in the midgut epithelium of centipedes depend on the day/night cycle?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rost-Roszkowska, M.M.; Chajec, Ł.; Vilímová, J.; Tajovský, Karel; Kszuk-Jendrysik, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 68, January (2015), s. 130-139 ISSN 0968-4328 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : centipede * midgut epithelium * digestive cells * ultrastructure * autophagy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.838, year: 2015

  20. Absence in a textual “Dogville”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana ANDRIESE

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Le noyau de cet article est représenté par le concept d’ «absence» de Derrida et par son applicabilité dans un décor de nature textuelle présent dans le film Dogville, Lars Von Trier. L’absence, propre à tout signe par sa propre nature, peut être manipulée pour influencer en quelque sorte le récepteur si habitué aux décors cinématographiques stéréotypés.

  1. Isolated absence of the septum pellucidum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supprian, T. [Department of Psychiatry, University of Wuerzburg, Fuechsleinstrasse 15, D-97080 Wuerzburg (Germany)]|[Department of Neuroradiology, University of Wuerzburg (Germany); Sian, J.; Heils, A. [Department of Psychiatry, University of Wuerzburg, Fuechsleinstrasse 15, D-97080 Wuerzburg (Germany); Hofmann, E.; Warmuth-Metz, M.; Solymosi, L. [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Wuerzburg (Germany)

    1999-08-01

    Absence of the septum pellucidum in the human is a rare congenital anomaly. Previous reports suggest it is almost always associated with other brain anomalies. However, MRI in two patients with absence of the septum pellucidum presented here, indicates that this anomaly may occur without associated anomalies. It may be one manifestation of a spectrum of developmental anomalies. One patient presented with schizophrenic psychosis; developmental disturbances in limbic areas are believed to be associated with schizophrenia. Agenesis of the septum pellucidum may indicate abnormal development of limbic structures and it may be associated with anomalies, such as cytoarchitectural disturbances of cortical layers, as yet undetectable by MRI. (orig.) With 1 fig., 19 refs.

  2. Isolated absence of the septum pellucidum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supprian, T.; Sian, J.; Heils, A.; Hofmann, E.; Warmuth-Metz, M.; Solymosi, L.

    1999-01-01

    Absence of the septum pellucidum in the human is a rare congenital anomaly. Previous reports suggest it is almost always associated with other brain anomalies. However, MRI in two patients with absence of the septum pellucidum presented here, indicates that this anomaly may occur without associated anomalies. It may be one manifestation of a spectrum of developmental anomalies. One patient presented with schizophrenic psychosis; developmental disturbances in limbic areas are believed to be associated with schizophrenia. Agenesis of the septum pellucidum may indicate abnormal development of limbic structures and it may be associated with anomalies, such as cytoarchitectural disturbances of cortical layers, as yet undetectable by MRI. (orig.)

  3. Skn-1a/Pou2f3 is required for the generation of Trpm5-expressing microvillous cells in the mouse main olfactory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Tatsuya; Yamashita, Junpei; Ohmoto, Makoto; Aoudé, Imad; Ogura, Tatsuya; Luo, Wangmei; Bachmanov, Alexander A; Lin, Weihong; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Hirota, Junji

    2014-01-16

    The main olfactory epithelium (MOE) in mammals is a specialized organ to detect odorous molecules in the external environment. The MOE consists of four types of cells: olfactory sensory neurons, supporting cells, basal cells, and microvillous cells. Among these, development and function of microvillous cells remain largely unknown. Recent studies have shown that a population of microvillous cells expresses the monovalent cation channel Trpm5 (transient receptor potential channel M5). To examine functional differentiation of Trpm5-expressing microvillous cells in the MOE, we investigated the expression and function of Skn-1a, a POU (Pit-Oct-Unc) transcription factor required for functional differentiation of Trpm5-expressing sweet, umami, and bitter taste bud cells in oropharyngeal epithelium and solitary chemosensory cells in nasal respiratory epithelium. Skn-1a is expressed in a subset of basal cells and apical non-neuronal cells in the MOE of embryonic and adult mice. Two-color in situ hybridization revealed that a small population of Skn-1a-expressing cells was co-labeled with Mash1/Ascl1 and that most Skn-1a-expressing cells coexpress Trpm5. To investigate whether Skn-1a has an irreplaceable role in the MOE, we analyzed Skn-1a-deficient mice. In the absence of Skn-1a, olfactory sensory neurons differentiate normally except for a limited defect in terminal differentiation in ectoturbinate 2 of some of MOEs examined. In contrast, the impact of Skn-1a deficiency on Trpm5-expressing microvillous cells is much more striking: Trpm5, villin, and choline acetyltransferase, cell markers previously shown to identify Trpm5-expressing microvillous cells, were no longer detectable in Skn-1a-deficient mice. In addition, quantitative analysis demonstrated that the density of superficial microvillous cells was significantly decreased in Skn-1a-deficient mice. Skn-1a is expressed in a minority of Mash1-positive olfactory progenitor cells and a majority of Trpm5-expressing

  4. Differential expression of stem cell-like proteins in normal, hyperplastic and dysplastic oral epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    BARAKAT, Sarah Mohammed Mohammed; SIAR, Chong Huat

    2015-01-01

    Objective The identification of stem cells (SC) remains challenging. In the human oral mucosal epithelium, these cells are believed to be in the basal layer (stem cell niche), but their exact location is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the dysplastic oral epithelium for these SC-like proteins in order to assess their diagnostic value as biomarkers complementing the histological grading of dysplasia. Material and Methods Thirty oral epithelial dysplasia (OED), 25 oral lichen plan...

  5. Discrete movements of foot epithelium during adhesive locomotion of a land snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrakowski, Tomasz; Kaczorowski, Piotr; Pawłowicz, Wojciech; Ziółkowski, Marcin; Smuszkiewicz, Piotr; Trojanowska, Iwona; Marszałek, Andrzej; Zebrowska, Małgorzata; Lutowska, Monika; Kopczyńska, Ewa; Lampka, Magdalena; Hołyńska-Iwan, Iga; Piskorska, Elzbieta

    2012-01-01

    During the adhesive locomotion of land snails a series of short dark transverse bands, called pedal or foot waves, is visible ifa moving snail's ventral surface is observed through a sheet of glass. Moreover, the mucus secreted from the pedal glands and some pedal epithelial cells forms a thin layer which acts as a glue augmenting adherence, while also acting as a lubricant under the moving parts of the snail's foot. The relationships between velocity and the frequency of pedal waves as well as changes in the volume of small air bubbles under foot waves were analyzed by means of digital recordings made through a glass sheet on which the snails were moving. On the ventral surface of a moving snail foot, the adhering parts of the foot constituted about 80% of the total area, while several moving parts only about 20%. The single moving region of the foot (the pedal wave) amounted to about 3% of snail length. The epithelium in the region of the pedal wave was arched above the substrate and was also more wrinkled than the stationary epithelium, which enabled the forward motion of each specific point of epithelium during the passage of a pedal wave above it. The actual area of epithelium engaged by a pedal wave was at least 30% greater than the area of the epithelium as recorded through a glass sheet. In the region of the pedal wave, the tiny subepithelial muscles acting on the epithelium move it up in the front part of the wave, and then down at the end of the wave, operating vertically in relation to the substrate. In the middle part of the wave, the epithelium only moves forward. In summary, during the adhesive locomotion of snails, the horizontal movement of the ventral surface epithelium proceeds as temporally separate phases of upward, forward and downward movement.

  6. The Impact of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus on Corneal Epithelial Nerve Morphology and the Corneal Epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Daniel; Zhu, Meifang; Petroll, W. Matthew; Koppaka, Vindhya; Robertson, Danielle M.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic corneal neuropathy can result in chronic, sight-threatening corneal pathology. Although the exact etiology is unknown, it is believed that a reduction in corneal sensitivity and loss of neurotrophic support contributes to corneal disease. Information regarding the relationship between nerve loss and effects on the corneal epithelium is limited. We investigated changes in the corneal epithelium and nerve morphology using three-dimensional imaging in vivo and in situ in a streptozotoci...

  7. Spatial pattern of cell geometry and cell-division orientation in zebrafish lens epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Mochizuki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cell proliferation is a key regulator of tissue morphogenesis. We examined cell proliferation and cell division in zebrafish lens epithelium by visualizing cell-cycle phases and nuclear positions, using fluorescent-labeled geminin and histone proteins. Proliferation was low in the anterior region of lens epithelium and higher in the marginal zone anterior to the equator, suggesting that the proliferation zone, called the germinative zone, is formed in zebrafish lens. Interestingly, cell-division orientation was biased longitudinally in the anterior region, shifted from longitudinal to circumferential along the anterior–posterior axis of lens sphere, and was biased circumferentially in the peripheral region. These data suggest that cell-division orientation is spatially regulated in zebrafish lens epithelium. The Hertwig rule indicates that cells tend to divide along their long axes. Orientation of long axes and cell division were biased similarly in zebrafish lens epithelium, suggesting that cell geometry correlates with cell-division orientation. A cell adhesion molecule, E-cadherin, is expressed in lens epithelium. In a zebrafish e-cadherin mutant, the long axes and cell-division orientation were shifted more longitudinally. These data suggest that E-cadherin is required for the spatial pattern of cell geometry and cell-division orientation in zebrafish lens epithelium.

  8. Usefulness of GATA-3 as a marker of seminal epithelium in prostate biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Rey, J A; Chantada-de la Fuente, D; Peteiro-Cancelo, M Á; Gómez-de María, C; San Miguel-Fraile, M P

    2017-11-01

    The incidental presence of seminal vesicle epithelium in prostate needle biopsies is generally recognisable through routine microscopy. However, the biopsy can sometimes be erroneously interpreted as malignant due to its architectural and cytological characteristics, and immunohistochemistry can be useful for correctly identifying the biopsy. Our objective was to analyse the potential usefulness of GATA-3 as a marker of seminal epithelium. Through immunohistochemistry with a monoclonal anti-GATA-3 antibody (clone L50-823), we studied seminal vesicle sections from 20 prostatectomy specimens, 12 prostate needle biopsies that contained seminal vesicle tissue and 68 prostate biopsies without seminal vesicle epithelium, 36 of which showed adenocarcinoma. Staining for GATA-3 was intense in the 20 seminal vesicles of the prostatectomy specimens and in the 12 prostate needle biopsies that contained seminal epithelium. In the 60 biopsies without a seminal vesicle, GATA-3 was positive in the prostate basal cells and even in the secretory cells (57 cases), although with less intensity in 55 of the cases. One of the 36 prostatic adenocarcinomas tested positive for GATA-3. The intense immunohistochemical expression of GATA-3 in the seminal vesicle epithelium can help identify the epithelium in prostate biopsies. This marker is also positive in the basal cells of healthy prostates and, with less intensity, in the secretory cells. Positivity, weak or moderate, is observed on rare occasions in prostatic adenocarcinomas. Copyright © 2017 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of absence of vision on posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Abdullah Z; Alghadir, Ahmad; Iqbal, Zaheen A; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The visual system is one of the sensory systems that enables the body to assess and process information about the external environment. In the absence of vision, a blind person loses contact with the outside world and develops faulty motor patterns, which results in postural deficiencies. However, literature regarding the development of such deficiencies is limited. The aim of this study was to discuss the effect of absence of vision on posture, the possible biomechanics behind the resulting postural deficiencies, and strategies to correct and prevent them. [Subjects and Methods] Various electronic databases including PubMed, Medline, and Google scholar were examined using the words "body", "posture", "blind" and "absence of vision". References in the retrieved articles were also examined for cross-references. The search was limited to articles in the English language. [Results] A total of 74 papers were shortlisted for this review, most of which dated back to the 1950s and 60s. [Conclusion] Blind people exhibit consistent musculoskeletal deformities. Absence of vision leads to numerous abnormal sensory and motor interactions that often limit blind people in isolation. Rehabilitation of the blind is a multidisciplinary task. Specialists from different fields need to diagnose and treat the deficiencies of the blind together as a team. Before restoring the normal mechanics of posture and gait, the missing link with the external world should be reestablished.

  10. Predictors of sickness absence in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Lausten; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Juhl, Mette

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cohort study was to investigate associations between parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), assisted reproductive therapy (ART), time to pregnancy (TTP), and engagement in physical exercise and the risk of sickness absence in pregnancy from 10-29 completed pregnancy...... with higher HR of sickness absence. Physical exercise of >120 minutes per week was associated with lower HR 0.84 (95% CI 0.75-0.95). CONCLUSION: Risk for sickness absence was higher among women who were multiparous, overweight, obese, received ART, and had prolonged TTP, and lower among women engaged...... calculated by Cox regression, using time of first episode of sickness absence as the primary outcome. RESULTS: Multiparity 1.26 (95% CI 1.10-1.45), overweight 1.13 (95% CI 1.08-1.18), obesity 1.23 (95% CI 1.15-1.31), ART 1.10 (95% CI 1.01-1.20), and TTP >12 months 1.06 (95% CI 0.99-1.13) were associated...

  11. School Ethical Climate and Teachers' Voluntary Absence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly; Rosenblatt, Zehava

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to offer a theoretical framework for linking school ethical climate with teachers' voluntary absence. The paper attempts to explain this relationship using the concept of affective organizational commitment. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 1,016 school teachers from 35 high schools in Israel. Data were…

  12. Predictors of sickness absence in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Lausten; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Juhl, Mette

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cohort study was to investigate associations between parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), assisted reproductive therapy (ART), time to pregnancy (TTP), and engagement in physical exercise and the risk of sickness absence in pregnancy from 10-29 completed pregnancy...... calculated by Cox regression, using time of first episode of sickness absence as the primary outcome. RESULTS: Multiparity 1.26 (95% CI 1.10-1.45), overweight 1.13 (95% CI 1.08-1.18), obesity 1.23 (95% CI 1.15-1.31), ART 1.10 (95% CI 1.01-1.20), and TTP >12 months 1.06 (95% CI 0.99-1.13) were associated...... with higher HR of sickness absence. Physical exercise of >120 minutes per week was associated with lower HR 0.84 (95% CI 0.75-0.95). CONCLUSION: Risk for sickness absence was higher among women who were multiparous, overweight, obese, received ART, and had prolonged TTP, and lower among women engaged...

  13. Automatic characterization of dynamics in Absence Epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Katrine N. H.; Nielsen, Trine N.; Kjær, Troels W.

    2013-01-01

    Dynamics of the spike-wave paroxysms in Childhood Absence Epilepsy (CAE) are automatically characterized using novel approaches. Features are extracted from scalograms formed by Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT). Detection algorithms are designed to identify an estimate of the temporal development...

  14. DNA synthesis, cell proliferation index in normal and abnormal gallbladder epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamote, J; Willems, G

    1997-09-15

    The observation of mitotic figures in the epithelium of the normal gallbladder is exceptional because cell renewal is occurring at a very slow rate. It is only after using 3H-thymidine and autoradiography to observe the cells in DNA synthesis that evidence of a significant epithelial cell replication has been provided. Because numerous mitotic figures and increased 3H-thymidine uptake have been observed after intraluminal introduction of foreign bodies or after ligation of the common bile duct in animals, mechanical distension has been supposed to represent an important trigger factor of cell proliferation in this hollow organ. An increased epithelial cell renewal was also observed in human gallbladders of patients with a complete obstruction of the common bile duct causing the distension. However, the absence of correlation between the degree of gallbladder distension and the proliferative response was suggesting that factors other than distension could be involved. In studies on experimental lithiasis cell proliferation appeared to be enhanced in the gallbladder epithelium of mice fed on a cholesterol-cholic acid-rich lithogenic diet. The fact that the increase in proliferative activity was preceding the formation of gallstones was another indication that factors other than mechanical stimulation by stretching or by the stones may stimulate cell renewal in this organ. Factors in the bile of animals receiving a lithogenic diet could be involved which might cause cellular death and, hence, a regenerative reaction. Direct mitogenic effect of an unknown factor in the bile of these animals is an alternative possibility. On the other hand the stimulating effect of postprandial hormones on gallbladder cell renewal suggested by the observation of a DNA synthesis peak after feeding has been established. Synthetic cholecystokinin analogues have been shown to increase the proliferative activity and to induce epithelial hyperplasia in this organ. In one recent study using

  15. Pretreatment seizure semiology in childhood absence epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Sudha Kilaru; Shinnar, Shlomo; Cnaan, Avital; Dlugos, Dennis; Conry, Joan; Hirtz, Deborah G; Hu, Fengming; Liu, Chunyan; Mizrahi, Eli M; Moshé, Solomon L; Clark, Peggy; Glauser, Tracy A

    2017-08-15

    To determine seizure semiology in children with newly diagnosed childhood absence epilepsy and to evaluate associations with short-term treatment outcomes. For participants enrolled in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, comparative-effectiveness trial, semiologic features of pretreatment seizures were analyzed as predictors of treatment outcome at the week 16 to 20 visit. Video of 1,932 electrographic absence seizures from 416 participants was evaluated. Median seizure duration was 10.2 seconds; median time between electrographic seizure onset and clinical manifestation onset was 1.5 seconds. For individual seizures and by participant, the most common semiology features were pause/stare (seizure 95.5%, participant 99.3%), motor automatisms (60.6%, 86.1%), and eye involvement (54.9%, 76.5%). The interrater agreement for motor automatisms and eye involvement was good (72%-84%). Variability of semiology features between seizures even within participants was high. Clustering analyses revealed 4 patterns (involving the presence/absence of eye involvement and motor automatisms superimposed on the nearly ubiquitous pause/stare). Most participants experienced more than one seizure cluster pattern. No individual semiologic feature was individually predictive of short-term outcome. Seizure freedom was half as likely in participants with one or more seizure having the pattern of eye involvement without motor automatisms than in participants without this pattern. Almost all absence seizures are characterized by a pause in activity or staring, but rarely is this the only feature. Semiologic features tend to cluster, resulting in identifiable absence seizure subtypes with significant intraparticipant seizure phenomenologic heterogeneity. One seizure subtype, pause/stare and eye involvement but no motor automatisms, is specifically associated with a worse treatment outcome. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  16. Lutein protects retinal pigment epithelium from cytotoxic oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Ravi K; Ravi, Kavitha; Balaiya, Sankarathi; Brar, Vikram S; Chalam, Kakarla V

    2014-06-01

    Lutein (LUT) and zeaxanthin (ZEA) are currently under investigation in clinical trials as prophylactic nutritional agents for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, dose used in these trials is empirical and not been investigated in in vitro studies. In this study, we investigated the dose-response effect of LUT and ZEA in protecting retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) from oxidative stress, a common underlying pathology in AMD. Three thousand cultured human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) were plated in 72-well plate and after 24 h were exposed to increasing concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). ARPE-19 cells were exposed to four different concentrations of LUT (0.5, 1, 2 and 4 µg/mL) and ZEA (0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 µg/mL). After 24 h incubation, cells were subjected to oxidative stress induced with H2O2. Cultures containing saline solution and dichloromethane served as controls. Cell viability was assessed using the WST-1 assay. Pathophysiological pathways were evaluated by measuring caspase-3 levels as an indicator of apoptosis induction. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were measured using dihydrorhodamine-123. Cell viability as a percentage of control was 81.3%, 81.1%, and 88.8% at 0.5, 1, and 2 µg/ml, respectively of LUT (p LUT at 2 μg/mL. ZEA did not show any cytoprotective effect at all concentrations used in the study. Caspase-3 showed a corresponding decrease in levels with LUT (1 and 2 µg/ml). Significant decrease in ROS levels were measured only with LUT at 4 µg/ml (p = 0.02). Results from our study provide in vitro data to support the epidemiologic studies, which are currently underway to provide evidence that lutein may act as cofactor that modulates processes implicated in AMD pathogenesis.

  17. The Presence of Consciousness in Absence Seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, Tim

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines three respects in which the study of epileptic absence seizures promises to inform our understanding of consciousness. Firstly, it has the potential to bear on debates concerning the behavioural and cognitive functions associated with consciousness. Secondly, it has the potential to illuminate the relationship between background states (or ‘levels’) of consciousness and the contents of consciousness. Thirdly, it has the potential to bear on our understanding of the unity of consciousness. PMID:21447898

  18. The Role of Na:K:2Cl Cotransporter 1 (NKCC1/SLC12A2 in Dental Epithelium during Enamel Formation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozita Jalali

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Na+:K+:2Cl− cotransporters (NKCCs belong to the SLC12A family of cation-coupled Cl− transporters. We investigated whether enamel-producing mouse ameloblasts express NKCCs. Transcripts for Nkcc1 were identified in the mouse dental epithelium by RT-qPCR and NKCC1 protein was immunolocalized in outer enamel epithelium and in the papillary layer but not the ameloblast layer. In incisors of Nkcc1-null mice late maturation ameloblasts were disorganized, shorter and the mineral density of the enamel was reduced by 10% compared to wild-type controls. Protein levels of gap junction protein connexin 43, Na+-dependent bicarbonate cotransporter e1 (NBCe1, and the Cl−-dependent bicarbonate exchangers SLC26A3 and SLC26A6 were upregulated in Nkcc1-null enamel organs while the level of NCKX4/SLC24A4, the major K+, Na+ dependent Ca2+ transporter in maturation ameloblasts, was slightly downregulated. Whole-cell voltage clamp studies on rat ameloblast-like HAT-7 cells indicated that bumetanide increased ion-channel activity conducting outward currents. Bumetanide also reduced cell volume of HAT-7 cells. We concluded that non-ameloblast dental epithelium expresses NKCC1 to regulate cell volume in enamel organ and provide ameloblasts with Na+, K+ and Cl− ions required for the transport of mineral- and bicarbonate-ions into enamel. Absence of functional Nkcc1 likely is compensated by other types of ion channels and ion transporters. The increased amount of Cx43 in enamel organ cells in Nkcc1-null mice suggests that these cells display a higher number of gap junctions to increase intercellular communication.

  19. Expression of semaphorin 3A in the rat corneal epithelium during wound healing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishige, Naoyuki [Department of Ophthalmology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minami-Kogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Ko, Ji-Ae, E-mail: jiae0831@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp [Department of Ophthalmology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minami-Kogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Morita, Yukiko; Nishida, Teruo [Department of Ophthalmology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minami-Kogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan)

    2010-05-14

    The neural guidance protein semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) is expressed in corneal epithelial cells of the adult rat. We have now further investigated the localization of Sema3A in the normal rat corneal epithelium as well as changes in its expression pattern during wound healing after central corneal epithelial debridement. The expression pattern of Sema3A was compared with that of the tight-junction protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), the gap-junction protein connexin43 (Cx43), or the cell proliferation marker Ki67. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that Sema3A was present predominantly in the membrane of basal and wing cells of the intact corneal epithelium. The expression of Sema3A at the basal side of basal cells was increased in the peripheral epithelium compared with that in the central region. Sema3A was detected in all layers at the leading edge of the migrating corneal epithelium at 6 h after central epithelial debridement. The expression of Sema3A was markedly up-regulated in the basal and lateral membranes of columnar basal cells apparent in the thickened, newly healed epithelium at 1 day after debridement, but it had largely returned to the normal pattern at 3 days after debridement. The expression of ZO-1 was restricted to superficial epithelial cells and remained mostly unchanged during the wound healing process. The expression of Cx43 in basal cells was down-regulated at the leading edge of the migrating epithelium but was stable in the remaining portion of the epithelium. Ki67 was not detected in basal cells of the central epithelium at 1 day after epithelial debridement, when Sema3A was prominently expressed. Immunoblot analysis showed that the abundance of Sema3A in the central cornea was increased 1 day after epithelial debridement, whereas that of ZO-1 or Cx43 remained largely unchanged. This increase in Sema3A expression was accompanied by up-regulation of the Sema3A coreceptor neuropilin-1. Our observations have thus shown that the expression of

  20. Ancestral amphibian v2rs are expressed in the main olfactory epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Adnan S.; Sansone, Alfredo; Nadler, Walter; Manzini, Ivan; Korsching, Sigrun I.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian olfactory receptor families are segregated into different olfactory organs, with type 2 vomeronasal receptor (v2r) genes expressed in a basal layer of the vomeronasal epithelium. In contrast, teleost fish v2r genes are intermingled with all other olfactory receptor genes in a single sensory surface. We report here that, strikingly different from both lineages, the v2r gene family of the amphibian Xenopus laevis is expressed in the main olfactory as well as the vomeronasal epithelium. Interestingly, late diverging v2r genes are expressed exclusively in the vomeronasal epithelium, whereas “ancestral” v2r genes, including the single member of v2r family C, are restricted to the main olfactory epithelium. Moreover, within the main olfactory epithelium, v2r genes are expressed in a basal zone, partially overlapping, but clearly distinct from an apical zone of olfactory marker protein and odorant receptor-expressing cells. These zones are also apparent in the spatial distribution of odor responses, enabling a tentative assignment of odor responses to olfactory receptor gene families. Responses to alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones show an apical localization, consistent with being mediated by odorant receptors, whereas amino acid responses overlap extensively with the basal v2r-expressing zone. The unique bimodal v2r expression pattern in main and accessory olfactory system of amphibians presents an excellent opportunity to study the transition of v2r gene expression during evolution of higher vertebrates. PMID:23613591

  1. Binding of the aliphatic halides 1,2-dibromoethane and chloroform in the rodent vaginal epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brittebo, E.B.; Brandt, I.; Kowalski, B.

    1987-01-01

    Whole-body and light microscopic autoradiography were used to study the binding of 1,2-dibromo( 14 C)ethane ( 14 C-DBE) and 14 C-chloroform ( 14 C-CF) in the mouse and rat vaginal epithelium in vitro and in vivo. In pregnant mice, mice pretreated with pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG) or ovariectomized mice primed with medroxyprogesterone, a high level of bound 14 C-DBE metabolites were present in the epithelium, while in ovariectomized oestradiol-primed mice or intact oestradiol-primed mice, the binding was low. Similar results were obtained with 14 C-CF, although the level of binding generally was lower than that observed after 14 C-DBE-exposure. No binding of 14 C-DBE-metabolites was observed in the juvenile rat vaginal epithelium, whereas a high binding was present in the PMSG-primed adult rat vaginal epithelium. Collectively, these data show that 14 C-DBE and 14 C-CF are transformed in situ to metabolites that are irreversibly bound to the vaginal epithelium. The results also suggest that the activating enzyme is under endocrine control and has a low activity in the juvenile and oestradiol-primed adult animal. (author)

  2. Differential expression of stem cell-like proteins in normal, hyperplastic and dysplastic oral epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Mohammed Mohammed BARAKAT

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective The identification of stem cells (SC remains challenging. In the human oral mucosal epithelium, these cells are believed to be in the basal layer (stem cell niche, but their exact location is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the dysplastic oral epithelium for these SC-like proteins in order to assess their diagnostic value as biomarkers complementing the histological grading of dysplasia. Material and Methods Thirty oral epithelial dysplasia (OED, 25 oral lichen planus (OLP, 10 oral hyperkeratosis and 5 normal oral epithelium (OE were immunohistochemically examined for four SC markers [integrin β1, neuron-glial-2 (NG2, notch 1 (N1 and keratin 15 (K15]. Results Three of four SC markers were heterogeneously detected in all samples. K15 overexpression in the lower two-thirds of severe OED suggests an expanded SC niche. Integrin β1 distribution pattern was not measurably different between OEDs and control. NG2 was almost negative to absent in all samples examined. N1 expression was weak and highly variable in normal and dysplastic epithelium, making it an unreliable epithelial stem cell marker. Conclusions Present findings suggest that these markers were unable to identify individual epithelial stem cells. Instead, subpopulations of cells, most probably stem cells and transit amplifying cells with stem cell-like properties were identified in the dysplastic oral epithelium. The characteristic expressions of K15 might be of diagnostic value for oral dysplasia and should be investigated further.

  3. Differential expression of stem cell-like proteins in normal, hyperplastic and dysplastic oral epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Sarah Mohammed Mohammed; Siar, Chong Huat

    2015-01-01

    The identification of stem cells (SC) remains challenging. In the human oral mucosal epithelium, these cells are believed to be in the basal layer (stem cell niche), but their exact location is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the dysplastic oral epithelium for these SC-like proteins in order to assess their diagnostic value as biomarkers complementing the histological grading of dysplasia. Thirty oral epithelial dysplasia (OED), 25 oral lichen planus (OLP), 10 oral hyperkeratosis and 5 normal oral epithelium (OE) were immunohistochemically examined for four SC markers [integrin β1, neuron-glial-2 (NG2), notch 1 (N1) and keratin 15 (K15)]. Three of four SC markers were heterogeneously detected in all samples. K15 overexpression in the lower two-thirds of severe OED suggests an expanded SC niche. Integrin β1 distribution pattern was not measurably different between OEDs and control. NG2 was almost negative to absent in all samples examined. N1 expression was weak and highly variable in normal and dysplastic epithelium, making it an unreliable epithelial stem cell marker. Present findings suggest that these markers were unable to identify individual epithelial stem cells. Instead, subpopulations of cells, most probably stem cells and transit amplifying cells with stem cell-like properties were identified in the dysplastic oral epithelium. The characteristic expressions of K15 might be of diagnostic value for oral dysplasia and should be investigated further.

  4. Effects of immunizing gilts against zearalenone on height of vaginal epithelium and urinary excretion of zearalenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougald, O A; Thulin, A J; Weldon, W C; Pestka, J J; Fogwell, R L

    1990-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to develop a vaginal epithelium bioassay for zearalenone (Z) and to determine whether immunization against Z would prevent Z mycotoxicosis. Eleven gilts were ovariectomized and allotted by weight to dietary doses of 50, 150 or 350 micrograms Z/kg BW daily for 3 d. All doses of Z increased height of the vaginal epithelium. Height of the vaginal epithelium in gilts fed 150 or 350 micrograms Z/kg BW increased more than that in gilts fed 50 micrograms Z/kg BW. Twenty-four gilts then were ovariectomized and allotted to be immunized or not immunized. A Z-bovine serum albumin conjugate was injected into gilts to achieve immunization. Ten weeks after initial immunization, antibodies to Z were detected after a 1:10(7) dilution at greater than .1 absorbance units using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and gilts were allotted by weight to diets with no Z or 150 micrograms Z/kg BW daily for 3 d. Immunization alone had no effect on height of vaginal epithelium, but after 3 and 10 d, immunized gilts fed Z had higher vaginal epithelium than did nonimmunized gilts fed Z. Immunized gilts excreted a larger percentage of ingested Z than nonimmunized gilts did. Therefore, immunizing gilts against Z potentiated both the estrogenic effects of Z and urinary excretion of Z equivalents.

  5. Notch signaling in the pigmented epithelium of the anterior eye segment promotes ciliary body development at the expense of iris formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarode, Bhushan; Nowell, Craig S; Ihm, JongEun; Kostic, Corinne; Arsenijevic, Yvan; Moulin, Alexandre P; Schorderet, Daniel F; Beermann, Friedrich; Radtke, Freddy

    2014-07-01

    The ciliary body and iris are pigmented epithelial structures in the anterior eye segment that function to maintain correct intra-ocular pressure and regulate exposure of the internal eye structures to light, respectively. The cellular and molecular factors that mediate the development of the ciliary body and iris from the ocular pigmented epithelium remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we have investigated the role of Notch signaling during the development of the anterior pigmented epithelium by using genetic loss- and gain-of-function approaches. Loss of canonical Notch signaling results in normal iris development but absence of the ciliary body. This causes progressive hypotony and over time leads to phthisis bulbi, a condition characterized by shrinkage of the eye and loss of structure/function. Conversely, Notch gain-of-function results in aniridia and profound ciliary body hyperplasia, which causes ocular hypertension and glaucoma-like disease. Collectively, these data indicate that Notch signaling promotes ciliary body development at the expense of iris formation and reveals novel animal models of human ocular pathologies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors Protect Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cells Against Oxidation by Modulating Nitric Oxide Release and Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano De Cillà

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: the anti-vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF, Aflibercept and Ranibizumab, are used for the treatment of macular degeneration. Here we examined the involvement of nitric oxide (NO, mitochondria function and of apoptosis/autophagy in their antioxidant effects in human retinal pigment epithelium cells (RPE. Methods: RPE were exposed to Ranibizumab/Aflibercept in the absence or presence of NO synthase (NOS inhibitor and of autophagy activator/blocker, rapamicyn/3-methyladenine. Specific kits were used for cell viability, NO and reactive oxygen species detection and mitochondrial membrane potential measurement, whereas Western Blot was performed for apoptosis/ autophagy markers and other kinases detection. Results: In RPE cultured in physiological conditions, Aflibercept/Ranibizumab increased NO release in a dose and time-dependent way. Opposite results were obtained in RPE pretreated with hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, both the anti-VEGF agents were able to prevent the fall of cell viability and of mitochondrial membrane potential. Those effects were reduced by the NOS inhibitor and 3-methyladenine and were potentiated by rapamycin. Finally, Aflibercept and Ranibizumab counteracted the changes of apoptosis/autophagy markers, NOS, Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase/Protein Kinase B and Extracellular signal–regulated kinases 1/2 caused by peroxidation. Conclusion: Aflibercept and Ranibizumab protect RPE against peroxidation through the modulation of NO release, apoptosis and autophagy.

  7. [Light and electron microscopic studies of oropharyngeal epithelium in Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Urodela: Salamandridae) larvae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemen, G

    1984-01-01

    The oropharyngeal-epithelium of intrauterine and free swimming larvae of Salamandra salamandra has been investigated by electron microscopy. With the exception of the toothed areas, where it is multi-layered, the epithelium of intrauterine larvae consists of two cell layers, pavement and basal cells. In older larvae, however, the entire epithelium is multi-layered. The outermost layer contains nonciliated pavement cells, goblet cells and sporadically mitochondria-rich cells. Both, goblet cells and pavement cells synthesize mainly acid mucosubstances, which are localized in big confluent secretory granules in the former and in small granules immediately beneath the apical plasmalemm in the latter. In the second layer different developmental stages of goblet cells and pavement cells can be identified.

  8. Lung epithelium: barrier immunity to inhaled fungi and driver of fungal-associated allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Darin L; Klein, Bruce S

    2017-12-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous in the environment. The epithelium that lines our airways is the first point of contact with the frequent encounter of inhaled fungi. Consequently, the lung epithelium has evolved behaviors that instruct the earliest immune events to resist fungal penetration. Although the epithelium efficiently assists in immunity to invasive fungi, it also can be inappropriately triggered, to the detriment of the host, by normally innocuous fungi or fungal components. Thus, there is a tipping point of protective immunity against fungal pathogens versus inflammatory disease caused by an exuberant immune response to harmless fungal antigens. This review will discuss several aspects of barrier immunity to pulmonary fungal infection, as well as situations where fungal exposure leads to allergic asthma. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Patterns of Teacher Absence in Public Primary Schools in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Syaikhu; Akhmadi; Suryadarma, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This paper uses the first nationally representative survey of teacher absence collected through direct observation to determine the patterns of absence among full-time teachers in public primary schools in Indonesia. Based on the survey data, the authors found a national teacher absence rate of 19%, with almost half of the absences due to…

  10. Seminal epithelium in prostate biopsy can mimic malignant and premalignant prostatic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arista-Nasr, J; Trolle-Silva, A; Aguilar-Ayala, E; Martínez-Benítez, B

    2016-01-01

    In most prostate biopsies, the seminal epithelium is easily recognised because it meets characteristic histological criteria. However, some biopsies can mimic malignant or premalignant prostatic lesions. The aims of this study were to analyse the histological appearance of the biopsies that mimic adenocarcinomas or preneoplastic prostatic lesions, discuss the differential diagnosis and determine the frequency of seminal epithelia in prostate biopsies. We consecutively reviewed 500 prostate puncture biopsies obtained using the sextant method and selected those cases in which we observed seminal vesicle or ejaculatory duct epithelium. In the biopsies in which the seminal epithelium resembled malignant or premalignant lesions, immunohistochemical studies were conducted that included prostate-specific antigen and MUC6. The most important clinical data were recorded. Thirty-six (7.2%) biopsies showed seminal epithelium, and 7 of them (1.4%) resembled various prostate lesions, including high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, atypical acinar proliferations, adenocarcinomas with papillary patterns and poorly differentiated carcinoma. The seminal epithelium resembled prostate lesions when the lipofuscin deposit, the perinuclear vacuoles or the nuclear pseudoinclusions were inconspicuous or missing. Five of the 7 biopsies showed mild to moderate cellular atypia with small and hyperchromatic nuclei, and only 2 showed cellular pleomorphism. The patients were alive and asymptomatic after an average of 6 years of progression. The seminal epithelium resembles prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, atypical acinar proliferations and various types of prostatic adenocarcinomas in approximately 1.4% of prostate biopsies. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Smoking-mediated up-regulation of GAD67 expression in the human airway epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoqing; Wang, Rui; Ferris, Barbara; Salit, Jacqueline; Strulovici-Barel, Yael; Hackett, Neil R; Crystal, Ronald G

    2010-10-29

    The production of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) is dependent on glutamate decarboxylases (GAD65 and GAD67), the enzymes that catalyze the decarboxylation of glutamate to GABA. Based on studies suggesting a role of the airway epithelial GABAergic system in asthma-related mucus overproduction, we hypothesized that cigarette smoking, another disorder associated with increased mucus production, may modulate GABAergic system-related gene expression levels in the airway epithelium. We assessed expression of the GABAergic system in human airway epithelium obtained using bronchoscopy to sample the epithelium and microarrays to evaluate gene expression. RT-PCR was used to confirm gene expression of GABAergic system gene in large and small airway epithelium from heathy nonsmokers and healthy smokers. The differences in the GABAergic system gene was further confirmed by TaqMan, immunohistochemistry and Western analysis. The data demonstrate there is a complete GABAergic system expressed in the large and small human airway epithelium, including glutamate decarboxylase, GABA receptors, transporters and catabolism enzymes. Interestingly, of the entire GABAergic system, smoking modified only the expression of GAD67, with marked up-regulation of GAD67 gene expression in both large (4.1-fold increase, p smoking. In the context that GAD67 is the rate limiting enzyme in GABA synthesis, the correlation of GAD67 gene expression with MUC5AC expressions suggests that the up-regulation of airway epithelium expression of GAD67 may contribute to the increase in mucus production observed in association with cigarette smoking. NCT00224198; NCT00224185.

  12. Acute corneal edema without epithelium compromise. A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Urrego-Díaz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute corneal edema is caused by various factors, with different levels of severity, and various forms of presentation. This paper reports the case of a male patient presenting with acute corneal edema without epithelium compromise, whose clinical picture, ophthalmological examination and additional tests did not reveal its etiology. Also, a review of available literature was conducted looking for all known causes of acute corneal edema, which are classified according to the etiology of the corneal edema into injury or inflammation of the corneal epithelium or stroma, endothelial dysfunction or increase in intraocular pressure.

  13. Transplantation tool integrated with MEMS manipulator for retinal pigment epithelium cell sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, H; Konishi, S

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a transplantation tool for the retinal pigment epithelium in an eye. We have developed MEMS manipulator as an end-effector for transplantation of retinal pigment epithelium cell sheet. Typical size of MEMS manipulator is 3mm×3mm. MEMS manipulator was made of polydimethylsiloxane and driven by pneumatic balloon actuators. MEMS manipulator have been improved and integrated with several functions by sensors and actuators. MEMS manipulator is integrated into a transplantation tool. A whole tool also requires improvements based on our experimental results. We have improved our tool in terms of assembling, sealing, and operation.

  14. Gut microbiota and probiotics in modulation of epithelium and gut-associated lymphoid tissue function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Yolanda; De Palma, Giada

    2009-01-01

    The intestinal tract mucosa is exposed to a vast number of environmental antigens and a large community of commensal bacteria. The mucosal immune system has to provide both protection against pathogens and tolerance to harmless bacteria. Immune homeostasis depends on the interaction of indigenous commensal and transient bacteria (probiotics) with various components of the epithelium and the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Herein, an update is given of the mechanisms by which the gut microbiota and probiotics are translocated through the epithelium, sensed via pattern-recognition receptors, and activate innate and adaptive immune responses.

  15. Hypotonicity induced K+ and anion conductive pathways activation in eel intestinal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lionetto, M G; Giordano, M E; De Nuccio, F

    2005-01-01

    Control of cell volume is a fundamental and highly conserved physiological mechanism, essential for survival under varying environmental and metabolic conditions. Epithelia (such as intestine, renal tubule, gallbladder and gills) are tissues physiologically exposed to osmotic stress. Therefore......, the activation of 'emergency' systems of rapid cell volume regulation is fundamental in their physiology. The aim of the present work was to study the physiological response to hypotonic stress in a salt-transporting epithelium, the intestine of the euryhaline teleost Anguilla anguilla. Eel intestinal epithelium...

  16. [Structure of the epithelium of the parasitic turbellaria Notenera ivanovi (Turbellaria: Fecampiida)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornakova, E E; Marchenkov, A V

    2000-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the epithelium in Notentera ivanovi (Turbellaria, Fecampiida) has been studied. Notentera ivanovi lacks the digestive system but has a pad of the epidermal cells on the dorsal side of the body, which seems to be similar to the digestive epidermis on LM. Both the ventral and dorsal epithelium are cellular, ciliated and not insunk (fig. 1, a). The ultrastructure of the ventral and dorsal epithelium is similar in essential features. The cells bear abundant microvilli, cilia and are very rich in mitochondria, but the cytoplasm does not contain lysosomes and shows no other indications of phago- or pinocytosis. The basal membrane of epithelial cells forms deep invaginations (fig. 1, [symbol: see text]), partly with dilations (fig. 1, a; 2, a) containing the lamellated material (3, [symbol: see text]). In the basal part of the cells the numerous Golgi apparatus and rare cysternae of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum were observed (fig. 2, a, [symbol: see text]). The epithelium consists of several types of cells, which differ in the structure of secretory granules. The most abundant type of cells contains the granules with the rough-fibrillated content (fig. 1, a; 2, [symbol: see text]; 3, a). The cells of this type cover most part of the body. In some cells the content of such granules becomes condensed and electron-dense granules appear (fig. 3, a, [symbol: see text]). Another type of cells contains the giant granules with the rough-fibrillated content (fig. 3, [symbol: see text]). Third type of the secret is the granules with the finely fibrillated content which is ejected by exocytosis. The cells of the second and third types form a separate areas of the epithelium of the dorsal side of the body but occasionally were observed in the ventral epithelium too. The epithelium of N. ivanovi differs from that in Kronborgia by the abundance and diversity of secretory contents. The role of the epithelium in the digestion remains conjectural. It seems to be

  17. Organ Culture as a Model System for Studies on Enterotoxin Interactions with the Intestinal Epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Ulver Spangsberg; Hansen, Gert H; Danielsen, E Michael

    2015-01-01

    Studies on bacterial enterotoxin-epithelium interactions require model systems capable of mimicking the events occurring at the molecular and cellular levels during intoxication. In this chapter, we describe organ culture as an often neglected alternative to whole-animal experiments or enterocyte......-like cell lines. Like cell culture, organ culture is versatile and suitable for studying rapidly occurring events, such as enterotoxin binding and uptake. In addition, it is advantageous in offering an epithelium with more authentic permeability/barrier properties than any cell line, as well...

  18. ACTA-EVER lecture 2007 - The retinal pigment epithelium: friend or foe?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Cour, Morten

    2008-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) plays an important role in the physiology and pathophysiology of the vertebrate retina. The RPE absorbs fluid from the retinal extracellular space, via a proton-lactate-water co-transport mechanism located in the apical membrane of the epithelium. This mechanism...... proliferating RPE cells. By means of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labelling, we studied the proliferation of RPE cells in the porcine eye after experimental posterior pole injury. Surprisingly, we found that only the peripheral RPE cells incorporated the BrdU label, indicating that central injury elicits...

  19. Animal Reasoning: Negation and Representations of Absence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales Ladrón de Guevara, Jorge

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I reject the possibility that animal reasoning, negation in particular, necessarily involves the representation of Absence, as suggested by José Luis Bermúdez, since this would still work as a logical negation (unavailable for non-linguistic creatures. False belief, pretense, and communication experiments show that non-human animals (at least some primates have difficulties representing absent entities or properties. I offer an alternative account resorting to the sub-symbolic similarity judgments proposed by Vigo & Allen and I introduce the notion of expectation: animal proto-negation takes place through the incompatibility between an expected and the actual representation. Finally, I propose that the paradigm of expectations can be extrapolated to other experiments in cognitive psychology (both with pre-linguistic children and animals in order to design “fair” experiments which test other minds considering their true abilities.

  20. 3D holographic portraits: presence and absence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveria, Rosa M.; Bernardo, Luís Miguel

    2011-02-01

    Authors writing about the portrait insist on the status of extending the model image portrayed beyond the absence and even death. The portrait also has this ability and suggests immortality. The picture suspends the time, making the absent present. The portrait has been, over time, one of the themes mostly used in art. No wonder that in holography it is an important subject as well. The face is a body area of privileged communication and expression. It expresses emotions through looks, smiles, movements and expressions. Being Holography, so far, the recording technology that represents the object most similar to the original, with the same parallax, we may fall into a mimetic representation of reality. On Art Holography even by following paths already traversed, the resulting holograms are always different because of the unique concept that each artist-holographer puts into his work. As with any other artistic technology, each artist uses the medium differently and with different results.

  1. The ELAM-1 ligand sialosyl-Le(X) is present on Langerhans cells isolated from stratified epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nylander, K; Larsen, J K; Larsen, J

    1992-01-01

    -sialosyl-Le(X)) using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that almost all OKT6-positive cells in normal stratified epithelium expressed sialosyl-Le(X). Conversely, by immunohistochemistry of oral epithelium with acute inflammation, additional dendritic cells negative for OKT6 were found to express...

  2. Clearance of lead-212 ions from rabbit bronchial epithelium to blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, A.C.; Greenhalgh, J.R.; Smith, H.

    1977-01-01

    The absorption of 212 Pb ions from bronchial epithelium to blood has been investigated in anaesthetized rabbits. The 212 Pb ions were introduced by intubation either into the trachea or into smaller, more distal bronchi. Removal from lung was followed by external γ-counting. Mucociliary clearance to the GI tract was blocked by tracheostomy. Two distinct phases of clearance from bronchial epithelium to blood were observed. Approximately 20% of deposited 212 Pb was rapidly absorbed with a half-time of about 4 min, the remainder with a biological half-time of about 9 h, irrespective of the site of instillation in the bronchial tree. Two hours after deposition, the 212 Pb remaining in lung was found to be partitioned between mucus and the bronchial epithelium, with a substantial but minor fraction in the epithelium. Uptake of 212 Pb in the skeleton was estimated to be about 20% of the 212 Pb entering the blood circulation. Removal by the kidneys, at 25%, was comparable with skeletal uptake. These results are compared with previously published work using rodents, dogs and man which demonstrated either rapid or slow absorption but not both phases occurring together. (author)

  3. Apico-basal forces exerted by apoptotic cells drive epithelium folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monier, Bruno; Gettings, Melanie; Gay, Guillaume; Mangeat, Thomas; Schott, Sonia; Guarner, Ana; Suzanne, Magali

    2015-02-12

    Epithelium folding is a basic morphogenetic event that is essential in transforming simple two-dimensional epithelial sheets into three-dimensional structures in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Folding has been shown to rely on apical constriction. The resulting cell-shape changes depend either on adherens junction basal shift or on a redistribution of myosin II, which could be driven by mechanical signals. Yet the initial cellular mechanisms that trigger and coordinate cell remodelling remain largely unknown. Here we unravel the active role of apoptotic cells in initiating morphogenesis, thus revealing a novel mechanism of epithelium folding. We show that, in a live developing tissue, apoptotic cells exert a transient pulling force upon the apical surface of the epithelium through a highly dynamic apico-basal myosin II cable. The apoptotic cells then induce a non-autonomous increase in tissue tension together with cortical myosin II apical stabilization in the surrounding tissue, eventually resulting in epithelium folding. Together our results, supported by a theoretical biophysical three-dimensional model, identify an apoptotic myosin-II-dependent signal as the initial signal leading to cell reorganization and tissue folding. This work further reveals that, far from being passively eliminated as generally assumed (for example, during digit individualization), apoptotic cells actively influence their surroundings and trigger tissue remodelling through regulation of tissue tension.

  4. Spontaneous and cytokine induced expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinases in human colonic epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, G; Saermark, T; Kirkegaard, T

    2009-01-01

    levels in cells from inflamed IBD mucosa. MMP-2 and -8 mRNA were expressed inconsistently and MMP-11, -13 and -14 mRNA undetectable. Proteolytic MMP activity was detected in CEC supernatants and the level was increased significantly in inflamed IBD epithelium. The enzyme activity was inhibited strongly...

  5. Changing distribution of cadherins during gestation in the uterine epithelium of lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Thompson, Michael B; Murphy, Christopher R

    2011-09-15

    The uterine epithelium provides the interface between an embryo and its mother during pregnancy. Calcium-dependent cadherins are adherens junction proteins that undergo major shifts in the uterine epithelium to facilitate the communication between maternal cells and the embryonic milieu during implantation in mammals. They are, therefore, important in trophoblast invasion and the maintenance of pregnancy. We investigated spatiotemporal changes of cadherins throughout pregnancy in the uterine epithelium of two viviparous skinks and one oviparous population, which all exhibit a noninvasive (epitheliochorial) placenta. Cadherins were identified for the first time in squamate reptiles. In all species, cadherins are reduced in the uterine epithelium as gestation progresses, which would lessen the attachment between uterine epithelial cells and allow them to stretch to accommodate embryonic growth. Interestingly, cadherins were reduced sooner after ovulation in the oviparous species than in the viviparous species. In viviparous species, the different expression of cadherins between barren and pregnant uteri from the same mother indicates that expression of cadherins may not be driven solely by maternal hormones, but also by the presence of an embryo. The redistribution of cadherins in squamates is comparable to that of mammals, reflecting establishment of feto-maternal communication during the peri-implantation period. As there is no breaching of maternal tissue in lizards, the change in adherens junctional properties are thus not exclusive to mammals with invasive placentae, which suggests that similar molecular mechanisms regulate changes to uterine epithelia during pregnancy across placental types. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  6. Ophthalmoscopy for congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE) in patients with sporadic colorectal carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, A; Myrhøj, T; Bülow, Steffen

    1995-01-01

    In order to investigate the frequency of congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE) in sporadic colorectal cancer, ophthalmoscopy was carried out in 34 patients with colorectal carcinoma without known familial disposition. CHRPE is one of the most frequent extracolonic...

  7. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) silencing in Helicobacter pylori-infected human gastric epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihara, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Muhammad, Jibran Sualeh; Nanjo, Sohachi; Ando, Takayuki; Fujinami, Haruka; Kajiura, Shinya; Hosokawa, Ayumu; Sugiyama, Toshiro

    2017-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection induces methylation silencing of specific genes in gastric epithelium. Various stimuli activate the nonselective cation channel TRPV4, which is expressed in gastric epithelium where it detects mechanical stimuli and promotes ATP release. As CpG islands in TRPV4 are methylated in HP-infected gastric epithelium, we evaluated HP infection-dependent changes in TRPV4 expression in gastric epithelium. Human gastric biopsy samples, a human gastric cancer cell line (AGS), and a normal gastric epithelial cell line (GES-1) were used to detect TRPV4 mRNA and protein expression by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Ca 2+ imaging was used to evaluate TRPV4 ion channel activity. TRPV4 methylation status was assessed by methylation-specific PCR (MSP). ATP release was measured by a luciferin-luciferase assay. TRPV4 mRNA and protein were detected in human gastric biopsy samples and in GES-1 cells. MSP and demethylation assays showed TRPV4 methylation silencing in AGS cells. HP coculture directly induced methylation silencing of TRPV4 in GES-1 cells. In human samples, HP infection was associated with TRPV4 methylation silencing that recovered after HP eradication in a time-dependent manner. HP infection-dependent DNA methylation suppressed TRPV4 expression in human gastric epithelia, suggesting that TRPV4 methylation may be involved in HP-associated dyspepsia. © 2016 The Authors. Helicobacter Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Regional variations of cell surface carbohydrates in human oral stratified epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedtofte, P; Dabelsteen, Erik; Hakomori, S

    1984-01-01

    The distribution of blood group carbohydrate chains with antigen A, B, H type 2 chain (A and B precursor), and N-acetyllactosamine (H type 2 precursor) specificity was studied in human oral epithelium from different anatomical regions. These represented various epithelial differentiation patterns...

  9. Increased Regenerative Capacity of the Olfactory Epithelium in Niemann–Pick Disease Type C1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Meyer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Niemann–Pick disease type C1 (NPC1 is a fatal neurovisceral lysosomal lipid storage disorder. The mutation of the NPC1 protein affects the homeostasis and transport of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids from late endosomes/lysosomes to the endoplasmic reticulum resulting in progressive neurodegeneration. Since olfactory impairment is one of the earliest symptoms in many neurodegenerative disorders, we focused on alterations of the olfactory epithelium in an NPC1 mouse model. Previous findings revealed severe morphological and immunohistochemical alterations in the olfactory system of NPC1−/− mutant mice compared with healthy controls (NPC1+/+. Based on immunohistochemical evaluation of the olfactory epithelium, we analyzed the impact of neurodegeneration in the olfactory epithelium of NPC1−/− mice and observed considerable loss of mature olfactory receptor neurons as well as an increased number of proliferating and apoptotic cells. Additionally, after administration of two different therapy approaches using either a combination of miglustat, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD and allopregnanolone or a monotherapy with HPβCD, we recorded a remarkable reduction of morphological damages in NPC1−/− mice and an up to four-fold increase of proliferating cells within the olfactory epithelium. Numbers of mature olfactory receptor neurons doubled after both therapy approaches. Interestingly, we also observed therapy-induced alterations in treated NPC1+/+ controls. Thus, olfactory testing may provide useful information to monitor pharmacologic treatment approaches in human NPC1.

  10. Xenogeneic acellular conjunctiva matrix as a scaffold of tissue-engineered corneal epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Zhao

    Full Text Available Amniotic membrane-based tissue-engineered corneal epithelium has been widely used in the reconstruction of the ocular surface. However, it often degrades too early to ensure the success of the transplanted corneal epithelium when treating patients with severe ocular surface disorders. In the present study, we investigated the preparation of xenogeneic acellular conjunctiva matrix (aCM and evaluated its efficacy and safety as a scaffold of tissue-engineered corneal epithelium. Native porcine conjunctiva was decellularized with 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS for 12 h at 37°C and sterilized via γ-irradiation. Compared with native conjunctiva, more than 92% of the DNA was removed, and more than 90% of the extracellular matrix components (glycosaminoglycan and collagen remained after the decellularization treatment. Compared with denuded amniotic membrane (dAM, the aCM possessed favorable optical transmittance, tensile strength, stability and biocompatibility as well as stronger resistance to degradation both in vitro and in vivo. The corneal epithelial cells seeded on aCM formed a multilayered epithelial structure and endured longer than did those on dAM. The aCM-based tissue-engineered corneal epithelium was more effective in the reconstruction of the ocular surface in rabbits with limbal stem cell deficiency. These findings support the application of xenogeneic acellular conjunctiva matrix as a scaffold for reconstructing the ocular surface.

  11. DNA damage in lens epithelium of cataract patients in vivo and ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øsnes-Ringen, Oyvind; Azqueta, Amaia O; Moe, Morten C; Zetterström, Charlotta; Røger, Magnus; Nicolaissen, Bjørn; Collins, Andrew R

    2013-11-01

    DNA damage has been described in the human cataractous lens epithelium, and oxidative stress generated by UV radiation and endogenous metabolic processes has been suggested to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of cataract. In this study, the aim was to explore the quality and relative quantity of DNA damage in lens epithelium of cataract patients in vivo and after incubation in a cell culture system. Capsulotomy specimens were analysed, before and after 1 week of ex vivo cultivation, using the comet assay to measure DNA strand breaks, oxidized purine and pyrimidine bases and UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. DNA strand breaks were barely detectable, oxidized pyrimidines and pyrimidine dimers were present at low levels, whereas there was a relatively high level of oxidized purines, which further increased after cultivation. The observed levels of oxidized purines in cataractous lens epithelium may support a theory consistent with light damage and oxidative stress as mediators of molecular damage to the human lens epithelium. Damage commonly associated with UV-B irradiation was relatively low. The levels of oxidized purines increased further in a commonly used culture system. This is of interest considering the importance and versatility of ex vivo systems in studies exploring the pathogenesis of cataract. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  12. Comparison of Effect of Hypoxia on Epithelium of Trachea and Terminal Bronchioles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uhlík, J.; Konrádová, V.; Vajner, L.; Adášková, Jana; Herget, J.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 9, Suppl. 3 (2003), s. 478-479 ISSN 1431-9276. [Microscopy Conference /31./. Dresden, 07.09.2003-12.09.2003] Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : airway epithelium * Clara cells * ciliated cells * hypoxia * electron microscopy Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.648, year: 2003

  13. Biosynthesis of 11-cis-retinoids and retinyl esters by bovine pigment epithelium membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulton, B.S.; Rando, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that retina/pigment epithelium membranes from the amphibian can synthesize 11-cis-retinoids from added all-trans-retinol. The activity was largely localized to the pigment epithelium. Here it is shown that, in the bovine system, the activity resides exclusively in the membranes of the pigment epithelium. Subcellular fractionation does not reveal a particular organelle where the activity resides. Washed bovine pigment epithelium membranes, which are devoid of retinoid redox activity, convert added all-trans-retinol to a mixture of 11-cis-retinol and its palmitate ester. all-trans-Retinal and all-trans-retinyl palmitate are not converted into 11-cis-retinoids by the membranes. The membranes show substantial ester synthetase activity, producing large amounts of all-trans-retinyl palmitate. Diverse chemical reagents, such as ethanol, hydroxylamine, and p-(hydroxymercuri)benzoate, inhibit both ester synthetase and isomerase activities in a roughly parallel fashion, suggesting a possible functional linkage between the two activities

  14. A quest for the best retinal pigment epithelium (stem) cell replacement therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennis, A.

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis the focus of study lies on the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a monolayer of pigmented cells that lie underneath the photoreceptors (PR). The PR are specialized type of neurons that are capable of converting the incoming light into electric and neurochemical signals to the brain.

  15. Radioautographic study of DNA synthesis on gingival epithelium of mice Mus musculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira Tarelho, Z.V. da; Hetem, S.

    1985-01-01

    The frequency of DNA-sinthetizing cells in the basal layer of the gingival epithelium of the first lower molar region of young and adult mice of both sexes was studied using 3 H-thymidine and radioautography. (M.A.C.) [pt

  16. Adaptation of image cytometry methodology for DNA ploidy analysis of cervical epithelium samples: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Eliza Motta Duarte

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Image cytometry of the cervical specimens revealed DNA aneuploidy, most probably resulting from chromosomal alterations and appearing as precancerous lesions in 65% of the cases. The adaptations implemented in this study, enabled the DNA-image cytometry to become more accessible, enhancing its extended use as an adjuvant strategy for the early screening of the cervical epithelium samples during routine analyses.

  17. Coordinate reduction in cell proliferation and cell death in mouse olfactory epithelium from birth to maturity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fung, KM; Peringa, J; Venkatachalam, S; Lee, VMY; Trojanowski, JQ

    1997-01-01

    We investigated cell proliferation and cell death in the olfactory epithelium (OE) of mice from birth to maturity using bromodeoxyuridine and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling. We show that cell death events and proliferative activity diminish concomitantly with age in the OE.

  18. Epithelial Cell Damage Activates Bactericidal/Permeability Increasing-Protein (BPI Expression in Intestinal Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Balakrishnan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As the first line of defense against invading pathogen, intestinal epithelium produces various antimicrobial proteins (AMP that help in clearance of pathogen. Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI is a 55 kDa AMP that is expressed in intestinal epithelium. Dysregulation of BPI in intestinal epithelium is associated with various inflammatory diseases like Crohn’s Disease, Ulcerative colitis, and Infectious enteritis’s. In this paper, we report a direct correlation between intestinal damage and BPI expression. In Caco-2 cells, we see a significant increase in BPI levels upon membrane damage mediated by S. aureus infection and pore-forming toxins (Streptolysin and Listeriolysin. Cells detect changes in potassium level as a Danger-associated molecular pattern associated with cell damage and induce BPI expression in a p38 dependent manner. These results are further supported by in vivo findings that the BPI expression in murine intestinal epithelium is induced upon infection with bacteria which cause intestinal damage (Salmonella Typhimurium and Shigella flexneri whereas mutants that do not cause intestinal damage (STM ΔfliC and STM ΔinvC did not induce BPI expression. Our results suggest that epithelial damage associated with infection act as a signal to induce BPI expression.

  19. Interaction of environmental allergens with airway epithelium as a key component of asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauffman, HF

    Epithelial cells in the airway wall actively interact with environmental antigens/allergens, both in healthy individuals and patients with asthma. In patients with (allergic) asthma; the epithelium is abnormal, showing damaged structures and continuous activation similar to a repair phenotype cell.

  20. Immunohistochemical expression of matrix metalloproteinases in the rabbit corneal epithelium upon UVA and UVB irradiation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ardan, Taras; Čejková, Jitka

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 6 (2012), s. 540-546 ISSN 0065-1281 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP302/10/P155 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : cornea * corneal epithelium * eye Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 1.608, year: 2012

  1. Repair of tracheal epithelium by basal cells after chlorine-induced injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musah Sadiatu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlorine is a widely used toxic compound that is considered a chemical threat agent. Chlorine inhalation injures airway epithelial cells, leading to pulmonary abnormalities. Efficient repair of injured epithelium is necessary to restore normal lung structure and function. The objective of the current study was to characterize repair of the tracheal epithelium after acute chlorine injury. Methods C57BL/6 mice were exposed to chlorine and injected with 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU to label proliferating cells prior to sacrifice and collection of tracheas on days 2, 4, 7, and 10 after exposure. Airway repair and restoration of a differentiated epithelium were examined by co-localization of EdU labeling with markers for the three major tracheal epithelial cell types [keratin 5 (K5 and keratin 14 (K14 for basal cells, Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP for Clara cells, and acetylated tubulin (AcTub for ciliated cells]. Morphometric analysis was used to measure proliferation and restoration of a pseudostratified epithelium. Results Epithelial repair was fastest and most extensive in proximal trachea compared with middle and distal trachea. In unexposed mice, cell proliferation was minimal, all basal cells expressed K5, and K14-expressing basal cells were absent from most sections. Chlorine exposure resulted in the sloughing of Clara and ciliated cells from the tracheal epithelium. Two to four days after chlorine exposure, cell proliferation occurred in K5- and K14-expressing basal cells, and the number of K14 cells was dramatically increased. In the period of peak cell proliferation, few if any ciliated or Clara cells were detected in repairing trachea. Expression of ciliated and Clara cell markers was detected at later times (days 7–10, but cell proliferation was not detected in areas in which these differentiated markers were re-expressed. Fibrotic lesions were observed at days 7–10 primarily in distal trachea. Conclusion

  2. Beyond the Excused/Unexcused Absence Binary: Classifying Absenteeism through a Voluntary/Involuntary Absence Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birioukov, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Student absenteeism in secondary schools has received international academic attention for quite some time. Absenteeism has been linked to diminished academic outcomes and is one of the leading causes of high school dropout. Although absenteeism is a serious concern for educational scholars, the definitions of absences and their subtypes are…

  3. Visualization of ex vivo human ciliated epithelium and induced flow using optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yuye; Gamm, Uta A.; Yao, Xinwen; Arteaga-Solis, Emilio; Emala, Charles W.; Choma, Michael A.; Hendon, Christine P.

    2017-04-01

    The ciliated epithelium is important to the human respiratory system because it clears mucus that contains harmful microorganisms and particulate matter. We report the ex vivo visualization of human trachea/bronchi ciliated epithelium and induced flow characterized by using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). A total number of 17 samples from 7 patients were imaged. Samples were obtained from Columbia University Department of Anesthesiology's tissue bank. After excision, the samples were placed in Gibco Medium 199 solution with oxygen at 4°C until imaging. The samples were maintained at 36.7°C throughout the experiment. The imaging protocol included obtaining 3D volumes and 200 consecutive B-scans parallel to the head-to-feet direction (superior-inferior axis) of the airway, using Thorlabs Telesto system at 1300 nm at 28 kHz A-line rate and a custom built high resolution SDOCT system at 800nm at 32 kHz A-line rate. After imaging, samples were processed with H and E histology. Speckle variance of the time resolved datasets demonstrate significant contrast at the ciliated epithelium sites. Flow images were also obtained after injecting 10μm polyester beads into the solution, which shows beads traveling trajectories near the ciliated epithelium areas. In contrary, flow images taken in the orthogonal plane show no beads traveling trajectories. This observation is in line with our expectation that cilia drive flow predominantly along the superior-inferior axis. We also observed the protective function of the mucus, shielding the epithelium from the invasion of foreign objects such as microspheres. Further studies will be focused on the cilia's physiological response to environmental changes such as drug administration and physical injury.

  4. Garlic ameliorates histological changes in the uterine epithelium of lead induced mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waseem, N.; Butt, S.A.; Hamid, S.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the protective role of garlic extract on the histology of the uterine epithelium exposed to lead acetate in an animal model. Study Design: Laboratory based randomized control trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anatomy, Army Medical College in collaboration with National Institute of health from April to June 2013. Material and Methods: Thirty female BALBc mice were selected. Ten animals were placed in each group. Group A being the control was given normal diet. Group B was given lead acetate at a dose of 30 mg/kg/day. Group C was given lead acetate 30 mg/kg/day and garlic extract 500 mg/kg/day through oral gavage tube for 60 days. Animals were sacrificed and dissected at the end of 60 days. Right uterine horn was processed, embedded and stained for histological study. Height of epithelium was measured. It was taken from apical to basal end of the cells. Results: There was increase in height of the lining epithelium of uterus in group B, mean value 19.70 ± 4.81 meu m when compared to Group A, with mean value 13.25 ± 2.37 meu m. The height of the epithelium was relatively reduced in group C, with mean value 14.50 ± 2.30 meu m when compared with group B. In group C results were same as Group A. The p values were 0.001 when group A was compared to group B, 0.688 when group A was compared to group C and 0.005 when group B was compared to group C. Conclusion: The height of epithelium was markedly increased in lead acetate treated group which returned to normal when co treated with garlic extract. Hence garlic ameliorated the changes induced by lead. (author)

  5. In vitro culture of embryonic mouse intestinal epithelium: cell differentiation and introduction of reporter genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hornsey Mark A

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Study of the normal development of the intestinal epithelium has been hampered by a lack of suitable model systems, in particular ones that enable the introduction of exogenous genes. Production of such a system would advance our understanding of normal epithelial development and help to shed light on the pathogenesis of intestinal neoplasia. The criteria for a reliable culture system include the ability to perform real time observations and manipulations in vitro, the preparation of wholemounts for immunostaining and the potential for introducing genes. Results The new culture system involves growing mouse embryo intestinal explants on fibronectin-coated coverslips in basal Eagle's medium+20% fetal bovine serum. Initially the cultures maintain expression of the intestinal transcription factor Cdx2 together with columnar epithelial (cytokeratin 8 and mesenchymal (smooth muscle actin markers. Over a few days of culture, differentiation markers appear characteristic of absorptive epithelium (sucrase-isomaltase, goblet cells (Periodic Acid Schiff positive, enteroendocrine cells (chromogranin A and Paneth cells (lysozyme. Three different approaches were tested to express genes in the developing cultures: transfection, electroporation and adenoviral infection. All could introduce genes into the mesenchyme, but only to a small extent into the epithelium. However the efficiency of adenovirus infection can be greatly improved by a limited enzyme digestion, which makes accessible the lateral faces of cells bearing the Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor. This enables reliable delivery of genes into epithelial cells. Conclusion We describe a new in vitro culture system for the small intestine of the mouse embryo that recapitulates its normal development. The system both provides a model for studying normal development of the intestinal epithelium and also allows for the manipulation of gene expression. The explants can be cultured for up

  6. Mauriac: The Ambivalent Author of Absence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Reid

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the significance of first- and third-person narrative voices. Although, as Gérard Genette points out, the choice of either voice is not in itself significant, transitions between the two voices are. Such transitions serve to disclose the absence of an author's point of view. They are a privileged means of revealing that no narrative voice can be entirely truthful or persuasive. In two Mauriac novels, Thérèse Desquevroux and Le Noeud de vipères , transitions between first- and third-person voices are produced by linguistic differences between the "I" and the "he." These differences create a rhetoric of voice: the "he" hides and figures an implicit "I," while the "I" hides and figures an implicit "he." This rhetoric generates opposing plots recounting both the author's and the reader's search for a hidden, truthful voice: for an implied writer or reader. One plot traces an effort to disclose, within an inauthentic "he," a hidden, authentic "I." It culminates only in a recognition of the formal nature of all stories and all voices that tell them. The other plot recounts the discovery that the "I" hides a "he." It reveals a very different truth: that the "I" is alienated from its formal role and from the formal nature of the narratives it recounts. Both of these plots are linear accounts of how the narrative was composed and how it should be interpreted. Both create seemingly truthful voices—implied writers or readers—who tell them. But because these plots represent the same narrative in contradictory terms, they ultimately demonstrate the impossibility of saying what the narrative is doing or who, if anyone, is doing the narrating. Indeed, Mauriac's characters ask whether the writing and reading of narrative do anything at all. Not only do they disclose the absence of an implied writer or reader; they call into question the very notion that the text represents or constitutes actions or events: its narrativity.

  7. Holographic space: presence and absence in time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yin-Ren; Richardson, Martin

    2017-03-01

    In terms of contemporary art, time-based media generally refers to artworks that have duration as a dimension and unfold to the viewer over time, that could be a video, slide, film, computer-based technologies or audio. As part of this category, holography pushes this visual-oriented narrative a step further, which brings a real 3D image to invite and allow audiences revisiting the scene of the past, at the moment of recording in space and time. Audiences could also experience the kinetic holographic aesthetics through constantly moving the viewing point or illumination source, which creates dynamic visual effects. In other words, when the audience and hologram remain still, the holographic image can only be perceived statically. This unique form of expression is not created by virtual simulation; the principal of wavefront reconstruction process made holographic art exceptional from other time-based media. This project integrates 3D printing technology to explore the nature of material aesthetics, transiting between material world and holographic space. In addition, this series of creation also reveals the unique temporal quality of a hologram's presence and absence, an ambiguous relationship existing in this media.

  8. Clinicopathological evaluation of 164 dental follicles and dentigerous cysts with emphasis on the presence of odontogenic epithelium in the connective tissue. The hypothesis of "focal ameloblastoma"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meleti, M.; van der Waal, I.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Some ameloblastomas presumably originate from odontogenic epithelium within the connective tissue of dental follicles and dentigerous cysts. Therefore, it would seem reasonable to discuss as whether odontogenic epithelium proliferations, frankly displaying ameloblastomatous features

  9. Speaking absence. Art museums, representation and knowledge creation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tali, M.

    2014-01-01

    In my dissertation I investigate multiple absences that are at work in art museums. My understanding of absence is informed by postcolonial theory, gender studies and memory studies. Museal absence involves material and immaterial sides that are based on excluded objects and certain unwanted social

  10. Sickness absence frequency among women working in hospital care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; Schreuder, Jolanda A. H.; Koopmans, Petra C.; Moen, Bente E.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2009-01-01

    Background Frequent short sickness absences result in understaffing and interfere with work processes. We need more knowledge about factors associated with this type of absence. Aims To investigate associations between the frequency of previous sickness absence and self-reported perceptions of

  11. The expression of Wnt2b in the optic cup lip requires a border between the pigmented and nonpigmented epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamoto, Junko; Hyer, Jeanette

    2010-12-14

    Wnt2b is normally expressed at the optic cup lip and is implicated in ciliary body induction. The lens has often been considered an organizer for the anterior eye, but recent studies demonstrate that the anterior cell fates are correctly specified in the absence of the lens. This study uses Wnt2b as a marker to reveal the mechanism behind the specification of the anterior domain of the optic cup. Developing chick embryos were used as a model system. Eyes were microsurgically manipulated to assess the role of the lens in the development of the anterior optic cup. Eyes were molecularly manipulated, using fibroblast growth factor expressing replication-incompetent retrovirus, introduced into the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) domain. Ectopic fibroblast growth factor transformed the RPE into nonpigmented epithelium (NPE; ciliary body). As the virus does not spread, discrete borders between RPE and NPE were experimentally created. Wnt2b expression was assessed after surgical and molecular manipulation. Contrary to expectations, we found that the lens is not able to induce Wnt2b expression in optic cup tissue: When the optic cup lip is experimentally misspecified such that it no longer contains the juxtaposition of pigmented and nonpigmented tissue, Wnt2b is not expressed. In addition, if the prelens ectoderm is removed from the optic vesicle before morphogenesis, the resulting lensless optic cup expresses Wnt2b even though it was not in contact with lens tissue. We also show that ectopic lenses do not induce Wnt2b in optic cup tissue. The ciliary body/anterior eye domain is specified at the border of RPE and the NPE of the ciliary body. During development, this border is normally found at the optic cup lip. We can manipulate tissue specification using retroviral-mediated gene transfer, and create ectopic borders between nonpigmented and pigmented tissue. At such borders, Wnt2b is ectopically expressed in the absence of lens contact. Finally, we describe a role for

  12. Does absence matter?: a comparison of three types of father absence in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Mary K; Starkweather, Kathrine; Kress, Howard C; Alam, Nurul

    2013-03-01

    This paper examines the effects of three different types of father absence on the timing of life history events among women in rural Bangladesh. Age at marriage and age at first birth are compared across women who experienced different father presence/absence conditions as children. Survival analyses show that daughters of fathers who divorced their mothers or deserted their families have consistently younger ages at marriage and first birth than other women. In contrast, daughters whose fathers were labor migrants have consistently older ages at marriage and first birth. Daughters whose fathers died when they were children show older ages at marriage and first birth than women with divorced/deserted fathers and women with fathers present. These effects may be mediated by high socioeconomic status and high levels of parental investment among the children of labor migrants, and a combination of low investment, high psychosocial stress, and low alloparental investment among women with divorced/deserted fathers. Our findings are most consistent with the Child Development Theory model of female life history strategies, though the Paternal Investment and Psychosocial Acceleration models also help explain differences between women in low paternal investment situations (e.g., father divorced/abandoned vs. father dead). Father absence in and of itself seems to have little effect on the life history strategies of Bangladeshi women once key reasons for or correlates of absence are controlled, and none of the models is a good predictor of why women with deceased fathers have delayed life histories compared with women whose fathers are present.

  13. Validation in the Absence of Observed Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, John; Ezell, Barry

    2016-04-01

    This article addresses the problem of validating models in the absence of observed events, in the area of weapons of mass destruction terrorism risk assessment. We address that problem with a broadened definition of "validation," based on stepping "up" a level to considering the reason why decisionmakers seek validation, and from that basis redefine validation as testing how well the model can advise decisionmakers in terrorism risk management decisions. We develop that into two conditions: validation must be based on cues available in the observable world; and it must focus on what can be done to affect that observable world, i.e., risk management. That leads to two foci: (1) the real-world risk generating process, and (2) best use of available data. Based on our experience with nine WMD terrorism risk assessment models, we then describe three best use of available data pitfalls: SME confidence bias, lack of SME cross-referencing, and problematic initiation rates. Those two foci and three pitfalls provide a basis from which we define validation in this context in terms of four tests--Does the model: … capture initiation? … capture the sequence of events by which attack scenarios unfold? … consider unanticipated scenarios? … consider alternative causal chains? Finally, we corroborate our approach against three validation tests from the DOD literature: Is the model a correct representation of the process to be simulated? To what degree are the model results comparable to the real world? Over what range of inputs are the model results useful? © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Multi-nucleate retinal pigment epithelium cells of the human macula exhibit a characteristic and highly specific distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starnes, Austin C; Huisingh, Carrie; McGwin, Gerald; Sloan, Kenneth R; Ablonczy, Zsolt; Smith, R Theodore; Curcio, Christine A; Ach, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is reportedly 3% bi-nucleated. The importance to human vision of multi-nucleated (MN)-RPE cells could be clarified with more data about their distribution in central retina. Nineteen human RPE-flatmounts (9 ≤ 51 years, 10 > 80 years) were imaged at 12 locations: 3 eccentricities (fovea, perifovea, near periphery) in 4 quadrants (superior, inferior, temporal, nasal). Image stacks of lipofuscin-attributable autofluorescence and phalloidin labeled F-actin cytoskeleton were obtained using a confocal fluorescence microscope. Nuclei were devoid of autofluorescence and were marked using morphometric software. Cell areas were approximated by Voronoi regions. Mean number of nuclei per cell among eccentricity/quadrant groups and by age were compared using Poisson and binominal regression models. A total of 11,403 RPE cells at 200 locations were analyzed: 94.66% mono-, 5.31% bi-, 0.02% tri-nucleate, and 0.01% with 5 nuclei. Age had no effect on number of nuclei. There were significant regional differences: highest frequencies of MN-cells were found at the perifovea (9.9%) and near periphery (6.8%). The fovea lacked MN-cells almost entirely. The nasal quadrant had significantly more MN-cells compared to other quadrants, at all eccentricities. This study demonstrates MN-RPE cells in human macula. MN-cells may arise due to endoreplication, cell fusion, or incomplete cell division. The topography of MN-RPE cells follows the topography of photoreceptors; with near-absence at the fovea (cones only) and high frequency at perifovea (highest rod density). This distribution might reflect specific requirements of retinal metabolism or other mechanisms addressable in further studies.

  15. The study of the condition of the oral prosthesis field epithelium in persons wearing dentures of polypropylene and acrylic bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuturminskiy, V; Chulack, L

    2013-12-01

    The goal of the study was to make a comparative assessment of the effect of the partial removable polypropylene and acrylic dentures on the prosthetic bed epithelium. The material of this study was smears-scrapes of the oral mucosa obtained from 316 patients. The results of the investigation of the morphological cell composition of the oral mucosa epithelium obtained from the prosthesis field and after prosthesis show a negative influence of the acrylic denture bases on the epithelium of the oral mucosa. The most optimal was the correlation of epithelial cells in the oral mucosa in the patients with dentures from "Tipplen R 359", processed in plasma of the glow discharge.

  16. Mdm4 loss in the intestinal epithelium leads to compartmentalized cell death but no tissue abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin-Vega, Yasmine A.; Box, Neil; Terzian, Tamara; Lozano, Guillermina

    2014-01-01

    Mdm4 is a critical inhibitor of the p53 tumor suppressor. Mdm4 null mice die early during embryogenesis due to increased p53 activity. In this study, we explore the role that Mdm4 plays in the intestinal epithelium by crossing mice carrying the Mdm4 floxed allele to mice with the Villin Cre transgene. Our data show that loss of Mdm4 (Mdm4intΔ) in this tissue resulted in viable animals with no obvious morphological abnormalities. However, these mutants displayed increased p53 levels and apoptosis exclusively in the proliferative compartment of the intestinal epithelium. This phenotype was completely rescued in a p53 null background. Notably, the observed compartmentalized apoptosis in proliferative intestinal epithelial cells was not due to restricted Mdm4 expression in this region. Thus, in this specific cellular context, p53 is negatively regulated by Mdm4 exclusively in highly proliferative cells. PMID:19371999

  17. The secondary tongue of Salamandra salamandra: histochemical and ultrastructural aspects of the developing lingual epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opolka, A; Wistuba, J; Clemen, G

    2001-01-01

    The development of the lingual epithelium of Salamandra salamandra was investigated with emphasis on histochemical and ultrastructural aspects. The temporal and spatial occurrence and the typical appearance of various cell types; i.e. pavement cells, replacement pavement cells, basal cells, mitochondria rich cells, goblet cells and glandular cells have been analysed and documented in detail from the young larval stage up to the metamorphosed animal (2 months after metamorphosis). It is shown that anatomical re- and de novo-constructions related to the formation of the secretory tongue led to distinct changes in the cellular equipment of the epithelium of the tongue, including various histochemical properties. Finally, functional aspects of the morphological characteristics are discussed in detail and compared with respective findings in other species.

  18. Evidence for a Na+/Ca2+ exchange mechanism in frog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, K H; Brodin, Birger; Nielsen, R

    1999-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the possible existence of a Na+/Ca2+ exchange mechanism in the basolateral membrane of the frog skin epithelium and whether such a mechanism plays a role in the regulation of transepithelial Na+ transport. Cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]i) was measured with the probe...... in serosal Na+ were followed by stepwise changes in [Ca2+]i. These observations indicate the existence of a Na+/Ca2+ exchange mechanism in the basolateral membrane of the frog skin epithelium. The transepithelial Na+ transport decreased from 13.2+/-1.8 to 9.2+/-1.5 microA cm-2 (n=8, P=0.049) when Na...

  19. The coelomic epithelium transcriptome from a clonal sea star, Coscinasterias muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabre, Jonatan L; Martinez, Pedro; Nilsson Sköld, Helen; Ortega-Martinez, Olga; Abril, Josep F

    2015-12-01

    Coscinasterias is a cosmopolitan genus of large asteroid sea stars with the ability of somatic fission as a clonal reproductive strategy. During fission, the animals tear themselves apart across their central disc, where the lost body parts are regenerated afterwards. Here, we have sequenced and subsequently analysed the transcriptome of the coelomic epithelium of a clonal Coscinasterias muricata specimen from New Zealand. Out of the total 389,768 raw reads, 11,344 contigs were assembled and grouped into functions. Raw read and assembled contig sequences are available at NCBI (BioSample: SAMN03371637), while the annotated assembly can be accessed through the project transcriptome browser (compgen.bio.ub.edu/gbrowse/starfish_transcriptome/). Our data is valuable for future detailed exploration of the coelomic epithelium functions as well as for a better understanding of sea star physiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of the organophosphorous methyl parathion on the branchial epithelium of a freshwater fish Metynnis roosevelti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Marcelo Rubens

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Gills are vital structures for fish, since they are the main site for gaseous exchange as well as partially responsible for osmorregulation, acid-basic balance, excretion of nitrogenous compounds and taste. Chemicals in the water may alter the morphology of branchial cells of fish that are, therefore, a useful model for environmental impact and ecotoxicology studies. In order to investigate the effects of an organophosphorous compound, methyl parathion, on the gills of the fish, samples of Metynnis roosevelti were exposed to lethal (7ppm and sublethal (1ppm doses of Mentox 600 CE. Through light and scanning electron microscopy, shrinking of the branchial epithelium, followed by detachment and hyperplasia were observed. Externally, the branchial filaments presented the gradual disappearance of microridges. Even in sublethal doses, the organophosphorous reduced the health and fitness of these fish, as consequence of secondary effects derived from changes in the branchial epithelium, impairing oxygenation and ionic balance of the organism.

  1. The nanomechanical role of melanin granules in the retinal pigment epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, Michal; Olchawa, Magdalena; Zadlo, Andrzej; Wnuk, Dawid; Sarna, Tadeusz

    2017-04-01

    Nanomechanical properties of cells and tissues, in particular their elasticity, play an important role in different physiological and pathological processes. Recently, we have demonstrated that melanin granules dramatically modify nanomechanical properties of melanoma cells making them very stiff and, as a result, less aggressive. Although the mechanical effect of melanin granules was demonstrated in pathological cells, it was never studied in the case of normal cells. In this work, we analyzed the impact of melanin granules on nanomechanical properties of primary retinal pigment epithelium tissue fragments isolated from porcine eyes. The obtained results clearly show that melanin granules are responsible for the exceptional nanomechanical properties of the tissue. Our findings suggest that melanin granules in the retinal pigment epithelium may play an important role in sustaining the stiffness of this single cell layer, which functions as a natural mechanical barrier separating the retina from the choroid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Interactions of Giardia sp. with the intestinal barrier: Epithelium, mucus, and microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, Thibault; Amat, Christina B; Motta, Jean-Paul; Manko, Anna; Buret, André G

    2017-01-02

    Understanding how intestinal enteropathogens cause acute and chronic alterations has direct animal and human health perspectives. Significant advances have been made on this field by studies focusing on the dynamic crosstalk between the intestinal protozoan parasite model Giardia duodenalis and the host intestinal mucosa. The concept of intestinal barrier function is of the highest importance in the context of many gastrointestinal diseases such as infectious enteritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and post-infectious gastrointestinal disorders. This crucial function relies on 3 biotic and abiotic components, first the commensal microbiota organized as a biofilm, then an overlaying mucus layer, and finally the tightly structured intestinal epithelium. Herein we review multiple strategies used by Giardia parasite to circumvent these 3 components. We will summarize what is known and discuss preliminary observations suggesting how such enteropathogen directly and/ or indirectly impairs commensal microbiota biofilm architecture, disrupts mucus layer and damages host epithelium physiology and survival.

  3. Cytological response of palatal epithelium to TiN-coated CoCr alloy denture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Sokołowski

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the impact of titanium nitride coatings on CoCr alloy metal parts in framework dentures on human palatal epithelium cytology compared to framework dentures made with the same alloy but without titanium nitride coating, and to acrylic dentures. Every prosthetic restoration introduced into the oral cavity and remaining in direct contact with the palate exhibits a varied and harmful effect on the state of the palatal epithelium by disturbing its keratinization. CoCr alloy dentures produce a significantly greater perturbation of keratinization compared to acrylic dentures. There is no evidence showing that a titanium nitride coating of the CoCr alloy plays a protective role in the environment of the oral cavity.

  4. Spontaneous and cytokine induced expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinases in human colonic epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, G; Saermark, T; Kirkegaard, T

    2009-01-01

    levels in cells from inflamed IBD mucosa. MMP-2 and -8 mRNA were expressed inconsistently and MMP-11, -13 and -14 mRNA undetectable. Proteolytic MMP activity was detected in CEC supernatants and the level was increased significantly in inflamed IBD epithelium. The enzyme activity was inhibited strongly......Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in tissue damage associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).As the role of the intestinal epithelium in this process is unknown, we determined MMP expression and enzyme activity in human colonic epithelial cells (CEC). MMP mRNA expression...... was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in HT-29 and DLD-1 cells and in CEC isolated from biopsies from IBD and control patients. Total MMP activity in the cells was measured by a functional assay, based on degradation of a fluorescent synthetic peptide containing the specific bond...

  5. A mathematical model of amphibian skin epithelium with two types of transporting cellular units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Rasmussen, B E

    1985-01-01

    A computer model of ion transport across amphibian skin epithelium containing two types of cellular units, their relative number and sizes, and a paracellular pathway has been developed. The two cellular units are, a large Na+ transporting compartment representing the major epithelium from stratum...... granulosum to str. germinativum, and a small, Cl- transporting compartment representing the mitochondria rich cell. The cellular units both contain dissipative and active pathways according to the two-membrane model. The Na+ transporting unit includes a (Na+, K+, 2 Cl-) co-transport system in the inward...... facing membrane. The outward facing membrane of the Cl- transporting units contains a potential gated Cl- permeability. Effects of ion distributions and changes in gating variables on the time course of transepithelial voltage clamp currents and their steady states are analyzed. The model predicts...

  6. Apoptosis and autophagy in the midgut epithelium of Acheta domesticus (Insecta, Orthoptera, Gryllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena M; Poprawa, Izabela; Chachulska-Zymełka, Alina

    2010-09-01

    The midgut epithelium of Acheta domesticus (Insecta, Orthoptera, Gryllidae), which is composed of columnar digestive cells and regenerative crypts, degenerates in two manners: necrotic and apoptotic. While necrosis was described in our previous paper, programmed cell death was the aim of the present studies. The first morphological signs of programmed cell death in midgut epithelium cells are alterations in the cytoplasm connected with shrinkage of the cells. Gradual modifications in a cell's structure cause it to be discharged into the midgut lumen, where it disintegrates. Autophagy is involved in the disintegration of organelles. The transitions of apoptotic cells are described at the ultrastructural level. Immunostaining methods were used in order to indicate the early stages of apoptosis when DNA fragmentation, which results from apoptotic signaling cascades, occurs.

  7. Buccal Epithelium, Cigarette Smoking, and Lung Cancer: Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Raya; Halytskyy, Oleksandr; Saleem, Nasir; Oliff, Ira A

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is currently the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among men and women in the United States, and optimal screening methods are still lacking. The field effect is a well-supported phenomenon wherein a noxious stimulus triggers genetic, epigenetic and molecular changes that are widespread throughout the entire exposed organ system. The buccal epithelium is an easily accessible part of the respiratory tree that has good potential of yielding a surrogate marker for the field effect in cigarette smokers, and thus, a noninvasive, reliable lung cancer screening method. Herein, we review the literature on the relationship between the buccal epithelium, cigarette smoking, and lung cancer. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Microfluidic wound-healing assay to assess the regenerative effect of HGF on wounded alveolar epithelium.

    OpenAIRE

    Felder Marcel; Sallin Pauline; Barbe Laurent; Haenni Beat; Gazdhar Amiq; Geiser Thomas; Guenat Olivier

    2012-01-01

    We present a microfluidic epithelial wound healing assay that allows characterization of the effect of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on the regeneration of alveolar epithelium using a flow focusing technique to create a regular wound in the epithelial monolayer. The phenotype of the epithelial cell was characterized using immunostaining for tight junction (TJ) proteins and transmission electron micrographs (TEMs) of cells cultured in the microfluidic system a technique that is reported here ...

  9. Cellular distribution and function of ion channels involved in transport processes in rat tracheal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Anne; Faulhaber, Johannes; Srisawang, Lalita; Stortz, Andreas; Salomon, Johanna J; Mall, Marcus A; Frings, Stephan; Möhrlen, Frank

    2017-06-01

    Transport of water and electrolytes in airway epithelia involves chloride-selective ion channels, which are controlled either by cytosolic Ca 2+ or by cAMP The contributions of the two pathways to chloride transport differ among vertebrate species. Because rats are becoming more important as animal model for cystic fibrosis, we have examined how Ca 2+ - dependent and cAMP- dependent Cl - secretion is organized in the rat tracheal epithelium. We examined the expression of the Ca 2+ -gated Cl - channel anoctamin 1 (ANO1), the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl - channel, the epithelial Na + channel ENaC, and the water channel aquaporin 5 (AQP5) in rat tracheal epithelium. The contribution of ANO1 channels to nucleotide-stimulated Cl - secretion was determined using the channel blocker Ani9 in short-circuit current recordings obtained from primary cultures of rat tracheal epithelial cells in Ussing chambers. We found that ANO1, CFTR and AQP5 proteins were expressed in nonciliated cells of the tracheal epithelium, whereas ENaC was expressed in ciliated cells. Among nonciliated cells, ANO1 occurred together with CFTR and Muc5b and, in addition, in a different cell type without CFTR and Muc5b. Bioelectrical studies with the ANO1-blocker Ani9 indicated that ANO1 mediated the secretory response to the nucleotide uridine-5'-triphosphate. Our data demonstrate that, in rat tracheal epithelium, Cl - secretion and Na + absorption are routed through different cell types, and that ANO1 channels form the molecular basis of Ca 2+ -dependent Cl - secretion in this tissue. These characteristic features of Cl - -dependent secretion reveal similarities and distinct differences to secretory processes in human airways. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  10. Adenoma of the Nonpigmented Ciliary Body and Iris Epithelium in Mexican Mestizo Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Serna-Ojeda, Juan Carlos; Ariza-Camacho, Enrique; Collado-Solórzano, Alberto; Flores-Sánchez, Blanca C.; Rodríguez-Reyes, Abelardo A.; Fulda-Graue, Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    The adenoma of the nonpigmented ciliary epithelium is a benign rare tumor, which may present with different clinical characteristics and requires resection along with histopathologic analysis and the identification of specific immunohistochemical markers for an accurate diagnosis. Here, we report a case series of 4 patients in a Mexican mestizo population with this diagnosis, their clinical features, the ultrasound imaging characteristics and the histopathological and immunohistochemical find...

  11. Adenoma of the Nonpigmented Ciliary Body and Iris Epithelium in Mexican Mestizo Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna-Ojeda, Juan Carlos; Ariza-Camacho, Enrique; Collado-Solórzano, Alberto; Flores-Sánchez, Blanca C.; Rodríguez-Reyes, Abelardo A.; Fulda-Graue, Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    The adenoma of the nonpigmented ciliary epithelium is a benign rare tumor, which may present with different clinical characteristics and requires resection along with histopathologic analysis and the identification of specific immunohistochemical markers for an accurate diagnosis. Here, we report a case series of 4 patients in a Mexican mestizo population with this diagnosis, their clinical features, the ultrasound imaging characteristics and the histopathological and immunohistochemical findings. PMID:27171918

  12. Similar Squamous Cell Carcinoma Epithelium microRNA Expression in Never Smokers and Ever Smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Kolokythas

    Full Text Available The incidence of oral tumors in patients who never used mutagenic agents such as tobacco is increasing. In an effort to better understand these tumors we studied microRNA (miRNA expression in tumor epithelium of never tobacco users, tumor epithelium of ever tobacco users, and nonpathological control oral epithelium. A comparison of levels among 372 miRNAs in 12 never tobacco users with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC versus 10 healthy controls was made using the reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A similar analysis was done with 8 ever tobacco users with OSCC. These comparisons revealed miR-10b-5p, miR-196a-5p, and miR-31-5p as enriched in the tumor epithelium in OSCC of both never and ever tobacco users. Examination of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA project miRNA data on 305 OSCCs and 30 controls revealed 100% of those miRNAs enriched in never smoker OSCCs in this patient group were also enriched in ever smoker OSCCs. Nonsupervised clustering of TCGA OSCCs was suggestive of two or four subgroups of tumors based on miRNA levels with limited evidence for differences in tobacco exposure among the groups. Results from both patient groups together stress the importance of miR196a-5p in OSCC malignancy in both never and ever smokers, and emphasize the overall similarity of miRNA expression in OSCCs in these two risk groups. It implies that there may be great similarity in etiology of OSCC in never and ever smokers and that classifying OSCC based on tobacco exposure may not be helpful in the clinic.

  13. Postprandial morphological response of the intestinal epithelium of the Burmese python (Python molurus).

    OpenAIRE

    Lignot, J.H.; Helmstetter, C.; Secor, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    The postprandial morphological changes of the intestinal epithelium of Burmese pythons were examined using fasting pythons and at eight time points after feeding. In fasting pythons, tightly packed enterocytes possess very short microvilli and are arranged in a pseudostratified fashion. Enterocyte width increases by 23% within 24 h postfeeding, inducing significant increases in villus length and intestinal mass. By 6 days postfeeding, enterocyte volume had peaked, following as much as an 80% ...

  14. HLA-DR expression in tumor epithelium is an independent prognostic indicator in esophageal adenocarcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Margaret R; Michielsen, Adriana J; O'Sullivan, Katie E; Cathcart, Mary Clare; Feighery, Ronan; Doyle, Brendan; Watson, Jenny A; O'Farrell, Naoimh J; Ravi, Narayanasamy; Kay, Elaine; Reynolds, John V; Ryan, Elizabeth J; O'Sullivan, Jacintha

    2017-07-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is an aggressive cancer with poor prognosis, and incidence is increasing rapidly in the Western world. Measurement of immune markers has been shown to have prognostic significance in a growing number of cancers, but whether this is true for EAC has yet to be evaluated. This study aimed to characterize HLA-DR expression in the esophagus across the inflammation to cancer progression sequence and to assess the prognostic significance of HLA-DR expression in EAC. Tissue microarrays (TMA) were constructed from esophageal tissue taken from patients at different stages in the cancer progression sequence; normal, esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus (BE), low- and high-grade dysplasia (LGD, HGD) and EAC. HLA-DR expression in tissue epithelium and stroma was assessed by immunohistochemistry. HLA-DR expression increased early in the inflammation to cancer progression sequence; with higher expression detected in esophagitis and BE compared to normal tissue. Patients with low (HLA-DR expression in the EAC tumor epithelium had significantly worse survival outcomes, compared to those with high expression, in both the tumor core (hazard ratio, HR = 2.178, p = 0.024, n = 70) and leading edge (HR = 2.86, p = 0.013, n = 41). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that low HLA-DR expression in leading edge tumor epithelium was an independent predictor of poor survival, associated with a 2.8-fold increase in disease-associated death (p = 0.023). This study shows that HLA-DR is an independent prognostic marker in EAC tumor epithelium. This may have implications for patient stratification strategies as well as EAC tumor immunology.

  15. Identification of a Preneoplastic Gene Expression Profile in Tubal Epithelium of BRCA1 Mutation Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Z. Press

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Microinvasive carcinomas and high-grade intraepithelial neoplasms are commonly discovered within the fallopian tube of BRCA1 mutation carriers at the time of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy, suggesting that many BRCA1-mutated ovarian carcinomas originate in tubal epithelium. We hypothesized that changes in gene expression profiles within the histologically normal fallopian tube epithelium of BRCA1 mutation carriers would overlap with the expression profiles in BRCA1-mutated ovarian carcinomas and represent a BRCA1 preneoplastic signature. Laser capture microdissection of frozen sections was used to isolate neoplastic cells or histologically normal fallopian tube epithelium, and expression profiles were generated on Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 gene expression arrays. Normal-risk controls were 11 women wild type for BRCA1 and BRCA2 (WT-FT. WT-FT were compared with histologically normal fallopian tube epithelium from seven women with deleterious BRCA1 mutations who had foci of at least intraepithelial neoplasm within their fallopian tube (B1-FTocc. WT-FT samples were also compared with 12 BRCA1 ovarian carcinomas (B1-CA. The comparison of WT-FT versus B1-FTocc resulted in 152 differentially expressed probe sets, and the comparison of WT-FT versus B1-CA resulted in 4079 differentially expressed probe sets. The BRCA1 preneoplastic signature was composed of the overlap between these two lists, which included 41 concordant probe sets. Genes in the BRCA1 preneoplastic signature included several known tumor suppressor genes such as CDKN1C and EFEMP1 and several thought to be important in invasion and metastasis such as E2F3. The expression of a subset of genes was validated with quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry.

  16. Cytological changes in oral epithelium due to Sudanese homemade alcoholic beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Awdah M. Al-hazimi; Shima Bushra Bakhet; Hussain Gadelkarim Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the cytological changes in oral epithelium that might be induced by Sudanese homemade alcoholic beverages. Material and methods: Oral Exfoliative Cytology (OEFC) was applied to a case control study to assess the presence and severity of oral epithelial atypia (ET) in 300 subjects (150 alcohol abuse individuals (cases); 150 non-alcohol abuse individuals (controls)). All cases were using homemade alcoholic drinks, locally known as,...

  17. An ultrastructural and a cytochemical study of candidal invasion of reconstituted human oral epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayatilake, J A M S; Samaranayake, Y H; Samaranayake, L P

    2005-04-01

    Opportunistic yeast, Candida albicans causes superficial and systemic mycoses in compromised patients. Adhesion to host tissues, morphogenesis and extracellular phospholipases (PL) are thought to contribute to its virulence. The nature of numerous host-parasite interactions at the invasive phase of oral candidiasis is not fully understood. Hence in this study, we explore the ultrastructural features of oral candidiasis using a tissue culture model based on reconstituted human oral epithelium (RHOE). Reconstituted human oral epithelium (Skinethic Laboratory, Nice, France) was inoculated with C. albicans SC5314 and incubated up to 48 h. The infected tissue was harvested at 12, 24 and 48 h and examined using light, scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Localized activity of PLs of C. albicans during tissue invasion was also examined using a cytochemical method. Over a period of 48 h C. albicans invaded the RHOE, and histological examination revealed characteristic hallmarks of pathological tissue invasion. Hyphal penetration into the superficial epithelium, particularly at cell junctions, together with features of cellular internalization of yeasts was noted. Phospholipase activity was visible at the tips of hyphae and initial sites of bud formation. Further, SEM studies revealed cavitations on the surface epithelial cells particularly pronounced at the sites of hyphal invasion. Hyphal invasion was seen both at cell surfaces and intercellular cell junctions of the epithelium, the latter resembling thigmotropic behaviour. Our findings confirm that multiple cellular interactions such as internalization, thigmotropism and extracellular PLs contribute to invasive candidiasis. The RHOE model, described here, appears to be a satisfactory model for the investigation of ultrastructural and histochemical features of invasive candidiasis in humans.

  18. [Combined hamartoma of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium. Four case studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, R; De Korvin, H; Speeg-Schatz, C; Szwarcberg, J

    2006-03-01

    Combined hamartoma of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium is a rare condition, characterized by a proliferation of the retinal pigmentary epithelium and retinal gliosis leading to a disorganization of the retina and papilla. This study aimed to demonstrate the advantages of early diagnosis and regular monitoring. We report a series of four children followed between 2001 and 2004 with combined hamartoma of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium, with age of diagnosis ranging from 3 months to 8 years. The main reason for consultation was reduction of vision. The clinical examination objectified the existence of a slightly grayish peripapillary formation with tortuous retinal vessels. This condition was confirmed by angiography with fluorescein in three cases and by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in one case. Progression showed the persistence of low vision in all four cases and the appearance of a neovascular membrane in one case. Combined hamartoma of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium is probably a congenital tumor whose pathogenesis has not yet been elucidated. The diagnosis is clinical and the patient can be thoroughly examined by retinal angiography and optical coherence tomography (OCT). In this disorder, it is important to eliminate retinoblastoma and malignant melanoma of the choroid, showing the advantage of radiological exploration. Progression is stationary; nevertheless a reduction in visual acuity can be related to an epiretinal membrane or a neovascular membrane. Knowledge of the clinical aspect is essential to differentiate this condition from the malignant retinal processes. This tumor can progress in spite of its benign character. Regular follow-up is essential and can improve the visual prognosis.

  19. Difference in glycogen metabolism (glycogen synthesis and glycolysis) between normal and dysplastic/malignant oral epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Hitoshi; Yamada, Shin-Ichi; Xiao, Tiepeng; Shimane, Tetsu; Hayashi, Kiyonori; Qi, Fangfang; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Kurita, Hiroshi

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate a difference in glycogen metabolism (glycogen synthesis and glycolysis) between the iodine stained (normal non-keartinized) and the unstained (dysplasctic/malignant) oral epithelium. Twenty-one frozen tissue samples of iodine-stained and unstained mucosal tissue were obtained from 21 OSCC patients. Serial frozen sections were cut and examined with the hematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid-Schiff methods and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for Ki67, P53, molecules associated with glycogenesis (i.e., glycogen synthase (GS) and phospho-glycogen synthase (PGS)), and molecules associated with glycogenolysis (i.e., glycogen phosphorylase isoenzyme BB (GPBB) examine the glycogen metabolism in OSCC. Additionally, in vitro study, the expression levels of GS and GPBB in the cultured cells were analyzed by immunofluorescent staining, Western blot analysis, and the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). There was no significant difference in GS and PGS immunoactivity between iodine stained and unstained area. On the other hand, significantly greater GPBB immunoreactivity was observed in the basal and parabasal layers of iodine-unstained epithelium, where higher positivity for p53 and Ki67 was also showed. Additionally, western blot analysis, immunofluorescent staining, and real-time quantitative PCR revealed that the oral squamous cancer cells exhibited greater expression of GPBB than normal epithelial cells. The results of this study showed that GPBB expression, which resulted in up-regulation of glycogenolysis, is enhanced in oral dysplastic/malignant epithelium compared with non-keartinized normal epithelium, in spite of the fact that glycogenesis continues in both of them. Premalignant and malignant epithelial cells consume greater quantities of energy due to their increased proliferation, and hence, exhaust their glycogen stores, which resulting in negative stain reaction with iodine solution. Copyright

  20. Bronchial epithelial spheroids: an alternative culture model to investigate epithelium inflammation-mediated COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangloff Sophie C

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterized by abnormal lung inflammation that exceeds the protective response. Various culture models using epithelial cell lines or primary cells have been used to investigate the contribution of bronchial epithelium in the exaggerated inflammation of COPD. However, these models do not mimic in vivo situations for several reasons (e.g, transformed epithelial cells, protease-mediated dissociation of primary cells, etc.. To circumvent these concerns, we developed a new epithelial cell culture model. Methods Using non transformed non dissociated bronchial epithelium obtained by bronchial brushings from COPD and non-COPD smokers, we developed a 3-dimensional culture model, bronchial epithelial spheroids (BES. BES were analyzed by videomicroscopy, light microscopy, immunofluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy. We also compared the inflammatory responses of COPD and non-COPD BES. In our study, we chose to stimulate BES with lipopolycaccharide (LPS and measured the release of the pro-inflammatory mediators interleukin-8 (IL-8 and leukotriene B4 (LTB4 and the anti-inflammatory mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2. Results BES obtained from both COPD and non-COPD patients were characterized by a polarized bronchial epithelium with tight junctions and ciliary beating, composed of basal cells, secretory cells and ciliated cells. The ciliary beat frequency of ciliated cells was not significantly different between the two groups. Of interest, BES retained their characteristic features in culture up to 8 days. BES released the inflammatory mediators IL-8, PGE2 and LTB4 constitutively and following exposure to LPS. Interestingly, LPS induced a higher release of IL-8, but not PGE2 and LTB4 in COPD BES (p Conclusion This study provides for the first time a compelling evidence that the BES model provides an unaltered bronchial surface epithelium. More importantly, BES represent an

  1. An endocannabinoid system is present in the mouse olfactory epithelium but does not modulate olfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutch, C R; Hillard, C J; Jia, C; Hegg, C C

    2015-08-06

    Endocannabinoids modulate a diverse array of functions including progenitor cell proliferation in the central nervous system, and odorant detection and food intake in the mammalian central olfactory system and larval Xenopus laevis peripheral olfactory system. However, the presence and role of endocannabinoids in the peripheral olfactory epithelium have not been examined in mammals. We found the presence of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptor protein and mRNA in the olfactory epithelium. Using either immunohistochemistry or calcium imaging we localized CB1 receptors on neurons, glia-like sustentacular cells, microvillous cells and progenitor-like basal cells. To examine the role of endocannabinoids, CB1- and CB2- receptor-deficient (CB1(-/-)/CB2(-/-)) mice were used. The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) was present at high levels in both C57BL/6 wildtype and CB1(-/-)/CB2(-/-) mice. 2-AG synthetic and degradative enzymes are expressed in wildtype mice. A small but significant decrease in basal cell and olfactory sensory neuron numbers was observed in CB1(-/-)/CB2(-/-) mice compared to wildtype mice. The decrease in olfactory sensory neurons did not translate to impairment in olfactory-mediated behaviors assessed by the buried food test and habituation/dishabituation test. Collectively, these data indicate the presence of an endocannabinoid system in the mouse olfactory epithelium. However, unlike in tadpoles, endocannabinoids do not modulate olfaction. Further investigation on the role of endocannabinoids in progenitor cell function in the olfactory epithelium is warranted. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bicarbonate-dependent transport of acetate and butyrate across the basolateral membrane of sheep rumen epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengler, F; Rackwitz, R; Benesch, F; Pfannkuche, H; Gäbel, G

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the role of HCO₃⁻ in the transport of acetate and butyrate across the basolateral membrane of rumen epithelium and to identify transport proteins involved. The effects of basolateral variation in HCO₃⁻ concentrations on acetate and butyrate efflux out of the epithelium and the transepithelial flux of these short-chain fatty acids were tested in Ussing chamber experiments using (14)C-labelled substrates. HCO₃⁻-dependent transport mechanisms were characterized by adding specific inhibitors of candidate proteins to the serosal side. Effluxes of acetate and butyrate out of the epithelium were higher to the serosal side than to the mucosal side. Acetate and butyrate effluxes to both sides of rumen epithelium consisted of HCO₃⁻-independent and -dependent parts. HCO₃⁻-dependent transport across the basolateral membrane was confirmed in studies of transepithelial fluxes. Mucosal to serosal fluxes of acetate and butyrate decreased with lowering serosal HCO₃⁻ concentrations. In the presence of 25 mm HCO₃⁻, transepithelial flux of acetate was inhibited effectively by p-hydroxymercuribenzoic acid or α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, while butyrate flux was unaffected by the blockers. Fluxes of both acetate and butyrate from the serosal to the mucosal side were diminished largely by the addition of NO₃⁻ to the serosal side, with this effect being more pronounced for acetate. Our results indicate the existence of a basolateral short-chain fatty acid/HCO₃⁻ exchanger, with monocarboxylate transporter 1 as a primary candidate for acetate transfer. © 2013 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Apoptosis of the reduced enamel epithelium and its implications for bone resorption during tooth eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su-Jin; Bae, Hyun-Sook; Cho, Young-Sik; Lim, Soon-Ryun; Kang, Seung-Ae; Park, Joo-Cheol

    2013-02-01

    Bone remodeling, the selective deposition and resorption of bone, is an important cause of tooth eruption. During tooth eruption, reduced enamel epithelia of the enamel organ interact with follicle cells to recruit osteoclasts for bone remodeling. However, little is known about the relationship between cellular activity of reduced enamel epithelium and bone resorption during tooth eruption. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of apoptosis in reduced enamel epithelium on osteoclastogenesis and its implications for bone resorption. We have analyzed erupting mandibular molars in mice by TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling assay, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, and immunohistochemistry. TRAP-positive cells were detected in the osteoclasts near both the buccal and lingual sides of tooth socket at postnatal day 0 (PN0). They significantly increased until PN3 and decreased thereafter as the tooth erupted. Interestingly, apoptosis was barely detected in the reduced enamel epithelium at PN3 but clearly at PN7. A few apoptotic cells were also investigated within the dental follicle surrounding developing tooth at PN7 and PN10. We observed apoptotic osteoblast-lineage cells along the inner margin of alveolar bone facing the buccal cusp and at the base of the bony crypt at PN3 decreasing until PN10. In contrast, expression levels of bone sialoprotein increased at PN10 compared to levels at PN3. These results suggest that apoptosis of reduced enamel epithelium resulted in a reduction of osteoclast activity and of bone resorption mediated by dental follicle during tooth eruption.

  4. Maintenance of sweat glands by stem cells located in the acral epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohe, Shuichi [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Department of Dermatology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Tanaka, Toshihiro [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Third Department of Internal Medicine, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Yanai, Hirotsugu [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Department of Surgery, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Komai, Yoshihiro [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Department of Urology and Andrology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Omachi, Taichi [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Department of Pediatrics, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Kanno, Shohei; Tanaka, Kiyomichi; Ishigaki, Kazuhiko; Saiga, Kazuho [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Nakamura, Naohiro [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Third Department of Internal Medicine, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Ohsugi, Haruyuki [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Department of Urology and Andrology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Tokuyama, Yoko; Atsumi, Naho; Hisha, Hiroko; Yoshida, Naoko; Kumano, Keiki [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Yamazaki, Fumikazu; Okamoto, Hiroyuki [Department of Dermatology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Ueno, Hiroo, E-mail: hueno@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan)

    2015-10-23

    The skin is responsible for a variety of physiological functions and is critical for wound healing and repair. Therefore, the regenerative capacity of the skin is important. However, stem cells responsible for maintaining the acral epithelium had not previously been identified. In this study, we identified the specific stem cells in the acral epithelium that participate in the long-term maintenance of sweat glands, ducts, and interadnexal epidermis and that facilitate the regeneration of these structures following injury. Lgr6-positive cells and Bmi1-positive cells were found to function as long-term multipotent stem cells that maintained the entire eccrine unit and the interadnexal epidermis. However, while Lgr6-positive cells were rapidly cycled and constantly supplied differentiated cells, Bmi1-positive cells were slow to cycle and occasionally entered the cell cycle under physiological conditions. Upon irradiation-induced injury, Bmi1-positive cells rapidly proliferated and regenerated injured epithelial tissue. Therefore, Bmi1-positive stem cells served as reservoir stem cells. Lgr5-positive cells were rapidly cycled and maintained only sweat glands; therefore, we concluded that these cells functioned as lineage-restricted progenitors. Taken together, our data demonstrated the identification of stem cells that maintained the entire acral epithelium and supported the different roles of three cellular classes. - Highlights: • The acral epithelium have two types of stem cells. • Lgr6-positive cells are rapid-cycling, short-term stem cells. • Bmi1-positive cells are slow-cycling stem cells that act as reserver stem cells. • Lgr5 may be a useful sweat gland marker in mice.

  5. Production of active pigment epithelium-derived factor inE. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Guan, Ming; Lu, Yuan

    2005-03-01

    Human pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a neurotrophic factor, is the most potent natural inhibitor of angiogenesis. To produce the active PEDF, the gene coding for the human PEDF protein was expressed in E. coli. The rPEDF protein was expressed at 457 mg l-1 as a soluble protein. The yield of purified GST fusion protein was 14 mg l-1. Purified rPEDF inhibited tube formation in endothelial cells.

  6. Sox2 Activates Cell Proliferation and Differentiation in the Respiratory Epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Tompkins, David H.; Besnard, Valérie; Lange, Alexander W.; Keiser, Angela R.; Wert, Susan E.; Bruno, Michael D.; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Sox2, a transcription factor critical for the maintenance of embryonic stem cells and induction of pluripotent stem cells, is expressed exclusively in the conducting airway epithelium of the lung, where it is required for differentiation of nonciliated, goblet, and ciliated cells. To determine the role of Sox2 in respiratory epithelial cells, Sox2 was selectively and conditionally expressed in nonciliated airway epithelial cells and in alveolar type II cells in the adult mouse. Sox2 induced e...

  7. TREM-1 expression in rat corneal epithelium with Aspergillus fumigatus infection

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    Li-Ting Hu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the expression of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1 in the aberrant inflammation within the corneal epithelium at early period of fungal infection. METHODS: A total of 65 Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group, sham group and fungal keratitis (FK group, in which the cornea was infected by Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus. After executed randomly at 8, 16, 24, 48 and 72h after experimental model being established, the severity of keratomycosis in rats was scored visually with the aid of a dissecting microscope and slit lamp. Then corneas in three groups were collected to assess the expression of TREM-1 through quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, immunofluorescence technique and Western blot analysis. The correlation between FK inflammation and expression of TREM-1 was also analyzed. RESULTS: Corneal inflammation scores increased with time after fungal infection (F=49.74, P=0.000. The inflammation scores in FK group were obviously higher than those in sham group on the whole (F=137.78, P=0.000. Levels of TREM-1 in the infected rat corneal epithelium had elevated at 8h and peaked at 48h (P<0.001, compared with control group. Western blot analysis also showed an obviously elevated TREM-1 level in rat corneal epithelium at 24h and 48h after fungal infection. Immunofluorescence technique showed that TREM-1 mainly existed in corneal epithelium and infected corneal stoma of rat. TREM-1 protein expression was enhanced after fungal infection. Moreover, severity of FK inflammation was significantly related to TREM-1 expression in FK (r=0.942, P=0.000. CONCLUSION: TREM-1 may contribute to amplify the inflammation in the cornea infected with A. fumigatus and play critical roles in the battle against A. fumigatus in the innate immune responses.

  8. Expression of von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein (pVHL) characteristic of tongue cancer and proliferative lesions in tongue epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Hisashi; Kusumi, Yoshiaki; Asakawa, Takeshi; Maeda, Miyoko; Oinuma, Toshinori; Furusaka, Tohru; Oshima, Takeshi; Esumi, Mariko

    2017-05-26

    Patients with tongue cancer frequently show loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene. However, expression of VHL protein (pVHL) in tongue cancer has rarely been investigated and remains largely unknown. We performed immunohistochemical staining of pVHL in tongue tissues and dysplasia, and examined the association with LOH and its clinical significance. Immunohistochemical staining of pVHL in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of cancerous and other tissues from 19 tongue cancer patients showed positivity for LOH of VHL in four samples, negativity in four samples, and was non-informative in 11 samples. The staining pattern of pVHL was also compared with those of cytokeratin (CK) 13 and CK17. In normal tongue tissues, pVHL staining was localized to the cytoplasm of cells in the basal layer and the area of the spinous layer adjacent to the basal layer of stratified squamous epithelium. Positive staining for pVHL was observed in the cytoplasm of cancer cells from all 19 tongue cancer patients. No differences as a result of the presence or absence of LOH were found. Notably, cytoplasm of poorly differentiated invasive cancer cells was less intensely stained than that of well and moderately differentiated invasive cancer cells. pVHL staining was also evident in epithelial dysplasia lesions with pVHL-positive cells expanding from the basal layer to the middle of the spinous layer. However, no CK13 staining was noted in regions of the epithelium, which were positive for pVHL. In contrast, regions with positive staining for CK17 closely coincided with those positive for pVHL. Positive staining for pVHL was observed in cancerous areas but not in normal tissues. pVHL expression was also detected in lesions of epithelial dysplasia. These findings suggest that pVHL may be a useful marker for proliferative lesions.

  9. Effects of irradiation on canine tracheal epithelium: a physiological and morphological correlate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man, S.F.; Logus, J.W.; Mok, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Ahmed, I.H.; Man, G.C.; Hulbert, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    We delivered 20 Gy irradiation in one fraction to a 6 cm segment of trachea in 11 dogs. Tracheal mucous transport was studied before and whenever possible at weekly intervals after irradiation using a gamma camera system and /sup 99m/technetium labeled sulfur colloid. Ten of the eleven animals were sacrificed at three different time intervals (1-2, 15-16 and 30-34 weeks) post-irradiation, and the tracheal epithelium removed for studies using Ussing chambers followed by preparation for microscopic analysis. Mucous transport along the length of the trachea was normal before irradiation, but following irradiation it became abnormal in the irradiated zone. Compared to the epithelium from the cranial and caudal segments, the irradiated epithelium had similar bioelectric measurements (potential difference, short-circuit current and resistance) and mannitol permeability. Also, the changes in the bioelectric measurements following indomethacin (10(-6) M) and epinephrine (10(-6) M) used sequentially, were similar in both the control and irradiated tissues. Scanning electron microscopic analysis of the irradiated zone revealed patches of nonciliated epithelial cells among the ciliates. We conclude that irradiation caused a persistent replacement of ciliated cells with nonciliates throughout the entire study period and that this alteration impaired mucous transport but did not affect epithelial ion secretion or barrier function

  10. DHT deficiency perturbs the integrity of the rat seminiferous epithelium by disrupting tight and adherens junctions

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    Barbara Wiszniewska

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In rats with a DHT deficiency induced by finasteride, morphological changes in the seminiferous epithelium were observed. The structural alterations were manifested by the premature germ cells sloughing into the lumen of seminiferous tubules. The etiology of this disorder could be connected with intercellular junctions disintegration. We showed in the immunohistochemical study the changes in expression of some proteins building tight and adherens junctions. The depression of N-cadherin, β-catenin and occludin immunoexpressions could be the reason for the release of immature germ cells from the seminiferous epithelium. However, the observed increase of the immunohistochemical reaction intensity of vinculin, one of the cadherin/catenin complex regulators, could be insufficient to maintain the proper function of adherens junctions. The hormonal imbalance appears to influence the pattern of expression of junctional proteins in the seminiferous epithelium. It could lead to untimely germ cells sloughing, and ultimately could impair fertility. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011, Vol. 49, No. 1, 62–71

  11. Efficacy of iontophoresis-assisted epithelium-on corneal cross-linking for keratoconus

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    Hong-Zhen Jia

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Corneal cross-linking (CXL is a noninvasive therapeutic procedure for keratoconus that is aimed at improving corneal biomechanical properties by induction of covalent cross-links between stromal proteins. It is accomplished by ultraviolet A (UVA radiation of the cornea, which is first saturated with photosensitizing riboflavin. It has been shown that standard epithelium-off CXL (S-CXL is efficacious, and it has been recommended as the standard of care procedure for keratoconus. However, epithelial removal leads to pain, transient vision loss, and a higher risk of corneal infection. To avoid these disadvantages, transepithelial CXL was developed. Recently, iontophoresis has been adopted to increase riboflavin penetration through the epithelium. Several clinical observations have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of iontophoresis-assisted epithelium-on CXL (I-CXL for keratoconus. This review aimed to provide a comprehensive summary of the published studies regarding I-CXL and a comparison between I-CXL and S-CXL. All articles used in this review were mainly retrieved from the PubMed database. Original articles and reviews were selected if they were related to the I-CXL technique or related to the comparison between I-CXL and S-CXL.

  12. Strategies for long-term expression of transgenes in the respiratory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Deborah R; Bazzani, Reto P; Hyde, Stephen C

    2010-08-01

    Lung gene therapy is being developed to treat acute and chronic airway diseases, and many viral and non-viral gene transfer vectors have been evaluated in the airway epithelium lining the nose and lung. Stem cells have not been clearly defined in the airways and, currently, it is only possible to target progenitor cells to proliferate and repair the epithelium after inducing epithelial damage. However, the majority of airway epithelial cells are slowly dividing or terminally differentiated, thus necessitating repeated administration of gene transfer vectors for life-long transgene expression. Many improvements to adeno-associated virus and lentivirus vectors have led to increased airway transduction efficiencies, although achieving consistent repeated administration remains problematic because of immune system activation. Non-viral vectors appear to be less efficient, but can be successfully re-administered. The modification of plasmid sequences also offers maximum flexibility in increasing and extending the duration of transgene expression in the airways. This review describes recent developments in achieving persistent transgene expression in the airways by specifically targeting the cells of the respiratory epithelium lining the nose and lung.

  13. Inhibition of Pasteurella multocida Adhesion to Rabbit Respiratory Epithelium Using Lectins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Magda Patricia; Martinez, Nhora María; Patiño, María del Pilar; Iregui, Carlos Arturo

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the ability of a panel of lectins to inhibit the ability of Pasteurella multocida to adhere to and affect the rabbit respiratory epithelium. Nasal septa from rabbit fetuses were cultured with various lectins before the addition of P. multocida. The percentage of bacteria adhering to the epithelium was evaluated semiquantitatively by indirect immunoperoxidase (IIP) staining. The goblet cells (GCs) were counted in semithin sections stained with toluidine blue and served as the main morphological criterion to evaluate the inhibitory effect of the lectins. The lectins PNA, WGA, RCA120, and DBA significantly inhibited the adhesion of P. multocida to the ciliated epithelium (P < 0.05) and prevented the pathogen-induced increase in the number of GCs (P < 0.05) compared with those of positive control tissues. In addition, VVA, SJA, UEA I, DSL, SBA, and ECL significantly inhibited the increase in GCs compared with that of the control tissues. The results suggest that less aggressive therapeutic strategies, such as treatment with lectins, may represent alternative approaches to control bacterial respiratory infections. PMID:25810949

  14. Inhibition of Pasteurella multocida Adhesion to Rabbit Respiratory Epithelium Using Lectins

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    Magda Patricia Carrillo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the ability of a panel of lectins to inhibit the ability of Pasteurella multocida to adhere to and affect the rabbit respiratory epithelium. Nasal septa from rabbit fetuses were cultured with various lectins before the addition of P. multocida. The percentage of bacteria adhering to the epithelium was evaluated semiquantitatively by indirect immunoperoxidase (IIP staining. The goblet cells (GCs were counted in semithin sections stained with toluidine blue and served as the main morphological criterion to evaluate the inhibitory effect of the lectins. The lectins PNA, WGA, RCA120, and DBA significantly inhibited the adhesion of P. multocida to the ciliated epithelium P<0.05 and prevented the pathogen-induced increase in the number of GCs P<0.05 compared with those of positive control tissues. In addition, VVA, SJA, UEA I, DSL, SBA, and ECL significantly inhibited the increase in GCs compared with that of the control tissues. The results suggest that less aggressive therapeutic strategies, such as treatment with lectins, may represent alternative approaches to control bacterial respiratory infections.

  15. Identification of Lgr5-Independent Spheroid-Generating Progenitors of the Mouse Fetal Intestinal Epithelium

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    Roxana C. Mustata

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Immortal spheroids were generated from fetal mouse intestine using the culture system initially developed to culture organoids from adult intestinal epithelium. Spheroid proportion progressively decreases from fetal to postnatal period, with a corresponding increase in production of organoids. Like organoids, spheroids show Wnt-dependent indefinite self-renewing properties but display a poorly differentiated phenotype reminiscent of incompletely caudalized progenitors. The spheroid transcriptome is strikingly different from that of adult intestinal stem cells, with minimal overlap of Wnt target gene expression. The receptor LGR4, but not LGR5, is essential for their growth. Trop2/Tacstd2 and Cnx43/Gja1, two markers highly enriched in spheroids, are expressed throughout the embryonic-day-14 intestinal epithelium. Comparison of in utero and neonatal lineage tracing using Cnx43-CreER and Lgr5-CreERT2 mice identified spheroid-generating cells as developmental progenitors involved in generation of the prenatal intestinal epithelium. Ex vivo, spheroid cells have the potential to differentiate into organoids, qualifying as a fetal type of intestinal stem cell.

  16. Antioxidant effect of minocycline in gingival epithelium induced by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans serotype B toxin

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    Ernie Maduratna Setiawati

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa serotype B has been associated with aggressive periodontitis. Gingival epithelial cell is exquisitely sensitive to the toxin and may lead to the epithel protective barrier disruption. Experimental models show that minocycline is not related to it’s antimicrobial effect and protection against neuron cell apoptosis of a number experimental models of brain injury and Parkinson’s disease. Purpose: This study, examined antioxidant effect of minocycline to inhibit apoptosis of gingival epithelium induced crude toxin bacteria Aa serotype B in mice. Methods: Thirty adult mice strain Swiss Webster (balb C were divided randomly into three groups: control group (group A, toxin group (group B and toxin and minocycline group (group C. The mice were taken at 24 hours after application, and then the tissue sections of gingival epithelium were stained with tunnel assay and immunohistochemistry. Result: Treatment with these toxin induced apoptosis of gingival epithelium and was associated with DNA fragmentation and reduced gluthatione (GSH. Minocycline 100 nM significantly increased GSH and reduced apoptosis (p < 0.05. Minocycline provides antioxidant effect against citotoxicity of bacteria Aa serotipe B. Conclusion: Nanomolar concentration of minocycline potential as new therapeutic agent to prevent progressivity of aggressiveness of periodontitis.

  17. Biosensor analysis of natural and artificial sweeteners in intact taste epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fenni; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Diming; Lu, Yanli; Liu, Qingjun; Wang, Ping

    2014-04-15

    Sweeteners are commonly used as food additives in our daily life, which, however, have been causing a number of undesirable diseases since the last century. Therefore, the detection and quantification of sweeteners are of great value for food safety. In this study, we used a taste biosensor to measure and analyze different sweeteners, both natural and artificial sweeteners included. Electrophysiological activities from taste epithelium were detected by the multi-channel biosensors and analyzed with spatiotemporal methods. The longtime signal result showed different temporal-frequency properties with stimulations of individual sweeteners such as glucose, sucrose, saccharin, and cyclamate, while the multi-channel results in our study revealed the spatial expression of taste epithelium to sweet stimuli. Furthermore, in the analysis of sweetener with different concentrations, the result showed obvious dose-dependent increases in signal responses of the taste epithelium, which indicated promising applications in sweetness evaluation. Besides, the mixture experiment of two natural sweeteners with a similar functional unit (glucose and sucrose) presented two signal patterns, which turned out to be similar with responses of each individual stimulus involved. The biosensor analysis of common sweeteners provided new approaches for both natural and artificial sweeteners evaluation. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Macrophage/epithelium cross-talk regulates cell cycle progression and migration in pancreatic progenitors.

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    Kristin Mussar

    Full Text Available Macrophages populate the mesenchymal compartment of all organs during embryogenesis and have been shown to support tissue organogenesis and regeneration by regulating remodeling of the extracellular microenvironment. Whether this mesenchymal component can also dictate select developmental decisions in epithelia is unknown. Here, using the embryonic pancreatic epithelium as model system, we show that macrophages drive the epithelium to execute two developmentally important choices, i.e. the exit from cell cycle and the acquisition of a migratory phenotype. We demonstrate that these developmental decisions are effectively imparted by macrophages activated toward an M2 fetal-like functional state, and involve modulation of the adhesion receptor NCAM and an uncommon "paired-less" isoform of the transcription factor PAX6 in the epithelium. Over-expression of this PAX6 variant in pancreatic epithelia controls both cell motility and cell cycle progression in a gene-dosage dependent fashion. Importantly, induction of these phenotypes in embryonic pancreatic transplants by M2 macrophages in vivo is associated with an increased frequency of endocrine-committed cells emerging from ductal progenitor pools. These results identify M2 macrophages as key effectors capable of coordinating epithelial cell cycle withdrawal and cell migration, two events critical to pancreatic progenitors' delamination and progression toward their differentiated fates.

  19. Keratin 8 is required for the maintenance of architectural structure in thymus epithelium.

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    Chikako Odaka

    Full Text Available Keratins (Ks, the intermediate filament (IF proteins of epithelia, are coordinately expressed as pairs in a cell-lineage and differentiation manner. Cortical thymic epithelial cells (cTECs predominantly express the simple epithelium keratin 8/18 (K8/K18 pair, whereas medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs express the stratified epithelium K5/K14 pair, with TECs exhibiting K5 and K8 at the cortico-medullary junction in mature thymus. In the work reported here, we used wild-type (WT and K8-knockout (K8-null mice to address the contribution of K8/K18 IFs in the maintenance of the thymic epithelial structure. K8-null thymus maintained the differential cell segregation at the cortex versus the medulla observed in WT thymus, and the distribution of immature thymocytes at the cortex. The K8/K18 loss did not affect thymocyte development. However, it massively perturbed the TEC morphology both at the cortex and the medulla, along with a prominent depletion of cTECs. Such tissue alterations coincided with an increase in apoptosis and a reduced expression of Albatross (Fas-binding factor-1, also known for its capacity to bind K8/18 IFs. In addition, the K8/K18 loss affected the distribution of K5/K14-positive mTECs, but not their differentiation status. Together, the results indicate that K8/K18 IFs constitute key promoters of the thymic epithelium integrity.

  20. Protection of the gastrointestinal tract epithelium against damage from low pH beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, R E

    2008-09-01

    Extensive consumption of low pH beverages such as citrus juices (pHs 2.3 to 4.3), alcoholic beverages (pHs 2.7 to 4.5), and soft drinks (pHs 2.3 to 4.2) has raised the question of whether exposure of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to acidic beverages will cause damage to the epithelial lining. To evaluate the potential effects of low pH beverages on the GI tract epithelium, a detailed examination of the literature was undertaken. In some animal models, there is evidence of damage to GI epithelial cells following exposure to low pH beverages; however, in these studies there is no definitive relationship between acidity and the amount or severity of damage. Results from several other studies, conducted in both animals and humans, indicate a lack of adverse effects on epithelial cells. Furthermore, there is no evidence that damage is irreversible. Permanent damage from routine exposure to acidic beverages in humans would not be expected because of repair mechanisms that are available to maintain a healthy epithelium. Additionally, numerous physical, chemical, and biological mechanisms are in place to prevent damage to the epithelial cells. Finally, the safe history of consumption of low pH beverages, including various fruit juices, supports the conclusion that low pH beverage ingestion does not cause damage to the GI epithelium.

  1. Scanning electron microscopical study of the lingual epithelium of green iguana (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate, F; Latella, G; Montalbano, G; Guerrera, M C; Levanti, M B; Ciriaco, E

    2008-08-01

    During the last few years, green iguanas (Iguana iguana) have turned out to be one of the most popular pets. They are omnivorous. In their way of feeding, this crucial function is performed by capturing of the preys and mostly, this is carried out by the tongue. The role of the tongue is also fundamental during the intra-oral transport and during the swallowing of food. This has been reported in several studies about chameleons, agamids and iguanids, nevertheless published data about the mechanisms of capturing and swallowing the prey, and the morphological descriptions about the tongue epithelium, are scarce. Therefore, the aim of this present study was to analyse the morphology of the lingual epithelium in green iguanas by scanning electron microscopy. Three different areas were demonstrated on the tongue surface: the tongue tip, characterized by a smooth epithelium without papillae, a foretongue, completely covered by numerous closely packed cylindriform papillae, and a hindtongue with conical-like papillae. Some taste buds were recognized on the middle and the posterior parts of the tongue. Different functional roles could be hypothesized for the three tongue areas: the tongue tip could have a role related to the movements of the prey immediately after the capturing, while the middle papillae and the hindtongue could have an important role concerning the swallowing phase.

  2. Lactobacillus reuteri Inhibition of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Adherence to Human Intestinal Epithelium

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    Alistair eWalsham

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC is a major cause of diarrheal infant death in developing countries, and probiotic bacteria have been shown to provide health benefits in gastrointestinal infections. In this study, we have investigated the influence of the gut symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri on EPEC adherence to the human intestinal epithelium. Different host cell model systems including non-mucus-producing HT-29 and mucus-producing LS174T intestinal epithelial cell lines as well as human small intestinal biopsies were used. Adherence of L. reuteri to HT-29 cells was strain-specific, and the mucus-binding proteins CmbA and MUB increased binding to both HT-29 and LS174T cells. L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 53608 significantly inhibited EPEC binding to HT-29 but not LS174T cells. While pre-incubation of LS174T cells with ATCC PTA 6475 did not affect EPEC A/E lesion formation, it increased the size of EPEC microcolonies. ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 53608 binding to the mucus layer resulted in decreased EPEC adherence to small intestinal biopsy epithelium. Our findings show that L. reuteri reduction of EPEC adhesion is strain-specific and has the potential to target either the epithelium or the mucus layer, providing further rationale for the selection of probiotic strains.

  3. Lactobacillus reuteri Inhibition of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Adherence to Human Intestinal Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsham, Alistair D S; MacKenzie, Donald A; Cook, Vivienne; Wemyss-Holden, Simon; Hews, Claire L; Juge, Nathalie; Schüller, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a major cause of diarrheal infant death in developing countries, and probiotic bacteria have been shown to provide health benefits in gastrointestinal infections. In this study, we have investigated the influence of the gut symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri on EPEC adherence to the human intestinal epithelium. Different host cell model systems including non-mucus-producing HT-29 and mucus-producing LS174T intestinal epithelial cell lines as well as human small intestinal biopsies were used. Adherence of L. reuteri to HT-29 cells was strain-specific, and the mucus-binding proteins CmbA and MUB increased binding to both HT-29 and LS174T cells. L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 53608 significantly inhibited EPEC binding to HT-29 but not LS174T cells. While pre-incubation of LS174T cells with ATCC PTA 6475 did not affect EPEC attaching/effacing (A/E) lesion formation, it increased the size of EPEC microcolonies. ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 53608 binding to the mucus layer resulted in decreased EPEC adherence to small intestinal biopsy epithelium. Our findings show that L. reuteri reduction of EPEC adhesion is strain-specific and has the potential to target either the epithelium or the mucus layer, providing further rationale for the selection of probiotic strains.

  4. The tumor suppressor PTEN and the PDK1 kinase regulate formation of the columnar neural epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grego-Bessa, Joaquim; Bloomekatz, Joshua; Castel, Pau; Omelchenko, Tatiana; Baselga, José; Anderson, Kathryn V

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial morphogenesis and stability are essential for normal development and organ homeostasis. The mouse neural plate is a cuboidal epithelium that remodels into a columnar pseudostratified epithelium over the course of 24 hr. Here we show that the transition to a columnar epithelium fails in mutant embryos that lack the tumor suppressor PTEN, although proliferation, patterning and apical-basal polarity markers are normal in the mutants. The Pten phenotype is mimicked by constitutive activation of PI3 kinase and is rescued by the removal of PDK1 (PDPK1), but does not depend on the downstream kinases AKT and mTORC1. High resolution imaging shows that PTEN is required for stabilization of planar cell packing in the neural plate and for the formation of stable apical-basal microtubule arrays. The data suggest that appropriate levels of membrane-associated PDPK1 are required for stabilization of apical junctions, which promotes cell elongation, during epithelial morphogenesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12034.001 PMID:26809587

  5. Epithelium-Stroma Classification via Convolutional Neural Networks and Unsupervised Domain Adaptation in Histopathological Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue; Zheng, Han; Liu, Chi; Ding, Xinghao; Rohde, Gustavo K

    2017-11-01

    Epithelium-stroma classification is a necessary preprocessing step in histopathological image analysis. Current deep learning based recognition methods for histology data require collection of large volumes of labeled data in order to train a new neural network when there are changes to the image acquisition procedure. However, it is extremely expensive for pathologists to manually label sufficient volumes of data for each pathology study in a professional manner, which results in limitations in real-world applications. A very simple but effective deep learning method, that introduces the concept of unsupervised domain adaptation to a simple convolutional neural network (CNN), has been proposed in this paper. Inspired by transfer learning, our paper assumes that the training data and testing data follow different distributions, and there is an adaptation operation to more accurately estimate the kernels in CNN in feature extraction, in order to enhance performance by transferring knowledge from labeled data in source domain to unlabeled data in target domain. The model has been evaluated using three independent public epithelium-stroma datasets by cross-dataset validations. The experimental results demonstrate that for epithelium-stroma classification, the proposed framework outperforms the state-of-the-art deep neural network model, and it also achieves better performance than other existing deep domain adaptation methods. The proposed model can be considered to be a better option for real-world applications in histopathological image analysis, since there is no longer a requirement for large-scale labeled data in each specified domain.

  6. Airway epithelium mediates the anti-inflammatory effects of exercise on asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Rodolfo Paula; Toledo, Alessandra Choqueta de; Ferreira, Sérgio César; Santos, Angela Batista Gomes dos; Medeiros, Maria Cristina Rodrigues; Hage, Márcia; Mauad, Thaís; Martins, Milton de Arruda; Dolhnikoff, Marisa; Carvalho, Celso Ricardo Fernandes de

    2011-03-15

    Airway epithelium plays an important role in the asthma physiopathology. Aerobic exercise decreases Th2 response in murine models of allergic asthma, but its effects on the structure and activation of airway epithelium in asthma are unknown. BALB/c mice were divided into control, aerobic exercise, ovalbumin-sensitized and ovalbumin-sensitized plus aerobic exercise groups. Ovalbumin sensitization occurred on days 0, 14, 28, 42, and aerosol challenge from day 21 to day 50. Aerobic exercise started on day 22 and ended on day 50. Total cells and eosinophils were reduced in ovalbumin-sensitized group submitted to aerobic exercise. Aerobic exercise also reduced the oxidative and nitrosative stress and the epithelial expression of Th2 cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules, growth factors and NF-kB and P2X7 receptor. Additionally, aerobic exercise increased the epithelial expression of IL-10 in non-sensitized and sensitized animals. These findings contribute to the understanding of the beneficial effects of aerobic exercise for chronic allergic airway inflammation, suggesting an immune-regulatory role of exercise on airway epithelium. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Lactobacillus reuteri Inhibition of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Adherence to Human Intestinal Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsham, Alistair D. S.; MacKenzie, Donald A.; Cook, Vivienne; Wemyss-Holden, Simon; Hews, Claire L.; Juge, Nathalie; Schüller, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a major cause of diarrheal infant death in developing countries, and probiotic bacteria have been shown to provide health benefits in gastrointestinal infections. In this study, we have investigated the influence of the gut symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri on EPEC adherence to the human intestinal epithelium. Different host cell model systems including non-mucus-producing HT-29 and mucus-producing LS174T intestinal epithelial cell lines as well as human small intestinal biopsies were used. Adherence of L. reuteri to HT-29 cells was strain-specific, and the mucus-binding proteins CmbA and MUB increased binding to both HT-29 and LS174T cells. L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 53608 significantly inhibited EPEC binding to HT-29 but not LS174T cells. While pre-incubation of LS174T cells with ATCC PTA 6475 did not affect EPEC attaching/effacing (A/E) lesion formation, it increased the size of EPEC microcolonies. ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 53608 binding to the mucus layer resulted in decreased EPEC adherence to small intestinal biopsy epithelium. Our findings show that L. reuteri reduction of EPEC adhesion is strain-specific and has the potential to target either the epithelium or the mucus layer, providing further rationale for the selection of probiotic strains. PMID:26973622

  8. Histochemical localization of cholinesterase activity in the dental epithelium of guinea pig teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardena, C K; Takano, Y

    2004-07-01

    Cholinesterase is known for its remarkable diversity in distribution and function. An association of this enzyme with proliferative and morpho-differentiating tissues has been reported in several species. Here we report on the first evidence of the presence of cholinesterase in the enamel organ of continuously erupting incisors and molars of the guinea pig. Frozen sections of the incisors and molars of the guinea pig were incubated for histochemical demonstration of cholinesterase activity by means of the thiocholine method as described by Karnovsky and Root. The cholinesterase activity was observed in several types of cells of the dental epithelium; cells forming the basal portion of the enamel organ, outer enamel epithelium and maturation stage ameloblasts of both the incisors and molars. In the crown analogue side, the outer enamel epithelial cells gained strong reactions for cholinesterase and maintained the reaction throughout the secretory and maturation stages of amelogenesis. In contrast, cholinesterase reactions were lacking in the inner enamel epithelium, pre-ameloblasts, and secretory ameloblasts. In the early stage of enamel maturation, ameloblasts began to show positive reactions for cholinesterase, which was upregulated in the incisal direction. Although both tooth types showed similar reactive patterns for cholinesterase at the growing ends, maturation ameloblasts depicted a different pattern of staining displaying the reactions only sporadically in molars. These data indicate the role of cholinesterase in the enamel organ in tooth morphogenesis and function of guinea pig teeth. Copyright 2004 Springer-Verlag

  9. Asbestos exposure increases paracellular transport of fibrin degradation products across human airway epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, T J; Cobb, S M; Peterson, M W

    1994-03-01

    The inflammatory response to asbestos fiber inhalation suggests that the distal respiratory epithelium is an important early target of asbestos-induced injury. We have previously found that asbestos exposure increases the fibrinolytic activity and mannitol permeability of human airway epithelial cell monolayers. Because fibrin degradation products (FDP) are potent inflammatory mediators, we asked whether asbestos fiber exposure would increase the transepithelial flux of FDP into the interstitial space. To stimulate the pericellular environment following fiber deposition, asbestos-exposed epithelial monolayers grown on permeable filters were covered with human plasma containing fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled human fibrinogen. After 24 h, nearly twice as much FITC-FDP appeared in the abluminal chamber of asbestos-exposed monolayers compared with unexposed controls. This did not result solely from increased degradation product production because asbestos-exposed epithelium was more permeable at all apical FDP concentrations. The proteins that crossed asbestos-exposed monolayers included biologically relevant high-molecular-weight FDP, as demonstrated by streptavidin blotting of biotin-labeled FDP. We also found that FDP flux was not vectorial, was not saturable, did not involve proteolytic processing of FDP, and did not require active transport. Thus asbestos exposure increases the paracellular flux of intact FDP across human airway epithelium. This represents a novel mechanism whereby fiber-induced epithelial dysfunction may initiate and sustain inflammation in the distal airspace.

  10. Involvement of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in chloride secretion by cultured rat epididymal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jian-Yang; Zuo, Wu-Lin; Chen, Min-Hui; Xiang, Hui; Zhou, Wen-Liang

    2006-09-01

    The aim of our present study was to investigate the short-circuit current response to carbachol in cultured rat cauda epididymal epithelia and the signal transduction mechanisms involved. Carbachol added basolaterally induced a concentration-dependent increase in short-circuit current (Isc) across the epididymal epithelium consisting of a rapidly rising phase and a long term sustained response. The response was almost abolished by removing Cl(-) from the extracellular medium and blockable by pretreating the tissues with DPC, indicating a substantial contribution of Cl(-) secretion to the carbachol-induced response. The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist atropine inhibited the response, but the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors antagonist curarine had no effect, suggesting that only the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors mediated the secretory response of the basolateral side of rat cauda epididymal epithelium to carbachol. Addition of carbachol to the apical side of the tissue was found not to elicit an Isc response. These results suggested that muscarinic receptors are present in the basolateral side of rat cauda epididymal epithelium. Activation of these receptors by acetylcholine released from the nerve endings regulates epididymal transepithelial Cl(-) secretion. Cholinergic stimulation therefore contributes to the formation of luminal fluid microenvironment.

  11. Tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the olfactory/respiratory epithelium in early sheep fetuses (Ovis aries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izvolskaia, Marina; Duittoz, Anne H; Ugrumov, Mikhail V; Tillet, Yves

    2006-04-14

    Transient expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the first enzyme in catecholamine synthesis) has been shown in different brain and peripheral structures of various species. TH-immunoreactive neurons have been reported in the nasal region of human and rat fetuses migrating to the forebrain with GnRH neurons during embryogenesis. In the present study, immunohistochemical analysis and in situ hybridization were performed in fetal sheep and in vitro sheep embryo olfactory placode cultures to confirm this population in this species. On embryonic days 33 to 35, TH-immunoreactive cells as well as TH cDNA-hybridized cells were found in the olfactory and respiratory epithelium and were spatially separated from GnRH-immunoreactive neurons. In days 40 to 44 of gestation, TH-immunoreactive neurons were no longer observed in the olfactory epithelium, and TH-immunoreactive fibers were found on the trajectories of the olfactory nerves. At this stage, some TH-immunoreactive fibers were also labeled for GnRH. TH-immunoreactive cells were also found in primary cultures of olfactory placodes of fetal sheep at 10 to 18 days in vitro. Some of them coexpressed GnRH. These results imply that olfactory epithelium is also able to give rise to TH expressing cells in fetal sheep, but this expression is suppressed earlier in ontogenesis than in humans due to some unidentified factors not present in the primary cultures of olfactory placode. The role of TH expression remains unclear as in other previously described examples.

  12. Hyperspectral Image Enhancement and Mixture Deep-Learning Classification of Corneal Epithelium Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Salwa Md Noor

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In our preliminary study, the reflectance signatures obtained from hyperspectral imaging (HSI of normal and abnormal corneal epithelium tissues of porcine show similar morphology with subtle differences. Here we present image enhancement algorithms that can be used to improve the interpretability of data into clinically relevant information to facilitate diagnostics. A total of 25 corneal epithelium images without the application of eye staining were used. Three image feature extraction approaches were applied for image classification: (i image feature classification from histogram using a support vector machine with a Gaussian radial basis function (SVM-GRBF; (ii physical image feature classification using deep-learning Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs only; and (iii the combined classification of CNNs and SVM-Linear. The performance results indicate that our chosen image features from the histogram and length-scale parameter were able to classify with up to 100% accuracy; particularly, at CNNs and CNNs-SVM, by employing 80% of the data sample for training and 20% for testing. Thus, in the assessment of corneal epithelium injuries, HSI has high potential as a method that could surpass current technologies regarding speed, objectivity, and reliability.

  13. Job satisfaction and sickness absence: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelen, Corné A M; Koopmans, Petra C; Notenbomer, Annette; Groothoff, Johan W

    2008-12-01

    When dissatisfaction with work precedes sickness absence, screening for satisfaction levels might usefully detect workers at risk of sickness absence. To investigate whether job satisfaction was associated with subsequent sickness absence days or episodes. A sample of workers was randomly drawn from a population of employees who had an episode of absence between January and April 2003. Job satisfaction was measured using a validated single question with a Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (very dissatisfied) to 7 (very satisfied). Job satisfaction levels were linked to the number of recorded sickness absence days and episodes in 2003, distinguishing between short (1-7 days) episodes and long (>7 days) episodes. Of 898 questionnaires distributed, 518 (58%) were returned. The mean+/-standard deviation job satisfaction level was 5.1+/-1.4 and negatively related to the number of sickness absence days. Job satisfaction was also negatively related to the number of short episodes and long episodes of absence, but these associations were not significant. Job satisfaction was significantly related to total sickness absence duration. The association with the number of sickness absence episodes was weak and just below the level of statistical significance. Assessing work satisfaction levels might usefully identify those workers most likely to have the greatest sickness absence duration.

  14. Invisible shield: Review of the corneal epithelium as a barrier to UV radiation, pathogens, and other environmental stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Bashir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ocular surface is comprised of the cornea and conjunctiva, which are structures that not only protect the eye but also enable vision. The corneal epithelium is the most superficial layer of the cornea, and therefore first line of defense against external assaults. Damage to this highly specialized structure could lead to vision loss, making it an important structure to investigate and understand. Here, we conducted a search of the current literature on the mechanisms the corneal epithelium has adapted against three frequent insults: UV-radiation, pathogens, and environmental assaults. This review systematically examines the corneal epithelium's response to each assault in order to maintain its role as an invisible shield. The goal of this review is to provide insight into some of the critical functions the corneal epithelium performs that may be valuable to current regenerative studies.

  15. Cytophotometric analysis of reaction rates of succinate and lactate dehydrogenase activity in rat liver, heart muscle and tracheal epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noorden, C. J.; Vogels, I. M.

    1989-01-01

    Reaction rates of succinate and lactate dehydrogenase activity in cryostat sections of rat liver, tracheal epithelium and heart muscle were monitored by continuous measurement of formazan formation by cytophotometry at room temperature. Incubation media contained polyvinyl alcohol as tissue

  16. Recovery of the spermatogenetic epithelium in the mouse after irradiation with 1-MeV fission neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aardweg, G.J.M.J. van den.

    1983-01-01

    In this thesis the recovery of the spermatogenetic epithelium in the mouse is studied after damage with 1-MeV fission neutrons. A severe depletion of A-spermatogonia and radiosensitive stem cells occurs after neutron irradiation. Recovery of the epithelium is initiated by surviving radioresistant stem cells giving rise to colonies, which grow into the empty seminiferous tubules. After discussing properties of normal and irradiated spermatogenetic epithelium, the growth and the differentiation of spermatogenetic colonies in the mouse testis after irradiation, as well as response and kinetics of colony-forming spermatogonial stem cells in CBA mice up to 30 weeks after a first neutron dose and recovery of the epithelium after a second irradiation are investigated. These four subjects are dealt with in separate papers. Finally, a discussion and a summary of these studies is presented. (Auth.)

  17. Avian Influenza Virus Glycoproteins Restrict Virus Replication and Spread through Human Airway Epithelium at Temperatures of the Proximal Airways

    OpenAIRE

    Scull, Margaret A.; Gillim-Ross, Laura; Santos, Celia; Roberts, Kim L.; Bordonali, Elena; Subbarao, Kanta; Barclay, Wendy S.; Pickles, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    Transmission of avian influenza viruses from bird to human is a rare event even though avian influenza viruses infect the ciliated epithelium of human airways in vitro and ex vivo. Using an in vitro model of human ciliated airway epithelium (HAE), we demonstrate that while human and avian influenza viruses efficiently infect at temperatures of the human distal airways (37 degrees C), avian, but not human, influenza viruses are restricted for infection at the cooler temperatures of the human p...

  18. Transcriptional responses in the rat nasal epithelium following subchronic inhalation of naphthalene vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clewell, H.J., E-mail: hclewell@thehamner.org; Efremenko, A.; Campbell, J.L.; Dodd, D.E.; Thomas, R.S.

    2014-10-01

    Male and female Fischer 344 rats were exposed to naphthalene vapors at 0 (controls), 0.1, 1, 10, and 30 ppm for 6 h/d, 5 d/wk, over a 90-day period. Following exposure, the respiratory epithelium and olfactory epithelium from the nasal cavity were dissected separately, RNA was isolated, and gene expression microarray analysis was conducted. Only a few significant gene expression changes were observed in the olfactory or respiratory epithelium of either gender at the lowest concentration (0.1 ppm). At the 1.0 ppm concentration there was limited evidence of an oxidative stress response in the respiratory epithelium, but not in the olfactory epithelium. In contrast, a large number of significantly enriched cellular pathway responses were observed in both tissues at the two highest concentrations (10 and 30 ppm, which correspond to tumorigenic concentrations in the NTP bioassay). The nature of these responses supports a mode of action involving oxidative stress, inflammation and proliferation. These results are consistent with a dose-dependent transition in the mode of action for naphthalene toxicity/carcinogenicity between 1.0 and 10 ppm in the rat. In the female olfactory epithelium (the gender/site with the highest incidences of neuroblastomas in the NTP bioassay), the lowest concentration at which any signaling pathway was significantly affected, as characterized by the median pathway benchmark dose (BMD) or its 95% lower bound (BMDL) was 6.0 or 3.7 ppm, respectively, while the lowest female olfactory BMD values for pathways related to glutathione homeostasis, inflammation, and proliferation were 16.1, 11.1, and 8.4 ppm, respectively. In the male respiratory epithelium (the gender/site with the highest incidences of adenomas in the NTP bioassay), the lowest pathway BMD and BMDL were 0.4 and 0.3 ppm, respectively, and the lowest male respiratory BMD values for pathways related to glutathione homeostasis, inflammation, and proliferation were 0.5, 0.7, and 0.9 ppm

  19. Lesion of the olfactory epithelium accelerates prion neuroinvasion and disease onset when prion replication is restricted to neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Crowell

    Full Text Available Natural prion diseases of ruminants are moderately contagious and while the gastrointestinal tract is the primary site of prion agent entry, other mucosae may be entry sites in a subset of infections. In the current study we examined prion neuroinvasion and disease induction following disruption of the olfactory epithelium in the nasal mucosa since this site contains environmentally exposed olfactory sensory neurons that project directly into the central nervous system. Here we provide evidence for accelerated prion neuroinvasion and clinical onset from the olfactory mucosa after disruption and regeneration of the olfactory epithelium and when prion replication is restricted to neurons. In transgenic mice with neuron restricted replication of prions, there was a reduction in survival when the olfactory epithelium was disrupted prior to intranasal inoculation and there was >25% decrease in the prion incubation period. In a second model, the neurotropic DY strain of transmissible mink encephalopathy was not pathogenic in hamsters by the nasal route, but 50% of animals exhibited brain infection and/or disease when the olfactory epithelium was disrupted prior to intranasal inoculation. A time course analysis of prion deposition in the brain following loss of the olfactory epithelium in models of neuron-restricted prion replication suggests that neuroinvasion from the olfactory mucosa is via the olfactory nerve or brain stem associated cranial nerves. We propose that induction of neurogenesis after damage to the olfactory epithelium can lead to prion infection of immature olfactory sensory neurons and accelerate prion spread to the brain.

  20. Sickness absence among Finnish special and general education teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervasti, J; Kivimäki, M; Pentti, J; Suominen, S; Vahtera, J; Virtanen, M

    2011-10-01

    Although teaching is considered a high-stress profession, research on stress-related outcomes among teachers, such as absence from work due to illness (i.e. sickness absence), remains scarce. It is possible that teachers are not a homogeneous group but include subgroups with particularly high risk of sickness absence, such as special education teachers. To examine differences in sickness absence rates between special and general education teachers in a large cohort of 2291 Finnish lower secondary school teachers. Register data on teachers' job titles, sociodemographic characteristics and sickness absence were obtained from 10 municipal employers' registers. Indices of sickness absence included rates of short-term (1-3 days) and long-term (>3 days) absence spells during 2003-05. With multi-level models adjusted for individual- and school-level covariates, we found that although the absolute level of sickness absence was higher among women than among men, male special education teachers were at a 1.36-fold (95% CI: 1.15-1.61) increased risk of short-term and a 1.33-fold (95% CI: 1.01-1.76) increased risk of long-term sickness absence compared with male teachers in general education. Among women, there were no differences in sickness absence between special and general education teachers. Compared to male teachers in general education, male teachers in special education appear to have an excess risk of absence from work due to illness. Future studies should examine the causes for this excess risk and determine the need for preventive interventions.

  1. Changes in alcohol drinking and subsequent sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonsalmi, Aino; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero; Laaksonen, Mikko

    2015-06-01

    The aim was to examine whether changes in alcohol drinking are associated with sickness absence. Repeated postal questionnaires on alcohol drinking were conducted among employees of the City of Helsinki in 2000-2 and 2007 to assess changes in drinking habits between these two time points. Data on the number of self-certified and medically confirmed sickness absences were derived from the employer's register. Sickness absences were followed from 2007 until the end of 2010 among employees participating in both questionnaire surveys. The study includes 3252 female and 682 male employees 40-60 years old at baseline. Poisson regression was used in the data analysis and population attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated. Alcohol drinking was associated especially with self-certified sickness absence. Rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for increasing weekly average drinking were 1.38, 1.18-1.62 among women and 1.58, 1.18-2.12 among men. Also stable problem drinking (for women 1.39, 1.26-1.54, for men 1.44, 1.10-1.87) and among women stable heavy drinking (1.53, 1.20-1.94) increased self-certified sickness absence. There were associations between alcohol drinking and medically confirmed sickness absence but these were mainly explained by health and health behaviours. Also, a decrease in weekly average drinking was associated with sickness absence among women whereas among men former problem drinking increased sickness absence. According to the PAF values, problem drinking had a stronger contribution to sickness absence than weekly average drinking. Alcohol drinking is particularly associated with self-certified sickness absence. Reducing adverse drinking habits is likely to prevent sickness absence. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  2. Health-related behaviours and sickness absence from work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, M; Piha, K; Martikainen, P; Rahkonen, O; Lahelma, E

    2009-12-01

    To compare associations of health-related behaviours with self-certified and medically confirmed sickness absence, and to examine whether these associations can be explained by psychosocial and physical working conditions and occupational social class. The study included 5470 female and 1464 male employees of the City of Helsinki surveyed in 2000-2002. These data were linked to sickness absence records until the end of 2005, providing a mean follow-up time of 3.9 years. Poisson regression analysis was used to examine associations of smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, dietary habits and relative weight (body mass index) with self-certified (1-3 days) and medically confirmed (> or =4 days) absence spells. Population attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated to quantify the sickness absence burden related to the behaviours. Smoking and high relative weight were most strongly associated with sickness absence, while the associations of other studied health-related behaviours were weaker. The associations were stronger for medically confirmed sickness absence spells for which heavy smoking and obesity more than doubled the risk of sickness absence in men and nearly doubled it in women. Adjusting for psychosocial working conditions had little or no effect on the associations. Physical working conditions and social class somewhat attenuated the associations, especially for smoking and relative weight. In self-certified sickness absence the PAF for smoking (16.4 in men, 10.3 in women) was largest, while in medically confirmed absence relative weight had the largest PAF (23.5 in men, 15.0 in women). Health-related behaviours, smoking and high relative weight in particular, were associated with subsequent sickness absence independently of psychosocial and physical working conditions and social class. Decreasing smoking and relative weight is likely to provide important gains in work ability and reduce sickness absence.

  3. Congenital torticollis caused by unilateral absence of the sternocleidomastoid muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raman, Subha; Takhtani, Deepak; Wallace, E.C. [UMass Memorial Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Worcester, MA (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Congenital torticollis is most commonly caused by benign fibrosis of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Absence of the sternocleidomastoid muscle is a rare cause of congenital torticollis. There have been fewer than a dozen reported cases of agenesis of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. We describe a case of congenital absence of the sternocleidomastoid diagnosed by US and confirmed on MRI. (orig.)

  4. Omphalocele minor associated with complete absence of the large bowel.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ferede, Atakelet

    2012-02-01

    Colonic atresia, unlike small intestine atresia, is a rare congenital malformation. Congenital absence of the entire colon is exceptionally rare. Moreover, an association of omphalocele and complete absence of the colon has not yet been reported in the literature. We present an infant born with such combination of congenital anomalies.

  5. Does muscle strength predict future musculoskeletal disorders and sickness absence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, A; Sell, L; Hansen, J V

    2012-01-01

    High muscle strength is considered relevant for preventing musculoskeletal disorders and long-term sickness absence. However, prospective studies on the association between muscle strength and future musculoskeletal disorders and long-term sickness absence are few and show contrasting results....

  6. Identifying workers at risk of sickness absence by questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; van der Pol, Tjepke R.; Koopmans, Petra C.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2006-01-01

    Background Sickness absence is an important economic problem, because of high costs and lost productivity. Determining factors associated with increased risk of sickness absence may lead to the development of preventive measures. Aims To determine whether self-report questionnaires can identify

  7. Subjective health complaints in relation to sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; Koopmans, Petra C.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The Dutch population is healthy in terms of living and working conditions, but the levels of subjective health complaints (SHC) and sickness absence are high in the Dutch workforce. Are SHC related to sickness absence? Participants: The study population included the personnel of four

  8. Avoidable sickness absence in a dutch working population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, A.M.; Steenbeek, R.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Sickness absence has an important impact on employers (e.g. reduced productivity, high costs) and employees (e.g. replacement, job loss). Therefore, we investigated possible reduction by exploring avoidable sickness absence. Methods A questionnaire was filled out by 2,954 Dutch workers

  9. Analyzing sickness absence with statistical models for survival data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karl Bang; Andersen, Per Kragh; Smith-Hansen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Sickness absence is the outcome in many epidemiologic studies and is often based on summary measures such as the number of sickness absences per year. In this study the use of modern statistical methods was examined by making better use of the available information. Since sickness...... absence data deal with events occurring over time, the use of statistical models for survival data has been reviewed, and the use of frailty models has been proposed for the analysis of such data. METHODS: Three methods for analyzing data on sickness absences were compared using a simulation study...... involving the following: (i) Poisson regression using a single outcome variable (number of sickness absences), (ii) analysis of time to first event using the Cox proportional hazards model, and (iii) frailty models, which are random effects proportional hazards models. Data from a study of the relation...

  10. Cell proliferation in rat nasal respiratory epithelium following three months exposure to formaldehyde gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monticello, T.M.; Morgan, K.T.

    1990-01-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO), a ubiquitous chemical and rat nasal carcinogen, enhances cell proliferation in rat, monkey, and xenotransplanted human respiratory epithelium following short-term exposure. The present studies were designed to evaluate cell proliferation in relation to tumor induction in rat nasal respiratory epithelium following subchronic HCHO exposure. Male F-344 rats were whole-body exposed to either 0, 0.7, 2, 6, 10, or 15 ppm HCHO, for wither 4 d (6hr/d), 6 wks (5d/wk) or 3 months. Animals were labeled with tritiated thymidine prior to euthanasia. Nasal sections were processed for autoradiography and cell proliferation data was expressed as unit length labeling indices (ULLI). HCHO-induced lesions and increases in cell proliferation occurred in specific regions of the nose, primarily the wall of the lateral meatus and nasal septum of the anterior nasal cavity. Following 4 d exposure, significant elevations in cell proliferation were observed only in the 6, 10 and 15 ppm groups (16-, 18-, and 20-fold increase over control, respectively). Increases in ULLI were also present in the 6, 10 and 15 ppm groups after 6 wks of exposure (12-, 35-, and 40-fold increase over control). However, after 3 months exposure, elevations in ULLI were present only in the 10 and 15 ppm groups (9- and 14-fold increase over controls). These results demonstrate that (1) low levels of HCHO (0.7 and 2 ppm) do not increase cell proliferation in rat nasal respiratory epithelium; (2) 6 ppm HCHO induces transient increases in cell proliferation; and (3) clearly carcinogenic concentrations of HCHO (10 and 15 ppm) cause sustained elevations in cell proliferation which may play an important role in HCHO-induced carcinogenesis

  11. Quality control in microarray assessment of gene expression in human airway epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attiyeh Marc A

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray technology provides a powerful tool for defining gene expression profiles of airway epithelium that lend insight into the pathogenesis of human airway disorders. The focus of this study was to establish rigorous quality control parameters to ensure that microarray assessment of the airway epithelium is not confounded by experimental artifact. Samples (total n = 223 of trachea, large and small airway epithelium were collected by fiberoptic bronchoscopy of 144 individuals and hybridized to Affymetrix microarrays. The pre- and post-chip quality control (QC criteria established, included: (1 RNA quality, assessed by RNA Integrity Number (RIN ≥ 7.0; (2 cRNA transcript integrity, assessed by signal intensity ratio of GAPDH 3' to 5' probe sets ≤ 3.0; and (3 the multi-chip normalization scaling factor ≤ 10.0. Results Of the 223 samples, all three criteria were assessed in 191; of these 184 (96.3% passed all three criteria. For the remaining 32 samples, the RIN was not available, and only the other two criteria were used; of these 29 (90.6% passed these two criteria. Correlation coefficients for pairwise comparisons of expression levels for 100 maintenance genes in which at least one array failed the QC criteria (average Pearson r = 0.90 ± 0.04 were significantly lower (p Conclusion Based on the aberrant maintenance gene data generated from samples failing the established QC criteria, we propose that the QC criteria outlined in this study can accurately distinguish high quality from low quality data, and can be used to delete poor quality microarray samples before proceeding to higher-order biological analyses and interpretation.

  12. Dysplastic features relevant to malignant transformation in atrophic epithelium of oral submucous fibrosis: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarode, Sachin C; Chaudhary, Minal; Gadbail, Amol; Tekade, Satyajit; Patil, Shankargouda; Sarode, Gargi S

    2018-02-25

    The grading of oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) is not applicable to oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) cases due to the presence of atrophic epithelium. The mucosal margins associated with resected OSCC specimens are often closely related to transformed cells. In this study, we compared the histomorphological alterations (dysplastic features) in the atrophic epithelium of OSMF patients with the mucosal margins of OSCC associated with OSMF (OSCC-OSMF). We evaluated 17 dysplastic features in 37 patients with OSMF (biopsy site: buccal mucosa) and 37 patients with OSCC-OSMF (mucosal margins involving buccal mucosa) using histopathological staining. Dysplastic features, such as keratin pearls within rete ridges, nuclear pleomorphism, and atypical mitotic figures, were not observed in the epithelium of the OSMF or OSCC-OSMF groups. Basal cell hyperplasia (P = .016), abnormal superficial mitosis (P = .010), increased nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio (P = .034), and hyperchromasia (P = .031) were predominantly seen in the OSCC-OSMF group. We found no statistically significant differences in the following parameters: irregular epithelial stratification (P = 1.00), loss of basal cell polarity (P = .237), presence of drop-shaped rete ridges (P = .077), increased number of mitotic figures (P = .154), premature keratinization in single cells (P = .499), anisonucleosis (P = .289), anisocytosis (P = .079), cellular pleomorphism (P = .317), and increased number and size of nucleoli (P = .129). Increased basal cell layer hyperplasia, abnormal superficial mitosis, increased nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, and hyperchromasia are high-risk features for OSMF, and affected patients should be followed on a priority basis for the early detection of OSCC. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Neuropilin 1 Receptor Is Up-Regulated in Dysplastic Epithelium and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrabi-Farahani, Shokoufeh; Gallottini, Marina; Martins, Fabiana; Li, Erik; Mudge, Dayna R; Nakayama, Hironao; Hida, Kyoko; Panigrahy, Dipak; D'Amore, Patricia A; Bielenberg, Diane R

    2016-04-01

    Neuropilins are receptors for disparate ligands, including proangiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor and inhibitory class 3 semaphorin (SEMA3) family members. Differentiated cells in skin epithelium and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma highly express the neuropilin-1 (NRP1) receptor. We examined the expression of NRP1 in human and mouse oral mucosa. NRP1 was significantly up-regulated in oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). NRP1 receptor localized to the outer suprabasal epithelial layers in normal tongue, an expression pattern similar to the normal skin epidermis. However, dysplastic tongue epithelium and OSCC up-regulated NRP1 in basal and proliferating epithelial layers, a profile unseen in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. NRP1 up-regulation is observed in a mouse carcinogen-induced OSCC model and in human tongue OSCC biopsies. Human OSCC cell lines express NRP1 protein in vitro and in mouse tongue xenografts. Sites of capillary infiltration into orthotopic OSCC tumors correlate with high NRP1 expression. HSC3 xenografts, which express the highest NRP1 levels of the cell lines examined, showed massive intratumoral lymphangiogenesis. SEMA3A inhibited OSCC cell migration, suggesting that the NRP1 receptor was bioactive in OSCC. In conclusion, NRP1 is regulated in the oral epithelium and is selectively up-regulated during epithelial dysplasia. NRP1 may function as a reservoir to sequester proangiogenic ligands within the neoplastic compartment, thereby recruiting neovessels toward tumor cells. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The lens regenerative competency of limbal vs. central regions of mature Xenopus cornea epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Paul W.; Henry, Jonathan J.

    2016-01-01

    The frog, Xenopus laevis, is capable of completely regenerating a lens from the cornea epithelium. Because this ability appears to be limited to the larval stages of Xenopus, virtually all the work to understand the mechanisms regulating this process has been limited to pre-metamorphic tadpoles. It has been reported that the post-metamorphic cornea is competent to regenerate under experimental conditions, despite the fact that the in vivo capacity to regenerate is lost; however, that work didn’t examine the regenerative potential of different regions of the cornea. A new model suggests that cornea-lens regeneration in Xenopus may be driven by oligopotent stem cells, and not by transdifferentiation of mature cornea cells. We investigated the regenerative potential of the limbal region in post-metamorphic cornea, where the stem cells of the cornea are thought to reside. Using EdU (5-Ethynyl-2’-deoxyuridine), we identified long-term label retaining cells in the basal cells of peripheral post-metamorphic Xenopus cornea, consistent with slow-cycling stem cells of the limbus that have been described in other vertebrates. Using this data to identify putative stem cells of the limbal region in Xenopus, we tested the regenerative competency of limbal regions and central cornea. All three regions showed a similarly high ability for the cells of the basal epithelium to express lens proteins when cultured in proximity to larval retina. Thus, the regenerative competency in post-metamorphic cornea is not restricted to stem cells of the limbal region, but also occurs in the transit amplifying cells throughout the basal layer of the cornea epithelium. PMID:27569373

  15. Toll-like receptor 4 expression in the epithelium of inflammatory periapical lesions. An immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Leonardi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLR are essential for the innate immune response against invading pathogens and have been described in immunocompetent cells of areas affected by periapical disease. Besides initiating the inflammatory response, they also directly regulate epithelial cell proliferation and survival in a variety of settings. This study evaluates the in situ expression of TLR4 in periapical granulomas (PG and radicular cysts, focusing on the epithelial compartment. Twenty-one periapical cysts (PC and 10 PG were analyzed; 7 dentigerous non-inflamed follicular cyst (DC served as control. TLR4 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. TLR4 immunoreaction products were detected in the epithelium of all specimens, with a higher percentage of immunostained cells in PG. Although TLR4 overexpression was detected in both PG and PC, there were differences that seemed to be related to the nature of the lesion, since in PG all epithelial cells of strands, islands and trabeculae were strongly immunoreactive for TLR4, whereas in PC only some areas of the basal and suprabasal epithelial layers were immunostained. This staining pattern is consistent with the action of TLR4: in PG it could promote formation of epithelial cell rests of Malassez and in epithelial strands and islands the enhancement of cell survival, proliferation and migration, whereas in PC TLR4 could protect the lining epithelium from extensive apoptosis. These findings go some way towards answering the intriguing question of why many epithelial strands or islands in PG and the lining epithelium of apical cysts regress after non-surgical endodontic therapy, and suggest that TLR4 plays a key role in the pathobiology of the inflammatory process related to periapical disease.

  16. Analysis of micronuclei of the oral epithelium in workers of a banana zone exposed to pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Achi, R.

    1999-01-01

    The following study was realized with workers of the zone of Guapiles (Limon, Costa Rica), to determine the possible damage to the genetic material occasioned by labour exhibition to pesticides. The presence of micronuclei in cells of the oral epithelium was used as a biomarcador of effect . Besides, an analysis of frequency of other abnormalities was made in the nucleus of the epithelial cells, which can be an indication of genotoxicity or cytotoxicity. The group of women exposed to pesticides (cases) was formed by workers of packing plants of different independent banana states. The group of women who constituted the group of control were persons that neither them nor their spouses or companions had never worked at agricultural labours and that had not lived inside a banana estate. The samples of the controls were gathered not only from women who are employed at the Hospital of Guapiles, but also from patients who were expecting to be attended in the external consultation of the same hospital, or, in the Healthy Child consultation in the health center of the same city. It is the first time that a study of control-case is done in the country to detect genotoxicidad, using micronuclei of the oral epithelium (MNOE) as a biomarcador. The participants were interviewed to obtain information about his or her customs and family history that could be relevant for the study. The preparation and the analysis of the cells of the oral epithelium of every individual was done in the laboratories of the Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud (INISA), of the Universidad de Costa Rica. Although there are indications of cytotoxic and genotoxicity in the controls showed by an increase of the frequencies of other nuclear abnormalities, the results demonstrated that there is not a significant increase in MNOE's frequency between the group of cases and of controls. (Author) [es

  17. Repopulation of the seminiferous epithelium of the rhesus monkey after X irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Alphen, M.M.; van de Kant, H.J.; de Rooij, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    Repopulation of the seminiferous epithelium became evident from Day 75 postirradiation onward after doses of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 Gy of X rays. Cell counts in cross sections of seminiferous tubules revealed that during this repopulation the numbers of Apale (Ap) spermatogonia, Adark (Ad) spermatogonia, and B spermatogonia increased simultaneously. After 0.5 Gy the number of spermatogonia increased from approximately 10% of the control level at Day 44 to 90% at Day 200. After 1.0 and 2.0 Gy the numbers of spermatogonia increased from less than 5% at Day 44 to 70% at Days 200 and 370. The number of Ad and B spermatogonia, which are considered to be resting and differentiating spermatogonia, respectively, already had increased when the number of proliferating Ap spermatogonia was still very low. This early inactivation and differentiation of a large part of the population of Ap spermatogonia slows down repopulation of the seminiferous epithelium of the primates. By studying repopulating colonies in whole mounts of seminiferous tubules various types of colonies were found. In colonies consisting of only A spermatogonia, 40% of the A spermatogonia were found to be of the Ad type, which indicates that even before the colony had differentiated, 40% of the A spermatogonia were inactivated into Ad. Differentiating colonies were also found in which one or two generations of germ cells were missing. In some of those colonies it was found that the Ap spermatogonia did not form any B spermatogonia during one or two cycles of the seminiferous epithelium, while in other colonies all Ap spermatogonia present had differentiated into B spermatogonia. This indicates that the differentiation of Ap into B spermatogonia is a stochastic process

  18. Dendrimer nanocarriers for transport modulation across models of the pulmonary epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharatwaj, Balaji; Mohammad, Abdul Khader; Dimovski, Radovan; Cassio, Fernando L; Bazito, Reinaldo C; Conti, Denise; Fu, Qiang; Reineke, Joshua; da Rocha, Sandro R P

    2015-03-02

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of PEGylation on the interaction of poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer nanocarriers (DNCs) with in vitro and in vivo models of the pulmonary epithelium. Generation-3 PAMAM dendrimers with varying surface densities of PEG 1000 Da were synthesized and characterized. The results revealed that the apical to basolateral transport of DNCs across polarized Calu-3 monolayers increases with an increase in PEG surface density. DNC having the greatest number of PEG groups (n = 25) on their surface traversed at a rate 10-fold greater than its non-PEGylated counterpart, in spite of their larger size. This behavior was attributed to a significant reduction in charge density upon PEGylation. We also observed that PEGylation can be used to modulate cellular internalization. The total uptake of PEG-free DNC into polarized Calu-3 monolayers was 12% (w/w) vs 2% (w/w) for that with 25 PEGs. Polarization is also shown to be of great relevance in studying this in vitro model of the lung epithelium. The rate of absorption of DNCs administered to mice lungs increased dramatically when conjugated with 25 PEG groups, thus supporting the in vitro results. The exposure obtained for the DNC with 25PEG was determined to be very high, with peak plasma concentrations reaching 5 μg·mL(-1) within 3 h. The combined in vitro and in vivo results shown here demonstrate that PEGylation can be potentially used to modulate the internalization and transport of DNCs across the pulmonary epithelium. Modified dendrimers thereby may serve as a valuable platform that can be tailored to target the lung tissue for treating local diseases, or the circulation, using the lung as pathway to the bloodstream, for systemic delivery.

  19. Early survival factor deprivation in the olfactory epithelium enhances activity-dependent survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien eFrançois

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The neuronal olfactory epithelium undergoes permanent renewal because of environmental aggression. This renewal is partly regulated by factors modulating the level of neuronal apoptosis. Among them, we had previously characterized endothelin as neuroprotective. In this study, we explored the effect of cell survival factor deprivation in the olfactory epithelium by intranasal delivery of endothelin receptors antagonists to rat pups. This treatment induced an overall increase of apoptosis in the olfactory epithelium. The responses to odorants recorded by electroolfactogram were decreased in treated animal, a result consistent with a loss of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs. However, the treated animal performed better in an olfactory orientation test based on maternal odor compared to non-treated littermates. This improved performance could be due to activity-dependent neuronal survival of OSNs in the context of increased apoptosis level. In order to demonstrate it, we odorized pups with octanal, a known ligand for the rI7 olfactory receptor (Olr226. We quantified the number of OSN expressing rI7 by RT-qPCR and whole mount in situ hybridization. While this number was reduced by the survival factor removal treatment, this reduction was abolished by the presence of its ligand. This improved survival was optimal for low concentration of odorant and was specific for rI7-expressing OSNs. Meanwhile, the number of rI7-expressing OSNs was not affected by the odorization in non-treated littermates; showing that the activity-dependant survival of OSNs did not affect the OSN population during the 10 days of odorization in control conditions. Overall, our study shows that when apoptosis is promoted in the olfactory mucosa, the activity-dependent neuronal plasticity allows faster tuning of the olfactory sensory neuron population towards detection of environmental odorants.

  20. The injury of serotonin on intestinal epithelium cell renewal of weaned diarrhoea mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Dong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhoea is a common cause of death in children and weaned animals. Recent research has found that serotonin (5-HT in the gastrointestinal tract plays an important role in regulating growth and the maintenance of mucosa, which protect against diarrhoea. To determine the influence of 5-HT on intestinal epithelium cell renewal under weaned stress diarrhoea, a weaned-stress diarrhoea mouse model was established with senna infusion (15 mL/Kg via intragastric administration and stress restraint (SR. Mice with an increase in 5-HT were induced by intraperitoneal injection with citalopram hydrobromide (CH, 10 mg/Kg. The results demonstrated that compared with the control animals, diarrhoea appeared in weaned stress mice and the 5-HT content in the small intestine was significantly increased (P<0.05. Further, the caspase-3 cells and cells undergoing apoptosis in the small intestine were significantly increased, but the VH (villus height, V/C (villus height /crypt depth, and PCNA-positive rate significantly decreased. Compared with the control animals, CH increased the intestinal 5-HT content, caspase-3 cells and cells undergoing apoptosis but decreased the VH and V/C. Compared with both control and weaned stress animals, weaned stress animals that were pre-treated with CH showed higher 5-HT concentrations, positive caspase-3 cells and cells undergoing apoptosis but lower VH, V/C and PCNA-positive rate. In vitro, a low concentration of 5-HT inhibit, IEC-6 cell line apoptosis but a higher concentration of 5-HT promoted it. Therefore, weaned stress diarrhoea mice were accompanied by a 5-HT increase in the small intestine and vice versa, and the increase in 5-HT induced by CH caused diarrhoea. In brief, 5-HT and diarrhoea slowed the intestinal epithelium cell renewal and injured the abortion function and mucosal barrier by decreasing VH, V/C and proliferation and increasing epithelium cell apoptosis.

  1. Nebulisation of receptor-targeted nanocomplexes for gene delivery to the airway epithelium.

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    Maria D I Manunta

    Full Text Available Gene therapy mediated by synthetic vectors may provide opportunities for new treatments for cystic fibrosis (CF via aerosolisation. Vectors for CF must transfect the airway epithelium efficiently and not cause inflammation so they are suitable for repeated dosing. The inhaled aerosol should be deposited in the airways since the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR is expressed predominantly in the epithelium of the submucosal glands and in the surface airway epithelium. The aim of this project was to develop an optimised aerosol delivery approach applicable to treatment of CF lung disease by gene therapy.The vector suspension investigated in this study comprises receptor-targeting peptides, cationic liposomes and plasmid DNA that self-assemble by electrostatic interactions to form a receptor-targeted nanocomplex (RTN of approximately 150 nm with a cationic surface charge of +50 mV. The aerodynamic properties of aerosolised nanocomplexes produced with three different nebulisers were compared by determining aerosol deposition in the different stages of a Next Generation Pharmaceutical Impactor (NGI. We also investigated the yield of intact plasmid DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis and densitometry, and transfection efficacies in vitro and in vivo.RTNs nebulised with the AeroEclipse II BAN were the most effective, compared to other nebulisers tested, for gene delivery both in vitro and in vivo. The biophysical properties of the nanocomplexes were unchanged after nebulisation while the deposition of RTNs suggested a range of aerosol aerodynamic sizes between 5.5 µm-1.4 µm cut off (NGI stages 3-6 compatible with deposition in the central and lower airways.RTNs showed their ability at delivering genes via nebulisation, thus suggesting their potential applications for therapeutic interventions of cystic fibrosis and other respiratory disorders.

  2. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors elicits pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium isolated from bluegill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crittenden Elizabeth L

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In fish, melanin pigment granules in the retinal pigment epithelium disperse into apical projections as part of the suite of responses the eye makes to bright light conditions. This pigment granule dispersion serves to reduce photobleaching and occurs in response to neurochemicals secreted by the retina. Previous work has shown that acetylcholine may be involved in inducing light-adaptive pigment dispersion. Acetylcholine receptors are of two main types, nicotinic and muscarinic. Muscarinic receptors are in the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily, and five different muscarinic receptors have been molecularly cloned in human. These receptors are coupled to adenylyl cyclase, calcium mobilization and ion channel activation. To determine the receptor pathway involved in eliciting pigment granule migration, we isolated retinal pigment epithelium from bluegill and subjected it to a battery of cholinergic agents. Results The general cholinergic agonist carbachol induces pigment granule dispersion in isolated retinal pigment epithelium. Carbachol-induced pigment granule dispersion is blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine, by the M1 antagonist pirenzepine, and by the M3 antagonist 4-DAMP. Pigment granule dispersion was also induced by the M1 agonist 4-[N-(4-chlorophenyl carbamoyloxy]-4-pent-2-ammonium iodide. In contrast the M2 antagonist AF-DX 116 and the M4 antagonist tropicamide failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion, and the M2 agonist arecaidine but-2-ynyl ester tosylate failed to elicit dispersion. Conclusions Our results suggest that carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion occurs through the activation of Modd muscarinic receptors, which in other systems couple to phosphoinositide hydrolysis and elevation of intracellular calcium. This conclusion must be corroborated by molecular studies, but suggests Ca2+-dependent pathways may be involved in light-adaptive pigment dispersion.

  3. A brief history of typical absence seizures - Petit mal revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen; Lattanzi, Simona; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Nardone, Raffaele; Martini, Mariano

    2018-03-01

    In this article, we have traced back the history of typical absence seizures, from their initial clinical description to the more recent nosological position. The first description of absence seizures was made by Poupart in 1705 and Tissot in 1770. In 1824, Calmeil introduced the term "absences", and in 1838, Esquirol for the first time used the term petit mal. Reynolds instead used the term "epilepsia mitior" (milder epilepsy) and provided a comprehensive description of absence seizures (1861). In 1854, Delasiauve ranked absences as the seizure type with lower severity and introduced the concept of idiopathic epilepsy. Otto Binswanger (1899) discussed the role of cortex in the pathophysiology of "abortive seizures", whereas William Gowers (1901) emphasized the importance of a detailed clinical history to identify nonmotor seizures or very mild motor phenomena which otherwise may go unnoticed or considered not epileptic. At the beginning of the 20th Century, the term pyknolepsy was introduced, but initially was not universally considered as a type of epilepsy; it was definitely recognized as an epileptic entity only in 1945, based on electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. Hans Berger, the inventor of the EEG, made also the first EEG recording of an atypical absence (his results were published only in 1933), whereas the characteristic EEG pattern was reported by neurophysiologists of the Harvard Medical School in 1935. The discovery of EEG made it also possible to differentiate absence seizures from so called "psychomotor" seizures occurring in temporal lobe epilepsy. Penfield and Jasper (1938) considered absences as expression of "centrencephalic epilepsy". Typical absences seizures are now classified by the International League Against Epilepsy among generalized nonmotor (absence) seizures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Medically certified sickness absence among health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Rajab Ali; Sikander, Raheel; Khawaja, Asad Ali; Jareno, Rechel Joy Macadaan; Halepota, Aurangzeb Taj

    2012-09-01

    To compare the days and spells of sickness absence among males versus females and Saudi nationals versus expatriate employees of King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, and to identify the cause of sickness absence. The cross-sectional, descriptive study comprised 3117 King Khalid University Hospital employees. Records of physician-certified sickness absence from January 1 to June 30, 2009, were obtained from the employee health clinic's register. Absence rate, frequency, duration and severity were assessed and compared between genders and nationalities, and causes were noted. SPSS version 16 and student's t test were used for statistical analyses and comparison. A total of 377 (12.1 %) employees had 416 spells of sickness absence with 639 sick-off days (mean: 1.54 +/- 0.85). The probability of sickness absence was higher among Saudi (OR=1.33) and female (OR=1.39) employees. The association of sickness absence was not found among the absentees with either gender (p= 0.335) or nationality (p = 0.086). Almost all spells of sick-off days were of short duration. Longer spells were mainly due to chicken pox which was found to be more among the expatriates. Heavy absenteeism was found only among the Saudis. The most common causes of sickness absence were acute upper respiratory infection, diseases of musculoskeletal system and the digestive system. The rate, frequency and duration of absence due to sickness in the study were higher among Saudi and female employees. The rate of absence, with passage of time, has increased significantly among Saudi nationals.

  5. Transport mechanism of lipid covered saquinavir pure drug nanoparticles in intestinal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Dengning; He, Yuan; Li, Qiuxia

    2018-01-01

    Pure drug nanoparticles (NPs) represent a promising formulation for improved drug solubility and controlled dissolution velocity. However, limited absorption by the intestinal epithelium remains challenge to their clinical application, and little is known about how these NPs within the cells...... are transported. To improve cellular uptake and transport of pure nanodrug in cells, here, a lipid covered saquinavir (SQV) pure drug NP (Lipo@nanodrug) was designed by modifying a pure SQV NP (nanodrug) with a phospholipid bilayer. We studied their endocytosis, intracellular trafficking mechanism using Caco-2....... The findings provide a new platform for oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs....

  6. Lead Acetate Induces Epithelium-Dependent Contraction of Airway Smooth Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    , Ramadan B. Sopi; , Kemajl Bislimi; , Fetah Halili; , Mentor Sopjani; , Burim Neziri; , Muharrem Jakupi

    2016-01-01

    The effect of lead acetate on tracheal smooth muscle (TSM) of dog pups was investigated in this study. In addition we studied the role of epithelium and involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in counteracting the effects of lead acetate on TSM as well as the modifying effects of lead acetate on contractile responses of TSM to acetylcholine (ACh) . Tracheal rings were excised and placed in in vitro organ baths. In vitro administration of lead acetate in increasing concentrations(10-7–10-3 M) induced...

  7. Cell Death and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Apoptosis, Necrosis, and Autophagy in the Intestinal Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Nunes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell death mechanisms have been associated with the development of inflammatory bowel diseases in humans and mice. Recent studies suggested that a complex crosstalk between autophagy/apoptosis, microbe sensing, and enhanced endoplasmic reticulum stress in the epithelium could play a critical role in these diseases. In addition, necroptosis, a relatively novel programmed necrosis-like pathway associated with TNF receptor activation, seems to be also present in the pathogenesis of Crohn’s disease and in specific animal models for intestinal inflammation. This review attempts to cover new data related to cell death mechanisms and inflammatory bowel diseases.

  8. Germline cells in ovarian surface epithelium of mammalians: a promising notion

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    Celik Onder

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is a long held doctrine in reproductive biology that women are born with a finite number of oocytes and there is no oogenesis during the postnatal period. However, recent evidence challenges this by showing the presence of germ line stem cells in the human ovarian surface epithelium (OSE, which can serve as a source of germ cells, and differentiate into oocyte like structures. Postnatal renewal of oocytes may have enormous therapeutic potential especially in women facing the risk of premature ovarian failure idiopathically or iatrogenically after exposure to gonadotoxic chemotherapy and radiation for cancer therapy. This article reviews current knowledge on germ line stem cells in human OSE.

  9. Reconstituted human upper airway epithelium as 3-d in vitro model for nasal polyposis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Borja Callejas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Primary human airway epithelial cells cultured in an air-liquid interface (ALI develop a well-differentiated epithelium. However, neither characterization of mucociliar differentiation overtime nor the inflammatory function of reconstituted nasal polyp (NP epithelia have been described. OBJECTIVES: 1st To develop and characterize the mucociliar differentiation overtime of human epithelial cells of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP in ALI culture system; 2nd To corroborate that 3D in vitro model of NP reconstituted epithelium maintains, compared to control nasal mucosa (NM, an inflammatory function. METHODS: Epithelial cells were obtained from 9 NP and 7 control NM, and differentiated in ALI culture for 28 days. Mucociliary differentiation was characterized at different times (0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days using ultrastructure analysis by electron microscopy; ΔNp63 (basal stem/progenitor cell, β-tubulin IV (cilia, and MUC5AC (goblet cell expression by immunocytochemistry; and mucous (MUC5AC, MUC5B and serous (Lactoferrin secretion by ELISA. Inflammatory function of ALI cultures (at days 0, 14, and 28 through cytokine (IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, and IL-12p70 and chemokine (RANTES, MIG, MCP-1, IP-10, eotaxin-1, and GM-CSF production was analysed by CBA (Cytometric Bead Array. RESULTS: In both NP and control NM ALI cultures, pseudostratified epithelium with ciliated, mucus-secreting, and basal cells were observed by electron microscopy at days 14 and 28. Displaying epithelial cell re-differentation, β-tubulin IV and MUC5AC positive cells increased, while ΔNp63 positive cells decreased overtime. No significant differences were found overtime in MUC5AC, MUC5B, and lactoferrin secretions between both ALI cultures. IL-8 and GM-CSF were significantly increased in NP compared to control NM regenerated epithelia. CONCLUSION: Reconstituted epithelia from human NP epithelial cells cultured in ALI system provides a 3D in

  10. Cell-cell junctions: a target of acoustic overstimulation in the sensory epithelium of the cochlea

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    Zheng Guiliang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to intense noise causes the excessive movement of the organ of Corti, stretching the organ and compromising sensory cell functions. We recently revealed changes in the transcriptional expression of multiple adhesion-related genes during the acute phases of cochlear damage, suggesting that the disruption of cell-cell junctions is an early event in the process of cochlear pathogenesis. However, the functional state of cell junctions in the sensory epithelium is not clear. Here, we employed graded dextran-FITC, a macromolecule tracer that is impermeable to the organ of Corti under physiological conditions, to evaluate the barrier function of cell junctions in normal and noise-traumatized cochlear sensory epithelia. Results Exposure to an impulse noise of 155 dB (peak sound pressure level caused a site-specific disruption in the intercellular junctions within the sensory epithelium of the chinchilla cochlea. The most vulnerable sites were the junctions among the Hensen cells and between the Hensen and Deiters cells within the outer zone of the sensory epithelium. The junction clefts that formed in the reticular lamina were permeable to 40 and 500 but not 2,000 kDa dextran-FITC macromolecules. Moreover, this study showed that the interruption of junction integrity occurred in the reticular lamina and also in the basilar membrane, a site that had been considered to be resistant to acoustic injury. Finally, our study revealed a general spatial correlation between the site of sensory cell damage and the site of junction disruption. However, the two events lacked a strict one-to-one correlation, suggesting that the disruption of cell-cell junctions is a contributing, but not the sole, factor for initiating acute sensory cell death. Conclusions Impulse noise causes the functional disruption of intercellular junctions in the sensory epithelium of the chinchilla cochlea. This disruption occurs at an early phase of cochlear

  11. Patient-specific three-dimensional explant spheroids derived from human nasal airway epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marthin, June Kehlet; Stevens, Elizabeth Munkebjerg; Larsen, Lars Allan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional explant spheroid formation is an ex vivo technique previously used in studies of airway epithelial ion and water transport. Explanted cells and sheets of nasal epithelium form fully differentiated spheroids enclosing a partly fluid-filled lumen with the ciliated apical...... in a single healthy person. CONCLUSION: Patient-specific three-dimensional explant spheroid formation from a minimal invasive nasal brush biopsy is a feasible, fast and valid ex vivo method to assess ciliary function with potential of aiding the diagnosis of PCD. In addition, it may be a useful model...

  12. Congenital simple hamartoma of the retinal pigment epithelium: a case report

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    Mariana Rossi Thorell

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 56-year-old woman who presented for a routine ophthalmological examination without visual symptoms and had a unilateral black retinal lesion that was detected by clinical examination. Fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography findings were compatible with a congenital simple hamartoma of the retinal pigment epithelium. It is very important to detect this tumor and differentiate it from other pigmented fundus lesions that can compromise visual function or result in systemic conditions such as those caused by malignant tumors.

  13. Expression of Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channel Subunits in Native Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Dongli; Zhang, Xiaoming; Hughes, Bret A.

    2008-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that the inwardly rectifying K+ (Kir) channel subunit Kir7.1 is highly expressed in bovine and human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The purpose of this study was to determine whether any of the 14 other members of the Kir gene family are expressed in native human RPE. Conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis indicated that in addition to Kir7.1, 7 other Kir channel subunits (Kir1.1, Kir2.1, Kir2.2, Kir3.1, Kir3.4, Kir4.2 and...

  14. Proximal-tubule-like epithelium in Bowman's capsule in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Changes with age.

    OpenAIRE

    Haensly, W. E.; Granger, H. J.; Morris, A. C.; Cioffe, C.

    1982-01-01

    Kidneys were samples from male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive rats (WKY) in four groups. Renal tissues were examined in 64 rats: 6 SHR and 6 WKY rats 8 and 16 weeks of age and 10 SHR and 10 WKY rats 32 and 64 weeks of age. Tissue samples were fixed, processed, and stained by routine histologic procedures. The parietal layer of Bowman's capsule in 100-115 renal corpuscles from right to left kidney sections was classified as squamous or cuboidal epithelium. The cuboidal ...

  15. Radioautographic DNA-synthesis study on mice mus musculus gingival epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira Tarelho, Z.V. da; Hetem, S.

    1984-01-01

    The DNA-synthetizing cells frequency in the gingival epithelium basal layer of the first lower molar region in young and adult mice of both sexes, using 3H-thymidine and radioautography were studied. The labeled cells frequency and proportion were determined and the data were statiscally analysed. The labeled cells frenquency is higher in female than in male animals, but difference is statiscally significant for adult animals only; this result suggests a hormonal influence, possibly of estrogen on the epithelial tissue. (Author) [pt

  16. Modulation of Immune Responses by Extracellular Vesicles From Retinal Pigment Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knickelbein, Jared E; Liu, Baoying; Arakelyan, Anush; Zicari, Sonia; Hannes, Susan; Chen, Ping; Li, Zhiyu; Grivel, Jean-Charles; Chaigne-Delalande, Benjamin; Sen, H Nida; Margolis, Leonid; Nussenblatt, Robert B

    2016-08-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EV), such as exosomes, are important mediators of intercellular communication and have been implicated in modulation of the immune system. We investigated if EV released from retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) modulate immune responses in vitro. Extracellular vesicles were isolated from ARPE-19 cultures stimulated or not with the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IFN-γ, and TNF-α. Isolated EV were characterized by nanoparticle flow and Western blot analyses. Retinal pigment epithelium-derived EV were cultured with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, which were assayed for T-cell proliferation by 3H-thymidine incorporation. Retinal pigment epithelium-derived EV were also independently cultured with enriched lymphocytes or monocytes. Cell phenotype and cell death were evaluated by flow cytometric analysis. Cytokine levels were assayed in culture supernatants by multiplex bead analysis. The concentration of ARPE-derived EV from cytokine-stimulated cultures was slightly higher than from nonstimulated cultures. The size of EV was approximately 100 nm in both groups. Extracellular vesicles from both nonstimulated and cytokine-stimulated ARPE-19 significantly inhibited T-cell proliferation without affecting T-cell viability. Culture of EV from nonstimulated ARPE-19 with undifferentiated human monocytes induced an immunoregulatory phenotype with a significantly higher percentage of CD14++CD16+ monocytes and upregulation of TGF-β1. Culture of EV from cytokine-stimulated ARPE-19 cells with human monocytes induced upregulation of several proinflammatory cytokines and monocyte death. Retinal pigment epithelium cells constitutively secrete EV in the size range of exosomes, with increased release from RPE cells stimulated with inflammatory cytokines. Extracellular vesicles from both nonstimulated and cytokine-stimulated RPE inhibited T-cell stimulation. Extracellular vesicles from nonstimulated ARPE-19 cells promoted an immunoregulatory CD14++CD16

  17. Transitory cell attachments in the differentiating glomerular epithelium of the opossum metanephros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, W J; Cutts, J H

    1980-01-01

    Numerous transitory intercellular attachments are observed between the central, lateral surfaces of adjacent glomerular epithelial cells in the differentiating renal corpuscle. The junctions are characterized by an increased electron density of the adjacent cell membranes and cytoplasm. The intervening intercellular space may contain an amorphous material of moderate electron density. The distribution and position of such temporary cell attachments, together with their modification and subsequent loss during the differentiation of podocytes, suggest that they play an important role in the histogenesis of the glomerular epithelium.

  18. Loss of melanoregulin (MREG) enhances cathepsin-D secretion by the retinal pigment epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, Laura S.; Lopes, Vanda S.; Stefano, Frank P.; Bragin, Alvina; Williams, David S.; Mitchell, Claire H.; Boesze-Battaglia, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Cathepsin-D (Cat-D) is a major proteolytic enzyme in phagocytic cells. In the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), it is responsible for the daily degradation of photoreceptor outer segments (POSs) to maintain retinal homeostasis. Melanoregulin (MREG)-mediated loss of phagocytic capacity has been linked to diminished intracellular Cat-D activity. Here, we demonstrate that loss of MREG enhances the secretion of intermediate Cat-D (48 kDa), resulting in a net enhancement of extracellular Cat-D act...

  19. Loss of the Wnt receptor frizzled 7 in the mouse gastric epithelium is deleterious and triggers rapid repopulation in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin J. Flanagan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The gastric epithelium consists of tubular glandular units, each containing several differentiated cell types, and populations of stem cells, which enable the stomach to secrete the acid, mucus and various digestive enzymes required for its function. Very little is known about which cell signalling pathways are required for homeostasis of the gastric epithelium. Many diseases, such as cancer, arise as a result of deregulation of signalling pathways that regulate homeostasis of the diseased organ. Therefore, it is important to understand the biology of how normal conditions are maintained in a tissue to help inform the mechanisms driving disease in that same tissue, and to identify potential points of therapeutic intervention. Wnt signalling regulates several cell functions, including proliferation, differentiation and migration, and plays a crucial role during homeostasis of several tissues, including the intestinal epithelium. Wnt3a is required in the culture medium of gastric organoids, suggesting it is also important for the homeostasis of the gastric epithelium, but this has not been investigated in vivo. Here, we show that the Wnt receptor frizzled 7 (Fzd7, which is required for the homeostasis of the intestine, is expressed in the gastric epithelium and is required for gastric organoid growth. Gastric-specific loss of Fzd7 in the adult gastric epithelium of mice is deleterious and triggers rapid epithelial repopulation, which we believe is the first observation of this novel function for this tissue. Taken together, these data provide functional evidence of a crucial role for Wnt signalling, via the Fzd7 receptor, during homeostasis of the gastric epithelium.

  20. Methods of automated absence seizure detection, interference by stimulation, and possibilities for prediction in genetic absence models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Luttjohann, A.K.; Makarov, V.V.; Maksimenko, V.A.; Koronovskii, A.A.; Hramov, A.E.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genetic rat models for childhood absence epilepsy have become instrumental in developing theories on the origin of absence epilepsy, the evaluation of new and experimental treatments, as well as in developing new methods for automatic seizure detection, prediction, and/or interference of

  1. Interrelationships between education, occupational class, income and sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piha, Kustaa; Laaksonen, Mikko; Martikainen, Pekka; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero

    2010-06-01

    Socio-economic position measures, such as education, occupational class and income, are well-known determinants of health. However, previous studies have not paid attention to mutual interrelationships between these socio-economic position measures and medically confirmed sickness absence. The study is a register-based study. The participants were municipal employees of the City of Helsinki aged 25-59 years in 2003. There were 21,599 women and 5841 men participants. Three socio-economic position measures were used, namely three-level education, four-level occupational class and gross individual income quartiles. Main outcome measure was medically confirmed sickness absence spells of 4 days or longer. Inequality indices were calculated using Poisson regression analysis. High education, occupational class and individual income were all consistently associated with lower sickness absence rates among both women and men. After mutual adjustment, education and occupational class remained independent determinants of sickness absence. The association of individual income with sickness absence was practically explained by temporally preceding education and occupational class. Our results indicate that education and occupational class-rather than income-are strong determinants of sickness absence. Education, occupational class and income are complementary socio-economic position measures. To better inform sickness absence policy, future studies should aim to establish whether the observed socio-economic differences reflect broader differences in ill-health, lifestyle and working conditions.

  2. The role of work group in individual sickness absence behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väänänen, Ari; Tordera, Nuria; Kivimäki, Mika; Kouvonen, Anne; Pentti, Jaana; Linna, Anne; Vahtera, Jussi

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of our two-year follow-up study was to examine the effect of the social components of the work group, such as group absence norms and cohesion, on sickness absence behavior among individuals with varying attitudes toward work attendance. The social components were measured using a questionnaire survey and data on sickness absence behavior were collected from the employers' records. The study population consisted of 19,306 Finnish municipal employees working in 1,847 groups (78% women). Multilevel Poisson regression modeling was applied. The direct effects of work group characteristics on sickness absence were mostly insignificant. In contrast, both of the social components of a work group had an indirect impact: The more tolerant the group absence norms (at both individual- and cross-level) and the lower the group cohesion (at the individual level), the more the absence behavior of an individual was influenced by his or her attitude toward work attendance. We conclude that work group moderates the extent to which individuals with a liberal attitude toward work attendance actually engage in sickness absence behavior.

  3. Congenital absence of superficial posterior compartment calf muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibrewal, Saket; Alyas, Faisal; Vemulapalli, Krishna

    2014-06-01

    Although various congenital abnormalities have been described, congenital absence of calf musculature is extremely rare, with only one report on its complete absence. We are the first to describe a case of congenital absence of muscles of the superficial posterior compartment of the calf presenting in a toddler. The child presented with a history of a painless limp, however no significant difference was found in functional gait analysis. We suggest that such cases should be monitored and parents can be reassured that no immediate treatment is required.

  4. Expression and localization of histamine H1, H2, and H3receptors in rat olfactory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chao; Li, Li; Xia, Qingjie; Tang, Yuedi

    2017-10-01

    Histamine is an important chemical mediator in the development of allergic rhinitis and plays a key role in eliciting the nasal symptoms of the disorder. Histamine may also affect smell as a neurotransmitter. However, whether histamine receptors are present in the mammalian olfactory epithelium has not yet been examined. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and distribution of histamine H 1 , H 2 , and H 3 receptors in rat olfactory epithelium. Real-time quantitative PCR and immunohistochemical staining were performed to examine the mRNA level and protein expression and localization of histamine receptors (H 1 , H 2 , and H 3 ) in rat olfactory epithelium. We demonstrated that mRNAs encoding histamine H 1 , H 2 , and H 3 receptors were detected in rat olfactory epithelium. Immunohistochemistry also showed strong positive staining for these receptors. Co-localization of histamine H 1 , H 2 , and H 3 receptors with olfactory mature protein revealed that these three histamine receptors were mainly localized in olfactory receptor neurons. These findings indicate that histamine H 1 , H 2 , and H 3 receptors are present in rat olfactory epithelium and may play a physiological role in olfactory transmission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Apoptosis in the normal and inflamed airway epithelium: role of zinc in epithelial protection and procaspase-3 regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong-Tran, Ai Q; Grosser, Dion; Ruffin, Richard E; Murgia, Chiara; Zalewski, Peter D

    2003-10-15

    The epithelium lining the airways is a physical barrier as well as a regulator of physiological and pathological events in the respiratory system. Damage to the epithelium by oxidants released from inflammatory cells is a critical factor in the pathogenesis of airway inflammatory diseases such as bronchial asthma. In these diseases, excessive apoptosis may be a likely mechanism responsible for damage to, and sloughing, of airway epithelial cells. Factors that increase the airway epithelium's resilience to apoptosis are likely to lessen the severity of this disease. One such factor is the dietary metal zinc. A special role for labile intracellular pools of zinc as anti-apoptotic agents in the regulation of the caspases, has emerged over the past two decades. This review focuses on caspase-inhibitory functions of zinc in airway epithelial cells, apparent abnormalities of zinc homeostasis in asthmatics and studies from the authors' laboratory which showed that zinc was strategically localized in the apical cytoplasm of airway epithelium to control caspase-3 activated apoptosis. These findings are discussed in the context of recent data from a murine model of allergic asthma, showing that loss of airway epithelial zinc was accompanied by changes in levels of both procaspase-3 and active caspase-3 and that nutritional zinc deprivation further increased airway epithelial apoptosis. We hypothesize that zinc has a protective role for the airway epithelium against oxyradicals and other noxious agents, with important implications for asthma and other inflammatory diseases where the epithelial barrier is vulnerable and compromised.

  6. Fine structure of the midgut epithelium in the millipede Telodeinopus aoutii (Myriapoda, Diplopoda) with special emphasis on epithelial regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost-Roszkowska, M M; Kszuk-Jendrysik, M; Marchewka, A; Poprawa, I

    2018-01-01

    The midgut of millipedes is composed of a simple epithelium that rests on a basal lamina, which is surrounded by visceral muscles and hepatic cells. As the material for our studies, we chose Telodeinopus aoutii (Demange, 1971) (Kenyan millipede) (Diplopoda, Spirostreptida), which lives in the rain forests of Central Africa. This commonly reared species is easy to obtain from local breeders and easy to culture in the laboratory. During our studies, we used transmission and scanning electron microscopes and light and fluorescent microscopes. The midgut epithelium of the species examined here shares similarities to the structure of the millipedes analyzed to date. The midgut epithelium is composed of three types of cells-digestive, secretory, and regenerative cells. Evidence of three types of secretion have been observed in the midgut epithelium: merocrine, apocrine, and microapocrine secretion. The regenerative cells of the midgut epithelium in millipedes fulfill the role of midgut stem cells because of their main functions: self-renewal (the ability to divide mitotically and to maintain in an undifferentiated state) and potency (ability to differentiate into digestive cells). We also confirmed that spot desmosomes are common intercellular junctions between the regenerative and digestive cells in millipedes.

  7. The changes of stage distribution of seminiferous epithelium cycle and its correlations with Leydig cell stereological parameters in aging men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rui; Zhu, Wei-Jie; Li, Jing; Gu, Yi-Qun

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the changes of stage distribution of seminiferous epithelium cycle and its correlations with Leydig cell stereological parameters in aging men. Point counting method was used to analyze the stereological parameters of Leydig cells. The stage number of seminiferous epithelium cycle was calculated in the same testicular tissue samples which were used for Leydig cell stereological analysis. The aging group had shown more severe pathological changes as well as higher pathologic scores than the young group. Compared with the control group, the volume density (VV) and surface density (NA) of Leydig cells in the aging group were increased significantly. The stage number of seminiferous epithelium cycle in the aging group was decreased coincidently compared to the young group. Leydig cell Vv in the young group has a positive relationship with stages I, II, III, V and VI of seminiferous epithelium cycle, and Leydig cell NA and numerical density (NV) were positively related to stage IV. However, only the correlation between NV and stage II was found in the aging group. The stage number of seminiferous epithelium cycle was decreased in aging testes. Changes in the stage distribution in aging testes were related to the Leydig cell stereological parameters which presented as a sign of morphological changes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Purinergic receptor antagonists inhibit odorant-mediated CREB phosphorylation in sustentacular cells of mouse olfactory epithelium.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dooley, Ruth

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Extracellular nucleotides have long been known to play neuromodulatory roles and to be involved in intercellular signalling. In the olfactory system, ATP is released by olfactory neurons, and exogenous ATP can evoke an increase in intracellular calcium concentration in sustentacular cells, the nonneuronal supporting cells of the olfactory epithelium. Here we investigate the hypothesis that olfactory neurons communicate with sustentacular cells via extracellular ATP and purinergic receptor activation. RESULTS: Here we show that exposure of mice to a mixture of odorants induced a significant increase in the levels of the transcription factor CREB phosphorylated at Ser-133 in the nuclei of both olfactory sensory neurons and sustentacular cells. This activation was dependent on adenylyl cyclase III-mediated olfactory signaling and on activation of P2Y purinergic receptors on sustentacular cells. Purinergic receptor antagonists inhibited odorant-dependent CREB phosphorylation specifically in the nuclei of the sustentacular cells. CONCLUSION: Our results point to a possible role for extracellular nucleotides in mediating intercellular communication between the neurons and sustentacular cells of the olfactory epithelium in response to odorant exposure. Maintenance of extracellular ionic gradients and metabolism of noxious chemicals by sustentacular cells may therefore be regulated in an odorant-dependent manner by olfactory sensory neurons.

  9. Capsule impairs efficient adherence of Streptococcus agalactiae to intestinal epithelium in tilapias Oreochromis sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barato, P; Martins, E R; Vasquez, G M; Ramirez, M; Melo-Cristino, J; Martínez, N; Iregui, C

    2016-11-01

    Streptococcosis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae is one of the most important diseases in the tilapia aquaculture industry. The role of the capsule of Streptococcus agalactiae in adherence to fish surfaces has not been evaluated and the mechanism of capsular regulation during adhesion has not been described. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the capsule of S. agalactiae during adhesion to intestinal epithelium of tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) in an ex vivo infection model. We show that the capsule impairs the adhesion of bacteria to host intestinal epithelium. Wild type (WT) strain SaTiBe08-18 (S. agalactiae recovered from tilapia) had reduced adhesion (P tilapia intestine and that the acidic milieu could regulate adherence of encapsulated strains. We found GlcNAc on the surface of adherent Δcps but not over the capsule in WT. This difference could be explained by the GlcNAc composition of Lancefield group B antigen and the peptidoglycan in GBS (Group B Streptococcus) and also may be related with better exposure of glycosylated adhesins in unencapsulated fish GBS. Understanding capsular regulation during adhesion of S. agalactiae may provide new leads to find a successful anti-adherence therapy to prevent streptococcosis in tilapia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. BMP signaling and cellular dynamics during regeneration of airway epithelium from basal progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadokoro, Tomomi; Gao, Xia; Hong, Charles C; Hotten, Danielle; Hogan, Brigid L M

    2016-03-01

    The pseudostratified epithelium of the lung contains ciliated and secretory luminal cells and basal stem/progenitor cells. To identify signals controlling basal cell behavior we screened factors that alter their self-renewal and differentiation in a clonal organoid (tracheosphere) assay. This revealed that inhibitors of the canonical BMP signaling pathway promote proliferation but do not affect lineage choice, whereas exogenous Bmp4 inhibits proliferation and differentiation. We therefore followed changes in BMP pathway components in vivo in the mouse trachea during epithelial regeneration from basal cells after injury. The findings suggest that BMP signaling normally constrains proliferation at steady state and this brake is released transiently during repair by the upregulation of endogenous BMP antagonists. Early in repair, the packing of epithelial cells along the basal lamina increases, but density is later restored by active extrusion of apoptotic cells. Systemic administration of the BMP antagonist LDN-193189 during repair initially increases epithelial cell number but, following the shedding phase, normal density is restored. Taken together, these results reveal crucial roles for both BMP signaling and cell shedding in homeostasis of the respiratory epithelium. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Magnetic Nanoparticles as Intraocular Drug Delivery System to Target Retinal Pigmented Epithelium (RPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Giannaccini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging efforts in drug delivery is the targeting of the eye. The eye structure and barriers render this organ poorly permeable to drugs. Quite recently the entrance of nanoscience in ocular drug delivery has improved the penetration and half-life of drugs, especially in the anterior eye chamber, while targeting the posterior chamber is still an open issue. The retina and the retinal pigment epithelium/choroid tissues, located in the posterior eye chamber, are responsible for the majority of blindness both in childhood and adulthood. In the present study, we used magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs as a nanotool for ocular drug delivery that is capable of specific localization in the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE layer. We demonstrate that, following intraocular injection in Xenopus embryos, MNPs localize specifically in RPE where they are retained for several days. The specificity of the localization did not depend on particle size and surface properties of the MNPs used in this work. Moreover, through similar experiments in zebrafish, we demonstrated that the targeting of RPE by the nanoparticles is not specific for the Xenopus species.

  12. Uncoordinated production of Laminin-5 chains in airways epithelium of allergic asthmatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virtanen Ismo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laminins are a group of proteins largely responsible for the anchorage of cells to basement membranes. We hypothesized that altered Laminin chain production in the bronchial mucosa might explain the phenomenon of epithelial cell shedding in asthma. The aim was to characterize the presence of Laminin chains in the SEBM and epithelium in allergic and non-allergic asthmatics. Patients and methods Biopsies were taken from the bronchi of 11 patients with allergic and 9 patients with non-allergic asthma and from 7 controls and stained with antibodies against the Laminin (ln chains alpha1-alpha5, beta1-beta2 and gamma1-gamma2. Results Lns-2,-5 and -10 were the main Laminins of SEBM. The layer of ln-10 was thicker in the two asthmatic groups while an increased thickness of lns-2 and -5 was only seen in allergic asthmatics. The ln gamma2-chain, which is only found in ln 5, was exclusively expressed in epithelial cells in association with epithelial injury and in the columnar epithelium of allergic asthmatics. Conclusion The uncoordinated production of chains of ln-5 in allergic asthma could have a bearing on the poor epithelial cell anchorage in these patients.

  13. Innate immune response of human pluripotent stem cell-derived airway epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Brendan A S; Kushwah, Rahul; Mechael, Rami; Shapovalova, Zoya; Alev, Cantas; Bhatia, Mickie

    2015-07-01

    The acquisition of innate immune response is requisite to having bona fide differentiation of airway epithelium. Procedures developed to differentiate lung airway from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have demonstrated anecdotal evidence for innate immune response, but an in-depth exploration of response levels is lacking. Herein, using an established method of airway epithelial generation from hPSCs, we show that hPSC-derived epithelial cells are able to up-regulate expression of TNFα, IL8 and IL1β in response to challenge with bacterial endotoxin LPS, but lack response from genes associated with innate immune response in other cell types. Further, stimulation of cells with TNF-α resulted in auto-induction of TNFα transcript, as well as cytokine responses of IL8 and IL1β. The demonstration of innate immune induction in hPSC-derived airway epithelia gives further strength to the functionality of in vitro protocols aimed at generating differentiated airway cells that can potentially be used in a translational setting. Finally, we propose that innate immune challenge of airway epithelium from human pluripotent stem cell sources be used as a robust validation of functional in vitro differentiation. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  14. Retinal pigment epithelium, age-related macular degeneration and neurotrophic keratouveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Enrica; Scarinci, Fabio; Ripandelli, Guido; Feher, Janos; Pacella, Elena; Magliulo, Giuseppe; Gabrieli, Corrado Balacco; Plateroti, Rocco; Plateroti, Pasquale; Mignini, Fiorenzo; Artico, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of impaired vision and blindness in the aging population. The aims of our studies were to identify qualitative and quantitative alterations in mitochondria in human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) from AMD patients and controls and to test the protective effects of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a known neurotrophic and antiangiogenic substance, against neurotrophic keratouveitis. Histopathological alterations were studied by means of morphometry, light and electron microscopy. Unexpectedly, morphometric data showed that the RPE alterations noted in AMD may also develop in normal aging, 10-15 years later than appearing in AMD patients. Reduced tear secretion, corneal ulceration and leukocytic infiltration were found in capsaicin (CAP)-treated rats, but this effect was significantly attenuated by PEDF. These findings suggest that PEDF accelerated the recovery of tear secretion and also prevented neurotrophic keratouveitis and vitreoretinal inflammation. PEDF may have a clinical application in inflammatory and neovascular diseases of the eye.

  15. A microfluidic device to apply shear stresses to polarizing ciliated airway epithelium using air flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieu, Dennis; Waddell, Thomas K; McGuigan, Alison P

    2014-11-01

    Organization of airway epithelium determines ciliary beat direction and coordination for proper mucociliary clearance. Fluidic shear stresses have the potential to influence ciliary organization. Here, an in vitro fluidic flow system was developed for inducing long-term airflow shear stresses on airway epithelium with a view to influencing epithelial organization. Our system consists of a fluidic device for cell culture, integrated into a humidified airflow circuit. The fluidic device has a modular design and is made from a combination of polystyrene and adhesive components incorporated into a 6-well filter membrane insert. We demonstrate the system operates within physiologically relevant shear and pressure ranges and estimate the shear stress exerted on the epithelial cell layer as a result of air flow using a computational model. For both the bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS2B and primary human tracheal airway epithelial cells, we demonstrate that cells remain viable within the device when exposed to airflow for 24 h and that normal differentiation and cilia formation occurs. Furthermore, we demonstrate the utility of our device for exploring the impact of exposing cells to airflow: our tool enables quantification of cytoskeletal organization, and is compatible with in situ bead assays to assess the orientation of cilia beating.

  16. The effects of the stem cell on ciliary regeneration of injured rabbit sinonasal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavuzlu, Ali; Tatar, Emel Çadallı; Karagöz, Tuğba; Pınarlı, Ferda Alpaslan; Tatar, İlkan; Bayır, Ömer; Korkmaz, Mehmet Hakan

    2017-08-01

    Defects in mucosal healing after sinonasal surgery cause infection, scar formation causing obstruction, relapse of the disease within a shorter period and revision surgery. The present study aimed to create a functional ciliated epithelium using a stem cell and stem cell sheet of adipose tissue origin and to show such regeneration ultra-structurally on experimentally injured rabbit nasal epithelium. This was an experimental animal study and basic research. A total of 18 white New Zealand rabbits were divided into three groups. The medial wall of the maxillary sinus of the subjects was peeled off bilaterally. No additional procedure was applied to the subjects in Group 1. In Group 2, adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell was implanted on the wound edges of the subjects. In Group 3, a stem cell sheet of three layers was laid onto the defect area. All subjects were killed after 3 weeks. The presence of the stem cell stained with bromo-deoxyuridine was assessed with a light microscope, whereas cilia density, ciliated orientation and cilia structure were evaluated with a scanning electron microscope. Ciliary densities in Group 2 and Group 3 were statistically superior compared to the control group (p stem cell increased the healing of the injured maxillary sinus mucosa of the rabbits in terms of cilia presence, density and morphology regardless of the implementation technique. Level of evidence NA.

  17. Spatial and spectral analysis of corneal epithelium injury using hyperspectral images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Md Noor, Siti Salwa; Michael, Kaleena; Marshall, Stephen; Ren, Jinchang

    2017-12-01

    Eye assessment is essential in preventing blindness. Currently, the existing methods to assess corneal epithelium injury are complex and require expert knowledge. Hence, we have introduced a non-invasive technique using hyperspectral imaging (HSI) and an image analysis algorithm of corneal epithelium injury. Three groups of images were compared and analyzed, namely healthy eyes, injured eyes, and injured eyes with stain. Dimensionality reduction using principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to reduce massive data and redundancies. The first 10 principal components (PCs) were selected for further processing. The mean vector of 10 PCs with 45 pairs of all combinations was computed and sent to two classifiers. A quadratic Bayes normal classifier (QDC) and a support vector classifier (SVC) were used in this study to discriminate the eleven eyes into three groups. As a result, the combined classifier of QDC and SVC showed optimal performance with 2D PCA features (2DPCA-QDSVC) and was utilized to classify normal and abnormal tissues, using color image segmentation. The result was compared with human segmentation. The outcome showed that the proposed algorithm produced extremely promising results to assist the clinician in quantifying a cornea injury.

  18. Integrity of airway epithelium in pediatric burn autopsies: Association with age and extent of burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Robert A; Jacob, Sam; Andersen, Clark R; Mlcak, Ron; Sousse, Linda; Zhu, Yong; Cotto, Christopher; Finnerty, Celeste C; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Herndon, David N; Hawkins, Hal K

    2015-11-01

    This study examines the structural integrity of the airway epithelium in autopsy tissues from pediatric burn subjects. A semi-quantitative score for the degree of airway epithelial integrity was made for seventy- two pediatric burn autopsies. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression was performed to identify relationships between epithelial integrity and conditions related to tissue fixation, time of death after injury, age, total body surface area burn (TBSA), extent of 3rd degree burn, presence of inhalation injury, ventilator days and pneumonia. No significant difference in epithelial integrity scores was identified between burn only cases and those with inhalation injury. Significant correlations with bronchiolar epithelial integrity scores were identified for age, p=0.02, and percent 3rd degree burn, p=0.02. There was no significant relationship between epithelial integrity and time between death and autopsy, p>0.44. Airway epithelial loss seen in autopsy tissue is not simply an artifact of tissue fixation. The degree of compromise correlates most strongly with age and degree of burn. Further studies are needed to identify physiological or critical care factors following burn injury that contribute to compromise in the structural and functional properties of the airway epithelium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  19. Age- and Gene-Dosage–Dependent Cre-Induced Abnormalities in the Retinal Pigment Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lizhi; Marioutina, Mariya; Dunaief, Joshua L.; Marneros, Alexander G.

    2015-01-01

    To conditionally inactivate genes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) transgenic mouse strains have been developed, in which Cre recombinase (Cre) expression is driven by an RPE-specific gene promoter. The RPE is a quiescent epithelium, and continuous expression of Cre could affect its function. Here, we tested the hypothesis that continuous postnatal Cre expression in the RPE may lead to cellular abnormalities, which may depend on both age and Cre gene dosage. We therefore examined the eyes of homozygous and heterozygous VMD2-Cre mice at various ages. In VMD2-Cre heterozygous mice variable progressive age-dependent RPE abnormalities were noticed, including attenuation of phalloidin and cytoplasmic active β-catenin staining, reduced cell size, and loss of the typical honeycomb pattern of RPE morphology in those RPE cells that stained for Cre. These morphological RPE abnormalities were not noticed in Cre-negative RPE cells in VMD2-Cre or age-matched control mice. In addition, an abnormal number and morphology of cell nuclei were noticed in a subset of Cre-expressing RPE cells in aged heterozygous VMD2-Cre mice, whereas more severe nuclear abnormalities were observed already in young homozygous VMD2-Cre mice. Thus, continuous postnatal expression of Cre causes abnormalities in the RPE in an age- and Cre gene dosage-dependent manner, which needs to be considered in the interpretation of gene targeting studies in the RPE. PMID:24854863

  20. The effects of hyaluronic acid vaginal gel on the vaginal epithelium of ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuai-Bin; Liu, Shao-Li; Gan, Xiao-Ling; Zhou, Qin; Hu, Li-Na

    2015-03-01

    Hyaluronic acid is one of the best materials of water retention which can be used in vaginal atrophy. This study is to evaluate the role and mechanism of the hyaluronic acid vaginal gel (Hyalofemme) in the vaginal epithelium of ovariectomized rats. Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into control group (Sham ovariectomy, Sham-OVX), tendency group (ovariectomy, OVX), and experiment group (ovariectomy+Hyalofemme, OVX+Hyalofemme). The hyaluronic acid vaginal gel was administered local vaginal therapy to the experiment group with cytologicaly confirmed vaginal atrophy. The doses were adjusted by animal weight according to human dosage. After daily treatment for 14 days, VEGF and P-AKT activations were detected by Western blot in the experiment group. The hyaluronic acid vaginal gel proved to be very effective in the cytological reversal of vaginal atrophy but did not increase uterine weight. Vaginal microecosystem indicators were negative in the control group and the experiment group. By contrast, the indicators were positive in the tendency group. Hyaluronic acid vaginal gel is effective in the reversal of vaginal atrophy and is beneficial for improving vaginal microecosystem in the postmenopausal rat model. The hyaluronic acid vaginal gel can also improve the repair capacity of the vaginal epithelium.

  1. Automated image classification applied to reconstituted human corneal epithelium for the early detection of toxic damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, Giovanni Franco; Urani, Chiara; De Servi, Barbara; Meloni, Marisa

    2010-02-01

    For a long time acute eye irritation has been assessed by means of the DRAIZE rabbit test, the limitations of which are known. Alternative tests based on in vitro models have been proposed. This work focuses on the "reconstituted human corneal epithelium" (R-HCE), which resembles the corneal epithelium of the human eye by thickness, morphology and marker expression. Testing a substance on R-HCE involves a variety of methods. Herewith quantitative morphological analysis is applied to optical microscope images of R-HCE cross sections resulting from exposure to benzalkonium chloride (BAK). The short term objectives and the first results are the analysis and classification of said images. Automated analysis relies on feature extraction by the spectrum-enhancement algorithm, which is made sensitive to anisotropic morphology, and classification based on principal components analysis. The winning strategy has been the separate analysis of the apical and basal layers, which carry morphological information of different types. R-HCE specimens have been ranked by gross damage. The onset of early damage has been detected and an R-HCE specimen exposed to a low BAK dose has been singled out from the negative and positive control. These results provide a proof of principle for the automated classification of the specimens of interest on a purely morphological basis by means of the spectrum enhancement algorithm.

  2. Purinergic receptor antagonists inhibit odorant-mediated CREB phosphorylation in sustentacular cells of mouse olfactory epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatt Hanns

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extracellular nucleotides have long been known to play neuromodulatory roles and to be involved in intercellular signalling. In the olfactory system, ATP is released by olfactory neurons, and exogenous ATP can evoke an increase in intracellular calcium concentration in sustentacular cells, the nonneuronal supporting cells of the olfactory epithelium. Here we investigate the hypothesis that olfactory neurons communicate with sustentacular cells via extracellular ATP and purinergic receptor activation. Results Here we show that exposure of mice to a mixture of odorants induced a significant increase in the levels of the transcription factor CREB phosphorylated at Ser-133 in the nuclei of both olfactory sensory neurons and sustentacular cells. This activation was dependent on adenylyl cyclase III-mediated olfactory signaling and on activation of P2Y purinergic receptors on sustentacular cells. Purinergic receptor antagonists inhibited odorant-dependent CREB phosphorylation specifically in the nuclei of the sustentacular cells. Conclusion Our results point to a possible role for extracellular nucleotides in mediating intercellular communication between the neurons and sustentacular cells of the olfactory epithelium in response to odorant exposure. Maintenance of extracellular ionic gradients and metabolism of noxious chemicals by sustentacular cells may therefore be regulated in an odorant-dependent manner by olfactory sensory neurons.

  3. The effect of PGE2, gastrin and CCK-8 on postirradiation recovery of small intestine epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziekiewicz, M.; Chomiczewski, K.; Jablonska, H.

    1997-01-01

    The role of some natural factors in the postirradiation recovery of intestinal epithelium is a very interesting and inscrutable problem. In our experiment the comparative effect of PGE 2 , Gastrin and CCK-8 fragment of Cholecystokinin on this problem has been investigated. Male Swiss PZH mice 8 weeks old were irradiated to the whole body with a dose of 5.5 Gy and to abdomen with a dose of 12 Gy of gamma rays. The first experimental group received PGE 2 before 30 min. irradiation, the second received Gastrin after irradiation during 5 days, the third was injected with CCK-8 after irradiation during 5 days too. Unirradiated and only irradiated animals served as control groups. Survival of 30 mice in every group was registered during 30 days after irradiation. The another part of animals in every group were killed between 1 and 12 days after irradiation. Changes in the body weight were registered. Using computer image analysis system , some histological slides were examined, adding the statistical analysis of results. The preliminary results suggest that all those factors are able to stimulate the postirradiation regeneration of small intestinal epithelium (author)

  4. The impact of type 1 diabetes mellitus on corneal epithelial nerve morphology and the corneal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Daniel; Zhu, Meifang; Petroll, W Matthew; Koppaka, Vindhya; Robertson, Danielle M

    2014-10-01

    Diabetic corneal neuropathy can result in chronic, sight-threatening corneal pathology. Although the exact etiology is unknown, it is believed that a reduction in corneal sensitivity and loss of neurotrophic support contributes to corneal disease. Information regarding the relationship between nerve loss and effects on the corneal epithelium is limited. We investigated changes in the corneal epithelium and nerve morphology using three-dimensional imaging in vivo and in situ in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic mouse model. Streptozotocin-treated mice showed increased levels of serum glucose and growth retardation consistent with a severe diabetic state. A reduction in the length of the subbasal nerve plexus was evident after 6 weeks of disease. Loss of the subbasal nerve plexus was associated with corneal epithelial thinning and a reduction in basal epithelial cell density. In contrast, loss of the terminal epithelial nerves was associated with animal age. Importantly, this is the first rodent model of type 1 diabetes that shows characteristics of corneal epithelial thinning and a reduction in basal epithelial cell density, both previously have been documented in humans with diabetic corneal neuropathy. These findings indicate that in type 1 diabetes, nerve fiber damage is evident in the subbasal nerve plexus before terminal epithelial nerve loss and that neurotrophic support from both the subbasal nerve plexus and terminal epithelial nerves is essential for the maintenance of corneal epithelial homeostasis. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Regulation of Sperm Function by Oviduct Fluid and the Epithelium: Insight into the Role of Glycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D J

    2015-07-01

    In many vertebrates, females store sperm received at mating in specialized reservoirs until fertilization. In some species, sperm are routinely stored for up to a decade. But the structures used to store sperm vary considerably across taxa, suggesting the underlying mechanisms might be equally variable. In mammals, after mating, sperm pass through the utero-tubal junction and bind to epithelial cells of the oviduct isthmus to form a reservoir. This reservoir regulates sperm function, including viability and capacitation, ultimately affecting sperm lifespan. In addition, sperm binding to oviduct cells influences oviduct cell gene transcription and translation, perhaps to aid sperm storage and fertility. The sperm reservoir allows successful reproduction in species in which semen deposition and ovulation are not always synchronized. The focus of this review is on recent studies of the functions of oviduct fluid and of the adhesion molecules that allow sperm to adhere to the oviduct epithelium. The important of glycans on the oviduct epithelium is highlighted. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Growth of intestinal epithelium in organ culture is dependent on EGF signalling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abud, Helen E.; Watson, Nadine; Heath, Joan K.

    2005-01-01

    Differentiation of endoderm into intestinal epithelium is initiated at E13.5 of mouse development when there are significant changes in morphology resulting in the conversion of undifferentiated stratified epithelium into a mature epithelial monolayer. Here we demonstrate that monolayer formation is associated with the selective apoptosis of superficial cells lining the lumen while cell proliferation is progressively restricted to cells adjacent to the basement membrane. We describe an innovative embryonic gut culture system that maintains the three-dimensional architecture of gut and in which these processes are recapitulated in vitro. Explants taken from specific regions of the gut and placed into organ culture develop and express molecular markers (Cdx1, Cdx2 and A33 antigen) in the same spatial and temporal pattern observed in vivo indicating that regional specification is maintained. Inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase using the specific inhibitor AG1478 significantly reduced the proliferation and survival of cells within the epithelial cell layer of cultured gut explants. This demonstrates an essential role for the EGF signalling pathway during the early stages of intestinal development

  7. Purinergic receptor antagonists inhibit odorant-mediated CREB phosphorylation in sustentacular cells of mouse olfactory epithelium

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dooley, Ruth

    2011-08-22

    Abstract Background Extracellular nucleotides have long been known to play neuromodulatory roles and to be involved in intercellular signalling. In the olfactory system, ATP is released by olfactory neurons, and exogenous ATP can evoke an increase in intracellular calcium concentration in sustentacular cells, the nonneuronal supporting cells of the olfactory epithelium. Here we investigate the hypothesis that olfactory neurons communicate with sustentacular cells via extracellular ATP and purinergic receptor activation. Results Here we show that exposure of mice to a mixture of odorants induced a significant increase in the levels of the transcription factor CREB phosphorylated at Ser-133 in the nuclei of both olfactory sensory neurons and sustentacular cells. This activation was dependent on adenylyl cyclase III-mediated olfactory signaling and on activation of P2Y purinergic receptors on sustentacular cells. Purinergic receptor antagonists inhibited odorant-dependent CREB phosphorylation specifically in the nuclei of the sustentacular cells. Conclusion Our results point to a possible role for extracellular nucleotides in mediating intercellular communication between the neurons and sustentacular cells of the olfactory epithelium in response to odorant exposure. Maintenance of extracellular ionic gradients and metabolism of noxious chemicals by sustentacular cells may therefore be regulated in an odorant-dependent manner by olfactory sensory neurons.

  8. Sox2 activates cell proliferation and differentiation in the respiratory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, David H; Besnard, Valérie; Lange, Alexander W; Keiser, Angela R; Wert, Susan E; Bruno, Michael D; Whitsett, Jeffrey A

    2011-07-01

    Sox2, a transcription factor critical for the maintenance of embryonic stem cells and induction of pluripotent stem cells, is expressed exclusively in the conducting airway epithelium of the lung, where it is required for differentiation of nonciliated, goblet, and ciliated cells. To determine the role of Sox2 in respiratory epithelial cells, Sox2 was selectively and conditionally expressed in nonciliated airway epithelial cells and in alveolar type II cells in the adult mouse. Sox2 induced epithelial cell proliferation within 3 days of expression. Epithelial cell proliferation was associated with increased Ki-67 and cyclin D1 staining. Expression of cell cycle genes, including FoxM1, Ccna2 (Cyclin A2), Ccnb2 (Cyclin B2), and Ccnd1 (Cyclin D1), was increased. Consistent with a role in cell proliferation, Sox2 activated the transcription of FoxM1 in vitro. In alveoli, Sox2 caused hyperplasia and ectopic differentiation of epithelial cells to those with morphologic and molecular characteristics of conducting airway epithelium. Sox2 induced the expression of conducting airway epithelial specific genes, including Scgb1a1, Foxj1, Tubb3, and Cyp2f2. Although prolonged expression of Sox2 caused cell proliferation and epithelial hyperplasia, Sox2 did not induce pulmonary tumors. Sox2 induces proliferation of respiratory epithelial cells and, subsequently, partially reprograms alveolar epithelial cells into cells with characteristics of the conducting airways.

  9. The effect of intracellular calcium oscillations on fluid secretion in airway epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, N J; Tawhai, M H; Crampin, E J

    2010-08-07

    Airway epithelium has been shown to elicit fluid secretion after a rise in intracellular calcium. This rise in intracellular calcium has been shown to display complex oscillations in many species after the binding of particular agonists to extracellular receptors. Fluid secreted by the airway epithelium is used to maintain the depth of the periciliary liquid (PCL) above the apical membrane of the epithelial cells lining the bronchial airways. Previous mathematical models have been published which separately consider the electrophysiology involved in regulating periciliary liquid depth, and the transmission of intracellular calcium waves in airway epithelial tissue. In this paper we present a mathematical model that combines these previous models and allows the effect of oscillations in intracellular calcium on fluid secretion by airway epithelial cells to be investigated. We show that an oscillatory calcium response produces different fluid secretion properties to that elicited by a tonic rise in intracellular calcium. These differences are shown to be due to saturation of the Ca(2+) activated ion channels. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of low doses of carbendazim or iprodione either separately or in mixture on the pubertal rat seminiferous epithelium: An ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Philippe; Martin, Guillaume; Blondet, Antonine; Gilleron, Jérôme; Carette, Diane; Janczarski, Stéphane; Christin, Emilie; Pointis, Georges; Perrard, Marie-Hélène

    2017-12-01

    It has been shown that non-cytotoxic doses of Carbendazim (CBZ), a broad-spectrum benzimidazole fungicide, possess endocrine-disrupting (androgen-like) actions, ex vivo, on the pubertal rat seminiferous epithelium. Iprodione (IPR), a dicarboximide fungicide, is also known to be an endocrine-disrupter (anti-androgen). The effect of a mixture of these two pesticides was investigated in the validated rat seminiferous tubule culture model. Cultures were performed in the absence or presence of CBZ 50nM or IPR 50nM either alone or in mixture (Mix), over a 3-week period. Mix exerted a dramatic effect on two proteins (Connexin 43 and Claudin-11) of the blood-testis barrier and possessed similar effects to IPR on some germ cell populations. The presence of IPR together with CBZ (Mix) cancelled the effect of CBZ on the increase of the androgen-dependent TP1 and TP2 mRNAs and on the decrease of ERα, ERβ mRNAs. Nevertheless, CBZ alone or IPR alone or Mix induced toxicity on spermatogenesis resulting in a decrease of round spermatids (the precursors of spermatozoa). These results strongly suggest that, even at these low concentrations, the effects of IPR and of CBZ are not solely dependent on their respective anti-androgenic and androgen-like effects and should involve several mechanisms of action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Attention impairment in childhood absence epilepsy : An impulsivity problem?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerminara, Caterina; D'Agati, Elisa; Casarelli, Livia; Kaunzinger, Ivo; Lange, Klaus W.; Pitzianti, Mariabernarda; Parisi, Pasquale; Tucha, Oliver; Curatolo, Paolo

    Although attention problems have often been described in children with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), the use of different methodological approaches, neuropsychological tests, and heterogeneous experimental groups has prevented identification of the selective areas of attention deficit in this

  12. Psychosocial work conditions associated with sickness absence among hospital employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suadicani, P; Olesen, K; Bonde, J P

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Meaningfulness of the job, collaboration among colleagues, trustworthiness of the closest superior and bullying have previously been shown to be major covariates of intention to quit the job. AIMS: To test if these elements of the psychosocial work environment are also the most...... essential covariates of sickness absence. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire study of hospital employees which sought information on elements of the psychosocial work environment, general health status, life style, age, gender and profession. Data on sickness absence were obtained from the employer......'s salary database. RESULTS: A total of 1809 hospital employees took part with a response rate of 65%. The mean age was 43 (range: 20-69) and 75% were female. Totally, 363 study participants (20%) had at least 14 days sickness absence (defined as high absence) during the preceding year. Associations between...

  13. Bilateral congenital absence of the internal carotid artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumboldt, Z.; Castillo, M.; Solander, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2003-12-01

    Bilateral congenital absence of the internal carotid artery was incidentally found in an 11-year-old boy. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a normal-appearing brain that was entirely supplied by the vertebrobasilar system, and CT confirmed the absence of the bony carotid canals. Although most reported patients with agenesis of both internal carotid arteries presented with cerebrovascular lesions, this case demonstrates that this rare malformation may be asymptomatic. (orig.)

  14. Congenital unilateral absence of the pulmonary artery in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Garcia, Mauricio; Escalante Mora, Hector A; Lozano Castillo, Alfonso J

    2000-01-01

    Unilateral absence of a pulmonary artery is a rare anomaly. It occurs with pulmonary ipsilateral hypoplasia and it's frequently associated with other cardiovascular malformations. The majority of the cases are diagnosed in childhood. This is a case report of two adult patients of the Hospital Central de la Policia Nacional in Bogota, Colombia, with unilateral absence of the pulmonary artery one isolated and the other with patent ductus arteriosus. We describe the clinical and roentgenographic findings of this congenital anomaly

  15. Refractory absence epilepsy associated with GLUT-1 deficiency syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byrne, Susan

    2011-05-01

    GLUT-1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT-1 DS) is a disorder of cerebral glucose transport associated with early infantile epilepsy and microcephaly. We report two boys who presented with refractory absence epilepsy associated with hypoglycorrhachia, both of whom have genetically confirmed GLUT-1 DS. We propose that these children serve to expand the phenotype of GLUT-1 DS and suggest that this condition should be considered as a cause of refractory absence seizures in childhood.

  16. Ultrastructural investigations of the epidermis and the gill epithelium in the intrauterine larvae of Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Amphibia, Urodela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greven, H

    1980-01-01

    The epidermis and the gill epithelium of larval intrauterine Salamandra salamandra were studied by the electron microscope. Both epithelia are bilayered. In the epidermis of the skin three cell types occur: pavement cells containing apical mucous granules, basal cells, Leydig cells and sporadically pea-shaped cells which obviously correspond to the Langerhans cells described by previous authors. The epithelium of the gills is composed of pavement-, basal-, pea-shaped, and ciliated cells. In the primary gill bar there are additional mitochondria-rich cells and single Leydig cells. In the secondary gill filament the thickness of the epithelium is reduced. There is no morphological evidence for the uptake of material by endocytosis in the apical plasmalemm of the pavement cells.

  17. Development of olfactory epithelium and associated structures in the green iguana, Iguana iguana—light and scanning electron microscopic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Sapoznikov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ontogenesis of the nasal cavity has been described in many mammalian species. The situation is different with reptiles, despite the fact that they have become relatively common as pets. In this study we focused on the ontogenesis of the olfactory epithelium, as well as other types of epithelia in the nasal cavity of pre-hatched green iguanas (Iguana iguana. Collection of samples began from day 67 of incubation and continued every four days until hatching. Microscopic examination revealed that significant morphological changes in the nasal cavity began approximately at day 91 of ontogenesis. Approximately at this same stage, the nasal cavity epithelium began to differentiate. The cavity was divided into two compartments by a cartilaginous disc. The ventral compartment bulged rostrally and eventually opened up into the external environment. Three clearly demarcated areas of epithelium in the nasal cavity were visible at day 107.

  18. Development of olfactory epithelium and associated structures in the green iguana, Iguana iguana-light and scanning electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapoznikov, Olga; Cizek, Petr; Tichy, Frantisek

    2016-01-01

    The ontogenesis of the nasal cavity has been described in many mammalian species. The situation is different with reptiles, despite the fact that they have become relatively common as pets. In this study we focused on the ontogenesis of the olfactory epithelium, as well as other types of epithelia in the nasal cavity of pre-hatched green iguanas ( Iguana iguana ). Collection of samples began from day 67 of incubation and continued every four days until hatching. Microscopic examination revealed that significant morphological changes in the nasal cavity began approximately at day 91 of ontogenesis. Approximately at this same stage, the nasal cavity epithelium began to differentiate. The cavity was divided into two compartments by a cartilaginous disc. The ventral compartment bulged rostrally and eventually opened up into the external environment. Three clearly demarcated areas of epithelium in the nasal cavity were visible at day 107.

  19. Development of olfactory epithelium and associated structures in the green iguana, Iguana iguana—light and scanning electron microscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizek, Petr; Tichy, Frantisek

    2016-01-01

    The ontogenesis of the nasal cavity has been described in many mammalian species. The situation is different with reptiles, despite the fact that they have become relatively common as pets. In this study we focused on the ontogenesis of the olfactory epithelium, as well as other types of epithelia in the nasal cavity of pre-hatched green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Collection of samples began from day 67 of incubation and continued every four days until hatching. Microscopic examination revealed that significant morphological changes in the nasal cavity began approximately at day 91 of ontogenesis. Approximately at this same stage, the nasal cavity epithelium began to differentiate. The cavity was divided into two compartments by a cartilaginous disc. The ventral compartment bulged rostrally and eventually opened up into the external environment. Three clearly demarcated areas of epithelium in the nasal cavity were visible at day 107. PMID:27920949

  20. Sodium coupled bicarbonate influx regulates intracellular and apical pH in cultured rat caput epididymal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Wu-Lin; Li, Sheng; Huang, Jie-Hong; Yang, Deng-Liang; Zhang, Geng; Chen, Si-Liang; Ruan, Ye-Chun; Ye, Ke-Nan; Cheng, Christopher H K; Zhou, Wen-Liang

    2011-01-01

    The epithelium lining the epididymis provides an optimal acidic fluid microenvironment in the epididymal tract that enable spermatozoa to complete the maturation process. The present study aims to investigate the functional role of Na(+)/HCO(3)(-) cotransporter in the pH regulation in rat epididymis. Immunofluorescence staining of pan cytokeratin in the primary culture of rat caput epididymal epithelium showed that the system was a suitable model for investigating the function of epididymal epithelium. Intracellular and apical pH were measured using the fluorescent pH sensitive probe carboxy-seminaphthorhodafluor-4F acetoxymethyl ester (SNARF-4F) and sparklet pH electrode respectively to explore the functional role of rat epididymal epithelium. In the HEPES buffered Krebs-Henseleit (KH) solution, the intracellular pH (pHi) recovery from NH(4)Cl induced acidification in the cultured caput epididymal epithelium was completely inhibited by amiloride, the inhibitor of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE). Immediately changing of the KH solution from HEPES buffered to HCO(3)(-) buffered would cause another pHi recovery. The pHi recovery in HCO(3)(-) buffered KH solution was inhibited by 4, 4diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid (DIDS), the inhibitor of HCO(3)(-) transporter or by removal of extracellular Na(+). The extracellular pH measurement showed that the apical pH would increase when adding DIDS to the apical side of epididymal epithelial monolayer, however adding DIDS to the basolateral side had no effect on apical pH. The present study shows that sodium coupled bicarbonate influx regulates intracellular and apical pH in cultured caput epididymal epithelium.

  1. Megalin-deficiency causes high myopia, retinal pigment epithelium-macromelanosomes and abnormal development of the ciliary body in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Tina; Heegaard, Steffen; Christensen, Erik Ilsø

    2014-01-01

    of megalin-deficient mice were examined with immunological techniques using light, confocal and electron microscopy. We identified megalin in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and non-pigmented ciliary body epithelium (NPCBE) in normal mouse eyes. Immunocytochemical investigations furthermore showed...... that megalin localizes to vesicular structures in the RPE and NPCBE cells. Histological investigations of ocular mouse tissue also identified a severe myopia phenotype as well as enlarged RPE melanosomes and abnormal ciliary body development in the megalin-deficient mice. In conclusion, the complex ocular...

  2. Effects of ionizing radiation on glycerolated amniotic membranes as a substract for cultured human epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paggiaro, Andre Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    The amniotic membrane (AM) is a biomaterial with biological properties that are beneficial to tissue repair. It has been used as a temporary coverage to threat burns and chronic wounds. Recently, it has been served as a substrate for keratinocytes culture to construct a living skin equivalent. However, MA is a biological material, and its transplantation could cause infectious disease for receptors. So, it must be preserved and sterilized before clinical use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiation effects on glycerol-preserved MA, considering its compatibility to support human keratinocytes culture. Four MA were stored in high concentrations of glycerol (> 85%) and half of them were radio sterilized with a dose of 25 kGy. Then, we established two groups: nonirradiated MA (MA-ni) and irradiated MA (MA-i). Both groups was deepithelialized by a standardized protocol and was investigated morphologically, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural. Subsequently human keratinocytes were cultivated immersed and in air-liquid interface on denuded surface of MA-i and MA-ni. The results were compared at 14 and 21 days of culture by light and electron microscopy. After epithelial denudation, analyses demonstrated the continuity of the basement membrane in MA-ni group, whereas in the irradiated group, there was no indication of the basement membrane’s presence on the surface of MA. The cell cultures showed that in the non-irradiated group, there was growth of a multi-layered and differentiated epithelium, with a stratum corneum’s formation in air-liquid interface. In the irradiated group, the epithelium had only two or three layer, little cell differentiation, with the same results immersed or air-liquid interface system. Glycerol-preserved MA was biocompatible with the growth of a cultivated epithelium, showing its potential as a skin substitute. Irradiation at 25 kGy cause structural damage to the tissue, making changes in basement membrane, that facilitates

  3. Do work-place initiated measures reduce sickness absence? Preventive measures and sickness absence among older workers in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midtsundstad, Tove I; Nielsen, Roy A

    2014-03-01

    The article examines whether preventive measures and work adjustments at the establishment level affects sickness absence among workers aged 50 years and older. We combine survey data from a representative sample of 713 Norwegian companies, mapping the prevalence of preventive health measures in the work place in 2005, with register data on sickness absence and demographic variables for workers aged 50 years or older in 2001 and 2007. By means of a difference-in-differences approach, we compare changes and differences in the likelihood of sickness absence among the sample group, with and without the various measures/ instruments in 2005 respectively. In general, work-place preventive measures at the establishment level have not contributed to reducing the probability for sickness absence among workers aged 50 years and older. However, analyses comparing differences between industries find that the work-place measures have had a positive effect on public administration employees. Whether work-place preventive initiatives influence levels of sickness absence seems to be contingent on sector and industry. Therefore, work-place measures may be more effective in the public administration sector where most employees have office jobs compared to sectors such as manufacturing, construction and transportation, where many employees have manual work and more physical demanding jobs. Work-place initiatives thus seem to have less effect on preventing sickness absence in sectors dominated by manual labour.

  4. Psychosocial work conditions associated with sickness absence among hospital employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suadicani, P; Olesen, K; Bonde, J P; Gyntelberg, F

    2014-10-01

    Meaningfulness of the job, collaboration among colleagues, trustworthiness of the closest superior and bullying have previously been shown to be major covariates of intention to quit the job. To test if these elements of the psychosocial work environment are also the most essential covariates of sickness absence. A cross-sectional questionnaire study of hospital employees which sought information on elements of the psychosocial work environment, general health status, life style, age, gender and profession. Data on sickness absence were obtained from the employer's salary database. A total of 1809 hospital employees took part with a response rate of 65%. The mean age was 43 (range: 20-69) and 75% were female. Totally, 363 study participants (20%) had at least 14 days sickness absence (defined as high absence) during the preceding year. Associations between high sickness absence and 29 psychosocial work elements were analysed, adjusting for relevant confounders. Following multiple logistic regression analysis, three elements had an independent statistically significant association with high sickness absence: no exposure to bullying (odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 0.50 (0.33-0.77)), high meaningfulness of the job (0.71 (0.52-0.97)) and high trustworthiness of the closest superior (0.70 (0.54-0.92)). Elements of the psychosocial work environment which have previously been shown to have a significant independent association with intention to quit the job were also the most essential covariates of high sickness absence. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Combination of retinal pigment epithelium cell-conditioned medium and photoreceptor outer segments stimulate mesenchymal stem cell differentiation toward a functional retinal pigment epithelium cell phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen; Zhang, Jing; Ao, Mingxin; Li, Ying; Zhang, Chun; Xu, Yonggen; Li, Xuemin; Wang, Wei

    2012-02-01

    Recent studies have suggested that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) are capable of retinal tissue-specific differentiation but not retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell-specific differentiation. Photoreceptor outer segments (POS) contribute to RPE development and maturation. However, there has been no standard culture system that fosters the differentiation of BMMSCs into mature RPE cells in vitro. In this study, we investigated if the soluble factors from RPE cells and POS could differentiate BMMSCs into cells having a phenotype characteristic of RPE cells. Rat BMMSCs were separately co-cultured with RPE cells, or they were exposed to either control medium, RPE cell-conditioned medium (RPECM), POS, or a combination of RPECM and POS (RPECM-POS). After 7 days, the cells were analyzed for morphology and the expression of RPE markers (cytokeratin 8, CRALBP, and RPE65) to assess the RPE differentiation. Significantly higher pigment accumulation and increased protein expression of the three markers were seen in cells cultured in RPECM-POS than in other treated cultures. Furthermore, the RPECM-POS-treated cultures displayed ultrastructural features typical of RPE cells, expressed RPE cell functional proteins, and had the capability to phagocytose POS. Together, theses results suggest the combination of RPECM and POS stimulate BMMSCs differentiation toward a functional RPE phenotype. Our results provide the foundation for a new route to RPE regenerative therapy involving BMMSCs. Future work isolating the active agent in RPECM and POS would be useful in therapies for RPE diseases or in developing appropriately pre-differentiated BMMSCs for tissue-engineered RPE reconstruction. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Stem Cell Derived Retinal Pigment Epithelium: The Role of Pigmentation as Maturation Marker and Gene Expression Profile Comparison with Human Endogenous Retinal Pigment Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennis, A; Jacobs, J G; Catsburg, L A E; Ten Brink, J B; Koster, C; Schlingemann, R O; van Meurs, J; Gorgels, T G M F; Moerland, P D; Heine, V M; Bergen, A A

    2017-10-01

    In age-related macular degeneration (AMD) the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) deteriorates, leading to photoreceptor decay and severe vision loss. New therapeutic strategies aim at RPE replacement by transplantation of pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived RPE. Several protocols to generate RPE have been developed where appearance of pigmentation is commonly used as indicator of RPE differentiation and maturation. It is, however, unclear how different pigmentation stages reflect developmental stages and functionality of PSC-derived RPE cells. We generated human embryonic stem cell-derived RPE (hESC-RPE) cells and investigated their gene expression profiles at early pigmentation (EP) and late pigmentation (LP) stages. In addition, we compared the hESC-RPE samples with human endogenous RPE. We used a common reference design microarray (44 K). Our analysis showed that maturing hESC-RPE, upon acquiring pigmentation, expresses markers specific for human RPE. Interestingly, our analysis revealed that EP and LP hESC-RPE do not differ much in gene expression. Our data further showed that pigmented hESC-RPE has a significant lower expression than human endogenous RPE in the visual cycle and oxidative stress pathways. In contrast, we observed a significantly higher expression of pathways related to the process adhesion-to-polarity model that is typical of developing epithelial cells. We conclude that, in vitro, the first appearance of pigmentation hallmarks differentiated RPE. However, further increase in pigmentation does not result in much significant gene expression changes and does not add important RPE functionalities. Consequently, our results suggest that the time span for obtaining differentiated hESC-RPE cells, that are suitable for transplantation, may be greatly reduced.

  7. Microfluidic wound-healing assay to assess the regenerative effect of HGF on wounded alveolar epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Marcel; Sallin, Pauline; Barbe, Laurent; Haenni, Beat; Gazdhar, Amiq; Geiser, Thomas; Guenat, Olivier

    2012-02-07

    We present a microfluidic epithelial wound-healing assay that allows characterization of the effect of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on the regeneration of alveolar epithelium using a flow-focusing technique to create a regular wound in the epithelial monolayer. The phenotype of the epithelial cell was characterized using immunostaining for tight junction (TJ) proteins and transmission electron micrographs (TEMs) of cells cultured in the microfluidic system, a technique that is reported here for the first time. We demonstrate that alveolar epithelial cells cultured in a microfluidic environment preserve their phenotype before and after wounding. In addition, we report a wound-healing benefit induced by addition of HGF to the cell culture medium (19.2 vs. 13.5 μm h(-1) healing rate).

  8. Host Defense and the Airway Epithelium: Frontline Responses That Protect against Bacterial Invasion and Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Eisele

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Airway epithelial cells are the first line of defense against invading microbes, and they protect themselves through the production of carbohydrate and protein matrices concentrated with antimicrobial products. In addition, they act as sentinels, expressing pattern recognition receptors that become activated upon sensing bacterial products and stimulate downstream recruitment and activation of immune cells which clear invading microbes. Bacterial pathogens that successfully colonize the lungs must resist these mechanisms or inhibit their production, penetrate the epithelial barrier, and be prepared to resist a barrage of inflammation. Despite the enormous task at hand, relatively few virulence factors coordinate the battle with the epithelium while simultaneously providing resistance to inflammatory cells and causing injury to the lung. Here we review mechanisms whereby airway epithelial cells recognize pathogens and activate a program of antibacterial pathways to prevent colonization of the lung, along with a few examples of how bacteria disrupt these responses to cause pneumonia.

  9. Accumulation of 8-nitroguanine in human gastric epithelium induced by Helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Ning; Adachi, Yukihiko; Hiraku, Yusuke; Horiki, Noriyuki; Horiike, Shinichirou; Imoto, Ichiro; Pinlaor, Somchai; Murata, Mariko; Semba, Reiji; Kawanishi, Shosuke

    2004-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection causes chronic inflammation, which can lead to gastric carcinoma. A double immunofluorescence labeling study demonstrated that the level of 8-nitroguanine and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2 ' -deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) apparent in gastric gland epithelium was significantly higher in gastritis patients with H. pylori infection than in those without infection. A significant accumulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a prognostic factor for gastric cancer, was observed in gastric gland epithelial cells in patients with H. pylori infection as compared to those without infection, and its accumulation was closely correlated with the formation of 8-nitroguanine and 8-oxodG. These results suggest that nitrosative and oxidative DNA damage in gastric epithelial cells and their proliferation by H. pylori infection may lead to gastric carcinoma. 8-Nitroguanine could be not only a promising biomarker for inflammation but also a useful indicator of the risk of gastric cancer development in response to chronic H. pylori infection

  10. Innate immune signalling at the intestinal epithelium in homeostasis and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, Johanna; Hornef, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium—which constitutes the interface between the enteric microbiota and host tissues—actively contributes to the maintenance of mucosal homeostasis and defends against pathogenic microbes. The recognition of conserved microbial products by cytosolic or transmembrane pattern recognition receptors in epithelial cells initiates signal transduction and influences effector cell function. However, the signalling pathways, effector molecules and regulatory mechanisms involved are not yet fully understood, and the functional outcome is poorly defined. This review analyses the complex and dynamic role of intestinal epithelial innate immune recognition and signalling, on the basis of results in intestinal epithelial cell-specific transgene or gene-deficient animals. This approach identifies specific epithelial cell functions within the diverse cellular composition of the mucosal tissue, in the presence of the complex and dynamic gut microbiota. These insights have thus provided a more comprehensive understanding of the role of the intestinal epithelium in innate immunity during homeostasis and disease. PMID:22801555

  11. TR146 cells grown on filters as a model of human buccal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck Nielsen, H; Rømer Rassing, M; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterise the TR146 cell culture model as an in vitro model of human buccal mucosa with respect to the enzyme activity in the tissues. For this purpose, the contents of aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase and esterase in homogenate supernatants of the TR146...... cell culture model, and human and porcine buccal epithelium were compared. The esterase activity in the intact cell culture model and in the porcine buccal mucosa was compared. Further, the TR146 cell culture model was used to study the permeability rate and metabolism of leu-enkephalin. The activity...... (3.73+/-0.53 nmol/min per mg protein), whereas the level of esterase activity was significantly higher (223.39+/-69.82 nmol/min per mg protein). In the TR146 cell culture model, the apical esterase activity was found significantly higher than the basal activity, and found comparable to the porcine...

  12. A minimal model of epithelial tissue dynamics and its application to the corneal epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkes, Silke; Matoz-Fernandez, Daniel; Kostanjevec, Kaja; Coburn, Luke; Sknepnek, Rastko; Collinson, J. Martin; Martens, Kirsten

    Epithelial cell sheets are characterized by a complex interplay of active drivers, including cell motility, cell division and extrusion. Here we construct a particle-based minimal model tissue with only division/death dynamics and show that it always corresponds to a liquid state with a single dynamic time scale set by the division rate, and that no glassy phase is possible. Building on this, we construct an in-silico model of the mammalian corneal epithelium as such a tissue confined to a hemisphere bordered by the limbal stem cell zone. With added cell motility dynamics we are able to explain the steady-state spiral migration on the cornea, including the central vortex defect, and quantitatively compare it to eyes obtained from mice that are X-inactivation mosaic for LacZ.

  13. STIMULATION OF CICATRIX AND EPITHELIUM MAKING PROCESES, BY USE OF SOME AROMATIC PLANT EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. NEGREA

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment has as purpose an evaluation of cicatrix stimulation and healing capacity of some accidental wounds produced by different body regions to a livestock of 20 horses, young stock and adult animals, during the year 2007, by local treatment with hydrogel ointment prepared from 8 medicinal plants, namely Echinaceea palida, Calendula officinalis, Populus nigra, Symphytum officinalis, Arnica montana, Thuja occidentalis, Veronica officinalis and Salvia officinalis. To the end of experiment, the best results, in epithelium making and wound contraction, were obtained with Calendule officinalis ointment, which has shortened this stage with 6 days, comparatively to witness wounds and those treated with Veronica officinalis, with 5 days facing to Thuja occidentalis and Salvia officinalis, with 4 days facing to Symphytum officinalis and Arnica montana , with 2 days facing Populus nigra and one day facing to Echinaceea palida.

  14. Ex-vivo Potential of Cadaveric and Fresh Limbal Tissues to Regenerate Cultured Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vemuganti Geeta

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate and compare the ex-vivo growth potential and formation of cultured corneal epithelium from residual corneo-limbal rings obtained from the operating room after penetrating keratoplasty, and fresh limbal tissues from patients undergoing routine cataract surgery. Methods: With the approval of the Institutional Review Board and informed consent from patients, 1-2mm of limbal tissues from 15 patients and 31 tissues from the cadaveric limbal ring preserved in MK medium (16 tissues and Optisol (15 tissues were used for the study. Donor data included age, time lapse between death and collection, collection and preservation and preservation and culture. Tiny bits of the limbal tissue were explanted on the de-epithelialised human amniotic membrane prepared following standard guidelines, and cultured using Human Corneal Epithelial cell medium. Radial growth from the explant was observed and measured by phase contrast microscopy over 2-4 weeks. After adequate confluent growth, whole mount preparation of the membrane was made and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Part of the membrane was fixed in formalin and processed for routine histologic examination. The sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Results: Forty-six tissues were evaluated from 42 eyes (15 from patients, 31 from cadaveric eyes with a mean age of 55.3 years ± 21.23 years (range 18 years - 110 years. The growth pattern observed was similar in all the positive cases with clusters of cells budding from the explant over 24- 72 hours, and subsequent formation of a monolayer over the next 2-3 weeks. The stained whole mount preparation showed a radial growth of cells around explants with diameter ranging from 5 to 16mm. Histologic evaluation of the membrane confirmed the growth of 2-3 cell-layered epithelium over the amniotic membrane. Cultivated epithelium around explant cell cultures was observed in 100% (15/15 of limbal tissue obtained from patients, as against

  15. Ocular nanoparticle toxicity and transfection of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prow, Tarl W; Bhutto, Imran; Kim, Sahng Y; Grebe, Rhonda; Merges, Carol; McLeod, D Scott; Uno, Koichi; Mennon, Mohamed; Rodriguez, Li; Leong, Kam; Lutty, Gerard A

    2008-12-01

    Chitosan, PCEP (poly{[(cholesteryl oxocarbonylamido ethyl) methyl bis(ethylene) ammonium iodide] ethyl phosphate}), and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were evaluated for the safe delivery of genes in the eye. Rabbits were injected with nanoparticles either intravitreally (IV) or subretinally (SR) and sacrificed 7 days later. Eyes were grossly evaluated for retinal pigment epithelium abnormalities, retinal degeneration, and inflammation. All eyes were cryopreserved and sectioned for analysis of toxicity and expression of either enhanced green or red fluorescent proteins. All of the nanoparticles were able to transfect cells in vitro and in vivo. IV chitosan showed inflammation in 12/13 eyes, whereas IV PCEP and IV MNPs were not inflammatory and did not induce retinal pathology. SR PCEP was nontoxic in the majority of cases but yielded poor transfection, whereas SR MNPs were nontoxic and yielded good transfection. Therefore, we conclude that the best nanoparticle evaluated in vivo was the least toxic nanoparticle tested, the MNP.

  16. Demonstration of carboxylesterase in cytology samples of human nasal respiratory epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, D.A.; Nikula, K.J.; Avila, K. [and others

    1995-12-01

    The epithelial lining of the nasal airways is a target for responses induced by a variety of toxicant exposures. The high metabolic capacity of this tissue has been suggested to play a role in both protection of the airways through detoxication of certain toxicants, as well as in activation of other compounds to more toxic metabolites. Specifically, nasal carboxylesterase (CE) has been shown to mediate the toxicity of inhaled esters and acrylates by converting them to more toxic acid and alcohol metabolites which can be cytotoxic and/or carcinogenic to the nasal mucosa. Due to difficulties in extrapolating rodent models to human, new paradigms using human cells and tissues are essential to understanding and evaluating the metabolic processes in human nasal epithelium.

  17. Immunohistochemical expression of Notch signaling in the lining epithelium of periapical cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliou, Eleni; Kerezoudis, Nikolaos; Tosios, Konstantinos; Lafkas, Daniel; Kiaris, Hippokratis

    2011-02-01

    In this study we evaluated the immunohistochemical expression of the receptors Notch 1 and Notch 2, the ligand Delta 1, and the transcription factors HES 1 and HES 5 in the epithelium of well-defined periapical cysts. Immunohistochemistry was carried out on 55 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded, well-defined periapical cysts with minimum inflammation, obtained from the archival tissue database of the Department of Oral Pathology and Surgery. Western blotting was performed to evaluate the specificity of the anti-Notch antibody and the expression of Notch signaling in 5 fresh-frozen periapical cysts. The levels of staining intensity were estimated by the performance of a semiautomated image analysis system. Descriptive statistic of mean values obtained by computerized image analysis method was performed. Immunostaining reaction of all Notch signaling components was observed in the cytoplasm and/or the cytoplasmic membrane in the majority of epithelial cells of periapical cysts. Nuclear staining was observed occasionally in all cases. Notch 2 showed strong staining in 52.83% of the cases, followed by Notch 1 (35.85%), HES 1 and HES 5 moderate staining in 72.73% and 57.69% of the cases, respectively, and Delta 1 weak staining in 58.33% of the cases. No statistical correlation was found between the antibodies and the sex or the age of the study group. Notch is an evolutionarily conserved signaling mechanism that regulates cell fate decisions during development and postnatal life in organisms as diverse as worms, flies, and humans. The present observations indicate that Notch pathway is active downstream in the lining epithelium of periapical cysts, suggesting an involvement of this pathway in periapical cyst growth and expansion. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Identification and molecular regulation of neural stem cells in the olfactory epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beites, Crestina L.; Kawauchi, Shimako; Crocker, Candice E.; Calof, Anne L.

    2005-01-01

    The sensory neurons that subserve olfaction, olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), are regenerated throughout life, making the neuroepithelium in which they reside [the olfactory epithelium (OE)] an excellent model for studying how intrinsic and extrinsic factors regulate stem cell dynamics and neurogenesis during development and regeneration. Numerous studies indicate that transcription factors and signaling molecules together regulate generation of ORNs from stem and progenitor cells during development, and work on regenerative neurogenesis indicates that these same factors may operate at postnatal ages as well. This review describes our current knowledge of the identity of the OE neural stem cell; the different cell types that are thought to be the progeny (directly or indirectly) of this stem cell; and the factors that influence cell differentiation in the OE neuronal lineage. We review data suggesting that (1) the ORN lineage contains three distinct proliferating cell types-a stem cell and two populations of transit amplifying cells; (2) in established OE, these three cell types are present within the basal cell compartment of the epithelium; and (3) the stem cell that gives rise ultimately to ORNs may also generate two glial cell types of the primary olfactory pathway: sustentacular cells (SUS), which lie within OE proper; and olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC), which envelope the olfactory nerve. In addition, we describe factors that are both made by and found within the microenvironment of OE stem and progenitor cells, and which exert crucial growth regulatory effects on these cells. Thus, as with other regenerating tissues, the basis of regeneration in the OE appears be a population of stem cells, which resides within a microenvironment (niche) consisting of factors crucial for maintenance of its capacity for proliferation and differentiation

  19. IκB kinase β regulates epithelium migration during corneal wound healing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The IKKβ is known to regulate transcription factor NF-κB activation leading to inflammatory responses. Recent gene knockout studies have shown that IKKβ can orchestrate local inflammatory responses and regulate homeostasis of epithelial tissues. To investigate whether IKKβ has an intrinsic role in epithelial cells, we established an in vivo system in the immune privileged corneal epithelium. We generated triple transgenic Krt12(rtTA/rtTAt/tet-O-Cre/Ikkβ(F/F (Ikkβ(ΔCE/ΔCE mice by crossing the Krt12-rtTA knock-in mice, which express the reverse tetracycline transcription activator in corneal epithelial cells, with the tet-O-Cre and Ikkβ(F/F mice. Doxycycline-induced IKKβ ablation occurred in corneal epithelial cells of triple transgenic Ikkβ(ΔCE/ΔCE mice, but loss of IKKβ did not cause ocular abnormalities in fetal development and postnatal maintenance. Instead, loss of IKKβ significantly delayed healing of corneal epithelial debridement without affecting cell proliferation, apoptosis or macrophage infiltration. In vitro studies with human corneal epithelial cells (HCEpi also showed that IKKβ was required for cytokine-induced cell migration and wound closure but was dispensable for cell proliferation. In both in vivo and in vitro settings, IKKβ was required for optimal activation of NF-κB and p38 signaling in corneal epithelial cells, and p38 activation is likely mediated through formation of an IKKβ-p38 protein complex. Thus, our studies in corneal epithelium reveal a previously un-recognized role for IKKβ in the control of epithelial cell motility and wound healing.

  20. Formaldehyde and Epigenetic Alterations: MicroRNA Changes in the Nasal Epithelium of Nonhuman Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rager, Julia E.; Moeller, Benjamin C.; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Kracko, Dean; Swenberg, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Formaldehyde is an air pollutant present in both indoor and outdoor atmospheres. Because of its ubiquitous nature, it is imperative to understand the mechanisms underlying formaldehyde-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can influence disease caused by environmental exposures, yet miRNAs are understudied in relation to formaldehyde. Our previous investigation demonstrated that formaldehyde exposure in human lung cells caused disruptions in miRNA expression profiles in vitro. Objectives: Using an in vivo model, we set out to test the hypothesis that formaldehyde inhalation exposure significantly alters miRNA expression profiles within the nasal epithelium of nonhuman primates. Methods: Cynomolgus macaques were exposed by inhalation to approximately 0, 2, or 6 ppm formaldehyde for 6 hr/day for 2 consecutive days. Small RNAs were extracted from nasal samples and assessed for genome-wide miRNA expression levels. Transcriptional targets of formaldehyde-altered miRNAs were computationally predicted, analyzed at the systems level, and assessed using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: Expression analysis revealed that 3 and 13 miRNAs were dysregulated in response to 2 and 6 ppm formaldehyde, respectively. Transcriptional targets of the miRNA with the greatest increase (miR-125b) and decrease (miR-142-3p) in expression were predicted and analyzed at the systems level. Enrichment was identified for miR-125b targeting genes involved in apoptosis signaling. The apoptosis-related targets were functionally tested using RT-PCR, where all targets showed decreased expression in formaldehyde-exposed samples. Conclusions: Formaldehyde exposure significantly disrupts miRNA expression profiles within the nasal epithelium, and these alterations likely influence apoptosis signaling. PMID:23322811

  1. Beta-defensins-2 expressions in gingival epithelium cells after probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuti Kusumaningsih

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Beta-defensins (BD are antimicrobial peptides that play a role in defense against pathogens. Beta-defensins (BD are expressed by a variety of epithelial cells, including gingival epithelium, salivary glands, saliva and salivary duct. BD-1 is expressed constitutively, while BD-2 and BD-3 expressions can be induced by commensal bacteria. Probiotics are commensal bacteria, thus L. reuteri as probiotic bacteria may act as “inducer” for BD-2 in epithelial gingiva. S. mutans is the main bacteria causing dental caries and sensitive to BD-2. Purpose: This study was aimed to prove that the administration of probiotic L. reuteri may improve BD-2 expressions in the gingiva epithelium. Method: This study was conducted in vivo using twenty-four male Rattus norvegicus Wistar strains aged 10-12 weeks and weighed 120-150 g. Those rats were randomly divided into four groups, namely negative control group (not induced with L. reuteri or S. mutans, positive control group (induced with S. mutans for 14 days, treatment group 1 (induced with L. reuteri for 14 days and S. mutans for 7 days, and treatment group 2 (induced with L. reuteri and S. mutans for 14 days concurrently. The concentration of L. reuteri used was 4x108cfu/ml, while the concentration of S. mutans was 1x 1010cfu/ml. 0.1 ml of each was dropped in the region of the mandibular incisors. BD-2 expression was calculated using immunohistochemical method. The difference of BD-2 expressions in gingival epithelial cells in the respective groups was analyzed by Anova/SPSS. Results: There were significant differences in BD-2 expressions in gingival epithelial cells in each group based on the results of Anova test (p=0.001. Conclusion: The administration of probiotic L. reuteri is able to increase BD-2 expressions in gingival epithelial cells.

  2. Shared Gene Expression Alterations in Nasal and Bronchial Epithelium for Lung Cancer Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    We previously derived and validated a bronchial epithelial gene expression biomarker to detect lung cancer in current and former smokers. Given that bronchial and nasal epithelial gene expression are similarly altered by cigarette smoke exposure, we sought to determine if cancer-associated gene expression might also be detectable in the more readily accessible nasal epithelium. Nasal epithelial brushings were prospectively collected from current and former smokers undergoing diagnostic evaluation for pulmonary lesions suspicious for lung cancer in the AEGIS-1 (n = 375) and AEGIS-2 (n = 130) clinical trials and gene expression profiled using microarrays. All statistical tests were two-sided. We identified 535 genes that were differentially expressed in the nasal epithelium of AEGIS-1 patients diagnosed with lung cancer vs those with benign disease after one year of follow-up ( P  cancer-associated gene expression alterations between the two airway sites ( P  lung cancer classifier derived in the AEGIS-1 cohort that combined clinical factors (age, smoking status, time since quit, mass size) and nasal gene expression (30 genes) had statistically significantly higher area under the curve (0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.74 to 0.89, P  = .01) and sensitivity (0.91; 95% CI = 0.81 to 0.97, P  = .03) than a clinical-factor only model in independent samples from the AEGIS-2 cohort. These results support that the airway epithelial field of lung cancer-associated injury in ever smokers extends to the nose and demonstrates the potential of using nasal gene expression as a noninvasive biomarker for lung cancer detection. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Salinity-induced regulation of the myo-inositol biosynthesis pathway in tilapia gill epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Romina; Li, Johnathon; Villarreal, Fernando; Gardell, Alison M.; Kültz, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The myo-inositol biosynthesis (MIB) pathway converts glucose-6-phosphate to the compatible osmolyte myo-inositol that protects cells from osmotic stress. Using proteomics, the enzymes that constitute the MIB pathway, myo-inositol phosphate synthase (MIPS) and inositol monophosphatase 1 (IMPA1), are identified in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) gill epithelium. Targeted, quantitative, label-free proteomics reveals that they are both upregulated during salinity stress. Upregulation is stronger when fish are exposed to severe (34 ppt acute and 90 ppt gradual) relative to moderate (70 ppt gradual) salinity stress. IMPA1 always responds more strongly than MIPS, suggesting that MIPS is more stable during salinity stress. MIPS is N-terminally acetylated and the corresponding peptide increases proportionally to MIPS protein, while non-acetylated N-terminal peptide is not detectable, indicating that MIPS acetylation is constitutive and may serve to stabilize the protein. Hyperosmotic induction of MIPS and IMPA1 is confirmed using western blot and real-time qPCR and is much higher at the mRNA than at the protein level. Two distinct MIPS mRNA variants are expressed in the gill, but one is more strongly regulated by salinity than the other. A single MIPS gene is encoded in the tilapia genome whereas the zebrafish genome lacks MIPS entirely. The genome of euryhaline tilapia contains four IMPA genes, two of which are expressed, but only one is salinity regulated in gill epithelium. The genome of stenohaline zebrafish contains a single IMPA gene. We conclude that the MIB pathway represents a major salinity stress coping mechanism that is regulated at multiple levels in euryhaline fish but absent in stenohaline zebrafish. PMID:24072791

  4. Induction of ectopic taste buds by SHH reveals the competency and plasticity of adult lingual epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, David; Seidel, Kerstin; Salcedo, Ernesto; Ahn, Christina; de Sauvage, Frederic J; Klein, Ophir D; Barlow, Linda A

    2014-08-01

    Taste buds are assemblies of elongated epithelial cells, which are innervated by gustatory nerves that transmit taste information to the brain stem. Taste cells are continuously renewed throughout life via proliferation of epithelial progenitors, but the molecular regulation of this process remains unknown. During embryogenesis, sonic hedgehog (SHH) negatively regulates taste bud patterning, such that inhibition of SHH causes the formation of more and larger taste bud primordia, including in regions of the tongue normally devoid of taste buds. Here, using a Cre-lox system to drive constitutive expression of SHH, we identify the effects of SHH on the lingual epithelium of adult mice. We show that misexpression of SHH transforms lingual epithelial cell fate, such that daughter cells of lingual epithelial progenitors form cell type-replete, onion-shaped taste buds, rather than non-taste, pseudostratified epithelium. These SHH-induced ectopic taste buds are found in regions of the adult tongue previously thought incapable of generating taste organs. The ectopic buds are composed of all taste cell types, including support cells and detectors of sweet, bitter, umami, salt and sour, and recapitulate the molecular differentiation process of endogenous taste buds. In contrast to the well-established nerve dependence of endogenous taste buds, however, ectopic taste buds form independently of both gustatory and somatosensory innervation. As innervation is required for SHH expression by endogenous taste buds, our data suggest that SHH can replace the need for innervation to drive the entire program of taste bud differentiation. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Expression of S100B during the innate immune of corneal epithelium against fungi invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the expression of S100B in corneal epithelial cells under Aspergillus stimulation both in vivo and in vitro. METHODS: Immortalized human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs were exposed to inactive Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus conidia at 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 24h respectively. The corneas of Wistar rats were exposed to active A. fumigatus at 0, 12, 24, 48h and the normal rat corneas were used for normal control. The mRNA level of S100B was evaluated by real time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. S100B protein expression in cornea epithelium was detected by immunohistochemical/immunocytochemical staining (IHC/ICC. RESULTS: Histopathology revealed a significant inflammatory cell infiltration in fungal keratitis human and rat cornea. Corneal epithelial cells didn’t express or rarely express S100B at baseline. A. fumigatus significantly induced S100B mRNA expression in cultured corneal epithelial cells in a time depended manner in vitro, the mRNA began to rise significantly at 8h in vitro (P<0.05 and continue to rise as time prolonged (P<0.01. In vivo, S100B mRNA level was low in the normal corneas. However, it was increased in keratitis corneas from 12h after infection (P<0.05 and reached to a peak at 24h (P<0.001. Immunochemistry revealed an obvious staining in fungal keratitis corneas as well as immortalized HCECs compared to the normal ones respectively, indicating an increased expression of S100B protein. CONCLUSION: S100B exists in corneal epithelial cells and is over-expressed under A. fumigatus stimulation. S100B may play an important role in the innate immune response of the corneal epithelium during A. fumigatus infection.

  6. Expression of S100B during the innate immune of corneal epithelium against fungi invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Gui-Qiu; Qu, Jing; Che, Cheng-Ye; Lin, Jing; Jiang, Nan; Zhao, Han; Wang, Xue-Jun

    2016-01-01

    AIM To explore the expression of S100B in corneal epithelial cells under Aspergillus stimulation both in vivo and in vitro. METHODS Immortalized human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) were exposed to inactive Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) conidia at 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 24h respectively. The corneas of Wistar rats were exposed to active A. fumigatus at 0, 12, 24, 48h and the normal rat corneas were used for normal control. The mRNA level of S100B was evaluated by real time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). S100B protein expression in cornea epithelium was detected by immunohistochemical/immunocytochemical staining (IHC/ICC). RESULTS Histopathology revealed a significant inflammatory cell infiltration in fungal keratitis human and rat cornea. Corneal epithelial cells didn't express or rarely express S100B at baseline. A. fumigatus significantly induced S100B mRNA expression in cultured corneal epithelial cells in a time depended manner in vitro, the mRNA began to rise significantly at 8h in vitro (P<0.05) and continue to rise as time prolonged (P<0.01). In vivo, S100B mRNA level was low in the normal corneas. However, it was increased in keratitis corneas from 12h after infection (P<0.05) and reached to a peak at 24h (P<0.001). Immunochemistry revealed an obvious staining in fungal keratitis corneas as well as immortalized HCECs compared to the normal ones respectively, indicating an increased expression of S100B protein. CONCLUSION S100B exists in corneal epithelial cells and is over-expressed under A. fumigatus stimulation. S100B may play an important role in the innate immune response of the corneal epithelium during A. fumigatus infection. PMID:26949634

  7. Translocation of 40 nm diameter nanowires through the intestinal epithelium of Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Karin; Adolfsson, Karl; Ekvall, Mikael T; Borgström, Magnus T; Linse, Sara; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Cedervall, Tommy; Prinz, Christelle N

    2016-10-01

    Nanowires (NWs) have unique electrical and optical properties of value for many applications including lighting, sensing, and energy harnessing. Consumer products containing NWs increase the risk of NWs being released in the environment, especially into aquatic ecosystems through sewage systems. Daphnia magna is a common, cosmopolitan freshwater organism sensitive to toxicity tests and represents a likely entry point for nanoparticles into food webs of aquatic ecosystems. Here we have evaluated the effect of NW diameter on the gut penetrance of NWs in Daphnia magna. The animals were exposed to NWs of two diameters (40 and 80 nm) and similar length (3.6 and 3.8 μm, respectively) suspended in water. In order to locate the NWs in Daphnia, the NWs were designed to comprise one inherently fluorescent segment of gallium indium phosphide (GaInP) flanked by a gallium phosphide (GaP) segment. Daphnia mortality was assessed directly after 24 h of exposure and 7 days after exposure. Translocation of NWs across the intestinal epithelium was investigated using confocal fluorescence microscopy directly after 24 h of exposure and was observed in 89% of Daphnia exposed to 40 nm NWs and in 11% of Daphnia exposed to 80 nm NWs. A high degree of fragmentation was observed for NWs of both diameters after ingestion by the Daphnia, although 40 nm NWs were fragmented to a greater extent, which could possibly facilitate translocation across the intestinal epithelium. Our results show that the feeding behavior of animals may enhance the ability of NWs to penetrate biological barriers and that penetrance is governed by the NW diameter.

  8. Reactivation of larval keratin gene (krt62.L) in blastema epithelium during Xenopus froglet limb regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Akira; Mitogawa, Kazumasa; Saito, Nanami; Suzuki, Miyuki; Suzuki, Ken-Ichi T; Ochi, Haruki; Makanae, Aki

    2017-12-15

    Limb regeneration is considered a form of limb redevelopment because of the molecular and morphological similarities. Forming a regeneration blastema is, in essence, creating a developing limb bud in an adult body. This reactivation of a developmental process in a mature body is worth studying. Xenopus laevis has a biphasic life cycle that involves distinct larval and adult stages. These distinct developmental stages are useful for investigating the reactivation of developmental processes in post-metamorphic frogs (froglets). In this study, we focused on the re-expression of a larval gene (krt62.L) during Xenopus froglet limb regeneration. Recently renamed krt62.L, this gene was known as the larval keratin (xlk) gene, which is specific to larval-tadpole stages. During limb regeneration in a froglet, krt62.L was re-expressed in a basal layer of blastema epithelium, where adult-specific keratin (Krt12.6.S) expression was also observable. Nerves produce important regulatory factors for amphibian limb regeneration, and also play a role in blastema formation and maintenance. The effect of nerve function on krt62.L expression could be seen in the maintenance of krt62.L expression, but not in its induction. When an epidermis-stripped limb bud was grafted in a froglet blastema, the grafted limb bud could reach the digit-forming stage. This suggests that krt62.L-positive froglet blastema epithelium is able to support the limb development process. These findings imply that the developmental process is locally reactivated in an postmetamorphic body during limb regeneration. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Impact of Leader’s Temperament on Work Absence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej BUZETI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to show how the temperament of leaders has an effect on temporary absence from work in public administration and may potentially be one of the causes of temporary absence from work. Research on Slovenian public administration was conducted in February 2015 and involved 3,220 respondents. A quantitative research method (survey was used to collect the data which were then analyzed with the SPSS statistical program and Microsoft Excel. The results of the research reveal that leaders’ temperaments have a statistically signifi cant effect on temporary absence from work in public administration. The effect is evident both in the number of days as well as in the number of occurrences of absence from work. The survey results show that public administration is dominated by leaders with choleric (45% and phlegmatic temperaments (41%. Employees with a leader with a melancholic temperament were absent from work the most (11.7 days, followed by those working under a sanguine leader (10.6 days; the greatest frequency of absence were reported for employees with a sanguine leader (1.9 times, and the fewest for those with a melancholic leader (1.5 times.

  10. Sickness absence among health workers in belo horizonte, brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Iara; Assunção, Ada Ávila; Pimenta, Adriano Marçal; Benavides, Fernando G; Ubalde-Lopez, Monica

    2016-05-25

    To describe the prevalence of sickness absence and to analyze factors associated with the outcome according to gender in a sample of healthcare workers at the Belo Horizonte Health Department. This study was based on a Belo Horizonte Health Department survey carried out between September 2008 and January 2009. From a randomly selected sample of 2,205 workers, 1,808 agreed to participate. Workers were classified into Health Staff or Health Care. Other explanatory variables were social and demographic data, work characteristics, and personal health. The Poisson regression was applied to analyze factors associated with sickness absence by the prevalence ratio (PR). The overall prevalence of sickness absence was 31.5% (23.8% for men and 34.6% for women). In the final model, we found higher rates of sickness absence in both male and female workers involved in tasks with high psychosocial demands (PR=1.86 men; PR=1.38 women) and in those that reported using medication for treating chronic diseases (PR=1.96 men; PR=1.50 women). Women having a permanent job contract had a higher prevalence of sickness absence than those having a temporary job contract (PR=1.71). Our findings suggest a paradox in how healthcare is organized: good results in terms of its global objective of providing healthcare for citizens contrast with lack of effective measures for protecting healthcare workers.

  11. Childhood absence epilepsy successfully treated with the paleolithic ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Zsófia; Kelemen, Anna; Fogarasi, András; Tóth, Csaba

    2013-12-01

    Childhood absence epilepsy is an epilepsy syndrome responding relatively well to the ketogenic diet with one-third of patients becoming seizure-free. Less restrictive variants of the classical ketogenic diet, however, have been shown to confer similar benefits. Beneficial effects of high fat, low-carbohydrate diets are often explained in evolutionary terms. However, the paleolithic diet itself which advocates a return to the human evolutionary diet has not yet been studied in epilepsy. Here, we present a case of a 7-year-old child with absence epilepsy successfully treated with the paleolithic ketogenic diet alone. In addition to seizure freedom achieved within 6 weeks, developmental and behavioral improvements were noted. The child remained seizure-free when subsequently shifted toward a paleolithic diet. It is concluded that the paleolithic ketogenic diet was effective, safe and feasible in the treatment of this case of childhood absence epilepsy.

  12. Probiotics and child care absence due to infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Larnkjær, Anni; Ritz, Christian

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The risk of infections is higher in children attending child care compared with children cared for at home. This study examined the effect of a combination of probiotics on absence from child care because of respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in healthy infants aged 8 to 14...... months at the time of enrollment in child care. METHODS: The ProbiComp study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. A total of 290 infants were randomly allocated to receive a placebo or a combination of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis and Lactobacillus rhamnosus in a dose of 10......(9) colony-forming units of each daily for a 6-month intervention period. Absence from child care, occurrence of infant symptoms of illness, and doctor visits were registered by the parents using daily and weekly Web-based questionnaires. RESULTS: Median absence from child care was 11 days (interquartile...

  13. Sickness absence, moral hazard, and the business cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    The procyclical nature of sickness absence has been documented by many scholars in literature. So far, explanations have been based on labor force composition and reduced moral hazard caused by fear of job loss during recessions. In this paper, we propose and test a third mechanism caused by reduced moral hazard during booms and infections. We suggest that the workload is higher during economic booms and thus employees have to go to work despite being sick. In a theoretical model focusing on infectious diseases, we show that this will provoke infections of coworkers leading to overall higher sickness absence during economic upturns. Using state-level aggregated data from 112 German public health insurance funds (out of 145 in total), we find that sickness absence due to infectious diseases shows the largest procyclical pattern, as predicted by our theoretical model. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Effect of technology on student class performance and class absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesodia, Sanjay; Molnar, David

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of instructional technology availability on the performance of students enrolled in a medical physiology course at a podiatric medical school. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to predict student overall test performance based on instructional technology, Medical College Admission Test score, undergraduate grade point average, and class absence. The availability of instructional technology was associated with a small decline in mean test performance and a small increase in class absence. Class absence had a negative effect on test performance only when the technology was available. Total Medical College Admission Test score and grade point average were positively correlated with performance. Instructional technology did not enhance absentee student course performance and, indeed, hurt it. Its use as a means of providing access to additional lecture material needs to be reevaluated.

  15. The potential of chitosan in enhancing peptide and protein absorption across the TR146 cell culture model-an in vitro model of the buccal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Portero, Ana; Remuñán-López, Carmen; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the potential of chitosan (CS) to enhance buccal peptide and protein absorption, the TR146 cell culture model, a model of the buccal epithelium, was used.......To investigate the potential of chitosan (CS) to enhance buccal peptide and protein absorption, the TR146 cell culture model, a model of the buccal epithelium, was used....

  16. Transepithelial versus epithelium-off corneal cross-linking for the treatment of progressive keratoconus : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeters, Nienke; Wisse, Robert P L; Godefrooij, Daniël A.; Imhof, Saskia M.; Tahzib, Nayyirih G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose  To compare the clinical effects and safety of transepithelial corneal cross-linking (CXL) to epithelium-off (epi-off) CXL in progressive keratoconus.  Design Randomized clinical trial (noninferiority). Methods Patients received either transepithelial CXL with Ricrolin TE (n = 35) or epi-off

  17. Characterization of soluble protein BCP 11/24 from bovine corneal epithelium, different from the principal soluble protein BCP 54

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, C.; Pasmans, S.; Verhagen, C.; van Haren, M.; van der Gaag, R.; Hoekzema, R.

    1992-01-01

    The water-soluble fraction of bovine corneal epithelium was analysed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of SDS (SDS-PAGE). Next to the principal soluble protein BCP 54, which has recently been identified as a corneal aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), another abundant protein was

  18. An increase in [Ca2+]i activates basolateral chloride channels and inhibits apical sodium channels in frog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodin, Birger; Rytved, K A; Nielsen, R

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which increases in free cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]i) cause a decrease in macroscopic sodium absorption across principal cells of the frog skin epithelium. [Ca2+]i was measured with fura-2 in an epifluorescence microscope set-up, sodium...

  19. Patterns of Global DNA and Histone Methylation Appear to be Similar in Normal, Dysplastic and Neoplastic Oral Epithelium of Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrika J. Piyathilake

    2005-01-01

    H3-Lys4 and H3-Lys9 were statistically significant in all tissue types and strongest in normal oral epithelium from non-cancer subjects (r = 0.77, p < 0.001. Patterns of DNA and histone methylation are similar in tissues across the spectrum of oral carcinogenesis, and there is a significant positive association between these two epigenetic mechanisms.

  20. Cotransport of H+, lactate and H2O by membrane proteins in retinal pigment epithelium of bullfrog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, T; Hamann, S; la Cour, M

    1996-01-01

    1. The interaction between H+, lactate and H2O fluxes in the retinal membrane of the pigment epithelium from bullfrog Rana catesbiana was studied by means of ion-selective micro-electrodes. 2. Changes in intracellular pH and cell volume were recorded in response to abrupt changes in retinal...

  1. In vitro enteroid-derived three-dimensional tissue model of human small intestinal epithelium with innate immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    Full Text Available There is a need for functional in vitro 3D human intestine systems that can bridge the gap between conventional cell culture studies and human trials. The successful engineering in vitro of human intestinal tissues relies on the use of the appropriate cell sources, biomimetic scaffolds, and 3D culture conditions to support vital organ functions. We previously established a compartmentalized scaffold consisting of a hollow space within a porous bulk matrix, in which a functional and physiologically relevant intestinal epithelium system was generated using intestinal cell lines. In this study, we adopt the 3D scaffold system for the cultivation of stem cell-derived human small intestinal enteriods (HIEs to engineer an in vitro 3D model of a nonstransformed human small intestinal epithelium. Characterization of tissue properties revealed a mature HIE-derived epithelium displaying four major terminally differentiated epithelial cell types (enterocytes, Goblet cells, Paneth cells, enteroendocrine cells, with tight junction formation, microvilli polarization, digestive enzyme secretion, and low oxygen tension in the lumen. Moreover, the tissue model demonstrates significant antibacterial responses to E. coli infection, as evidenced by the significant upregulation of genes involved in the innate immune response. Importantly, many of these genes are activated in human patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, implicating the potential application of the 3D stem-cell derived epithelium for the in vitro study of host-microbe-pathogen interplay and IBD pathogenesis.

  2. In vitro enteroid-derived three-dimensional tissue model of human small intestinal epithelium with innate immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Zhou, Wenda; Roh, Terrence; Estes, Mary K; Kaplan, David L

    2017-01-01

    There is a need for functional in vitro 3D human intestine systems that can bridge the gap between conventional cell culture studies and human trials. The successful engineering in vitro of human intestinal tissues relies on the use of the appropriate cell sources, biomimetic scaffolds, and 3D culture conditions to support vital organ functions. We previously established a compartmentalized scaffold consisting of a hollow space within a porous bulk matrix, in which a functional and physiologically relevant intestinal epithelium system was generated using intestinal cell lines. In this study, we adopt the 3D scaffold system for the cultivation of stem cell-derived human small intestinal enteriods (HIEs) to engineer an in vitro 3D model of a nonstransformed human small intestinal epithelium. Characterization of tissue properties revealed a mature HIE-derived epithelium displaying four major terminally differentiated epithelial cell types (enterocytes, Goblet cells, Paneth cells, enteroendocrine cells), with tight junction formation, microvilli polarization, digestive enzyme secretion, and low oxygen tension in the lumen. Moreover, the tissue model demonstrates significant antibacterial responses to E. coli infection, as evidenced by the significant upregulation of genes involved in the innate immune response. Importantly, many of these genes are activated in human patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), implicating the potential application of the 3D stem-cell derived epithelium for the in vitro study of host-microbe-pathogen interplay and IBD pathogenesis.

  3. The Effects of Intravenously Administrated Methylxanthines on the Proportion of Globlet Cells Containing Fucosylated Glycoconjugates in Rabbit Tracheal Epithelium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vajner, L.; Konrádová, V.; Uhlík, J.; Adášková, Jana

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 1 (2004), s. 47-54 ISSN 0065-1281 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : fucosylation * tracheal epithelium * lectin histochemistry * methylxanthines * rabbits Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.895, year: 2004

  4. Comparison of Mouse and Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium Gene Expression Profiles: Potential Implications for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennis, A.; Gorgels, T.G.M.F.; ten Brink, J.B.; van der Spek, P.J.; Bossers, K.; Heine, V.M.; Bergen, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of age related macular degeneration (AMD). AMD is the leading cause of blindness worldwide. There is currently no effective treatment available. Preclinical studies in AMD mouse models are essential to

  5. Comparison of Mouse and Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium Gene Expression Profiles : Potential Implications for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennis, Anna; Gorgels, Theo G M F; Ten Brink, Jacoline B; van der Spek, Peter J; Bossers, Koen; Heine, Vivi M; Bergen, Arthur A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of age related macular degeneration (AMD). AMD is the leading cause of blindness worldwide. There is currently no effective treatment available. Preclinical studies in AMD mouse models are essential to

  6. Comparison of Mouse and Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium Gene Expression Profiles: Potential Implications for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennis, Anna; Gorgels, Theo G. M. F.; ten Brink, Jacoline B.; van der Spek, Peter J.; Bossers, Koen; Heine, Vivi M.; Bergen, Arthur A.

    2015-01-01

    The human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of age related macular degeneration (AMD). AMD is the leading cause of blindness worldwide. There is currently no effective treatment available. Preclinical studies in AMD mouse models are essential to develop new

  7. Interactions between bacteria and the gut mucosa: Do enteric neurotransmitters acting on the mucosal epithelium influence intestinal colonization or infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The intestinal epithelium is a critical barrier between the internal and external milieux of the mammalian host. Epithelial interactions between these two host environments have been shown to be modulated by several different, cross-communicating cell types residing in the gut mucosa. These include ...

  8. Distinct ATOH1 and Neurog3 requirements define tuft cells as a new secretory cell type in the intestinal epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbe, F.; van Es, J.H.; Makrini, L.; Brulin, B.; Mellitzer, G.; Robine, S.; Romagnolo, B.; Shroyer, N.F.; Bourgaux, J.F.; Pignodel, C.; Clevers, H.; Jay, P.

    2011-01-01

    The unique morphology of tuft cells was first revealed by electron microscopy analyses in several endoderm-derived epithelia. Here, we explore the relationship of these cells with the other cell types of the intestinal epithelium and describe the first marker signature allowing their unambiguous

  9. Serosal zinc attenuate serotonin and vasoactive intestinal peptide induced secretion in piglet small intestinal epithelium in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Dorthe; Sehested, Jakob; Feng, Z

    2008-01-01

    This study addressed the mechanisms by which dietary zinc affects diarrhoea and aimed to study possible interactions between zinc status and the presence of zinc in vitro on secretagogue-induced secretion from piglet intestinal epithelium in Ussing chambers....

  10. Yki/YAP, Sd/TEAD and Hth/MEIS control tissue specification in the Drosophila eye disc epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianyi; Zhou, Qingxiang; Pignoni, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    During animal development, accurate control of tissue specification and growth are critical to generate organisms of reproducible shape and size. The eye-antennal disc epithelium of Drosophila is a powerful model system to identify the signaling pathway and transcription factors that mediate and coordinate these processes. We show here that the Yorkie (Yki) pathway plays a major role in tissue specification within the developing fly eye disc epithelium at a time when organ primordia and regional identity domains are specified. RNAi-mediated inactivation of Yki, or its partner Scalloped (Sd), or increased activity of the upstream negative regulators of Yki cause a dramatic reorganization of the eye disc fate map leading to specification of the entire disc epithelium into retina. On the contrary, constitutive expression of Yki suppresses eye formation in a Sd-dependent fashion. We also show that knockdown of the transcription factor Homothorax (Hth), known to partner Yki in some developmental contexts, also induces an ectopic retina domain, that Yki and Scalloped regulate Hth expression, and that the gain-of-function activity of Yki is partially dependent on Hth. Our results support a critical role for Yki- and its partners Sd and Hth--in shaping the fate map of the eye epithelium independently of its universal role as a regulator of proliferation and survival.

  11. Yki/YAP, Sd/TEAD and Hth/MEIS control tissue specification in the Drosophila eye disc epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyi Zhang

    Full Text Available During animal development, accurate control of tissue specification and growth are critical to generate organisms of reproducible shape and size. The eye-antennal disc epithelium of Drosophila is a powerful model system to identify the signaling pathway and transcription factors that mediate and coordinate these processes. We show here that the Yorkie (Yki pathway plays a major role in tissue specification within the developing fly eye disc epithelium at a time when organ primordia and regional identity domains are specified. RNAi-mediated inactivation of Yki, or its partner Scalloped (Sd, or increased activity of the upstream negative regulators of Yki cause a dramatic reorganization of the eye disc fate map leading to specification of the entire disc epithelium into retina. On the contrary, constitutive expression of Yki suppresses eye formation in a Sd-dependent fashion. We also show that knockdown of the transcription factor Homothorax (Hth, known to partner Yki in some developmental contexts, also induces an ectopic retina domain, that Yki and Scalloped regulate Hth expression, and that the gain-of-function activity of Yki is partially dependent on Hth. Our results support a critical role for Yki- and its partners Sd and Hth--in shaping the fate map of the eye epithelium independently of its universal role as a regulator of proliferation and survival.

  12. Expression of p75NGFR, a Proliferative and Basal Cell Marker, in the Buccal Mucosa Epithelium during Re-epithelialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Akihiro; Muramatsu, Takashi; Lee, Jong-Min; Higa, Kazunari; Shinozaki, Naoshi; Jung, Han-Sung; Shibahara, Takahiko

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the expression of p75 NGFR , a proliferative and basal cell marker, in the mouse buccal mucosa epithelium during wound healing in order to elucidate the role of epithelial stem cells. Epithelial defects were generated in the epithelium of the buccal mucosa of 6-week-old mice using CO 2 laser irradiation. BrdU was immediately administered to mice following laser irradiation. They were then sacrificed after 1, 3, 7, and 14 days. Paraffin sections were prepared and the irradiated areas were analyzed using immunohistochemistry with anti-p75 NGFR , BrdU, PCNA, and CK14 antibodies. During re-epithelialization, PCNA (–)/p75 NGFR (+) cells extended to the wound, which then closed, whereas PCNA (+)/p75 NGFR (+) cells were not observed at the edge of the wound. In addition, p75 NGFR (–)/CK14 (+), which reflected the presence of post-mitotic differentiating cells, was observed in the supra-basal layers of the extended epithelium. BrdU (+)/p75 NGFR (+), which reflected the presence of epithelial stem cells, was detected sparsely in buccal basal epithelial cells after healing, and disappeared after 7 days. These results suggest that p75 NGFR (+) keratinocytes are localized in the basal layer, which contains oral epithelial stem cells, and retain the ability to proliferate in order to regenerate the buccal mucosal epithelium

  13. Development of an ex vivo model for investigating the bacterial association to the gut epithelium of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Jensen, Bent Borg; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    To study enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) association to the gut of pigs, a simple and reproducible experimental model would be helpful. The aim of this experiment was to establish a model for studying the association of ETEC to the gut epithelium of pigs. Intestinal segments were prepared...

  14. Multidimensional intervention and sickness absence in assistant nursing students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Annemarie Lyng; Strøyer, Jesper; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: When handling patients, nursing assistant (NA) students and nurse students are frequently exposed to risk factors for low back pain (LBP) including sudden loads and twisting and bending of the spine. Furthermore, LBP is a major cause of sickness absence. AIMS: To ascertain...... questionnaire. Sickness absence during the study period increased in both groups but the increase was significantly lower in the intervention group than the control group, mean (standard deviation) number of days 12 (20) versus 18 (34), P change in the mean level...

  15. Absence seizures with myoclonic features in a juvenile Chihuahua dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poma, Roberto; Ochi, Ayako; Cortez, Miguel A

    2010-06-01

    Long-term video-EEG was recorded for an eight-month-old Chihuahua dog with recurrent episodes of altered behaviour associated with head and nose twitching. Each episode lasted one to two seconds, multiple times per day before treatment. Ictal EEG showed generalised bilaterally synchronous 4 Hz spike-and-wave complexes during the "absence-like" event, along with rhythmically correlated head and nose twitching. We present video documentation of such attacks and discuss their similarities to human epilepsy with myoclonic absences.

  16. Preserving location and absence privacy in geo-social networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freni, Dario; Vicente, Carmen Ruiz; Mascetti, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    accessible to multiple users. This renders it difficult for GeoSN users to control which information about them is available and to whom it is available. This paper addresses two privacy threats that occur in GeoSNs: location privacy and absence privacy. The former concerns the availability of information...... about the presence of users in specific locations at given times, while the latter concerns the availability of information about the absence of an individual from specific locations during given periods of time. The challenge addressed is that of supporting privacy while still enabling useful services...

  17. Congenital absence of the portal vein presenting as pulmonary hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Sur Young; Lee, Whal; Cheon, Jung Eun; Kim, Woo Sun; Kim, In One; Yeon, Kyung Mo [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-11-15

    Congenital absence of the portal vein (CAPV) is a rare malformation in which intestinal and splenic venous flow bypasses the liver and drains directly into the systemic circulation via a congenital portosystemic shunt. We describe two cases of CAPV presenting as pulmonary hypertension that were initially suspected as primary pulmonary hypertension. However, subsequent ultrasonography and CT detected the absence of a portal vein and the presence of a portosystemic shunt. Pulmonary hypertension is a recognized complication of liver disease and portal hypertension. However, these two cases illustrate that CAPV may result in pulmonary hypertension without liver disease or portal hypertension.

  18. Psychiatric disorders in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: The study estimates the incidence of psychiatric disorders in long-term sickness absence (LSA; more than eight weeks of continuous sickness absence) over one year. The study is the first accounting for everybody on LSA by linking a psychiatric assessment for all persons on LSA to public...... registers. METHODS: In a Danish population of 120,000 inhabitants all 2,414 incident persons on LSA within one year were posted a questionnaire, of whom 1,121 (46.4%) responded. In a two phase design the 1,121 sick-listed persons were screened for psychiatric disorders. Phase 2 consisted of 844 people...

  19. CD8 Lineage Commitment in the Absence of CD8

    OpenAIRE

    Goldrath, Ananda W.; Hogquist, Kristin A.; Bevan, Michael J.

    1997-01-01

    The absence of cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity and the failure of MHC class I–restricted T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic thymocytes to mature in CD8α-deficient mice suggest that CD8 may be essential for CD8 lineage commitment. We report that variants of the antigenic peptide that delete TCR transgenic thymocytes from CD8 wild-type but not CD8α-deficient mice can restore positive selection of CD8 lineage cells in the absence of CD8. The positively selected cells down-regulate CD4, up-regulate...

  20. Pterygium epithelium abnormal differentiation related to activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Peng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate whether the abnormal differentiation of the pterygium epithelium is related to the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK signaling pathway in vitro. METHODS: The expression levels of phosphorylated ERK (P-ERK, keratin family members including K19 and K10 and the ocular master control gene Pax-6 were measured in 16 surgically excised pterygium tissues and 12 eye bank conjunctiva. In colony-forming cell assays, the differences in clone morphology and in K10, K19, P-ERK and Pax-6 expression between the head and body were investigated. When cocultured with the ERK signaling pathway inhibitor PD98059, the changes in clone morphology, colony-forming efficiency, differentiated marker K10, K19 and Pax-6 expression and P-ERK protein expression level were examined by immunoreactivity and Western blot analysis. RESULTS: The expression of K19 and Pax-6 decreased in the pterygium, especially in the head. No staining of K10 was found in the normal conjunctiva epithelium, but it was found to be expressed in the superficial cells in the head of the pterygium. Characteristic upregulation of P-ERK was observed by immunohistochemistry. The clone from the head with more differentiated cells in the center expressed more K10, and the clone from the body expressed more K19. The P-ERK protein level increased in the pterygium epithelium compared with conjunctiva and decreased when cocultured with PD98059. The same medium with the ERK inhibitor PD98059 was more effective in promoting clonal growth than conventional medium with 3T3 murine feeder layers. It was observed that the epithelium clone co-cultured with the inhibitor had decreased K10 expression and increased K19 and Pax-6 expression. CONCLUSION: We suggest ERK signaling pathway activation might play a role in the pterygium epithelium abnormal differentiation.

  1. The Balance of [Formula: see text] Secretion vs. Reabsorption in the Endometrial Epithelium Regulates Uterine Fluid pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhang-Dong; Guo, Yi-Min; Ren, Mei-Juan; Yang, Jichun; Wang, Shao-Fang; Xu, Tong-Hui; Chen, Li-Ming; Liu, Ying

    2018-01-01

    Uterine fluid contains a high concentration of [Formula: see text] which plays an essential role in sperm capacitation and fertilization. In addition, the [Formula: see text] concentration in uterine fluid changes periodically during the estrous cycle. It is well-known that the endometrial epithelium contains machineries involving the apical SLC26 family anion exchangers for secreting [Formula: see text] into the uterine fluid. In the present study, we find for the first time that the electroneutral Na + /[Formula: see text] cotransporter NBCn1 is expressed at the apical membrane of the endometrial epithelium. The protein abundance of the apical NBCn1 and that of the apical SLC26A4 and SLC26A6 are reciprocally regulated during the estrous cycle in the uterus. NBCn1 is most abundant at diestrus, whereas SLC26A4/A6 are most abundant at proestrus/estrus. In the ovariectomized mice, the expression of uterine NBCn1 is inhibited by β-estradiol, but stimulated by progesterone, whereas that of uterine SLC26A4/A6 is stimulated by β-estradiol. In vivo perfusion studies show that the endometrial epithelium is capable of both secreting and reabsorbing [Formula: see text]. Moreover, the activity for [Formula: see text] secretion by the endometrial epithelium is significantly higher at estrus than it is at diestrus. The opposite is true for [Formula: see text] reabsorption. We conclude that the endometrial epithelium simultaneously contains the activity for [Formula: see text] secretion involving the apical SLC26A4/A6 and the activity for [Formula: see text] reabsorption involving the apical NBCn1, and that the acid-base homeostasis in the uterine fluid is regulated by the finely-tuned balance of the two activities.

  2. Different roles for Pax6 in the optic vesicle and facial epithelium mediate early morphogenesis of the murine eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, J M; Hill, R E; West, J D

    2000-03-01

    Chimaeric mice were made by aggregating Pax6(-/-) and wild-type mouse embryos, in order to study the interaction between the optic vesicle and the prospective lens epithelium during early stages of eye development. Histological analysis of the distribution of homozygous mutant cells in the chimaeras showed that the cell-autonomous removal of Pax6(-/-) cells from the lens, shown previously at E12.5, is nearly complete by E9.5. Most mutant cells are eliminated from an area of facial epithelium wider than, but including, the developing lens placode. This result suggests a role for Pax6 in maintaining a region of the facial epithelium that has the tissue competence to undergo lens differentiation. Segregation of wild-type and Pax6(-/-) cells occurs in the optic vesicle at E9.5 and is most likely a result of different adhesive properties of wild-type and mutant cells. Also, proximo-distal specification of the optic vesicle (as assayed by the elimination of Pax6(-/-) cells distally), is disrupted in the presence of a high proportion of mutant cells. This suggests that Pax6 operates during the establishment of patterning along the proximo-distal axis of the vesicle. Examination of chimaeras with a high proportion of mutant cells showed that Pax6 is required in the optic vesicle for maintenance of contact with the overlying lens epithelium. This may explain why Pax6(-/-) optic vesicles are inefficient at inducing a lens placode. Contact is preferentially maintained when the lens epithelium is also wild-type. Together, these results demonstrate requirements for functional Pax6 in both the optic vesicle and surface epithelia in order to mediate the interactions between the two tissues during the earliest stages of eye development.

  3. Telomere shortening impairs regeneration of the olfactory epithelium in response to injury but not under homeostatic conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masami Watabe-Rudolph

    Full Text Available Atrophy of the olfactory epithelium (OE associated with impaired olfaction and dry nose represents one of the most common phenotypes of human aging. Impairment in regeneration of a functional olfactory epithelium can also occur in response to injury due to infection or nasal surgery. These complications occur more frequently in aged patients. Although age is the most unifying risk factor for atrophic changes and functional decline of the olfactory epithelium, little is known about molecular mechanisms that could influence maintenance and repair of the olfactory epithelium. Here, we analyzed the influence of telomere shortening (a basic mechanism of cellular aging on homeostasis and regenerative reserve in response to chemical induced injury of the OE in late generation telomere knockout mice (G3 mTerc(-/- with short telomeres compared to wild type mice (mTerc(+/+ with long telomeres. The study revealed no significant influence of telomere shortening on homeostatic maintenance of the OE during mouse aging. In contrast, the regenerative response to chemical induced injury of the OE was significantly impaired in G3 mTerc(-/- mice compared to mTerc(+/+ mice. Seven days after chemical induced damage, G3 mTerc(-/- mice exhibited significantly enlarged areas of persisting atrophy compared to mTerc(+/+ mice (p = 0.031. Telomere dysfunction was associated with impairments in cell proliferation in the regenerating epithelium. Deletion of the cell cycle inhibitor, Cdkn1a (p21 rescued defects in OE regeneration in telomere dysfunctional mice. Together, these data indicate that telomere shortening impairs the regenerative capacity of the OE by impairing cell cycle progression in a p21-dependent manner. These findings could be relevant for the impairment in OE function in elderly people.

  4. Lipopolysaccharide increases Na(+),K(+)-pump, but not ENaC, expression in guinea-pig airway epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodrill, Michael W; Beezhold, Donald H; Meighan, Terence; Kashon, Michael L; Fedan, Jeffrey S

    2011-01-25

    Earlier, we found in functional experiments that lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 4mg/kg; i.p.) hyperpolarized the epithelium by stimulating the transepithelial transport of Na(+) in guinea-pig tracheal epithelium. Epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) activity and Na(+),K(+)-pump activity were increased. In this study, we hypothesized that LPS increases the expression of ENaC and the Na(+),K(+)-pump in the epithelium and investigated the levels of transcription and protein abundance. Using qPCR, the effects of LPS on the transcription of αENaC, α(1) Na(+),K(+)-pump, COX-2, eNOS, iNOS, IL-1β, and TNF-α were measured at 3 and 18h. In the epithelium, LPS increased the transcription of COX-2, IL-1β, and, to a nonsignificant extent, TNF-α at 3h, but not at 18h. In alveolar macrophages, TNF-α, and, to a nonsignificant extent, COX-2 and IL-1β were up-regulated at 3h, but not at 18h. Even though LPS stimulated the transcription of some genes, αENaC and α(1) Na(+),K(+)-ATPase transcription were not affected. The expressions of α-, β-, and γ-ENaC and α(1) Na(+),K(+)-pump from the tracheal epithelium and kidney cortex/medulla were investigated by western blotting. All three ENaC subunits were detected as cleavage fragments, yet LPS had no effect on their expression. LPS increased the expression of the α(1) subunit and the α(1), α(2), and α(3) subunits, collectively, of the Na(+),K(+)-pump. Taken together, these data indicate that LPS increases Na(+) transport downstream of the genetic level, in part, by stimulating the expression of the Na(+),K(+)-pump. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Intestinal cell damage and systemic immune activation in individuals reporting sensitivity to wheat in the absence of coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhde, Melanie; Ajamian, Mary; Caio, Giacomo; De Giorgio, Roberto; Indart, Alyssa; Green, Peter H; Verna, Elizabeth C; Volta, Umberto; Alaedini, Armin

    2016-12-01

    Wheat gluten and related proteins can trigger an autoimmune enteropathy, known as coeliac disease, in people with genetic susceptibility. However, some individuals experience a range of symptoms in response to wheat ingestion, without the characteristic serological or histological evidence of coeliac disease. The aetiology and mechanism of these symptoms are unknown, and no biomarkers have been identified. We aimed to determine if sensitivity to wheat in the absence of coeliac disease is associated with systemic immune activation that may be linked to an enteropathy. Study participants included individuals who reported symptoms in response to wheat intake and in whom coeliac disease and wheat allergy were ruled out, patients with coeliac disease and healthy controls. Sera were analysed for markers of intestinal cell damage and systemic immune response to microbial components. Individuals with wheat sensitivity had significantly increased serum levels of soluble CD14 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein, as well as antibody reactivity to bacterial LPS and flagellin. Circulating levels of fatty acid-binding protein 2 (FABP2), a marker of intestinal epithelial cell damage, were significantly elevated in the affected individuals and correlated with the immune responses to microbial products. There was a significant change towards normalisation of the levels of FABP2 and immune activation markers in a subgroup of individuals with wheat sensitivity who observed a diet excluding wheat and related cereals. These findings reveal a state of systemic immune activation in conjunction with a compromised intestinal epithelium affecting a subset of individuals who experience sensitivity to wheat in the absence of coeliac disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. The Stigma of Stress and The Absence of Agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølholm, Martin; Vetner, Mikael

    2018-01-01

    on stress in Danish journals on leadership and management and in newspapers over a decade has contributed to creating an intricate stress stigma and an absence of agency. Seit mehr als 15 Jahren setzt Stress die Agenda in die dänischen Work-Life-Diskurse. Täglich fehlen 35.000 Beschäftigte aufgrund von...

  7. the relationship between functional absence of the flexor digitorum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flexor Digitorum Superficialis (FDS) tendon to the fifth digit. The Pl is used for reconstructive procedures including tendon grafts. Absence of the FDS to the fifth digit has been associated with reduced grip strength (1). Injury to the FDS of the fifth digit may require reconstruction with the PL tendon. There has been controversy ...

  8. 5 CFR 353.106 - Personnel actions during employee's absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personnel actions during employee's absence. 353.106 Section 353.106 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE... to use sick or annual leave. (c) Agency promotion plans must provide a mechanism by which employees...

  9. Congenital absence of vas deferens and ectopic kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alobaidi Salwan

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Congenital absence of the vas deference is a unique clinical entity due to its great association with a large variety of urogenital abnormalities, we present this case to stress the importance of including scrotal examination in the routine physical exam to reduce the late diagnosis of such abnormality and it associated comorbidities.

  10. Occupational rewards relate to sickness absence frequency but not duration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C. A. M.; Koopmans, P. C.; Groothoff, J. W.

    2009-01-01

    Work stress is an important problem that shifted sickness absence research to the psychosocial work environment at the expense of physical or chemical hazards. Most studies investigated the psychosocial work environment using the Demand-Control model. However, this model does not consider coping

  11. Psychosocial work factors and long sickness absence in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slany, Corinna; Schütte, Stefanie; Chastang, Jean-François; Parent-Thirion, Agnès; Vermeylen, Greet; Niedhammer, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Studies exploring a wide range of psychosocial work factors separately and together in association with long sickness absence are still lacking. The objective of this study was to explore the associations between psychosocial work factors measured following a comprehensive instrument (Copenhagen psychosocial questionnaire, COPSOQ) and long sickness absence (> 7 days/year) in European employees of 34 countries. An additional objective was to study the differences in these associations according to gender and countries. The study population consisted of 16 120 male and 16 588 female employees from the 2010 European working conditions survey. Twenty-five psychosocial work factors were explored. Statistical analysis was performed using multilevel logistic regression models and interaction testing. When studied together in the same model, factors related to job demands (quantitative demands and demands for hiding emotions), possibilities for development, social relationships (role conflicts, quality of leadership, social support, and sense of community), workplace violence (physical violence, bullying, and discrimination), shift work, and job promotion were associated with long sickness absence. Almost no difference was observed according to gender and country. Comprehensive prevention policies oriented to psychosocial work factors may be useful to prevent long sickness absence at European level.

  12. MRI rare finding: Absence of the left liver lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Ceravolo

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of left liver lobe absence in an 80-year-old male patient discovered during an MRI scan. The main imaging features of this condition are briefly reviewed, together with its pathogenesis and the most common associations and differential diagnoses. Keywords: Left liver lobe, Liver abnormalities, Liver magnetic resonance imaging

  13. Adult absence semiology misinterpreted as mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Rebecca; Chiota-McCollum, Nicole; Tatum, William

    2014-12-01

    Correct diagnosis of seizure type and epilepsy syndrome is the foundation for appropriate antiepileptic drug selection. Inappropriate medication choices occur in the treatment of generalized epilepsy and may aggravate some seizure types, including absence seizures, potentially leading to pseudo-drug resistance. Fortunately, a correct diagnosis of absence seizures is usually not difficult, though rarely demonstrates electroclinical overlap with focal seizures. EEG can be especially misleading when secondary bilateral synchronous discharges occur in patients with focal seizures. However, the semiology of focal seizures associated with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy has a characteristic and consistent semiology that is the mark of this common epilepsy syndrome in adulthood. We recently encountered a 53-year-old female with refractory seizures and a semiology strongly suggesting mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Instead of focal seizures, prolonged absence seizures were validated by video-EEG monitoring and she became seizure-free after a change to broad-spectrum antiepileptic drugs. This case further expands our understanding of the complexity of semiology in electroclinical classification and the spectrum that may occur in adult absence seizures. It serves to underscore the need for ictal EEG recordings and the importance of concordance with the clinical course during the pre-surgical evaluation of patients with lesions and drug-resistant epilepsy. [Published with video sequences].

  14. Absence of Latrines, Potable Water and Good Hygiene on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of the availability or absence of latrines and potable water as they affect the prevalence of geohelminth infestation was studied in Benue State, using the rural area of Etulo and urban town of Makurdi. Stool samples were obtained from 1,518 people in Etulo with questionnaires on the use of potable ...

  15. Children Dwelling in the Absence of Home | Dachyshyn | Indo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology ... The lived experience of children dwelling in the absence of home is explored through the memoirs of Haddy, who as a child of four moved with her family from Fiji to ... The recollections of some refugee children along with situations from the author's own life appear more nominally.

  16. Impact of School Flu Vaccine Program on Student Absences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaspohl, Sara S.; Dixon, Betty T.; Streater, James A.; Hausauer, Elizabeth T.; Newman, Christopher P.; Vogel, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Literature provides evidence that school attendance correlates with academic performance and student success. Influenza is a contributing factor to school absences. Primary prevention for influenza includes immunization. School-located influenza vaccine (SLIV) programs provide greater access for students to be immunized. A retrospective review of…

  17. Unilateral hydronephrosis with congenital absence of contralateral kidney in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muren, C.; Wikstad, I.

    1988-01-01

    The case histories of six children with absence of functioning renal parenchyma on one side and dilatation of the contralateral pelvis are reviewed. The hydronephrosis was obstructive in two cases. In the others no cause could be found. The development of this combination of renal malformations is discussed against an embryologic background. (orig.)

  18. Contempt as the absence of appraisal, not recognition, respect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Gervais & Fessler's defense of a sentiment construct for contempt captures features distinguishing the phenomenon from basic emotions and highlights the fact that it comprises a coordinated syndrome of responses. However, their conceptualization of contempt as the absence of respect equivocates. Consequently, a "dignity" culture that prescribes respect does not thereby limit legitimate contempt in the manner the authors claim.

  19. Reaction Kinetics Model of Polymerization in the Absence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is on reaction kinetics models for approximating diffuse propagation reaction fronts in one-dimensional gasless combustion type models. This study is carried out in the context of free-radical frontal polymerization (FP) via a propagating, self sustaining reacting front in the absence of material diffusion. The model ...

  20. Reincentivizing--a new theory of work and work absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thulesius, Hans O; Grahn, Birgitta E

    2007-07-03

    Work capacity correlates weakly to disease concepts, which in turn are insufficient to explain sick leave behavior. With data mainly from Sweden, a welfare state with high sickness absence rates, our aim was to develop an explanatory theory of how to understand and deal with work absence and sick leave. We used classic grounded theory for analyzing data from >130 interviews with people working or on sick leave, physicians, social security officers, and literature. Several hundreds of typed and handwritten memos were the basis for writing up the theory. In this paper we present a theory of work incentives and how to deal with work absence. We suggest that work disability can be seen as hurt work drivers or people caught in mode traps. Work drivers are specified as work capacities + work incentives, monetary and non-monetary. Also, people can get trapped in certain modes of behavior through changed capacities or incentives, or by inertia. Different modes have different drivers and these can trap the individual from reincentivizing, ie from going back to work or go on working. Hurt drivers and mode traps are recognized by driver assessments done on several different levels. Mode driver calculations are done by the worker. Then follows employer, physician, and social insurance officer assessments. Also, driver assessments are done on the macro level by legislators and other stakeholders. Reincentivizing is done by different repair strategies for hurt work drivers such as body repair, self repair, work-place repair, rehumanizing, controlling sick leave insurance, and strengthening monetary work incentives. Combinations of these driver repair strategies also do release people from mode traps. Reincentivizing is about recognizing hurt work drivers and mode traps followed by repairing and releasing the same drivers and traps. Reincentivizing aims at explaining what is going on when work absence is dealt with and the theory may add to social psychological research on work

  1. Reincentivizing – a new theory of work and work absence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulesius Hans O

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Work capacity correlates weakly to disease concepts, which in turn are insufficient to explain sick leave behavior. With data mainly from Sweden, a welfare state with high sickness absence rates, our aim was to develop an explanatory theory of how to understand and deal with work absence and sick leave. Methods We used classic grounded theory for analyzing data from >130 interviews with people working or on sick leave, physicians, social security officers, and literature. Several hundreds of typed and handwritten memos were the basis for writing up the theory. Results In this paper we present a theory of work incentives and how to deal with work absence. We suggest that work disability can be seen as hurt work drivers or people caught in mode traps. Work drivers are specified as work capacities + work incentives, monetary and non-monetary. Also, people can get trapped in certain modes of behavior through changed capacities or incentives, or by inertia. Different modes have different drivers and these can trap the individual from reincentivizing, ie from going back to work or go on working. Hurt drivers and mode traps are recognized by driver assessments done on several different levels. Mode driver calculations are done by the worker. Then follows employer, physician, and social insurance officer assessments. Also, driver assessments are done on the macro level by legislators and other stakeholders. Reincentivizing is done by different repair strategies for hurt work drivers such as body repair, self repair, work-place repair, rehumanizing, controlling sick leave insurance, and strengthening monetary work incentives. Combinations of these driver repair strategies also do release people from mode traps. Conclusion Reincentivizing is about recognizing hurt work drivers and mode traps followed by repairing and releasing the same drivers and traps. Reincentivizing aims at explaining what is going on when work absence is dealt

  2. The response of the ciliated epithelium during and after exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldetorp, B.

    1984-10-01

    Irradiation of the ciliated tissues of the body gives undesirable sideefects. In vitro irradiation (10 Gy) of the rabbit's trachea shows that 1.5 Gy of indirectly ionizing radiation (50 kV and 6 MV X-ray 60 Co-gamma 1.25 MeV) causes a 20 per cent increase of the ciliary beat frequency lasting 5-10 seconds, followed by a decline to normal ciliary activity during the ensuing course of irradiation. Electron radiation (4 MeV) proved to be three times more effective than photon radiation in regard to the physiological response of the cilia to ionizing radiation. This finding led to introduction of the concept Relative Physiological Efficiency (RPE) in this study, complementing the Relative Biological Efficiency (RBE) concept. This momentary increase in frequency can be caused by a radiation-induced increased hydrolysis of the ATP available in the cilia. The ciliary activity was 20 per cent lower than normal at 45 min following irradiation (10 Gy, 50 kV X-ray), whereupon it increased to 12 per cent above normal activity at two hours after initial irradiation. At re-irradiation (10 Gy, 50 kV X-ray) administered two hours after initial irradiation, the cilia showed a constant rate of activity. In vivo irradiation (10 Gy, 160 kV X-ray) of the trachea of the rabbit caused a heightened activity (10%) during the first three days after irradiation, indicating a stimulation of the ATP-synthesis. During days 4 to 8 after irradiation, the ciliary epithelium's morphology was damaged resulting in reduced transport ability. Repair took place during days 9 and 10 after irradiation, i.e. the function of the ciliary epithelium appeared to be restored. The membrane potential of the ciliary cell, registered during irradiation (10 Gy, 50 kV X-ray) showed no changes, which supports the assumption that the increased ciliary beat frequency recorded during irradiation can be due to rapid radiation-induced biochemical changes that are connected to the motility of the cilia. (author)

  3. Mechanisms of constitutive and ATP-evoked ATP release in neonatal mouse olfactory epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayoz Sébastien

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ATP is an extracellular signaling molecule with many ascribed functions in sensory systems, including the olfactory epithelium. The mechanism(s by which ATP is released in the olfactory epithelium has not been investigated. Quantitative luciferin-luciferase assays were used to monitor ATP release, and confocal imaging of the fluorescent ATP marker quinacrine was used to monitor ATP release via exocytosis in Swiss Webster mouse neonatal olfactory epithelial slices. Results Under control conditions, constitutive release of ATP occurs via exocytosis, hemichannels and ABC transporters and is inhibited by vesicular fusion inhibitor Clostridium difficile toxin A and hemichannel and ABC transporter inhibitor probenecid. Constitutive ATP release is negatively regulated by the ATP breakdown product ADP through activation of P2Y receptors, likely via the cAMP/PKA pathway. In vivo studies indicate that constitutive ATP may play a role in neuronal homeostasis as inhibition of exocytosis inhibited normal proliferation in the OE. ATP-evoked ATP release is also present in mouse neonatal OE, triggered by several ionotropic P2X purinergic receptor agonists (ATP, αβMeATP and Bz-ATP and a G protein-coupled P2Y receptor agonist (UTP. Calcium imaging of P2X2-transfected HEK293 “biosensor” cells confirmed the presence of evoked ATP release. Following purinergic receptor stimulation, ATP is released via calcium-dependent exocytosis, activated P2X1,7 receptors, activated P2X7 receptors that form a complex with pannexin channels, or ABC transporters. The ATP-evoked ATP release is inhibited by the purinergic receptor inhibitor PPADS, Clostridium difficile toxin A and two inhibitors of pannexin channels: probenecid and carbenoxolone. Conclusions The constitutive release of ATP might be involved in normal cell turn-over or modulation of odorant sensitivity in physiological conditions. Given the growth-promoting effects of ATP, ATP-evoked ATP

  4. Delayed healing of corneal epithelium after phototherapeutic keratectomy for lattice dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sujata; Langenbucher, Achim; Seitz, Berthold

    2005-04-01

    To evaluate the time period necessary for complete epithelial healing after phototherapeutic keratectomy (o-PTK) carried out for various superficial corneal opacities. A total of 197 eyes were divided into 9 groups: group 1, Cogan dystrophy including recurrences (n = 15); group 2, Reis Bucklers dystrophy including recurrences (n = 12); group 3, granular dystrophy including recurrences (n = 63); group 4, lattice dystrophy including recurrences (n = 19); group 5, macular dystrophy including recurrences (n = 10); group 6, herpetic scars (n = 5); group 7, corneal scars of nonherpetic origin (including scrofulous, traumatic, central keratoconus, post-pterygium surgery) (n = 31); group 8, Salzmann nodular degeneration (n = 22); and group 9, miscellaneous (such as bullous keratopathy, acute chemical burn, corneal degeneration) (n = 20). After o-PTK, patients were examined daily at the slit lamp using fluorescein and blue light. The time period necessary for complete healing of the epithelial defect was compared among these groups. Delayed healing was considered where the epithelium was not closed after 7 days. One hundred sixty-one eyes (95%) healed within 7 days. Overall, 63%, 80%, and 85% of epithelial defects were closed within 3, 4, and 5 days, respectively. Out of 9 eyes that had delayed healing, 6 eyes (67%) belonged to lattice dystrophy category. Mean time taken for healing in group 4 (8.6 +/- 8.4 days) was significantly longer than those in group 1 (3.0 +/- 1.5 days, P = 0.009), group 2 (3.7 +/- 3.1 days, P = 0.03), group 3 (3.1 +/- 1.5 days, P = 0.001), group 5 (2.7 +/- 0.8 days, P = 0.01), group 7 (3.6 +/- 2.4 days, P = 0.007), group 8 (3.3 +/- 1.3 days, P = 0.009), and group 9 (3.0 +/- 1.9 days, P = 0.011). Eyes with lattice corneal dystrophy suffered from delayed epithelial healing after o-PTK. In addition to adequate counseling, these patients should be followed up closely until complete closure of the epithelium to avoid ulceration, scarring, or even

  5. Gene expression profiles of human dendritic cells interacting with Aspergillus fumigatus in a bilayer model of the alveolar epithelium/endothelium interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Oliver Morton

    Full Text Available The initial stages of the interaction between the host and Aspergillus fumigatus at the alveolar surface of the human lung are critical in the establishment of aspergillosis. Using an in vitro bilayer model of the alveolus, including both the epithelium (human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line, A549 and endothelium (human pulmonary artery epithelial cells, HPAEC on transwell membranes, it was possible to closely replicate the in vivo conditions. Two distinct sub-groups of dendritic cells (DC, monocyte-derived DC (moDC and myeloid DC (mDC, were included in the model to examine immune responses to fungal infection at the alveolar surface. RNA in high quantity and quality was extracted from the cell layers on the transwell membrane to allow gene expression analysis using tailored custom-made microarrays, containing probes for 117 immune-relevant genes. This microarray data indicated minimal induction of immune gene expression in A549 alveolar epithelial cells in response to germ tubes of A. fumigatus. In contrast, the addition of DC to the system greatly increased the number of differentially expressed immune genes. moDC exhibited increased expression of genes including CLEC7A, CD209 and CCL18 in the absence of A. fumigatus compared to mDC. In the presence of A. fumigatus, both DC subgroups exhibited up-regulation of genes identified in previous studies as being associated with the exposure of DC to A. fumigatus and exhibiting chemotactic properties for neutrophils, including CXCL2, CXCL5, CCL20, and IL1B. This model closely approximated the human alveolus allowing for an analysis of the host pathogen interface that complements existing animal models of IA.

  6. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) inhibits proximal tubular cell injury in early diabetic nephropathy by suppressing advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-receptor (RAGE) axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Sayaka; Matsui, Takanori; Takeuchi, Masayoshi; Yoshida, Yumiko; Yamakawa, Ryoji; Fukami, Kei; Yamagishi, Sho-ichi

    2011-03-01

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a multifunctional glycoprotein with anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory properties, and it could block the development and progression of experimental diabetic retinopathy. However, a role for PEDF in early experimental diabetic nephropathy is not fully understood. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) axis stimulates oxidative stress generation and subsequently evokes inflammatory and fibrogenic reactions in renal tubular cells, thereby playing a role in diabetic nephropathy. Therefore, this study investigated whether PEDF could prevent AGE-elicited tubular cell injury in early diabetic nephropathy. Human proximal tubular cells were incubated with or without AGE-bovine serum albumin in the presence or absence of PEDF. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were treated with or without intravenous injection of PEDF for 4 weeks. Gene expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured with dihydroethidium staining. PEDF or antibodies raised against RAGE inhibited the AGE-induced RAGE gene expression and subsequently reduced ROS generation, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), fibronectin and type IV collagen mRNA levels in proximal tubular cells. RAGE gene expression, ROS generation and MCP-1 and TGF-β mRNA levels were significantly increased in diabetic kidney, which were suppressed by administration of PEDF. Our present data suggest that PEDF could play a protective role against tubular injury in diabetic nephropathy by attenuating the deleterious effects of AGEs via down-regulation of RAGE expression. Administration of PEDF may offer a promising strategy for halting the development of diabetic nephropathy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Lack of effect of beta-cyclodextrin and its water-soluble derivatives on in vitro drug transport across rat intestinal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ying; Zuo, Zhong; Chow, Albert H L

    2006-02-17

    The present study aimed to investigate whether beta-cyclodetxrin (beta-CD) and its water-soluble derivatives, hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) and sulfobutyl ether beta-cyclodextrin (SBE-beta-CD), exert any effects on the permeation of two drug transport markers (propranolol and lucifer yellow) across rat intestinal epithelium. Rat ileum was stripped of its serosa and mounted inside an Ussing Chamber. Apparent permeability coefficients (P(app)) of the markers from the mucosal to serosal side of the tissue were determined at 37 degrees C in the presence and absence of the beta-cyclodextrins on the mucosal side. Potential difference (PD) was constantly monitored during each experiment to ensure maintenance of the viability and integrity of the tissue. Pre-incubation with 1% beta-CD, 1% HP-beta-CD or 1.48% SBE-beta-CD on the mucosal side for 30 min did not significantly alter the PD and the propranolol permeability (p>0.05). Co-incubation with 1% beta-CD or 1% HP-beta-CD exerted no significant effect on the P(app) of both propranolol and lucifer yellow (p>0.05), but co-incubation with 1.48% SBE-beta-CD lowered the P(app) of propranolol from (1.71+/-0.44)x10(-5) to (0.19+/-0.04)x10(-5)cm/s, which may be ascribed to the molecular complexation of propranolol with SBE-beta-CD. All three beta-cyclodextrins exert no apparent impact on both (passive) transcellar and paracellular drug transports.

  8. Generation of tooth-periodontium complex structures using high-odontogenic potential dental epithelium derived from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yancong; Li, Yongliang; Shi, Ruirui; Zhang, Siqi; Liu, Hao; Zheng, Yunfei; Li, Yan; Cai, Jinglei; Pei, Duanqing; Wei, Shicheng

    2017-06-08

    A number of studies have shown that tooth-like structures can be regenerated using induced pluripotent stem cells and mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells. However, few studies have reported the regeneration of tooth-periodontium complex structures, which are more suitable for clinical tooth transplantation. We established an optimized approach to induce high-odontogenic potential dental epithelium derived from mES cells by temporally controlling bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) function and regenerated tooth-periodontium complex structures in vivo. First, immunofluorescence and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were used to identify the watershed of skin and the oral ectoderm. LDN193189 was then used to inhibit the BMP4 receptor around the watershed, followed by the addition of exogenous BMP4 to promote BMP4 function. The generated dental epithelium was confirmed by western blot analysis and immunofluorescence. The generated epithelium was ultimately combined with embryonic day 14.5 mouse mesenchyme and transplanted into the renal capsules of nude mice. After 4 weeks, the tooth-periodontium complex structure was examined by micro-computed tomography (CT) and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Our study found that the turning point of oral ectoderm differentiation occurred around day 3 after the embryoid body was transferred to a common culture plate. Ameloblastin-positive dental epithelial cells were detected following the temporal regulation of BMP4. Tooth-periodontium complex structures, which included teeth, a periodontal membrane, and alveolar bone, were formed when this epithelium was combined with mouse dental mesenchyme and transplanted into the renal capsules of nude mice. Micro-CT and H&E staining revealed that the generated tooth-periodontium complex structures shared a similar histological structure with normal mouse teeth. An optimized induction method was established to promote the differentiation of mES cells into dental

  9. Escin activates AKT-Nrf2 signaling to protect retinal pigment epithelium cells from oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaijun; Jiang, Yiqian; Wang, Wei; Ma, Jian; Chen, Min

    2015-12-25

    Here we explored the anti-oxidative and cytoprotective potentials of escin, a natural triterpene-saponin, against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. We showed that escin remarkably attenuated H2O2-induced death and apoptosis of established (ARPE-19) and primary murine RPE cells. Meanwhile, ROS production and lipid peroxidation by H2O2 were remarkably inhibited by escin. Escin treatment in RPE cells resulted in NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling activation, evidenced by transcription of anti-oxidant-responsive element (ARE)-regulated genes, including HO-1, NQO-1 and SRXN-1. Knockdown of Nrf2 through targeted shRNAs/siRNAs alleviated escin-mediated ARE gene transcription, and almost abolished escin-mediated anti-oxidant activity and RPE cytoprotection against H2O2. Reversely, escin was more potent against H2O2 damages in Nrf2-over-expressed ARPE-19 cells. Further studies showed that escin-induced Nrf2 activation in RPE cells required AKT signaling. AKT inhibitors (LY294002 and perifosine) blocked escin-induced AKT activation, and dramatically inhibited Nrf2 phosphorylation, its cytosol accumulation and nuclear translocation in RPE cells. Escin-induced RPE cytoprotection against H2O2 was also alleviated by the AKT inhibitors. Together, these results demonstrate that escin protects RPE cells from oxidative stress possibly through activating AKT-Nrf2 signaling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Aqueous extract of Centella asiatica promotes corneal epithelium wound healing in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruszymah, Bt Hj Idrus; Chowdhury, Shiplu Roy; Manan, Nur Azeanty Bt Abdul; Fong, Ooi Sew; Adenan, Mohd Ilham; Saim, Aminuddin Bin

    2012-03-27

    Centella asiatica is a traditional herbal medicine that has been shown to have pharmacological effect on skin wound healing, and could be potential therapeutic agent for corneal epithelial wound healing. This study was done to evaluate the effects of Centella asiatica on the proliferation and migration of rabbit corneal epithelial (RCE) cells in the in vitro wound healing model. RCE cells were cultured with or without supplementation of Centella asiatica aqueous extract. Viability and proliferation of the RCE cells was determined by MTT assay and cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. In vitro re-epithelization was studied by scratch assay and migration rate was evaluated quantitatively by image analyzer. Expression of corneal specific differentiation markers, CK12 and connexin 43, were studied via RT-PCR. It was found that supplementation of Centella asiatica did not show any significant effect on the RCE cells proliferation at the concentration up to 500ppm, while at the concentration of 1000ppm significantly inhibited RCE cells proliferation (pCentella asiatica aqueous extract did not alter the expression of differentiation markers and cell cycle. In conclusion, supplementation of Centella asiatica aqueous extract at low concentrations could be useful to promote corneal epithelium wound healing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Transcriptome and H3K27 tri-methylation profiling of Ezh2-deficient lung epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliaksei Z. Holik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The adaptation of the lungs to air breathing at birth requires the fine orchestration of different processes to control lung morphogenesis and progenitor cell differentiation. However, there is little understanding of the role that epigenetic modifiers play in the control of lung development. We found that the histone methyl transferase Ezh2 plays a critical role in lung lineage specification and survival at birth. We performed a genome-wide transcriptome study combined with a genome-wide analysis of the distribution of H3K27 tri-methylation marks to interrogate the role of Ezh2 in lung epithelial cells. Lung cells isolated from Ezh2-deficient and control mice at embryonic day E16.5 were sorted into epithelial and mesenchymal populations based on EpCAM expression. This enabled us to dissect the transcriptional and epigenetic changes induced by the loss of Ezh2 specifically in the lung epithelium. Here we provide a detailed description of the analysis of the RNA-seq and ChIP-seq data, including quality control, read mapping, differential expression and differential binding analyses, as well as visualisation methods used to present the data. These data can be accessed from the Gene Expression Omnibus database (super-series accession number GSE57393.

  12. The lingual epithelium of Salamandra salamandra: metamorphotic changes during its ontogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opolka, A; Clemen, G

    1998-12-01

    The development of the epithelia of the secondary tongue of Salamandra salamandra is described on the basis of light microscopic and scanning electron microscopic studies of defined developmental stages. A glandular area with radial ridges and furrows is formed anterior to the primary tongue during the larval phase. Epithelial cones--each a compact anlage of a gland lying in the furrows--displace the lamina propria. The glandular area grows upward and latero-caudad during metamorphosis and forms the secondary tongue by fusing with the primary tongue. Lumina within the gland anlage appear at the beginning of metamorphosis. They open as glandular tubules towards the oral cavity at the climax of metamorphosis. The epithelial lining becomes single layered and differentiates into gland cells. The glands are increasingly surrounded by fibers of the musculus genioglossus. At the orifice of the gland, the gland cells mingle with the multilayered epithelium of the surface of the tongue. This contains two types of goblet cells in addition to the villus-shaped covering cells which leave gaps for the taste buds. The goblet cells are formed before (type I) and during (type II) metamorphosis and replace the typical larval goblet cells. The new mushroom-shaped part of the secondary tongue is characterized by aborally running septae of connective tissue, visible after digestion with pankreatin. The tip of the primary tongue which originally covers the glandular part becomes completely integrated. It is characterized by crypts which become shallower caudally.

  13. Staphylococcus aureus ST398 gene expression profiling during ex vivo colonization of porcine nasal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulinski, Pawel; Duim, Birgitta; Wittink, Floyd R; Jonker, Martijs J; Breit, Timo M; van Putten, Jos P; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Fluit, Ad C

    2014-10-20

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common human and animal opportunistic pathogen. In humans nasal carriage of S. aureus is a risk factor for various infections. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus ST398 is highly prevalent in pigs in Europe and North America. The mechanism of successful pig colonization by MRSA ST398 is poorly understood. Previously, we developed a nasal colonization model of porcine nasal mucosa explants to identify molecular traits involved in nasal MRSA colonization of pigs. We report the analysis of changes in the transcription of MRSA ST398 strain S0462 during colonization on the explant epithelium. Major regulated genes were encoding metabolic processes and regulation of these genes may represent metabolic adaptation to nasal mucosa explants. Colonization was not accompanied by significant changes in transcripts of the main virulence associated genes or known human colonization factors. Here, we documented regulation of two genes which have potential influence on S. aureus colonization; cysteine extracellular proteinase (scpA) and von Willebrand factor-binding protein (vWbp, encoded on SaPIbov5). Colonization with isogenic-deletion strains (Δvwbp and ΔscpA) did not alter the ex vivo nasal S. aureus colonization compared to wild type. Our results suggest that nasal colonization with MRSA ST398 is a complex event that is accompanied with changes in bacterial gene expression regulation and metabolic adaptation.

  14. Analysis of the Ki-67 index in the vaginal epithelium of castrated rats treated with tamoxifen

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    Afif Rieth Nery-Aguiar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Vaginal atrophy and breast cancer are common conditions in postmenopausal women and tamoxifen is the standard endocrine treatment for hormone-sensitive tumors. The present study aimed to assess the effect of tamoxifen on Ki-67 protein expression in the vaginal epithelium of castrated rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty Wistar-Hannover adult, virgin, castrated rats were randomly divided into two groups, group I (control, n=20 and group II (tamoxifen, n=20, receiving 0.5 ml of propylene glycol and 250 µg of tamoxifen diluted in 0.5 ml of propylene glycol, respectively, daily by gavage for 30 days. On the 31st day, the rats were euthanized and their vaginas were removed and fixed in 10% buffered formalin for the immunohistochemical study of Ki-67 protein expression. Data were analyzed by the Levene and Student’s t tests (p<0.05. RESULTS: The mean index of Ki-67 expression in the rat vagina of groups I and II was 4.04±0.96 and 26.86±2.19, respectively (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: According to the results of the present study, tamoxifen, at the dose and treatment length used, induced a significant increase in the cell proliferation of the vaginal mucosa in castrated rats, as evaluated by Ki-67 protein expression.

  15. Interaction of Bordetella bronchiseptica and Its Lipopolysaccharide with In Vitro Culture of Respiratory Nasal Epithelium

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    Carolina Gallego

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nasal septa of fetal rabbits at 26 days of gestation were harvested by cesarean section of the does while under anesthesia and then exposed to Bordetella bronchiseptica or its lipopolysaccharide (LPS for periods of 2 and 4 hours. A total of 240 explants were used. The tissues were examined using the Hematoxylin & Eosin technique. Then, semithin sections (0.5 m were stained with toluidine blue and examined with indirect immunoperoxidase (IPI and lectin histochemistry. The most frequent and statistically significant findings were as follows: (1 cell death and increased goblet cell activity when exposed to bacteria and (2 cell death, cytoplasmic vacuolation and infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes when exposed to LPS. The lesions induced by the bacterium were more severe than with LPS alone, except for the cytoplasmic vacuolation in epithelial cells. IPI stained the ciliated border of the epithelium with the bacterium more intensely, while LPS lectin histochemistry preferentially labeled the cytoplasm of goblet cell. These data indicate that B. bronchiseptica and its LPS may have an affinity for specific glycoproteins that would act as adhesion receptors in both locations.

  16. Prolactin protects retinal pigment epithelium by inhibiting sirtuin 2-dependent cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndez García, Rodrigo; Arredondo Zamarripa, David; Arnold, Edith; Ruiz-Herrera, Xarubet; Noguez Imm, Ramsés; Baeza Cruz, German; Adán, Norma; Binart, Nadine; Riesgo-Escovar, Juan; Goffin, Vincent; Ordaz, Benito; Peña-Ortega, Fernando; Martínez-Torres, Ataúlfo; Clapp, Carmen; Thebault, Stéphanie

    2016-05-01

    The identification of pathways necessary for retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) function is fundamental to uncover therapies for blindness. Prolactin (PRL) receptors are expressed in the retina, but nothing is known about the role of PRL in RPE. Using the adult RPE 19 (ARPE-19) human cell line and mouse RPE, we identified the presence of PRL receptors and demonstrated that PRL is necessary for RPE cell survival via anti-apoptotic and antioxidant actions. PRL promotes the antioxidant capacity of ARPE-19 cells by reducing glutathione. It also blocks the hydrogen peroxide-induced increase in deacetylase sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) expression, which inhibits the TRPM2-mediated intracellular Ca(2+) rise associated with reduced survival under oxidant conditions. RPE from PRL receptor-null (prlr(-/-)) mice showed increased levels of oxidative stress, Sirt2 expression and apoptosis, effects that were exacerbated in animals with advancing age. These observations identify PRL as a regulator of RPE homeostasis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cellular damage after total or partial x-irradiation of the rat lens epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    The response of cells to a wound stimulus was used to study the effects of X-irradiation on cells of the rat lens epithelium. Either the entire lens or just the nasal half of the lens of the right eye of Holtzman rats was irradiated with 1000 rads of X-rays (250 kVp, 30 mA, filter = 1 mm Al + 1 / 4 mm Cu, HVL = 1 mm Cu). At various times after irradiation (1, 7, or 28 days in whole-irradiated lenses and 1, 4, 7, or 14 days in half-irradiated lenses) the lenses were wounded with a sharpened Hamilton microliter syringe. Samples of epithelia were obtained every 2 hours from 14 to 44 hours after wounding. Two hours before a scheduled sacrifice time, 5 μCi of tritiated thymidine ( 3 H-TdR) were topicaly applied to each eye. Two hours later, the animals were killed and their eyes enucleated. Then autoradiographs of whole mounts of the lens epithelia were prepared. The epithelial cells were then counted to determine DNA synthesis activity ( 3 H-TdR cell labeling), mitotic activity, and mitotic abnormalities

  18. Choroidal neovascularization induced by immunogenic alteration of the retinal pigment epithelium in dengue Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, Carlos Eduardo; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Nehemy, Márcio B

    2015-01-01

    To report the first case of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to dengue fever. A 54-year-old female was referred to our department with blurred vision and metamorphopsia in her left eye. Two weeks earlier, she had presented all of the classic symptoms of dengue fever including a positive serology. Her best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/150 in the left eye. She underwent a fundus examination, fluorescein angiography (FA) and spectral domain optical coherence tomography. All findings were consistent with CNV secondary to dengue fever. FA revealed a classic CNV associated with focal retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) destruction and detachment. Three consecutive monthly injections of intravitreal ranibizumab resulted in functional and anatomical improvement for as long as 6 months with a BCVA of 20/25. However, CNV recurred 2 years later, again with an improvement after ranibizumab therapy, but with persistence of a fibrovascular RPE detachment, highlighting the pathomechanism of a classic CNV formation. Maculopathy in dengue fever may be followed by CNV as a result of the immunologic alteration of the RPE. Physicians should be aware of this manifestation to be able to initiate adequate treatment with excellent functional and anatomical results.

  19. The effect of salt adaptation on the permeability and cation selectivity of the goldfish intestinal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellory, J C; Nibelle, J; Smith, M W

    1973-05-01

    1. The short-term uptake of Na by the goldfish mucosa was compared using both inulin and choline as markers of extracellular space. The results were virtually identical, the distribution of both choline and inulin increasing rapidly to measure a space at 1 min which then remained nearly constant during a following 4 min incubation.2. Using inulin as space marker, the uptake of various alkali metal cations was determined from a 1 min contact with the mucosa. The relative rates of uptake were Tl > K > Rb > Cs > Na > Li, with a low selectivity ratio, the range of permeabilities being no greater than 5.3. The selectivity sequence was the same in both salt and fresh-water adapted fish. Of the alkali metal cations tested, only Na showed a significantly decreased uptake on adaptation to salt.4. Isolated intestinal preparations from salt-adapted fish showed a reduced short-circuit current compared with fish adapted to fresh water, the values being 12.3 +/- 1.2 and 35.7 +/- 1.5 muA cm(-2) respectively. In both cases the short-circuit current was equivalent to the net transport of Na measured isotopically.5. In Krebs-Henseleit medium, the measured tissue resistance was approximately 100 Omega cm(-2) for both salt and fresh-water adapted fish.6. It is concluded that regulation of cation transport in goldfish intestinal epithelium is specific for Na and mediated primarily through cellular rather than extracellular pathways.

  20. [Ultrastructural changes of the retinal pigment epithelium in pigs fed with a fat rich diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, P; Teutsch, P; Maldonado, M J; Moreno-Montañés, J; Rodríguez, J A; García-Layana, A

    2001-02-01

    To determine if the intake of a rich diet is related to ultraestructural changes and with an increase in lipofuscin accumulation in porcine retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The animals were divided into two groups of 6 pigs each. In the first group (control), a restricted diet of chow mix was supplied. The second group (fat-fed group) was fed with the same type of nutritional diet, however one third of the food was replaced by saturated fatty acid. Total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglycerides were determined at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. After 12 weeks, the eyes were enucleated and the RPE structure was examined by electron microscopy. No significant differences were observed in the RPE lipofuscin accumulation between the control group and the fat-fed group (p=0.3). However, morphological disorders such as nuclear pyknosis, accumulation of electron dense particles in Bruch's membrane, and the accumulation of empty and lipid-like vacuoles in the cytoplasm were observed in the RPE of the fat-fed group but not in the control animals. The ultrastructural changes observed in the porcine RPE can be related to a high fat diet to the increase in lipid plasma levels.

  1. Salmonella typhimurium diarrhea: switching the mucosal epithelium from homeostasis to defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Patrick; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich

    2011-08-01

    The mammalian intestine is a complex biological system composed of the epithelium, the gut associated immune system, a commensal microbial community of approx. 10(10) cells per gram of content ('microbiota') and an occasional onslaught by pathogens. The mechanisms governing homeostasis and immune defense are of great importance, but incompletely understood. This is explained by the system's sheer complexity. So far, no single study has considered all relevant parameters, that is (i) innate and adaptive mucosal immune responses; (ii) mucosa cell gene expression; (iii) community composition of the microbiota; (iv) microbiota gene expression; (v) genetic profiling of the host; (vi) the virulence complement expressed by the pathogen in vivo. This exquisite complexity explains why simplified model systems have fuelled much recent progress on the system's regulating principles. Here, we focus on one particular model, the streptomycin pretreated mouse model for Salmonella diarrhea, to illustrate novel concepts in microbe-mucosa interaction, that is how this system switches from homeostasis to disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of a 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching agent on rat oral epithelium proliferation

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    Albuquerque Rodrigo de Castro

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the influence of short course topical application of carbamide peroxide on proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA immunohistochemical expression in the oral tongue mucosa of rats. Twelve male Wistar rats were submitted to topical application of 10% carbamide peroxide on one side of the dorsal tongue once a week for three consecutive weeks. Only distilled water was applied on the control side. The animals were killed on days 0, 10, and 20 after the last application. The tongue was fixed in buffered formalin for 24 h and embedded in paraffin. Tissue blocks (3 µm were subjected to the biotin-streptavidin amplified system for identification of PCNA. The percentage of epithelial-positive basal cells in each side of the tongue mucosa was calculated. The results demonstrated that topical application of 10% carbamide peroxide increases PCNA immunohistochemical expression on the basal layer of the oral mucosa epithelium of rats on day 0 after treatment. In conclusion, short-course use of carbamide peroxide induces transient epithelial cell proliferation of the oral mucosa of rats.

  3. A comparative study of candidal invasion in rabbit tongue mucosal explants and reconstituted human oral epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayatilake, J A M S; Samaranayake, Y H; Samaranayake, L P

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the light and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) features of tissue invasion by three Candida species (C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. dubliniensis) in two different tissue culture models: rabbit tongue mucosal explants (RTME) and reconstituted human oral epithelium (RHOE). Tongue mucosal biopsies of healthy New Zealand rabbits were maintained in explant culture using a transwell system. RHOE was obtained from Skinethic Laboratory (Nice, France). RTME and RHOE were inoculated with C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. dubliniensis separately and incubated at 37 degrees C, 5% CO(2), and 100% humidity up to 48 h. Light microscopic and SEM examinations of uninfected (controls) and infected tissues were performed at 24 and 48 h. C. albicans produced characteristic hallmarks of pathological tissue invasion in both tissue models over a period of 48 h. Hyphae penetrated through epithelial cells and intercellular gaps latter resembling thigmotropism. SEM showed cavitations on the epithelial cell surfaces particularly pronounced at sites of hyphal invasion. Some hyphae on RTME showed several clusters of blastospores attached in regular arrangements resembling "appareil sporifere". C. tropicalis and C. dubliniensis produced few hyphae mainly on RTME but they did not penetrate either model. Our findings indicate that multiple host-fungal interactions such as cavitations, thigmotropism, and morphogenesis take place during candidal tissue invasion. RTME described here appears to be useful in investigations of such pathogenic processes of Candida active at the epithelial front.

  4. Polarized Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium Exhibits Distinct Surface Proteome on Apical and Basal Plasma Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khristov, Vladimir; Wan, Qin; Sharma, Ruchi; Lotfi, Mostafa; Maminishkis, Arvydas; Bharti, Kapil

    2018-01-01

    Surface proteins localized on the apical and basal plasma membranes are required for a cell to sense its environment and relay changes in ionic, cytokine, chemokine, and hormone levels to the inside of the cell. In a polarized cell, surface proteins are differentially localized on the apical or the basolateral sides of the cell. The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is an example of a polarized cell that performs a variety of functions that are dependent on its polarized state including trafficking of ions, fluid, and metabolites across the RPE monolayer. These functions are absolutely crucial for maintaining the health and integrity of adjacent photoreceptors, the photosensitive cells of the retina. Here we present a series of approaches to identify and validate the polarization state of cultured primary human RPE cells using immunostaining for RPE apical/basolateral markers, polarized cytokine secretion, electrophysiology, fluid transport, phagocytosis, and identification of plasma membrane proteins through cell surface capturing technology. These approaches are currently being used to validate the polarized state and the epithelial phenotype of human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell derived RPE cells. This work provides the basis for developing an autologous cell therapy for age-related macular degeneration using patient specific iPS cell derived RPE.

  5. Use of Mesothelial Cells and Biological Matrices for Tissue Engineering of Simple Epithelium Surrogates

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    Christian Claude Lachaud

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering technologies have progressed rapidly through last decades resulting in the manufacture of quite complex bioartificial tissues with potential use for human organ and tissue regeneration. The manufacture of avascular monolayered tissues such as simple squamous epithelia was initiated a few decades ago and is attracting increasing interest. Their relative morphostructural simplicity makes of their biomimetization a goal, which is currently accessible. The mesothelium is a simple squamous epithelium in nature and is the monolayered tissue lining the walls of large coelomic cavities (peritoneal, pericardial and pleural and internal organs housed inside. Interestedly, mesothelial cells can be harvested in clinically relevant numbers from several anatomical sources and not less important, they also display high transdifferentiation capacities and are low immunogenic, characteristics, which endow these cells with therapeutic interest. Their combination with a suitable scaffold (biocompatible, degradable and non-immunogenic may allow the manufacture of tailored serosal membranes biomimetics with potential spanning a wide range of therapeutic applications, principally for the regeneration of simple squamous-like epithelia such as the visceral and parietal mesothelium vascular endothelium and corneal endothelium among others. Herein, we review recent research progresses in mesothelial cells biology and their clinical sources. We make a particular emphasis on reviewing the different types of biological scaffolds suitable for the manufacture of serosal mesothelial membranes biomimetics. Finally, we also review progresses made in mesothelial cells-based therapeutic applications and propose some possible future directions.

  6. Role of pigment epithelium-derived factor in the reproductive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuderland, Dana; Ben-Ami, Ido; Bar-Joseph, Hadas; Shalgi, Ruth

    2014-10-01

    The physiological function of the female reproductive organs is hormonally controlled. In each cycle, the reproductive organs undergo tissue modifications that are accompanied by formation and destruction of blood vessels. Proper angiogenesis requires an accurate balance between stimulatory and inhibitory signals, provided by pro- and anti-angiogenic factors. As with many other tissues, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) appears to be one of the major pro-angiogenic factors in the female reproductive organs. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a non-inhibitory member of the serine protease inhibitors (serpin) superfamily, possessing potent physiologic anti-angiogenic activity that negates VEGF activity. The role of PEDF in decreasing abnormal neovascularization by exerting its anti-angiogenic effect that inhibits pro-angiogenic factors, including VEGF, has been investigated mainly in the eye and in cancer. This review summarizes the function of PEDF in the reproductive system, showing its hormonal regulation and its anti-angiogenic activity. Furthermore, some pathologies of the female reproductive organs, including endometriosis, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, polycystic ovary syndrome, and others, are associated with a faulty angiogenic process. This review illuminates the role of PEDF in their pathogenesis and treatment. Collectively, we can conclude that although PEDF seems to play an essential role in the physiology and pathophysiology of the reproductive system, its full role and mechanism of action still need to be elucidated. © 2014 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  7. Regulation of Autophagy by High Glucose in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium

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    Jin Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autophagy is a self-degradative process that is important for balancing sources of energy at critical times in development and in response to nutrient stress. Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE works as the outer blood retina barrier and is vulnerable to energy stress-induced injury. However, the effect of high glucose treatment on autophagy is still unclear in RPE. Methods: Transmission electron microscopy was used to detect the generation of autophagosome. Small interfering RNA (siRNA and MTT was used to determine the effect of autophagy on cell viability. Western blots and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the expression pattern of autophagic markers, including LC3 and p62. Results: High glucose treatment results in a significant increase in the generation of autophagosome and altered expression of LC3 and p62. High glucose-induced autophagy is independent of mTOR signaling, but is mainly regulated via ROS-mediated ER stress signaling. Conclusion: In the scenario of high glucose-induced oxidative stress, autophagy may be required for the removal of damaged proteins, and provide a default mechanism to prevent high glucose-induced injury in RPE.

  8. Safety evaluation of naringenin upon experimental exposure on rat gastrointestinal epithelium for novel optimal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampalli, Gurunath; Nanjwade, Basavaraj K; Patil, P A

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effect of naringenin on the intestinal biochemical composition, function and histology for gastrointestinal toxicity since it has not yet been adequately exploited for safety through standard assays. Here, we describe naringenin (1 mM, 10 mM and 100 mM, respectively) or sodium deoxycholate (10 mM) effects on isolated brush border membrane from intestinal segments with single pass intestinal perfusion using lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and protein assays. MTT assay was used for cytotoxicity studies. Everted gut sac studies were used for evaluating the transport of nutrients across the intestinal segments. Lucifer yellow was used for paracellular permeability, followed by histological changes and surface characteristic studies of intestinal sacs. The results indicated no significant alterations with naringenin, although significant (p < 0.01) changes were noticed with sodium deoxycholate in the activity of the rat intestinal brush border associated enzymes such as LDH, followed by intact cell viability with marked decrease in the villi height of the intestinal segments. These observations indicate that naringenin was harmless upon exposure to rat gastrointestinal epithelium, clearly demonstrating the potential use of naturally occurring bioflavonoid as safe and novel pharmaceutical adjuvant in oral dosage forms as P-gp inhibitor.

  9. Effect of subchronic exposure to inorganic arsenic on the structure and function of the intestinal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiocchetti, G M; Vélez, D; Devesa, V

    2018-04-01

    Inorganic arsenic (As), the most toxic form of As found in water and food, is considered a human carcinogen. Numerous studies show its systemic toxicity, describing pathologies associated with chronic exposure. The main pathway of exposure to inorganic As is oral, but many of the events that occur during its passage through the gastrointestinal tract are unknown. This study evaluates the effect of subchronic exposure to inorganic As [As(III): 0.025-0.1 mg/L; As(V): 0.25-1 mg/L, up to 21 days] on the intestinal epithelium, using Caco-2 cells as in vitro model. Inorganic As produces a pro-inflammatory response throughout the exposure time, with an increase in IL-8 release (up to 488%). It also causes changes in the program of cell proliferation and differentiation, which leads to impairment of the cell repair process. In addition, subchronic exposure affects the epithelial structure, causing loss of microvilli, fundamental structures in the processes of intestinal absorption and digestion. Moreover, the exposure affects the epithelial barrier function, evidenced by an increase of Lucifer Yellow transport (103-199%). Therefore, it can be concluded that subchronic exposure to inorganic As can alter intestinal homeostasis, affecting the mucosal layer, which performs the most important functions of the intestinal wall. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of stem cell-derived retinal pigmented epithelium in retinal degenerative diseases: present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Mingyue; Chen, Youxin

    2018-01-01

    As a constituent of blood-retinal barrier and retinal outer segment (ROS) scavenger, retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) is fundamental to normal function of retina. Malfunctioning of RPE contributes to the onset and advance of retinal degenerative diseases. Up to date, RPE replacement therapy is the only possible method to completely reverse retinal degeneration. Transplantation of human RPE stem cell-derived RPE (hRPESC-RPE) has shown some good results in animal models. With promising results in terms of safety and visual improvement, human embryonic stem cell-derived RPE (hESC-RPE) can be expected in clinical settings in the near future. Despite twists and turns, induced pluripotent stem cell-derived RPE (iPSC-RPE) is now being intensely investigated to overcome genetic and epigenetic instability. By far, only one patient has received iPSC-RPE transplant, which is a hallmark of iPSC technology development. During follow-up, no major complications such as immunogenicity or tumorigenesis have been observed. Future trials should keep focusing on the safety of stem cell-derived RPE (SC-RPE) especially in long period, and better understanding of the nature of stem cell and the molecular events in the process to generate SC-RPE is necessary to the prosperity of SC-RPE clinical application.

  11. Prolonged radiation damage in rat colon and urokinase expression in epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashida, Masayuki; Minami, Kazunori; Okimoto, Tomoaki [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Shichijo, Kazuko; Matsuu, Mutsumi; Nakayama, Toshiyuki; Sekine, Ichiro

    2001-12-01

    Although radiation therapy plays important role in the treatment of gynecological tumors, it may cause radiation injury as a late effect. Several recent reports show that urokinase such as urokinase type plasminogen activator (uPA) contributes to the repair of ulcerative lesions of the colon epithelium. We studied radiation induced enterocolitis using rat animal models. Seventy-two female Wistar rats were irradiated by a single fraction dose of 36 Gy at laparotomy. Histological changes and activity of urokinase system were investigated after irradiation. Ulcers were observed in irradiated field in 12 of 19 animals (63%) even at 60th week after irradiation. Urokinase expressions were observed in the margins of active ulcer. Urokinase was thought to play important role in exacerbation of ulcer formation. Expression of uPA was also observed in submucosal glands. Ischaemic changes were not observed in irradiated colon despite sclerosing vasculitis. It is suggested that uPA played reciprocal roles in radiation induced enterocolitis: healing and aggravation of ulcer. (author)

  12. The Retinome – Defining a reference transcriptome of the adult mammalian retina/retinal pigment epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goetz Thomas

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mammalian retina is a valuable model system to study neuronal biology in health and disease. To obtain insight into intrinsic processes of the retina, great efforts are directed towards the identification and characterization of transcripts with functional relevance to this tissue. Results With the goal to assemble a first genome-wide reference transcriptome of the adult mammalian retina, referred to as the retinome, we have extracted 13,037 non-redundant annotated genes from nearly 500,000 published datasets on redundant retina/retinal pigment epithelium (RPE transcripts. The data were generated from 27 independent studies employing a wide range of molecular and biocomputational approaches. Comparison to known retina-/RPE-specific pathways and established retinal gene networks suggest that the reference retinome may represent up to 90% of the retinal transcripts. We show that the distribution of retinal genes along the chromosomes is not random but exhibits a higher order organization closely following the previously observed clustering of genes with increased expression. Conclusion The genome wide retinome map offers a rational basis for selecting suggestive candidate genes for hereditary as well as complex retinal diseases facilitating elaborate studies into normal and pathological pathways. To make this unique resource freely available we have built a database providing a query interface to the reference retinome 1.

  13. Wavelength-dependent optical properties of melanosomes in retinal pigmented epithelium (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ji; Zhang, Lei

    2017-02-01

    Melanosome is an organelle for synthesis, storage and transport the melanin, a major intrinsic pigment. In retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), it is generally accepted that melanosome plays a critical photoprotective role, and it has been shown that that loss of melanin from RPE could be an early event towards age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Meanwhile, melanosome is also the major contributor to the optical properties of RPE, due to its high refractive index and the strong optical absorption of melanin. Therefore, a characterization and understanding the optical properties of melanin is of great interest to relate the physical and chemical changes of melanosomes, and their fundamental roles in RPE-related retinal diseases such as AMD. Here, we present a theoretical study to characterize the full optical properties of melanosomes. We modeled melanosomes as uniformly melanin filled spheroids, based on their morphology under transmission electron microscopy. T-matrix method was used to simulate the wavelength dependent total scattering, backscattering, absorption cross sections, and anisotropy factor. We verified our simulation on backscattering cross section of melanosome by comparing optical coherence tomography taken in visible and NIR ranges. In addition, we studied the changes of the optical properties of melanosomes on melanin bleaching. The results suggested a spectroscopic mechanism for optical detection of melanin loss by inverse spectroscopic optical coherence tomography.

  14. NOVEL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM FOR COMBINED HAMARTOMA OF THE RETINA AND RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedania, Vaidehi S; Ozgonul, Cem; Zacks, David N; Besirli, Cagri G

    2018-01-01

    To develop an anatomical classification scheme for combined hamartoma of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and specify recommendations for follow-up interval. Retrospective review of patients with combined hamartoma of the retina and RPE examined during a 7-year period (2008-2015). The clinical presentation, fundus examination, and optical coherence tomography were analyzed. Lesions were classified based on location, fundus features, and optical coherence tomography findings. Lesion location: macular/peripapillary-Zone 1; mid-periphery-Zone 2; and far periphery-Zone 3. Associated fundus findings: no retinal traction-Stage 1; retinal traction and/or retinoschisis-Stage 2; and retinal detachment-Stage 3. Optical coherence tomography findings: epiretinal component only-A; partial retinal involvement-B; and complete retinal and RPE involvement-C. Complete ophthalmologic evaluation is recommended at least every 6 months for patients younger than 12 years, with more frequent follow-up in patients with: lesions in the macula/peripapillary (Zone 1) or with retinal traction, retinoschisis, or retinal detachment (Stage 2 and 3). Surgical intervention is recommended in patients with vision loss secondary to macular traction or retinal detachment. A new clinical classification system is proposed for evaluating and managing patients with combined hamartoma of the retina and RPE. The zone and stage of combined hamartoma of the retina and RPE lesion will assist in determining follow-up interval and surgical intervention. Application of a uniform classification scheme will facilitate assessment and comparison of findings across different studies.

  15. Morphology of bronchial epithelium in rodent streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus

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    Oksana Anatolyevna Pivovarova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the morphology of bronchial epithelium in a rodent streptozotocin-induced (STZ diabetes mellitus.Materials and Methods. Diabetes mellitus was introduced in 47 white Wistar rats aged 5–6 months (body weight 234.0±2.64 g. 43 white Wistar rats of the same age were used as control subjects (body weight 242.0±2.13. Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (SIGMA, USA 60 mg/kg in 0.1 M citrate buffer, pH 4.5.Results. A statistically significant decrease in the total epithelial area by 25.9% was observed in the study group, accompanied by a reduction of the supranuclear zone by 22.1% vs. the control group.Conclusion. We found that bronchial mucous membrane in rodents with STZ-induced diabetes mellitus exhibits signs of atrophy and partial loss of mucous production by bronchial secretory cells.

  16. Applying photoacoustics to quantification of melanin concentration in retinal pigment epithelium (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xiao; Zhang, Hao F.; Liu, Wenzhong

    2016-03-01

    The melanin in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) protects retina and other ocular tissues by photo-screening and acting as antioxidant and free radical scavenger. It helps maintain normal visual functions since human eye is subjected to lifelong high oxygen stress and photon exposure. Loss of the RPE melanin weakens the protection mechanism and jeopardizes ocular health. Local decrease in the RPE melanin concentration is believed to be both a cause and a sign of early-stage age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading blinding disease in developed world. Current technology cannot quantitatively measure the RPE melanin concentration which might be a promising marker in early AMD screening. Photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy (PAOM), as an emerging optical absorption-based imaging technology, can potentially be applied to measure the RPE melanin concentration if the dependence of the detectable photoacoustic (PA) signal amplitudes on the RPE melanin concentrations is verified. In this study, we tested the feasibility of using PA signal ratio from RPE melanin and the nearby retinal blood vessels as an indicator of the RPE melanin variation. A novel whole eye optical model was designed and Monte Carlo modeling of light (MCML) was employed. We examined the influences on quantification from PAOM axial resolution, the depth and diameter of the retinal blood vessel, and the RPE thickness. The results show that the scheme is robust to individual histological and illumination variations. This study suggests that PAOM is capable of quantitatively measuring the RPE melanin concentration in vivo.

  17. Abhraka Bhasma treatment ameliorates proliferation of germinal epithelium after heat exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Babita S; Kale, Purushottam G; Daoo, Jayashree V; Panchal, Pranali P

    2012-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of Abhraka Bhasma on spermatogenesis in heat-damaged testis. A histological analysis over the sukravaha srotomula (testes) of male albino Wistar rat was carried out in order to examine the potency of the test drug in preventing the organ from heat damage. The current experiment was carried out on 32 healthy adult male albino Wistar rats divided into four groups. Sahastraputi Abhraka Bhasma, subjected to 1000 putas, was used as the test drug. On sacrificing the animals after 30 days, it was observed that control animals (G1) had normal spermatogenesis and drug-induced animals (G2) showed hyperactive tubules. Testicular hyperthermia occurred in few (G3) animals, who were subjected to 43°C for 1 h daily for four consecutive weeks, resulting in degeneration of tubules with inspissated spermatozoa (25%) leading to atrophy of the organ. 3% tubules showed disintegration, 23% were in the recovery stage while 71% tubules exhibited enhanced proliferation of germinal epithelium leading to hypertrophy and hyperplasia. The present study reveals that the test drug can correct heat-induced male infertility and provides us with the possibility of treatment of human heat-induced oligozoospermia and azoospermia. Hence, this ayurvedic maharasa (primary mineral) can be a promising formulation as an anti-impotency fecundity drug.

  18. Effects of white light-emitting diode (LED) exposure on retinal pigment epithelium in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaadane, Imene; Villalpando Rodriguez, Gloria Elisa; Boulenguez, Pierre; Chahory, Sabine; Carré, Samuel; Savoldelli, Michèle; Jonet, Laurent; Behar-Cohen, Francine; Martinsons, Christophe; Torriglia, Alicia

    2017-12-01

    Ageing and alteration of the functions of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) are at the origin of lost of vision seen in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The RPE is known to be vulnerable to high-energy blue light. The white light-emitting diodes (LED) commercially available have relatively high content of blue light, a feature that suggest that they could be deleterious for this retinal cell layer. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of "white LED" exposure on RPE. For this, commercially available white LEDs were used for exposure experiments on Wistar rats. Immunohistochemical stain on RPE flat mount, transmission electron microscopy and Western blot were used to exam the RPE. LED-induced RPE damage was evaluated by studying oxidative stress, stress response pathways and cell death pathways as well as the integrity of the outer blood-retinal barrier (BRB). We show that white LED light caused structural alterations leading to the disruption of the outer blood-retinal barrier. We observed an increase in oxidized molecules, disturbance of basal autophagy and cell death by necrosis. We conclude that white LEDs induced strong damages in rat RPE characterized by the breakdown of the BRB and the induction of necrotic cell death. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  19. The Retinal Pigment Epithelium: a Convenient Source of New Photoreceptor cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Zhen Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent success in restoring visual function through photoreceptor replacement in mouse models of photoreceptor degeneration intensifies the need to generate or regenerate photoreceptor cells for the ultimate goal of using cell replacement therapy for blindness caused by photoreceptor degeneration. Current research on deriving new photoreceptors for replacement, as regenerative medicine in general, focuses on the use of embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells to generate transplantable cells. Nonetheless, naturally occurring regeneration, such as wound healing, involves awakening cells at or near a wound site to produce new cells needed to heal the wound. Here we discuss the possibility of tweaking an ocular tissue, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE, to produce photoreceptor cells in situ in the eye. Unlike the neural retina, the RPE in adult mammals maintains cell proliferation capability. Furthermore, progeny cells from RPE proliferation may differentiate into cells other than RPE. The combination of proliferation and plasticity opens a question of whether they could be channeled by a regulatory gene with pro-photoreceptor activity towards photoreceptor production. Studies using embryonic chick and transgenic mouse showed that indeed photoreceptor-like cells were produced in culture and in vivo in the eye using genedirected reprogramming of RPE cells, supporting the feasibility of using the RPE as a convenient source of new photoreceptor cells for in situ retinal repair without involving cell transplantation.

  20. Wnt control of stem cells and differentiation in the intestinal epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Daniel; Clevers, Hans

    2005-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium represents a very attractive experimental model for the study of integrated key cellular processes such as proliferation and differentiation. The tissue is subjected to a rapid and perpetual self-renewal along the crypt-villus axis. Renewal requires division of multipotent stem cells, still to be morphologically identified and isolated, followed by transit amplification, and differentiation of daughter cells into specialized absorptive and secretory cells. Our understanding of the crucial role played by the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in controlling the fine balance between cell proliferation and differentiation in the gut has been significantly enhanced in recent years. Mutations in some of its components irreversibly lead to carcinogenesis in humans and in mice. Here, we discuss recent advances related to the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in regulating intestinal stem cells, homeostasis, and cancer. We emphasize how Wnt signaling is able to maintain a stem cell/progenitor phenotype in normal intestinal crypts, and to impose a very similar phenotype onto colorectal adenomas

  1. Mechanisms of Apoptosis on Human Lens Epithelium after Ultraviolet Light Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Taeck

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to understand the mechanism of apoptosis occurring on a cultured human lens epithelial cell line after exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light. We intended to confirm the presence of cellular toxicity and apoptosis and to reveal the roles of p53, caspase 3 and NOXA in these processes. Methods Cells were irradiated with an ultraviolet lamp. Cellular toxicity was measured by a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Hoechst staining and fluorescent anti-caspase 3 antibodies were used for apoptosis investigation. The quantities of p53, caspase 3, and NOXA were measured by Western blotting for to investigate the apoptosis pathway. Results Cellular toxicity on the human lens epithelium markedly increased with time after UV exposure. On Hoechst staining, we found that apoptosis also remarkably increased after exposure to ultraviolet light, compared with a control group. In the immunochemical study using anti-caspase 3 antibodies, active caspase 3 significantly increased after exposure to ultraviolet light. On Western blotting, p53 decreased, while caspase 3 and NOXA increased. Conclusions Exposure of cultured human lens epithelial cell lines to ultraviolet light induces apoptosis, which promotes the expression of NOXA and caspase 3 increases without increasing p53. This may suggest that UV induced apoptosis is caused by a p53-independent pathway in human lens epithelial cells. PMID:21655046

  2. Impaired Cargo Clearance in the Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE Underlies Irreversible Blinding Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloise Keeling

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic degeneration of the Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE is a precursor to pathological changes in the outer retina. The RPE monolayer, which lies beneath the neuroretina, daily internalises and digests large volumes of spent photoreceptor outer segments. Impaired cargo handling and processing in the endocytic/phagosome and autophagy pathways lead to the accumulation of lipofuscin and pyridinium bis-retinoid A2E aggregates and chemically modified compounds such as malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal within RPE. These contribute to increased proteolytic and oxidative stress, resulting in irreversible damage to post-mitotic RPE cells and development of blinding conditions such as age-related macular degeneration, Stargardt disease and choroideremia. Here, we review how impaired cargo handling in the RPE results in their dysfunction, discuss new findings from our laboratory and consider how newly discovered roles for lysosomes and the autophagy pathway could provide insights into retinopathies. Studies of these dynamic, molecular events have also been spurred on by recent advances in optics and imaging technology. Mechanisms underpinning lysosomal impairment in other degenerative conditions including storage disorders, α-synuclein pathologies and Alzheimer’s disease are also discussed. Collectively, these findings help transcend conventional understanding of these intracellular compartments as simple waste disposal bags to bring about a paradigm shift in the way lysosomes are perceived.

  3. The embryology of the retinal pigmented epithelium in dwarf geckos (Gekkota: Sphaerodactylinae): a unique developmental pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Fuentes, Ricardo A; Daza, Juan D; Bauer, Aaron M

    2014-06-30

    The retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) is a rounded shaped structure in almost all lizards. In the New World dwarf geckos, this structure shows an unusual morphology. In addition to this ocular character, we describe notable differences in the development of these geckos in comparison with available developmental staging tables for other geckos and squamate reptiles. We identified two main patterns of development of the RPE for squamates. These patterns were mapped onto a metatree of concordant hypotheses of squamates based on molecular data. During post-ovopositional stages the representative species of sphaerodactyls exhibit a RPE layer that transforms gradually from an ovoid form into the generalized spherical form. Sphaerodactyls are the only group of squamates in which this pattern is known. This transition might be circumstantial evidence that the accessory RPE plays a role in providing additional protection for their apomorphic concaviclivate temporal fovea. We also report the presence of conjunctival papillae in a developmental stage prior to the formation of scleral ossicles. This developmental progression is similar to that of birds and turtles.

  4. Vulvovaginal-gingival Lichen Planus: Association with Lichen Planopilaris and Stratified Epithelium-specific Antinuclear Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewska, Malgorzata; Banka-Wrona, Agnieszka; Skrok, Anna; Rakowska, Adriana; Górska, Renata; Solomon, Lynn W; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Vulvovaginal-gingival lichen planus (VVG-LP) consists of a triad of symptoms: vulval, vaginal and gingival lichen planus lesions. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of lesions in various anatomical locations in patients with VVG-LP. The study included 126 consecutive patients with lichen planus. Sixteen (12.7%) patients fulfilled the criteria of VVG-LP. In 12/16 (75%) patients with VVG-LP scalp lesions were also observed. Stratified epithelium-specific antinuclear antibodies (SES-ANA) and anti-ΔNp.3α antibodies were detected in 10/16 (75%) patients with VVG-LP and in 15/110 (13.6%) patients with other forms of lichen planus (p lichen planopilaris. The new entity may be termed "vulvovaginal-gingival-pilar lichen planus" and our study indicates that SES-ANA is a marker of this type of lichen planus with extensive, severe and refractory-to-therapy involvement of the mucous membranes, skin and scalp.

  5. Neural stem cells in the adult ciliary epithelium express GFAP and are regulated by Wnt signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Ani V.; Zhao Xing; James, Jackson; Kim, Min; Cowan, Kenneth H.; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2006-01-01

    The identification of neural stem cells with retinal potential in the ciliary epithelium (CE) of the adult mammals is of considerable interest because of their potential for replacing or rescuing degenerating retinal neurons in disease or injury. The evaluation of such a potential requires characterization of these cells with regard to their phenotypic properties, potential, and regulatory mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate that rat CE stem cells/progenitors in neurosphere culture display astrocytic nature in terms of expressing glial intermediate neurofilament protein, GFAP. The GFAP-expressing CE stem cells/progenitors form neurospheres in proliferating conditions and generate neurons when shifted to differentiating conditions. These cells express components of the canonical Wnt pathway and its activation promotes their proliferation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the activation of the canonical Wnt pathway influences neuronal differentiation of CE stem cells/progenitors in a context dependent manner. Our observations suggest that CE stem cells/progenitors share phenotypic properties and regulatory mechanism(s) with neural stem cells elsewhere in the adult CNS

  6. Erlotinib promotes endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated injury in the intestinal epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Lu; Hu, Lingna; Yang, Baofang; Fang, Xianying; Gao, Zhe; Li, Wanshuai; Sun, Yang; Shen, Yan; Wu, Xuefeng [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China); Shu, Yongqian [Department of Clinical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, 140 Hanzhong Road, Nanjing 210029 (China); Gu, Yanhong, E-mail: guluer@163.com [Department of Clinical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, 140 Hanzhong Road, Nanjing 210029 (China); Wu, Xudong, E-mail: xudongwu@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xu, Qiang, E-mail: molpharm@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-07-01

    Erlotinib, a popular drug for treating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), causes diarrhea in approximately 55% of patients receiving this drug. In the present study, we found that erlotinib induced barrier dysfunction in rat small intestine epithelial cells (IEC-6) by increasing epithelial permeability and down-regulating E-cadherin. The mRNA levels of various pro-inflammatory cytokines (Il-6, Il-25 and Il-17f) were increased after erlotinib treatment in IEC-6 cells. Erlotinib concentration- and time-dependently induced apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in both IEC-6 and human colon epithelial cells (CCD 841 CoN). Intestinal epithelial injury was also observed in male C57BL/6J mice administrated with erlotinib. Knockdown of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) with small interference RNA partially reversed erlotinib-induced apoptosis, production of IL-6 and down-regulation of E-cadherin in cultured intestinal epithelial cells. In conclusion, erlotinib caused ER stress-mediated injury in the intestinal epithelium, contributing to its side effects of diarrhea in patients. - Highlights: • Erlotinib destroyed barrier integrity both in vitro and in vivo. • Erlotinib induced inflammation both in vitro and in vivo. • Erlotinib induced apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. • ER stress contributed to erlotinib-induced barrier dysfunction.

  7. Protective effect of clenbuterol on duodenal epithelium during food restriction in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Cardoso

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the effect of the 2-adrenoceptor, clenbuterol, on the duodenal epithelium of food-restricted rats. Clenbuterol was administered as a dietary admixture (4 mg/kg diet to three groups of male Wistar rats (n =8 housed individually in metabolic cages and fed ad libitum for 15 days at 110 %and 160 %of the estimated requirement for energy maintenance. Untreated groups at each energy intake level were also included. Samples of the duodenum were examined by light microscopy. Compared with control animals, clenbuterol treatment significantly increased body mass in all diet groups, although it induced no changes in mean food intake. Gastrointestinal (GIT dry mass was increased by clenbuterol only in the most severely-restricted-diet group. In this group, clenbuterol treatment increased GIT tissue nitrogen (23 %, more than it did in the ad libitum group (13 %. In all treated groups, clenbuterol induced significant hypertrophy of duodenal enterocytes and circular muscle layers, and the diameter of lymphatic vessels increased. In the clenbuterol-treated, restricted-diet groups the height of the brush borders of enterocytes increased. It is concluded that clenbuterol has a protective effect on the intestinal structure in rats on restricted as well as ad libitum diets.

  8. Increased polysomy of chromosome 7 in bronchial epithelium from patients at high risk for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belinsky, S.A.; Neft, R.E.; Lechner, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    Current models of carcinogenesis suggest that tissues progress through multiple genetic and epigenetic changes which ultimately lead to development of invasive cancer. Epidemiologic studies of Peto, R.R. and J.A. Doll indicate that the accumulation of these genetic changes over time, rather than any single unique genetic change, is probably responsible for development of the malignant phenotype. The bronchial epithelium of cigarette smokers is diffusely exposed to a broad spectrum of carcinogens, toxicants, and tumor promoters contained in tobacco smoke. This exposure increases the risk of developing multiple, independent premalignant foci throughout the lower respiratory tract that may contain independent gene aberrations. This open-quotes field cancerizationclose quotes theory is supported by studies that have demonstrated progressive histologic changes distributed throughout the lower respiratory tract of smokers. A series of autopsy studies demonstrated that cigarette smokers exhibit premalignant histologic changes ranging from hyperplasia and metaplasia to severe dysplasia and carcinoma in situ diffusely throughout the bronchial mucosa. The proximal bronchi appear to exhibit the greatest number of changes, particularly at bifurcations. The results described are the first to quantitate the frequency for a chromosome aberration in open-quotes normalclose quotes bronchial epithelial cells

  9. Caveolin-1 as a novel indicator of wound-healing capacity in aged human corneal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Ji Heon; Kim, Jae Hoon; Yeo, Eui-Ju; Kim, Jae Chan; Park, Sang Chul

    2010-01-01

    Excess caveolin-1 has been reported to play a role in age-dependent hyporesponsiveness to growth factors in vitro. Therefore, we hypothesized that caveolin-1-dependent hyporesponsiveness to growth factors in aged corneal epithelial cells might be responsible for delayed wound healing in vivo. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated corneal wound-healing time by vital staining using fluorescein after laser epithelial keratomileusis (LASEK). We compared wound-healing times in young, middle-aged and elderly patients. We also examined caveolin-1 levels and other aging markers, such as p53 and p21, in the corneal epithelium. Elderly patients generally had higher caveolin-1 levels in the corneal epithelia than young patients. There were, however, variations among individuals with increased caveolin-1 in some young patients and decreased levels in some elderly patients. Wound-healing time after LASEK correlated well with the corneal caveolin-1 status. Therefore, we suggest that caveolin-1 status might be responsible for delayed wound healing in elderly patients after LASEK. Caveolin-1 status might be a regulator for wound-healing capacity and a novel target for in vivo adjustment.

  10. Differential phospholipase gene expression by Candida albicans in artificial media and cultured human oral epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaranayake, Y H; Dassanayake, R S; Cheung, B P K; Jayatilake, J A M S; Yeung, K W S; Yau, J Y Y; Samaranayake, L P

    2006-12-01

    Phospholipases B1, B2, C and D of Candida albicans play a significant role in the host invasive process. Hence we evaluated the in vitro expression of PLB1, PLB2, PLC1 and PLD1 in phospholipase-positive (PL(+)) and -deficient (PL(-)) C. albicans isolates in egg yolk agar (EYA), yeast peptone dextrose broth (YPD), and in a model of oral candidiasis based on reconstituted human oral epithelium (RHOE). The growth of Candida was then determined in YPD and its cellular invasion was investigated using the RHOE model. The PL(+) group demonstrated PLB1, PLB2, PLC1 and PLD1 expression in both EYA and YPD, in contrast to the PL(-) group, which expressed only PLB2 and PLD1. Although PL(+) isolates grew profusely in the RHOE model, they expressed only PLB2, PLC1 and PLD1, and not PLB1. Gene expression investigations could not be carried out with PL(-) isolates due to their inability to grow in the RHOE model. Significant growth differences in YPD medium were also observed within the PL(+) and PL(-) groups. Taken together, these findings indicate that phospholipase gene expression in C. albicans is differentially affected by their growth milieu, and this in turn may modulate the disease outcomes in vivo.

  11. Comparison of photocytotoxicyty of PDT with hypericin by model of healthy versus malignant colon epithelium cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikes, J.; Kleban, J.; Jendzelovsky, R.; Solar, P.; Fedorocko, P.; Hyzdalova, M.

    2006-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is becoming a rapidly developing method in cancer therapy, recently. PDT is based on administration of nontoxic/weakly toxic photosensitive compound and its activation with light. The phototoxicity of PDT depends on generation of superoxide radicals (Type-I reaction), which in turn might form peroxide and hydroxyl radicals, and production of singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) (Type-II reaction) after irradiation with light of appropriate wavelength which properly overlaps the photosensitizer's absorbing spectra. Oxidative damage in the cell induced by reactive oxygen species depends on the intracellular localisation and affects different cell organelles. Although PDT is of use in clinical practise, new promising photosensitive compounds with advantageous attributes are discovered continuously. Hypericin, one of these compounds, is known to affect cell cycle and proliferation, to alter gene expression and to induce cell death. Due to its spectral characteristics, hypericin is applicable for treatment of superficial malignancies and therefore also for treatment of colon adenocarcinomas. We compared two cell lines of identical histological origin, one as a model of colon adenocarcinoma (HT29) and second as a model of healthy colon epithelium, to evaluate photo-cytotoxicity of PDT with hypericin to healthy tissue and determine applicability of this therapy in treatment of colon malignancies. (authors)

  12. Bone Marrow–Derived Cells Home to and Regenerate Retinal Pigment Epithelium after Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jeffrey R.; Brown, Gary A. J.; Jorgensen, Marda; Kaushal, Shalesh; Ellis, E. Ann; Grant, Maria B.; Scott, Edward W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSCs/HPCs) can home to and regenerate the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) after induced injury. Methods Enriched HSCs/HPCs from green fluorescent protein (gfp) transgenic mice were transplanted into irradiated recipient mice to track bone marrow–derived cells. Physical damage was induced by breaching Bruch’s membrane and inducing vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFa) expression to promote neovascularization. RPE damage was also induced by sodium iodate injection (40 mg/kg) into wild-type or albino C57Bl/6 mice. Cell morphology, gfp expression, the presence of the Y chromosome, and the presence of melanosomes were used to determine whether the injured RPE was being repaired by the donor bone marrow. Results Injury to the RPE recruits HSC/HPC–derived cells to incorporate into the RPE layer and differentiate into an RPE phenotype. A portion of the HSCs/HPCs adopt RPE morphology, express melanosomes, and integrate into the RPE without cell fusion. Conclusions HSCs/HPCs can migrate to the RPE layer after physical or chemical injury and regenerate a portion of the damaged cell layer. PMID:16639022

  13. Increased polysomy of chromosome 7 in bronchial epithelium from patients at high risk for lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belinsky, S.A.; Neft, R.E.; Lechner, J.F. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Current models of carcinogenesis suggest that tissues progress through multiple genetic and epigenetic changes which ultimately lead to development of invasive cancer. Epidemiologic studies of Peto, R.R. and J.A. Doll indicate that the accumulation of these genetic changes over time, rather than any single unique genetic change, is probably responsible for development of the malignant phenotype. The bronchial epithelium of cigarette smokers is diffusely exposed to a broad spectrum of carcinogens, toxicants, and tumor promoters contained in tobacco smoke. This exposure increases the risk of developing multiple, independent premalignant foci throughout the lower respiratory tract that may contain independent gene aberrations. This {open_quotes}field cancerization{close_quotes} theory is supported by studies that have demonstrated progressive histologic changes distributed throughout the lower respiratory tract of smokers. A series of autopsy studies demonstrated that cigarette smokers exhibit premalignant histologic changes ranging from hyperplasia and metaplasia to severe dysplasia and carcinoma in situ diffusely throughout the bronchial mucosa. The proximal bronchi appear to exhibit the greatest number of changes, particularly at bifurcations. The results described are the first to quantitate the frequency for a chromosome aberration in {open_quotes}normal{close_quotes} bronchial epithelial cells.

  14. Radicular Cyst: An Update of the Biological Factors Related to Lining Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Lisiane; Visioli, Fernanda; Nör, Carolina; Rados, Pantelis Varvaki

    2015-12-01

    Radicular cysts are common lesions in daily dentistry practice. However, the mechanisms related to epithelial lining formation and cavity growth are not fully understood. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to review the biological factors implicated in these process. Literature was selected through a search of PubMed electronic databases matching the following key words in the title or abstract: "cyst" OR "granuloma" OR "abscess" AND "radicular" OR "apical" OR "periapical" AND "epithelium" OR "epithelial" OR "epithelial lining." The PubMed database was searched for articles published between 1975 and 2014. Only English language was applied to the search. The literature search yielded a total of 187 articles. After duplicate references were discarded, a subsequent search at the title and abstract level revealed 42 articles for full-text reading. The articles were categorized into 5 main subtopics: (1) cell proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis; (2) extracellular matrix constituents; (3) inflammatory components; (4) bone metabolic factors and; (5) others. These subtopics described the characteristics of radicular cysts focusing on the epithelial tissue effects. Several factors from different sources (epithelial cells, stromal cells, extracellular matrix, and bone matrix) were implicated on apical cyst pathogenesis. Probably a combination of many factors involving an epithelial-stromal interaction is responsible for the sustenance and growth of apical cysts. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Classification of inflammatory bowel diseases by means of Raman spectroscopic imaging of epithelium cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielecki, Christiane; Bocklitz, Thomas W.; Schmitt, Michael; Krafft, Christoph; Marquardt, Claudio; Gharbi, Akram; Knösel, Thomas; Stallmach, Andreas; Popp, Juergen

    2012-07-01

    We report on a Raman microspectroscopic characterization of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Therefore, Raman maps of human colon tissue sections were analyzed by utilizing innovative chemometric approaches. First, support vector machines were applied to highlight the tissue morphology (=Raman spectroscopic histopathology). In a second step, the biochemical tissue composition has been studied by analyzing the epithelium Raman spectra of sections of healthy control subjects (n=11), subjects with CD (n=14), and subjects with UC (n=13). These three groups exhibit significantly different molecular specific Raman signatures, allowing establishment of a classifier (support-vector-machine). By utilizing this classifier it was possible to separate between healthy control patients, patients with CD, and patients with UC with an accuracy of 98.90%. The automatic design of both classification steps (visualization of the tissue morphology and molecular classification of IBD) paves the way for an objective clinical diagnosis of IBD by means of Raman spectroscopy in combination with chemometric approaches.

  16. Evaluation of Executive Functions in Patients With Childhood Absence Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencpinar, Pinar; Kalay, Zuhal; Turgut, Sevil; Bozkurt, Öznur; Duman, Özgür; Ozel, Deniz; Haspolat, Senay

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the executive function of patients with typical absence epilepsy. Thirty-eight (19 healthy children and 19 patients) individuals were enrolled in this study. Neurocognitive function tests, such as the Serial Digit Learning Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Visual Aural Digit Span Test-Form B, KAS-Animal Test, Trail Making Test-A Time Test, and STROOP Test, were given to all of the participants. There was a significant difference between the groups on the Serial Digit Learning Test (P = .037) and on a subtest of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. As for the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance, there were significant differences in perseverative errors and perseverative responses between the patient and control groups (P = .011 and P = .010, respectively). Long-term risk for learning impairments, failure in executive abilities, and short-term memory and attention disorders can occur in children with absence epilepsy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Congenital Absence of a Teat in a Japanese Black Heifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elshabrawy Ghanem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of Japanese Black heifer with a congenital absence of teat (athelia was observed at Highashi-Hiroshima Agricultural High School, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. The heifer was born after transfer of embryo from Japanese Black cattle. The sire of the heifer was a proven Japanese Black. The birth weight of the heifer was 27 kg. On physical examination of the heifer at 21 months after birth, the teat at fore left was absent and the remaining three teats were normal in shape without any physical abnormalities. Per rectal palpation of the genital organs revealed the normal cervix and uterine horns. It was difficult to palpate the ovaries due to the fat around the organs. Blood samples were taken for cytogenetic and DNA testing. The heifer had normal chromosomal set. The heifer was culled due to its mammary abnormality. This might be the first to report a case of congenital absence of a teat in Japanese Black heifers.

  18. [Studies of a full night's sleep in patients with absences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, L; Wässer, S

    1979-01-01

    Clinical electro-encephalography and especially the simultaneous recording of EEG values and other physiological parameters can greatly contribute to investigations into the neurophysiological aspects of sleep disturbances in patients suffering from attacks. In the case of absences peak potentials have been found in all phases of sleep, with a reduction in the pattern-like arrangement of the peak potentials and an increase in the irregular spike-and-wave complexes. During the dream phase, however, the peak potentials of these patients were primarily in the form of "patterns" comparable to the situation when they were awake. This evidence of epileptic activity throughout all sleep phases of patients suffering from absences makes it necessary to give anticonvulsive drugs in three doses distributed evenly over the entire day.

  19. Neurogenesis in the vomeronasal epithelium of adult garter snakes: 3. Use of 3H-thymidine autoradiography to trace the genesis and migration of bipolar neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, R.T.; Halpern, M.

    1988-01-01

    Use of 3H-thymidine autoradiography and unilateral vomeronasal (VN) axotomy has permitted us to demonstrate directly the existence of VN stem cells in the adult garter snake and to trace continuous bipolar neuron development and migration in the normal VN and deafferentated VN epithelium in the same animal. The vomeronasal epithelium and olfactory epithelium of adult garter snakes are both capable of incorporating 3H-thymidine. In the sensory epithelium of the vomeronasal organ, 3H-thymidine-labeled cells were initially restricted to the base of the undifferentiated cell layer in animals surviving 1 day following 3H-thymidine injection. With increasing survival time, labeled cells progressively migrated vertically within the receptor cell column toward the apex of the bipolar neuron layer. In both the normal and denervated VN epithelium, labeled cells were observed through the 56 days of postoperative survival. In the normal epithelium, labeled cells were always located within the matrix of the intact receptor cell columns. However, labeled cells of the denervated epithelium were always located at the apical front of the newly formed cell mass following depletion of the original neuronal cell population. In addition, at postoperative days 28 and 56, labeled cells of the denervated VN epithelium achieved neuronal differentiation and maturation by migrating much farther away from the base of the receptor cell column than the labeled cells on the normal, unoperated contralateral side. This study directly demonstrates that basal cells initially incorporating 3H-thymidine are indeed stem cells of the VN epithelium in adult garter snakes

  20. Childhood Absence Epilepsy Successfully Treated with the Paleolithic Ketogenic Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens, Zs?fia; Kelemen, Anna; Fogarasi, Andr?s; T?th, Csaba

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Childhood absence epilepsy is an epilepsy syndrome responding relatively well to the ketogenic diet with one-third of patients becoming seizure-free. Less restrictive variants of the classical ketogenic diet, however, have been shown to confer similar benefits. Beneficial effects of high fat, low-carbohydrate diets are often explained in evolutionary terms. However, the paleolithic diet itself which advocates a return to the human evolutionary diet has not yet been studied in epi...