WorldWideScience

Sample records for tracer study results

  1. Tracer studies with aortic infusion result in improper tracer distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisneski, J.A.; Brooks, G.A.; Neese, R.A.; Stanley, W.C.; Morris, D.L.; Gertz, E.W.

    1986-01-01

    It has been suggested that lactate turnover can be accurately assessed by infusing radioactive lactate tracer into the aorta and sampling blood in the vena cava. However, there may be streaming of newly infused tracer in the aorta, resulting in a nonuniform arterial specific activity (SA). Furthermore vena caval blood may not be representative of mixed venous blood. The authors examined this problem in 7 anesthetized dogs with sampling catheters in the pulmonary (PA), carotid (CA), and femoral (FA) arteries, and the superior (SVC) and inferior (IVC) vena cavi. [1- 14 C]lactate was continuously infused into the left ventricle through a catheter introduced through the femoral artery. The same SA (dpm/μmol) was found in the CA and FA, indicating adequate mixing of newly infused tracer with trace. Three dogs showed differences between SVC, IVC and PA, suggesting a mixed venous sample can not be obtained from the VC. When the catheter was moved into the aorta, wide differences in SA appeared between the CA and FA, clearly reflecting streaming of tracer. These differences also appeared in the SVC and IVC. In conclusion, adequate mixing does not occur between tracer and trace in arterial blood with aortic infusion. Further, VC sampling will not give a consistent mixed venous SA. Therefore, for practical reasons, aortic tracer infusion with vena caval sampling will lead to erroneous turnover values

  2. Compilation and analyses of results from cross-hole tracer tests with conservative tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjerne, Calle; Nordqvist, Rune; Harrstroem, Johan (Geosigma AB (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    Radionuclide transport in hydrogeological formations is one of the key factors for the safety analysis of a future repository of nuclear waste. Tracer tests have therefore been an important field method within the SKB investigation programmes at several sites since the late 1970's. This report presents a compilation and analyses of results from cross-hole tracer tests with conservative tracers performed within various SKB investigations. The objectives of the study are to facilitate, improve and reduce uncertainties in predictive tracer modelling and to provide supporting information for SKB's safety assessment of a final repository of nuclear waste. More specifically, the focus of the report is the relationship between the tracer mean residence time and fracture hydraulic parameters, i.e. the relationship between mass balance aperture and fracture transmissivity, hydraulic diffusivity and apparent storativity. For 74 different combinations of pumping and injection section at six different test sites (Studsvik, Stripa, Finnsjoen, Aespoe, Forsmark, Laxemar), estimates of mass balance aperture from cross-hole tracer tests as well as transmissivity were extracted from reports or in the SKB database Sicada. For 28 of these combinations of pumping and injection section, estimates of hydraulic diffusivity and apparent storativity from hydraulic interference tests were also found. An empirical relationship between mass balance aperture and transmissivity was estimated, although some uncertainties for individual data exist. The empirical relationship between mass balance aperture and transmissivity presented in this study deviates considerably from other previously suggested relationships, such as the cubic law and transport aperture as suggested by /Dershowitz and Klise 2002/, /Dershowitz et al. 2002/ and /Dershowitz et al. 2003/, which also is discussed in this report. No clear and direct empirical relationship between mass balance aperture and hydraulic

  3. The European Tracer Experiment - experimental results and database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nodop, K.; Connolly, R.; Girardi, F.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the European Tracer Experiment (ETEX) two successful atmospheric experiments were carried out in October and November, 1994. Perfluorocarbon (PFC) tracers were released into the atmosphere in Monterfil, Brittany, and air samples were taken at 168 stations in 17 European countries for 72 hours after the release. Upper air tracer measurements were made from three aircraft. During the first experiment a westerly air flow transported the tracer plume north-eastwards across Europe. During the second release the flow was eastwards. The results from the ground sampling network allowed the determination of the cloud evolution as far as Sweden, Poland and Bulgaria. Typical background concentrations of the tracer used are around 5 to 7 fl/l in ambient air. Concentrations in the plume ranged from 10 to above 200 fl/l. The tracer release characteristics, the tracer concentrations at the ground and in upper air, the routine and additional meteorological observations at the ground level and in upper air, trajectories derived from constant-level balloons and the meteorological input fields for long-range transport (LRT) models are assembled in the ETEX database. The ETEX database is accessible via the Internet

  4. INTRAVAL Finnsjoen Test - modelling results for some tracer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakob, A.; Hadermann, J.

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the results within Phase II of the INTRAVAL study. Migration experiments performed at the Finnsjoen test site were investigated. The study was done to gain an improved understanding of not only the mechanisms of tracer transport, but also the accuracy and limitations of the model used. The model is based on the concept of a dual porosity medium, taking into account one dimensional advection, longitudinal dispersion, sorption onto the fracture surfaces, diffusion into connected pores of the matrix rock, and sorption onto matrix surfaces. The number of independent water carrying zones, represented either as planar fractures or tubelike veins, may be greater than one, and the sorption processes are described either by linear or non-linear Freundlich isotherms assuming instantaneous sorption equilibrium. The diffusion of the tracer out of the water-carrying zones into connected pore space of the adjacent rock is calculated perpendicular to the direction of the advective/dispersive flow. In the analysis, the fluid flow parameters are calibrated by the measured breakthrough curves for the conservative tracer (iodide). Subsequent fits to the experimental data for the two sorbing tracers strontium and cesium then involve element dependent parameters providing information on the sorption processes and on its representation in the model. The methodology of fixing all parameters except those for sorption with breakthrough curves for non-sorbing tracers generally worked well. The investigation clearly demonstrates the necessity of taking into account pump flow rate variations at both boundaries. If this is not done, reliable conclusions on transport mechanisms or geometrical factors can not be achieved. A two flow path model reproduces the measured data much better than a single flow path concept. (author) figs., tabs., 26 refs

  5. Isotopes as tracers of the oceanic circulation: Results from the World Ocean Circulation Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, P.; Jenkins, W.J.; Key, R.; Lupton, J.

    2002-01-01

    During the past decades, natural and anthropogenic isotopes such as tritium ( 3 H), radiocarbon ( 14 C), 3 He, or the stable isotopes of water have been used in studies of the dynamics of natural systems. Early applications of tracers to studies of the ocean were directed at determination of circulation patterns and mean residence times of specific water masses, as well as estimates of mixing coefficients. These exploratory studies suggested that tracers can add significantly to our understanding of the oceanic circulation. In order to fully exploit this potential, the first global tracer study, the GEochemical Ocean SECtions Study (GEOSECS), was launched. From the GEOSECS results it was immediately apparent that very close coordination of tracer programs with physical oceanography studies is required for full utilization of tracer data. During the 1980s plans for the World OCean Experiment (WOCE) were developed. As part of its Hydrographic Program (WHP), especially during the one-time survey, a set of tracers were measured on a global scale with unprecedented spatial resolution (both lateral and vertical). The original plan included a larger number of tracers (CFCs, 3 H/ 3 He, 14 C, 39 Ar, stable isotopes of water, helium isotopes, 228 Ra, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 85 Kr) than could actually be measured systematically (CFCs, 3 H/ 3 He, 14 C, H 2 18 O/H 2 16 O, helium isotopes). Nevertheless, the resulting data set, which presently is under evaluation, exceeds those obtained from pre-WOCE tracer studies by a wide margin. In this contribution, we describe the existing WOCE data set and demonstrate the type of results that can be expected from its interpretation on the basis of a few selected examples. These examples include: (1) the application of tritium and 3 He to studies of the ventilation of the upper waters in the Pacific Ocean, (2) the spreading of intermediate water in the Pacific and Indian oceans as derived from the distribution of 3 He, and (3) the evaluation of

  6. IMAGE Project: Results of Laboratory Tests on Tracers for Supercritical Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandvoll, Øyvind; Opsahl Viig, Sissel; Nardini, Isabella; Muller, Jiri

    2016-04-01

    The use of tracers is a well-established technique for monitoring dynamic behaviour of water and gas through a reservoir. In geothermal reservoirs special challenges are encountered due to high temperatures and pressures. In this work, tracer candidates for monitoring water at supercritical conditions (temperature > 374°C, pressure ca 218 bar), are tested in laboratory experiments. Testing of tracers at supercritical water conditions requires experimental set-ups which tolerate harsh conditions with respect to high temperature and pressure. In addition stringent HES (health, environment and safety) factors have to be taken into consideration when designing and performing the experiments. The setup constructed in this project consists of a pressure vessel, high pressure pump, instrumentation for pressure and temperature control and instrumentation required for accurate sampling of tracers. In order to achieve accurate results, a special focus has been paid to the development of the tracer sampling technique. Perfluorinated cyclic hydrocarbons (PFCs) have been selected as tracer candidates. This group of compounds is today commonly used as gas tracers in oil reservoirs. According to the literature they are stable at temperatures up to 400°C. To start with, five PFCs have been tested for thermal stability in static experiments at 375°C and 108 bar in the experimental setup described above. The tracer candidates will be further tested for several months at the relevant conditions. Preliminary results indicate that some of the PFC compounds show stability after three months. However, in order to arrive at conclusive results, the experiments have to be repeated over a longer period and paying special attention to more accurate sampling procedures.

  7. Results of repeat tracer tests at Ohaaki, NZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, W.J.; Morris, C.

    1995-01-01

    During 20 years of tracer testing at Ohaaki a number of wells have been used more than once as tracer injection sites. In studying the various responses obtained it has been necessary to consider variations in the experimental test conditions before making comparisons which relate to field conditions. Some very significant changes have occurred in the field hydrology in recent years and water flow speeds as high as those encountered at Wairakei have been demonstrated. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs

  8. Tracer a application in marine outfall studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genders, S.

    1979-01-01

    The applicability of radioactive and fluorescent tracers for field studies to predict or investigate waste water transport and dispersion from marine outfalls is evaluated. The application of either instantaneous or continuous tracer release, 'in situ' detection of tracers and data processing are considered. The necessity of a combined use of tracer techniques and conventional hydrographic methods for a statistical prediction of transport and dillution of waste water are pointed out. A procedure to determine an outlet distance from the coast, which satisfy bathing water criteria is outlined. (M.A.) [pt

  9. Bromide as a tracer for studying water movement and nitrate displacement in soils: comparison with stable isotope tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russow, R.; Knappe, S.

    1999-01-01

    Tracers are an ideal means of studying water movement and associated nitrate displacement. Often bromide is preferred as a tracer because it is considered a representative tracer for water and because, being a conservative tracer (i.e. not involved in chemical and biological soil processes), it can be used for studying anion transport in soils. Moreover, it is less expensive and easier to measure than the stable isotopes deuterium and 15 N. Its great advantage over radioactive tracers (e.g. tritium), which outweighs their extreme sensitivity and ease of measurement and which it has in common with stable isotopes, is that it does not require radiation protection measures. However, there are also constraints on the use of bromide as a tracer in soil/water/plant systems. Our own studies on different soils using D 2 O, bromide and [ 15 N]-nitrate in lysimeters suggest that the above assumptions on bromide tracers need not always be valid under conditions as they prevail in biologically active soils. As the present paper shows, these studies permit a good assessment of the possibilities and limits to these tracers [de

  10. Sistem Pre Kompilasi Data Tracer Studi Online Ditjen Belmawa Ristekdikti (Studi Kasus: Politeknik Harapan Bersama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Very Kurnia Bakti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tracer studi merupakan salah satu upaya yang diharapkan dapat menyediakan informasi untuk mengevaluasi hasil pendidikan di Politeknik Harapan Bersama dari kuisioner yang diberikan kepada alumni. Kegiatan tracer studi ini sudah dilaksanakan secara online, namun masih terdapat kendala pada bagian sistem yang digunakan saat ini, hal tersebut menyebabkan Politeknik Harapan Bersama tidak dapat melaporkan / mengunggah hasil tracer studi kepada Ditjen Belmawa Ristekdikti, dimana form kuisioner dan data export tracer studi yang dihasilkan berbeda dengan kebutuhan seperti yang tercantum pada surat edaran No. 313/B/SE/2016 tentang pelaksanaan tracer studi di tingkat perguruan tinggi. Mengingat pentingnya tracer studi sebagai umpan balik bagi Politeknik Harapan Bersama, maka perlu solusi untuk mengatasi kekurangan sistem ini. Dengan merubah sistem yang ada dengan sistem tracer studi yang baru merupakan solusi yang tepat dalam permasalahan ini. Sistem tracer studi yang baru mampu menghasilkan data tracer studi alumni dan pengisian form kuisioner sesuai dengan standar Ditjen Belmawa Ristekdikti yang dapat diunggah sistem tracer studi ristekdikti.

  11. Radioisotope tracers in industrial flow studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easey, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    The scope of radioisotope tracer work carried out by ANSTO has involved most sectors of Australian industry including iron and steel coal, chemical, petrochemical, natural gas, metallurgical, mineral, power generation, liquified air plant, as well as port authorities, water and sewerage instrumentalities, and environmental agencies. A major class of such studies concerns itself with flow and wear studies involving industrial equipment. Some examples are discussed which illustrate the utility of radioisotope tracer techniques in these applications

  12. Partitioning tracers for measuring residual NAPL: Field-scale test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annable, M.D.; Rao, P.S.C.; Hatfield, K.; Graham, W.D.; Wood, A.L.; Enfield, C.G.

    1998-01-01

    The difficult task of locating and quantifying nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) present in the vadose and saturated zones has prompted the development of innovative, nondestructive characterization techniques. The use of the interwell partitioning tracer's (IWPT) test, in which tracers that partition into the NAPL phase are displaced through the aquifer, is an attractive alternative to traditional coring and analysis. The first field test of IWPT was conducted in a hydraulically isolated test cell to quantify the total amount of a complex NAPL (a mixture of JP-4 jet fuel and chlorinated solvents) trapped within a 1.5-m smear zone in a shallow, unconfined sand and gravel aquifer at Hill Air Force Base (AFB), Utah. Tracer breakthrough curves (BTCs) were measured in three extraction wells (EWs) following a tracer pulse introduction through four injection wells (IWs). The measured retardation of the partitioning tracer (2,2-dimethyl-3-pentanol) relative to the nonreactive tracer (bromide) was used to quantify the NAPL present. The EW data were used to estimate an average NAPL saturation of 4.6--5.4% within the test cell. NAPL saturations estimated by using measured concentrations in soil cores of two significant compounds present in the NAPL were 3.0 and 4.6%

  13. Tracer simulation using a global general circulation model: Results from a midlatitude instantaneous source experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlman, J.D.; Moxim, W.J.

    1978-01-01

    An 11-level general circulation model with seasonal variation is used to perform an experiment on the dispersion of passive tracers. Specially constructed time-dependent winds from this model are used as input to a separate tracer model. The methodologies employed to construct the tracer model are described.The experiment presented is the evolution of a hypothetical instantaneous source of tracer on 1 Janaury with maximum initial concentration at 65 mb, 36 0 N, 180 0 E. The tracer is assumed to have no sources or sinks in the stratosphere, but is subject to removal processes in the lower troposphere.The experimental results reveal a number of similarities to observed tracer behavior, including the average poleward-downward slope of mixing ratio isopleths, strong tracer gradients across the tropopause, intrusion of tracer into the Southern Hemisphere lower stratosphere, and the long-term interhemispheric exchange rate. The model residence times show behavior intermediate to those exhibited for particulate radioactive debris and gaseous C 14 O 2 . This suggests that caution should be employed when either radioactive debris or C 14 O 2 data are used to develop empirical models for prediction of gaseous tracers which are efficiently removed in the troposphere.In this experiment, the tracer mixing ratio and potential vorticity evolve to very high correlations. Mechanisms for this correlation are discussed. The zonal mean tracer balances exhibit complex behavior among the various transport terms. At early stages, the tracer evolution is dominated by eddy effects. Later, a very large degree of self-cancellation between mean cell and eddy effects is observed. During seasonal transitions, however, this self-cancellation diminishes markedly, leading to significant changes in the zonal mean tracer distribution. A possible theoretical explanation is presented

  14. Tracer movement in a single fissure in granitic rock - some experimental results and their interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neretnieks, I.; Eriksen, T.; Taetinen, P.

    1980-08-01

    Radionuclide migration was studied in a natural fissure in a granite core. The fissure was oriented parallel to the axis in a cylindrical core 30 cm long and 20 in diameter. The traced solution was injected at one end of the core and collected at the other. Breakthrough curves were obtained for the nonsorbing tracers tritiated water, and a large molecular weight lignosulphonate molecule and the sorbing tracers cesium and strontium. From the breakthrough curves for the nonsorbing tracers it could be concluded that channeling occurs in the single fissure. A 'dispersion' model based on channeling is presented. The results from the sorbing tracers indicate that there is substantial diffusion into and sorption in the rock matrix. Sorption on the surface of the fissure also accounts for a part of the retardation effect of the sorbing species. A model which includes the mechanisms of channeling, surface sorption matrix diffusion and matrix sorption is presented. The experimental breakthrough curves can be fitted fairly well by this model by use of independently obtained data on diffusivities and matrix sorption. (author)

  15. Tracer Movement in a Single Fissure in Granitic Rock: Some Experimental Results and Their Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neretnieks, Ivars; Eriksen, Tryggve; TäHtinen, PäIvi

    1982-08-01

    Radionuclide migration was studied in a natural fissure in a granite core. The fissure was oriented parallel to the axis in a cylindrical core 30 cm long and 20 cm in diameter. The traced solution was injected at one end of the core and collected at the other. Breakthrough curves were obtained for the nonsorbing tracers, tritiated water, and a large-molecular-weight lignosulphonate molecule and for the sorbing tracers, cesium and strontium. From the breakthrough curves for the nonsorbing tracers it could be concluded that channeling occurs in the single fissure. A `dispersion' model based on channeling is presented. The results from the sorbing tracers indicate that there is substantial diffusion into and sorption in the rock matrix. Sorption on the surface of the fissure also accounts for a part of the retardation effect of the sorbing species. A model which includes the mechanisms of channeling, surface sorption, matrix diffusion, and matrix sorption is presented. The experimental breakthrough curves can be fitted fairly well by this model by use of independently obtained data on diffusivities and matrix sorption.

  16. Elevated source SF6-tracer dispersion experiments in the Copenhagen area. Preliminary results II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryning, S.E.; Lyck, E.

    1980-01-01

    The results from 10 experiments, performed in neutral to unstable meteorological conditions, are reported from an ongoing series of elevated-source, urban-scale tracer dispersion experiments in the Copenhagen area. The tracer is released at a height of 115 m from the TV-tower in GLADSAXE, a suburb of Copenhagen, with tracer sampling units positioned at ground-level in 1 to 3 crosswind series, 2 to 6 km downwind of the tower. The lateral dispersion parameter, sigma(y), was estimated from the measured tracer concentration distribution and compared with values of sigma(y), computed by 1) methods based on wind variance measured during the experiments and 2) methods based on a stability classification of the atmospheric conditions. The wind-variance based methods proved superior in predicting the variation of sigma(y) compared with the stability based methods. Moreover, some of the former methods produced significantly biased estimates of sigma(y). The measured tracer concentration distributions were also crosswind integrated, chi(CWI). Estimates of chi(CWI) were computed using sigma (z) -values derived from the aforementioned computations assuming a Gaussian-type vertical tracer concentration distribution. A comparison is measured and calculated values of chi(CWI) showed no significant differences in the ability of the methods to predict the variation of chi(CWI). Only one method, the EPA, came out with a mean fractional error outside the range +-20% which constitutes the uncertainty in the absolute tracer concentration associated with the calibration of the gas chromatograph for tracer analysis

  17. Deuterium used as artificial tracer in column studies under saturated water flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeniger, P.; Geiges, M.; Leibundgut, Ch.

    2003-04-01

    In contrast to numerous investigations using deuterium as an environmental tracer, hydrological investigations with deuterium-labelled water are rather rare. Currently applications in groundwater studies are restricted due to increasing costs of spiking large water quantities but an application as intelligent tracer might be of advantage especially in combination with other tracers and under distinct environmental conditions. Therefore deuterium was applied as artificial tracer in column experiments that are well proved as a tool to characterise tracer behaviour in recent studies. Deuterium was tested in comparison to the more familiar conservative tracer fluorescein. Varying experimental conditions, e.g. column length (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 m), initial tracer concentration (0.01, 0.02, 0.2 mg) and flow velocity (1.5 to 6.0 m/d) were used to investigate tracer behaviour under saturated water flow conditions. Deuterium was analysed using an H/Device with chrome reduction connected to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer and expressed in relative concentrations [per mill V-SMOW]. Theoretical tracer breakthrough curves were calculated using a one dimensional dispersion model. The results indicate higher mean transport velocities and smaller dispersion for deuterium in all experiments. Due to different molecule properties that also determine the interaction of soil substrate and tracer, deuterium indicates a more conservative transport behaviour. Deuterium is non-toxic, completely soluble, chemically and biologically stable and not subject to light-influenced decay. Furthermore, it shows promise for investigations of water flow in the unsaturated zone, and of interactions of water in soil-plant-atmosphere systems. A further discussion of problems, together with possibilities for applying deuterium as an artificial tracer, will be presented.

  18. A study plan for determining recharge rates at the Hanford Site using environmental tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, E.M.; Szercsody, J.E.; Phillips, S.J.

    1991-02-01

    This report presents a study plan for estimating recharge at the Hanford Site using environmental tracers. Past operations at the Hanford Site have led to both soil and groundwater contamination, and recharge is one of the primary mechanisms for transporting contaminants through the vadose zone and into the groundwater. An alternative to using fixed lysimeters for determining recharge rates in the vadose zone is to use environmental tracers. Tracers that have been used to study water movement in the vadose zone include total chloride, 36 Cl, 3 H, and 2 H/ 18 O. Atmospheric levels of 36 Cl and 3 H increased during nuclear bomb testing in the Pacific, and the resulting ''bomb pulse'' or peak concentration can be measured in the soil profile. Locally, past operations at the Hanford Site have resulted in the atmospheric release of numerous chemical and isotopic tracers, including nitrate, 129 I, and 99 Tc. Seven study sites on the Hanford Site have been selected, in two primary soil types that are believed to represent the extremes in recharge, the Quincy sand and the Warden silt loam. An additional background study site upwind of the Hanford facilities has been chosen at the Yakima Firing Center. Six tracer techniques (total chloride, 36 Cl, 3 H, nitrate, 129 I, and 99 Tc) will be tested on at least one site in the Quincy sand, one site in the Warden silt loam, and the background site, to determine which combination of tracers works best for a given soil type. In subsequent years, additional sites will be investigated. The use of environmental tracers is perhaps the only cost-effective method for estimating the spatial variability of recharge at a site as large as Hanford. The tracer techniques used at Hanford have wide applicability at other arid sites. 166 refs., 41 figs., 16 tabs

  19. Hanford facilities tracer study report (315 Water Treatment Facility)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambalam, T.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results and findings of a tracer study to determine contact time for the disinfection process of 315 Water Treatment Facility that supplies sanitary water for the 300 Area. The study utilized fluoride as the tracer and contact times were determined for two flow rates. Interpolation of data and short circuiting effects are also discussed. The 315 Water Treatment Facility supplies sanitary water for the 300 Area to various process and domestic users. The Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR), outlined in the 1986 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments enacted by the EPA in 1989 and regulated by the Washington State Department of Health (DOH) in Section 246-290-600 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC), stipulates filtration and disinfection requirements for public water systems under the direct influence of surface water. The SWTR disinfection guidelines require that each treatment system achieves predetermined inactivation ratios. The inactivation by disinfection is approximated with a measure called CxT, where C is the disinfectant residual concentration and T is the effective contact time of the water with the disinfectant. The CxT calculations for the Hanford water treatment plants were derived from the total volume of the contact basin(s). In the absence of empirical data to support CxT calculations, the DOH determined that the CxT values used in the monthly reports for the water treatment plants on the Hanford site were invalid and required the performance of a tracer study at each plant. In response to that determination, a tracer study will be performed to determine the actual contact times of the facilities for the CxT calculations

  20. Potential study of bed filtration characteristics in impressed boreholes by radon tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinov, A.A.; Pinkenzon, D.B.; Makarov, M.S.; Vinarskij, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    Potential study of bed filtration characteristics in impressed boreholes by radon tracer method is shown. Effects recorded by radon tracer result from gamma radiation of short-living radon decay daughter products. During filtration of tracer through punched holes, cement stone, and rocks the products are deposited and cause a local effect for 2-3 hours. There is a shortage of short-living products in filtrated radon liquid and for some time (which is necessary for production of notable quantity of new decay products) it is practically not a gamma emitter. It is shown that the feature of effect formation governs the technique for well logging as well as interpretation of the results obtained

  1. Development of radioisotope tracer technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Joon Ha; Lee, Myun Joo; Jung, Sung Hee; Park, Soon Chul; Lim, Dong Soon; Kim, Jae Ho; Lee, Jae Choon; Lee, Doo Sung; Cho, Yong Suk; Shin, Sung Kuan

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the radioisotope tracer technology, which can be used in solving industrial and environmental problems and to build a strong tracer group to support the local industries. In relation to the tracer technology in 1999, experiments to estimate the efficiencies of a sludge digester of a waste water treatment plant and a submerged biological reactor of a dye industry were conducted. As a result, the tracer technology for optimization of facilities related to wastewater treatment has been developed and is believed to contribute to improve their operation efficiency. The quantification of the experimental result was attempted to improve the confidence of tracer technology by ECRIN program which basically uses the MCNP simulation principle. Using thin layer activation technique, wear of tappet shim was estimated. Thin layer surface of a tappet shim was irradiated by proton beam and the correlation between the measured activity loss and the amount of wear was established. The equipment was developed to adjust the energy of proton which collides with the surface of tappet. The tracer project team has participated into the tracer test for estimating the efficiency of RFCC system in SK cooperation. From the experiment the tracer team has obtained the primary elements to be considered for judging the efficiency of RFCC unit. By developing the tracer techniques to test huge industrial units like RFCC, the tracer team will be able to support the local industries that require technical services to solve any urgent trouble. (author)

  2. Quadratic tracer dynamical models tobacco growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang Jiyi; Hua Cuncai; Wang Shaohua

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the non-uniformly transferring process of some tracer dosages, we assume that the absorption of some tracer by tobacco is a quadratic function of the tracer quantity of the tracer in the case of fast absorption, whereas the exclusion of the tracer from tobacco is a linear function of the tracer quantity in the case of slow exclusion, after the tracer is introduced into tobacco once at zero time. A single-compartment quadratic dynamical model of Logistic type is established for the leaves of tobacco. Then, a two-compartment quadratic dynamical model is established for leaves and calms of the tobacco. Qualitative analysis of the models shows that the tracer applied to the leaves of the tobacco is excluded finally; however, the tracer stays at the tobacco for finite time. Two methods are also given for computing the parameters in the models. Finally, the results of the models are verified by the 32 P experiment for the absorption of tobacco. (authors)

  3. Stable nuclide tracer studies and human amino acid requirements. A summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, V.R.

    1994-01-01

    The nutritional requirements for proteins have been estimated for various age groups. The current status of knowledge concerning the quantitative needs for specific indispensable amino acids was reviewed and it was concluded that, except for infants, current values for pre-school children, school age children and healthy adults are based on limited experimental data and/or on results from nitrogen balance determinations which are open to serious question regarding their nutritional significance. A review of 13 C-labelled tracer studies carried out in MIT laboratories was undertaken to demonstrate the applicability of stable nuclide tracer studies for purposes of determining the amino acid requirements of humans. 5 refs

  4. Bromide as a tracer for studying water movement and nitrate displacement in soils: comparison with stable isotope tracers; Bromid als Tracer zur Untersuchung der Wasserbewegung und der Nitratverlagerung in Boeden: Vergleich mit stabilisotopen Tracern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russow, R.; Knappe, S. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Bad Lauchstaedt (Germany). Sektion Bodenforschung

    1999-02-01

    Tracers are an ideal means of studying water movement and associated nitrate displacement. Often bromide is preferred as a tracer because it is considered a representative tracer for water and because, being a conservative tracer (i.e. not involved in chemical and biological soil processes), it can be used for studying anion transport in soils. Moreover, it is less expensive and easier to measure than the stable isotopes deuterium and {sup 15}N. Its great advantage over radioactive tracers (e.g. tritium), which outweighs their extreme sensitivity and ease of measurement and which it has in common with stable isotopes, is that it does not require radiation protection measures. However, there are also constraints on the use of bromide as a tracer in soil/water/plant systems. Our own studies on different soils using D{sub 2}O, bromide and [{sup 15}N]-nitrate in lysimeters suggest that the above assumptions on bromide tracers need not always be valid under conditions as they prevail in biologically active soils. As the present paper shows, these studies permit a good assessment of the possibilities and limits to these tracers. [Deutsch] Fuer die Untersuchung der Wasserbewegung sowie der daran gekoppelten Nitrat-Verlagerung ist der Einsatz von Tracern das Mittel der Wahl. Dabei wird Bromid als Tracer haeufig bevorzugt, da es allgemein als ein repraesentativer Tracer fuer Wasser und als konservativer Tracer (nicht involviert in chemische und biologische Bodenprozesse) zur Untersuchung des Anionentransportes in Boeden angesehen wird und es gegenueber den stabilen Isotopen Deuterium und {sup 15}N billiger und einfacher zu bestimmen ist. Gegenueber den radioaktiven Tracern (z.B. Tritium), die zwar sehr empfindlich und einfach messbar sind, besteht der grosse Vorteil, dass, wie bei den stabilen Isotopen, keine Strahlenschutzmassnahmen ergriffen werden muessen. Es gibt jedoch auch einschraenkende Hinweise fuer die Verwendung von Bromid als Tracer im System Boden

  5. Radioisotope tracer study in an aniline production reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, H.J.; Yelgoankar, V.N.; Mendhekar, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    A radioisotope tracer study was carried out in an aniline production reactor to investigate the cause of poor heat transfer from tube side to shell side in an aniline production (ANPO) reactor. The results of the study indicated that more than 50% of the shell volume was reduced due to deposition of the process material (i.e. fouling) on the shell walls and may be the cause of poor heat transfer in the reactor. (author). 2 refs., 2 figs

  6. Tracer theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margrita, R.

    1988-09-01

    Tracers are used in many fields of science to investigate mass transfer. The scope of tracers applications in Service of Applications Radioisotopes (S.A.R.-France) is large and concerns natural and industrial systems such as Sciences of earth: hydrology - civil engineering - Sedimentology - environmental studies. Industrial field: chemical engineering - mechanical engineering. A general tracer methodology has been developed in our laboratories from these different applications fields and this paper shows these different points of view in using tracers; our wish is that the methods used in an experimental field can be employed in an another one

  7. Tracers and Tracer Testing: Design, Implementation, Tracer Selection, and Interpretation Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Michael Shook; Shannon L.; Allan Wylie

    2004-01-01

    Conducting a successful tracer test requires adhering to a set of steps. The steps include identifying appropriate and achievable test goals, identifying tracers with the appropriate properties, and implementing the test as designed. When these steps are taken correctly, a host of tracer test analysis methods are available to the practitioner. This report discusses the individual steps required for a successful tracer test and presents methods for analysis. The report is an overview of tracer technology; the Suggested Reading section offers references to the specifics of test design and interpretation.

  8. Rate equations for tracer studies in recirculating reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Happel, J [Columbia Univ., New York (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1974-10-01

    The employment of isotopic tracers is a useful technique for gaining insight into the rate controlling steps of a complex chemical reaction such as is frequently encountered in heterogeneous catalysis. An effective procedure has been to superpose tracer transfer on a reaction which is occurring under steady state conditions. If tracer transfer is employed in this fashion it is often possible to assess the individual step velocities in an assumed reaction mechanism. If transient transfer of tracer is now introduced it is possible in addition to estimate surface concentrations of chemisorbed species. The purpose of the present paper is to present the mathematical relationships involved when transfer of the tracer is not differential in the investigation. For this purpose a simple example is chosen to illustrate the various possibilities involved.

  9. Rate equations for tracer studies in recirculatinng reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Happel, J.

    1974-01-01

    The employment of isotopic tracers is a useful technique for gaining insight into the rate controlling steps of a complex chemical reaction such as is frequently encountered in heterogeneous catalysis. An effective procedure has been to superpose tracer transfer on a reaction which is occurring under steady state conditions. If tracer transfer is employed in this fashion it is often possible to assess the individual step velocities in an assumed reaction mechanism. If transient transfer of tracer is now introduced it is possible in addition to estimate surface concentrations of chemisorbed species. The purpose of the present paper is to present the mathematical relationships involved when transfer of the tracer is not differential in the investigation. For this purpose a simple example is chosen to illustrate the various possibilities involved. (auth.)

  10. Air pollution tracer studies in the lower atmosphere (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for 1964-Jan 80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-02-01

    The cited reports cover research on the use of tracers to study lower atmospheric air pollution movements. The tracer used include sulfur hexafluoride, krypton 85, carbon 14, and other radioactive isotopes. The studies cite the results and techniques used, tracer movement from nuclear power plants, industrial stacks, urban areas, and the detectors used in their measurement

  11. Characterization of crushed tuff for the evaluation of the fate of tracers in transport studies in the unsaturated zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polzer, W.L.; Fuentes, H.R.; Raymond, R.; Bish, D.L.; Gladney, E.S.; Lopez, E.A.

    1987-03-01

    Results of field-scale (caisson) transport studies under unsaturated moisture and steady and nonsteady flow conditions indicate variability and a lack of conservation of mass in solute transport. The tuff materials used in that study were analyzed for the presence of tracers and of freshly precipitated material to help explain the variability and lack of conservation of mass. Selected tuff samples were characterized by neutron activation analysis for tracer identification, by x-ray diffraction for mineral identification, by petrographic analysis for identification of freshly precipitated material, and by x-ray fluorescence analysis for identification of major and trace elements. The results of these analyses indicate no obvious presence of freshly precipitated material that would retard tracer movement. The presence of the nonsorbing tracers (bromide and iodide) suggest the retention of these tracers in immobile water. The presence of the nonsorbing tracers (bromide and iodide) suggest the retention of these tracers in immobile water. The presence of sorbing and nonsorbing tracers on the tuff at some locations (even cesium at the 415-cm depth) and not at others suggests variability in transport. 15 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs

  12. Circulation of cerebrospinal fluid. Comparative study of various tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bok, B.; Thebault, B.; Cavailloles, F.; Aboulker, J.

    1977-01-01

    The dynamics of cerebrospinal fluid in the spinal subarachnoid space is studied by gammamyelography. There are still controversies about the ideal properties of the tracer to be used. The influence of the tracer's molecular weight on the kinetic of ascent in the medullar cerebrospinal fluid with a view to rating the criterias for choice of an available radiopharmaceutical was evaluated. Three compounds injected simultaneously through a lombar puncture were compared: indium 111 labelled transferrin, iodine 131 labelled human serum albumin and technetium 99m labelled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. The individual stability of the compounds and a possible interference between them was investigated especially by electrophoretic technics. A spectrometric study showed that it is possible to simultaneously identify and count each of the isotopes included in the mixture on the detector device: an hybrid scanner. The comparison of linear activity profils collected on phantoms and on ten patients showed a similar fate of the three compounds during the first hours of the investigation studying the ascent of tracers into basal cisterns either in normal or pathological patients. It is therefore concluded that molecular weight does not influence in a detectable manner the spinal C.S.F. kinetics of the radiopharmaceuticals. This allows the use of the most convenient and best tolerated tracer from the dosimetric and toxicological stand point [fr

  13. Identification and characterization of conservative organic tracers for use as hydrologic tracers for the Yucca Mountain site characterization study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stetzenbach, K.; Farnham, I.

    1996-01-01

    Extensive tracer testing is expected to take place at the C-well complex in the Nevada Test Site as part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The C-well complex consists of one pumping well, C3, and two injection wells, C1 and C2 into which tracer will be introduced. The goal of this research was to provide USGS with numerous tracers to completed these tests. Several classes of fluorinated organic acids have been evaluated. These include numerous isomers of fluorinated benzoic acids, cinnamic acids, and salicylic acids. Also several derivatives of 2-hydroxy nicotinic acid (pyridone) have been tested. The stability of these compounds was determined using batch and column tests. Ames testing (mutagenicity/carcinogenicity) was conducted on the fluorinated benzoic acids and a literature review of toxicity of the fluorobenzoates and three perfluoro aliphatic acids was prepared. Solubilities were measured and method development work was performed to optimize the detection of these compounds. A Quality Assurance (QA) Program was developed under existing DOE and USGS guidelines. The program includes QA procedures and technical standard operating procedures. A tracer test, using sodium iodide, was performed at the C-well complex. HRC chemists performed analyses on site, to provide real time data for the USGS hydrologists and in the laboratories at UNLV. Over 2,500 analyses were performed. This report provides the results of the laboratory experiments and literature reviews used to evaluate the potential tracers and reports on the results of the iodide C-well tracer test

  14. Identification and characterization of conservative organic tracers for use as hydrologic tracers for the Yucca Mountain site characterization study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stetzenbach, K.; Farnham, I.

    1996-06-01

    Extensive tracer testing is expected to take place at the C-well complex in the Nevada Test Site as part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The C-well complex consists of one pumping well, C3, and two injection wells, C1 and C2 into which tracer will be introduced. The goal of this research was to provide USGS with numerous tracers to completed these tests. Several classes of fluorinated organic acids have been evaluated. These include numerous isomers of fluorinated benzoic acids, cinnamic acids, and salicylic acids. Also several derivatives of 2-hydroxy nicotinic acid (pyridone) have been tested. The stability of these compounds was determined using batch and column tests. Ames testing (mutagenicity/carcinogenicity) was conducted on the fluorinated benzoic acids and a literature review of toxicity of the fluorobenzoates and three perfluoro aliphatic acids was prepared. Solubilities were measured and method development work was performed to optimize the detection of these compounds. A Quality Assurance (QA) Program was developed under existing DOE and USGS guidelines. The program includes QA procedures and technical standard operating procedures. A tracer test, using sodium iodide, was performed at the C-well complex. HRC chemists performed analyses on site, to provide real time data for the USGS hydrologists and in the laboratories at UNLV. Over 2,500 analyses were performed. This report provides the results of the laboratory experiments and literature reviews used to evaluate the potential tracers and reports on the results of the iodide C-well tracer test.

  15. An experimental study of tracers for labelling of injection gas in oil reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugstad, Oe.

    1992-01-01

    This work demonstrates the feasibility of the PMCP and PMCH as tracers in field experiments. These compounds have properties which make them as well suited for well to well studies as the more common tracers CH 3 T and 85 Kr. In an injection project carried out at the Gullfaks field in the North Sea the two PFCs verified communication between wells. This implies communication between different geological layers in the reservoir and also communication across faults within the same layers. Laboratory studies carried out have focused on the retention of the tracers in dynamic flooding experiments under conditions comparable with those in the petroleum reservoirs. Simultaneous injection of a variety of tracers has shown individual variations in tracer retention which are caused by important reservoir parameters as fluid saturation and rock properties. By proper design of field injection programs the tracers response may therefore be used to estimate fluid saturation if actual rock properties are known. 45 refs., 20 figs., 13 tabs

  16. Hydrodynamics of a commercial scale CFB boiler-study with radioactive tracer particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Weigang; Hansen, Peter F.B.; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental results with radioactive tracer particles in an 80 MWth circulating fluidized-bed boiler. Batches of gamma-ray emitting tracer particles were injected into the standpipe. The response curves of the impulse injection were measured by a set of successive scintil...

  17. Atmospheric tracer experiments for regional dispersion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heffter, J.L.; Ferber, G.J.

    1980-01-01

    Tracer experiments are being conducted to verify atmospheric transport and dispersion calculations at distances from tens to hundreds of km from pollutant sources. In one study, a 2 1/2 year sampling program has been carried out at 13 sites located 30 to 140 km from a source of 85 Kr at the Savannah River Plant in South Carolina. Average weekly concentrations as well as twice-daily concentrations were obtained. Sampling data and meteorological data, including surface, tower, and rawinsonde observations are available on magnetic tape for model verification studies. Some verification results for the Air Resources Laboratories Atmospheric Transort and Dispersion Model (ARL-ATAD) are shown for averaging periods from one week to two years

  18. Journal: Efficient Hydrologic Tracer-Test Design for Tracer ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrological tracer testing is the most reliable diagnostic technique available for the determination of basic hydraulic and geometric parameters necessary for establishing operative solute-transport processes. Tracer-test design can be difficult because of a lack of prior knowledge of the basic hydraulic and geometric parameters desired and the appropriate tracer mass to release. A new efficient hydrologic tracer-test design (EHTD) methodology has been developed to facilitate the design of tracer tests by root determination of the one-dimensional advection-dispersion equation (ADE) using a preset average tracer concentration which provides a theoretical basis for an estimate of necessary tracer mass. The method uses basic measured field parameters (e.g., discharge, distance, cross-sectional area) that are combined in functional relatipnships that descrive solute-transport processes related to flow velocity and time of travel. These initial estimates for time of travel and velocity are then applied to a hypothetical continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) as an analog for the hydrological-flow system to develop initial estimates for tracer concentration, tracer mass, and axial dispersion. Application of the predicted tracer mass with the hydraulic and geometric parameters in the ADE allows for an approximation of initial sample-collection time and subsequent sample-collection frequency where a maximum of 65 samples were determined to be necessary for descri

  19. Fluctuation theorem for an optically trapped tracer in dense colloids. A simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puertas Antonio M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The work supplied by an external parabolic potential that traps one tracer in a colloidal system is studied in this work by computer simulations. The density of the bath is changed from zero up to values close to the glass transition, and the velocity varies over several decades from the linear behaviour in the low Peclet limit to the high Peclet limit. The work distributions are analyzed using the model for the isolated Brownian partice, where the friction coefficient and temperature of the medium have been fitted to reproduce the position distribution of the tracer in the trap. The overall agreement is good but not perfect. The region of negative works is studied in more detail using the predictions of the fluctuation theorem, finding good qualitative agreement with the model of the isolated Brownian particle. The present results indicate that the fluctuation theorem is of application in cases where the tracer dynamics is complex, as predicted by theoretical works.

  20. Dynamic dual-tracer PET reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Liu, Huafeng; Jian, Yiqiang; Shi, Pengcheng

    2009-01-01

    Although of important medical implications, simultaneous dual-tracer positron emission tomography reconstruction remains a challenging problem, primarily because the photon measurements from dual tracers are overlapped. In this paper, we propose a simultaneous dynamic dual-tracer reconstruction of tissue activity maps based on guidance from tracer kinetics. The dual-tracer reconstruction problem is formulated in a state-space representation, where parallel compartment models serve as continuous-time system equation describing the tracer kinetic processes of dual tracers, and the imaging data is expressed as discrete sampling of the system states in measurement equation. The image reconstruction problem has therefore become a state estimation problem in a continuous-discrete hybrid paradigm, and H infinity filtering is adopted as the estimation strategy. As H infinity filtering makes no assumptions on the system and measurement statistics, robust reconstruction results can be obtained for the dual-tracer PET imaging system where the statistical properties of measurement data and system uncertainty are not available a priori, even when there are disturbances in the kinetic parameters. Experimental results on digital phantoms, Monte Carlo simulations and physical phantoms have demonstrated the superior performance.

  1. Site characterization and validation - Tracer migration experiment in the validation drift, report 2, part 1: performed experiments, results and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birgersson, L.; Widen, H.; Aagren, T.; Neretnieks, I.; Moreno, L.

    1992-01-01

    This report is the second of the two reports describing the tracer migration experiment where water and tracer flow has been monitored in a drift at the 385 m level in the Stripa experimental mine. The tracer migration experiment is one of a large number of experiments performed within the Site Characterization and Validation (SCV) project. The upper part of the 50 m long validation drift was covered with approximately 150 plastic sheets, in which the emerging water was collected. The water emerging into the lower part of the drift was collected in short boreholes, sumpholes. Sex different tracer mixtures were injected at distances between 10 and 25 m from the drift. The flowrate and tracer monitoring continued for ten months. Tracer breakthrough curves and flowrate distributions were used to study flow paths, velocities, hydraulic conductivities, dispersivities, interaction with the rock matrix and channelling effects within the rock. The present report describes the structure of the observations, the flowrate measurements and estimated hydraulic conductivities. The main part of this report addresses the interpretation of the tracer movement in fractured rock. The tracer movement as measured by the more than 150 individual tracer curves has been analysed with the traditional advection-dispersion model and a subset of the curves with the advection-dispersion-diffusion model. The tracer experiments have permitted the flow porosity, dispersion and interaction with the rock matrix to be studied. (57 refs.)

  2. Five channel data acquisition system for tracer studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narender Reddy, J.; Dhananjay Reddy, Y.; Dheeraj Reddy, J.

    2001-01-01

    Radioactive tracers are being used by many modern industries for trouble shooting, process control/quality control and optimization in the process plants. A five channel data acquisition system which has five independent scintillation detector based channels for data acquisition has been developed and made available. This system can be used for tracer studies involving Mean residence time, Resident time distribution and other similar parameters involving tracer movement. System developed can acquire data with dwell times ranging from 10 m sec to 100 sec into each channel and has a capacity to acquire data into 10K channels. Each channel electronics, has a 1x1 NaI Scintillation Detector probe, HV, AMP SCA, micro-controller based data acquisition card with independent dot matrix LCD display for visualization. Extensive use of serial bus (I 2 C, microwire) compatible devices has been incorporated in the design. Data acquisition is initiated simultaneously into all the channels. System design permits delayed/prompt data acquisition selectively. Dual counter switching technique has been employed to achieve faster dwell times for data acquisition. (author)

  3. Tumoral tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, E.E.

    1979-01-01

    Direct tumor tracers are subdivided in the following categories:metabolite tracers, antitumoral tracers, radioactive proteins and cations. Use of 67 Ga-citrate as a clinically important tumoral tracer is emphasized and gallium-67 whole-body scintigraphy is discussed in detail. (M.A.) [pt

  4. Use of radioactive tracers in dynamic sedimentology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tola, Francois.

    1982-01-01

    In the first part, developments in the use of radioactive tracers in sedimentology are recalled together with the corresponding fields of application and the identities of the main users. The state-of-the-art in France is also discussed; The main characteristics of the method are then described and compared with those of more classical methods. The results that can be obtained with tracer methods are then outlined. The criteria employed to establish the granulometry characteristics of the tracer, the particular radioisotope to be used, and the masses and activities involved, are treated. A list is then given of the main isotopes available in France and their characteristics. The various different labelling techniques employed are studied together with their respective advantages and disadvantages. The special case of pelitic sediments is mentioned. The use of reduced model isotope generators, double labelling and applications to studies of the mud plug in the Gironde Estuary are also discussed. The methods and materials used for injecting and detecting tracers are described, emphasis being given to the economic factors associated with the use of radioactive tracers in sedimentology. The second part of the report contains two chapters: - studies of transport by driftage: presentation and analysis of results and the application of the Count Rate Balance method to obtain quantitative information on transport; - studies of in-suspension transport of fine sediments in the sea: the procedures adopted from the moment when the tracer is introduced up to the time when the results are analyzed and interpreted, enables the trajectories and mean velocities of the transported sediments to be determined together with their degree of dilution and their settling speeds and rates; it is also possible to investigate the evolution and horizontal dispersion of the sediments in this way. Results from recent experiments are presented in both parts of the report

  5. Modelling and tracer studies of atmospheric dispersion and deposition in regions of complex topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norden, C.E.

    1981-11-01

    An indium tracer aerosol generating apparatus based on an alcohol/oxygen burner, and an analytical procedure by which filter samples containing tracer material could be analysed quantitatively by means of neutron activation analysis, were developed for use in atmospheric dispersion and deposition studies. A number of series of atmospheric dispersion experiments were conducted in the Richards Bay and Koeberg- Cape Town areas. The results are given, comparing the airbone tracer concentrations measured at ground level with values predicted by means of a numerical model, utilising two to three schemes, varying in sophistication, for calculating the dispersion coefficients. Recommendations are given regarding a dispersion model and dispersion coefficients for regular use in the Koeberg area, and ways for estimating plume trajectories

  6. Rapid dual-tracer PTSM+ATSM PET imaging of tumour blood flow and hypoxia: a simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, T C; Kadrmas, D J

    2006-01-01

    Blood flow and hypoxia are interrelated aspects of physiology that affect cancer treatment and response. Cu-PTSM and Cu-ATSM are related PET tracers for blood flow and hypoxia, and the ability to rapidly image both tracers in a single scan would bring several advantages over conventional single-tracer techniques. Using dynamic imaging with staggered injections, overlapping signals for multiple PET tracers may be recovered utilizing information from kinetics and radioactive decay. In this work, rapid dual-tracer PTSM+ATSM PET was simulated and tested as a function of injection delay, order and relative dose for several copper isotopes, and the results were compared relative to separate single-tracer data. Time-activity curves representing a broad range of tumour blood flow and hypoxia levels were simulated, and parallel dual-tracer compartment modelling was used to recover the signals for each tracer. The main results were tested further using a torso phantom simulation of PET tumour imaging. Using scans as short as 30 minutes, the dual-tracer method provided measures of blood flow and hypoxia similar to single-tracer imaging. The best performance was obtained by injecting PTSM first and using a somewhat higher dose for ATSM. Comparable results for different copper isotopes suggest that tracer kinetics with staggered injections play a more important role than radioactive decay in the signal separation process. Rapid PTSM+ATSM PET has excellent potential for characterizing both tumour blood flow and hypoxia in a single, fast scan, provided that technological hurdles related to algorithm development and routine use can be overcome

  7. Underground flux studies in waste basin of CIPC using natural and artificial tracers - v.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minardi, P.S.P.

    1982-10-01

    This report is a complement of the first volume and it has studies with natural tracers to be done on February and March/82, results and conclusions obtained with artificial tracers on March/82, every direction tests and flood course done up to october/82, besides mineralogical and complete qualitative analysis of soil obtained from sounding evidences done in mineral and industrial complex of Pocos de Caldas. (author)

  8. Environmental Tracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Elliot

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental tracers continue to provide an important tool for understanding the source, flow and mixing dynamics of water resource systems through their imprint on the system or their sensitivity to alteration within it. However, 60 years or so after the first isotopic tracer studies were applied to hydrology, the use of isotopes and other environmental tracers are still not routinely necessarily applied in hydrogeological and water resources investigations where appropriate. There is therefore a continuing need to promote their use for developing sustainable management policies for the protection of water resources and the aquatic environment. This Special Issue focuses on the robustness or fitness-for-purpose of the application and use of environmental tracers in addressing problems and opportunities scientifically, to promote their wider use and to address substantive issues of vulnerability, sustainability, and uncertainty in (groundwater resources systems and their management.

  9. Laboratory studies into the use of the scandium-46-EDTA complex as a tracer for groundwater flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, H.; Nixon, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    Gamma ray emitting metal radionuclides, when complexed with an appropriate complexing agent, provide a wide choice of water tracers particularly for groundwater studies where a radionuclide of appropriate half-life suited to the particular study can be selected. Scandium-46 has easily detectable gamma emission and a suitable half-life (84 days) for medium term studies. It has been widely and successfully used as a tracer in studies of sediment movement but has not yet been introduced as a groundwater tracer. In our experiments the chemical aspects of the preparation of Sc-46-EDTA were studied in some detail and its behaviour in various mineralogical environments was evaluated with reference to the standard tracer, tritiated water. The experimental results have shown that the scandium cation can be easily complexed with EDTA to form soluble SC-EDTA. The complex is very stable in a wide range of pH; the adsorptive properties of Sc-EDTA in the batch studies and the retardation and recovery in the column tests in comparison with tritiated water are quite satisfactory. In general Sc-46-EDTA is a promising tracer for groundwater studies. In the report the appropriate conditions, procedures and some rational and efficient methods for testing the purity of Sc-46-EDTA in the preparation of the tracer solution of Sc-46-EDTA are described. In addition, it has been found that the formation of the metal hydroxide colloids is the major reason for the great loss in groundwater aquifers of most trivalent metal nuclide tracers in the cationic form including scandium-46. (author). 29 refs, 11 figs, 12 tabs

  10. Joint DOE/NRC field study of tracer migration in the unsaturated zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.; Polzer, W.; Essington, E.; Cokal, E.; Lane, L.; Lopez, E.; Stallings, E.; Walker, R.

    1986-03-01

    The results of a joint DOE/NRC field experiment to evaluate leaching and transport of solutes in a sandy silt backfill used for shallow land burial operations at Los Alamos are presented for steady-state and unsteady-state flow conditions. The migration of iodide, bromide, and lithium through the backfill material is studied as functions of depth and time and they are compared with one another. The bromide and iodide tracer data are used to estimate the diffusion coefficient, the tortuosity factor, and dispersivity. These values are used to calculate effective dispersion coefficients for subsequent analyses of the retardation factor and the distribution coefficient for lithium using least squares procedures. The results of the tracer migration study are discussed relative to challenges facing the waste management community, and chemical transport modeling opportunities are presented for a modeling workshop to be held in FY86

  11. A Study Plan for Determining Recharge Rates at the Hanford Site Using Environmental Tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, E. M.; Szecsody, J. E.; Phillips, S. J.

    1991-02-01

    This report presents a study plan tor estimating recharge at the Hanford Site using environmental tracers. Past operations at the Hanford Site have led to both soil and groundwater contamination, and recharge is one of the primary mechanisms for transporting contaminants through the vadose zone and into the groundwater. The prediction of contaminant movement or transport is one aspect of performance assessment and an important step in the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process. In the past, recharge has been characterized by collecting lysimeter data. Although lysimeters can generate important and reliable data, their limitations include 1) fixed location, 2) fixed sediment contents, 3) edge effects, 4) low rates, and 5) relatively short duration of measurement. These limitations impact the ability to characterize the spatial distribution of recharge at the Hanford Site, and thus the ability to predict contaminant movement in the vadose zone. An alternative to using fixed lysimeters for determining recharge rates in the vadose zone is to use environmental tracers. Tracers that have been used to study water movement in the vadose zone include total chloride, {sup 36}CI, {sup 3}H, and {sup 2}H/{sup 18}O. Atmospheric levels of {sup 36}CI and {sup 3}H increased during nuclear bomb testing in the Pacific, and the resulting "bomb pulse" or peak concentration can be measured in the soil profile. Locally, past operations at the Hanford Site have resu~ed in the atmospheric release of numerous chemical and isotopic tracers, including nitrate, {sup 129}I, and {sup 99}Tc. The radionuclides, in particular, reached a well-defined atmospheric peak in 1945. Atmospheric releases of {sup 129}I and {sup 99}Tc were greatly reduced by mid-1946, but nitrogen oxides continued to be released from the uranium separations facilities. As a result, the nitrate concentrations probably peaked in the mid-1950s, when the greatest number of separations facilities were operating

  12. Simulation and interpretation of inter-well tracer tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugstad Øyvind

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In inter-well tracer tests (IWTT, chemical compounds or radioactive isotopes are used to label injection water and gas to establish well connections and fluid patterns in petroleum reservoirs. Tracer simulation is an invaluable tool to ease the interpretation of IWTT results and is also required for assisted history matching application of tracer data. In this paper we present a new simulation technique to analyse and interpret tracer results. Laboratory results are used to establish and test formulations of the tracer conservation equations, and the technique is used to provide simulated tracer responses that are compared with observed tracer data from an extensive tracer program. The implemented tracer simulation methodology use a fast post-processing of previously simulated reservoir simulation runs. This provides a fast, flexible and powerful method for analysing gas tracer behaviour in reservoirs. We show that simulation time for tracers can be reduced by factor 100 compared to solving the tracer flow equations simultaneously with the reservoir fluid flow equations. The post-processing technique, combined with a flexible built-in local tracer-grid refinement is exploited to reduce numerical smearing, particularly severe for narrow tracer pulses.

  13. General circulation and tracers: studies in the Western Indian Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamous, Daniel

    1991-01-01

    The main question addressed in this thesis is how to best use the information obtained from hydro-biogeochemical tracer data, to study the oceanic general circulation in the Western Indian Ocean. First, a principal component analysis is performed on a historical data set. The tracers considered are temperature, salinity, density, oxygen, phosphate and silica. The method reduces the amount of data to be considered by a factor of 5. It reproduces correctly and efficiently the large-scale distributions of these oceanic properties. The analysed data are then used in a finite-difference nonlinear inverse model. The grid has a resolution of 4 deg. by 4 deg.. Dynamical as well as tracer conservation constraints are used. These constraints are well satisfied by the obtained solutions but the associated errors remain large. Additional constraints would be required in order to discuss the different solutions in more detail. Finally, a qualitative study is done on the deep distribution of helium-3. The data show several important features linked to hydrothermal input in the Gulf of Aden and on the Central Indian Ridge, and to the origin of water masses and deep circulation characteristics. However additional data are required in order to clarify the distribution of this tracer in other key areas. (author) [fr

  14. Chemical Tracer Methods: Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Richard W.

    2017-01-01

    Tracers have a wide variety of uses in hydrologic studies: providing quantitative or qualitative estimates of recharge, identifying sources of recharge, providing information on velocities and travel times of water movement, assessing the importance of preferential flow paths, providing information on hydrodynamic dispersion, and providing data for calibration of water flow and solute-transport models (Walker, 1998; Cook and Herczeg, 2000; Scanlon et al., 2002b). Tracers generally are ions, isotopes, or gases that move with water and that can be detected in the atmosphere, in surface waters, and in the subsurface. Heat also is transported by water; therefore, temperatures can be used to trace water movement. This chapter focuses on the use of chemical and isotopic tracers in the subsurface to estimate recharge. Tracer use in surface-water studies to determine groundwater discharge to streams is addressed in Chapter 4; the use of temperature as a tracer is described in Chapter 8.Following the nomenclature of Scanlon et al. (2002b), tracers are grouped into three categories: natural environmental tracers, historical tracers, and applied tracers. Natural environmental tracers are those that are transported to or created within the atmosphere under natural processes; these tracers are carried to the Earth’s surface as wet or dry atmospheric deposition. The most commonly used natural environmental tracer is chloride (Cl) (Allison and Hughes, 1978). Ocean water, through the process of evaporation, is the primary source of atmospheric Cl. Other tracers in this category include chlorine-36 (36Cl) and tritium (3H); these two isotopes are produced naturally in the Earth’s atmosphere; however, there are additional anthropogenic sources of them.

  15. 15N tracer kinetic studies on the validity of various 15N tracer substances for determining whole-body protein parameters in very small preterm infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plath, C.; Heine, W.; Wutzke, K.D.; Krienke, L.; Toewe, J.M.; Massute, G.; Windischmann, C.

    1987-01-01

    Reliable 15 N tracer substances for tracer kinetic determination of whole-body protein parameters in very small preterm infants are still a matter of intensive research, especially after some doubts have been raised about the validity of [ 15 N]glycine, a commonly used 15 N tracer. Protein turnover, synthesis, breakdown, and further protein metabolism data were determined by a paired comparison in four preterm infants. Their post-conceptual age was 32.2 +/- 0.8 weeks, and their body weight was 1670 +/- 181 g. Tracer substances applied in this study were a [ 15 N]amino acid mixture (Ia) and [ 15 N]glycine (Ib). In a second group of three infants with a post conceptual age of 15 N-labeled 32.0 +/- 1.0 weeks and a body weight of 1,907 +/- 137 g, yeast protein hydrolysate (II) was used as a tracer substance. A three-pool model was employed for the analysis of the data. This model takes into account renal and fecal 15 N losses after a single 15 N pulse. Protein turnovers were as follows: 11.9 +/- 3.1 g kg-1 d-1 (Ia), 16.2 +/- 2.5 g kg-1 d-1 (Ib), and 10.8 +/- 3.0 g kg-1 d-1 (II). We were able to demonstrate an overestimation of the protein turnover when Ib was used. There was an expected correspondence in the results obtained from Ia and II. The 15 N-labeled yeast protein hydrolysate is a relatively cheap tracer that allows reliable determination of whole-body protein parameters in very small preterm infants

  16. Choice of infusion-sampling mode for tracer studies of free fatty acid metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.D.; Rogers, P.J.; Ellman, M.G.; Miles, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    To determine the preferred infusion-sampling mode for isotopic studies of free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism, tracer [( 14 C]palmitate) was infused into the left ventricle of five anesthetized dogs, and tracee ([ 3 H]palmitate) was infused into three separate peripheral veins of each dog. The [ 14 C]palmitate specific activity (SA) was lower in mixed venous than arterial blood, and [ 3 H]palmitate SA was equal in both sites. The actual infusion rate of [ 3 H]palmitate [2.15 +/- 0.31 X 10(5) disintegrations/min (dpm).kg-1.min-1] could be accurately predicted (2.14 +/- 0.32 X 10(5) dpm.kg-1.min-1) using the known [ 14 C]palmitate infusion rate and the arterial plasma [ 14 C]-to-[ 3 H]palmitate ratio. In contrast, the mixed venous [ 14 C]-to-[ 3 H]palmitate ratio resulted in overestimates (P less than 0.05) of the actual [ 3 H]palmitate infusion rate. In summary, venous tracer infusion with arterial blood sampling for FFA tracer studies provides the most accurate estimates of tracee rate of appearance

  17. Concentration dynamics in lakes and reservoirs. Studies using radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilath, Ch.

    1983-01-01

    The use of radioactive tracers for the investigation of concentration dynamics of inert soluble matter in lakes and reservoirs is reviewed. Shallow and deep stratified lakes are considered. The mechanism of mixing in lakes, flow pattern and input - output response are discussed. The methodology of the use of radioactive tracers for concentration dynamic studies is described. Examples of various investigations are reviewed. The dynamics of shallow lakes can be found and expressed in terms of transfer functions, axial dispersion models, residence time distributions and sometimes only semiquantitative information about the flow pattern. The dynamics of deep, stratified lakes is more complex and difficult to investigate with tracers. Flow pattern, horizontal and vertical eddy diffusivities, mass transfer between the hypolimnion and epilimnion are tools used for describing this dynamics. (author)

  18. Tracer filamentation at an unstable ocean front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yen Chia; Mahadevan, Amala; Thiffeault, Jean-Luc; Yecko, Philip

    2017-11-01

    A front, where two bodies of ocean water with different physical properties meet, can become unstable and lead to a flow with high strain rate and vorticity. Phytoplankton and other oceanic tracers are stirred into filaments by such flow fields, as can often be seen in satellite imagery. The stretching and folding of a tracer by a two-dimensional flow field has been well studied. In the ocean, however, the vertical shear of horizontal velocity is typically two orders of magnitude larger than the horizontal velocity gradient. Theoretical calculations show that vertical shear alters the way in which horizontal strain affects the tracer, resulting in thin, sloping structures in the tracer field. Using a non-hydrostatic ocean model of an unstable ocean front, we simulate tracer filamentation to identify the effect of vertical shear on the deformation of the tracer. In a complementary laboratory experiment, we generate a simple, vertically sheared strain flow and use dye and particle image velocimetry to quantify the filamentary structures in terms of the strain and shear. We identify how vertical shear alters the tracer filaments and infer how the evolution of tracers in the ocean will differ from the idealized two-dimensional paradigm. Support of NSF DMS-1418956 is acknowledged.

  19. Tracer Testing for Estimating Heat Transfer Area in Fractured Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, Karsten; van Heel, Ton; Shan, Chao

    2004-05-12

    A key parameter governing the performance and life-time of a Hot Fractured Rock (HFR) reservoir is the effective heat transfer area between the fracture network and the matrix rock. We report on numerical modeling studies into the feasibility of using tracer tests for estimating heat transfer area. More specifically, we discuss simulation results of a new HFR characterization method which uses surface-sorbing tracers for which the adsorbed tracer mass is proportional to the fracture surface area per unit volume. Sorption in the rock matrix is treated with the conventional formulation in which tracer adsorption is volume-based. A slug of solute tracer migrating along a fracture is subject to diffusion across the fracture walls into the adjacent rock matrix. Such diffusion removes some of the tracer from the fluid in the fractures, reducing and retarding the peak in the breakthrough curve (BTC) of the tracer. After the slug has passed the concentration gradient reverses, causing back-diffusion from the rock matrix into the fracture, and giving rise to a long tail in the BTC of the solute. These effects become stronger for larger fracture-matrix interface area, potentially providing a means for estimating this area. Previous field tests and modeling studies have demonstrated characteristic tailing in BTCs for volatile tracers in vapor-dominated reservoirs. Simulated BTCs for solute tracers in single-phase liquid systems show much weaker tails, as would be expected because diffusivities are much smaller in the aqueous than in the gas phase, by a factor of order 1000. A much stronger signal of fracture-matrix interaction can be obtained when sorbing tracers are used. We have performed simulation studies of surface-sorbing tracers by implementing a model in which the adsorbed tracer mass is assumed proportional to the fracture-matrix surface area per unit volume. The results show that sorbing tracers generate stronger tails in BTCs, corresponding to an effective

  20. Methods for conduct of atmospheric tracer studies at ANSTO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G H; Stone, D J.M.; Pascoe, J H [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Environment Division

    2000-07-01

    A perfluorocarbon atmospheric tracer system has been developed to investigate atmospheric dispersion processes in the region surrounding the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre. This report discusses the tracer release, sampling and analysis methods.

  1. Tracer-tracer relations as a tool for research on polar ozone loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Rolf

    2010-07-01

    The report includes the following chapters: (1) Introduction: ozone in the atmosphere, anthropogenic influence on the ozone layer, polar stratospheric ozone loss; (2) Tracer-tracer relations in the stratosphere: tracer-tracer relations as a tool in atmospheric research; impact of cosmic-ray-induced heterogeneous chemistry on polar ozone; (3) quantifying polar ozone loss from ozone-tracer relations: principles of tracer-tracer correlation techniques; reference ozone-tracer relations in the early polar vortex; impact of mixing on ozone-tracer relations in the polar vortex; impact of mesospheric intrusions on ozone-tracer relations in the stratospheric polar vortex calculation of chemical ozone loss in the arctic in March 2003 based on ILAS-II measurements; (4) epilogue.

  2. Using radioactive tracer technique in municipal hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurasova, O.I.

    1974-01-01

    Work of the A. N. Syrsin Institute of General and Municiapl Hygiene using raidoactive tracers is reviewed. The studies include research on protein metabolism in the living organism following action of unfavorable factors of the environment; determination of the paths of introduction into the organism of substances with an alien composition; and study of the rate of resorption of subcutaneous papuli. Results are shown of radioactive-tracer studies on the mechanism of action of poisonous substances on the living organism and of migration of alien chemical compounds in the organism and in objects in the environment. It is concluded that the radioactive tracer method has wide application in municipal hygiene and sanitary microbiology. The absence of laborious operations, economy of time, precision of the experiments, and the possibility of obtaining additional information on the mechanism of action of poisonous substances on the organism and the low cost of such studies compared with other methods makes the radioactive tracer method economically attractive. The studies made show the various types of use of the method in municipal hygiene and sanitary microbiology

  3. Using radioactive tracer technique in municipal hygiene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurasova, O I [Institut Obshchej i Kommunal' noj Gigieny, Moscow (USSR)

    1974-01-01

    Work of the A. N. Syrsin Institute of General and Municiapl Hygiene using raidoactive tracers is reviewed. The studies include research on protein metabolism in the living organism following action of unfavorable factors of the environment; determination of the paths of introduction into the organism of substances with an alien composition; and study of the rate of resorption of subcutaneous papuli. Results are shown of radioactive-tracer studies on the mechanism of action of poisonous substances on the living organism and of migration of alien chemical compounds in the organism and in objects in the environment. It is concluded that the radioactive tracer method has wide application in municipal hygiene and sanitary microbiology. The absence of laborious operations, economy of time, precision of the experiments, and the possibility of obtaining additional information on the mechanism of action of poisonous substances on the organism and the low cost of such studies compared with other methods makes the radioactive tracer method economically attractive. The studies made show the various types of use of the method in municipal hygiene and sanitary microbiology.

  4. Circulation of the medullary cerebrospinal fluid. Comparative study of various tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bok, B.; Thebault, B.; Cavailloles, F.; Aboulker, J.

    Gammamyelography is used to study the circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid in the perimedullary sub-arachoid spaces. Many radioactive preparations have been proposed for this examination which is designed to show up all dynamic perturbations of the CSF flux. Of the criteria governing the choice of tracer some importance given has been to the molecular diffusion constant of the preparation, iodinated albumine seeming the most suitable in this respect. An attempt was made to estimate the influence of molecular weight on the tracer kinetics by comparing three preparations injected simultaneously: indium 111-labelled siderophilline of M.W. above 100,000; iodine 131-labelled human serum albumine of MW around 70,000; sup(99m)Tc-labelled DTPA, a chelate of low molecular weight. The results showed no detectable influence of the molecular weight of these preparations on their intraspinal kinetics in the time taken for the examination. In practice this work justifies the use of the preparation most convenient and least harmful from the dosimetric viewpoint for the isotope and from the antigenic toxicological viewpoint for the tracer, which means that the replacement of iodinated albumine by indium-111 DTPA for example should be possible at least at the medullary level [fr

  5. Data volume of atmospheric tracer studies at Lucas Heights, NSW, Australia -1996-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.H.; Stone, D.J.M.; Pascoe, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    A perfluorocarbon atmospheric tracer system has been used to investigate atmospheric dispersion processes in the region surrounding the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre. Tracers have been released from two locations: a laboratory vent near the ridge of the Woronora river valley and from the HIFAR research reactor ventilation system. Most studies have been conducted during the early to late morning periods when valley influences might be expected on dispersion of the tracer plume. This report summarises the meteorological and tracer air concentration data and makes comparisons with estimates from a simple gaussian dispersion model. It is intended that the data will also be used for evaluation of more elaborate wind field and atmospheric models

  6. Studies on the electrochemical behaviour of iron by the use of radio-tracer technique, 1. Studies on the electrodeposition and dissolution of iron by the use of radio-tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moritani, Kimikazu; Ito, Yasuhiko; Kamata, Masahiro; Oishi, Jun

    1984-12-01

    To investigate whether radio-tracer techniques can augment conventional electrochemical techniques, offering useful information about the electrochemical behaviour of iron, the current efficiency of the electrodeposition of iron and the corrosion rate of metallic iron were measured by the radio-tracer method and the results were compared with the results measured by gravimetry and absorption photometry. Major conclusions obtained by the experiments are summarized as: 1) Between ordinary Fe and /sup 59/Fe, no isotope effect was observed. 2) Radiation from /sup 59/Fe had no effect on the electrode reaction. 3) While the use of a Ge semiconductor detector is undoubtedly preferable, Geiger-Mueller counter or NaI(Tl) scintillation counter gave fully satisfactory results. 4) Electrodeposited iron corrodes several times more rapidly than the iron base metal. These results suggests many other interesting applications of the radio-tracer technique when it is desired to obtain more detailed information on the electrochemical behaviour of iron. (author).

  7. Skeletal scintigraphy and quantitative tracer studies in metabolic bone disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelman, Ignac

    means of quantitating this uptake the use of bone to soft-tissue ratios derived from the bone scan image by computer was critically evaluated. The technique was shown to be observer dependent and again found to be of limited value due to the large overlap of patient results with those from control subjects. In chapter 3 the use of bone scan imaging in metabolic bone disease has been compared with radiology. Despite the difficulties mentioned above the metabolic index was employed, and the bone scan found to be the more sensitive investigation in primary hyperparathyroidism, renal osteodystrophy and osteomalacia. In osteoporosis, however, the bone scan was often unable to identify disease and radiology remains the investigation of choice. In a further study comparing bone scanning and radiology in Paget's disease, the bone scan was found to be clearly the more sensitive investigation. As a result of the work described in chapter 2 it became apparent that a sensitive means of quantitating absolute bone uptake of tracer could be of diagnostic value. In chapter 4 a promising new quantitative technique is described in which the 24-hour whole-body retention of Tc-99m diphosphonate (WBR) is measured using a shadow-shield whole-body monitor. At 24 hours after injection, diphosphonate has reached a stable equilibrium in bone reflecting skeletal metabolic activity, while tracer in the soft-tissues of the body has been largely excreted via the urinary tract. It was found that this technique provided a sensitive means of detecting patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia, renal osteodystrophy and Paget's disease and that in these conditions all the results from individual patients lay outside the control range. In further studies the WBR technique was shown to be highly reproducible and not subject to any significant technical errors.

  8. Using tracers to understand the hydrology of an abandoned underground coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canty, G.A.; Everett, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    Flooded underground mines pose a difficult problem for remediation efforts requiring hydrologic information. Mine environments are hydraulically complicated due to sinuous travel paths and variable hydraulic gradients. For an acidic mine remediation project, conducted by the University of Oklahoma in conjunction with the Oklahoma Conservation Commission, a tracer study was undertaken to identify basic hydrologic properties of a flooded coal mine. The study was conducted to investigate the possibility of in-situ remediation of acidic mine water with the use of alkaline coal combustion by-products. Information on the rate of flow and ''connectiveness'' of injection wells with the discharge point was needed to develop a treatment strategy. Fluorescent dyes are not typically used in mine tracer studies because of the low pH values associated with certain mines and a tendency to adsorb ferric iron precipitates. However, Rhodamine WT was used in one tracer test because it can be detected at low concentrations. Due to poor recovery, a second tracer test was undertaken using a more conservative tracer-chloride. Each tracer produced similar travel time results. Findings from this study suggest that Rhodamine WT can be used under slightly acidic conditions, with mixed results. The more conservative tracer provided somewhat better results, but recovery was still poor. Use of these tracers has provided some valuable information with regard to mine hydrology, but additional questions have been raised

  9. The use of tracer techniques in the study of soil water flows and contaminant transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, A.D.; Beven, K.J.

    1990-04-01

    This report reviews the use of different types of tracers in the characterisation of soil water flows and the implications of tracer studies for modelling contaminant transport. The tracers considered are a number of different anions, stable isotopes, radioactive tracers, organic dyes, fluorocarbons, gases, solid particles and water temperature. The theoretical basis for modelling the results of tracer experiments in terms of the traditional convective-dispersion equation (CDE) is outlined. A number of alternative modelling strategies are reviewed: the mobile/immobile water extension of the CDE; the Jury Transfer Function Model (TFM); the Aggregated Mixing Zone (AMZ) model and Random Particle Tracking models. The first will form the basis of the Systeme Hydrologique Europeen (SHE) contaminant transport component. The Jury and AMZ models are both linear models and are consequently limited to applications in which the flows may be considered to be quasi-steady or repeatable. Random particle tracking models have the advantage of both flexibility and applicability to transient and spatially variable flow domains. A random particle model is being implemented on a transputer workstation at Lancaster and will be used to explore the effect of sub-grid scale complexities on effective grid-scale parameter values for distributed models such as SHE. (author)

  10. A Comparative Uptake Study of Multiplexed PET Tracers in Mice with Turpentine-Induced Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Huang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential value of multiplexed positron emission tomography (PET tracers in mice with turpentine-induced inflammation was evaluated and compared with 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]FDG for glucose metabolism imaging. These PET tracers included [18F]fluoromethylcholine ([18F]FCH for choline metabolism imaging, (S-[11C]methyl-D-cysteine ([11C]DMCYS for amino acid metabolism imaging, [11C]bis(zinc(II-dipicolylamine ([11C]DPA-Zn2+ for apoptosis imaging, 2-(4-N-[11C]-methylaminophenyl-6-hydroxybenzothiazole ([11C]PIB for β amyloid binding imaging, and [18F]fluoride (18F− for bone metabolism imaging. In mice with turpentine-induced inflammation mice, the biodistribution of all the tracers mentioned above at 5, 15, 30, 45, and 60 min postinjection was determined. Also, the time-course curves of the tracer uptake ratios for inflammatory thigh muscle (IM to normal uninflammatory thigh muscle (NM, IM to blood (BL, IM to brain (BR, and IM to liver (LI were acquired, respectively. Moreover, PET imaging with the tracers within 60 min postinjection on a clinical PET/CT scanner was also conducted. [18F]FDG and 18F− showed relatively higher uptake ratios for IM to NM, IM to BL, IM to BR, and IM to LI than [18F]FCH, [11C]DPA-Zn2+, [11C]DMCYS and [11C]PIB, which were highly consistent with the results delineated in PET images. The results demonstrate that 18F− seems to be a potential PET tracer for inflammation imaging. [18F]FCH and [11C]DMCYS, with lower accumulation in inflammatory tissue than [18F]FDG, are not good PET tracers for inflammation imaging. As a promising inflammatory tracer, the chemical structure of [11C]DPA-Zn2+ needs to be further optimized.

  11. Description and results of tracer tests conducted for a deep fracture zone within granitic rock at the Leuggern borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spane, F.A. jr.

    1990-09-01

    A tracer test program was planned at the Leuggern borehole, to provide hydrogeologic information concerning the fracture zone(s) intersected within the depth interval 1,634.9 - 1,688.9 m. The original design of the tracer-dilution test was to: establish a uniform tracer concentration within the test system, and then monitor (at ground surface) the decline of tracer concentration within the circulated test system fluid. Analysis of the tracer concentration decline pattern was expected to provide an estimate of the natural lateral flux and lateral hydraulic gradient for the isolated test interval. A later pump-back test was also designed to recover tracer that had been 'flushed' into the test section, during the previous closed-circulation period. Analysis of the tracer recovery pattern was expected to provide an estimate of the dispersivity within the intersected fracture system. Results obtained from 'arrival-time' information during the Eosin and Naphtionat injection/recovery phases indicate a downward vertical flow of approximately 195-225 ml/min in the isolated interval, from an analysis of the dilution levels of Uranin and Eosin during the injection/recovery periods, and review of field data, the top of the upper inflow zone was determined to be approximately 13 m below the top flow line and the bottom of the outflow zone to be approximately 3 to 5 meters above the bottom flow line. (author) 30 figs., tabs., 42 refs

  12. Aluminum metabolism studied by [sup 26]Al tracer using AMS technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Koichi (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Science and Technology); Yumoto, Sakae; Nagai, Hisao; Hosoyama, Yoshiyuki; Imamura, Mineo; Hotta, Masayoshi; Ohashi, Hideo

    1992-01-01

    By accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), we studied aluminum metabolism using [sup 26]Al as a tracer. To investigate the role of aluminum toxicity in the etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Alzheimer's disease, aluminum incorporation into the rat cerebrum was studied. When healthy rats were injected intraperitoneally with [sup 26]Al, a considerable amount of the tracer was incorporated into the brain within only 5 days after the injection. This [sup 26]Al accumulation was apparently irreversible, since it persisted even after 75 days. (author).

  13. Asian Tracer Experiment and Atmospheric Modeling (TEAM) Project: Draft Field Work Plan for the Asian Long-Range Tracer Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allwine, K Jerry; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2007-08-01

    This report provides an experimental plan for a proposed Asian long-range tracer study as part of the international Tracer Experiment and Atmospheric Modeling (TEAM) Project. The TEAM partners are China, Japan, South Korea and the United States. Optimal times of year to conduct the study, meteorological measurements needed, proposed tracer release locations, proposed tracer sampling locations and the proposed durations of tracer releases and subsequent sampling are given. Also given are the activities necessary to prepare for the study and the schedule for completing the preparation activities leading to conducting the actual field operations. This report is intended to provide the TEAM members with the information necessary for planning and conducting the Asian long-range tracer study. The experimental plan is proposed, at this time, to describe the efforts necessary to conduct the Asian long-range tracer study, and the plan will undoubtedly be revised and refined as the planning goes forward over the next year.

  14. Towards tracer dose reduction in PET studies: Simulation of dose reduction by retrospective randomized undersampling of list-mode data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatidis, Sergios; Würslin, Christian; Seith, Ferdinand; Schäfer, Jürgen F; la Fougère, Christian; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Schwenzer, Nina F; Schmidt, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Optimization of tracer dose regimes in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is a trade-off between diagnostic image quality and radiation exposure. The challenge lies in defining minimal tracer doses that still result in sufficient diagnostic image quality. In order to find such minimal doses, it would be useful to simulate tracer dose reduction as this would enable to study the effects of tracer dose reduction on image quality in single patients without repeated injections of different amounts of tracer. The aim of our study was to introduce and validate a method for simulation of low-dose PET images enabling direct comparison of different tracer doses in single patients and under constant influencing factors. (18)F-fluoride PET data were acquired on a combined PET/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. PET data were stored together with the temporal information of the occurrence of single events (list-mode format). A predefined proportion of PET events were then randomly deleted resulting in undersampled PET data. These data sets were subsequently reconstructed resulting in simulated low-dose PET images (retrospective undersampling of list-mode data). This approach was validated in phantom experiments by visual inspection and by comparison of PET quality metrics contrast recovery coefficient (CRC), background-variability (BV) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of measured and simulated PET images for different activity concentrations. In addition, reduced-dose PET images of a clinical (18)F-FDG PET dataset were simulated using the proposed approach. (18)F-PET image quality degraded with decreasing activity concentrations with comparable visual image characteristics in measured and in corresponding simulated PET images. This result was confirmed by quantification of image quality metrics. CRC, SNR and BV showed concordant behavior with decreasing activity concentrations for measured and for corresponding simulated PET images. Simulation of dose

  15. Studies on groundwater transport in fractured crystalline rock under controlled conditions using nonradioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, E.; Klockars, C.-E.

    1981-04-01

    The purpose of the investigation has been study the following parameters along existing fractures between two boreholes: hydraulic properties of rock mass and fractures; adsorptive properties of some selected tracers during transport along fractures; dispersivity and dilution of tracers during transport in fractures; kinematic porosity of fractured bedrock. The procedure has been to determine the hydraulic properties of a rock mass by means of conventional hydraulic testing methods in 100 m deep boreholes, and to study transport mechanisms and properties of selected tracers in a selected fracture zone between two boreholes. (Auth.)

  16. Tracer research in process engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iller, E.

    1992-01-01

    The book is a review of modern applications of tracer techniques in chemical and process engineering studies. The next topics have been extensively presented: 1) media flow through apparatus; 2) the tracers in the study of media flow dynamics through apparatus; 3) mathematical interpretation of experimental data from impulse-response method; 4) the models of media flow through chemical reactors and apparatus; 5) radiotracers in mass transport study; 6) examples of practical applications of tracer methods in industrial objects. 84 refs, 96 figs, 31 tabs

  17. GTS-LCS, in-situ experiment 2. Modeling of tracer test 09-03

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manette, M.; Saaltink, M.W.; Soler, J.M.

    2015-02-01

    Within the framework of the GTS-LCS project (Grimsel Test Site - Long-Term Cement Studies), an in-situ experiment lasting about 5 years was started in 2009 to study water-cement-rock interactions in a fractured granite. Prior to the experiment, a tracer test was performed to characterize the initial flow and transport properties of the rock around the experimental boreholes. This study reports on the model interpretation of tracer test 09-03. The calculations were performed by means of a two-dimensional model (homogeneous fracture plane including 3 boreholes) using the Retraso-CodeBright software package. In the tracer test, Grimsel groundwater containing the tracer (uranine) was circulated in the emplacement borehole during 43 days (zero injection flow rate). Circulation continued without tracer afterwards. Water was extracted at the observation and extraction boreholes. Results from a model sensitivity analysis comparing model results with measured tracer concentrations showed 3 cases where the evolution of tracer concentrations in the 3 different boreholes was satisfactory. In these cases a low-permeability skin affected the emplacement and observation boreholes. No skin appeared to affect the extraction borehole. The background hydraulic gradient seems to have no effect on the results of the tracer test. These results will be applied in the calculation of the initial flow field for the reactive transport phase of in-situ experiment 2 (interaction between pre-hardened cement and fractured granite at Grimsel). (orig.)

  18. Tracer transport in fractured rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, C.F.; Tsang, Y.W.; Hale, F.V.

    1988-07-01

    Recent interest in the safety of toxic waste underground disposal and nuclear waste geologic repositories has motivated many studies of tracer transport in fractured media. Fractures occur in most geologic formations and introduce a high degree of heterogeneity. Within each fracture, the aperture is not constant in value but strongly varying. Thus for such media, tracer tends to flow through preferred flowpaths or channels within the fractures. Along each of these channels, the aperture is also strongly varying. A detailed analysis is carried out on a 2D single fracture with variable apertures and the flow through channels is demonstrated. The channels defined this way are not rigidly set pathways for tracer transport, but are the preferred flow paths in the sense of stream-tubes in the potential theory. It is shown that such variable-aperture channels can be characterized by an aperture probability distribution function, and not by the exact deterministic geometric locations. We also demonstrate that the 2D tracer transport in a fracture can be calculated by a model of a system of 1D channels characterized by this distribution function only. Due to the channeling character of tracer transport in fractured rock, random point measurements of tracer breakthrough curves may give results with a wide spread in value due to statistical fluctuations. The present paper suggests that such a wide spread can probably be greatly reduced by making line/areal (or multiple) measurements covering a few spatial correlation lengths. 13 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  19. Isotopic and geochemical tracers for fingerprinting process-affected waters in the oil sands industry: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, J.J.; Birks, S.J.; Moncur, M.; Yi, Y.; Tattrie, K.; Jasechko, S.; Richardson, K.; Eby, P. [Alberta Innovates - Technology Futures (Canada)

    2011-04-15

    During 2009 and 2010, Alberta Innovates - Technology Futures carried out a pilot study for Alberta Environment to examine the possibility of labeling process affected water from oil sands operations with isotropic and geochemical tracers. For the study, 3 oil sands operators furnished logistical support and personnel, 39 samples were gathered and several isotope tracers were measured. In addition, geotechnical analyses were performed and the presence of organic compounds in the samples was scanned using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Results showed that the selected tracers were able to label water sources in some locations, however they cannot be used as a universal method and a case by case approach needs to be adopted. This study pointed out that Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry is the best way to construct a dataset for use in identification of process affected waters.

  20. Proceedings of Tracer 3. International Conference on Tracers and Tracing Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Tracer 3 conference is a continuation of former Tracer 1 (1998) and Tracer 2 (2001) conferences organized by CNRS - Nancy France. The objective of this 3rd conference is presentation of different aspects of tracer method applications and development of tracer methodology.The new field of activity presented at the Conference was application of stable isotopes as natural tracers for investigations of environmental processes. The conference gave the possibility for scientific information exchange between specialists from different fields of activity such as chemical engineering, chemistry, bioengineering, environmental engineering, hydrology, civil engineering, metallurgy, etc. The presentations were divided into groups covering the principal items of Conference. Section A. Fundamental development - RTD and tracer methodology, - RTD methodology and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), - New tracers and detectors. Section B. Industrial applications - Environment, - Geology, hydrogeology and oil field applications, - Civil engineering, mineral engineering and metallurgy applications, - Food engineering and bioengineering, - Material engineering, - Chemical engineering. During the Conference INIS promotion materials were exposed by INIS liaison officer for Poland

  1. Proceedings of Tracer 3. International Conference on Tracers and Tracing Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Tracer 3 conference is a continuation of former Tracer 1 (1998) and Tracer 2 (2001) conferences organized by CNRS - Nancy France. The objective of this 3rd conference is presentation of different aspects of tracer method applications and development of tracer methodology.The new field of activity presented at the Conference was application of stable isotopes as natural tracers for investigations of environmental processes. The conference gave the possibility for scientific information exchange between specialists from different fields of activity such as chemical engineering, chemistry, bioengineering, environmental engineering, hydrology, civil engineering, metallurgy, etc. The presentations were divided into groups covering the principal items of Conference. Section A. Fundamental development - RTD and tracer methodology, - RTD methodology and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), - New tracers and detectors. Section B. Industrial applications - Environment, - Geology, hydrogeology and oil field applications, - Civil engineering, mineral engineering and metallurgy applications, - Food engineering and bioengineering, - Material engineering, - Chemical engineering. During the Conference INIS promotion materials were exposed by INIS liaison officer for Poland.

  2. Plan for radionuclide tracer studies of the residence time distribution in the Wilsonville dissolver and preheater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolley, R.L.; Begovich, J.M.; Brashear, H.R.

    1983-12-01

    Stimulus-response measurements using radiotracers to measure residence time distribution (RTD) and hydrodynamic parameters for the preheaters and dissolvers at the Ft. Lewis Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) and the Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) coal conversion pilot plants are reviewed. A plan is also presented for a series of radioactive tracer studies proposed for the Advanced Coal Liquefaction Facility at Wilsonville, Alabama, to measure the RTD for the preheater and dissolvers in the SRC-I mode. The tracer for the gas phase will be 133 Xe, and 198 Au (on carbonized resin or as an aqueous colloidal suspension) will be used as the slurry tracer. Four experimental phases are recommended for the RTD tracer studies: (1) preheater; (2) dissolver with 100% takeoff; (3) dissolver with 100% takeoff and solids withdrawal; and (4) dissolver with 50% takeoff. Eighteen gas-tracer and 22 liquid-tracer injections are projected to accomplish the four experimental phases. Two to four tracer injections are projected for preliminary tests to ensure the capability of safe injection of the radiotracers and the collection of statistically significant data. A complete projected cost and time schedule is provided, including procurement of necessary components, preparation of the radiotracers, assembly and testing of tracer injection apparatus and detection systems, onsite work and tracer injections, laboratory experimentation, data analysis, and report writing

  3. Tracer dating and ocean ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiele, G.; Sarmiento, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    The interpretation of transient tracer observations depends on difficult to obtain information on the evolution in time of the tracer boundary conditions and interior distributions. Recent studies have attempted to circumvent this problem by making use of a derived quantity, age, based on the simultaneous distribution of two complementary tracers, such as tritium and its daughter, helium 3. The age is defined with reference to the surface such that the boundary condition takes on a constant value of zero. The authors use a two-dimensional model to explore the circumstances under which such a combination of conservation equations for two complementary tracers can lead to a cancellation of the time derivative terms. An interesting aspect of this approach is that mixing can serve as a source or sink of tracer based age. The authors define an idealized ventilation age tracer that is conservative with respect to mixing, and they explore how its behavior compares with that of the tracer-based ages over a range of advective and diffusive parameters

  4. Tracer dispersion in planar multipole flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koplik, J.; Redner, S.; Hinch, E.J.

    1994-01-01

    We study the motion of passive Brownian tracer particles in steady two-dimensional potential flows between sources and sinks. Our primary focus is understanding the long-time properties of the transit time probability distribution for the tracer to reach the sink p(t) and the influence of the flow geometry on this probability. A variety of illustrative case studies is considered. For radial potential flow in an annular region, competition between convection and diffusion leads to nonuniversal decay of the transit time probability. Dipolar and higher multipole flows are found to exhibit generic features, such as a power-law decay in p(t) with an exponent determined by the multipole moment, an exponential cutoff related to stagnation points, and a ''shoulder'' in p(t) that is related to reflection from the system boundaries. For spatially extended sinks, it is also shown that the spatial distribution of the collected tracer is independent of the overall magnitude of the flow field and that p(t) decays as a power law with a geometry-dependent exponent. Our results may offer the possibility of using tracer measurements to characterize the flow geometry of porous media

  5. Application of isotope tracer technique on the study of the filling and release behavior of carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shengwei; Guo Jinxue; Li Yan; Li Yulan; Li Wenxin; Liu Shiyuan

    2004-01-01

    The behaviors of washing and release of 110 Ag m -AgNO 3 from carbon nanotubes (CNTs), following soak of opened CNTs in 110 Ag m -AgNO 3 solutions are investigated with the isotope tracer technique. The filled CNTs samples are characterized by HREM, SEM, XRD and EDS. The amount of filled materials is also estimated by the isotope tracer technique. It shows that there are silver materials filled in the CNTs and would not release from the cavities. The results indicate that radioactive tracer is an effective and powerful technique to be applied into study of filling and release behaviors of CNTs as well as estimating the amount of filled materials. (authors)

  6. Radioactive tracers in the sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, W.J.; Livingston, H.D.

    1980-01-01

    Artificial radionuclides introduced to the oceans during the last four decades have proved invaluable tools for study of many processes in marine water columns and sediments. Both global and close-in fallout of radioactivity from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing have distributed these radionuclides widely, and in amounts sufficient to be useful as tracers. An additional source of considerable significance and tracer potential comes from coastal discharges of European nuclear fuel reprocessing wastes. The nature of these sources, types and amounts of radionuclides introduced and the time histories of their introduction generate a variety of tracer distributions which illuminate a broad spectrum of physical and chemical processes active over a wide range of timescales. Depending on their respective chemistries, artificial radionuclides have been demonstrated to exhibit both conservative and non-conservative properties in the oceans. Some examples are given of the uses made of soluble, conservative tracers for the study of oceanic transport processes and of non-conservative tracers for studies of processes which move them to, and mix them within, marine sediments. Sampling and measurement techniques which have been used in these studies are described

  7. Emission quantification using the tracer gas dispersion method: The influence of instrument, tracer gas species and source simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delre, Antonio; Mønster, Jacob; Samuelsson, Jerker

    2018-01-01

    The tracer gas dispersion method (TDM) is a remote sensing method used for quantifying fugitive emissions by relying on the controlled release of a tracer gas at the source, combined with concentration measurements of the tracer and target gas plumes. The TDM was tested at a wastewater treatment...... plant for plant-integrated methane emission quantification, using four analytical instruments simultaneously and four different tracer gases. Measurements performed using a combination of an analytical instrument and a tracer gas, with a high ratio between the tracer gas release rate and instrument...... precision (a high release-precision ratio), resulted in well-defined plumes with a high signal-to-noise ratio and a high methane-to-tracer gas correlation factor. Measured methane emission rates differed by up to 18% from the mean value when measurements were performed using seven different instrument...

  8. Measurements of waste tank passive ventilation rates using tracer gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Sklarew, D.S.; Evans, J.C.; Remund, K.M.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents the results of ventilation rate studies of eight passively ventilated high-level radioactive waste tanks using tracer gases. Head space ventilation rates were determined for Tanks A-101, AX-102, AX-103, BY-105, C-107, S-102, U-103, and U-105 using sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) and/or helium (He) as tracer gases. Passive ventilation rates are needed for the resolution of several key safety issues. These safety issues are associated with the rates of flammable gas production and ventilation, the rates at which organic salt-nitrate salt mixtures dry out, and the estimation of organic solvent waste surface areas. This tracer gas study involves injecting a tracer gas into the tank headspace and measuring its concentration at different times to establish the rate at which the tracer is removed by ventilation. Tracer gas injection and sample collection were performed by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation and/or Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation, Characterization Project Operations. Headspace samples were analyzed for He and SF 6 by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The tracer gas method was first demonstrated on Tank S-102. Tests were conducted on Tank S-102 to verify that the tracer gas was uniformly distributed throughout the tank headspace before baseline samples were collected, and that mixing was sufficiently vigorous to maintain an approximately uniform distribution of tracer gas in the headspace during the course of the study. Headspace samples, collected from a location about 4 in away from the injection point and 15, 30, and 60 minutes after the injection of He and SF 6 , indicated that both tracer gases were rapidly mixed. The samples were found to have the same concentration of tracer gases after 1 hour as after 24 hours, suggesting that mixing of the tracer gas was essentially complete within 1 hour

  9. Tracer attenuation in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovic, Vladimir

    2011-12-01

    The self-purifying capacity of aquifers strongly depends on the attenuation of waterborne contaminants, i.e., irreversible loss of contaminant mass on a given scale as a result of coupled transport and transformation processes. A general formulation of tracer attenuation in groundwater is presented. Basic sensitivities of attenuation to macrodispersion and retention are illustrated for a few typical retention mechanisms. Tracer recovery is suggested as an experimental proxy for attenuation. Unique experimental data of tracer recovery in crystalline rock compare favorably with the theoretical model that is based on diffusion-controlled retention. Non-Fickian hydrodynamic transport has potentially a large impact on field-scale attenuation of dissolved contaminants.

  10. Hanford 100-N Area Tracer Study Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretzschmar, S.P.; Bedi, G.S.; Martinez, P.; Ervin, K.

    1996-09-01

    This document provides an engineering tracer study final report for the determination of contact time for the disinfection process at Group A Nontransient Noncommunity water treatment plant for the 100- N Water Plant (located on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington). The purpose of this study is to determine the actual detention time within the plant clearwell, and the disinfection contact time at several clearwell effluent flow rates

  11. Disinfection Contact Time study plan (100-N Area tracer protocol). Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretzschmar, S.P.; Bedi, G.S.; Martinez, P.; Ervin, K.

    1996-07-01

    Bechtel Hanford, Inc. will prepare an Engineering Tracer Study Protocol for the determination of contact time for the disinfection process at Group A Non-transient Non-community water treatment plant for the 100-N Water Plant at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Included in this report are the results of a study that determine the actual detention time within the plant clearwell, and thus the disinfection contact time at several clearwell effluent flow rates

  12. A Preliminary Study on the Measurement of Sediment Concentration in Hill-Slope Runoff with an Electrolyte Tracer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonan Shi Fan Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sediment concentration in hill-slope runoff is an important index for soil erosion. Developing a reliable and portable measuring system of sediment concentration is a core issue for soil and water conservation study, especially for the Tibetan Plateau under unfavorable climate and terrain conditions for field investigation. Challenges include uneven distribution of sediment across a runoff section as well as difficulty in detecting a wide range of particle sizes. An electrolyte tracer, with the advantage of uniform distribution and its widely used electric-conductivity sensor, can avoid the problems of direct measurement of sediment. A new measurement method of sediment concentration in runoff with an electrolyte tracer is proposed based on a premise that sediment concentration is closely correlated with hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient of solute in runoff. In this study, an experiment system of hill-slope runoff with an electrolyte tracer and sediments is first designed. Second, two model parameters in the advective-dispersive equation of solute transport, flow velocity and diffusion coefficient, are inversely estimated by calibrating the observed concentrations of an electrolyte tracer. And third, the relationship between sediment concentrations and hydrodynamic dispersion coefficients are defined through specified regression. As a result, a measurement system of sediment concentration in hill-slope runoff with an electrolyte tracer is primarily established by integrating the relationship of variables, experiment system, and model theory.

  13. Studies of Tracer Dispersion and Fluid Flow in Porous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rage, T.

    1996-12-31

    This doctoral thesis explores the connection between the topology of a porous medium and its macroscopic transport properties and is based on computerized simulation. In porous media, both diffusion and convection contribute to the dispersion of a tracer and their combined effect is emphasized. The governing equations are solved numerically, using finite differences and Monte Carlo technique. The influence of finite Reynolds number on the outcome of echo-experiments is discussed. Comparing experiments and simulations it is found that nonlinear inertial forces lead to a visible deformation of a returned tracer at surprisingly small Reynolds numbers. In a study of tracer dispersion and fluid flow in periodic arrays of discs it is demonstrated that the mechanisms of mechanical dispersion in periodic media and in natural (non-periodic) porous media are essentially different. Measurements of the percolation probability distribution of a sandstone sample is presented. Local porosity theory predicts that this simple geometric function of a porous medium is of dominant importance for its macroscopic transport properties. It is demonstrated that many aspects of transport through fractures can be studied by using simple but realistic models and readily available computer resources. An example may be the transport of hydrocarbon fluids from the source rock to a reservoir. 165 refs., 44 figs., 1 table

  14. Underground flux studies in waste basin of CIPC using natural and artificial tracers - v.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minardi, P.S.P.

    1982-10-01

    Underground flux studies in waste basin of CIPC is presented, with the description of the regions and the wells, the techniques with artificial tracers and the results and conclusion, based in field campaign realized till february/82. (author)

  15. Oxygen tracer studies of ferroelectric fatigue in Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schloss, Lawrence F.; McIntyre, Paul C.; Hendrix, Bryan C.; Bilodeau, Steven M.; Roeder, Jeffrey F.; Gilbert, Stephen R.

    2002-01-01

    Long-range oxygen motion has been observed in Pt/Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 /Ir thin-film structures after electrical fatigue cycling at room temperature. Through an exchange anneal, isotopic 18 O was incorporated as a tracer into bare Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 (PZT) films, allowing secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements of the tracer profile evolution as a function of the number of polarization reversals. Observation of 18 O tracer redistribution during voltage cycling, which is presumably mediated by oxygen vacancy motion, was found to be strongly dependent upon the thermal history of the film. However, there was no strong correlation between the extent of 18 O tracer redistribution and the extent of polarization suppression induced by voltage cycling. Our results suggest that oxygen vacancy motion plays, at most, a secondary role in ferroelectric fatigue of PZT thin films

  16. Field studies of transport and dispersion of atmospheric tracers in nocturnal drainage flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul H. Gudiksen; Gilbert J. Ferber; Malcolm M. Fowler; Wynn L. Eberhard; Michael A. Fosberg; William R. Knuth

    1984-01-01

    A series of tracer experiments were carried out as part of the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program to evaluate pollutant transport and dispersion characteristics of nocturnal drainage flows within a valley in northern California. The results indicate that the degree of interaction of the drainage flows with the larger scale regional flows are...

  17. Tracer studies of flotation in the laboratory and in mineral processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, A.J.; Thereska, J.; Plasari, E.; Kacaj, M.

    1993-01-01

    Radioisotope tracers have a proven application for the extraction of residence time distributions and the evaluation of flotation rates in industry. This paper shows how values of the rate factor k are scaled up on the basis of flotation in the laboratory and tracer tests in plant. The procedure is illustrated by a theoretical study and by experimental data. The information obtained can be introduced into models of larger flotation systems. (author)

  18. Isotopic marking and tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, F.

    1997-01-01

    The use of radioactive isotopes as tracers in biology has been developed thanks to the economic generation of the required isotopes in accelerators and nuclear reactors, and to the multiple applications of tracers in the life domain; the most usual isotopes employed in biology are carbon, hydrogen, phosphorus and sulfur isotopes, because these elements are present in most of organic molecules. Most of the life science knowledge appears to be dependent to the extensive use of nuclear tools and radioactive tracers; the example of the utilization of radioactive phosphorus marked ATP to study the multiple reactions with proteins, nucleic acids, etc., is given

  19. Database dictionary for the results of groundwater tracer tests using tritiated water, conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, B.K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Huff, D.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

    1997-05-01

    In 1977, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) conducted two tracer tests at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using tritiated water to study the relative importance of bedding-plane openings on shallow groundwater flow. Through a cooperative agreement between the USGS and the US Department of Energy (DOE), the data were made available to researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), who organized the data into a data management format. The results of these groundwater tracer tests have been compiled into a collection of four SAS data sets. This report documents these SAS data sets, including their structure, methodology, and content. The SAS data sets include information on precipitation, tritium, water levels, and well construction for wells at or near ORNL radioactive waste burial grounds 4, 5, and 6.

  20. Measurement of open streams by using tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, German F.; Tarquino, W.; Curcuy, H.; Orozco, C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an intercomparison study to be carried out between flux measurements by using tracers and moulinet. This intercomparison is scheduled to be performed at the measurement station belonging to the National Service of Meteorology and Hydrology (SENAMHI). Two techniques of tracer dilution are outstanded: total evaluation with tracer punctual injection and punctual evaluation with tracer continuous injection. Total evaluation with tracer punctual injection has been used since this technique is considered to be more suitable for hydrology purposes

  1. Predictive value of tracer studies for 131I treatment in hyperthyroid cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broome, M.R.; Turrel, J.M.; Hays, M.T.

    1988-01-01

    In 76 cats with hyperthyroidism, peak thyroidal radioiodine ( 131 I) uptakes and effective half-lives were determined after administration of tracer and therapeutic activities of 131 I. In 6 additional hyperthyroid cats, only peak thyroidal uptakes after administration of tracer and therapeutic activities of 131 I were determined. Good correlation was found between peak thyroidal uptakes of tracer and therapeutic 131 I; however, only fair correlation was observed between effective half-lives. In 79% of the cats, the effective half-life for therapeutic 131 I was longer than that for tracer 131 I. After administration of therapeutic activity of 131 I, monoexponential and biphasic decay curves were observed in 51 and 16 cats, respectively. Using therapeutic kinetic data, radiation doses to the thyroid gland were calculated retrospectively on the basis of 2 methods for determining the activity of 131 I administered: (1) actual administration of tracer-compensated activity and (2) hypothetic administration of uniform activity (3 mCi). Because of the good predictive ability of tracer kinetic data for the therapeutic kinetic data, the tracer-compensated radiation doses came significantly (P = 0.008) closer to the therapeutic goal than did the uniform-activity doses. In addition, the use of tracer kinetic information reduced the extent of the tendency for consistently high uniform-activity doses. A manual method for acquiring tracer kinetic data was developed and was an acceptable alternative to computerized techniques. Adoption of this method gives individuals and institutions with limited finances the opportunity to characterize the iodine kinetics in cats before proceeding with administration of therapeutic activities of 131 I

  2. Nitrate movement and removal along a shallow groundwater flow path in a riparian wetland within a sheep-grazed pastoral catchment : result of a tracer study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.A.; Nguyen, L.

    2002-01-01

    The movement and removal of nitrate (NO 3 ) along a groundwater flow path within a riparian wetland was investigated during a 24-day period in late autumn-early winter, using a lithium bromide (LiBr)-potassium nitrate (KNO 3 ) tracer solution containing 19 200 mg/litre as Br - and 193.8 mg/litre as NO 3 -N. The tracer solution was added as an instantaneous dose of tracer solution at a depth of 10-20 cm to four injection wells in two 1 m 2 plots within a sheep-grazed pastoral catchment at the Whatawhata Agricultural Research Centre near Hamilton, New Zealand. Bromide and NO 3- N concentrations were measured periodically in: (1) wetland groundwater samples from piezometers installed at 15 and 30 cm depths and located at 30, 60, and 100 cm down gradient from the injection wells; and (2) surface flow samples. Peak concentrations of 50-250 mg/litre of Br - and 0.2-1.1 mg/litre of NO 3 -N were reached within 1-2 days after application at most piezometers. Nitrate concentrations decreased thereafter more sharply than did those of Br - , resulting in decreased NO 3 -N/Br - ratios from Days 2 through 7. More than 99% of groundwater samples collected after the tracer application had NO 3 -N/Br - less than the value in the tracer solution indicating removal of NO 3 -N during transport. Mass flux estimates indicated removal of >90% of added NO 3 -N along the 100 cm flow path from the injection, with essentially all of the NO 3 - removed within the first 30 cm of transport. On Days 10 and 24, just after rain events, surface flow from the experimental plots had greatly elevated NO 3 -N concentrations that were not accompanied by correspondingly elevated Br - concentrations, indicating that NO 3 -N originating from the surrounding catchment was transported over the wetland surface with little penetration or mixing with wetland groundwater. Despite a significant capacity for NO 3 -N removal from shallow groundwater equivalent to an annualised value of 50 kg/ha in these wetland

  3. Our experience of blood flow measurements using radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danet, Bernard.

    1974-01-01

    A critical study of blood flow measuring methods is proposed. After a review of the various diffusible and non-diffusible radioactive tracers and the corresponding detector systems, the principles which allow to measure blood flow from the data so obtained, are studied. There is a different principle of flow measurement for each type of tracer. The theory of flow measurement using non-diffusible tracers (human serum albumin labelled with 131 I or sup(99m)Tc, 113 In-labelled siderophiline) and its application to cardiac flow measurement are described first. Then the theory of flow measurement using diffusible tracers ( 133 Xe, 85 Kr) and its application to measurement of blood flow through tissues (muscles and kidney particularly) are described. A personal experience of this various flow measurements is reported. The results obtained, the difficulties encountered and the improvments proposed are developed [fr

  4. Selection of tracers for oil and gas evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoernstad, T.

    1991-08-01

    The importance of tracer tests in reservoir descriptions is increasingly acknowledged by reservoir engineers as a method to obtain valuable dynamic information from the reservoir. The report describes the ''state-of-the art'' on tracer technology for interwell investigations. Experiences gained from a number of reported field tracer tests are reviewed, and results from detailed laboratory investigations on the static and dynamic behavior of various tracer molecules are discussed. A critical evaluation of the applicability of the various identified tracers is provided. Present and future trends in the development of tracer technology for reservoir description are sketched. 64 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Tracer migration experiments in the Stripa mine 1980-1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birgersson, L.; Widen, H.; Aagren, T.; Neretnieks, I.

    1992-05-01

    During more than 10 years, tracer experiments have been performed in the Stripa mine as part of the Stripa project to investigate the properties of both 'average' fractured rock and fracture zones. Experiments have been performed that have ranged from a few decimeters, to examine the diffusion into the rock matrix, up to tracer migration to a drift more than 50 meters from the injection point. This report compiles the results and experience that have been gained from all these tracer experiments. The experiments that are described in this report are: * The in-situ diffusion experiment where simultaneous flow and diffusion of tracers in undisturbed rock were studied over more than 3 years to validate diffusivities obtained under laboratory conditions. * Migration in a single fracture where water flow distribution and tracer transport were studied using both conservative and sorbing tracers over migration distances up to 10 meters. * The 3-D migration experiment where water inflow and tracer transport to a drift covered with 350 plastic sheet were investigated to get information on flow porosity, dispersion and channeling. The transport distances were between 10 and 56 meters from the injection points to the drift. * The channeling experiments in which the aim was to examine the channeling properties of single fractures in detail. Pressure pulse tests and tracer experiments were performed over a distances of 2 meters. * The tracer migration experiment in the validation drift where the tracer were injected mainly in a fracture zone and the collection was inside both a drift covered with plastic sheets similar to in the 3-D experiment as well as in a borehole. The distances between injection and sampling location were between 10 and 25 meters. (57 refs.) (au)

  6. Statistically Based Morphodynamic Modeling of Tracer Slowdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhani, S.; Ghasemi, A.; Hill, K. M.; Viparelli, E.

    2017-12-01

    Tracer particles are used to study bedload transport in gravel-bed rivers. One of the advantages associated with using of tracer particles is that they allow for direct measures of the entrainment rates and their size distributions. The main issue in large scale studies with tracer particles is the difference between tracer stone short term and long term behavior. This difference is due to the fact that particles undergo vertical mixing or move to less active locations such as bars or even floodplains. For these reasons the average virtual velocity of tracer particle decreases in time, i.e. the tracer slowdown. In summary, tracer slowdown can have a significant impact on the estimation of bedload transport rate or long term dispersal of contaminated sediment. The vast majority of the morphodynamic models that account for the non-uniformity of the bed material (tracer and not tracer, in this case) are based on a discrete description of the alluvial deposit. The deposit is divided in two different regions; the active layer and the substrate. The active layer is a thin layer in the topmost part of the deposit whose particles can interact with the bed material transport. The substrate is the part of the deposit below the active layer. Due to the discrete representation of the alluvial deposit, active layer models are not able to reproduce tracer slowdown. In this study we try to model the slowdown of tracer particles with the continuous Parker-Paola-Leclair morphodynamic framework. This continuous, i.e. not layer-based, framework is based on a stochastic description of the temporal variation of bed surface elevation, and of the elevation specific particle entrainment and deposition. Particle entrainment rates are computed as a function of the flow and sediment characteristics, while particle deposition is estimated with a step length formulation. Here we present one of the first implementation of the continuum framework at laboratory scale, its validation against

  7. Identification and characterization of conservative organic tracers for use as hydrologic tracers for the Yucca Mountain Site characterization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombrowski, T.; Stetzenbach, K.

    1993-01-01

    This report is in two parts one for the fluorinated benzoic acids and one for the fluorinated aliphatic acids. The assumptions made in the report regarding the amount of tracer that will be used, dilution of the tracer during the test and the length of exposure (if any) to individuals drinking the water were made by the authors. These assumptions must really come from the USGS hydrologists in charge of the c-well tracer testing program. Accurate estimates of dilution of the tracer during the test are also important because of solubility limitations of some of the tracers. Three of the difluorobenzoic acids have relatively low solubilities and may not be usable if the dilution estimates are large. The toxicologist that reviewed the document agreed with our conclusion that the fluorinated benzoic and toluic acids do not represent a health hazard if used under the conditions as outlined in the report. We are currently testing 15 of these compounds, and if even if three difluorobenzoic acids cannot be used because of solubility limitations we will still have 12 tracers. The toxicologist felt that the aliphatic fluorinated acids potentially present more of a health risk than the aromatic. This assessment was based on the fact of a known allergic response to halothane anesthetic. This risk, although minimal, is known and he felt that was enough reason to recommend against their use. The authors feel that the toxicologists interpretation of this risk was overly conservative, however, we will not go against his recommendation at this time for the following reasons. First, without the aliphatic compounds we still have 12 to 15 fluorinated aromatic acids which, should be enough for the c-well tests. Second, to get a permit to use aliphatic compounds would undoubtedly require a hearing which could be quite lengthy

  8. Aligning Higher Education to Workforce Needs in Liberia: A Tracer Study of University Graduates in Liberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flomo, John S., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the congruence between higher education and the labor market from the perspectives of college graduates in Liberia. It specifically examined the alignment of the skills college students acquire in college to Liberia's labor market. The study employed a Tracer Study quantitative research methodology. Tracer study as a…

  9. Quantitative Visualization of Dynamic Tracer Transportation in the Extracellular Space of Deep Brain Regions Using Tracer-Based Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jin; Wang, Wei; Quan, Xianyue; Liang, Wen; Li, Zhiming; Han, Hongbin; Chen, Deji

    2017-01-01

    Background This study assessed an innovative tracer-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system to visualize the dynamic transportation of tracers in regions of deep brain extracellular space (ECS) and to measure transportation ability and ECS structure. Material/Methods Gadolinium-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) was the chosen tracer and was injected into the caudate nucleus and thalamus. Real-time dynamic transportation of Gd-DTPA in ECS was observed and the results were verified by laser scanning confocal microscopy. Using Transwell assay across the blood-brain barrier, a modified diffusion equation was further simplified. Effective diffusion coefficient D* and tortuosity λ were calculated. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis were used to investigate the extracellular matrix contributing to ECS structure. Results Tracers injected into the caudate nucleus were transported to the ipsilateral frontal and temporal cortices away from the injection points, while both of them injected into the thalamus were only distributed on site. Although the caudate nucleus was closely adjacent to the thalamus, tracer transportation between partitions was not observed. In addition, D* and the λ showed statistically significant differences between partitions. ECS was shown to be a physiologically partitioned system, and its division is characterized by the unique distribution territory and transportation ability of substances located in it. Versican and Tenascin R are possible contributors to the tortuosity of ECS. Conclusions Tracer-based MRI will improve our understanding of the brain microenvironment, improve the techniques for local delivery of drugs, and highlight brain tissue engineering fields in the future. PMID:28866708

  10. Quantitative Visualization of Dynamic Tracer Transportation in the Extracellular Space of Deep Brain Regions Using Tracer-Based Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jin; Wang, Wei; Quan, Xianyue; Liang, Wen; Li, Zhiming; Chen, Deji; Han, Hongbin

    2017-09-03

    BACKGROUND This study assessed an innovative tracer-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system to visualize the dynamic transportation of tracers in regions of deep brain extracellular space (ECS) and to measure transportation ability and ECS structure. MATERIAL AND METHODS Gadolinium-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) was the chosen tracer and was injected into the caudate nucleus and thalamus. Real-time dynamic transportation of Gd-DTPA in ECS was observed and the results were verified by laser scanning confocal microscopy. Using Transwell assay across the blood-brain barrier, a modified diffusion equation was further simplified. Effective diffusion coefficient D* and tortuosity λ were calculated. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis were used to investigate the extracellular matrix contributing to ECS structure. RESULTS Tracers injected into the caudate nucleus were transported to the ipsilateral frontal and temporal cortices away from the injection points, while both of them injected into the thalamus were only distributed on site. Although the caudate nucleus was closely adjacent to the thalamus, tracer transportation between partitions was not observed. In addition, D* and the λ showed statistically significant differences between partitions. ECS was shown to be a physiologically partitioned system, and its division is characterized by the unique distribution territory and transportation ability of substances located in it. Versican and Tenascin R are possible contributors to the tortuosity of ECS. CONCLUSIONS Tracer-based MRI will improve our understanding of the brain microenvironment, improve the techniques for local delivery of drugs, and highlight brain tissue engineering fields in the future.

  11. Experiences of simulated tracer dispersal studies using effluent discharges at Tarapur aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudheendran, V.; Baburajan, A.; Sawane, Pratibha; Rao, D.D.; Hegde, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear complex in Tarapur, Maharashtra is a multi facility nuclear site comprising of power reactors and research facilities. Each facility has independent liquid effluent discharge line to Arabian Sea. Experimental studies were conducted to evaluate dilution factors in the aquatic environment using liquid effluent releases as tracer from one of the facilities. 3 H and 137 Cs radioisotopes present in the routine releases were used as simulated tracer nuclides. The dilution factors(D.F) observed for tritium were in the range of 20-20000 in a distance range of 10 m to 1500 m respectively and for 137 Cs the D.F. were in the range of 50 to 900 over a distance range of 10-200 m. The paper describes the analytical methodology and sampling scenarios and the results of dilution factors obtained for Tarapur aquatic environment. (author)

  12. Meteorological tracers in regional planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, K.H.

    1974-11-01

    Atmospheric tracers can be used as indicators to study both the ventilation of an urban region and its dispersion meteorology for air pollutants. A correlation analysis applied to the space-time dependent tracer concentrations is able to give transfer functions, the structure and characteristic parameters of which describe the meteorological and topographical situation of the urban region and its surroundings in an integral manner. To reduce the number of persons usually involved in a tracer experiment an automatic air sampling system had to be developed

  13. Key aspects of stratospheric tracer modeling using assimilated winds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bregman

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes key aspects of global chemistry-transport models and their impact on stratospheric tracer transport. We concentrate on global models that use assimilated winds from numerical weather predictions, but the results also apply to tracer transport in general circulation models. We examined grid resolution, numerical diffusion, air parcel dispersion, the wind or mass flux update frequency, and time interpolation. The evaluation is performed with assimilated meteorology from the "operational analyses or operational data" (OD from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF. We also show the effect of the mass flux update frequency using the ECMWF 40-year re-analyses (ERA40. We applied the three-dimensional chemistry-transport Tracer Model version 5 (TM5 and a trajectory model and performed several diagnoses focusing on different transport regimes. Covering different time and spatial scales, we examined (1 polar vortex dynamics during the Arctic winter, (2 the large-scale stratospheric meridional circulation, and (3 air parcel dispersion in the tropical lower stratosphere. Tracer distributions inside the Arctic polar vortex show considerably worse agreement with observations when the model grid resolution in the polar region is reduced to avoid numerical instability. The results are sensitive to the diffusivity of the advection. Nevertheless, the use of a computational cheaper but diffusive advection scheme is feasible for tracer transport when the horizontal grid resolution is equal or smaller than 1 degree. The use of time interpolated winds improves the tracer distributions, particularly in the middle and upper stratosphere. Considerable improvement is found both in the large-scale tracer distribution and in the polar regions when the update frequency of the assimilated winds is increased from 6 to 3 h. It considerably reduces the vertical dispersion of air parcels in the tropical lower stratosphere. Strong

  14. An overview of application of bayesian classifier approach in radioactive tracer technology.case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Aseer, A.; Dawood, E.; Ben Ayad, S.; Alwerfalli, M.

    2015-01-01

    The usefulness of implementing a radioactive tracer techniques subjected to varied risk factors. Thus, the setup procedure for the application experimental techniques of radioactive tracer must be evaluated prior the decision action steps. One way of doing this, is to use Bay's theorem techniques. As there is a possibility of classifying the implemented parameters into certain catogries depending on their certainty to effect radioactive tracer technology. In this paper, the radioactive tracer experimental parameters classified accoring to Bayesian theory. Using this theory, one can study the proposed technical systems to determine the probabilities of the effectiveness of any selected parameter among the others. The classification of the applied experimental parameters into suitable or unsuitable in proposed theoretically. Ten parameters used in this experimental data were classified accordingly. The posterior is calculate from the prior and the likelihood previously determined by bayes rule.(author)

  15. Rate tracer studies of heterogeneous catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Happel, J; Kiang, S

    1977-10-01

    An analysis is presented of the extent to which parameters involved in transient tracing of isotopic species in heterogeneous catalysis can be determined by experiments in which tracer concentrations are measured as a function of time. Different treatments for open and closed systems with the over-all reaction at equilibrium or irreversible were developed.

  16. Tracer Study Lulusan Program Studi Bimbingan dan Konseling Universitas Negeri Gorontalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Rahim

    2018-01-01

    .        Abstract This research is expected to improve and improve the quality of the management of Study Program Guidance and Counseling of State University of Gorontalo based on information obtained through tracer study. Specifically, this study was undertaken to obtain information about graduates, which included (1 the average waiting period for the graduates, (2 the type of work being undertaken, and (3 responses to graduate users. The problems of this research are: (1 what is the average waiting period of graduates ?, (2 what kind of work is graduated ?, and (3 how is the user's response to the graduates ?. The population members in this study amounted to 408 people, of which 58% (238 were used as sample members using cluster sampling. Research indicators include: (1 average waiting period for graduates, (2 types of work occupied by graduates, and (3 user responses to graduates. Data collection was done by using tracer study instrument. The collected data is analyzed quantitatively. The results showed: (1 the average waiting period of the graduates was 3 months; (2 the type of work occupied by graduates consists of 13 categories, namely (a Teacher BK (PNS as much as 27.31%; (B Teacher BK (Non PNS as much as 50.00%; (C PAUD teachers as much as 0.84%; (D Kindergarten teachers as much as 5.04%; (E elementary school teachers as much as 4.20%; (F SLB Teachers as much as 0.42%; (G Employees of government agencies as much as 2.52%; (H Company employees 0.84%; (I Lecturer as much as 1.26%; (J Unusual lecturer as much as 1.26%; (K Entrepreneur as much as 3.78%; (L Members of the People's Legislative Assembly of 0.42%; (M and others as much as 2.10%; And (3 user responses to graduates, which include: (a integrity (ethics and morals = 89.60 (excellent; (B expertise by field of science (professionalism = 82.92 (good; (C English = 67.89 (enough; (D use of information technology = 81.71 (good; (E communication = 84.06 (good; (F teamwork = 85.04 (excellent; And (g self

  17. Experimental design for estimating parameters of rate-limited mass transfer: Analysis of stream tracer studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Brian J.; Harvey, Judson W.

    1997-01-01

    Tracer experiments are valuable tools for analyzing the transport characteristics of streams and their interactions with shallow groundwater. The focus of this work is the design of tracer studies in high-gradient stream systems subject to advection, dispersion, groundwater inflow, and exchange between the active channel and zones in surface or subsurface water where flow is stagnant or slow moving. We present a methodology for (1) evaluating and comparing alternative stream tracer experiment designs and (2) identifying those combinations of stream transport properties that pose limitations to parameter estimation and therefore a challenge to tracer test design. The methodology uses the concept of global parameter uncertainty analysis, which couples solute transport simulation with parameter uncertainty analysis in a Monte Carlo framework. Two general conclusions resulted from this work. First, the solute injection and sampling strategy has an important effect on the reliability of transport parameter estimates. We found that constant injection with sampling through concentration rise, plateau, and fall provided considerably more reliable parameter estimates than a pulse injection across the spectrum of transport scenarios likely encountered in high-gradient streams. Second, for a given tracer test design, the uncertainties in mass transfer and storage-zone parameter estimates are strongly dependent on the experimental Damkohler number, DaI, which is a dimensionless combination of the rates of exchange between the stream and storage zones, the stream-water velocity, and the stream reach length of the experiment. Parameter uncertainties are lowest at DaI values on the order of 1.0. When DaI values are much less than 1.0 (owing to high velocity, long exchange timescale, and/or short reach length), parameter uncertainties are high because only a small amount of tracer interacts with storage zones in the reach. For the opposite conditions (DaI ≫ 1.0), solute

  18. Principles and techniques of gamma ray tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claxton, K.T.

    1978-01-01

    Radioactive tracer techniques provide a very sensitive means of studying physical and chemical processes in a whole variety of different media. Some of the techniques and principles of radioactive tracers and their application to practical engineering systems are discussed. Information which has been found useful in the design of high temperature liquid sodium facilities employing radio-tracers, is presented. The report deals solely with the use of gamma-emitting species as the tracer. These find particular application for in-situ studies on engineering systems where the highly penetrating properties of gamma rays are needed for detection through strongly absorbent media such as stainless steel pepe walls. (author)

  19. Effect of tracer particles-quantized vortices interaction on PIV measurement result

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Masahide

    2014-01-01

    PIV (Particle Image Velocimeter) was applied to the measurement of He II thermal counterflow jet. However, the velocity measured with a PIV was smaller than the theoretical velocity of the normal component. Sergeev et al. explained that this was caused by the interaction between tracer particles and tangled mass of quantized vortices, and presented phenomenological formulae for the deceleration of particle motions in the two limiting cases of the vortex density. It is seen the present PIV experimental results qualitatively agree with the phenomenological formulae in the linear case of small or moderate values of heat input. The critical heat flux experimentally derived for the transition from the linear to non-linear regimes is found to be in fair agreement with the prediction.

  20. Studies of 15N transamination following application of various tracer substances. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schadereit, R.; Krawielitzki, K.; Herrmann, U.

    1986-01-01

    4 groups of 3 growing Wistar rats each were orally given 15 N-labelled methionine, lysine, glycine and ammonia sulphate, resp., over 10 days. Measuring the 15 N accumulation in the amino acids (AA) of the body protein, the transamination of the individual 15 N substances and thus their suitability as tracer substances for studies of N metabolism was determined. None of the tested 15 N-AA achieved a proportionate labelling of all AA of the body protein. The AA used as tracer in each case showed the highest 15 N labelling. Of the amino- 15 N detected in the animal body, about 19% were found in Met after 15 N Met application, 88% in Lys after 15 N Lys application and 50% in Gly after 15 N Gly application. After the application of 15 N-ammonia sulphate about 42% of the body amino- 15 N are apportioned to the essential and 58% to the non-essential AA. Thus, this substance produces a more proportional labelling of the essential and non-essential AA of the body protein than 15 N-Gly. The following quotas of the 15 N amounts applied were found in the AA of the animal bodies: tracer substance lysine 52%, glycine 32%, ammonia sulphate 24%, methionine 21%. After summing up the amino acid 15 N amounts in the animal body, eliminating in each case the tracer AA and taking into account the molecular weight of the AA, there was a good agreement of the intensity of the accumulation of 15 N in the individual AA, irrespective of the applied tracer substance. (author)

  1. Flow-rate measurement using radioactive tracers and transit time method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turtiainen, Heikki

    1986-08-01

    The transit time method is a flow measurement method based on tracer techniques. Measurement is done by injecting to the flow a pulse of tracer and measuring its transit time between two detection positions. From the transit time the mean flow velosity and - using the pipe cross section area - the volume flow rate can be calculated. When a radioisotope tracer is used the measurement can be done from outside the pipe and without disturbing the process (excluding the tracer injection). The use of the transit time method has been limited because of difficulties associated with handling and availability of radioactive tracers and lack of equipment suitable for routine use in industrial environments. The purpose of this study was to find out if these difficulties may be overcome by using a portable isotope generator as a tracer source and automating the measurement. In the study a test rig and measuring equipment based on the use of a ''1''3''7Cs/''1''3''7''''mBa isotope generator were constructed. They were used to study the accuracy and error sources of the method and to compare different algorithms to calculate the transit time. The usability of the method and the equipment in industrial environments were studied by carrying out over 20 flow measurements in paper and pulp mills. On the basis of the results of the study, a project for constructing a compact radiatracer flowmeter for industrial use has been started. The application range of this kind of meter is very large. The most obvious applications are in situ calibration of flowmeters, material and energy balance studies, process equipment analyses (e.g. pump efficiency analyses). At the moment tracer techniques are the only methods applicable to these measurements on-line and with sufficient accuracy

  2. Field ionization mass spectrometry (FIMS) applied to tracer studies and isotope dilution analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anbar, M.; Heck, H.d'A.; McReynolds, J.H.; St John, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    The nonfragmenting nature of field ionization mass spectrometry makes it a preferred technique for the isotopic analysis of multilabeled organic compounds. The possibility of field ionization of nonvolatile thermolabile materials significantly extends the potential uses of this technique beyond those of conventional ionization methods. Multilabeled tracers may be studied in biological systems with a sensitivity comparable to that of radioactive tracers. Isotope dilution analysis may be performed reliably by this technique down to picogram levels. These techniques will be illustrated by a number of current studies using multilabeled metabolites and drugs. The scope and limitations of the methodology are discussed

  3. The field tracer test study of atmospheric dispersion in Fujian Huian Nuclear Power Plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Erbang; Xin Cuntian; Yan Jiangyu; Ren Zhiqiang; Xuan Yiren; Jia Peirong

    2003-01-01

    The SF 6 tracer tests and its main results completed in site of Fujian Huian Nuclear Power Plant during summer, 2002, are described. A total of 15 times of SF 6 tracer tests were done in the July, in which the time of atmospheric stability B, C, D, E is respectively 3, 2, 9, 1 based on ΔT-U method and the time of B, D, E is respectively 1, 11, 3 based on ΔT method. About 50 samples were collected in each SF 6 tracer tests, the maximum of sample distance from the tower in which the SF 6 tracer was released is about 15 km. The values of p y , p z , q y , q z in the formula of diffusion parameters is determined. Finally the above diffusion parameters are compared with P-G curve, Briggs diffusion parameters and those obtained from turbulence observation and wind tunnel simulation test done in the past time. (authors)

  4. Slew-rate dependence of tracer magnetization response in magnetic particle imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Saqlain A.; Ferguson, R. M.; Krishnan, K. M.

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a new biomedical imaging technique that produces real-time, high-resolution tomographic images of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle tracers. Currently, 25 kHz and 20 mT/μ0 excitation fields are common in MPI, but lower field amplitudes may be necessary for patient safety in future designs. Here, we address fundamental questions about MPI tracer magnetization dynamics and predict tracer performance in future scanners that employ new combinations of excitation field amplitude (Ho) and frequency (ω). Using an optimized, monodisperse MPI tracer, we studied how several combinations of drive field frequencies and amplitudes affect the tracer's response, using Magnetic Particle Spectrometry and AC hysteresis, for drive field conditions at 15.5, 26, and 40.2 kHz, with field amplitudes ranging from 7 to 52 mT/μ0. For both fluid and immobilized nanoparticle samples, we determined that magnetic response was dominated by Néel reversal. Furthermore, we observed that the peak slew-rate (ωHo) determined the tracer magnetic response. Smaller amplitudes provided correspondingly smaller field of view, sometimes resulting in excitation of minor hysteresis loops. Changing the drive field conditions but keeping the peak slew-rate constant kept the tracer response almost the same. Higher peak slew-rates led to reduced maximum signal intensity and greater coercivity in the tracer response. Our experimental results were in reasonable agreement with Stoner-Wohlfarth model based theories.

  5. Doublet Tracer Testing in Klamath Falls, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudmundsson, J S; Johnson, S E; Horne, R N; Jackson, P B [Pet. Eng. Dept., Stanford University; Culver, G G [Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR

    0000-12-30

    A tracer test was carried out in a geothermal doublet system to study the injection behavior of a developed reservoir known to be fractured. The doublet produces about 320 gpm of 160 degrees Fahrenheit water that is used for space heating and then injected; the wells are spaced 250 ft apart. Tracer breakthrough was observed in 2 hours and 45 minutes in the production well, indicating fracture flow. However, the tracer concentrations were low and indicated porous media flow; the tracers mixed with a reservoir volume much larger than a fracture.

  6. Doublet Tracer Testing in Klamath Falls, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudmundsson, J.S.; Johnson, S.E.; Horne, R.N.; Jackson, P. B. [Pet. Eng. Dept., Stanford University; Culver, G.G. [Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR

    0001-01-01

    A tracer test was carried out in a geothermal doublet system to study the injection behavior of a developed reservoir known to be fractured. The doublet produces about 320 gpm of 160 degrees Fahrenheit water that is used for space heating and then injected; the wells are spaced 250 ft apart. Tracer breakthrough was observed in 2 hours and 45 minutes in the production well, indicating fracture flow. However, the tracer concentrations were low and indicated porous media flow; the tracers mixed with a reservoir volume much larger than a fracture.

  7. Damage of tracer erythropoietin results in erroneous estimation of concentration in mouse submaxillary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, A; Carcagno, M; Criscuolo, M; Barcelò, A C; Alippi, R M; Leal, T; Bozzini, C E

    1993-02-01

    It has been previously reported that 1) plasma erythropoietin (Epo) titer during exposure to hypobaria is lower in nephrectomized rats and mice whose submaxillary glands (SMG) were either ablated or atrophied than in nephrectomized controls whose SMG were intact and 2) that the gland shows one of the highest levels of immunoreactive Epo (iEpo) in the body. The latter observation, however, was questioned recently when it was observed that SMG extracts degrade labeled Epo used as tracer antigen in the radioimmunoassay (RIA), thus giving invalid estimates of Epo. Since this interpretation was in turn questioned, the present study was conducted to obtain more information on the subject and make these conflicting points clear. Investigation of the reported/possible degradation of Epo by SMG homogenates was conducted via polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by radioautography or by a RIA in solid phase in which there was no simultaneous incubation of the tracer antigen with the SMG homogenates. It was observed that 125I-labeled rhEpo was degraded when incubated with SMG homogenates. Degradation was rapid, being evident when incubation lasted 30 minutes, and occurred in the presence of a protease inhibitor. It showed a high degree of specificity since it did not occur when Epo was incubated with kidney homogenate or normal mouse serum. SMG homogenate did not degrade labeled thyrotrophic hormone and degraded alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) only partially. When estimates of iEpo in SMG homogenate were performed in conditions of simultaneous (SI-RIA) or nonsimultaneous (NSI-RIA) incubation of the homogenate with tracer Epo, it was observed that while estimates of Epo in plasma were similar in both types of RIA and somewhat higher in kidney homogenate in the SI-RIA than in the NSI-RIA, estimates of Epo in SMG were about 60 times higher in the former than in the latter. Therefore, it could be concluded that most of the Epo detected by standard RIA in SMG homogenate does

  8. Study of the mineralization of coral implanted in vivo by radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irigaray, J.L.; Sauvage, T.; Oudadesse, H.; El Fadl, H.; Lefaivre, J.; Barlet, J.P.; Trevers, S.; Tixer, H.

    1993-01-01

    Coral has been used for the last ten years as bone substitution in the body because of its mechanical and osteoconductor properties. Primary studies have shown, for the first time, the quantitative behaviour of the atomic components. A biocoral implanted 'in vivo' was studied by some physical method of analysis. The natural biocorals used are the calcium carbonated exoskeletons built by Madrepian coral polyps. Neutron activation analysis showed that initial coral, essentially CaCO 3 , becomes a new material which has a mineral composition close to that of bone. The calcification mechanism of this implant was studied by using radioactive tracers. The tracer kinetics of calcium biomaterial have been established in the blood circuit and its use was shown by the organism for skeleton mineralization. (author) 8 refs.; 6 figs.; 4 tabs

  9. Long residence times - bad tracer tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghergut, Julia; Behrens, Horst; Sauter, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Tracer tests conducted at geothermal well doublets or triplets in the Upper Rhine Rift Valley [1] all face, with very few exceptions so far, one common issue: lack of conclusive tracer test results, or tracer signals still undetectable for longer than one or two years after tracer injection. While the reasons for this surely differ from site to site (Riehen, Landau, Insheim, Bruchsal, ...), its effects on how the usefulness of tracer tests is perceived by the non-tracer community are pretty much the same. The 'poor-signal' frustration keeps nourishing two major 'alternative' endeavours : (I) design and execute tracer tests in single-well injection-withdrawal (push-pull), 'instead of' inter-well flow-path tracing configurations; (II) use 'novel' tracer substances instead of the 'old' ones which have 'obviously failed'. Frustration experienced with most inter-well tracer tests in the Upper Rhine Rift Valley has also made them be regarded as 'maybe useful for EGS' ('enhanced', or 'engineered' geothermal systems, whose fluid RTD typically include a major share of values below one year), but 'no longer worthwhile a follow-up sampling' in natural, large-scale hydrothermal reservoirs. We illustrate some of these arguments with the ongoing Bruchsal case [2]. The inter-well tracer test conducted at Bruchsal was (and still is!) aimed at assessing inter-well connectivity, fluid residence times, and characterizing the reservoir structure [3]. Fluid samples taken at the geothermal production well after reaching a fluid turnover of about 700,000 m3 showed tracer concentrations in the range of 10-8 Minj per m3, in the liquid phase of each sample (Minj being the total quantity of tracer injected as a short pulse at the geothermal re-injection well). Tracer signals might actually be higher, owing to tracer amounts co-precipitated and/or adsorbed onto the solid phase whose accumulation in the samples was unavoidable (due to pressure relief and degassing during the very sampling

  10. Root zone effects on tracer migration in arid zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, S.W.; Walker, G.R.

    1994-01-01

    The study of groundwater recharge and soil water movement in arid regions has received increased attention in the search for safe disposal sites for hazardous wastes. In passing through the upper 1 to 2 m of most soil profiles, tracers indicative of recharge such as Cl, 2 H, 18 O, Br, 3 H, and 56 Cl are subjected to a wide range of processes not encountered deeper in the profile. This transition zone, where water enters as precipitation and leaves as recharge, is often ignored when environmental tracers are used to estimate deep soil water flux and recharge, yet its effect may be profound. In this work, we reexamine the processes of root extraction and its effect on the velocity and distribution of tracers. Examples are presented for idealized conditions, which show clearly the relation between the root zone processes and the deep drainage or recharge. The results indicate that, when recharge is small and root zone processes are not accounted for, tracer techniques can significantly overestimate recharge until the tracer has moved well below the root zone. By incorporating simple models of root zone processes, a clearer understanding of tracer distributions and a more accurate estimate of recharge can then be made. 11 refs., 9 figs

  11. Biodistribution of [11C] methylaminoisobutyric acid, a tracer for PET studies on system A amino acid transport in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutinen, E.; Jyrkkioe, S.; Groenroos, T.; Haaparanta, M.; Lehikoinen, P.; Naagren, K.

    2001-01-01

    [N-methyl- 11 C]α-Methylaminoisobutyric acid ( 11 C-MeAIB) is a potentially useful tracer for positron emission tomography (PET) studies on hormonally regulated system A amino acid transport. 11 C-MeAIB is a metabolically stable amino acid analogue specific for system A amino acid transport. We evaluated the biodistribution of 11 C-MeAIB in rats and humans to estimate the usefulness of the tracer for in vivo human PET studies, for example, on regulation of system A amino acid transport and on tumour imaging. Healthy Sprague-Dawley rats (n=14) were killed 5, 20, 40 or 60 min after the injection of 11 C-MeAIB, and the tissue samples were weighed and counted for 11 C radioactivity. Ten lymphoma patients with relatively limited tumour burden underwent whole-body (WB) PET imaging with 11 C-MeAIB. In addition, three other patients had dynamic PET scanning of the head and neck area, and the tracer uptake was quantitated by calculating the kinetic influx constants (K i values) for the tracer. In animal studies, the highest activity was detected in the kidney, pancreas, adrenal gland and intestines. In humans, the highest activity was found in the salivary glands, and after that in the kidney and pancreas, similar to the results in animal studies. Rapid uptake was also detected in the skeletal muscle. In the graphical analysis, linear plots were obtained, and the mean fractional tracer uptake values (K i ) of the parotid glands (n=3) and cervical muscles (n=3) were 0.039±0.008 min -1 and 0.013±0.006 min -1 , respectively. The K i value of the tumour (n=1) was 0.064 min -1 . Higher uptake of 11 C-MeAIB into the tumour tissue was encountered. These results encourage further 11 C-MeAIB PET studies in humans on the physiology and pathology of system A amino acid transport and on tumour detection. (orig.)

  12. Radiochemical tracers in marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrocelli, S.R.; Anderson, J.W.; Neff, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    Tracers have been used in a great variety of experimentation. More recently, labeled materials have been applied in marine biological research. Some of the existing tracer techniques have been utilized directly, while others have been modified to suit the specific needs of marine biologists. This chapter describes some of the uses of tracers in marine biological research. It also mentions the problems encountered as well as offering possible solutions and discusses further applications of these techniques. Only pertinent references are cited and additional information may be obtained by consulting these references. Due to their relative ease of maintenance, freshwater species are also utilized in studies which involve radiotracer techniques. Since most of these techniques e directly applicable to marine species, some of these studies will also be included

  13. Tracers of air-sea gas exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liss, P.S.

    1988-01-01

    The flux of gas across the air-sea interface is determined by the product of the interfacial concentration difference driving the exchange and a rate constant, often termed the transfer velocity. The concentration-difference term is generally obtained by direct measurement, whereas more indirect approaches are required to estimate the transfer velocity and its variation as a function of controlling parameters such as wind and sea state. Radioactive tracers have proved particularly useful in the estimation of air-sea transfer velocities and, recently, stable purposeful tracers have also started to be used. In this paper the use of the following tracers to determine transfer velocities at the sea surface is discussed: natural and bomb-produced 14 C, dissolved oxygen, 222 Rn and sulphur hexafluoride. Other topics covered include the relation between transfer velocity and wind speed as deduced from tracer and wind-tunnel studies, and the discrepancy between transfer velocities determined by using tracers and from eddy correlation measurements in the atmosphere. (author)

  14. Preparation of radioactive tracer for studying sediment movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, S.D.; Ghauri, G.A.; Qureshi, M.H.; Khan, N.A.

    1983-06-01

    In order to study the movement of sediment in harbours, estuaries and streams, artificial sediment in the form of glass is prepared. A preselected nuclide is added to the glass during its manufacture. The density and size distribution of the glass particles is method with that of the natural sediment. The activation of the artificial sediment in a reactor changes the nuclide into a radioactive isotope thereby tagging it and making it possible to trace its movement with suitable radiation detector. The method of tracer preparation is described with special reference to sadiment movement studies at Karachi harbour. (authors)

  15. Multi-Tracer Approach for Shelf Water Mixing Studies in Brazilian Regions under Different Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, L. D.; Marins, R. V.; Dias, F. J.S. [Instituto de Ciencias do Mar, Universidate Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Godoy, M. L.D.P. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Godoy, J. M.; Souza, T. A. [Departamento de Quimica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rezende, C. E. [Centro de Biociencias e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    Fresh water and sediment supply at estuary and plume regions has dramatically changed due to land use changes, mostly damming, in river basins. The resulting impact, however, may vary significantly depending on climate and hydrology. The seasonal differences in shelf, plume, estuarine and river waters of two watersheds located under contrasting climates in the Brazilian coast are reported using a multi-tracer approach (salinity, barium, silica, uranium, deuterium and {sup 18}O) to characterize the mixing processes. At the Paraiba do Sul River, SE Brazil, in a wet tropical coast, all results showed similarity between dry and wet seasons; at the Jaguaribe river under semi arid climate in NE Brazil, the results showed a moving freshwater plume depending on season, with freshwater at the estuary in the rainy season and shelf water intrusion upstream in the estuary in the dry season. Most tracers used were able to consistently characterize water masses even in the wide range of latitudes studied, confirming their importance as a tool for modelling mixing processes at the continent-ocean boundary. Barium, however, still needs better studies on its seashore chemistry, since in the semi arid site, Ba distribution could not be directly related to conservative mixing behaviour, at least during the rainy season. (author)

  16. Fluorinated tracers for imaging cancer with positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couturier, Olivier; Chatal, Jean-Francois; Luxen, Andre; Vuillez, Jean-Philippe; Rigo, Pierre; Hustinx, Roland

    2004-01-01

    2-[ 18 F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) is currently the only fluorinated tracer used in routine clinical positron emission tomography (PET). Fluorine-18 is considered the ideal radioisotope for PET imaging owing to the low positron energy (0.64 MeV), which not only limits the dose rate to the patient but also results in a relatively short range of emission in tissue, thereby providing high-resolution images. Further, the 110-min physical half-life allows for high-yield radiosynthesis, transport from the production site to the imaging site and imaging protocols that may span hours, which permits dynamic studies and assessment of potentially fairly slow metabolic processes. The synthesis of fluorinated tracers as an alternative to FDG was initially tested using nucleophilic fluorination of the molecule, as performed when radiolabelling with iodine-124 or bromide-76. However, in addition to being long, with multiple steps, this procedure is not recommended for bioactive molecules containing reactive groups such as amine or thiol groups. Radiochemical yields are also often low. More recently, radiosynthesis from prosthetic group precursors, which allows easier radiolabelling of biomolecules, has led to the development of numerous fluorinated tracers. Given the wide availability of 18 F, such tracers may well develop into important routine tracers. This article is a review of the literature concerning fluorinated radiotracers recently developed and under investigation for possible PET imaging in cancer patients. Two groups can be distinguished. The first includes ''generalist'' tracers, i.e. tracers amenable to use in a wide variety of tumours and indications, very similar in this respect to FDG. These are tracers for non-specific cell metabolism, such as protein synthesis, amino acid transport, nucleic acid synthesis or membrane component synthesis. The second group consists of ''specific'' tracers for receptor expression (i.e. oestrogens or somatostatin), cell

  17. A 82Br tracer study of coastal groundwater movement at Hat Head, NSW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, C.; Stone, D.

    2003-01-01

    At Hat Head, NSW, on the eastern Australian coast, a radioisotope tracer study of groundwater flow in response to tidal forcing was conducted adjacent to a tidal creek. Using radiotracer, 82 Br, groundwater movement was tracked in-situ over 5 days on two occasions encompassing both neap and spring tide conditions. The tracer was injected into one borehole and gamma counts monitored from an adjacent borehole using NaI(Th) detectors. This technique maps the path of the slow moving tracer without sampling and allows the net groundwater movement to be distinguished from short term tidally driven fluxes. During the neap tide period net groundwater movement of 0.1 m/d was observed with horizontal tidal fluctuations in the order of 0.04 m. This contrasts with the tidally dominated spring tide period where net groundwater movement was negligible but tidally driven fluctuations of up to 0.13 m were observed

  18. Open and Distance Education Systems: do they enhance Graduates' Soft Skills? The results from 2009 Universitas Terbuka Tracer Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Juliah Ratnaningsih

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The vision and mission of Universitas Terbuka (UT is to become a highly qualified open and distance education institution and to provide higher education access to all communities. Graduates of UT are expected to acquire adequate knowledge, hard skills and soft skills. Soft skills play important roles in the world of work. The aim of this article is to describe: (1 whether the open and distance education systems are capable of providing graduates with soft skills, (2 how soft skills are acquired during the period of study, and (3 how are the range of soft skills acquired by graduates and required by stakeholders at work. This article uses 2009 UT tracer study, which employed survey and in-depth interviews to selected respondents and stakeholders. 2.417 pairs data (graduates and stakeholders were analysed. The rating scales were from 1 (very poor to 4 (excellent. The attributes analysed were personal, interpersonal and situational skills. The results show that learning systems that are based on individual learning and tutorial did provide graduates with soft skills. Graduates and stakeholders perceived interpersonal skills as fair. In general, soft skills required at work were time management, self-confidence, problem solving, creativity and team-work.

  19. Quantifying solute transport processes: are chemically "conservative" tracers electrically conservative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, Kamini; Li, Li; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Regberg, Aaron B.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of a nonreactive or conservative tracer, commonly invoked in investigations of solute transport, requires additional study in the context of electrical geophysical monitoring. Tracers that are commonly considered conservative may undergo reactive processes, such as ion exchange, thus changing the aqueous composition of the system. As a result, the measured electrical conductivity may reflect not only solute transport but also reactive processes. We have evaluated the impacts of ion exchange reactions, rate-limited mass transfer, and surface conduction on quantifying tracer mass, mean arrival time, and temporal variance in laboratory-scale column experiments. Numerical examples showed that (1) ion exchange can lead to resistivity-estimated tracer mass, velocity, and dispersivity that may be inaccurate; (2) mass transfer leads to an overestimate in the mobile tracer mass and an underestimate in velocity when using electrical methods; and (3) surface conductance does not notably affect estimated moments when high-concentration tracers are used, although this phenomenon may be important at low concentrations or in sediments with high and/or spatially variable cation-exchange capacity. In all cases, colocated groundwater concentration measurements are of high importance for interpreting geophysical data with respect to the controlling transport processes of interest.

  20. Simplification of complex kinetic models used for the quantitative analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance or radioactive tracer studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, R.; Schuster, S.; Holzhuetter, H.-G.

    1992-01-01

    A method for simplifying the mathematical models describing the dynamics of tracers (e.g. 13 C, 31 P, 14 C, as used in NMR studies or radioactive tracer experiments) in (bio-)chemical reaction systems is presented. This method is appropriate in the cases where the system includes reactions, the rates of which differ by several orders of magnitude. The basic idea is to adapt the rapid-equilibrium approximation to tracer systems. It is shown with the aid of the Perron-Frobenius theorem that for tracer systems, the conditions for applicability of this approximation are satisfied whenever some reactions are near equilibrium. It turns out that the specific enrichments of all of the labelled atoms that are connected by fast reversible reactions can be grouped together as 'pool variables'. The reduced system contains fewer parameters and can, thus, be fitted more easily to experimental data. Moreover, the method can be employed for identifying non-equilibrium and near-equilibrium reactions from experimentally measured specific enrichments of tracer. The reduction algorithm is illustrated by studying a model of the distribution of 13 C-tracers in the pentose phosphate pathway. (author)

  1. Journal: A Review of Some Tracer-Test Design Equations for ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determination of necessary tracer mass, initial sample-collection time, and subsequent sample-collection frequency are the three most difficult aspects to estimate for a proposed tracer test prior to conducting the tracer test. To facilitate tracer-mass estimation, 33 mass-estimation equations are reviewed here, 32 of which were evaluated using previously published tracer-test design examination parameters. Comparison of the results produced a wide range of estimated tracer mass, but no means is available by which one equation may be reasonably selected over the others. Each equation produces a simple approximation for tracer mass. Most of the equations are based primarily on estimates or measurements of discharge, transport distance, and suspected transport times. Although the basic field parameters commonly employed are appropriate for estimating tracer mass, the 33 equations are problematic in that they were all probably based on the original developers' experience in a particular field area and not necessarily on measured hydraulic parameters or solute-transport theory. Suggested sampling frequencies are typically based primarily on probable transport distance, but with little regard to expected travel times. This too is problematic in that tends to result in false negatives or data aliasing. Simulations from the recently developed efficient hydrologic tracer-test design methodology (EHTD) were compared with those obtained from 32 of the 33 published tracer-

  2. Radio-isotopic tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfangel, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns the dispersions that may be used for preparing radio-isotopic tracers, technetium labelled dispersions, processes for preparing these dispersions and their use as tracers. Technetium 99m sulphur colloids are utilized as scintillation tracers to give a picture of the reticulo-endothelial system, particularly the liver and spleen. A dispersion is provided which only requires the addition of a radioactive nuclide to form a radioactively labelled dispersion that can be injected as a tracer. It is formed of a colloid of tin sulphur dispersed in an aqueous buffer solution. Such a reagent has the advantage of being safe and reliable and is easier to use. The colloid can be prepared more quickly since additions of several different reagents are avoided. There is no need to heat up and no sulphuretted hydrogen, which is a toxic gas, is used [fr

  3. Tracer monitoring of enhanced oil recovery projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleven R.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In enhanced oil recovery (EOR, chemicals are injected into the oil reservoir, either to increase macroscopic sweep efficiency, or to reduce remaining oil saturation in swept zones. Tracers can be used to identify reservoirs that are specifically suited for EOR operations. Injection of a selection of partitioning tracers, combined with frequent sample analysis of produced fluids, provides information suited for estimation of residual oil saturation. Tracers can also be used to evaluate and optimize the application of EOR chemicals in the reservoir. Suitable tracers will follow the EOR chemicals and assist in evaluation of retention, degradation or trapping. In addition to field applications, tracers also have a large potential as a tool to perform mechanistic studies of EOR chemicals in laboratory experiments. By labelling EOR chemicals with radioactive isotopes of elements such as H, C and S, detailed studies of transport mechanisms can be carried out. Co-injection of labelled compounds in dynamic flooding experiments in porous media will give information about retention or separation of the unique compounds constituting the chemical formulation. Separation of such compounds may be detrimental to obtaining the EOR effect expected. The paper gives new information of specific methods, and discusses current status for use of tracers in EOR operations.

  4. The use of tracer techniques in pesticide balance and metabolism studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuehr, F.

    1977-01-01

    The radioisotope tracing technique has been a useful tool in obtaining extensive information on the fate of pesticides in the soil-plant systems, including their uptake, transport and metabolism by plants; their photochemical, chemical and microbial degradation; their adsorption, desorption and translocation in soil; and their bioavailability to untreated crops. A pesticide balance study under practical field conditions using radio labelling can examine a number of factors affecting the fate of a compound at the same time and assess the magnitude of the major processes involved. On the basis of these results, more detailed studies are then formulated to be conducted under an exactly defined environment of a growth chamber or a laboratory. The use of tracer techniques in such studies is reported. (author)

  5. Bottom sediment transport study at Haiphong port using radioactive scandium as tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Ngoc Chuong; Phan Son Hai; Pham Duy Hien

    1993-01-01

    A radioisotope tracer experiment was performed for investigating the bedload movement at the site near the access channel to Haiphong port, North Vietnam. The scandium glass and a number of mechanical devices were manufactured locally for the experiment. Simple and safe procedures were adopted for the production, transportation and injection of radioactive tracer materials. Five tracking experiments were carried out covering the period of 84 days in winter 1992-1993. The experimental results provide a firm basis for elaborating appropriate measures against the siltation problem at Haiphong port, especially for the design of a new access channel with a better orientation with respect to the directions of the water flow and bedload transport, as proposed recently by the Port Authority. (Author). 2 refs, 4 figs

  6. COMPARISON OF THREE TRACER TESTS AT THE RAFT RIVER GEOTHERMAL SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earl D Mattson; Mitchell Plummer; Carl Palmer; Larry Hull; Samantha Miller; Randy Nye

    2011-02-01

    Three conservative tracer tests have been conducted through the Bridge Fault fracture zone at the Raft River Geothermal (RRG) site. All three tests were conducted between injection well RRG-5 and production wells RRG-1 (790 m distance) and RRG-4 (740 m distance). The injection well is used during the summer months to provide pressure support to the production wells. The first test was conducted in 2008 using 136 kg of fluorescein tracer. Two additional tracers were injected in 2010. The first 2010 tracer injected was 100 kg fluorescein disodium hydrate salt on June, 21. The second tracer (100 kg 2,6-naphthalene disulfonic acid sodium salt) was injected one month later on July 21. Sampling of the two productions wells is still being performed to obtain the tail end of the second 2010 tracer test. Tracer concentrations were measured using HPLC with a fluorescence detector. Results for the 2008 test, suggest 80% tracer recover at the two production wells. Of the tracer recovered, 85% of tracer mass was recovered in well RRG-4 indicating a greater flow pathway connection between injection well and RRG-4 than RRG-1. Fluorescein tracer results appear to be similar between the 2008 and 2010 tests for well RRG-4 with peak concentrations arriving approximately 20 days after injection despite the differences between the injection rates for the two tests (~950 gpm to 475 gpm) between the 2008 and 2010. The two 2010 tracer tests will be compared to determine if the results support the hypothesis that rock contraction along the flow pathway due to the 55 oC cooler water injection alters the flow through the ~140 oC reservoir.

  7. Studies of radioisotope tracer technique and its applications to pesticide sciences in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Minghong; Chen Qing; Zheng Ran

    1996-05-01

    The improper use of chemical pesticides has resulted in serious environmental problems and food pollutions, affecting the ecosystem balance and human being health. There are more and more scientists and research institutions being engaged in the area of radioisotope tracer techniques for pesticide sciences in China. So far, more than 80 labeled compounds, including insecticides, fungicides, acaricides, herbicides, metabolic intermediates, fertilizer and biological agents, etc. have been synthesized at the laboratory for application of isotopes in Institute for Application of Atomic Energy, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences. Over past several years, the great achievements have been made in the researches of radioisotope tracer techniques and their applications to pesticide sciences in China, especially in the researches for isotopic labeling, residues, degradation and metabolism of pesticides in plant and animal, behavior and fate of pesticides in environment, and techniques for safe application of pesticide, and so on. The researches of radioisotope tracer techniques and their applications to pesticide sciences in China in the past years are briefly introduced. Some problems are put forward and the development in future is predicted. (1 tab.)

  8. Theoretical model of intravascular paramagnetic tracers effect on tissue relaxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølby, Birgitte Fuglsang; Østergaard, Leif; Kiselev, Valerij G

    2006-01-01

    The concentration of MRI tracers cannot be measured directly by MRI and is commonly evaluated indirectly using their relaxation effect. This study develops a comprehensive theoretical model to describe the transverse relaxation in perfused tissue caused by intravascular tracers. The model takes...... into account a number of individual compartments. The signal dephasing is simulated in a semianalytical way by embedding Monte Carlo simulations in the framework of analytical theory. This approach yields a tool for fast, realistic simulation of the change in the transverse relaxation. The results indicate...... with bulk blood. The enhancement of relaxation in tissue is due to the contrast in magnetic susceptibility between blood vessels and parenchyma induced by the presence of paramagnetic tracer. Beyond the perfusion measurements, the results can be applied to quantitation of functional MRI and to vessel size...

  9. Heat tracer methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Richard W.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2010-01-01

    The flow of heat in the subsurface is closely linked to the movement of water (Ingebritsen et al., 2006). As such, heat has been used as a tracer in groundwater studies for more than 100 years (Anderson, 2005). As with chemical and isotopic tracers (Chapter 7), spatial or temporal trends in surface and subsurface temperatures can be used to infer rates of water movement. Temperature can be measured accurately, economically, at high frequencies, and without the need to obtain water samples, facts that make heat an attractive tracer. Temperature measurements made over space and time can be used to infer rates of recharge from a stream or other surface water body (Lapham, 1989; Stonestrom and Constantz, 2003); measurements can also be used to estimate rates of steady drainage through depth intervals within thick unsaturated zones (Constantz et al., 2003; Shan and Bodvarsson, 2004). Several thorough reviews of heat as a tracer in hydrologic studies have recently been published (Constantz et al., 2003; Stonestrom and Constantz, 2003; Anderson, 2005; Blasch et al., 2007; Constantz et al., 2008). This chapter summarizes heat-tracer approaches that have been used to estimate recharge.Some clarification in terminology is presented here to avoid confusion in descriptions of the various approaches that follow. Diffuse recharge is that which occurs more or less uniformly across large areas in response to precipitation, infiltration, and drainage through the unsaturated zone. Estimates of diffuse recharge determined using measured temperatures in the unsaturated zone are referred to as potential recharge because it is possible that not all of the water moving through the unsaturated zone will recharge the aquifer; some may be lost to the atmosphere by evaporation or plant transpiration. Estimated fluxes across confining units in the saturated zone are referred to as interaquifer flow (Chapter 1). Focused recharge is that which occurs directly from a point or line source, such

  10. Tracers and tracing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclerc, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The first international congress on 'Tracers and tracing methods' took place in Nancy in May 2001. The objective of this second congress was to present the current status and trends on tracing methods and their applications. It has given the opportunity to people from different fields to exchange scientific information and knowledge about tracer methodologies and applications. The target participants were the researchers, engineers and technologists of various industrial and research sectors: chemical engineering, environment, food engineering, bio-engineering, geology, hydrology, civil engineering, iron and steel production... Two sessions have been planned to cover both fundamental and industrial aspects: 1)fundamental development (tomography, tracer camera visualization and particles tracking; validation of computational fluid dynamics simulations by tracer experiments and numerical residence time distribution; new tracers and detectors or improvement and development of existing tracing methods; data treatments and modeling; reactive tracer experiments and interpretation) 2)industrial applications (geology, hydrogeology and oil field applications; civil engineering, mineral engineering and metallurgy applications; chemical engineering; environment; food engineering and bio-engineering). The program included 5 plenary lectures, 23 oral communications and around 50 posters. Only 9 presentations are interested for the INIS database

  11. Radioisotope tracer applications in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    Radioisotope tracers have many advantages in industrial trouble-shooting and studies on process kinetics. The applications are mainly of two types: one leading to qualitative (Yes or No type) information and the other to quantitative characterisation of flow processes through mass balance considerations and flow models. ''Yes or No'' type methods are mainly used for leakage and blockage locations in pipelines and in other industrial systems and also for location of water seepage zones in oil wells. Flow measurements in pipelines and mercury inventory in electrolytic cells are good examples of tracer methods using the mass balance approach. Axial dispersion model and Tanks-in-Series model are the two basic flow models commonly used with tracer methods for the characterisation of kinetic processes. Examples include studies on flow processes in sugar crystallisers as well as in a precalcinator in a cement plant. (author). 18 figs

  12. Application of tracer gas studies in the optimal design of soil vapor extraction systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marley, M.C.; Cody, R.J.; Polonsky, J.D.; Woodward, D.D.; Buterbaugh, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    In the design of an optimal, cost effective vapor extraction system (VE) for the remediation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), it is necessary to account for heterogeneities in the vadose zone. In some cases, such as those found in relatively homogeneous sands, heterogeneities can be neglected as induced air flow through the subsurface can be considered uniform. The subsurface conditions encountered at many sites (soil/bedrock interfaces, fractured bedrock) will result in preferential subsurface-air flow pathways during the operation of the VES. The use of analytical and numerical compressible fluid flow models calibrated and verified from parameter evaluation tests can be utilized to determine vadose zone permeability tensors in heterogeneous stratifications and can be used to project optimal, full scale VES performance. Model-derived estimations of the effect of uniform and/or preferential air flow pathways on subsurface induced air flow velocities can be enhanced, confirmed utilizing tracer gas studies. A vadose zone tracer gas study entails the injection of an easily detected, preferably inert gas into differing locations within the vadose zone at distances away from the VES extraction well. The VES extraction well is monitored for the detection of the gas. This is an effective field methodology to qualify and quantify the subsurface air flow pathways. It is imperative to gain an understanding of the dynamics of the air flow in the soils and lithologies of each individual site, and design quick and effective methodologies for the characterization of the subsurface to streamline remediation costs and system operations. This paper focuses on the use of compressible fluid flow models and tracer gas studies in the enhancement of the design of vapor extraction systems

  13. Application of tracer techniques in studies of sediment transport in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hai, P.S.; Quang, N.H.; Xuan, N.M.; Chuong, P.N.; Hien, P.Z.

    1997-01-01

    As a consequence of intensive erosion processes typical of the humid tropical one, as well as of human activities destroying tropical forests, grasslands and protective mangrove swamps, etc, most navigable estuaries in Vietnam suffer seriously from sedimentation. In order to maintain the necessary depth for the 7.000 ton vessels entering and leaving ports, a large amount of money is spent annually on dredging operation. A lot of hydraulic and sedimentary surveys were carried out in the past by different groups of researchers. However, owing to the complexity of sediment processes in estuarine areas under the hydrometeorological conditions typical of the southwest Pacific, the use of just any modelling approach is not suitable. In many cases, the conclusions inferred from mathematical models have been the controversial matter. The tracer techniques, which have been employed in the country since 1991, have provided a very efficient tool to obtain a dynamic idea of sediment transport. Many investigations of bedload transport using Sc-46 labelled glass and Ir-192 glass as radioactive tracers were carried out from 1992 to 1996 at Haiphong harbour area. Bedload transport rates under effect of northeast monsoon and southeast monsoon at 5 zones located on both sides of the navigation channel were estimated. In bedload transport studies, apart from conventional methods for assessment of transport thickness, a new method using the ratio of photoelectric peak to Compton region of spectra acquired directly on the sea bed was put forward and applied. The influence of dredging materials at two dumping sites under different tidal phases on in fill rate in the access channel was assessed by radioactive tracers. The qualitative and quantitative information on sediment transport at some experimental sites given by tracers was used by modelling specialists who have undertaken hydraulic and sedimentary surveys in this region

  14. Tracers vs. trajectories in a coastal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engqvist, A.; Döös, K.

    2008-12-01

    Two different methods of estimating the water exchange through a Baltic coastal region have been used, consisting of particle trajectories and passive tracers. Water is traced from and to a small discharge region near the coast. The discharge material in this region is treated as zero dimensional particles or tracers with neutral buoyancy. The real discharge material could be a leakage of radio-nuclides through the sea floor from an underground repository of nuclear waste. Water exchange rates between the discharge region and the model domain are estimated using both forward and backward trajectories as well as passive tracers. The Lagrangian trajectories can account for the time evolution of the water exchange while the tracers give one average age per model grid box. Water exchange times such as residence time, age and transient times have been calculated with trajectories but only the average age (AvA) for tracers. The trajectory calculations provide a more detailed time evolution than the tracers. On the other hand the tracers are integrated "on-line" simultaneously in the sea circulation model with the same time step while the Lagrangian trajectories are integrated "off-line" from the stored model velocities with its inherent temporal resolution, presently one hour. The sub-grid turbulence is parameterised as a Laplacian diffusion for the passive tracers and with an extra stochastic velocity for trajectories. The importance of the parameterised sub-grid turbulence for the trajectories is estimated to give an extra diffusion of the same order as the Laplacian diffusion by comparing the Lagrangian dispersions with and without parameterisation. The results of the different methods are similar but depend on the chosen diffusivity coefficient with a slightly higher correlation between trajectories and tracers when integrated with a lower diffusivity coefficient.

  15. Acupuncture meridians demythified. A study using the radioactive tracer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, J.; Esquerre, J.P.; Guiraud, R.; Guiraud, G.; Lazorthes, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Radioactive trajectories can be visualized by injecting a radioactive tracer, technetium 99 m, at the site of acupuncture points. To determine the exact nature of these trajectories we performed several experiments on healthy volunteers, and our results may be summarized as follows. The target organs of technetium 99 m, and notably the thyroid gland, were always visualized. The circulating radioactivity, visible on scintiscans and confirmed by venous blood counts, was not negligible. The radioactive trajectories we observed were often divided at their starting point and did not extend along the whole length of the acupuncture meridians they might have made visible. The radioactive trajectories disappeared after venous blockade to reappear when the blockade was lifted. Finally, the radioactive trajectories obtained were very similar after injection at the acupuncture point and at a control point. These findings indicate a lymphatic and venous drainage of the radioactive tracer at the site of injection followed by transportation through the veins, rather than visualization of acupuncture meridians as suggested by some authors [fr

  16. Acupuncture meridians demythified. A study using the radioactive tracer method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J.; Esquerre, J.P.; Guiraud, R.; Guiraud, G.; Lazorthes, Y.

    1988-07-01

    Radioactive trajectories can be visualized by injecting a radioactive tracer, technetium 99 m, at the site of acupuncture points. To determine the exact nature of these trajectories we performed several experiments on healthy volunteers, and our results may be summarized as follows. The target organs of technetium 99 m, and notably the thyroid gland, were always visualized. The circulating radioactivity, visible on scintiscans and confirmed by venous blood counts, was not negligible. The radioactive trajectories we observed were often divided at their starting point and did not extend along the whole length of the acupuncture meridians they might have made visible. The radioactive trajectories disappeared after venous blockade to reappear when the blockade was lifted. Finally, the radioactive trajectories obtained were very similar after injection at the acupuncture point and at a control point. These findings indicate a lymphatic and venous drainage of the radioactive tracer at the site of injection followed by transportation through the veins, rather than visualization of acupuncture meridians as suggested by some authors.

  17. Characterization of a managed aquifer recharge system using multiple tracers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeck, Christian; Radny, Dirk; Popp, Andrea; Brennwald, Matthias; Stoll, Sebastian; Auckenthaler, Adrian; Berg, Michael; Schirmer, Mario

    2017-12-31

    Knowledge about the residence times of artificially infiltrated water into an aquifer and the resulting flow paths is essential to developing groundwater-management schemes. To obtain this knowledge, a variety of tracers can be used to study residence times and gain information about subsurface processes. Although a variety of tracers exists, their interpretation can differ considerably due to subsurface heterogeneity, underlying assumptions, and sampling and analysis limitations. The current study systematically assesses information gained from seven different tracers during a pumping experiment at a site where drinking water is extracted from an aquifer close to contaminated areas and where groundwater is artificially recharged by infiltrating surface water. We demonstrate that the groundwater residence times estimated using dye and heat tracers are comparable when the thermal retardation for the heat tracer is considered. Furthermore, major ions, acesulfame, and stable isotopes (δ 2 H and δ 18 O) show that mixing of infiltrated water and groundwater coming from the regional flow path occurred and a vertical stratification of the flow system exist. Based on the concentration patterns of dissolved gases (He, Ar, Kr, N 2 , and O 2 ) and chlorinated solvents (e.g., tetrachloroethene), three temporal phases are observed in the ratio between infiltrated water and regional groundwater during the pumping experiment. Variability in this ratio is significantly related to changes in the pumping and infiltration rates. During constant pumping rates, more infiltrated water was extracted, which led to a higher dilution of the regional groundwater. An infiltration interruption caused however, the ratio to change and more regional groundwater is extracted, which led to an increase in all concentrations. The obtained results are discussed for each tracer considered and its strengths and limitations are illustrated. Overall, it is demonstrated that aquifer heterogeneity and

  18. The use of bromine as a tracer for studying infiltrations in mining processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, F; Andonie, O; Rojas, X

    2003-01-01

    The impact of mining activity on underground water is becoming increasingly important because of the scarcity of the resource and due to the different use if there is water under the mining. Once the resource is affected the source of infiltration should be identified in all the processes and systems that are involved in the production system in order to take the appropriate preventive or remedial measures, which should also be the most efficient ones. Tracers play an important role in studying infiltration from mining processes to underground bodies of water. Natural chemical and isotopic tracers can identify the hydrogeological setting and help to establish supported hypotheses about the possible origin of the infiltrations. After the different ideas about the processes or systems that could be infiltrated are presented, the application of additional artificial tracers can resolve any doubts This work presents the use of bromine as a tracer for such studies, because of its specific characteristics as a good tracer in water with low interaction in porous surroundings, generally, and its determination by Neutron Activation Analyzers (NAA) due to its low limits of detection and the technique's precision and accuracy for use at reasonable costs. Given that for this type of study a large number of samples are necessary and that it should be carried out in a time period that does not surpass the duration of the process (a few months), a change had to be made in the methodology usually used for the NAA, which included taking a fraction of significantly less sample while meeting the power requirements for differentiating small changes in concentrations between samples. With this modification a larger number of samples can be irradiated in available positions for these purposes in the RECH-1 and the requirements for the number of samples and response time can be met. After the practical performance of this modification, a comparison between both methodologies was carried

  19. New developments in the use of stable activable tracers in environmental science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loveland, W.; Keasler, K.; Ghannam, L.; Borovik, A.

    1980-01-01

    Recent developments in the use of stable activable tracers (SATs) in environmental science are reported. (A stable activable tracer is a stable material injected into a system under study and whose concentration is measured by post-sampling activation analysis.) The activable nuclear parts of the tracers studied have been rare earth nuclides with short-lived activation products or Cu. To trace the fate of fluid-bound pollutants (and/or water masses) in marine waters, we have used anionic DTPA complexes of the rare earths. These tracers were shown to be stable (80 to 90% nondissociated) in extensive laboratory tests involving solutions of the tracer in estuarine water including large amounts of marine sediments. Results of a field study in which the flushing time and other hydrological characteristics of an estuarine marina were measured by simultaneously using a fluorescent dye and a SAT are presented. To trace the path of potentially toxic organic molecules, three stable activable tracers, dysprosium(III)-trisacetylacetonate DY(acac) 3 3H 2 O), dysprosium(III)-trisdibenzoylmethane (DY(dbm) 3 H 2 O and copper oxinate Cu (C 9 H 6 ON) 2 were synthesized. Their octanol/water partition coefficients and their solubility in water were measured and used to correlate the tracer species and its biological activity with that of known toxic materials. In a project to demonstrate the simple use of SATs to trace the origin of common insecticides and herbicides, seven common insecticides and herbicides were marked with anionic rare earth DTPA complexes and shown to be detectable at dilutions of 1 part in 10 12 . Two arsenical herbicides were chosen for further study and the tracer/herbicide ratio was shown to remain constant in samples of herbicide material collected on plant surfaces and runoff waters in the environment for long periods

  20. Use of activable cations as tracers in groundwater hydrology. The case of DTPA-Indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumu, Badimbayi Matu.

    1978-01-01

    The possibilities of EDTA, CDTA and DTPA metallic complexes use as activable groundwater, tracers are discussed. Indium, which has good nuclear caracteristics for activation analysis and forms complexes of great stability with polyamino carboxylic acid has been for Laboratory and field studies. For corporative studies, Rhodomine B, a fluorescent tracer have been studied together with Indium complexes. In laboratory retention studies have been carried with In-EDTA, Iodine 131 and Rhodomine B, as tracers and bentonite, zeolite 13X and Dowex-1 and Dowex-50 as sorbents. As field studies, drainage evolution flow and resident time distribution of tracers substances in water, have been carried, under artificial rain conditions realized by aspersion. Results from field studies showed good characteristics of Indium Complexes especially in very absorbent medium (argilaceous limon) where their restitution balance were superior to that of Rhodomine B

  1. Development of radioisotope tracer technology and nucleonic control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Joon Ha; Lee, Myun Joo; Jung, Sung Hee and others

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the radioisotope tracer technology, which can be used in solving industrial and environmental problems and basic technology of nuclear control systems that are widely used for automation of industrial plants, and to build a strong tracer group to support the local industries. In relation to the tracer technology, the data acquisition system, the column scanning equipment and the detection pig for a leakage test have been developed. In order to use in analyzing data of tracer experiments, a computer program for the analysis of residence time distribution has been created as well. These results were utilized in developing the tracer technologies, such as the column scanning, the flow measurement using the dilution method, the simultaneous monitoring rotational movement of piston rings and the optimization of a waste water treatment facility, and the technologies were successfully demonstrated in the local industrial. The stripper of RFCC reactor has been examined to find an unwanted structure in it by imminent request from the industry. Related to the development of nucleonic control system, the state of art report on the technology has been written and an equipment for the analysis of asphalt content has been developed. (author)

  2. Suitability of tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, D.

    1999-01-01

    Hydrological tracer techniques are a means of making statements on the direction and speed of underground water. One of the simpler tasks is to find out whether there is hydrological communication between two given points. This requires a determination of the direction of flow, which places less exacting demands on the properties of the tracer than does the task of determining the flow velocity of underground water. Tracer methods can serve to infer from flow velocity the distance (flow) velocity, which is defined as the ratio between the distance between two points located in flow direction and the actual time it takes water to flow from one to the other [de

  3. Live controls for radioisotope tracer food chain experiments using meiofauna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montagna, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    Formalin poisoned samples are inadequate for measuring the amount of label to be subtracted as control values for certain food chain studies that employ radioactive tracers. In some studies, tracer is added just before incubation to label ''food'' during the feeding study. Commonly, parallel, poisoned incubations are used to distinguish between biotic and abiotic label incorporation. But, a poisoned control does not account for label that could enter a consumer via active transport, epicuticular microfloral uptake, or grazing on labeled, non-food particles. Experiments were performed to test if label uptake is greater in live non-grazing than dead organisms. Marine benthic meiofauna incoporate from 3 to 133 times more tracer when they are alive and not grazing than when they are formalin killed. These results suggest that control experiments with live animals be performed to measure all processes by which label can enter consumers in food chain experiments. (orig.)

  4. CityFlux perfluorocarbon tracer experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, F. K.; Martin, D.; White, I. R.; Henshaw, S. J.; Nickless, G.; Longley, I.; Percival, C. J.; Gallagher, M.; Shallcross, D. E.

    2010-07-01

    In June 2006, two perfluorocarbon tracer experiments were conducted in central Manchester UK as part of the CityFlux campaign. The main aim was to investigate vertical dispersion in an urban area during convective conditions, but dispersion mechanisms within the street network were also studied. Paired receptors were used in most cases where one receptor was located at ground level and one at roof level. One receptor was located on the roof of Portland Tower which is an 80 m high building in central Manchester. Source receptor distances in the two experiments varied between 120 and 600 m. The results reveal that maximum concentration was sometimes found at roof level rather than at ground level implying the effectiveness of convective forces on dispersion. The degree of vertical dispersion was found to be dependent on source receptor distance as well as on building height in proximity to the release site. Evidence of flow channelling in a street canyon was also found. Both a Gaussian profile and a street network model were applied and the results show that the urban topography may lead to highly effective flow channelling which therefore may be a very important dispersion mechanism should the right meteorological conditions prevail. The experimental results from this campaign have also been compared with a simple urban dispersion model that was developed during the DAPPLE framework and show good agreement with this. The results presented here are some of the first published regarding vertical dispersion. More tracer experiments are needed in order to further characterise vertical concentration profiles and their dependence on, for instance, atmospheric stability. The impact of urban topography on pollutant dispersion is important to focus on in future tracer experiments in order to improve performance of models as well as for our understanding of the relationship between air quality and public health.

  5. Transient tracers in the ocean (TTO) program: the North Atlantic study, 1981: the Tropical Atlantic study, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, P.G.; Sarmiento, J.L.; Smethie, W.M. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The two parts of this major geochemical and physical oceanographic expedition took place on the research vessel Knorr of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. The expeditions were designed to observe the passage of man-made geochemical tracers into the interior of the ocean. A systematic survey revealed the penetration into the thermocline and deep ocean of the products of man's military/industrial activities, principally tritium and carbon-14 resulting from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons. The passage of these tracers documents as nothing else can the manner and time scale of ocean mixing and provides a fundamental calibration for models of ocean circulation. Maps showing the cruise routes are presented. 1 figure, 1 table

  6. New radioactive tracers can help find cause of jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrard, G.

    1987-01-01

    Radioactive tracers for the investigation of a condition known as persistent jaundice of the newborn, have been designed, prepared and tested at ANSTO. The tracers are chemical compounds of the radioactive elements gallium-67 and indium-111. They given lower radiation doses than the conventional radioactive tracer, iodine-131, used in these studies

  7. Using rare earth element tracers and neutron activation analysis to study rill erosion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mian; Li Zhanbin; Ding Wengfeng; Liu Puling; Yao Wenyi

    2006-01-01

    Spatially averaged soil erosion data provide little information on the process of rill erosion. The dynamically varied data on the temporal and spatial distributions in the rill erosion process are needed to better understand the erosion process and reveal its innate characteristics. The objectives of this study were to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of rare earth element (REE) tracers and the neutron activation analysis (NAA) method on the study of the rill erosion process and to reveal quantitatively the relationships and characteristics of temporal and spatial distributions of sediment yield in rill erosion. Four REEs were used to study the changeable process of rill erosion at 4 slope positions. Four water inflow rates were applied to a 0.3x5 m soil bed at 3 slopes of 10.5%, 15.8% and 21.2% in scouring experiments. All of the runoff was collected in the experiment. Each sample was air-dried and well mixed. Then 20 g of each sample was sieved through 100-mesh and about a 50 mg sample was weighed for analysis of the four elemental compositions by NAA. Results indicate that the REE tracers and NAA method can be used to not only quantitatively determine soil erosion amounts on different slope segments, but also to reveal the changeable process of rill erosion amount. All of the relative errors of the experimental results were less than 25%, which is considered satisfactory on the study of rill erosion process

  8. Using rare earth element tracers and neutron activation analysis to study rill erosion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Mian [Yellow River Institute of Hydraulic Research, Yellow River Conservancy Commission, Key Laboratory of Yellow River Sediment Research of Ministry of Water Resources, Shunhelu 45, Zhengzhou, Henan 450003 (China)]. E-mail: hnli-mian@163.com; Li Zhanbin [Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710048 (China); Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Ding Wengfeng [Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Yangtse River' s Scientific Research Institute, Wuhan, Hubei 430010 (China); Liu Puling [Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Yao Wenyi [Yellow River Institute of Hydraulic Research, Yellow River Conservancy Commission, Key Laboratory of Yellow River Sediment Research of Ministry of Water Resources, Shunhelu 45, Zhengzhou, Henan 450003 (China)

    2006-03-15

    Spatially averaged soil erosion data provide little information on the process of rill erosion. The dynamically varied data on the temporal and spatial distributions in the rill erosion process are needed to better understand the erosion process and reveal its innate characteristics. The objectives of this study were to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of rare earth element (REE) tracers and the neutron activation analysis (NAA) method on the study of the rill erosion process and to reveal quantitatively the relationships and characteristics of temporal and spatial distributions of sediment yield in rill erosion. Four REEs were used to study the changeable process of rill erosion at 4 slope positions. Four water inflow rates were applied to a 0.3x5 m soil bed at 3 slopes of 10.5%, 15.8% and 21.2% in scouring experiments. All of the runoff was collected in the experiment. Each sample was air-dried and well mixed. Then 20 g of each sample was sieved through 100-mesh and about a 50 mg sample was weighed for analysis of the four elemental compositions by NAA. Results indicate that the REE tracers and NAA method can be used to not only quantitatively determine soil erosion amounts on different slope segments, but also to reveal the changeable process of rill erosion amount. All of the relative errors of the experimental results were less than 25%, which is considered satisfactory on the study of rill erosion process.

  9. Packet Tracer network simulator

    CERN Document Server

    Jesin, A

    2014-01-01

    A practical, fast-paced guide that gives you all the information you need to successfully create networks and simulate them using Packet Tracer.Packet Tracer Network Simulator is aimed at students, instructors, and network administrators who wish to use this simulator to learn how to perform networking instead of investing in expensive, specialized hardware. This book assumes that you have a good amount of Cisco networking knowledge, and it will focus more on Packet Tracer rather than networking.

  10. Fluorescence tracers as a reference for pesticide transport in wetland systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Jens; Passeport, Elodie; Tournebize, Julien

    2010-05-01

    Two different fluorescent tracers, Uranine (UR) and Sulforhodamine (SRB), were injected as a pulse into surface flow wetlands. Tracer breakthrough curves were used to document hydraulic efficiencies, peak attenuation and retention capacities of completely different wetland systems. The tracers were used as a reference to mimic photolytic decay (UR) and sorption (SRB) of contaminants, since a real herbicide (Isoproturon, IPU) was injected in parallel to UR and SRB. Analysis costs limited IPU sampling frequency and single samples deviated from the tracer breakthrough curves. Still, a parallel behavior of IPU and SRB could be observed in totally different wetland systems, including underground passage through drainage lines. Similar recovery rates for IPU and SRB confirmed this observation. Hence, SRB was found to be an appropriate reference tracer to mimic the behavior of mobile pesticides (low KOC, without degradation) in wetland systems and the obtained wetland characteristics for SRB may serve as an indication for contaminant retention. Owing to the properties of IPU, the obtained results should be treated as worst case scenarios for highly mobile pesticides. A comparison of six different wetland types suggested that non-steady wetland systems with large variation in water level may temporally store relatively large amounts of tracers (contaminants), partly in areas that are not continuously saturated. This may lead to an efficient attenuation of peak concentrations. However, when large parts of these systems are flushed by natural storm events, tracers (contaminants) may be re-mobilized. In steady systems vegetation density and water depth were found to be the most important factors for tracer/contaminant retention. Illustrated by SRB, sorption on sediments and vegetation was a quick, almost instantaneous process which lead to considerable tracer losses even at high flow velocities and short contact times. Shallow systems with dense vegetation appeared to be the

  11. Tracer technology modeling the flow of fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Levenspiel, Octave

    2012-01-01

    A vessel’s behavior as a heat exchanger, absorber, reactor, or other process unit is dependent upon how fluid flows through the vessel.  In early engineering, the designer would assume either plug flow or mixed flow of the fluid through the vessel.  However, these assumptions were oftentimes inaccurate, sometimes being off by a volume factor of 100 or more.  The result of this unreliable figure produced ineffective products in multiple reaction systems.   Written by a pioneering researcher in the field of chemical engineering, the tracer method was introduced to provide more accurate flow data.  First, the tracer method measured the actual flow of fluid through a vessel.  Second, it developed a suitable model to represent the flow in question.  Such models are used to follow the flow of fluid in chemical reactors and other process units, like in rivers and streams, or solid and porous structures.  In medicine, the tracer method is used to study the flow of chemicals—harmful  and harmless—in the...

  12. Exploring Hydrofluorocarbons as Groundwater Age Tracers (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, K. B.; Busenberg, E.; Plummer, L. N.; Casile, G.; Sanford, W. E.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater dating tracers are an essential tool for analyzing hydrologic conditions in groundwater systems. Commonly used tracers for dating post-1940's groundwater include sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), 3H-3He, and other isotopic tracers (85Kr, δ2H and δ18O isotopes, etc.). Each tracer carries a corresponding set of advantages and limitations imposed by field, analytical, and interpretive methods. Increasing the number available tracers is appealing, particularly if they possess inert chemical properties and unique temporal emission histories from other tracers. Atmospherically derived halogenated trace gases continue to hold untapped potential for new tracers, as they are generally inert and their emission histories are well documented. SF5CF3, and CFC-13 were previously shown to have application as dating tracers, though their low mixing ratios and low solubility require large amounts of water to be degassed for their quantification. Two related groups of compounds, hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are hypothesized to be potential age tracers, having similar mixing ratios to the CFCs and relatively high solubility. However, these compounds yield gas chromatography electron capture detector (GC-ECD) responses that are 10-2 -10-5 less than CFC-12, making purge and trap or field stripping GC-ECD approaches impractical. Therefore, in order to use dissolved HCFCs and HFCs as age tracers, different approaches are needed. To solve this problem, we developed an analytical method that uses an atomic emission detector (GC-AED) in place of an ECD to detect fluorinated compounds. In contrast to the ECD, the AED is a universally sensitive, highly linear, elementally specific detector. The new GC-AED system is being used to measure chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22), 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a), and other fluorinated compounds in one liter water samples to study their potential as age dating tracers. HCFC-22 is a

  13. Proceedings of the atmospheric tracers and tracer application workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, S.; Gedayloo, T.

    1979-12-01

    In addition to presentations by participating members a general discussion was held in order to summarize and outline the goals and objectives of the workshop. A number of new low level background tracers such as heavy methanes, perfluorocarbons, multiply labeled isotopes such as 13 C 18 O 2 , helium 3, in addition to sample collection techniques and analytical methods for various tracers were discussed. This report is a summary of discussions and papers presented at this workshop

  14. Modelling tracer transport in fractured rock at Stripa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbert, A.

    1992-01-01

    We present the results of a modelling study, making predictions for tracer transport experiments carried out within the H-zone feature in the Stripa mine. We use a direct fracture network approach to represent the system of interconnected flow-conducting fractures comprising this zone. It is a highly fractured granite, and our fracture-network models include up to 60000 fractures. We have had to develop efficient algorithms to calculate the flow and transport through these networks; these techniques are described and justified. The first stage of modelling addressed two saline injection experiments. The results of these were known to us and so in addition to 'predicting' the results of these experiments, we used them to calibrate a flow model of the experimental site. This model was then used to make true 'blind' predictions for a set of tracer experiments carried out in the natural head-field, caused by an open drift. Where our flow model was good, our predictions were found to be very accurate, explaining the dispersion in the tracer breakthrough in terms of the fracture network geometry. Discrepancies for experiments in less well characterised regions of the H-zone are presented, and we suggest that the errors in these predictions are a consequence of the inaccuracies of the flow-field. We have demonstrated the use of large-scale fracture network modelling. It has proved very successful, and made very accurate predictions of field experiments carried out at the Stripa mine. The measured dispersion of tracers can be accounted for by the geometry of the fracture network flow system. (14 refs.) (au)

  15. Analysis of tracer tests with multirate diffusion models: recent results and future directions within the WIPP project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, S.A.; Meigs, L.C.; Altman, S.J.; Haggerty, R.

    1998-01-01

    A series of single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) and two-well convergent-flow (TWCF) tracer tests were conducted in the Culebra dolomite at the WIPP site in late 1995 and early 1996. Modeling analyses over the past year have focused on reproducing the observed mass-recovery curves and understanding the basis physical processes controlling tracer transport in SWIW and TWCF tests. To date, specific modeling efforts have focused on five SWIW tests and one TWCF pathway at each of two different locations. An inverse parameter-estimation procedure was implemented to model the SWIW and TWCF tests with both traditional and multirate double-porosity formulations. The traditional model assumes a single diffusion rate while the multirate model uses a first-order approximation to model a continuous distribution of diffusion coefficients. Conceptually, the multirate model represents variable matrix block sizes within the Culebra as observed in geologic investigations and also variability in diffusion rates within the matrix blocks as observed with X-ray imaging in the laboratory. Single-rate double-porosity models cannot provide an adequate match to the SWIW data. Multirate double-porosity models provide excellent fits to all five SWIW mass-recovery curves. Models of the TWCF tests show that, at one location, the tracer test can be modeled with both single-rate and multirate double-porosity models. At the other location, only the multi-rate double-porosity model is capable of explaining the test results

  16. Analysis of Tracer Tests with Multirate Diffusion Models: Recent Results and Future Directions within the WIPP Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALTMAN, SUSAN J.; HAGGERTY, ROY; MCKENNA, SEAN A.; MEIGS, LUCY C.

    1999-01-01

    A series of single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) and two-well convergent-flow (TWCF) tracer tests were conducted in the Culebra dolomite at the WIPP site in late 1995 and early 1996. Modeling analyses over the past year have focused on reproducing the observed mass-recovery curves and understanding the basic physical processes controlling tracer transport in SWIW and TWCF tests. To date, specific modeling efforts have focused on five SWIW tests and one TWCF pathway at each of two different locations (H-11 and H-19 hydropads). An inverse parameter-estimation procedure was implemented to model the SWIW and TWCF tests with both traditional and multirate double-porosity formulations. The traditional model assumes a single diffusion rate while the multirate model uses a first-order approximation to model a continuous distribution of diffusion coefficients. Conceptually, the multirate model represents variable matrix block sizes within the Culebra as observed in geologic investigations and also variability in diffusion rates within the matrix blocks as observed with X-ray imaging in the laboratory. Single-rate double-porosity models cannot provide an adequate match to the SWIW data. Multirate double-porosity models provide excellent fits to all five SWIW mass-recovery curves. Models of the TWCF tests show that, at one location, the tracer test can be modeled with both single-rate and multirate double-porosity models. At the other location, only the multi-rate double-porosity model is capable of explaining the test results

  17. Comparison of thermal, salt and dye tracing to estimate shallow flow velocities: Novel triple-tracer approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrantes, João R. C. B.; Moruzzi, Rodrigo B.; Silveira, Alexandre; de Lima, João L. M. P.

    2018-02-01

    The accurate measurement of shallow flow velocities is crucial to understand and model the dynamics of sediment and pollutant transport by overland flow. In this study, a novel triple-tracer approach was used to re-evaluate and compare the traditional and well established dye and salt tracer techniques with the more recent thermal tracer technique in estimating shallow flow velocities. For this purpose a triple tracer (i.e. dyed-salted-heated water) was used. Optical and infrared video cameras and an electrical conductivity sensor were used to detect the tracers in the flow. Leading edge and centroid velocities of the tracers were measured and the correction factors used to determine the actual mean flow velocities from tracer measured velocities were compared and investigated. Experiments were carried out for different flow discharges (32-1813 ml s-1) on smooth acrylic, sand, stones and synthetic grass bed surfaces with 0.8, 4.4 and 13.2% slopes. The results showed that thermal tracers can be used to estimate shallow flow velocities, since the three techniques yielded very similar results without significant differences between them. The main advantages of the thermal tracer were that the movement of the tracer along the measuring section was more easily visible than it was in the real image videos and that it was possible to measure space-averaged flow velocities instead of only one velocity value, with the salt tracer. The correction factors used to determine the actual mean velocity of overland flow varied directly with Reynolds and Froude numbers, flow velocity and slope and inversely with flow depth and bed roughness. In shallow flows, velocity estimation using tracers entails considerable uncertainty and caution must be taken with these measurements, especially in field studies where these variables vary appreciably in space and time.

  18. Use of artificial tracers in hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The IAEA has convened an Advisory Group Meeting with the following objectives: To define the role of artificial radioactive tracers for water tracing in comparison with other non-radioactive tracers. To evaluate the real needs of artificial radioactive tracers in hydrology. To identify the fields for which artificial radioactive tracers are useful as well as those in which they can be substituted by other tracers. To discuss the strategy to be adopted to overcome the difficulties derived from the restrictions on the use of radioactive tracers in hydrology. The meeting was held at IAEA Headquarters from 19 to 22 March 1990, and was attended by 30 participants from 15 Member States. The conclusions and recommendations are that the use of artificial radioactive tracers should be restricted to cases where other tracers cannot be used or do not provide the same quality of information. Tritium, iodine-131, bromine-82, chromium-51 in the form of Cr-EDTA, technetium-99m obtained from 99 Mo-generators and gold-198 as an adsorbable tracer are, practically, the only radionuclides used for water tracing. The use of other radionuclides for this purpose does not appear to be necessary, possible and/or convenient. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. TracerLPM (Version 1): An Excel® workbook for interpreting groundwater age distributions from environmental tracer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgens, Bryant C.; Böhlke, J.K.; Eberts, Sandra M.

    2012-01-01

    TracerLPM is an interactive Excel® (2007 or later) workbook program for evaluating groundwater age distributions from environmental tracer data by using lumped parameter models (LPMs). Lumped parameter models are mathematical models of transport based on simplified aquifer geometry and flow configurations that account for effects of hydrodynamic dispersion or mixing within the aquifer, well bore, or discharge area. Five primary LPMs are included in the workbook: piston-flow model (PFM), exponential mixing model (EMM), exponential piston-flow model (EPM), partial exponential model (PEM), and dispersion model (DM). Binary mixing models (BMM) can be created by combining primary LPMs in various combinations. Travel time through the unsaturated zone can be included as an additional parameter. TracerLPM also allows users to enter age distributions determined from other methods, such as particle tracking results from numerical groundwater-flow models or from other LPMs not included in this program. Tracers of both young groundwater (anthropogenic atmospheric gases and isotopic substances indicating post-1940s recharge) and much older groundwater (carbon-14 and helium-4) can be interpreted simultaneously so that estimates of the groundwater age distribution for samples with a wide range of ages can be constrained. TracerLPM is organized to permit a comprehensive interpretive approach consisting of hydrogeologic conceptualization, visual examination of data and models, and best-fit parameter estimation. Groundwater age distributions can be evaluated by comparing measured and modeled tracer concentrations in two ways: (1) multiple tracers analyzed simultaneously can be evaluated against each other for concordance with modeled concentrations (tracer-tracer application) or (2) tracer time-series data can be evaluated for concordance with modeled trends (tracer-time application). Groundwater-age estimates can also be obtained for samples with a single tracer measurement at one

  20. Methods of 15N tracer research in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, K.; Faust, H.

    1985-01-01

    The application of the stable isotope 15 N is of increasing importance in different scientific disciplines, especially in medicine, agriculture, and the biosciences. The close correlation between the growing interest and improvements of analytical procedures resulted in remarkable advances in the 15 N tracer technique. On the basis of the latest results of 15 N tracer research in life sciences and agriculture methods of 15 N tracer research in biological systems are compiled. The 15 N methodology is considered under three headings: Chemical analysis with a description of methods of sample preparation (including different separation and isolation methods for N-containing substances of biological and agricultural origin) and special procedures converting ammonia to molecular nitrogen. Isotopic analysis with a review on the most important methods of isotopic analysis of nitrogen: mass spectrometry (including the GC-MS technique), emission spectrometry, NMR spectroscopy, and other analytical procedures. 15 N-tracer techniques with a consideration of the role of the isotope dilution analysis as well as different labelling techniques and the mathematical interpretation of tracer data (modelling, N turnover experiments). In these chapters also sources of errors in chemical and isotopic analysis, the accuracy of the different methods and its importance on tracer experiments are discussed. Procedures for micro scale 15 N analysis and aspects of 15 N analysis on the level of natural abundance are considered. Furthermore some remarks on isotope effects in 15 N tracer experiments are made. (author)

  1. Tracer-based quantification of individual frac discharge in single-well multiple-frac backflow: sensitivity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghergut, Julia; Behrens, Horst; Sauter, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Within the deep-geothermal research project at GroßSchönebeck in the NE German Basin, targeting volcanic rocks (Lower Rotliegend) and siliciclastics (Upper Rotliegend) in the Lower Permian by means of a well doublet with several screening intervals between 3815 and 4247 m b.s.l., several artificial fractures with different geometric and hydraulic characteristics were created at each well, aiming to increase reservoir performance [1], [2]. It could not be told a priori which of the various fracturing treatments was to prove as most promising in terms of future reservoir productivity. At the intended-production well (GS-4), one large-area waterfrac was created in the low-permeability volcanic rocks, and two gel-proppant fractures in selected sandstone layers. Each fracturing treatment was accompanied by the injection of a water-dissolved tracer slug, followed by a defined volume of tracer-free ('chaser') fluid [3]. Each frac received a different species of a sulfonated aromatic acid salt, as a conservative water tracer. During subsequent backflow tests (either gas-based lifting, or production by means of a downhole submersible pump), each frac can contribute a certain (more or less constant) amount to the measured total discharge (also depending on whether and when each frac 'starts' contributing, and which effective aperture and area it actually 'manifests' during the process). Since these individual-frac discharge amounts cannot be measured directly, it was endeavoured to indirectly determine ('resolve') them from tracer signals as detectable in the overall backflow discharge. Therefore, we need to examine how these tracer signals depend on local discharge values and on local hydrogeologic parameters (matrix porosity, permeability distribution; frac transmissivity, thickness, effective area and aperture), and to what extent hydrogeological uncertainty will impede the inversion of local discharge values. To this end, a parameter sensitivity study was conducted on

  2. Analysis of some laboratory tracer runs in natural fissures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, L.; Neretnieks, I.

    1984-01-01

    Tracer tests in natural fissures performed in the laboratory are analysed by means of fitting two different models. In the experiments, sorbing and non-sorbing tracers were injected into a natural fissure running parallel to the axis of a drill core. The models take into account advection, diffusion into the rock matrix, sorption onto the rock surface and dispersion. For the last mechanism, one of the models considers hydrodynamic dispersion while the other model assumes channeling dispersion. The models take into account time delays in the inlet and outlet channels. The dispersion characteristics and water residence time were determined from the experiments with non-sorbing tracers. Surface and volume sorption coefficients and data on diffusion into the rock matrix were determined for the sorbing tracers. The results are compared with values independently determined in the laboratory. Good agreement was obtained using either model. When these models are used for prediction of tracer transport over larger distances, the results will depend on the model. The model with channeling dispersion will show a greater dispersion than the model with hydrodynamic dispersion. (author)

  3. An uncertainty inclusive un-mixing model to identify tracer non-conservativeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherriff, Sophie; Rowan, John; Franks, Stewart; Fenton, Owen; Jordan, Phil; hUallacháin, Daire Ó.

    2015-04-01

    Sediment fingerprinting is being increasingly recognised as an essential tool for catchment soil and water management. Selected physico-chemical properties (tracers) of soils and river sediments are used in a statistically-based 'un-mixing' model to apportion sediment delivered to the catchment outlet (target) to its upstream sediment sources. Development of uncertainty-inclusive approaches, taking into account uncertainties in the sampling, measurement and statistical un-mixing, are improving the robustness of results. However, methodological challenges remain including issues of particle size and organic matter selectivity and non-conservative behaviour of tracers - relating to biogeochemical transformations along the transport pathway. This study builds on our earlier uncertainty-inclusive approach (FR2000) to detect and assess the impact of tracer non-conservativeness using synthetic data before applying these lessons to new field data from Ireland. Un-mixing was conducted on 'pristine' and 'corrupted' synthetic datasets containing three to fifty tracers (in the corrupted dataset one target tracer value was manually corrupted to replicate non-conservative behaviour). Additionally, a smaller corrupted dataset was un-mixed using a permutation version of the algorithm. Field data was collected in an 11 km2 river catchment in Ireland. Source samples were collected from topsoils, subsoils, channel banks, open field drains, damaged road verges and farm tracks. Target samples were collected using time integrated suspended sediment samplers at the catchment outlet at 6-12 week intervals from July 2012 to June 2013. Samples were dried (affected whereas uncertainty was only marginally impacted by the corrupted tracer. Improvement of uncertainty resulted from increasing the number of tracers in both the perfect and corrupted datasets. FR2000 was capable of detecting non-conservative tracer behaviour within the range of mean source values, therefore, it provided a more

  4. Characterization of eco-friendly fluorescent nanoparticle-doped tracers for environmental sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauro, Flavia; Rapiti, Emiliano; Al-Sharab, Jafar F.; Ubertini, Lucio; Grimaldi, Salvatore; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Particle tracers are extensively used in quantitative flow visualization and environmental sensing. In this paper, we provide a thorough characterization of the novel eco-friendly fluorescent particle tracers formulated in Tauro et al. (AIP Adv 3(3): 032108, 2013). The tracers are synthesized from natural beeswax and are functionalized by encapsulating nontoxic fluorophore nanoparticles in the beads’ matrix through an inexpensive thermal procedure. Visibility and durability studies are conducted through a wide array of techniques to investigate the tracers’ surface morphological microfeatures, crystal nature and size, chemical composition, fluorophore incorporation into the beeswax matrix, and fluorescence response under severe settings resembling exposure to natural environments. Our findings demonstrate that fluorescent nanoparticles ranging from 1.51 to 3.73 nm are homogeneously distributed in the superficial layer (12 nm) of the tracers. In addition, fluorescence emissions are observed up to 26 days of continuous exposure of the tracers to high energy radiation. To demonstrate the particles’ use in environmental flow sensing, a set of proof of concept outdoor tests are conducted, in which image analysis tools are utilized for detecting the fluorescent tracers. Experimental results suggest that fluorescent microparticles deployed in high flow-rate flows (2 m/s) and under direct sunlight can be sensed through commercially available cameras (frame rate set to 30 Hz)

  5. Study of solid and liquid behavior in large copper flotation cells (130 m2) using radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, F.; Jimenez, O.; Yianatos, J.; Contreras, F.

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of the solid and liquid phases, in large flotation cells, was characterized by means of the radioactive tracer technique. The use of radioactive tracers enabled the identification of the Residence Time Distribution, of floatable and non-floatable solid, from continuous (on-line) measuring at the output streams of the flotation cells. For this study, the proper radioactive tracers were selected and applied in order to characterize the different phases; i.e. for liquid phase Br-82 as Ammonium Bromide, for floatable solid recovered in the concentrate Cu-64, and for non-floatable solid in three particle size classes (coarse: >150 μm, intermediate: 45 μm, and fine: <45 μm), Na-24. The experimental results confirmed the strong effect of particle size on the Residence Time Distribution, and mean residence time of solids in larger flotation cells, and consequently in flotation hydrodynamics. From a hydrodynamic point of view, the experimental data confirmed that a single mechanical flotation cells, of large size, can deviate significantly from perfect mixing. The experimental work was developed in a 130 m3 industrial flotation cell of the rougher circuit at El Teniente Division, Codelco-Chile. (authors)

  6. Tracer Equivalent Latitude: A Diagnostic Tool for Isentropic Transport Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Douglas R.; Nakamura, Noboru

    2003-01-01

    Area equivalent latitude based on potential vorticity (PV) is a widely used diagnostic for isentropic transport in the stratosphere and upper troposphere. Here, an alternate method for calculating equivalent latitude is explored, namely, a numerical synthesis of a PV-like tracer from a long-term integration of the advection-diffusion equation on isentropic surfaces. It is found that the tracer equivalent latitude (TrEL) behaves much like the traditional PV equivalent latitude (PVEL) despite the simplified governing physics; this is evidenced by examining the kinematics of the Arctic lower stratospheric vortex. Yet in some cases TrEL performs markedly better as a coordinate for long-lived trace species such as ozone. These instances include analysis of lower stratospheric ozone during the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE) campaign and three-dimensional reconstruction of total column ozone during November-December 1999 from fitted ozone-equivalent latitude relationship. It is argued that the improvement is due to the tracer being free from the diagnostic errors and certain diabatic processes that affect PV. The sensitivity of TrEL to spatial and temporal resolution, advection scheme, and driving winds is also examined.

  7. Extended application of radon as a natural tracer in oil reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira R.M.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the 80's it was a common practice in the study of contamination by NAPL to incorporate a tracer to the medium to be studied. At that time the first applications focused on the use of 222Rn, a naturally occurring radioactive isotope as a natural tracer, appropriate for thermodynamics studies, geology and transport properties in thermal reservoirs. In 1993 the deficit of radon was used to spot and quantify the contamination by DNAPL under the surface. For the first time these studies showed that radon could be used as a partitioning tracer. A methodology that provides alternatives to quantify the oil volume stored in the porous space of oil reservoirs is under development at CDTN. The methodology here applied, widens up and adapts the knowledge acquired from the use of radon as a tracer to the studies aimed at assessing SOR. It is a postulation of this work that once the radon partition coefficient between oil and water is known, SOR will be determined considering the increased amount of radon in the water phase as compared to the amount initially existent as the reservoir is flooded with water. This paper will present a description of the apparatus used and some preliminary results of the experiments.

  8. Uptake and transport of positron-emitting tracer in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Shimazu, Masamitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; and others

    1997-03-01

    The transport of a positron-emitting isotope introduced into a plant was dynamically followed by a special observation apparatus called `Positron-Emitting Tracer Imaging System`. In the system, annihilation {gamma}-rays from the positron emitter are detected with two planer detectors (5 x 6 cm square). The water containing ca. 5 MBq/ml of {sup 18}F was fed to the cut stem of soybean for 2 min and then the images of tracer activity were recorded for 30 - 50 min. When the midrib of a leaf near the petiole was cut just before measurement, the activity in the injured leaf was decreased but detected even at the apex. This result suggests that the damaged leaf recovered the uptake of water through the lamina. Maximum tracer activities in leaves of unirradiated plant were observed within 10 min, whereas those of irradiated plant at 100 Gy were observed after over 25 min. The final activity of irradiated plant after 30 min was lower than that of unirradiated plant. In case of beans, there was a difference in the absorption behavior of the {sup 18}F-labeled water between unirradiated and irradiated samples. These results show that the system is effective to observe the uptake and transportation of water containing positron emitting tracer for the study of damage and recovery functions of plants. (author)

  9. Xanthine tracers and their preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groman, E.V.; Cabelli, M.D.

    1980-01-01

    Compounds useful as tracers in the radioimmunoassay of xanthine derivatives such as theophylline and pharmacologically related drugs are described. They are substituted xanthines in which at least one substituted radical contains radioiodine. The tracers are made by linking radioiodinatable or preradioiodinated radicals to the xanthine derivative which is to be assayed. The tracers may be employed in known radioimmunoassay techniques. (author)

  10. Tracing wastewater effluents in surface and groundwaters: a couple approach with organic/inorganic tracers and isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Baran, Nicole; Soulier, Coralie

    2017-04-01

    In the context of land use change, the origins of contamination of water resources are often multiple, including for a single chemical element or molecule. For instance, excess of nitrates in both surface and groundwater can originate from agricultural practices and wastewater effluents. The discrimination of the origins and vectors of contamination in the environment is both an environmental and societal issue in order to define an integrated water resources management at the catchment or water body scale by implementing appropriate measures to effectively struggle against pollution. The objective of this study is to define a methodology for the identification of a "domestic wastewater" contamination within surface waters and groundwater. An ideal tracer should be conservative, persistent in the different water compartments, present in quantity above the detection limit and originate from a single type of pollution source. There is, however, no ideal tracer in the strict sense. Indeed, even chloride which is present in quantity in wastewater, and which behaves conservatively in the environment, is not an univocal tracer of wastewater, as it may come from atmospheric inputs, from the dissolution of evaporitic rocks, from the salting of roads or from fertilizers. To overcome this limitation, in this study, we propose a multi-tracer approach (chemical and isotopic) to identify and validate the relevance of foreseen tracers. Among the relevant tracers of wastewater, the following may be used for their intrinsic or combined discriminant power: 1) organic effluent tracers: nitrogen contents and isotopic ratios of nitrogen and oxygen of nitrates; 2) tracer of detergents: boron contents and boron isotopes; 3) pharmaceuticals tracers: e.g. carbamazepine, ibuprofen, paracetamol, gadolinium anomaly; 4) life-style tracers: e.g. caffeine. The originality of the study relies on small capacities wastewater treatment plants without tertiary treatment process. Results on a

  11. Guidebook on radioisotope tracers in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The idea of using tracers (chemical, dyes, etc.) in the investigation of complex physical phenomena has always attracted the attention of scientists and engineers. When radioactive isotopes became available it was immediately recognized that they offered an almost ideal solution to tracer selection. This book is devoted to reviewing the present status of the tracer method as such and to its applications to those branches of industry which have derived large benefits from the use of this modern technology. The main objectives of the IAEA's Industrial Applications and Chemistry Section is to help Member States in introducing to their own industries the different isotope and radiation techniques which have become available as a result of developments in the nuclear sciences. This section proposed the preparation of this guidebook, putting together various radiotracer methods and the experience obtained so far in their industrial use. Chapters 2 to 4 cover the general concept of tracers, technology and safety aspects, as well as data evaluation and interpretation. In chapter 5, therefore, general applications are discussed. In chapter 6, specialists in selected fields discuss their experience in radiotracer applications in various types of industrial activity. Most case studies are illustrated by at least one detailed example of an experiment carried out at an industrial installation. Current trends in the development of radiotracer methods are discussed in chapter 7, from both a theoretical and a practical viewpoint. Some possible new RTT applications in the future are also discussed here. Sealed radioactive sources are used almost as often as radioisotope tracers in industrial measurements. Annex I gives a short review of these techniques. Readers who are interested in the basic principles of radioisotope production will find the necessary information in Annex II. Annexes III, V and VI provide a demonstration of fundamental relations and properties; useful

  12. The Explicit-Cloud Parameterized-Pollutant hybrid approach for aerosol-cloud interactions in multiscale modeling framework models: tracer transport results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jr, William I Gustafson; Berg, Larry K; Easter, Richard C; Ghan, Steven J

    2008-01-01

    All estimates of aerosol indirect effects on the global energy balance have either completely neglected the influence of aerosol on convective clouds or treated the influence in a highly parameterized manner. Embedding cloud-resolving models (CRMs) within each grid cell of a global model provides a multiscale modeling framework for treating both the influence of aerosols on convective as well as stratiform clouds and the influence of clouds on the aerosol, but treating the interactions explicitly by simulating all aerosol processes in the CRM is computationally prohibitive. An alternate approach is to use horizontal statistics (e.g., cloud mass flux, cloud fraction, and precipitation) from the CRM simulation to drive a single-column parameterization of cloud effects on the aerosol and then use the aerosol profile to simulate aerosol effects on clouds within the CRM. Here, we present results from the first component of the Explicit-Cloud Parameterized-Pollutant parameterization to be developed, which handles vertical transport of tracers by clouds. A CRM with explicit tracer transport serves as a benchmark. We show that this parameterization, driven by the CRM's cloud mass fluxes, reproduces the CRM tracer transport significantly better than a single-column model that uses a conventional convective cloud parameterization

  13. The Explicit-Cloud Parameterized-Pollutant hybrid approach for aerosol-cloud interactions in multiscale modeling framework models: tracer transport results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jr, William I Gustafson; Berg, Larry K; Easter, Richard C; Ghan, Steven J [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PO Box 999, MSIN K9-30, Richland, WA (United States)], E-mail: William.Gustafson@pnl.gov

    2008-04-15

    All estimates of aerosol indirect effects on the global energy balance have either completely neglected the influence of aerosol on convective clouds or treated the influence in a highly parameterized manner. Embedding cloud-resolving models (CRMs) within each grid cell of a global model provides a multiscale modeling framework for treating both the influence of aerosols on convective as well as stratiform clouds and the influence of clouds on the aerosol, but treating the interactions explicitly by simulating all aerosol processes in the CRM is computationally prohibitive. An alternate approach is to use horizontal statistics (e.g., cloud mass flux, cloud fraction, and precipitation) from the CRM simulation to drive a single-column parameterization of cloud effects on the aerosol and then use the aerosol profile to simulate aerosol effects on clouds within the CRM. Here, we present results from the first component of the Explicit-Cloud Parameterized-Pollutant parameterization to be developed, which handles vertical transport of tracers by clouds. A CRM with explicit tracer transport serves as a benchmark. We show that this parameterization, driven by the CRM's cloud mass fluxes, reproduces the CRM tracer transport significantly better than a single-column model that uses a conventional convective cloud parameterization.

  14. Tracer investigations of macroprocesses in mineral processing. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, P.

    1981-01-01

    Results obtained from tracer studies in mineral processing have been evaluated with regard to the effects of hydrodynamic and design parameters of the single cell on flotation kinetics, to the residence time in single and in series-connected cells, and to the possibility of designing process control models. An algorithm is given for technological interpretation of results obtained from residence time and process kinetics studies

  15. Collective and tracer diffusion kinetics in the ternary random alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belova, I.V.; Murch, G.E.; Allnatt, A.R.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, collective and tracer diffusion kinetics is addressed for the ternary random alloy. A formal solution from the self-consistent theory of Moleko et al (Moleko L K, Allnatt A R and Allnatt E L 1989 Phil. Mag. A 59 141) is derived for collective diffusion and compared with the corresponding solution for the binary random alloy. Tracer diffusion in the ternary alloy is treated from the perspective of a special case of the quaternary random alloy. Results from Monte Carlo calculations for tracer and collective correlation factors (for the bcc ternary random alloy) are found to be in excellent agreement with this self-consistent theory but in only semi-quantitative agreement with the earlier theory of Manning (Manning J R 1971 Phys. Rev. B 4 1111). (author)

  16. Interest of radioactive tracers in fruit cultivation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferauge, M.T.; Dreze, Ph.

    1976-01-01

    The authors report some results related to the use of tracer techniques applied to nutrition and physiological diseases of fruit trees. Penetration and fate of several mineral and organic elements either by root system or by aerial parts of the trees are studied. (J.C.)

  17. Radiological safety methodology in radioactive tracer applications for hydrodynamics and environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, R.; Badano, A.; Dellepere, A.; Artucio, G.; Bertolotti, A.

    1995-01-01

    The use of radioactive tracer techniques as control sewage disposal contamination in Montevideo Estuarine and Carrasco beach has been studied for the Nuclear Technology National Direction. Hydrodynamic models simulation has been introduced as work methodology. As well as radiological safety and radioactive material applications in the environmental studies has been evaluated mainly in the conclusions and recommendations in this report. maps

  18. The use of Na-22 as a tracer for long-term bone mineral turnover studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Palmer, R.F.; Gillis, M.F.

    1979-01-01

    Sodium-22 has been studied as a tracer for bone mineral metabolism in rats and dogs. When incorporated into bone during growth from birth to adulthood, the bone becomes uniformly tagged with Na-22, which is released through the metabolic turnover of the bone. The Na-22 not incorporated in the bone matrix is rapidly excreted within a few days when animals are fed high, but nontoxic levels of NaCl. The Na-22 tracer can be used to measure bone mineral loss in animals during space flight and in research on bone disease

  19. Recent progress of {sup 10}Be tracer studies in Chinese loess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Weijian, E-mail: weijian@loess.llqg.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710061 (China); Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry and Application, Xi’an AMS Center, Xi' an 710061 (China); Joint Center for Global Change Studies, Beijing 100875 (China); Xie, Xingjun [State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710061 (China); Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry and Application, Xi’an AMS Center, Xi' an 710061 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Beck, Warren [NSF-Arizona AMS Facility, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Kong, Xianghui; Xian, Feng; Du, Yajuan; Wu, Zhenkun [State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710061 (China); Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry and Application, Xi’an AMS Center, Xi' an 710061 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Studies of cosmogenic {sup 10}Be in Chinese loess began about twenty-five years ago and since then a number of research groups worldwide have contributed to a firm understanding of the production, transport, deposition and storage of {sup 10}Be in loess. The essential characteristics that make {sup 10}Be a useful isotopic tracer in loess, include: (1) dominant atmospheric production directly linked to the intensity of the Earth’s magnetic field; (2) climate-dependent deposition; and (3) subsequent immobility, so that as {sup 10}Be accumulates in a loess profile its stratigraphic integrity is preserved. This fact, combined with very high deposition rates in loess on the Chinese Loess Plateau, makes {sup 10}Be an especially valuable continental archive of paleoclimate and paleomagnetism, complementing marine and ice-core records. Here we provide in particular the most recent progress of {sup 10}Be tracer studies in Chinese loess, including the determination of the correct age of the Brunhes–Matuyama polarity reversal at 780 ± 3 ka B.P., in accord with marine and ice records, and quantitative reconstruction of 130-ka paleoprecipitation using {sup 10}Be from Chinese loess profiles.

  20. Tritium and deuterium as water tracers in hydrologic systems. Completion report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, G.L.; Stetson, J.R.

    1975-05-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of deuterium and tritium as tracers to depict water and pollutant movement in porous media. This involved studying the interaction of these tracers with soil materials and evaluating this interaction in terms of retardation in tracer flow velocity, compared to bulk water flow. Previous work had suggested that tritium and deuterium interact with soils and are removed from tracer solution during flow. The data presented clearly show that a tracing front becomes diluted in tracer during infiltration into oven-dried soil. There appears to be very little difference between the degree of tritium and deuterium interaction. The source of interaction is demonstrated to be primarily hydroxyl associated with the clay minerals. These exchange sites are destroyed by heating soil to 70C which eliminates tracer loss during infiltration

  1. Study on development of evaluation technique of in-situ tracer test in Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Hideharu; Amano, Kenji; Maekawa, Keisuke; Kunimaru, Takanori; Naemura, Yumi; Ijiri, Yuji; Motoshima, Takayuki; Suzuki, Shunichi; Teshima, Kazufumi

    2013-06-01

    In the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project, in-situ tracer tests are valuable and important as the investigations to obtain the mass transportation data of fractures in hostrock. However, it is difficult that the in-situ tests are executed under various conditions due to long test period and the tests results are evaluated about permeable heterogeneity in a fracture and/or scale effects. In this study, a number of tracer tests are simulated in a fictitious single plate fracture generated on computer. And the transport parameters are identified by fitting one- and two-dimensional models to the breakthrough curves obtained from the simulations in order to investigate the applicability of these models to the evaluation of in-situ tracer test. As a result, one-dimensional model yields larger longitudinal dispersion length than two-dimensional model in the both cases of homogeneous and heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity fields of the fictitious fracture. This is because that the effect of transverse dispersion has to be included in the longitudinal dispersion length parameter in the one-dimensional model. It is also found that the larger dipole ratio and the larger natural groundwater flow crossing the flow generated between two boreholes make the identified longitudinal dispersion length larger. And, the longitudinal dispersion length identified from a tracer test is smaller and/or larger than the macroscopic longitudinal dispersion length identified from whole fracture. It is clarified that these are occurred by shorter or longer distance between boreholes compare to the correlation length of geostatistical heterogeneity of fictitious fracture. (author)

  2. Tracer techniques in food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertsovskij, E.S.; Sakharov, Eh.V.; Dolinin, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    The appicability of radioactive tracer techniques to process control in food industry are considered. Investigations in the field of food industry carried out using the above method are classified. The 1 class included investigations with preliminary preparation of a radioactive indicator and its following introduction in the system studied. The 2 class includes investigations based on the introduction in the system studied of a non-active indicator which is activated in a neutron flux being in samples selected in or after the process investigated. The 3 class includes studies based on investigations of natural radioactivity of certain nuclides in food stuff. The application of tracer techniques to the above classes of investigations in various fields of food industry and the equipment applied are considered in detail [ru

  3. Potential tracers for tracking septic tank effluent discharges in watercourses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Samia; Withers, Paul J A; Paterson, Eric; McRoberts, Colin W; Stutter, Marc

    2017-09-01

    Septic tank effluent (STE) contributes to catchment nutrient and pollutant loads. To assess the role of STE discharges in impairment of surface water, it is essential to identify the sources of pollution by tracing contaminants in watercourses. We examined tracers that were present in STE to establish their potential for identifying STE contamination in two stream systems (low and high dilution levels) against the background of upstream sources. The studied tracers were microbial, organic matter fluorescence, caffeine, artificial sweeteners and effluent chemical concentrations. The results revealed that tracer concentration ratios Cl/EC, Cl/NH 4 -N, Cl/TN, Cl/TSS, Cl/turbidity, Cl/total coliforms, Cl/sucralose, Cl/saccharin and Cl/Zn had potential as tracers in the stream with low dilution level (P < 0.05). Fluorescence spectroscopy could detect STE inputs through the presence of the tryptophan-like peak, but was limited to water courses with low level of dilution and was positively correlated with stream Escherichia coli (E. coli) and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP). The results also suggested that caffeine and artificial sweeteners can be suitable tracers for effluent discharge in streams with low and high level of dilution. Caffeine and saccharin were positively correlated with faecal coliforms, E. coli, total P and SRP, indicating their potential to trace discharge of a faecal origin and to be a marker for effluent P. Caffeine and SRP had similar attenuation behaviour in the receiving stream waters suggesting caffeine's potential role as a surrogate indicator for the behaviour of P downstream of effluent inputs. Taken together, results suggest that a single tracer alone was not sufficient to evaluate STE contamination of watercourses, but rather a combination of multiple chemical and physical tracing approaches should be employed. A multiple tracing approach would help to identify individual and cumulative STE inputs that pose risks to stream waters in

  4. In-EDTA as activable tracer in hydrogeological investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanescu, S.P.; Gaspar, E.; Spiridon, S.; Farcasiu, O.M.; Catilina, R.

    1982-12-01

    Two experiments are presented, on the possibilities of the use of indium in the form of the In-EDTA complex, as an activable tracer for hydrogeological studies. The determination of indium concentrations in the sampled water has been carried out by using the coprecipitation of indium with bismuth hydroxide, the neutron activation at the VVR-S reactor of the Institute for Nuclear Physics and Engineering - Bucharest and the measurement on the 417.0 keV line of sup(116m)In with the Ge(Li) spectrometric device. The advantages of the utilization of In-EDTA as a tracer for marking large volumes of water and of some long transit waters (of the order of months) have resulted. (authors)

  5. Development and application of a modified wireless tracer for disaster prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung Yang, Han; Su, Chih Chiang

    2016-04-01

    Typhoon-induced flooding causes water overflow in a river channel, which results in general and bridge scour and soil erosion, thus leading to bridge failure, debris flow and landslide collapse. Therefore, dynamic measurement technology should be developed to assess scour in channels and landslide as a disaster-prevention measure against bridge failure and debris flow. This paper presents a wireless tracer that enables monitoring general scour in river channels and soil erosion in hillsides. The wireless tracer comprises a wireless high-power radio modem, various electronic components, and a self-designed printed circuit board that are all combined with a 9-V battery pack and an auto switch. The entire device is sealed in a jar by silicon. After it was modified, the wireless tracer underwent the following tests for practical applications: power continuation and durability, water penetration, and signal transmission during floating. A regression correlation between the wireless tracer's transmission signal and distance was also established. This device can be embedded at any location where scouring is monitored, and, in contrast to its counterparts that detect scour depth by identifying and analyzing received signals, it enables real-time observation of the scouring process. In summary, the wireless tracer developed in this study provides a dynamic technology for real-time monitoring of scouring (or erosion) and forecasting of landslide hazards. Keywords: wireless tracer; scour; real-time monitoring; landslide hazard.

  6. Use of a variable tracer infusion method to determine glucose turnover in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, J.M.; Baron, A.D.; Edelman, S.V.; Brechtel, G.; Wallace, P.; Olefsky, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    The single-compartment pool fraction model, when used with the hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp technique to measure rates of glucose turnover, sometimes underestimates true rates of glucose appearance (Ra) resulting in negative values for hepatic glucose output (HGO). We focused our attention on isotope discrimination and model error as possible explanations for this underestimation. We found no difference in [3-3H] glucose specific activity in samples obtained simultaneously from the femoral artery and vein (2,400 +/- 455 vs. 2,454 +/- 522 dpm/mg) in 6 men during a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp study where insulin was infused at 40 mU.m-2.min-1 for 3 h; therefore, isotope discrimination did not occur. We compared the ability of a constant (0.6 microCi/min) vs. variable tracer infusion method (tracer added to the glucose infusate) to measure non-steady-state Ra during hyperinsulinemic clamp studies. Plasma specific activity fell during the constant tracer infusion studies but did not change from base line during the variable tracer infusion studies. By maintaining a constant plasma specific activity the variable tracer infusion method eliminates uncertainty about changes in glucose pool size. This overcame modeling error and more accurately measures non-steady-state Ra (P less than 0.001 by analysis of variance vs. constant infusion method). In conclusion, underestimation of Ra determined isotopically during hyperinsulinemic clamp studies is largely due to modeling error that can be overcome by use of the variable tracer infusion method. This method allows more accurate determination of Ra and HGO under non-steady-state conditions

  7. CityFlux perfluorocarbon tracer experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. K. Petersson

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In June 2006, two perfluorocarbon tracer experiments were conducted in central Manchester UK as part of the CityFlux campaign. The main aim was to investigate vertical dispersion in an urban area during convective conditions, but dispersion mechanisms within the street network were also studied. Paired receptors were used in most cases where one receptor was located at ground level and one at roof level. One receptor was located on the roof of Portland Tower which is an 80 m high building in central Manchester. Source receptor distances in the two experiments varied between 120 and 600 m.

    The results reveal that maximum concentration was sometimes found at roof level rather than at ground level implying the effectiveness of convective forces on dispersion. The degree of vertical dispersion was found to be dependent on source receptor distance as well as on building height in proximity to the release site.

    Evidence of flow channelling in a street canyon was also found. Both a Gaussian profile and a street network model were applied and the results show that the urban topography may lead to highly effective flow channelling which therefore may be a very important dispersion mechanism should the right meteorological conditions prevail.

    The experimental results from this campaign have also been compared with a simple urban dispersion model that was developed during the DAPPLE framework and show good agreement with this.

    The results presented here are some of the first published regarding vertical dispersion. More tracer experiments are needed in order to further characterise vertical concentration profiles and their dependence on, for instance, atmospheric stability. The impact of urban topography on pollutant dispersion is important to focus on in future tracer experiments in order to improve performance of models as well as for our understanding of the relationship between air quality and public health.

  8. Tracer applications in oil reservoirs in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, R.M.; Ferreira Pinto, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Radiotracer applications in oil reservoirs in Brazil started in 1997 at the request of the State Oil Company (Petrobras) at the Carmoplois oilfield. 1 Ci of HTO was injected in a regular five-spot plot and the results obtained were quite satisfactory. Shortly after this test one other request asked for distinguishing the contribution of different injection wells to a production well. It was then realized that other tracers should be available. As a first choice 35 SCN - has been selected since it could be produced at CDTN. An alternative synthesis path was defined which shortened post-irradiation manipulations. The tracer was tested in core samples and a field injection, simultaneously with HTO, was carried out at the Buracica field; again the HTO performed well but 35 SCN - showed up well ahead. Presently the HTO applications are being done on a routine basis. All in all, four tests were performed (some are still ongoing), and the detection limits for both 3 H and 35 S were optimized by refining the sample preparation stage. Lanthanide complexes used as activable tracers are also an appealing option, however core tests performed so far with La-, Ce- and Eu-EDTA indicated some delay of the tracer, so other complexants such as DOTA are to be tried in further laboratory tests and in a field application. Thus, a deeper understanding of their complexation chemistry and carefully conducted tests must be performed before lanthanide complexes can be qualified as reliable oil reservoir tracers. More recently, Petrobras has been asking for partitioning tracers intended for SOR measurement

  9. Using REE tracers to measure sheet erosion changing to rill erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Puling; Xue Yazhou; Song Wei; Wang Mingyi; Ju Tongjun

    2004-01-01

    Rare Earth Elements (REE) tracer method was used to study sheet erosion changing to rill erosion on slope land. By placing different rare earth elements of different soil depth across a slope in an indoor plot, two simulated rainfalls were applied to study the change of erosion type and the rill erosion process. The results indicate that the main erosion type is sheet erosion at the beginning of the rainfalls, and serious erosion happens after rill erosion appears. Accumulated sheet and rill erosion amounts increase with the rainfalls time. The percentage of sheet erosion amount decreases and rill erosion percentage increases with time. At the end of the rainfalls, the total rill erosion amounts are 4-5 times more than sheet erosion. In this paper, a new REE tracer method was used to quantitatively distinguish sheet and rill erosion amounts. The new REE tracer method should be useful to future studying of erosion processes on slope lands. (authors)

  10. Fate of thymic lymphocytes. [/sup 125/IudR and /sup 3/HTdR tracer studies in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laissue, J A; Chanana, A D; Cronkite, E P; Joel, D D

    1976-01-01

    Data are summarized from a number of studies on the fate of thymic lymphocytes. Results are reported from studies in mice in which /sup 125/IudR and /sup 3/HTdR were used as tracers to study the production, maturation, migration, and life span of thymic lymphocytes. It is pointed out that thymus-derived cells constitute the majority of recirculating lymphocytes and that peripheral, differentiated thymus-derived lymphocytes exhibit a number of immunological functions. 114 references.

  11. Performance Testing of Tracer Gas and Tracer Aerosol Detectors for use in Radionuclide NESHAP Compliance Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuehne, David Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lattin, Rebecca Renee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-28

    The Rad-NESHAP program, part of the Air Quality Compliance team of LANL’s Compliance Programs group (EPC-CP), and the Radiation Instrumentation & Calibration team, part of the Radiation Protection Services group (RP-SVS), frequently partner on issues relating to characterizing air flow streams. This memo documents the most recent example of this partnership, involving performance testing of sulfur hexafluoride detectors for use in stack gas mixing tests. Additionally, members of the Rad-NESHAP program performed a functional trending test on a pair of optical particle counters, comparing results from a non-calibrated instrument to a calibrated instrument. Prior to commissioning a new stack sampling system, the ANSI Standard for stack sampling requires that the stack sample location must meet several criteria, including uniformity of tracer gas and aerosol mixing in the air stream. For these mix tests, tracer media (sulfur hexafluoride gas or liquid oil aerosol particles) are injected into the stack air stream and the resulting air concentrations are measured across the plane of the stack at the proposed sampling location. The coefficient of variation of these media concentrations must be under 20% when evaluated over the central 2/3 area of the stack or duct. The instruments which measure these air concentrations must be tested prior to the stack tests in order to ensure their linear response to varying air concentrations of either tracer gas or tracer aerosol. The instruments used in tracer gas and aerosol mix testing cannot be calibrated by the LANL Standards and Calibration Laboratory, so they would normally be sent off-site for factory calibration by the vendor. Operational requirements can prevent formal factory calibration of some instruments after they have been used in hazardous settings, e.g., within a radiological facility with potential airborne contamination. The performance tests described in this document are intended to demonstrate the reliable

  12. Determination of the self purification of streams using tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salviano, J.S.

    1982-04-01

    A methodology for the 'in situ' evaluation of the self purification of streams is discussed. It consists of the simultaneous injection of two tracers into the stream. One of the tracers is oxidized by biochemical processes. It can be either artificially supplied to the stream or a naturally present component can be used. This tracer is used for the determination of the self purification parameters. The other tracer is conservative and allows for the hydrodynamic effects. Tests have been carried out in two streams with quite different hydrodynamic and physicochemical conditions. In the first stream, with a flow-rate of about 0.9 m 3 /s, urea was used as the nonconservative tracer. In the other stream, which had a flow-rate of about 5 m 3 /s, only a radioactive tracer has been used, and the rate of biochemical oxidation has been determined from BOD measurements. Calculations have been implemented on a digital computer. In both cases it was found that the reoxygenation rate is more conveniently determined by empirical formulas. Results from both tests have been deemed realistic by comparison with similar experiments. (Author) [pt

  13. Tracer verification and monitoring of containment systems (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.V.; Dunn, S.D.; Lowry, W.E.

    1997-01-01

    A tracer verification and monitoring system, SEAtrace trademark, has been designed and field tested which uses gas tracers to evaluate, verify, and monitor the integrity of subsurface barriers. This is accomplished using an automatic, rugged, autonomous monitoring system combined with an inverse optimization code. A gaseous tracer is injected inside the barrier and an array of wells outside the barrier are monitored. When the tracer gas is detected, a global optimization code is used to calculate the leak parameters, including leak size, location, and when the leak began. The multipoint monitoring system operates in real-time, can be used to measure both the tracer gas and soil vapor contaminants, and is capable of unattended operation for long periods of time (months). The global optimization code searches multi-dimensional open-quotes spaceclose quotes to find the best fit for all of the input parameters. These parameters include tracer gas concentration histories from multiple monitoring points, medium properties, barrier location, and the source concentration. SEAtrace trademark does not attempt to model all of the nuances associated with multi-phase, multi-component flow, but rather, the inverse code uses a simplistic forward model which can provide results which are reasonably accurate. The system has calculated leak locations to within 0.5 meters and leak radii to within 0.12 meters

  14. Feasibility of perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs) in atmospheric source-receptor experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, R.N.; Senum, G.I.

    1984-03-01

    A brief description of the perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) system, which includes the tracers and the release equipment, the air samplers and the analyzers, is presented along with details on the research needs to provide a viable system for MATEX-scenario experiments. The present family of 2 viable PFTs needs to be increased to 5 to 6. Given the present precision of the analysis system, a one year long tracer experiment consisting of 4 hour releases every 60 hours from 5 different sites would require nearly 150 metric tons of PFTs at a cost of $15,000,000. Shortcomings in the programmable sampler include the pump, the sampling sequence control flexibility, data storage and retrieval, and the lack of remote communication capability; sampler adsorbent studies are also needed. The analytical system, including the catalyst processing bed, the chromatography column resolution, and the linearity of the detector, is in need of significant improvement. A higher resolution analysis system could significantly reduce analysis time but, more importantly, reduce tracer requirements more than 10-fold, for a cost savings potential of more than $13,000,000. A model is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of tracer material balances. Assessment of earlier long-range tracer experiments indicates the need for possibly 400 ground sampling sites requiring $8 to $14 million worth of samplers for a one-year tracer experiment. As many as six aircraft would be needed to conduct airborne model validation and material balance studies for each tracer plume

  15. Study of flow characteristics in a secondary clarifier by numerical simulation and radioisotope tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.S.; Shin, M.S.; Jang, D.S.; Jung, S.H.; Jin, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    Numerical simulation in a 2-D rectangular coordinate and experimental study have been performed to figure out the flow characteristics and concentration distribution of a large-scale rectangular final clarifier in wastewater treatment facility located in Busan, S. Korea. The purpose of numerical calculation is to verify the experimentally measured data by radioisotope tracer technique and further to understand the important physical feature occurring in a large-scale clarifier, in many cases which is not sufficient by the aid of limited number of experimental data. To this end, a comprehensive computer program is basically made by SIMPLE algorithm by Patankar with the special emphasis on the parametric evaluation of the various phenomenological models. Calculation results are successfully evaluated against experimental data obtained by the method of radioisotope tracer. Detailed comparison is made on the calculated residence time distribution (RTD) curves with measurement inside the clarifier as well as the exhaust. Further the calculation results predict well the well-known characteristics of clarifier flow such as the waterfall phenomenon at the front end of the clarifier, the bottom density current in the settling zone and the upward flow in the withdrawal zone. Thus it is believed that the flow calculation program and the data incorporation technique of radioisotope measurement employed in this study show the high possibility as a complementary tool of experiment in this area

  16. Local study of pollutants dispersion by a real time tracer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faivre-Pierret, R.X.; Sestier-Carlin, R.; Berne, P.

    1992-01-01

    It is possible to use a Gaussian mathematical model of atmospheric dispersion for calculating atmospheric transfer coefficient (ATC) in long range model, but for proximity models, an experimental model using a tracer technic has to take in account ground effects and natural or artificial obstacles. SF 6 tracer method gives the true plume ground trace in real time. The measured ATC shows a larger ground trace, lower concentration in the axis, and a displacement of the maximum concentration with regard to wind axis in comparison with the calculated ATC. (A.B.). 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  17. Coefficients of tracer transfer through membranes. Pt. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorabialska, A; Hawlicka, E; Plonka, A [Politechnika Lodzka (Poland)

    1974-01-01

    The doubled value of the tracer transfer coefficient in the self-diffusion process is equal to the sum of tracer transfer coefficients in the diffusion and interfusion processes. The fundamental phenomenological relation can be deduced for the coefficients of tracer transfer between two phases of electrolyte solutions spearated by a virtual boundary. Indeed, the doubled value of the tracer mobility in the self-diffusion experiment (no concentration gradient of the traced substance) is equal to the sum of the tracer mobilities in the diffusion (tracer movement along with the concentration gradient of the traced substance) and interfusion experiments (tracer movement against the concentration gradient of the traced substance). Thus the doubled value of the tracer transfer coefficient in the self-diffusion process should be equal to the sum of tracer transfer coefficients in the diffusion and interfusion processes. The experimental verification of that fundamental relation is presented.

  18. Tracer dispersion in two-dimensional rough fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazer, G; Koplik, J

    2001-05-01

    Tracer diffusion and hydrodynamic dispersion in two-dimensional fractures with self-affine roughness are studied by analytic and numerical methods. Numerical simulations were performed via the lattice-Boltzmann approach, using a boundary condition for tracer particles that improves the accuracy of the method. The reduction in the diffusive transport, due to the fractal geometry of the fracture surfaces, is analyzed for different fracture apertures. In the limit of small aperture fluctuations we derive the correction to the diffusive coefficient in terms of the tortuosity, which accounts for the irregular geometry of the fractures. Dispersion is studied when the two fracture surfaces are simply displaced normally to the mean fracture plane and when there is a lateral shift as well. Numerical results are analyzed using the Lambda parameter, related to convective transport within the fracture, and simple arguments based on lubrication approximation. At very low Péclet number, in the case where fracture surfaces are laterally shifted, we show using several different methods that convective transport reduces dispersion.

  19. 18O isotopic tracer studies of silicon oxidation in dry oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    Oxidation of silicon in dry oxygen has been an important process in the integrated circuit industry for making gate insulators on metal-oxide-semiconductory (MOS) devices. This work examines this process using isotopic tracers of oxygen to determine the transport mechanisms of oxygen through silicon dioxide. Oxides were grown sequentially using mass-16 and mass-18 oxygen gas sources to label the oxygen molecules from each step. The resulting oxides are analyzed using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The results of these analyses suggest two oxidant species are present during the oxidation, each diffuses and oxidizes separately during the process. A model from this finding using a sum of two linear-parabolic growth rates, each representing the growth rate from one of the oxidants, describes the reported oxidation kinetics in the literature closely. A fit of this relationship reveals excellent fits to the data for oxide thicknesses ranging from 30 A to 1 μm and for temperatures ranging from 800 to 1200 0 C. The mass-18 oxygen tracers also enable a direct observation of the oxygen solubility in the silicon dioxide during a dry oxidation process. The SIMS profiles establish a maximum solubility for interstitial oxygen at 1000 0 C at 2 x 10 20 cm -3 . Furthermore, the mass-18 oxygen profiles show negligible network diffusion during an 1000 0 C oxidation

  20. Enhanced Oil Recovery: Aqueous Flow Tracer Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Rovani; John Schabron

    2009-02-01

    A low detection limit analytical method was developed to measure a suite of benzoic acid and fluorinated benzoic acid compounds intended for use as tracers for enhanced oil recovery operations. Although the new high performance liquid chromatography separation successfully measured the tracers in an aqueous matrix at low part per billion levels, the low detection limits could not be achieved in oil field water due to interference problems with the hydrocarbon-saturated water using the system's UV detector. Commercial instrument vendors were contacted in an effort to determine if mass spectrometry could be used as an alternate detection technique. The results of their work demonstrate that low part per billion analysis of the tracer compounds in oil field water could be achieved using ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

  1. Radiation dose estimates for carbon-11-labelled PET tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aart, Jasper van der; Hallett, William A.; Rabiner, Eugenii A.; Passchier, Jan; Comley, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Carbon-11-labelled positron emission tomography (PET) tracers commonly used in biomedical research expose subjects to ionising radiation. Dosimetry is the measurement of radiation dose, but also commonly refers to the estimation of health risk associated with ionising radiation. This review describes radiation dosimetry of carbon-11-labelled molecules in the context of current PET research and the most widely used regulatory guidelines. Methods: A MEDLINE literature search returned 42 articles; 32 of these were based on human PET data dealing with radiation dosimetry of carbon-11 molecules. Radiation burden expressed as effective dose and maximum absorbed organ dose was compared between tracers. Results: All but one of the carbon-11-labelled PET tracers have an effective dose under 9 μSv/MBq, with a mean of 5.9 μSv/MBq. Data show that serial PET scans in a single subject are feasible for the majority of radiotracers. Conclusion: Although differing in approach, the two most widely used regulatory frameworks (those in the USA and the EU) do not differ substantially with regard to the maximum allowable injected activity per PET study. The predictive validity of animal dosimetry models is critically discussed in relation to human dosimetry. Finally, empirical PET data are related to human dose estimates based on homogenous distribution, generic models and maximum cumulated activities. Despite the contribution of these models to general risk estimation, human dosimetry studies are recommended where continued use of a new PET tracer is foreseen.

  2. Iodine 123-antipyrine. A diffusible tracer for brain exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantonel-Mathieu, Evelyne.

    1978-09-01

    Iodine 123-labelled iodoantipyrine is a liposoluble diffusible tracer which crosses the blood-brain barrier intact. Its build-up in brain tissue is proportional to the regional blood flow. Its behavior was studied in undervascularised brain lesions and in cases where research with traditional radioactive tracers (99mTc and its different vectors for example) has proved limited. Because of the great diffusibility of iodoantipyrine a brain parenchyma image is obtained within minutes after its injection, and this by the use of a non-invasive technique and under good gamma-camera exploration conditions. 81 brain explorations including 11 standards have been carried out on subjects averaging 51,2 years old; these examinations took place in three nuclear medicine centres. The 123 I iodoantipyrine used in each nuclear medicine centre is supplied by the CEA. Iodoantipyrine is labelled with a good yield (>98%) checked by chromatography by means of a CEA kit. After intraveinous injection of 4 to 6 mCi iodine-123 iodoantipyrine, a dynamic study (from 0 to 60 seconds) of the tracer passage in the brain tissue may be followed by static images taken in the next minutes according to a standard procedure. The table of results shows the major interest of this tracer for the exploration of vascular accidents with ischemic lesions, especially in the early phase of the accident. The lesion appears as a hypoactive zone and this lack of perfusion lasts for some minutes after the injection [fr

  3. Assessment of surface water resources availability using catchment modelling and the results of tracer studies in the mesoscale Migina Catchment, Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyaneza, O.; Mukubwa, A.; Maskey, S.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Wenninger, J.

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, we developed a catchment hydrological model which can be used to inform water resources planning and decision making for better management of the Migina Catchment (257.4 km2). The semi-distributed hydrological model HEC-HMS (Hydrologic Engineering Center - the Hydrologic Modelling System) (version 3.5) was used with its soil moisture accounting, unit hydrograph, liner reservoir (for baseflow) and Muskingum-Cunge (river routing) methods. We used rainfall data from 12 stations and streamflow data from 5 stations, which were collected as part of this study over a period of 2 years (May 2009 and June 2011). The catchment was divided into five sub-catchments. The model parameters were calibrated separately for each sub-catchment using the observed streamflow data. Calibration results obtained were found acceptable at four stations with a Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency index (NS) of 0.65 on daily runoff at the catchment outlet. Due to the lack of sufficient and reliable data for longer periods, a model validation was not undertaken. However, we used results from tracer-based hydrograph separation from a previous study to compare our model results in terms of the runoff components. The model performed reasonably well in simulating the total flow volume, peak flow and timing as well as the portion of direct runoff and baseflow. We observed considerable disparities in the parameters (e.g. groundwater storage) and runoff components across the five sub-catchments, which provided insights into the different hydrological processes on a sub-catchment scale. We conclude that such disparities justify the need to consider catchment subdivisions if such parameters and components of the water cycle are to form the base for decision making in water resources planning in the catchment.

  4. Wairakei tracer tests 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, W.J.; Barry, B.J.

    1984-05-01

    Tracer tests, with and without, hot water reinjection into WK213 showed returns of tracer iodine-131; in wells in both the Waiora Valley and the eastern end of the field. The effect of reinjection at a rate of 200 cu. m/h was to reduce the arrived time from 15 to 7 days. Increasing the rate of reinjection into WK62 from 30 cu. m/h to 200 cu. m/h seemed to increase the initial velocity of the tracer wave and the distance it moved. However, returns were recorded only in the adjacent wells WK61 and WK63 with a very small, and three days delayed, response in WK43

  5. Predictions of tracer transport in interwell tracer tests at the C-Hole complex. Yucca Mountain site characterization project report milestone 4077

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimus, P.W.

    1996-09-01

    This report presents predictions of tracer transport in interwell tracer tests that are to be conducted at the C-Hole complex at the Nevada Test Site on behalf of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The predictions are used to make specific recommendations about the manner in which the tracer test should be conducted to best satisfy the needs of the Project. The objective of he tracer tests is to study flow and species transport under saturated conditions in the fractured tuffs near Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the site of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository. The potential repository will be located in the unsaturated zone within Yucca Mountain. The saturated zone beneath and around the mountain represents the final barrier to transport to the accessible environment that radionuclides will encounter if they breach the engineered barriers within the repository and the barriers to flow and transport provided by the unsaturated zone. Background information on the C-Holes is provided in Section 1.1, and the planned tracer testing program is discussed in Section 1.2

  6. Prospect of radon as a tracer in studying of landslide forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huifeng; Ding Dexin

    2004-01-01

    Radon, as a chemical element of radioactivity, is widely used in the fields of earth-quake monitoring, prospecting mine and exploring resource. This paper discussed the theory of radon's separating out from the soil and the theory and means of surveying radon. It also relates the radon anomaly in the measuring process of soil radon, caused by the interferring of the environmental factors in measurement results. It further clarifies the wilde application of radon as a tracer in landslide forecast. (authors)

  7. Count rate balance method of measuring sediment transport of sand beds by radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauzay, G.

    1968-01-01

    Radioactive tracers are applied to the direct measurement of the sediment transport rate of sand beds. The theoretical measurement formula is derived: the variation of the count rate balance is inverse of that of the transport thickness. Simultaneously the representativeness of the tracer is critically studied. The minimum quantity of tracer which has to be injected in order to obtain a correct statistical definition of count rate given by a low number of grains 'seen' by the detector is then studied. A field experiment was made and has let to study the technological conditions for applying this method: only the treatment of results is new, the experiment itself is carried out with conventional techniques applied with great care. (author) [fr

  8. Tracer studies of flotation in laboratory and plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, A.J.; Thereska, J.; Plasari, E.; Kacaj, M.

    1992-01-01

    Froth flotation is used for the industrial extraction of valuable minerals from ores. Its progress depends on the properties of minerals being processed and on flotation practices. While flotation is basically a kinetic process, it functions industrially in continuous flow vessels whose flow patterns influence the separation effected. Radioisotope tracers have proven to be a necessary tool in the acquisition of both kinetic and flow pattern data

  9. New SPECT tracers: Example of tracers of proteoglycans and melanin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cachin, F.; Mestas, D.; Kelly, A.; Merlin, C.; Veyre, A.; Maublant, J.; Cachin, F.; Chezal, J.M.; Miot-Noirault, E.; Moins, N.; Auzeloux, P.; Vidal, A.; Bonnet-Duquennoy, M.; Boisgard, S.; D'Incan, M.; Madelmont, J.C.; Maublant, J.; Boisgard, S.; D'Incan, M.; Redini, F.; Filaire, M.

    2009-01-01

    The majority of research program on new radiopharmaceuticals turn to tracers used for positron emission tomography (PET). Only a few teams work on new non fluorine labeled tracers. However, the coming of SPECT/CT gamma cameras, the arrival of semi-conductors gamma cameras should boost the development of non-PET tracers. We exhibit in this article the experience acquired by our laboratory in the conception and design of two new non fluorine labelled compounds. The 99m Tc-N.T.P. 15-5 (N.T.P. 15-5 for N-[tri-ethyl-ammonium]-3-propyl-[15]ane-N5) which binds to proteoglycans could be used for the diagnosis and staging of osteoarthritis and chondrosarcoma. The iodo benzamides, specific to the melanin, are nowadays compared to 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose in a phase III clinical trial for the diagnosis and detection of melanoma metastasis. Our last development focus on N-[2-(diethyl-amino)ethyl]-4 and 2-iodo benzamides respectively B.Z.A. and B.Z.A.2 hetero-aromatic analogues usable for melanoma treatment. (authors)

  10. Positron emitting tracers for studies of cocaine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.S.; Gatley, S.J.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.; Yu, D.W.; Dewey, S.L.; Schlyer, D.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Bendriem, B.; Logan, J.

    1990-01-01

    The use of PET to study the behavior and mechanism of action of therapeutic drugs and substances of abuse can be approached from a number of perspectives. The most common approach is to measure the effect of a drug on some aspect of metabolism and requires well characterized radiotracers whose behavior in vivo can be related to a discrete biochemical transformation. A second approach is to study the labeled drug itself. This provides information on the drug's regional distribution and kinetics as well as its pharmacological profile and metabolism. Cocaine has been labeled in different positions with carbon-11 and with fluorine-18 and the stereoisomers of cocaine have also been labeled to characterize its binding and metabolism in human and baboon brain. Regional cocaine binding as measured by PET is consistent with reversible binding to striatal dopamine reuptake sites and its time course parallels the behavioral activation of cocaine. The behaviorally inactive enantiomer (+)-cocaine is rapidly metabolized in serum preventing its entry into the brain. These PET tracers are useful in understanding the neurochemical basis of cocaine's action

  11. Contribution of radioactive tracers to sediment transport study in fluvial flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson Junior, G.

    1995-01-01

    The uses of radioactive tracers in sediment transport studies are presented in this report to evidence the importance of: Open channel researches, to describe field applications in waterways; Simultaneous utilization of classical methods and radiotracer techniques, in fluvial and estuarine environments; Development of radiotracers techniques applied in dynamic sedimentology. The report illustrated with some experiments carried out in Brazil and France, in open channel and natural flows. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs

  12. Natural tracer profiles across argillaceous formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurek, Martin; Alt-Epping, Peter; Bath, Adrian; Gimmi, Thomas; Niklaus Waber, H.; Buschaert, Stephane; Canniere, Pierre De; Craen, Mieke De; Gautschi, Andreas; Savoye, Sebastien; Vinsot, Agnes; Wemaere, Isabelle; Wouters, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Solute transport processes in clay and shale formations at nine sites are examined. → Conservative pore-water tracers (e.g. Cl - , δ 18 O, δ 2 H, He) show regular profiles. → These indicate the dominance of diffusive transport over times of 10 5 -10 6 years. → The contribution of vertical advection to transport is limited or negligible. → Modelled evolution times are in line with independent palaeo-hydrogeological data. - Abstract: Argillaceous formations generally act as aquitards because of their low hydraulic conductivities. This property, together with the large retention capacity of clays for cationic contaminants, has brought argillaceous formations into focus as potential host rocks for the geological disposal of radioactive and other waste. In several countries, programmes are under way to characterise the detailed transport properties of such formations at depth. In this context, the interpretation of profiles of natural tracers in pore waters across the formations can give valuable information about the large-scale and long-term transport behaviour of these formations. Here, tracer-profile data, obtained by various methods of pore-water extraction for nine sites in central Europe, are compiled. Data at each site comprise some or all of the conservative tracers: anions (Cl - , Br - ), water isotopes (δ 18 O, δ 2 H) and noble gases (mainly He). Based on a careful evaluation of the palaeo-hydrogeological evolution at each site, model scenarios are derived for initial and boundary pore-water compositions and an attempt is made to numerically reproduce the observed tracer distributions in a consistent way for all tracers and sites, using transport parameters derived from laboratory or in situ tests. The comprehensive results from this project have been reported in . Here the results for three sites are presented in detail, but the conclusions are based on model interpretations of the entire data set. In essentially all cases, the

  13. Radon as tracer to identify discharge sections at Juatuba basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chagas, Claudio Jose; Ferreira, Vinicius Verna Magalhaes; Fonseca, Raquel Luisa Mageste; Rocha, Zildete; Moreira, Rubens Martins; Lemos, Nayron Cosme; Menezes, Angela de Barros Correia; Santos, Talita Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    The use of natural tracers in hydrological studies is a very useful tool, being applied in several studies. One of these tracers is the radon, 222 Rn, noble gas derived from natural sources, been found in all underground waters, as a product of radioactive decay of the 226 Ra. This gas can be found in the air, water, rocks or soil. In this paper, the 222 Rn detection in surface water was used as tracer in order to identify aquifer discharge sections in surface water at the Fundao stream, which belongs to the Juatuba river basin, through the second semester of 2014 and the first semester of 2015, in three sampling campaigns. The 222 Rn measurements at Fundao stream were carried out using the equipment RAD 7. The results showed that 222 Rn is present in some sections of the water course suggesting that there is a connection between groundwater and surface water. It also justifies the variation in the water level in the stream, recorded by a fluviometric station. (author)

  14. Radon as tracer to identify discharge sections at Juatuba basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chagas, Claudio Jose; Ferreira, Vinicius Verna Magalhaes; Fonseca, Raquel Luisa Mageste; Rocha, Zildete; Moreira, Rubens Martins; Lemos, Nayron Cosme; Menezes, Angela de Barros Correia, E-mail: vvmf@cdtn.br, E-mail: rlmf@cdtn.br, E-mail: cjc@cdtn.br, E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br, E-mail: rubens@cdtn.br, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br, E-mail: lemosnc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Santos, Talita Oliveira, E-mail: talitaolsantos@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares

    2015-07-01

    The use of natural tracers in hydrological studies is a very useful tool, being applied in several studies. One of these tracers is the radon, {sup 222}Rn, noble gas derived from natural sources, been found in all underground waters, as a product of radioactive decay of the {sup 226}Ra. This gas can be found in the air, water, rocks or soil. In this paper, the {sup 222}Rn detection in surface water was used as tracer in order to identify aquifer discharge sections in surface water at the Fundao stream, which belongs to the Juatuba river basin, through the second semester of 2014 and the first semester of 2015, in three sampling campaigns. The {sup 222}Rn measurements at Fundao stream were carried out using the equipment RAD 7. The results showed that {sup 222}Rn is present in some sections of the water course suggesting that there is a connection between groundwater and surface water. It also justifies the variation in the water level in the stream, recorded by a fluviometric station. (author)

  15. Effects of crude oil on water and tracer movement in the unsaturated and saturated zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delin, Geoffrey N; Herkelrath, William N

    2017-05-01

    A tracer test was conducted to aid in the investigation of water movement and solute transport at a crude-oil spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota. Time of travel was measured using breakthrough curves for rhodamine WT and bromide tracers moving from the soil surface through oil-contaminated and oil-free unsaturated zones to the saturated zone. Results indicate that the rates of tracer movement were similar in the oil-free unsaturated and saturated zones compared to the oily zones. These results are somewhat surprising given the oil contamination in the unsaturated and saturated zones. Rhodamine tracer breakthrough in the unsaturated and saturated zones in general was delayed in comparison to bromide tracer breakthrough. Peak tracer concentrations for the lysimeters and wells in the oily zone were much greater than at the corresponding depths in the oil-free zone. Water and tracer movement in the oily zone was complicated by soil hydrophobicity and decreased oil saturations toward the periphery of the oil. Preferential flow resulted in reduced tracer interaction with the soil, adsorption, and dispersion and faster tracer movement in the oily zone than expected. Tracers were freely transported through the oily zone to the water table. Recharge calculations support the idea that the oil does not substantially affect recharge in the oily zone. This is an important result indicating that previous model-based assumptions of decreased recharge beneath the oil were incorrect. Results have important implications for modeling the fate and transport of dissolved contaminants at hydrocarbon spill sites. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Nested Tracer Studies In Catchment Hydrology: Towards A Multiscale Understanding of Runoff Generation and Catchment Funtioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulsby, C.; Rodgers, P.; Malcolm, I. A.; Dunn, S.

    Geochemical and isotopic tracers have been shown to have widespread utility in catch- ment hydrology in terms of identifying hydrological source areas and characterising residence time distributions. In many cases application of tracer techniques has pro- vided insights into catchment functioning that could not be obtained from hydromet- ric and/or modelling studies alone. This paper will show how the use of tracers has contributed to an evolving perceptual model of hydrological pathways and runoff gen- eration processes in catchments in the Scottish highlands. In particular the paper will focus on the different insights that are gained at three different scales of analysis; (a) nested sub-catchments within a mesoscale (ca. 200 square kilometers) experimen- tal catchment; (b) hillslope-riparian interactions and (c) stream bed fluxes. Nested hydrometric and hydrochemical monitoring within the mesoscale Feugh catchment identified three main hydrological response units: (i) plateau peatlands which gener- ated saturation overland flow in the catchment headwaters, (ii) steep valley hillslopes which drain from the plateaux into (iii) alluvial and drift aquifers in the valley bottoms. End Member Mixing Analysis (EMMA) in 8 nested sub-catchments indicated that that stream water tracer concentrations can be modelled in terms of 2 dominant runoff pro- cesses; overland flow from the peat and groundwater from the drift aquifers. Ground- water contributions generally increased with catchment size, though this was moder- ated by the characteristics of individual sub-basins, with drift cover being particularly important. Hillslope riparian interactions were also examined using tracers, hydromet- ric data and a semi-distributed hydrological model. This revealed that in the glaciated, drift covered terrain of the Scottish highlands, extensive valley bottom aquifers effec- tively de-couple hillslope waters from the river channel. Thus, riparian groundwater appears to significantly

  17. Application of Radionuclide Tracer Techniques in Research on Bio-Effects of Carbon Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Ying; Ran Tiecheng; Li Qingnuan; Xu Jingying; Li Wenxin

    2010-01-01

    There are few effective means to detect and analyze nanomaterials, therefore, radionuclide labeling and tracing techniques play an important role in the studies of interaction between nanoparticles and living systems. This paper briefly summarizes the main results from the application of radionuclide tracer techniques in the studies of interaction between carbon nanoparticles (fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and nano-carbon blacks) and animals and mammalian cells, cites the experimental information on absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of nanomaterials, and indicates the signification of these information in the drug development and bio-safety studies of nanomaterials. Based on the novel properties of carbon nanoparticles, the superiority of radionuclide tracer techniques over fluorescent labeling techniques is stressed. It is expected that the radionuclide tracer techniques have an increasing application prospect in the interdisciplinary fields of nanoscience and life science. (authors)

  18. Laplace transform in tracer kinetic modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauser, Eliete B., E-mail: eliete@pucrs.br [Instituto do Cerebro (InsCer/FAMAT/PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS, (Brazil). Faculdade de Matematica

    2013-07-01

    The main objective this paper is to quantify the pharmacokinetic processes: absorption, distribution and elimination of radiopharmaceutical(tracer), using Laplace transform method. When the drug is administered intravenously absorption is complete and is available in the bloodstream to be distributed throughout the whole body in all tissues and fluids, and to be eliminated. Mathematical modeling seeks to describe the processes of distribution and elimination through compartments, where distinct pools of tracer (spatial location or chemical state) are assigned to different compartments. A compartment model is described by a system of differential equations, where each equation represents the sum of all the transfer rates to and from a specific compartment. In this work a two-tissue irreversible compartment model is used for description of tracer, [{sup 18}F]2-fluor-2deoxy-D-glucose. In order to determine the parameters of the model, it is necessary to have information about the tracer delivery in the form of an input function representing the time-course of tracer concentration in arterial blood or plasma. We estimate the arterial input function in two stages and apply the Levenberg-Marquardt Method to solve nonlinear regressions. The transport of FDG across de arterial blood is very fast in the first ten minutes and then decreases slowly. We use de Heaviside function to represent this situation and this is the main contribution of this study. We apply the Laplace transform and the analytical solution for two-tissue irreversible compartment model is obtained. The only approach is to determinate de arterial input function. (author)

  19. Study of transport in unsaturated sands using radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merritt, W.F.; Pickens, J.F.; Allison, G.B.

    1979-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the mixing that occurs as a series of labelled pulses of water are transported by gravity drainage down through a sand filled column having a water table imposed at the bottom. It also demonstrated the utility of gamma-ray emitting radioactive tracers in studying transport in unsaturated or saturated porous media. The motivation for pursuing this topic was developed from observing that the content of oxygen-18, deuterium and tritium in rainwater shows marked temporal variations whereas their concentrations below the water table in shallow ground water flow systems are generally found to show much less variation. (auth)

  20. 3-D migration experiment - report 2: Instrumentation and tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelin, H.; Birgersson, L.; Gidlund, J.

    1987-11-01

    This report is one of the four reports describing the Stripa 3D experiment where water and tracer flow has been monitored in a specially excavated drift in the Stripa mine. The experiment was performed in a specially excavated drift at the 360 m level in granite. The whole ceiling and upper part of the walls were covered with more than 350 individual plastic sheets where the water flow into the drift could be collected. 11 different tracers were injected at distances between 11 and 50 m from the ceiling of the drift. The flow rate and tracer monitoring was kept up for more than two years. The tracer breakthrough curves and flow rate distributions were used to study the flow paths, velocities, hydraulic conductivities, dispersivities and channeling effects in the rock. The report describes the instrumentation developed and used as well as the tracers that were tested and used in the experiment. (orig.)

  1. Using neural networks to describe tracer correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Lary

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural networks are ideally suited to describe the spatial and temporal dependence of tracer-tracer correlations. The neural network performs well even in regions where the correlations are less compact and normally a family of correlation curves would be required. For example, the CH4-N2O correlation can be well described using a neural network trained with the latitude, pressure, time of year, and methane volume mixing ratio (v.m.r.. In this study a neural network using Quickprop learning and one hidden layer with eight nodes was able to reproduce the CH4-N2O correlation with a correlation coefficient between simulated and training values of 0.9995. Such an accurate representation of tracer-tracer correlations allows more use to be made of long-term datasets to constrain chemical models. Such as the dataset from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE which has continuously observed CH4  (but not N2O from 1991 till the present. The neural network Fortran code used is available for download.

  2. Tracer dispersion - experiment and CFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zitny, R.

    2004-01-01

    Description of tracer distribution by means of dispersion models is a method successfully used in process engineering for fifty years. Application of dispersion models in reactor engineering for characterization of flows in column apparatus, heat exchangers, etc. is summarized and experimental tracer techniques as well as CFD methods for dispersion coefficients evaluation are discussed. Possible extensions of thermal axial dispersion model (ADM) and a core-wall ADM model suitable for description of tracer dispersion in laminar flows are suggested as well as CFD implementation as 1D finite elements. (author)

  3. Hydrophilic and lipophilic radiopharmaceuticals as tracers in pharmaceutical development: In vitro – In vivo studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terán, Mariella; Savio, Eduardo; Paolino, Andrea; Frier, Malcolm

    2005-01-01

    Scintigraphic studies have been performed to assess the release, both in vitro and in vivo, of radiotracers from tablet formulations. Four different tracers with differing physicochemical characteristics have been evaluated to assess their suitability as models for drug delivery. In-vitro disintegration and dissolution studies have been performed at pH 1, 4 and 7. In-vivo studies have been performed by scintigraphic imaging in healthy volunteers. Two hydrophilic tracers, ( 99m Tc-DTPA) and ( 99m Tc-MDP), and two lipophilic tracers, ( 99m Tc-ECD) and ( 99m Tc-MIBI), were used as drug models. Dissolution and disintegration profiles, differed depending on the drug model chosen. In vitro dissolution velocity constants indicated a probable retention of the radiotracer in the formulation. In vivo disintegration velocity constants showed important variability for each radiopharmaceutical. Pearson statistical test showed no correlation between in vitro drug release, and in vivo behaviour, for 99m Tc-DTPA, 99m Tc-ECD and 99m Tc-MIBI. High correlation coefficients were found for 99m Tc-MDP not only for in vitro dissolution and disintegration studies but also for in vivo scintigraphic studies. Scintigraphic studies have made a significant contribution to the development of drug delivery systems. It is essential, however, to choose the appropriate radiotracers as models of drug behaviour. This study has demonstrated significant differences in release patterns, depending on the model chosen. It is likely that each formulation would require the development of a specific model, rather than being able to use a generic drug model on the basis of its physicochemical characteristics

  4. Halon-1301, a new Groundwater Age Tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Monique; van der Raaij, Rob; Morgenstern, Uwe; Jackson, Bethanna

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater dating is an important tool to assess groundwater resources in regards to direction and time scale of groundwater flow and recharge and to assess contamination risks and manage remediation. To infer groundwater age information, a combination of different environmental tracers, such as tritium and SF6, are commonly used. However ambiguous age interpretations are often faced, due to a limited set of available tracers and limitations of each tracer method when applied alone. There is a need for additional, complementary groundwater age tracers. We recently discovered that Halon-1301, a water soluble and entirely anthropogenic gaseous substance, may be a promising candidate [Beyer et al, 2014]. Halon-1301 can be determined along with SF6, SF5CF3 and CFC-12 in groundwater using a gas chromatography setup with attached electron capture detector developed by Busenberg and Plummer [2008]. Halon-1301 has not been assessed in groundwater. This study assesses the behaviour of Halon-1301 in water and its suitability as a groundwater age tracer. We determined Halon-1301 in 17 groundwater and various modern (river) waters sites located in 3 different groundwater systems in the Wellington Region, New Zealand. These waters have been previously dated with tritium, CFC-12, CFC-11 and SF6 with mean residence times ranging from 0.5 to over 100 years. The waters range from oxic to anoxic and some show evidence of CFC contamination or degradation. This allows us to assess the different properties affecting the suitability of Halon-1301 as groundwater age tracer, such as its conservativeness in water and local contamination potential. The samples are analysed for Halon-1301 and SF6simultaneously, which allows identification of issues commonly faced when using gaseous tracers such as contamination with modern air during sampling. Overall we found in the assessed groundwater samples Halon-1301 is a feasible new groundwater tracer. No sample indicated significantly elevated

  5. Systems approach to tracer data in groundwater hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    A brief review of current mathematical methods for the analysis of tracer data in groundwater hydrology has been given. The description of the hydrological cycle as a whole or in part, by a system (compartment) or sub-system under linear and stationary conditions is discussed. Basic concepts of transit time, residence time, their distributions in time and response characteristics of a system are outlined. From the knowledge of tracer input, output and systems response function for a generalised system, reservoir capacity and storage for given period can be estimated. Use of a time series model for environmental tracer data in discreet time scale aimed at the solution of hydrological problems e.g. mean transit time and reservoir capacity is also explored. It is concluded that the combination of tracer data with systems approach can go a long way in the study of some complex hydrological problems. (author)

  6. The contribution of tracers in understanding transportation processes in indurated argillaceous formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savoye, Sebastien

    2008-01-01

    In a first part, the author recalls briefly the properties of the two argillaceous formations studied in this HDR report: the Toarcian/Domerian argillite and the Opalinus clay of Mont Terri. At first, have been described the two undamaged argillite materials and then the damaged Tournemire argillite. The second part gives the results obtained from the researches on the undamaged rock with natural tracers and with approaches using artificial tracers. The third part deals with the study of the damaged rock in separating natural perturbations of those of anthropogenic origin. At last, the conclusion gives the guiding thema of this research work and the main long-term future prospects that may result. (O.M.)

  7. On-line measurements of liquid carry-over from scrubbers using radioactive tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugan, A; Hassfjell, S [Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller (Norway); Finborud, A [Mator, Porsgrunn (Norway)

    2004-07-01

    A method to measure liquid carry-over from scrubbers using gamma-emitting tracers is described and results from field tests at two onshore installations are presented. One water/1,2-ethanediol (MEG) and two hydrocarbon liquid (condensate) tracers have been used in the tests. One of the condensate tracers deposited to some extent inside the process pipe, while the other had a too high vapor pressure. The water/MEG tracer showed no MEG carry-over while the carry-over of MEG was documented to be considerable. (author)

  8. On-line measurements of liquid carry-over from scrubbers using radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugan, A.; Hassfjell, S.; Finborud, A.

    2004-01-01

    A method to measure liquid carry-over from scrubbers using gamma-emitting tracers is described and results from field tests at two onshore installations are presented. One water/1,2-ethanediol (MEG) and two hydrocarbon liquid (condensate) tracers have been used in the tests. One of the condensate tracers deposited to some extent inside the process pipe, while the other had a too high vapor pressure. The water/MEG tracer showed no MEG carry-over while the carry-over of MEG was documented to be considerable. (author)

  9. Application of separable parameter space techniques to multi-tracer PET compartment modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jeff L; Michael Morey, A; Kadrmas, Dan J

    2016-01-01

    Multi-tracer positron emission tomography (PET) can image two or more tracers in a single scan, characterizing multiple aspects of biological functions to provide new insights into many diseases. The technique uses dynamic imaging, resulting in time-activity curves that contain contributions from each tracer present. The process of separating and recovering separate images and/or imaging measures for each tracer requires the application of kinetic constraints, which are most commonly applied by fitting parallel compartment models for all tracers. Such multi-tracer compartment modeling presents challenging nonlinear fits in multiple dimensions. This work extends separable parameter space kinetic modeling techniques, previously developed for fitting single-tracer compartment models, to fitting multi-tracer compartment models. The multi-tracer compartment model solution equations were reformulated to maximally separate the linear and nonlinear aspects of the fitting problem, and separable least-squares techniques were applied to effectively reduce the dimensionality of the nonlinear fit. The benefits of the approach are then explored through a number of illustrative examples, including characterization of separable parameter space multi-tracer objective functions and demonstration of exhaustive search fits which guarantee the true global minimum to within arbitrary search precision. Iterative gradient-descent algorithms using Levenberg–Marquardt were also tested, demonstrating improved fitting speed and robustness as compared to corresponding fits using conventional model formulations. The proposed technique overcomes many of the challenges in fitting simultaneous multi-tracer PET compartment models. (paper)

  10. Analysis of infiltration through mill tailings using a bromide tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, G.J.; Stephens, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    Infiltration of precipitation into tailings impoundments as a means of recharge to underlying materials is often considered insignificant, particularly in arid and semi-arid environments. A series of experiments was performed to investigate the behavior of infiltrated precipitation into tailing soils, by the use of a bromide tracer. A bromide tracer was applied to the surface of columns driven into the tailings to monitor downward advancement of tracer-laden water. Controlled laboratory experiments on the behavior of the bromide tracer under varying precipitation events and initial soil moisture contents were also conducted. Results indicate that a definite downward migration of infiltrated precipitation occurs, particularly with large magnitude precipitation events, and that, eventually, some fraction of the infiltrated precipitation may continue downward below the zone affected by evaporation. The use of an artificially applied bromide tracer to monitor depth of infiltration of precipitation is a simple, safe technique that can provide valuable information for long-term tailings management strategies at low cost

  11. Compartmental Modeling and Dosimetry of in Vivo Metabolic Studies of Leucine and Three Secretory Proteins in Humans Using Radioactive Tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatakrishnan, Vaidehi

    1995-01-01

    Physical and mathematical models provide a systematic means of looking at biological systems. Radioactive tracer kinetic studies open a unique window to study complex tracee systems such as protein metabolism in humans. This research deals with compartmental modeling of tracer kinetic data on leucine and apolipoprotein metabolism obtained using an endogenous tritiated leucine tracer administered as a bolus, and application of compartmental modeling techniques for dosimetric evaluation of metabolic studies of radioiodinated apolipoproteins. Dr. Waldo R. Fisher, Department of Medicine, was the coordinating research supervisor and the work was carried out in his laboratory. A compartmental model for leucine kinetics in humans has been developed that emphasizes its recycling pathways which were examined over two weeks. This model builds on a previously published model of Cobelli et al, that analyzed leucine kinetic data up to only eight hours. The proposed model includes different routes for re-entry of leucine from protein breakdown into plasma accounting for proteins which turn over at different rates. This new model successfully incorporates published models of three secretory proteins: albumin, apoA-I, and VLDL apoB, in toto thus increasing its validity and utility. The published model of apoA-I, based on an exogenous radioiodinated tracer, was examined with data obtained using an endogenous leucine tracer using compartmental techniques. The analysis concludes that the major portion of apoA-I enters plasma by a fast pathway but the major fraction of apoA-I in plasma resides with a second slow pathway; further the study is suggestive of a precursor-product relationship between the two plasma apoA-I pools. The possible relevance of the latter suggestion to the aberrant kinetics of apoA-I in Tangier disease is discussed. The analysis of apoA-II data resulted in similar conclusions. A methodology for evaluating the dosimetry of radioiodinated apolipoproteins by

  12. Tracer techniques in microelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flachowsky, J.; Freyer, K.

    1981-01-01

    Tracer technique and neutron activation analysis are capable of measuring impurities in semiconductor material or on the semiconductor surface in a very low concentration range. The methods, combined with autoradiography, are also suitable to determine dopant distributions in silicon. However, both techniques suffer from certain inherent experimental difficulties and/or limitations which are discussed. Methods of tracer technique practicable in the semiconductor field are described. (author)

  13. An injected gamma-tracer method for soil-moisture movement investigations in arid zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, A.R.; Navada, S.V.; Rao, S.M.

    1980-01-01

    A method for the in-situ determination of soil-moisture transport rates using K 3 60 Co(CN) 6 is discussed. The tracer compares well with tritiated water in laboratory investigations and the results obtained in limited field studies are very encouraging. The method promises to be of specific interest in arid-zone investigations where the soil-moisture fluxes in liquid and vapour phases could cause complications for tritium tracer data interpretation. (author)

  14. Numerical Simulation of a Tracer Experiment at the Wolsong Nuclear Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hyojoon; Kim, Eunhan; Park, Misun; Jeong, Haesun; Hwang, Wontae; Han, Moonhee

    2014-01-01

    By comparing the concentration of a tracer measured under weather conditions that are disadvantageous to the dilution of radioactive materials released from the Wolsong Nuclear Power Plant, with the concentration of a tracer calculated using an air Dispersion model, it is possible to evaluate the characteristics of the air concentrations of radioactive materials estimated with an air Dispersion model, which can then be used in an environmental impact analysis of radioactive materials. Therefore, a field Dispersion experiment has been carried out to figure out the behavioral characteristics of the tracer under weather conditions that are disadvantageous to the dilution of radioactive materials released from the Wolsong Nuclear Power Plant site in Korea. In addition, through a comparison of the tracer concentrations estimated by the Gaussian plume model with measurements, this study checked the degree of conservative estimation for the Gaussian plume at the Wolsong nuclear site in Korea. A tracer Dispersion experiment using an SF 6 trace was implemented to determine the Dispersion characteristics of radioactive materials at the Wolsong Nuclear Power Plant site in Korea. Based on meteorological data and the emission rate of the tracers, this study estimated the tracer concentrations using a Gaussian plume model, and then compared it with the measurement to check the conservative estimation of the Gaussian plume model. The measured concentrations of the tracer tends to be lower than the concentrations estimated by the Gaussian plume model overall

  15. Sensitivity analysis of tracer transport in variably saturated soils at USDA-ARS OPE3 field site

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of uncertainties in hydrologic and geochemical parameters on the results of simulations of the tracer transport in variably saturated soils at the USDA-ARS OPE3 field site. A tracer experiment with a pulse of KCL solution applied to an irrigatio...

  16. A comparison of measurements and calculations for the Stripa tracer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgkinson, D.P.; Copper, N.S.

    1992-03-01

    This paper presents a comparison of measurements and predictions for migration of tracers from boreholes to the validation drift and to other boreholes in the Site Characterisation and Validation (SCV) block. The comparison was carried out on behalf of the Stripa task force on fracture flow modelling. The paper summarises the radar/saline tracer experiments, the tracer migration experiment observations and reviews the fracture flow and tracer transport modelling approaches and predictions made by AEA Technology, Fracflow Consultants, Golder Associates and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The predictions are compared with the observed breakthrough curves on the basis of the validation process and criteria defined by the task force. The results of all four modelling groups met the validation criteria, with the predictions of the tracer breakthrough concentrations and times being within an order of magnitude of the observations. Also the AEA and Golder approaches allow the spatial distribution of tracer breakthrough into the validation drift to be predicted and these predictions also showed reasonable accuracy. The successful completion of this project demonstrates the feasibility of discrete fracture flow and tracer transport modelling. (36 refs.) (au)

  17. STRATEGIES FOR QUANTIFYING PET IMAGING DATA FROM TRACER STUDIES OF BRAIN RECEPTORS AND ENZYMES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, J.

    2001-04-02

    A description of some of the methods used in neuroreceptor imaging to distinguish changes in receptor availability has been presented in this chapter. It is necessary to look beyond regional uptake of the tracer since uptake generally is affected by factors other than the number of receptors for which the tracer has affinity. An exception is the infusion method producing an equilibrium state. The techniques vary in complexity some requiring arterial blood measurements of unmetabolized tracer and multiple time uptake data. Others require only a few plasma and uptake measurements and those based on a reference region require no plasma measurements. We have outlined some of the limitations of the different methods. Laruelle (1999) has pointed out that test/retest studies to which various methods can be applied are crucial in determining the optimal method for a particular study. The choice of method will also depend upon the application. In a clinical setting, methods not involving arterial blood sampling are generally preferred. In the future techniques for externally measuring arterial plasma radioactivity with only a few blood samples for metabolite correction will extend the modeling options of clinical PET. Also since parametric images can provide information beyond that of ROI analysis, improved techniques for generating such images will be important, particularly for ligands requiring more than a one-compartment model. Techniques such as the wavelet transform proposed by Turkheimer et al. (2000) may prove to be important in reducing noise and improving quantitation.

  18. A novel fluorescent retrograde neural tracer: cholera toxin B conjugated carbon dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Hao, Zeyu; Zhao, Xiaohuan; Maharjan, Suraj; Zhu, Shoujun; Song, Yubin; Yang, Bai; Lu, Laijin

    2015-09-01

    The retrograde neuroanatomical tracing method is a key technique to study the complex interconnections of the nervous system. Traditional tracers have several drawbacks, including time-consuming immunohistochemical or immunofluorescent staining procedures, rapid fluorescence quenching and low fluorescence intensity. Carbon dots (CDs) have been widely used as a fluorescent bio-probe due to their ultrasmall size, excellent optical properties, chemical stability, biocompatibility and low toxicity. Herein, we develop a novel fluorescent neural tracer: cholera toxin B-carbon dot conjugates (CTB-CDs). It can be taken up and retrogradely transported by neurons in the peripheral nervous system of rats. Our results show that CTB-CDs possess high photoluminescence intensity, good optical stability, a long shelf-life and non-toxicity. Tracing with CTB-CDs is a direct and more economical way of performing retrograde labelling experiments. Therefore, CTB-CDs are reliable fluorescent retrograde tracers.The retrograde neuroanatomical tracing method is a key technique to study the complex interconnections of the nervous system. Traditional tracers have several drawbacks, including time-consuming immunohistochemical or immunofluorescent staining procedures, rapid fluorescence quenching and low fluorescence intensity. Carbon dots (CDs) have been widely used as a fluorescent bio-probe due to their ultrasmall size, excellent optical properties, chemical stability, biocompatibility and low toxicity. Herein, we develop a novel fluorescent neural tracer: cholera toxin B-carbon dot conjugates (CTB-CDs). It can be taken up and retrogradely transported by neurons in the peripheral nervous system of rats. Our results show that CTB-CDs possess high photoluminescence intensity, good optical stability, a long shelf-life and non-toxicity. Tracing with CTB-CDs is a direct and more economical way of performing retrograde labelling experiments. Therefore, CTB-CDs are reliable fluorescent retrograde

  19. Development and characterization of food-grade tracers for the global grain tracing and recall system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Min; Armstrong, Paul R; Thomasson, J Alex; Sui, Ruixiu; Casada, Mark; Herrman, Timothy J

    2010-10-27

    Tracing grain from the farm to its final processing destination as it moves through multiple grain-handling systems, storage bins, and bulk carriers presents numerous challenges to existing record-keeping systems. This study examines the suitability of coded caplets to trace grain, in particular, to evaluate methodology to test tracers' ability to withstand the rigors of a commercial grain handling and storage systems as defined by physical properties using measurement technology commonly applied to assess grain hardness and end-use properties. Three types of tracers to dispense into bulk grains for tracing the grain back to its field of origin were developed using three food-grade substances [processed sugar, pregelatinized starch, and silicified microcrystalline cellulose (SMCC)] as a major component in formulations. Due to a different functionality of formulations, the manufacturing process conditions varied for each tracer type, resulting in unique variations in surface roughness, weight, dimensions, and physical and spectroscopic properties before and after coating. The applied two types of coating [pregelatinized starch and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC)] using an aqueous coating system containing appropriate plasticizers showed uniform coverage and clear coating. Coating appeared to act as a barrier against moisture penetration, to protect against mechanical damage of the surface of the tracers, and to improve the mechanical strength of tracers. The results of analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests showed the type of tracer, coating material, conditioning time, and a theoretical weight gain significantly influenced the morphological and physical properties of tracers. Optimization of these factors needs to be pursued to produce desirable tracers with consistent quality and performance when they flow with bulk grains throughout the grain marketing channels.

  20. Ambiguity in measuring matrix diffusion with single-well injection/recovery tracer tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessoff, S.C.; Konikow, Leonard F.

    1997-01-01

    Single-well injection/recovery tracer tests are considered for use in characterizing and quantifying matrix diffusion in dual-porosity aquifers. Numerical modeling indicates that neither regional drift in homogeneous aquifers, nor heterogeneity in aquifers having no regional drift, nor hydrodynamic dispersion significantly affects these tests. However, when drift is coupled simultaneously with heterogeneity, they can have significant confounding effects on tracer return. This synergistic effect of drift and heterogeneity may help explain irreversible flow and inconsistent results sometimes encountered in previous single-well injection/recovery tracer tests. Numerical results indicate that in a hypothetical single-well injection/recovery tracer test designed to demonstrate and measure dual-porosity characteristics in a fractured dolomite, the simultaneous effects of drift and heterogeneity sometimes yields responses similar to those anticipated in a homogeneous dual-porosity formation. In these cases, tracer recovery could provide a false indication of the occurrence of matrix diffusion. Shortening the shut-in period between injection and recovery periods may make the test less sensitive to drift. Using multiple tracers having different diffusion characteristics, multiple tests having different pumping schedules, and testing the formation at more than one location would decrease the ambiguity in the interpretation of test data.

  1. Uptake and transport of positron-emitting tracer (18F) in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Shimazu, Masamitsu

    1997-01-01

    The transport of a positron-emitting isotope introduced into a plant was dynamically followed by a special observation apparatus called Positron-Emitting Tracer Imaging System' to observe the damage and recovery functions of plants in vivo. In the system, annihilation γ-rays from the positron emitter are detected with two planar detectors (5 x 6 cm 2 ). The water containing ca. 5 MBq/ml of 18 F was fed to the cut stem of soybean for 2 min and then the images of tracer activity were recorded for 30-50 min. When the midrib of a leaf near the petiole was cut just before measurement, the activity in the injured leaf was decreased but detected even at the apex. This result suggests that the damaged leaf recovered the uptake of water through the lamina. Maximum tracer activities in leaves of unirradiated plant were observed within 10 min, whereas those of irradiated plant at 100 Gy were observed after over 25 min. The final activity of irradiated plant after 30 min was lower than that of unirradiated plant. In case of beans, there was a difference in the absorption behavior of the 18 F-labeled water between unirradiated and irradiated samples. These results show that the system is effective to observe the uptake and transportation of water containing positron emitting tracer for the study of damage and recovery functions of plants. (Author)

  2. A comparative modeling study of a dual tracer experiment in a large lysimeter under atmospheric conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpp, C.; Nützmann, G.; Maciejewski, S.; Maloszewski, P.

    2009-09-01

    SummaryIn this paper, five model approaches with different physical and mathematical concepts varying in their model complexity and requirements were applied to identify the transport processes in the unsaturated zone. The applicability of these model approaches were compared and evaluated investigating two tracer breakthrough curves (bromide, deuterium) in a cropped, free-draining lysimeter experiment under natural atmospheric boundary conditions. The data set consisted of time series of water balance, depth resolved water contents, pressure heads and resident concentrations measured during 800 days. The tracer transport parameters were determined using a simple stochastic (stream tube model), three lumped parameter (constant water content model, multi-flow dispersion model, variable flow dispersion model) and a transient model approach. All of them were able to fit the tracer breakthrough curves. The identified transport parameters of each model approach were compared. Despite the differing physical and mathematical concepts the resulting parameters (mean water contents, mean water flux, dispersivities) of the five model approaches were all in the same range. The results indicate that the flow processes are also describable assuming steady state conditions. Homogeneous matrix flow is dominant and a small pore volume with enhanced flow velocities near saturation was identified with variable saturation flow and transport approach. The multi-flow dispersion model also identified preferential flow and additionally suggested a third less mobile flow component. Due to high fitting accuracy and parameter similarity all model approaches indicated reliable results.

  3. Nanoparticle tracers in calcium carbonate porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yan Vivian

    2014-07-15

    Tracers are perhaps the most direct way of diagnosing subsurface fluid flow pathways for ground water decontamination and for natural gas and oil production. Nanoparticle tracers could be particularly effective because they do not diffuse away from the fractures or channels where flow occurs and thus take much less time to travel between two points. In combination with a chemical tracer they can measure the degree of flow concentration. A prerequisite for tracer applications is that the particles are not retained in the porous media as the result of aggregation or sticking to mineral surfaces. By screening eight nanoparticles (3-100 nm in diameter) for retention when passed through calcium carbonate packed laboratory columns in artificial oil field brine solutions of variable ionic strength we show that the nanoparticles with the least retention are 3 nm in diameter, nearly uncharged, and decorated with highly hydrophilic polymeric ligands. The details of these column experiments and the tri-modal distribution of zeta potential of the calcite sand particles in the brine used in our tests suggests that parts of the calcite surface have positive zeta potential and the retention of negatively charged nanoparticles occurs at these sites. Only neutral nanoparticles are immune to at least some retention. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media.

  4. Mapping fracture flow paths with a nanoscale zero-valent iron tracer test and a flowmeter test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Po-Yu; Chia, Yeeping; Chiu, Yung-Chia; Teng, Mao-Hua; Liou, Sofia Ya Hsuan

    2018-02-01

    The detection of preferential flow paths and the characterization of their hydraulic properties are important for the development of hydrogeological conceptual models in fractured-rock aquifers. In this study, nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles were used as tracers to characterize fracture connectivity between two boreholes in fractured rock. A magnet array was installed vertically in the observation well to attract arriving nZVI particles and identify the location of the incoming tracer. Heat-pulse flowmeter tests were conducted to delineate the permeable fractures in the two wells for the design of the tracer test. The nZVI slurry was released in the screened injection well. The arrival of the slurry in the observation well was detected by an increase in electrical conductivity, while the depth of the connected fracture was identified by the distribution of nZVI particles attracted to the magnet array. The position where the maximum weight of attracted nZVI particles was observed coincides with the depth of a permeable fracture zone delineated by the heat-pulse flowmeter. In addition, a saline tracer test produced comparable results with the nZVI tracer test. Numerical simulation was performed using MODFLOW with MT3DMS to estimate the hydraulic properties of the connected fracture zones between the two wells. The study results indicate that the nZVI particle could be a promising tracer for the characterization of flow paths in fractured rock.

  5. Partitioning and interfacial tracers for differentiating NAPL entrapment configuration: column-scale investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, D; Barranco, F T; Illangasekare, T H

    2001-12-15

    Research on the use of partitioning and interfacial tracers has led to the development of techniques for estimating subsurface NAPL amount and NAPL-water interfacial area. Although these techniques have been utilized with some success at field sites, current application is limited largely to NAPL at residual saturation, such as for the case of post-remediation settings where mobile NAPL has been removed through product recovery. The goal of this study was to fundamentally evaluate partitioning and interfacial tracer behavior in controlled column-scale test cells for a range of entrapment configurations varying in NAPL saturation, with the results serving as a determinant of technique efficacy (and design protocol) for use with complexly distributed NAPLs, possibly at high saturation, in heterogeneous aquifers. Representative end members of the range of entrapment configurations observed under conditions of natural heterogeneity (an occurrence with residual NAPL saturation [discontinuous blobs] and an occurrence with high NAPL saturation [continuous free-phase LNAPL lens]) were evaluated. Study results indicated accurate prediction (using measured tracer retardation and equilibrium-based computational techniques) of NAPL amount and NAPL-water interfacial area for the case of residual NAPL saturation. For the high-saturation LNAPL lens, results indicated that NAPL-water interfacial area, but not NAPL amount (underpredicted by 35%), can be reasonably determined using conventional computation techniques. Underprediction of NAPL amount lead to an erroneous prediction of NAPL distribution, as indicated by the NAPL morphology index. In light of these results, careful consideration should be given to technique design and critical assumptions before applying equilibrium-based partitioning tracer methodology to settings where NAPLs are complexly entrapped, such as in naturally heterogeneous subsurface formations.

  6. The use of synthetic colloids in tracer transport experiments in saturated rock fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimus, P.W.

    1995-08-01

    Studies of groundwater flow and contaminant transport in saturated, fractured geologic media are of great interest to researchers studying the potential long-term storage of hazardous wastes in or near such media. A popular technique for conducting such studies is to introduce tracers having different chemical and physical properties into a system and then observe the tracers at one or more downstream locations, inferring flow and transport mechanisms from the breakthrough characteristics of the different tracers. Many tracer studies have been conducted in saturated, fractured media to help develop and/or refine models capable of predicting contaminant transport over large scales in such media

  7. The fluorescent tracer experiment on Holiday Beach near Mugu Canyon, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsman, Nicole; Xu, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    After revisiting sand tracer techniques originally developed in the 1960s, a range of fluorescent coating formulations were tested in the laboratory. Explicit steps are presented for the preparation of the formulation evaluated to have superior attributes, a thermoplastic pigment/dye in a colloidal mixture with a vinyl chloride/vinyl acetate copolymer. In September 2010, 0.59 cubic meters of fluorescent tracer material was injected into the littoral zone about 4 kilometers upcoast of Mugu submarine canyon in California. The movement of tracer was monitored in three dimensions over the course of 4 days using manual and automated techniques. Detailed observations of the tracer's behavior in the coastal zone indicate that this tracer successfully mimicked the native beach sand and similar methods could be used to validate models of tracer movement in this type of environment. Recommendations including how to time successful tracer studies and how to scale the field of view of automated camera systems are presented along with the advantages and disadvantages of the described tracer methodology.

  8. Tracer gas dispersion in ducts-study of a new compact device using arrays of sonic micro jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.R. [Instituto Nacional de Engenharia e Tecnologia Industrial (INETI), Lisboa (Portugal); Afonso, C.F. [Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto Departmento de Mecanica e Gestao Industrial, Porto (Portugal)

    2004-07-01

    One of the most feasible ways to measure duct airflows is by tracer gas techniques, especially for complex situations when the duct lengths are short as well as their access, which makes extremely difficult or impossible other methods to be implemented. One problem associated with the implementation of tracer gas technique when the ducts lengths are short is due to the impossibility of achieving complete mixing of the tracer with airflow and its sampling. In this work, the development of a new device for the injection of tracer gas in ducts is discussed as well as a new tracer-sampling device. The developed injection device has a compact tubular shape, with magnetic fixation to be easy to apply in duct walls. An array of sonic micro jets in counter current direction, with the possibility of angular movement according to its main axle ensures a complete mixing of the tracer in very short distances. The tracer-sampling device, with a very effective integration function, feeds the sampling system for analysis. Both devices were tested in a wind tunnel of approximately 21 m total length. The tests distances between injection and integration device considered were: X/Dh = 22; X/Dh = 4; X/Dh 2; and X/Dh = 1. For very short distances of X/Dh = 2 and X/Dh = 1, semi-empirical expressions were needed. A good reproducibility of airflow rate values was obtained. These preliminary tests showed that the practical implementation of tracer gas techniques in HVAC systems for measuring airflow rates with a very short mixing distance is possible with the devices developed. (author)

  9. Tracer methodology: an appropriate tool for assessing compliance with accreditation standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Chantal; Jean, Olivier

    2017-10-01

    Tracer methodology has been used by Accreditation Canada since 2008 to collect evidence on the quality and safety of care and services, and to assess compliance with accreditation standards. Given the importance of this methodology in the accreditation program, the objective of this study is to assess the quality of the methodology and identify its strengths and weaknesses. A mixed quantitative and qualitative approach was adopted to evaluate consistency, appropriateness, effectiveness and stakeholder synergy in applying the methodology. An online questionnaire was sent to 468 Accreditation Canada surveyors. According to surveyors' perceptions, tracer methodology is an effective tool for collecting useful, credible and reliable information to assess compliance with Qmentum program standards and priority processes. The results show good coherence between methodology components (appropriateness of the priority processes evaluated, activities to evaluate a tracer, etc.). The main weaknesses are the time constraints faced by surveyors and management's lack of cooperation during the evaluation of tracers. The inadequate amount of time allowed for the methodology to be applied properly raises questions about the quality of the information obtained. This study paves the way for a future, more in-depth exploration of the identified weaknesses to help the accreditation organization make more targeted improvements to the methodology. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Atmospheric Gas Tracers in Groundwater: Theory, Sampling. Measurement and Interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayari, C.S.

    2002-01-01

    Some of the atmospheric gasses posses features that are sought in an environmental tracer of hydrogeologic interest. Among these, chlorofluorocarbons, sulfur hegzafluoride, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform, krypton-85 etc. have found increasing use in groundwater age dating studies during the last ten years. This paper explains the theory of their use as tracer and discusses the major concerns as related to their sampling and analyses. Factors affecting their applicability and the approach to interpret tracer gas data is briefly outlined

  11. Calibration of the 46Sc sand tracer detector and it's application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhangsu; Du Xiaoyun

    1993-01-01

    The authors describe the process and result for the calibration of radioactive 46 Sc detector in details. The calibration was carried out under the hydrological conditions similar to the field test. The relation between the intensity of the scattered γ-rays and the various water depths was studied by using a 46 Sc plane source. The purpose of calibration of the detector with the plane source is to determine both the detector sensitivity factor and the γ-ray absorption coefficient for san/water mixture in order to calculate the thickness of the mobile water layer by means of the count rate balance method. The relation curve between the various thicknesses of the mobile layers and count rates was studied in detailed in details by using a slab source and the uniformly mixed layers with 46 Sc glass. The curve is used as the calibration curve for determining the recovery of tracking radioactive tracer in situ. The recovery of tracer shows whether the field tracer data can be used to calculate the transport sediment rate or the in fill rate of sediment

  12. Dynamics and mechanics of bed-load tracer particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. B. Phillips

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanics of bed load at the flood scale is necessary to link hydrology to landscape evolution. Here we report on observations of the transport of coarse sediment tracer particles in a cobble-bedded alluvial river and a step-pool bedrock tributary, at the individual flood and multi-annual timescales. Tracer particle data for each survey are composed of measured displacement lengths for individual particles, and the number of tagged particles mobilized. For single floods we find that measured tracer particle displacement lengths are exponentially distributed; the number of mobile particles increases linearly with peak flood Shields stress, indicating partial bed load transport for all observed floods; and modal displacement distances scale linearly with excess shear velocity. These findings provide quantitative field support for a recently proposed modeling framework based on momentum conservation at the grain scale. Tracer displacement is weakly negatively correlated with particle size at the individual flood scale; however cumulative travel distance begins to show a stronger inverse relation to grain size when measured over many transport events. The observed spatial sorting of tracers approaches that of the river bed, and is consistent with size-selective deposition models and laboratory experiments. Tracer displacement data for the bedrock and alluvial channels collapse onto a single curve – despite more than an order of magnitude difference in channel slope – when variations of critical Shields stress and flow resistance between the two are accounted for. Results show how bed load dynamics may be predicted from a record of river stage, providing a direct link between climate and sediment transport.

  13. Tracer sorption and macroscopic transport in clay nano-pores: a lattice-Boltzmann study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levesque, Maximilien; Rotenberg, Benjamin; Duvail, Magali; Benichou, Olivier; Voituriez, Raphael; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Frenkel, Daan

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The Agence Nationale pour la gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA) has been entrusted to find a safe solution for disposing of existing and future nuclear wastes. A prototype site has been considered for the waste disposal in a deep underground sedimentary geological formation. It is composed of clay minerals chosen, among other reasons, for their remarkable ability to limit radionuclide transport. Clay minerals are complex charged porous media characterized by heterogeneities at several length scales. They naturally occur as an assembly of few nano-meter-sized particles connected to form 10 to 100 nm interparticle pores containing water and ions. This intrinsically multi-scale structure, that gives the material its remarkable properties, makes the description of sorption and transport phenomena of transported ions particularly challenging. Experimental studies of water and ion transport through clays mostly consist in evaluating macroscopic effective transport coefficients like permeability or conductivity. They showed that the main transport mechanism is an effective diffusion that not only depends on particle charge but also on its chemical nature, or specificity. The goal of assessing the performance of clays as confinement barriers, particularly in the context of the geological disposal of nuclear waste, requires not only quantitative prediction of the retention and transport of species but also an understanding of the microscopic mechanisms underlying them. A successful approach has been to use numerical simulations via the Lattice-Boltzmann method (LB). It consists in making evolve populations describing the fluid at a level which is consistent with time and length-scales involved in transport properties, while still including a microscopic description of the phenomena. The transport of charged ions at the pore scale has recently been included in LB. In this method, the evolution of a tracer population is

  14. Tracer water transport and subgrid precipitation variation within atmospheric general circulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Randal D.; Eagleson, Peter S.; Broecker, Wallace S.

    1988-03-01

    A capability is developed for monitoring tracer water movement in the three-dimensional Goddard Institute for Space Science Atmospheric General Circulation Model (GCM). A typical experiment with the tracer water model follows water evaporating from selected grid squares and determines where this water first returns to the Earth's surface as precipitation or condensate, thereby providing information on the lateral scales of hydrological transport in the GCM. Through a comparison of model results with observations in nature, inferences can be drawn concerning real world water transport. Tests of the tracer water model include a comparison of simulated and observed vertically-integrated vapor flux fields and simulations of atomic tritium transport from the stratosphere to the oceans. The inter-annual variability of the tracer water model results is also examined.

  15. Tracer water transport and subgrid precipitation variation within atmospheric general circulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Randal D.; Eagleson, Peter S.; Broecker, Wallace S.

    1988-01-01

    A capability is developed for monitoring tracer water movement in the three-dimensional Goddard Institute for Space Science Atmospheric General Circulation Model (GCM). A typical experiment with the tracer water model follows water evaporating from selected grid squares and determines where this water first returns to the Earth's surface as precipitation or condensate, thereby providing information on the lateral scales of hydrological transport in the GCM. Through a comparison of model results with observations in nature, inferences can be drawn concerning real world water transport. Tests of the tracer water model include a comparison of simulated and observed vertically-integrated vapor flux fields and simulations of atomic tritium transport from the stratosphere to the oceans. The inter-annual variability of the tracer water model results is also examined.

  16. Dynamic study of an anaerobic reactor in pilot plant scale using radioactive tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, A.M.F.; Moreira, R.M.; Chernicharo, C.A.L.

    1995-01-01

    The use of flow traces is a common practice in hydrodynamic studies. However chemical tracers have some shortcomings, such as the need of sampling, analysis and possible interferences with the delicate biological processes taking place within the reactor. Thus a radiotracer, Br 82 has been chosen for this purpose. The advantages of this radioisotope are its energetic gamma emission which can be easily detected outside the reactor walls, its solubility and lack of adsorption, besides having a convenient half-life and being easily produced is small nuclear reactors. The tracer responses to instantaneous injections at the reactor entrance were used to determine the resistance time and the mixing patterns of the reactors. The normalized residence time distributions were fitted to mathematical models by a least-squares subroutine. The axial dispersion model and the tanks-in-series model have been used, thus allowing the determination of the dispersion coefficient and the Peclet Number. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  17. Using biofuel tracers to study alternative combustion regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, J.H.; Flowers, D.L.; Buchholz, B.A.; Dibble, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    Interest in the use of alternative fuels and engines is increasing as the price of petroleum climbs. The inherently higher efficiency of Diesel engines has led to increased adoption of Diesels in Europe, capturing approximately 40% of the new passenger car market. Unfortunately, lower CO 2 emissions are countered with higher nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and particulate matter (PM) emissions and higher noise. Adding oxygenated compounds to the fuel helps reduce PM emissions. However, relying on fuel alone to reduce PM is unrealistic due to economic constraints and difficult due to the emerging PM standards. Keeping peak combustion temperature below 1700 K inhibits NO x formation. Altering the combustion regime to burn at temperatures below the NO x threshold and accept a wide variety of fuels seems like a promising alternative for future engines. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a possible solution. Fuel and air are well mixed prior to intake into a cylinder (homogeneous charge) and ignition occurs by compression of the fuel-air mixture by the piston. HCCI is rapid and relatively cool, producing little NO x and PM. Unfortunately, it is hard to control since HCCI is initiated by temperature and pressure instead of a spark or direct fuel injection. We investigate biofuel HCCI combustion, and use intrinsically labeled biofuels as tracers of HCCI combustion. Data from tracer experiments are used to improve our combustion modeling

  18. Techniques necessary for multiple tracer quantitative small-animal imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, Terry L.; Dence, Carmen S.; Engelbach, John A.; Herrero, Pilar; Gropler, Robert J.; Welch, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: An increasing number and variety of studies on rodent models are being conducted using small-animal positron emission tomography scanners. We aimed to determine if animal handling techniques could be developed to perform routine animal imaging in a timely and efficient manner and with minimal effect on animal physiology. These techniques need to be reproducible in the same animal while maintaining hemodynamic and physiological stability. Methods: The necessary techniques include (a) the use of inhalant anesthesia, (b) arterial and venous cannulation for multiple tracer administrations and blood sampling, (c) development of small-volume analytic columns and techniques and (d) measurement of the physiological environment during the imaging session. Results: We provide an example of a cardiac imaging study using four radiotracers ( 15 O-water, 1-[ 11 C]-acetate, 1-[ 11 C]-palmitate and 1-[ 11 C]-glucose) injected into normal rats. Plasma substrates, CO 2 production and total metabolites were measured. The animals remained anesthetized over the entire imaging session, and their physiological state was maintained. Conclusion: The intrastudy stability of the physiological measurements and substrate levels and interstudy reproducibility of the measurements are reported

  19. 24-Hour protein, arginine and citrulline metabolism in fed critically ill children – a stable isotope tracer study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Betue, Carlijn T.I.; Garcia Casal, Xiomara C.; van Waardenburg, Dick A.; Schexnayder, Stephen M.; Joosten, Koen F.M.; Deutz, Nicolaas E.P.; Engelen, Marielle P.K.J.

    2017-01-01

    Background & aims The reference method to study protein and arginine metabolism in critically ill children is measuring plasma amino acid appearances with stable isotopes during a short (4–8h) time period and extrapolate results to 24-hour. However, 24-hour measurements may be variable due to critical illness related factors and a circadian rhythm could be present. Since only short duration stable isotope studies in critically ill children have been conducted before, the aim of this study was to investigate 24-hour appearance of specific amino acids representing protein and arginine metabolism, with stable isotope techniques in continuously fed critically ill children. Methods In eight critically ill children, admitted to the pediatric (n=4) or cardiovascular (n=4) intensive care unit, aged 0–10 years, receiving continuous (par)enteral nutrition with protein intake 1.0–3.7 g/kg/day, a 24-hour stable isotope tracer protocol was carried out. L-[ring-2H5]-phenylalanine, L-[3,3-2H2]-tyrosine, L-[5,5,5-2H3]-leucine, L-[guanido-15N2]-arginine and L-[5-13C-3,3,4,4-2H4]-citrulline were infused intravenously and L-[15N]-phenylalanine and L-[1-13C]leucine enterally. Arterial blood was sampled every hour. Results Coefficients of variation, representing intra-individual variability, of the amino acid appearances of phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, arginine and citrulline were high, on average 14–19% for intravenous tracers and 23–26% for enteral tracers. No evident circadian rhythm was present. The pattern and overall 24-hour level of whole body protein balance differed per individual. Conclusions In continuously fed stable critically ill children, the amino acid appearances of phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, arginine and citrulline show high variability. This should be kept in mind when performing stable isotope studies in this population. There was no apparent circadian rhythm. PMID:28089618

  20. Tracer Flux Balance at an Urban Canyon Intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentieri, Matteo; Robins, Alan G.

    2010-05-01

    Despite their importance for pollutant dispersion in urban areas, the special features of dispersion at street intersections are rarely taken into account by operational air quality models. Several previous studies have demonstrated the complex flow patterns that occur at street intersections, even with simple geometry. This study presents results from wind-tunnel experiments on a reduced scale model of a complex but realistic urban intersection, located in central London. Tracer concentration measurements were used to derive three-dimensional maps of the concentration field within the intersection. In combination with a previous study (Carpentieri et al., Boundary-Layer Meteorol 133:277-296, 2009) where the velocity field was measured in the same model, a methodology for the calculation of the mean tracer flux balance at the intersection was developed and applied. The calculation highlighted several limitations of current state-of-the-art canyon dispersion models, arising mainly from the complex geometry of the intersection. Despite its limitations, the proposed methodology could be further developed in order to derive, assess and implement street intersection dispersion models for complex urban areas.

  1. Diffusing passive tracers in random incompressible flows: Statistical topography aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klyatskin, V.I.; Woyczynski, W.A.; Gurarie, D.

    1996-01-01

    The paper studies statistical characteristics of the passive tracer concentrations and of its spatial gradient, in random incompressible velocity fields from the viewpoint of statistical topography. The statistics of interest include mean values, probability distributions, as well as various functionals characterizing topographic features of tracers. The functional approach is used. We consider the influence of the mean flow (the linear shear flow) and the molecular diffusion coefficient on the statistics of the tracer. Most of our analysis is carried out in the framework of the delta-correlated (in time) approximation and conditions for its applicability are established. But we also consider the diffusion approximation scheme for finite correlation radius. The latter is applied to a diffusing passive tracer that undergoes sedimentation in a random velocity field

  2. Stable isotope tracers and exercise physiology: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Daniel J; Brook, Matthew S; Smith, Kenneth; Atherton, Philip J

    2017-05-01

    Stable isotope tracers have been invaluable assets in physiological research for over 80 years. The application of substrate-specific stable isotope tracers has permitted exquisite insight into amino acid, fatty-acid and carbohydrate metabolic regulation (i.e. incorporation, flux, and oxidation, in a tissue-specific and whole-body fashion) in health, disease and response to acute and chronic exercise. Yet, despite many breakthroughs, there are limitations to 'substrate-specific' stable isotope tracers, which limit physiological insight, e.g. the need for intravenous infusions and restriction to short-term studies (hours) in controlled laboratory settings. In recent years significant interest has developed in alternative stable isotope tracer techniques that overcome these limitations, in particular deuterium oxide (D 2 O or heavy water). The unique properties of this tracer mean that through oral administration, the turnover and flux through a number of different substrates (muscle proteins, lipids, glucose, DNA (satellite cells)) can be monitored simultaneously and flexibly (hours/weeks/months) without the need for restrictive experimental control. This makes it uniquely suited for the study of 'real world' human exercise physiology (amongst many other applications). Moreover, using D 2 O permits evaluation of turnover of plasma and muscle proteins (e.g. dynamic proteomics) in addition to metabolomics (e.g. fluxomics) to seek molecular underpinnings, e.g. of exercise adaptation. Here, we provide insight into the role of stable isotope tracers, from substrate-specific to novel D 2 O approaches, in facilitating our understanding of metabolism. Further novel potential applications of stable isotope tracers are also discussed in the context of integration with the snowballing field of 'omic' technologies. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  3. Carbon-14 tracer studies in the metabolism of isolated rat-liver parenchymal cells under conditions of gluconeogenesis from lactate and pyruvate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muellhofer, G.; Mueller, C.; Stetten, C. von; Gruber, E.

    1977-01-01

    In rat liver perfusion experiments under conditions of gluconeogenesis from lactate and pyruvate, 14 C-labeling patterns of metabolites with (1- 14 C)-labeled and (2- 14 C)-labeled lactate or pyruvate. [ 14 C]bicarbonate and [1- 14 C]octanoate as tracers have been obtained which do not agree with generally assumed reaction schemes. The experiments have been repeated with incubations of isolated rat-liver parenchymal cells. The results demonstrate that the discrepancies between expected and analysed 14 C-labeling patterns of metabolites were still existent. From this observation, it may be concluded that 14 C-labelling patterns of metabolites are indicative for the existence of still unknown metabolic relationships in liver parenchymal cells. Furthermore, the results of our experiments prove that conclusions based on the exclusive analysis of metabolite levels are of limited value for studying intracellular events, because of uncharacterized compartmentations, which become evident in 14 C-tracer studies. It cannot be answered by our studies whether the apparent existence of differently labelled species of citrate, oxoglutarate, or acetyl-CoA represent intracellular compartmentation, or whether it is the result of metabolic heterogeneity of liver parenchym cells. (orig.) [de

  4. Predicted fate of tritium residuum from groundwater tracer experiments in the Amargosa Desert, southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brikowski, T.

    1993-07-01

    Analytic solutions are used in this study to evaluate potential groundwater transport of tritium used in goundwater tracer tests southwest of the Nevada Test Site. Possible transport from this site is of interest because initial radionuclide concentrations were high and the site is close to goundwater discharge points (12 km). Anecdotal evidence indicates that 90 percent of these tracers were removed by pumping at the completion of the tests; this study examines the probable transport of the tracers with and without the removal. Classical dispersive transport analytic solutions are used, treating the tracer test as a point slug injection. Input parameters for the solutions were measured at the site, and consideration of parameter uncertainty is incorporated in the results. With removal of the tracer, the maximum expected region with above-Safe Drinking Water Act (40 CFR 121) concentrations of tritium extends 5 km from the injection point, and does not reach any sites of public access. Detectable tritium from the tests is likely to have reached the Ash Meadows fault zone, but flow along the fault probably diluted the tracer to below detection limits before arrival at springs along the fault. Arrival at the springs would have occurred 20 to 25 years after the tests. Without removal of the tracer, the solutions indicate that tritium concentrations just above Safe Drinking Water Act standards would have reached the Ash Meadows fault zone. In this case, detectable tritium might have been found in Devil's Hole or Longstreet Spring, the nearest points of possible public exposure

  5. Inert tracer wind resuspension as a function of wind speed, atmospheric stability, and initial tracer particle size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.; Lloyd, F.D.

    1979-01-01

    Wind-caused resuspension rates are being determined in three different, long-term, inert-tracer field experiments. Chemical results were recently received from an accumulated backlog of air filter samples. Resuspension rates are yet to be calculated from these data

  6. Two anti-angiogenic TKI-PET tracers, [11C]axitinib and [11C]nintedanib: Radiosynthesis, in vivo metabolism and initial biodistribution studies in rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slobbe, Paul; Poot, Alex J.; Haumann, Rianne; Schuit, Robert C.; Windhorst, Albert D.; Dongen, Guus A.M.S. van

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are very attractive targeted drugs, although a large portion of patients remains unresponsive. PET imaging with EGFR targeting TKIs ([ 11 C]erlotinib and [ 18 F]afatinib) showed promise in identifying treatment sensitive tumors. The aim of this study was to synthesize two anti-angiogenic TKI tracers, [ 11 C]axitinib and [ 11 C]nintedanib, and to evaluate their potential for PET. Methods: Following successful tracer synthesis, biodistribution studies in VU-SCC-OE and FaDu xenograft bearing mice were performed. Furthermore, tracer stability studies in mice were performed employing (radio-)HPLC and LC–MS/MS techniques. For [ 11 C]nintedanib an LC–MS/MS method was developed to detect the primary carboxylic acid metabolite, resulting from methylester cleavage, in plasma and tumors, because this metabolite is postulated to be important for nintedanib efficacy. LC–MS/MS was also explored to assess the metabolic fate of [ 11 C]axitinib in vivo, since axitinib has an isomerizable double bond. Results: [ 11 C]axitinib and [ 11 C]nintedanib were successfully synthesized with 10.5 ± 2.6% and 25.6 ± 3.3% radiochemical yield (corrected for decay), respectively. Biodistribution studies only demonstrated tumor uptake of [ 11 C]nintedanib in FaDu xenografts of 1.66 ± 0.02% ID/g at 60 min p.i. In vivo stability analysis of [ 11 C]axitinib at 45 min p.i. revealed the formation of predominantly non-polar metabolites (36.6 ± 6.8% vs 47.1 ± 8.4% of parent tracer and 16.3 ± 2.1% of polar metabolites), while for [ 11 C]nintedanib mostly polar metabolites were found (70.9 ± 4.1 vs 26.7 ± 3.9% of parent tracer and only 2.4 ± 1.6 of a non-polar metabolites). No isomerization of [ 11 C]axtinib was observed in vivo; however, a sulfoxide metabolite could be detected using LC–MS/MS. For [ 11 C]nintedanib, LC–MS/MS revealed formation of the reported primary carboxylic acid metabolite when in vitro plasma incubations were performed

  7. Using Tracer Technology to Characterize Contaminated Pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maresca, Joseph, W., Jr., Ph.D.; Bratton, Wesley, L., Ph.D., P.E.; Dickerson, Wilhelmina; Hales, Rochelle

    2005-12-30

    The Pipeline Characterization Using Tracers (PCUT) technique uses conservative and partitioning, reactive or other interactive tracers to remotely determine the amount of contaminant within a run of piping or ductwork. The PCUT system was motivated by a method that has been successfully used to characterize subsurface soil contaminants and is similar in operation to that of a gas chromatography column. By injecting a ?slug? of both conservative and partitioning tracers at one end (or section) of the piping and measuring the time history of the concentration of the tracers at the other end (or another section) of the pipe, the presence, location, and amount of contaminant within the pipe or duct can be determined. The tracers are transported along the pipe or duct by a gas flow field, typically air or nitrogen, which has a velocity that is slow enough so that the partitioning tracer has time to interact with the contaminant before the tracer slug completely passes over the contaminate region. PCUT not only identifies the presence of contamination, it also can locate the contamination along the pipeline and quantify the amount of residual. PCUT can be used in support of deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of piping and ducts that may have been contaminated with hazardous chemicals such as chlorinated solvents, petroleum products, radioactive materials, or heavy metals, such as mercury.

  8. Case study: evaluation of the performance of water treatment units by the use of tracer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, C.; Maghella, G.; Mamani, E.

    2000-12-01

    Very often, water treatment systems do not reach the expected performance due to disturbances of hydraulic order, which cause malfunctioning in the flow through such systems. Tracer techniques have proved to be very useful to obtain information on the system or a part of it, by means of observation of the released tracer or observation of the released tracer during its progress into the system or at the output of the same. This paper is a report of the behavior of a set of both sand settlement unit and hydraulic flocculators in a potable water plant, through the analysis of radiotracers response curves or residence time distribution curves. The tracers released into the system consists in an aqueous solution of Iodine-131 with very low activity, in order to get a dynamic behave similar to the one of the fluid under investigation

  9. Tracer tests - possibilities and limitations. Experience from SKB fieldwork: 1977-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefgren, Martin; Crawford, James; Elert, Mark (Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (SE))

    2007-09-15

    Tracer tests have played, and still play, a central role in investigations relating to the understanding of radionuclide retention processes in the field. At present there is a debate within the scientific community concerning how, and to what extent, tracer tests can be used to evaluate large-scale and long-term transport and retardation of radionuclides and other solutes of interest for Safety Assessment of repositories for spent nuclear fuel. In this report the SKB fieldwork on tracer tests performed at Swedish sites from 1977 to 2007 is described and discussed. Furthermore, the knowledge and process understanding evolved during the decades of radionuclide transport experiments and modelling within the SKB programme is summarised. One of the main objectives of this report is to discuss what data and knowledge can be extracted from different in situ tests in a robust fashion. Given the level of complexity associated with transport processes that may occur over the timescale of a tracer test, the utility of tracer tests is considered in the context of evidence-based interpretations of data which we characterise in the form of a sequence of questions of increasing complexity. The complexity of this sequence ranges from whether connection can be confirmed between injection and withdrawal points to whether quantitative data can be extrapolated from a tracer test to be subsequently used in Safety Assessment. The main findings of this report are that: Field scale tracer tests can confirm flow connectivity. Field scale tracer tests confirm the existence of retention. Field scale tracer tests alone can only broadly substantiate our process understanding. However, if performing extensive Site Characterisation and integrating the tracer test results with the full range of geoscientific information available, much support can be given to our process understanding. Field scale tracer tests can deliver the product of the material property group MPG and the F-factor, valid

  10. The ATLAS DDM Tracer monitoring framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zang Dongsong; Garonne, Vincent; Barisits, Martin; Lassnig, Mario; Andrew Stewart, Graeme; Molfetas, Angelos; Beermann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The DDM Tracer monitoring framework is aimed to trace and monitor the ATLAS file operations on the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid. The volume of traces has increased significantly since the framework was put in production in 2009. Now there are about 5 million trace messages every day and peaks can be near 250Hz, with peak rates continuing to climb, which gives the current structure a big challenge. Analysis of large datasets based on on-demand queries to the relational database management system (RDBMS), i.e. Oracle, can be problematic, and have a significant effect on the database's performance. Consequently, We have investigated some new high availability technologies like messaging infrastructure, specifically ActiveMQ, and key-value stores. The advantages of key value store technology are that they are distributed and have high scalability; also their write performances are usually much better than RDBMS, all of which are very useful for the Tracer monitoring framework. Indexes and distributed counters have been also tested to improve query performance and provided almost real time results. In this paper, the design principles, architecture and main characteristics of Tracer monitoring framework will be described and examples of its usage will be presented.

  11. Development and evaluation of a tracer-injection hydrothermal technique for studies of waste package interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.E.; Coles, D.G.; Britton, R.C.; Burnell, J.R.

    1986-11-01

    A tracer-injection system has been developed for use in characterizing reactions of waste package materials under hydrothermal conditions. High-pressure liquid chromatographic instrumentation has been coupled with Dickson-type rocking autoclaves to allow injection of selected components into the hydrothermal fluid while maintaining run temperature and pressure. Hydrothermal experiments conducted using this system included the interactions of depleted uranium oxide and Zircaloy-4 metal alloy discs with trace levels of 99 Tc and non-radioactive Cs and I in a simulated groundwater matrix. After waste-package components and simulated waste forms were pre-conditioned in the autoclave systems (usually 4 to 6 weeks), known quantities of tracer-doped fluids were injected into the autoclaves' gold reaction bag at run conditions. Time-sequenced sampling of the hydrothermal fluid providing kinetic data on the reactions of tracers with waste package materials. The injection system facilitates the design of experiments that will better define ''steady-state'' fluid compositions in hydrothermal reactions. The injection system will also allow for the formation of tracer-bearing solid phases in detectable quantities

  12. Development and Validation of Water Vapor Tracers as Diagnostics for the Atmospheric Hydrologic Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Understanding of the local and remote sources of water vapor can be a valuable diagnostic in understanding the regional atmospheric hydrologic cycle. In the present study, we have implemented passive tracers as prognostic variables to follow water vapor evaporated in predetermined regions until the water tracer precipitates. The formulation of the sources and sinks of tracer water is generally proportional to the prognostic water vapor variable. Because all water has been accounted for in tracers, the water vapor variable provides the validation of the tracer water and the formulation of the sources and sinks. The tracers have been implemented in a GEOS General Circulation Model (GCM) simulation consisting of several summer periods to determine the source regions of precipitation for the United States and India. The recycling of water and interannual variability of the sources of water will be examined. Potential uses in GCM sensitivity studies, predictability studies and data assimilation will be discussed.

  13. Development of activable tracers for application in secondary recovering in petroleum reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Polyana Fabricia Fernandes; Moreira, Rubens Martins . Servico de Meio Ambiente e Tecnicas Nucleares.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear methods are instrumental in describing detailed flow patterns and other features of oil reservoirs that are unattainable to other methods. Tracer studies in oil fields are performed in a net of injection and producing wells. Thus, the use of only one tracer species would not discriminate the contributions of distinct injection wells to the output of a given production well. Hence, a multi-tracer experiment is required, and the use of activable tracers, capable of being measured by neutron activation analysis (NAA) is here proposed. As additional tracer choices lanthanum (La) and europium (Eu) were chosen from the rare earth series due to their large neutron cross sections and general availability. In order to decrease losses to the oil phase and the retardation of the tracer relatively to the aqueous phase, these elements were complexed with organic chelating ligands: the polyaminocarboxylic acids EDTA, DTPA and DOTA. Infrared spectrometry was used to check complexation. In order to check the partition of the tracer between the aqueous and organic phases, tests were carried stirring the two phases together and measuring the tracer concentrations in the aqueous phase; the partition coefficient (Kao) was then calculated for all the combinations of the two lanthanides and the three ligands. Tests in which the tracer was continuously pumped through reservoir rock samples were also carried out using tritiated water as a reference tracer and the complexed lanthanides. (author)

  14. Interpretation of the tracer testing conducted in the Leuggern borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeish, J.A.; Andrews, R.W.; Vomvoris, S.

    1990-12-01

    Tracer testing was conducted in the Leuggern borehole from July to December 1988 to evaluate the hydraulic properties of the crystalline host rock. The tested interval was an approximately 50 m section of fractured crystalline rock at a depth of greater than 1,600 m. The testing consisted of three tracer injection/recovery periods (uranin - 44 days, eosin - 30 days, and naphtionat -14 days), which utilized tracer injection/circulation rates, ranging between 25 and 50 ml/min. During these testing periods, tracer was injected in either of two 1/4 flow lines ported at the top or bottom of the interval and recovered from the other. Following the three tracer injection periods, a natural outflow tracer recovery test was conducted from the central tubing at an average outflow of 12 l/min. The central tubing was ported near the center of the test interval. Data collected during the testing periods included: continuous monitoring of fluid temperature, injection pressure, and electrical conductivity as well as discrete measurement of flow rates, electrical conductivity, fluid temperature, and tracer concentration. Testing results indicate a downward vertical flow of approximately 195-225 ml/min in the isolated interval, from an upper fracture inflow zone to a lower fracture outflow zone. Through analysis of the dilution levels of uranin and eosin during the injection/recovery periods, and review of field data, the top of the upper inflow zone was determined to be approximately 13 m below the top flow line and the bottom of the outflow zone to be approximately 3 to 5 meters above the bottom flow line. The calculated transmissivity value of 6E-05 m 2 /s from observed outflow rate and pressure recovery data, is consistent with results derived from previous hydraulic packer testing in the interval. The effective porosity was determined to be 0.1. Dispersion coefficient values ranged from 1.0 m to 5.0 m. The lateral hydraulic gradient value calculated from tracer recovery

  15. Mineral imbalances in farm animals and their study and diagnosis with isotopic tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, E.J.

    1976-01-01

    Twenty-two mineral elements are known to be essential for animal life. These are calcium, phosphorus, sulphur, potassium, sodium, chlorine, magnesium, iron, iodine, copper, manganese, zinc, cobalt, molybdenum, selenium, chromium, tin, vanadium, fluorine, silicon, nickel and arsenic. Naturally occurring and man-made dietary imbalances of many of these elements and their interactions with other minerals are described and their functions and requirements by farm animals are outlined. The nature and importance of metabolic interactions among the mineral elements are discussed and the important concept stressed that there is no single minimum requirement or safe tolerance of a particular mineral, but a series of such minimum requirements and safe tolerances depending on the extent to which other minerals with which it interacts is present or absent from the diet. Radioactive tracer elements are shown to be of great value in the determination of mineral nutrient availability to the animal and for following mineral metabolic movements in the body. They are also shown to have considerable potential for the diagnosis of mineral imbalances. Various in vivo and in vitro techniques involving both radioactive and stable tracers developed for the early diagnosis of mineral deficiencies are described and the strengths and weaknesses of such techniques, in comparison with standard biochemical tests, are discussed. The need for further critical studies with isotopic tracers in the detection and diagnosis of mineral imbalances is emphasized. The main types of biochemical criteria used in the diagnosis of mineral deficiencies and excesses are given, with appropriate examples of their use. (author)

  16. Investigation by tracer method of water balance in filling the gob with slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jureczko, J.; Skowronek, E.

    1977-01-01

    Results of investigations on the establishment of conditions of water flow in filling old workings with mud, in order to determine the degree of water hazard for mine workings in one of mines are given. For the inspection of flow, the stable tracer method and the neutron activation analysis were used. Chromium as a complex compound with EDTA was used as tracer. Geological and mining conditions in the area of investigations by tracers are given and the disposal of diluted stowing slurry is characterized. The method of interpretation of results is discussed in order to determine the water flow rate in the gob and to draw up the water balance on the basis of the curve of tracer travel. (author)

  17. Experiments to Evaluate and Implement Passive Tracer Gas Methods to Measure Ventilation Rates in Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunden, Melissa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Faulkner, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Heredia, Elizabeth [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cohn, Sebastian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dickerhoff, Darryl [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Noris, Federico [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Logue, Jennifer [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hotchi, Toshifumi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This report documents experiments performed in three homes to assess the methodology used to determine air exchange rates using passive tracer techniques. The experiments used four different tracer gases emitted simultaneously but implemented with different spatial coverage in the home. Two different tracer gas sampling methods were used. The results characterize the factors of the execution and analysis of the passive tracer technique that affect the uncertainty in the calculated air exchange rates. These factors include uncertainties in tracer gas emission rates, differences in measured concentrations for different tracer gases, temporal and spatial variability of the concentrations, the comparison between different gas sampling methods, and the effect of different ventilation conditions.

  18. Radioactive tracers in Sedimentology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, H.T.

    1973-01-01

    First is given a broad description of the uses of radioactive tracers in Sedimentology. The general method is established, including determinations of probability and standard deviation. Following are determined: the response law of the detector, the minimum mass for statistical detection, and the minimum mass for dynamic detection. The granularity is an important variable in these calculations. Final conclusions are given, and results are compared with existing theories

  19. Double tracer autoradiographic method for sequential evaluation of regional cerebral perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, H.; Tsuji, S.; Oba, H.; Kinuya, K.; Terada, H.; Sumiya, H.; Shiba, K.; Mori, H.; Hisada, K.; Maeda, T.

    1989-01-01

    A new double tracer autoradiographic method for the sequential evaluation of altered regional cerebral perfusion in the same animal is presented. This method is based on the sequential injection of two tracers, 99m Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime and N-isopropyl-( 125 I)p-iodoamphetamine. This method is validated in the assessment of brovincamine effects on regional cerebral perfusion in an experimental model of chronic brain ischemia in the rat. The drug enhanced perfusion recovery in low-flow areas, selectively in surrounding areas of infarction. The results suggest that this technique is of potential use in the study of neuropharmacological effects applied during the experiment

  20. 2007 California Aerosol Study: Evaluation of δ15N as a Tracer Of NOx Sources and Chemsitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzman, T. L.

    2017-12-01

    Although stable isotopes of N are commonly used as a source tracer, how this tracer is applied is a point of contention. The "source" hypothesis argues that the δ15N value of NO3- reflects the δ15N value of NOx source inputs into the environment, and any observed variation is solely the result of differences in source contributions. Conversely, the "chemistry" hypothesis argues that N isotopes are influenced by chemical reactions, atmospheric or biologic processing, and post-depositional effects. Previous studies often apply the source hypothesis, writing off the chemistry hypothesis as "minor," but others have noted the impact chemistry should has on δ15N values. Given the known complications, this work seeks to assess the use of stable isotopes as tracers, specifically, the assumption that the δ15N value is a tracer of source alone without significant influence from chemical reactions. If the "source" hypothesis is correct, source emission data, known source δ15N values, and isotope mass balance should be able to approximate measured δ15NNO3 values and determine the δ15N value associated with wildfire derived NOx, which is currently unknown. Significant deviations from observed values would support the significance of equilibrium and kinetic isotope effects associated with chemical reactions and processing in the atmosphere. Aerosols collected in during 2007, emission data, and isotopic analysis were utilized to determine the utility of δ15N as tracer of NOx sources. San Diego, California is a coastal urban area influenced by sea salt aerosols, anthropogenic combustion emissions, and seasonal wildfires. Wildfires also have a significant influence on local atmospheric chemistry and 2007 was notable for being one of the worst fire seasons in the San Diego region on record. Isotopic analysis of collected NO3- has suggested that source δ15N values are likely not conserved as NOx is oxidized into NO3-. Given known source contributions and known δ15N values

  1. PIV tracer behavior on propagating shock fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazyrin, Fyodor N; Mursenkova, Irina V; Znamenskaya, Irina A

    2016-01-01

    The present work was aimed at the quantitative particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement of a velocity field near the front of a propagating shock wave and the study of the dynamics of liquid tracers crossing the shock front. For this goal, a shock tube with a rectangular cross-section (48  ×  24 mm) was used. The flat shock wave with Mach numbers M  =  1.4–2.0 propagating inside the tube channel was studied as well as an expanding shock wave propagating outside the channel with M  =  1.2–1.8 at its main axis. The PIV imaging of the shock fronts was carried out with an aerosol of dioctyl sebacate (DEHS) as tracer particles. The pressures of the gas in front of the shock waves studied ranged from 0.013 Mpa to 0.1 MPa in the series of experiments. The processed PIV data, compared to the 1D normal shock theory, yielded consistent values of wake velocity immediately behind the plain shock wave. Special attention was paid to the blurring of the velocity jump on the shock front due to the inertial particle lag and peculiarities of the PIV technique. A numerical algorithm was developed for analysis and correction of the PIV data on the shock fronts, based on equations of particle-flow interaction. By application of this algorithm, the effective particle diameter of the DEHS aerosol tracers was estimated as 1.03  ±  0.12 μm. A number of different formulations for particle drag were tested with this algorithm, with varying success. The results show consistency with previously reported experimental data obtained for cases of stationary shock waves. (paper)

  2. Focuss algorithm application in kinetic compartment modeling for PET tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xinrui; Bao Shanglian

    2004-01-01

    dynamic data, comparing with the pre-existing data-led technique- spectral analysis. The results showed that our kinetic modeling technique for the quantitative analysis of dynamic in vivo radiotracer studies is a transparent data-driven modeling approach as it returns, not only macro parameter values, but also information on the underlying model structure. Furthermore, FOCUSS algorithm can avoid the over complete problems in spectral analysis and improve the error properties. Since this technique does not require a predefined compartmental structure and it can be used to characterize tracer kinetics in various tissue types or even mixtures of different tissue types, it provides a unique tool for image analysis of complex functional structures where image pixels may contain inhomogeneous tissue types. Moreover, it can make work m imaging probe, tracer and drug development, when their characteristic in vivo isn't known. Therefore, this kinetic modeling technique is of use for PET molecular imaging and drug development. (authors)

  3. Toxicity of fluorescent tracers and their degradation byproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Gombert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tracer tests are frequently used to delineate catchment area of water supply springs in karstic zones. In the karstic chalk of Normandy, the main tracers used are fluorescent: uranine, sulforhodamine B, naphtionate, and Tinopal®. In this area, a statistical analysis shows that less than half of the injected tracers joins the monitored restitution points and enters the drinking water system where they undergo chlorination. Most of the injected tracers is absorbed in the rock matrix or is thrown out of the aquifer via karstic springs: then it can join superficial waters where it is degraded due to the sun and air action. The paper presents firstly the laboratory degradation of a first batch of fluorescent tracers in contact with chlorine, in order to simulate their passage through a water treatment system for human consumption. A second batch of the same tracers is subjected to agents of natural degradation: ultraviolet illumination, sunlight and air sparging. Most tracers is degraded, and toxicity and ecotoxicity tests (on rats, daphniae and algae are performed on degradation byproducts. These tests do not show any acute toxicity but a low to moderate ecotoxicity. In conclusion, the most used fluorescent tracers of the Normandy karstic chalk and their artificial and natural degradation byproducts do not exhibit significant toxicity to humans and the aquatic environment, at the concentrations generally noted at the restitution points.

  4. Unit vent airflow measurements using a tracer gas technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.G. [Union Electric Company, Fulton, MO (United States); Lagus, P.L. [Lagus Applied Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Fleming, K.M. [NCS Corp., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-08-01

    An alternative method for assessing flowrates that does not depend on point measurements of air flow velocity is the constant tracer injection technique. In this method one injects a tracer gas at a constant rate into a duct and measures the resulting concentration downstream of the injection point. A simple equation derived from the conservation of mass allows calculation of the flowrate at the point of injection. Flowrate data obtained using both a pitot tube and a flow measuring station were compared with tracer gas flowrate measurements in the unit vent duct at the Callaway Nuclear Station during late 1995 and early 1996. These data are presented and discussed with an eye toward obtaining precise flowrate data for release rate calculations. The advantages and disadvantages of the technique are also described. In those test situations for which many flowrate combinations are required, or in large area ducts, a tracer flowrate determination requires fewer man-hours than does a conventional traverse-based technique and does not require knowledge of the duct area. 6 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. [99mTc]O2-AMD3100 as a SPECT tracer for CXCR4 receptor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartimath, Siddesh V.; Domanska, Urszula M.; Walenkamp, Annemiek M.E.; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Vries, Erik F.J. de

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: CXCR4 plays an important role in HIV infection, tumor progression, neurogenesis, and inflammation. In-vivo imaging of CXCR4 could provide more insight in the role of this receptor in health and disease. The aim of this study was to investigate [ 99m Tc]O 2 -AMD3100 as a potential SPECT tracer for imaging of CXCR4. Method: AMD3100 was labelled with [ 99m Tc]pertechnetate. A cysteine challenge assay was performed to test the tracer stability. Heterologous and homologous receptor binding assay and internalization assay were performed in CXCR4 expressing Jurkat-T cells. Ex vivo biodistribution was studied in healthy mice at 30, 60, and 120 min after tracer injection. Tumor uptake of the tracer was determined by microSPECT imaging in nude mice xenografted with human PC-3 prostate tumor. Specificity of tracer uptake was determined by blocking studies using an excess of unlabelled AMD3100. Results: AMD3100 was labelled with technetium-99 m with a radiochemical yield of > 98%. The tracer was stable in PBS and mouse plasma for at least 6 h at 37 °C. Heterologous and homologous binding assays with AMD3100 showed IC 50 values of 240 ± 10 μM, and 92 ± 5 μM for [ 125 I]SDF-1α and [ 99m Tc]O 2 -AMD3100 respectively, with negligible receptor internalisation. The tracer showed high uptake in liver, lungs, spleen, thymus, intestine and bone. Blocking dose of AMD3100.8HCl (20 mg/kg) decreased the uptake in these organs (p 99m Tc]O 2 -AMD3100 showed specific tumor accumulation in mice bearing PC-3 xenografts model. Time activity curves (TAC) in AMD3100 pre-treated animals tracer showed 1.7 times less tumor uptake as compared to control animals (p 99m Tc]O 2 -AMD3100 is readily labelled, is stable in plasma and displays a favourable binding affinity for the CXCR4 receptors. [ 99m Tc O 2 -AMD3100 shows specific binding in organs with high CXCR4 expression and in CXCR4 positive tumors. These results justify further evaluation of this radiopharmaceutical as a potential

  6. An Efficient Method for Detection of Outliers in Tracer Curves Derived from Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linning Ye

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence of outliers in tracer concentration-time curves derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging can adversely affect the analysis of the tracer curves by model-fitting. A computationally efficient method for detecting outliers in tracer concentration-time curves is presented in this study. The proposed method is based on a piecewise linear model and implemented using a robust clustering algorithm. The method is noniterative and all the parameters are automatically estimated. To compare the proposed method with existing Gaussian model based and robust regression-based methods, simulation studies were performed by simulating tracer concentration-time curves using the generalized Tofts model and kinetic parameters derived from different tissue types. Results show that the proposed method and the robust regression-based method achieve better detection performance than the Gaussian model based method. Compared with the robust regression-based method, the proposed method can achieve similar detection performance with much faster computation speed.

  7. Development of Models to Simulate Tracer Tests for Characterization of Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Mark D.; Reimus, Paul; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Rose, Peter; Dean, Cynthia A.; Watson, Tom B.; Newell, D.; Leecaster, Kevin; Brauser, Eric

    2013-05-01

    A recent report found that power and heat produced from enhanced (or engineered) geothermal systems (EGSs) could have a major impact on the U.S energy production capability while having a minimal impact on the environment. EGS resources differ from high-grade hydrothermal resources in that they lack sufficient temperature distribution, permeability/porosity, fluid saturation, or recharge of reservoir fluids. Therefore, quantitative characterization of temperature distributions and the surface area available for heat transfer in EGS is necessary for the design and commercial development of the geothermal energy of a potential EGS site. The goal of this project is to provide integrated tracer and tracer interpretation tools to facilitate this characterization. This project was initially focused on tracer development with the application of perfluorinated tracer (PFT) compounds, non-reactive tracers used in numerous applications from atmospheric transport to underground leak detection, to geothermal systems, and evaluation of encapsulated PFTs that would release tracers at targeted reservoir temperatures. After the 2011 midyear review and subsequent discussions with the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technology Program (GTP), emphasis was shifted to interpretive tool development, testing, and validation. Subsurface modeling capabilities are an important component of this project for both the design of suitable tracers and the interpretation of data from in situ tracer tests, be they single- or multi-well tests. The purpose of this report is to describe the results of the tracer and model development for simulating and conducting tracer tests for characterizing EGS parameters.

  8. Radon diagnostics and tracer gas measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jilek, K.; Brabec, M.

    2004-01-01

    An outline is presented of the tracer gas technique, which is used for continuous measurements of air ventilation rate (generally time-varying) and for simultaneous estimation of air ventilation rate and radon entry rate, and some of its limitations are discussed. The performance of this technique in the calculation of the air ventilation rate is demonstrated on real data from routine measurements. The potential for air ventilation rate estimation based on radon measurements only is discussed. A practical application is described of the tracer gas technique to a simultaneous estimation of the air ventilation rate and radon entry rate in a real house where the effectiveness of radon remedy was tested. The following main advantages of the CO tracer gas techniques are stressed: (i) The averaging method continuous determination of the ventilation rate with good accuracy (≤ 20 %). (ii) The newly presented and verified method based on simultaneous measurements of radon concentration and CO gas concentration enables separate continuous measurements of the radon entry rate and ventilation rate. The results of comparative measurements performed with the aim to estimate the inaccuracy in determination of radon entry rate showed acceptable and good agreement up to approximately 10 %. The results of comparative measurements performed with the aim to estimate the mutual commensuration of the method to the determination of the ventilation rate confirmed the expected unreliability the two parametric non-linear regression method, which is the most frequently used method in radon diagnostic in the Czech Republic

  9. Improving Marine Ecosystem Models with Biochemical Tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethybridge, Heidi R.; Choy, C. Anela; Polovina, Jeffrey J.; Fulton, Elizabeth A.

    2018-01-01

    Empirical data on food web dynamics and predator-prey interactions underpin ecosystem models, which are increasingly used to support strategic management of marine resources. These data have traditionally derived from stomach content analysis, but new and complementary forms of ecological data are increasingly available from biochemical tracer techniques. Extensive opportunities exist to improve the empirical robustness of ecosystem models through the incorporation of biochemical tracer data and derived indices, an area that is rapidly expanding because of advances in analytical developments and sophisticated statistical techniques. Here, we explore the trophic information required by ecosystem model frameworks (species, individual, and size based) and match them to the most commonly used biochemical tracers (bulk tissue and compound-specific stable isotopes, fatty acids, and trace elements). Key quantitative parameters derived from biochemical tracers include estimates of diet composition, niche width, and trophic position. Biochemical tracers also provide powerful insight into the spatial and temporal variability of food web structure and the characterization of dominant basal and microbial food web groups. A major challenge in incorporating biochemical tracer data into ecosystem models is scale and data type mismatches, which can be overcome with greater knowledge exchange and numerical approaches that transform, integrate, and visualize data.

  10. Design, modeling, and current interpretations of the H-19 and H-11 tracer tests at the WIPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meigs, L.C.; Beauheim, R.L.; McCord, J.T.; Tsang, Y.W.; Haggerty, R.

    1996-01-01

    Site-characterization studies at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in southeastern New Mexico, US identified ground-water flow in the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation as the most likely geologic pathway for radionuclide transport to the accessible environment in the event of a breach of the WIPP repository through inadvertent human intrusion. The results of recent tracer tests, as well as hydraulic tests, laboratory measurements, and re-examination of Culebra geology and stratigraphy, have led to a significant refinement of the conceptual model for transport in the Culebra. Tracer test results and geologic observations suggest that flow occurs within fractures, and to some extent within interparticle porosity and vugs connected by microfractures. Diffusion occurs within all connected porosity. Numerical simulations suggest that the data from the tracer tests cannot be simulated with heterogeneous single-porosity models; significant matrix diffusion appears to be required. The low permeability and lack of significant tracer recovery from tracers injected into the upper Culebra suggest that transport primarily occurs in the lower Culebra

  11. Study of movement of fly ash by radioactive tracer studies at Ennore Thermal Power Station (Tamil Nadu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, L K; Dange, A P

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the movement of fly ash from the Thermal Power Station at Ennore dumped in the ocean. The purpose of the study was to ensure that the ash dumped in the sea does not find its way to intake of the power station through the mouth of the river situated at a distance of 2 kms north. In such situations the use of radioactive tracer studies is found to be very effective and these studies indicated the necessity of dumping the fly ash beyond 6 m depth in the sea.

  12. Study of movement of fly ash by radioactive tracer studies at Ennore Thermal Power Station (Tamil Nadu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, L K; Dange, A P [Central Water and Power Research Station, Pune (India)

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the movement of fly ash from the Thermal Power Station at Ennore dumped in the ocean. The purpose of the study was to ensure that the ash dumped in the sea does not find its way to intake of the power station through the mouth of the river situated at a distance of 2 kms north. In such situations the use of radioactive tracer studies is found to be very effective and these studies indicated the necessity of dumping the fly ash beyond 6m depth in the sea.

  13. A new approach to tracer transport analysis: From fracture systems to strongly heterogeneous porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, Chin-Fu.

    1989-02-01

    Many current development and utilization of groundwater resources include a study of their flow and transport properties. These properties are needed in evaluating possible changes in groundwater quality and potential transport of hazardous solutes through the groundwater system. Investigation of transport properties of fractured rocks is an active area of research. Most of the current approaches to the study of flow and transport in fractured rocks cannot be easily used for analysis of tracer transport field data. A new approach is proposed based on a detailed study of transport through a fracture of variable aperture. This is a two-dimensional strongly heterogeneous permeable system. It is suggested that tracer breakthrough curves can be analyzed based on an aperture or permeability probability distribution function that characterizes the tracer flow through the fracture. The results are extended to a multi-fracture system and can be equally applied to a strongly heterogeneous porous medium. Finally, the need for multi-point or line and areal tracer injection and observation tests is indicated as a way to avoid the sensitive dependence of point measurements on local permeability variability. 30 refs., 15 figs

  14. Outline of research on plant physiological functions using Positron Emitting Tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    2000-01-01

    Application of Positron Emitting Tracer Imaging System (Pets) for the plant has been investigated under JAERI-Universities Joint Research Project. Five university groups are studying a dynamic image of plant transport or a static image of the result of tracer movement using 11 C (half-life 20 min), 13 N (10 min), 18 F (110 min), etc. The Pets consisted of two-dimensional block detectors (48 x 50 mm square) which were composed of a Bi 4 Ge 3 O 12 scintillator array coupled to a position sensitive photomultiplier tube. In the system, the plant samples are placed at the mid position between the two opposing detectors and annihilation γ-rays from the samples are detected in coincidence. The positron emitting tracer images are obtained by accumulating these signals. The spatial resolution was 2.4 mm and images with a good S/N ratio can be obtained in real time. Using TIARA AVF cyclotron, 13 NO 3 - , 13 NH 4 + , 18 F-water, 11 C-methionine, etc. were produced and supplied to the plants. The transport of these labeled compounds introduced into plants was followed dynamically by PETIS. The results show that the system is effective in observing the uptake and transport of nutrients in plants and is useful for the study of physiological functions of plants. (author)

  15. Study on Radioecology and Tracer of Iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaolin, Hou

    2004-01-01

    Iodine-129 (15.7 Ma) is a naturally occurring radioisotope of iodine. The ratio of 129 I/ 127 I was estimated to be ∼ 10 -12 in the ocean and 10 -11 in the territorial environment in pre-nuclear era, releases from nuclear weapon tests have increased this ratio to ∼ 10 -10 . However, a large amount of iodine-129 was released from various nuclear facilities, and the greatest releases of 129 I are from two European reprocessing plants, especially in recent years. By 1998, 2600 Kg and 220 Kg 129 I have been discharged to the marine environment and atmosphere from La Hague (France) and Sellafield reprocessing plants, respectively. This amount is tens times larger than the total 129 I inventory in the pre-nuclear ocean and weapon test releases. Although there is no significant radiation risk for the human health at present level of 129 I, the continuously increasing production and release of 129 I make the accumulation of 129 I in the environment, immigration, cycle and long term radioecological risk should be give more attention due to its long half-life, high accumulation in human thyroid and high mobility. Iodine is a conservative element in the ocean, the large amount of iodine-129 discharged to the marine system can therefore be used as a oceanographic tracer to study the physical dispersion, mixing and circulative processes of water mass in the ocean. In Riso national laboratory, a radiochemical neutron activation analysis method was developed, using this method the radioecology and tracer of iodine-129 was studied. Some representative works are presented below. (1) Evaluation of radiation exposure of humans to iodine-129. The human and animal thyroids collected from different places, such as Tianjin in China, Gemol in Belarus, Ribe in Denmark, human urine in Denmark, seafood in China were analysed for iodine-129 concentration and 129 I/ 127 I ratio, the exposure level were compared with other places. (2) Reconstruction of radiation dose from I-131 in the

  16. Interpretation of Water Tracer Simulation in the H-1 Segment of the Gullfaks Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moid, Farrukh

    2000-07-01

    This thesis describes the water tracer simulation in the H-1 segment of the Gullfaks field. Three passive water tracer slugs were injected from the two producing wells during water flooding, pressure maintenance and reservoir monitoring program in the Gullfaks field. The same program is considered in this thesis. Computer Modelling Group's (CMG) simulator STARS is used for the general reservoir simulation and a separate module for tracer flow (ITRC-SIM) which is incorporated in the STARS and developed at Institute For Energy (IFE) is used for the tracer simulation. Water cut and tracer concentration data are used in history matching of the field. History matching is performed by changing the transmissibility and permeability of different layers; also the effect of changing saturations near the well bore on history matching is examined. It is noted that water cut is sensitive to transmissibility of the layers and the saturation around the well bore. Tracers are found to be moving in the most permeable layers. The corresponding history matching of water and tracer production shows a severe loss of first tracer injected because of imbibition process. Water phase velocity and areal communication between different wells are determined. Advance numerical features of tracer module ITRC-SIM such as flux limiting scheme and grid refinement scheme are evaluated and are found to be an important tool for reducing the numerical smearing. The effects of dispersion and diffusion on tracer response curve are also evaluated. Dispersion makes the tracer concentration curve smeared. Simulation results of water cut and tracer concentration show a good history match for this reservoir. The improved simulation model and the tracer module for this reservoir can be used for the prediction of future performance of the reservoir and interpretation of the tracer behaviour in the reservoir. (author)

  17. Historical and contemporary stable isotope tracer approaches to studying mammalian protein metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Over a century ago, Frederick Soddy provided the first evidence for the existence of isotopes; elements that occupy the same position in the periodic table are essentially chemically identical but differ in mass due to a different number of neutrons within the atomic nucleus. Allied to the discovery of isotopes was the development of some of the first forms of mass spectrometers, driven forward by the Nobel laureates JJ Thomson and FW Aston, enabling the accurate separation, identification, and quantification of the relative abundance of these isotopes. As a result, within a few years, the number of known isotopes both stable and radioactive had greatly increased and there are now over 300 stable or radioisotopes presently known. Unknown at the time, however, was the potential utility of these isotopes within biological disciplines, it was soon discovered that these stable isotopes, particularly those of carbon (13C), nitrogen (15N), oxygen (18O), and hydrogen (2H) could be chemically introduced into organic compounds, such as fatty acids, amino acids, and sugars, and used to “trace” the metabolic fate of these compounds within biological systems. From this important breakthrough, the age of the isotope tracer was born. Over the following 80 yrs, stable isotopes would become a vital tool in not only the biological sciences, but also areas as diverse as forensics, geology, and art. This progress has been almost exclusively driven through the development of new and innovative mass spectrometry equipment from IRMS to GC‐MS to LC‐MS, which has allowed for the accurate quantitation of isotopic abundance within samples of complex matrices. This historical review details the development of stable isotope tracers as metabolic tools, with particular reference to their use in monitoring protein metabolism, highlighting the unique array of tools that are now available for the investigation of protein metabolism in vivo at a whole body down to a single protein level

  18. Use of tracers to quantify subsurface flow through a mining pit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schladow, S Geoffrey; Clark, Jordan F

    2008-12-01

    Three independent tracer experiments were conducted to quantify the through-flow of water from Herman Pit, an abandoned mercury (Hg) mine pit adjacent to Clear Lake, California, USA. The tracers used were Rhodamine-WT, sulfur hexafluoride, and a mixture of sulfur hexafluoride and neon-22. The tracers were injected into Herman Pit, a generally well-mixed water body of approximately 81,000 m2, and the concentrations were monitored in the mine pit, observation wells, and the lake for 2-3 months following each injection. The results for all three experiments showed that the tracer arrived at certain observation wells within days of injection. Comparing all the well data showed a highly heterogeneous response, with a small number of wells showing this near-instantaneous response and others taking months before the tracer was detectable. Tracer was also found in the lake on four occasions over a one-month period, too few to infer any pattern but sufficient to confirm the connection of the two water bodies. Using a simple mass balance model it was possible to determine the effective loss rate through advection for each of the tracers and with this to estimate the through-flow rate. The through-flow rate for all three experiments was approximately 630 L/s, at least 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than previous estimates, all of which had been based on geochemical inferences or other indirect measures of the pit through-flow.

  19. Predictions of PuO2 and tracer compound release from ISV melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronenberg, A.W.; Callow, R.A.

    1992-04-01

    Two field tests were conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to assess in situ vitrification (ISV) suitability for long-term stabilization of buried radioactive waste. Both tests contained rare-earth oxide tracers (DY 2 O 3 , Yb 2 O 3 , and Tb 4 O 7 ) to simulate the presence of plutonium in the form of PuO 2 . In the first test, Intermediate Field Test (IFT)-l, approximately 4-% release of tracer material occurred during soil melting and associated off-gassing, while essentially nil release was observed for the second experiment (IFT-2) for which off-gassing was much reduced. This report presents an evaluation of the IFT test data in terms of governing release processes. Prediction of tracer release during ISV melting centered on an assessment of three potential transport mechanisms, (a) tracer diffusion through stagnant pool, (b) tracer transport by convective currents, and (c) tracer carry-off by escaping gas bubbles. Analysis indicates that tracer release by escaping gas is the dominant release mechanism, which is consistent with video records of gas bubble escape from the ISV melt surface. Quantitative mass transport predictions were also made for the IFT-I test conditions, indicating similarity between the 4-% release data and calculational results at viscosities of ∼ poise and tracer diffusivities of ∼10 -6 CM 2 /s. Since PuO 2 has similar chemical and transport (diffusivity) properties as the rare-earth tracers used in the rare earth tracers used in the IFT experiments, release of PuO 2 is predicted for similar off-gassing conditions. Reduced off-gassing during ISV would thus be expected to improve the overall retention of heavy-oxides within vitrified soil

  20. Statistical dynamic imaging of RI-labeled tracer from list-mode PET data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Michiaki; Kuroda, Yoshihiro; Oshiro, Osamu; Watabe, Hiroshi; Kuroda, Tomohiro

    2009-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) can be used in physiological analysis to illustrate physiological states by visualizing the accumulation of radioisotope (RI)-labeled tracer in specific organs or tissues. PET obtains spatio-temporal statistics in the form of list-mode data. However, conventional imaging techniques, which sum up list-mode data over a given time period, cannot depict detailed temporal dynamics of the RI-labeled tracer. In this study, a spatio-temporal analysis approach was employed to visualize the temporal flow dynamics of RI-labeled tracer from the obtained list-mode data. Experiments to assess the visualization of simulated RI-labeled tracer dynamics as well as RI-labeled tracer dynamics in a vascular phantom showed that the proposed method successfully depicted detailed temporal flow dynamics that could not be visualized using conventional methods. (author)

  1. TRAC, a collaborative computer tool for tracer-test interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fécamp C.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Artificial tracer tests are widely used by consulting engineers for demonstrating water circulation, proving the existence of leakage, or estimating groundwater velocity. However, the interpretation of such tests is often very basic, with the result that decision makers and professionals commonly face unreliable results through hasty and empirical interpretation. There is thus an increasing need for a reliable interpretation tool, compatible with the latest operating systems and available in several languages. BRGM, the French Geological Survey, has developed a project together with hydrogeologists from various other organizations to build software assembling several analytical solutions in order to comply with various field contexts. This computer program, called TRAC, is very light and simple, allowing the user to add his own analytical solution if the formula is not yet included. It aims at collaborative improvement by sharing the tool and the solutions. TRAC can be used for interpreting data recovered from a tracer test as well as for simulating the transport of a tracer in the saturated zone (for the time being. Calibration of a site operation is based on considering the hydrodynamic and hydrodispersive features of groundwater flow as well as the amount, nature and injection mode of the artificial tracer. The software is available in French, English and Spanish, and the latest version can be downloaded from the web site http://trac.brgm.fr.

  2. Characterization of two-phase flow regimes in horizontal tubes using 81mKr tracer experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriol, Jean; Leclerc, Jean Pierre; Berne, Philippe; Gousseau, Georges; Jallut, Christian; Tochon, Patrice; Clement, Patrice

    2008-10-01

    The diagnosis of heat exchangers on duty with respect to flow mal-distributions needs the development of non-intrusive inlet-outlet experimental techniques in order to perform an online fault diagnosis. Tracer experiments are an example of such techniques. They can be applied to mono-phase heat exchangers but also to multi-phase ones. In this case, the tracer experiments are more difficult to perform. In order to check for the capabilities of tracer experiments to be used for the flow mal-distribution diagnosis in the case of multi-phase heat exchangers, we present here a preliminary study on the simplest possible system: two-phase flows in a horizontal tube. (81m)Kr is used as gas tracer and properly collimated NaI (TI) crystal scintillators as detectors. The specific shape of the tracer response allows two-phase flow regimes to be characterized. Signal analysis allows the estimation of the gas phase real average velocity and consequently of the liquid phase real average velocity as well as of the volumetric void fraction. These results are compared successfully to those obtained with liquid phase tracer experiments previously presented by Oriol et al. 2007. Characterization of the two-phase flow regimes and liquid dispersion in horizontal and vertical tubes using coloured tracer and no intrusive optical detector. Chem. Eng. Sci. 63(1), 24-34, as well as to those given by correlations from literature.

  3. Characterization of two-phase flow regimes in horizontal tubes using 81mKr tracer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oriol, Jean; Leclerc, Jean Pierre; Berne, Philippe; Gousseau, Georges; Jallut, Christian; Tochon, Patrice; Clement, Patrice

    2008-01-01

    The diagnosis of heat exchangers on duty with respect to flow mal-distributions needs the development of non-intrusive inlet-outlet experimental techniques in order to perform an online fault diagnosis. Tracer experiments are an example of such techniques. They can be applied to mono-phase heat exchangers but also to multi-phase ones. In this case, the tracer experiments are more difficult to perform. In order to check for the capabilities of tracer experiments to be used for the flow mal-distribution diagnosis in the case of multi-phase heat exchangers, we present here a preliminary study on the simplest possible system: two-phase flows in a horizontal tube. 81m Kr is used as gas tracer and properly collimated NaI (TI) crystal scintillators as detectors. The specific shape of the tracer response allows two-phase flow regimes to be characterized. Signal analysis allows the estimation of the gas phase real average velocity and consequently of the liquid phase real average velocity as well as of the volumetric void fraction. These results are compared successfully to those obtained with liquid phase tracer experiments previously presented by Oriol et al. 2007. Characterization of the two-phase flow regimes and liquid dispersion in horizontal and vertical tubes using coloured tracer and no intrusive optical detector. Chem. Eng. Sci. 63(1), 24-34, as well as to those given by correlations from literature

  4. Project definition study for the National Biomedical Tracer Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roozen, K.

    1995-01-01

    The University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) has conducted a study of the proposed National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). In collaboration with General Atomics, RUST International, Coleman Research Corporation (CRC), IsoMed, Ernst and Young and the advisory committees, they have examined the issues relevant to the NBTF in terms of facility design, operating philosophy, and a business plan. They have utilized resources within UAB, CRC and Chem-Nuclear to develop recommendations on environmental, safety and health issues. The Institute of Medicine Panel's Report on Isotopes for Medicine and the Life Sciences took the results of prior workshops further in developing recommendations for the mission of the NBTF. The IOM panel recommends that the NBTF accelerator have the capacity to accelerate protons to 80 MeV and a minimum of 750 microamperes of current. The panel declined to recommend a cyclotron or a linac. They emphasized a clear focus on research and development for isotope production including target design, separation chemistry and generator development. The facility needs to emphasize education and training in its mission. The facility must focus on radionuclide production for the research and clinical communities. The formation of a public-private partnership resembling the TRIUMF-Nordion model was encouraged. An advisory panel should assist with the NBTF operations and prioritization

  5. Project definition study for the National Biomedical Tracer Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roozen, K.

    1995-02-15

    The University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) has conducted a study of the proposed National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). In collaboration with General Atomics, RUST International, Coleman Research Corporation (CRC), IsoMed, Ernst and Young and the advisory committees, they have examined the issues relevant to the NBTF in terms of facility design, operating philosophy, and a business plan. They have utilized resources within UAB, CRC and Chem-Nuclear to develop recommendations on environmental, safety and health issues. The Institute of Medicine Panel`s Report on Isotopes for Medicine and the Life Sciences took the results of prior workshops further in developing recommendations for the mission of the NBTF. The IOM panel recommends that the NBTF accelerator have the capacity to accelerate protons to 80 MeV and a minimum of 750 microamperes of current. The panel declined to recommend a cyclotron or a linac. They emphasized a clear focus on research and development for isotope production including target design, separation chemistry and generator development. The facility needs to emphasize education and training in its mission. The facility must focus on radionuclide production for the research and clinical communities. The formation of a public-private partnership resembling the TRIUMF-Nordion model was encouraged. An advisory panel should assist with the NBTF operations and prioritization.

  6. Fifty years of radiochemical tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    During the past 50 years radiochemical tracers, usually in the form of isotopically labelled organic compounds, have been essential tools to further advance our knowledge at the frontiers of a great variety of scientific developments in the life sciences. This plenary lecture reviews necessarily selected highlights in the synthesis and applications of such radiochemical tracers. Included are examples where important advances, made possible by using radiochemicals, have contributed to improving the quality of life on this planet. The principal radioisotopes involved, 14 C, 3 H, 35 S, 32 P, 125 I, are all relatively safe to handle and are commercially available at maximum theoretical specific activity (carrier free). The compounds labeled with these radioisotopes are used in many fields of research which include biosynthesis and biotechnology studies, cell biology, drug metabolism, clinical research and environmental applications, and are briefly reviewed. (author). 55 refs

  7. Natural stream flow-rates measurements by tracer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuellar Mansilla, J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents the study of the precision obtained measuring the natural stream flow rates by tracer techniques, especially when the system presents a great slope and a bed constituted by large and extended particle size. The experiences were realized in laboratory pilot channels with flow-rates between 15 and 130 [1/s]; and in natural streams with flow-rates from 1 to 25 m 3 /s. Tracer used were In-133m and Br-82 for laboratory and field measurements respectively. In both cases the tracer was injected as a pulse and its dilution measured collecting samples in the measured section, at constant flow-rates, of 5[1] in laboratory experiences and 60[1] of water in field experiences. Precisions obtained at a 95% confidence level were about 2% for laboratory and 3% for field. (I.V.)

  8. Transport of Perfluorocarbon Tracers in the Cranfield Geological Carbon Sequestration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moortgat, J.; Soltanian, M. R.; Amooie, M. A.; Cole, D. R.; Graham, D. E.; Pfiffner, S. M.; Phelps, T.

    2017-12-01

    A field-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) injection pilot project was conducted by the Southeast Regional Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) at Cranfield, Mississippi. Two associated campaigns in 2009 and 2010 were carried out to co-inject perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) with CO2. Tracers in gas samples from two observation wells were analyzed to construct breakthrough curves. We present the compiled field data as well as detailed numerical modeling of the flow and transport of CO2, brine, and introduced tracers. A high-resolution static model of the formation geology in the Detailed Area Study (DAS) was used in order to capture the impact of connected flow pathways created by fluvial channels on breakthrough curves and breakthrough times of PFTs and SF6 tracers. We use the cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state, which takes into account the polar nature of water molecules, to describe the phase behavior of CO2-brine-tracer mixtures. We show how the combination of multiple tracer injection pulses with detailed numerical simulations provide a powerful tool in constraining both formation properties and how complex flow pathways develop over time.

  9. Axonal collateral-collateral transport of tract tracers in brain neurons: false anterograde labelling and useful tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S; Aston-Jones, G

    1998-02-01

    It is well established that some neuroanatomical tracers may be taken up by local axonal terminals and transported to distant axonal collaterals (e.g., transganglionic transport in dorsal root ganglion cells). However, such collateral-collateral transport of tracers has not been systematically examined in the central nervous system. We addressed this issue with four neuronal tracers--biocytin, biotinylated dextran amine, cholera toxin B subunit, and Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin--in the cerebellar cortex. Labelling of distant axonal collaterals in the cerebellar cortex (indication of collateral-collateral transport) was seen after focal iontophoretic microinjections of each of the four tracers. However, collateral-collateral transport properties differed among these tracers. Injection of biocytin or Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin in the cerebellar cortex yielded distant collateral labelling only in parallel fibres. In contrast, injection of biotinylated dextran amine or cholera toxin B subunit produced distant collateral labelling of climbing fibres and mossy fibres, as well as parallel fibres. The present study is the first systematic examination of collateral-collateral transport following injection of anterograde tracers in brain. Such collateral-collateral transport may produce false-positive conclusions regarding neural connections when using these tracers for anterograde transport. However, this property may also be used as a tool to determine areas that are innervated by common distant afferents. In addition, these results may indicate a novel mode of chemical communication in the nervous system.

  10. Considerations on the assessment of economic benefits of industrial tracer application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guizerix, J.; Margrita, R.

    1990-01-01

    The benefit of a particular tracer study which can always theoretically be derived is practically very difficult to assess for decision-making which is more often based on rough estimates of it. Other criteria, as safety, environmental protection, 'social benefit', may replace the purely economic considerations. The economic benefits of industrial tracer applications can clearly be perceived through the commercial success of businesses offering tracer services, which implies that all factors involved in the law of supply and demand have (tacitly or explictly) been accounted. (orig.) [de

  11. Tritium as tracer of flow in constructed wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachniew, P.; Czuprynski, P.; Maloszewski, P.

    2005-01-01

    Constructed wetlands technology is a cost-effective and environmentally friendly method used world-wide to treat waste waters of different origins. The soluble pollutants are transformed and removed mainly through the processes that occur at surfaces of plants, plant debris or filtering media. The efficiency of soluble pollutants removal is thus primarily related to the extent of contact between waste waters and the reactive surfaces. Residence time distributions function (RTD)is basic characteristic of wetland hydraulic properties and can be obtained by combined use of tracer technique and mathematical modelling. Tritium was used as to obtain RTD's of three parallel cells of a sub-surface flow constructed wetland overgrown with Pharagmites australis in Nowa Slupia. Tritium as a part of water molecule, is an ideal tracer of flow in the highly reactive environment of constructed wetlands. Results of the tracer test interpreted by the assumed model (Multi Flow Dispersion Model) of conservative solute transport revealed a complex structure of flow through the wetland. (author)

  12. Flow visualization in superfluid helium-4 using He2 molecular tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei

    Flow visualization in superfluid helium is challenging, yet crucial for attaining a detailed understanding of quantum turbulence. Two problems have impeded progress: finding and introducing suitable tracers that are small yet visible; and unambiguous interpretation of the tracer motion. We show that metastable He2 triplet molecules are outstanding tracers compared with other particles used in helium. These molecular tracers have small size and relatively simple behavior in superfluid helium: they follow the normal fluid motion at above 1 K and will bind to quantized vortex lines below about 0.6 K. A laser-induced fluorescence technique has been developed for imaging the He2 tracers. We will present our recent experimental work on studying the normal-fluid motion by tracking thin lines of He2 tracers created via femtosecond laser-field ionization in helium. We will also discuss a newly launched experiment on visualizing vortex lines in a magnetically levitated superfluid helium drop by imaging the He2 tracers trapped on the vortex cores. This experiment will enable unprecedented insight into the behavior of a rotating superfluid drop and will untangle several key issues in quantum turbulence research. We acknowledge the support from the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR-1507386 and the US Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-FG02 96ER40952.

  13. [11C]UCB-A, a novel PET tracer for synaptic vesicle protein 2 A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, Sergio; Lubberink, Mark; Thibblin, Alf; Sprycha, Margareta; Buchanan, Tim; Mestdagh, Nathalie; Kenda, Benoit; Mercier, Joel; Provins, Laurent; Gillard, Michel; Tytgat, Dominique; Antoni, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Development of a selective and specific high affinity PET tracer, [ 11 C]UCB-A, for the in vivo study of SV2A expression in humans. Radiochemistry and preclinical studies in rats and pigs including development of a tracer kinetic model to determine V T . A method for the measurement of percent intact tracer in plasma was developed and the radiation dosimetry was determined in rats. Results: 3–5 GBq of [ 11 C]UCB-A could be produced with radiochemical purity exceeding 98% with a specific radioactivity of around 65 GBq/μmol. In vitro binding showed high selective binding towards SV2A. [ 11 C]UCB-A displayed a dose-dependent and reversible binding to SV2A as measured with PET in rats and pigs and the V T could be determined by Logan analysis. The dosimetry was favorable and low enough to allow multiple administrations of [ 11 C]UCB-A to healthy volunteers, and the metabolite analysis showed no sign of labeled metabolites in brain. Conclusions: We have developed the novel PET tracer, [ 11 C]UCB-A, that can be used to measure SV2A expression in vivo. The dosimetry allows up to 5 administrations of 400 MBq of [ 11 C]UCB-A in humans. Apart from measuring drug occupancy, as we have shown, the tracer can potentially be used to compare SV2A expression between individuals because of the rather narrow range of baseline V T values. This will have to be further validated in human studies.

  14. Development of [18F]afatinib as new TKI-PET tracer for EGFR positive tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slobbe, Paul; Windhorst, Albert D.; Walsum, Marijke Stigter-van; Schuit, Robert C.; Smit, Egbert F.; Niessen, Heiko G.; Solca, Flavio; Stehle, Gerd; Dongen, Guus A.M.S. van; Poot, Alex J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Afatinib is an irreversible ErbB family blocker that was approved for the treatment of EGFR mutated non-small cell lung cancer in 2013. Positron emission tomography (PET) with fluorine-18 labeled afatinib provides a means to obtain improved understanding of afatinib tumor disposition in vivo. PET imaging with [ 18 F]afatinib may also provide a method to select treatment responsive patients. The aim of this study was to label afatinib with fluorine-18 and evaluate its potential as TKI-PET tracer in tumor bearing mice. Methods: A radiochemically novel coupling, using peptide coupling reagent BOP, was explored and optimized to synthesize [ 18 F]afatinib, followed by a metabolite analysis and biodistribution studies in two clinically relevant lung cancer cell lines, xenografted in nude mice. Results: A reliable [ 18 F]afatinib radiosynthesis was developed and the tracer could be produced in yields of 17.0 ± 2.5% calculated from [ 18 F]F − and >98% purity. The identity of the product was confirmed by co-injection on HPLC with non-labeled afatinib. Metabolite analysis revealed a moderate rate of metabolism, with >80% intact tracer in plasma at 45 min p.i. Biodistribution studies revealed rapid tumor accumulation and good retention for a period of at least 2 hours, while background tissues showed rapid clearance of the tracer. Conclusion: We have developed a method to synthesize [ 18 F]afatinib and related fluorine-18 labeled 4-anilinoquinazolines. [ 18 F]Afatinib showed good stability in vivo, justifying further evaluation as a TKI-PET tracer

  15. National Biomedical Tracer Facility: Project definition study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaton, R.; Peterson, E.; Smith, P.

    1995-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is an ideal institution and New Mexico is an ideal location for siting the National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). The essence of the Los Alamos proposal is the development of two complementary irradiation facilities that combined with our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities and waste handling and disposal facilities provide a low cost alternative to other proposals that seek to satisfy the objectives of the NBTF. We propose the construction of a 30 MeV cyclotron facility at the site of the radiochemical facilities, and the construction of a 100 MeV target station at LAMPF to satisfy the requirements and objectives of the NBTF. We do not require any modifications to our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities or our waste treatment and disposal facilities to accomplish the objectives of the NBTF. The total capital cost for the facility defined by the project definition study is $15.2 M. This cost estimate includes $9.9 M for the cyclotron and associated facility, $2.0 M for the 100 MeV target station at LAMPF, and $3.3 M for design

  16. National Biomedical Tracer Facility: Project definition study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaton, R.; Peterson, E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Smith, P. [Smith (P.A.) Concepts and Designs (United States)

    1995-05-31

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is an ideal institution and New Mexico is an ideal location for siting the National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). The essence of the Los Alamos proposal is the development of two complementary irradiation facilities that combined with our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities and waste handling and disposal facilities provide a low cost alternative to other proposals that seek to satisfy the objectives of the NBTF. We propose the construction of a 30 MeV cyclotron facility at the site of the radiochemical facilities, and the construction of a 100 MeV target station at LAMPF to satisfy the requirements and objectives of the NBTF. We do not require any modifications to our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities or our waste treatment and disposal facilities to accomplish the objectives of the NBTF. The total capital cost for the facility defined by the project definition study is $15.2 M. This cost estimate includes $9.9 M for the cyclotron and associated facility, $2.0 M for the 100 MeV target station at LAMPF, and $3.3 M for design.

  17. Evaluation of short-term tracer fluctuations in groundwater and soil air in a two year study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, Florian; Mayer, Simon; Aeschbach, Werner; Weissbach, Therese

    2016-04-01

    The application of gas tracers like noble gases (NGs), SF6 or CFCs in groundwater studies such as paleo temperature determination requires a detailed understanding of the dynamics of reactive and inert gases in the soil air with which the infiltrating water equilibrates. Due to microbial gas consumption and production, NG partial pressures in soil air can deviate from atmospheric air, an effect that could bias noble gas temperatures estimates if not taken into account. So far, such an impact on NG contents in groundwater has not been directly demonstrated. We provide the first long-term study of the above mentioned gas tracers and physical parameters in both the saturated and unsaturated soil zone, sampled continuously for more than two years near Mannheim (Germany). NG partial pressures in soil air correlate with soil moisture and the sum value of O2+CO2, with a maximal significant enhancement of 3-6% with respect to atmospheric air during summer time. Observed seasonal fluctuations result in a mass dependent fractionation of NGs in soil air. Concentrations of SF6 and CFCs in soil air are determined by corresponding fluctuations in local atmospheric air, caused by industrial emissions. Arising concentration peaks are damped with increasing soil depth. Shallow groundwater shows short-term NG fluctuations which are smoothed within a few meters below the water table. A correlation between NG contents of soil air and of groundwater is observable during strong recharge events. However, there is no evidence for a permanent influence of seasonal variations of soil air composition on shallow groundwater. Fluctuating NG contents in shallow groundwater are rather determined by variations of soil temperature and water table level. Our data gives evidence for a further temperature driven equilibration of groundwater with entrapped air bubbles within the topmost saturated zone, which permanently occurs even some years after recharge. Local subsurface temperature fluctuations

  18. Lanthanide-based fluorescent tracers in complex media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brichart, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Tracers are objects allowing the determination of the position or the distribution of a product; tracers are currently used in a great variety of domains. Despite the fact that each field has it's own specifications, it is possible to find tracers in medicine (contrast agents), anti-counterfeiting or geological exploration. We have developed lanthanide complex tracers for oil field injection waters. Those tracers, derived from the DOTA, have been detected at concentration lower than 1 ppb, thanks to a simple and compact apparatus. This detection has been made possible by the use of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, this technique allows us to get rid of the background noise created by the intrinsic fluorescence of oil residues that are present in production waters. We also demonstrated how we can, through a reverse microemulsion synthesis, encapsulate several different dyes inside a single nanoparticle composed of a gold core and a silica shell. We showed as well, how those particles can be used as smart tracers to gather data, such as temperature, pH, solvents, etc. inside the well. Finally the use of lanthanides and scale inhibitors properties allowed us to create a simple and fast dosing protocol of such scale inhibitors in injection waters. This dosage will then allow the quick adjustment of their concentration inside each well. (author) [fr

  19. The use of radioactive and other tracers in oil and gas measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edmonds, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    A description and critical discussion of the use of tracer techniques of flowrate measurement in the oil and gas industries. Radioactive tracers are discussed in particular, with emphasis on the practical aspects of their use. Radiotracers suitable for use in industrial environments are described and discussed. The advantages of radiotracers over conventional chemical tracers are reviewed and the logistical problems associated with the use of radioactive materials are considered. The results of measurements conducted using radiotracers on operating plant and on calibration facilities are presented with a discussion of the accuracy of measurement of flowrate which is achievable: potentially, in ideal circumstances, and in practical situations. The modification of tracer techniques of flow measurement to enable residence time distributions to be evaluated and leaks to be located and quantified on operating process plant is illustrated and discussed. The use of specially synthesized radiochemicals for tracing complex petrochemical processes involving chemical reactions and multiproduct streams is described. The use of novel non-radioactive tracers and specialized detection systems is also described, again with practical illustrations of experience in the field. The benefits offered by the use of these tracers and the limitations encountered are discussed. (author)

  20. Combining tracer flux ratio methodology with low-flying aircraft measurements to estimate dairy farm CH4 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daube, C.; Conley, S.; Faloona, I. C.; Yacovitch, T. I.; Roscioli, J. R.; Morris, M.; Curry, J.; Arndt, C.; Herndon, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    Livestock activity, enteric fermentation of feed and anaerobic digestion of waste, contributes significantly to the methane budget of the United States (EPA, 2016). Studies question the reported magnitude of these methane sources (Miller et. al., 2013), calling for more detailed research of agricultural animals (Hristov, 2014). Tracer flux ratio is an attractive experimental method to bring to this problem because it does not rely on estimates of atmospheric dispersion. Collection of data occurred during one week at two dairy farms in central California (June, 2016). Each farm varied in size, layout, head count, and general operation. The tracer flux ratio method involves releasing ethane on-site with a known flow rate to serve as a tracer gas. Downwind mixed enhancements in ethane (from the tracer) and methane (from the dairy) were measured, and their ratio used to infer the unknown methane emission rate from the farm. An instrumented van drove transects downwind of each farm on public roads while tracer gases were released on-site, employing the tracer flux ratio methodology to assess simultaneous methane and tracer gas plumes. Flying circles around each farm, a small instrumented aircraft made measurements to perform a mass balance evaluation of methane gas. In the course of these two different methane quantification techniques, we were able to validate yet a third method: tracer flux ratio measured via aircraft. Ground-based tracer release rates were applied to the aircraft-observed methane-to-ethane ratios, yielding whole-site methane emission rates. Never before has the tracer flux ratio method been executed with aircraft measurements. Estimates from this new application closely resemble results from the standard ground-based technique to within their respective uncertainties. Incorporating this new dimension to the tracer flux ratio methodology provides additional context for local plume dynamics and validation of both ground and flight-based data.

  1. Evaluation of Parameter Uncertainty Reduction in Groundwater Flow Modeling Using Multiple Environmental Tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, B. W.; Gardner, P.

    2013-12-01

    Calibration of groundwater flow models for the purpose of evaluating flow and aquifer heterogeneity typically uses observations of hydraulic head in wells and appropriate boundary conditions. Environmental tracers have a wide variety of decay rates and input signals in recharge, resulting in a potentially broad source of additional information to constrain flow rates and heterogeneity. A numerical study was conducted to evaluate the reduction in uncertainty during model calibration using observations of various environmental tracers and combinations of tracers. A synthetic data set was constructed by simulating steady groundwater flow and transient tracer transport in a high-resolution, 2-D aquifer with heterogeneous permeability and porosity using the PFLOTRAN software code. Data on pressure and tracer concentration were extracted at well locations and then used as observations for automated calibration of a flow and transport model using the pilot point method and the PEST code. Optimization runs were performed to estimate parameter values of permeability at 30 pilot points in the model domain for cases using 42 observations of: 1) pressure, 2) pressure and CFC11 concentrations, 3) pressure and Ar-39 concentrations, and 4) pressure, CFC11, Ar-39, tritium, and He-3 concentrations. Results show significantly lower uncertainty, as indicated by the 95% linear confidence intervals, in permeability values at the pilot points for cases including observations of environmental tracer concentrations. The average linear uncertainty range for permeability at the pilot points using pressure observations alone is 4.6 orders of magnitude, using pressure and CFC11 concentrations is 1.6 orders of magnitude, using pressure and Ar-39 concentrations is 0.9 order of magnitude, and using pressure, CFC11, Ar-39, tritium, and He-3 concentrations is 1.0 order of magnitude. Data on Ar-39 concentrations result in the greatest parameter uncertainty reduction because its half-life of 269

  2. UKAEA code of practice for tracer and irradiation studies involving the use of volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchard, J.N.; Morgan, A.

    1987-06-01

    The subject is discussed under the following headings: 1) General considerations in volunteer studies (informed consent, beneficial objectives, recruitment from within or without the workforce, records, compensation, codes of practice, confidentiality etc.) 2) Tracer and irradiation studies approval committee, (terms of reference, membership, dose limitations, assessment of chemical toxicity, procedure for submitting proposals) 3) Obtaining a project licence 4) Conduct of volunteer experiments 5) The use of non-authority volunteers. (U.K.)

  3. A description of the atmospheric tracer technology used at the J.R.C.-Ispra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaglione, P.

    1988-01-01

    Atmospheric tracers are a versatile tool that can be used in conjunction with basic meteorological investigations and models to gain a better understanding of the dynamical behaviour of atmospheric pollutants on both the local and regional scales. The tracer activity was initiated at Ispra about ten years ago, with the aim of providing an experimental support to the research activity carried out in the field of air pollution modeling. At the time the area of interest was mainly related to the atmospheric dispersion on a local scale of pollutants released from stacks of power stations, therefore a technique using SF 6 as a tracer was implemented. In the last few years some efforts have been devoted also to the determination of the atmospheric dispersion parameters in the mesoscale and in the regional scale. Due to the limitations in the use of SF 6 over these distances, a new technique utilizing perfluorocarbons (C 7 F 14 and C 8 F 16 ) as tracers has been implemented and positively tested in the field, even though limited until now to a few short range experiments. The purpose of this presentation is to describe the tracer technology developments at the J.R.C.-Ispra including the main results obtained in different field studies

  4. Study of leak detection using tracers in a bottling plant in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vizuet Gonzalez, Jorge; Reyes Jimenez, Jose Luis; Molina, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    The Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), Mexico, promoted the application of different techniques, involving the use of radioactive materials. Among them is the use of radioactive material as a medium tracer in the industry. Below is a study of locating leaks in ducts collectors of process water of a bottling plant which had several problems, one was not able to stop production, and most important, having to disassemble a large amount of machinery and equipment, in order to open the floor and locate the leak

  5. Advancing Reactive Tracer Methods for Measurement of Thermal Evolution in Geothermal Reservoirs: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell A. Plummer; Carl D. Palmer; Earl D. Mattson; Laurence C. Hull; George D. Redden

    2011-07-01

    The injection of cold fluids into engineered geothermal system (EGS) and conventional geothermal reservoirs may be done to help extract heat from the subsurface or to maintain pressures within the reservoir (e.g., Rose et al., 2001). As these injected fluids move along fractures, they acquire heat from the rock matrix and remove it from the reservoir as they are extracted to the surface. A consequence of such injection is the migration of a cold-fluid front through the reservoir (Figure 1) that could eventually reach the production well and result in the lowering of the temperature of the produced fluids (thermal breakthrough). Efficient operation of an EGS as well as conventional geothermal systems involving cold-fluid injection requires accurate and timely information about thermal depletion of the reservoir in response to operation. In particular, accurate predictions of the time to thermal breakthrough and subsequent rate of thermal drawdown are necessary for reservoir management, design of fracture stimulation and well drilling programs, and forecasting of economic return. A potential method for estimating migration of a cold front between an injection well and a production well is through application of reactive tracer tests, using chemical whose rate of degradation is dependent on the reservoir temperature between the two wells (e.g., Robinson 1985). With repeated tests, the rate of migration of the thermal front can be determined, and the time to thermal breakthrough calculated. While the basic theory behind the concept of thermal tracers has been understood for some time, effective application of the method has yet to be demonstrated. This report describes results of a study that used several methods to investigate application of reactive tracers to monitoring the thermal evolution of a geothermal reservoir. These methods included (1) mathematical investigation of the sensitivity of known and hypothetical reactive tracers, (2) laboratory testing of novel

  6. Can radiocaesium be used as a tracer for vegetal nutrients?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjos, R. M.; Mosquera, B.; Carvalho, C.; Sanches, N.; Bastos, J.; Macario, K.; Vezzone, M.; Gomes, P.R.S.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the evaluation of nutrient fluxes and radioactive contaminants in forest and agricultural ecosystems. Several studies on forest ecosystems have been carried out, mostly in Europe, after the Chernobyl accident. These studies have been performed mainly in the development of models for predicting the radiocaesium behavior in the soil and plant compartments of forest systems. However, research on the use of radiocaesium as a tracer for vegetal nutrients has shown that, despite the fact that caesium is a weakly hydrated alkaline metal and has chemical similarities to potassium and ammonium, this is still a complex problem requiring, then, more experimental results. Additionally, very little is known about the mechanisms involved in the radionuclide uptake and retention by tropical plants. In order to contribute to the understanding of the relative behavior of caesium, potassium and ammonium and to investigate whether radiocaesium can be used as a tracer for vegetal nutrients, the Laboratory of Radioecology (LARA) of the Federal Fluminense University has been performing analysis of 137 Cs, 40 K and NH 4 concentrations in several vegetal compartments of agricultural tropical plants, such as guava (Psidium guajava), mango (Mangifera indica), avocado (Persea americana), pomegranate (Punica granatum), papaya (Carica Papaya), banana (Musa paradisiaca), manioc (Manihot Esculenta), and chili pepper (Capsicum fructescens) trees. Measurements of 137 Cs, 40 K and NH 4 concentrations show that these elements can be very mobile within a plant, exhibiting the highest values of concentration in the growing parts of the trees: fruits, leaves, twigs, barks and the outer growth layers. On the other hand, our results indicate that for wood trees (such as guava, mango, avocado, pomegranate and chili pepper trees) do both caesium and the vegetal nutrients have simultaneously higher concentrations in the youngest rather than in the oldest

  7. TU-AB-202-11: Tumor Segmentation by Fusion of Multi-Tracer PET Images Using Copula Based Statistical Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapuyade-Lahorgue, J; Ruan, S; Li, H; Vera, P

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Multi-tracer PET imaging is getting more attention in radiotherapy by providing additional tumor volume information such as glucose and oxygenation. However, automatic PET-based tumor segmentation is still a very challenging problem. We propose a statistical fusion approach to joint segment the sub-area of tumors from the two tracers FDG and FMISO PET images. Methods: Non-standardized Gamma distributions are convenient to model intensity distributions in PET. As a serious correlation exists in multi-tracer PET images, we proposed a new fusion method based on copula which is capable to represent dependency between different tracers. The Hidden Markov Field (HMF) model is used to represent spatial relationship between PET image voxels and statistical dynamics of intensities for each modality. Real PET images of five patients with FDG and FMISO are used to evaluate quantitatively and qualitatively our method. A comparison between individual and multi-tracer segmentations was conducted to show advantages of the proposed fusion method. Results: The segmentation results show that fusion with Gaussian copula can receive high Dice coefficient of 0.84 compared to that of 0.54 and 0.3 of monomodal segmentation results based on individual segmentation of FDG and FMISO PET images. In addition, high correlation coefficients (0.75 to 0.91) for the Gaussian copula for all five testing patients indicates the dependency between tumor regions in the multi-tracer PET images. Conclusion: This study shows that using multi-tracer PET imaging can efficiently improve the segmentation of tumor region where hypoxia and glucidic consumption are present at the same time. Introduction of copulas for modeling the dependency between two tracers can simultaneously take into account information from both tracers and deal with two pathological phenomena. Future work will be to consider other families of copula such as spherical and archimedian copulas, and to eliminate partial volume

  8. ''In situ'' migration tests at the Berrocal site with conservative isotopic tracers: laboratory and field results from phase I of the project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Alessandro, M.; Mousty, F.; Guimera, J.; Yllera de Llano, A.

    1996-01-01

    Cross-hole migration tests were performed between two boreholes connected by a fracture in the granite aquifer of the El Berrocal site. The suitability of a natural isotopic tracer (''79BR) as hydrological marker of groundwater movement, was evaluated on the basis of laboratory and field tests. Small scale infiltration experiments with granite cored columns and repacked columns of crushed granite showed that the change of the natural isotopic ratio ''79Br/''81Br with time can be used to monitor the tracer breakthrough. Comparison was made with other non-sorbing tracers, such as tritiated water, chloride and iodide. The difference in travel time of halides was ascribed to anion exclusion and ion size effects. The in-situ migration test demonstrated the feasibility of the described technique for monitoring the groundwater movement without altering the geochemistry of the site. The following approach has been chosen: 1) a first preliminary test demonstrating the feasibility of using the enriched isotopic tracer technique for ''in-situ''tests. 2) Preliminary assessment of the parameters necessary to plan a radial-flow migration test directed to characterize the permeable system through the definition of the hydrodynamic parameters of the fracture. (Author)

  9. Diagnostic Implications of the Reactivity of Fluorescence Tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sick, V; Westbrook, C

    2008-07-14

    Measurements of fuel concentration distributions with planar laser induced fluorescence of tracer molecules that are added to a base fuel are commonly used in combustion research and development. It usually is assumed that the tracer concentration follows the parent fuel concentration if physical properties such as those determining evaporation are matched. As an example to address this general issue a computational study of combustion of biacetyl/iso-octane mixtures was performed to investigate how well the concentration of biacetyl represents the concentration of iso-octane. For premixed mixture conditions with flame propagation the spatial concentration profiles of the two species in the flame front are separated by 110 {micro}m at 1 bar and by 11 {micro}m at 10 bar. For practical applications this spatial separation is insignificantly small. However, for conditions that mimic ignition and combustion in diesel and HCCI-like operation the differences in tracer and fuel concentration can be significant, exceeding hundreds of percent. At low initial temperature biacetyl was found to be more stable whereas at higher temperature (>1000K) iso-octane is more stable. Similar findings were obtained for a multi-component fuel comprised of iso-octane, n-heptane, methylcyclohexane, and toluene. It may be assumed that similar differences can exist for other tracer/fuel combinations. Caution has therefore to be applied when interpreting PLIF measurements in homogeneous reaction conditions such as in HCCI engine studies.

  10. Industrial tracer application in people's republic of china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Maoyi

    1987-01-01

    A number of important applications of radioisotopes and their compounds used as tracers in petroleum industry, metallurgical industry, mechanical industry, chemical industry, electronic industry, hydrology and water conservancy in China are introduced in this paper. And the tracer technique applied to entomology is also mentioned. The industrial tracer applications are successful and beneficial in People's Republic of China from the examples given. (author)

  11. Fluorescence characteristics of the fuel tracers triethylamine and trimethylamine for the investigation of fuel distribution in internal combustion engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Susanne; Aßmann, Simon; Zigan, Lars; Will, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence based on fuel tracers like amines is a suitable measurement technique for mixing studies in internal combustion (IC) engines. Triethylamine has often been used in gasoline IC engines; however, no detailed fluorescence characterization for excitation at 263 or 266 nm is available. Trimethylamine (TMA) exhibits high potential as a gaseous fuel tracer but little information about TMA fluorescence is currently available. A picosecond laser source combined with a streak camera equipped with a spectrograph was used to determine the spectral fluorescence emission and fluorescence decay time of both tracers. The tracers were investigated at various temperatures and pressures in a calibration cell with nitrogen as bath gas. The results provide an in-depth understanding of the fluorescence characteristics of both tracers and allow assessment of their application to the investigation of fuel distribution in IC engines.

  12. Commercial applications of perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, R.N.

    1991-06-01

    Tracer technology can be successfully applied to many leak-checking and monitoring evaluations of operating systems (e.g., building HVACs), manufacturing processes and products (e.g., air conditioners), and subsurface components and systems (e.g., underground storage tanks). Perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technology is the most sensitive of all tracer technologies because the ambient background levels of the five (5) routinely-used PFTs are in the range of parts per 10 15 parts of air (i.e., parts per quadrillion-ppq) and this technology's instrumentation can measure down to those levels. The effectiveness of this technology is achieved both in terms of cost (very little PFT need to be used) and detectability; for example, very small leaks can be rapidly detected. The PFT compounds, which are environmentally and biologically safe to use, are commercially available as are the sampling and analysis instrumentation. This presentation concerns (1) the steps being taken to commercialize this technology, (2) new applications of processes currently under study, and (3) applications in areas of use that will be particularly beneficial to the environment. 21 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Multimodel analysis of anisotropic diffusive tracer-gas transport in a deep arid unsaturated zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher T.; Walvoord, Michelle Ann; Andraski, Brian J.; Striegl, Robert G.; Stonestrom, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Gas transport in the unsaturated zone affects contaminant flux and remediation, interpretation of groundwater travel times from atmospheric tracers, and mass budgets of environmentally important gases. Although unsaturated zone transport of gases is commonly treated as dominated by diffusion, the characteristics of transport in deep layered sediments remain uncertain. In this study, we use a multimodel approach to analyze results of a gas-tracer (SF6) test to clarify characteristics of gas transport in deep unsaturated alluvium. Thirty-five separate models with distinct diffusivity structures were calibrated to the tracer-test data and were compared on the basis of Akaike Information Criteria estimates of posterior model probability. Models included analytical and numerical solutions. Analytical models provided estimates of bulk-scale apparent diffusivities at the scale of tens of meters. Numerical models provided information on local-scale diffusivities and feasible lithological features producing the observed tracer breakthrough curves. The combined approaches indicate significant anisotropy of bulk-scale diffusivity, likely associated with high-diffusivity layers. Both approaches indicated that diffusivities in some intervals were greater than expected from standard models relating porosity to diffusivity. High apparent diffusivities and anisotropic diffusivity structures were consistent with previous observations at the study site of rapid lateral transport and limited vertical spreading of gas-phase contaminants. Additional processes such as advective oscillations may be involved. These results indicate that gases in deep, layered unsaturated zone sediments can spread laterally more quickly, and produce higher peak concentrations, than predicted by homogeneous, isotropic diffusion models.

  14. Application of multiple tracers (SF6 and chloride) to identify the transport by characteristics of contaminant at two separate contaminated sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K. K.; Lee, S. S.; Kim, H. H.; Koh, E. H.; Kim, M. O.; Lee, K.; Kim, H. J.

    2016-12-01

    Multiple tracers were applied for source and pathway detection at two different sites. CO2 gas injected in the subsurface for a shallow-depth CO2 injection and leak test can be regarded as a potential contaminant source. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the migration pattern of CO2 gas. Also, at a DNAPL contaminated site, it is important to figure out the characteristics of plume evolution from the source zone. In this study, multiple tracers (SF6 and chloride) were used to evaluate the applicability of volatile and non-volatile tracers and to identify the characteristics of contaminant transport at each CO2 injection and leak test site and DNAPL contaminated site. Firstly, at the CO2 test site, multiple tracers were used to perform the single well push-drift-pull tracer test at total 3 specific depth zones. As results of tests, volatile and non-volatile tracers showed different mass recovery percentage. Most of chloride mass was recovered but less than half of SF6 mass was recovered due to volatile property. This means that only gaseous SF6 leak out to unsaturated zone. However, breakthrough curves of both tracers indicated similar peak time, effective porosity, and regional groundwater velocity. Also, at both contaminated sites, natural gradient tracer tests were performed with multiple tracers. With the results of natural gradient tracer test, it was possible to confirm the applicability of multiple tracers and to understand the contaminant transport in highly heterogeneous aquifer systems through the long-term monitoring of tracers. Acknowledgement: financial support was provided by the R&D Project on Environmental Management of Geologic CO2 Storage)" from the KEITI (Project Number: 2014001810003) and Korea Ministry of Environment as "The GAIA project (2014000540010)".

  15. Tracer tests Wairakei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, W.J.; Manning, M.R.; Barry, B.J.

    1980-07-01

    The report summarises the radioactive tracer tests, using iodine-131 and bromine-82, made in the Wairakei geothermal field over the period 1978-80. Injection of tracer into three wells with strong cool water downflows at about 300-400m below ground level, produced strong rapid responses from the only deep wells feeding from about 800-1000m and lying in the south-westerly direction from the injection wells, i.e. parallel to the fault planes. Shallower wells, even though in some cases much closer to the injection well, reacted much more slowly. Velocities, as measured by peak arrival times, as high as 22m/h over 200m and 11m/h over 650m, were found. The flow patterns for the cool water feeds to the production area are discussed

  16. TRACER - TRACING AND CONTROL OF ENGINEERING REQUIREMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, P. R.

    1994-01-01

    TRACER (Tracing and Control of Engineering Requirements) is a database/word processing system created to document and maintain the order of both requirements and descriptive material associated with an engineering project. A set of hierarchical documents are normally generated for a project whereby the requirements of the higher level documents levy requirements on the same level or lower level documents. Traditionally, the requirements are handled almost entirely by manual paper methods. The problem with a typical paper system, however, is that requirements written and changed continuously in different areas lead to misunderstandings and noncompliance. The purpose of TRACER is to automate the capture, tracing, reviewing, and managing of requirements for an engineering project. The engineering project still requires communications, negotiations, interactions, and iterations among people and organizations, but TRACER promotes succinct and precise identification and treatment of real requirements separate from the descriptive prose in a document. TRACER permits the documentation of an engineering project's requirements and progress in a logical, controllable, traceable manner. TRACER's attributes include the presentation of current requirements and status from any linked computer terminal and the ability to differentiate headers and descriptive material from the requirements. Related requirements can be linked and traced. The program also enables portions of documents to be printed, individual approval and release of requirements, and the tracing of requirements down into the equipment specification. Requirement "links" can be made "pending" and invisible to others until the pending link is made "binding". Individuals affected by linked requirements can be notified of significant changes with acknowledgement of the changes required. An unlimited number of documents can be created for a project and an ASCII import feature permits existing documents to be incorporated

  17. The use of tracer techniques to measure water flow rates in steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitfield, O.J.; Blaylock, G.; Gale, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive and chemical tracers offer some unique advantages in detailed flow measurement on steam turbine plant. A series of experiments on a nuclear power station are reported where tracers successfully measured water flow rates and the initial steam moisture with an accuracy suitable for performance and commissioning tests. Both radioactive and chemical tracer methods produced identical results. Straightforward practical procedures were evolved that ensured repeatable accuracy and in addition a quantitative method of detecting heater leaks on load was established. (author)

  18. Study of the mineralization of coral implanted in vivo by radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irigaray, J.L.; Sauvage, T.; Oudadesse, H.; El Fadl, H.

    1993-01-01

    Coral may be used as a substitution biomaterial to the bone graft, due to its physico-chemical and architectural properties. The coral, after its implantation 'in vivo' reaches a mineral composition and crystalline structure comparable to those of a bone. The calcification mechanism of this implant is studied using 45 Ca as radioactive tracer. The atomic elements contained in the initial coral were analysed in function of the time spent in the body, by marking the calcium and the strontium contained in its structure. (K.A.) 8 refs.; 6 figs.; 4 tabs

  19. Remarks relating to field experiments to measure the wet scavenging of tracer aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stensland, G.J.

    1977-12-01

    An important question is whether or not the wet deposition of debris from a single (or multiple) airburst of a nuclear device poses a significant hazard to people on the ground. To answer this question for various scenarios, a basic understanding of the aerosol attachment rates to cloud water and raindrops is needed. The attachment rates can then be incorporated into the cloud physics scavenging models to make intelligent assessments. In order to gain an initial impression as to the importance (order of magnitude) of the wet scavenging effects and to provide the data to validate the cloud scavenging models, tracer release field experiments are useful and necessary. The major purpose of this report is to address questions related to the operation and interpretation of such field tracer efforts and in particular to consider the results from the August 3, 1972, Battelle Northwest Laboratory tracer experiment in St. Louis. The Battelle experiment involved the release of several aerosol tracers at 10,000 to 13,000 feet, near rain clouds, and the measurement of the resulting tracer in the rain collected at the ground level sampling sites

  20. Study on chromium speciation in rats by the isotope tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Weiyue; Qian Qinfang; Ding Wenjun; Chai Zhifang

    1999-01-01

    The chromium speciation in the liver cytosol fraction, serum and urine of both normal and diabetic rats are studied by the enriched stable isotope tracer technique combined with the get chromatography and the neutron activating analysis (NAA). The results are as follows: (1) When Cr(III) enters the animal body, it is most likely to be combined with serum proteins. The chromium-protein compound acts as a carrier to transport Cr to the whole body. In the liver cytosol fraction, Cr (III) is also mainly combined with the high molecular weight protein and retains as chromium-protein substance in the liver. (2) A low molecular weight chromium-containing compound is found in all the liver cell cytosol fraction, serum and urine of the two group rats. (3) The diabetic rats lose more amount of low molecular weight of chromium compound in urine than the normal rats do. This might be a main reason to explain why the diabetic rats retain lower Cr in their bodies than the normal group

  1. Characterization of two-phase flow regimes in horizontal tubes using {sup 81m}Kr tracer experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oriol, Jean [LPAC, CEA Grenoble, 17, rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Leclerc, Jean Pierre [Laboratoire des Sciences du Genie Chimique (LSGC), Nancy-Universite, CNRS, BP 20451, F-54001 Nancy (France)], E-mail: leclerc@ensic.inpl-nancy.fr; Berne, Philippe; Gousseau, Georges [L2T, CEA Grenoble, 17, rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Jallut, Christian [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, LAGEP, UMR CNRS 5007, ESCPE, 43 Bd du 11 novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Tochon, Patrice; Clement, Patrice [GRETh, CEA Grenoble, 17, rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2008-10-15

    The diagnosis of heat exchangers on duty with respect to flow mal-distributions needs the development of non-intrusive inlet-outlet experimental techniques in order to perform an online fault diagnosis. Tracer experiments are an example of such techniques. They can be applied to mono-phase heat exchangers but also to multi-phase ones. In this case, the tracer experiments are more difficult to perform. In order to check for the capabilities of tracer experiments to be used for the flow mal-distribution diagnosis in the case of multi-phase heat exchangers, we present here a preliminary study on the simplest possible system: two-phase flows in a horizontal tube. {sup 81m}Kr is used as gas tracer and properly collimated NaI (TI) crystal scintillators as detectors. The specific shape of the tracer response allows two-phase flow regimes to be characterized. Signal analysis allows the estimation of the gas phase real average velocity and consequently of the liquid phase real average velocity as well as of the volumetric void fraction. These results are compared successfully to those obtained with liquid phase tracer experiments previously presented by Oriol et al. 2007. Characterization of the two-phase flow regimes and liquid dispersion in horizontal and vertical tubes using coloured tracer and no intrusive optical detector. Chem. Eng. Sci. 63(1), 24-34, as well as to those given by correlations from literature.

  2. Complex functionality with minimal computation: Promise and pitfalls of reduced-tracer ocean biogeochemistry models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Eric D.; Dunne, John P.; Gnanadesikan, Anand; Slater, Richard D.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Dufour, Carolina O.; de Souza, Gregory F.; Bianchi, Daniele; Claret, Mariona; Rodgers, Keith B.; Marvasti, Seyedehsafoura Sedigh

    2015-12-01

    Earth System Models increasingly include ocean biogeochemistry models in order to predict changes in ocean carbon storage, hypoxia, and biological productivity under climate change. However, state-of-the-art ocean biogeochemical models include many advected tracers, that significantly increase the computational resources required, forcing a trade-off with spatial resolution. Here, we compare a state-of-the art model with 30 prognostic tracers (TOPAZ) with two reduced-tracer models, one with 6 tracers (BLING), and the other with 3 tracers (miniBLING). The reduced-tracer models employ parameterized, implicit biological functions, which nonetheless capture many of the most important processes resolved by TOPAZ. All three are embedded in the same coupled climate model. Despite the large difference in tracer number, the absence of tracers for living organic matter is shown to have a minimal impact on the transport of nutrient elements, and the three models produce similar mean annual preindustrial distributions of macronutrients, oxygen, and carbon. Significant differences do exist among the models, in particular the seasonal cycle of biomass and export production, but it does not appear that these are necessary consequences of the reduced tracer number. With increasing CO2, changes in dissolved oxygen and anthropogenic carbon uptake are very similar across the different models. Thus, while the reduced-tracer models do not explicitly resolve the diversity and internal dynamics of marine ecosystems, we demonstrate that such models are applicable to a broad suite of major biogeochemical concerns, including anthropogenic change. These results are very promising for the further development and application of reduced-tracer biogeochemical models that incorporate "sub-ecosystem-scale" parameterizations.

  3. 26Al tracer experiment by accelerator mass spectrometry and its application to the studies for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Koichi; Yumoto, Sakae; Nagai, Hisao; Hosoyama, Yoshiyuki; Imamura, Mineo; Masuzawa, Shin-ichirou; Koizumi, Yoshinobu; Yamashita, Hiroshi.

    1990-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was applied for 26 Al tracer experiment to study the aluminum toxicity and metabolism in rats. To investigate the cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Alzheimer's disease, the aluminum incorporation into the brain (cerebrum) was studied by AMS using 26 Al as a tracer. When 26 Al was intraperitoneally injected into rats, a considerable amount of 26 Al was incorporated into the cerebrum after 5-35 days of the injection. (author)

  4. Quantifying postfire aeolian sediment transport using rare earth element tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukes, David; Gonzales, Howell B.; Ravi, Sujith; Grandstaff, David E.; Van Pelt, R. Scott; Li, Junran; Wang, Guan; Sankey, Joel B.

    2018-01-01

    Grasslands, which provide fundamental ecosystem services in many arid and semiarid regions of the world, are undergoing rapid increases in fire activity and are highly susceptible to postfire-accelerated soil erosion by wind. A quantitative assessment of physical processes that integrates fire-wind erosion feedbacks is therefore needed relative to vegetation change, soil biogeochemical cycling, air quality, and landscape evolution. We investigated the applicability of a novel tracer technique—the use of multiple rare earth elements (REE)—to quantify soil transport by wind and to identify sources and sinks of wind-blown sediments in both burned and unburned shrub-grass transition zone in the Chihuahuan Desert, NM, USA. Results indicate that the horizontal mass flux of wind-borne sediment increased approximately threefold following the fire. The REE tracer analysis of wind-borne sediments shows that the source of the horizontal mass flux in the unburned site was derived from bare microsites (88.5%), while in the burned site it was primarily sourced from shrub (42.3%) and bare (39.1%) microsites. Vegetated microsites which were predominantly sinks of aeolian sediments in the unburned areas became sediment sources following the fire. The burned areas showed a spatial homogenization of sediment tracers, highlighting a potential negative feedback on landscape heterogeneity induced by shrub encroachment into grasslands. Though fires are known to increase aeolian sediment transport, accompanying changes in the sources and sinks of wind-borne sediments may influence biogeochemical cycling and land degradation dynamics. Furthermore, our experiment demonstrated that REEs can be used as reliable tracers for field-scale aeolian studies.

  5. Fluorescence guided surgery and tracer-dose, fact or fiction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KleinJan, Gijs H.; Olmos, Renato A.V.; Bunschoten, Anton; Berg, Nynke S. van den; Klop, W.M.C.; Horenblas, Simon; Poel, Henk G. van der; Wester, Hans-Juergen; Leeuwen, Fijs W.B. van

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence guidance is an upcoming methodology to improve surgical accuracy. Challenging herein is the identification of the minimum dose at which the tracer can be detected with a clinical-grade fluorescence camera. Using a hybrid tracer such as indocyanine green (ICG)- 99m Tc-nanocolloid, it has become possible to determine the accumulation of tracer and correlate this to intraoperative fluorescence-based identification rates. In the current study, we determined the lower detection limit of tracer at which intraoperative fluorescence guidance was still feasible. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) provided a laboratory set-up to analyze the chemical content and to simulate the migratory behavior of ICG-nanocolloid in tissue. Tracer accumulation and intraoperative fluorescence detection findings were derived from a retrospective analysis of 20 head-and-neck melanoma patients, 40 penile and 20 prostate cancer patients scheduled for sentinel node (SN) biopsy using ICG- 99m Tc-nanocolloid. In these patients, following tracer injection, single photon emission computed tomography fused with computed tomography (SPECT/CT) was used to identify the SN(s). The percentage injected dose (% ID), the amount of ICG (in nmol), and the concentration of ICG in the SNs (in μM) was assessed for SNs detected on SPECT/CT and correlated with the intraoperative fluorescence imaging findings. SEC determined that in the hybrid tracer formulation, 41 % (standard deviation: 12 %) of ICG was present in nanocolloid-bound form. In the SNs detected using fluorescence guidance a median of 0.88 % ID was present, compared to a median of 0.25 % ID in the non-fluorescent SNs (p-value < 0.001). The % ID values could be correlated to the amount ICG in a SN (range: 0.003-10.8 nmol) and the concentration of ICG in a SN (range: 0.006-64.6 μM). The ability to provide intraoperative fluorescence guidance is dependent on the amount and concentration of the fluorescent dye accumulated in the lesion(s) of

  6. Nanoparticle tracers in calcium carbonate porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yan Vivian; Cathles, Lawrence M.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2014-01-01

    the fractures or channels where flow occurs and thus take much less time to travel between two points. In combination with a chemical tracer they can measure the degree of flow concentration. A prerequisite for tracer applications is that the particles

  7. Tracers of cancer cells in nuclear oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamgac, F.; Baillet, G.; Moretti, J.L.; Safi, N.; Weinmann, P.; Beco, V. de

    1997-01-01

    Evaluating the extent of disease is important in planning cancer treatment. Different types of tracers are used in vivo to diagnose tumors and these tracers can give supplementary information on the differentiation degree of tumors and response to therapy. (authors)

  8. 15N tracer techniques in pediatric research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heine, W.; Richter, I.; Plath, C.; Wutzke, K.; Stolpe, H.J.; Tiess, M.; Toewe, J.

    1983-01-01

    The main topics of the review comprise mathematical fundamentals of the determination of N metabolism parameters using the 3-pool method, the value of different 15 N tracer substances for the determination of whole-body protein parameters, the utilization of parenterally applied D-amino acids, studies on the influence of different diets on the N metabolism of premature infants with the 15 N tracer technique, the application of the 15 N-glycine-STH-test for the evaluation of the therapeutic effect of STH in children suffering from hypothalamico-hypophyseal dwarfism, in vivo studies on urea utilization by the infant intestinal flora under various dietary regimens as well as in vitro investigations on the utilization of 15 N-labelled urea and NH 4 Cl, resp., by the intestinal flora

  9. Development of in-vessel source term analysis code, tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagi, K.; Miyahara, S.

    1996-01-01

    Analyses of radionuclide transport in fuel failure accidents (generally referred to source terms) are considered to be important especially in the severe accident evaluation. The TRACER code has been developed to realistically predict the time dependent behavior of FPs and aerosols within the primary cooling system for wide range of fuel failure events. This paper presents the model description, results of validation study, the recent model advancement status of the code, and results of check out calculations under reactor conditions. (author)

  10. A tracer investigation of the atmospheric dispersion in the Dyrnaes Valley, Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryning, S.-E.; Lyck, E.

    1983-02-01

    Mining at Kvanefjeld, Greenland, will result in releases of air pollution gases. In order to measure the dilution of these gases tracer experiments were carried out in July-August 1981. Results from these experiments are described. The Kvanefjeld constitutes the northwestern side of a valley. The tracer was released at the Kvanefjeld during the night and sampled in the valley. The measured tracer concentrations were compared with those calculated by use of a conventional model of the dispersion of plumes. The dilution of the tracer was found to correspond to the dilution at ground level of a plume from a stack of 100-200 m height in atmospheric neutral conditions (wind speed 5 m/s). General aspects of the flow-field in the valley are discussed. It was observed that the flow direction in the valley shifts between downvalley and upvalley with a period of approximately 1 hour. It is suggested that this behaviour is caused by the interplay of a drainage flow and a sea-breeze. (author)

  11. Recent and ancient recharge deciphered by multi-dating tracer technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogramaci, Shawan; Cook, Peter; Mccallum, Jimes; Purtchert, Roland

    2017-04-01

    Determining groundwater residence time from environmental tracer concentrations obtained from open bores or long screened intervals is fraught with difficulty because the sampled water represents variety of ages. Information on the distribution of groundwater age is commonly obtained by measuring more than one tracer. We examined the use of the multi-tracer technique representing different time frames (39Ar, 85Kr, 14C, 3H, CFC 11- CFC-12 CFC-113, SF6 and Cl,) to decipher the groundwater ages sampled from long screened bores in a regional aquifer in the Pilbara region of northwest Australia. We then applied a technique that assumes limited details of the form of the age distribution. Tracer concentrations suggest that groundwater samples are a mixture of young and old water - the former is inferred to represent localised recharge from an adjacent creek, and the latter to be diffuse recharge. Using our method, we were able to identify distinct age components in the groundwater. The results suggest the presence of four distinct age groups; zero and 20 years, 50 to 100 years, 100 to 600 years and approximately 1000 years old. These relatively high recharge events were consistent with local recharge sources (50-100 years) and confirmed by palaeo-climate record obtained from lake sediments. We found that although the ages of these components were well constrained, the relative proportions of each component was highly sensitive to errors of environmental tracer data. Our results show that the method we implemented can identify distinct age groups in groundwater samples without prior knowledge of the age distribution. The presence of distinct recharge times gives insight into groundwater flow conditions over long periods of time.

  12. Chemotherapeutic agent and tracer composition and use thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babb, A. L.

    1985-01-01

    A therapeutic composition suitable for extracorporeal treatment of whole blood comprises a dialyzable chemotherapeutic agent and a dialyzable fluorescable tracer means. The removal rate of the fluorescable tracer compound from treated blood during hemodialysis is a function of the removal rate of unreacted chemotherapeutic agent present. The residual chemotherapeutic agent concentration after hemodialysis is ascertained by measuring the concentration of the fluorescable tracer compound in a dialysate using fluorometric techniques

  13. Interconnection Studies of Subsurface River Between Bribin and Ngreneng by Using Radioisotope Tracer Iodium-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wibagiyo

    2004-01-01

    Interconnection Studies of Subsurface River Between Bribin and Ngreneng by Using Radioisotope Tracer Iodium-131, carried out in 2002, the similar studies was also conducted in 2000 from subsurface river in Jurang Jero sinkhole, where the radioactivity appeared at Bribin cave 4 hours and 8 hours at Ngreneng cave. There is a question whether a subsurface river is flowing from Jurang Jero sinkhole to Bribin cave and then to Ngreneng cave, or from Jurang Jero sinkhole there is junction to Bribin and to Ngreneng. in 2002 a Germany team founded junction on up stream of river in Bribin cave, from the junction was carried out tracing which monitoring in Ngreneng cave. Where the result a junction connecting with Ngreneng cave, but the main stream in Bribin not connecting with Ngreneng. (author)

  14. Synthesis of tracers using automated radiochemistry and robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dannals, R.F.

    1992-07-01

    Synthesis of high specific activity radiotracers labeled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides for positron emission tomography (PET) often requires handling large initial quantities of radioactivity. High specific activities are required when preparing tracers for use in PET studies of neuroreceptors. A fully automated approach for tracer synthesis is highly desirable. This proposal involves the development of a system for the Synthesis of Tracers using Automated Radiochemistry and Robotics (STARR) for this purpose. While the long range objective of the proposed research is the development of a totally automated radiochemistry system for the production of major high specific activity 11 C-radiotracers for use in PET, the specific short range objectives are the automation of 11 C-methyl iodide ( 11 CH 3 I) production via an integrated approach using both radiochemistry modular labstations and robotics, and the extension of this automated capability to the production of several radiotracers for PET (initially, 11 C-methionine, 3-N-[ 11 C-methyl]spiperone, and [ 11 C]-carfentanil)

  15. PET tracers for somatostatin receptor imaging of neuroendocrine tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnbeck, Camilla Bardram; Knigge, Ulrich; Kjær, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors have shown rising incidence mainly due to higher clinical awareness and better diagnostic tools over the last 30 years. Functional imaging of neuroendocrine tumors with PET tracers is an evolving field that is continuously refining the affinity of new tracers in the search...... these PET tracers further....

  16. Control of motion stability of the line tracer robot using fuzzy logic and kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelan, M. S.; Tulus; Zamzami, E. M.

    2018-03-01

    Setting of motion and balance line tracer robot two wheels is actually a combination of a two-wheeled robot balance concept and the concept of line follower robot. The main objective of this research is to maintain the robot in an upright and can move to follow the line of the Wizard while maintaining balance. In this study the motion balance system on line tracer robot by considering the presence of a noise, so that it takes the estimator is used to mengestimasi the line tracer robot motion. The estimation is done by the method of Kalman Filter and the combination of Fuzzy logic-Fuzzy Kalman Filter called Kalman Filter, as well as optimal smooting. Based on the results of the study, the value of the output of the fuzzy results obtained from the sensor input value has been filtered before entering the calculation of the fuzzy. The results of the output of the fuzzy logic hasn’t been able to control dc motors are well balanced at the moment to be able to run. The results of the fuzzy logic by using membership function of triangular membership function or yet can control with good dc motor movement in order to be balanced

  17. Study on bioavailability of zinc for children's diet by using activable isotopic tracer 70Zn and neutron activation analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yangmei; Ni Bangfa; Wang Pingsheng; Tian Weizhi; Cao Lei

    2001-01-01

    Bioavailability of zinc for three groups (low amount of diet zinc, balance amount of diet zinc and high amount of diet zinc) of children's diet is studied by using activable isotopic tracer 70 Zn and neutron activation analysis techniques. The results indicate that the fractional absorption of zinc from balance diet zinc group is the highest, up to 33.9%. A procedure of pre-irradiation concentration zinc for fecal samples using anion exchanger is developed, and the enriched 70 Zn with isotopic abundance of 18.3% is used for tracer. The mass ratios between 70 Zn and 68 Zn or 64 Zn and their contents between natural zinc and enriched zinc are used to calculate the bioavailability of zinc. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of 64 Zn of each original fecal samples and pre-irradiation concentrated zinc samples are used to normalize the chemical yield in order to reduce the uncertainty during the chemical separation procedure

  18. Biological tracer for waste site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong-Gunderson, J.

    1995-01-01

    Remediating hazardous waste sites requires detailed site characterization. In groundwater remediation, characterizing the flow paths and velocity is a major objective. Various tracers have been used for measuring groundwater velocity and transport of contaminants, colloidal particles, and bacteria and nutrients. The conventional techniques use dissolved solutes, dyes. and gases to estimate subsurface transport pathways. These tracers can provide information on transport and diffusion into the matrix, but their estimates for groundwater flow through fractured regions are very conservative. Also, they do not have the same transport characteristics as bacteria and suspended colloid tracers, both of which must be characterized for effective in-place remediation. Bioremediation requires understanding bacterial transport and nutrient distribution throughout the acquifer, knowledge of contaminants s mobile colloidal particles is just essential

  19. Molecules as tracers of galaxy evolution : an EMIR survey I. Presentation of the data and first results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costagliola, F.; Aalto, S.; Rodriguez, M. I.; Muller, S.; Spoon, H. W. W.; Martin, S.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Alberdi, A.; Lindberg, J. E.; Batejat, F.; Juette, E.; Lahuis, F.; van der Werf, Paul P.

    Aims. We investigate the molecular gas properties of a sample of 23 galaxies in order to find and test chemical signatures of galaxy evolution and to compare them to IR evolutionary tracers. Methods. Observation at 3 mm wavelengths were obtained with the EMIR broadband receiver, mounted on the IRAM

  20. Application of zinc isotope tracer technology in tracing soil heavy metal pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbu, Namkha; Wang, Shuguang; Xu, Yan; Yang, Jianqiang; Liu, Qiang

    2017-08-01

    Recent years the soil heavy metal pollution has become increasingly serious, especially the zinc pollution. Due to the complexity of this problem, in order to prevent and treat the soil pollution, it's crucial to accurately and quickly find out the pollution sources and control them. With the development of stable isotope tracer technology, it's able to determine the composition of zinc isotope. Based on the theory of zinc isotope tracer technique, and by means of doing some latest domestic and overseas literature research about the zinc isotope multi-receiving cups of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) testing technology, this paper summarized the latest research results about the pollution tracer of zinc isotope, and according to the deficiencies and existing problems of previous research, made outlooks of zinc isotope fractionation mechanism, repository establishment and tracer multiple solutions.

  1. Regional modelling of tracer transport by tropical convection – Part 2: Sensitivity to model resolutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Arteta

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of this series of two papers is to evaluate long duration limited-area simulations with idealised tracers as a possible tool to assess the tracer transport in chemistry-transport models (CTMs. In this second paper we analyse the results of three simulations using different horizontal and vertical resolutions. The goal is to study the impact of the model spatial resolution on convective transport of idealized tracer in the tropics. The reference simulation (REF uses a 60 km horizontal resolution and 300 m vertically in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS. A 20 km horizontal resolution simulation (HR is run as well as a simulation with 850 m vertical resolution in the UTLS (CVR. The simulations are run for one month during the SCOUT-O3 field campaign. Aircraft data, TRMM rainrate estimates and radiosoundings have been used to evaluate the simulations. They show that the HR configuration gives generally a better agreement with the measurements than the REF simulation. The CVR simulation gives generally the worst results. The vertical distribution of the tropospheric tracers for the simulations has a similar shape with a ~15 km altitude maximum for the 6h-lifetime tracer of 0.4 ppbv for REF, 1.2 for HR and 0.04 for CVR. These differences are related to the dynamics produced by the three simulations that leads to larger values of the upward velocities on average for HR and lower for CVR compared to REF. HR simulates more frequent and stronger convection leading to enhanced fluxes compared to REF and higher detrainment levels compared to CVR. HR provides also occasional overshoots over the cold point dynamical barrier. For the stratospheric tracers the differences between the three simulations are small. The diurnal cycle of the fluxes of all tracers in the Tropical Tropopause Layer exhibits a maximum linked to the maximum of convective activity.

  2. Using the tracer-dilution discharge method to develop streamflow records for ice-affected streams in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capesius, Joseph P.; Sullivan, Joseph R.; O'Neill, Gregory B.; Williams, Cory A.

    2005-01-01

    Accurate ice-affected streamflow records are difficult to obtain for several reasons, which makes the management of instream-flow water rights in the wintertime a challenging endeavor. This report documents a method to improve ice-affected streamflow records for two gaging stations in Colorado. In January and February 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board, conducted an experiment using a sodium chloride tracer to measure streamflow under ice cover by the tracer-dilution discharge method. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of obtaining accurate ice-affected streamflow records by using a sodium chloride tracer that was injected into the stream. The tracer was injected at two gaging stations once per day for approximately 20 minutes for 25 days. Multiple-parameter water-quality sensors at the two gaging stations monitored background and peak chloride concentrations. These data were used to determine discharge at each site. A comparison of the current-meter streamflow record to the tracer-dilution streamflow record shows different levels of accuracy and precision of the tracer-dilution streamflow record at the two sites. At the lower elevation and warmer site, Brandon Ditch near Whitewater, the tracer-dilution method overestimated flow by an average of 14 percent, but this average is strongly biased by outliers. At the higher elevation and colder site, Keystone Gulch near Dillon, the tracer-dilution method experienced problems with the tracer solution partially freezing in the injection line. The partial freezing of the tracer contributed to the tracer-dilution method underestimating flow by 52 percent at Keystone Gulch. In addition, a tracer-pump-reliability test was conducted to test how accurately the tracer pumps can discharge the tracer solution in conditions similar to those used at the gaging stations. Although the pumps were reliable and consistent throughout the 25-day study period

  3. Chlorine isotopes potential as geo-chemical tracers

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Pradhan, U.K.; Banerjee, R.

    The potential of chlorine isotopes as tracers of geo-chemical processes of earth and the oceans is highlighted based on systematic studies carried out in understanding the chlorine isotope fractionation mechanism, its constancy in seawater and its...

  4. Tracer transport in fractures: analysis of field data based on a variable - aperture channel model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, C.F.; Tsang, Y.W.; Hale, F.V.

    1991-06-01

    A variable-aperture channel model is used as the basis to interpret data from a three-year tracer transport experiment in fractured rocks. The data come from the so-called Stripa-3D experiment performed by Neretnieks and coworkers. Within the framework of the variable-aperture channel conceptual model, tracers are envisioned as travelling along a number of variable-aperture flow channels, whose properties are related to the mean b - and standard deviation σ b of the fracture aperture distribution. Two methods are developed to address the presence of strong time variation of the tracer injection flow rate in this experiment. The first approximates the early part of the injection history by an exponential decay function and is applicable to the early time tracer breakthrough data. The second is a deconvolution method involving the use of Toeplitz matrices and is applicable over the complete period of variable injection of the tracers. Both methods give consistent results. These results include not only estimates of b and σ, but also ranges of Peclet numbers, dispersivity and an estimate of the number of channels involved in the tracer transport. An interesting and surprising observation is that the data indicate that the Peclet number increases with the mean travel time: i.e., dispersivity decreasing with mean travel time. This trend is consistent with calculated results of tracer transport in multiple variable-aperture fractures in series. The meaning of this trend is discussed in terms of the strong heterogeneity of the flow system. (au) (22 refs.)

  5. Pharmaceuticals as Groundwater Tracers - Applications and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheytt, T. J.; Mersmann, P.; Heberer, T.

    2003-12-01

    Pharmaceutically active substances and metabolites are found at concentrations up to the microgram/L-level in groundwater samples from the Berlin (Germany) area and from several other places world wide. Among the compounds detected in groundwater are clofibric acid, propyphenazone, diclofenac, ibuprofen, and carbamazepine. Clofibric acid, the active metabolite of clofibrate and etofibrate (blood lipid regulators) is detected in groundwater at maximum concentrations of 7300 ng/L. Among the most important input paths of drugs are excretion and disposal into the sewage system. Groundwater contamination is likely to be due to leaky sewage systems, influent streams, bank filtration, and irrigation with effluent water from sewage treatment plants. There are no known natural sources of the above mentioned pharmaceuticals. The use of pharmaceuticals as tracers may include: (a) Quantification of infiltration from underground septic tanks (b) Detection of leaky sewage systems / leaky sewage pipes (c) Estimation of the effectiveness of sewage treatment plants (d) Identification of transport pathways of other organic compounds (e) Quantification of surface water / groundwater interaction (f) Characterization of the biodegradation potential. The use of pharmaceuticals as tracers is limited by variations in input. These variations depend on the amount of drugs prescribed and used in the study area, the social structure of the community, the amount of hospital discharge, and temporal concentration variations. Furthermore, the analysis of trace amounts of pharmaceuticals is sophisticated and expensive and may therefore limit the applicability of pharmaceuticals as tracers. Finally, the transport and degradation behavior of pharmaceuticals is not fully understood. Preliminary experiments in the laboratory were conducted using sediment material and groundwater from the Berlin area to evaluate the transport and sorption behavior of selected drugs. Results of the column experiments

  6. Benefits of important industrial tracer applications in the GDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.W.; Goeldner, R.; Koennecke, H.G.; Kupsch, H.; Luther, D.; Otto, R.; Reinhardt, R.; Ulrich, H.

    1990-01-01

    Tracers can be used to label substances or objects in order to discriminate between them, to follow their movement, to record changes of concentration and distribution between phases, etc. The main advantages of tracer investigations are the contactless recording of signals without influencing the observed process (also under rigorous operation conditions), the high detection sensitivity, the large number of available tracer nuclides (problems of all branches of industry can be solved) and the fact that tracer investigation can be carried out on operating production units, so that they provide valuable checks of the validity of design and process data. The cost-to-benefit ratio can be as low as 1:50. In the following some selected examples of tracer applications and their benefits will be presented. (orig./BBR) [de

  7. Dependence of tracer diffusion on atomic size in amorphous Ni-Zr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, H.; Averback, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    Tracer diffusion coefficients for several impurities and Ni self-atoms were measured in amorphous (a-) Ni/sub 50/Zr/sub 50/ at 573 K using secondary-ion-mass spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering, and radioactive tracer methods. The results showed that atomic mobility in the a-Ni-Zr alloy depends strongly on atomic size, decreasing rapidly with increasing atomic radius. This diffusion behavior is similar to that in α-Zr and α-Ti and is suggestive of an interstitial-like mechanism of diffusion. The consequences of these results for solid-state amorphization transformations are discussed

  8. Constraining performance assessment models with tracer test results: a comparison between two conceptual models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Sean A.; Selroos, Jan-Olof

    Tracer tests are conducted to ascertain solute transport parameters of a single rock feature over a 5-m transport pathway. Two different conceptualizations of double-porosity solute transport provide estimates of the tracer breakthrough curves. One of the conceptualizations (single-rate) employs a single effective diffusion coefficient in a matrix with infinite penetration depth. However, the tracer retention between different flow paths can vary as the ratio of flow-wetted surface to flow rate differs between the path lines. The other conceptualization (multirate) employs a continuous distribution of multiple diffusion rate coefficients in a matrix with variable, yet finite, capacity. Application of these two models with the parameters estimated on the tracer test breakthrough curves produces transport results that differ by orders of magnitude in peak concentration and time to peak concentration at the performance assessment (PA) time and length scales (100,000 years and 1,000 m). These differences are examined by calculating the time limits for the diffusive capacity to act as an infinite medium. These limits are compared across both conceptual models and also against characteristic times for diffusion at both the tracer test and PA scales. Additionally, the differences between the models are examined by re-estimating parameters for the multirate model from the traditional double-porosity model results at the PA scale. Results indicate that for each model the amount of the diffusive capacity that acts as an infinite medium over the specified time scale explains the differences between the model results and that tracer tests alone cannot provide reliable estimates of transport parameters for the PA scale. Results of Monte Carlo runs of the transport models with varying travel times and path lengths show consistent results between models and suggest that the variation in flow-wetted surface to flow rate along path lines is insignificant relative to variability in

  9. Assessment of surface water resources availability using catchment modeling and the results of tracer studies in the meso-scale Migina Catchment, Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyaneza, O.; Mukubwa, A.; Maskey, S.; Wenninger, J.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2013-12-01

    In the last couple of years, different hydrological research projects were undertaken in the Migina catchment (243.2 km2), a tributary of the Kagera river in Southern Rwanda. These projects were aimed to understand hydrological processes of the catchment using analytical and experimental approaches and to build a pilot case whose experience can be extended to other catchments in Rwanda. In the present study, we developed a hydrological model of the catchment, which can be used to inform water resources planning and decision making. The semi-distributed hydrological model HEC-HMS (version 3.5) was used with its soil moisture accounting, unit hydrograph, liner reservoir (for base flow) and Muskingum-Cunge (river routing) methods. We used rainfall data from 12 stations and streamflow data from 5 stations, which were collected as part of this study over a period of two years (May 2009 and June 2011). The catchment was divided into five sub-catchments each represented by one of the five observed streamflow gauges. The model parameters were calibrated separately for each sub-catchment using the observed streamflow data. Calibration results obtained were found acceptable at four stations with a Nash-Sutcliffe Model Efficiency of 0.65 on daily runoff at the catchment outlet. Due to the lack of sufficient and reliable data for longer periods, a model validation (split sample test) was not undertaken. However, we used results from tracer based hydrograph separation from a previous study to compare our model results in terms of the runoff components. It was shown that the model performed well in simulating the total flow volume, peak flow and timing as well as the portion of direct runoff and base flow. We observed considerable disparities in the parameters (e.g. groundwater storage) and runoff components across the five sub-catchments, that provided insights into the different hydrological processes at sub-catchment scale. We conclude that such disparities justify the need

  10. National Biomedical Tracer Facility. Project definition study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schafer, R.

    1995-01-01

    We request a $25 million government-guaranteed, interest-free loan to be repaid over a 30-year period for construction and initial operations of a cyclotron-based National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF) in North Central Texas. The NBTF will be co-located with a linear accelerator-based commercial radioisotope production facility, funded by the private sector at approximately $28 million. In addition, research radioisotope production by the NBTF will be coordinated through an association with an existing U.S. nuclear reactor center that will produce research and commercial radioisotopes through neutron reactions. The combined facilities will provide the full range of technology for radioisotope production and research: fast neutrons, thermal neutrons, and particle beams (H - , H + , and D + ). The proposed NBTF facility includes an 80 MeV, 1 mA H - cyclotron that will produce proton-induced (neutron deficient) research isotopes

  11. Tracer experiment by using radioisotope in surface water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, K.S.; Kim, K.C.; Chun, I.Y.; Jung, S.H.; Lee, C.W.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. 1. Objective An expansion of industrial activities and urbanization result in still increasing amount of pollutants discharged into surface water. Discharged pollutants in surface water have harmful effects on the ecology of a river system and human beings. Pollutants discharged into surface water is transported and dispersed under conditions characteristic to particular natural water receiver. Radiotracer method is a useful tool for monitoring the pollutant dispersion and description of mixing process taking place in natural streams. A tracer experiment using radioisotope was carried out to investigate the characteristics of a pollutant transport and a determination of the diffusion coefficients in a river system. 2. Methods The upper area of the Keum river was selected for the tracer experiment, which is located in a mid west of Korea. The measurements of the velocity and bathymetry before a tracer experiment were performed to select the sampling lines for a detection of the radioisotope. The radioisotope was instantaneously injected into a flow as a point source by an underwater glass-vial crusher. The detection was made with 60 2inch NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors at 3 transverse lines at a downstream position. The multi-channel data acquisition systems were used to collect and process the signals transmitted from the detectors. Two-dimensional numerical models were used to simulate the hydraulic parameters and the concentration distributions of the radioisotope injected into the river. 3. Results and Conclusion The calculated results such as velocity and concentrations were compared with the measured ones. The dispersion characteristics of the radioisotope were analyzed according to a variation of the flow rate, water level and diffusion coefficients. Also, the diffusion coefficients were calculated by using the measured concentrations and the coefficients obtained from the field experiment were compared with the ones

  12. Solute movement observation in the field soils by means of radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichner, L.

    1986-01-01

    The radioactive tracer method is discussed as applied to transfer velocity measurements of solutions in unsaturated soils, its applicability and the criteria for the choice of the tracer. The method is based on measurement of the radioactive tracer velocity in the field and on laboratory determination of the equilibrium distribution coefficients of the tracer and the solute in the same field soil. From these results and from the soil characteristics (porosity, bulk density) the solute transfer velocity in the field soil can be calculated. The results are presented of 131 I - velocity measurements in the loamy soil in the region of water source Cunovo near Bratislava, which equals 9.29x10 -9 m/s, and in the downstream slope of the earth dam Rozgrund near Banska Stiavnica where the velocity of 131 I - near the dam foot was found to be 2.03 - 2.86 times greater than near the top. Results are also presented of 131 I - , [ 60 Co-EDTA] - and 60 Co 2+ velocity measurements in clay-loam soil at the experimental field of the Research Institute of Irrigation in Most near Bratislava. The results are applicable to evaluation of surface damage to embankments and earth dams, to determination of the conservation zone around water sources, and the establishment of the level of ground water pollution from different sources (waste disposal, agriculture, etc.)

  13. Prototype Repository. Tracer dilution tests during operation phase, test campaign 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrstroem, Johan; Andersson, Peter (Geosigma AB (Sweden))

    2010-05-15

    The Prototype Repository project is focused on testing and demonstrating the function of the SKB deep repository system. The third tracer dilution campaign during the Prototype Repository operation period was performed in January 2010. The purpose was to estimate the groundwater flows and hydraulic gradients in the boreholes vicinity and will function as a reference for comparison with results from modeling and prior assumptions. The test campaign consisted of tracer dilution tests in 13 different borehole sections. Each test consisted of approximately 15-55 min tracer injection time and about 1-3 days dilution test time depending on the transmissivity of the test section. The data interpretation also included estimates of the local hydraulic gradients in the vicinity of the borehole sections

  14. Runoff analysis by means of multiple isotope tracers in Iwami river drainage, Akita, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubaya, Osamu; Yoshida, Minako; Tanaka-Miyamoto, Kiriko.

    1990-01-01

    By means of three isotope tracer techniques, proportion of direct runoff and characters of groundwater runoff were studied in the Iwami River drainage during a high runoff period for about 3 days, caused by a heavy rainfall of 85 mm for 17 hours. The proportion of direct runoff is 15 % or less of the total runoff caused by the rainfall, while 65 % of river water at the peak of runoff. Differences observed in the runoff manners among 18 O, 2 H, and 3 H are interpreted as a result of preferential runoff of previous precipitations stored in some unsaturated zone above the saturated groundwater zone. Cl - content is not conservative as a tracer to study runoff mechanisms. (author)

  15. In-situ testing methods using radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauzay, G.

    1976-01-01

    Some typical applications of tracer techniques in hydrology are presented: study of the extraction of sands and gravels in a estuary; in-situ study of the transport of sediments by the swell at a depth ranging from 8 to 22m; study of the transport of sands on the site Bonne Anse - Saint Palais [fr

  16. An evaluation of an improved method for computing histograms in dynamic tracer studies using positron-emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollinger, J.M.; Snyder, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    A method for computing approximate minimum-mean-square-error estimates of histograms from list-mode data for use in dynamic tracer studies is evaluated. Parameters estimated from these histograms are significantly more accurate than those estimated from histograms computed by a commonly used method

  17. You are not always what we think you eat. Selective assimilation across multiple whole-stream isotopic tracer studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodds, W. K.; Collins, S. M.; Hamilton, S. K.; Johnson, S.; Webster, J. R.; Simon, K. S.; Whiles, M. R.; Rantala, H. M.; McDowell, W. H.; Peterson, S. D.; Riis, T.; Crenshaw, C. L.; Thomas, S. A.; Kristensen, P. B.; Cheever, B. M.; Flecker, A. S.; Griffiths, N. A.; Crowl, T.; Rosi-Marshall, E. J.; El-Sabaawi, R.; Marti, E.

    2014-01-01

    Analyses of 21 15 N stable isotope tracer experiments, designed to examine food web dynamics in streams around the world, indicated that the isotopic composition of food resources assimilated by primary consumers (mostly invertebrates) poorly reflected the presumed food sources. Modeling indicated that consumers assimilated only 33-50% of the N available in sampled food sources such as decomposing leaves, epilithon, and fine particulate detritus over feeding periods of weeks or more. Thus, common methods of sampling food sources consumed by animals in streams do not sufficiently reflect the pool of N they assimilate. Lastly, Isotope tracer studies, combined with modeling and food separation techniques, can improve estimation of N pools in food sources that are assimilated by consumers

  18. Evaporation rate in containers used for storing radioactive tracer solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gascon, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    In radiochemical analysis, the storage of a tracer solution is an important issue to bear in mind. The evaporation of the tracer solution depends on the type of container used for storing. Evaporation rate in four kinds of containers, i.e., flame-sealed glass ampoule, sealed glass flask, flame-sealed polyethylene ampoule and screw glass vial was studied. It is concluded that the evaporation rate depends on the system of closing. (author)

  19. Suitable activated stable nuclide tracer technique and its applications in biology and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weicheng

    1989-01-01

    Stable isotopes as tracers in biology and medicine have been more extensively used. Mass spectrometry has been a classic technique in the analysis of stable isotopes because it is very sensitive and precise. Activation analysis has recently been introduced as an analytical tool. Its fast speed and simplicity is a great advantage for handling large batches of samples in isotopic tracer experiments. The combination of enriched stable isotope tracer studies and activation analysis techniques has become an ideal and reliable technique, especially in the fields of biology and medicine. This paper presents a survey of the fundamental principle, the character and the applications in biology and medicine for the suitable activated stable isotope tracer techniques

  20. Seasonal movement change of sediments using RFID tracer monitoring in composite gravel beach, west coast of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, M.; Yu, J.; Yang, D. Y.; Kim, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate seasonal movement patterns of gravel movements on the west coast of Korean peninsula. This study aims improve understanding of the process of coastal sediments movement and contribute to coastal erosion management. The study site is Taean Bangpo Beach, which is characterized by its macro tide and composite gravel beach (CGB). In this study, we carried out a radio frequency identifier (RFID) tracer movement monitoring experiment. Four hundred tracers, similar in size and shape to beach sediment, were inserted into the beach in February and December 2015. From the results, it was confirmed that generally, gravel moved southward in the winter and northward in the summer. It was also confirmed that the gravel moved long distances in the summer and winter, but much shorter distances in the spring. At the end of the results, it is confirmed that the tracer recovery rate in summer is lower than in winter. Bangpo Beach was influenced by strong wind and wave energy driven by the East Asian winter monsoon, and by normal tidal energy during the other seasons. It means that seasonal variation of gravel movement in the beach is attributed to the difference of seasonal energy conditions. In addition, it is interpreted that the sand at the intertidal zone cannot be removed in the summer when the wave energy is weak, causing the tracer to be buried. This study is expected to contribute to the study of composite gravel beach and coastal coarse sediment movement which have been lacking in research.

  1. Tracer measured substrate turnover requires arterial sampling downstream of infusion site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, W.C.; Neese, R.A.; Gertz, E.W.; Wisneski, J.A.; Morris, D.L.; Brooks, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    Measurement of metabolite turnover (Rt) with radioactive tracers is done by either infusing tracer venously and sampling specific activity (SA) arterially (V-A modes), or by infusing into the aorta and sampling venous blood (A-V mode). Using the Fick principle, the necessity for using the V-A mode can be demonstrated. If tracer is infused into the left ventricle, in a steady state the Rt is the product of arterial trace concentration, the cardiac output, and the tracer extraction ratio for the whole body. This is expressed as: Rt = Ca x Qx ((*Ca - *Cv)/*Ca) (Eq1) where C=trace concentration (μmol/ml), *C=tracer conc. (dpm/ml), a=arterial, v-=mixed venous, and Q=cardiac output (ml/min). Rearranging the equation: Rt = Qx(*Ca - *Cv)/SAa = F/SAa (Eq2) where SAa is *Ca/Ca, and Qx (*Ca-*Cv) equals the infusion rate (F). The authors compared Eqs1 and 2 (Rt = F/SAa) in 3 anesthetized dogs in which [1- 14 C] lactate was infused into the left ventricle, and blood was sampled arterially downstream from the infusion site and in the pulmonary artery. Eqs 1 and 2 gave similar results for Rt (45.9 vs. 43.9 μmol/kg min), while substituting SAv for SAa (A-V mode) into Eq 2 gave a higher Rt (53.6). When SAv (A-V mode) is used, the specific activity seen by the tissues (SAa) is not considered in the calculation of Rt. Therefore, only the V-A mode meets the requirements for tracer measured metabolite turnover

  2. Study of the migration of metallic micropollutants in the soils by means of radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquemet, P.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the migration of metallic micropollutants using radioactive tracers. Three experimental techniques were employed to show the interaction phenomena linked to these migrations. First, a simple batch characterization allows the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the sorption-desorption of the micropollutants on the soils. Next, an elution technique applied to soil columns was introduced to study the behavior of the pollutants in hydrodynamic conditions. Finally, a series of lysimetric pots were prepared to extend the experiment to systems which mimic a natural environment. The tests were conducted in a hot laboratory with five agricultural soils and seven pollutants ( 57 Co, 134 Cs, 123m Te, 109 Cd, 144 Ce, 85 Sr and 110m Ag). The batch measurements (kinetics, K d sorption ratio at equilibrium and isothermal measurements according to the Langmuir or Freundlich models) allowed for a better understanding of the sorption-desorption mechanisms of the micropollutants. Their migration on continuously percolated columns (breakthrough curves and determination of the radioactive profiles in the soils) was evaluated and expounded together with the results obtained from the batch characterization. The profiles of the radioactive tracers in the soils of the lysimeters (with or without vegetation) were also determined. All these observations were used to characterize the migration properties of the micropollutants in the investigated soils. A simple simulation model of the migration of interactive solutes in porous media based on dispersion and convection was also applied to the experimental data. The calculated profiles showed fairly good agreement with the experimental ones, especially in the case of unplanted systems. Several parametric adjustments were, however, necessary. It was shown, finally, that simulations, as perfect as they could be, can seldom replace the experimental studies of the behaviour of micropollutants in the

  3. Accurate assessment of exposure using tracer gas measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierat, Wojciech; Bivolarova, Mariya; Zavrl, Eva

    2018-01-01

    analyzers with short and long response times, respectively. The tracer gas concentration was characterized by the mean, standard deviation and 95th percentile values. The results revealed that the measurement time needed to determine, with sufficient accuracy, these parameters decreased substantially...

  4. The Shoreline Environment Atmospheric Dispersion Experiment (SEADEX): Meteorological and gas tracer data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.B.; Cantrell, B.K.; Morley, B.M.; Uthe, E.E.; Nitz, K.C.

    1987-10-01

    The SEADEX atmospheric dispersion field study was conducted during the period May 28 to June 8, 1982, in northeastern Wisconsin, the vicinity of the Kewaunee Power Plant on the western shore of Lake Michigan. The specific objectives of SEADEX were to characterize (1) the atmospheric dispersion and (2) the meteorological conditions influencing this dispersion as completely as possible during the test period. This field study included a series of controlled tracer tests utilizing state-of-the-art tracer measurement technology to determine horizontal and vertical dispersion over both land and water. Extensive meteorological measurements were obtained to thoroughly characterize the three-dimensional structure of the atmospheric boundary controlling the dispersion process. This volume presents the meteorological and gas tracer data collected during the field study. 391 figs., 32 tabs

  5. Suitability of tracers; Eignung von Tracern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klotz, D. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrologie

    1999-02-01

    Hydrological tracer techniques are a means of making statements on the direction and speed of underground water. One of the simpler tasks is to find out whether there is hydrological communication between two given points. This requires a determination of the direction of flow, which places less exacting demands on the properties of the tracer than does the task of determining the flow velocity of underground water. Tracer methods can serve to infer from flow velocity the distance (flow) velocity, which is defined as the ratio between the distance between two points located in flow direction and the actual time it takes water to flow from one to the other. [Deutsch] Mit Hilfe der hydrologischen Markierungstechniken koennen Aussagen ueber die Richtung und die Geschwindigkeit von Bewegungen des unterirdischen Wassers gemacht werden. Der einfachere Fall liegt vor, wenn festgestellt werden soll, ob zwischen zwei Punkten eine hydrologische Verbindung besteht. Bei dieser Fliessrichtungsbestimmung sind die Forderungen an die Eigenschaften der einzusetzenden Tracer geringer als bei der Bestimmung der Geschwindigkeit des unterirdischen Wassers. Von den Geschwindigkeiten des unterirdischen Wassers ist die Abstands-(Fliess)geschwindigkeit, die definiert ist durch das Verhaeltnis aus dem Abstand und der wahren Fliesszeit zwischen zwei in Bewegungsrichtung gelegenen Punkten, durch Tracermethoden zu bestimmen. (orig.)

  6. Pipeline leak detection using volatile tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, G.M.; Golding, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    A method of leak detection for underground storage tanks and pipelines adds volatile tracers to the products in the tanks and analyzes the surrounding shallow soil gases for tracer vapors. This method has several advantages: the success of the test is not limited by the size and structural design of the vessels, tanks can be tested at any fill level without taking the tank out of service, the location of a leak along a pipeline is clearly marked by the location of the tracer, and liquid leaks as small as 0.2 liters per hour (lph) can be detected. A limitation is: the backfill material must have some degree of air permeability in the zone above the water table. Several field tests document the success achieved using this method. A tracer leak detection system was installed at Homestead AFB after several other testing methods failed to locate a leak at a valve pit location along approximately 4 kilometers of fuel transfer piping. The leak was detected to the side of the valve pit at a depth of approximately 2.5 meters below the ground surface. Another installation of Edwards AFB involved the collection of 415 soil gas samples along approximately 3,050 meters of 15.25-centimeter fiberglass pipeline. Fourteen separate leaks were detected

  7. Using predictive uncertainty analysis to optimise tracer test design and data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Ilka; Moore, Catherine; Post, Vincent; Wolf, Leif; Martens, Evelien; Prommer, Henning

    2014-07-01

    Tracer injection tests are regularly-used tools to identify and characterise flow and transport mechanisms in aquifers. Examples of practical applications are manifold and include, among others, managed aquifer recharge schemes, aquifer thermal energy storage systems and, increasingly important, the disposal of produced water from oil and shale gas wells. The hydrogeological and geochemical data collected during the injection tests are often employed to assess the potential impacts of injection on receptors such as drinking water wells and regularly serve as a basis for the development of conceptual and numerical models that underpin the prediction of potential impacts. As all field tracer injection tests impose substantial logistical and financial efforts, it is crucial to develop a solid a-priori understanding of the value of the various monitoring data to select monitoring strategies which provide the greatest return on investment. In this study, we demonstrate the ability of linear predictive uncertainty analysis (i.e. “data worth analysis”) to quantify the usefulness of different tracer types (bromide, temperature, methane and chloride as examples) and head measurements in the context of a field-scale aquifer injection trial of coal seam gas (CSG) co-produced water. Data worth was evaluated in terms of tracer type, in terms of tracer test design (e.g., injection rate, duration of test and the applied measurement frequency) and monitoring disposition to increase the reliability of injection impact assessments. This was followed by an uncertainty targeted Pareto analysis, which allowed the interdependencies of cost and predictive reliability for alternative monitoring campaigns to be compared directly. For the evaluated injection test, the data worth analysis assessed bromide as superior to head data and all other tracers during early sampling times. However, with time, chloride became a more suitable tracer to constrain simulations of physical transport

  8. Application of fluorescent-and radioactive tracers in Sedimentalogy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alencar, L.M.L. de.

    1981-01-01

    The development of techniques of sediment labelling, creating the possibility of using fluorescent and radioactive tracers not yet applied in Brazil, in the area of sedimentology, is studied. (A.R.H.) [pt

  9. Symmetries, invariants and generating functions: higher-order statistics of biased tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munshi, Dipak

    2018-01-01

    Gravitationally collapsed objects are known to be biased tracers of an underlying density contrast. Using symmetry arguments, generalised biasing schemes have recently been developed to relate the halo density contrast δh with the underlying density contrast δ, divergence of velocity θ and their higher-order derivatives. This is done by constructing invariants such as s, t, ψ,η. We show how the generating function formalism in Eulerian standard perturbation theory (SPT) can be used to show that many of the additional terms based on extended Galilean and Lifshitz symmetry actually do not make any contribution to the higher-order statistics of biased tracers. Other terms can also be drastically simplified allowing us to write the vertices associated with δh in terms of the vertices of δ and θ, the higher-order derivatives and the bias coefficients. We also compute the cumulant correlators (CCs) for two different tracer populations. These perturbative results are valid for tree-level contributions but at an arbitrary order. We also take into account the stochastic nature bias in our analysis. Extending previous results of a local polynomial model of bias, we express the one-point cumulants Script SN and their two-point counterparts, the CCs i.e. Script Cpq, of biased tracers in terms of that of their underlying density contrast counterparts. As a by-product of our calculation we also discuss the results using approximations based on Lagrangian perturbation theory (LPT).

  10. Wirelessly powered micro-tracer enabled by miniaturized antenna and microfluidic channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, G; Zhao, X; Seren, H R; Chen, C; Zhang, X

    2015-01-01

    A miniaturized antenna, 380μm by 380μm in size, was fabricated and integrated with a commercialized passive RFID chip to form a micro-tracer, whose size was 2mm by 1mm in total. The micro-tracer was wirelessly powered and interrogated by a single layer spiral reader antenna through near field coupling. To maximize the working distance, the resonant frequency of micro-tracer and reader antenna were matched at 840MHz. Due to the ultra small size of the tracer antenna, power transfer efficiency decreased dramatically as the distance between tracer antenna and reader antenna increased, thus the working distance of the microtracer was limited within 1mm. To achieve massive operation of the micro-tracer, a microfluidic platform was fabricated with in channel focusing and separation. Acrylic sheets were laser cut to define the channel and cover structure, then bonded together layer by layer with a glass substrate, on which reader antenna was integrated. Pump oil was used as the fluidic media carrying the micro-tracer flowing inside the microfluidic channel. The wireless power transfer and real-time communication was demonstrated with the micro-tracer flowing above the reader antenna, as the ID of the micro-tracer was retrieved and displayed on a computer screen. (paper)

  11. Tracer tests and image analysis of biological clogging in a two-dimentsional sandbox experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildsgaard, J.; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard

    2002-01-01

    A two-dimensional flow experiment on biological clogging was carried out by biostimulating a sandbox packed with sand inoculated with bacteria. Biostimulation. consisted of continuously injecting nutrients (acetate and nitrate). Clogging was visualized by frequently carrying out colored tracer...... experiments using Brilliant Blue. The tracer experiments were recorded with a digital camera and converted to concentration maps using an image-analysis method that revealed in detail the complex spreading pattern surrounding clogged areas. Clogging resulted in a finger-like spreading of the tracer around...

  12. Evaluation of Student Care Process in Urban and Rural Health Care Centers and Health House in Tabriz Using Tracer Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Kabiri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Tracer methodology is a novel evaluation method which its purpose is to provide an accurate assessment of systems and processes for the delivery of care, treatment, and services at a health care organization. This study aimed to assess student care process in Tabriz using Tracer methodology. Material and Methods : This cross-sectional study was conducted in autumn 1391. Population study consisted of all the students who were covered by Tabriz health care center and study sample included an urban health care center, a rural health care center, a health house, and two schools in urban and rural areas which were selected by simple sampling method. Also, all the complicated and problematic processes were chosen to be assessed. Data were collected by interviewing, observing, and surveying documents and were compared with current standards. Results : The results of this study declared the percentage of points that each target group gained from tracer evaluation in student care process was 77% in health house, 90% in rural health care center and 83% in urban health care center. Findings indicated that documentation was the main weak point. Conclusion : According to the results of this study, student care process is sufficient; despite the fact that there are some deficiencies in caring process, as it may be improved through appropriate strategies. Furthermore, tracer methodology seems to be a proper method to evaluate various levels of health care system. ​

  13. Leak detection and localization in natural and artificial dams using tracer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinari, J.

    1975-01-01

    Leak detection and localization procedures using often-unknown techniques of identification by natural or artificial tracers are reported. From the analysis of data supplied by natural tracers, or by artificial tracer methods which involve the direct observation of warning phenomena, it is possible to estimate the extent of the infiltrations, define their origin and under certain circumstances determine the main hydrodynamic flow parameters so that their development may be followed. The examples of application and interpretation were taken from the numerous studies carried out in this field by the CEA, where many original investigation methods have been employed [fr

  14. National Biomedical Tracer Facility. Project definition study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafer, R.

    1995-02-14

    We request a $25 million government-guaranteed, interest-free loan to be repaid over a 30-year period for construction and initial operations of a cyclotron-based National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF) in North Central Texas. The NBTF will be co-located with a linear accelerator-based commercial radioisotope production facility, funded by the private sector at approximately $28 million. In addition, research radioisotope production by the NBTF will be coordinated through an association with an existing U.S. nuclear reactor center that will produce research and commercial radioisotopes through neutron reactions. The combined facilities will provide the full range of technology for radioisotope production and research: fast neutrons, thermal neutrons, and particle beams (H{sup -}, H{sup +}, and D{sup +}). The proposed NBTF facility includes an 80 MeV, 1 mA H{sup -} cyclotron that will produce proton-induced (neutron deficient) research isotopes.

  15. Effect on tracer concentrations of ABL depth models in complex terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galmarini, S.; Salin, P. [Joint Research Center Ispra (Italy); Anfossi, D.; Trini-Castelli, S. [CNR-ICGF, Turin (Italy); Schayes, G. [Univ. Louvain-la-Neuve, Louvain (Belgium)

    1997-10-01

    In the present preliminary study we use different ABL (atmospheric boundary layer) depth formulations to study atmospheric dispersion in complex-terrain conditions. The flow in an Alpine valley during the tracer experiment TRANSALP is simulated by means of a mesoscale model and a tracer dispersion is reproduced using a Lagrangian particle model. The ABL dept enters as key parameter in particle model turbulent-dispersion formulation. The preliminary results reveal that the ABL depth parameter can influence the dispersion process but that in the case of a dispersion in a valley-daytime flow the results depend much more strongly on the model horizontal and vertical resolution. A relatively coarse horizontal resolution implies a considerable smoothing of the topography that largely affects the dispersion characteristics. The vertical resolution does not allow on to resolve with sufficient details the rapid and large variation of the flow characteristic as the terrain feature vary. Two of the methods used to determine the ABL depth depend strongly on the resolution. The method that instead depends only on surface parameters like heat flux and surface based stability allowed us to obtain results to be considered satisfactory for what concerns the dispersion process, quite consistent with the flow model results, less numeric dependent and more physically sound. (LN)

  16. Application of tracer techniques to the study of trematode infections: Pathological and epidemiological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nansen, P.

    1976-01-01

    Liver fluke and blood fluke infections cause heavy losses in animal production. The infections are characterized by a concomitant anaemia and dysproteinaemia. A review is made of radioisotopic tracer studies which have contributed to an understanding of the dynamic processes underlying the blood changes. Such studies have provided important information about the activity of the parasites, for example, how they cause disease and how they influence animal production. Radioisotopic techniques have also been utilized in the study of free-living fluke larvae. A brief outline of principles and fields if investigations within this area is given. (author)

  17. Influence of nutrition on protein synthesis and 15N tracer data in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, H.

    1984-01-01

    Quantitative studies and measurements of parameters of the protein metabolism in vivo require the isotope methodology. Different 15 N tracer methods with special modifications are available which can be used depending on clinical problems. The oral single pulse application of [ 15 N]glycine is equal to other isotope tracer techniques provided that the basic assumptions of the application are fullfilled. The protein metabolism is clearly influenced by the nutritional status whereby the protein synthesis is more sensitive than the breakdown to altered dietary intakes of protein and energy. The importance of standardized experimental conditions is emphasized for studies with 15 N and the interpretation of tracer data. (author)

  18. Carbon-14 tracer studies in rat-liver perfusion experiments under conditions of gluconeogenesis from lactate and pyruvate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muellhofer, G.; Schwab, A.; Mueller, C.; Stetten, C. von; Gruber, E.

    1977-01-01

    The intracellular events in the metabolic pathway of gluconeogenesis from lactate and pyruvate in liver tissue were assumed to be understood. Nevertheless the results of several 14 C-tracer experiments gave rise to the postulation of still unknown intracellular interactions under this condition. A contribution was made to the solution of this problem by using different 14 C labelled tracers such as [1- 14 C]lactate or pyruvate and [2- 14 C]lactate or pyruvate. [ 14 C]bicarbonate and [1- 14 C]-octanoate in perfusion experiments with livers from rats under conditions of gluconeogenesis from lactate and pyruvate. The 14 C labelling patterns of intracellular metabolities such as malate, citrate, phosphoenolpyruvate, phosphoglycerate and newly synthesized glucose were analysed under different conditions. A comparison with values calculated by using metabolic models based on the generally accepted concepts of intracellular interactions showed some fundamental discrepancies which justify the postulation. (orig./MG) [de

  19. Photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy for conducting gas tracer tests and measuring water saturations in landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yoojin; Han, Byunghyun; Mostafid, M. Erfan; Chiu, Pei; Yazdani, Ramin; Imhoff, Paul T.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy tested for measuring tracer gas in landfills. ► Measurement errors for tracer gases were 1–3% in landfill gas. ► Background signals from landfill gas result in elevated limits of detection. ► Technique is much less expensive and easier to use than GC. - Abstract: Gas tracer tests can be used to determine gas flow patterns within landfills, quantify volatile contaminant residence time, and measure water within refuse. While gas chromatography (GC) has been traditionally used to analyze gas tracers in refuse, photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) might allow real-time measurements with reduced personnel costs and greater mobility and ease of use. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of PAS for conducting gas tracer tests in landfills. Two tracer gases, difluoromethane (DFM) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ), were measured with a commercial PAS instrument. Relative measurement errors were invariant with tracer concentration but influenced by background gas: errors were 1–3% in landfill gas but 4–5% in air. Two partitioning gas tracer tests were conducted in an aerobic landfill, and limits of detection (LODs) were 3–4 times larger for DFM with PAS versus GC due to temporal changes in background signals. While higher LODs can be compensated by injecting larger tracer mass, changes in background signals increased the uncertainty in measured water saturations by up to 25% over comparable GC methods. PAS has distinct advantages over GC with respect to personnel costs and ease of use, although for field applications GC analyses of select samples are recommended to quantify instrument interferences.

  20. Passive tracers in a general circulation model of the Southern Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Stevens

    Full Text Available Passive tracers are used in an off-line version of the United Kingdom Fine Resolution Antarctic Model (FRAM to highlight features of the circulation and provide information on the inter-ocean exchange of water masses. The use of passive tracers allows a picture to be built up of the deep circulation which is not readily apparent from examination of the velocity or density fields. Comparison of observations with FRAM results gives good agreement for many features of the Southern Ocean circulation. Tracer distributions are consistent with the concept of a global "conveyor belt" with a return path via the Agulhas retroflection region for the replenishment of North Atlantic Deep Water.

    Key words. Oceanography: general (numerical modeling; water masses · Oceanography: physical (general circulation

  1. Time-lapse Mise-á-la-Masse measurements and modeling for tracer test monitoring in a shallow aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Maria Teresa; De Vita, Pantaleone; Masciale, Rita; Portoghese, Ivan; Chirico, Giovanni Battista; Cassiani, Giorgio

    2018-06-01

    The main goal of this study is to evaluate the reliability of the Mise-á-la-Masse (MALM) technique associated with saline tracer tests for the characterization of groundwater flow direction and velocity. The experimental site is located in the upper part of the Alento River alluvial plain (Campania Region, Southern Italy). In this paper we present the hydrogeological setting, the experimental setup and the relevant field results. Subsequently, we compare those data against the simulated results obtained with a 3D resistivity model of the test area, coupled with a model describing the Advection - Dispersion equation for continuous tracer injection. In particular, we calculate a series of 3D forward solutions starting from a reference model, all derived from electrical tomography results, but taking into consideration different values of mean flow velocity and directions. Each electrical resistivity 3D model is used to produce synthetic voltage maps for MALM surveys. Finally, the synthetic MALM voltage maps are compared with the ones measured in the field in order to assess the information content of the MALM dataset with respect to the groundwater field characteristics. The results demonstrate that the information content of the MALM data is sufficient to define important characteristics of the aquifer geometry and properties. This work shows how a combination of three-dimensional time-lapse modeling of flow, tracer transport and electrical current can substantially contribute towards a quantitative interpretation of MALM measurements during a saline tracer test. This approach can thus revive the use of MALM as a practical, low cost field technique for tracer test monitoring and aquifer hydrodynamic characterization.

  2. Seepage studies through hydraulic structures and their foundations by inactive and radio tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, Azher; Mahajan, N.M.; Kamble, M.D.

    1977-01-01

    In the last ten years extensive efforts have been made by the Central Water and Power Research Station, Pune to study seepage by means of inactive and radiotracers. Various inactive tracers like electrolytes and organic dyes and radiotracers like 82 Br and 3 H in the form of tritiated water have been used for location of source of seepage. Different techniques like borehole dilution, in situ detection at various observation points and analysis of water samples in liquid scintillation spectrometer in the laboratory have been employed to suit the field conditions. Some typical studies at river valley projects indicating the techniques are enumerated. (author)

  3. When tractography meets tracer injections: a systematic study of trends and variation sources of diffusion-based connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogan, Dogu Baran; Jacobs, Russell; Dulawa, Stephanie; Thompson, Summer L; Francois, Maite Christi; Toga, Arthur W; Dong, Hongwei; Knowles, James A; Shi, Yonggang

    2018-04-16

    Tractography is a powerful technique capable of non-invasively reconstructing the structural connections in the brain using diffusion MRI images, but the validation of tractograms is challenging due to lack of ground truth. Owing to recent developments in mapping the mouse brain connectome, high-resolution tracer injection-based axonal projection maps have been created and quickly adopted for the validation of tractography. Previous studies using tracer injections mainly focused on investigating the match in projections and optimal tractography protocols. Being a complicated technique, however, tractography relies on multiple stages of operations and parameters. These factors introduce large variabilities in tractograms, hindering the optimization of protocols and making the interpretation of results difficult. Based on this observation, in contrast to previous studies, in this work we focused on quantifying and ranking the amount of performance variation introduced by these factors. For this purpose, we performed over a million tractography experiments and studied the variability across different subjects, injections, anatomical constraints and tractography parameters. By using N-way ANOVA analysis, we show that all tractography parameters are significant and importantly performance variations with respect to the differences in subjects are comparable to the variations due to tractography parameters, which strongly underlines the importance of fully documenting the tractography protocols in scientific experiments. We also quantitatively show that inclusion of anatomical constraints is the most significant factor for improving tractography performance. Although this critical factor helps reduce false positives, our analysis indicates that anatomy-informed tractography still fails to capture a large portion of axonal projections.

  4. Final Progress Report for Project Entitled: Quantum Dot Tracers for Use in Engineered Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Peter [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Bartl, Michael [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Reimus, Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Williams, Mark [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mella, Mike [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2015-09-12

    The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate a new class of tracers that offer great promise for use in characterizing fracture networks in EGS reservoirs. From laboratory synthesis and testing through numerical modeling and field demonstrations, we have demonstrated the amazing versatility and applicability of quantum dot tracers. This report summarizes the results of four years of research into the design, synthesis, and characterization of semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots) for use as geothermal tracers.

  5. The use of yield tracers for the determination of aplha-emitting actinides in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, B.R.; Lovett, M.B.

    1984-01-01

    The need for yield tracers and their general analytical application is briefly discussed and more fully expanded in the context of the radiochemical determination of alpha-emitting actinides. The important alpha-emitting nuclides of the actinide elements found in the marine environment are listed. The environmental significance and analytical implications arising from the multiplicity of valency states found amongst the earlier members of the actinide series are noted. The tracers that are available for analyses and their selection and suitability for particular applications are discussed and the general precautions that need to be observed in their use are given. Use of the dual tracer technique in the study of speciation of the actinides in the marine environment is discussed with special reference to plutonium in sea water. The limited applicability of plutonium as a yield tracer in the study of neptunium speciation is noted and the latest developments in the investigation of 235 Np as an alternative tracer for neptunium are given. The possibility of the joint use of americium and curium nuclides as tracers in the study of the speciation of these two elements is explored. (orig.)

  6. Holdup time measurement by radioactive tracers in pulp production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roetzer, H.; Donhoffer, D.

    1988-12-01

    A batch of pulp was to be labelled before passing two bleaching towers of a pulp plant. Activated glass fibres were used as a tracer, which contained 24-Na with a half-life of 15 hours. It was shown in laboratory tests, that the glass fibres were suitable for transport studies of wood pulp. For use in the tests the fibres were activated and suspended in water. Due to the small diameter of the fibres (2-5 micrometers) this suspension shows physical properties very similar to the pulp. For detection six scintillation probes were mounted at different positions outside the bleaching tower. Radiation protection during the test was very easy due to the low total activity of the tracer material. Residence time distributions for both towers were measured. The successful tracer experiments show, that the method of labelling is suited for investigations of material transport in the pulp and paper industry. 3 figs., 11 refs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  7. Tracers Detect Aquifer Contamination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Enfield, Carl

    1995-01-01

    The EPA's National Laboratory (NRMRL) at Ada, OK, along with the University of Florida and the University of Texas, have developed a tracer procedure to detect the amount of contamination in aquifer formations...

  8. Electron microscopic studies on ameloblast using /sup 45/Ca as tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, K [Gifu Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1974-02-01

    In order to study the functional role of ameloblast on inorganic substance, electron microscopic autoradiography was prepared from dental germ of incisor and molar teeth of young rats using /sup 45/Ca as the tracer and following results were obtained. At 15 minutes after /sup 45/Ca administration, /sup 45/Ca appeared in cells of each stage of development, reaching the peak after 30 minutes and gradually shifting from the inside of cells to matrix. /sup 45/Ca was localized in the cells in the nuclear substance, rough surfaced endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi area and mitochondria. Especially in the mitochondria, silver grains are accumulated in high concentration, suggesting a major role in the storage and accumulation of Ca. /sup 45/Ca passed through the mature ameloblasts rapidly. After 15 minutes, silver grains were noted in the matrix formation. After 2 hours, scarcely any silver grains were noted in the cells, most of them being shifted to calcifing area from the matrix formation. As the pathway of transport of /sup 45/Ca, intracellular passage is mainly adopted in the stage of matrix formation, without transport through the intercellular space. Even if a considerable separation occurred between each cell in the mature stage, no silver grains were noted in this area. These results would indicate an important role of ameloblast in the transport and storage of inorganic substances through the movement of Ca.

  9. Nuclear medicine and coronary artery disease: evaluation of tracers of myocardial perfusion and vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broisat, A.

    2005-04-01

    Coronary artery disease is one of the primary cause of mortality worldwide. Nuclear medicine is the major imaging technique for diagnosis and following of this disease. perfusion: nowadays, major radioactive agents used in clinical practice are myocardial perfusion tracers. The reference tracer is thallium-201. However, 201 Tl presents some drawbacks. 99m Tcn-noet has been proposed for its replacement. This study shows that in contrast with previous studies realized in vitro on cardio myocytes, verapamil, an l-type calcium channel inhibitor, does not inhibit myocardial fixation of 99m Tcn-noet in vivo in dog. This data is in agreement with the hypothesis of a non specific endothelial fixation of this tracer. Moreover, this study shows that as a pure tracer of myocardial perfusion, 99m Tcn-noet can also be used to assess myocardial viability on a model of myocardial chronic infarction in rat. atherosclerosis: disruption of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is the main event leading to coronary accidents. The second part of this study concerns the evaluation of new potential tracers of the vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque in an experimental model of rabbit with an inheritable hypercholesterolemia. The four tracers evaluated (b2702(r), b2702-I, b2702-Tc and Tc-raft-b2702) are synthetic peptides comprising the residues 75-84 of hla-b2702, a molecule known to link vcam-1, an adhesion molecule expressed in vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque. The autoradiography studies show that all tracers accumulate within atherosclerotic plaque expressing vcam- and that. i-b2702 shows the best plaque/control fixation ratio. (author)

  10. Studies on the preparation of low-carrier Se-73,75 tracers for in vivo examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helfer, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    With the growing importance of positron emission tomography (PET) for in vivo imaging in diagnostic medicine there is great interest of developing new labelling methods for the positron emitter selenium-73. As attractive application an examination of a no-carrier-added (n.c.a.) preparation of the analogous tracer Sulindac Selenid and of the selenium containing compound Ebselen was examined with 73,75 Se. First of all a labelling strategy for Sulindac Selenid based on a protected precursor was developed. This precursor should further be transformed into the corresponding standard compound for chomatographic identification of the n.c.a. product. This, however, was not possible. An alternative synthesis method also did not result in a product. Thus, a radioactive labelling in case of Sulindac Selenid was not indicated in spite of a successful synthesis of a precursor. The preparation of Ebselen was performed as earlier described by a sequential one-pot synthesis with a yield of 46 %. An adaption of the reaction parameters to a radiosynthesis with 75 Se failed on the n.c.a. state and also after adding carrier to the reaction mixture. The desired product could, however, be prepared in a copper catalysed one-pot radiosynthesis for the first time under carrier-added conditions. Here, optimized conditions resulted in radiochemical yields of 60 ± 18 %. A no-carrier-added product could finally be achieved using sulphur as nonisotopic carrier in the reaction mixture. After optimisation of reaction parameters n.c.a. [ 75 Se]Ebselen could be synthesized with radiochemical yields of 55 ± 7 % within 4 h. Furthermore the desired product could be separated by RHPL-chromatography from its co-produced sulfur-analogue. After transferring the conditions to radiosyntheses with the positron emitter 73 Se, n.c.a. [ 73 Se]Ebselen could be achieved with a radiochemical yield of 22 ± 1 % and can now be used as a potential radiotracer in preclinical evaluation studies with respect to

  11. Study on bioavailability of dietary iron of women by using activable isotopic tracer and neutron activation analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yangmei; Ni Bangfa; Tian Weizhi; Wang Pingsheng; Cao Lei

    2002-01-01

    The bioavailability of diet iron of 10 healthy young women in Beijing area is studied by using two enriched isotopes 54 Fe and 58 Fe, and neutron activation analysis techniques. The abundance of 54 Fe and 58 Fe is 61.4% and 23.4%, respectively. In additional, the atomic absorption spectrometry is employed to measure total iron in fecal samples. Dysprosium, rarely absorbed by human body, is used to monitor the residence time of tracer isotopes in order to collect the fecal samples completely. The results show that the bioavailability of dietary iron in young women is (14.9 +- 3.9)%

  12. Determination of the lysosomal role in tumor accumulation of 67Ga by dual-tracer studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Atsushi; Ando, Itsuko; Hiraki, Tatsunosuke; Yamada, Norihisa; Hisada, Kinichi

    1989-01-01

    The lysosomal role in tumor accumulation of 67 Ga was determined by dual-tracer( 67 Ga and 46 Sc) studies. It became clear that 67 Ga essentially did not accumulate in the tumor lysosome, and that the lysosome did not play a major role in tumor accumulation of 67 Ga. In addition, it was revealed that tumor lysosome was hardly disrupted at all in some phases of fractionation procedures. (author)

  13. Hybrid tracers for sentinel node biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Den Berg, N. S.; Kleinjan, G. I.; Valdés-Olmos, R. A.; Buckle, T.; Van Leeuwen, F. I.; Klop, W. M.; Horenblas, S.; Van Der Poel, H. G.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional sentinel node (SN) mapping is performed by injection of a radiocolloid followed by lymphoscintigraphy to identify the number and location of the primary tumor draining lymph node(s), the so-called SN(s). Over the last decade research has focused on the introduction of new imaging agents that can further aid (surgical) SN identification. Different tracers for SN mapping, with varying sizes and isotopes have been reported, most of which have proven their value in a clinical setting. A major challenge lies in transferring this diagnostic information obtained at the nuclear medicine department to the operating theatre thereby providing the surgeon with (image) guidance. Conventionally, an intraoperative injection of vital blue dye or a fluorescence dye is given to allow intraoperative optical SN identification. However, for some indications, the radiotracer-based approach remains crucial. More recently, hybrid tracers, that contain both a radioactive and fluorescent label, were introduced to allow for direct integration of pre- and intraoperative guidance technologies. Their potential is especially high when they are used in combination with new surgical imaging modalities and navigation tools. Next to a description of the known tracers for SN mapping, this review discusses the application of hybrid tracers during SN biopsy and how the introduction of these new techniques can further aid in translation of nuclear medicine information into the operating theatre.

  14. Use of (3H) and (125I) tracers in steroid radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffcoate, S.L.

    1975-01-01

    The comparative use of 3 H and 125 I tracers in steroid radioimmunoassays will be discussed around the following points: - 3 H. Advantages: they can be purchased commercially and have a long shelf-life. Disadvantages: they may have reduced affinity for antibodies due to ''isotope effects''; the counting of β-emitters is more expensive and difficult; 3 H tracers are not available for all steroids. - 125 I. Advantages: gamma-counting is cheaper, simpler and more precise; 125 I tracers may have higher affinity for antibodies than unlabelled steroids; 125 I can be used to label any steroid. Disadvantages: 125 I tracers have a limited shelf-life (n.b. six months for 125 I histamine tracers). The high affinity of some tracers will be a big disadvantage if the unlabelled steroid cannot compete effectively

  15. A New Kind of Single-Well Tracer Test for Assessing Subsurface Heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, S. K.; Vesselinov, V. V.; Lu, Z.; Reimus, P. W.; Katzman, D.

    2017-12-01

    Single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) tracer tests have historically been interpreted using the idealized assumption of tracer path reversibility (i.e., negligible background flow), with background flow due to natural hydraulic gradient being an un-modeled confounding factor. However, we have recently discovered that it is possible to use background flow to our advantage to extract additional information about the subsurface. To wit: we have developed a new kind of single-well tracer test that exploits flow due to natural gradient to estimate the variance of the log hydraulic conductivity field of a heterogeneous aquifer. The test methodology involves injection under forced gradient and withdrawal under natural gradient, and makes use of a relationship, discovered using a large-scale Monte Carlo study and machine learning techniques, between power law breakthrough curve tail exponent and log-hydraulic conductivity variance. We will discuss how we performed the computational study and derived this relationship and then show an application example in which our new single-well tracer test interpretation scheme was applied to estimation of heterogeneity of a formation at the chromium contamination site at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Detailed core hole records exist at the same site, from which it was possible to estimate the log hydraulic conductivity variance using a Kozeny-Carman relation. The variances estimated using our new tracer test methodology and estimated by direct inspection of core were nearly identical, corroborating the new methodology. Assessment of aquifer heterogeneity is of critical importance to deployment of amendments associated with in-situ remediation strategies, since permeability contrasts potentially reduce the interaction between amendment and contaminant. Our new tracer test provides an easy way to obtain this information.

  16. Artificial sweeteners as potential tracers of municipal landfill leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, James W.; Van Stempvoort, Dale R.; Bickerton, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners are gaining acceptance as tracers of human wastewater in the environment. The 3 artificial sweeteners analyzed in this study were detected in leachate or leachate-impacted groundwater at levels comparable to those of untreated wastewater at 14 of 15 municipal landfill sites tested, including several closed for >50 years. Saccharin was the dominant sweetener in old (pre-1990) landfills, while newer landfills were dominated by saccharin and acesulfame (introduced 2 decades ago; dominant in wastewater). Cyclamate was also detected, but less frequently. A case study at one site illustrates the use of artificial sweeteners to identify a landfill-impacted groundwater plume discharging to a stream. The study results suggest that artificial sweeteners can be useful tracers for current and legacy landfill contamination, with relative abundances of the sweeteners potentially providing diagnostic ability to distinguish different landfills or landfill cells, including crude age-dating, and to distinguish landfill and wastewater sources. -- Highlights: • Artificial sweeteners detected at 14 of 15 municipal landfill sites. • Concentrations comparable to wastewater even at sites closed for >50 yr. • Saccharin elevated at all sites; potentially diagnostic of landfill impacts. • Potential for age-dating recent (past 2 decades) waste with acesulfame. -- Artificial sweeteners may be useful for tracing landfill leachate contamination and distinguishing it from wastewater impacts

  17. On interpreting studies of tracer transport by deep cumulus convection and its effects on atmospheric chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Lawrence

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Global chemistry-transport models (CTMs and chemistry-GCMs (CGCMs generally simulate vertical tracer transport by deep convection separately from the advective transport by the mean winds, even though a component of the mean transport, for instance in the Hadley and Walker cells, occurs in deep convective updrafts. This split treatment of vertical transport has various implications for CTM simulations. In particular, it has led to a misinterpretation of several sensitivity simulations in previous studies in which the parameterized convective transport of one or more tracers is neglected. We describe this issue in terms of simulated fluxes and fractions of these fluxes representing various physical and non-physical processes. We then show that there is a significant overlap between the convective and large-scale mean advective vertical air mass fluxes in the CTM MATCH, and discuss the implications which this has for interpreting previous and future sensitivity simulations, as well as briefly noting other related implications such as numerical diffusion.

  18. Novel tracer for radiation treatment planning; Welche neuen PET-Tracer braucht die Strahlentherapie?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzenboeck, S.; Krause, B.J. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Herrmann, K.; Gaertner, F.; Souvatzoglou, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Klaesner, B. [Klinikum Bogenhausen, Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin

    2011-07-15

    PET and PET/CT with innovative tracers gain increasing importance in diagnosis and therapy management, and radiation treatment planning in radio-oncology besides the widely established FDG. The introduction of [{sup 18}F]Fluorothymidine ([{sup 18}F]FLT) as marker of proliferation, [{sup 18}F]Fluoromisonidazole ([{sup 18}F]FMISO) and [{sup 18}F]Fluoroazomycin-Arabinoside ([{sup 18}F]FAZA) as tracer of hypoxia, [{sup 18}F]Fluoroethyltyrosine ([{sup 18}F]FET) and [{sup 11}C]Methionine for brain tumour imaging, [{sup 68}Ga]DOTATOC for somatostatin receptor imaging, [{sup 18}F]FDOPA for dopamine synthesis and radioactively labeled choline derivatives for imaging phospholipid metabolism have opened novel approaches to tumour imaging. Some of these tracers have already been implemented into radio-oncology: Amino acid PET and PET/CT have the potential to optimise radiation treatment planning of brain tumours through accurate delineation of tumour tissue from normal tissue, necrosis and edema. Hypoxia represents a major therapeutic problem in radiation therapy. Hypoxia imaging is very attractive as it may allow to increase the dose in hypoxic tumours potentially allowing for a better tumour control. Advances in hybrid imaging, i.e. the introduction of MR/PET, may also have an impact in radio-oncology through synergies related to the combination of molecular signals of PET and a high soft tissue contrast of MRI as well as functional MRI capabilities. (orig.)

  19. Final report of the TRUE Block Scale project. 2. Tracer tests in the block scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Peter; Byegaard, Johan [Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Winberg, Anders [Conterra AB, Partille (Sweden)

    2002-05-01

    The tracer test programme of the TRUE Block Scale Project involved 14 tracer tests campaigns, including performance of 32 tracer injections in 16 different combinations of source and sink sections (flow paths) varying in length between 10 to 130 metres, and involving one or more structures. Average, travel times varied between 1.5 and >2000 hours. Tracer dilution tests performed in conjunction with cross-hole hydraulic pumping tests were found to be a very important part of the pre-tests, where the results were used to identify and screen among possible injection points, and to verify the hydrostructural model valid at a given time. The main problem faced in the block scale tests was to select a test geometry, which gave a sufficiently high mass recovery, and at the same time enabled performance of cross-hole sorbing tracer tests within reasonable time frames. Three different injection methods were applied during the test programme; decaying pulse, finite pulse and forced pulse (unequal dipole). During the later phases of the tracer test programme it was identified that forced injection had to be employed in order to enable detection of tracer at the sink due to strong dilution, and also to avoid problems with artificially induced tailing in the injection signal. Sorbing (reactive) tracers were selected among the radioactive isotopes of the alkali and alkaline earth metals previously used in the TRUE- 1 experiments. It was decided that at least one slightly sorbing tracer and one strongly sorbing tracer should be used in each injection. Non-sorbing tracers were used for conservative reference, e.g., {sup 82}Br{sup -}, {sup 186}ReO{sub 4}, HTO (tritiated water) and {sup 131}I{sup -}. In two of the injections the radioactive non-sorbing tracers were rather short-lived and Uranine and Naphthionate were used as complementary conservative tracers. Surface distribution coefficients, K{sub a}, were evaluated from TRUE-1 and TRUE Block Scale data, making use of the

  20. Final report of the TRUE Block Scale project. 2. Tracer tests in the block scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Peter; Byegaard, Johan; Winberg, Anders

    2002-05-01

    The tracer test programme of the TRUE Block Scale Project involved 14 tracer tests campaigns, including performance of 32 tracer injections in 16 different combinations of source and sink sections (flow paths) varying in length between 10 to 130 metres, and involving one or more structures. Average, travel times varied between 1.5 and >2000 hours. Tracer dilution tests performed in conjunction with cross-hole hydraulic pumping tests were found to be a very important part of the pre-tests, where the results were used to identify and screen among possible injection points, and to verify the hydrostructural model valid at a given time. The main problem faced in the block scale tests was to select a test geometry, which gave a sufficiently high mass recovery, and at the same time enabled performance of cross-hole sorbing tracer tests within reasonable time frames. Three different injection methods were applied during the test programme; decaying pulse, finite pulse and forced pulse (unequal dipole). During the later phases of the tracer test programme it was identified that forced injection had to be employed in order to enable detection of tracer at the sink due to strong dilution, and also to avoid problems with artificially induced tailing in the injection signal. Sorbing (reactive) tracers were selected among the radioactive isotopes of the alkali and alkaline earth metals previously used in the TRUE- 1 experiments. It was decided that at least one slightly sorbing tracer and one strongly sorbing tracer should be used in each injection. Non-sorbing tracers were used for conservative reference, e.g., 82 Br - , 186 ReO 4 , HTO (tritiated water) and 131 I - . In two of the injections the radioactive non-sorbing tracers were rather short-lived and Uranine and Naphthionate were used as complementary conservative tracers. Surface distribution coefficients, K a , were evaluated from TRUE-1 and TRUE Block Scale data, making use of the retardation noted in the injection

  1. Contributions to hydrological tracer methods and their application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    The activities of the Institut fuer Radiohydrometrie of the GSF are mainly devoted to the field of environmental research studying the quality, use and protection from pollution of drinking water which has become scarce in many parts of the world. The knowledge and experience of a variety of scientific disciplines are combined to the common task of developing new tracer methods and selecting suitable hydrogeological methods to allow quantitative studies of the hydrological cycle, from rainfall to surface or sub-surface run-off. The tracers used in these studies are for the most part stable, natural radioisotopes occurring in the hydrological cycle, as well as fluorescent dyes or radionuclides for water labelling. The contributions collected in this volume are grouped according to the above outline of tasks and present a survey of current methods and measurements, illustrating their efficiency in solving hydrological problems. (orig./RW) [de

  2. Design and utilisation of protocols to characterise dynamic PET uptake of two tracers using basis pursuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Christopher; Puttick, Simon; Rose, Stephen; Smith, Jye; Thomas, Paul; Dowson, Nicholas

    2017-06-01

    Imaging using more than one biological process using PET could be of great utility, but despite previously proposed approaches to dual-tracer imaging, it is seldom performed. The alternative of performing multiple scans is often infeasible for clinical practice or even in research studies. Dual-tracer PET scanning allows for multiple PET radiotracers to be imaged within the same imaging session. In this paper we describe our approach to utilise the basis pursuit method to aid in the design of dual-tracer PET imaging experiments, and later in separation of the signals. The advantage of this approach is that it does not require a compartment model architecture to be specified or even that both signals are distinguishable in all cases. This means the method for separating dual-tracer signals can be used for many feasible and useful combinations of biology or radiotracer, once an appropriate scanning protocol has been decided upon. Following a demonstration in separating the signals from two consecutively injected radionuclides in a controlled experiment, phantom and list-mode mouse experiments demonstrated the ability to test the feasibility of dual-tracer imaging protocols for multiple injection delays. Increases in variances predicted for kinetic macro-parameters V D and K I in brain and tumoral tissue were obtained when separating the synthetically combined data. These experiments confirmed previous work using other approaches that injections delays of 10-20 min ensured increases in variance were kept minimal for the test tracers used. On this basis, an actual dual-tracer experiment using a 20 min delay was performed using these radio tracers, with the kinetic parameters (V D and K I) extracted for each tracer in agreement with the literature. This study supports previous work that dual-tracer PET imaging can be accomplished provided certain constraints are adhered to. The utilisation of basis pursuit techniques, with its removed need to specify a model

  3. Transport of pesticides and artificial tracers in vertical-flow lab-scale wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, Romy; Imfeld, Gwenaël.; Lange, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Wetland systems can be hydrologically connected to a shallow aquifer and intercept upward flow of pesticide-contaminated water during groundwater discharge. However, pesticide transport and attenuation through wetland sediments (WSs) intercepting contaminated water is rarely evaluated quantitatively. The use of artificial tracers to evaluate pesticide transport and associated risks is a fairly new approach that requires evaluation and validation. Here we evaluate during 84 days the transport of two pesticides (i.e., isoproturon (IPU) and metalaxyl (MTX)) and three tracers (i.e., bromide (Br), uranine (UR), and sulforhodamine B (SRB)) in upward vertical-flow vegetated and nonvegetated lab-scale wetlands. The lab-scale wetlands were filled with outdoor WSs and were continuously supplied with tracers and the pesticide-contaminated water. The transport of IPU and UR was characterized by high solute recovery (approximately 80%) and low retardation compared to Br. The detection of desmethylisoproturon in the wetlands indicated IPU degradation. SRB showed larger retardation (>3) and lower recovery (approximately 60%) compared to Br, indicating that sorption controlled SRB transport. MTX was moderately retarded (approximately 1.5), and its load attenuation in the wetland reached 40%. In the vegetated wetland, preferential flow along the roots decreased interactions between solutes and sediments, resulting in larger pesticide and tracer recovery. Our results show that UR and IPU have similar transport characteristics under the tested subsurface-flow conditions, whereas SRB may serve as a proxy for less mobile and more persistent pesticides. Since UR and SRB are not significantly affected by degradation, their use as proxies for fast degrading pollutants may be limited. We anticipate our results to be a starting point for considering artificial tracers for investigating pesticide transport in environments at groundwater/surface-water interfaces.

  4. Natural tracer profiles across argillaceous formations: the Claytrac project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurek, M.; Alt-Epping, P.; Gimi, Th.; Niklaus Waber, H.; Bath, A.; Gimmi, Th.

    2009-01-01

    Disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in engineered facilities, or repositories, located deep underground in suitable geological formations is being developed worldwide as the reference solution to protect humans and the environment both now and in the future. An important aspect of assessing the long-term safety of deep geological disposal is developing a comprehensive understanding of the geological environment in order to define the initial conditions for the disposal system as well as to provide a sound scientific basis for projecting its future evolution. The transport pathways and mechanisms by which contaminants could migrate in the surrounding host rock are key elements in any safety case. Relevant experiments in laboratories or underground test facilities can provide important information, but the challenge remains in being able to extrapolate the results to the spatial and temporal scales required for performance assessment, which are typically tens to hundreds of metres and from thousands to beyond a million years into the future. Profiles of natural tracers dissolved in pore water of argillaceous rock formations can be considered as large-scale and long-term natural experiments which enable the transport properties to be characterised. The CLAYTRAC Project on Natural Tracer Profiles Across Argillaceous Formations was established by the NEA Clay Club to evaluate the relevance of natural tracer data in understanding past geological evolution and in confirming dominant transport processes. Data were analysed for nine sites to support scientific understanding and development of geological disposal. The outcomes of the project show that, for the sites and clay-rich formations that were studied, there is strong evidence that solute transport is controlled mainly by diffusion. The results can improve site understanding and performance assessment in the context of deep geological disposal and have the potential to be applied to other

  5. Correlation of aeolian sediment transport measured by sand traps and fluorescent tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Laura L.; Alonso, Ignacio

    2010-03-01

    Two different methods, fluorescent tracers and vertical sand traps, were simultaneously used to carry out an aeolian sediment transport study designed to test the goodness of fluorescent tracers in aeolian environments. Field experiments were performed in a nebkha field close to Famara beach at Lanzarote Island (Canary Islands, Spain) in a sector where the dunes were between 0.5 and 0.8 m height and 1-2 m wide and the vegetal cover was approximately 22%. In this dune field the sediment supply comes from Famara beach and is blown by trade winds toward the south, where the vegetation acts as natural sediment traps. Wind data were obtained by means of four Aanderaa wind speed sensors and one Aanderaa vane, all them distributed in a vertical array from 0.1 to 4 m height for 27 h. The average velocity at 1 m height during the experiment was 5.26 m s - 1 with the wind direction from the north. The tracer was under wind influence for 90 min at midday. During this period two series of sand traps (T1 and T2) N, S, E and W oriented were used. Resultant transport rates were 0.0131 and 0.0184 kg m - 1 min - 1 respectively. Tracer collection was performed with a sticky tape to sample only surface sediments. Tagged grains were visually counted under UV light. The transport rate was computed from the centroid displacement, that moved 0.875 m southwards, and the depth of the active layer considered was the size of one single grain. Taking into account these data the transport rate was 0.0072 kg m - 1 min - 1 . The discrepancy in results between both methods is related to several factors, such as the thickness of the active layer and the grain size difference between the tagged and the native material.

  6. A comparison of 111In-labelled polymer beads and 99mTc-Sn-colloid as solid food and semi-solid food tracers for scintigraphic gastric emptying studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormehl, I.C.; Du Plessis, M.; Maree, M.; Pilloy, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    In order to establish the efficacy of labelling a solid meal and a semi-solid meal with either 111 In-labelled polymer beads or 99m Tc-tin colloid beagle dogs were fed variously labelled meals of different consistencies and then monitored by scintigraphy for gastric motility patterns. The labelling with each tracer was either performed by thoroughly mixing it into the food before cooking, or alternatively by surface labelling after the food had been cooked. For the 99m Tc-Sn-colloid tracer no difference was found in the measured gastric emptying times resulting from either pre-cooking labelling or surface labelling of the meals. Cooking the tracer together with the ingredients does however seem to promote a firm entrapment of the 111 In-polymer beads into a solid protein, and in this manner the 111 In-labelled resin appears to be a reliable solid food tracer. Surface labelling with 111 In-polymer beads of a solid meal with a smooth texture fails totally and the tracer empties with the liquid phase. (orig.) [de

  7. Heat tracer test in an alluvial aquifer: Field experiment and inverse modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepikova, Maria; Wildemeersch, Samuel; Hermans, Thomas; Jamin, Pierre; Orban, Philippe; Nguyen, Frédéric; Brouyère, Serge; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-09-01

    Using heat as an active tracer for aquifer characterization is a topic of increasing interest. In this study, we investigate the potential of using heat tracer tests for characterization of a shallow alluvial aquifer. A thermal tracer test was conducted in the alluvial aquifer of the Meuse River, Belgium. The tracing experiment consisted in simultaneously injecting heated water and a dye tracer in an injection well and monitoring the evolution of groundwater temperature and tracer concentration in the pumping well and in measurement intervals. To get insights in the 3D characteristics of the heat transport mechanisms, temperature data from a large number of observation wells closely spaced along three transects were used. Temperature breakthrough curves in observation wells are contrasted with what would be expected in an ideal layered aquifer. They reveal strongly unequal lateral and vertical components of the transport mechanisms. The observed complex behavior of the heat plume is explained by the groundwater flow gradient on the site and heterogeneities in the hydraulic conductivity field. Moreover, due to high injection temperatures during the field experiment a temperature-induced fluid density effect on heat transport occurred. By using a flow and heat transport numerical model with variable density coupled with a pilot point approach for inversion of the hydraulic conductivity field, the main preferential flow paths were delineated. The successful application of a field heat tracer test at this site suggests that heat tracer tests is a promising approach to image hydraulic conductivity field. This methodology could be applied in aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) projects for assessing future efficiency that is strongly linked to the hydraulic conductivity variability in the considered aquifer.

  8. Recover Act. Verification of Geothermal Tracer Methods in Highly Constrained Field Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Matthew W. [California State University, Long Beach, CA (United States)

    2014-05-16

    The prediction of the geothermal system efficiency is strong linked to the character of the flow system that connects injector and producer wells. If water flow develops channels or “short circuiting” between injection and extraction wells thermal sweep is poor and much of the reservoir is left untapped. The purpose of this project was to understand how channelized flow develops in fracture geothermal reservoirs and how it can be measured in the field. We explored two methods of assessing channelization: hydraulic connectivity tests and tracer tests. These methods were tested at a field site using two verification methods: ground penetrating radar (GPR) images of saline tracer and heat transfer measurements using distributed temperature sensing (DTS). The field site for these studies was the Altona Flat Fractured Rock Research Site located in northeastern New York State. Altona Flat Rock is an experimental site considered a geologic analog for some geothermal reservoirs given its low matrix porosity. Because soil overburden is thin, it provided unique access to saturated bedrock fractures and the ability image using GPR which does not effectively penetrate most soils. Five boreholes were drilled in a “five spot” pattern covering 100 m2 and hydraulically isolated in a single bedding plane fracture. This simple system allowed a complete characterization of the fracture. Nine small diameter boreholes were drilled from the surface to just above the fracture to allow the measurement of heat transfer between the fracture and the rock matrix. The focus of the hydraulic investigation was periodic hydraulic testing. In such tests, rather than pumping or injection in a well at a constant rate, flow is varied to produce an oscillating pressure signal. This pressure signal is sensed in other wells and the attenuation and phase lag between the source and receptor is an indication of hydraulic connection. We found that these tests were much more effective than constant

  9. Tracking groundwater discharge to a large river using tracers and geophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Glenn A; Gardner, W Payton; Munday, Tim J

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have investigated large reaches of rivers in which multiple sources of groundwater are responsible for maintaining baseflow. This paper builds upon previous work undertaken along the Fitzroy River, one of the largest perennial river systems in north-western Australia. Synoptic regional-scale sampling of both river water and groundwater for a suite of environmental tracers ((4) He, (87) Sr/(86) Sr, (222) Rn and major ions), and subsequent modeling of tracer behavior in the river, has enabled definition and quantification of groundwater input from at least three different sources. We show unambiguous evidence of both shallow "local" groundwater, possibly recharged to alluvial aquifers beneath the adjacent floodplain during recent high-flow events, and old "regional" groundwater introduced via artesian flow from deep confined aquifers. We also invoke hyporheic exchange and either bank return flow or parafluvial flow to account for background (222) Rn activities and anomalous chloride trends along river reaches where there is no evidence of the local or regional groundwater inputs. Vertical conductivity sections acquired through an airborne electromagnetic (AEM) survey provide insights to the architecture of the aquifers associated with these sources and general groundwater quality characteristics. These data indicate fresh groundwater from about 300 m below ground preferentially discharging to the river, at locations consistent with those inferred from tracer data. The results demonstrate how sampling rivers for multiple environmental tracers of different types-including stable and radioactive isotopes, dissolved gases and major ions-can significantly improve conceptualization of groundwater-surface water interaction processes, particularly when coupled with geophysical techniques in complex hydrogeological settings. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  10. Prediction of iodine-131 biokinetics and radiation doses from therapy on the basis of tracer studies: an important question for therapy planning in nuclear medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willegaignon, José; Pelissoni, Rogério A; Lima, Beatriz C G D; Sapienza, Marcelo T; Coura-Filho, George B; Buchpiguel, Carlos A

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to present a comparison of iodine-131 (I) biokinetics and radiation doses to red-marrow (rm) and whole-body (wb), following the administration of tracer and therapeutic activities, as a means of confirming whether I clearance and radiation doses for therapy procedures can be predicted by tracer activities. Eleven differentiated thyroid cancer patients were followed after receiving tracer and therapeutic I activity. Whole-body I clearance was estimated using radiation detectors and OLINDA/EXM software was used to calculate radiation doses to rm and wb. Tracer I activity of 86 (±14) MBq and therapeutic activity of 8.04 (±1.18) GBq were administered to patients, thereby producing an average wb I effective half-time and residence time of, respectively, 13.51 (±4.05) and 23.13 (±5.98) h for tracer activities and 13.32 (±3.38) and 19.63 (±4.77) h for therapy. Radiation doses to rm and wb were, respectively, 0.0467 (±0.0208) and 0.0589 (±0.0207) mGy/MBq in tracer studies and 0.0396 (±0.0169) and 0.0500 (±0.0163) mGy/MBq in therapy. Although the differences were not considered statistically significant between averages, those between the values of effective half-times (P=0.906), residence times (P=0.145), and radiation doses to rm (P=0.393) and to wb (P=0.272), from tracer and therapy procedures, large differences of up to 80% in wb I clearance, and up to 50% in radiation doses were observed when patients were analyzed individually, thus impacting on the total amount of I activity calculated to be safe for application in individual therapy. I biokinetics and radiation doses to rm and wb in therapy procedures are well predicted by diagnostic activities when average values of a group of patients are compared. Nonetheless, when patients are analyzed individually, significant differences may be encountered, thus implying that nuclear medicine therapy-planning requires due consideration of changes in individual patient-body status from

  11. Fractal tracer distributions in turbulent field theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J. Lundbek; Bohr, Tomas

    1998-01-01

    We study the motion of passive tracers in a two-dimensional turbulent velocity field generated by the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation. By varying the direction of the velocity-vector with respect to the field-gradient we can continuously vary the two Lyapunov exponents for the particle motion and t...

  12. Synthesis of radiolabelled organic compounds for use as water tracers in oil reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, D.Oe.; Bjoernstad, V.

    1999-01-01

    Injection of water into oil containing strata to maintain field pressure and to replace oil is usually the primary choice to enhance oil-recovery. Use of tracer methods is becoming an important part of the oil companies' basis for making economical decisions. Such water tracing requires passive tracers, i.e. compounds that behave exactly like the substance studied under the conditions of interest. This implies that a water-tracer in a water-flooded oil-field must fulfil requirements like no absorption to reservoir rock, no partitioning (or distribution) with respect to the other fluids present, long time thermal stability, microbial resistance and high detectability. In addition, the tracer compound has to be environmentally acceptable and available at a reasonable cost. Among the extensive number of compounds tested according to these criteria in the laboratory we have qualified four compounds as tracers for water in oil reservoirs. For three of them we propose radiolabelling syntheses with 14 C as radioactive label to lower detection limits. The compounds are benzene 1,2- and 1,3-dicarboxylic acids and benzene 1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid. (author)

  13. Green River air quality model development: meteorological and tracer data, July/August 1982 field study in Brush Valley, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteman, C.D.; Lee, R.N.; Orgill, M.M.; Zak, B.D.

    1984-06-01

    Meteorological and atmospheric tracer studies were conducted during a 3-week period in July and August of 1982 in the Brush Creek Valley of northwestern Colorado. The objective of the field experiments was to obtain data to evaluate a model, called VALMET, developed at PNL to predict dispersion of air pollutants released from an elevated stack located within a deep mountain valley in the post-sunrise temperature inversion breakup period. Three tracer experiments were conducted in the valley during the 2-week period. In these experiments, sulfur hexafluoride (SF/sub 6/) was released from a height of approximately 100 m, beginning before sunrise and continuing until the nocturnal down-valley winds reversed several hours after sunrise. Dispersion of the sulfur hexafluoride after release was evaluated by measuring SF/sub 6/ concentrations in ambient air samples taken from sampling devices operated within the valley up to about 8 km down valley from the source. An instrumented research aircraft was also used to measure concentrations in and above the valley. Tracer samples were collected using a network of radio-controlled bag sampling stations, two manually operated gas chromatographs, a continuous SF/sub 6/ monitor, and a vertical SF/sub 6/ profiler. In addition, basic meteorological data were collected during the tracer experiments. Frequent profiles of vertical wind and temperature structure were obtained with tethered balloons operated at the release site and at a site 7.7 km down the valley from the release site. 10 references, 63 figures, 50 tables.

  14. Positron emission tomography with additional γ-ray detectors for multiple-tracer imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuchi, Tomonori; Okauchi, Takashi; Shigeta, Mika; Yamamoto, Seiichi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Enomoto, Shuichi

    2017-06-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a useful imaging modality that quantifies the physiological distributions of radiolabeled tracers in vivo in humans and animals. However, this technique is unsuitable for multiple-tracer imaging because the annihilation photons used for PET imaging have a fixed energy regardless of the selection of the radionuclide tracer. This study developed a multi-isotope PET (MI-PET) system and evaluated its imaging performance. Our MI-PET system is composed of a PET system and additional γ-ray detectors. The PET system consists of pixelized gadolinium orthosilicate (GSO) scintillation detectors and has a ring geometry that is 95 mm in diameter with an axial field of view of 37.5 mm. The additional detectors are eight bismuth germanium oxide (BGO) scintillation detectors, each of which is 50 × 50 × 30 mm 3 , arranged into two rings mounted on each side of the PET ring with a 92-mm-inner diameter. This system can distinguish between different tracers using the additional γ-ray detectors to observe prompt γ-rays, which are emitted after positron emission and have an energy intrinsic to each radionuclide. Our system can simultaneously acquire double- (two annihilation photons) and triple- (two annihilation photons and a prompt γ-ray) coincidence events. The system's efficiency for detecting prompt de-excitation γ-rays was measured using a positron-γ emitter, 22 Na. Dual-radionuclide ( 18 F and 22 Na) imaging of a rod phantom and a mouse was performed to demonstrate the performance of the developed system. Our system's basic performance was evaluated by reconstructing two images, one containing both tracers and the other containing just the second tracer, from list-mode data sets that were categorized by the presence or absence of the prompt γ-ray. The maximum detection efficiency for 1275 keV γ-rays emitted from 22 Na was approximately 7% at the scanner's center, and the minimum detection efficiency was 5.1% at the edge of

  15. Evaluation of F-18-labelled dopamine tracers using in vivo microdialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeJesus, O.T.; Solin, O.; Haaparanta, M.; Chen, Chenan; Murali, D.; Sunderland, J.J.; Nickles, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    In vivo microdialysis involves the stereotaxic placement of small dialysis probes in one or more areas in a living brain which allows sampling the extracellular space. The authors have used in vivo microdialysis in the evaluation of presynaptic dopamine tracers in rat brains. Results of the study show that metabolite distribution seen in the plasma is different from that in the striatal extracellular space

  16. In situ measurement of methane oxidation in groundwater by using natural-gradient tracer tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.L.; Howes, B.L.; Garabedian, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    Methane oxidation was measured in an unconfined sand and gravel aquifer (Cape Cod, Mass.) by using in situ natural-gradient tracer tests at both a pristine, oxygenated site and an anoxic, sewage-contaminated site. The tracer sites were equipped with multilevel sampling devices to create target grids of sampling points; the injectate was prepared with groundwater from the tracer site to maintain the same geochemical conditions. Methane oxidation was calculated from breakthrough curves of methane relative to halide and inert gas (hexafluoroethane) tracers and was confirmed by the appearance of 13 C-enriched carbon dioxide in experiments in which 13 C-enriched methane was used as the tracer. A V max for methane oxidation could be calculated when the methane concentration was sufficiently high to result in zero-order kinetics throughout the entire transport interval. Methane breakthrough curves could be simulated by modifying a one-dimensional advection-dispersion transport model to include a Michaelis-Menten-based consumption term for methane oxidation. The K m values for methane oxidation that gave the best match for the breakthrough curve peaks were 6.0 and 9.0 μM for the uncontaminated and contaminated sites, respectively. Natural-gradient tracer tests are a promising approach for assessing microbial processes and for testing in situ bioremediation potential in groundwater systems

  17. Radionuclides as tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganatra, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Importance of radioisotopes in medicine is because of their two characteristics: their biological behaviour is identical to their stable counterparts, and because they are radioactive their emissions can be detected by a suitable instrument. All isotopes of iodine will behave in the same way and will concentrate in the thyroid gland. There is no way of detecting the stable, natural iodine in the thyroid gland, but the presence of radioactive iodine can be detected externally in vivo by a detector. Thus, the radioactive iodine becomes a tracer, a sport of a spy, which mimics the behaviour of natural iodine and relays information to a detector. The radioactive tracers are popular because of the ease with which they can be detected in vivo and the fact that the measurement of their presence in the body can be in quantitative terms. The measurement can be very accurate and sensitive. Whenever the measurements can be done in vivo, the information is obtained in dynamic terms, as it is happening, as if the physiological events become transparent

  18. Noaa chlorofluorocarbon tracer program air and seawater measurements: 1986-1989. Data file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisegarver, D.P.; Bullister, J.L.; Gammon, R.H.; Menzia, F.A.; Kelly, K.C.

    1993-04-01

    The NOAA Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) Tracer Program at PMEL has been measuring the growing burden of these anthropogenic gases in the thermocline waters of the Pacific Ocean since 1980. The central goals of the NOAA CFC Tracer Program are to document the transient invasion of the CFC tracers into the Pacific Ocean, by means of repeat occupations of key hydrographic sections at 5-year intervals, and to interpret these changing distributions in terms of coupled ocean-atmosphere models. Studies are underway to use the CFC observations in model-validation studies, and to help develop predictive capabilities on the decade-to-century timescale. The report includes measurements of trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11) and dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) dissolved in seawater samples collected in the Pacific Ocean by the NOAA CFC Tracer Program on six cruises during the period of 1986-1989. Measurements of depth, pressure, salinity, temperature, and dissolved oxygen are included with the CFC data. Measurements of CFC-11 and CFC-12 in air samples collected along the cruise tracks are also included in the report. Data from the report are also available from the authors in digital format

  19. Luminescent two-color tracer particles for simultaneous velocity and temperature measurements in microfluidics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massing, J; Kähler, C J; Cierpka, C; Kaden, D

    2016-01-01

    The simultaneous and non-intrusive measurement of temperature and velocity fields in flows is of great scientific and technological interest. To sample the velocity and temperature, tracer particle based approaches have been developed, where the velocity is measured using PIV or PTV and the temperature is obtained from the intensity (LIF, thermographic phosphors) or frequency (TLC) of the light emitted or reflected by the tracer particles. In this article, a measurement technique is introduced, that relates the luminescent intensity ratio of individual dual-color luminescent tracer particles to temperature. Different processing algorithms are tested on synthetic particle images and compared with respect to their accuracy in estimating the intensity ratio. Furthermore, polymer particles which are doped with the temperature sensitive dye europium (III) thenoyltrifluoroacetonate (EuTTA) and the nearly temperature insensitive reference dye perylene are characterized as valid tracers. The results show a reduction of the temperature measurement uncertainty of almost 40% (95% confidence interval) compared to previously reported luminescent particle based measurement techniques for microfluidics. (paper)

  20. Use of sulfur hexafluoride and perfluorocarbon tracers in plutonium storage containers for leak detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, J.K.

    1998-05-01

    This study involves an investigation of the feasibility of a tracer-based leak detection system for long-term interim plutonium storage. In particular, a protocol has been developed based on the use of inert tracers with varying concentrations in order to open-quotes fingerprintclose quotes or open-quotes tagclose quotes specific containers. A particular combination of tracers at specific ratios could be injected into the free volume of each container, allowing for the detection of leaks as well as determination of the location of leaking containers. Based on plutonium storage considerations, sulfur hexafluoride and four perfluorocarbon tracers were selected and should allow a wide range of viable fingerprinting combinations. A open-quotes high-lowclose quotes protocol which uses two distinct chromatographic peak areas or concentration levels, is recommended. Combinations of air exchange rates, detection durations, and detectability limits are examined in order to predict minimum tracer concentrations required for injection in storage containers

  1. Delayed clearance of cerebrospinal fluid tracer from entorhinal cortex in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: A glymphatic magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Per K; Ringstad, Geir

    2018-01-01

    The glymphatic system plays a key role for clearance of waste solutes from the rodent brain. We recently found evidence of glymphatic circulation in the human brain when using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tracer in conjunction with multiple MRI acquisitions (gMRI). The present study explored the hypothesis that reduced glymphatic clearance in entorhinal cortex (ERC) may be instrumental in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) dementia. gMRI acquisitions were obtained over a 24-48 h time span in cognitively affected iNPH patients and non-cognitively affected patients with suspected CSF leaks. The CSF tracer enrichment was determined as changes in normalized MRI T1 signal units. The study included 30 patients with iNPH and 8 individuals with suspected CSF leaks (i.e. reference individuals). Compared to reference individuals, iNPH patients presented with higher medial temporal lobe atrophy score and Evan's index and inferior ERC thickness. We found delayed clearance of the intrathecal CSF tracer gadobutrol from CSF, the ERC and adjacent white matter, suggesting impaired glymphatic circulation. Reduced clearance and accumulation of toxic waste product such as amyloid-β may be a mechanism behind dementia in iNPH. Glymphatic MRI (gMRI) may become a tool for assessment of early dementia.

  2. Intermittency in the relative separations of tracers and of heavy particles in turbulent flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biferale, L.; Lanotte, A.S.; Scatamacchia, R.; Toschi, F.

    2014-01-01

    Results from direct numerical simulations (DNS) of particle relative dispersion in three-dimensional homogeneous and isotropic turbulence at Reynolds number Re_¿ ~ 300 are presented. We study point-like passive tracers and heavy particles, at Stokes number St = 0.6, 1 and 5. Particles are emitted

  3. TECHNOLOGY OF RADIATION MONITORING: TRACERS-INDICATORS OF DANGEROUS NATURAL AND TECHNOGENIC PHENOMENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Yakovleva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of results of experimental investigation concerning the influence of natural and technogenic events on radioactive gas and aerosols dynamics as well as structure and dynamics of different types of ionizing radiation in soil and ground atmosphere was performed. The results of the analysis were used to carry out of classification of revealed radiation tracersindicators of dangerous natural and technogenic phenomena. The algorithm of monitoring of optimum set of radiation tracers-indicators, which are measured simultaneously, of dangerous phenomena was developed. This algorithm uses the “2+1” rule for determining the optimum set of radiation tracers-indicators.

  4. Estimation of Uncertainty in Tracer Gas Measurement of Air Change Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Iizuka

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Simple and economical measurement of air change rates can be achieved with a passive-type tracer gas doser and sampler. However, this is made more complex by the fact many buildings are not a single fully mixed zone. This means many measurements are required to obtain information on ventilation conditions. In this study, we evaluated the uncertainty of tracer gas measurement of air change rate in n completely mixed zones. A single measurement with one tracer gas could be used to simply estimate the air change rate when n = 2. Accurate air change rates could not be obtained for n ≥ 2 due to a lack of information. However, the proposed method can be used to estimate an air change rate with an accuracy of

  5. Suitable activated carbon-13 tracer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weicheng; Peng Xiuru; Wang Yuhua

    1995-12-01

    Feasibility and applicability studies of the proton induced gamma ray emission (PIGE) have been performed. The graphite was firstly bombarded at various proton energies to determine gamma ray yield (and, thus, sensitivities) for the reaction of interest. The accuracy for the determination of 13 C abundance was checked, and the precision with which this value and ratios 13 C/ 12 C may be obtained was established by repetitive analysis samples. The performance of different standards in this determination was assessed. The mathematical treatment was developed for the determination of 13 C abundance in tracer studies, and to derive the equations that govern this method of analysis from first principles, to arrive finally at a simple expression by virtue of the observed regularities. The system was calibrated by measuring the gamma ray yield form the 12 C (p, γ) 13 N and 13 C(p,γ) 14 N reaction as a function of known 13 C enrichment. Using this experimentally determined calibration curve, unknown materials can be assayed. This technique is applicable to the analysis of samples with 13 C enrichments between 0.1% and 90%. The samples of human breath natural samples were analyzed against graphite and Cylinder CO 2 standards. Relative standard deviations were 13 C abundance, an increase in 13 C per cent isotopic abundance from the natural 1.11% (average) to only 1.39% may be ascertained. Finally, PIGE is compared with more classical techniques for analysis of 13 C tracer experiments. Ease and speed are important advantages of this technique over mass spectrometry, and its error is compatible with the natural variation of biological results. (9 refs., 11 figs., 9 tabs.)

  6. Molecular dynamics investigation of tracer diffusion in a simple liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ould-Kaddour, F.; Barrat, J.L.

    1991-05-01

    Extensive Molecular-Dynamics (MD) simulations have been carried out for a model trace-solvent system made up of 100 solvent molecules and 8 tracer molecules interacting through truncated Lennard-Jones potentials. The influence of the size ratio between solute and solvent, of their mass ratio and of the solvent viscosity on the diffusivity of a small tracer were investigated. Positive deviations from a Stokes-Einstein behaviour are observed, in qualitative agreement with experimental observations. It was also observed that as tracer and solvent become increasingly dissimilar, their respective dynamics becomes decoupled. We suggest that such decouplings can be interpreted by writing their mobility of the tracer as the sum of two terms, the first one arising from a coupling between tracer dynamics and hydrodynamics modes of the solvent, and the second one describing jump motion in a locally nearly frozen environment. (author). 17 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabs

  7. Geologic flow characterization using tracer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klett, R.D.; Tyner, C.E.; Hertel, E.S. Jr.

    1981-04-01

    A new tracer flow-test system has been developed for in situ characterization of geologic formations. This report describes two sets of test equipment: one portable and one for testing in deep formations. Equations are derived for in situ detector calibration, raw data reduction, and flow logging. Data analysis techniques are presented for computing porosity and permeability in unconfined isotropic media, and porosity, permeability and fracture characteristics in media with confined or unconfined two-dimensional flow. The effects of tracer pulse spreading due to divergence, dispersion, and porous formations are also included

  8. Search for a non-metabolizable PET tracer for heart neuronal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieland, D.M.; Rosenspire, K.C.; Van Dort, M.E.; Haka, M.S.; Jung, Y.W.; Gildersleeve, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    The tracer (1R,2S)-(-)-[ 11 C]-meta-hydroxyephedrine (MHED) is used successfully at the authors' institution to study neuronal heart diseases and neuroendocrine tumors. However, MHED is rapidly metabolized in humans, most likely to alpha-methylepinephrine and its 3-O-methyl ether by the initial action of liver microsomal hydroxylase. This presentation will describe efforts to develop a [ 11 C]-labelled neuronal tracer that is completely resistant to metabolism on the PET-imaging time scale

  9. Optimizing the mercury mass measurement in industrial electrolytic cells by the radio-tracer method at ININ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valle R, J.; Angeles C, A.

    2014-10-01

    One method used in the production of chlorine and sodium is the use of electrolytic cells for the separation of chlorine and sodium from the brine; the industries apply very intense electromagnetic fields in this process. The electrolytic cells use mercury as electrode. In a chlorine production plant inventories are determined by total amount of mercury in the plant annually, since mercury losses are large and a very important parameter is to control the mass of mercury for it is necessary to measure with great precision the losses made. There are several methods to determine the mass of mercury ranging from take samples and weigh, but this involves continuous interruption of the process creating downtimes which in turn represent economic losses giving a result delimiting productivity for the industrial sector. An alternative and attractive method is to use a radioactive tracer whose principle has a similar behavior to study objective. The inert mercury has to be neutron activated in a nuclear reactor to having the characteristics of a tracer; the result makes one of the isotopes of mercury. The tracer is transported taking into account the recommendations of the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (Mexico), then it is injected into the electrolytic cells mixing with the mercury in the system. By a relative radioactivity measurement and one sample by gamma spectrometry per interest cell, the mass of mercury without stopping the process is obtained. For optimal use of radio-tracer method must be taken into account as important features: irradiation time of mercury, counting conditions, vial geometry, sample volume, sample cells, mixing time and half-life of the tracer. (Author)

  10. Radiolabeled cypoxic cell sensitizers: tracer for assessment of ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathias, C.J.; Welch, M.J.; Kilbourn, M.R.; Jerabek, P.A.; Patrick, T.B.; Raichle, M.E.; Krohn, K.A.; Rasey, J.S.; Shaw, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Hypoxic, non-functional, but viable, tissue may exist in heart and brain following an arterial occlusion. Identification of such tissue in vivo is crucial to the development of effective treatment strategies. It has been suggested that certain compounds capable of sensitizing hypoxic tumor cells to killing by x-rays (i.e., misonidazole) might serve as in vivo markers of hypoxic tissue in ischemic myocardium or brain if properly radiolabeled. To this end the authors have radiolabeled two fluorinated analogs of nitroimidazole based hypoxic cell sensitizers with the 110 minute half-lived positron-emitting fluorine-18. The ability of these tracers to quantitate the presence of hypoxic tissue has been studied in a gerbil stroke model. The in vivo uptake of one of these tracers [F-18]-fluoronormethyoxymisonidazole is dependent on the extent of tissue hypoxia, and thus, appears to have potential as a diagnostic indicator of non-functional but viable tissue when the tracer is used in conjunction with positron emission tomography. 80 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  11. Study on lead transportation in air-water-paddy system with 210Pb as tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuding; Zhang Hairong; Ma Xuejun

    1987-08-01

    With 210 PbCl 2 as tracer, a research into lead sources in brown rice, lead distribution in soil and rice, lead chemical