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Sample records for tracheal organ cultures

  1. Avian metapneumovirus infection of chicken and turkey tracheal organ cultures: comparison of virus-host interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Sandra; Sid, Hicham; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2015-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is a pathogen with worldwide distribution, which can cause high economic losses in infected poultry. aMPV mainly causes infection of the upper respiratory tract in both chickens and turkeys, although turkeys seem to be more susceptible. Little is known about virus-host interactions at epithelial surfaces after aMPV infection. Tracheal organ cultures (TOC) are a suitable model to investigate virus-host interaction in the respiratory epithelium. Therefore, we investigated virus replication rates and lesion development in chicken and turkey TOC after infection with a virulent aMPV subtype A strain. Aspects of the innate immune response, such as interferon-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA expression, as well as virus-induced apoptosis were determined. The aMPV-replication rate was higher in turkey (TTOC) compared to chicken TOC (CTOC) (P < 0.05), providing circumstantial evidence that indeed turkeys may be more susceptible. The interferon-α response was down-regulated from 2 to 144 hours post infection in both species compared to virus-free controls (P < 0.05); this was more significant for CTOC than TTOC. Inducible nitric oxide synthase expression was significantly up-regulated in aMPV-A-infected TTOC and CTOC compared to virus-free controls (P < 0.05). However, the results suggest that NO may play a different role in aMPV pathogenesis between turkeys and chickens as indicated by differences in apoptosis rate and lesion development between species. Overall, our study reveals differences in innate immune response regulation and therefore may explain differences in aMPV - A replication rates between infected TTOC and CTOC, which subsequently lead to more severe clinical signs and a higher rate of secondary infections in turkeys.

  2. Effects of all-trans retinol and cigarette smoke condensate on hamster tracheal epithelium in organ culture. I. A cell proliferation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, A.A.J.J.L.; Wilmer, J.W.G.M.; Beems, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) and all-trans retinol on the cell proliferative activity of vitamin A-deprived hamster tracheal epithelium have been studied in vitamin A-deficient, serum-free, hormone-supplemented medium in organ culture. In the absence of retinol, CSC induced a

  3. Replication and adaptive mutations of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in tracheal organ cultures of different avian species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Petersen

    Full Text Available Transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIV between different avian species may require genome mutations that allow efficient virus replication in a new species and could increase virulence. To study the role of domestic poultry in the evolution of AIV we compared replication of low pathogenic (LP AIV of subtypes H9N2, H7N7 and H6N8 in tracheal organ cultures (TOC and primary embryo fibroblast cultures of chicken, turkey, Pekin duck and homing pigeon. Virus strain-dependent and avian species-related differences between LPAIV were observed in growth kinetics and induction of ciliostasis in TOC. In particular, our data demonstrate high susceptibility to LPAIV of turkey TOC contrasted with low susceptibility of homing pigeon TOC. Serial virus passages in the cells of heterologous host species resulted in adaptive mutations in the AIV genome, especially in the receptor-binding site and protease cleavage site of the hemagglutinin. Our data highlight differences in susceptibility of different birds to AIV viruses and emphasizes potential role of poultry in the emergence of new virus variants.

  4. Ciliated cells in vitamin A-deprived cultured hamster tracheal epithelium do divide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutten, A.A.; Beems, R.B.; Wilmer, J.W.; Feron, V.J.

    1988-01-01

    The pseudostratified tracheal epithelium, composed of a heterogeneous phenotypically varying cell population, was studied with respect to the in vitro cell proliferative activity of differentiated epithelial cells. Ciliated tracheal epithelial cells so far have been considered to be terminally differentiated, nonproliferating cells. Tracheal organ cultures obtained from vitamin A-deprived Syrian Golden hamsters were cultured in a vitamin A-deficient, serum-free, hormone-supplemented medium. In vitamin A-deprived tracheal epithelium treated with physiologically active all-trans retinol and low cigarette-smoke condensate concentrations it is possible to stimulate the cell proliferation of both basal and columnar cells. Therefore, the probability of finding proliferating columnar cells was increased compared with the in vivo and the vitamin A-deprived situation in which cell proliferative activity is relatively low. In the presence of cigarette-smoke condensate in a noncytotoxic concentration, basal, small mucous granule, ciliated, and indifferent tracheal epithelial cells incorporated [methyl-3H]-thymidine into the DNA during the S phase. The finding that ciliated cells were labeled was supported by serial sections showing the same labeled ciliated cell in two section planes separated by 2 to 3 micron, without labeled epithelial cells next to the ciliated cell. Furthermore, a ciliated tracheal epithelial cell incorporating [methyl- 3 H]thymidine into DNA was also seen in tracheal cultures of vitamin A-deprived hamsters treated with all-trans retinol in a physiologic concentration

  5. An ovine tracheal explant culture model for allergic airway inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeynaike Latasha

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The airway epithelium is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthmatic disease. However, much of our understanding of airway epithelial cell function in asthma has been derived from in vitro studies that may not accurately reflect the interactive cellular and molecular pathways active between different tissue constituents in vivo. Methods Using a sheep model of allergic asthma, tracheal explants from normal sheep and allergic sheep exposed to house dust mite (HDM allergen were established to investigate airway mucosal responses ex vivo. Explants were cultured for up to 48 h and tissues were stained to identify apoptotic cells, goblet cells, mast cells and eosinophils. The release of cytokines (IL-1α, IL-6 and TNF-α by cultured tracheal explants, was assessed by ELISA. Results The general morphology and epithelial structure of the tracheal explants was well maintained in culture although evidence of advanced apoptosis within the mucosal layer was noted after culture for 48 h. The number of alcian blue/PAS positive mucus-secreting cells within the epithelial layer was reduced in all cultured explants compared with pre-cultured (0 h explants, but the loss of staining was most evident in allergic tissues. Mast cell and eosinophil numbers were elevated in the allergic tracheal tissues compared to naïve controls, and in the allergic tissues there was a significant decline in mast cells after 24 h culture in the presence or absence of HDM allergen. IL-6 was released by allergic tracheal explants in culture but was undetected in cultured control explants. Conclusions Sheep tracheal explants maintain characteristics of the airway mucosa that may not be replicated when studying isolated cell populations in vitro. There were key differences identified in explants from allergic compared to control airways and in their responses in culture for 24 h. Importantly, this study establishes the potential for the

  6. Bradykinin B2 receptor-mediated phosphoinositide hydrolysis in bovine cultured tracheal smooth muscle cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, K. A.; Hill, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    1. Bovine tracheal smooth muscle cells were established in culture to study agonist-induced phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis in this tissue. 2. Bradykinin (0.1 nM-10 microM) evoked a concentration-dependent increase (log EC50 (M) = -9.4 +/- 0.2; n = 8) in the accumulation of total [3H]-inositol phosphates in cultured tracheal smooth muscle cells whereas the selective B1 receptor agonist des-Arg9-bradykinin (10 microM) was significantly less effective (16% of bradykinin maximal response; relat...

  7. Dose response of tracheal epithelial cells to ionizing radiation in air-liquid interface cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukutsu, K.; Yamada, Y.; Shimo, M.

    2002-01-01

    The dose-response relationships of tracheal epithelial cells to ionizing radiation was examined in air-liquid interface cultures, which were developed for the purpose of simulating in vivo conditions. The cultures investigated in this study were expected to be advantageous for the performance of irradiation experiments using short-range α rays. The level of dose response of air-liquid interface cultures to ionizing radiation proved to be the same as that for in vivo conditions. This result indicates that air-liquid interface cultures will prove most useful, to facilitate future studies for the investigation of the biological effects induced in tracheal epithelial cells by ionizing radiation, especially by α-rays. (orig.)

  8. Drosophila convoluted/dALS is an essential gene required for tracheal tube morphogenesis and apical matrix organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Lianna E; Yu, Marcus; Nelson, Kevin S; Laprise, Patrick; Tepass, Ulrich; Beitel, Greg J

    2009-04-01

    Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) control cell and organism growth through evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways. The mammalian acid-labile subunit (ALS) is a secreted protein that complexes with IGFs to modulate their activity. Recent work has shown that a Drosophila homolog of ALS, dALS, can also complex with and modulate the activity of a Drosophila IGF. Here we report the first mutations in the gene encoding dALS. Unexpectedly, we find that these mutations are allelic to a previously described mutation in convoluted (conv), a gene required for epithelial morphogenesis. In conv mutants, the tubes of the Drosophila tracheal system become abnormally elongated without altering tracheal cell number. conv null mutations cause larval lethality, but do not disrupt several processes required for tracheal tube size control, including septate junction formation, deposition of a lumenal/apical extracellular matrix, and lumenal secretion of Vermiform and Serpentine, two putative matrix-modifying proteins. Clearance of lumenal matrix and subcellular localization of clathrin also appear normal in conv mutants. However, we show that Conv/dALS is required for the dynamic organization of the transient lumenal matrix and normal structure of the cuticle that lines the tracheal lumen. These and other data suggest that the Conv/dALS-dependent tube size control mechanism is distinct from other known processes involved in tracheal tube size regulation. Moreover, we present evidence indicating that Conv/dALS has a novel, IGF-signaling independent function in tracheal morphogenesis.

  9. Alpha-particles induce preneoplastic transformation of rat tracheal epithelial cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassen, D.G.; Seiler, F.A.; Shyr, L.-J.; Griffith, W.C.

    1990-01-01

    To characterize the potential role of high-l.e.t. radiation in respiratory carcinogenesis, the cytotoxic and transforming potency of 5.5 MeV α-particles from electroplated sources of 238 Pu were determined using primary cultures of rat tracheal epithelial cells. RBE for cell killing by α-particles versus X-rays varied with dose, and ranged between 4 and 1.5 for α doses in the range 0.2-4 Gy. At equally toxic doses (relative survival 0.18-0.2), all three agents induced similar frequencies of preneoplastic transformation. For preneoplastic transformation induced by doses of α- and X-radiations giving 80 per cent toxicity, an α RBE of 2.4 was derived. The similar RBEs for cell killing and for preneoplastic transformation suggest an association between the type or degree of radiation-induced damage responsible for both cell killing and cell transformation. (author)

  10. Organizations, projects and culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Cleeff; Pieter van Nispen tot Pannerden

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: to explore and demonstrate the effects of organizational culture on projects, in particular project culture and project management style. Methodology/approach: descriptive and explorative; through students’ groups. Findings: the cultural relationship between organizations, their projects

  11. Changes in responsiveness of rat tracheal epithelial cells to growth factors during preneoplastic transformation in cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassen, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    Preneoplastic rat tracheal epithelial (RTE) cell lines require fewer growth factors for clonal proliferation in culture than normal cells. Serum-free media missing various combinations of growth factors (e.g., cholera toxin, serum albumin, epidermal growth factor, hydrocortisone) required for proliferation of normal, but not preneoplastic, RTE cells can be used to select for carcinogen-induced preneoplastic variants having an increased proliferative potential in culture. These results suggest that reductions in growth factor requirements are primary events in the carcinogenic process. (author)

  12. DIAGNOSIS OF CULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS

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    ALBU MĂDĂLINA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cultural institution management is to direct the organization to a specific cultural profile purpose, namely production values esthetic sense, artistic, moral, spiritual, distribution, promotion of these values, protection and circulation of cultural heritage. In this regard, an analysis in the diagnosis cultural organizations aims to determine the main strengths and weaknesses, assess the potential and making recommendations focused on the root causes of failures and positive aspects. This paper presents considerations diligence activity Culture House "IL Caragiale "in Ploiesti. The mission of this organization is to contribute to the cultural development of the community by initiating projects and cultural programs, offer development programs and services to meet cultural needs, increase public access to diverse cultural life, providing a constant presence institution circuit local, national, European and international level. Conclusions drawn from the analysis shows that in a world of economic globalization, information and culture in a company in constant change, in a competitive market where there is information readily available means and leisure, but not cultural consistency in a social environment where interest in culture of people is declining, the situation of the population is impaired, the remuneration of staff working in the field of cultural education is demotivating, the funds allocated to culture have grown lately effectively lead a cultural institution is a challenge.

  13. Tracheal web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legasto, A.C.; Haller, J.O.; Giusti, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    Congenital tracheal web is a rare entity often misdiagnosed as refractory asthma. Clinical suspicion based on patient history, examination, and pulmonary function tests should lead to its consideration. Bronchoscopy combined with CT imaging and multiplanar reconstruction is an accepted, highly sensitive means of diagnosis. (orig.)

  14. Notochord manipulation does not impact oesophageal and tracheal formation from isolated foregut in 3D explant culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Laughlin, Danielle; Murphy, Paula; Puri, Prem

    2016-01-01

    Tracheo-oesophageal malformations result from disturbed foregut separation during early development. The notochord, a specialised embryonic structure, forms immediately adjacent to the dividing foregut. In the Adriamycin mouse model of oesophageal atresia, foregut and notochord abnormalities co-exist, and the site and severity of foregut malformations closely correlate to the position and extent of the notochord defects. Notochord and foregut abnormalities also co-exist in the Noggin Knockout mouse as well in a small number of human cases. The notochord is a source of powerful molecular signals during early embryogenesis, being particularly important for neural crest development. The influence of notochord signaling on the adjacent foregut is not known. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of notochord manipulation on foregut separation using a robust 3D explant method for culturing isolated foregut which permits oeosphageal and tracheal formation in vitro. Foregut was micro-dissected from embryonic day 9 mice (License B100/4447 Irish Medicines Board), embedded in collagen and cultured for 48 h with native notochord intact (n = 6), notochord removed (n = 10) or additional notochord transplanted from stage matched controls (n = 8). Specimens were analysed for foregut morphology and molecular patterning using immunohistochemistry for Hnf3b (an endoderm marker) and Sox2 (a notochord and oesophageal marker) on cryosections. Foregut separation into distinct oesophagus and trachea was observed in isolated foregut specimens with or without their native notochord. In specimens with additional notochord transplants, foregut morphology and molecular patterning were comparable to controls whether or not the native notochord was maintained. In particular foregut separation was not disrupted by the transplantation of additional notochord at the dorsal foregut endoderm. The relationship between the embryonic foregut and notochord is complex and ill

  15. Tropism and Infectivity of Influenza Virus, Including Highly Pathogenic Avian H5N1 Virus, in Ferret Tracheal Differentiated Primary Epithelial Cell Cultures

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    Zeng, Hui; Goldsmith, Cynthia S.; Maines, Taronna R.; Belser, Jessica A.; Gustin, Kortney M.; Pekosz, Andrew; Zaki, Sherif R.; Katz, Jacqueline M.

    2013-01-01

    Tropism and adaptation of influenza viruses to new hosts is partly dependent on the distribution of the sialic acid (SA) receptors to which the viral hemagglutinin (HA) binds. Ferrets have been established as a valuable in vivo model of influenza virus pathogenesis and transmission because of similarities to humans in the distribution of HA receptors and in clinical signs of infection. In this study, we developed a ferret tracheal differentiated primary epithelial cell culture model that consisted of a layered epithelium structure with ciliated and nonciliated cells on its apical surface. We found that human-like (α2,6-linked) receptors predominated on ciliated cells, whereas avian-like (α2,3-linked) receptors, which were less abundant, were presented on nonciliated cells. When we compared the tropism and infectivity of three human (H1 and H3) and two avian (H1 and H5) influenza viruses, we observed that the human influenza viruses primarily infected ciliated cells and replicated efficiently, whereas a highly pathogenic avian H5N1 virus (A/Vietnam/1203/2004) replicated efficiently within nonciliated cells despite a low initial infection rate. Furthermore, compared to other influenza viruses tested, VN/1203 virus replicated more efficiently in cells isolated from the lower trachea and at a higher temperature (37°C) compared to a lower temperature (33°C). VN/1203 virus infection also induced higher levels of immune mediator genes and cell death, and virus was recovered from the basolateral side of the cell monolayer. This ferret tracheal differentiated primary epithelial cell culture system provides a valuable in vitro model for studying cellular tropism, infectivity, and the pathogenesis of influenza viruses. PMID:23255802

  16. CT of tracheal agenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strouse, Peter J.; Hernandez, Ramiro J.; Newman, Beverley

    2006-01-01

    Tracheal agenesis is a rare and usually lethal anomaly. In the past, opaque contrast medium was injected via the esophagus to demonstrate the anatomy. To demonstrate the utility of helical and multidetector CT in delineating the aberrant anatomy in newborns with tracheal agenesis. Four newborns with tracheal agenesis were identified from three institutions. Imaging studies and medical records were reviewed. Each child was imaged with chest radiography. One child was imaged on a single-detector helical CT scanner and the other three on multidetector scanners. Helical and multidetector CT with 2D and 3D reconstructions clearly delineated the aberrant tracheobronchial and esophageal anatomy in each infant. Minimum intensity projection reformatted CT images were particularly helpful. One infant each had type I and type II tracheal agenesis. Two infants had type III tracheal agenesis. All four infants died. CT is a useful tool for delineating the aberrant anatomy of newborns with tracheal agenesis and thus helps in making rational clinical decisions. (orig.)

  17. Iatrogenic tracheal tear.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dias, A

    2010-10-01

    Large post intubation tracheal tears are usually detected intra-operatively due to unstable signs namely impaired ventilation and mediastinal emphysema and often require surgical management. Smaller tracheal tears are often missed during anaesthesia and recognized during the postoperative period. Conservative management should be considered in these latter cases.

  18. Tracheal collapse in two cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, J.C.; O'Brien, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Two cats examined bronchoscopically to discover the cause of tracheal collapse were found to have tracheal obstruction cranial to the collapse. Cats with this unusual sign should be examined bronchoscopically to ascertain whether there is an obstruction, as the cause in these 2 cats was distinct from the diffuse airway abnormality that causes tracheal collapse in dogs

  19. Primary tracheal adenocystic carcinoma and tracheal tumors during pregnancy

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    Cem Gundogdu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cancer complicates approximately 0.1% of all pregnancies. Primary tracheal carcinoma is one of very rarely seen tumors and the rate of its being seen makes up approximately % 0,2 of all tumors of respiratory tract. The patient, 28 years old, who has 28-weeks-pregnant, was diagnosed with primary tracheal adenocystic carcinoma. Patient was made operation as thoracotomy and tracheal tumor was removed at the 28th week of pregnancy. Patient was delivered with sectio abdominale at the 39th week of pregnancy. Primary tracheal adenocystic carcinoma is very rarely seen tumors and it is the first tracheal ACC with pregnancy case in literature to have been detected and surgically treated during pregnancy. We discussed primary tracheal adenocystic carcinoma and tracheal tumors during pregnancy with literature.

  20. Culture: The Missing Concept in Organization Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Edgar H.

    1996-01-01

    Inattention to social systems in organizations has led researchers to underestimate the importance of culture--shared norms, values, and assumptions--in how organizations function. The failure of organizational learning can be understood by examining typical responses to change by members of several broad occupational cultures (operators,…

  1. Organizing Cultural Projects Through Legitimising as Cultural Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindkvist, Lars; Hjorth, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This paper is a study of creating organization in the case of cultural projects; cultural entrepreneurship. This includes taking advantage of opportunities and using ones social capital through networks. It is a case study of Vandalorum which is an Swedish international art- and design...... and Design Centre. Findings The case of Vandalorum shows that organizing a cultural project like Vandalorum is characterized by no well-defined starting and stopping point, but – quite typically for entrepreneurship as an organization-creation process – builds momentum and legitimacy narratively. Originality...

  2. Implantation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Tracheal Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Masakazu; Imaizumi, Mitsuyoshi; Yoshie, Susumu; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Otsuki, Koshi; Murono, Shigeyuki; Omori, Koichi

    2017-07-01

    Compared with using autologous tissue, the use of artificial materials in the regeneration of tracheal defects is minimally invasive. However, this technique requires early epithelialization on the inner side of the artificial trachea. After differentiation from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), tracheal epithelial tissues may be used to produce artificial tracheas. Herein, we aimed to demonstrate that after differentiation from fluorescent protein-labeled iPSCs, tracheal epithelial tissues survived in nude rats with tracheal defects. Red fluorescent tdTomato protein was electroporated into mouse iPSCs to produce tdTomato-labeled iPSCs. Embryoid bodies derived from these iPSCs were then cultured in differentiation medium supplemented with growth factors, followed by culture on air-liquid interfaces for further differentiation into tracheal epithelium. The cells were implanted with artificial tracheas into nude rats with tracheal defects on day 26 of cultivation. On day 7 after implantation, the tracheas were exposed and examined histologically. Tracheal epithelial tissue derived from tdTomato-labeled iPSCs survived in the tracheal defects. Moreover, immunochemical analyses showed that differentiated tissues had epithelial structures similar to those of proximal tracheal tissues. After differentiation from iPSCs, tracheal epithelial tissues survived in rat bodies, warranting the use of iPSCs for epithelial regeneration in tracheal defects.

  3. Safety Cultural Competency Modeling in Nuclear Organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sa Kil; Oh, Yeon Ju; Luo, Meiling; Lee, Yong Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The nuclear safety cultural competency model should be supplemented through a bottom-up approach such as behavioral event interview. The developed model, however, is meaningful for determining what should be dealt for enhancing safety cultural competency of nuclear organizations. The more details of the developing process, results, and applications will be introduced later. Organizational culture include safety culture in terms of its organizational characteristics.

  4. A Comfortable Solution To Tracheal Anastomosis Protection: Tracheal Retention Sutures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapolat, Sami; Turkyilmaz, Atila; Seyis, Kubra Nur; Tekinbas, Celal

    2018-04-01

    Fixation of the chin to the anterior chest wall is the most commonly used method of reducing anastomotic tension following a segmental resection of the trachea and reconstruction with primary anastomosis. However, the sutures required for this method may lead to various organic and psychological problems. In five patients who underwent tracheal resection and primary anastomosis, retention sutures were placed on the proximal and distal-lateral edges of the anastomotic line rather than placing a Guardian chin stitch. All patients were mobilised in the early postoperative period and were able to perform their routine daily activities without restrictions. During their average 14.4 months of follow-up, no complications were found in their anastomotic lines during their clinical, radiological, and bronchoscopic assessments. The placement of tracheal retention sutures proved an inexpensive and reliable method to reduce anastomotic tension without additional surgical burden, and was effective in terms of patient comfort. Copyright © 2017 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. INTERPRETATION OF CULTURAL PROFILES OF MODERN ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Shopov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The needs of the real management practice of theoretical and applied knowledge, that allows it methodological properly and methodically right to implement appropriate changes in corporate culture and management-specific behavior of the organization, require a study on the highlights in the new company culture and interpretation of cultural profiles. Current paper outlines some of the basic formulations that describe more fully the concept of "culture" and makes clear in the light of the views of leading authors in this field the term "corporate culture". Corporate culture is viewed as a set of values, assumptions, beliefs and norms that are formed over time from the interaction of all members which subsequently perceive them as personal and at the same time as a very powerful factor that determines the individual and group behavior of people in a business organization. The developed organizational culture is a strategic competitive advantage for organizations. The main conclusions of the analysis show that in the research field that arises in the interpretation of cultural profiles, there are opportunities provided for finding technical and methodological solutions that complement and enrich the empirical search on the usability of the strategy aimed at organizational culture. The joint values enrich the culture of labor and management, thus targeting staff, customers and suppliers with established and appropriate time regulations and management style. The goal set assists and guides people in carrying out their duties within the organization.

  6. The cultural organization of attention

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, P.

    2011-01-01

    How new social members are enculturated into the interactional practices of the society they grow up in is crucial to an understanding of social interaction, as well as to an understanding of the role of culture in children's social-cognitive development. Modern theories of infant development (e.g., Bruner 1982, Elman et al 1996, Tomasello 1999, Masataka 2003) emphasize the influence of particular interactional practices in the child's developing communicative skills. But interactional practi...

  7. Radiation response of perfused tracheal sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, J.R.; Maslowski, A.J.; Braby, L.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: A model of respiratory tissue using a perfusion culture system is being developed. We are using this system to quantify the effects of normal tissue architecture and the interaction of epithelial cells with other cell types on radiation-induced bystander effects. Tracheal tissue taken from young adult male Fischer 344 rats is imbedded in a growth factor enriched agarose matrix. The chamber is designed to allow growth medium to periodically wash the epithelial surface of the tracheal lumen while maintaining the air-interface that is necessary for the normal differentiation of the epithelium. In preliminary experiments with rat trachea we have shown that a differentiated epithelial lining can be maintained for several days. Cells can be obtained for a number of different cell culture assays for endpoints such as survival and preneoplastic transformation after irradiation

  8. Cultural foundations of strategic management business organization

    OpenAIRE

    I. B. Atamanenko

    2015-01-01

    In modern sociology understanding of social and cultural factors of strategic activities of market economy is limited and based on perceptions of managerian interaction with organizations to competitive environment. As a result, not enough attention is paid to the cultural and social foundations of the strategy of competition and the staff as an active subject of forming strategic policy organization is excluded out the analysis. In addition, the domestic science understanding of business org...

  9. Cellular distribution and function of ion channels involved in transport processes in rat tracheal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Anne; Faulhaber, Johannes; Srisawang, Lalita; Stortz, Andreas; Salomon, Johanna J; Mall, Marcus A; Frings, Stephan; Möhrlen, Frank

    2017-06-01

    Transport of water and electrolytes in airway epithelia involves chloride-selective ion channels, which are controlled either by cytosolic Ca 2+ or by cAMP The contributions of the two pathways to chloride transport differ among vertebrate species. Because rats are becoming more important as animal model for cystic fibrosis, we have examined how Ca 2+ - dependent and cAMP- dependent Cl - secretion is organized in the rat tracheal epithelium. We examined the expression of the Ca 2+ -gated Cl - channel anoctamin 1 (ANO1), the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl - channel, the epithelial Na + channel ENaC, and the water channel aquaporin 5 (AQP5) in rat tracheal epithelium. The contribution of ANO1 channels to nucleotide-stimulated Cl - secretion was determined using the channel blocker Ani9 in short-circuit current recordings obtained from primary cultures of rat tracheal epithelial cells in Ussing chambers. We found that ANO1, CFTR and AQP5 proteins were expressed in nonciliated cells of the tracheal epithelium, whereas ENaC was expressed in ciliated cells. Among nonciliated cells, ANO1 occurred together with CFTR and Muc5b and, in addition, in a different cell type without CFTR and Muc5b. Bioelectrical studies with the ANO1-blocker Ani9 indicated that ANO1 mediated the secretory response to the nucleotide uridine-5'-triphosphate. Our data demonstrate that, in rat tracheal epithelium, Cl - secretion and Na + absorption are routed through different cell types, and that ANO1 channels form the molecular basis of Ca 2+ -dependent Cl - secretion in this tissue. These characteristic features of Cl - -dependent secretion reveal similarities and distinct differences to secretory processes in human airways. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  10. Evidence that CFTR is expressed in rat tracheal smooth muscle cells and contributes to bronchodilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mettey Yvette

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The airway functions are profoundly affected in many diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and cystic fibrosis (CF. CF the most common lethal autosomal recessive genetic disease is caused by mutations of the CFTR gene, which normally encodes a multifunctional and integral membrane protein, the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR expressed in airway epithelial cells. Methods To demonstrate that CFTR is also expressed in tracheal smooth muscle cells (TSMC, we used iodide efflux assay to analyse the chloride transports in organ culture of rat TSMC, immunofluorescence study to localize CFTR proteins and isometric contraction measurement on isolated tracheal rings to observe the implication of CFTR in the bronchodilation. Results We characterized three different pathways stimulated by the cAMP agonist forskolin and the isoflavone agent genistein, by the calcium ionophore A23187 and by hypo-osmotic challenge. The pharmacology of the cAMP-dependent iodide efflux was investigated in detail. We demonstrated in rat TSMC that it is remarkably similar to that of the epithelial CFTR, both for activation (using three benzo [c]quinolizinium derivatives and for inhibition (glibenclamide, DPC and CFTRinh-172. Using rat tracheal rings, we observed that the activation of CFTR by benzoquinolizinium derivatives in TSMC leads to CFTRinh-172-sensitive bronchodilation after constriction with carbachol. An immunolocalisation study confirmed expression of CFTR in tracheal myocytes. Conclusion Altogether, these observations revealed that CFTR in the airways of rat is expressed not only in the epithelial cells but also in tracheal smooth muscle cells leading to the hypothesis that this ionic channel could contribute to bronchodilation.

  11. Cryopreserved irradiated tracheal homograft reconstruction for subglottic-tracheal stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somyos Kunachak; Yongyudh Vajaradul; Boonchu Kulapaditharom

    1999-01-01

    Subglottic-tracheal stenosis is a common clinical entity. Handling on severe case is often problematic. Various tracheal replacement techniques have been used with varying degree of success and dispute. In this study we worked on cryopreserved irradiated tracheal homograft, of which its use in human has not been reported. The tracheas were harvested from donor cadavers within 24 hours of death in a sterile condition. After 1-2 weeks of preservation at -70 degree C, the grafts were irradiated at 25 kGy, then stored at -70 degree C until used. Four patients, 2 males and 2 females (aged 2-40 years, mean 16 years) with severe subglottic-tracheal stenosis underwent segmental tracheal graft reconstruction using this graft. Immunosuppressant was not given in any patient. The follow up period ranged from 11-1 5 months. Three patients were successfully decapulated, 1 patient developed local infection and dislodgement of intraluminal stent with subsequent restenosis. Postoperative tracheal lumen appeared near normal with histologic evidence of normal respiratory epithelium at the grafted site. In conclusion, cryopreserved irradiated tracheal homograft is a valuable alternative for tracheal transplant or reconstruction, without the need of immunosuppression

  12. Transplanting an organization: how does culture matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munich, Richard L

    2011-01-01

    Cultural differences are often cited as a major obstacle to the successful transition/integration into new situations of organizations. In this contribution, the author details the changing cultural factors impacting the operation and move of the Menninger Clinic from autonomous status to an affiliation with and first year of operation in the Baylor College of Medicine and Methodist Hospital Health Care System. Both functional and dysfunctional consequences are outlined, and specific examples illustrate how the organization's leadership and staff struggled to adapt during this complicated process. Based on the experience within the Clinic, general recommendations for managing such an acculturation are provided.

  13. Culture and psychology in organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daar, A S; Marshall, P

    1998-01-01

    The cultural and psychological dimensions of organ transplantation are often overlooked in the process of meeting its exacting technical requirements. This new branch of medicine has brought with it new ways of understanding death, human rights, commerce, gift giving, and ethics. It produces strong emotions in recipients, donors and transplanters alike. These factors need to be taken fully into consideration if organ transplantation is to evolve in ways that are felt to be beneficial for all concerned.

  14. Culture and creativity in organizations and societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    If you want to learn about how leadership and culture jointly influence creativity in organizations and societies, this book provides you with the insight you are looking for. The authors have presented and applied concepts such as "value innovation", creative intelligence", "disciplined creativity......", and "creative leadership" to describe skills that leaders need to be able to facilitate organizational and societal development....

  15. Organizing Construction Practices in Different Cultural Contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian; Rasmussen, Christian K. S.

    2013-01-01

    a number of characteristics and challenges related to the cultural context have been identified highlighting a central issue in existing and future construction practices due to the globalization and thereby increasing importance of cultural understanding in project-based organizing. The empirical findings......This paper presents in-depth case studies of construction practices with a specific focus on understanding the emergent and dynamic nature of construction management in different cultural contexts. The cases are based on actual working-experiences by the author as an assistant project manager...... participating in the construction management on site working for three different contractors in different cultural contexts: (1) Construir Futuro S.A. in Quito, Ecuador; (2) Anker Hansen & co. A/S in Copenhagen, Denmark; and (3) E. Pihl & Soen A/S in Stockholm, Sweden. Based on these explorative case studies...

  16. Fertilizers applied to certified organic tomato culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, T.C.G.; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.; Ferrari, A.A.; Bacchi, M.A.; Tagliaferro, F.S.

    2010-01-01

    The tomato culture demands large quantities of mineral nutrients, which are supplied by synthetic fertilizers in the conventional cultivation system. In the organic cultivation system only alternative fertilizers are allowed by the certifiers and accepted as safe for humans and environment. The chemical composition of rice bran, oyster flour, cattle manure and ground charcoal, as well as soils and tomato fruits were evaluated by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The potential contribution of organic fertilizers to the enrichment of chemical elements in soil and their transfer to fruits was investigated using concentration ratios for fertilizer and soil samples, and also for soil and tomato. Results evidenced that these alternative fertilizers could be taken as important sources of Br, Ca, Ce, K, Na and Zn for the organic tomato culture. (author)

  17. Static end-expiratory and dynamic forced expiratory tracheal collapse in COPD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, C.R.; Bankier, A.A.; O'Donnell, D.H.; Loring, S.H.; Boiselle, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine the range of tracheal collapse at end-expiration among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and to compare the extent of tracheal collapse between static end-expiratory and dynamic forced-expiratory multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT). Materials and methods: After institutional review board approval and obtaining informed consent, 67 patients meeting the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)/World Health Organization (WHO) Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria for COPD were sequentially imaged using a 64-detector-row CT machine at end-inspiration, during forced expiration, and at end-expiration. Standardized respiratory coaching and spirometric monitoring were employed. Mean percentage tracheal collapse at end-expiration and forced expiration were compared using correlation analysis, and the power of end-expiratory cross-sectional area to predict excessive forced-expiratory tracheal collapse was computed following construction of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results: Mean percentage expiratory collapse among COPD patients was 17 ± 18% at end-expiration compared to 62 ± 16% during forced expiration. Over the observed range of end-expiratory tracheal collapse (approximately 10–50%), the positive predictive value of end-expiratory collapse to predict excessive (≥80%) forced expiratory tracheal collapse was <0.3. Conclusion: COPD patients demonstrate a wide range of end-expiratory tracheal collapse. The magnitude of static end-expiratory tracheal collapse does not predict excessive dynamic expiratory tracheal collapse

  18. Main components of the corporative image of cultural organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Ramis Carrasco, María; Pérez Cabañero, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    [EN] In the present research, we carry out an analysis of the corporate image of a cultural organization which aims tohighlight its role in order to design management strategies in the cultural field. We investigate what particular attributes are better assessed by the public and which dimensions compose the corporate image of a cultural organization. Based on the literature review, we made an in-depth interview to the programming manager of a cultural organization...

  19. In vitro culturing of porcine tracheal mucosa as an ideal model for investigating the influence of drugs on human respiratory mucosa

    OpenAIRE

    Stennert, Eberhard; Siefer, Oliver; Zheng, Meihua; Walger, Martin; Mickenhagen, Axel

    2008-01-01

    It has been previously shown that fresh mucosa from different mammals could serve as raw material for in vitro culturing with the differentiation of cilia, which are the most important morphological structures for the function of the mucociliary system. Increasing legal restrictions on the removal of human tissue and changing surgical techniques have led to a lack of fresh human mucosa for culturing. Most of the animals that have been used as donors up to now are genetically not very close to...

  20. Tracheal quadrifurcation associated with congenital heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, Venkatraman; Gadabanahalli, Karthik; Ahmad, Ozaire [Narayana Multispeciality Hospital and Mazumdar Shaw Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Bangalore (India)

    2015-08-15

    Tracheal anomalies are known in association with congenital cardiac defects. Some of the well-described anomalies include accessory (displaced) tracheal bronchus with variants, tracheal trifurcation and accessory cardiac bronchus. Here we describe a case of tracheal quadrifurcation associated with complex congenital heart disease. Illustration of complex airway anatomy was simplified by the use of multidetector CT using a variety of image display options. Awareness of this complex anomaly will expand our knowledge of tracheal anomalies and equip the anesthesia and surgical team for better airway management. (orig.)

  1. A framework for cultural competence in health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Richard J; Guo, Kristina L

    2011-01-01

    Increased racial and ethnic diversity in the United States brings challenges and opportunities for health care organizations to provide culturally competent services that effectively meet the needs of diverse populations. The need to provide more culturally competent care is essential to reducing and eliminating health disparities among minorities. By removing barriers to cultural competence and placing a stronger emphasis on culture in health care, health care organizations will be better able to address the unique health care needs of minorities. Organizations should assess cultural differences, gain greater cultural knowledge, and provide cultural competence training to deliver high-quality services. This article develops a framework to guide health care organizations as they focus on establishing culturally competent strategies and implementing best practices aimed to improve quality of care and achieve better outcomes for minority populations.

  2. In vitro culturing of porcine tracheal mucosa as an ideal model for investigating the influence of drugs on human respiratory mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stennert, Eberhard; Siefer, Oliver; Zheng, Meihua; Walger, Martin; Mickenhagen, Axel

    2008-09-01

    It has been previously shown that fresh mucosa from different mammals could serve as raw material for in vitro culturing with the differentiation of cilia, which are the most important morphological structures for the function of the mucociliary system. Increasing legal restrictions on the removal of human tissue and changing surgical techniques have led to a lack of fresh human mucosa for culturing. Most of the animals that have been used as donors up to now are genetically not very close to human beings and must all be sacrificed for such studies. We, therefore, established a modified system of culturing mucosa cells from the trachea of pigs, which is available as a regular by-product after slaughtering. With respect to the possibility of developing "beating" cilia, it could be shown that the speed of cell proliferation until adhesion to the coated culture dishes, the formation of conjunctions of cell clusters and the proliferation of cilia were comparable for porcine and human mucosa. Moreover, it could be demonstrated that the porcine cilia beat frequency of 7.57 +/- 1.39 Hz was comparable to the human mucosa cells beat frequency of 7.3 +/- 1.4 Hz and that this beat frequency was absolutely constant over the investigation time of 360 min. In order to prove whether the reaction to different drugs is comparable between the porcine and human cilia, we initially tested benzalkonium chloride, which is known to be toxic for human cells, followed by naphazoline, which we found in previous studies on human mucosa to be non-toxic. The results clearly showed that the functional and morphological reactions of the porcine ciliated cells to these substances were similar to the reaction we found in the in vitro cultured human mucosa.

  3. The fit between national culture, organizing and managing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Mikael

    2006-01-01

    We hypothesize a fit betwen national cultural environment of the organization and contingency variables subject to managerial discretion. Such a hypothesis implies that national cultures is a contextual variable in contingency thoery and uses emperically derived culture contingency theory to argue...... are negatively correlated with uncertainty avoidance. We derive a number of important implication for organization design theory and practice....... that national culture chracteristics affect management's choices as to how to organize and manage people.  A tightly matched population of 4400 city managers from 14 Western countries constitutes strong material for the analysis as cultural and behavioral variables were directly analyzed. Findings suggest...

  4. Comparative assessment of the impact of national culture dimensions on traits of organization culture

    OpenAIRE

    Štreimikienė, Dalia; Mikalauskienė, Asta

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with national culture and organizational culture assessment methods and applies the Denison Organization Culture Survey to measure organizational culture in Lithuanian SME in Kaunas region. The paper aims to define the impact of national culture dimensions on organizational culture dimensions by applying comparative analysis for Taiwan, Mexico and Lithuania. The comparative analysis revealed that power distance is positively related to involvement, but negatively related to th...

  5. Comparative assessment of the impact of national culture dimensions on traits of organization culture

    OpenAIRE

    Štreimikienė, Dalia; Mikalauskienė, Asta

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with national culture and organizational culture assessment methods and applies the Denison Organization Culture Survey to measure organizational culture in Lithuanian SME in Kaunas region. The paper aims to define the impact of national culture dimensions on organizational culture dimensions by applying comparative analysis for Taiwan, Mexico and Lithuania. The comparative analysis revealed that power distance is positively related to involvement, but negatively related to th...

  6. Tracheal replacement by autogenous aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoosh Farhad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tracheal defects may occur after trauma or prolonged intubation. Resection of tracheal tumors also poses a major challenge for substitution. In an effort to solve this problem, different techniques have been tried with little success. We report on a new animal model which showed acceptable results with fewer complications. Methods We replaced 5 cm of cervical trachea in 10 dogs with harvested infra-renal aorta and repaired the aortic defect with Dacron graft. Results Necropsy of the grafted aorta and anastomotic site revealed well healed anastomosis in all animals together with ciliated columnar epithelium coverage of grafted aorta and neovascularization of aortic wall. Conclusion Aortic graft is preferable to other substitutes because of less antigenicity, less vascularity, and no mucous secretions or peristalsis

  7. Tracheal replacement by autogenous aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoosh, Farhad; Hodjati, Hossain; Dehghani, Seifollah; Tanideh, Nader; Kumar, Perikala V

    2009-06-09

    Tracheal defects may occur after trauma or prolonged intubation. Resection of tracheal tumors also poses a major challenge for substitution. In an effort to solve this problem, different techniques have been tried with little success. We report on a new animal model which showed acceptable results with fewer complications. We replaced 5 cm of cervical trachea in 10 dogs with harvested infra-renal aorta and repaired the aortic defect with Dacron graft. Necropsy of the grafted aorta and anastomotic site revealed well healed anastomosis in all animals together with ciliated columnar epithelium coverage of grafted aorta and neovascularization of aortic wall. Aortic graft is preferable to other substitutes because of less antigenicity, less vascularity, and no mucous secretions or peristalsis.

  8. Hyaluronate synthesis by synovial villi in organ culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, S.L.; Christine, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    Individual canine synovial villi were used to establish short-term synovial organ cultures. These villi incorporated 3 H-glucosamine into highly-polymerized 3 H-hyaluronic acid ( 3 H-HA), which was the only 3 H-glycosaminoglycan identified in the culture medium. Some 3 H-HA, and larger amounts of other 3 H-glycosaminoglycans, were recovered from cultured tissues. Culture medium 3 H-HA content was proportional to the surface area of cultured villi. Organ cultures of nonvillous synovium were compared with villi; nonvillous cultures synthesized less 3 H-HA per mm2 of their synovial intimal surface than villi. These cultures complement cell culture techniques for in vitro studies of synovial lining cell function

  9. Tracheal stoma necrosis: a case repor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pak S

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute tracheal dilatation, due to an overinflated cuff, has been reported early in the course of mechanical ventilation through an endotracheal tube. Tracheal stoma necrosis is a rare complication, but such can accompany acute tracheal dilation. Herein, we report a case of tracheal necrosis 9 days following tracheostomy placement in a 71-year old woman associated with overinflation of the tracheal tube cuff. This case report aims to 1 add to the scant body of knowledge about the diagnosis and management for the patients with tracheal stoma necrosis and 2 raise awareness for error-traps in interpreting diagnostic images, specifically satisfaction of search error, inattentional blindness error, and alliterative error.

  10. Development of emotions as organized by culture

    OpenAIRE

    Trommsdorff, Gisela

    2006-01-01

    Emotions can be seen as both biologically prepared and socio-culturally shaped. Evidence on cultural differences in manifestations of emotion abound; however, the role of culture in emotion development has not yet been systematically studied and integrated in a theory on the socialization of emotions. Emotion development includes the understanding of emotions and their meaning, appraisal of emotion-evoking situations, knowledge of appropriate emotion expression, and regulation of emotions. Em...

  11. Social Organization and Leadership in Cross-Cultural Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemers, Martin M.

    There is little research by social psychologists in the areas of leadership and social organization, especially from a cross-cultural perspective, though such research offers an understanding of both leadership and culture. Existing cross-cultural management studies suffer from a lack of understanding of important social and cross-cultural…

  12. Cultural diversity in organizations : Enhancing identification by valuing differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijters, Kyra; van der Zee, Karen I.; Otten, Sabine

    The present research investigated the role of perceived similarity in cultural values (associated with diversity in cultural backgrounds) and an intercultural group climate in predicting identification with both the organization and the work team. The relevance of perceived similarity in cultural

  13. Organizational Culture in a chosen Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Mandík, Jaroslav

    2009-01-01

    The target of the thesis with the title "Corporate culture in selected organization" is to describe the corporate culture of the Engineering Center based in the company TRW Automotive Czech s.r.o. in Jablonec nad Nisou. The theoretical resources of the thesis are a compilation of facts and opinions originating from authors and scientists who are engaged in the area of management, organizations and corporate culture. The thesis endeavours to provide a brief but comprehensive view on the topic....

  14. Organ culture studies for pancreatic islet transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reemtsma, K.; Weber, C.J.; Pi-Sunyer, F.X.; Lerner, R.; Zimmerman, E.; Hardy, M.A.

    1979-01-01

    Data support the usefulness of tissue culture in isolation and preservation of islets prior to transplantation. Rodent islet viability in culture was demonstrated histologically and by functional analyses of hormone production. For reasons that remain to be defined, acinar cells disappeared rapidly in tissue culture, yielding an implant preparation relatively rich in islets and devoid of pancreatic exocrine elements. Isografts of cultured and noncultured islets were well tolerated intraperitoneally and intramuscularly; and prompt and lasting reversal of short- and long-standing experimental diabetes was observed regularly. In vitro studies of rodent islet viability after immunosuppressive treatment of donors or islet cultures showed insulin production comparable to that of control experiments, suggesting that immunologic modification of donors or islets might be feasible in eventual human islet allotransplantation

  15. Mucus glycoprotein secretion by tracheal explants: effects of pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, J.A.; Kaizu, T.

    1980-01-01

    Tracheal slices incubated with radioactive precursors in tissue culture medium secrete labeled mucus glycoproteins into the culture medium. We have used an in vivtro approach, a combined method utilizing exposure to pneumotoxins in vivo coupled with quantitation of mucus secretion rates in vitro, to study the effects of inhaled pollutants on mucus biosynthesis by rat airways. In addition, we have purified the mucus glycoproteins secreted by rat tracheal explants in order to determine putative structural changes that might by the basis for the observed augmented secretion rates after exposure of rats to H2SO4 aerosols in combination with high ambient levels of ozone. After digestion with papain, mucus glycoproteins secreted by tracheal explants may be separated into five fractions by ion-exchange chromatography, with recovery in high yield, on columns of DEAE-cellulose. Each of these five fractions, one neutral and four acidic, migrates as a single unique spot upon cellulose acetate electrophoresis at pH values of 8.6 and 1.2. The neutral fraction, which is labeled with [3H] glucosamine, does not contain radioactivity when Na2 35SO4 is used as the precursor. Acidic fractions I to IV are all labeled with either 3H-glucosamine or Na2 35SO4 as precursor. Acidic fraction II contains sialic acid as the terminal sugar on its oligosaccharide side chains, based upon its chromatographic behavior on columns of wheat-germ agglutinin-Agarose. Treatment of this fraction with neuraminidase shifts its elution position in the gradient to a lower salt concentration, coincident with acidic fraction I. After removal of terminal sialic acid residues with either neuraminidase or low pH treatment, the resultant terminal sugar on the oligosaccharide side chains is fucose. These results are identical with those observed with mucus glycoproteins secreted by cultured human tracheal explants and purified by these same techniques

  16. Diagnosis of Organizational Culture in a chosen Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Kaňková, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with the Diagnosis of organizational culture in selected organization which is particularly a food company Kraft Foods CR. The aim of the diploma thesis is to describe the organizational culture in this organization through a Denison method of questionnaire survey and using my own observation. Then, based on the information gathered from the survey, I suggest to the management of the organization recommendations and actions that could lead to greater employee satisfa...

  17. Regeneration of tracheal epithelium using mouse induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Masakazu; Imaizumi, Mitsuyoshi; Yoshie, Susumu; Otsuki, Koshi; Miyake, Masao; Hazama, Akihiro; Wada, Ikuo; Omori, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion The findings demonstrated the potential use of induced pluripotent stem cells for regeneration of tracheal epithelium. Objective Autologous tissue implantation techniques using skin or cartilage are often applied in cases of tracheal defects with laryngeal inflammatory lesions and malignant tumor invasion. However, these techniques are invasive with an unstable clinical outcome. The purpose of this study was to investigate regeneration in a tracheal defect site of nude rats after implantation of ciliated epithelium that was differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells. Method Embryoid bodies were formed from mouse induced pluripotent stem cells. They were cultured with growth factors for 5 days, and then cultured at the air-liquid interface. The degree of differentiation achieved prior to implantation was determined by histological findings and the results of real-time polymerase chain reaction. Embryoid bodies including ciliated epithelium were embedded into collagen gel that served as an artificial scaffold, and then implanted into nude rats, creating an 'air-liquid interface model'. Histological evaluation was performed 7 days after implantation. Results The ciliated epithelial structure survived on the lumen side of regenerated tissue. It was demonstrated histologically that the structure was composed of ciliated epithelial cells.

  18. Organization and Nuclear Safety: Safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Marquinez, A.

    1998-01-01

    This book presents the experience in nuclear safety and its influence in the exploitation on nuclear power plants. The safety organization and quality management before and after Chernobylsk and three mile island accidents

  19. Research of quality culture in the public sector organization

    OpenAIRE

    Aškelavičius, Izoldas

    2017-01-01

    RESEARCH OF QUALITY CULTURE IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR ORGANIZATION Izoldas AŠKELAVIČIUS Paper for the Master’s degree Quality Management Master’s Program Vilnius University, Faculty of Economics, Management Department Supervisor – Assoc. Prof. Dr. R. Adomaitienė Vilnius, 2017 SUMMARY 64 pages, 8 charts, 13 pictures, 81 references. The main purpose of this master thesis is to analyze Vilnius local labor exchange quality culture topics, reveal the current state of quality culture. The work consists ...

  20. First-line tracheal resection and primary anastomosis for postintubation tracheal stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, H; Mostafa, A M; Soliman, S; Shoukry, T; El-Nori, A A; El-Bawab, H Y

    2016-07-01

    Introduction Tracheal stenosis following intubation is the most common indication for tracheal resection and reconstruction. Endoscopic dilation is almost always associated with recurrence. This study investigated first-line surgical resection and anastomosis performed in fit patients presenting with postintubation tracheal stenosis. Methods Between February 2011 and November 2014, a prospective study was performed involving patients who underwent first-line tracheal resection and primary anastomosis after presenting with postintubation tracheal stenosis. Results A total of 30 patients (20 male) were operated on. The median age was 23.5 years (range: 13-77 years). Seventeen patients (56.7%) had had previous endoscopic tracheal dilation, four (13.3%) had had tracheal stents inserted prior to surgery and one (3.3%) had undergone previous tracheal resection. Nineteen patients (63.3%) had had a tracheostomy. Eight patients (26.7%) had had no previous tracheal interventions. The median time of intubation in those developing tracheal stenosis was 20.5 days (range: 0-45 days). The median length of hospital stay was 10.5 days (range: 7-21 days). The success rate for anastomoses was 96.7% (29/30). One patient needed a permanent tracheostomy. The in-hospital mortality rate was 3.3%: 1 patient died from a chest infection 21 days after surgery. There was no mortality or morbidity in the group undergoing first-line surgery for de novo tracheal lesions. Conclusions First-line tracheal resection with primary anastomosis is a safe option for the treatment of tracheal stenosis following intubation and obviates the need for repeated dilations. Endoscopic dilation should be reserved for those patients with significant co-morbidities or as a temporary measure in non-equipped centres.

  1. Safety culture in the nuclear versus non-nuclear organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, S.B.; Shurberg, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    The importance of safety culture in the safe and reliable operation of nuclear organizations is not a new concept. The greatest barriers to this area of research are twofold: (1) the definition and criteria of safety culture for a nuclear organization and (2) the measurement of those attributes in an objective and systematic fashion. This paper will discuss a proposed resolution of those barriers as demonstrated by the collection of data across nuclear and non-nuclear facilities over a two year period

  2. Managing the effects of cultural diversity in HR in a non profit organization, Case organization: Moniheli

    OpenAIRE

    Irfan, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Non-profit organizations traditionally operate within limited resources. They cannot spend much of their resources to increase motivation. Especially when the bigger goal of the organization is to promote cultural diversity in society, it is very interesting to observe how a non-profit organization manages the cultural diversity that exists within its own human resources. This report is an attempt to identify the ways through which the case organization Moniheli, a non-profit network of diffe...

  3. Staffing the Global Organization: "Cultural Nomads"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail, Ruth; Fisher, Ron; Harvey, Michael; Moeller, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the evolution of international staffing in an increasingly globalized and hypercompetitive marketplace. As the issue of staff retention becomes critical in global organizations, it is important to understand the types of managers that may be on or assigned to overseas assignments. The purpose of this article is to present a…

  4. Viability of human corneal keratocytes during organ culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Pedersen, T; Møller, H J

    1996-01-01

    The viability of human corneal keratocytes was assessed during four weeks of 'closed system' organ culture at 31 degrees C. After 28 days of culturing, the entire keratocyte population was still alive and viable because all cells incorporated uridine; a parameter for RNA-synthesis. During the first...... of keratan sulphate proteoglycan suggested that approximately 1% of the total content was lost during the period. In conclusion, our current organ culture technique can maintain a viable keratocyte population for four weeks; a viable stroma can be grafted within this period....

  5. Addressing Cultural Aspects of Organizations in Industries at Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisquet, Elsa; Jeffroy, Francois; Levy, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    The Safety Culture concept is a key element of many approaches to improving safety in nuclear facilities. In particular, since the Chernobyl accident IAEA has considered this notion as the core of its strategy for dealing with Human and Organizational Factors aspects of safety. IRSN has developed a Human and Organizational Factors assessment approach based on theoretical concepts developed by Ergonomics and Organizational Sociology. This approach allowed IRSN to draw strong conclusions but it seems necessary to better integrate the cultural aspects, because they can have an impact on the safety management. Cultural dimensions play a role when assessing organizational measures designed to foster cooperation between different professions (maintenance and operation, operation and decommissioning, operation and research activities, etc.), between Project organization and daily organization, between companies (ordering institution and subcontractors). IRSN has therefore realized a study aimed at providing guidelines concerning the use of the concept of 'Safety Culture' in safety assessments of nuclear facilities. In the first section of this report, outcomes and limits of the concept are identified, which result in rereading the main research on culture, conducted in anthropology, sociology, management sciences and ergonomics. This research shows that taking into account cultural dimensions may reveal phenomena that other analytical frameworks of organizations are not able to identify. On this basis, four analysis plans are proposed to split up the overall 'culture' topic: organizational cultures, professional cultures, cultures and social relations, national cultures. In the fourth part of the document, such analysis plans are used to revisit safety assessments that were carried out in the past. In doing so, the relationship between cultural dimensions and safety is defined more precisely and the interest of taking them into account is confirmed

  6. Relationships among Organizational Commitment, Job Satisfaction, and Learning Organization Culture in One Korean Private Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Taejo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify dynamic relationships among organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and learning organization culture in a Korean private company. Using a sample of 669 employees from five subsidiaries of a Korean conglomerate, this research found that learning organization culture is moderately and positively related…

  7. The therapeutic effects and experience of tracheal stent implantation in managing severe tracheal stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Weifu; Zhang Xingming; Zhang Xuebing; Wang Weiyu; Hou Changlong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effects and experience of the tracheal stent implantation for the management of severe tracheal stenosis. Materials: Thirteen patients with severe tracheal stenosis of various causes underwent high kilovoltage radiography and computed tomography for evaluating the site, form and extent of the stenosis including 10 at the trachea, 1 at the right main bronchus and 2 at left main bronchus. The C2 catheter assisted with ultra-slipping guide wire was inserted into the trachea under fluoroscopy and then a replaced high shoring guide wire was pushed through the stenotic segment and retained the stent. Results: All stents were implanted successfully with successful rate 100% together with dyspnoeic improvements. The mean survival time was 6.2 months for patients with malignant neoplasm. One patient with benign tracheal stenosis has been followed-up for 5 years without restenosis. Conclusions: The tracheal stent implantation is an effective means for severe tracheal stenosis. (authors)

  8. Tracheal resection and anastomosis after traumatic tracheal stenosis in a horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Timothy P; Hawkes, Claire S; Dixon, Padraic M

    2015-02-01

    To report a resection and anastomosis technique to treat trauma-induced tracheal stenosis. Case report. A 9-year-old Warmblood gelding. Endoscopy, radiography, and ultrasonography were used to diagnose a single ring tracheal stenosis; the stenotic region was resected and adjacent tracheal rings anastomosed with an end-to-end technique. The anastomosis healed completely despite formation of a unilateral partial mucosal stenosis "web," which was subsequently removed by transendoscopic laser surgery. During tracheal anastomosis, the left recurrent laryngeal nerve was damaged, causing laryngeal hemiplegia, later treated successfully by laryngoplasty. The horse returned to its previous level of work. This tracheal resection and anastomosis technique successfully provided the horse with a large tracheal lumen, and despite major complications, allowed a return to full athletic work. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  9. Tracheal resection and anastomosis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, R E; Schwartz, A; Buergelt, C D

    1980-01-15

    Resection and end-to-end anastomosis of the trachea is a practical procedure for the correction of various forms of tracheal stenosis. Preplacing retention sutures facilitates manipulation of the trachea and rapid apposition of the tracheal ends. These same sutures then relieve tension on the primary suture line, assuring early epithelialization. Two dogs with tracheal stenosis were treated by use of this technique. Slight narrowing of the trachea was evident postoperatively in both dogs, but neither dyspnea nor coughing occurred during the follow-up period.

  10. Laryngeal morbidity after tracheal intubation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M K; Rasmussen, N; Kristensen, M S

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tracheal intubation may cause vocal fold damage. The trial was designed to assess laryngeal morbidity comparing the Endoflex(®) tube with a conventional endotracheal tube with stylet. We hypothesised that laryngeal morbidity within the first 24 h after extubation would be lower...... with the Endoflex tube than with the conventional endotracheal tube with stylet because of less rigidity. METHODS: This randomised trial included 130 elective surgical patients scheduled for general anaesthesia with endotracheal intubation. Pre- and post-operative assessment of hoarseness, vocal fold pathology......% with the Endoflex tube and 55% with the endotracheal tube with stylet at 24 h after extubation (P = 0.44). Post-operative vocal fold injury was present in 23% in the Endoflex tube group and in 36% in the endotracheal tube with stylet group (P = 0.13). The increase in shimmer, the voice analysis variable reflecting...

  11. Managing a culturally diverse workforce : Diversity perspectives in organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podsiadlowski, Astrid; Gröschke, Daniela; Kogler, Marina; Springer, Cornelia; van der Zee, Karen

    The authors conducted two studies to analyze why and how organizations approach and manage cultural diversity in the Austrian workplace and to identify organizations' diversity perspectives. In Study 1, 29 interviews revealed insights into organizational approaches to diversity and how these

  12. Organ donation and transplantation within the Zulu culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.R. Bhengu

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Greater knowledge and technological advancement in the field of transplantation has increased the demand for organ donation beyond the supply of organs, especially among the black communities. This imbalance arises from the few sources of organs, limitations on the techniques of organ retrieval, disparities in the allocation of organs and socio-cultural factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which Zulu cultural norms and social structures influence an individual’s decision to donate an organ or to undergo transplantation. A qualitative approach using an ethno-nursing method was selected. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a transplant co-ordinator representing the professional sector, with traditional healers and religious leaders representing the folk sector, and with the general public representing the popular sector of the health care system. Both urban and rural settings were used. Conclusions arrived at showed that knowledge was lacking among Zulu speaking people about organ donation and transplantation and misconceptions about the topic were related to Zulu life patterns, beliefs about death, burial and life hereafter, and values and social structures. Recommendations with regard to the promotion of organ donation and transplantation among Zulu speaking people were made based on culture-sensitive and culture-congruent principles.

  13. Organ donation and transplantation within the Zulu culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhengu, B R; Uys, H H M

    2004-08-01

    Greater knowledge and technological advancement in the field of transplantation has increased the demand for organ donation beyond the supply of organs, especially among the black communities. This imbalance arises from the few sources of organs, limitations on the techniques of organ retrieval, disparities in the allocation of organs and socio-cultural factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which Zulu cultural norms and social structures influence an individual's decision to donate an organ or to undergo transplantation. A qualitative approach using an ethno-nursing method was selected. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a transplant co-ordinator representing the professional sector, with traditional healers and religious leaders representing the folk sector, and with the general public representing the popular sector of the health care system. Both urban and rural settings were used. Conclusions arrived at showed that knowledge was lacking among Zulu speaking people about organ donation and transplantation and misconceptions about the topic were related to Zulu life patterns, beliefs about death, burial and life hereafter, and values and social structures. Recommendations with regard to the promotion of organ donation and transplantation among Zulu speaking people were made based on culture-sensitive and culture-congruent principles.

  14. Nitinol memmo-alloy stents for benign and malignant tracheal stensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhongmin; Wu Chaoxian; Gong Ju; Zheng Yunfeng; Gu Xuezhang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To observe the therapeutic and side effects of tracheal stents in tracheal stenosis caused by tracheal malacia and malignant tumours. Methods: Twenty-five patients treated with tracheal stents were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Tracheal stents have been implanted successfully in twenty-five patients through fiberbronchoscope or tracheal intubation, and dyspnoea improved greatly after the procedure. Conclusions: Tracheal stents can relieve symptoms and improve the life quality in patients with tracheal stenosis caused by malignant tumors or tracheal malacia. (authors)

  15. THE CULTURE AND ARTS ORGANIZATION: MACRO-SOCIOLOGICAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Rasimovna Pashaeva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyze the macro-sociological aspect of culture and arts organization. The subject of research is reputation policy and communication technologies in  macro-sociological aspect of culture and arts organization. The target is the research the effects of macro-sociological aspect in the activities of such organization. In the study were used such methods of research: theoretical study and  synthesis; quantative method of elicitation: questionnaire; information processing methods of primary analysis; interpretation. The results of research can be applied in the activities of different culture and arts organization. The research identified the negative and positive tendencies in the context of the macro-sociological aspect.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-49

  16. On the impacts of traditional Chinese culture on organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yu

    2013-04-01

    This article examines the impact of traditional Chinese culture on organ donation from the perspective of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism. In each of these cultural systems, it appears that there are some particular sayings or remarks that are often taken in modern Chinese society to be contrary to organ donation, especially cadaveric organ donation. However, this article argues that the central concerns of Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism are "great love," "ren," and "dao," which can be reasonably interpreted to support organ donation. The author understands that each cultural system, in order to play its cultural function, must have its central concerns as well as relevant ritual practices (li) that incarnate its religious and ethical commitments. That is, each plays a general cultural role, which influences organ donation in particular not merely through abstract or general ethical principles and teachings, but through a combination of ethical teachings and the forming of particular ritual practices. This article contends that the primary reason Chinese individuals fail to donate sufficient cadaveric organs for transplantation is not because particular remarks or sayings from each of these systems appear to conflict with donation. Neither is it that the central concerns of these systems cannot support cadaveric donation. Rather, it is that modern Chinese individuals have failed to develop and secure relevant ritual practices that support the central concerns of organ transplantation. The article concludes that in order to promote more donations, there is a need to form relevant ritual practices supporting organ donation in conformity with the central concerns of these cultural systems.

  17. 21 CFR 878.3720 - Tracheal prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Identification. The tracheal prosthesis is a rigid, flexible, or expandable tubular device made of a silicone... of the trachea or trachealbronchial tree. It may be unbranched or contain one or two branches. The...

  18. and Non-Operable Tracheal Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Bagheri

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction: Tracheal stenosis is normally caused by trauma, infection, benign and malignant tumors, prolonged intubation or tracheostomy. The best treatment for tracheal stenosis is resection and anastomosis of trachea. Yet the major surgical complication of tracheal surgery is postoperative stenosis. The goal of this paper is to study the result of tracheal stenting as a replacement therapy for patients suffering from tracheal stenosis who are not good candidates for surgery.   Materials and Methods: This study presents the results of stenting in patients with: Inoperable tumoral stenosis,Non-tumoral stenosis being complicated due to prior surgeries,Inability to undergo a major surgery.The study was performed between September 2002 and July 2011 and poly flex stents were used by means of rigid bronchoscopy. Results: A total of 25 patients received stents during this study. Among them 15 patients suffered from benign and 10 suffered from malignant tracheal stenosis. The patients were followed up for at most 12 months after the stenting operation. The mean age of the patients was 35 years. The most common cause of stenosis was prolonged intubation (75%. The most common indication for stenting was the history of multiple tracheal operations. The most common complication of stenting and cause of stent removal was formation of granulation tissue. 30% of patients with benign tracheal stenosis were cured and about 10% improved until they could stand a major operation. Ten patients in benign group and 2 patients in malignant group (20% needed T-Tube insertion after stent removal but other patientcure by stenting. Conclusions: In benign cases stenting is associated with recurrence of symptoms which requires other therapeutic techniqus, so the stenting may not be named as a final solution in benign cases. However, this technique is the only method with approved efficacy for malignant cases with indication.

  19. Post intubation tracheal stenosis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Caruselli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many authors have reported that tracheal stenosis is a complication that can follow tracheal intubation in both adults and children. The symptoms, when they do appear, can be confused with asthma, with subsequent treatment providing only mild and inconsistent relief. We report here the case of an 8 year old girl admitted to our hospital for whooping cough that was not responding to therapy.

  20. PARTICULARITIES OF THE CULTURAL DIMENSIONS OF GALATI COUNTY ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Gheorghe

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on data collected as part of the COMOR Project for the analysis of organizational culture in the Romanian business environment, developed by The Scientific Society of Management from Romania, we have initiated, using Business Intelligence tools, a scan of the characteristics of organizational culture organizational culture for Galati County. The aim of the research is to investigate the particularities of cultural dimensions, based on the Multifocus Model developed by Geert Hofstede, are found in economic organizations in Romania, and, in particular in the business environment of Galati. An important topic of the research is to identify the drivers that influence managerial behavior at the level of the Romanian organizations in order to promote and to guide the change at the level of the microeconomic structures.

  1. ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND ITS WAY OF EXPRESSION WITHIN THE ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Raluca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The main theme of this paper is the role of organizational culture in a company and its way of expression within the organization, for its management, for its employees and for its competition. Organizational culture is undoubtedly one of the fashionable areas of management, with a relatively recent history. Its purpose is to sensitize readers to the importance of organizational culture for the success of an enterprise, and its objectives were: to define organizational culture and its influence factors, as well as to explain the role of its components in the organization as a whole and for its members. Practically, the interest in organizational culture began in the 7th decade, largely due to the performances of Japanese companies, performance explained by their specific culture. Although the concept is increasingly met in international and local literature, the process that prevents its practical implementation is the lack of scientific (theoretical research at a company´s level. The old generation of leaders lead based on knowledge acquired years ago, few are those who really consistently do research and are up to speed with the latest news in management, or in the economic field in general. This paper aims to identify key conditions that determine human activity in an organization and their relationship to the successful implementation of an organizational culture by examplifing great successes of international companies. This is relevant, not only because these companies have huge incomes and recorded notable successes, but also because they enter and develop on the local market, trying to implement their thinking. Thus, local businesses can improve their business by adopting and adapting this way of thinking. The rezults of the research results reflect the fact that despite the concept that people are the main value of an organization, companies continue to ignore their employees, instead seeking the magic formula, the immediate solution

  2. Effects of successive tracheal resection and anastomosis on tracheal diameter and position of lobar bronchi in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello Souza, Carlos Henrique; Reinero, Carol R

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of successive large-segment tracheal resection and anastomosis on tracheal diameter and position of lobar bronchi in dogs. ANIMALS 5 adult Beagles. PROCEDURES Right lateral radiographs were obtained for all dogs and used to measure tracheal length. Dogs were then euthanized, and successive segmental tracheal resections (intervals of 10% from 20% to 50% of the tracheal length), each of which was followed by anastomosis, were performed in each cadaver. Tracheobronchoscopy was performed before the first tracheal resection and after each of the anastomoses to evaluate tracheal diameter and changes in position of lobar bronchi. RESULTS Tracheal diameter was minimally affected by resections up to 50% of the tracheal length. Diameter of the trachea and position of bronchi were not affected by resection of 20% of the tracheal length. Changes in the position of various lobar bronchi were detected after resection of 30% of the tracheal length. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINCIAL RELEVANCE In this study, tracheal resections of 20% of the tracheal length were accommodated, possibly as a result of stretching of the annular ligament. Resections of ≥ 30% of the tracheal length altered the position of lobar bronchi. Clinical effects, if any, attributable to these changes in bronchial position remain to be elucidated.

  3. Indications and interventional options for non-resectable tracheal stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Jenny Louise; Patterson, Caroline Marie

    2014-01-01

    Non-specific presentation and normal examination findings in early disease often result in tracheal obstruction being overlooked as a diagnosis until patients present acutely. Once diagnosed, surgical options should be considered, but often patient co-morbidity necessitates other interventional options. Non-resectable tracheal stenosis can be successfully managed by interventional bronchoscopy, with therapeutic options including airway dilatation, local tissue destruction and airway stenting. There are common aspects to the management of tracheal obstruction, tracheomalacia and tracheal fistulae. This paper reviews the pathogenesis, presentation, investigation and management of tracheal disease, with a focus on tracheal obstruction and the role of endotracheal intervention in management. PMID:24624290

  4. Association between pathogens from tracheal aspirate and oral biofilm of patients on mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Carneiro Diniz SOUZA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to detect possible associations between respiratory pathogens from tracheal aspirate and oral biofilm samples in intubated patients in an intensive care unit (ICU, and to identify the most common respiratory pathogens in oral biofilm, particularly in patients that developed ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP. Two oral biofilm samples were collected from the tongue of intubated patients (at admission and after 48 hours and analyzed by culture with the Antibiotic Sensitivity Test. The results from the tongue biofilm samples were compared with the tracheal secretions samples. A total of 59.37% of patients exhibited the same species of pathogens in their tracheal aspirate and oral biofilm, of which 8 (42.1% developed VAP, 10 (52.63% did not develop pneumonia and one (5.26% had aspiration pneumonia. There was a statistically significant association between presence of microorganisms in the tracheal and mouth samples for the following pathogens: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter gergoviae, Streptococcus spp and Serratia marcescens (p < 0.05. Pathogens that are present in tracheal aspirates of intubated patients can be detected in their oral cavity, especially in those who developed VAP or aspiration pneumonia. Thus, the results indicate that an improved oral care in these patients could decrease ICU pneumonia rates.

  5. Evaluation of tracheal bronchus in Chinese children using multidetector CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming, Zhu; Lin, Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Tracheal bronchus is a congenital bronchial anomaly. The diagnosis should be considered early in intubated patients. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is the newest modality for evaluating tracheal bronchus. To evaluate the utility of 16-slice MDCT in children with tracheal bronchus and to characterize the frequency of tracheal bronchus in children with congenital heart disease. From June 2005 to May 2007, 3,187 consecutive children (1,124 with congenital heart disease and 2,063 without congenital heart disease) underwent MDCT examination. Minimum-intensity projection reconstruction was performed to show the tracheobronchial tree in every case. Tracheal bronchus was found in 42 children (3.74%) with congenital heart disease but in only 6 children (0.29%) without congenital heart disease. Among the 48 children with tracheal bronchus, 45 had right-side tracheal bronchus and 3 had bilateral tracheal bronchi with heterotaxy syndrome. The diagnostic sensitivity of MDCT was 100% (48/48). MDCT is a reliable imaging technique for the diagnosis of tracheal bronchus. Our data showed that right-side tracheal bronchus was more common and bilateral tracheal bronchi usually occurred with heterotaxy syndrome. In addition, tracheal bronchus often occurred with congenital heart disease. The angle between the tracheal bronchus and the trachea is important and should be measured. (orig.)

  6. Micro-cultural customization of organ donation propagation messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkel, Anke; Nakamoto, Kent; Schulz, Peter J

    2018-05-01

    Organ transplantation is plagued by limited availability of organs. This study investigated the effect of messages promoting organ donation which were customized according to the language-defined micro-cultures in Switzerland. Community-, informative-, and emotional-oriented messages were carried by conventional flyers. A 3 × 3 between-subjects experiment was conducted with short- and long-term willingness to donate, long-term signing of organ donation card and long-term interpersonal communication on organ donation as outcome variables. The culturally customized interventions appeared to have no immediate effect and consequently no differential effect on willingness to donate organs and on signing a donor card. Among the Swiss Germans, of the three messages, the community-oriented one instigated less interpersonal communication. Findings are consistent with a mechanism in which the message does not have an immediate effect on willingness to donate organs but motivates further thought and related behaviors that lead to higher commitment and later increased willingness to donate. Targeting not only the message but also the objective that drives the messages must be considered. Campaigns should include elements that build on the unfolding commitment process to promote the follow-up actions that lead to greater willingness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Engineered cartilaginous tubes for tracheal tissue replacement via self-assembly and fusion of human mesenchymal stem cell constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikina, Anna D; Strobel, Hannah A; Lai, Bradley P; Rolle, Marsha W; Alsberg, Eben

    2015-06-01

    There is a critical need to engineer a neotrachea because currently there are no long-term treatments for tracheal stenoses affecting large portions of the airway. In this work, a modular tracheal tissue replacement strategy was developed. High-cell density, scaffold-free human mesenchymal stem cell-derived cartilaginous rings and tubes were successfully generated through employment of custom designed culture wells and a ring-to-tube assembly system. Furthermore, incorporation of transforming growth factor-β1-delivering gelatin microspheres into the engineered tissues enhanced chondrogenesis with regard to tissue size and matrix production and distribution in the ring- and tube-shaped constructs, as well as luminal rigidity of the tubes. Importantly, all engineered tissues had similar or improved biomechanical properties compared to rat tracheas, which suggests they could be transplanted into a small animal model for airway defects. The modular, bottom up approach used to grow stem cell-based cartilaginous tubes in this report is a promising platform to engineer complex organs (e.g., trachea), with control over tissue size and geometry, and has the potential to be used to generate autologous tissue implants for human clinical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Segmental tracheal resection and anastomosis for the treatment of cicatricial stenosis in cervical tracheal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, P C; Luo, J S; Liu, Z; Bian, K; Guo, Z H; Ma, R N

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of segmental tracheal resection with end-to-end anastomosis for cicatricial cervical tracheal stenosis. The clinical outcomes of 40 patients treated with tracheal resection were retrospectively reviewed. There were 28 male patients and 12 female patients with the age ranged from 6 to 64 years (mean 33.7 years). The degree of stenosis was classified according to Myer-Cotton classification as follows: grade Ⅱ (n=7), grade Ⅲ (n=22) and grade Ⅳ (n=11). The stenosis extension ranged from 1.0 to 4.3 cm (mean 2.5 cm). The causes of the stenosis were postintubation (n=33), cervical trauma (n=6) and resection of tracheal neoplasm (n=1). Thirty-four(85.0%) patients were decannulated and 6 failed. Of the 6 patients failed, 4 were decannulated after reoperation with the sternohyoid myocutaneous flap or thyroid alar cartilage graft. Complications occurred in 10 patients. In 8 patients granulation tissues formed at the site of the tracheal anastomosis, which needed endoscopic resction, and in 2 patients anastomosic dehiscence occurred. No injury to recurrent laryngeal nerve or trachoesophageal fistula occurred. Segmental tracheal resection with end-to-end anastomosis is an effective surgical method for tracheal stenosis, which has a higher successful rate for primary operation and shorter therapeutic period.

  9. The Impact of Religious Culture on Organization of Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hossein Memarian

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Culture is the principal element in forming houses and it also plays an important role in social sustainability. In this way, it will become so important to survey in vernacular culture in order to recognize behavioral patterns of divers religions and nations. Nevertheless, the impressive factors of culture in a human made environment such as the one in city of Kerman, which has diversity in cultures and residential districts belong to Muslims, Zoroastrians, and Jewish people, have been ignored partly. So, planners have been faced with problems in codifying and organizing guidelines for designing and renovation approaches in these districts. In this paper, the matter of privacy and hospitality in Islamic culture and impacts of that on the formation of houses will be discussed through the sacred text of Quran by using the combining research method, logical reasoning and ethnography. Furthermore, it refers to the Torah and Avesta and demonstrates that the first impressive layer on the architecture of Kerman houses initiates from Islamic culture, as a predominant one there, in some principals such as privacy, neighborhood rights, and hospitality. Moreover, it shows that the second impressive layer initiates from Zoroastrian and Jewish religious beliefs and traditions formed the architecture of their houses. Therefore, their trends for security, life, needs and regarding religious rites should be considered in the future guidelines in renovation of these residential districts. Meanwhile, further studies could search for approaches & methods of converting the theoretical results of this paper into the guidelines & design principles.

  10. Rat embryonic palatal shelves respond to TCDD in organ culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, B.D.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1990-01-01

    TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin), a highly toxic environmental contaminant, is teratogenic in mice, inducing cleft palate (CP) and hydronephrosis at doses which are not overtly maternally or embryo toxic. Palatal shelves of embryonic mice respond to TCDD, both in vivo and in organ culture, with altered differentiation of medial epithelial cells. By contrast, in the rat TCDD produces substantial maternal, embryonic, and fetal toxicity, including fetal lethality, with few malformations. In this study the possible effects of maternal toxicity on induction of cleft palate were eliminated by exposure of embryonic rat palatal shelves in organ culture. The shelves were examined for specific TCDD-induced alterations in differentiation of the medial cells. On Gestation Day (GD) 14 or 15 palatal shelves from embryonic F344 rats were placed in organ culture for 2 to 3 days (IMEM:F12 medium, 5% FBS, 0.1% DMSO) containing 0, 1 x 10(-8), 1 x 10(-9), 1 x 10(-10), or 5 x 10(-11) M TCDD. The medial epithelial peridermal cells degenerated on shelves exposed to control media or 5 x 10(-11) M TCDD. Exposure to 10(-10), 10(-9), and 10(-8) M TCDD inhibited this degeneration in 20, 36, and 60% of the shelves, respectively, and was statistically significant at the two highest doses. A normally occurring decrease in [3H]TdR incorporation was inhibited in some GD 15 shelves cultured with 10(-10) and 10(-9) M TCDD. The medial cells of TCDD-exposed shelves continued to express high levels of immunohistochemically detected EGF receptors. The altered differentiation of rat medial epithelium is similar to that reported for TCDD-exposed mouse medial cells in vivo and in vitro. However, in order to obtain these responses, the cultured rat shelves require much higher concentrations of TCDD than the mouse shelves

  11. Conflict cultures in organizations: How leaders shape conflict cultures and their organizational-level consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelfand, M.J.; Leslie, L.M.; Keller, K.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2012-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence abounds that organizations have distinct conflict cultures, or socially shared norms for how conflict should be managed. However, research to date has largely focused on conflict management styles at the individual and small group level, and has yet to examine whether

  12. Native-View Paradigms: Multiple Cultures and Culture Conflicts in Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Kathleen L.

    1983-01-01

    After reviewing organizational culture studies done in industrial settings, this paper proposes a native-view paradigm from anthropology for exploring the multiple perspectives of participants in large organizations and describes a study--of Silicon Valley technical professionals' native views--that applies the methods of ethnoscience ethnography.…

  13. Development of a culture of sustainability in health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Bernardo; West, Daniel J; Costell, Michael M

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the concept of sustainability in health care organizations and the key managerial competencies and change management strategies needed to implant a culture of sustainability. Competencies and management development strategies needed to engrain this corporate culture of sustainability are analyzed in this document. This paper draws on the experience of the authors as health care executives and educators developing managerial competencies with interdisciplinary and international groups of executives in the last 25 years, using direct observation, interviews, discussions and bibliographic evidence. With a holistic framework for sustainability, health care managers can implement strategies for multidisciplinary teams to respond to the constant change, fine-tune operations and successfully manage quality of care. Managers can mentor students and provide in-service learning experiences that integrate knowledge, skills, and abilities. Further empirical research needs to be conducted on these interrelated innovative topics. Health care organizations around the world are under stakeholders' pressure to provide high quality, cost-effective, accessible and sustainable services. Professional organizations and health care providers can collaborate with university graduate health management education programs to prepare competent managers in all the dimensions of sustainability. The newly designated accountable care organizations represent an opportunity for managers to address the need for sustainability. Sustainability of health care organizations with the holistic approach discussed in this paper is an innovative and practical approach to quality improvement that merits further development.

  14. Cultural Patterns of Soil Understanding in Organic Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzel, Nikola

    2017-04-01

    Different branches of modern agriculture rely on different cultural patterns of soil understanding; and they are supported by different schools of thought in soil science with their specific values and perspectives. For example, the European branch of organic agriculture, as it developed mainly in the 20th Century, is rooted in specific cultural concepts and was supported by associated minorities, or rather marginalised tendencies, within the soil science community. Some cases: It is about the transformations of living or organic matter, linked with debates on "microbes" and "life particles", "tissues" and macromolecules in the humus-sphere. It is about the "industrialised economical-technical paradigm" versus an "organic" or "ecological paradigm" - whatever both may be. It is about the relevance respectively of the "duties" of control by power, or by relatedness and "intercourse" in agricultural human-nature interaction. It is about the male and female qualities of effective God-images - both in their "religious" as well as their "secular" representations in individuals' and society's relation with nature and when dealing with soil. In today's conceptual and strategic debates and power struggles over how to sustainably feed from the land, we see patterns similar to those from the 19th and 20th Centuries in action. But the threats they pose are not yet sufficiently realised; the opportunities they offer are not yet sufficiently fulfilled. In this presentation, using the example of cultural patterns inside organic agriculture in Europe, some cultural problems and tasks will be highlighted, to which geosciences are of course confronted, being part of human society.

  15. Equine tracheal epithelial membrane strips - An alternate method for examining epithelial cell arachidonic acid metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P.R.; Derksen, F.J.; Robinson, N.E.; Peter-Golden, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    Arachidonic acid metabolism by tracheal epithelium can be studied using enzymatically dispersed cell suspensions or cell cultures. Both techniques require considerable tissue disruption and manipulation and may not accurately represent in vivo activity. The authors have developed an alternate method for obtaining strips of equine tracheal epithelium without enzymatic digestion. In the horse, a prominent elastic lamina supports the tracheal epithelium. By physical splitting this lamina, they obtained strips (≤12 x 1.5 cm) of pseudostratified columnar epithelium attached to a layer of elastic tissue 30-100 μm thick. Epithelial strips (1.2 x 0.5 cm) were attached to plexiglass rods and incubated with [ 3 H]arachidonic acid in M199 medium (0.5 μCi/ml) for 24 hours at 37C. The strips incorporated 36±4% (mean ± SEM) of the total radioactivity and released 8.0±1.2% of incorporated radioactivity when stimulated by 5.0 μM calcium ionophore A23187. The extracted supernatant was processed using HPLC, resulting in peaks of radioactivity that co-eluted with authentic PGE 2 , PGF 2 α, and 12-HETE standards. The greatest activity corresponded to the PGE 2 and PGF 2 α standards, which is a similar pattern to that reported for cultured human tracheal epithelium

  16. [Cervical tracheal resection with primary anastomosis for benign tracheal stricture in adult].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jin; Hu, Yan-Ming; Liu, Hui; Li, Jing-Jia; Wang, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Yuan

    2013-07-01

    To introduce the outcomes of tracheal resection with primary end to end anastomosis for benign cervical tracheal stenosis, and to discuss the strategy for prevention of surgical complications. A retrospective analysis was performed in 12 patients diagnosed as benign cervical tracheal stenosis from October 2009 to June 2012. Laryngo-tracheal endoscopic examination and computed tomography (CT) were used to assess the degree of stenosis, the grade of inflammation and edema of the subglottis and trachea, and the extent of stenosis and the remaining linear amount of normal airway. The Meyer and Cotton grading system was used to categorise the clinical severity of the stenoses. All patients underwent tracheal resection with primary end to end anastomosis. The length of cervical tracheal stenosis ranged from 2.3 to 4.1 cm. Grade II stenosis was present in three patients, Grade III stenosis was present in seven patients and grade IV stenosis in two patients. Successful extubation was achieved in all 12 cases. After surgery, temporary hoarseness occurred in 1 patient (8.3%); unilateral pulmonary atelectasis with pleural effusion occurred in 1 patient (8.3%); subcutaneous emphysema with infection occurred in 1 patient (8.3%); mild dysphagia occurred in 3 patients (25.0%); a slight deepening of the tone of voice occurred in 5 patients (41.7%), granulation tissue growth near the suture occurred in 3 patients (25.0%), and suture dehiscence did not occur in any patient. The follow-up period ranged from 6 months to 38 months, no patient developed restenosis. It presents a high success rate and good functional result of tracheal resection with primary end-to-end anastomosis. Therefore, it is an effective and reliable approach for the management of benign cervical tracheal stenosis. To avoid complications, the preoperative assessment, patients selection and postoperative management should be emphasized.

  17. Conflict cultures in organizations: how leaders shape conflict cultures and their organizational-level consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Michele J; Leslie, Lisa M; Keller, Kirsten; de Dreu, Carsten

    2012-11-01

    Anecdotal evidence abounds that organizations have distinct conflict cultures, or socially shared norms for how conflict should be managed. However, research to date has largely focused on conflict management styles at the individual and small group level, and has yet to examine whether organizations create socially shared and normative ways to manage conflict. In a sample of leaders and members from 92 branches of a large bank, factor analysis and aggregation analyses show that 3 conflict cultures-collaborative, dominating, and avoidant-operate at the unit level of analysis. Building on Lewin, Lippitt, and White's (1939) classic work, we find that leaders' own conflict management behaviors are associated with distinct unit conflict cultures. The results also demonstrate that conflict cultures have implications for macro branch-level outcomes, including branch viability (i.e., cohesion, potency, and burnout) and branch performance (i.e., creativity and customer service). A conflict culture perspective moves beyond the individual level and provides new insight into the dynamics of conflict management in organizational contexts. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Viscoelastic Properties of Human Tracheal Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safshekan, Farzaneh; Tafazzoli-Shadpour, Mohammad; Abdouss, Majid; Shadmehr, Mohammad B

    2017-01-01

    The physiological performance of trachea is highly dependent on its mechanical behavior, and therefore, the mechanical properties of its components. Mechanical characterization of trachea is key to succeed in new treatments such as tissue engineering, which requires the utilization of scaffolds which are mechanically compatible with the native human trachea. In this study, after isolating human trachea samples from brain-dead cases and proper storage, we assessed the viscoelastic properties of tracheal cartilage, smooth muscle, and connective tissue based on stress relaxation tests (at 5% and 10% strains for cartilage and 20%, 30%, and 40% for smooth muscle and connective tissue). After investigation of viscoelastic linearity, constitutive models including Prony series for linear viscoelasticity and quasi-linear viscoelastic, modified superposition, and Schapery models for nonlinear viscoelasticity were fitted to the experimental data to find the best model for each tissue. We also investigated the effect of age on the viscoelastic behavior of tracheal tissues. Based on the results, all three tissues exhibited a (nonsignificant) decrease in relaxation rate with increasing the strain, indicating viscoelastic nonlinearity which was most evident for cartilage and with the least effect for connective tissue. The three-term Prony model was selected for describing the linear viscoelasticity. Among different models, the modified superposition model was best able to capture the relaxation behavior of the three tracheal components. We observed a general (but not significant) stiffening of tracheal cartilage and connective tissue with aging. No change in the stress relaxation percentage with aging was observed. The results of this study may be useful in the design and fabrication of tracheal tissue engineering scaffolds.

  19. The role of organization and culture in risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodney, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    Technology-based organizations recognize that risk is an inherent element of their business. The challenge for managers is to determine an approach to risk that balances operational requirements with safety policies and regulations. The consequences of a safety approach that is not rigorous enough can be serious. Yet, attempting to achieve a totally risk-free operation literally can preclude much of the risk-taking that must characterize high-technology programs. Achieving true balance between performance and safety means first determining the level of risk that is acceptable to your organization. One of the first steps is to understand how the organizational structure and culture influence risk decisions. Organizational structure defines the manner in which the work force will participate in the risk decision-making process and whether they will have the necessary resources to estimate risk effectively. While numerous analysis techniques are available to predict and evaluate technical risks, it's more difficult to gauge the intangible impact of culture. Culture refers to the prevailing safety attitudes in the workplace and the methods used to evaluate risk. For this discussion, risk refers to safety and mission success. Application can be made to the nuclear industry

  20. Effect of electron beam on in vitro cultured orchid organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jaihyunk; Bae, Seho; Bae, Changhyu [Sunchon National Univ., Suncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun Suk; Lee, Byung Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    Ionizing radiations have been effective mutagen sources to overcome the limitation of the useful genetic resources in natural environment. The study was conducted to investigate an effect of electron beam on organogenesis, growth patterns and genetic variation in the irradiated orchid organs. The in utero cultured rhizomes of orchids were irradiated with the electron beam in the dose range of 15Gy to 2240Gy under the condition of various beam energy and beam current. Significant decreases in survival, growth and organogenesis were observed by increase of intensity of electron beam irradiation. The irradiation intensity of lethal dose 50 of the in utero cultured orchid was estimated as approximately 500Gy to 1000Gy under 10MeV/n, and 1000Gy was optimal for growth and organogenesis of the cultures under 10MeV/n with 0.05mA treatment, and 15Gy {approx} 48Gy under 2MeV/n and 0.5mA electron beam condition. RAPD and ISSR analyses for the electron beam irradiated organs were performed to analyze genetic variation under the electron beam condition. Both of RAPD and ISSR analyses showed higher polymorphic rate in the electron-beam irradiated C. gangrene and C. Kaner.

  1. Social and cultural aspects of organ donation in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, K T

    1992-05-01

    In Asian countries, it is more difficult to obtain cadaver kidneys for renal transplantation because of certain socio-cultural beliefs and customs. The issues affecting living related kidney donation are more social than cultural. This is due to the web of family pressures and personal conflicts for both donor and recipient surrounding the donation. Important misconceptions and fears are: fear of death, the belief that removal of organ violates sanctity of decreased, concern about being cut up after death, desire to be buried whole, dislike of idea of kidneys inside another person, wrong concept of brain death, and the idea of donation being against religious conviction. In Singapore, with the introduction of the Human Organ Transplant Act (HOTA) in 1988, the number of cadaveric transplants have increased, including those from the Medical Therapy Act (MTA). HOTA and education have played pivotal roles in bringing about an increased yield of cadaveric kidneys. With the availability of living unrelated donor (LUD) transplants in India, our living related donor (LRD) transplant programme has suffered, because patients would rather buy a kidney from overseas than get a relative to donate one. Patients are also going to China for overseas cadaveric transplants where the kidneys come from executed convicts. People in countries like Hong Kong, Japan and the Philippines share the same Asian tradition of not parting with their organs after death. Muslim countries like Malaysia require the deceased to have earlier pledged his kidneys for donation prior to death before they can be harvested for transplantation at death.

  2. Massive aspiration past the tracheal tube cuff caused by closed tracheal suction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Mital H; Frotzler, Angela; Madjdpour, Caveh; Koepfer, Nelly; Weiss, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Aspiration past the tracheal tube cuff has been recognized to be a risk factor for the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). This study investigated the effect of closed tracheal suctioning on aspiration of fluid past the tracheal tube cuff in an in vitro benchtop model. High-volume low pressure tube cuffs of 7.5 mm internal diameter (ID) were placed in a 22 mm ID artificial trachea connected to a test lung. Positive pressure ventilation (PPV) with 15 cm H₂O peak inspiratory pressure and 5 cm H₂O positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) was used. A closed tracheal suction system (CTSS) catheter (size 14Fr) was attached to the tracheal tube and suction was performed for 5, 10, 15, or 20 seconds under 200 or 300 cm H₂O suction pressures. Amount of fluid (mL) aspirated along the tube cuff and the airway pressure changes were recorded for each suction procedure. Fluid aspiration during different suction conditions was compared using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney test (Bonferroni correction [α = .01]). During 10, 15, and 20 seconds suction, airway pressure consistently dropped down to -8 to -13 cm H₂O (P aspiration was never observed under PPV + PEEP but occurred always during suctioning. Aspiration along the tube cuff was higher with -300 cm H₂O than with -200 cm H₂O suction pressure (P aspiration of fluid occurs along the tracheal tube cuff during suction with the closed tracheal suction system. © SAGE Publications 2011.

  3. Assessing environmental effects on organic materials in cultural heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyatzis, Stamatis; Ioakimoglou, Eleni; Facorellis, Yorgos

    2015-01-01

    Under the auspices of INVENVORG (Thales Research Funding Program – NRSF), and within a holistic approach for assessing environmental effects on organic materials in cultural heritage (CH) artefacts, the effect of artificial ageing on elemental and molecular damage and their effects...... on the structural integrity of bone was investigated. Metapodial roe deer bone samples were artificially aged under humidity and atmospheres of sulfur and nitrogen oxides in room temperature. Elemental micro-analysis of bone material through SEM-EDX and molecular investigations through FTIR and Raman spectroscopy...

  4. [The cause and efficacy of benign tracheal stenosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhu-quan; Wei, Xiao-qun; Zhong, Chang-hao; Chen, Xiao-bo; Luo, Wei-zhan; Guo, Wen-liang; Wang, Ying-zhi; Li, Shi-yue

    2013-09-01

    To analysis the causes of benign tracheal stenosis and evaluate the curative effect of intraluminal bronchoscopic treatment. 158 patients with benign tracheal stenosis in our hospital from September 2005 to September 2012 were collected to retrospectively analysis the causes and clinic features of tracheal stenosis. Interventional treatments through bronchoscopy were used to treat the benign tracheal stenosis and the curative effects were evaluated. 158 cases of benign tracheal stenosis were recruited to our study, 69.6% of them were young and middle-aged. The main causes of benign tracheal stenosis were as follows: secondary to postintubation or tracheotomy in 61.4% (97/158), tuberculosis in 16% (26/158), benign tumor in 5.1% (8/158) and other 27 cases. 94.3% patients improved in symptoms with alleviation immediately after bronchoscopic treatment, the average tracheal diameter increased form (4.22 ± 2.06) mm to (10.16 ± 2.99) mm (t = 21.48, P benign tracheal stenosis were increasing year by year. The most common cause of benign tracheal stenosis was postintubation and tracheotomy. Interventional treatments through bronchoscopy is effective in treating benign tracheal stenosis, but repeated interventional procedures may be required to maintain the favorable long-term effects.

  5. Association between pathogens from tracheal aspirate and oral biofilm of patients on mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Luana Carneiro Diniz; Mota, Vanise Barros Rodrigues da; Carvalho, Alícia Valéria Dos Santos Zaranza de; Corrêa, Rita da Graça Carvalhal Frazão; Libério, Silvana Amado; Lopes, Fernanda Ferreira

    2017-06-05

    The aim of this study was to detect possible associations between respiratory pathogens from tracheal aspirate and oral biofilm samples in intubated patients in an intensive care unit (ICU), and to identify the most common respiratory pathogens in oral biofilm, particularly in patients that developed ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Two oral biofilm samples were collected from the tongue of intubated patients (at admission and after 48 hours) and analyzed by culture with the Antibiotic Sensitivity Test. The results from the tongue biofilm samples were compared with the tracheal secretions samples. A total of 59.37% of patients exhibited the same species of pathogens in their tracheal aspirate and oral biofilm, of which 8 (42.1%) developed VAP, 10 (52.63%) did not develop pneumonia and one (5.26%) had aspiration pneumonia. There was a statistically significant association between presence of microorganisms in the tracheal and mouth samples for the following pathogens: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter gergoviae, Streptococcus spp and Serratia marcescens (p aspirates of intubated patients can be detected in their oral cavity, especially in those who developed VAP or aspiration pneumonia. Thus, the results indicate that an improved oral care in these patients could decrease ICU pneumonia rates.

  6. Molecular identification of bacteria in tracheal aspirate fluid from mechanically ventilated preterm infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M Mourani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite strong evidence linking infections to the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD, limitations of bacterial culture methods have precluded systematic studies of airway organisms relative to disease outcomes. Application of molecular bacterial identification strategies may provide new insight into the role of bacterial acquisition in the airways of preterm infants at risk for BPD. METHODS: Serial (within 72 hours, 7, 14, and 21 days of life tracheal aspirate samples were collected from 10 preterm infants with gestational age ≤34 weeks at birth, and birth weight of 500-1250 g who required mechanical ventilation for at least 21 days. Samples were analyzed by quantitative real time PCR assays for total bacterial load and by pyrosequencing for bacterial identification. RESULTS: Subjects were diagnosed with mild (1, moderate (3, or severe (5 BPD. One patient died prior to determination of disease severity. 107,487 sequences were analyzed, with mean of 3,359 (range 1,724-4,915 per sample. 2 of 10 samples collected 70copies/reaction. 72 organisms were observed in total. Seven organisms represented the dominant organism (>50% of total sequences in 31/32 samples with positive sequences. A dominant organism represented>90% of total sequences in 13 samples. Staphylococcus, Ureaplasmaparvum, and Ureaplasmaurealyticum were the most frequently identified dominant organisms, but Pseudomonas, Enterococcus, and Escherichia were also identified. CONCLUSIONS: Early bacterial colonization with diverse species occursafter the first 3 days of life in the airways of intubated preterm infants, and can be characterized by bacterial load and marked species diversity. Molecular identification of bacteria in the lower airways of preterm infants has the potential to yield further insight into the pathogenesis of BPD.

  7. Antibiotic effects against periodontal bacteria in organ cultured tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Masaaki; Haraguchi, Akira; Miura, Mayumi; Hamachi, Takafumi; Fukuda, Takao; Sanui, Terukazu; Takano, Aiko; Nishimura, Fusanori

    2017-02-01

    Mechanical reduction of infectious bacteria by using physical instruments is considered the principal therapeutic strategy for periodontal disease; addition of antibiotics is adjunctive. However, local antibiotic treatment, combined with conventional mechanical debridement, has recently been shown to be more effective in periodontitis subjects with type 2 diabetes. This suggests that some bacteria may invade the inflamed inner gingival epithelium, and mechanical debridement alone will be unable to reduce these bacteria completely. Therefore, we tried to establish infected organ culture models that mimic the inner gingival epithelium and aimed to see the effects of antibiotics in these established models. Mouse dorsal skin epithelia were isolated, and periodontal bacteria were injected into the epithelia. Infected epithelia were incubated with test antibiotics, and colony-forming ability was evaluated. Results indicated that effective antibiotics differed according to injected bacteria and the bacterial combinations tested. Overall, in organ culture model, the combination of amoxicillin or cefdinir and metronidazole compensate for the effects of less effective bacterial combinations on each other. This in vitro study would suggest effective periodontal treatment regimens, especially for severe periodontitis.

  8. [Nuclear matrix organization of the chromocenters in cultured murine fibroblasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheval', E V; Poliakov, V Iu

    2010-01-01

    In the current work, the structural organization of nuclear matrix of pericentromeric heterochromatin blocks (chromocenters) inside cultured murine fibroblasts was investigated. After 2 M NaCl extraction without DNase I treatment, chromocenters were extremely swelled, and it was impossible to detect them using conventional electron microscopy. Using immunogolding with anti-topoisomerase IIalpha antibody, we demonstrated that residual chromocenters were subdivided into numerous discrete aggregates. After 2 M NaCl extraction with DNase I treatment, the residual chromocenters appeared as a dense meshwork of thin fibers, and using this feature, the residual chromocenters were easily distinguished from the rest of nuclear matrix. After extraction with dextran sulfate and heparin, the chromocenters were decondensed, and chromatin complexes having rosette organization (central core from which numerous DNA fibers radiated) were seen. Probably, the appearance of these rosettes was a consequence of incomplete chromatin extraction. Thus, the nuclear matrix of pericentromeric chromosome regions in cultured murine fibroblasts differs morphologically from the rest of nuclear matrix.

  9. Tracheal Constriction In A Growing Dog

    OpenAIRE

    DeArmond, Christina; Niimura del Barrio, Maria Chie; Rosati, Tomasso; McAllister, Hester; Ryan, John

    2017-01-01

    A six-month-old castrated male German Shepherd/Husky cross was presented for investigation of a progressive dyspnoea and regurgitation. A circumferential cervical wound had been identified and closed following debridement by the primary care veterinarian when the dog was three months old. There was an extraluminal tracheal compression on radiographs. Surgical exploration revealed a plastic band tied and embedded in the dorsal musculature of the neck. The band had been increasingly constrictin...

  10. Towards managing diversity: Cultural aspects of conflict management in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothea Hamdorf

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated cultural aspects of conflict management in organizations in response to the growing need for an understanding of how people from diverse cultural backgrounds can work together without the often-resulting problem of intercultural conflict. Culture was evaluated through self-assessments of how independent or interdependent the subjects were (Markus & Kitayama, 1991, and conflict behavior through eight conflict management styles: dominating, integrating, compromising, avoiding, obliging, emotion, neglect and third-party help (Rahim, 1983; Ting-Toomey et al., 2000. Furthermore, drawing upon face-negotiation theory (Ting-Toomey, 1988; Ting-Toomey & Kurogi, 1998, a test was made of whether self-face, other-face and mutual-face concerns could explain cultural differences in conflict behavior. A total of 185 professionals from different countries completed an Internet questionnaire. An exploratory factor analysis of the eight styles revealed three factors which seem to describe direct, indirect and integrating plus compromising conflict behaviors. In line with this study's hypotheses, persons with a tendency to act independently mentioned direct styles, as well as integrating, and persons with a tendency to act interdependently mentioned indirect styles in addition to integrating and compromising. Furthermore, a concern for self-face maintenance was related to direct conflict behavior, a concern for other-face maintenance to indirect conflict behavior, and a concern for mutual-face maintenance to integrating and compromising. However, persons with a tendency to act independently do not seem to be particularly concerned about self-face maintenance. Persons with a tendency to act interdependently, on the other hand, show other- and mutual-face concerns in conflict situations. It was concluded that face concerns do play a crucial role, but mainly in explaining the conflict behavior of persons with a tendency to act interdependently

  11. Recurred Post-intubation Tracheal Stenosis Treated with Bronchoscopic Cryotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ye-Ryung; Taek Jeong, Joon; Kyu Lee, Myoung; Kim, Sang-Ha; Joong Yong, Suk; Jeong Lee, Seok; Lee, Won-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Post-intubation tracheal stenosis accounts for the greatest proportion of whole-cause tracheal stenosis. Treatment of post-intubation tracheal stenosis requires a multidisciplinary approach. Surgery or an endoscopic procedure can be used, depending on the type of stenosis. However, the efficacy of cryotherapy in post-intubation tracheal stenosis has not been validated. Here, we report a case of recurring post-intubation tracheal stenosis successfully treated with bronchoscopic cryotherapy that had previously been treated with surgery. In this case, cryotherapy was effective in treating web-like fibrous stenosis, without requiring more surgery. Cryotherapy can be considered as an alternative or primary treatment for post-intubation tracheal stenosis. PMID:27853078

  12. Prevalence of streptococcus group B in tracheal tube secretions of neonates with respiratory distress: a brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosravi N

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infection with group B streptococcus (GBS can present with respiratory distress, Pneumonia, meningitis and Osteomyelitis in neonates. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of GBS colonization in trachea of intubated neonates.Methods: This observational analytic study was performed upon 33 intubated neonates due to respiratory distress in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU Rasoul Hospital in Tehran, Iran during 2010-2012. Tracheal secretions cultured upon TODD-HEWITT BROTH and sheep blood agar 5%., chi-square test was used for compare the qualitative variables. P<0.05 was considered meaningful.Results: Three cases had positive streptococcal culture (9.1% and four cases had posi-tive culture for non-streptococcal organisms. no meaningful relation observed between positive GBS culture and neonatal gender, kind of delivery, PROM.Conclusion: Prevalence of GBS positive results (9% in present study is very close to GBS colonization in pregnant women; although the higher colonization rate of pregnant women are expected.

  13. Replication of avian influenza viruses in equine tracheal epithelium but not in horses

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, Thomas M.; Balasuriya, Udeni B. R.; Reedy, Stephanie E.; Tiwari, Ashish

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated a hypothesis that horses are susceptible to avian influenza viruses by in vitro testing, using explanted equine tracheal epithelial cultures, and in vivo testing by aerosol inoculation of ponies. Results showed that several subtypes of avian influenza viruses detectably replicated in vitro. Three viruses with high in vitro replication competence were administered to ponies. None of the three demonstrably replicated or caused disease signs in ponies. While these results do not exh...

  14. Impact of tracheal cuff shape on microaspiration of gastric contents in intubated critically ill patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaillette, Emmanuelle; Brunin, Guillaume; Girault, Christophe; Zerimech, Farid; Chiche, Arnaud; Broucqsault-Dedrie, Céline; Fayolle, Cyril; Minacori, Franck; Alves, Isabelle; Barrailler, Stephanie; Robriquet, Laurent; Tamion, Fabienne; Delaporte, Emmanuel; Thellier, Damien; Delcourte, Claire; Duhamel, Alain; Nseir, Saad

    2015-09-25

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common infection in intubated critically ill patients. Microaspiration of the contaminated gastric and oropharyngeal secretions is the main mechanism involved in the pathophysiology of VAP. Tracheal cuff plays an important role in stopping the progression of contaminated secretions into the lower respiratory tract. Previous in vitro studies suggested that conical cuff shape might be helpful in improving tracheal sealing. However, clinical studies found conflicting results. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of conical tracheal cuff shape on the microaspiration of gastric contents in critically ill patients. This prospective cluster randomized controlled crossover open-label trial is currently being conducted in ten French intensive care units (ICUs). Patients are allocated to intubation with a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) standard (barrel)-shaped or a PVC conical-shaped tracheal tube. The primary objective is to determine the impact of the conical shaped tracheal cuff on abundant microaspiration of gastric contents. Secondary outcomes include the incidence of microaspiration of oropharyngeal secretions, tracheobronchial colonization, VAP and ventilator-associated events. Abundant microaspiration is defined as the presence of pepsin at significant level (>200 ng/ml) in at least 30 % of the tracheal aspirates. Pepsin and amylase are quantitatively measured in all tracheal aspirates during the 48 h following inclusion. Quantitative tracheal aspirate culture is performed at inclusion and twice weekly. We plan to recruit 312 patients in the participating ICUs. BEST Cuff is the first randomized controlled study evaluating the impact of PVC tracheal-cuff shape on gastric microaspirations in patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation. Enrollment began in June 2014 and is expected to end in October 2015. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01948635 (registered 31 August 2013).

  15. Cell-Culture Reactor Having a Porous Organic Polymer Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steven L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A method for making a biocompatible polymer article using a uniform atomic oxygen treatment is disclosed. The substrate may be subsequently optionally grated with a compatibilizing compound. Compatibilizing compounds may include proteins, phosphory1choline groups, platelet adhesion preventing polymers, albumin adhesion promoters, and the like. The compatibilized substrate may also have a living cell layer adhered thereto. The atomic oxygen is preferably produced by a flowing afterglow microwave discharge, wherein the substrate resides in a sidearm out of the plasma. Also, methods for culturing cells for various purposes using the various membranes are disclosed as well. Also disclosed are porous organic polymers having a distributed pore chemistry (DPC) comprising hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions, and a method for making the DPC by exposing the polymer to atomic oxygen wherein the rate of hydrophilization is greater than the rate of mass loss.

  16. Effects of preoperative irradiation on primary tracheal anastomosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsubota, N.; Simpson, W.J.; Van Nostrand, A.W.P.; Pearson, F.G.

    1975-01-01

    Preoperative radiotherapy was used in the management of selected patients with cancer of the lung or trachea who might subsequently require segmental resection of bronchus or trachea and reconstruction by primary anastomosis. This study was designed to determine the effects of varying dosages of preoperative irradiation on anastomotic healing. Two rings were resected from the cervical trachea of 20 dogs following irradiation with varying doses of cesium. There were no important adverse effects on healing of the trachea or adjacent organs in dogs receiving up to 3,500 rads. All dogs receiving a higher dose than this developed some anastomotic stenosis, which was severe in 6 of 8 animals. Similar adverse effects were observed in 2 patients managed by preoperative radiotherapy (4,000 rads in three weeks) and tracheal resection with primary anastomosis

  17. Effects of preoperative irradiation on primary tracheal anastomosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsubota, N.; Simpson, W.J.; Van Nostrand, A.W.P.; Pearson, F.G.

    1975-08-01

    Preoperative radiotherapy was used in the management of selected patients with cancer of the lung or trachea who might subsequently require segmental resection of bronchus or trachea and reconstruction by primary anastomosis. This study was designed to determine the effects of varying dosages of preoperative irradiation on anastomotic healing. Two rings were resected from the cervical trachea of 20 dogs following irradiation with varying doses of cesium. There were no important adverse effects on healing of the trachea or adjacent organs in dogs receiving up to 3,500 rads. All dogs receiving a higher dose than this developed some anastomotic stenosis, which was severe in 6 of 8 animals. Similar adverse effects were observed in 2 patients managed by preoperative radiotherapy (4,000 rads in three weeks) and tracheal resection with primary anastomosis.

  18. Corporate Culture- the Way of Increasing the Work Quality in Transport Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alžbeta Bielikova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with corporate culture in transport organization.The corporate culture has a momentary character and itis affected by continual confrontation with business prioritiesand by movement of external environment. For this reason theactivity of transport organization must be still adapted to customerexpectations and needs and c01porate culture must beadapted to this objective.

  19. Safety culture in regulatory expert organization : analysis result of survey for KINS employees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, G. S.; Choi, Y. S.

    2003-01-01

    Much has been discussed on safety culture of operating organizations, however, little has been done on that of regulatory organization. Current issues and activities related to nuclear safety culture at IAEA, OECD/NEA, etc. were investigated and relevant literatures were reviewed. Elements essential for safety culture of regulatory organization were proposed and survey questionnaire for employees of regulatory expert organization, KINS, was developed based on the elements proposed. The survey result was presented and its implications were discussed. Based on the result, elements of safety culture in regulatory organization were proposed. The result of this survey can be used in developing safety culture model of regulatory organization, measurement method and also promotion of safety culture in regulatory organization

  20. Do NPM-type reforms lead to a cultural revolution within public sector organizations?

    OpenAIRE

    Wynen, Jan; Verhoest, Koen

    2015-01-01

    Agencification and granting public sector organizations managerial autonomy in particular, is believed to change organizational cultures, away from traditional compliance- oriented, detail- oriented, bureaucratic cultures, and towards organizational cultures which are more oriented towards external customers. There is however very little empirical information on the relationship between managerial autonomy and organizational culture. Using a unique dataset on public agencies in Flanders we no...

  1. The role of organizational culture in improvement of professional ethics in research organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Baqi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Culture is the soul of an organization, which can cause advance or retrogress of the organization. This paper investigates the role of organizational culture on improvement and effectiveness of organizations. We identify and recognize the role of important components of organizational culture in effectiveness of professional ethics within organizations. The results show that there was a meaningful relationship between organizational interest and commitment, enhancement of stability and compatibility, teamwork moral, giving identity to the staff and the quality of professional ethics. The results obtained from the data analysis also indicate that organizational culture deeply affects the employees' behavior of an organization.

  2. Circumferential tracheal resection with primary anastomosis for post-intubation tracheal stenosis: study of 24 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negm, Hesham; Mosleh, Mohamed; Fathy, Hesham

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the results of circumferential tracheal and cricotracheal resection with primary anastomosis for the treatment of post-intubation tracheal and cricotracheal stenosis. This is a retrospective analytical study. A total number of 24 patients were included in this study. The relevant preoperative, operative and postoperative records were collected and analyzed. Twenty patients were finally symptom-free reflecting an anastomosis success rate of 83.3 %. Variable grades of anastomotic restenosis occurred in 11 (45.8 %) patients, three patients were symptom-free and eight had airway obstructive symptoms. Four out of the eight patients with symptomatic restenosis were symptom-free with endoscopic dilatation while the remaining four patients required a permanent airway appliance (T-tube, tracheostomy) for the relief of airway obstruction and this group was considered as anastomotic failure. Cricoid involvement, associated cricoid resection and the type of anastomosis were the variables that had statistical impact on the occurrence of restenosis (P = 0.017, 0.017, 0.05; respectively). Tracheal resection with primary anastomosis is a safe effective treatment method for post-intubation tracheal stenosis in carefully selected patients. Restenosis does not always mean failure of the procedure since it may be successfully managed with endoscopic dilatation.

  3. Role of management in the development of safety culture at the operating organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, W [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-09-01

    Role of management in the development of safety culture at the operating organization to offer practical suggestions to assist in the development or improvement of a progressive safety culture. 2 figs.

  4. Role of management in the development of safety culture at the operating organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, W.

    1997-01-01

    Role of management in the development of safety culture at the operating organization to offer practical suggestions to assist in the development or improvement of a progressive safety culture. 2 figs

  5. Bronchoscopic Treatment in the Management of Benign Tracheal Stenosis: Choices for Simple and Complex Tracheal Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalar, Levent; Karasulu, Levent; Abul, Yasin; Özdemir, Cengiz; Sökücü, Sinem Nedime; Tarhan, Merve; Altin, Sedat

    2016-04-01

    Bronchoscopic treatment is 1 of the treatment choices for both palliative and definitive treatment of benign tracheal stenosis. There is no consensus on the management of these patients, however, especially patients having complex stenoses. The aim of the present study was to assess, in the largest group of patients with complex stenoses yet reported, which types of tracheal stenosis are amenable to optimal management by bronchoscopic treatment. The present study was a retrospective cohort study including 132 consecutive patients with benign tracheal stenoses diagnosed between August 2005 and January 2013. The mean age of the study population was 52 ± 18 years; 62 (47%) were women and 70 (53%) were men. Their lesions were classified as simple and complex stenoses. Simple stenoses (n = 6) were treated with 12 rigid and flexible bronchoscopic procedures (mean of 2 per patient); 5 stents were placed. The total success rate was 100%. Among the 124 complex stenoses, 4 were treated directly with surgical intervention. In total, 481 rigid and 487 flexible bronchoscopic procedures were performed in these patients. In this group, the success rate was 69.8%. From the present study, we propose that after accurate classification, interventional bronchoscopic management may have an important role in the treatment of benign tracheal stenosis. Bronchoscopic treatment should be considered as first-line therapy for simple stenoses, whereas complex stenoses need a multidisciplinary approach and often require surgical intervention. However, bronchoscopic treatment may be a valid conservative approach in the management of patients with complex tracheal stenosis who are not eligible for operative treatment. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Synchrotron imaging of the grasshopper tracheal system: morphological and physiological components of tracheal hypermetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenlee, K.J.; Henry, J.R.; Kirkton, S.D.; Westneat, M.W.; Fezzaa, K.; Lee, W.; Harrison, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    As grasshoppers increase in size during ontogeny, they have mass specifically greater whole body tracheal and tidal volumes and ventilation than predicted by an isometric relationship with body mass and body volume. However, the morphological and physiological bases to this respiratory hypermetry are unknown. In this study, we use synchrotron imaging to demonstrate that tracheal hypermetry in developing grasshoppers (Schistocerca americana) is due to increases in air sacs and tracheae and occurs in all three body segments, providing evidence against the hypothesis that hypermetry is due to gaining flight ability. We also assessed the scaling of air sac structure and function by assessing volume changes of focal abdominal air sacs. Ventilatory frequencies increased in larger animals during hypoxia (5% O 2 ) but did not scale in normoxia. For grasshoppers in normoxia, inflated and deflated air sac volumes and ventilation scaled hypermetrically. During hypoxia (5% O 2 ), many grasshoppers compressed air sacs nearly completely regardless of body size, and air sac volumes scaled isometrically. Together, these results demonstrate that whole body tracheal hypermetry and enhanced ventilation in larger/older grasshoppers are primarily due to proportionally larger air sacs and higher ventilation frequencies in larger animals during hypoxia. Prior studies showed reduced whole body tracheal volumes and tidal volume in late-stage grasshoppers, suggesting that tissue growth compresses air sacs. In contrast, we found that inflated volumes, percent volume changes, and ventilation were identical in abdominal air sacs of late-stage fifth instar and early-stage animals, suggesting that decreasing volume of the tracheal system later in the instar occurs in other body regions that have harder exoskeleton.

  7. Synchrotron imaging of the grasshopper tracheal system : morphological and physiological components of tracheal hypermetry.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenlee, K. J.; Henry, J. R.; Kirkton, S. D.; Westneat, M. W.; Fezzaa, K.; Lee, W.; Harrison, J. F.; North Dakota State Univ.; Arizona State Univ.; Union Coll.; Field Museum of Natural History

    2009-11-01

    As grasshoppers increase in size during ontogeny, they have mass specifically greater whole body tracheal and tidal volumes and ventilation than predicted by an isometric relationship with body mass and body volume. However, the morphological and physiological bases to this respiratory hypermetry are unknown. In this study, we use synchrotron imaging to demonstrate that tracheal hypermetry in developing grasshoppers (Schistocerca americana) is due to increases in air sacs and tracheae and occurs in all three body segments, providing evidence against the hypothesis that hypermetry is due to gaining flight ability. We also assessed the scaling of air sac structure and function by assessing volume changes of focal abdominal air sacs. Ventilatory frequencies increased in larger animals during hypoxia (5% O{sub 2}) but did not scale in normoxia. For grasshoppers in normoxia, inflated and deflated air sac volumes and ventilation scaled hypermetrically. During hypoxia (5% O{sub 2}), many grasshoppers compressed air sacs nearly completely regardless of body size, and air sac volumes scaled isometrically. Together, these results demonstrate that whole body tracheal hypermetry and enhanced ventilation in larger/older grasshoppers are primarily due to proportionally larger air sacs and higher ventilation frequencies in larger animals during hypoxia. Prior studies showed reduced whole body tracheal volumes and tidal volume in late-stage grasshoppers, suggesting that tissue growth compresses air sacs. In contrast, we found that inflated volumes, percent volume changes, and ventilation were identical in abdominal air sacs of late-stage fifth instar and early-stage animals, suggesting that decreasing volume of the tracheal system later in the instar occurs in other body regions that have harder exoskeleton.

  8. Welded tracheal stent removal in a child under cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, S C; Chang, W K; Pong, M W; Cheng, K W; Chan, K H; Tsai, S K

    2003-08-01

    Metallic tracheal stents have been used in the treatment of paediatric tracheomalacia for more than a decade. We describe a case in which critical airway obstruction occurred during removal of a welded tracheal stent using a rigid bronchoscope under general anaesthesia. Life-saving cardiopulmonary bypass was instituted urgently, and the welded stent was then removed successfully by directly opening the trachea.

  9. Tracheal schwannoma: Completely resected with therapeutic bronchoscopic techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney Thomas Jesudason Isaac

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tracheal schwannomas are rare benign tumors of the trachea. There are only a few reported cases in the literature. Surgeons have generally resected these tumors, whereas bronchoscopists have attempted to remove them bronchoscopically. We report a case of tracheal schwannoma which was completely resected using bronchoscopic techniques.

  10. 21 CFR 868.5795 - Tracheal tube cleaning brush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tracheal tube cleaning brush. 868.5795 Section 868.5795 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5795 Tracheal tube cleaning brush. (a...

  11. What's in a name? Expiratory tracheal narrowing in adults explained

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leong, P.; Bardin, P.G.; Lau, K.K.

    2013-01-01

    Tracheomalacia, tracheobronchomalacia, and excessive dynamic airway collapse are all terms used to describe tracheal narrowing in expiration. The first two describe luminal reduction from cartilage softening and the latter refers to luminal reduction from exaggerated posterior membrane movement. Expiratory tracheal narrowing is a frequent occurrence that can cause symptoms of airway obstruction, such as dyspnoea, wheeze, and exercise intolerance. The accurate diagnosis and quantification of expiratory tracheal narrowing has important aetiological, therapeutic, and prognostic implications. The reference standard for diagnosis has traditionally been bronchoscopy; however, this method has significant limitations. Expiratory tracheal disorders are readily detected by four-dimensional dynamic volume multidetector computed tomography (4D-CT), an emerging, non-invasive method that will potentially enable detection and quantification of these conditions. This review discusses the morphological forms of expiratory tracheal narrowing and demonstrates the utility of 4D-CT in the diagnosis, quantification, and treatment of these important conditions

  12. INFORMATION TRANSPARENCY AS THE QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF ORGANIZATION CULTURE COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana M. Maksimova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is about the question of information transparency as the quality characteristics of the organizational culture.The author describes the new propertiesof the organizational culture arising in theconditions of informatization of economic relations, the relation between information content and organizational culture, the roleand functions of information transparencyin a modern company. In study elaborated a model of interaction between the components of organizational culture throughinformation transparency.

  13. Endoscopically placed nitinol stents for pediatric tracheal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Mukesh; Bent, John P; Ward, Robert F; April, Max M

    2002-11-11

    To provide preliminary clinical data regarding endoscopically placed nitinol stents for children with tracheal obstruction as a temporizing measure to allow for trach tube decannulation while awaiting growth to allow for tracheal resection. This case series describes the experiences of two children (ages 5 and 15) who were dependent upon tracheotomy because of acquired tracheal obstruction. Both patients had combined tracheomalacia and tracheal stenosis. After failing tracheoplasty with rib graft augmentation both patients suffered from extensive tracheal disease, which was too long to allow for immediate tracheal resection. Endoscopic placement of nitinol stents in the obstructed tracheal segment using fluoroscopic guidance. All tracheotomy tubes were removed immediately after successful stent deployment with the patient still under general anesthesia. Four stents were placed in total. The first patient's initial stent was too narrow and was, therefore, removed and replaced at a later date with a larger diameter stent. The second patient experienced distal migration of his initial stent requiring stent removal and replacement at a later date. Both patients remain successfully decannulated (follow-up, 25 and 26 months) and are currently living more normal lives as they grow and await tracheal resection. Preliminary use of nitinol stents for pediatric tracheal obstruction has enabled successful decannulation in two children with complicated airways. Our results with this series of patients suggest that nitinol stents can be safely used in children as a temporizing measure until tracheal resection can be safely performed. With this approach children can live free from the hassles of trach care, social isolation and peer ridicule. Limited pediatric experience exists in the literature about nitinol stents. Thus, our experience with stent selection and placement will help others avoid problems encountered in this initial series. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland

  14. Tracheal resections and anastomosis for benign tracheal stricture. A seven-year experience in a single tertiary institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mostafa

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: TRA proved to be a safe and reliable solution for post-intubation tracheal stenosis. This procedure should be considered first in developing countries where there is frequent rush for tracheostomies and tracheal stenting. Quality of life improved dramatically following this definitive surgery.

  15. Human hair follicle organ culture: theory, application and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Ewan A; Philpott, Michael P; Kloepper, Jennifer E; Paus, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    For almost a quarter of a century, ex vivo studies of human scalp hair follicles (HFs) have permitted major advances in hair research, spanning diverse fields such as chronobiology, endocrinology, immunology, metabolism, mitochondrial biology, neurobiology, pharmacology, pigmentation and stem cell biology. Despite this, a comprehensive methodological guide to serum-free human HF organ culture (HFOC) that facilitates the selection and analysis of standard HF biological parameters and points out both research opportunities and pitfalls to newcomers to the field is still lacking. The current methods review aims to close an important gap in the literature and attempts to promote standardisation of human HFOC. We provide basic information outlining the establishment of HFOC through to detailed descriptions of the analysis of standard read-out parameters alongside practical examples. The guide closes by pointing out how serum-free HFOC can be utilised optimally to obtain previously inaccessible insights into human HF biology and pathology that are of interest to experimental dermatologists, geneticists, developmental biologists and (neuro-) endocrinologists alike and by highlighting novel applications of the model, including gene silencing and gene expression profiling of defined, laser capture-microdissected HF compartments. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Tracheal transplantation for carinal reconstruction in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, K; Inutsuka, K; Hiratsuka, M; Makihata, S; Okabayashi, K; Shiraishi, T; Shirakusa, T

    1998-09-01

    Experimental carinal allotransplantation has been performed with tracheocarinal Y-shaped allografts in dogs. In this study we tried canine carinal reconstruction with cylindrical allografts. Carinal reconstruction was performed with allotransplantation of cylindrical trachea in dogs, and graft healing was evaluated by bronchoscopic observation, mucosal blood flow measurement, and histologic examination. A section of the recipient carina containing five tracheal rings and two main stem bronchi was removed, and a donor trachea seven rings long was inserted between the recipient trachea and the left main stem bronchus; then side-to-end anastomosis was performed between the graft midportion and recipient right main stem bronchus (new carina). The grafts were wrapped with pedicled omentum. Fresh grafts were transplanted into one group of dogs (n=8 ), and grafts cryopreserved for 1 week were transplanted into another group (n=7). No anastomotic leakage occurred in any dog. Excellent healing of grafts and graft anastomoses was observed by fiberoptic bronchoscopy in six dogs (75%) in the fresh graft group and in four dogs (57%) in the cryopreserved graft group. The mucosal blood flow in the new carina decreased remarkably and, although it recovered, mucosal blood flow remained under the preoperative level on day 28 after the operation. Cylindrical tracheal allotransplantation is useful for carinal reconstruction, and the method of side-to-end anastomosis between the donor trachea and recipient bronchus is a feasible and accessible procedure in dogs.

  17. What impedes knowledge sharing in culturally diverse organizations: Asking ethnographic questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Madsen, Mona Toft

    Ideas of linking cultural diversity and knowledge resources have recently gained momentum. However, only little research has empirically addressed the issues of knowledge sharing in diverse organizations. This explorative article is based on an ethnographic fieldwork in a Danish organization...

  18. Keeping patients safe in healthcare organizations: a structuration theory of safety culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Patricia S; Meisenbach, Rebecca J; Scott-Cawiezell, Jill

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the use of structuration theory to facilitate understanding and improvement of safety culture in healthcare organizations. Patient safety in healthcare organizations is an important problem worldwide. Safety culture has been proposed as a means to keep patients safe. However, lack of appropriate theory limits understanding and improvement of safety culture. The proposed structuration theory of safety culture was based on a critique of available English-language literature, resulting in literature published from 1983 to mid-2009. CINAHL, Communication and Mass Media Complete, ABI/Inform and Google Scholar databases were searched using the following terms: nursing, safety, organizational culture and safety culture. When viewed through the lens of structuration theory, safety culture is a system involving both individual actions and organizational structures. Healthcare organization members, particularly nurses, share these values through communication and enact them in practice, (re)producing an organizational safety culture system that reciprocally constrains and enables the actions of the members in terms of patient safety. This structurational viewpoint illuminates multiple opportunities for safety culture improvement. Nurse leaders should be cognizant of competing value-based culture systems in the organization and attend to nursing agency and all forms of communication when attempting to create or strengthen a safety culture. Applying structuration theory to the concept of safety culture reveals a dynamic system of individual action and organizational structure constraining and enabling safety practice. Nurses are central to the (re)production of this safety culture system. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Cross-cultural comparison of company organization structure

    OpenAIRE

    Hamad, Bakri Osman; Fröhner, Klaus-Dieter

    2000-01-01

    This study tends to quantify some differences of developed and developing countries in the field of human resources. Due to different social and cultural milieus, no global solution is available to fit each country. This fact necessitates a special examination for countries according to their cultural context. In this part of the study, the cultural and social influential elements of the working force in a developing country were examined. The specific elements of satisfaction and production ...

  20. Treatment of a case of tracheal stenosis in a dog with tracheal resection and anastomosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutlu, Z.; Acar, S.E.; Perk, C.

    2003-01-01

    A case of tracheal stenosis in the cervical portion of the trachea was encountered in a 5.5-month-old St. Bernard-Rottweiler cross dog. Breathing difficulty was seen in the clinical examination and presence of an obvious narrowing between the 3rd-5th cervical tracheal rings was determined in the radiological examination. Under general anesthesia the portion with stenosis was resected and the healthy trachea ends were anastomosed using the split cartilage technique. In the postoperative period the breathing difficulty disappeared and there was no development of a new stenosis in the anastomosis region. In the late period check-up the patient was seen to lead a healthy life

  1. Effects of acute respiratory virus infection upon tracheal mucous transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerrard, C.S.; Levandowski, R.A.; Gerrity, T.R.; Yeates, D.B.; Klein, E.

    1985-01-01

    Tracheal mucous velocity was measured in 13 healthy non-smokers using an aerosol labelled with /sup 99m/Tc and a multidetector probe during respiratory virus infections. The movement of boluses of tracheal mucous were either absent or reduced in number in five subjects with myxovirus infection (four influenza and one respiratory syncytial virus) within 48 hr of the onset of symptoms and in four subjects 1 wk later. One subject with influenza still had reduced bolus formation 12-16 wk after infection. Frequent coughing was a feature of those subjects with absent tracheal boluses. In contrast, four subjects with rhinovirus infection had normal tracheal mucous velocity at 48 hr after the onset of symptoms (4.1 +/- 1.3 mm/min). Tracheal mucous velocity was also normal (4.6 +/- 1.1 mm/min) in four subjects in whom no specific viral agent could be defined but had typical symptomatology of respiratory viral infection. During health tracheal mucous velocity was normal (4.8 +/- 1.6 mm/min) in the eleven subjects who had measurements made. Disturbances in tracheal mucous transport during virus infection appear to depend upon the type of virus and are most severe in influenza A and respiratory syncytial virus infection

  2. Propagation of jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) by organ and tissue culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, M.J.; McComb, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Micropropagation methods are described for the production of clonal lines from Eucalyptus marginata (jarrah) seedlings. Nodal explants from mature trees can also yield shoot cultures, but a high frequency of contamination occurs among such explants. Uncontaminated callus cultures can be produced from mature trees by culturing stamen filaments and shoots can subsequently be regenerated from this callus. The rooting percentage of shoot cultures from either nodes or stamen callus of mature trees is low compared with that from seedling explants. Considerable variation was observed between trees in the ability of stamen callus to regenerate shoots and in the frequency of rooting. (Refs. 27)

  3. Corporate culture and employment of people with disabilities: role of social workers and service provider organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samant, Deepti; Soffer, Michal; Hernandez, Brigida; Adya, Meera; Akinpelu, Omolara; Levy, Joel M; Repoli, Elizabeth; Kramer, Michael; Blanck, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Corporate culture reflects an organization's value system and impacts the recruitment, retention, and promotion of employees. Individuals with disabilities are positively impacted by a corporate culture that espouses and establishes a diverse workforce as a priority. This article provides an overview of corporate culture and the employment of individuals with disabilities, and presents a case example of the corporate culture of a large not-for-profit disability service organization. With an in-depth understanding of corporate culture and disability issues, social workers can be particularly helpful to applicants and employees with disabilities as well as employers.

  4. Tracheal growth after resection and anastomosis in puppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, H; Brochu, P; Bensoussan, A L; Lagacé, G; Khan, A H

    1986-09-01

    Tracheal morphology, morphometric changes, and growth and histologic changes were studied in puppies submitted to tracheal resection and anastomosis. Fifteen mongrel puppies about 12 weeks old and weighing on an average 5.5 kg were operated under general anesthesia using fluothane. A median cervicotomy incision was made in ten puppies (experimental group, EG) and the proximal 14 tracheal rings were resected (average length 5.08 cm or about 35% to 38% of total tracheal length). One layer anastomosis was done using vicryl 4.0 maintaining the average tension of 1,450 g. Five puppies (control group, CG) were submitted to tracheal transection and anastomosis and the following parameters were studied. Tracheal morphology the trachea of the EG was a rounded triangle whereas in the CG it was oval in shape, there was increase in the intercartilageneous spaces in the EG, no granulation tissue was present, two mucous webs were seen in the EG and one in the CG. Morphometric changes average tracheal length EG 13 cm, CG 17.7 cm, intercartilagenous space EG 3.08 mm, CG 1.3 mm, intercricothyroid space EG 1.2 cm, CG 0.53 cm, sagittal and transverse tracheal thickness at the anastomosis EG 2.6 and 3.3 mm, CG 2 and 1.5 mm, sagittal and transverse diameter reduced on an average 2 mm in EG. Histology Moderate fibrosis was found at the level of anastomosis with no modification of chondrocytes at the cartilagenous rings in the EG. Even with high anastomotic tension, the dogs had normal tracheal growth without stenosis; the sagittal and transverse growth at the anastomosis in the EG was 90% and 85%, respectively, when compared with the CG.

  5. Trypsin as enhancement in cyclical tracheal decellularization: Morphological and biophysical characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraldo-Gomez, D.M., E-mail: davidmauro2008@gmail.com [Posgrado en Ciencia e Ingeniería de Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Unidad de Posgrado Edificio “C” 1er Piso, Circuito de Posgrados, Avenida Universidad 3000, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, C.P. 04510, México D. F., México (Mexico); Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Circuito Exterior, Avenida Universidad 3000, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, C.P. 04510, México D.F., México (Mexico); Leon-Mancilla, B. [Departamento de Cirugía, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Edificio “D” Planta Baja, Circuito Interior, Avenida Universidad 3000, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, C.P. 04510, México D.F., México (Mexico); Del Prado-Audelo, M.L. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Circuito Exterior, Avenida Universidad 3000, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, C.P. 04510, México D.F., México (Mexico); and others

    2016-02-01

    There are different types of tracheal disorders (e.g. cancer, stenosis and fractures). These can cause respiratory failure and lead to death of patients. Several attempts have been made for trachea replacement in order to restore the airway, including anastomosis and implants made from synthetic or natural materials. Tracheal allotransplantation has shown high rejection rates, and decellularization has emerged as a possible solution. Decellularization involves the removal of antigens from cells in the organ or tissue, leaving a matrix that can be used as 3D cell-scaffold. Although this process has been used for tracheal replacement, it usually takes at least two months and time is critical for patients with tracheal disorders. Therefore, there is necessary to develop a tracheal replacement process, which is not only effective, but also quick to prepare. The aim of this research was to develop a faster trachea decellularization protocol using Trypsin enzyme and Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as decellularization agents. Three protocols of cyclic trachea decellularization (Protocols A, B, and C) were compared. Following Protocol A (previously described in the literature), 15 consecutive cycles were performed over 32 days. Protocol B (a variation of Protocol A) — EDTA being added — with 15 consecutive cycles performed over 60 days. Finally, Protocol C, with the addition of Trypsin as a decellularization agent, 5 consecutive cycles being performed over 10 days. For the three protocols, hematoxylin–eosin (H&E) staining and DNA residual content quantification were performed to establish the effectiveness of the decellularization process. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the changes in porosity and microarrays. To evaluate the structural matrices integrity, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and biomechanical test were used. None of the protocols showed significant alteration or degradation in the components of the extracellular matrix

  6. THE FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF CORPORATE CULTURE OF THE MEDICAL ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Zadvornaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of formation and development of corporate culture as the main factor of the successful functioning of medical organization in terms of optimization of activity of the health system. Discusses the importance and main directions of development of corporate culture for personal and organizational development. The authors identified features of the corporate culture of healthcare organizations, the approaches, showing the sequence and contents of the main practical activities on the formation, maintenance and development of corporate culture. Emphasized the need for further research and introduction of corporate culture and cultural values in health care organizations. Purpose/ objectives: to Study and evaluate the corporate culture of healthcare organizations to improve institutional management and increase of efficiency activity of medical organizations. Materials and methods: For data collection methods were used: direct observation, interviews, questionnaires. In conducting this study used data from official sources, a literature review, a systematic approach, comparative analysis, historical, sociological, statistical research methods. The results of the study indicate the need for concept development, tools implementation and development of corporate culture in the practice of the medical organizations.Conclusions/Significance: Corporate culture – the system of collectively shared values, symbols, beliefs, standards of behaviour employees of the organization that contributes to the originality and uniqueness of the activities of medical organizations that promote the identification of employees with the organization; Corporate culture is formed with the influence of factors external and internal environment of the organization, solving problems, external adaptation  and internal integration in the environment; Generated and promoted by the corporate culture is an important management tool, creates

  7. Organization culture and the marketing concept: diagnostic keys for hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, D R; Capella, L M; Sumrall, D A

    1987-03-01

    For successful adaptation to changing environmental conditions, hospital organizational cultures must incorporate the marketing concept to enhance flexibility and orientation toward the external environment. The authors propose procedures for diagnosing a hospital's culture and determining how well it has adopted and implemented the marketing concept.

  8. Organization a Culture of Self-Education of Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyganova, Elena Aleksandrovna; Yavgildina, Ziliya Mukhtarovna

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the culture of self-education of music teacher as a professionally necessary quality of a modern specialist in the field of music education. The author proposes finalized definitions of basic concepts; consistently reveals the essence, structure, criteria and indicators of self-culture of music teacher; reveals the potential…

  9. Polyflex stenting of tracheomalacia after surgery for congenital tracheal stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibballs, James; Fasulakis, Stephen; Robertson, Colin F; Berkowitz, Robert G; Massie, John; Brizard, Christian; Rose, Elizabeth; Bekhit, Elhamy; Eyres, Robert; Ragg, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Polyflex self-expanding stents (Rüsch, Germany) were used in three young children who had presented with life-threatening long-segment tracheal stenosis with bronchial stenosis in two cases. Two children had slide tracheoplasties and subsequently aortic homografts and another tracheal resection and autotracheoplasty. However, in all cases persistent lower tracheal malacia necessitated stenting. Complications of granuloma, stent migration or dislodgement occurred in all cases. A fatal tracheo-aortic fistula occurred in one child. Granuloma in one was treated successfully with steroids. One child survives.

  10. The importance of organizational culture for the performance of service organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Vrčon-Tratar, Nataša; Snoj, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Organizational culture as an internal consciousness of organizations as well as crucial determinant of their employee behaviour serves undoubtedly as an important phenomenon of scientific research especially from the perspective of its contribution to the performance of organizations as potential factor of their comperatitive advantage. In the paper authors discuss some aspects of organizational culture and try to find out if the right orientation and the strenght of organizational culture co...

  11. The relationship between information, organizational culture and decision making in an organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Danelon Lopes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Includes a documentary research on the relationship between information, organizational culture and decision making in an organization. Objective: The goal is to check the influence of information, considering the organizational culture, decision making in an organization. Methodology: The literature review include authors specialized in the areas of information (Belkin; Borko; Capurro; Choo; Tarapanoff; among others; culture (Fleury et al.; Moraes and Fadel; Nassar and Schein, decision making (Angeloni; Hoppen; Leitão and Nassif; Lousada and Valentim and Oliveira and organization (Bernardes and Marcondes and Maximiano. Results: That there may be a strong interdependency between information, culture and decision making in an organization. Conclusions: The information can facilitate understanding of the culture of an organization, how the processes of change occur and what alternatives can be raised so that she can achieve success in their decision-making process in order to ensure its perpetuation over time.

  12. Snake Envenomation Causing Distant Tracheal Myonecrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Khimani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Snakebites are often believed to be poisonous. However, this is not always the case. In fact, each bite differs from snake to snake, depending on if the snake is poisonous and if there is envenomation. Venom in pit viper snakebites is often associated with local necrosis. The abundant literature selections and research articles justify local myonecrosis due to envenomation, but there is not much in the literature regarding myonecrosis at a site distant from the snakebite. We hereby present a case of a 42-year-old man who was transferred to our emergency department after a rattlesnake bit him twice. The patient, besides developing local myonecrosis at the site of the snakebite, developed necrosis of the scrotum as well as tracheal pressure myonecrosis at the site of the endotracheal tube balloon. In this review, we will attempt to discuss the myonecrosis pathophysiology and management related to the rattle snakebite.

  13. Esophageal trachealization: A feature of eosinophilic esophagitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlHussaini, Abdulrahman A; Semaan, Toufic; ElHag, Imad A

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is an inflammatory condition characterized by intense eosinophilic infiltration of the esophagus. EE is frequently misdiagnosed as gastroesophageal reflux disease. Here, we present a child with EE and a characteristic endoscopic finding, r inged esophagus . An 11-year-old Saudi boy presented with dysphagia for 1 year. He had experienced an intermittent sensation of solid food sticking in his chest, which was relieved by drinking liquids. A barium swallow excluded anatomical causes of dysphagia, but revealed multiple-ringed esophagus. Endoscopy showed a furrowing and trachealizing appearance of the entire esophagus. Hisologically, extensive eosinophilic infiltration was a feature in biopsies obtained from the esophagus. The child responded well to a 2-month course of inhaled fluticasone. Symptoms recurred 3 months after discontinuation of therapy, which necessitated resumption of inhaled fluticasone. The endoscopic appearance of multiple esophageal rings should raise suspicion of EE and be confirmed by esophageal biopsies. (author)

  14. An action research study; cultural differences impact how manufacturing organizations receive continuous improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattman, Braden R.

    National culture and organizational culture impact how continuous improvement methods are received, implemented and deployed by suppliers. Previous research emphasized the dominance of national culture over organizational culture. The countries studied included Poland, Mexico, China, Taiwan, South Korea, Estonia, India, Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Japan. The research found that Canada was most receptive to continuous improvement, with China being the least receptive. The study found that organizational culture was more influential than national culture. Isomorphism and benchmarking is driving continuous-improvement language and methods to be more universally known within business. Business and management practices are taking precedence in driving change within organizations.

  15. Factors limiting deceased organ donation: focus groups' perspective from culturally diverse community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, L P

    2010-06-01

    In-depth understanding of cultural and religious factors limiting organ donation of three ethnic populations (Malay, Chinese, and Indian) in Southeast Asia is lacking. Identification of factors limiting organ donation among these three ethnic groups will provide insights into culturally appropriate strategies to promote acceptance of organ donation in a multiethnic Asian community. A total of 17 focus group discussions (105 participants) were conducted between September and December 2008. Participants were members of the general public aged 18 to 60 years, recruited through convenient sampling around the Klang Valley area of Malaysia. Although the majority had favorable attitudes toward deceased organ donation and transplantation, a diversity of myths and misinformation were unearthed from the discussions across the ethnic groups. These include perceived religious prohibition, cultural myths and misperceptions, fear of disfigurement, fear of surgery, distrust of the medical system, and family disapproval. Culture and religious beliefs played important prohibitive roles among those opposed to organ donations. There were distinctive ethnic differences in cultural and religious concerns regarding organ donation. Less-educated and rural groups appeared to have more misconceptions than the well-educated and the urban groups. Our findings may assist organ donation and transplantation organizations to reach diverse sociodemographic and ethnic communities with culture-specific information about organ donation. The involvement of community and religious leaders is critical in organ donation requests.

  16. Long-term organ culture of adult rat colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shamsuddin, A.K.M.; Barrett, L.A.; Autrup, Herman

    1978-01-01

    . The effect of in vivo carcinogen pretreatment was also studied. The explant culture from control untreated animals showed good epithelial differentiation with crypts until 6 weeks. In contrast, the explants from animals pretreated with 4 weekly doses of azoxymethane consistently showed epithelial......Colon explants from adult rats were maintained in culture for over 3 months in our laboratories with good epithelial preservation and cellular differentiation. The light and transmission electron microscopic features of rat colon mucosa during the culture period are described. In all the explants...

  17. Cultural organizations and communication in portuguese decentralization policy

    OpenAIRE

    Centeno, Maria João Anastácio

    2014-01-01

    This paper intends to show the Portuguese municipalities’ commitment, since the first decade of this century, in cultural facilities of municipal management and how it provided 12 of the 18 district capitals of mainland Portugal with cultural equipment, but after all we want to know if this effort resulted in a regular, diverse, and innovative schedule. Investing in urban regeneration, local governments have tried to convert cities’ demographic changes (strengthening of the most e...

  18. An exploratory study to identify critical factors of innovation culture in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Asgari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, there has been a growing trend on knowledge-based organizations. Innovation, on the other hand, plays essential role on building competitive business units. In this paper, we present an exploratory study to identify critical factors of innovation culture in organizations. We detect important factors influencing innovation culture in construction industry based on the implementation of factor analysis. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 400 experts who are involved in construction industry. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.779, which validates the overall questionnaire. The results of factor analysis have indicated that six factors of building cultural infrastructures, education, organizational vision, established culture, strategic culture and flexible culture are the most important items influencing innovation culture.

  19. The Efficacy of Polydioxanone Monofilament Absorbable Suture for Tracheal Anastomosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kawahara, Katsunobu; Yamasaki, Naoya; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Kusano, Hiroyuki; Akamine, Shinji; Takahashi, Takao; Tomita, Masao

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of polydioxanon absorbable suture for tracheal anastomoses, we performed an experimental study using dose. Eight adult mongrel dogs underwent sleeve resection of the mediastinal trachea. A length of ten to twelve cartilage rings was resected. An end-to-end anastomosis was performed using either interrupted or continuous running 4-0 polydioxanone (PDS) suture. There was no detectable difference bronchoscopically, microangiografically, or histologically, in tracheal ana...

  20. Traditions and Transitions in Quantitative Societal Culture Research in Organization Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Mark, F.; Søndergaard, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative societal culture research (QSCR) in organization studies crystallizes a configuration of social science perspectives and methods that became prominent in the 1970s. We consider the qualities of and boundaries around cultural groups that this tradition emphasizes, and other...... characteristics of cultural groups that it does not emphasize. Current debates surrounding this tradition reflect both recent social science innovations and rediscoveries of early social science perspectives. Our analysis of quantitative cross-cultural societal research in organization studies considers...... this process of crystallization, innovation and rediscovery. We suggest ways to address current controversies and promote conversations with other research approaches....

  1. Socio-psychological climate in organizations with various types of corporate culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonova Natalia Viktorovna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes interrelation of socio-psychological climate and corporate culture in organization. The paper demonstrates that there is a meaningful relation between the type of corporate culture and socio-psychological climate, thus the most favorable psychological climate is observed in organization with clan-type culture, while prevalence of hierarchical and market-type cultures is associated with reduction of favorable features of socio-psychological climate. Results of this study may be applied in management, organizational consulting, coaching.

  2. How Does Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation Drive Performance Culture in Organizations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Arielle

    2017-01-01

    The performance culture of an organization is impacted by the motivation of an organization's employee. Determining whether or not an employee's motivation is intrinsic or extrinsic is helpful for organizations to see what is more of a drive in their performance. The following article reviews literature on the subject of employee motivation to…

  3. Social and cultural issues in organ transplantation in Islamic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Faissal A M; Al-Jondeby, Mohammad; Kurpad, Ramprasad; Al-Khader, Abdullah A

    2004-01-01

    The importance of religion In Islamic countries is undoubted. Fatwas (opinion from religious scholars) have been passed in most Islamic countries approving the concepts of brain death and organ transplantation. There are some specific points that have be considered while talking of organ transplantation in Islamic countries. They include public attitude, taking organ(s) from donors who have committed suicide, the influence of local Imams as well as feeding breast milk, concept of spousal donation, timing of death as well as soul departure and extended families that exist in these countries. Sound knowledge of these factors is mandatory to any transplant coordinator and lack of sensitivity to these issues could be disastrous.

  4. ASCOT guidelines revised 1996 edition. Guidelines for organizational self-assessment of safety culture and for reviews by the assessment of safety culture in organizations team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In order to properly assess safety culture, it is necessary to consider the contribution of all organizations which have an impact on it. Therefore, while assessing the safety culture in an operating organization it is necessary to address at least its interfaces with the local regulatory agency, utility corporate headquarters and supporting organizations. These guidelines are primarily intended for use by any organization wishing to conduct a self-assessment of safety culture. They should also serve as a basis for conducting an international peer review of the organization's self-assessment carried out by an ASCOT (Assessment of Safety Culture in Organizations Team) mission

  5. The Role of Tracheal Stenting As an Alternative Treatment in Cicatricial and Non-Operable Tracheal Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Bagheri

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tracheal stenosis is normally caused by trauma, infection, benign and malignant tumors, prolonged intubation or tracheostomy. The best treatment for tracheal stenosis is resection and anastomosis of trachea. Yet the major surgical complication of tracheal surgery is postoperative stenosis. The goal of this paper is to study the result of tracheal stenting as a replacement therapy for patients suffering from tracheal stenosis who are not good candidates for surgery. Materials and Methods: This study presents the results of stenting in patients with: Inoperable tumoral stenosis,Non-tumoral stenosis being complicated due to prior surgeries,Inability to undergo a major surgery.The study was performed between September 2002 and July 2011 and poly flex stents were used by means of rigid bronchoscopy. Results: A total of 25 patients received stents during this study. Among them 15 patients suffered from benign and 10 suffered from malignant tracheal stenosis. The patients were followed up for at most 12 months after the stenting operation. The mean age of the patients was 35 years. The most common cause of stenosis was prolonged intubation (75%. The most common indication for stenting was the history of multiple tracheal operations. The most common complication of stenting and cause of stent removal was formation of granulation tissue. 30% of patients with benign tracheal stenosis were cured and about 10% improved until they could stand a major operation. Ten patients in benign group and 2 patients in malignant group (20% needed T-Tube insertion after stent removal but other patientcure by stenting. Conclusions: In benign cases stenting is associated with recurrence of symptoms which requires other therapeutic techniqus, so the stenting may not be named as a final solution in benign cases. However, this technique is the only method with approved efficacy for malignant cases with indication.

  6. Canine tracheal epithelial cells are more sensitive than rat tracheal epithelial cells to transforming growth factor beta induced growth inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbs, A.F.; Hahn, F.F.; Kelly, G.; Thomassen, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) markedly inhibited growth of canine tracheal epithelial (CTE) cells. Reduced responsiveness to TGFβ-induced growth inhibition accompanied neoplastic progression of these cells from primary to transformed to neoplastic. This was similar to the relationship between neoplastic progression and increased resistance to TGFβ-induced growth inhibition seen for rat tracheal epithelial (RTE) cells. The canine cells were more sensitive than rat cells to TGFβ-induced growth inhibition at all stages in the neoplastic process. (author)

  7. Understanding the Impact of Cultural Diversity on Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moon, Molly

    1997-01-01

    .... It is from this basic framework that tools such as empowerment, training, and mentoring are presented for leaders to consider when dealing with diversity in their organization. Finally, these tools are interrelated to a five-step continuous process developed by Ann M. Morrison that a leader can use in analyzing the diversity climate of their organization.

  8. Organ and plantlet regeneration of Menyanthes trifoliata through tissue culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Adamczyk-Rogozińska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for the regeneration of plants through organogenesis from callus tissues of Menyanthes trifoliata are described. The shoot multiplication rate was affected by basal culture media, the type and concentration of cytokinin and subculture number. The best response was obtained when caulogenic calli were cultured on the modified Schenk and Hildebrandt medium (SH-M containing indole-3-acetic acid (IAA 0,5 mg/l and 6-benzyladenine (BA 1 mg/l or zeatin (2 mg/l. Under these conditions ca 7 shoots (mostly 1 cm or more in length per culture in the 5th and 6th passages could be developed. In older cultures (after 11-12 passages there was a trend for more numerous but shorter shoot formation. All regenerated shoots could be rooted on the SH-M medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l IAA within 6 weeks; 80% of in vitro rooted plantlets survived their transfer to soil.

  9. Instituting Cultural Change at a Major Organization: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulek, Ronald E.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the development and implementation of a strategic cultural change program from a case study perspective. Initially, the article describes how the program was developed, including an explanation as to how a communication component was integrated into the program from inception. This integration helped reduce the anxiety that…

  10. Ionic currents and charge movements in organ-cultured rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, S; Marshall, M W; Robson, E

    1984-12-01

    The middle of the fibre voltage-clamp technique was used to measure ionic currents and non-linear charge movements in intact, organ-cultured (in vitro denervated) mammalian fast-twitch (rat extensor digitorum longus) muscle fibres. Muscle fibres organ cultured for 4 days can be used as electrophysiological and morphological models for muscles in vivo denervated for the same length of time. Sodium currents in organ-cultured muscle fibres are similar to innervated fibres except that in the temperature range 0-20 degrees C (a) in the steady state, the voltage distribution of inactivation in cultured fibres is shifted negatively some 20 mV; (b) at the same temperature and membrane potential, the time constant of inactivation in cultured fibres is about twice that of innervated fibres. Potassium currents in innervated and cultured fibres at 15 degrees C can be fitted with the Hodgkin-Huxley n variable raised to the second power. Despite the large range we would estimate that the maximum value of the steady-state potassium conductance of cultured fibres is about one-half that of innervated fibres. The estimated maximum amount of charge moved in cultured fibre is about one-third that in innervated fibres. Compared to innervated fibres, culturing doubles the kinetics of the decay phase of charge movement. The possibility of a negative shift of the voltage distribution of charge movements in cultured fibres is discussed.

  11. Enhanced expression of contractile endothelin ET(B) receptors in rat coronary artery after organ culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsson, E.; Maddahi, A.; Wackenfors, A.

    2008-01-01

    . In cardiovascular disease and in organ culture in vitro, endothelin ET(B) receptors are up-regulated on smooth muscle cells. The objectives of the present study were to characterise the endothelin receptor-induced vasoconstriction and quantify the endothelin receptor mRNA levels and immunoreactivity in fresh...... and cultured rat coronary arteries. We demonstrate that endothelin-1 induces strong and equal concentration-dependent contractions in fresh and cultured segments from the left anterior descending coronary artery. Sarafotoxin 6c, an endothelin ET(B) receptor agonist, had negligible effect in fresh arteries...... but produced significant vasoconstriction after organ culture. The endothelin ET(B) receptor mRNA level and the receptor protein immunoreactivity were increased, whereas the level of endothelin ET(A) receptor mRNA was down-regulated but not its receptor protein immunoreactivity after organ culture...

  12. The Impact of Organization Culture on Satisfaction of Engineers in Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Jerry W.; Takada, Pamela W.; Roth, Axel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In today's technological workplace with the shortage of qualified knowledge workers, the factors that lead to job satisfaction have increasing importance. Several past studies have indicated that knowledge worker job satisfaction increases when Herzberg motivators are present. Other research has indicated that job satisfaction improves as the degree of organic organizational culture increases. After examining the factors that led to knowledge worker job satisfaction, the current study was undertaken. Knowledge workers in varying organizational cultures were surveyed in an effort to determine if there is a relationship between the degree of knowledge worker job satisfaction and the measure of organic organization culture. Two survey instruments, the Organizational Cultural Assessment (OCA) developed by Riegle, and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ), were utilized. The OCA delineates degree of organic culture present whereas the MSQ measures job satisfaction. Results of both surveys were statistically analyzed to determine if knowledge workers experience higher satisfaction levels in organic organizational cultures. Once data was analyzed and the hypothesis proven, this could lead companies to move toward an organic culture with emphasis on motivators in an effort to make their organizational culture more conducive to higher employee retention. Through understanding the factors that lead to increased job satisfaction, corporate resources could more efficiently utilized. A total of eight high technology workplaces were surveyed. Five of the eight workplaces yielded statistically significant positive correlation between a positive organizational culture and increased job satisfaction. These initial results indicate the connection between culture and job satisfaction. The relationship will be further analyzed through future surveys of numerous high technology workplaces.

  13. Experimental use of new absorbable tracheal stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, Luciano F; Fraga, José Carlos; Porto, Rodrigo; Santos, Luis A; Marques, Douglas R; Sanchez, Paulo R; Meyer, Fabíola S; Ulbrich, Jane M

    2017-11-16

    Silicone and metallic stents are not effective in children with tracheobronchial stenosis or tracheomalacia. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the clinical manifestations and histological reaction of rabbit trachea to the presence of a new poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) with polyisoprene (PLGA/PI) polymer absorbable stent. Fourteen adult white rabbits (weight, 3.0-3.5kg) were randomly assigned to three groups: Group I (n=6): PLGA/PI spiral stent; Group II (n=6): PLGA/PI fragment; and Group III (n=2): controls. After a longitudinal incision on three cervical tracheal rings, the stents and fragments were inserted into the trachea and fixed onto the lateral wall with nonabsorbable sutures. The stented group showed significantly more stridor at rest (p=0.0041), agitation (p=0.014), and use of accessory muscles (p=0.0002) and required more emergency endoscopies than the fragment group. Further, it showed significantly more remarkable histological inflammatory damage than the fragment and control groups (p=0.002). The new PLGA/PI polymeric stent implanted into the trachea of rabbits caused more clinical manifestations and histologically verified inflammatory reaction than the PLGA/PI polymeric fragment. Future studies should be aimed at reducing the stent-wall thickness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fetal MRI in experimental tracheal occlusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedegaertner, Ulrike [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20251 Hamburg (Germany)]. E-mail: wedegaer@uke.uni-hamburg.de; Schroeder, Hobe J. [Experimental Gynecology, Department of Obstetrics and Prenatal Medicine, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Adam, Gerhard [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-02-15

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is associated with a high mortality, which is mainly due to pulmonary hypoplasia and secondary pulmonary hypertension. In severely affected fetuses, tracheal occlusion (TO) is performed prenatally to reverse pulmonary hypoplasia, because TO leads to accelerated lung growth. Prenatal imaging is important to identify fetuses with pulmonary hypoplasia, to diagnose high-risk fetuses who would benefit from TO, and to monitor the effect of TO after surgery. In fetal imaging, ultrasound (US) is the method of choice, because it is widely available, less expensive, and less time-consuming to perform than magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, there are some limitations for US in the evaluation of CDH fetuses. In those cases, MRI is helpful because of a better tissue contrast between liver and lung, which enables evaluation of liver herniation for the diagnosis of a high-risk fetus. MRI provides the ability to determine absolute lung volumes to detect lung hypoplasia. In fetal sheep with normal and hyperplastic lungs after TO, lung growth was assessed on the basis of cross-sectional US measurements, after initial lung volume determination by MRI. To monitor fetal lung growth after prenatal TO, both MRI and US seem to be useful methods.

  15. Cultural Meanings Construction: An Analysis of the Organic Grape Juice Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Dalmoro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the meanings networks that involve markets, this research aims to analyze cultural meanings production in the organic grape juice market, involving consumers and producers agents. It was adopted a qualitative approach with an interpretative character by interviews with 25 consumers and producers. Cultural meanings construction description and analysis involved the socio-cultural context, interaction between agents (producers and consumers and meanings assigned by each agent. Organics are meant as food for both agents. However, others meanings associated to organics operate in dichotomic levels. It results in a non-homogeneous network between producers and consumers, reflecting the different cultural universe of each agent. These results mainly contribute in understanding the patterns of production and consumption around the food market. The lack of consolidated networks of meanings limit the construction and establishment of organic products market structures.

  16. Successful Treatment of Anterior Tracheal Necrosis after Total Thyroidectomy Using Vacuum-Assisted Closure Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégory Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Total thyroidectomy involving the adjacent structures of the trachea can cause tracheal damage such as early tracheal necrosis. The authors describe the first case of anterior tracheal necrosis following total thyroidectomy treated using vacuum-assisted closure device. After two weeks of VAC  therapy, there was no evidence of ongoing infection and the trachea was partially closed around a tracheotomy cannula, removed after 3 months. The use of a VAC  therapy to reduce and close the tracheal rent and to create a rapid granulation tissue over tracheal structure appeared as a good opportunity after anterior tracheal necrosis.

  17. Culture on trust within organizations between China and the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, K. G.

    2006-01-01

    This research paper looks into the social aspect of the topic "Trust" in between the Chinese and British construction industry. It will also see how culture affects trust in the relationships between management levels within contracting organisations. Many theories by other scholars have looked upon and developed on further. The research consists of analysis of questionnaires filled out by different management levels in many organisations between China and the UK, and are presented in graphs ...

  18. Training Culture: A New Conceptualization to Capture Values and Meanings of Training in Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, Federica; Cervai, Sara; Kantola, Jussi

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to introduce and validate the concept of training culture defined as a subset of the main organizational culture that allows examining meanings and values attributed to the training within an organization by management and employees. Design/methodology/approach: This study, following the deductive scale…

  19. Organizational Learning Culture, Learning Transfer Climate and Perceived Innovation in Jordanian Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Reid; Khasawneh, Samer

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between organizational learning culture, learning transfer climate, and organizational innovation. The objective was to test the ability of learning organization culture to account for variance in learning transfer climate and subsequent organizational innovation, and to examine the role of learning transfer…

  20. Educational Leaders' Doctoral Research That Informed Strategies to Steer Their Organizations towards Cultural Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taysum, Alison

    2016-01-01

    This research generates new knowledge about how 24 educational leaders in the USA and England used their doctoral research to build narrative capital to inform strategies to steer their organizations towards cultural alignment. Cultural alignment prevents forms of segregation rooted in nation-states' wider historiography of education segregation…

  1. AN EMBRYONIC CHICK PANCREAS ORGAN CULTURE MODEL: CHARACTERIZATION AND NEURAL CONTROL OF EXOCRINE RELEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    An embryonic chick (Gallus domesticus) whole-organ pancreas culture system was developed for use as an in vitro model to study cholinergic regulation of exocrine pancreatic function. The culture system was examined for characteristic exocrine function and viability by measuring e...

  2. [Self-expanding nitinol stents in proximal tracheal stenosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, B; Mann, W; Heussel, C P; Scherhag, A; Schlegel, J; Kauczor, H U

    2000-03-01

    The use of silicone- or metal stents in stenosis of the distal trachea and the bronchial system is a customary procedure [1-4], for example after tumor invasion or cicatricial stenosis after transplantation. In the proximal part of the trachea, on smaller, short and soft strictures we try to stabilise the trachea by the implantation of rings. Other methods are tracheal plasty or transverse tracheal resectomy [5-7]. In the case of longer or nearer subglottal stenoses the positioning of self-expanding nitinol stents has proven a simple, gentle and well-tolerated alternative procedure even in very serious disorders [1, 8, 9]. These stents can be placed in short narcosis under endoscopic control without great strain on the patient. We placed nitinol-stents in the proximal part of the trachea in eleven cases. In five cases dyspnoea caused by a tracheal collapse improved. In two further cases a tracheal stenosis with massive granulation tissue and cicatricial pull under an inlaid tracheal cannula was removed and the tracheostoma was closed. In four cases a solid, scarred and cartilaginous stenosis in the area of the cricoid and the upper tracheal rings was widened with laser and later on stented. Over an observation time of two years no complications showed safe one case in which a directly postoperative dislocation was repositioned quickly. The patients live without restrictions through the tracheal stenosis or a tracheostoma. In the best possible case epithelialization over the metal meshes develops so that a nearly normal mucus transportation is possible [1, 10-12].

  3. Cardiotonic agent milrinone stimulates resorption in rodent bone organ culture.

    OpenAIRE

    Krieger, N S; Stappenbeck, T S; Stern, P H

    1987-01-01

    The cardiotonic agent amrinone inhibits bone resorption in vitro. Milrinone, an amrinone analog, is a more potent cardiotonic agent with lower toxicity. In contrast to amrinone, milrinone stimulated resorption in cultures of neonatal mouse calvaria and fetal rat limb bones. Threshold doses were 0.1 microM in calvaria and 0.1 mM in limb bones; maximal stimulation occurred in calvaria at 0.1 mM. Maximal responses to milrinone and parathyroid hormone were comparable. Milrinone concentrations bel...

  4. The role of transformational leadership and organizational culture in service delivery within a public service organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ophillia Ledimo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Continuous changes in the external environment deriving from legislative, economic and technological factors, puts pressure not only to corporate organizations, but also to public service organizations. These changes have increased pressure on service delivery and calls for accountability in public service organizations. With this increased pressure comes the need for public service organizations to discover how to most effectively enhance their organizational performance. Two of the most effective ways to improve performance are through the organizational leadership and culture. Although many studies were conducted on transformational leadership and organizational culture, there is still a need to investigate the link between these constructs in public service organizations. Hence the objective of this study was to explore the relationship between transformational leadership and organizational culture for service delivery practices. The Leadership Practice Inventory (LPI and Organizational Culture Inventory (OCI were administered to a random sample size of N=238, from a population of 4350 employees working within the public service organization. Descriptive statistics and Pearson’s correlation were conducted to analyse the data. The results of this study indicated a significant positive relationship between transformational leadership and the constructive dimension of organizational culture within a public service organization. In terms of contributions and practical implications, insight gained from the findings may be used in proposing leadership and organizational development interventions and future research

  5. Enhancement of organic supplements and local fertilisers in culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... An organic supplement, either yeast extract or biotin or folic acid, in the Viking ... sucrose, 1 g l–1 activated charcoal, and 2.0 g l–1 Phytagel in the pre- sence or ..... Tanaka and Sakanishi (1977, 1980) used solid and liquid.

  6. The use of organic and inorganic cultures in improving vegetative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-14

    Mar 14, 2011 ... used in a wide range around the world and organic com- post is one of ... pH and better availability of soil microorganism (Khandar and Nigam ...... on growth and nitrogen uptake of container-grown olive plant. Acta. Hortic.

  7. Culturing Reality: How Organic Chemistry Graduate Students Develop into Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Gautam; Bodner, George M.

    2014-01-01

    Although one of the presumed aims of graduate training programs is to help students develop into practitioners of their chosen fields, very little is known about how this transition occurs. In the course of studying how graduate students learn to solve organic synthesis problems, we were able to identify some of the key factors in the epistemic…

  8. Organ Culture as a Model System for Studies on Enterotoxin Interactions with the Intestinal Epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Ulver Spangsberg; Hansen, Gert H; Danielsen, E Michael

    2015-01-01

    Studies on bacterial enterotoxin-epithelium interactions require model systems capable of mimicking the events occurring at the molecular and cellular levels during intoxication. In this chapter, we describe organ culture as an often neglected alternative to whole-animal experiments or enterocyte......-like cell lines. Like cell culture, organ culture is versatile and suitable for studying rapidly occurring events, such as enterotoxin binding and uptake. In addition, it is advantageous in offering an epithelium with more authentic permeability/barrier properties than any cell line, as well...

  9. On the Morphological Description of Tracheal and Esophageal Displacement and Its Phylogenetic Distribution in Avialae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy J Klingler

    Full Text Available This research examines the evolution and phylogenetic distribution of a peculiar and often overlooked character seen in birds, herein called tracheal and esophageal displacement. Tracheal and esophageal displacement refers to an asymmetrically situated trachea and/or esophagus along the length of the neck. This contrasts with what would be perceived as the "normal" (midsagittal placement of these organs, wherein the two organs are situated along the ventral midline of the neck with no deviation. A total of forty-two bird species were examined (thirty-six of which came from dissections whereas six came from comments from previous literature or personal observations, as well as turtles, lizards, crocodylians, and mammals. This study found that essentially all birds have a laterally displaced trachea and/or esophagus. Lizards and mammals were seen to have normal, midsagittally placed tracheae and esophagi. Crocodylians were interesting in that alligators were defined by a normally situated trachea and esophagus whereas some crocodiles were characterized by displacement. In birds, the displacement may occur gradually along the neck, or it may happen immediately upon exiting the oropharynx. Displacement of these organs in birds is the result of a heavily modified neck wherein muscles that restrict mobility of the trachea and esophagus in lizards, alligators, and mammals (e.g., m. episternocleidomastoideus, m. omohyoideus, and m. sternohyoideus no longer substantially restrict positions of the trachea and esophagus in birds. Rather, these muscles are modified in ways which may assist with making tracheal movements. The implications of this study may provide interesting insights for future comparisons in extinct taxa.

  10. On the Morphological Description of Tracheal and Esophageal Displacement and Its Phylogenetic Distribution in Avialae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingler, Jeremy J.

    2016-01-01

    This research examines the evolution and phylogenetic distribution of a peculiar and often overlooked character seen in birds, herein called tracheal and esophageal displacement. Tracheal and esophageal displacement refers to an asymmetrically situated trachea and/or esophagus along the length of the neck. This contrasts with what would be perceived as the “normal” (midsagittal) placement of these organs, wherein the two organs are situated along the ventral midline of the neck with no deviation. A total of forty-two bird species were examined (thirty-six of which came from dissections whereas six came from comments from previous literature or personal observations), as well as turtles, lizards, crocodylians, and mammals. This study found that essentially all birds have a laterally displaced trachea and/or esophagus. Lizards and mammals were seen to have normal, midsagittally placed tracheae and esophagi. Crocodylians were interesting in that alligators were defined by a normally situated trachea and esophagus whereas some crocodiles were characterized by displacement. In birds, the displacement may occur gradually along the neck, or it may happen immediately upon exiting the oropharynx. Displacement of these organs in birds is the result of a heavily modified neck wherein muscles that restrict mobility of the trachea and esophagus in lizards, alligators, and mammals (e.g., m. episternocleidomastoideus, m. omohyoideus, and m. sternohyoideus) no longer substantially restrict positions of the trachea and esophagus in birds. Rather, these muscles are modified in ways which may assist with making tracheal movements. The implications of this study may provide interesting insights for future comparisons in extinct taxa. PMID:27648952

  11. Vardenafil inhibiting parasympathetic function of tracheal smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Fei-Peng; Chao, Pin-Zhir; Wang, Hsing-Won

    2018-07-01

    Levitra, a phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitor, is the trade name of vardenafil. Nowadays, it is applied to treatment of erectile dysfunction. PDE5 inhibitors are employed to induce dilatation of the vascular smooth muscle. The effect of Levitra on impotency is well known; however, its effect on the tracheal smooth muscle has rarely been explored. When administered for sexual symptoms via oral intake or inhalation, Levitra might affect the trachea. This study assessed the effects of Levitra on isolated rat tracheal smooth muscle by examining its effect on resting tension of tracheal smooth muscle, contraction caused by 10 -6  M methacholine as a parasympathetic mimetic, and electrically induced tracheal smooth muscle contractions. The results showed that adding methacholine to the incubation medium caused the trachea to contract in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of Levitra at doses of 10 -5  M or above elicited a significant relaxation response to 10 -6  M methacholine-induced contraction. Levitra could inhibit electrical field stimulation-induced spike contraction. It alone had minimal effect on the basal tension of the trachea as the concentration increased. High concentrations of Levitra could inhibit parasympathetic function of the trachea. Levitra when administered via oral intake might reduce asthma attacks in impotent patients because it might inhibit parasympathetic function and reduce methacholine-induced contraction of the tracheal smooth muscle. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  12. Failed tracheal intubation using a laryngoscope and intubating laryngeal mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, T; Hirose, T; Shingu, K

    2000-04-01

    To report unexpected failed tracheal intubation using a laryngoscope and an intubating laryngeal mask, and difficult ventilation via a facemask, laryngeal mask and intubating laryngeal mask, in a patient with an unrecognized lingual tonsillar hypertrophy. A 63-yr-old woman, who had undergone clipping of an aneurysm seven weeks previously, was scheduled for ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. At the previous surgery, there had been no difficulty in ventilation or in tracheal intubation. Her trachea remained intubated nasally for 11 days after surgery. Preoperatively, her consciousness was impaired. There were no restrictions in head and neck movements or mouth opening. The thyromental distance was 7 cm. After induction of anesthesia, manual ventilation via a facemask with a Guedel airway was suboptimal and the chest expanded insufficiently. At laryngoscopy using a Macintosh or McCoy device, only the tip of the epiglottis, but not the glottis, could be seen, and tracheal intubation failed. There was a partial obstruction during manual ventilation through either the intubating laryngeal mask or conventional laryngeal mask; intubation through each device failed. Digital examination of the pharynx, after removal of the laryngeal mask, indicated a mass occupying the vallecula. Lingual tonsillar hypertrophy (1 x 1 x 2 cm) was found to be the cause of the failure. Awake fibrescope-aided tracheal intubation was accomplished. Unexpected lingual tonsillar hypertrophy can cause both ventilation and tracheal intubation difficult, and neither the laryngeal mask nor intubating laryngeal mask may be helpful in the circumstances.

  13. [The source and factors that influence tracheal pulse oximetry signal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiao-hua; Wei, Wei; Wang, Jian; Mu, Ling; Wang, Li

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the source and factors that influence tracheal pulse oximetry signal. The adult mongrel dog was intubated after anesthesia. The tracheal tube was modified by attaching a disposable pediatric pulse oximeter to the cuff. The chest of the dog was cut open and a red light from the tracheal oximeter was aligned with the deeper artery. The changes in tracheal pulse oxygen saturation (SptO2) signal were observed after the deeper artery was blocked temporarily. The photoplethysmography (PPG) and readings were recorded at different intracuff pressures. The influence of mechanical ventilation on the signal was also tested and compared with pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2). The SptO2 signal disappeared after deeper artery was blocked. The SptO2 signal changed with different intracuff pressures (P signal appeared under 20-60 cm H2O of intracuff pressure than under 0-10 cm H2O of intracuff pressure(P signal under a condition with mechanical ventilation differed from that without mechanical ventilation (P signal is primarily derived from deeper arteries around the trachea, not from the tracheal wall. Both intracuff pressures and mechanical ventilation can influence SptO2 signal. The SptO2 signal under 20-60 cm H2O of intracuff pressure is stronger than that under 0-10 em H2O of intracuff pressure. Mechanical ventilation mainly changes PPG.

  14. Autoradiographic localization of a gluten peptide during organ culture of human duodenal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluge, G.; Aksnes, L.

    1983-01-01

    An 125I-labeled subfraction of Frazer's fraction III (molecular weight, 8,000) was added to the culture medium during organ culture of duodenal biopsies from two patients with celiac disease in exacerbation. The isotope-labeled gluten peptide was localized by autoradiography after 6, 12, and 24 h of culture. At 6 h, labeling was located mainly in the basal layers of the biopsies. The tissue was well preserved. After 12 h in culture, the labeling had spread to the lamina propria and the crypts. A few grains were located over enterocytes and desquamated cells. Moderate histological signs of toxicity were observed. After 24 h, there was marked toxic deterioration, comparable to that seen after culture with alpha-gliadin. Labeling had spread throughout the entire section. There seemed to be no specificity of the binding, for the entire section was affected. Culture with the identical gluten fraction, in the radionegative state, produced histological deterioration comparable to that seen after exposure to the isotope-labeled peptide. Gluten peptides are presented to the target cells in a unique way during organ culture, different from in vivo conditions. This may influence the results when the organ culture method is used to investigate the pathogenesis of celiac disease

  15. Autoradiographic localization of a gluten peptide during organ culture of human duodenal mucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluge, G.; Aksnes, L.

    1983-01-01

    An 125I-labeled subfraction of Frazer's fraction III (molecular weight, 8,000) was added to the culture medium during organ culture of duodenal biopsies from two patients with celiac disease in exacerbation. The isotope-labeled gluten peptide was localized by autoradiography after 6, 12, and 24 h of culture. At 6 h, labeling was located mainly in the basal layers of the biopsies. The tissue was well preserved. After 12 h in culture, the labeling had spread to the lamina propria and the crypts. A few grains were located over enterocytes and desquamated cells. Moderate histological signs of toxicity were observed. After 24 h, there was marked toxic deterioration, comparable to that seen after culture with alpha-gliadin. Labeling had spread throughout the entire section. There seemed to be no specificity of the binding, for the entire section was affected. Culture with the identical gluten fraction, in the radionegative state, produced histological deterioration comparable to that seen after exposure to the isotope-labeled peptide. Gluten peptides are presented to the target cells in a unique way during organ culture, different from in vivo conditions. This may influence the results when the organ culture method is used to investigate the pathogenesis of celiac disease.

  16. Cultural intelligence and network organizations in society: Case of Tehran neighborhood councils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salamzadeh Yashar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Network communications is one of the modern ideas in the field of organizational behavior. On the other hand, the ability to communicate with employees and understand the cultural differences between them in a multicultural environment is one of the key skills that managers and employees need them in the nowadays organizations. These skills are introduced as cultural intelligence in organizations that have ability to respond to many challenges in multicultural environments. This article was aimed to analysis the relationship between cultural intelligence and network communication. These questionnaires were distributed between 134 members at the Tehran neighborhood councils. In order to analyzing data and concluding results, SPSS, and then Pearson correlation test were used. The research was done based on structural equation modeling (SEM. The result indicated that there was significant positive relationship between cultural intelligence and network communication. Also there was significant positive relationship between each dimension of cultural intelligence and network communication. Findings show that cultural intelligence is a basic factor in network communication and confirm the main hypothesis of this study which represents the existence of a positive and meaningful relation between cultural intelligence and network communication. Furthermore, the results show that considering this kind of intelligence, especially in network organizations which has a high ethnic and cultural variety, could be very useful for improve employees and managers communications.

  17. The influence of organizational culture on building a learning organization

    OpenAIRE

    Piłat, Michał

    2011-01-01

    The organizations of the 21st century more and more often see their human resources as the most valuable asset they hold. This is why they create wide range of opportunities to develop and self-improve for their employees. Such approach is aimed at increasing involvement, higher effectiveness, innovativeness and thus constant improvement of competitiveness. However this is not possible without employee constant learning and their selfactualization. In this way the learni...

  18. Impact of Learning Organization Culture on Performance in Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnuswamy, Indra; Manohar, Hansa Lysander

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an adapted version of the Dimensions of Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ) was employed to investigate the perception of academic staff on learning organization culture in Indian higher education institutions. The questionnaire was sent to 700 faculty members of different universities using a non-probability purposive…

  19. Person-Organization (Culture) Fit and Employee Commitment under Conditions of Organizational Change: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, John P.; Hecht, Tracy D.; Gill, Harjinder; Toplonytsky, Laryssa

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines how person-organization fit, operationalized as congruence between perceived and preferred organizational culture, relates to employees' affective commitment and intention to stay with an organization during the early stages of a strategic organizational change. Employees in a large energy company completed surveys…

  20. Plant regeneration from organ culture in white Guinea Yam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwachukwu, E.C.; Mbanaso, E.N.A.; Sonnino, A.

    1997-01-01

    Explants from leaves, leaf segments, petioles and internodal stem of in vitro grown seedlings of white guinea yam, Dioscorea rotundata Poir, cv. 'Obiaoturugo' were cultured on defined media. NAA at concentrations of 0.5-1.0 mg/1 induced shoot regeneration from petiolar and inter-nodal stem pieces, and rooting occurred with little or no callusing from whole leaves or leaf segments. With concentration of 3.0-10.0 m/1 NAA, explants from petioles, inter-nodal stem, whole leaves and leaf segments formed callus which produced roots. These explants developed plantlets when subcultured on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/1 BAP and 0.1 mg/1 NAA. (author). 11 refs, 1 tab

  1. Plant regeneration from organ culture in white Guinea Yam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nwachukwu, E C; Mbanaso, E N.A. [National Root Crops Research Inst., Umudike, Umuahia, Abia State (Nigeria); Sonnino, A [Centro Recerche Energia, ENEA, Rome (Italy)

    1997-07-01

    Explants from leaves, leaf segments, petioles and internodal stem of in vitro grown seedlings of white guinea yam, Dioscorea rotundata Poir, cv. `Obiaoturugo` were cultured on defined media. NAA at concentrations of 0.5-1.0 mg/1 induced shoot regeneration from petiolar and inter-nodal stem pieces, and rooting occurred with little or no callusing from whole leaves or leaf segments. With concentration of 3.0-10.0 m/1 NAA, explants from petioles, inter-nodal stem, whole leaves and leaf segments formed callus which produced roots. These explants developed plantlets when subcultured on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/1 BAP and 0.1 mg/1 NAA. (author). 11 refs, 1 tab.

  2. Effects of α-particle radiation on rat tracheal epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, J.R. Jr.

    1992-08-01

    By a combination of methods, which included flow cytometry and magnetic cell sorting, we have demonstrated that the cells of the rat tracheal epithelium which have the greatest proliferative capacity in culture and in vivo are the basal cells. Because of these findings it seems reasonable to suppose that the basal cells are the most likely target for the action of α-particle radiation in pseudostratified respiratory epithelium. This hypothesis is further supported by the finding that the basal cells are the cells which appear to respond to the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. The effects of 210 Po α-particles on the survival and oncogenic transformation of rat tracheal epithelial cells in suspension were investigated. Since these effects were assayed in culture, the results pertain to the reaction of only the basal cells to irradiation. The results indicate that α-particles are extremely cytotoxic in that a track segment of 4 μm, on average, is sufficient to cause the reproductive death of basal cells. This finding is supported by similar results obtained with two cell lines, Mv1Lu and CHO-K1 BH 4 . Production of proliferating epithelial foci by α-particles was not distinguishable from control and sham treatments. These results are in direct conflict with many of the results that have been obtained with C3H 1OT1/2 cells in similar transformation assays. Some possible reasons for these disparities are discussed and supporting evidence is provided

  3. http://www.bioline.org.br/js 104 Penetrating Tracheal Injuries – A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jen

    airway and prompt repair is the mainstay of management of penetrating tracheal injuries. Introduction ... tracheal injury was made in the 16th century ... Pearson 7 Harrington8 Sheely9 and Hood10 ..... Ed Am Col Surg (Chicago) .p.391. 12.

  4. Airway injury during emergency transcutaneous airway access: a comparison at cricothyroid and tracheal sites.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Salah, Nazar

    2009-12-01

    Oxygenation via the cricothyroid membrane (CTM) may be required in emergencies, but inadvertent tracheal cannulation may occur. In this study, we compared airway injury between the tracheal and CTM sites using different techniques for airway access.

  5. The mediation of the Relationship between Organizations and Institutions. The Role of Organizational Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Şimandan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the relations between organizations and institutions and their mediation by the factors of organizational culture. After discussing the elements that distinguish organizations from institutions, we will discuss W. R. Scott’s conception regarding the constitutive and functioning structures of the institutions. The following section focuses upon D. C. North’s theory regarding the institutional stability and change, as well as the costs involved by these processes. The last section systematizes a few perspectives regarding the mediation of the relations between organizations and institutions and the role of the organizational culture in this context.

  6. Transformation of organic N newly added to red soil treated with different cultural practices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangQin-Zheng; YeQing-Fu; 等

    1998-01-01

    By using 15N tracer method,transformation of organic N,which wqas newly added to red soil treated with different cultural practices,was studied under thelaboratory incubation condition.The experimental results showed that the transformation of N from newly added organic matter and soil native pool during incubation was influenced by cultural practice treatment beforeincubation.Fallow was favorable to the mineralization of newly added organic N and soil N compared with the planting wheat treatment.Planting wheat greatly increased the loss of soil N.Application of fertilizers stimulated the mineralization of newly added organic N and application of organic matter reduced the mineralization,but stimulated microbialtransformation of newly adde4d organic N.

  7. Congenital Complete Tracheal Ring in a Neonate: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra ARUN ÖZER

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abnormalities of the upper airway tract lead to congenital high airway obstruction and may complicate neonatal airway management in the delivery room. Congenital complete tracheal rings are a rare and unusual tracheal anomaly, usually presenting in the neonate or infant as respiratory distress. The clinical presentation can vary from almost asymptomatic patients to near-fatal airway obstruction. It may exist as an isolated entity, or in association with other congenital malformations, in particular, cardiac anomalies along with vascular rings and pulmonary slings. Other associated anomalies have also been reported, for example, chromosomal anomalies, malformation of other parts of the respiratory tract, esophagus and skeletal systems. Here, we report an extreme case of VACTERL/TACRD association presented with congenital complete tracheal ring, encephalocele, bilateral radial agenesis with absent thumbs, equinovalgus deformity on right foot, low-set ears and micrognathia.

  8. Tracheal palpation to assess endotracheal tube depth: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, William P; Klonarakis, Jim; Pelivanov, Vladko; O'Brien, Jennifer M; Plewes, Chris

    2014-03-01

    Correct placement of the endotracheal tube (ETT) occurs when the distal tip is in mid-trachea. This study compares two techniques used to place the ETT at the correct depth during intubation: tracheal palpation vs placement at a fixed depth at the patient's teeth. With approval of the Research Ethics Board, we recruited American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I-II patients scheduled for elective surgery with tracheal intubation. Clinicians performing the tracheal intubations were asked to "advance the tube slowly once the tip is through the cords". An investigator palpated the patient's trachea with three fingers spread over the trachea from the larynx to the sternal notch. When the ETT tip was felt in the sternal notch, the ETT was immobilized and its position was determined by fibreoptic bronchoscopy. The position of the ETT tip was compared with our hospital standard, which is a depth at the incisors or gums of 23 cm for men and 21 cm for women. The primary outcome was the incidence of correct placement. Correct placement of the ETT was defined as a tip > 2.5 cm from the carina and > 3.5 cm below the vocal cords. Movement of the ETT tip was readily palpable in 77 of 92 patients studied, and bronchoscopy was performed in 85 patients. Placement by tracheal palpation resulted in more correct placements (71 [77%]; 95% confidence interval [CI] 74 to 81) than hospital standard depth at the incisors or gums (57 [61%]; 95% CI 58 to 66) (P = 0.037). The mean (SD) placement of the ETT tip in palpable subjects was 4.1 (1.7) cm above the carina, 1.9 cm (1.5-2.3 cm) below the ideal mid-tracheal position. Tracheal palpation requires no special equipment, takes only a few seconds to perform, and may improve ETT placement at the correct depth. Further studies are warranted.

  9. Two-piece cryopreserved tracheal allotransplantation: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyikesici, Tuncel; Tuncozgur, Bulent; Sanli, Maruf; Isik, Ahmet Feridun; Meteroglu, Fatih; Elbeyli, Levent

    2009-10-01

    For successful reconstruction with tracheal allotransplants following long tracheal resections, problems related to the preservation and vascularisation of the tracheal graft have to be solved. In this study, instead of using a long-segment single-piece graft, we used a graft that has been split into two. The aim was to use this graft after cryopreservation in order to ease neo-vascularisation and to maintain tracheal integrity by transplanting it to two separate regions of the dog cervical trachea. This experimental study was conducted in animal laboratories of the medical school on 11 half-blood dogs. The trachea obtained from the first dog was 8 cm in length; it was split into two pieces of 4 cm each and stored in the preservation solution at -80 degrees C for 4 weeks. Following this, the dog was sacrificed. Two 2 cm portions of cervical trachea were excised from the second dog. These parts were then reconstructed with two tracheal grafts of the same length as the cryopreserved ones. Ten dogs that were grouped into five groups of two dogs each underwent the same procedure. The subjects had a bronchoscopic evaluation on the third postoperative week. Anastomosis regions of the test tracheas were resected to be examined histopathologically. Seven subjects were found to have third-degree obstructions during bronchoscopy; two had close to fourth-degree obstructions. In the histopathological examination, contrary to the findings of the bronchoscopies, 75% of the anastomoses had intact epithelium. The cartilage was seen to have well-preserved structural characteristics in all the anastomoses. Twelve anastomoses had moderate, seven mild and one had severe inflammation. All anastomoses had either good or very good level of vascularisation. The integrity of the tracheal epithelium can be maintained with cryopreservation and split anastomosis technique. The cartilage preserves its structural characteristics despite losing its viability, thereby offering an advantage to

  10. Stent placement for tracheal stenosis in patients with esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Keigo; Hata, Yoshinobu; Sasamoto, Shuichi; Takahashi, Shoji; Sato, Fumitomo; Tamaki, Kazuyoshi; Goto, Hidenori; Yuasa, Rena

    2011-01-01

    Tracheal invasion including tracheal bifurcation due to esophageal cancer can sometimes cause serious complications of the airway, but such cases sometimes improve quickly following chemoradiation treatment. The absolute indications for stent replacement in the airway for this disorder and the optimal choice of stent are herein discussed. Between 1992 and 2010, 28 patients with airway stenosis, including 7 patients with esophago-tracheal fistula, were treated by placement of various stents; namely, 12 patients received Dumon stents, 3 patients had Dynamic stents, 10 patients were given Ultraflex stents, while 3 other patients were treated without the use of stents. Severe dyspnea in the supine position was observed, which mainly originated from invasion to the membranous portion of the trachea. Airway patency was maintained after stent replacement, although the median survival time of such cases was only 4 months. Three patients with severe dyspnea who could lie in a supine position recovered after undergoing chemoradiation treatment without stent replacement. No cases of stent removal were observed after chemoradiation treatment. Chemoradiation treatment for esophageal cancer was found to be effective for the management of airway disturbances, and thus the absolute indications for stent replacement are restricted to patients who cannot lie in a supine position due to severe impairment of ventilation during radiation therapy, as well as patients presenting with tracheobroncho-esophageal fistula. Concerning stent selection, a metal stent should be the first choice for tracheal stenosis due to its ease of insertion, because there is no substantial difference between silicone and metal stents regarding the treatment of tracheal stenosis. However, it is important to note that a silicone Y stent is useful for the treatment of tracheal bifurcation. (author)

  11. Surgery for postintubation tracheal and tracheosubglottic stenotic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashour, M.; Al-Kattan, K.; Rafay, M.A.; El-Bakry, A.K.; El-Dawlatly, A.; Naguib, M.; Seraj, M.; Joharjy, I.; Al-Serhani, A.

    1996-01-01

    Postintubation tracheal stenosis is a recognized problem. Although its incidence has recently decreased, it is still a difficult complication to treat. We have reviewed our experience with 10 patients with tracheal stenosis over the last five years between 1990 and 1995. There were seven male and three female patients with an average age of 14.2+-4 years (range 6 to 48 years). Resection and reconstruction with primary anastomosis was performed in seven patients, while conservative treatment with dilation was performed in two patients. One patient refused surgery. Operations performed included resection of tracheocricoid segment with tracheothyroid anastomosis (N=3) and tracheal resection with end-to-end anastomosis (N=4). The resected airway ranged from 3 cm to 6 cm. In view of the intense inflammatory and fibrotic process in and around stenotic segment, the practice of tracheostomy for the relief of postintubation acute tracheal obstruction should not be taken lightly, as it adds not only to the severity of the inflammatory process, but also increases the length of the tracheal segment to be resected. Postoperatively, all patients were extubated; this was accomplished by the end of surgery in six patients, while the seventh patient was extubated three weeks later. There was no mortality in this series. When normal functional activity and airway patency were taken as two parameters to judge the outcome of the surgery, results were good in six (86%) patients and satisfactory in one. These results support the validity of the one-stage reconstruction approach as one alternative for the treatment of postintubation tracheal and tracheosubglottic stenotic lesions. (author)

  12. Cardiotonic agent milrinone stimulates resorption in rodent bone organ culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, N S; Stappenbeck, T S; Stern, P H

    1987-01-01

    The cardiotonic agent amrinone inhibits bone resorption in vitro. Milrinone, an amrinone analog, is a more potent cardiotonic agent with lower toxicity. In contrast to amrinone, milrinone stimulated resorption in cultures of neonatal mouse calvaria and fetal rat limb bones. Threshold doses were 0.1 microM in calvaria and 0.1 mM in limb bones; maximal stimulation occurred in calvaria at 0.1 mM. Maximal responses to milrinone and parathyroid hormone were comparable. Milrinone concentrations below 0.1 mM did not affect calvarial cyclic AMP. 0.5 microM indomethacin inhibited milrinone effects in calvaria but usually not in limb bones. 3 nM calcitonin inhibited milrinone-stimulated resorption and there was no escape from this inhibition. Structural homology between milrinone and thyroxine has been reported. We find similarities between milrinone and thyroxine actions on bone, because prostaglandin production was crucial for the effects of both agents in calvaria but not in limb bones, and neither agent exhibited escape from calcitonin inhibition. PMID:3027124

  13. Genetically modified organisms in New Zealand and cultural issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, R.; Roberts, M.

    2005-01-01

    One of the ironies of the current debate in New Zealand about genetic modification is that it highlights the age-old conflict between science and religion, and in so doing demonstrates that modem society is still caught in the dilemma posed by these two views of the world. Two case studies are presented that demonstrate the distance between proponents and opponents of genetic modification (GM), and the difficulty of resolution within the secular-based framework of quantitative risk assessment applied by the Environmental Risk Management Authority (ERMA) and decision-making committees. Alternative frameworks suggested by Maori are beginning to emerge, and along with the results of several government-funded research projects in this area, should make a valuable contribution to a new framework that more equitably incorporates the fundamental principles of both knowledge systems. If this aim is achieved, it will be of considerable interest to other indigenous peoples in the world who are also faced with real and perceived threats to their cultural beliefs and values originating from new biotechnologies. (author)

  14. Fabrication of Chitosan Silk-based Tracheal Scaffold Using Freeze-Casting Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematollahi, Zeinab; Tafazzoli-Shadpour, Mohammad; Zamanian, Ali; Seyedsalehi, Amir; Mohammad-Behgam, Shadmehr; Ghorbani, Fariba; Mirahmadi, Fereshte

    2017-01-01

    Background: Since the treatments of long tracheal lesions are associated with some limitations, tissue engineered trachea is considered as an alternative option. This study aimed at preparing a composite scaffold, based on natural and synthetic materials for tracheal tissue engineering. Methods: Nine chitosan silk-based scaffolds were fabricated using three freezing rates (0.5, 1, and 2°C/min) and glutaraldehyde (GA) concentrations (0, 0.4, and 0.8 wt%). Samples were characterized, and scaffolds having mechanical properties compatible with those of human trachea and proper biodegradability were selected for chondrocyte cell seeding and subsequent biological assessments. Results: The pore sizes were highly influenced by the freezing rate and varied from 135.3×372.1 to 37.8×83.4 µm. Swelling and biodegradability behaviors were more affected by GA rather than freezing rate. Tensile strength raised from 120 kPa to 350 kPa by an increment of freezing rate and GA concentration. In addition, marked stiffening was demonstrated by increasing elastic modulus from 1.5 MPa to 12.2 MPa. Samples having 1 and 2°C/min of freezing rate and 0.8 wt% GA concentration made a non-toxic, porous structure with tensile strength and elastic modulus in the range of human trachea, facilitating the chondrocyte proliferation. The results of 21-day cell culture indicated that glycosaminoglycans content was significantly higher for the rate of 2°C/min (12.04 µg/min) rather than the other (9.6 µg/min). Conclusion: A homogenous porous structure was created by freeze drying. This allows the fabrication of a chitosan silk scaffold cross-linked by GA for cartilage tissue regeneration with application in tracheal regeneration. PMID:28131109

  15. Saline instillation before tracheal suctioning decreases the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Pedro; Denari, Silvia; Ruiz, Soraia A L; Demarzo, Sergio E; Deheinzelin, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    To compare the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) with or without isotonic saline instillation before tracheal suctioning. As a secondary objective, we compared the incidence of endotracheal tube occlusion and atelectasis. Randomized clinical trial. The study was conducted in a medical surgical intensive care unit of an oncologic hospital. We selected consecutive patients needing mechanical ventilation for >72 hrs. Patients were allocated into two groups: a saline group that received instillation of 8 mL of saline before tracheal suctioning and a control group which did not. VAP was diagnosed based on clinical suspicion and confirmed by bronchoalveolar lavage quantitative culture. The incidence of atelectasis on daily chest radiography and endotracheal tube occlusions were recorded. The sample size was calculated to a power of 80% and a type I error probability of 5%. One hundred thirty patients were assigned to the saline group and 132 to the control group. The baseline demographic variables were similar between groups. The rate of clinically suspected VAP was similar in both groups. The incidence of microbiological proven VAP was significantly lower in the saline group (23.5% x 10.8%; p = 0.008) (incidence density/1.000 days of ventilation 21.22 x 9.62; p < 0.01). Using the Kaplan-Meier curve analysis, the proportion of patients remaining without VAP was higher in the saline group (p = 0.02, log-rank test). The relative risk reduction of VAP in the saline instillation group was 54% (95% confidence interval, 18%-74%) and the number needed to treat was eight (95% confidence interval, 5-27). The incidence of atelectases and endotracheal tube occlusion were similar between groups. Instillation of isotonic saline before tracheal suctioning decreases the incidence of microbiological proven VAP.

  16. The formation and development of corporate culture of learning organization: efficiency assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. Tolstykh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern conditions of digitalization of the economy, its integration with the policy society questions of formation and development of corporate culture of the learning organisation are of particular relevance. Digital transformation of business dictates the need for the emergence and development of learning organizations, creating and preserving knowledge. In this situation, the openness of issues of assessment of efficiency of processes of formation and development defines the importance of the proposed research. Corporate culture is regarded by most scholars as the most important internal resource of the organization, able to provide her with stability in a crisis and give impetus to the development and transition to qualitatively different levels of the life cycle. This position assumes that a strong corporate culture should be aimed at building a learning organization, able to quickly adapt to changes in the external and internal environment. This article examines the issue of assessment of efficiency of corporate culture; it is shown that in addition to the empirical, sociological methods and qualitative approach to evaluation, is acceptable investment approach. This option appears when you use the aggregate target-oriented and project management methods, which allows in a systematic manner to carry out the formation and development of corporate culture. The assessment should be subject to software development activities and (or development of the corporate culture of a learning organization. In evidence to draw conclusions on the example of agricultural companies, a calculation of the economic efficiency of the program of formation of corporate culture of a learning organization. Calculation of net discounted income, the net present value of the project, profitability index, project profitability, payback period. This confirms the social and economic effects of the proposed program on the formation of corporate culture of independent

  17. Tracheal dimness as a sign of mediastinal pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiavon, F.; Nardini, S.; Giannico, S.

    1987-01-01

    Some cases of mediastinal pathology in which the only pathological pattern was a dimness of the tracheal transparency are described. This sign is not described in previous report and is described as a short break in the aerial tracheogram as seen on the frontal roentgenograph. This sign is produced by an increase in the structures outside the trachea or by a decrease in the air column inside the trachea. Conventional and CT anatomic findings which account for the sign are discussed. A short review of the normal causes of tracheal dimness is presented. This sign may be useful expecially in emergency radiology, since it provides additional information to a simple routine chest roentgenograph

  18. Tracheal Atresia with Segmental Esophageal Duplication: An Unusual Anatomic Arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaerty, Kirsten; Thomas, Joseph T; Petersen, Scott; Tan, Edwin; Kumar, Sailesh; Gardener, Glenn; Armes, Jane

    2016-01-01

    An unusual anatomic configuration of segmental tracheal agenesis/atresia with esophageal duplication on autopsy in a fetus that demised in utero at 29 weeks is reported. The mother was scanned initially for a cardiac anomaly at 20 weeks and on follow-up scan at 27 weeks had polyhydramnios and underwent amnioreduction. The final autopsy diagnosis was vertebral, ano-rectal, cardiac, tracheoesophageal, renal, and limb malformations (VACTERL). We discuss the autopsy findings along with the embryological mechanisms and compare the configuration with Floyd's classification for tracheal agenesis. The difficulties in prenatal diagnosis are discussed.

  19. A new retrograde transillumination technique for videolaryngoscopic tracheal intubation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biro, P; Fried, E; Schlaepfer, M

    2018-01-01

    This single-centre, prospective trial was designed to assess the efficacy of a new retrograde transillumination device called the 'Infrared Red Intubation System' (IRRIS) to aid videolaryngoscopic tracheal intubation. We included 40 adult patients, who were undergoing elective urological surgery......-10])), credibility (10 (8-10 [5-10])) and ease of use (10 (9-10 [8-10])). Tracheal intubation with the system lasted 26 (16-32 [6-89]) s. No alternative technique of securing the airway was necessary. The lowest SpO2 during intubation was 98 (97-99 [91-100])%. We conclude that this method of retrograde...

  20. Congenital tracheal defects: embryonic development and animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenab Arooj Sher

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tracheal anomalies are potentially catastrophic congenital defects. As a newborn begins to breathe, the trachea needs to maintain an appropriate balance of elasticity and rigidity. If the tracheal cartilages are disorganized or structurally weak, the airways can collapse, obstructing breathing. Cartilage rings that are too small or too rigid can also obstruct breathing. These anomalies are frequently associated with craniofacial syndromes, and, despite the importance, are poorly understood. In this review, we summarize the spectrum of pathological phenotypes of the trachea and correlate them with the molecular events uncovered in mouse models.

  1. Tracheal adenoid cystic carcinoma masquerading asthma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurul Cuneyt

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tracheal tumors are often misdiagnosed as asthma and are treated with inhaled steroids and bronchodilators without resolution. Case Presentation Here, a patient with tracheal adenoid cystic carcinoma who had been previously diagnosed with difficult asthma was reported. The possibility of the presence of localized airway obstruction was raised when the flow-volume curve suggesting fixed airway obstruction, was obtained. Conclusion The presenting case report emphasizes the fact that not all wheezes are asthma. It is critical to bear in mind that if a patient does not respond to appropriate anti-asthma therapy, localized obstructions should be ruled out before establishing the diagnosis of asthma.

  2. Do senior management cultures affect performance? Evidence from Italian public healthcare organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenestini, Anna; Lega, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare organizations are often characterized by diffuse power, ambiguous goals, and a plurality of actors. In this complex and pluralistic context, senior healthcare managers are expected to provide strategic direction and lead their organizations toward their goals and performance targets. The present work explores the relationship between senior management team culture and performance by investigating Italian public healthcare organizations in the Tuscany region. Our assessment of senior management culture was accomplished through the use of an established framework and a corresponding tool, the competing values framework, which supports the idea that specific aspects of performance are related to a dominant management culture. Organizational performance was assessed using a wide range of measures collected by a multidimensional performance evaluation system, which was developed in Tuscany to measure the performance of its 12 local health authorities (LHAs) and four teaching hospitals (THs). Usable responses were received from 80 senior managers of 11 different healthcare organizations (two THs and nine LHAs). Our findings show that Tuscan healthcare organizations are characterized by various dominant cultures: developmental, clan, rational, and hierarchical. These variations in dominant culture were associated with performance measures. The implications for management theory, professional practice, and public policy are discussed.

  3. Upregulation of endothelin ETB receptor-mediated vasoconstriction in rat coronary artery after organ culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskesen, Karen; Edvinsson, Lars

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine if endothelin ET(B) receptor-mediated contraction occurred in isolated segments of rat coronary arteries during organ culture. Presence of contractile endothelin ET(B) receptors was studied by measuring the change in isometric tension in rings of left anterior......(+)-solution was not modified after 1 day in culture medium. The experiments indicate that organ culture of rat coronary arteries upregulate endothelin ET(B) receptor-mediated contraction by inducing synthesis of new protein....... descending coronary arteries isolated from hearts of rats as response to application of the selective endothelin ET(B) receptor agonist, Sarafotoxin 6c and endothelin-1. In segments cultured 1 day in serum free Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium, Sarafotoxin 6c induced a concentration dependent contraction...

  4. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF CORPORATE CROSS CULTURAL MANAGEMENT IN IT VS NON IT ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata KAPUR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of business which is considered a 'second industrial revolution' is a trend that makes Cross cultural Human Resource management crucial for all organizations. Multicultural workforce congregations and increasing global interactions in business, finance, culture etc. have become today's workplace realities.Cross-cultural differences are the cause of failed negotiations and interactions, resulting in losses to the firms. This study examines the best practices in managing across a culturally diverse and geographically dispersed workforce in IT and non IT organizations and makes comparative evaluation of these practices and strategies. The results of the comparative analysis study will lead to cross fertilization of ideas as the best practices for IT companies can be imbibed by and applied to the non IT companies and vice versa. This study ellucidates that cross-cultural management will give managers on international assignments the cultural understanding essential to accomplish their tasks leading to a committed workforce thereby resulting in better financial performance of the organization.

  5. Organizational culture - a factor of potential positive influence on the collectivities of any organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona-Andreea MIHALACHE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Organizational culture is a relatively new and rapidly expanding concept, but partly invisible and therefore very difficult analyze, offering in the same time the possibility to carry out complex studies. This paper was drawn up into two different organizations - Pentalog Romania, an IT service provider, and House of Dracula Hotel, a tourist unit - and it is based on a research carried out in order to highlight the importance of organizational culture within any entity. Considered a powerful strategic tool, the organizational culture can be used for focusing companies and their staff on joint goals, for mobilizing the initiatives, ensuring loyalty and facilitating intercommunication.

  6. Gravity in mammalian organ development: differentiation of cultured lung and pancreas rudiments during spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, B. S.; Hardman, P.; Paulsen, A.

    1994-01-01

    Organ culture of embryonic mouse lung and pancreas rudiments has been used to investigate development and differentiation, and to assess the effects of microgravity on culture differentiation, during orbital spaceflight of the shuttle Endeavour (mission STS-54). Lung rudiments continue to grow and branch during spaceflight, an initial result that should allow future detailed study of lung morphogenesis in microgravity. Cultured embryonic pancreas undergoes characteristic exocrine acinar tissue and endocrine islet tissue differentiation during spaceflight, and in ground controls. The rudiments developing in the microgravity environment of spaceflight appear to grow larger than their ground counterparts, and they may have differentiated more rapidly than controls, as judged by exocrine zymogen granule presence.

  7. Hairy-root organ cultures for the production of human acetylcholinesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mor Tsafrir S

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human cholinesterases can be used as a bioscavenger of organophosphate toxins used as pesticides and chemical warfare nerve agents. The practicality of this approach depends on the availability of the human enzymes, but because of inherent supply and regulatory constraints, a suitable production system is yet to be identified. Results As a promising alternative, we report the creation of "hairy root" organ cultures derived via Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation from human acetylcholinesterase-expressing transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Acetylcholinesterase-expressing hairy root cultures had a slower growth rate, reached to the stationary phase faster and grew to lower maximal densities as compared to wild type control cultures. Acetylcholinesterase accumulated to levels of up to 3.3% of total soluble protein, ~3 fold higher than the expression level observed in the parental plant. The enzyme was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. Enzymatic properties were nearly identical to those of the transgenic plant-derived enzyme as well as to those of mammalian cell culture derived enzyme. Pharmacokinetic properties of the hairy-root culture derived enzyme demonstrated a biphasic clearing profile. We demonstrate that master banking of plant material is possible by storage at 4°C for up to 5 months. Conclusion Our results support the feasibility of using plant organ cultures as a successful alternative to traditional transgenic plant and mammalian cell culture technologies.

  8. Tracheoesophageal Fistula due to a Damaged Tracheal Stent

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    Masahiro Kimura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the management of a tracheoesophageal fistula due to a damaged tracheal stent, which was first inserted to treat tracheal stenosis. A 29-year-old woman with a history of treated epilepsy had a seizure and suffered from smoke inhalation during a fire. Breathing difficulties appeared and gradually worsened; consultation was obtained two years afterward. After undergoing a thorough examination, the patient was diagnosed with tracheal strangulation. A noncovered, metallic stent was inserted. When the patient was 37 years old, she was admitted to our hospital for the treatment of a tracheoesophageal fistula. We diagnosed it as a tracheoesophageal fistula due to the collapse of the damaged tracheal stent toward the esophageal side, and we decided to perform a mediastinal tracheostomy. Granulation may be formed in the circumference of a stent that has been present for a prolonged period, and removal of the stent may become difficult. This case suggests that insertion of a noncovered, metallic stent is contraindicated for a benign disease.

  9. Tubeless tracheal resection and reconstruction for management of benign stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caronia, Francesco Paolo; Loizzi, Domenico; Nicolosi, Tommaso; Castorina, Sergio; Fiorelli, Alfonso

    2017-12-01

    We reported a tubeless tracheal resection and reconstruction for the management of benign posttracheostomy tracheal stenosis. A 34-year-old man with stridor, severe respiratory distress, and recurrent pneumonia was referred to our attention for treatment of benign posttracheostomy tracheal stenosis. As he refused general anesthesia, the procedure was performed while he was under local anesthesia and spontaneous ventilation. Sedation was started with infusion of dexmedetomidine 0.7 mg/kg/min and of remifentanil 0.5 mg/kg/h; also, 40%-50% oxygen was delivered using a laryngeal mask at a rate of 3.5 mL/min. An additional dose of 2% lidocaine was injected into the surgical site during the operation to achieve an adequate level of anesthesia. A standard resection and reconstruction of trachea was carried out and no recurrence was found in the follow-up of 41 months. Tubeless tracheal surgery seems to be a feasible and safe procedure. Larger prospective series should validate our results. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Laryngeal Preservation in Managing Advanced Tracheal Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thavakumar Subramaniam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 37-year-old male athlete was diagnosed with primary tracheal adenoid cystic carcinoma following investigation for dyspnea, wheeze, and eventual stridor. Preoperative bronchoscopy revealed a highly vascular tumor 4 cm distal to the cricoid with no gross disease extending to the carina. Imaging revealed circumferential tracheal irregularity immediately inferior to the cricoid, with no definite cricoid invasion. Locoregional extension of disease was noted invading the thyroid and abutment of the carotid approximately 180°. Intraoperative findings identified tracheal mucosal disease extending distal to the carina and proximally at the cricothyroid joints where bilateral functional recurrent nerves were preserved. A decision made to preserve the larynx given the inability to fully resect distal tracheal disease. A 5 cm sleeve resection of the trachea was made with a cricotracheal anastomosis following suprahyoidal muscle release and laryngeal drop-down. The patient was treated with adjuvant radiotherapy including platinum based chemotherapy in an effort to maximise local control. PET scanning three months after therapy revealed no FDG uptake locally or distally.

  11. Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide induces CF-like alteration of protein secretion by human tracheal gland cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammouni, W; Figarella, C; Baeza, N; Marchand, S; Merten, M D

    1997-12-18

    Human tracheal gland (HTG) serous cells are now believed to play a major role in the physiopathology of cystic fibrosis. Because of the persistent inflammation and the specific infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the lung, we looked for the action of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of this bacteria on human tracheal gland cells in culture by studying the secretion of the secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI) which is a specific serous secretory marker of these cells. Treatment with Pseudomonas aeruginosa LPS resulted in a significant dose-dependent increase in the basal production of SLPI (+ 250 +/- 25%) whilst the SLPI transcript mRNA levels remained unchanged. This LPS-induced increase in secretion was inhibited by glucocorticoides. Furthermore, LPS treatment of HTG cells induces a loss of responsiveness to carbachol and isoproterenol but not to adenosine triphosphate. These findings indicate that HTG cells treated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa LPS have the same behavior as those previously observed with CF-HTG cells. Exploration by using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction amplification showed that LPS downregulated cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mRNA expression in HTG cells indicative of a link between CFTR function and consequent CF-like alteration in protein secretory process.

  12. Voluntary organ donation system adapted to Chinese cultural values and social reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiefu; Millis, J Michael; Mao, Yilei; Millis, M Andrew; Sang, Xinting; Zhong, Shouxian

    2015-04-01

    Organ donation and transplant systems have unique characteristics based on the local culture and socioeconomic context. China's transplant and organ donation systems developed without regulatory oversight until 2006 when regulation and policy were developed and then implemented over the next several years. Most recently, the pilot project of establishing a voluntary citizen-based deceased donor program was established. The pilot program addressed the legal, financial, and cultural barriers to organ donation in China. The pilot program has evolved into a national program. Significantly, it established a uniquely Chinese donor classification system. The Chinese donor classification system recognizes donation after brain death (category I), donation after circulatory death (category II), and donation after brain death followed by circulatory death (category III). Through August 2014, the system has identified 2326 donors and provided 6416 organs that have been allocated though a transparent organ allocation system. The estimated number of donors in 2014 is 1147. As China's attitudes toward organ donation have matured and evolved and as China, as a nation, is taking its place on the world stage, it is recognizing that its past practice of using organs from executed prisoners is not sustainable. It is time to recognize that the efforts to regulate transplantation and provide voluntary citizen-based deceased organ donation have been successful and that China should use this system to provide organs for all transplants in every province and hospital in China. At the national organ transplant congress on October 30, 2014, the Chairman of the China's national organ donation and transplantation committee, Jeifu Huang required all hospitals to stop using organs from executed prisoners immediately and the civilian organ donation will be sole source for organ transplant in China starting January 2015. © 2015 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  13. [Circular tracheal resection for cicatrical stenosis and functioning tracheostomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshin, V D; Titov, V A; Parshin, V V; Parshin, A V; Berikkhanov, Z; Amangeldiev, D M

    To analyze the results of tracheal resection for cicatricial stenosis depending on the presence of tracheostomy. 1128 patients with tracheal cicatricial stenosis were treated for the period 1963-2015. The first group consisted of 297 patients for the period 1963-2000, the second group - 831 patients for the period 2001-2015. Most of them 684 (60.6%) were young and able-bodied (age from 21 to 50 years). In the first group 139 (46.8%) out of 297 patients had functioning tracheostomy. For the period 2001-2015 tracheostomy was made in 430 (51.7%) out of 831 patients with cicatricial stenosis. Time of cannulation varied from a few weeks to 21 years. Re-tracheostomy within various terms after decanulation was performed in 68 (15.8%) patients. Tracheal resection with anastomosis was performed in 59 and 330 in both groups respectively. At present time these operations are performed more often in view of their standard fashion in everyday practice. In the second group tracheal resection followed by anastomosis was observed in 110 (25.6%) out of 430 patients with tracheostomy that is 4.4 times more often than in previous years. In total 2 patients died after 330 circular tracheal resections within 2001-2015 including one patient with and one patient without tracheostomy. Mortality was 0.6%. Moreover, this value was slightly higher in patients operated with a functioning tracheostomy compared with those without it - 0.9 vs. 0.5% respectively. The causes of death were bleeding into tracheobronchial lumen and pulmonary embolism. The source of bleeding after tracheal resection was innominate artery. Overall incidence of postoperative complications was 2 times higher in tracheostomy patients compared with those without it - 22 (20%) vs. 26 (11.8%) cases respectively. Convalescence may be achieved in 89.8% patients after circular tracheal resection. Adverse long-term results are associated with postoperative complications. So their prevention and treatment will improve the

  14. Situating the practice of organ donation in familial, cultural, and political context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Margaret; Crowley-Makota, Megan

    2008-07-01

    This article provides a discussion of the factors that have contributed in recent years to the assertion that there is a growing shortage of organs for transplant. Findings from ethnographic research carried out in 3 settings--the United States, Japan, and Mexico--are then presented to demonstrate that factors other than low education levels, irrationality, or a lack of generosity are at work when individuals make decisions about organ donation. In all 3 sites, it is clear that both the donation and receiving of organs are based on moral positions and felt obligations concerning appropriate behavior among close relatives and that the ideal of autonomous choice is not readily applicable. Culturally informed expectations are at work in all 3 sites, and in Japan and Mexico, social and political dimensions additionally come into play. We argue that a better accounting is called for of the familial, cultural, and political contexts within which organ transfer takes place.

  15. The mediation of the Relationship between Organizations and Institutions. The Role of Organizational Culture

    OpenAIRE

    M.Şimandan

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the relations between organizations and institutions and their mediation by the factors of organizational culture. After discussing the elements that distinguish organizations from institutions, we will discuss W. R. Scott’s conception regarding the constitutive and functioning structures of the institutions. The following section focuses upon D. C. North’s theory regarding the institutional stability and change, as well as the costs involved by these processes. The last...

  16. Blood culture contamination with Enterococci and skin organisms: implications for surveillance definitions of primary bloodstream infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Joshua T; Chen, Luke Francis; Sexton, Daniel J; Anderson, Deverick J

    2011-06-01

    Enterococci are a common cause of bacteremia but are also common contaminants. In our institution, approximately 17% of positive blood cultures with enterococci are mixed with skin organisms. Such isolates are probable contaminants. The specificity of the current definition of primary bloodstream infection could be increased by excluding enterococci mixed with skin organisms. Copyright © 2011 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Factors influencing the contamination rate of human organ-cultured corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röck, Daniel; Wude, Johanna; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl U; Yoeruek, Efdal; Thaler, Sebastian; Röck, Tobias

    2017-12-01

    To assess the influence of donor, environment and storage factors on the contamination rate of organ-cultured corneas, to consider the microbiological species causing corneal contamination and to investigate the corresponding sensitivities. Data from 1340 consecutive donor corneas were analysed retrospectively. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the influence of different factors on the contamination rate of organ-cultured corneas for transplantation. The mean annual contamination rate was 1.8 ± 0.4% (range: 1.3-2.1%); 50% contaminations were of fungal origin with exclusively Candida species, and 50% contaminations were of bacterial origin with Staphylococcus species being predominant. The cause of donor death including infection and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome increased the risk of bacterial or fungal contamination during organ culture (p = 0.007 and p = 0.014, respectively). Differentiating between septic and aseptic donors showed an increased risk of contamination for septic donors (p = 0.0020). Mean monthly temperature including warmer months increased the risk of contamination significantly (p = 0.0031). Sex, donor age, death to enucleation, death to corneoscleral disc excision and storage time did not increase the risk of contamination significantly. The genesis of microbial contamination in organ-cultured donor corneas seems to be multifactorial. The main source of fungal or bacterial contamination could be resident species from the skin flora. The rate of microbial contamination in organ-cultured donor corneas seems to be dependent on the cause of donor death and mean monthly temperature. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Tracheal and Crico-Tracheal Resection and Anastomosis for Malignancies Involving the Thyroid Gland and the Airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Cesare; Del Bon, Francesca; Barbieri, Diego; Grazioli, Paola; Paderno, Alberto; Perotti, Pietro; Lombardi, Davide; Peretti, Giorgio; Nicolai, Piero

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate outcomes in different malignancies involving the thyroid and infiltrating the airway submitted to tracheal (TRA) or crico-tracheal resection and anastomosis (CTRA). Retrospective charts review of 27 patients affected by thyroid malignancies involving the airway treated by TRA/CTRA in a single academic institution. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to evaluate the overall (OS) and disease-specific (DSS) survivals and local (LC) and loco-regional control (LRC). Impact on survival of age, comorbidities, previous radiotherapy, types of TRA/CTRA, Shin's stage (II, III, IV), grading (well vs poorly differentiated), and length of airway resected was calculated by the log-rank test. Overall survival and DSS at 3 and 5 years were 82.3% and 71.6%, respectively. Local control and LRC in the entire group were 82.3% at 3 and 5 years. Crico-tracheal resection and anastomosis involving the cricoid arch and plate (type C) and tumor differentiation significantly affected OS and DSS (both P < .001). Type C CTRA and tumor differentiation significantly impacted on LC (P = .002 and P = .009, respectively). Grading and extension of CTRA to the cricoid plate are the most important factors for oncologic outcomes in thyroid malignancies infiltrating the airway. Except for poorly differentiated tumors, TRA/CTRA allows adequate LC even in advanced stage lesions involving the crico-tracheal junction. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Human colon tissue in organ culture: calcium and multi-mineral-induced mucosal differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dame, Michael K; Veerapaneni, Indiradevi; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; Naik, Madhav; Varani, James

    2011-01-01

    We have recently shown that a multi-mineral extract from the marine red algae, Lithothamnion calcareum, suppresses colon polyp formation and inflammation in mice. In the present study, we used intact human colon tissue in organ culture to compare responses initiated by Ca(2+) supplementation versus the multi-mineral extract. Normal human colon tissue was treated for 2 d in culture with various concentrations of calcium or the mineral-rich extract. The tissue was then prepared for histology/immunohistochemistry, and the culture supernatants were assayed for levels of type I procollagen and type I collagen. At higher Ca(2+) concentrations or with the mineral-rich extract, proliferation of epithelial cells at the base and walls of the mucosal crypts was suppressed, as visualized by reduced Ki67 staining. E-cadherin, a marker of differentiation, was more strongly expressed at the upper third of the crypt and at the luminal surface. Treatment with Ca(2+) or with the multi-mineral extract influenced collagen turnover, with decreased procollagen and increased type I collagen. These data suggest that calcium or mineral-rich extract has the capacity to (1) promote differentiation in human colon tissue in organ culture and (2) modulate stromal function as assessed by increased levels of type I collagen. Taken together, these data suggest that human colon tissue in organ culture (supporting in vivo finding in mice) will provide a valuable model for the preclinical assessment of agents that regulate growth and differentiation in the colonic mucosa.

  20. Three-dimensional Organotypic Cultures of Vestibular and Auditory Sensory Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnedeva, Ksenia; Hudspeth, A J; Segil, Neil

    2018-06-01

    The sensory organs of the inner ear are challenging to study in mammals due to their inaccessibility to experimental manipulation and optical observation. Moreover, although existing culture techniques allow biochemical perturbations, these methods do not provide a means to study the effects of mechanical force and tissue stiffness during development of the inner ear sensory organs. Here we describe a method for three-dimensional organotypic culture of the intact murine utricle and cochlea that overcomes these limitations. The technique for adjustment of a three-dimensional matrix stiffness described here permits manipulation of the elastic force opposing tissue growth. This method can therefore be used to study the role of mechanical forces during inner ear development. Additionally, the cultures permit virus-mediated gene delivery, which can be used for gain- and loss-of-function experiments. This culture method preserves innate hair cells and supporting cells and serves as a potentially superior alternative to the traditional two-dimensional culture of vestibular and auditory sensory organs.

  1. Charge movements and transverse tubular ultrastructure in organ cultured skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, M J; Hollingworth, S; Marshall, M W; Robson, E

    1990-04-01

    A study was made of charge movements and the transverse tubular systems in rat EDL and soleus muscle fibres maintained for up to five days in organ culture. In the cultured EDL muscle the maximum amount of charge moved was about one third of that in innervated muscle. Charge movements in innervated soleus fibres are small, less than 10 nC/microF, and difficult to resolve. They remain small following organ culturing. The ultrastructural study examined the concentration of junctional feet because of their proposed key role in excitation-contraction coupling. The general architecture of the triads and the spacing of the feet in both muscle types was largely unchanged by culturing. In cultured EDL muscles the small changes in feet concentration did not parallel the large fall in charge movement. The results reported here support a previous conclusion that, in mammalian muscle, there is not a simple relation between charge and feet. The stimulation of cultured soleus muscles with a fast twitch pattern of electrical activity produced no observable changes in morphology.

  2. Evolution of public relations in the activity of organizations of ukrainian socio-cultural sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Євгенія Олегівна Кияниця

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article traces the evolution of public relations in various fields of life including socio-cultural and found creative and social potential of this activity. Analysis of historical experience of using the PR-technologies in the field of sociocultural institutions promotes understanding of importance of this activity for the efficient work of organizations of this sphere

  3. Art and Civil Action : Cultural Organizations in the European Civil Domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, Pascal; Lijster, Thijs

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the place of new cultural organizationsin the civil domain is analysed. The authors describe a theoretical model that they call the ‘civil chain’, describing the different phases in which civil organizations develop themselves. The civil chain delivers analytic insights into the

  4. Improving performance of high risk organizations Spanish nuclear sector from the analysis of organizational culture factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Salabarnada, E.; German, S.; Silla, I.; Navajas, J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the research project funded by UNESA and conducted by the CISOT-CIEMAT that aims to contribute to improving the operating performance of the Spanish nuclear power plants. This paper aims to identify the factors and key organizational processes to improve efficiency, in order to advance knowledge about the influence of organizational culture on the safety of high reliability organizations.

  5. A View of Professional Learning Communities through Three Frames: Leadership, Organization, and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Carol A.; Schunk, Dale H.

    2010-01-01

    In this discussion of professional learning communities (PLCs) in North American public schools, we examine three theoretical frames--leadership, organization, and culture. Issues related to learning are infused throughout our presentation of the frames. Based on our analysis of the current literature on this topic, PLCs offer a promising tool for…

  6. The Destruction of the Young Black Male: The Impact of Popular Culture and Organized Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, John C.

    1986-01-01

    Argues that the negative aspects of popular culture and organized sports in American society contribute to the economic, psychological, and social destruction of the Black male. The media nurtures unrealistic fantasies in young Black males, preventing them from acquiring the education and skills necessary to participate in the mainstream. (ETS)

  7. Developing and Testing a Measure for the Ethical Culture of Organizations: The Corporate Ethical Virtues Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.P. Kaptein (Muel)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBased on four interlocking empirical studies, this paper initially validates and refines the Corporate Ethical Virtues Model which formulates normative criteria for the ethical culture of organizations. The findings of an exploratory factor analysis provide support for the existence of

  8. Assessment of organ culture for the conservation of human skin allografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautier, A; Sabatier, F; Stellmann, P; Andrac, L; Nouaille De Gorce, Y; Dignat-George, F; Magalon, G

    2008-03-01

    Human skin allografts are used in the treatment of severe burns and their preservation is therefore critical for optimal clinical benefit. Current preservation methods, such as 4 degrees C storage or cryopreservation, cannot prevent the decrease of tissue viability. The aim of this study was to assess viability and function of skin allografts in a new skin organ culture model, allowing conservation parameters as close as possible to physiological conditions: 32 degrees C, air-liquid interface and physiological skin tension. Twelve skin samples, harvested from 6 living surgical donors, were conserved 35 days in two conditions: conservation at 4 degrees C and organ culture. Viability and function of skin samples were investigated at Day 0, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 using cell culture methods (trypan blue exclusion, Colony Forming Efficiency and Growth Rate), histopathological and histoenzymological studies (Ki67 immunostaining). In the two conditions, fibroblast and keratinocyte viability was progressively affected by storage, with a significant decrease observed after 35 days. No statistical difference could be observed between the two conditions. The two methods were also comparable regarding alterations of fibroblast and keratinocyte culture parameters, which were respectively significantly reduced at Day 7 and 21, compared to fresh skin. By contrast, histopathological and histoenzymological studies revealed a better preservation of skin architecture and proliferative potential at 4 degrees C, as compared to organ culture. These results indicate that skin organ culture does not provide significant advantages for skin allograft preservation. However, its potential use as an experimental model to study skin physiology and wound healing should be further evaluated.

  9. The FORO Project on Safety Culture in Organizations, Facilities and Activities With Sources of Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bomben, A. M.; Ferro Fernández, R.; Arciniega Torres, J.; Ordoñez Gutiérrez, E.; Blanes Tabernero, A.; Cruz Suárez, R.; Da Silva Silveira, C.; Perera Meas, J.; Ramírez Quijada, R.; Videla Valdebenito, R.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the Ibero-American Forum of Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authorities’ (FORO) Project on Safety Culture in organizations, facilities and activities with sources of ionizing radiation developed by experts from the Regulatory Authorities of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Spain, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay, under the scientific coordination of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Taking into account that Safety Culture problems have been widely recognised as one of the major contributors to many radiological events, several international and regional initiatives are being carried out to foster and develop a strong Safety Culture. One of these initiatives is the two-year project sponsored by the FORO with the purpose to prepare a document to allow its member states understanding, promoting and achieving a higher level of Safety Culture.

  10. Extending Deacon’s Notion of Teleodynamics to Culture, Language, Organization, Science, Economics and Technology (CLOSET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Logan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Terrence Deacon’s (2012 notion developed in his book Incomplete Nature (IN that living organisms are teleodynamic systems that are self-maintaining, self-correcting and self-reproducing is extended to human social systems. The hypothesis is developed that culture, language, organization, science, economics and technology (CLOSET can be construed as living organisms that evolve, maintain and reproduce themselves and are self-correcting, and hence are teleodynamic systems. The elements of CLOSET are to a certain degree autonomous, even though they are obligate symbionts dependent on their human hosts for the energy that sustains them.

  11. Long-term organ culture of rabbit skin: Effect of EGF on epidermal structure in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, S.; Hozumi, Y.; Aso, K.

    1990-01-01

    A method is described for maintaining the epidermal structure of normal rabbit ear skin explants in organ culture for up to 12 weeks. Split-thickness skin specimens were put in diffusion chambers made of either millipore filters or bovine collagen membranes, and then submitted to a roller tube culture at 15 rpm and 36 degrees C. The culture medium was Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) supplemented with 20% fetal calf serum (FCS) + 0.4 micrograms/ml hydrocortisone. The gas used in the culture tube was air + 5% CO2. Autoradiography revealed the incorporation of [3H]-glycine into the 68-kD keratin band of explants for up to 12 weeks, indicating that normal keratinization was maintained throughout the entire culture period. The turnover time of the epidermis from basal layer to granular layer was around 7 d in both the early and late stages of culture. The addition of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to the culture caused the epidermis to become acanthotic with orthokeratosis, but with high concentrations of EGF (greater than or equal to 10 ng/ml) parakeratosis and increased proliferation of the epidermis occurred. Dexamethasone (DMS) strongly inhibited the EGF effect

  12. Effect Of The Use Of Information Technology And Organization Cultural Of The Quality Accounting Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The result of the application of effective accounting information system and provide quality and effective accounting information quality. Fundamental rule accounting information systems in an organization is generating accounting information quality through the process of collecting raw data and then processed and then presented in the form of accounting information useful for user information. The purpose of this study was to know how the effect of Use of information technology on the quality of accounting information systems organizational culture on the quality of accounting information systems and the quality of accounting information system on the quality of accounting information. Based on the literature of some previous researchers proved that a technology affects the quality of accounting information systems using information system AIS Effectively requires an understanding of the organization management and information technology shaping the system. the use of information technology within an organization intended to provide information to the user. B. Organizational culture affects the quality of AIS at the stage of design and implementation of the system required careful consideration of the information attitude is the main component of the organization information systems can be substantially influenced by the culture of the organization. C accounting information quality influence on information accounting quality is built with the main purpose to process accounting data from various sources into the accounting information needed by a wide range of users to reduce risk when making decisions.

  13. Relaxant effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of Ruta graveolens on isolated rat tracheal rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Águila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ruta graveolens L. (R. graveolens is a medicinal plant employed in non-traditional medicines that has various therapeutic properties, including anthelmintic, and vasodilatory actions, among others. We evaluated the trachea-relaxant effects of hydroalcoholic extract of R. graveolens against potassium chloride (KCl- and carbachol-induced contraction of rat tracheal rings in an isolated organ bath. RESULTS: The results showed that the airway smooth muscle contraction induced by the depolarizing agent (KCl and cholinergic agonist (carbachol was markedly reduced by R. graveolens in a concentration-dependent manner, with maximum values of 109 ± 7.9 % and 118 ± 2.6 %, respectively (changes in tension expressed as positive percentages of change in proportion to maximum contraction, at the concentration of 45 μg/mL (half-maximal inhibitory concentration IC50: 35.5 μg/mL and 27.8 μg/mL for KCl- and carbachol-induced contraction, respectively. Additionally, the presence of R. graveolens produced rightward parallel displacement of carbachol dose-response curves and reduced over 35 % of the maximum smooth muscle contraction. CONCLUSIONS: The hydroalcoholic extract of R. graveolens exhibited relaxant activity on rat tracheal rings. The results suggest that the trachea-relaxant effect is mediated by a non-competitive antagonistic mechanism. More detailed studies are needed to identify the target of the inhibition, and to determine more precisely the pharmacological mechanisms involved in the observed biological effects.

  14. Structural and cultural barriers to the adoption of smoking cessation services in addiction treatment organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Hannah K; Studts, Jamie L; Boyd, Sara; Roman, Paul M

    2010-07-01

    Few studies have examined associations between the availability of smoking cessation services in addiction treatment organizations and specific cultural, staffing, and resource barriers. Telephone interviews were conducted with administrators of 897 addiction treatment organizations in the United States. These data revealed that few programs had adopted the full bundle of five recommended tobacco-related intake procedures, and that less than half of programs offered any smoking cessation services. Barriers to adoption of the intake bundle and availability of services included organizational culture and low levels of staff skills. Adoption of cessation services was associated with center type, location in a hospital setting, levels of care, and organizational size. Although a substantial proportion of organizations offer smoking cessation services, expansion of these services and greater adoption of tobacco-related intake procedures are needed to address the needs of nicotine-dependent individuals in addiction treatment.

  15. trans-Caryophyllene, a Natural Sesquiterpene, Causes Tracheal Smooth Muscle Relaxation through Blockade of Voltage-Dependent Ca2+ Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jader Santos Cruz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available trans-Caryophyllene is a major component in the essential oils of various species of medicinal plants used in popular medicine in Brazil. It belongs to the chemical class of the sesquiterpenes and has been the subject of a number of studies. Here, we evaluated the effects of this compound in airway smooth muscle. The biological activities of trans-caryophyllene were examined in isolated bath organs to investigate the effect in basal tonus. Electromechanical and pharmacomechanical couplings were evaluated through the responses to K+ depolarization and exposure to acetylcholine (ACh, respectively. Isolated cells of rat tracheal smooth muscle were used to investigate trans-caryophyllene effects on voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels by using the whole-cell voltage-clamp configuration of the patch-clamp technique. trans-Caryophyllene showed more efficiency in the blockade of electromechanical excitation-contraction coupling while it has only minor inhibitory effect on pharmacomechanical coupling. Epithelium removal does not modify tracheal smooth muscle response elicited by trans-caryophyllene in the pharmacomechanical coupling. Under Ca2+-free conditions, pre-exposure to trans-caryophyllene did not reduce the contraction induced by ACh in isolated rat tracheal smooth muscle, regardless of the presence of intact epithelium. In the whole-cell configuration, trans-caryophyllene (3 mM, inhibited the inward Ba2+ current (IBa to approximately 50% of control levels. Altogether, our results demonstrate that trans-caryophyllene has anti-spasmodic activity on rat tracheal smooth muscle which could be explained, at least in part, by the voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels blockade.

  16. A preliminary study on the cultural differences between Korean and Japanese organizations in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Yong Hee [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Ingyu [Hanshin Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Do, Giang [Sol Bridge International School of Business, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The meltdowns of the Chernobyl and Fukushima I nuclear reactors are fundamentally linked to their organizational characteristics, as they caused severe social and economic disruptions with equally significant environmental and health related impacts. This shows that we have to find practical solutions to reactor safety from various organizational standpoints by introducing a systematic approach to the issue of organizational deficiencies and human errors. We posit that one of the fundamental causes of organizational deficiencies can be derived from an organizational culture. An organizational culture has both formal and informal types. Generally, organizational culture refers to the common beliefs, values, norms, symbols, and language systems that organizational members use when they add meaning to their organizational behavior within their specific organizations. The purpose of this study is threefold. First, we are interested in finding internal contradictions between Korean organizational culture and U.S.-derived organizational safety mechanisms applied to the operation of Korean NPPs (Nuclear Power Plants). We want to discern safety related problems that are thought to have occurred routinely within the parameters of Korean NPPs owing to the use of U.S. safety mechanisms. Second, we compare the Korean and Japanese organizational culture in NPP mainly on safety and comfort cultures in order to cope with the cultural problems. Third, we want to propose an alternative model of safety mechanisms that are more appropriate for Korean organizational culture, using a system dynamic model that we devised based on empirical observations from the NPPs and factors drawn from the extant literature as compared with Japanese organizational culture.

  17. A preliminary study on the cultural differences between Korean and Japanese organizations in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Yong Hee; Oh, Ingyu; Do, Giang

    2012-01-01

    The meltdowns of the Chernobyl and Fukushima I nuclear reactors are fundamentally linked to their organizational characteristics, as they caused severe social and economic disruptions with equally significant environmental and health related impacts. This shows that we have to find practical solutions to reactor safety from various organizational standpoints by introducing a systematic approach to the issue of organizational deficiencies and human errors. We posit that one of the fundamental causes of organizational deficiencies can be derived from an organizational culture. An organizational culture has both formal and informal types. Generally, organizational culture refers to the common beliefs, values, norms, symbols, and language systems that organizational members use when they add meaning to their organizational behavior within their specific organizations. The purpose of this study is threefold. First, we are interested in finding internal contradictions between Korean organizational culture and U.S.-derived organizational safety mechanisms applied to the operation of Korean NPPs (Nuclear Power Plants). We want to discern safety related problems that are thought to have occurred routinely within the parameters of Korean NPPs owing to the use of U.S. safety mechanisms. Second, we compare the Korean and Japanese organizational culture in NPP mainly on safety and comfort cultures in order to cope with the cultural problems. Third, we want to propose an alternative model of safety mechanisms that are more appropriate for Korean organizational culture, using a system dynamic model that we devised based on empirical observations from the NPPs and factors drawn from the extant literature as compared with Japanese organizational culture

  18. Ethics and cultural barriers to communication: Net frontiers of the organization in the digital age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Chibás Ortiz

    2016-11-01

    This article describes synthetically the importance of ethics since the dawn of humanity to the present times, making emphasis on its importance for management. It presents the concept of cyberculture in the context of contemporary organizations, as well as various definitions of ethics, discussing the affective and intuitive aspects of it and not only rational. It shows the importance of Cultural Barriers to Communication to diagnose the existence of an ethical organizational environment. This study aimed to look at how to manifest some of the various relationships between ethics and Cultural Barriers to Communication in today's digital ecosystem, and to describe some of the contemporary organizational behavior on the Internet considered ethical and unethical through the analysis of cases. We conducted a qualitative theoretical research exploratory, using for this the literature, non-participant observation, as well as cases studies. It is noteworthy that to an ethical review at the present time it takes from a casuistic approach and not just a theoretical definition of ethics. The article tries to answer questions regarding how it manifests ethics in contemporary organizations that use profitable way the new communication technologies and some of them persist Cultural Barriers to Communication, described before in the physical world. The findings indicate that the advent of new communication technologies, is being built a new digital ethics, which involves new principles, rules and behaviors of society, organizations, employees and customers. Diagnosis of Cultural Barriers to Communication helps to see this process

  19. Cultural carrying capacity: Organ donation advocacy, discursive framing, and social media engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bail, Christopher A

    2016-09-01

    Social media sites such as Facebook have become a powerful tool for public health outreach because they enable advocacy organizations to influence the rapidly increasing number of people who frequent these forums. Yet the very open-ness of social media sites creates fierce competition for public attention. The vast majority of social media messages provoke little or no reaction because of the sheer volume of information that confronts the typical social media user each day. In this article, I present a theory of the "cultural carrying capacity" of social media messaging campaigns. I argue that advocacy organizations inspire more endorsements, comments, and shares by social media users if they diversify the discursive content of their messages. Yet too much diversification creates large, disconnected audiences that lack the sense of shared purpose necessary to sustain an online movement. To evaluate this theory, I created a Facebook application that collects social media posts produced by forty-two organ donation advocacy organizations over 1.5 years, as well as supplemental information about the organization, its audience, and the broader social context in which they interact. Time series models provide strong evidence for my theory net of demographic characteristics of social media users, the resources and tactics of each organization, and broader external factors. I conclude by discussing the implications of these findings for public health, cultural sociology, and the nascent field of computational social science. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of aging on tracheal mucociliary clearance in Beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whaley, S.L.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Wolff, R.K.

    1985-01-01

    Tracheal mucous velocity measurements were made in 24 Beagle dogs, in 5 age groups, using a gamma camera to detect movement on instilled radiolabeled material. Age groups were defined as immature, young adult, middle-aged, mature, and aged dogs. Mean velocities (+/- SE) were 3.6 +/- 0.4 mm/min in the immature dogs, 9.8 +/- 0.7 mm/min in the young adults, 6.9 +/- 0.5 mm/min in the middle-aged dogs, 3.6 +/- 1.1 mm/min in the mature dogs, and 2.8 +/- 0.6 mm/min in the aged dogs. Tracheal mucous velocity was significantly faster in the young adult and middle-aged groups than in the immature, mature, and aged dog groups. 4 references, 1 figure, 1 table

  1. Transoral tracheal intubation of rodents using a fiberoptic laryngoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, D L; Lehmann, J R; Harold, W M; Drew, R T

    1986-06-01

    A fiberoptic laryngoscope which allows direct visualization of the deep pharynx and epiglottis has been developed for transoral tracheal intubation of small laboratory mammals. The device has been employed in the intubation and instillation of a variety of substances into the lungs of rats, and with minor modification, has had similar application in mice, hamsters, and guinea pigs. The simplicity and ease of handling of the laryngoscope permits one person to intubate large numbers of enflurane anesthetized animals either on an open counter top or in a glove-box, as may be required for administration of carcinogenic materials. Instillation of 7Be-labeled carbon particles into the lungs of mice, hamsters, rats, and guinea pigs resulted in reasonably consistent interlobal distribution of particles for each test animal species with minimal tracheal deposition. However, actual lung tissue doses of carbon exhibited some species dependence.

  2. Difficult Tracheal Intubation in Obese Gastric Bypass patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohrn, Niclas; Sommer, Thorbjørn; Bisgaard, J.

    2016-01-01

    Endotracheal intubation is commonly perceived to be more difficult in obese patients than in lean patients. Primarily, we investigated the association between difficult tracheal intubation (DTI) and obesity, and secondarily, the association between DTI and validated scoring systems used to assess...... the airways, the association between DTI and quantities of anesthetics used to induce general anesthesia, and the association between DTI and difficulties with venous and arterial cannulation. This is a monocentric prospective observational clinical study of a consecutive series of 539 obese patients...... was 3.5 % and the patients with DTI were more frequently males, had higher CLC, higher American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification (ASA), and noticeably, a lower BMI compared to the patients with easy tracheal intubation. After adjustment with multivariable analyses body mass...

  3. PERSPECTIVES OF THE UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE CULTURAL DIMENSION IN GALATI COUNTY ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHEORGHE Gabriela

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of cultural dimensions is an innovative idea, comparing the scores obtained on the basis of the cultural dimensions makes it possible to analyze the organizational culture level. Based on data collected as part of the COMOR Project for the analysis of organizational culture in the Romanian business environment, developed by The Scientific Society of Management from Romania, we have initiated, using Business Intelligence tools, a scan of the characteristics of organizational culture for Galati County. The study is based on the views of a representative sample of respondents from the business element from Galati in order to assess the current situation and the desired one. The administration of the questionnaires was conducted with the support of the project team of the University "Dunărea de Jos". The proposed aim is, from the analysis of the determined statistical indicators based on the questionnaires from the Galati county, leaving behind the classical linear thinking, to identify new relationships, connections that can be revealed by analyzing the database, obtaining information about organizational culture that highlights the evolution of environmental trends Business in Galati, the practical goal of the research being to provide useful results and conclusions necessary to the local organizational development process. An important topic of the research is to identify the factors that influence managerial behaviour at the level of the Romanian organizations in order to promote and to guide the change at the level of the microeconomic structures.

  4. Organizational cultural competence in community health and social service organizations: how to conduct a self-assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olavarria, Marcela; Beaulac, Julie; Bélanger, Alexandre; Young, Marta; Aubry, Tim

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to address the significant socio-cultural changes in the population demographics of the United States (US) and Canada, organizations are increasingly seeking ways of improving their level of cultural competence. Evaluating organizational cultural competence is essential to address the needs of ethnic and cultural minorities. Yet, research related to organizational cultural competence is relatively new. The purpose of this paper is to review the extant literature with a specific focus on: (1) identifying the key standards that define culturally competent community health and social service organizations; and (2) outlining the core elements for evaluating cultural competence in a health and social service organization. Furthermore, issues related to choosing self-assessment tools and conducting an evaluation will be explored.

  5. Treatment of Benign Tracheal Stenosis Using Endoluminal Spray Cryotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhora, Faiz Y; Ayub, Adil; Forleiter, Craig M; Huang, Chyun-Yin; Alshehri, Khalid; Rehmani, Sadiq; Al-Ayoubi, Adnan M; Raad, Wissam; Lebovics, Robert S

    2016-11-01

    Tracheal stenosis is a debilitating disorder with heterogeneity in terms of disease characteristics and management. Repeated recurrences substantially alter patients' quality of life. There is limited evidence for the use of spray cryotherapy (SCT) in the management of benign airway disease. To report our early results for the use of SCT in patients with benign tracheal stenosis. Data were extracted from the medical records of a consecutive series of patients with benign airway stenosis secondary to granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) (n = 13), prior tracheotomy or tracheal intubation (n = 8), and idiopathic strictures (n = 5) treated from September 1, 2013, to September 30, 2015, at a tertiary care hospital. Airway narrowing was quantified on a standard quartile grading scale. Response to treatment was assessed by improvement in airway caliber and the time interval for reintervention. Delivery of 4 5-second SCT cycles and 2 balloon dilatations. Twenty-six patients (median [range] age, 53 [16-83] years; 20 [77%] female) underwent 48 SCT sessions. Spray cryotherapy was successfully used without any substantial intraoperative or postoperative complications in all patients. In a median (range) follow-up of 11 (1-26) months, all patients had improvement in symptoms. Before the institution of SCT, 23 patients (88%) had grade III or IV stenosis. At the last evaluation after induction of SCT, 4 (15%) had grade III or IV stenosis, with a mean (SD) change of 1.39 (0.51) (P benign tracheal stenosis. Although efficacy evidence is limited for SCT, it may be useful for patients who have experienced treatment failure with conventional modalities. Further analysis of this cohort will determine the physiologic durability of the reported short-term changes. Additional trials are warranted for further evaluation of this modality.

  6. Sonographic Findings of Primary Tracheal Lymphoma: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Sung; Ahn, Kook Jin; Kim, Jee Young; Kim, Hyo Lim; Park, Jeong Mi

    2010-01-01

    Primary lymphoma of the trachea is extremely rare and clinical presentation is nonspecific. CT findings are focal tracheal narrowing caused by a solitary mass or polypoid thickening of the tracheobronchial wall caused by diffuse infiltration of the submucosa. However, US finding of primary lymphoma of the trachea has been not reported. We experienced a case of primary lymphoma of the trachea presenting as a homogenous hypoechoic mass, and discuss ultrasonographic and CT findings of the case

  7. Low tracheal tumor and airway management: An anesthetic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Saroa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case presenting with tracheal tumor wherein a Microlaryngeal tube was advanced into the trachea distal to the tumor for primary airway control followed by cannulation of both endobronchial lumen with 5.5 mm endotracheal tubes to provide independent lung ventilation post tracheal transection using Y- connector attached to anesthesia machine. The plan was formulated to provide maximal surgical access to the trachea while providing adequate ventilation at the same time. A 32 yrs non smoker male, complaining of cough, progressive dyspnea and hemoptysis was diagnosed to have a broad based mass in the trachea on computed tomography of chest. Bronchoscopy of the upper airway confirmed presence of the mass at a distance of 9 cms from the vocal cords, obstructing the tracheal lumen by three fourth of the diameter. The patient was scheduled to undergo the resection of the mass through anterolateral thoracotomy. We recommend the use of extralong, soft, small sized microlaryngeal surgery tube in tumors proximal to carina, for securing the airway before the transection of trachea and bilateral endobronchial intubation with small sized cuffed endotracheal tubes for maintenance of ventilation after the transection of trachea in patients with mass in the lower trachea.

  8. Myosin light chain kinase phosphorylation in tracheal smooth muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stull, J.T.; Hsu, L.C.; Tansey, M.G.; Kamm, K.E.

    1990-01-01

    Purified myosin light chain kinase from smooth muscle is phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, and the multifunctional calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Because phosphorylation in a specific site (site A) by any one of these kinases desensitizes myosin light chain kinase to activation by Ca2+/calmodulin, kinase phosphorylation could play an important role in regulating smooth muscle contractility. This possibility was investigated in 32 P-labeled bovine tracheal smooth muscle. Treatment of tissues with carbachol, KCl, isoproterenol, or phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate increased the extent of kinase phosphorylation. Six primary phosphopeptides (A-F) of myosin light chain kinase were identified. Site A was phosphorylated to an appreciable extent only with carbachol or KCl, agents which contract tracheal smooth muscle. The extent of site A phosphorylation correlated to increases in the concentration of Ca2+/calmodulin required for activation. These results show that cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C do not affect smooth muscle contractility by phosphorylating site A in myosin light chain kinase. It is proposed that phosphorylation of myosin light chain kinase in site A in contracting tracheal smooth muscle may play a role in the reported desensitization of contractile elements to activation by Ca2+

  9. Efficacy of transoral intraluminal Wallstents for tracheal stenosis or tracheomalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiano, R R; Numa, W A; Nurko, Y J

    2000-10-01

    The efficacy and safety of intraluminal Wallstent Endoprosthesis (Boston Scientific/ Medi-Tech, Quincy, MA) placement to restore airway patency in patients with tracheal stenosis or tracheomalacia are unknown. Retrospective review in setting of tertiary, referral, and academic center. A retrospective review of 13 consecutive patients over a 2-year period who underwent transoral resection of tracheal stenosis and immediate transoral Wallstent placement. One patient had tracheomalacia. All of the patients were considered at high risk for transcervical surgery or had failed prior traditional open procedures. The average patient age was 54.2 years, with nine male and four female patients. All had Cotton/Myer stenoses (grades II to IV) with moderate to severe degrees of inspiratory stridor. Four patients were tracheotomy dependent. The length of stenosis varied from 1 to 4 cm. One patient had a 10-cm segment of tracheomalacia. At the time of writing, none of the patients has had a problem with significant migration or extrusion and most of the patients have incorporated the stent well without any short-term obstructive granulation tissue. After a mean follow-up of 15 months (range, 4-24 mo). 10 of the 12 patients with stenosis (83%) have remained free of any inspiratory noise during breathing. The one patient with tracheomalacia also has remained free of symptoms. Transoral Wallstents appear to be safe and may be a reasonable alternative in the restoration of airway patency in select patients with tracheal stenosis or tracheomalacia.

  10. Multimodal non-surgical treatment of a feline tracheal adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Azevedo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 10-year-old, castrated male domestic shorthair cat presented with a 2–3 month history of weight loss, lethargy and coughing. Thoracic radiographs revealed a soft tissue opacity overlying the dorsal trachea from the first rib to second rib and the ventral aspect of the trachea extending from the second rib to approximately the fourth rib. CT confirmed a mass involving the dorsal, right lateral and ventral aspects of the trachea narrowing the lumen and extending from vertebra C7 through T4. Bronchoscopy revealed a partially circumferential irregular and multilobulated tracheal mass, which was biopsied. The histopathological diagnosis was tracheal adenocarcinoma. The cat was treated with a definitive course of external beam radiation therapy (RT; 3 Gy × 18, cytotoxic chemotherapy, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor and palliative RT. The cat remained asymptomatic for 2 months and the mass remained stable radiographically for 11 months after RT. Relevance and novel information With multimodal treatment the cat had a survival time of 755 days. Initial treatment included definitive RT, carboplatin and piroxicam, followed by toceranib phosphate and palliative RT when the mass recurred. This case report describes the first documented use of non-surgical treatment and long-term outcome of tracheal adenocarcinoma in a cat. This case report is an indication that prolonged survival can be achieved with multimodal therapy.

  11. [Tracheal Intubation by Paramedics in a Local Community: Current Situation and Future Challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takinami, Yoshikazu

    2016-03-01

    As of April 2013, 164 paramedics are certified to perform tracheal intubation in Fukui Prefecture. This study investigated the current situation surrounding tracheal intubation performed by paramedics in prehospital care. Subjects were 58 paramedics who completed practical training at our hospital. Post-training duration, number of tracheal intubation cases, number of attempts before successful tracheal intubation, disease involved, rate of return of spontaneous circulation, and prognosis were examined. Tracheal intubation was successful on the first attempt in 92% of cases. Rate of return of spontaneous circulation was high in paramedics whose post-training duration was short. No return of spontaneous circulation occurred after a second attempt. Four patients survived asphyxia or aspiration. It is important to perform successful tracheal intubation on the first attempt, to recognize the probability of successful resuscitation in patients with exogenous disease, and to strengthen the medical control system.

  12. EFFICIENCY OF CONCOMITANT APPLICATION OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS AND CULTURED INVERTEBRATES FOR INCREASING FISH PRODUCTIVITY IN NURSERY PONDS

    OpenAIRE

    A. Tuchapska

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To study the fisheries and biological indicators of young-of-the-year carp when applying fertilizer in ponds, introducing stock cultures of Daphnia magna (Straus) and feeding of young-of-the-year with cultured zooplankton organisms and to evaluate the effectiveness of measures for enhancing the provision of young-of-the-year carp with natural feeds. Methodology. Stock culture of Daphnia magna was added into experimental ponds, 65 kg/ha of zooplankton, which were cultured in a pon...

  13. Timing of RNA synthesis for sperimiogenesis in organ cultures of Drosophila melanogaster teste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gould-Somero, M; Holland, L

    1974-01-01

    A method for the organ culture of Drosophila testes is described which supports the differentiation of primary spermatocytes through the meiotic divisions to elongating spermatids. Autoradiographic and inhibitor studies reveal no evidence for RNA synthesis by developing spermatids of Drosophila melanogaster; most, if not all, of the RNA required for the differentiation and elongation of sperm is synthesized earlier in the primary spermatocytes. Primary spermatocytes will differentiate into elongating spermatids in organ culture, despite severe (96 to 98%) inhibition of /sup 3/H-uridine incorporation into RNA effected by 50 ..mu..g/ml 3'-deoxyadenosine. Protein synthesis in spermatids continues to be active in the presence of 3'-deoxyadenosine, but that in growing spermatocytes is severely inhibited.

  14. Organization and safety culture in Asco and Vandellos II nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Unified management of ANA and CNV has resulted in an organizational and functional change in both Plant managements that has affected the structure of the original organizations and the interrelations with the other Corporate Managements. In this process, as indicated in the ANAV Strategic Plan, improving the safety culture is one of the primary objectives of the company, and to this end internal actions have been taken that have basically affected: the structure of the Organization, the Management's commitment, the learning capability, enhanced internal communication and development of human factors-related issues. (Author)

  15. Information space a framework for learning in organizations, institutions and culture

    CERN Document Server

    Boisot, Max H

    2016-01-01

    In this book the author lays the foundations for a new political economy of information. The information space, or I-Space is the conceptual framework in which organizations, institutions and cultures are being transformed by new information and communication technologies. In the penultimate chapter, the I-Space's usefulness as an explanatory framework is illustrated with an application: a case study of China's modernization. Information Space proposes a radical shift in the way that we approach the emerging information age and the implications it holds for societies, organizations and individuals.

  16. Cross-cultural consistency and diversity in intrinsic functional organization of Broca's Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Fan, Lingzhong; Caspers, Svenja; Heim, Stefan; Song, Ming; Liu, Cirong; Mo, Yin; Eickhoff, Simon B; Amunts, Katrin; Jiang, Tianzi

    2017-04-15

    As a core language area, Broca's region was consistently activated in a variety of language studies even across different language systems. Moreover, a high degree of structural and functional heterogeneity in Broca's region has been reported in many studies. This raised the issue of how the intrinsic organization of Broca's region effects by different language experiences in light of its subdivisions. To address this question, we used multi-center resting-state fMRI data to explore the cross-cultural consistency and diversity of Broca's region in terms of its subdivisions, connectivity patterns and modularity organization in Chinese and German speakers. A consistent topological organization of the 13 subdivisions within the extended Broca's region was revealed on the basis of a new in-vivo parcellation map, which corresponded well to the previously reported receptorarchitectonic map. Based on this parcellation map, consistent functional connectivity patterns and modularity organization of these subdivisions were found. Some cultural difference in the functional connectivity patterns was also found, for instance stronger connectivity in Chinese subjects between area 6v2 and the motor hand area, as well as higher correlations between area 45p and middle frontal gyrus. Our study suggests that a generally invariant organization of Broca's region, together with certain regulations of different language experiences on functional connectivity, might exists to support language processing in human brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [The comparative evaluation of level of security culture in medical organizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roitberg, G E; Kondratova, N V; Galanina, E V

    2016-01-01

    The study was carried out on the basis of clinic “Medicine” in 2014-2015 concerning security culture. The sampling included 465 filled HSPSC questionnaires. The comparative analysis of received was implemented. The “Zubovskaia district hospital” Having no accreditation according security standards and group of clinics from USA functioning for many years in the system of patient security support were selected as objects for comparison. The evaluation was implemented concerning dynamics of security culture in organization at implementation of strategies of security of patients during 5 years and comparison of obtained results with USA clinics was made. The study results demonstrated that in conditions of absence of implemented standards of security in medical organization total evaluation of security remains extremely low. The study of security culture using HSPSC questionnaire is an effective tool for evaluating implementation of various strategies of security ofpatient. The functioning in the system of international standards of quality, primarily JCI standards, permits during several years to achieve high indices of security culture.

  18. In vitro mouse spermatogenesis with an organ culture method in chemically defined medium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Sanjo

    Full Text Available We previously reported the successful induction and completion of mouse spermatogenesis by culturing neonatal testis tissues. The culture medium consisted of α-minimum essential medium (α-MEM, supplemented with Knockout serum replacement (KSR or AlbuMAX, neither of which were defined chemically. In this study, we formulated a chemically defined medium (CDM that can induce mouse spermatogenesis under organ culture conditions. It was found that bovine serum albumin (BSA purified through three different procedures had different effects on spermatogenesis. We also confirmed that retinoic acid (RA played crucial roles in the onset of spermatogonial differentiation and meiotic initiation. The added lipids exhibited weak promoting effects on spermatogenesis. Lastly, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, triiodothyronine (T3, and testosterone (T combined together promoted spermatogenesis until round spermatid production. The CDM, however, was not able to produce elongated spermatids. It was also unable to induce spermatogenesis from the very early neonatal period, before 2 days postpartum, leaving certain factors necessary for spermatogenic induction in mice unidentified. Nonetheless, the present study provided important basic information on testis organ culture and spermatogenesis in vitro.

  19. Topical application of polycyclic hydrocarbons to differentiated respiratory epithelium in long-term organ cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossman, B.T.; Craighead, J.E.

    1974-01-01

    We undertook studies to assess the carcinogenic properties of selected hydrocarbons using the differentiated respiratory mucosa of the hamster trachea maintained in organ culture. Borosilicate glass fibers (diameter 3 x 10 -2 mm) were flushed with solutions of radio-labeled hydrocarbons in acetone and applied (after evaporation of the acetone) to the epithelial surface of the organ culture. This permitted us to vary the concentration of the carcinogen and allowed a systematic evaluation of epithelial changes at a defined site over a range of time periods. Presumably, the connective tissue elements subjacent to the mucosa were not exposed to the carcinogen. Cultures are maintained in a viable, differentiated state for two or more months as confirmed by histologic study and radioautography. Epithelial cells exhibit cytologic alterations and changes in 3 H-thymidine uptake at sites of fiber application after brief periods of exposure. Proliferation of the affected mucosa and loss of orientation of epithelial cells is noted. Possible neoplastic transformation of affected cells is currently being tested by implantation of cultures subcutaneously into syngeneic animals

  20. The Influence of an Information Environment on Construction Organization's Culture: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth T. Sullivan; Dean T. Kashiwagi; Nathan Chong

    2009-01-01

    Construction professionals have identified public contract law and bureaucratic procurement/contract offices as a source of problems in the construction industry. The culture within the United State's Federal Government Acquisitions is based on the Federal Acquisition Regulations (FARs) and its interpretation, often placing organizations/agencies in the price-based environment and continuously resulting in poor performance. The United States Army Medical Command (MEDCOM) (approximately $100 M...

  1. Bacterial microflora in Stichococcus bacillaris culture in nitrogenous-organic wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisz-Konarzewska, A.; Przytocka-Jusiak, M.; Rzeczycka, M.; Kowalska, A.

    1985-01-01

    The quantitative and qualitative composition of the population of heterotrophic bacteria accompanying Stichococcus bacillaris in culture in non-sterile nitrogenous-organic wastewater was examined. During 5 days of incubation the total number of bacteria did not show any marked changes and averaged 4 X 10(6) cells per ml. Twenty per cent of the isolated bacterial strains were gram-positive. Gram-negative rods were dominated by Enterobacteriaceae (40%) and Pseudomonas (17%).

  2. Entrepreneurial orientation rhetoric in franchise organizations: The impact of national culture

    OpenAIRE

    Watson , Anna; Dada , O. Lola; Wright , Owen; Perrigot , Rozenn

    2017-01-01

    International audience; This study examines the role of national culture on the entrepreneurial orientation (EO) rhetoric contained within franchisee recruitment promotional materials, where EO rhetoric is defined as the strategic use of words in organizational narratives to convey the risk taking, innovativeness, proactiveness, autonomy and competitive aggressiveness of the firm. The sample comprised 378 franchise organizations, in five different countries (Australia, France, India, South Af...

  3. Automated culture of aquatic model organisms: shrimp larvae husbandry for the needs of research and aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutalipassi, M; Di Natale, M; Mazzella, V; Zupo, V

    2018-01-01

    Modern research makes frequent use of animal models, that is, organisms raised and bred experimentally in order to help the understanding of biological and chemical processes affecting organisms or whole environments. The development of flexible, reprogrammable and modular systems that may help the automatic production of 'not-easy-to-keep' species is important for scientific purposes and for such aquaculture needs as the production of alive foods, the culture of small larvae and the test of new culture procedures. For this reason, we planned and built a programmable experimental system adaptable to the culture of various aquatic organisms, at different developmental stages. The system is based on culture cylinders contained into operational tanks connected to water conditioning tanks. A programmable central processor unit controls the operations, that is, water changes, temperature, light irradiance, the opening and closure of valves for the discharge of unused foods, water circulation and filtration and disinfection systems, according to the information received by various probes. Various devices may be set to modify water circulation and water changes to fulfil the needs of given organisms, to avoid damage of delicate structures, improve feeding performances and reduce the risk of movements over the water surface. The results obtained indicate that the system is effective in the production of shrimp larvae, being able to produce Hippolyte inermis post-larvae with low mortality as compared with the standard operation procedures followed by human operators. Therefore, the patented prototype described in the present study is a possible solution to automate and simplify the rearing of small invertebrates in the laboratory and in production plants.

  4. Sulfur Mustard (SM) Lesions in Organ-Cultured Human Skin: Markers of Injury and Inflammatory Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-16

    18. SUB3ECT TERMS (oont’d) epidermal injury organ culture •ranuaear vacuoles C-leucine incorpora’tion by full-thickness human akin explants hi stamine ...mast- cell degranulation prostaglandin E2 lysobomal enzymes: acid phosphatase, B-glucuronidase, 0-galactcsidase, lysozyme and lactic dehydrogenase...that histamline (from local mast cells ), and PA and POgk (probably from mast cells and epidermal cells ) are s3e of the early mediators of the inflmma

  5. THE IMPACT of CULTURE, LEADERSHIP, and POWER, on STAFF MOTIVATION in the CONTEXT of INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Erciyes, Erdem

    2017-01-01

    This thesis investigates the impact of culture, leadership, and power, on staff motivation in selected international organizations (IOs), and develops a theoretical framework to assist with the practice of workforce motivation. The main research question is: “How can supervisors motivate their staff in the context of IOs?” Utilizing critical theory as a paradigm of inquiry, the study’s philosophical perspective leans heavily on “phenomenology”. Conducting this research led to the realization ...

  6. Tracheal Penetration and Tracheoesophageal Fistula Caused by an Esophageal Self-Expanding Metallic Stent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karan Madan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tracheal penetration of esophageal self-expanding metallic stents (SEMS with/without tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF formation is a rare occurrence. We report the case of a 66-year-old female patient with advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma who had undergone palliative esophageal stenting on three occasions for recurrent esophageal stent obstruction. On evaluation of symptoms of breathing difficulty and aspiration following third esophageal stent placement, tracheal erosion and TEF formation due to the tracheal penetration by esophageal stent were diagnosed. The patient was successfully managed by covered tracheal SEMS placement under flexible bronchoscopy.

  7. Two cases of severe tracheal stenosis due to advanced adenoid cystic carcinoma of the trachea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuasa, Hiroshi; Akaogi, Eiichi; Morita, Riichiro; Onizuka, Masataka; Mitsui, Kiyofumi [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Tsuji, Hirohiko

    1991-12-01

    Two cases of severe tracheal stenosis due to advanced nonresectable adenoid cystic carcinoma of the trachea were reported. Case 1 was a 38-year-old male who underwent emergency {sup 60}Co irradiation following endoscopic YAG laser irradiation. This approach was quite effective. Proton irradiation was effective against tumor recurrence. Case 2 was a 28-year-old female in whom emergency treatment for tracheal obstruction due to edema after laser therapy necessitated transient tracheal intubation. The tracheal stenosis due to recurrent tumor after {sup 60}Co irradiation was improved by insertion of an intraluminal permanent stent. (author).

  8. Fatal complication from a balloon-expandable tracheal stent in a child: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotz, William H; Berkowitz, Ivor D; Hoehner, Jeff C; Tunkel, David E

    2003-01-01

    The use of airway stents in the pediatric population is uncommon, reflected in the few patient series reported in the literature. We describe a fatal complication of tracheal stent placement in an 18-month-old child with spondylothoracic dysplasia. Case report. Intensive care unit of a tertiary academic pediatric center. An 18-month-old child with spondylothoracic dysplasia who underwent tracheal stent placement for tracheomalacia. Management of an acute upper-airway hemorrhage. The patient died, despite aggressive interventions. Use of tracheal stents in pediatric patients with tracheomalacia is not without risks; tracheal erosion with severe hemoptysis is an infrequent but devastating complication of this intervention.

  9. A Study on the Construct Validity of Safety Culture Oversight Model for Nuclear Power Operating Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Su Jin; Choi, Young Sung; Oh, Jang Jin

    2015-01-01

    In Korea, the safety policy statement declared in 1994 by government stressed the importance of safety culture and licensees were encouraged to manage and conduct their self-assessments. A change in regulatory position about safety culture oversight was made after the event of SBO cover-up in Kori unit 1 and several subsequent falsification events. Since then KINS has been developing licensee's safety culture oversight system including conceptual framework of oversight, prime focus area for oversight, and specific details on regulatory expectations, all of which are based on defence-in-depth (DiD) safety enhancement approach. Development and gathering of performance data which is related to actual 'safety' of nuclear power plant are needed to identify the relationship between safety culture and safety performance. Authors consider this study as pilot which has a contribution on verifying the construct validity of the model and the effectiveness of survey based research. This is the first attempt that the validity of safety culture oversight model has been investigated with empirical data obtained from Korean nuclear power operating organization

  10. Caspase-3 activation and DNA damage in pig skin organ culture after solar irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacqueville, Daniel; Mavon, Alain

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, a convenient and easy-to-handle skin organ culture was developed from domestic pig ears using polycarbonate Transwell culture inserts in 12-well plate. This alternative model was then tested for its suitability in analyzing the short-term effects of a single solar radiation dose (from 55 to 275 kJ.m(-2)). Differentiation of the pig skin was maintained for up to 48 h in culture, and its morphology was similar to that of fresh human skin. Solar irradiation induced a significant release of the cytosolic enzymes lactate dehydrogenase and extracellular signal-related kinase 2 protein in the culture medium 24 h after exposure. These photocytotoxic effects were associated with the formation of sunburn cells, thymine dimers and DNA strand breaks in both the epidermis and dermis. Interestingly, cell death was dose dependent and associated with p53 protein upregulation and strong caspase-3 activation in the basal epidermis. None of these cellular responses was observed in non-irradiated skin. Finally, topical application of a broad-spectrum UVB + A sunfilter formulation afforded efficient photoprotection in irradiated explants. Thus, the ex vivo pig ear skin culture may be a useful tool in the assessment of solar radiation-induced DNA damage and apoptosis, and for evaluating the efficacy of sunscreen formulations.

  11. Improving safety culture through the health and safety organization: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Kent J

    2014-02-01

    International research indicates that internal health and safety organizations (HSO) and health and safety committees (HSC) do not have the intended impact on companies' safety performance. The aim of this case study at an industrial plant was to test whether the HSO can improve company safety culture by creating more and better safety-related interactions both within the HSO and between HSO members and the shop-floor. A quasi-experimental single case study design based on action research with both quantitative and qualitative measures was used. Based on baseline mapping of safety culture and the efficiency of the HSO three developmental processes were started aimed at the HSC, the whole HSO, and the safety representatives, respectively. Results at follow-up indicated a marked improvement in HSO performance, interaction patterns concerning safety, safety culture indicators, and a changed trend in injury rates. These improvements are interpreted as cultural change because an organizational double-loop learning process leading to modification of the basic assumptions could be identified. The study provides evidence that the HSO can improve company safety culture by focusing on safety-related interactions. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council.

  12. A Study on the Construct Validity of Safety Culture Oversight Model for Nuclear Power Operating Organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Su Jin; Choi, Young Sung; Oh, Jang Jin [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In Korea, the safety policy statement declared in 1994 by government stressed the importance of safety culture and licensees were encouraged to manage and conduct their self-assessments. A change in regulatory position about safety culture oversight was made after the event of SBO cover-up in Kori unit 1 and several subsequent falsification events. Since then KINS has been developing licensee's safety culture oversight system including conceptual framework of oversight, prime focus area for oversight, and specific details on regulatory expectations, all of which are based on defence-in-depth (DiD) safety enhancement approach. Development and gathering of performance data which is related to actual 'safety' of nuclear power plant are needed to identify the relationship between safety culture and safety performance. Authors consider this study as pilot which has a contribution on verifying the construct validity of the model and the effectiveness of survey based research. This is the first attempt that the validity of safety culture oversight model has been investigated with empirical data obtained from Korean nuclear power operating organization.

  13. How can healthcare organizations implement patient-centered care? Examining a large-scale cultural transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhour, Barbara G; Fix, Gemmae M; Mueller, Nora M; Barker, Anna M; Lavela, Sherri L; Hill, Jennifer N; Solomon, Jeffrey L; Lukas, Carol VanDeusen

    2018-03-07

    Healthcare organizations increasingly are focused on providing care which is patient-centered rather than disease-focused. Yet little is known about how best to transform the culture of care in these organizations. We sought to understand key organizational factors for implementing patient-centered care cultural transformation through an examination of efforts in the US Department of Veterans Affairs. We conducted multi-day site visits at four US Department of Veterans Affairs medical centers designated as leaders in providing patient-centered care. We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with 108 employees (22 senior leaders, 42 middle managers, 37 front-line providers and 7 staff). Transcripts of audio recordings were analyzed using a priori codes based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. We used constant comparison analysis to synthesize codes into meaningful domains. Sites described actions taken to foster patient-centered care in seven domains: 1) leadership; 2) patient and family engagement; 3) staff engagement; 4) focus on innovations; 5) alignment of staff roles and priorities; 6) organizational structures and processes; 7) environment of care. Within each domain, we identified multi-faceted strategies for implementing change. These included efforts by all levels of organizational leaders who modeled patient-centered care in their interactions and fostered willingness to try novel approaches to care amongst staff. Alignment and integration of patient centered care within the organization, particularly surrounding roles, priorities and bureaucratic rules, remained major challenges. Transforming healthcare systems to focus on patient-centered care and better serve the "whole" patient is a complex endeavor. Efforts to transform healthcare culture require robust, multi-pronged efforts at all levels of the organization; leadership is only the beginning. Challenges remain for incorporating patient-centered approaches in the

  14. Le Rapport langue-culture dans les organisations internationales: Pour Une Sociologie des organisations internationales (The Relationship between Language and Culture in International Organizations: Toward a Sociology of International Organizations).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrab de Saint Robert, de Marie-Josee

    1988-01-01

    Understanding the work of international organizations requires an understanding of the relationship between language and culture, a relationship evident in the activities of the international organizations. This relationship is partly responsible for the negative image of such organizations. Research in the sociology of international organizations…

  15. Culture in Hospital Organizations and Cultural Policies for Coordinating Communication and Learning - DOI: 10.3395/reciis.v1i1.45en

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elói Martins Senhoras

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the importance of culture due to its dual strategic characteristics as both a process and a product of interaction, from the perspective of the management and planning of hospital organizations. The cultural changes within a hospital are analyzed through a review of theoretical and practical studies of health organizations, which are understood as relationships brokered by actors in a cultural system, who react to the introduction of mechanisms for participation and communication through mechanisms for learning. Through this discussion, arguments are provided to diversify and deepen the debate about administrative paths associated with communication which can lead to institutional efficiency, by suggesting the creation of communication mechanisms for building incentives in organizational learning and the operationalization of simple criteria for analyzing and revealing the cultures of a hospital organization.

  16. Inhibitor production by normal rat tracheal epithelial cells influences the frequency of spontaneous and X-ray-induced enhanced growth variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzaghi-Howe, M.

    1989-01-01

    A cell culture model was used to assay for the induction of cell populations with enhanced growth capacity in culture in irradiated normal rat tracheal epithelial cells (NTEC). Some growth conditions appear to favor the proliferation of both normal and carcinogen-exposed populations, while others appear to select for populations previously exposed to carcinogen. In the present report we focus on what growth conditions are critical for controlling the emergence of spontaneous and X-ray induced proliferating epithelial foci (PEF) and what factor(s) directly influences the relative frequency of PEF in irradiated and control NTEC cultures. (author)

  17. Factors that hinder organ donation: religio-cultural or lack of information and trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumin, Makmor; Noh, Abdillah; Jajri, Idris; Chong, Chin-Sieng; Manikam, Rishya; Abdullah, Nawi

    2013-06-01

    This paper examines factors that influence Malaysian persons with a tertiary level of education on their willingness to donate organs. A survey was done in the Klang Valley (Kuala Lumpur and its suburbs) at several designated locations. A total of 1420 people were approached, and we focused the sample of 688 respondents with a tertiary level of education. Respondents were given 2 sets of answers: (1) a religio-cultural category and (2) a structural category. They were allowed to choose more than 1 reason. Our findings revealed that only 47.5 percent of respondents declined becoming organ donors. The highest frequency recorded was "I am not convinced that my body part will be used beneficially " (30.1%), followed by "I do not have enough access to information " (29.2%), "I want my body to remain intact after death " (16.9%), and "It is against my religion " (9.9%). Our study revealed that religio-cultural factors are not a prime explanation for the lack of organ donation in the Malaysian case. This study suggests that better procurement methods used by dedicated agencies, as well as better education, could reduce the shortage between organ supply and demand.

  18. Immediate, short-, and long-term changes in tracheal stent diameter, length, and positioning after placement in dogs with tracheal collapse syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raske, Matthew; Weisse, Chick; Berent, Allyson C; McDougall, Renee; Lamb, Kenneth

    2018-03-01

    Intraluminal tracheal stenting is a minimally invasive procedure shown to have variable degrees of success in managing clinical signs associated with tracheal collapse syndrome (CTCS) in dogs. Identify immediate post-stent changes in tracheal diameter, determine the extent of stent migration, and stent shortening after stent placement in the immediate-, short-, and long-term periods, and evaluate inter-observer reliability of radiographic measurements. Fifty client-owned dogs. Retrospective study in which medical records were reviewed in dogs with CTCS treated with an intraluminal tracheal stent. Data collected included signalment, location, and type of collapse, stent diameter and length, and post-stent placement radiographic follow-up times. Radiographs were used to obtain pre-stent tracheal measurements and post-stent placement measurements. Immediate mean percentage change was 5.14%, 5.49%, and 21.64% for cervical, thoracic inlet, and intra-thoracic tracheal diameters, respectively. Ultimate mean follow-up time was 446 days, with mean percentage change of 2.55%, 15.09%, and 8.65% for cervical, thoracic inlet, and intra-thoracic tracheal diameters, respectively. Initial mean stent length was 26.72% higher than nominal length and ultimate long-term tracheal mean stent shortening was only 9.90%. No significant stent migration was identified in the immediate, short-, or long-term periods. Good inter-observer agreement of radiographic measurements was found among observers of variable experience level. Use of an intraluminal tracheal stent for CTCS is associated with minimal stent shortening with no clinically relevant stent migration after fluoroscopic placement. Precise stent sizing and placement techniques likely play important roles in avoiding these reported complications. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  19. Immediate, short‐, and long‐term changes in tracheal stent diameter, length, and positioning after placement in dogs with tracheal collapse syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raske, Matthew; Berent, Allyson C.; McDougall, Renee; Lamb, Kenneth

    2018-01-01

    Background Intraluminal tracheal stenting is a minimally invasive procedure shown to have variable degrees of success in managing clinical signs associated with tracheal collapse syndrome (CTCS) in dogs. Objectives Identify immediate post‐stent changes in tracheal diameter, determine the extent of stent migration, and stent shortening after stent placement in the immediate‐, short‐, and long‐term periods, and evaluate inter‐observer reliability of radiographic measurements. Animals Fifty client‐owned dogs. Methods Retrospective study in which medical records were reviewed in dogs with CTCS treated with an intraluminal tracheal stent. Data collected included signalment, location, and type of collapse, stent diameter and length, and post‐stent placement radiographic follow‐up times. Radiographs were used to obtain pre‐stent tracheal measurements and post‐stent placement measurements. Results Immediate mean percentage change was 5.14%, 5.49%, and 21.64% for cervical, thoracic inlet, and intra‐thoracic tracheal diameters, respectively. Ultimate mean follow‐up time was 446 days, with mean percentage change of 2.55%, 15.09%, and 8.65% for cervical, thoracic inlet, and intra‐thoracic tracheal diameters, respectively. Initial mean stent length was 26.72% higher than nominal length and ultimate long‐term tracheal mean stent shortening was only 9.90%. No significant stent migration was identified in the immediate, short‐, or long‐term periods. Good inter‐observer agreement of radiographic measurements was found among observers of variable experience level. Conclusions and Clinical Importance Use of an intraluminal tracheal stent for CTCS is associated with minimal stent shortening with no clinically relevant stent migration after fluoroscopic placement. Precise stent sizing and placement techniques likely play important roles in avoiding these reported complications. PMID:29460368

  20. A Guidebook for Evaluating Organizations in the Nuclear Industry - an example of safety culture evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oedewald, Pia; Pietikaeinen, Elina; Reiman, Teemu

    2011-06-01

    Organizations in the nuclear industry need to maintain an overview on their vulnerabilities and strengths with respect to safety. Systematic periodical self assessments are necessary to achieve this overview. This guidebook provides suggestions and examples to assist power companies but also external evaluators and regulators in carrying out organizational evaluations. Organizational evaluation process is divided into five main steps. These are: 1) planning the evaluation framework and the practicalities of the evaluation process, 2) selecting data collection methods and conducting the data acquisition, 3) structuring and analysing the data, 4) interpreting the findings and 5) reporting the evaluation results with possible recommendations. The guidebook emphasises the importance of a solid background framework when dealing with multifaceted phenomena like organisational activities and system safety. The validity and credibility of the evaluation stem largely from the evaluation team's ability to crystallize what they mean by organization and safety when they conduct organisational safety evaluations - and thus, what are the criteria for the evaluation. Another important and often under-considered phase in organizational evaluation is interpretation of the findings. In this guidebook a safety culture evaluation in a Nordic nuclear power plant is presented as an example of organizational evaluation. With the help of the example, challenges of each step in the organizational evaluation process are described. Suggestions for dealing with them are presented. In the case example, the DISC (Design for Integrated Safety culture) model is used as the evaluation framework. The DISC model describes the criteria for a good safety culture and the organizational functions necessary to develop a good safety culture in the organization

  1. Investigating different cultural factors on establishment of knowledge management in educational organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Makhsousi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management plays an essential role on developing efficient systems in educational systems. However, there are different factors influencing the success of knowledge management. In this paper, we present an empirical study to measure the impact of six cultural based factors including management support, organizational affiliation, employee participation in decision-making, staff welfare organization and establishment, adaptation of new policies and organizational and internal organizational climate on establishment of knowledge management. The proposed study of this paper is implemented in 114 selected educational organizations in city of Tehran, Iran. A questionnaire is designed in Likert scale, it is distributed among experts, and using regressions analysis and structural equation modeling, we have analyzed the data. The results of regression analysis indicate that management support, staff welfare organization and internal organizational climate are among the most important factors while other component did not represent any significance on knowledge management implementation.

  2. Tracheal relaxation of five medicinal plants used in Mexico for the treatment of several diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Recillas, Amanda; Mantecón-Reyes, Paul; Castillo-España, Patricia; Villalobos-Molina, Rafael; Ibarra-Barajas, Maximiliano; Estrada-Soto, Samuel

    2014-03-01

    To assess the relaxant effect of several organic extracts obtained from Agastache mexicana (A. mexicana), Cochlospermum vitifolium (C. vitifolium), Cordia morelosana (C. morelosana), Lepechinia caulescens (L. caulescens) and Talauma mexicana (T. mexicana) used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of several diseases. Extracts were obtained by maceration at room temperature using hexane, dichloromethane and methanol for each plant material. The organic extracts were evaluated ex vivo to determine their relaxant activity on the contractions induced by carbachol (cholinergic receptor agonist, 1 μ mol/L) in isolated rat tracheal rings. A total of 15 extracts were evaluated (three for each species). All test samples showed significant relaxant effect, in a concentration-dependent manner, on the contractions induced by 1 μ mol/L carbachol, with exception of extracts from C. morelosana. Active extracts were less potent than theophylline [phosphodiesterase inhibitor, EC50: (28.79±0.82) μg/mL] that was used as positive control. Concentration-response curves revealed that the extracts with more significant effects were dichloromethanic extracts of T. mexicana [Emax: (103.03±3.32)% and EC50: (159.39±3.72) μg/mL) and C. vitifolium [Emax: (106.58±2.42)% and EC50: (219.54±7.61) μg/mL]. Finally, hexanic and dichloromethanic extracts from A. mexicana were fully effective but less potent than T. mexicana and C. vitifolium. Less polar extracts obtained from A. mexicana, T. mexicana and C. vitifolium exhibited greater relaxant effect on tracheal rat rings, which allows us to suggest them as sources for the isolation of bioactive molecules with potential therapeutic value in the treatment of asthma. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Institutionalizing environmental due diligence as part of the organization's culture: The Suncor Oil Sands Group experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.; Klym, D.

    1992-01-01

    The Suncor Oil Sands Group produces ca 22 million bbl/y of synthetic crude oil from oil sands in northern Alberta. Initiatives taken by the Group to install environmental due diligence as an integral part of Suncor culture are reviewed. Environmental due diligence means taking all reasonable care to safeguard the environment. To practice environmental due diligence, the organization and its members must have an environmental consciousness that can be observed, measured, and monitored through daily practices. In the period from startup of the oil sands plant in 1967 to the mid-1970s, Suncor culture could be described as research oriented, oriented toward examination of the viability of extracting oil from the oil sands and the development of new extraction processes. Management then moved toward a more production-based culture, in which environmental issues were sometimes perceived to be in conflict with production goals. External factors toward the end of the 1980s created a culture shift to an integration of production culture with social entities including environmental consciousness. A corporate push toward a new environmental culture was first concretized when the management's Health and Safety Policy was changed in 1990 to the Health, Safety and Environment Policy. A new Environmental Diligence Program was implemented in three phases, including planning, development of a comprehensive environmental management system, and implementation. Installation of the Program in the first phase is described, focusing on employee and management training, and results of the installation process are presented. Modifications of Suncor's loss control management program to integrate with the environmental diligence program are also noted. 2 refs

  4. Culturally appropriate organization of water and sewerage projects built through public private partnerships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Kaminsky

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the pursuit of socially sustainable water and sanitation infrastructure for all people by discovering statistically robust relationships between Hofstede's dimensions of cross-cultural comparison and the choice of contract award types, project type, and primary revenue sources. This analysis, which represents 973 projects distributed across 24 low- and middle-income nations, uses a World Bank dataset describing high capital cost water and sewerage projects funded through private investment. The results show that cultural dimensions explain variation in the choice of contract award types, project type, and primary revenue sources. These results provide empirical evidence that strategies for water and sewerage project organization are not culturally neutral. The data show, for example, that highly individualistic contexts are more likely to select competitive contract award types and to depend on user fees to provide the primary project revenue stream post-construction. By selecting more locally appropriate ways to organize projects, project stakeholders will be better able to pursue the construction of socially sustainable water and sewerage infrastructure.

  5. Culturally appropriate organization of water and sewerage projects built through public private partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Jessica A

    2017-01-01

    This paper contributes to the pursuit of socially sustainable water and sanitation infrastructure for all people by discovering statistically robust relationships between Hofstede's dimensions of cross-cultural comparison and the choice of contract award types, project type, and primary revenue sources. This analysis, which represents 973 projects distributed across 24 low- and middle-income nations, uses a World Bank dataset describing high capital cost water and sewerage projects funded through private investment. The results show that cultural dimensions explain variation in the choice of contract award types, project type, and primary revenue sources. These results provide empirical evidence that strategies for water and sewerage project organization are not culturally neutral. The data show, for example, that highly individualistic contexts are more likely to select competitive contract award types and to depend on user fees to provide the primary project revenue stream post-construction. By selecting more locally appropriate ways to organize projects, project stakeholders will be better able to pursue the construction of socially sustainable water and sewerage infrastructure.

  6. Lipid biomarkers for bacterial ecosystems: studies of cultured organisms, hydrothermal environments and ancient sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summons, R. E.; Jahnke, L. L.; Simoneit, B. R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper forms part of our long-term goal of using molecular structure and carbon isotopic signals preserved as hydrocarbons in ancient sediments to improve understanding of the early evolution of Earth's surface environment. We are particularly concerned with biomarkers which are informative about aerobiosis. Here, we combine bacterial biochemistry with the organic geochemistry of contemporary and ancient hydrothermal ecosystems to construct models for the nature, behaviour and preservation potential of primitive microbial communities. We use a combined molecular and isotopic approach to characterize lipids produced by cultured bacteria and test a variety of culture conditions which affect their biosynthesis. This information is then compared with lipid mixtures isolated from contemporary hot springs and evaluated for the kinds of chemical change that would accompany burial and incorporation into the sedimentary record. In this study we have shown that growth temperature does not appear to alter isotopic fractionation within the lipid classes produced by a methanotropic bacterium. We also found that cultured cyanobacteria biosynthesize diagnostic methylalkanes and dimethylalkanes with the latter only made when growing under low pCO2. In an examination of a microbial mat sample from Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park (USA), we could readily identify chemical structures with 13C contents which were diagnostic for the phototrophic organisms such as cyanobacteria and Chloroflexus. We could not, however, find molecular evidence for operation of a methane cycle in the particular mat samples we studied.

  7. Vitamin A and β-carotene influence the level of benzo[a]pyrene-induced DNA adducts and DNA-repair activities in hamster tracheal epithelium in organ culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolterbeek, A.P.M.; Roggeband, R.; Moorsel, C.J.A. van; Baan, R.A.; Koeman, J.H.; Feron, V.J.; Rutten, A.A.J.J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Although most studies concerning the effect of vitamin A and β-carotene on chemical carcinogenesis are focused on tumour promotion and progression, these compounds may affect initiation as well. In this study the influence of vitamin A and β-carotene on unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) was

  8. Effects of organically bound tritium (OBT) on cultured midbrain cells from embryonic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bing; Akihiro Shima; Takeshi Yamada; Keiko Watganabe

    1997-01-01

    Objective: Four kinds of organically bound tritium compounds (OBT s ) including 3 H-thymidine, 3 H-uridine, 3 H-arginine and 3 H-glutamic acid, were investigated on proliferation and differentiation of cultured mouse embryonic midbrain cells (MBCs). Methods: MBCs were isolated from day 11 embryos, cultured at a high concentration with the medium containing OBT. Results: Differentiation of MBC was more sensitive to radiation than proliferation. Dose-dependent decrease of DNA and protein contents were also observed. The RBE values, ranging from 4.6 to 8.7, of β rays from OBTs were obtained when compared with X-irradiation at their ID50s (inhibitory dose that reduced assessment value by 50% of the control) on inhibition of cell proliferation and differentiation, and on reduction of DNA and protein contents of the cultures. The mixed exposure to X-rays and one kind of OBTs or to any two kinds of OBTs resulted in more efficiently inhibitory effect on differentiation. Conclusions: MBC culture system was more sensitive to beta radiation from OBTs than to X-rays, which resulted in very high RBE values

  9. Intubação traqueal Tracheal intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Matsumoto

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar os conceitos atuais relacionados ao procedimento de intubação traqueal na criança. FONTES DOS DADOS: Seleção dos principais artigos nas bases de dados MEDLINE, LILACS e SciELO, utilizando as palavras-chave intubation, tracheal intubation, child, rapid sequence intubation, pediatric airway, durante o período de 1968 a 2006. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: O manuseio da via aérea na criança está relacionado à sua fisiologia e anatomia, além de fatores específicos (condições patológicas inerentes, como malformações e condições adquiridas que influenciam decisivamente no seu sucesso. As principais indicações são manter permeável a aérea e controlar a ventilação. A laringoscopia e intubação traqueal determinam alterações cardiovasculares e reatividade de vias aéreas. O uso de tubos com balonete não é proibitivo, desde que respeitado o tamanho adequado para a criança. A via aérea difícil pode ser reconhecida pela escala de Mallampati e na laringoscopia direta. A utilização da seqüência rápida de intubação tem sido recomendada cada vez mais em pediatria, por facilitar o procedimento e apresentar menores complicações. A intubação traqueal deve ser realizada de modo adequado em circunstâncias especiais (alimentação prévia, disfunção neurológica, instabilidade de coluna espinal, obstrução de vias aéreas superiores, lesões laringotraqueais, lesão de globo ocular. A extubação deve ser meticulosamente planejada, pois pode falhar e necessitar de reintubação. CONCLUSÕES: A intubação traqueal de crianças necessita conhecimento, aprendizado e experiência, pois o procedimento realizado por pediatras inexperientes pode resultar em complicações ameaçadoras da vida.OBJECTIVE: To review current concepts related to the procedure of tracheal intubation in children. SOURCES: Relevant articles published from 1968 to 2006 were selected from the MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO databases, using the

  10. Difficulty with cuff deflation of reinforced tracheal tube caused by inflation line occlusion with silk thread ligation and fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Sayoko; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Imai, Eriko; Kawamata, Mikito

    2015-03-05

    A reinforced tracheal tube, ligated with silk threads, was inserted into a tracheostomy orifice and fixed to the skin. The cuff inflation line of the reinforced tracheal tube became occluded. Reinforced 'armoured' tracheal tubes have a spiral of wire embedded into the wall of the tube to give strength and flexibility, and may be sharply bent without compromising the tube lumen. The tracheal cuff attached to the tube is inflated by injecting air through a narrow-diameter tube welded to the outside of the tracheal tube. When a reinforced tracheal tube is ligated and fixed with silk threads, it should be confirmed whether the tracheal tube cuff can be deflated and inflated after fixation. Moreover, because occlusion can be eliminated by removing all silk threads used to ligate a tracheal tube, they should be removed before extubation. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  11. Fetoscopic tracheal occlusion for severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia: retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica de Fátima de Assunção Braga

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives: The temporary fetal tracheal occlusion performed by fetoscopy accelerates lung development and reduces neonatal mortality. The aim of this paper is to present an anesthetic experience in pregnant women, whose fetuses have diaphragmatic hernia, undergoing fetoscopic tracheal occlusion (FETO. Method: Retrospective, descriptive study, approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee. Data were obtained from medical and anesthetic records. Results: FETO was performed in 28 pregnant women. Demographic characteristics: age 29.8 ± 6.5; weight 68.64 ± 12.26; ASA I and II. Obstetric: IG 26.1 ± 1.10 weeks (in FETO; 32.86 ± 1.58 (reversal of occlusion; 34.96 ± 2.78 (delivery. Delivery: cesarean section, vaginal delivery. Fetal data: Weight (g in the occlusion and delivery times, respectively (1045.82 ± 222.2 and 2294 ± 553; RPC in FETO and reversal of occlusion: 0.7 ± 0.15 and 1.32 ± 0.34, respectively. Preoperative maternal anesthesia included ranitidine and metoclopramide, nifedipine (VO and indomethacin (rectal. Preanesthetic medication with midazolam IV. Anesthetic techniques: combination of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine (5-10 mg and sufentanil; continuous epidural predominantly with 0.5% bupivacaine associated with sufentanil, fentanyl, or morphine; general. In 8 cases, there was need to complement via catheter, with 5 submitted to PC and 3 to BC. Thirteen patients required intraoperative sedation; ephedrine was used in 15 patients. Fetal anesthesia: fentanyl 10-20 mg.kg-1 and pancuronium 0.1-0.2 mg.kg-1 (IM. Neonatal survival rate was 60.7%. Conclusion: FETO is a minimally invasive technique for severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia repair. Combined blockade associated with sedation and fetal anesthesia proved safe and effective for tracheal occlusion.

  12. Tracheal ceramic rings for tracheomalacia: a review after 17 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, Gyula; Karaiskaki, Niki; Gerlinger, Imre; Mann, Wolf J

    2007-10-01

    Despite different support techniques, the surgical management of tracheomalacia is still a challenging problem. Satisfactory results after internal stenting are above 80%, whereas, when performing external stenting using biocompatible ceramic rings, results are reported at over 90%. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficiency of surgical treatment in patients with segmentary tracheomalacia using external ceramic ring grafts. In this retrospective study, we collected data from 12 patients who underwent surgery during the last 17 years for symptomatic segmentary tracheomalacia by use of biocompatible aluminum-oxide ceramic rings. All except one patient had undergone previous tracheostomy, six had a history of long-term intubation, two had previous trauma, and two patients had previous cancer treatment including radiotherapy. One of the patients still had an existing tracheostoma, which was closed when a ceramic ring was implanted. Tracheal wall collapse with pseudoglottis formation or flattened anterior-posterior tracheal diameter was documented with fiberoscopy at rest, and both pre- and postoperative airway resistance measurements were performed in all 12 patients using a spirometer. After malacic segments were found to be expandable using rigid tracheoscopy while the patient was under general anesthesia, preparation of the trachea was performed using a midline vertical incision in the neck. Subsequently, the malacic trachea was expanded by placing and suturing proper-sized ceramic ring(s) around it. In all patients, surgical expansion of the malacic segment using ceramic rings was successfully carried out without major complications while inspiratory stridor was resolved. Airway resistance decreased significantly from an average of 0.62 to 0.385 kPascal. Although the results of applying internal tracheal stents are encouraging, complications such as stent migration, granulation tissue and fistula formation, and mucociliary transport arrest are possible

  13. Re-Organizing Cultural Values: Vers le Sud by Laurent Cantet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Michelmann

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cantet's movie “Vers le sud/ Heading South“ (2005 explores cultural stereotypes and values without being moralizing in a common sense. His drama deals with female sex tourism, political and social violence, power and money in such a way that people are tempted to judge the protagonists: Their desire for young black men is called “embarrassing“, they are seen as corrupting and as actors in a new kind of imperialism. In fact the images in the film organize characters in a certain kind of dualism which leads easily to these argumentations. But having a look at the cultural values that produce the disgust, we see that they are all open to question.

  14. Effect of noradrenaline on production of methoxyindoles by rat pineal gland in organ culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    This report examined the effect of noradrenaline on production of methoxyindoles by the pineal gland in organ culture. Pineal glands were incubated in pairs in 95μl culture medium containing 5-hydroxy [2- 14 C]tryptamine creatinine sulphate (0,1 mM) and noradrenaline (NA) (0,5-100 μM). The results indicated that noradrenaline appeared to have a characteristic action on pineal metabolism. An increase in production of both N-acetylserotonin and melatonin by the pineal after noradrenaline treatment was observed. The overall production of methoxyindoles followed a very similar trend to that of N-acetylserotonin and melatonin, which suggests some degree of noradrenergic control over HIOMT levels

  15. Building Learning Culture Towards A Learning Organization to Empower Employee’s Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryani Maryani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains the application of knowledge management in PT Unilever to create a learning culture within the organization. Which consists of: knowledge sharing, informal sharing, online sharing and other sources. With the implementation of cultural sharing between employees, the module is already owned by PT Unilever as many as 250 modules. With the application of Knowledge Management PT Unilever awarded a global level, the Most Admired Knowledge Enterprise (MAKE Award in the year 2005-2007 to the level of Indonesia and 2008 for the Asian level. In the end, knowledge-owned companies, creating a good performance by individuals or companies, and will create sustainable growth for the company. Sustainable growth is what is expected by the whole company in running its business activities. 

  16. Hormonal regulation of epithelial organization in a three-dimensional breast tissue culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speroni, Lucia; Whitt, Gregory S; Xylas, Joanna; Quinn, Kyle P; Jondeau-Cabaton, Adeline; Barnes, Clifford; Georgakoudi, Irene; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Soto, Ana M

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of hormone target breast cells in the 1970's resulted in suitable models for the study of hormone control of cell proliferation and gene expression using two-dimensional (2D) cultures. However, to study mammogenesis and breast tumor development in vitro, cells must be able to organize in three-dimensional (3D) structures like in the tissue. We now report the development of a hormone-sensitive 3D culture model for the study of mammogenesis and neoplastic development. Hormone-sensitive T47D breast cancer cells respond to estradiol in a dose-dependent manner by forming complex epithelial structures. Treatment with the synthetic progestagen promegestone, in the presence of estradiol, results in flat epithelial structures that display cytoplasmic projections, a phenomenon reported to precede side-branching. Additionally, as in the mammary gland, treatment with prolactin in the presence of estradiol induces budding structures. These changes in epithelial organization are accompanied by collagen remodeling. Collagen is the major acellular component of the breast stroma and an important player in tumor development and progression. Quantitative analysis of second harmonic generation of collagen fibers revealed that collagen density was more variable surrounding budding and irregularly shaped structures when compared to more regular structures; suggesting that fiber organization in the former is more anisotropic than in the latter. In sum, this new 3D model recapitulates morphogenetic events modulated by mammogenic hormones in the breast, and is suitable for the evaluation of therapeutic agents.

  17. Tracheal obstructions in two horses and a donkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mair, T.S.; Lane, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    The clinical signs associated with intramural tracheal obstructions in two horses and a donkey were respiratory distress and coughing, which were aggravated by exercise and excitement. The obstructions were at the level of the thoracic inlet and consisted either of flattening of the cartilage rings in the dorsoventral plane or of cartilage rings having a scroll-like conformation. They appeared to be developmental in origin and to have been present for a considerable time before the onset of clinical signs. Endoscopy and radiography were helpful in the diagnosis of the condition

  18. Repopulation of denuded tracheal grafts with alveolar type II cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, N.F.

    1988-01-01

    Repopulation of denuded heterotopic tracheal grafts with populations of specific epithelial cell types is one approach to study the differentiation potential of various cell types. This technique has been adopted to delineate the differentiation pathways of alveolar type II cells isolated from rat lungs. Under the conditions of this experiment, the reestablished epithelial lining was alveolar-like, however, ultrastructural analysis of the cells showed them to be like Clara cells. These preliminary results suggest that the secretary cells of the lung parenchyma and terminal airways may share a common ancestry. (author)

  19. Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy B; Rodríguez, Melanie Domenech; Bernal, Guillermo

    2011-02-01

    This article summarizes the definitions, means, and research of adapting psychotherapy to clients' cultural backgrounds. We begin by reviewing the prevailing definitions of cultural adaptation and providing a clinical example. We present an original meta-analysis of 65 experimental and quasi-experimental studies involving 8,620 participants. The omnibus effect size of d = .46 indicates that treatments specifically adapted for clients of color were moderately more effective with that clientele than traditional treatments. The most effective treatments tended to be those with greater numbers of cultural adaptations. Mental health services targeted to a specific cultural group were several times more effective than those provided to clients from a variety of cultural backgrounds. We recommend a series of research-supported therapeutic practices that account for clients' culture, with culture-specific treatments being more effective than generally culture-sensitive treatments. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Evaluation of Tracheal and Main Bronchial Diverticula Using Thin-Section MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jou, Sung Shick; Kim, Young Tong; Bae, Won Kyung; Kim, Il Yung; Kim, Hyung Hwan; Han, Jong Kyu [Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    To evaluate the characteristics of tracheal and main bronchial diverticula in relation with emphysema. A total of 967 CT images were reconstructed with 1.25 mm axial images over 2 months. The incidence, size, number, and location of the tracheal and main bronchial diverticula were analyzed using 3D medical software (Seoul, Korea). The incidence of emphysema and the relationship between emphysema and the size of the diverticula were analyzed. In total, 50 patients (5.1%) showed tracheal diverticula in the right posterolateral wall. In addition, 51 patients (5.2%) showed 89 (9.4%) main bronchial diverticula in the inferior wall, while 68 (72%) showed diverticula in the left posterolateral wall. Tracheal diverticula (6.4 {+-} 5.0 mm, 1.0 {+-} 0.2) were larger and fewer than the main bronchial diverticula (2.1 {+-} 2.0 mm, 1.8 {+-} 1.6) (p<0.05). Moreover, tracheal diverticula (10.3 {+-} 7.4 mm) with emphysema in 13 patients (26%), were larger than those without emphysema (5.1 {+-} 3.0 mm) (p<0.05). On thin-section MDCT, the rates of incidence for tracheal and main bronchial diverticula are about 5%, respectively. Tracheal diverticula in the right posterolateral wall are smaller and fewer than the main bronchial diverticula, which are located primarily in the inferior wall of the left bronchus. Tracheal diverticula with emphysema are larger than those without emphysema.

  1. Tracheal involvement of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Kyung Sik; Jeon, Kyung Neough; Kang, Duk Sik

    2002-01-01

    Primary malignant tumors of the trachea are rare, the most prevalent histologies beeing squamous cell and adenoid cystic carcinoma. A review of the literature revealed only ten cases of primary tracheal or bronchial non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. We describe a case in which tracheal involvement of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, a subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, occurred

  2. Plant response to heavy metals and organic pollutants in cell culture and at whole plant level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golan-Goldhirsh, A.; Barazani, O. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of The Negev, The Jacob Blaustein Inst. for Desert Research, Albert Katz Dept. of Dryland Biotechnologies, Desert Plant Biotechnology Lab., Sede Boqer Campus (Israel); Nepovim, A.; Soudek, P.; Vanek, T. [Inst. of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry (Czech Republic); Smrcek, S.; Dufkova, L.; Krenkova, S. [Faculty of Natural Sciences, Charles Univ. (Czech Republic); Yrjala, K. [Univ. of Helsinki, Dept. of Biosciences, Div. of General Microbiology, Helsinki (Finland); Schroeder, P. [Inst. for Soil Ecology, GSF National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Background. Increasing awareness in the last decade concerning environmental quality had prompted research into 'green solutions' for soil and water remediation, progressing from laboratory in vitro experiments to pot and field trials. In vitro cell culture experiments provide a convenient system to study basic biological processes, by which biochemical pathways, enzymatic activity and metabolites can be specifically studied. However, it is difficult to relate cell cultures, calli or even hydroponic experiments to the whole plant response to pollutant stress. In the field, plants are exposed to additional a-biotic and biotic factors, which complicate further plant response. Hence, we often see that in vitro selected species perform poorly under soil and field conditions. Soil physical and chemical properties, plant-mycorrhizal association and soil-microbial activity affect the process of contaminant degradation by plants and/or microorganisms, pointing to the importance of pot and field experiments. Objective. This paper is a joint effort of a group of scientists in COST action 837. It represents experimental work and an overview on plant response to environmental stress from in vitro tissue culture to whole plant experiments in soil. Results. Results obtained from in vitro plant tissue cultures and whole plant hydroponic experiments indicate the phytoremediation potential of different plant species and the biochemical mechanisms involved in plant tolerance. In pot experiments, several selected desert plant species, which accumulated heavy metal in hydroponic systems, succeeded in accumulating the heavy metal in soil conditions as well. Conclusions and recommendations. In vitro plant tissue cultures provide a useful experimental system for the study of the mechanisms involved in the detoxification of organic and heavy metal pollutants. However, whole plant experimental systems, as well as hydroponics followed by pot and field trials, are essential when

  3. Nerve-independent and ectopically additional induction of taste buds in organ culture of fetal tongues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Kotaro; Tomooka, Yasuhiro

    2016-10-01

    An improved organ culture system allowed to observe morphogenesis of mouse lingual papillae and taste buds relatively for longer period, in which fetal tongues were analyzed for 6 d. Taste cells were defined as eosinophobic epithelial cells expressing CK8 and Sox2 within lingual epithelium. Addition of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta inhibitor CHIR99021 induced many taste cells and buds in non-gustatory and gustatory stratified lingual epithelium. The present study clearly demonstrated induction of taste cells and buds ectopically and without innervation.

  4. The Influence of Cultural Congruency, Communication, and Work Alienation on Employee Satisfaction and Commitment in Mexican Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madlock, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of cultural congruency between societal and organizational cultures on Mexican supervisors' and employees' communication behaviors and employees' work alienation, satisfaction, and commitment. The participants were full time nonmanagement adults working for Mexican owned organizations located in Mexico. This study…

  5. Protective effects of anisodamine on cigarette smoke extract-induced airway smooth muscle cell proliferation and tracheal contractility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Guang-Ni; Yang, Kai; Xu, Zu-Peng; Zhu, Liang; Hou, Li-Na; Qi, Hong; Chen, Hong-Zhuan; Cui, Yong-Yao

    2012-01-01

    Anisodamine, an antagonist of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs), has been used therapeutically to improve smooth muscle function, including microvascular, intestinal and airway spasms. Our previous studies have revealed that airway hyper-reactivity could be prevented by anisodamine. However, whether anisodamine prevents smoking-induced airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell proliferation remained unclear. In this study, a primary culture of rat ASM cells was used to evaluate an ASM phenotype through the ability of the cells to proliferate and express contractile proteins in response to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and intervention of anisodamine. Our results showed that CSE resulted in an increase in cyclin D1 expression concomitant with the G0/G1-to-S phase transition, and high expression of M2 and M3. Functional studies showed that tracheal hyper-contractility accompanied contractile marker α-SMA high-expression. These changes, which occur only after CSE stimulation, were prevented and reversed by anisodamine, and CSE-induced cyclin D1 expression was significantly inhibited by anisodamine and the specific inhibitor U0126, BAY11-7082 and LY294002. Thus, we concluded that the protective and reversal effects and mechanism of anisodamine on CSE-induced events might involve, at least partially, the ERK, Akt and NF-κB signaling pathways associated with cyclin D1 via mAChRs. Our study validated that anisodamine intervention on ASM cells may contribute to anti-remodeling properties other than bronchodilation. -- Highlights: ► CSE induces tracheal cell proliferation, hyper-contractility and α-SMA expression. ► Anisodamine reverses CSE-induced tracheal hyper-contractility and cell proliferation. ► ERK, PI3K, and NF-κB pathways and cyclin D1 contribute to the reversal effect.

  6. Multimodal microfluidic platform for controlled culture and analysis of unicellular organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Tao; Smallwood, Chuck R.; Bredeweg, Erin L.; Pomraning, Kyle R.; Plymale, Andrew E.; Baker, Scott E.; Evans, James E.; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2017-09-01

    Modern live-cell imaging approaches permit real-time visualization of biological processes, yet limitations exist for unicellular organism isolation, culturing and long-term imaging that preclude fully understanding how cells sense and respond to environmental perturbations and the link between single-cell variability and whole-population dynamics. Here we present a microfluidic platform that provides fine control over the local environment with the capacity to replace media components at any experimental time point, and provides both perfused and compartmentalized cultivation conditions depending on the valve configuration. The functionality and flexibility of the platform were validated using both bacteria and yeast having different sizes, motility and growth media. The demonstrated ability to track the growth and dynamics of both motile and non-motile prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms emphasizes the versatility of the devices, which with further scale-up should enable studies in bioenergy and environmental research.

  7. Multimodal microfluidic platform for controlled culture and analysis of unicellular organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Tao; Smallwood, Chuck R; Bredeweg, Erin L; Pomraning, Kyle R; Plymale, Andrew E; Baker, Scott E; Evans, James E; Kelly, Ryan T

    2017-09-01

    Modern live-cell imaging approaches permit real-time visualization of biological processes, yet limitations exist for unicellular organism isolation, culturing, and long-term imaging that preclude fully understanding how cells sense and respond to environmental perturbations and the link between single-cell variability and whole-population dynamics. Here, we present a microfluidic platform that provides fine control over the local environment with the capacity to replace media components at any experimental time point, and provides both perfused and compartmentalized cultivation conditions depending on the valve configuration. The functionality and flexibility of the platform were validated using both bacteria and yeast having different sizes, motility, and growth media. The demonstrated ability to track the growth and dynamics of both motile and non-motile prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms emphasizes the versatility of the devices, which should enable studies in bioenergy and environmental research.

  8. Using white noise to gate organic transistors for dynamic monitoring of cultured cell layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivnay, Jonathan; Leleux, Pierre; Hama, Adel; Ramuz, Marc; Huerta, Miriam; Malliaras, George G; Owens, Roisin M

    2015-06-26

    Impedance sensing of biological systems allows for monitoring of cell and tissue properties, including cell-substrate attachment, layer confluence, and the "tightness" of an epithelial tissue. These properties are critical for electrical detection of tissue health and viability in applications such as toxicological screening. Organic transistors based on conducting polymers offer a promising route to efficiently transduce ionic currents to attain high quality impedance spectra, but collection of complete impedance spectra can be time consuming (minutes). By applying uniform white noise at the gate of an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT), and measuring the resulting current noise, we are able to dynamically monitor the impedance and thus integrity of cultured epithelial monolayers. We show that noise sourcing can be used to track rapid monolayer disruption due to compounds which interfere with dynamic polymerization events crucial for maintaining cytoskeletal integrity, and to resolve sub-second alterations to the monolayer integrity.

  9. Management of tracheal chondrosarcoma almost completely obstructing the airway: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andolfi, Marco; Vaccarili, Maurizio; Crisci, Roberto; Puma, Francesco

    2016-07-11

    Primary malignant tracheal tumors account for only 0.2 % of all malignancies of the respiratory tract. Tracheal chondrosarcoma is a rare condition and only 17 cases have been described in the literature from 1965 to date. Herein we report the very unusual case of a patient with a tracheal chondrosarcoma, electively treated by curative surgery despite the virtually complete obstruction of the airway. We present the case of a 79-year old Caucasian man with long-lasting wheezing misdiagnosed as asthma and affected by a tracheal chondrosarcoma almost completely obstructing the airway. Videobronchoscopy and imaging investigations revealed a well-circumscribed mass arising from the cartilaginous rings of the cervical trachea with a posterior residual respiratory space of about 1 mm. Because of the mobility and flaccidity of the uninvolved pars membranacea, the tiny respiratory space slightly expanded during inspiration and expiration allowing the patient to be treated without an essential emergency procedure. Standard tracheal intubation was impossible. Rigid bronchoscopy enabled placement of a small tracheal tube distally to the tumor. Successful cervical tracheal resection and reconstruction was then performed, achieving complete tumor excision. Histologically, the mass was characterized as a low-grade tracheal chondrosarcoma. Videobronchoscopy performed 9 months after surgery showed a wide, well healed tracheal anastomosis. Ten months after surgery, the patient is alive and disease free. Complete surgical resection is the treatment of choice for tracheal chondrosarcoma. Rigid bronchoscopy is an essential tool for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. It allows the palliative maneuvers for obstruction relief but also, in resectable patients, the intraoperative safe and straightforward management of the obstructed airway.

  10. Effects of hydration and physical therapy on tracheal transport velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, S.K.; Taplin, G.V.; Simmons, D.H.; Coulson, A.; Elam, D.

    1976-01-01

    A new tracer method for quantitative measurements of tracheal transport velocity (TTV) in mm/min in dogs has been described recently. Using the same technique, the effects of dehydration, hydration, postural drainage and physical therapy on TTV were studied. There was a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in TTV following dehydration and these values reverted to normal with hydration in all ten dogs. Tracheal transport velocity increased on the average of 39.7 percent with a mean change of 7.7 mm/min (p < 0.01) following postural drainage in seven dogs. On the other hand, TTV increased on the average of 51 percent with a mean change of 8.2 mm/min (p <0.01) following chest percussion in six dogs. Postural drainage and chest percussion each increased TTV significantly beyond the base-line values. However, hydration only restored TTV to base-line values when applied to dogs in the hydropenic state. These therapeutic measures have been used empirically in the past. The present study gives objective evidence of their beneficial effects in dogs and suggests that such treatments may have a definite scientific basis for clinical application in chronic obstructive airways disease

  11. A case of tracheal leiomyoma misdiagnosed as asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Ayperi; Aktaş, Zafer; Yılmaz, Aydın; Yeşildağlı, Havva; Memiş, Leyla

    2016-12-01

    Primary benign tumors of trachea are rare. Of them, tracheal leiomyoma, constitutes only 1% of all benign lower respiratory tract tumors. Here, we present a case of tracheal leiomyoma who has been receiving high doses of inhaled corticosteroids and bronchodilators for a year with a misdiagnosis of asthma. As the symptoms did not resolve with an overtreatment, she has been undergone radiologic study to find a possible alternative diagnosis. The chest roentgenogram revealed an opacity in the upper mediastinum. In computed tomography, a lesion has been detected in proximal trachea, arising from the posterior wall and protruding through the lumen and almost obliterating the air column. Rigid bronchoscopy has been performed under general anesthesia due to a high risk of bleeding and the endobronchial lesion, freely moving with respiration, has been removed and cryotherapy was applied to the base of the lesion. Receiving the histopathological diagnosis of leiomyoma, the patient is now on 12th month of the follow-up without any recurrence.

  12. Growth of intestinal epithelium in organ culture is dependent on EGF signalling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abud, Helen E.; Watson, Nadine; Heath, Joan K.

    2005-01-01

    Differentiation of endoderm into intestinal epithelium is initiated at E13.5 of mouse development when there are significant changes in morphology resulting in the conversion of undifferentiated stratified epithelium into a mature epithelial monolayer. Here we demonstrate that monolayer formation is associated with the selective apoptosis of superficial cells lining the lumen while cell proliferation is progressively restricted to cells adjacent to the basement membrane. We describe an innovative embryonic gut culture system that maintains the three-dimensional architecture of gut and in which these processes are recapitulated in vitro. Explants taken from specific regions of the gut and placed into organ culture develop and express molecular markers (Cdx1, Cdx2 and A33 antigen) in the same spatial and temporal pattern observed in vivo indicating that regional specification is maintained. Inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase using the specific inhibitor AG1478 significantly reduced the proliferation and survival of cells within the epithelial cell layer of cultured gut explants. This demonstrates an essential role for the EGF signalling pathway during the early stages of intestinal development

  13. Maintenance of adult primate liver in organ culture: Potential use in toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.F.; O'Brien, K.A.; Allen, L.; DeLuca, J.; Norman, B.; Keenan, K.P.

    1991-01-01

    Adult Rhesus monkey liver slices were incubated using a dynamic organ culture method to determine hepatocyte viability, drug biotransformation potential and the in vitro response to the hepatotoxicant, allyl alcohol (AA). After 1, 2, 4, or 8 hr, slices were removed from culture and analyzed for incorporation of [ 3 H]-leucine into acid-precipitable material, and medium alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity was determined. Separate slices were taken for histological evaluation and for evaluation of microsomal 7-ethoxy-4-trifluoromethyl coumarin-O-deethylase (EFCOD) activity. Incorporation of [ 3 H]-leucine into slices was linear over the period of incubation and was specifically inhibited by cycloheximide (10 uM) at all time points. In the absence of AA, enzyme leakage was minimal over 8 hr. Marked ALT leakage occurred with 1 mM AA. Control slices had an initial fall to 55% of in vivo EFCOD activity that stabilized at 40-50% control slices indicated that there was minimal cellular degeneration and that, in PAS-stained sections, glycogen accumulation occurred over the incubation period. This system allows for maintenance and viability of adult primate liver slices in culture for at least 8 hr and may be useful for in vitro toxicity and biotransformation studies

  14. Increased sensitivity to ET-1 in rat cerebral arteries following organ culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen-Schwartz, J; Edvinsson, L

    2000-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is recognized as being involved in the pathophysiology of cerebrovascular diseases. Using organ culture as a model for possible pathological changes we studied changes in ET(A) and ETB receptor function using a sensitive in vitro method. We observed an up-regulation of the ET......(B) receptor and an amazingly increased sensitivity to ET-1 by 3 log units in pEC50; pEC50(fresh) was 8.7 +/- 0.1, and pEC50(cultured) was 11.7 +/- 0.3. pA2 for FR139317 in the fresh vessel was 7.0 +/- 0.2 whereas it could not be obtained for the cultured vessel, indicating a possible cross-talk between the ET......(A) and ET(B) receptors. The increased sensitivity to ET-1 could also take place during cerebrovascular disease such as stroke or haemorrhage rendering the vessels considerably more sensitive to ET-1....

  15. Knowledge management as an approach to strengthen safety culture in nuclear organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karseka, T.S.; Yanev, Y.L.

    2013-01-01

    In the last 10 years knowledge management (KM) in nuclear organizations has emerged as a powerful strategy to deal with important and frequently critical issues of attrition, generation change and knowledge transfer. Applying KM practices in operating organizations, in technical support organizations and regulatory bodies has proven to be efficient and necessary for maintaining competence and skills for achieving high level of safety and operational performance. The IAEA defines KM as an integrated, systematic approach to identifying, acquiring, transforming, developing, disseminating, using, sharing, and preserving knowledge, relevant to achieving specified objectives. KM focuses on people and organizational culture to stimulate and nurture the sharing and use of knowledge; on processes or methods to find, create, capture and share knowledge; and on technology to store and assimilate knowledge and to make it readily accessible in a manner which will allow people to work together even if they are not located together. A main objective of this paper is to describe constructive actions which can sponsor knowledge sharing and solidarity in safety conscious attitude among all employees. All principles and approaches refer primarily to Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operating organizations but are also applicable to other institutions involved into nuclear sector. (orig.)

  16. Knowledge management as an approach to strengthen safety culture in nuclear organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karseka, T.S.; Yanev, Y.L. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Nuclear Energy Dept.

    2013-04-15

    In the last 10 years knowledge management (KM) in nuclear organizations has emerged as a powerful strategy to deal with important and frequently critical issues of attrition, generation change and knowledge transfer. Applying KM practices in operating organizations, in technical support organizations and regulatory bodies has proven to be efficient and necessary for maintaining competence and skills for achieving high level of safety and operational performance. The IAEA defines KM as an integrated, systematic approach to identifying, acquiring, transforming, developing, disseminating, using, sharing, and preserving knowledge, relevant to achieving specified objectives. KM focuses on people and organizational culture to stimulate and nurture the sharing and use of knowledge; on processes or methods to find, create, capture and share knowledge; and on technology to store and assimilate knowledge and to make it readily accessible in a manner which will allow people to work together even if they are not located together. A main objective of this paper is to describe constructive actions which can sponsor knowledge sharing and solidarity in safety conscious attitude among all employees. All principles and approaches refer primarily to Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operating organizations but are also applicable to other institutions involved into nuclear sector. (orig.)

  17. Reassembly of anterior pituitary organization by hanging drop three-dimensional cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, Takehiro; Kouki, Tom; Fujiwara, Ken; Ramadhani, Dini; Horiguchi, Kotaro; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2013-08-29

    The anterior pituitary gland comprises 5 types of hormone-producing cells and non-endocrine cells, such as folliculostellate (FS) cells. The cells form a lobular structure surrounded by extracellular matrix (ECM) but are not randomly distributed in each lobule; hormone-producing cells have affinities for specific cell types (topographic affinity), and FS cells form a homotypic meshwork. To determine whether this cell and ECM organization can be reproduced in vitro, we developed a 3-dimensional (3D) model that utilizes hanging drop cell culture. We found that the topographic affinities of hormone-producing cells were indeed maintained (ie, GH to ACTH cells, GH to TSH cells, PRL to LH/FSH cells). Fine structures in hormone-producing cells retained their normal appearance. In addition, FS cells displayed well-developed cytoplasmic protrusions, which interconnected with adjacent FS cells to form a 3D meshwork. In addition, reassembly of gap junctions and pseudofollicles among FS cells was observed in cell aggregates. Major ECM components-collagens and laminin-were deposited and distributed around the cells. In sum, the dissociated anterior pituitary cells largely maintained their in vivo anterior pituitary architectures. This culture system appears to be a powerful experimental tool for detailed analysis of anterior pituitary cell organization.

  18. Comparison of endothelial cell density of organ cultured corneas with cornea donor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campolmi, Nelly; He, Zhiguo; Acquart, Sophie; Trone, Marie-Caroline; Bernard, Aurélien; Gauthier, Anne-Sophie; Garraud, Olivier; Forest, Fabien; Péocʼh, Michel; Gain, Philippe; Thuret, Gilles

    2014-06-01

    Determination of the endothelial cell density (ECD) by eye banks is paramount in donor cornea qualification. Unbiased measurement avoids wastage and grafts with an increased risk of premature failure. Internal calibration of the counting method is essential, but external validation would add an extra stage in the assessment of reliability. In this respect, data published by the multicenter Cornea Donor Study (CDS) in 2005 is a reference. The aim of the study was to compare ECD determined within a single eye bank, which uses calibrated image analysis software designed for transmitted light microscopy images of organ cultured corneas, with the CDS data determined on specular microscopy images of corneas stored at 4°C. ECD of consecutive corneas retrieved between 2005 and 2013 was determined after exposure to 0.9% NaCl. More than 300 ECs were counted on 3 fields of the central 8 mm. Endothelial cell boundaries were automatically drawn and verified by a skilled technician who performed all necessary corrections. Three thousand fifty-two corneas were analyzed, of which 48.5% donors were >75 years (CDS upper age limit). Between 10 and 75 years, the ECD varied according to donor age exactly in the same manner as in the CDS, but were consistently higher of 100 ± 25 cells per square millimeter (P Atlantic Ocean could be due to (1) differences in counting principles and/or (2) higher shrinkage of the cornea caused by stromal edema in organ culture.

  19. The Organization Culture In The Public Service At The Regional Secretariat Of Samarinda City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this research to analyzing the process of the management of internal integration in an effort to improve public services in the secretariat of the city .In the research results seen that there are culture of bubuhan familial in the management of internal integration in the secretariat of the city of samarinda through a the creation of a language together and conceptual categories in b the distribution of power and status c establishment norms closeness of a working relationship peers and d the application of the award and punishment. In addition to want to answer a desire as well as the need for public service excellence service unit to improve integrated permit handling UPT integrated permit handling services agency one gate BPPTSP capital city of samarinda . In the management of internal integration process in cultural organization that takes the conceptculture of bubuhan must be planned carefully and without prejudice to the rules of law applicable because if not handled wisely can be counter-productive with the vision and mission of Samarinda Government because it can cause a client patron relations which can actually inhibit the organization in achieving its vision and mission.

  20. The complexity of amazon culture and its repercussions on the organization and representation of information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Luiz Cardoso Rodrigues

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It explores and analyzes the ‘Amazon culture’ domain in the context of organization and information representation. It presents concepts of culture in order to support reflections about the studied domain. Method: The supporting theoretical reference is focused on the Ranganathan’s Faceted Classification Theory and on the Theory of Integrated Levels from the Classification Research Group, as theoretical-methodological basis to build a classificatory structure model. The selection of concepts took place based on the terms resulted from an oral research in three geographical cities of Amazon: Bragança, Castanhal and Marajó archipelago. Results: The analysis of etymological origins of the words indicated the influence of foreign culture from the European, African, Asiatic and American continents in the Amazon language. Conclusions: The analysis of those results showed the feasibility of developing a working methodology in order to outline a classification structure and a set of concepts to represent the ‘Amazon culture’ domain in its fundamental roots as a basis for the building of organizing systems of knowledge.

  1. Electrochemically Driven Fermentation of Organic Substrates with Undefined Mixed Microbial Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villano, Marianna; Paiano, Paola; Palma, Enza; Miccheli, Alfredo; Majone, Mauro

    2017-08-10

    Growing scientific interest in mixed microbial culture-based anaerobic biotechnologies for the production of value-added chemicals and fuels from organic waste residues requires a parallel focus on the development and implementation of strategies to control the distribution of products. This study examined the feasibility of an electrofermentation approach, based on the introduction of a polarized (-700 mV vs. the standard hydrogen electrode) graphite electrode in the fermentation medium, to steer the product distribution during the conversion of organic substrates (glucose, ethanol, and acetate supplied as single compounds or in mixtures) by undefined mixed microbial cultures. In batch experiments, the polarized electrode triggered a nearly 20-fold increase (relative to open circuit controls) in the yield of isobutyrate production (0.43±0.01 vs. 0.02±0.02 mol mol -1 glucose) during the anaerobic fermentation of the ternary mixture of substrates, without adversely affecting the rate of substrate bioconversion. The observed change in the fermentative metabolism was most likely triggered by the (potentiostatic) regulation of the oxidation-reduction potential of the reaction medium rather than by the electrode serving as an electron donor. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Association of tracheal mucus or blood and airway neutrophilia with racing performance in Thoroughbred horses in an Australian racing yard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salz, R O; Ahern, B J; Boston, R; Begg, L M

    2016-04-01

    To determine the variation of tracheal mucus scores, tracheal blood scores and transendoscopic tracheal wash (TW) cytology in a population of Thoroughbred (TB) racehorses and assess their association with racing performance. A total of 220 endoscopic examinations were performed and TWs obtained from 155 TB racehorses. Samples were collected 60-120 min following gallop work. Tracheal mucus score, tracheal blood score and TW cytology were analysed and their association with racing performance assessed. Of the total examinations and samples, 194 from 135 horses fitted the criteria for inclusion. The overall prevalence of visible tracheal mucus was 2.5% (5/194) and of increased tracheal mucus was 0%. The prevalence of visible tracheal blood was 8.8% (17/194) and of increased tracheal blood was 4.6% (9/194). A total of 36% (70/194) of TWs contained elevated percentages of neutrophils and of these, 96% (67/70) occurred in the absence of any visible tracheal mucus. There was no significant association between tracheal mucus score or TW cytology and subsequent racing performance. There was a statistically significant association (P = 0.004) between increased tracheal blood scores and poor racing performance. Visible tracheal blood seen after strenuous exercise in clinically normal TB racehorses was a risk factor for poor racing performance, but the presence of airway neutrophilia was not. No horses in this study were found to have increased tracheal mucus, so the association of increased tracheal mucus with racing performance could not be assessed. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  3. Cross Cultural Perspectives of the Learning Organization: Assessing the Validity and Reliability of the DLOQ in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ji Hoon; Kim, Jin Yong; Chermack, Thomas J.; Yang; Baiyin

    2008-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to adapt the Dimensions of Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ) from Watkins and Marsick (1993, 1996) and examine its validity and reliability in a Korean context. Results indicate that the DLOQ produces valid and reliable scores of learning organization characteristics in a Korean cultural context.…

  4. Influence of the Culture Media and the Organic Matter in the Growth of Paxillus ammoniavirescens (Contu & Dessi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagigal, Elena Fernández-Miranda; Sánchez, Abelardo Casares

    2017-09-01

    The genus Paxillus is characterized by the difficulty of species identification, which results in reproducibility problems, as well as the need for large quantities of fungal inoculum. In particular, studies of Paxillus ammoniavirescens have reported divergent results in the in vitro growth while little is known of its capacity to degrade organic matter. For all the above, and assuming that this variability could be due to an inappropriate culture media, the aim of this study was to analyse growth in different culture media (MMN, MS, and 1/2 MS) and in the case of MMN in presence/absence of two types of organic matter (fresh litter and senescence litter) to probe the saprophytic ability of P. ammoniavirescens . We also evaluated the effects of pH changes in the culture media. Growth kinetics was assessed by weekly quantification of the area of growth in solid culture media over 5 wk, calculating the growth curves and inflection points of each culture media. In addition, final biomass after 5 wk in the different culture media was calculated. Results showed that best culture media are MS and 1/2 MS. Moreover, an improvement in growth in culture media containing decomposing fall litter was observed, leading to confirm differences in the culture media of this species with others of the same genus. Further, we established that all growth media suffered a significant acidification after fungal growth.

  5. Tracheal CT morphology: correlation with distribution and extent of thoracic adipose tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ap Dafydd, Derfel [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Charing Cross Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Desai, Sujal R. [King' s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, King' s College London, King' s Health Partners, London (United Kingdom); Gordon, Fabiana; Copley, Susan J. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    To evaluate the relationship between adipose tissue measurements and anterior bowing of the posterior tracheal wall in a large nonselected group of patients undergoing CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA). Consecutive patients undergoing CTPA over a 4-month period were analyzed retrospectively. Using an adapted scoring system (posterior bowing, flattening, mild/moderate or severe anterior bowing of the posterior tracheal membrane), the axial morphology and cross-sectional area of the trachea at the narrowest point and 1 cm above the aortic arch were evaluated. Measurements of adipose tissue were taken (anterior mediastinal fat width, sagittal upper abdominal diameter and subcutaneous fat thickness at the level of the costophrenic angle). Relationships between tracheal morphology and measurements of adipose tissue were analyzed. 296 patients were included (120 males, 176 females, mean age 59 years, range 19-90). Severe anterior bowing of the posterior tracheal wall correlated with increasing sagittal upper abdominal diameter (p = 0.002). Mild/moderate and severe anterior bowing of the posterior tracheal wall correlated with increasing mediastinal fat width (p = 0.000 and p = 0.031, respectively). Tracheal cross-sectional area was inversely correlated with increasing subcutaneous fat thickness (p = 0.022). The findings demonstrate a statistically significant relationship between CT tracheal morphology and adipose tissue measurements in a large nonselected population. (orig.)

  6. Tracheal rupture caused by blunt chest trauma: radiological and clinical features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunisch-Hoppe, M.; Rauber, K.; Rau, W.S. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Justus Liebig Univ., Giessen (Germany); Hoppe, M. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, Philipps University, Marburg (Germany); Popella, C. [Dept. of ENT, Justus Liebig University, Giessen (Germany)

    2000-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess radiomorphologic and clinical features of tracheal rupture due to blunt chest trauma. From 1992 until 1998 the radiomorphologic and clinical key findings of all consecutive tracheal ruptures were retrospectively analyzed. The study included ten patients (7 men and 3 women; mean age 35 years); all had pneumothoraces which were persistent despite suction drainage. Seven patients developed a pneumomediastinum as well as a subcutaneous emphysema on conventional chest X-rays. In five patients, one major hint leading to the diagnosis was a cervical emphysema, discovered on the lateral cervical spine view. Contrast-media-enhanced thoracic CT was obtained in all ten cases and showed additional injuries (atelectasis n = 5; lung contusion n = 4; lung laceration n = 2; hematothorax n = 2 and hematomediastinum n = 4). The definite diagnosis of tracheal rupture was made by bronchoscopy, which was obtained in all patients. Tracheal rupture due to blunt chest trauma occurs rarely. Key findings were all provided by conventional chest X-ray. Tracheal rupture is suspected in front of a pneumothorax, a pneumomediastinum, or a subcutaneous emphysema on lateral cervical spine and chest films. Routine thoracic CT could also demonstrate these findings but could not confirm the definite diagnosis of an tracheal rupture except in one case; in the other 9 cases this was done by bronchoscopy. Thus, bronchoscopy should be mandatory in all suspicious cases of tracheal rupture and remains the gold standard. (orig.)

  7. Tracheal rupture caused by blunt chest trauma: radiological and clinical features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunisch-Hoppe, M.; Rauber, K.; Rau, W.S.; Hoppe, M.; Popella, C.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess radiomorphologic and clinical features of tracheal rupture due to blunt chest trauma. From 1992 until 1998 the radiomorphologic and clinical key findings of all consecutive tracheal ruptures were retrospectively analyzed. The study included ten patients (7 men and 3 women; mean age 35 years); all had pneumothoraces which were persistent despite suction drainage. Seven patients developed a pneumomediastinum as well as a subcutaneous emphysema on conventional chest X-rays. In five patients, one major hint leading to the diagnosis was a cervical emphysema, discovered on the lateral cervical spine view. Contrast-media-enhanced thoracic CT was obtained in all ten cases and showed additional injuries (atelectasis n = 5; lung contusion n = 4; lung laceration n = 2; hematothorax n = 2 and hematomediastinum n = 4). The definite diagnosis of tracheal rupture was made by bronchoscopy, which was obtained in all patients. Tracheal rupture due to blunt chest trauma occurs rarely. Key findings were all provided by conventional chest X-ray. Tracheal rupture is suspected in front of a pneumothorax, a pneumomediastinum, or a subcutaneous emphysema on lateral cervical spine and chest films. Routine thoracic CT could also demonstrate these findings but could not confirm the definite diagnosis of an tracheal rupture except in one case; in the other 9 cases this was done by bronchoscopy. Thus, bronchoscopy should be mandatory in all suspicious cases of tracheal rupture and remains the gold standard. (orig.)

  8. Awake tracheal intubation using Pentax airway scope in 30 patients: A Case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payal Kajekar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Pentax airway scope (AWS has been successfully used for managing difficult intubations. In this case series, we aimed to evaluate the success rate and time taken to complete intubation, when AWS was used for awake tracheal intubation. Methods: We prospectively evaluated the use of AWS for awake tracheal intubation in 30 patients. Indication for awake intubation, intubation time, total time to complete tracheal intubation, laryngoscopic view (Cormack and Lehane grade, total dose of local anaesthetic used, anaesthetists rating and patient′s tolerance of the procedure were recorded. Results: The procedure was successful in 25 out of the 30 patients (83%. The mean (standard deviation intubation time and total time to complete the tracheal intubation was 5.4 (2.4 and 13.9 (3.7 min, respectively in successful cases. The laryngeal view was grade 1 in 24 and grade 2 in one of 25 successful intubations. In three out of the five patients where the AWS failed, awake tracheal intubation was successfully completed with the assistance of flexible fibre optic scope (FOS. Conclusion: Awake tracheal intubation using AWS was successful in 83% of patients. Success rate can be further improved using a combination of AWS and FOS. Anaesthesiologists who do not routinely use FOS may find AWS easier to use for awake tracheal intubation using an oral route.

  9. Strategy, Corporate Culture, Structure and Operational Processes as the Context for the Innovativeness of an Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczepańska-Woszczyna Katarzyna

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to relationships between the innovativeness of an organization and its selected determinants such as strategy, corporate culture, structure and operational processes. Research was conducted among 200 managers at the top, middle and operational levels of management (200 companies operating in Poland implementing innovations - innovative companies. Conditions leading to innovations are described as the combination of processes, which result from the internal and external dynamics of a given entity. The analysis assumed that the assessment of company innovativeness would be based on an assessment of whether the company is a leader in the industry in terms of new products (the higher the rating, the more innovative the company is considered to be. The relationship between the dimensions of the company's functioning and the degree of its innovativeness was rated on the basis of two measures: the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and the chi-square coefficient. It was assumed that the most innovative companies have structures similar to organic ones, with a weak influence of the elements of mechanistic structures. This assumption was proven in relation to features of organizations considered important for innovativeness.

  10. Rickettsia-like organism infection in a freshwater cultured fish Ophiocephalus argus C.in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Qionglin; JIA Weizhang; HAN Xianpu; CAI Taozhen; GONG Xiaoning; SUN Xiaofeng

    2004-01-01

    From 2001 to 2002,a new and emergent infectious disease of Ophiocephalus argus occurred in a fishery in Hubei Province,China,with an incidence of 60%~70% and a mortality as high as 100%.The diseased fish showed an enlarged abdomen,the millet-like nodules in internal organs,and the swollen kidney which was composed of 5~10 sarcoma-like bodies in cream or gray-white colour or ulcerated into beandregs-like substance.Light microscopic observation revealed the basophilic or acidphilic inclusions in cytoplasm of the cells and the granulomas,a diffusive chronic inflammation in internal organs.Further analysis under an electron microscope indicated that the intracytoplasmic inclusions were rickettsia-like organisms (RLOs) that are either spherical or coccoid,with variable size,ranging from 0.5~1.5 μm in diameter,and enclosed within membrane-bound cytoplasmic vacuoles.RLO had a central nucleoid region with some fine filamentous structures and an electron-dense granule.Its cytoplasm contained abundant ribosomal bodies.Occasionally,RLO appeared to be divided by binary fission.RLOs were also observed in the homogenized tissue of infected fish.The results suggested that the death of cultured O.Argus was caused by RLO infection.

  11. Diversity and cultural competence training in health care organizations: hallmarks of success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Ellen Foster; Dreachslin, Janice L; Sinioris, Marie

    2007-01-01

    The authors reviewed recent literature on diversity training interventions and identified effective practices for health care organizations. Self-reported satisfaction was especially likely to be found as a result of training, whereas attitude change measured by standardized instruments was mixed. Although those responsible for diversity training in the workplace agree that behavioral change is key, awareness building and associated attitude change remain the focus of most diversity training in the workplace. Consequently, the authors recommend a systems approach to diversity training interventions wherein training is a key component of a health care organization's strategic approach to organizational performance, and diversity training is linked to the organizations' strategic goals for improved quality of care. The systems approach requires these steps: determine diversity and cultural competence goals in the context of strategy, measure current performance against needs, design training to address the gap, implement the training, assess training effectiveness, and strive for continuous improvement. Higher level evaluations measuring whether employees have transferred learning from training to their jobs are paramount to the systems approach to diversity training interventions. Measuring other positive changes in a "return on investment" format can be used to convince stakeholders of training's value.

  12. Assessing Cultural Readiness of Organization For Successful Implementation of Knowledge Managment, Appling FMCDM Approach: Case of Central Bank of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaban Elahi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Supportive organizational culture for knowledge management can vouch for successful implementation of knowledge management. In the case of lacking this kind of supportive culture, the organizational culture is one of the obstacles which can lead the implementation of knowledge management to full failure and waste of organizational assets. In this research, a framework based on FMCDM was utilized to assess the cultural readiness of organization as the knowledge management implementation prerequisite. This framework has been utilized to assess Central Bank of Iran’s cultural readiness. The methodology of research was descriptive and research data were gathered by questionnaire and were answered by experts and CBI executives. In this term, the cultural readiness of CBI was assessed and in accordance with this assessment, embarking on corrective action was proposed.

  13. Clinical application of self-expandable metallic stents in the treatment of malignant tracheal stenosis under general anesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Weitao; Shi Haibin; Yang Zhengqiang; Liu Sheng; Zhou Chungao; Zhao Linbo; Xia Jinguo; Li Linsun

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of self-expandable metallic stent placement for the treatment of malignant tracheal stenosis under general anesthesia and fluoroscopic guidance. Methods: Under general anesthesia the placement of self-expandable metallic stent was performed in 10 patients with malignant tracheal stenosis, the procedure was completed under fluoroscopic guidance in all patients. Results: Successful tracheal stenting was achieved in all 10 patients. In one patient, a Y-shaped stent was used as the tracheal carina was involved in the airway stenosis. The symptoms of dyspnea and asthma were markedly improved immediately after the implantation of stent in all patients. Conclusion: Tracheal implantation of self-expandable metallic stent under general anesthesia and fluoroscopic guidance is a safe and effective treatment for malignant tracheal stenosis, it can promptly relieve various symptoms caused by malignant tracheal stenosis and obviously improve patient's living quality, therefore,t his technique is of great value in clinical practice. (authors)

  14. Use of the peritracheal fold in the dog tracheal transplantation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, P J; Costantino, P D; Lueg, E A; Chaplin, J M; Brandwein, M S; Passalaqua, P J; Fliegelman, L J; Laitman, J T; Marquez, S; Urken, M L

    1999-09-01

    To investigate the technical aspects of the canine model of human tracheal transplantation for potential application to reconstruction of extremely long tracheal defects (> 10 cm). In phase 1, long tracheal segments were skeletonized and pedicled with the thyroid glands, cranial thyroid arteries and veins, and internal jugular vein branches. The segments were elevated completely, attached to the vascular pedicle only, and replaced with primary tracheal anastomoses. In phase 2, long segments were elevated along with a diffuse soft tissue "blanket" that envelops the trachea and thyroid glands. Because this study was designed to primarily address, in situ, tracheal perfusion territories of a cranially located vascular pedicle, microvascular anastomoses were not conducted. Two small-bodied beagles (10-15 kg) and 5 large-bodied mixed-breed dogs (20-30 kg) were humanely killed 2 to 41 days after surgery, and anatomic and histological analyses were conducted. Unlike that of humans, the thyroid gland complex of dogs is not intimately associated with the trachea but is conjoined with a peritracheal soft tissue "fold." Within this fold, blood is transmitted to the trachea via a diffuse, segmental vascular plexus. In phase 1, pronounced tracheal necrosis occurred within 2 to 5 days. In phase 2, extremely long tracheal segments (10-12 cm), based only on a cranially located pedicle, were still viable at 2 to 6 weeks. Preservation of the "peritracheal fold" in the dog model of tracheal transplantation is critical to the onset and maintenance of vascular perfusion in a long tracheal segment. Furthermore, the use of large-bodied dogs is necessary to provide for a usable venous efflux component.

  15. Development of a new mouse palate organ culture system and effect of X-irradiation on palatogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiranuma, Hiroko; Jikko, Akitoshi; Maeda, Takashi; Furukawa, Souhei

    1999-01-01

    On the basis of an already established suspension system of organ culture for mouse palate explants, we developed a new culture system, which has several advantages over the previous methods. We used a 48-well culture plate in which the explants can be cultured individually, and only 300 μl of medium is needed for each well. In order to optimize the culture results, we systematically studied the influence of main ''culture conditions'' such as tilt degree of the culturing palate, rotation speed, and addition of ascorbic acid to the medium. This system allows culturing of palates from day 13.5 of gestation to day 16.5 under serum-free conditions using a chemically defined medium, which resulted in 78% of the palates growing fused. Utilizing this culture system, the direct effect of X-irradiation on palataogesis was analyzed. A 4 Gy dose of X-irradiation was administrated at the beginning of culture period. The incidence of palatal fusion was not significantly different from that of the non-irradiated group. (author)

  16. A framework in the development and maintenance of safety culture improvement in organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relunia, Estrella D.; Loterina

    2006-01-01

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) conducted a seminar-workshop on safety culture with an objectives to provide the participants with basic knowledge on the concepts of safety culture and to assess the current safety culture of the PNRI

  17. Hydrogen production characteristics of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes by anaerobic mixed culture fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Li; Yu, Zhang [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)]|[Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhenhong, Yuan; Yongming, Sun; Xiaoying, Kong [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2009-01-15

    The hydrogen production from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) by anaerobic mixed culture fermentation was investigated using batch experiments at 37 C. Seven varieties of typical individual components of OFMSW including rice, potato, lettuce, lean meat, oil, fat and banyan leaves were selected to estimate the hydrogen production potential. Experimental results showed that the boiling treated anaerobic sludge was effective mixed inoculum for fermentative hydrogen production from OFMSW. Mechanism of fermentative hydrogen production indicates that, among the OFMSW, carbohydrates is the most optimal substrate for fermentative hydrogen production compared with proteins, lipids and lignocelluloses. This conclusion was also substantiated by experimental results of this study. The hydrogen production potentials of rice, potato and lettuce were 134 mL/g-VS, 106 mL/g-VS, and 50 mL/g-VS respectively. The hydrogen percentages of the total gas produced from rice, potato and lettuce were 57-70%, 41-55% and 37-67%. (author)

  18. An intervertebral disc whole organ culture system to investigate proinflammatory and degenerative disc disease condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Gernot; Liu, Yishan; Geries, Janna; Zhou, Zhiyu; Kubosch, David; Südkamp, Norbert; Richards, R Geoff; Alini, Mauro; Grad, Sibylle; Li, Zhen

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different disease initiators of degenerative disc disease (DDD) within an intervertebral disc (IVD) organ culture system and to understand the interplay between inflammation and degeneration in the early stage of DDD. Bovine caudal IVDs were cultured within a bioreactor for up to 11 days. Control group was cultured under physiological loading (0.02-0.2 MPa; 0.2 Hz; 2 hr/day) and high glucose (4.5 g/L) medium. Detrimental loading (0.32-0.5 MPa, 5 Hz; 2 hr/day) and low glucose (2 g/L) medium were applied to mimic the condition of abnormal mechanical stress and limited nutrition supply. Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was injected into the nucleus pulposus (100 ng per IVD) as a proinflammatory trigger. TNF-α combined with detrimental loading and low glucose medium up-regulated interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and IL-8 gene expression in disc tissue, nitric oxide, and IL-8 release from IVD, which indicate a proinflammatory effect. The combined initiators up-regulated matrix metalloproteinase 1 gene expression, down-regulated gene expression of Type I collagen in annulus fibrosus and Type II collagen in nucleus pulposus, and reduced the cell viability. Furthermore, the combined initiators induced a degradative effect, as indicated by markedly higher glycosaminoglycan release into conditioned medium. The combination of detrimental dynamic loading, nutrient deficiency, and TNF-α intradiscal injection can synergistically simulate the proinflammatory and degenerative disease condition within DDD. This model will be of high interest to screen therapeutic agents in further preclinical studies for early intervention and treatment of DDD. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Diagnosis of tracheomalacia using tracheal dynamic respiratory-scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Teruo; Watabe, Hideki; Ikeda, Sadao

    1995-01-01

    We performed tracheal-dynamic respiratory scan (T-DRS) in 54 cases which were thought to be tracheomalacia clinically. T-DRS was performed by TOSHIBA TCT-900S at the level of the aortic arch under the condition of 120 kV (140 kV), 100 mA, 5 mm of slice width for 20 seconds when the patient was directed to breath rapidly or slowly. In 19 cases, which underwent both T-DRS and bronchoscopy, could evaluate the results. Only one case was overestimated by T-DRS than bronchoscopic findings, while 9 cases were underestimated and 9 cases were equal. Though T-DRS tended to underestimate the degree of the stenosis of tracheomalacia than bronchoscopic finding. T-DRS can do more objective evaluation than bronchoscopy non-invasively and thought to be useful for the evaluation of tracheomalalcia. (author)

  20. Management of Tracheal Deformity During Intubation: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Hua Wu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Failure or difficulty in intubating the trachea can be either due to inability to visualize the glottis or some pathology at the level of or below the cords. This report describes a case of difficult intubation suspected of being related to neck scarring from previous surgery. Computed tomography (CT was used to evaluate the patient's airway and revealed upper tracheal angulation. We describe a method to secure the airway in this patient with a two-person technique by rotating an oral endotracheal tube 180° counterclockwise to adjust to the curvature of the trachea. Problems with intubation should be anticipated in patients with scarring of the neck, and equipment for aiding intubation should be on hand. Furthermore, we found that CT contributed to the assessment of the difficulty of intubation in this kind of patient.

  1. Biotechnological production of pharmaceuticals and biopharmaceuticals in plant cell and organ cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Diego; Sanchez, Raul; Lalaleo, Liliana; Bonfill, Mercedes; Corchete, Purificacion; Palazon, Javier

    2018-03-09

    Plant biofactories are biotechnological platforms based on plant cell and organ cultures used for the production of pharmaceuticals and biopharmaceuticals, although to date only a few of these systems have successfully been implemented at an industrial level. Metabolic engineering is possibly the most straightforward strategy to boost pharmaceutical production in plant biofactories, but social opposition to the use of GMOs means empirical approaches are still being used. Plant secondary metabolism involves thousands of different enzymes, some of which catalyze specific reactions, giving one product from a particular substrate, whereas others can yield multiple products from the same substrate. This trait opens plant cell biofactories to new applications, in which the natural metabolic machinery of plants can be harnessed for the bioconversion of phytochemicals or even the production of new bioactive compounds. Synthetic biological pipelines involving the bioconversion of natural substrates into products with a high market value may be established by the heterologous expression of target metabolic genes in model plants. To summarize the state of the art of plant biofactories and their applications for the pipeline production of cosme-, pharma- and biopharmaceuticals. In order to demonstrate the great potential of plant biofactories for multiple applications in the biotechnological production of pharmaceuticals and biopharmaceuticals, this review broadly covers the following: plant biofactories based on cell and hairy root cultures; secondary metabolite production; biotransformation reactions; metabolic engineering tools applied in plant biofactories; and biopharmaceutical production. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Formation in Citizen Culture, Space for the Social Responsibility of Business Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elita Marina Méndez Jiménez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In Venezuela, we live together in a time of thirst for peace, commitment and social coexistence, social equality, every day we hear that there is a social crisis, a crisis of values. At this juncture, the education imparted is the central factor in reflecting, inculcating, strengthening and consolidating in the citizens, values, personal formation, ethical training and other binding issues, in short, citizen culture. It is the purpose of this essay to generate reflections around the citizen's culture, for it mentions some roles, that as managerial actions of social co-responsibility, can realize the private business organizations, to strengthen the social action of the individual in order to promote the necessary stimuli to reach the status of a good citizen, for whom the idea of ​​living in a prosperous and participatory community is represented in a space where education, good treatment, equality in opportunities and respect for their fellow human beings, habitat and life in any of its expressions are the norm.

  3. Biotechnological production of caffeic acid derivatives from cell and organ cultures of Echinacea species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Kim, Yun-Soo; Park, So-Young; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2014-09-01

    Caffeic acid derivatives (CADs) are a group of bioactive compounds which are produced in Echinacea species especially Echinacea purpurea, Echinacea angustifolia, and Echinacea pallida. Echinacea is a popular herbal medicine used in the treatment of common cold and it is also a prominent dietary supplement used throughout the world. Caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid), caftaric acid (2-O-caffeoyltartaric acid), cichoric acid (2, 3-O-dicaffeoyltartaric acid), cynarin, and echinacoside are some of the important CADs which have varied pharmacological activities. The concentrations of these bioactive compounds are species specific and also they vary considerably with the cultivated Echinacea species due to geographical location, stage of development, time of harvest, and growth conditions. Due to these reasons, plant cell and organ cultures have become attractive alternative for the production of biomass and caffeic acid derivatives. Adventitious and hairy roots have been induced in E. pupurea and E. angustifolia, and suspension cultures have been established from flask to bioreactor scale for the production of biomass and CADs. Tremendous progress has been made in this area; various bioprocess methods and strategies have been developed for constant high-quality productivity of biomass and secondary products. This review is aimed to discuss biotechnological methods and approaches employed for the sustainable production of CADs.

  4. Ethical issues in laryngology: tracheal stenting as palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Aasif A; Flowers, W Jeffrey; Barrett, Jeanna M; O'Rourke, Ashli K; Postma, Gregory N; Weinberger, Paul M

    2014-07-01

    To improve understanding of aspects of end-of-life care that may not be intuitive to the otolaryngology community. A comprehensive review of the literature was performed by searching Medline, Embase, and Google Scholar databases. Primary manuscripts' bibliographies were reviewed to identify any nonindexed references. Prospective consultation by means of one-on-one interviews was sought from nonotolaryngology key stakeholders in the areas of hospice nursing care and patient advocacy in order to identify pertinent issues. We identified over 1,000 articles published from 1965 to 2013 on the topic of tracheal stents, as well as over 40,000 on hospice/end-of-life care. Three articles focusing specifically on palliative care and airway stenting were identified, of which three were case reports and none were definitive reviews. There are a number of significant issues and concepts unique to hospice care. These are likely unfamiliar to all except for head and neck oncology-specialized otolaryngologists. An example is that hospice care focuses on quality of life rather than prolongation of life (such as curative surgery). Patients with nonoperable tracheal obstruction from malignancy face an unpleasant demise from suffocation. For those patients, stenting can relieve suffering by restoring airway patency. Airway stenting can be a valid palliative care option, even for terminal patients receiving hospice care, when performed to relieve airway obstruction and improve quality of life. End-of-life ethics is an underdeveloped area of otolaryngology that should be explored. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Management of postintubation tracheal stenosis: appropriate indications make outcome differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkane, Antoine E; Matar, Nayla E; Haddad, Amine C; Nassar, Michel N; Almoutran, Homère G; Rohayem, Ziad; Daher, Mohammad; Chalouhy, Georges; Dabar, George

    2010-01-01

    Laryngotracheal stenosis is difficult to treat and its etiologies are multiple; nowadays, the most common ones are postintubation or posttracheostomy stenoses. To provide an algorithm for the management of postintubation laryngotracheal stenoses (PILTS) based on the experience of a tertiary care referral center. A retrospective study was conducted on all patients treated for PILTS over a 10-year period. Patients were divided into a surgically and an endoscopically treated group according to predefined criteria. The characteristics of the two groups were analyzed and the outcomes compared. Thirty-three consecutive patients were included in the study: 14 in the surgically treated group and 19 in the endoscopically treated group. Our candidates for airway surgery were healthy patients presenting with complex tracheal stenoses, subglottic involvement or associated tracheomalacia. The endoscopic candidates were chronically ill patients presenting with simple, strictly tracheal stenoses not exceeding 4 cm in length. Stents were placed if the stenosis was associated with tracheomalacia or exceeded 2 cm in total length. In the surgically treated group, 2/14 patients needed more than one procedure versus 8/19 patients in the endoscopically treated group. At the end of the intervention, 50% of the patients were decannulated in the surgically treated group versus 84.2% in the endoscopically treated group (p = 0.03). However, the decannulation rates at 6 months and the symptomatology at rest and on exertion on the last follow-up visit were comparable in the two groups. Our experience in the management of PILTS demonstrates that both surgery and endoscopy yield excellent functional outcomes if the treatment strategy is based on clear, predefined objective criteria. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. A comparison of simple continuous versus simple interrupted suture patterns for tracheal anastomosis after large-segment tracheal resection in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingland, R B; Layton, C I; Kennedy, G A; Galland, J C

    1995-01-01

    Two suture techniques for tracheal anastomosis after large-segment tracheal resection were compared. Eight cartilages were resected from the trachea of each of 12 dogs; anastomoses with 4-0 polydioxanone suture were created using a simple continuous suture technique in six dogs and a simple interrupted suture technique in six dogs. Surgical time was shorter but apposition of tracheal segments at the time of surgery was less precise with the simple continuous suture technique. The dogs were evaluated for 150 days after surgery. Clinical abnormalities after tracheal resection and anastomosis were not observed. Percent dorsoventral luminal stenosis was calculated by measuring the tracheal lumen diameter on lateral cervical radiographs. Percent luminal stenosis was calculated planimetrically using a computerized digitizing tablet. Anastomotic stenosis was mild in all dogs; however, the mean percent.luminal stenosis determined planimetrically was significantly greater for dogs that had the simple continuous suture technique. Planimetric measurements of cross-sectional area made before and after formalin fixation were not significantly different. Radiographic determination of percent dorsoventral luminal stenosis was a poor predictor of diminution of cross-sectional area determined planimetrically.

  7. Influence of pH on organic acid production by Clostridium sporogenes in test tube and fermentor cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montville, T J; Parris, N; Conway, L K

    1985-01-01

    The influence of pH on the growth parameters of and the organic acids produced by Clostridium sporogenes 3121 cultured in test tubes and fermentors at 35 degrees C was examined. Specific growth rates in the fermentor maintained at a constant pH ranged from 0.20 h-1 at pH 5.00 to 0.86 h-1 at pH 6.50. Acetic acid was the primary organic acid in supernatants of 24-h cultures; total organic acid levels were 2.0 to 22.0 mumol/ml. Supernatants from pH 5.00 and 5.50 cultures had total organic acid levels less than one-third of those found at pH 6.00 to 7.00. The specific growth rates of the test tube cultures ranged from 0.51 h-1 at pH 5.00 to 0.95 h-1 at pH 6.50. The pH of the medium did not affect the average total organic acid content (51.5 mumol/ml) but did affect the distribution of the organic acids, which included formic, acetic, propionic, butyric, 3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)propionic, and 3-phenylpropionic acids. Butyric acid levels were lower, but formic and propionic acid levels were higher, at pH 5.00 than at other pHs. PMID:4004207

  8. The plan of physical culture and health work in the organization for orphans and children left without parental care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ukolov S.V.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available the article describes the scheme of physical culture and health work in the organization for orphans and children left without parental care, which includes organizational, moral-volitional, documentation, educational components, as well as a security unit. The essence and significance of each of the blocks are revealed. The authors consider physical culture and health work not as a set of competitions, but as one of the directions of work on the socialization of pupils.

  9. Leadership and culture in school organizations: a case study on the educational development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Quevedo Toro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This communication presents the results of current research in the framework of the master’s SUE Caribbean whose objective is to establish the relationship between the leadership of managers and other institutional aspects of educational organizations, such as its history, power structures, processes of communication and development; having as purpose set the mode in which the leadership affects institutional development, in order to generate a process of construction of plans for institutional developments within the selected educational institutions. All this looking for enriching understanding of the complex reality of the educational institutions, understanding that allows shape routes or routes of transformation and change in the educational institution. The proposed study, seeks to satisfy the need for multiple insight into the reality of 2 educational institutions in the District of Santa Marta, Magdalena Department; therefore play an important role interpretation, it is to understand the institutional dynamic in a reflexive manner. Generated in us the concern of knowing inside to educational institutions as organizations which are generated interactions collective, explore the network of relationships that occur there, culture and leadership that these interactions and networks generate, seeking to find another dimension that explain and will shed light on the reality of our school.   

  10. Comparative SAXS and DSC study on stratum corneum structural organization in an epidermal cell culture model (ROC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntsche, Judith; Herre, Angela; Fahr, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    barrier similar to that of human stratum corneum is, however, a prerequisite. In this study, the stratum corneum lipid organization in an epidermal cell culture model based on rat epidermal keratinocytes (REK organotypic culture, ROC) was investigated by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) in dependence......Cell cultured skin equivalents present an alternative for dermatological in vitro evaluations of drugs and excipients as they provide the advantage of availability, lower variability and higher assay robustness compared to native skin. For penetration/permeation studies, an adequate stratum corneum...... and SC lipid organization. Cultivation for 21days resulted in further minor changes in the structural organization of ROC SC. The SAXS patterns of ROC SC had overall large similarities with that of human SC and point to the presence of a long periodicity phase with a repeat distance of about 122Å, e...

  11. Selective up-regulation of 5-HT(1B/1D) receptors during organ culture of cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoel, N L; Hansen-Schwartz, J; Edvinsson, L

    2001-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is thought to be involved in migraine headache and the pathophysiology of cerebrovascular diseases. Previous data show that organ culture induces a phenotypic change in cerebral vessels. Therefore we investigated if these changes also applied for the vasoconstrictive 5-HT......(cultured) 6.8+/-0.4). The response was inhibited by the 5-HT(1B/1D) selective antagonist GR55562 (pEC50(fresh) 5.1+/-0.2 and pEC50(cultured) 6.0+/-0.3). The organ model might mimic the phenotypic changes during cerebrovascular diseases....... receptors. Rat cerebral arteries express 5-HT2 receptors. Using organ culture we observed a phenotypic change with a selective up-regulation of 5-HT(1B/1D) receptors. This was revealed by an increased sensitivity to the selective 5-HT(1B/1D) agonist 5-CT after organ culture (pEC50(fresh) 5.6+/-0.2 and pEC50...

  12. Diagnosis of tracheal instability: inspiratory and expiratory spiral CT and cine CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heussel, C.P.; Thelen, M.; Kauczor, H.U.; Hafner, B.; Lill, J.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: In tracheo- and bronchomalacia, localization and determination of collapse is necessary for planning a surgical procedure. We compared inspiratory and spiral CT, cine CT, and bronchoscopy and evaluated the relevance of each method. Methods: Seventeen patients with suspected or verified tracheal stonosis or collapse underwent paired inspiratory and exspiratory spiral CT and cine CT during continuous respiration (temporal increment 100 ms). The tracheal cross-sectional area was calculated and compared. Results: In addition to bronchoscopy, further information concerning localization, extent, collapse, stability of the tracheal wall, distal portions of the stenosis, and extraluminal compressions was obtained. A significantly higher degree of tracheal collapse was seen using cine CT compared to paired spiral CT (p [de

  13. In vitro pharmacokinetics of sirolimus-coated stent for tracheal stenosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Further increases in sirolimus: PLGA ratio did not improve stent drug loading. A slow release of ... tracheal stent can damage the airway mucosa, and cause .... Figure 3: Cumulative drug release from sirolimus-coated stents. DISCUSSION.

  14. Long-term outcome of conventional endotracheal tube balloon dilation of tracheal stenosis in a dog

    OpenAIRE

    Kahane, Nili; Segev, Gilad

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a successful dilation of tracheal stenosis in a 16-year-old dog using a conventional endotracheal tube balloon. This technique should be considered as palliative treatment when owners decline other therapeutic options.

  15. Long-term outcome of conventional endotracheal tube balloon dilation of tracheal stenosis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Nili; Segev, Gilad

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a successful dilation of tracheal stenosis in a 16-year-old dog using a conventional endotracheal tube balloon. This technique should be considered as palliative treatment when owners decline other therapeutic options.

  16. Tracheal obstruction caused by an expandable metallic stent: a case of successful removal of the stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Hiroomi; Kubota, Akio; Kawahara, Hisayoshi; Oue, Takaharu; Nose, Satoko; Ihara, Toshiyuki

    2005-07-01

    We report a case of tracheal obstruction caused by an expandable metallic stent. A 3-month-old girl with severe tracheomalacia had a placement of a Palmaz stent. At 3 years of age, she developed progressive dyspnea. The CT scan showed tracheal obstruction caused by granulation tissue over the stent. At operation, the stent was found to have penetrated the posterior tracheal wall. Under partial cardiopulmonary bypass, the stent was removed along with the membranous wall of the trachea, and the trachea was reconstructed using slide tracheoplasty. Tracheal obstruction is one of the serious complications caused by an expandable metallic stent. Direct open approach to the trachea under cardiopulmonary bypass is thought to be a safe way to manage this problem.

  17. Association of two respiratory congenital anomalies: tracheal diverticulum and cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo, S.; Villamil, M.A.; Rojas, I.C.; Lemos, D.F.; Echeverri, S.; Angarita, M.; Triana, G.

    2004-01-01

    Many associations of congenital anomalies of the respiratory system have been reported, but the combination of tracheal diverticulum and cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM) is unique. We present a patient with these two anomalies and analyze their embryological correlation. (orig.)

  18. Marketing Culture. Summary of the conference Marketing culture in modern organization held on 1 June 2001 at Warsaw University.

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Modzelewski

    2001-01-01

    What do we mean when we refer to "marketing"? Are they the same thing as "marketing culture", but in a people context? Is "marketing the same as salels"? How can we find an acceptable balance between the strategy and the tactics? These are important questions, because our answers have important implications.

  19. Management of benign dynamic "A-shape" tracheal stenosis: a retrospective study of 60 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plojoux, Jérôme; Laroumagne, Sophie; Vandemoortele, Thomas; Astoul, Philippe J; Thomas, Pascal A; Dutau, Hervé

    2015-02-01

    Benign tracheal stenosis complicates tracheal intubation or tracheostomy in 0.6% to 65% of cases. Surgical resection is the standard treatment. Endoscopic management is used for inoperable patients with 17% to 69% success. Dynamic "A-shape" tracheal stenosis (DATS) results in a dynamic stenosis with anterior fracture of tracheal cartilage and frequently associated posterior malacia. We report the results of our multidisciplinary management. Sixty patients with DATS were included. Management decision was made during initial bronchoscopy. When suitable, patients were referred to thoracic surgery for tracheal resection. Posterior localized tracheomalacia was treated with laser photocoagulation of the posterior tracheal wall. Tracheal stents were placed if the stenosis persisted after laser treatment. The choice of stent (straight silicone, hour-glass shaped silicone, T-tube, or fully-covered self-expandable metallic stent) was based on operator's judgment. After 12 to 18 months, stents were removed. If the stenosis persisted after stent removal, surgery was reconsidered. If surgery was not possible, a stent was replaced. In case of satisfactory result, a stent was replaced only after recurrence. Stable patients after treatment were considered as success, requirement of long-term tracheostomy or T tube as failure, and long-term stent as partial success. All patients developed DATS after tracheostomy. Thirty-three patients had posterior tracheomalacia. In 13 patients, mild stenosis required only endoscopic surveillance. Two patients were referred to thoracic surgery for tracheal resection surgery. Endoscopic management was the initial therapy in 45 patients (75%) and was considered successful in 23 patients (51%), partially successful in 10 (22%), and failed in 12 (27%). Five patients with successful outcomes required only laser therapy. Overall 70 stents were placed in 35 patients, with a migration rate of 31%. The DATS management was successful in 63%. Stent migration

  20. Heart Sound Localization and Reduction in Tracheal Sounds by Gabor Time-Frequency Masking

    OpenAIRE

    SAATCI, Esra; Akan, Aydın

    2018-01-01

    Background and aim: Respiratorysounds, i.e. tracheal and lung sounds, have been of great interest due to theirdiagnostic values as well as the potential of their use in the estimation ofthe respiratory dynamics (mainly airflow). Thus the aim of the study is topresent a new method to filter the heart sound interference from the trachealsounds. Materials and methods: Trachealsounds and airflow signals were collected by using an accelerometer from 10 healthysubjects. Tracheal sounds were then pr...

  1. Securing the airway in a child with tracheal agenesis – an alternative perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavomir Nosal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Tracheal agenesis is an extremely rare, typically fatal congenital anomaly characterised by typical clinical manifestation, failed endotracheal intubation and difficult emergency management. The prognosis and possibility of surgical correction rest on early diagnosis, anatomy, birth weight, and associated anomalies. Tracheal agenesis causes considerable resuscitation difficulties immediately after birth, as tracheal intubation is impossible. Although emergency management, by either bag and mask ventilation or oesophageal intubation, provides some pulmonary gas exchange through tracheo-oesophageal connection, they are associated with overdistension of the stomach and the risk of stomach perforation. We have performed selective intubation of the distal trachea in a child with tracheal agenesis through the tracheo-oesophageal connection with the help of a fibroendoscope. A standard guide wire was passed through the working port of the flexible endoscope and under direct vision was directed through the tracheo-oesophageal connection into the distal trachea. At this point, the endoscope was removed, leaving the guide wire in place. The endotracheal tube size 2 Fr was passed over the guide wire into the distal trachea. The infant showed dramatic improvement and maintained good saturations on mechanical ventilation. The infant was taken for a computed tomography (CT scan, which showed Floyd’s type II tracheal agenesis, the oesophagus connecting with the distal trachea before it bifurcates. The endotracheal tube was seen ending in the carina. Transoesophageal intubation of the short distal segment of the trachea through the tracheo-oesophageal connection might offer a new perspective for short-term securing of the airway in a child with tracheal agenesis and should be considered in any child with suspected tracheal agenesis to buy the time while evaluating the exact anatomy of the anomaly and the possibility of tracheal reconstruction in selected

  2. Realizing good care within a context of cross-cultural diversity: an ethical guideline for healthcare organizations in Flanders, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denier, Yvonne; Gastmans, Chris

    2013-09-01

    In our globalizing world, health care professionals and organizations increasingly experience cross-cultural challenges in care relationships, which give rise to ethical questions regarding "the right thing to do" in such situations. For the time being, the international literature lacks examples of elaborated ethical guidelines for cross-cultural healthcare on the organizational level. As such, the ethical responsibility of healthcare organizations in realizing cross-cultural care remains underexposed. This paper aims to fill this gap by offering a case-study that illustrates the bioethical practice on a large-scale organizational level by presenting the ethical guideline developed in the period 2007-2011 by the Ethics Committee of Zorgnet Vlaanderen, a Christian-inspired umbrella organization for over 500 social profit healthcare organizations in Flanders, Belgium. The guideline offers an ethical framework within which fundamental ethical values are being analyzed within the context of cross-cultural care. The case study concludes with implications for healthcare practice on four different levels: (1) the level of the healthcare organization, (2) staff, (3) care receivers, and (4) the level of care supply. The study combines content-based ethics with process-based benchmarks. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Unexpectedly high soil organic carbon stocks under impervious surfaces contributed by urban deep cultural layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, J.; Ryu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The expansion of urban artificial structures has altered the spatial distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. The majority of the urban soil studies within the land-cover types, however, focused on top soils despite the potential of deep soils to store large amounts of SOC. Here, we investigate vertical distribution of SOC stocks in both impervious surfaces (n = 11) and adjacent green spaces (n = 8) to a depth of 4 m with in an apartment complex area, Seoul, Republic of Korea. We found that more than six times differences in SOC stocks were observed at 0-1 m depth between the impervious surfaces (1.90 kgC m-2) and the green spaces (12.03 kgC m-2), but no significant differences appeared when comparing them at the depth of 0-4 m. We found "cultural layers" with the largest SOC stocks at 1-2 m depth in the impervious surfaces (15.85 kgC m-2) and 2-3 m depths in urban green spaces (12.52 kgC m-2). Thus, the proportions of SOC stocks at the 0-1 m depth to the total of 0-4 m depth were 6.83% in impervious surfaces and 32.15% in urban green spaces, respectively. The 13C and 15N stable isotope data with historical aerial photographs revealed that the cropland which existed before 1978 formed the SOC in the cultural layers. Our results highlight that impervious surface could hold large amount of SOC stock which has been overlooked in urban carbon cycles. We believe this finding will help city planners and policy makers to develop carbon management programs better towards sustainable urban ecosystems.

  4. Early evidence of San material culture represented by organic artifacts from Border Cave, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Errico, Francesco; Backwell, Lucinda; Villa, Paola; Degano, Ilaria; Lucejko, Jeannette J; Bamford, Marion K; Higham, Thomas F G; Colombini, Maria Perla; Beaumont, Peter B

    2012-08-14

    Recent archaeological discoveries have revealed that pigment use, beads, engravings, and sophisticated stone and bone tools were already present in southern Africa 75,000 y ago. Many of these artifacts disappeared by 60,000 y ago, suggesting that modern behavior appeared in the past and was subsequently lost before becoming firmly established. Most archaeologists think that San hunter-gatherer cultural adaptation emerged 20,000 y ago. However, reanalysis of organic artifacts from Border Cave, South Africa, shows that the Early Later Stone Age inhabitants of this cave used notched bones for notational purposes, wooden digging sticks, bone awls, and bone points similar to those used by San as arrowheads. A point is decorated with a spiral groove filled with red ochre, which closely parallels similar marks that San make to identify their arrowheads when hunting. A mixture of beeswax, Euphorbia resin, and possibly egg, wrapped in vegetal fibers, dated to ∼40,000 BP, may have been used for hafting. Ornaments include marine shell beads and ostrich eggshell beads, directly dated to ∼42,000 BP. A digging stick, dated to ∼39,000 BP, is made of Flueggea virosa. A wooden poison applicator, dated to ∼24,000 BP, retains residues with ricinoleic acid, derived from poisonous castor beans. Reappraisal of radiocarbon age estimates through bayesian modeling, and the identification of key elements of San material culture at Border Cave, places the emergence of modern hunter-gatherer adaptation, as we know it, to ∼44,000 y ago.

  5. Idiopathic tracheal stenosis: a clinicopathologic study of 63 cases and comparison of the pathology with chondromalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Eugene J; Meng, Fanqing; Kradin, Richard L; Mathisen, Douglas J; Matsubara, Osamu

    2008-08-01

    Tracheal stenosis in adults usually is the result of mechanical injuries either from direct trauma or intubation. Rarely do cases develop in patients without such a precedent history, and there are few reports of the pathology of idiopathic tracheal stenosis (ITS). We reviewed clinicopathologically, 63 tracheal resections for tracheal stenosis in patients who had no antecedent explanation for their stenosis. We contrasted these 63 cases with 34 cases of tracheal stenosis owing to chondromalacia (CM) after mechanical injury. All 63 cases occurred in females, with a mean age of 49 years. The most common symptom was dyspnea on exertion. The average duration of symptoms was greater than 2 years. One-third of the patients gave a history of gastroesophageal reflux. All but one of the cases occurred in the subglottic region and/or upper one-third of the trachea. Pathologically, most cases showed extensive keloidal fibrosis and dilation of mucus glands, a finding that was not obvious in most cases of CM. ITS has relatively normal cartilage with smooth inner and outer perichondrium, whereas CM has extensive degeneration of cartilage with irregular border of inner perichondrium observable at shirt sleeve magnification. Immunohistochemical staining for estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor was positive in fibroblasts cells in most cases. ITS is a rare disease and restricted to females. It may represent some form of fibromatosis. ITS can be distinguished histologically from CM in tracheal resection specimens in most cases.

  6. Dynamic collection and analysis of volatile organic compounds from the headspace of cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranska, A; Smolinska, A; Boots, A W; Dallinga, J W; van Schooten, F J

    2015-10-15

    Exhaled breath has proven to be a valuable source of information about human bodies. Subtle differences between volatile organic compounds (VOCs) formed endogenously can be detected and become a base for a potential monitoring tool for health and disease. Until now, there has been a lack of biological and mechanistic knowledge of the processes involved in the production of relevant VOCs. Among the possible sources of health-related and disease-related VOCs are microorganisms found in the respiratory tract and in the gut. Other VOCs in the body are produced by cells that are influenced by the disease, for instance, due to metabolic disorders and/or inflammation. To gain insight into the in vivo production of VOCs by human cells and thus the exhaled breath composition, in vitro experiments involving relevant cells should be studied because they may provide valuable information on the production of VOCs by the affected cells. To this aim we developed and validated a system for dynamically (continuously) collecting headspace air in vitro using a Caco-2 cell line. The system allows the application of different cell lines as well as different experimental setups, including varying exposure times and treatment options while preserving cell viability. Significant correlation (p  ⩽  0.0001) between collection outputs within each studied group confirmed high reproducibility of the collection system. An example of such an application is presented here. We studied the influence of oxidative stress on the VOC composition of the headspace air of Caco-2 cells. By comparing the VOC composition of air flushed through empty culture flasks (n  =  35), flasks with culture medium (n  =  35), flasks with medium and cells (n  =  20), flasks with medium and an oxidative stressor (H2O2) (n  =  20), and flasks with medium, stressor, and cells (n  =  20), we were able to separate the effects from the stressor on the cells from all other

  7. Culture-dependent and culture-independent characterization of potentially functional biphenyl-degrading bacterial community in response to extracellular organic matter from Micrococcus luteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiao-Mei; Liu, Yin-Dong; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Ding, Lin-Xian; Shen, Chao-Feng

    2015-05-01

    Biphenyl (BP)-degrading bacteria were identified to degrade various polychlorinated BP (PCB) congers in long-term PCB-contaminated sites. Exploring BP-degrading capability of potentially useful bacteria was performed for enhancing PCB bioremediation. In the present study, the bacterial composition of the PCB-contaminated sediment sample was first investigated. Then extracellular organic matter (EOM) from Micrococcus luteus was used to enhance BP biodegradation. The effect of the EOM on the composition of bacterial community was investigated by combining with culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. The obtained results indicate that Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were predominant community in the PCB-contaminated sediment. EOM from M. luteus could stimulate the activity of some potentially difficult-to-culture BP degraders, which contribute to significant enhancement of BP biodegradation. The potentially difficult-to-culture bacteria in response to EOM addition were mainly Rhodococcus and Pseudomonas belonging to Gammaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria respectively. This study provides new insights into exploration of functional difficult-to-culture bacteria with EOM addition and points out broader BP/PCB degrading, which could be employed for enhancing PCB-bioremediation processes. © 2015 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Managerial capacity and adoption of culturally competent practices in outpatient substance abuse treatment organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Erick G

    2010-12-01

    The field of cultural competence is shifting its primary emphasis from enhancement of counselors' skills to management, organizational policy, and processes of care. This study examined managers' characteristics associated with adoption of culturally competent practices in the nation's outpatient substance abuse treatment field. Findings indicate that in 1995, supervisors' cultural sensitivity played the most significant role in adopting practices, such as matching counselors and clients based on race and offering bilingual services. Staff's exposure to cross-cultural training increased from 1995 to 2005. In this period, positive associations were found between managers' cultural sensitivity and connection with the community and staff receiving cross-cultural training and the number of training hours completed. However, exposure to and investment in this training were negatively correlated with managers' formal education. Health administration policy should consider the extent to which the decision makers' education, community involvement, and cultural sensitivity contribute to building culturally responsive systems of care. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Elements of Organizational Culture Superintendents Perceive as Important to Create and Maintain a Successful Organization in Times of Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Marylou K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the elements of culture public school superintendents perceive to be most important in creating and sustaining successful organizations in times of crisis. In addition, it was the purpose of this study to identify and describe the leadership strategies superintendents use to create…

  10. Cultural Anchors and the Organization of Differences: A Multi-method Analysis of LGBT Marches on Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaziani, Amin; Baldassarri, Delia

    2013-01-01

    Social scientists describe culture as either coherent or incoherent and political dissent as either unifying or divisive. This article moves beyond such dichotomies. Content, historical, and network analyses of public debates on how to organize four lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) Washington marches provide evidence for an integrative position. Rather than just describe consistencies or contradictions, we contend that the key analytic challenge is to explain the organization of differences. We propose one way of doing this using the mechanism of a cultural anchor. Within and across marches, a small collection of ideas remains fixed in the national conversation, yet in a way that allows activists to address their internal diversity and respond to unfolding historical events. These results suggest that activists do not simply organize around their similarities but, through cultural anchors, they use their commonalities to build a thinly coherent foundation that can also support their differences. Situated at the nexus of culture, social movements, sexualities, and networks, this article demonstrates how the anchoring mechanism works in the context of LGBT political organizing. PMID:23661809

  11. A Study on Relationship among Leadership, Organizational Culture, the Operation of Learning Organization and Employees' Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Su-Chao; Lee, Ming-Shing

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship among leadership, organizational culture, the operation of learning organization and employees' job satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative research design was employed. A total of 1,000 questionnaires were mailed out and received 134 valid replies.…

  12. Magnet status as a competitive strategy of hospital organizations: marketing a culture of excellence in nursing services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropello, Paula Grace Dunn

    2003-01-01

    With issues of patient safety, the nursing shortage, and managed care fiscal constraints, hospital organizations can strategically capture market share, while insuring best care practices, if they adopt the "Magnet Status" accreditation model. This quality indicator signifies to the consumer a culture of excellence in nursing services and fulfills the priority of customer satisfaction as a marketing strategy objective.

  13. Understanding the Role of Culture and Communication in Implementing Planned Organizational Change: The Case of Compstat in Police Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    Despite the popularity of planned change efforts, the failure rates of implementation are as high as 50 to 70 percent (Lewis & Seibold, 1998). While these efforts are affected by technical issues, the organizations' approach to change, structure, technological capabilities, and organizational culture and communication practices are…

  14. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  15. Everyday Routines: A Window into the Cultural Organization of Family Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonyan, Holli A.

    2015-01-01

    Eco(logical)-cultural Theory suggests that a daily routine results from individuals adapting cultural ideas to the constraints of a local context or ecology. Using Ecocultural Theory, this research examined family child care providers' descriptions of daily activities and overall approach to understand cultural models. The results highlighted a…

  16. Cultures and Organizations, Software of the mind. Intercultural Cooperation and Its Importance for survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.; Hofstede, G.J.; Minkov, M.

    2010-01-01

    This book reveals: * The unexamined rules behind the thoughts and emotions of people of different cultures * Ways in which cultures differ in the areas of collectivism/individualism, assertiveness/modesty, tolerance for ambiguity, and deferment of gratification * How organizational cultures differ

  17. Organ In Vitro Culture: What Have We Learned about Early Kidney Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Rak-Raszewska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available When Clifford Grobstein set out to study the inductive interaction between tissues in the developing embryo, he developed a method that remained important for the study of renal development until now. From the late 1950s on, in vitro cultivation of the metanephric kidney became a standard method. It provided an artificial environment that served as an open platform to study organogenesis. This review provides an introduction to the technique of organ culture, describes how the Grobstein assay and its variants have been used to study aspects of mesenchymal induction, and describes the search for natural and chemical inducers of the metanephric mesenchyme. The review also focuses on renal development, starting with ectopic budding of the ureteric bud, ureteric bud branching, and the generation of the nephron and presents the search for stem cells and renal progenitor cells that contribute to specific structures and tissues during renal development. It also presents the current use of Grobstein assay and its modifications in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering today. Together, this review highlights the importance of ex vivo kidney studies as a way to acquire new knowledge, which in the future can and will be implemented for developmental biology and regenerative medicine applications.

  18. Proteomic Analysis of Laser Microdissected Melanoma Cells from Skin Organ Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Brian L.; Grahovac, Jelena; Flint, Melanie S.; Sun, Mai; Charro, Nuno; Becker, Dorothea; Wells, Alan; Conrads, Thomas P

    2010-01-01

    Gaining insights into the molecular events that govern the progression from melanoma in situ to advanced melanoma, and understanding how the local microenvironment at the melanoma site influences this progression, are two clinically pivotal aspects that to date are largely unexplored. In an effort to identify key regulators of the crosstalk between melanoma cells and the melanoma-skin microenvironment, primary and metastatic human melanoma cells were seeded into skin organ cultures (SOCs), and grown for two weeks. Melanoma cells were recovered from SOCs by laser microdissection and whole-cell tryptic digests analyzed by nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with an LTQ-Orbitrap. The differential protein abundances were calculated by spectral counting, the results of which provides evidence that cell-matrix and cell-adhesion molecules that are upregulated in the presence of these melanoma cells recapitulate proteomic data obtained from comparative analysis of human biopsies of invasive melanoma and a tissue sample of adjacent, non-involved skin. This concordance demonstrates the value of SOCs for conducting proteomic investigations of the melanoma microenvironment. PMID:20459140

  19. The Influence of an Information Environment on Construction Organization's Culture: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth T. Sullivan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction professionals have identified public contract law and bureaucratic procurement/contract offices as a source of problems in the construction industry. The culture within the United State's Federal Government Acquisitions is based on the Federal Acquisition Regulations (FARs and its interpretation, often placing organizations/agencies in the price-based environment and continuously resulting in poor performance. The United States Army Medical Command (MEDCOM (approximately $100 M in construction renovation awards per year attempted to overcome this obstacle through a partnership with the Performance-Based Studies Research Group (PBSRG at Arizona State University. The MEDCOM implemented the information environment portion of the Performance Information Procurement System (PIPS into Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ contracts through the specifications. Without controlling the various contract/procurement processes, the developed information environment stimulated an atmosphere of accountability to all parties involved, while reducing the client's internal bureaucratic resistance. The concept has met with preliminary success, minimizing construction management issues by over 50%, raising owner satisfaction by 9%, resulting in 99% of projects ending with no contractor-generated change orders, and assisting MEDCOM leadership in measuring the performance of their infrastructure revitalization program.

  20. Emergence of organized structure in co-culture spheroids: Experiments and Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Roland; Kolbman, Dan; Song, Wei; Wu, Mingming; Ma, Minglin; Das, Moumita

    During tissue morphogenesis, from formation of embryos to tumor progression, cells often live and migrate in a heterogeneous environment consisting of many types of cells. To understand how differences in cell mechanobiological properties impact cellular self-organization and migration, we study a co-culture model composed of two distinct cell types confined in a three-dimensional spherical capsule. The cells are modeled as deformable, interacting, self-propelled particles that proliferate at specified timescales. A disordered potential is introduced to mimic the effect of the extracellular matrix (ECM). By varying the mechano-adhesive properties of each type, we investigate how differences in cell stiffness, cell-cell adhesion, and cell-ECM interaction influence collective properties of the binary cell population, such as self-assembly and migration. The predictions of the model are compared to experimental results on co-cutures of breast cancer cells and non-tumorigenic breast epithelial cells. This work was partially supported by a Cottrell College Science Award from the Research Corporation for Science Advancement.

  1. Biogas production from organic wastes in suspended cell cultures and in biofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simenonov, I.; Chorukova, E.; Mamatarkova, V.; Nikolov, L.

    2010-01-01

    The results of a comparative study of two biogas production bioprocess systems are presented. The systems submitted to comparison are based on the suspended cells cultures and the biofilm formed on solid inert support. A comprehensive research concept is formulated and discussed. It includes the main considerations regarding the choice of substrate, bioagent as mixed microbial society, type of bioreactors, regimes of functioning, analytical determinations and method of comparison. The main requirements for efficient experimental activity in comparative investigations are formulated. Their satisfaction can grant correctness of the experimental design and data acquisition. On this basis the key parameter of comparison of the two systems is defined as the specific productivity of the bioprocess systems. Under these conditions series of preliminary experiments are carried out for testing the readiness of experimental set ups for long time stable functioning and monitoring devices capabilities to maintain the bioprocess parameters at the determined intervals. These tests grant continuous incessant experimentation with the investigated bioprocess systems. The results obtained show that biofilm bioprocess systems possess up to two and half time higher specific productivity in comparison with the bioprocess systems with the suspended cells. Some visions about the future developments of comparative research on the influence of additional parameters like the mixer rotation steed, organic loads, and higher values of dilution rates are outlined.

  2. Intimal permeability evaluated in a short-term organ culture of diabetic guinea pig aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, M.J.; Verlangieri, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    A novel short-term organ culture system was used to evaluate intimal permeability changes by measuring aortic [ 14 C]methylated albumin accumulation. Aortic plugs were removed from the upper thoracic aorta of male guinea pigs and maintained in serum-free media. The accumulation of [ 14 C]albumin in the intimal-medial layer was determined after a 5 h incubation. In preliminary studies, albumin recovered from intimal-injured aortic plugs was significantly greater than those from non-injured plugs. Aortic plugs from streptozotocin-treated guinea pigs, diabetic for 3 weeks, also accumulated significantly more [ 14 C]albumin than plugs from nondiabetic controls. Histological changes were not observed in the aorta of either the diabetic or control group. A strong significant inverse correlation was found between plasma ascorbic acid levels and [ 14 C]-activity recovered from aortic plugs. This study demonstrates a simple and rapid method for assessing aortic permeability changes under a well-defined in vitro system, and suggests that vascular permeability changes in the streptozotocin-diabetic guinea pig may be associated with an ascorbic acid deficit

  3. Effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate on tracheal ciliary beating frequency in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Eriko; Nakahari, Takashi; Yoshida, Hideyo; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko; Harada, Kouji H.; Inoue, Kayoko; Koizumi, Akio

    2007-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is one of the emerging persistent organic pollutants, ubiquitously found in the global environment, even in human serum. PFOS has been reported to perturb Ca 2+ homeostasis in Paramecium, cardiomyocytes and neurons. Since ciliary beat frequency (CBF) in the trachea is known to be increased by cytoplasmic Ca 2+ elevation, the effects of PFOS on CBF were evaluated in a slice preparation using video-enhanced contrast microscopy. PFOS increased CBF by 11% (P 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) in mouse tracheal ciliary cells. In Ca 2+ -free solution, PFOS at 100 μM failed to increase CBF (0.96-fold of vehicle control). The addition of Gd 3+ (1 μM), a store-operated Ca 2+ channel blocker, did not prevent the increase in CBF (1.09-fold (P + concentration (50 mM), which causes depolarization of the plasma membrane potential and a transient increase in [Ca 2+ ] i , increased CBF by 20% (P 2+ channels (VDCCs) in stimulation of CBF. Nifedipine (30 μM), a selective VDCC blocker, antagonized the effects of high K + (0.92-fold of high K + solution) and PFOS (0.96-fold of vehicle control) on CBF. In cells from peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα)-null mice, PFOS still increased CBF (1.12-fold (P 2+ through VDCC

  4. Recurrent airway obstructions in a patient with benign tracheal stenosis and a silicone airway stent: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Sriram, KB; Robinson, PC

    2008-01-01

    Airway stents (silicone and metal stents) are used to treat patients with benign tracheal stenosis, who are symptomatic and in whom tracheal surgical reconstruction has failed or is not appropriate. However airway stents are often associated with complications such as migration, granuloma formation and mucous hypersecretion, which cause significant morbidity, especially in patients with benign tracheal stenosis and relatively normal life expectancy. We report a patient who had frequent critic...

  5. Traumatic tracheal diverticulum corrected with resection and anastomosis during one-lung ventilation and total intravenous anesthesia in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, Rebecca S; Lepiz, Mauricio; Wall, Corey; Thieman-Mankin, Kelley; Dobbin, Jennifer

    2016-11-01

    This report describes the clinical findings and diagnostic images of a traumatic intrathoracic tracheal avulsion with a tracheal diverticulum in a cat. Furthermore, a complete description of the tracheal resection and anastomosis using one-lung ventilation (OLV) with total and partial intravenous anesthesia is made. A 3-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat weighing 6.8 kg was presented to the University Teaching Hospital for evaluation of increased respiratory noise 3 months following unknown trauma. Approximately 12 weeks prior to presentation, the cat had been seen by the primary care veterinarian for respiratory distress. At that time, the cat had undergone a tracheal ballooning procedure for a distal tracheal stricture diagnosed by tracheoscopy. The tracheal ballooning had provided only temporary relief. At presentation to our institution, the cat had increased respiratory effort with harsh upper airway noise auscultated during thoracic examination. The remainder of the physical examination was normal. Diagnostics included a tracheoscopy and a thoracic computed tomographic examination. The cat was diagnosed with tracheal avulsion, pseudotrachea with a tracheal diverticulum, and stenosis of the avulsed tracheal ends. Surgical correction of the tracheal stricture via a thoracotomy was performed using OLV with total and partial intravenous anesthesia. The cat recovered uneventfully and at last follow-up was active and doing well. This case report describes OLV using standard anesthesia equipment that is available at most private practices. Furthermore, this case describes the computed tomographic images of the intrathoracic tracheal avulsion and offers a positive outcome for tracheal resection and anastomosis. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.

  6. Colonic involvement in celiac disease and possible implications of the sigmoid mucosa organ culture in its diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picarelli, Antonio; Di Tola, Marco; Borghini, Raffaele; Isonne, Claudia; Saponara, Annarita; Marino, Mariacatia; Casale, Rossella; Tiberti, Antonio; Pica, Roberta; Donato, Giuseppe; Frieri, Giuseppe; Corazziari, Enrico

    2013-10-01

    Celiac disease (CD), a systemic autoimmune disorder that typically involves duodenal mucosa, can also affect other intestinal areas. Duodenal and oral mucosa organ culture has already been demonstrated as a reliable procedure to identify CD. The present study investigated gluten-dependent immunological activation of colonic mucosa in CD patients. We took advantage of the numerous colonoscopies performed for various clinical conditions or only for defensive medicine. Forty-four patients with gastrointestinal symptoms or in need of colorectal cancer screening were divided into patients with serum anti-endomysium (EMA) and anti-tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG) antibody positive results (Group A), patients with serum antibody negative results (Group B), and patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (Group C). The autoantibodies EMA and anti-tTG were evaluated in supernatants of cultured sigmoid and duodenal biopsies from patients on a gluten-containing diet. In Group A, EMA and anti-tTG resulted positive in all duodenal culture supernatants. In sigmoid culture supernatants, EMA and anti-tTG were detected in 12/16 (75 %) and 13/16 (81.3 %) patients, respectively. In Group B, none of the 17 patients showed EMA and anti-tTG positive results in both duodenal and sigmoid cultures. In Group C, all 11 patients presented EMA negative results in sigmoid cultures. Only in one patient, anti-tTG were detectable in the sigmoid culture supernatant, as expected in cases of IBD. Data confirm that the gluten-dependent immunological activation affects more intestinal tracts with different degrees of involvement, suggesting that the organ culture of colonic biopsies could represent a new tool to opportunistically detect CD.

  7. Tracheal intubation in the ICU: Life saving or life threatening?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jigeeshu V Divatia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tracheal intubation (TI is a routine procedure in the intensive care unit (ICU, and is often life saving. However, life-threatening complications occur in a significant proportion of procedures, making TI perhaps one the most common but underappreciated airway emergencies in the ICU. In contrast to the controlled conditions in the operating room (OR, the unstable physiologic state of critically ill patients along with underevaluation of the airways and suboptimal response to pre-oxygenation are the major factors for the high incidence of life-threatening complications like severe hypoxaemia and cardiovascular collapse in the ICU. Studies have shown that strategies planned for TI in the OR can be adapted and extrapolated for use in the ICU. Non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation for pre-oxygenation provides adequate oxygen stores during TI for patients with precarious respiratory pathology. The intubation procedure should include not only airway management but also haemodynamic, gas exchange and neurologic care, which are often crucial in critically ill patients. Hence, there is a necessity for the implementation of an Intubation Bundle during routine airway management in the ICU. Adherence to a plan for difficult airway management incorporating the use of intubation aids and airway rescue devices and strategies is useful.

  8. Evaluation of the potential of rhTGF- β3 encapsulated P(LLA-CL)/collagen nanofibers for tracheal cartilage regeneration using mesenchymal stems cells derived from Wharton's jelly of human umbilical cord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jing; Sun, Binbin [State Key Laboratory of Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Tian, Lingling [Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, E3-05-14, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); He, Xiaomin [Department of Pediatric Cardiothoracic Surgery, Shanghai Children' s Medical Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200127 (China); Gao, Qiang; Wu, Tong [State Key Laboratory of Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Ramakrishna, Seeram [Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, E3-05-14, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Guangdong-Hongkong-Macau Institute of CNS Regeneration (GHMICR), Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zheng, Jinghao, E-mail: zhengjh210@163.com [Department of Pediatric Cardiothoracic Surgery, Shanghai Children' s Medical Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200127 (China); Mo, Xiumei, E-mail: xmm@dhu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Shandong International Biotechnology Park Development Co., Ltd. (China)

    2017-01-01

    Tracheal injuries are one of major challenging issues in clinical medicine because of the poor intrinsic ability of tracheal cartilage for repair. Tissue engineering provides an alternative method for the treatment of tracheal defects by generating replacement tracheal structures. In this study, core-shell nanofibrous scaffold was fabricated to encapsulate bovine serum albumin & rhTGF-β3 (recombinant human transforming growth factor-β3) into the core of the nanofibers for tracheal cartilage regeneration. Characterization of the core-shell nanofibrous scaffold was carried out by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), and tensile mechanical test. The rhTGF-β3 released from the scaffolds in a sustained and stable manner for about 2 months. The bioactivity of released rhTGF-β3 was evaluated by its effect on the synthesis of type II collagen (COL2) and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) by chondrocytes. The results suggested that its bioactivity was retained during release process. The proliferation and morphology analyses of mesenchymal stems cells derived from Wharton's jelly of human umbilical cord (WMSCs) indicated the good biocompatibility of the fabricated nanofibrous scaffold. Meanwhile, the chondrogenic differentiation of WMSCs cultured on core-shell nanofibrous scaffold was evaluated by real-time qPCR and histological staining. The results suggested that the core-shell nanofibrous scaffold with rhTGF-β3 could promote the chondrogenic differentiation ability of WMSCs. Therefore, WMSCs could be a promising seed cells in the construction of tissue-engineered tracheal cartilage. Overall, the core-shell nanofibrous scaffold could be an effective delivery system for rhTGF-β3 and served as a promising tissue engineered scaffold for tracheal cartilage regeneration. - Highlights: • rhTGF-β3 could be encapsulated into core-shell nanofibers via electrospinning. • rhTGF-β3 could release

  9. Large-segment tracheal resection and interannular anastomosis with a tension-release technique in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallman, M J; Bojrab, M J

    1982-02-01

    Tracheal resection and anastomosis were done on 7 dogs, and a modified procedure to provide optimum first-intention healing, minimum connective tissue proliferation, and optimum epithelialization was used. To test the integrity of the technique at high incision-line tensile forces, 15 to 17 tracheal rings were excised. Excessive tracheal manipulation resulted in an increased amount of lamina propria and submucosa collagenous tissue, increased size and number of blood vessels, and increased leukocytic invasion. Criteria for a successful anastomosis were minimum postoperative coughing, good mucosal apposition and epithelialization, and tracheal lumen diameters that were at least 80% of the preoperative measurement.

  10. Altruism, gift giving and reciprocity in organ donation: a review of cultural perspectives and challenges of the concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, C; Randhawa, G

    2014-10-01

    Living and deceased organ donation are couched in altruism and gift discourse and this article reviews explores cultural views towards these concepts. Altruism and egoism theories and gift and reciprocity theories are outlined from a social exchange theory perspective to highlight the key differences between altruism and the gift and the wider implications of reciprocation. The notion of altruism as a selfless act without expectation or want for repayment juxtaposed with the Maussian gift where there are the obligations to give, receive and reciprocate. Lay perspectives of altruism and the gift in organ donation are outlined and illustrate that there are differences in motivations to donate in different programmes of living donation and for families who decide to donate their relative's organs. These motivations reflect cultural views of altruism and the gift and perceptions of the body and death. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Tracheal reconstruction by re-inforced Gore-Tex in esophageal submuscular tunneling: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodjati Hossein

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tracheal reconstructions are aimed at rearranging or replacing parts of the tracheal tissue by different techniques. Here we introduce a new technique for tracheal reconstruction. Methods: In 10 adult dogs, after intubation with an endotracheal tube, a segment of trachea including seven tracheal rings was resected circumferentially. A submuscular tunnel was induced between mucosal and muscular layers of the adjacent esophagus lying right next to the trachea. The esophageal submuscular tunnel starts and ends exactly at the level of distal and proximal ends of tracheal resection, respectively. Inforced Gore-Tex passed through the esophageal submuscular tunnel the distal segment of trachea and end-to-end anastomosis were made between distal ends of Gore-Tex and trachea, then endotracheal tube removed and the same procedure was made for proximal ends of Gore-Tex and trachea. Afterward, the proximal and distal ends of the esophageal tunnel were approximated to proximal and distal tracheal parts over the anastomosis. Results: All dogs, except one due to anesthetic problem, survived and tolerated the operation; the first two dogs experienced postoperative fever, aspiration pneumonia, and died due to tracheoesophageal fistula. All survived animals were eating and barking well. We started to scarify dogs at least 6 and 12 weeks after operation for microscopy and pathologic examination. The Gore-Texes were patent and supported externally with fibrous connective tissue in esophageal tunneling, with in growth of respiratory epithelium on inner surfaces. Conclusion: Air tightness, good re-epithelialization, and relatively no limitation of esophageal length and no risk of luminal collapse are advantages of tracheal reconstruction by submuscular esophageal tunneling. This new method is worthy of further investigation, as it is technically feasible and easy to implement.

  12. Experimental study of different nickel-titanium memory tracheal stents in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang Xu; He Nengshu; Fan Hailun

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Since membrane -covered metal tracheal stent was applied successfully to treat the airway stenosis, it has been widely used and obtained satisfactory result during the past years. The purpose of our study was provide theoretical rational for treatment with membrane-covered tracheal stent by using animal experiment. Methods: The nickel- titanium memory stents of 22 mm in diameter and 6 cm in length were deployed in 18 dogs. The dogs were grouped into full- length membrane-covered group (n=6), partial-length membrane-covered group (membrane was covered for 4 cm in the medial part of the stent, n=6), and naked stent group (n=6). After the stent placement dysphagia or dysphonia was monitored daily. Twenty-four weeks later, the dogs were executed. Speiments were taken from the cephalic, medial, and caudal trachea under the stent. HE stain and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were evaluated. Results: After the stent placement, no dyspnea, dysphagia or dysphonia but cough was present in each dog. There was no significant difference in symptom between the three groups. Inflammation reaction, metaplasia from low columnar epithelium to spuamous epithelium, and mild granulation tissue hyperplasia in the underlying mucosa were present in each group. However, fibrosis and tracheal straitness were present only in the non-membrane-covered area, but not in the membrane-covered area. More PCNA expression was observed in the non-membrane -covered area than in the membrane-covered area. Conclusion: Both membrane-covered and non-membrane-covered stents can cause similar symptoms. However, the membrane -covered tracheal stent has good biological compatibility and would not induce tracheal straitness. The non-membrane -covered tracheal stent could induce a severe pathologic reaction and tracheal straitness. (authors)

  13. Ex vivo tracheomalacia model with 3D-printed external tracheal splint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Rachel; Goldstein, Todd; Aronowitz, Danielle; Grande, Daniel A; Zeltsman, David; Smith, Lee P

    2017-04-01

    To design and evaluate an ex vivo model of tracheomalacia with and without a three-dimensional (3D)-printed external tracheal splint. Prospective, ex vivo animal trial. Three groups of ex vivo porcine tracheas were used: 1) control (unmanipulated trachea), 2) tracheomalacia (tracheal rings partially incised and crushed), and 3) splinted tracheomalacia (external custom tracheal splint fitted onto group 2 trachea). Each end of an ex vivo trachea was sealed with a custom-designed and 3D-printed cap; a transducer was placed through one end to measure the pressure inside the trachea. Although the negative pressure was applied to the tracheal lumen, the tracheal wall collapse was measured externally and internally using a bronchoscope. Each group had at least three recorded trials. Tracheal diameter was evaluated using ImageJ software (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD) and was averaged between two raters. Average tracheal occlusion percentage was compared using Student t test. The average occlusion was 31% for group 1, 87.4% for group 2, and 20% for group 3. Significant differences were found between the control and tracheomalacia groups (P tracheomalacia and splinted tracheomalacia groups (P tracheomalacia groups (P = 0.13). Applied pressure was plotted against occlusion and regression line slope differed between the tracheomalacia (0.91) and control (0.12) or splinted tracheomalacia (0.39) groups. We demonstrate the potential for an ex vivo tracheomalacia model to reproduce airway collapse and show that this collapse can be treated successfully with a 3D-printed external splint. These results are promising and justify further studies. N/A. Laryngoscope, 127:950-955, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Students′ Perception of Organization Culture at a Faculty of Science and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ujhelyi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The current study uses an adapted version of Cameron and Quinn’s OCAI questionnaire to test the organisational culture of the Faculty of Science and Technology at the University of Debrecen, Hungary, as it is perceived by its students, and also to discover what type of organisational culture the same students think would be ideal for them. An additional objective of this paper is to identify possible gaps between the perceived and the ideal cultures expressed by the students. Our sample includes 128 questionnaires completed by bachelor students from 6 different majors at the faculty. According to our results, the respondents perceive to a significant degree that the faculty’s organisational culture is at an average level of clan, market and hierarchy cultures, while it also exhibits a relatively low level of the adhocracy culture. Their ideal faculty culture would be one with average adhocracy, average hierarchy, high clan and low market features. Significant gaps are identified between the perceived and ideal cultures in all the four types: students would prefer an increase in clan and adhocracy cultures, and a decrease in the other two cultures.

  15. Organizing for Improvement in an Urban School District: Shifting From a Culture of Compliance to a Culture of Collective Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Kovacic, Kelly Anne

    2015-01-01

    There is high demand for understanding the ways in which a central office can best support school improvement and student growth. This Capstone examines how a cross-functional senior leadership team collaborated to design a district-wide school improvement planning process with the goal of improving the quality of teaching and learning for all students. In particular, the analysis focuses on the functions of teaming and strategic improvement planning as drivers to help an organization achieve...

  16. Labelling indices after 3H-thymidine incorporation during organ culture of duodenal mucosa in coeliac disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluge, G.; Aksnes, L.

    1980-01-01

    Incorporation of 3 H-thymidine during organ culture of duodenal biopsy specimens from 34 coeliac and 10 non-coeliac patients was studied by autoradiography. High labelling indices were found in flat, coeliac mucosas. Gluten fractions, which provoked histological deterioration during culture, induced labelling of a greater proportion of crypt cells and higher migration rate than parallelly cultured specimens on gluten-free medium. No influence on clypt cell kinetics could be observed after culture with gluten fractions incapable of producing histological damage or with alpha-lactalbumin. In coeliac remission mucosas, labelling indices were at the same level as in non-coeliac biopsis, and no significant effects of gluten were observed. Autoradiography seems to be a fairly sensitive and reliable determinant of gluten toxicity by organ culture in coeliac desease and should supplement the histological appraisal of the biopsies. The increment of labelling indices provoked by gluten exposure seemed not merely to be a concequence of increased desquamation of cells from the biopsy surface but could imply a direct influence of gluten on crypt cell kinetics in coeliac disease. (Auth.)

  17. Monitoring UV-induced signalling pathways in an ex vivo skin organ culture model using phospho-antibody array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenain, Christelle; Gamboa, Bastien; Perrin, Agnes; Séraïdaris, Alexia; Bertino, Béatrice; Rival, Yves; Bernardi, Mathieu; Piwnica, David; Méhul, Bruno

    2018-05-01

    We investigated UV-induced signalling in an ex vivo skin organ culture model using phospho-antibody array. Phosphorylation modulations were analysed in time-course experiments following exposure to solar-simulated UV and validated by Western blot analyses. We found that UV induced P-p38 and its substrates, P-ERK1/2 and P-AKT, which were previously shown to be upregulated by UV in cultured keratinocytes and in vivo human skin. This indicates that phospho-antibody array applied to ex vivo skin organ culture is a relevant experimental system to investigate signalling events following perturbations. As the identified proteins are components of pathways implicated in skin tumorigenesis, UV-exposed skin organ culture model could be used to investigate the effect on these pathways of NMSC cancer drug candidates. In addition, we found that phospho-HCK is induced upon UV exposure, producing a new candidate for future studies investigating its role in the skin response to UV and UV-induced carcinogenesis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Clinical impact of culture-positive preservation fluid on solid organ transplantation: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriol, Isabel; Sabé, N; Tebé, C; Veroux, M; Boin, I F S F; Carratalà, J

    2018-04-01

    Contamination of the preservation fluid (PF) used for donated organs is a potential source of post-transplant infection. However, the information on this issue is scarce. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the incidence of culture-positive PF and its impact on solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Seventeen studies were identified and included. The overall incidence of culture-positive PF was 37% (95% CI: 27% to 49%), and the incidence of PF-related infections among SOT recipients with PF cultures that grew pathogenic microorganisms was 10% (95% CI: 7% to 15%). There were differences in the rates of infections due to pathogenic microorganisms between SOT recipients who received pre-emptive treatment and those who did not, but without statistical significance. The mortality rate among SOT recipients with PF-related infection was 35% (95% CI: 21% to 53%). In conclusion, although contamination of the PF of donated organs is frequent, the incidence of PF-related infection is relatively low. A closely clinical and microbiologic monitoring of the SOT recipient in case of culture-positive PF, regardless of the type of microorganism isolated might be do in order to establish a prompt diagnosis of PF-related infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Management of complex benign post-tracheostomy tracheal stenosis with bronchoscopic insertion of silicon tracheal stents, in patients with failed or contraindicated surgical reconstruction of trachea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Darwiche, Kaid; Visouli, Aikaterini N; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Christofis, Christos; Stylianaki, Aikaterini; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Mpakas, Andreas; Courcoutsakis, Nicolaos; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2012-11-01

    Tracheal stenosis is a potentially life-threatening condition. Tracheostomy and endotracheal intubation remain the commonest causes of benign stenosis, despite improvements in design and management of tubes. Post-tracheostomy stenosis is more frequently encountered due to earlier performance of tracheostomy in the intensive care units, while the incidence of post-intubation stenosis has decreased with application of high-volume, low-pressure cuffs. In symptomatic benign tracheal stenosis the gold standard is surgical reconstruction (often after interventional bronchoscopy). Stenting is reserved for symptomatic tracheal narrowing deemed inoperable, due to local or general reasons: long strictures, inflammation, poor respiratory, cardiac or neurological status. When stenting is decided, silicone stent insertion is considered the treatment of choice in the presence of inflammation and/or when removal is desirable. We inserted tracheal silicone stents (Dumon) under general anaesthesia through rigid bronchoscopy in two patients with benign post-tracheostomy stenosis: a 39-year old woman with failed initial operation, and continuous relapses with proliferation after multiple bronchscopic interventions, and a 20-year old man in a poor neurological status, with a long tracheal stricture involving the subglottic larynx (lower posterior part), and inflamed tracheostomy site tissues (positive for methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus). The airway was immediately re-establish, without complications. At 15- and 10-month follow-up (respectively) there was no stent migration, luminal patency was maintained without: adjacent structure erosion, secretion adherence inside the stents, granulation at the ends. Tracheostomy tissue inflammation was resolved (2(nd) patient), new infection was not noted. The patients maintain good respiratory function and will be evaluated for scheduled stent removal. Silicone stents are removable, resistant to microbial colonization and are

  20. Creating a Culture of Sustainability using Mission Statements of Cooperative Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Nooraslinda Abdul Aris; Rohana Othman; Wan Mohd Yusof Wan Chik; Safawi Abdul Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Mission statements are recognized as effective strategic management tools that influence firms’ performance. The evolution of a culture of sustainability begins with a mission statement that strikes a balance between financial performance and social commitments. The clear articulation of sustainability as part of the firm’s mission, values, goals, and strategy are key factors in fostering sustainability focused culture. This study illustrates the fundamental tenets of the culture of organizat...

  1. Organ culture storage of pre-prepared corneal donor material for Descemet's membrane endothelial keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhogal, Maninder; Matter, Karl; Balda, Maria S; Allan, Bruce D

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of media composition and storage method on pre-prepared Descemet's membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) grafts. 50 corneas were used. Endothelial wound healing and proliferation in different media were assessed using a standard injury model. DMEK grafts were stored using three methods: peeling with free scroll storage; partial peeling with storage on the stroma and fluid bubble separation with storage on the stroma. Endothelial cell (EC) phenotype and the extent of endothelial overgrowth were examined. Global cell viability was assessed for storage methods that maintained a normal cell phenotype. 1 mm wounds healed within 4 days. Enhanced media did not increase EC proliferation but may have increased EC migration into the wounded area. Grafts that had been trephined showed evidence of EC overgrowth, whereas preservation of a physical barrier in the bubble group prevented this. In grafts stored in enhanced media or reapposed to the stroma after trephination, endothelial migration occurred sooner and cells underwent endothelial-mesenchymal transformation. Ongoing cell loss, with new patterns of cell death, was observed after returning grafts to storage. Grafts stored as free scrolls retained more viable ECs than grafts prepared with the fluid bubble method (74.2± 3% vs 60.3±6%, p=0.04 (n=8). Free scroll storage is superior to liquid bubble and partial peeling techniques. Free scrolls only showed overgrowth of ECs after 4 days in organ culture, indicating a viable time window for the clinical use of pre-prepared DMEK donor material using this method. Methods for tissue preparation and storage media developed for whole corneas should not be used in pre-prepared DMEK grafts without prior evaluation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Organizational culture

    OpenAIRE

    Schein, Edgar H.

    1988-01-01

    Cultural orientations of an organization can be its greatest strength, providing the basis for problem solving, cooperation, and communication. Culture, however, can also inhibit needed changes. Cultural changes typically happen slowly – but without cultural change, many other organizational changes are doomed to fail. The dominant culture of an organization is a major contributor to its success. But, of course, no organizational culture is purely one type or another. And the existence of sec...

  3. PRADO MUSEUM - SUCCESSFUL MODEL FOR RAISING COMPETITIVENESS IN THE ROMANIAN CULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS IN THE CONTEXT OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan-Andrei CORBOȘ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The interest in the conceptual delimitation of the competitiveness of cultural organizations, as well as in identifying the sources of its growth, has increased in recent years due to the need to diversify the funding sources of this type of organization, urban development and the willingness to adapt to the requirements of customers who are more numerous and have diverse expectations. Practice shows that cultural organizations that have adopted a competitive economy vision and have applied specific management tools for increasing the organizational competitiveness, have achieved a good performance, becoming, this way, an example of managerial success story in the field. The experience of Prado Museum, one of the emblems of Madrid, falls in this direction. The substantial increase in the number of tourists, the decrease in state funding combined with the increase of proprietary financing resources, the enhancement of the national and international reputation, are just some of the positive results that prove the quality of used management. This paper presents and analysis these effects and the causes that have generated them, thus providing some possible suggestions for action for Romanian cultural organizations in order to increase their competitiveness.

  4. Vicks VapoRub induces mucin secretion, decreases ciliary beat frequency, and increases tracheal mucus transport in the ferret trachea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanses, Juan Carlos; Arima, Shinobu; Rubin, Bruce K

    2009-01-01

    Vicks VapoRub (VVR) [Proctor and Gamble; Cincinnati, OH] is often used to relieve symptoms of chest congestion. We cared for a toddler in whom severe respiratory distress developed after VVR was applied directly under her nose. We hypothesized that VVR induced inflammation and adversely affected mucociliary function, and tested this hypothesis in an animal model of airway inflammation. [1] Trachea specimens excised from 15 healthy ferrets were incubated in culture plates lined with 200 mg of VVR, and the mucin secretion was compared to those from controls without VVR. Tracheal mucociliary transport velocity (MCTV) was measured by timing the movement of 4 microL of mucus across the trachea. Ciliary beat frequency (CBF) was measured using video microscopy. [2] Anesthetized and intubated ferrets inhaled a placebo or VVR that was placed at the proximal end of the endotracheal tube. We evaluated both healthy ferrets and animals in which we first induced tracheal inflammation with bacterial endotoxin (a lipopolysaccharide [LPS]). Mucin secretion was measured using an enzyme-linked lectin assay, and lung water was measured by wet/dry weight ratios. [1] Mucin secretion was increased by 63% over the controls in the VVR in vitro group (p < 0.01). CBF was decreased by 35% (p < 0.05) in the VVR group. [2] Neither LPS nor VVR increased lung water, but LPS decreased MCTV in both normal airways (31%) and VVR-exposed airways (30%; p = 0.03), and VVR increased MCTV by 34% in LPS-inflamed airways (p = 0.002). VVR stimulates mucin secretion and MCTV in the LPS-inflamed ferret airway. This set of findings is similar to the acute inflammatory stimulation observed with exposure to irritants, and may lead to mucus obstruction of small airways and increased nasal resistance.

  5. Adult Educators' Perceptions of Their Organization Promoting Learning Practices and Culture: A Caribbean Law Enforcement Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter-Johnson, Yvonne; Closson, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    Many organizations, whether private or public, invest extensively in training and development. Such investment in training and development does not guarantee that the organization is perceived as a learning organization. This study examined law enforcement adult educators' (training facilitators') perceptions of their organization promoting…

  6. Fracture of an endoluminal nitinol stent used in the treatment of tracheal collapse in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittleman, Elise; Weisse, Chick; Mehler, Stephen J; Lee, Justine A

    2004-10-15

    A 5-year-old castrated male Pomeranian was evaluated because of severe dyspnea and coughing, and a diagnosis of complete, static collapse of the trachea at the thoracic inlet was made. After failure to improve with medical management alone, an endoluminal tracheal stent was placed, which resulted in resolution of signs. Ten weeks after stent placement, the dog underwent tracheal resection and anastomosis because the stent had fractured at the level of the thoracic inlet. One year after surgery, the dog was doing well and required treatment with hydrocodone infrequently. Compared with other surgical treatment options, placement of an endoluminal tracheal stent is a relatively noninvasive intervention that can provide effective relief from the clinical signs associated with tracheal collapse in dogs. Implantation of endoluminal tracheal stents may be associated with complications; therefore, the procedure may best be regarded as a salvage procedure for dogs with end-stage disease that are refractory to appropriate medical management, have extensive collapse of the intrathoracic portion of the trachea, or are poor candidates for surgery.

  7. Evaluation of the Airtraq and Macintosh laryngoscopes in patients at increased risk for difficult tracheal intubation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maharaj, C H

    2008-02-01

    The Airtraq, a novel single use indirect laryngoscope, has demonstrated promise in the normal and simulated difficult airway. We compared the ease of intubation using the Airtraq with the Macintosh laryngoscope, in patients at increased risk for difficult tracheal intubation, in a randomised, controlled clinical trial. Forty consenting patients presenting for surgery requiring tracheal intubation, who were deemed to possess at least three characteristics indicating an increased risk for difficulty in tracheal intubation, were randomly assigned to undergo tracheal intubation using a Macintosh (n = 20) or Airtraq (n = 20) laryngoscope. All patients were intubated by one of three anaesthetists experienced in the use of both laryngoscopes. Four patients were not successfully intubated with the Macintosh laryngoscope, but were intubated successfully with the Airtraq. The Airtraq reduced the duration of intubation attempts (mean (SD); 13.4 (6.3) vs 47.7 (8.5) s), the need for additional manoeuvres, and the intubation difficulty score (0.4 (0.8) vs 7.7 (3.0)). Tracheal intubation with the Airtraq also reduced the degree of haemodynamic stimulation and minor trauma compared to the Macintosh laryngoscope.

  8. Development of striatal patch/matrix organization in organotypic co-cultures of perinatal striatum, cortex and substantia nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder-Keller, A; Costantini, L C; Graber, D J

    2001-01-01

    Organotypic cultures of fetal or early postnatal striatum were used to assess striatal patch formation and maintenance in the presence or absence of dopaminergic and glutamatergic influences. Vibratome-cut slices of the striatum prepared from embryonic day 19 to postnatal day 4 rat pups were maintained in static culture on clear membrane inserts in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/F12 (1:1) with 20% horse serum. Some were co-cultured with embryonic day 12-16 ventral mesencephalon and/or embryonic day 19 to postnatal day 4 cortex, which produced a dense dopaminergic innervation and a modest cortical innervation. Donors of striatal and cortical tissue were previously injected with bromo-deoxyuridine (BrdU) on embryonic days 13 and 14 in order to label striatal neurons destined to populate the patch compartment of the striatum. Patches of BrdU-immunoreactive cells were maintained in organotypic cultures of late prenatal (embryonic days 20-22) or early postnatal striatum in the absence of nigral dopaminergic or cortical glutamatergic influences. In slices taken from embryonic day 19 fetuses prior to the time of in vivo patch formation, patches were observed to form after 10 days in vitro, in 39% of nigral-striatal co-cultures compared to 6% of striatal slices cultured alone or in the presence of cortex only. Patches of dopaminergic fibers, revealed by tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity, were observed in the majority of nigral-striatal co-cultures. Immunostaining for the AMPA-type glutamate receptor GluR1 revealed a dense patch distribution in nearly all cultures, which developed in embryonic day 19 cultures after at least six days in vitro. These findings indicate that striatal patch/matrix organization is maintained in organotypic culture, and can be induced to form in vitro in striatal slices removed from fetuses prior to the time of in vivo patch formation. Furthermore, dopaminergic innervation from co-cultured pieces of ventral mesencephalon enhances patch

  9. Implementing CRM System in a Global Organization National vs. Organizational Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frygell, Linda; Hedman, Jonas; Carlsson, Sven

    2017-01-01

    global subsidiaries, and has planned the implementation well, the implementation was not a complete success. The study has identified that the cultural factor are important, but not stressed enough in the current CRM literature. Understanding the difference between the organizational culture in which...

  10. Contribution to Cultural Organization, Working Motivation and Job Satisfaction on the Performance of Primary School Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtedjo; Suharningsih

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study are: (1) describes the performance of the teacher, organizational culture, work motivation and job satisfaction; (2) determine whether there is a significant direct relationship between organizational culture, work motivation and job satisfaction on the performance of primary school teachers. Through the study of the…

  11. ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND MANAGEMENT CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Tudor Hobeanu; Loredana Vacarescu Hobeanu

    2010-01-01

    Communication reveals the importance of organizational culture and management culture supported by the remarkable results in economic and social level of organization. Their functions are presented and specific ways of expression levels of organizational culture and ways of adapting to the requirements of the organization's management culture.

  12. Measurement by radioimmunoassay of casein content in rabbit mammary gland during pregnancy and after prolactin stimulation in organ culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahn, G.; Dusanter-Fourt, I.; Kelly, P.A.; Houdebine, L.M.; Djiane, J.

    1987-01-01

    A specific homologous radioimmunoassay was developed to measure rabbit β-casein in rabbit mammary gland with a sensitivity of 0.5 ng/ml protein. It was used to measure casein concentration during pregnancy and in organ culture of mammary gland explants. Casein was detectable in virgin mammary glands, showed a small increase during the first half of pregnancy, increased more than 20-fold between Days 21 and 27, and diminished somewhat on the first days of lactation. After 24 hr of culture, mammary gland explants had no detectable casein, but the addition of increasing concentrations of prolactin to a culture medium which contained insulin (5 μg/ml) and cortisol (0.5 μg/ml) induced a regular increase in the casein content of the tissue. Casein started to increase when 10 ng/ml of prolactin was present and maximal values were achieved for 100 ng/ml of the hormone

  13. Hydrocortisone and Vitamin D3 stimulation of 32Psub(i)-phosphate accumulation by organ-cultured chick embryo duodenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corradino, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Either vitamin D 3 (or 1 α,25-(OH) 2 -D 3 ) or hydrocortisone (HC) stimulated phosphate accumulation by organ-cultured embryonic chick duodenum. In combination, these two steroids stimulated phosphate uptake synergistically. Phosphate accumulation appeared to be independent of other vitamin D 3 -stimulated processes: CaBP concentration, cAMP concentration, or alkaline phosphataseactivity. L-phenylalanine, a reported alkaline phosphate inhibitor, when added to the culture medium progressively inhibited either D 3 - or HC-stimulated phosphate uptake subsequent to culture, but did not inhibit the synergistic action under these conditions L-phenylalanine had no consistent effect on alkaline phosphotase activity but unexpectedly, greatly inhibited vitamin D 3 - stimulated CaBP concentration, but only in the absence of HC. Some limited suggestion of an intestinal phosphoprotein sensitve to either vitamin D 3 or HC was observed. (orig.) [de

  14. Assessing organizational culture in complex sociotechnical systems. Methodological evidence from studies in nuclear power plant maintenance organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, T.

    2007-03-01

    Failures in industrial organizations dealing with hazardous technologies can have widespread consequences for the safety of the workers and the general population. Psychology can have a major role in contributing to the safe and reliable operation of these technologies. Most current models of safety management in complex sociotechnical systems such as nuclear power plant maintenance are either non-contextual or based on an overly-rational image of an organization. Thus, they fail to grasp either the actual requirements of the work or the socially-constructed nature of the work in question. The general aim of the present study is to develop and test a methodology for contextual assessment of organizational culture in complex sociotechnical systems. This is done by demonstrating the findings that the application of the emerging methodology produces in the domain of maintenance of a nuclear power plant (NPP). The concepts of organizational culture and organizational core task (OCT) are operationalized and tested in the case studies

  15. Role of non-governmental organizations in formation of non-proliferation culture in new independent countries (NIC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevchik, M.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose of the report is demonstrate the non-governmental organizations (NGO) role in formation of non-proliferation culture in former Soviet Union. Activity of Center of Non-proliferation Problems Investigation (CNPI) of Monterey Institute of International Investigations and its collaboration with existing in Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) non-governmental organizations is considered as example. Brief information about CNPI and reasons for it representatives opening of in Kazakhstan and in other CIS-countries, as well as cooperation of NGO in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia and Ukraine for creation on Central Asia zone free from nuclear weapon ia given. Some measures which could promote to formation of non-proliferation culture in region are suggested

  16. Assessing organizational culture in complex sociotechnical systems. Methodological evidence from studies in nuclear power plant maintenance organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, T.

    2007-03-15

    Failures in industrial organizations dealing with hazardous technologies can have widespread consequences for the safety of the workers and the general population. Psychology can have a major role in contributing to the safe and reliable operation of these technologies. Most current models of safety management in complex sociotechnical systems such as nuclear power plant maintenance are either non-contextual or based on an overly-rational image of an organization. Thus, they fail to grasp either the actual requirements of the work or the socially-constructed nature of the work in question. The general aim of the present study is to develop and test a methodology for contextual assessment of organizational culture in complex sociotechnical systems. This is done by demonstrating the findings that the application of the emerging methodology produces in the domain of maintenance of a nuclear power plant (NPP). The concepts of organizational culture and organizational core task (OCT) are operationalized and tested in the case studies

  17. Influence of the Culture Media and the Organic Matter in the Growth of Paxillus ammoniavirescens (Contu & Dessi)

    OpenAIRE

    Cagigal, Elena Fernández-Miranda; Sánchez, Abelardo Casares

    2017-01-01

    The genus Paxillus is characterized by the difficulty of species identification, which results in reproducibility problems, as well as the need for large quantities of fungal inoculum. In particular, studies of Paxillus ammoniavirescens have reported divergent results in the in vitro growth while little is known of its capacity to degrade organic matter. For all the above, and assuming that this variability could be due to an inappropriate culture media, the aim of this study was to analyse g...

  18. Tracheal stenosis after treatment with metallic stent: a situation worse than the initial problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreto, Jaime; Mejia, Bibiana; Nino, Federico; Garavito, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Stens are a tubular device for use in trachea, carina or main bronchus to provide a support and maintain the permeability of these structures. There are two groups: Metallic and Silicone stent. Either metallic and silicone stents has a special properties. Metallic stent are very attractive option due to relative easy in their placement. The accumulated experience in this therapy has allowed to recognize several complications to take into consideration mainly in patients with tracheal benign stenosis. FDA has recommended don't use metallic stents, covered and not covered in benign diseases. We report a case of a tracheal stenosis secondary to prolonged ortho tracheal intubation that required extensive interventions to control symptoms of central airway obstruction, between April and July of 2005.

  19. Management of a case of left tracheal sleeve pneumonectomy under cardiopulmonary bypass: Anesthesia perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Jyoti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lung tumors with carinal involvement are frequently managed with tracheal sleeve pneumonectomy and tracheobronchial anastomosis without use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB. Various modes of ventilation have been described during tracheal resection and anastomosis. Use of CPB during this period allows the procedure to be conducted in a more controlled way. We performed tracheal sleeve pneumonectomy for adenoid cystic carcinoma of left lung involving carina. The surgery was performed in two stages. In the first stage, left pneumonectomy was performed and in the second stage after 48 h, tracheobronchial resection and anastomosis was performed under CPB. Second stage was delayed to avoid excessive bleeding (due to heparinization from the extensive vascular raw area left after pneumonectomy. Meticulous peri-operative planning and optimal post-operative care helped in successful management of a complex case, which is associated with high morbidity and mortality.

  20. Tracheal epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma associated with sarcoid-like reaction: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Huawei; Tatsuno, Brent K.; Betancourt, Jaime; Oh, Scott S.

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinomas are rare tumors that primarily originate in the salivary glands but have also been found in the tracheobronchial tree. We report the first case of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma associated with sarcoidosis. A 61 year old Hispanic man presented with altered mental status and hypercalcemia. Imaging revealed diffuse intra-thoracic and intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy. A diagnostic bronchoscopy was performed where an incidental tracheal nodule was discovered and biopsied. Pathology was consistent with epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma. Lymph node biopsy demonstrated non-caseating granulomas consistent with sarcoidosis. Patient underwent tracheal resection of the primary tumor with primary tracheal reconstruction. Hypercalcemia subsequently normalized with clinical improvement. Repeat CT imaging demonstrated complete resolution of lymphadenopathy. Our findings are suggestive of a possible paraneoplastic sarcoid-like reaction to the epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma with associated lymphadenopathy and symptomatic hypercalcemia. PMID:26029574

  1. Thyroidectomy improves tracheal anatomy and airflow in patients with nodular goiter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Roed; Lauridsen, Jeppe Killerich; Døssing, Helle

    . Effect sizes (ES) were calculated as mean change divided by standard deviation at baseline. ES of 0.2-0.5 were defined as small, 0.5-0.8 as moderate, and values >0.8 as large. Results: Sixty-five patients completed all examinations. Median goiter volume was 58 mL (range, 14-642 mL) before surgery...... resonance images (MRI) of the neck and respiratory flow-volume curves, including both in- and expiration, were performed prior to and six months following surgery. The evaluated tracheal dimensions included the smallest cross-sectional area of the trachea (SCAT), tracheal narrowing, and tracheal deviation...... with surgical removal of median 46 mL (range, 5-642 mL) (pdeviation were diminished by median 26% (ES=0.67), and 33% (ES=0.73), respectively, while SCAT increased by 17% (ES=0.61). Correspondingly, each 10% decrease in goiter volume resulted...

  2. The use of scaning electron microscopy in postvaccinal evaluation of tracheal epithelium of Coturnix coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santin Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the use of scanning electron microscopy in the study of the post-vaccinal respiratory reaction of the tracheal epithelium of quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica immunized against Newcastle disease. A number of 36 quails were distributed into four groups: T1 fraction three-quarters control birds (non-vaccinated; T2 fraction three-quarters birds vaccinated with Ulster 2C strain; t3 fraction three-quarters birds vaccinated with B1 strain; t4 fraction three-quarters birds vaccinated with LaSota strain. Regardless the experimental group, birds did not show detectable clinical signs of post-vaccinal respiratory reaction. However, the analysis of tracheal fragments by scanning electron microscopy showed that birds vaccinated with B1 and LaSota strains developed epithelial sloughing of the trachea, whereas those vaccinated Ulster 2C strain did not develop this change, demonstrating intact tracheal epithelium, similar to the control group.

  3. Endoscopic Resection of Tracheal Tumor in an Elderly Woman Under Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ying Chiang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Anesthetic management of patients with difficult airway is challenging, especially in patients who present with near total occlusion of the airway. Tracheal tumors occur more frequently in elderly patients who are more prone to hypoxic injury. Reliable ventilation and oxygenation are mandatory for a safe and sound intervention. Herein, we report on a 71-year-old woman with a large tracheal tumor occluding approximately 90% of the tracheal lumen. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation under local anesthesia was used during electrocautery resection of the tumor because of the possibility of fatal airway collapse due to the degree of occlusion and location of the tumor. After the tumor had been successfully resected by means of bronchoscopy, an endotracheal tube was inserted, and the patient was weaned from extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

  4. Desarrollo cultural en las organizaciones. Un modelo de estudio basado en la Grounded Theory Cultural development in organizations. A model study based on the Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel SÁNCHEZ-SANVICENTE

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La cultura organizacional se configura a partir de la interrelación de los procesos de apropiación de la filosofía, la pertenencia, la adaptación, la satisfacción y el liderazgo compartidos por un grupo. Este conjunto de categorías puede ser reconocido mediante el uso de una matriz que incluye en su estructura subcategorías o conceptos y un conjunto de propiedades observables en el público interno. El presente artículo tiene por objetivo describir un modelo de estudio construido a partir de la Grounded Theory o Teoría Fundamentada que nos permita comprender el desarrollo cultural de las organizaciones. El estudio de caso se realizó en una compañía líder en Europa del sector de la distribución.AbstractThe organizational culture is set from the interplay of the processes of appropriation of philosophy, membership, adaptation, satisfaction and leadership shared by a group. This set of categories can be recognized by using a matrix that includes in its structure or sub-concepts and a set of observable properties in the workforce. This article aims to describe a study model built from the Grounded Theory that allows us to understand the cultural development of organizations. The case study was conducted in a European leader in the distribution sector.

  5. Development of a 3D bellows tracheal graft: mechanical behavior analysis, fabrication and an in vivo feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Hun; Jung, Jin Woo; Lee, Jung-Seob; Cho, Dong-Woo; Kang, Hyun-Wook; Joo, Young Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Artificial tracheal grafts should have not only enough compressive strength to maintain an open tracheal lumen, but also sufficient flexibility for stable mechanical behavior, similar to the native trachea at the implant site. In this study, we developed a new 3D artificial tracheal graft using a bellows design for considering its mechanical behavior. To investigate the mechanical behavior of the bellows structure, finite element method (FEM) analysis in terms of longitudinal tension/compression, bending and radial compression was conducted. The bellows structure was then compared with the cylinder structure generally used for artificial tracheal grafts. The FEM analysis showed that the bellows had outstanding flexibility in longitudinal tension/compression and bending. Moreover, the bellows kept the lumen open without severe luminal deformation in comparison with the cylinder structure. A three-dimensional artificial tracheal graft with a bellows design was fabricated using indirect solid freeform fabrication technology, and the actual mechanical test was conducted to investigate the actual mechanical behavior of the bellows graft. The fabricated bellows graft was then applied to segmental tracheal reconstruction in a rabbit model to assess its applicability. The bellows graft was completely incorporated into newly regenerated connective tissue and no obstruction at the implanted site was observed for up to 8 weeks after implantation. The data suggested that the developed bellows tracheal graft could be a promising alternative for tracheal reconstruction. (paper)

  6. Metabolism of progesterone-4-14C in organ cultures of fetal adrenal glands in the human being

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, S.

    1979-01-01

    1. In 72 hours of incubation in two subsequent cultures, progesterone-4- 14 C was converted into different corticosteroids and androgenes by using explants of the adrenal glands in organ cultures, which were taken from a male fetus with a crown-to-rump length of 8.5 cm. In the most cases the water-dilutable metabolites are steroidsulfates. 2. The following individual progesterone metabolites were found: 17α-hydroxyprogesterone-4- 14 C, 16α-hydroxyprogesterone-4- 14 C, corticosterone-4- 14 C, cortisole-4- 14 C, cortisone-4- 14 C, androstendione-4- 14 C, and 11β-hydroxyandrostendione-4- 14 C. 3. These steroides let appear possible the presence and efficacy of the following enzyme systems: 17α-hydroxylase, 16α-hydroxylase, 21-hydroxylase, 11β-hydroxylase, 11β-hydroxysteroide-dehydrogenase, and Csub(17-20) desmolase. 4. Calculations of our dates by the analogue computer, which are present by now, apparently seem to render possible the kinetic of the corticosteroide biosynthesis in the tissue of fetal adrenal glands by organ cultures, because under the present conditions incubations can be carried out for considerably longer periods than by cell fractions, cell homogenates, and organ sections. (orig.) [de

  7. Real-time tracheal ultrasonography for confirmation of endotracheal tube placement during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Hao-Chang; Chong, Kah-Meng; Sim, Shyh-Shyong; Ma, Matthew Huei-Ming; Liu, Shih-Hung; Chen, Nai-Chuan; Wu, Meng-Che; Fu, Chia-Ming; Wang, Chih-Hung; Lee, Chien-Chang; Lien, Wan-Ching; Chen, Shyr-Chyr

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of tracheal ultrasonography for assessing endotracheal tube position during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). We performed a prospective observational study of patients undergoing emergency intubation during CPR. Real-time tracheal ultrasonography was performed during the intubation with the transducer placed transversely just above the suprasternal notch, to assess for endotracheal tube positioning and exclude esophageal intubation. The position of trachea was identified by a hyperechoic air-mucosa (A-M) interface with posterior reverberation artifact (comet-tail artifact). The endotracheal tube position was defined as endotracheal if single A-M interface with comet-tail artifact was observed. Endotracheal tube position was defined as intraesophageal if a second A-M interface appeared, suggesting a false second airway (double tract sign). The gold standard of correct endotracheal intubation was the combination of clinical auscultation and quantitative waveform capnography. The main outcome was the accuracy of tracheal ultrasonography in assessing endotracheal tube position during CPR. Among the 89 patients enrolled, 7 (7.8%) had esophageal intubations. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of tracheal ultrasonography were 100% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 94.4-100%), 85.7% (95% CI: 42.0-99.2%), 98.8% (95% CI: 92.5-99.0%) and 100% (95% CI: 54.7-100%), respectively. Positive and negative likelihood ratios were 7.0 (95% CI: 1.1-43.0) and 0.0, respectively. Real-time tracheal ultrasonography is an accurate method for identifying endotracheal tube position during CPR without the need for interruption of chest compression. Tracheal ultrasonography in resuscitation management may serve as a powerful adjunct in trained hands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Intervention in Multi-cultural Organizations -Prevention of Accidents as political change processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhrberg, Mette Bang; Kamp, Annette; Koch, Christian

    1999-01-01

    mainstream safety culture approaches is over rationalististic compared with day to day life of organisations. A simplistic model of mans behaviour, and too abbreviated understanding of the total set of goals and means in action in organisation and rather simple change management models flaws the safety...... of an organisation as a Multi-cultural Organisation. Second on change processes as political processes where the needed change have to be negotiated and reshaped....

  9. The Relationship of Organizational Culture and Entrepreneurship with Effectiveness in Sport Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Masoumeh Kalateh seifari; Zahra Amoozadeh

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important factors affecting organizational effectiveness is organizational culture and entrepreneurship. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship of organizational culture and corporate entrepreneurship with effectiveness in offices of sport and youth in Golestan Province. Research method was correlation and the statistical population included all directors and experts of general directorates of sport and youth in Golestan province (N=280). 164 persons we...

  10. Antifungal Activity of Culture Filtrates and Organic Extracts of Aspergillus spp. against Pythium ultimum

    OpenAIRE

    Rania Aydi-Ben Abdallah; Marwa Hassine; Hayfa Jabnoun-Khiareddine; Rabiaa Haouala; Mejda Daami-Remadi

    2014-01-01

    Culture filtrates, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of nine isolates of Aspergillus spp. (A. niger, A. terreus, A. flavus and Aspergillus sp.), isolated from soil and compost, were tested for antifungal activity against Pythium ultimum the causal agent of the potato Pythium leak. Culture filtrates showed a significant antifungal activity at the different tested concentrations. Total inhibition of the pathogen was induced by the filtrate of CH8 of Aspergillus sp., used at 10% ...

  11. The Impact of Quality Culture and Leadership on Customer Relationship in Organizations from the Romanian Metal Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Ilieș

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The current paper is part of a wider research that has as general objective to develop an evaluation and analysis model for the total quality management (TQM system to identify best practices that determine its’ performance, in order to improve it. The research is focused on organizations from the metal construction industry. The sample consists of organizations from Romania operating in the before mentioned area, which have a consolidated position in the market and conducted efforts in implementing TQM systems. The data analysis was conducted through quantitative research methods, based on statistical processing. Regarding the research tools used for data collection, a survey based on a questionnaire was employed. The designed and pre-tested questionnaire contains items based on factors considered important in analysing and evaluating the TQM system, based on the evaluation criteria of the EFQM European Excellence Award (European Foundation for Quality Management, which provides credibility to the research. The objective of the present research is analysing the components of the TQM system, leadership and quality culture, in companies from the Romanian metal construction industry and their influence on customer relationship. The empirical research was conducted between September 2014 and August 2015, and the study is based on questioning 263 managers from 23 companies. The main research results show a very strong positive relation between the variables leadership, quality culture and customer relationship. It was also noticed that the management team of the analysed organizations is concerned with the continuous quality improvement process and that efforts are made for satisfying and exceeding customers’ expectations, thus existing the premises for creating customers’ dedicated organizations and achieving long term excellence. A surprising result concerning the leadership style favourable to quality culture’s development was obtained

  12. Relaxant effect of ghrelin on guinea pig isolated tracheal smooth muscle: role of epithelial NO and PGE2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ayed, Mohammed Saeed Zayed

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed at investigating the potential ghrelin relaxing effect on guinea pig isolated tracheal smooth muscle (TSM). Using an in vitro experimental approach, the physiological role of the airway epithelium on smooth muscle relaxation has been investigated by analyzing the dose-response curves for carbachol- or histamine-induced contractions on epithelium intact versus denuded tracheal tissue. The relaxant effect of ghrelin (5-200 μmol/L) then investigated on carbachol-contracted, non-sensitized, and ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized guinea pig TSM with an intact or denuded epithelium. The isolated TSMs from identical guinea pigs were incubated in Krebs solution aerated with 95% O 2 and 5% CO 2 through an automated tissue organ bath system (n = 6 for each group). The ghrelin relaxation mechanism was assessed by adding L-NAME, indomethacin, and YIL-781 for GHS-R1 into the tissue chamber. The spasmogens carbachol and histamine have shown a significantly higher contracting effect on epithelium-denuded than in epithelium-intact TSM confirmed by the significantly higher mean pEC50 of both agonists on the epithelium-denuded trachea (p < 0.05). Ghrelin has shown a concentration-dependent relaxing effect on carbachol-contracted TSM (r = 0.96, p = 0.00). The effect was more evident in the intact non-sensitized than in epithelium-denuded or OVA-sensitized groups (p < 0.05). Preincubation with nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) inhibitors has significantly reduced the ghrelin-induced relaxation on epithelium-intact TSM suggesting an epithelium-dependant mechanism. However, GHS-R1a antagonist has also succeeded to reduce ghrelin relaxant effect, which needs further clarification. Ghrelin proved to have a potential TSM relaxant effect possibly through epithelium-dependant mechanisms involving NO and PGE 2 .

  13. Physicochemical Factors Influence the Abundance and Culturability of Human Enteric Pathogens and Fecal Indicator Organisms in Estuarine Water and Sediment

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    Francis Hassard

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available To assess fecal pollution in coastal waters, current monitoring is reliant on culture-based enumeration of bacterial indicators, which does not account for the presence of viable but non-culturable or sediment-associated micro-organisms, preventing effective quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA. Seasonal variability in viable but non-culturable or sediment-associated bacteria challenge the use of fecal indicator organisms (FIOs for water monitoring. We evaluated seasonal changes in FIOs and human enteric pathogen abundance in water and sediments from the Ribble and Conwy estuaries in the UK. Sediments possessed greater bacterial abundance than the overlying water column, however, key pathogenic species (Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella spp., hepatitis A virus, hepatitis E virus and norovirus GI and GII were not detected in sediments. Salmonella was detected in low levels in the Conwy water in spring/summer and norovirus GII was detected in the Ribble water in winter. The abundance of E. coli and Enterococcus spp. quantified by culture-based methods, rarely matched the abundance of these species when measured by qPCR. The discrepancy between these methods was greatest in winter at both estuaries, due to low CFU's, coupled with higher gene copies (GC. Temperature accounted for 60% the variability in bacterial abundance in water in autumn, whilst in winter salinity explained 15% of the variance. Relationships between bacterial indicators/pathogens and physicochemical variables were inconsistent in sediments, no single indicator adequately described occurrence of all bacterial indicators/pathogens. However, important variables included grain size, porosity, clay content and concentrations of Zn, K, and Al. Sediments with greater organic matter content and lower porosity harbored a greater proportion of non-culturable bacteria (including dead cells and extracellular DNA in winter. Here, we show the link between physicochemical

  14. Tracheal Chondrosarcoma: Systematic Review of Tumor Characteristics, Diagnosis, and Treatment Outcomes with Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Kutzner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To our knowledge this is the first systematic review of tracheal chondrosarcoma treatment outcomes. Management insights are thoroughly discussed. Men constitute 93.8% of cases, and most of these occur in the distal trachea. The most common symptom, dyspnea, occurs in virtually all patients. Extratracheal extension had occurred in 78.6% of patients. Definitive treatment with tracheal resection showed no recurrences in 10 patients with mean follow-up of 3.1 years. Adjuvant radiotherapy may be utilized for improving local control when open complete resection cannot be performed, but only after endoscopic excision of gross tumor.

  15. Complete subglottic tracheal stenosis managed with rigid bronchoscopy and T-tube placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuruswamy Thurai Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgery is the preferred treatment modality for benign tracheal stenosis. Interventional bronchoscopy is used as a bridge to surgery or in instances when surgery is not feasible or has failed. Stenosis in the subglottic trachea is particularly a treatment challenge, in view of its proximity to the vocal cords. Herein, we describe a patient with complete tracheal stenosis in the subglottic region, which developed after prolonged intubation and mechanical ventilation. The patient developed recurrent stenosis despite multiple surgical and endoscopic procedures. We were able to manage the patient successfully with rigid bronchoscopy and Montgomery T-tube placement.

  16. Is intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility correlated to clinical phenotypes and sex in patients with COPD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camiciottoli G

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gianna Camiciottoli,1 Stefano Diciotti,2 Francesca Bigazzi,1 Simone Lombardo,3 Maurizio Bartolucci,4 Matteo Paoletti,1 Mario Mascalchi,3 Massimo Pistolesi1 1Section of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 2Department of Electrical, Electronic, and Information Engineering “Guglielmo Marconi,” University of Bologna, Cesena, Italy; 3Radiodiagnostic Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 4Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy Abstract: A substantial proportion of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD develops various degree of intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility. We studied whether the magnitude of intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility could be different across clinical phenotypes and sex in COPD. Intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility measured at paired inspiratory–expiratory low dose computed tomography (CT and its correlation with clinical, functional, and CT-densitometric data were investigated in 69 patients with COPD according to their predominant conductive airway or emphysema phenotypes and according to sex. Intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility was higher in patients with predominant conductive airway disease (n=28 and in females (n=27. Women with a predominant conductive airway phenotype (n=10 showed a significantly greater degree of collapsibility than women with predominant emphysema (28.9%±4% versus 11.6%±2%; P<0.001. Intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility was directly correlated with inspiratory–expiratory volume variation at CT and with forced expiratory volume (1 second, and inversely correlated with reduced CT lung density and functional residual capacity. Intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility was not correlated with cough and wheezing; however, intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility and clinical phenotypes of COPD

  17. A retropharyngeal-mediastinal hematoma with supraglottic and tracheal obstruction: The role of multidisciplinary airway management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birkholz Torsten

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 77-year-old man suffered hypoxemic cardiac arrest by supraglottic and tracheal airway obstruction in the emergency department. A previously unknown cervical fracture had caused a traumatic retropharyngeal-mediastinal hematoma. A lifesaving surgical emergency tracheostomy succeeded. Supraglottic and tracheal obstruction by a retropharyngeal-mediastinal hematoma with successful resuscitation via emergency tracheostomy after hypoxemic cardiac arrest has never been reported in a context of trauma. This clinically demanding case outlines the need for multidisciplinary airway management systems with continuous training and well-implemented guidelines. Only multidisciplinary staff preparedness and readily available equipments for the unanticipated difficult airway solved the catastrophic clinical situation.

  18. A visual stethoscope to detect the position of the tracheal tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hiromi; Suzuki, Akira; Nakajima, Yoshiki; Makino, Hiroshi; Sanjo, Yoshimitsu; Nakai, Takayoshi; Shiraishi, Yoshito; Katoh, Takasumi; Sato, Shigehito

    2009-12-01

    Advancing a tracheal tube into the bronchus produces unilateral breath sounds. We created a Visual Stethoscope that allows real-time fast Fourier transformation of the sound signal and 3-dimensional (frequency-amplitude-time) color rendering of the results on a personal computer with simultaneous processing of 2 individual sound signals. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the Visual Stethoscope can detect bronchial intubation in comparison with auscultation. After induction of general anesthesia, the trachea was intubated with a tracheal tube. The distance from the incisors to the carina was measured using a fiberoptic bronchoscope. While the anesthesiologist advanced the tracheal tube from the trachea to the bronchus, another anesthesiologist auscultated breath sounds to detect changes of the breath sounds and/or disappearance of bilateral breath sounds for every 1 cm that the tracheal tube was advanced. Two precordial stethoscopes placed at the left and right sides of the chest were used to record breath sounds simultaneously. Subsequently, at a later date, we randomly entered the recorded breath sounds into the Visual Stethoscope. The same anesthesiologist observed the visualized breath sounds on the personal computer screen processed by the Visual Stethoscope to examine changes of breath sounds and/or disappearance of bilateral breath sound. We compared the decision made based on auscultation with that made based on the results of the visualized breath sounds using the Visual Stethoscope. Thirty patients were enrolled in the study. When irregular breath sounds were auscultated, the tip of the tracheal tube was located at 0.6 +/- 1.2 cm on the bronchial side of the carina. Using the Visual Stethoscope, when there were any changes of the shape of the visualized breath sound, the tube was located at 0.4 +/- 0.8 cm on the tracheal side of the carina (P Stethoscope (not significant). During advancement of the tracheal tube, alterations of the shape of the

  19. Endobronchial angiofibroma in the aberrant tracheal bronchus presenting as spontaneous pneumomediastinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Soo; Moon, Young Kyu; Jeon, Hyun Woo; Park, Chan Beom; Ahn, Myeong Im; Lee, Kyo Young; Park, Jae Kil

    2015-07-22

    Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is a self-limiting benign disease but abnormal bronchial lesions can be rarely found incidentally, and in selected cases will require surgical resection. A 38-year-old man presented with a spontaneous pneumomediastinum. Chest computed tomography revealed an incidental linear endobronchial tumour in the aberrant tracheal bronchus. The tumour was removed surgically and diagnosed with a rare benign tumour of endobronchial angiofibroma. We report a rare case of endobronchial angiofibroma in the aberrant tracheal bronchus which was detected during the evaluation of a spontaneous pneumomediastinum.

  20. Laryngeal mask airway guided tracheal intubation in a neonate with the Pierre Robin syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Joensen, Henning; Henneberg, Steen Winther

    1995-01-01

    Endotracheal intubation in infants with the Pierre Robin syndrome may sometimes be impossible to accomplish by conventional means. To aid difficult tracheal intubation many different techniques have been described. We present a case, in which we successfully intubated a small-for-date newborn boy...... with the Pierre Robin syndrome by using a modified laryngeal mask airway (no. 1) as a guide for the endotracheal tube. The technique is easy to perform, less traumatic and less time-consuming than multiple attempts at laryngoscopy or blind tracheal intubation....

  1. Cultura organizacional em organizações públicas no Brasil Organizational culture in Brazilian public organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Calixto de Souza Pires

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta e discute conceitos e abordagens que contribuem para a compreensão de aspectos e traços relacionados à cultura organizacional de organizações públicas no Brasil. Inicialmente, são tratados os conceitos e diferentes abordagens de cultura e cultura organizacional, especificamente de Fleury, Frost, Schein e Hofstede. A seguir, o artigo aborda a cultura de organizações públicas, apresentando um pequeno histórico das organizações públicas no Brasil, bem como seus conceitos e características, entre as quais se destacam a burocracia, o autoritarismo centralizado, o paternalismo, a descontinuidade e a ingerência política. Essas características interferem no modo como os trabalhadores atuam nessas organizações, observando-se o apego às regras e rotinas, a supervalorização da hierarquia, o paternalismo nas relações e o apego ao poder. Isso é importante na definição dos processos internos, na relação com inovações e mudança, na formação dos valores e crenças organizacionais e nas políticas de recursos humanos. Na conclusão, o artigo salienta os aspectos fundamentais a serem considerados ao se lidar com a cultura de organizações públicas no Brasil.This article presents and discusses concepts and views that help understand features and peculiarities of the organizational culture in public organizations in Brazil. It begins by discussing the concepts and different approaches to culture and organizational culture, specifically by Fleury, Frost, Schein, and Hofstede. It then deals with the culture of public organizations, presenting a brief history of these organizations in Brazil, as well as their concepts and features, among which bureaucracy, centralized authoritarianism, patronizing, lack of continuity, and political interference stand out. Such characteristics interfere with the way people work in these organizations, where attachment to rules and routines, hierarchy overrating, patronizing

  2. Use of a Nitinol Wire Stent for Management of Severe Tracheal Stenosis in an Eclectus Parrot (Eclectus roratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia-Fava, Johanna; Holmes, Shannon P; Radlinsky, MaryAnn; Johnson, Dan; Ellis, Angela E; Mayer, Jörg; Schnellbacher, Rodney; Divers, Stephen J

    2015-09-01

    A 25-year-old, female eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus) presented for dyspnea 3 weeks after anesthesia and surgery for egg yolk coelomitis. Radiography, computed tomography, and tracheoscopy revealed multiple tracheal strictures spanning a length of 2.6 cm in the mid to distal trachea. Histopathologic examination revealed mild fibrosis, inflammation, and hyperplasia consistent with acquired tracheal strictures. Tracheal resection was not considered possible because of the length of the affected trachea. The strictures were resected endoscopically, and repeated balloon dilation under fluoroscopic guidance over the course of 10 months resulted in immediate but unsustained improvement. Computed tomography was used to measure the stenotic area. A 4 × 36-mm, custom-made, nitinol wire stent was inserted into the trachea under fluoroscopic guidance. After stent placement, intermittent episodes of mild to moderate dyspnea continued, and these responded to nebulization with a combination of saline, acetylcysteine, and dexamethasone. Multiple attempts to wean the patient off nebulization therapy and to switch to a corticosteroid-free combination were unsuccessful. The parrot eventually developed complications, was euthanatized, and necropsy was performed. Histologically, the tracheal mucosa had widespread erosion to ulceration, with accumulation of intraluminal exudate and bacteria, severe degeneration of skeletal muscle and tracheal rings, prominent fibrosis, and mild to moderate, submucosal inflammation. Clinicopathologic findings in this case suggested tracheomalacia, which has not been previously described in birds. Custom-made tracheal stents can be used for severe tracheal stenosis in birds when tracheal resection and anastomosis is not possible. Complications of tracheal stent placement in birds may include tracheitis and tracheomalacia. To our knowledge, this is the first report of tracheal stent placement in an avian species.

  3. The cultural transformation and political organization of the Ignalina NPP region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugirdas, V.

    1998-01-01

    The Ignalina NPP region which can be identified with the Visaginas region is rather interesting from the point of view of various scientific investigations. Since long time this land has been in the contact zone of Baltic and Slavonic cultures. Most of the newest phenomena of society development are there rather closely related with the building of NPP. In our opinion the Visaginas region is in the initial stage of development at present by its cultural and political-geographical traits it stands out even in the context of Northeast Lithuania. This is a region distinguished by a particularly high variety of political attitudes and cultural contacts. The political view of the present inhabitants of the region is a result of complicated cultural evolution - the cultural orientation determines the political outlook. Though the political views of the Lithuanian population are still in the stage of development we may assert that the East Lithuanian region already in 1990 stood out as a region of left political views. This view is determined by a mixed national composition. The non-Lithuanians have tradition of supporting the left political forces, their political left-expression is more inert. The fact, that the general activity of voters in Visaginas and its region is relatively low, demonstrates the indifference of some voters to the political development of Lithuania. The status of self-government isolated Visaginas both from the life of its region and Lithuania on the whole - not only politically or culturally but administratively as well. The town is converting into a closed social unit. The problem of the cultural integration of Visaginas region remains of topical importance. In order to prevent the self-isolation it is necessary to faster the sense of civil self-expression, encourage the development programs of the region. (author)

  4. Creating a Culture of Sustainability using Mission Statements of Cooperative Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooraslinda Abdul Aris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mission statements are recognized as effective strategic management tools that influence firms’ performance. The evolution of a culture of sustainability begins with a mission statement that strikes a balance between financial performance and social commitments. The clear articulation of sustainability as part of the firm’s mission, values, goals, and strategy are key factors in fostering sustainability focused culture. This study illustrates the fundamental tenets of the culture of organizational sustainability model proposed by Galpin, Whitttington, and Bell (2015 using selected cooperatives in Malaysia. The contents of the mission statements were then analyze using the nine elements model by Pearce and David (1987 in findings its relations to and the existence of sustainability culture within the cooperatives. Findings from the study confirm building an organizational infrastructure that fosters a culture of sustainability results in positive employee and organizational-level sustainability performance. A reference was made to Bank Rakyat, one of the leading cooperative-based banking in the country for its outstanding performance.

  5. Ames Culture Chamber System: Enabling Model Organism Research Aboard the international Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the genetic, physiological, and behavioral effects of spaceflight on living organisms and elucidating the molecular mechanisms that underlie these effects are high priorities for NASA. Certain organisms, known as model organisms, are widely studied to help researchers better understand how all biological systems function. Small model organisms such as nem-atodes, slime mold, bacteria, green algae, yeast, and moss can be used to study the effects of micro- and reduced gravity at both the cellular and systems level over multiple generations. Many model organisms have sequenced genomes and published data sets on their transcriptomes and proteomes that enable scientific investigations of the molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptations of these organisms to space flight.

  6. Relaxation effect of marmin on guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle via NO-independent mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadang Irfan Husori

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the relaxation mechanims of marmin on epithelium of guinea pig isolated trachea smooth muscle (TSM. Methods: The study was conducted using in vitro isolated-trachea experimental. The guinea pig isolated trachea were incubated in Krebs solution-containing organ bath and supplied with a mixed gas of O2:CO2 (95%:5%. Result: Removal of tracheal epithelium was associated with significant increases in the potencies of histamine and methacholine to contract guinea pig TSM. The pD2 value of histamine increased from 6.04依0.08 on epithelial-intact to 6.32依0.06 on epithelial-denuded (P<0.05. The pD2 value of methacholine also increased from 5.85依0.09 on epithelial-intact to 6.15依0.07 on epithelial-denuded (P<0.05. Marmin exhibited relaxation effects on TSM induced by methacholine (3伊10-5 mol/L and histamine (3伊10-5 mol/L. Inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 through incubation with indomethacin could reduce the relaxation effect of marmin (P<0.05 on methacholine- and histamine-induced contractions. However, no significant differenceswere shown in methylene blue, Nω-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA and propranolol-incubated TSM. Conclusions: The results suggest that marmin has relaxation effect on TSM which is epithelial-dependent through the release of PGE2. However, nitric oxide, cGMP and 毬 2-adrenergic-mediated relaxation were not involved.

  7. Representative benthic bioindicator organisms for use in radiation effects research: Culture of Neanthes arenaceodentata (Polychaeta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, F.L.; Knezovich, J.P.; Martinelli, R.E.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to present a comprehensive synthesis of information pertaining to the selection and maintenance of bioindicator organisms for use in radiation-effects research. The focus of this report is on the benthic polychaete, Neanthes arenaceodentata, a species that has been used successfully at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and other institutions to define the impacts of radiation and chemical toxicants on aquatic organisms. In this document, the authors provide a rationale for the selection of this organism, a description of its reproductive biology, and a description of the conditions that are required for the maintenance and rearing of the organism for use in toxicological research

  8. Assessment of safety culture from the INB organization: A case study for nuclear fuel cycle industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, J.S.; Barreto, A.C.

    2002-01-01

    The present article describes strategies, methodologies and first results on the Safety Culture Self-assessment Project under way at INB since August 2001. As a Brazilian Government company in charge of the nuclear fuel cycle activities,. the main purposes of the Project is to evaluate the present status of its safety culture and to propose actions to ensure continuous safety improvement at management level of its industrial processes. The proposed safety culture assessment describes INB's various production sites taking into account the different aspects of their activities, such as regional, social and technical issues. The survey was performed in March/2002 very good attendance (about 80%) the employees. The first global survey results are presented in item 4. (author)

  9. Cultural diversity and patients with reduced capacity: the use of ethics consultation to advocate for mentally handicapped persons in living organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spike, J

    2001-01-01

    Living organ donation will soon become the source of the majority of organs donations for transplant. Should mentally handicapped people be allowed to donate, or should they be considered a vulnerable group in need of protection? I discuss three cases of possible living organ donors who are developmentally disabled, from three different cultures, the United States, Germany, and India. I offer a brief discussion of three issues raised by the cases: (1) cultural diversity and cultural relativism; (2) autonomy, rationality, and self-interest; and (3) the proper use and role for clinical ethics consults.

  10. Evaluating the effect of organization culture on the successful execution of strategies: Case study of Payam-e-Noor university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Monzavi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we use Hofstede method and Noble’s framework in strategy execution to evaluate the effect of organization culture on the successful implementation of strategies in a case study of Payam-e-Noor University of Iran. Data Collection is performed with the standard Hofstede survey, an evaluation tool for organization culture, and researchers’ survey tool to evaluate the effective implementation of strategies. The reliability coefficient was calculated as 0.846 using the Cronbach alpha. The target population includes 600 senior managers of Payam-e-Noor university of Iran at the time of data collection Cochran formula was used to calculate the required sample number of 120 individuals. The results show that according to the Hofstede dimensions, the dominant cultural aspects of high power distance, uncertainty avoidance, collectivism, and femininity were identified. The first two have a direct influence on effectiveness of strategies. While individualism is known to have an invert effect on effectiveness of strategies, no connection was identified between masculinity and effectiveness of strategies, and thus, this theory was not confirmed in this research.

  11. The "New Institutionalism" in Organization Theory: Bringing Society and Culture Back in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senge, Konstanze

    2013-01-01

    This investigation will discuss the emergence of an economistical perspective among the dominant approaches of organization theory in the United States since the inception of "organization studies" as an academic discipline. It maintains that Contingency theory, Resource Dependency theory, Population Ecology theory, and Transaction Cost theory…

  12. Making rural development work cultural hybridization of farmers' organizations : the Adja case in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vodouhe, S.D.

    1996-01-01

    This book analyses farmers' organizations with respect to trust and accountability, in order to contribute to the building of viable organizations. It argues that the lack of trust or of effective accountability mechanisms is one of the major factors which undermine the effectiveness of

  13. Investigation of the interaction of radiation and cardiotoxic anticancer agents using a fetal mouse heart organ culture system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimler, B.F.; Rethorst, R.D.; Cox, G.G.

    1985-01-01

    The fetal mouse heart organ culture was utilized in an attempt to predict the cardiotoxic effects of combinations of radiation, Adriamycin (ADR), and Dihydroxyanthraquinone (DHAQ), antineoplastic agents which have been shown to produce clinical cardiomyopathy. Seventeen-day fetal hearts were removed and placed in a culture system of micro-titer plates. A single heart was placed in each well on a piece of aluminum mesh to keep the heart above the culture medium but bathed by capillary action. The plates were then placed in a 100% oxygen environment at 37 0 C. Treatments were performed on day 1 after culture: radiation doses (Cs-137) of 10, 20, or 40 Gy; drug treatment with 10, 30, or 100 μg/ml of ADR; 5, 20, or 50 μg/ml of DHAQ; and combinations and sequences of drug and radiation. Hearts were checked every day for functional activity as evidenced by a continuous heart beat. Untreated hearts beat rhythmically for up to 9 days; treated hearts stopped beating earlier. Using an endpoint of functional retention time, dose response curves were obtained for all individual agents and for combinations of agents. This system may help to predict the cardiotoxic effects that result from the use of these drugs and radiation. It may also aid in the development of new anthracycline chemotherapeutic agents that lack cardiotoxicity

  14. The Social Sources of Educational Credentialism: Status Cultures, Labor Markets, and Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David K.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses expansion of access to higher education. Reviews contested development and promise of the Weberian theory of educational credentialism. Examines the relationship of educational expansion to economic growth, relative importance of technical skills versus occupational status-group cultures in degrees and recruitment, significance of degree…

  15. INFLUENCE OF PROBIOTIC CULTURE LACTOBACILLUS RHAMNOSUS GG (LGG) ON IMMUNE RESPONSE OF ORGANISM

    OpenAIRE

    A.V. Surzhik

    2009-01-01

    This article presents review of data of influence of probiotic culture Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on intestinal biocenosis. Main attention was given to influence of L. rhamnosus GG on functions of immune system.Key words: probiotics, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, immune response.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(2):54-58)

  16. Structure and organ specificity of an anionic peroxidase from Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, L; Abelskov, A K; Mattsson, O

    1996-01-01

    The predominant peroxidase (pI 3.5) (E.C. 1.11.1.7) of an Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension culture was purified and partially sequenced. Oligonucleotides were designed and a specific probe was obtained. A cDNA clone was isolated from an Arabidopsis cell suspension cDNA library and completely ...

  17. Culture Positivity of CVCs Used for TPN: Investigation of an Association with Catheter-Related Infection and Comparison of Causative Organisms between ICU and Non-ICU CVCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Criona Walshe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A relationship between central venous catheter (CVC tip colonisation and catheter-related blood-stream infection (CRBSI has been suggested. We examined culture positivity of CVC tips (colonised and infected CVCs in a total parenteral nutrition (TPN population. Our aims were to define the relationship between culture positivity and CRBSI, and to compare causative organisms between culture positive and CRBSI CVCS, and between ward and ICU CVCs. All patients receiving TPN via non-tunnelled CVCs during the study (1997–2009 were included. All CVC tips were analysed. Data were collated contemporaneously. A TPN audit committee determined whether CVC tip culture positivity reflected colonisation/CRBSI using CDC criteria. 1,392 patients received TPN via 2,565 CVCs over 15,397 CVC days. 25.4% of CVCs tips were culture positive, of these 32% developed CRBSI. There was a nonsignificant trend of higher Gram negative Bacilli isolation in ICU CVCs (=0.1, ward CVCs were associated with higher rates of staphylococcal isolation (=0.01. A similar pattern of organisms were cultured from CRBSI and culture positive CVCs. The consistent relationship between CRBSI and culture positive CVCs, and similar pattern of causative organisms further supports an aetiological relationship between culture positive CVC tips and CRBSI, supporting the contention that CVC culture-positivity may be a useful surrogate marker for CRBSI rates.

  18. Use of the covered Y-shaped metallic stent in the treatment of airway stenoses involving the lower trachea and the tracheal carina: preliminary clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ruimin; Li Fenbao; Zhang Mingqiu; Wu Gang; Han Xinwei

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe a new kind of Y-shaped metallic stent delivery system and evaluate its feasibility and preliminary effect for managing multiple airway stenoses involving the lower trachea and the tracheal carina. Methods: The Y-shaped metallic stent delivery system consisted of three-tier structure. The inner-tier was composed of four parallel guiding tubes, which was used for two guidewires and two threads passing through, the middle-tier was delivery catheter, which contained the four guiding tubes, and the outer-tier was introducer sheath. Under the fluoroscopic guidance, 15 patients with multiple stenoses involving the lower trachea and the tracheal carina were treated with the new covered self-expandable Y-shaped metallic stents. Results: Stent placement in the tracheo-bronchial tree was technically successful in all patients with obliteration of the dyspnea immediately after stent placement, and SaO2 was increased form preoperative 75%-89% to postoperative 96%-99%. During follow-up a period of 3-58 weeks (M 22 weeks), all stenosis were resolved without stent-related complications, and the general physical of all 15 patents was improved with no occurrence of obviously dyspnea and bleeding. Karnofsky performance status (KPS) was improved from preoperative 26%-45% to postoperative 72%-95%. Five patients died of the following causes unrelated to stent insertion: multiple organ failure (n=3), cachexia (n=1) and pulmonary infection caused by gastrobronehial fistula (n=1), and the remaining 10 patients were alive with no evidence of dyspnea at the time of this report. Conclusion: Deployment of the covered Y-shaped metallic stent with the use of Y metallic stent delivery system in the management of airway stenoses involving the lower trachea and the tracheal carina was a simple and safe procedure and with a good short-term clinical efficacy. (authors)

  19. Use of the covered Y-shaped metallic stent in the treatment of airway stenoses involving the lower trachea and the tracheal carina: preliminary clinical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruimin, Yang; Fenbao, Li; Mingqiu, Zhang [Department of Intervention, First Affiliated Hospital, Xinxiang Medical Univ., Xinxiang (China); Gang, Wu; Xinwei, Han

    2007-09-15

    Objective: To describe a new kind of Y-shaped metallic stent delivery system and evaluate its feasibility and preliminary effect for managing multiple airway stenoses involving the lower trachea and the tracheal carina. Methods: The Y-shaped metallic stent delivery system consisted of three-tier structure. The inner-tier was composed of four parallel guiding tubes, which was used for two guidewires and two threads passing through, the middle-tier was delivery catheter, which contained the four guiding tubes, and the outer-tier was introducer sheath. Under the fluoroscopic guidance, 15 patients with multiple stenoses involving the lower trachea and the tracheal carina were treated with the new covered self-expandable Y-shaped metallic stents. Results: Stent placement in the tracheo-bronchial tree was technically successful in all patients with obliteration of the dyspnea immediately after stent placement, and SaO2 was increased form preoperative 75%-89% to postoperative 96%-99%. During follow-up a period of 3-58 weeks (M 22 weeks), all stenosis were resolved without stent-related complications, and the general physical of all 15 patents was improved with no occurrence of obviously dyspnea and bleeding. Karnofsky performance status (KPS) was improved from preoperative 26%-45% to postoperative 72%-95%. Five patients died of the following causes unrelated to stent insertion: multiple organ failure (n=3), cachexia (n=1) and pulmonary infection caused by gastrobronehial fistula (n=1), and the remaining 10 patients were alive with no evidence of dyspnea at the time of this report. Conclusion: Deployment of the covered Y-shaped metallic stent with the use of Y metallic stent delivery system in the management of airway stenoses involving the lower trachea and the tracheal carina was a simple and safe procedure and with a good short-term clinical efficacy. (authors)

  20. Effects of tracheal occlusion with retinoic acid administration on normal lung development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delabaere, Amélie; Marceau, Geoffroy; Coste, Karen; Blanchon, Loïc; Déchelotte, Pierre-Jean; Blanc, Pierre; Sapin, Vincent; Gallot, Denis

    2017-05-01

    Tracheal occlusion (TO) is an investigational therapy for severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia that decreases pulmonary hypoplasia, but sustained TO also induces deficient surfactant synthesis. Intramuscular maternal administration of retinoic acid (RA) in a surgical rabbit model of congenital diaphragmatic hernia showed a beneficial effect on lung maturation. We evaluated the potential of RA delivery into the trachea and studied the combined effects of TO and RA on normal lung development. Experiments were performed on normal rabbit fetuses. Liposomes and capric triglyceride (Miglyol ® ), alone and with RA, were administered in the trachea just before TO (d26). Lung morphology and surfactant production were studied at term (d30). Tracheal occlusion increased lung weight and enhanced alveolar development but increased apoptotic activity and decreased surfactant expression. Tracheal injection of RA improved surfactant production to levels of normal controls. We established the potential of liposome and Miglyol as RA vehicle for delivering this bioactive molecule in the fetal airways. Tracheal RA injection seems to oppose the effects of TO in fetuses with normal lungs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Groningen Dilatation Tracheoscope in Treatment of Moderate Subglottic and Tracheal Stenosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halmos, Gyorgy; van der Laan, Bernard F. A. M.; Dikkers, Frederik G.

    Objectives: We describe our experience with the Groningen Dilatation Tracheoscope (Karl Storz GmbH & Co, Tuttlingen, Germany) in treating benign subglottic and tracheal stenosis. Methods: We performed a retrospective survey from a medical record analysis of 26 patients with different origins of

  2. Expandable metal stents for tracheal obstruction: permanent or temporary? A cautionary tale.

    OpenAIRE

    Hind, C R; Donnelly, R J

    1992-01-01

    An expandable metal stent inserted via a long term tracheostomy successfully relieved life threatening respiratory obstruction due to benign tracheal stenosis. Later the patient's tracheostomy suction catheter became stuck on the stent and dislodged it. The stent was removed electively, without damaging the trachea, with a rigid biopsy forceps.

  3. Intermittent subglottic secretion drainage may cause tracheal damage in patients with few oropharyngeal secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suys, E; Nieboer, K; Stiers, W; De Regt, J; Huyghens, L; Spapen, H

    2013-12-01

    Injurious prolapse of tracheal mucosa into the suction port has been reported in up to 50% of intubated patients receiving continuous aspiration of subglottic secretions. We investigated whether similar injury could be inflicted by automated intermittent aspiration. Six consecutive patients, intubated with the Mallinckrodt TaperGuard Evac™ endotracheal tube, were studied. A flow sensor was placed between the vacuum regulating system and the mucus collector. Intermittent suctioning was performed at a pressure of -125 mmHg with a 25s interval and duration of 15s. After 24h, a CT scan of the tracheal region was performed. Excessive negative suction pressure, a fast drop in aspiration flow to zero, and important "swinging" movements of secretions in the evacuation line were observed in all patients. Oral instillation of antiseptic mouthwash restored normal aspiration flow and secretion mobility. CT imaging showed marked entrapment of tracheal mucosa into the suction port in all patients. In patients with few oropharyngeal secretions, automated intermittent subglottic aspiration may result in significant and potential harmful invagination of tracheal mucosa into the suction lumen. A critical amount of fluid must be present in the oropharynx to assure adequate and safe aspiration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Awake fiberoptic or awake video laryngoscopic tracheal intubation in patients with anticipated difficult airway management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstock, Charlotte Vallentin; Thøgersen, Bente; Afshari, Arash

    2012-01-01

    Awake flexible fiberoptic intubation (FFI) is the gold standard for management of anticipated difficult tracheal intubation. The purpose of this study was to compare awake FFI to awake McGrath® video laryngoscope, (MVL), (Aircraft Medical, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom) intubation in patients...... with an anticipated difficult intubation. The authors examined the hypothesis that MVL intubation would be faster than FFI....

  5. High frequency components of tracheal sound are emphasized during prolonged flow limitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenhunen, M; Huupponen, E; Saastamoinen, A; Kulkas, A; Himanen, S-L; Rauhala, E

    2009-01-01

    A nasal pressure transducer, which is used to study nocturnal airflow, also provides information about the inspiratory flow waveform. A round flow shape is presented during normal breathing. A flattened, non-round shape is found during hypopneas and it can also appear in prolonged episodes. The significance of this prolonged flow limitation is still not established. A tracheal sound spectrum has been analyzed further in order to achieve additional information about breathing during sleep. Increased sound frequencies over 500 Hz have been connected to obstruction of the upper airway. The aim of the present study was to examine the tracheal sound signal content of prolonged flow limitation and to find out whether prolonged flow limitation would consist of abundant high frequency activity. Sleep recordings of 36 consecutive patients were examined. The tracheal sound spectral analysis was performed on 10 min episodes of prolonged flow limitation, normal breathing and periodic apnea-hypopnea breathing. The highest total spectral amplitude, implicating loudest sounds, occurred during flow-limited breathing which also presented loudest sounds in all frequency bands above 100 Hz. In addition, the tracheal sound signal during flow-limited breathing constituted proportionally more high frequency activities compared to normal breathing and even periodic apnea-hypopnea breathing

  6. Clinical evaluation of stethoscope-guided inflation of tracheal tube cuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R D C; Hirsch, N P

    2011-11-01

    Tracheal tube cuffs are commonly inflated to pressures exceeding the recommended upper limit of 30 cmH(2)O. We evaluated whether a stethoscope-guided method of cuff inflation results in pressures within the recommended range. Patients were randomly assigned to receive one of two methods of cuff inflation. In the standard 'just seal' group, air was introduced into the tracheal cuff until the audible leak at the mouth disappeared. In the stethoscope-guided group, air was introduced into the cuff until a change from harsh to soft breath sounds occurred, whilst listening with a stethoscope bell placed over the thyroid cartilage. Twenty-five patients were recruited to each group. The median (IQR [range]) cuff pressure in the 'just seal' group was 34 (28-40 [18-49]) cmH(2)O, and in the stethoscope-guided group was 20 (20-26 [16-28]) cmH(2)O, p stethoscope-guided method of tracheal tube cuff inflation is a novel, simple technique that reliably results in acceptable tracheal cuff pressures. © 2011 The Authors. Anaesthesia © 2011 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  7. Using tracheal segments for replacement of cervical oesophagus: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasidezfouli, Azizollah; Sharifi, Davood; Sasani, Farhang; Ansari, Damoon; Abarkar, Mohammad; Rahmanijoo, Nasrin; Abbasidezfouli, Golbahar; Sheikhy, Kambiz

    2012-03-01

    Segmental resection and anastomosis of oesophageal lesions are not performed as a routine clinical practice because of complications and associated problems, whereas tracheal resection and anastomosis are a routine clinical practice. In this experimental study, we resected a segment of cervical oesophagus and replaced it with a tracheal segment. In eight dogs (mixed races), weighing 20-30 kg, ageing 1-2 years, under general anaesthesia, through a cervical incision, 5 cm of cervical trachea was separated while preserving its attachments to surrounding fibroareolar tissues. Afterwards, 5 cm of the oesophagus was resected and replaced with a prepared segment of the trachea. Oral liquids were started at the first post-operative day; the animals were kept for 2 months and then euthanized. Quality of swallowing and voice were evaluated. After an autopsy, anastomoses were examined grossly and histopathologically. No complications occurred during surgery. Swallowing function and voice were normal in all eight dogs after the operation. No sign of aspiration was seen in clinical and radiographic examinations after starting oral diet. In autopsy examination, anastomoses were patent without narrowing or abnormal mucosal changes. Remarkable histopathological findings in replaced tracheal segments were squamous metaplasia, atrophy and degeneration of mucosal glands and degeneration of cartilages. Replacement of a segment of the oesophagus with an autogenous tracheal segment is a practical procedure with low complications and can probably be used for the treatment of cervical oesophageal lesions in human beings.

  8. Relaxing action of adrenergic β2-agonists on guinea-pig skinned tracheal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayo Nemoto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Although adrenergic β2-agonist-induced smooth muscle relaxation has been attributed to increased intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP, a relaxation response has been observed at low β2-agonist concentrations that do not cause increased cAMP To elucidate the mechanism of tracheal muscle relaxation induced by low concentrations of β2-agonists, we used a guinea-pig skinned tracheal smooth muscle preparation to examine the effects on the contractile protein system. The isotonic contraction of β-escin-treated skinned tracheal muscle from guinea-pig was measured. When the intracellular Ca2+ concentration was maintained at 1 μmol/L in the presence of guanosine 5′-triphosphate (GTP; 100 μmol/L, neither isoproterenol (10nmol/L nor salbutamol (60 nmol/L affected Ca2+ sensitivity, but a significant decrease in Ca2+ sensitivity was observed in the presence of okadaic acid (1 μmol/L. The decrease in Ca2+ sensitivity was a slow response and was blocked by pretreatment with propranolol (1 μmol/L. Forskolin (1 μmol/L did not affect Ca2+ sensitivity. These results suggest that adrenergic b 2-agonists may activate protein phosphatase through an unknown pathway involving the β2-receptor, which enhances dephosphorylation of the myosin light chain and/or thin filament proteins, resulting in relaxation of the tracheal smooth muscle.

  9. Thyroidectomy improves tracheal anatomy and airflow in patients with nodular goiter. A prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Roed; Lauridsen, Jeppe Killerich; Døssing, Helle

    . Effect sizes (ES) were calculated as mean change divided by standard deviation at baseline. ES of 0.2-0.5 were defined as small, 0.5-0.8 as moderate, and values >0.8 as large.Results: Sixty-five patients completed all examinations. Median goiter volume was 58 mL (range, 14-642 mL) before surgery...... resonance images (MRI) of the neck and respiratory flow-volume curves, including both in- and expiration, were performed prior to and six months following surgery. The evaluated tracheal dimensions included the smallest cross-sectional area of the trachea (SCAT), tracheal narrowing, and tracheal deviation...... with surgical removal of median 43 g (range, 8-607 mL). Six months post-surgery, tracheal narrowing and deviation were diminished by median 26% (ES=0.67), and 33% (ES=0.73), respectively, while SCAT increased by 17% (ES=0.61). Correspondingly, each 10% decrease in goiter volume resulted in an increase of 6...

  10. An approach to tracheostomy in a patient with an expandable metallic tracheal stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Brendan P; Sheth, Abhijat

    2005-09-01

    With increasing use of expandable metallic stents to manage patients with a variety of endobronchial pathologies, some will have a subsequent need for tracheostomy insertion. We describe a successful technique to insert a tracheostomy using rigid and fibre-optic bronchoscopy in a patient who had an 8 cm expandable metallic tracheal stent deployed previously on account of tracheomalacia.

  11. Subcellular trafficking of FGF controls tracheal invasion of Drosophila flight muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Soren J; Krasnow, Mark A

    2015-01-15

    To meet the extreme oxygen demand of insect flight muscle, tracheal (respiratory) tubes ramify not only on its surface, as in other tissues, but also within T-tubules and ultimately surrounding every mitochondrion. Although this remarkable physiological specialization has long been recognized, its cellular and molecular basis is unknown. Here, we show that Drosophila tracheoles invade flight muscle T-tubules through transient surface openings. Like other tracheal branching events, invasion requires the Branchless FGF pathway. However, localization of the FGF chemoattractant changes from all muscle membranes to T-tubules as invasion begins. Core regulators of epithelial basolateral membrane identity localize to T-tubules, and knockdown of AP-1γ, required for basolateral trafficking, redirects FGF from T-tubules to surface, increasing tracheal surface ramification and preventing invasion. We propose that tracheal invasion is controlled by an AP-1-dependent switch in FGF trafficking. Thus, subcellular targeting of a chemoattractant can direct outgrowth to specific domains, including inside the cell. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Management of dogs and cats with endotracheal tube tracheal foreign bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, Laura K.; Webb, Jinelle A.; Prosser, Kirsten J.; Defarges, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Two cats and 3 dogs were treated for an endotracheal tube tracheal foreign body (ETFB) during recovery from general anesthesia. Bronchoscopy was used to remove the ETFB. Animals were clinically normal at discharge. While rare, ETFB can occur upon recovery from anesthesia. Bronchoscopy is an effective way to remove ETFB. PMID:24891640

  13. The Basic Social Process in the Culture of the Self-Sufficient Organization. An Application of Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia CHIRICĂ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The hereby research encompasses the results of an analysis conducted based on the grounded theory methodology over the qualitative data that were gathered through a national project regarding the organizational development of the mental health institutions. After the finalization of the project, the interest for the grounded theory methodology and the reconsideration of the organizational development notion and of the role of the consultant in this process have all lead to a re-analysis of the qualitative data procured in one of the hospitals included in the project. Our approach resulted in an explanatory model of how the organization works and the factors that can affect various changes during its development. This explanatory model holds at its center a basic psychological and social process that represents the perception of the organizational system as closed on certain coordinates, although structurally open. This very perception and the behavior of maintaining the system within closed coordinates allow only for a dual functioning and so the natural result is the emergence of a self-sufficient culture. The central feature of this particular culture is the replacement of the formal organization and its goal of caring for the mentally challenged with an organization reduced to its sole goal of survival.

  14. Role of cell division and self-propulsion in self-organization of 2D cell co-cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Moumita; Dey, Supravat; Wu, Mingming; Ma, Minglin

    Self-organization of cells is a key process in developmental and cancer biology. The differential adhesion hypothesis (DAH), which assumes cells as equilibrium liquid droplets and relates the self-assembly of cells to differences in inter-cellular adhesiveness, has been very successful in explaining cellular organization during morphogenesis where neighboring cells have the same non-equilibrium properties (motility, proliferation rate). However, recently it has been experimentally shown that for a co-culture of two different cell types proliferating at different rates, the resulting spatial morphologies cannot be explained using the DAH alone. Motivated by this, we develop and study a two-dimensional model of a cell co-culture that includes cell division and self-propulsion in addition to cell-cell adhesion, and systemically study how cells with significantly different adhesion, motility, and proliferation rate dynamically organize themselves in a spatiotemporal and context-dependent manner. Our results may help to understand how differential equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties cooperate and compete leading to different morphologies during tumor development, with important consequences for invasion and metastasis

  15. Metallic stent implantation in the treatment of malignant tracheal stenosis under general anaesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Xuming; Jin Yong; Xie Hong; Cheng Long; Gu Xingshi; Chang Liuhui

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of the tracheal stent implantation for treatment of malignant tracheal stenosis under general anaesthesia. Methods: Eighteen patients with malignant tracheal stenosis underwent preoperative 64-slice spiral CT scan and airway reconstruction. The stenotic sites were located in main tracheal trunk (5 patients), in right main bronchus (1 patient), in trachea and left main bronchus (4 patients), in trachea and right main bronchus (3 patients), in main tracheal trunk and bilateral main bronchus (5 patients). The degree of stenosis was rated 51% to 70% in 7 cases, 71% to 90% in 11 cases. All patients, 17 patients of ASA grade Ⅳ and 1 patient of grade Ⅲ, presented with severe dyspnea. Under general anaesthesia, implantation of metallic stent was performed through the sputum aspiration hole of the connecting tubing with DSA guidance. The NBP, ECG, RR, SaO 2 of the patients were recorded and compared with t test during the entire procedure. At the end of the procedure, relief of dyspnea, complications related to anesthesia and operation were recorded. Results: The success rate of stent placement was 18/18, and dyspnea was significantly relived in all patients. Slightly bloody sputum occurred in 7 cases. The stent was obstructed by sputum in 1 case,and the patient was treated with medication. There were no severe complications. The operative course were rated 11 to 9 in 17 cases, and 6 to 8 in 1 case. All 18 patients were cooperative during the procedure. Sixteen patients rated the procedure as very comfortable and 2 rated the procedure as comfortable. Respiratory rate (RR) and heart rate (HR) decreased in all patients after the operation [(37.1 ± 2.8)/min and (106.5 ± 14.2) bpm before the operation respectively, (18.6 ± 1.4)/min and (73.2 ± 7.6) bpm after the operation respectively], t=17.81 and 3.80, P<0.01. Pulse oxygen saturation (SaO 2 ) during the operation [(91.2 ± 1.8)%]increased [(76.3 ± 8.6 )% before the

  16. Tracheal compression due to an elongated aortic arch in patients with congenital heart disease: evaluation using multidetector-row CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Noriko; Hayabuchi, Yasunobu; Inoue, Miki; Sakata, Miho; Nabo, Manal Mohamed Helmy; Nakagawa, Ryuji; Saijo, Takahiko; Kagami, Shoji [University of Tokushima, Department of Pediatrics, Tokushima (Japan)

    2009-10-15

    The airway can become obstructed as a result of compression by an elongated aortic arch. In this study we evaluated tracheal compression using multidetector-row CT in patients with congenital heart disease and an elongated aortic arch. The trachea was measured at the level of the aortic arch in 205 children and young adults and then the severity of tracheal compression was determined by measuring the tracheal diameter ratio (short axis diameter/long axis diameter). Patients were divided as follows: group I (normal aortic arch; n=166), group II (transversely running aortic arch; n=22), and group III (elongated aortic arch; n=17). From the viewpoint of the relationship of the great arteries, group II had D-malposition, and group III had L-malposition. Age, height, weight and body surface area were significantly correlated with the short and long axis diameter in group I. There was a negative correlation between tracheal diameter ratio and the physical size parameters. The tracheal diameter ratio in group III was 0.50{+-}0.13, which was significantly lower than in groups I and II (P<0.01 and 0.05, respectively). Even apparently asymptomatic patients with an elongated aortic arch can have tracheal compression. An elongated aortic arch may be a useful predictor of tracheal compression. (orig.)

  17. An unusual salvage technique for posterior tracheal membranous laceration associated with transhiatal esophagectomy: A transcervical–transsternal approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ziaeddin Rasihashemi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Various surgical approaches may be employed for esophageal resection. Major airway injuries due to transhiatal esophagectomy include vertical tears in the membranous trachea. Tracheal injury is an uncommon but potentially fatal complication. This article describes the technique to repair the posterior membranous tracheal tear, extended just over the carina through a transcervical–transsternal approach, thereby avoiding a second thoracotomy. Six patients with posterior membranous tracheal injury underwent this procedure. The laceration ranged from 3 cm to 5 cm in length. Four patients had received neoadjuvant chemoradiation. The management of tracheal laceration added approximately 60 minutes to the total operation time. There was no mortality related to tracheal injury. Patients were followed up for 6 months after surgery, and both posterior tracheal wall and transverse tracheotomy remained intact without stenosis. The transcervical–transsternal approach decreases the need of thoracotomy and its complications in patients with tracheal laceration in any stage, even in cases of an extended tear down to the carina.

  18. Blebbistatin, a myosin II inhibitor, suppresses Ca(2+)-induced and "sensitized"-contraction of skinned tracheal muscles from guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumoto, Masatoshi; Watanabe, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Blebbistatin, a potent inhibitor of myosin II, has inhibiting effects on Ca(2+)-induced contraction and contractile filament organization without affecting the Ca(2+)-sensitivity to the force and phosphorylation level of myosin regulatory light chain (MLC20) in skinned (cell membrane permeabilized) taenia cecum from the guinea pig (Watanabe et al., Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2010; 298: C1118-26). In the present study, we investigated blebbistatin effects on the contractile force of skinned tracheal muscle, in which myosin filaments organization is more labile than that in the taenia cecum. Blebbistatin at 10 μM or higher suppressed Ca(2+)-induced tension development at any given Ca(2+) concentration, but had little effects on the Ca(2+)- induced myosin light chain phosphorylation. Also blebbistatin at 10 μM and higher significantly suppressed GTP-γS-induced "sensitized" force development. Since the force inhibiting effects of blebbistatin on the skinned trachea were much stronger than those in skinned taenia cecum, blebbistatin might directly affect myosin filaments organization.

  19. Resection and anastomosis for benign tracheal stenosis: Single institution experience of 18 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arvind; Asaf, Belal Bin; Puri, Harsh Vardhan; Abdellateef, Amr

    2017-01-01

    Tracheal stenosis is a complex condition caused by altered inflammatory response to injury and subsequent excessive circumferential scar formation. Surgical resection, wherever possible, offers the best long-term results. Nonsurgical methods provide immediate relief to all can be curative in few but mostly serve as an excellent bridge to surgery in majority. The purpose of this study is to retrospectively evaluate the outcome following surgery for benign tracheal stenosis at our center. This retrospective analysis was conducted on 18 patients who underwent resection and anastomosis for tracheal stenosis at our center between March 2012 and December 2015. Their records were analyzed for demography, history, clinical presentation, computed tomography, bronchoscopy details, preoperative interventions, indications for and details of surgery, the procedure performed, postoperative complications, and course during 6 months follow-up. The patients had a varied list of pathologies for which they were either intubated or tracheostomized. The length of stenosis ranged between 1 cm and 4 cm. The diameter of stenotic segment ranged between 0 mm and 10 mm. Average length of resected segment was 3 cm, and number of tracheal rings resected ranged from 2 to 9. Postoperative complications occurred in four patients (22.22%). All our patients were in the "excellent outcome" category at discharge as well as at 3 months follow-up. Surgical management of tracheal stenosis is challenging and requires multidisciplinary team approach. Thorough preoperative preparation and multidisciplinary planning regarding need for and timing of surgery, meticulous intraoperative technique, and aggressive postoperative care is key to successful surgery, which can provide long-lasting cure to these patients.

  20. Resection and anastomosis for benign tracheal stenosis: Single institution experience of 18 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tracheal stenosis is a complex condition caused by altered inflammatory response to injury and subsequent excessive circumferential scar formation. Surgical resection, wherever possible, offers the best long-term results. Nonsurgical methods provide immediate relief to all can be curative in few but mostly serve as an excellent bridge to surgery in majority. The purpose of this study is to retrospectively evaluate the outcome following surgery for benign tracheal stenosis at our center. Materials and Methods: This retrospective analysis was conducted on 18 patients who underwent resection and anastomosis for tracheal stenosis at our center between March 2012 and December 2015. Their records were analyzed for demography, history, clinical presentation, computed tomography, bronchoscopy details, preoperative interventions, indications for and details of surgery, the procedure performed, postoperative complications, and course during 6 months follow-up. Results: The patients had a varied list of pathologies for which they were either intubated or tracheostomized. The length of stenosis ranged between 1 cm and 4 cm. The diameter of stenotic segment ranged between 0 mm and 10 mm. Average length of resected segment was 3 cm, and number of tracheal rings resected ranged from 2 to 9. Postoperative complications occurred in four patients (22.22%. All our patients were in the “excellent outcome” category at discharge as well as at 3 months follow-up. Conclusions: Surgical management of tracheal stenosis is challenging and requires multidisciplinary team approach. Thorough preoperative preparation and multidisciplinary planning regarding need for and timing of surgery, meticulous intraoperative technique, and aggressive postoperative care is key to successful surgery, which can provide long-lasting cure to these patients.