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Sample records for trace ricin detection

  1. Simultaneous Detection of Ricin and Abrin DNA by Real-Time PCR (qPCR

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    Roman Wölfel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ricin and abrin are two of the most potent plant toxins known and may be easily obtained in high yield from the seeds using rather simple technology. As a result, both toxins are potent and available toxins for criminal or terrorist acts. However, as the production of highly purified ricin or abrin requires sophisticated equipment and knowledge, it may be more likely that crude extracts would be used by non-governmental perpetrators. Remaining plant-specific nucleic acids in these extracts allow the application of a real-time PCR (qPCR assay for the detection and identification of abrin or ricin genomic material. Therefore, we have developed a duplex real-time PCR assays for simultaneous detection of ricin and abrin DNA based on the OmniMix HS bead PCR reagent mixture. Novel primers and hybridization probes were designed for detection on a SmartCycler instrument by using 5′-nuclease technology. The assay was thoroughly optimized and validated in terms of analytical sensitivity. Evaluation of the assay sensitivity by probit analysis demonstrated a 95% probability of detection at 3 genomes per reaction for ricin DNA and 1.2 genomes per reaction for abrin DNA. The suitability of the assays was exemplified by detection of ricin and abrin contaminations in a food matrix.

  2. Piezoresistive microcantilever aptasensor for ricin detection and kinetic analysis

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    Zhi-Wei Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Up to now, there has been no report on target molecules detection by a piezoresistive microcantilever aptasensor. In order to evaluate the test performance and investigate the response dynamic characteristics of a piezoresistive microcantilever aptasensor, a novel method for ricin detection and kinetic analysis based on a piezoresistive microcantilever aptasensor was proposed, where ricin aptamer was immobilised on the microcantilever surface by biotin-avidin binding system. Results showed that the detection limit of ricin was 0.04μg L−1 (S/N ≥ 3. A linear relationship between the response voltage and the concentration of ricin in the range of 0.2μg L−1-40μg L−1 was obtained, with the linear regression equation of ΔUe = 0.904C + 5.852 (n = 5, R = 0.991, p < 0.001. The sensor showed no response for abrin, BSA, and could overcome the influence of complex environmental disruptors, indicating high specificity and good selectivity. Recovery and reproducibility in the result of simulated samples (simulated water, soil, and flour sample determination met the analysis requirements, which was 90.5∼95.5% and 7.85%∼9.39%, respectively. On this basis, a reaction kinetic model based on ligand-receptor binding and the relationship with response voltage was established. The model could well reflect the dynamic response of the sensor. The correlation coefficient (R was greater than or equal to 0.9456 (p < 0.001. Response voltage (ΔUe and response time (t0 obtained from the fitting equation on different concentrations of ricin fitted well with the measured values.

  3. Rapid Detection of Ricin in Serum Based on Cu-Chelated Magnetic Beads Using Mass Spectrometry

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    Zhao, Yong-Qiang; Song, Jian; Wang, Hong-Li; Xu, Bin; Liu, Feng; He, Kun; Wang, Na

    2016-04-01

    The protein toxin ricin obtained from castor bean plant (Ricinus communis) seeds is a potent biological warfare agent due to its ease of availability and acute toxicity. In this study, we demonstrated a rapid and simple method to detect ricin in serum in vitro. The ricin was mixed with serum and digested by trypsin, then all the peptides were efficiently extracted using Cu-chelated magnetic beads and were detected with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The specific ricin peptides were identified by Nanoscale Ultra Performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry according to their sequences. The assay required 2.5 hours, and a characteristic peptide could be detected down to 4 ng/μl and used as a biomarker to detect ricin in serum. The high sensitivity and simplicity of the procedure makes it valuable in clinical practice.

  4. Single domain antibody–quantum dot conjugates for ricin detection by both fluoroimmunoassay and surface plasmon resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, George P. [Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, Code 6900, U. S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave. S.W., Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Glaven, Richard H. [Nova Research, Inc., 1900 Elkin Street, Suite 230, Alexandria, VA 22308 (United States); Algar, W. Russ [Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, Code 6900, U. S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave. S.W., Washington, DC 20375 (United States); College of Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Susumu, Kimihiro [Optical Sciences Division, Code 5600, U. S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave. S.W., Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Sotera Defense Solutions, Annapolis Junction, MD 20701 (United States); Stewart, Michael H. [Optical Sciences Division, Code 5600, U. S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave. S.W., Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Medintz, Igor L. [Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, Code 6900, U. S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave. S.W., Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Goldman, Ellen R., E-mail: ellen.goldman@nrl.navy.mil [Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, Code 6900, U. S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave. S.W., Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2013-07-05

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Anti-ricin single domain antibodies (sdAb) were self-assembled on quantum dots (QDs). •Conjugates were prepared using dihydrolipoic acid-capped CdSe–ZnS core–shell QDs. •The sdAb–QD conjugates functioned in fluoroimmunoassays for ricin detection. •The conjugates provided signal amplification in surface plasmon resonance assays. •Conjugates provided sensitive detection compared to unconjugated sdAb reporters. -- Abstract: The combination of stable biorecognition elements and robust quantum dots (QDs) has the potential to yield highly effective reporters for bioanalyses. Llama-derived single domain antibodies (sdAb) provide small thermostable recognition elements that can be easily manipulated using standard DNA methods. The sdAb was self-assembled on dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) ligand-capped CdSe–ZnS core–shell QDs made in our laboratory through the polyhistidine tail of the protein, which coordinated to zinc ions on the QD surface. The sdAb–QD bioconjugates were then applied in both fluorometric and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunoassays for the detection of ricin, a potential biothreat agent. The sdAb–QD conjugates functioned in fluoroimmunoassays for the detection of ricin, providing equivalent limits of detection when compared to the same anti-ricin sdAb labeled with a conventional fluorophore. In addition, the DHLA-QD–sdAb conjugates were very effective reporter elements in SPR sandwich assays, providing more sensitive detection with a signal enhancement of ∼10-fold over sdAb reporters and 2–4 fold over full sized antibody reporters. Commercially prepared streptavidin-modified polymer-coated QDs also amplified the SPR signal for the detection of ricin when applied to locations where biotinylated anti-ricin sdAb was bound to target; however, we observed a 4-fold greater amplification when using the DHLA-QD–sdAb conjugates in this format.

  5. Single domain antibody–quantum dot conjugates for ricin detection by both fluoroimmunoassay and surface plasmon resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, George P.; Glaven, Richard H.; Algar, W. Russ; Susumu, Kimihiro; Stewart, Michael H.; Medintz, Igor L.; Goldman, Ellen R.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Anti-ricin single domain antibodies (sdAb) were self-assembled on quantum dots (QDs). •Conjugates were prepared using dihydrolipoic acid-capped CdSe–ZnS core–shell QDs. •The sdAb–QD conjugates functioned in fluoroimmunoassays for ricin detection. •The conjugates provided signal amplification in surface plasmon resonance assays. •Conjugates provided sensitive detection compared to unconjugated sdAb reporters. -- Abstract: The combination of stable biorecognition elements and robust quantum dots (QDs) has the potential to yield highly effective reporters for bioanalyses. Llama-derived single domain antibodies (sdAb) provide small thermostable recognition elements that can be easily manipulated using standard DNA methods. The sdAb was self-assembled on dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) ligand-capped CdSe–ZnS core–shell QDs made in our laboratory through the polyhistidine tail of the protein, which coordinated to zinc ions on the QD surface. The sdAb–QD bioconjugates were then applied in both fluorometric and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunoassays for the detection of ricin, a potential biothreat agent. The sdAb–QD conjugates functioned in fluoroimmunoassays for the detection of ricin, providing equivalent limits of detection when compared to the same anti-ricin sdAb labeled with a conventional fluorophore. In addition, the DHLA-QD–sdAb conjugates were very effective reporter elements in SPR sandwich assays, providing more sensitive detection with a signal enhancement of ∼10-fold over sdAb reporters and 2–4 fold over full sized antibody reporters. Commercially prepared streptavidin-modified polymer-coated QDs also amplified the SPR signal for the detection of ricin when applied to locations where biotinylated anti-ricin sdAb was bound to target; however, we observed a 4-fold greater amplification when using the DHLA-QD–sdAb conjugates in this format

  6. Evaluation of Handheld Assays for the Detection of Ricin and Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B in Disinfected Waters

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    Mary Margaret Wade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of a rapid field test is needed capable of determining if field supplies of water are safe to drink by the warfighter during a military operation. The present study sought to assess the effectiveness of handheld assays (HHAs in detecting ricin and Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB in water. Performance of HHAs was evaluated in formulated tap water with and without chlorine, reverse osmosis water (RO with chlorine, and RO with bromine. Each matrix was prepared, spiked with ricin or SEB at multiple concentrations, and then loaded onto HHAs. HHAs were allowed to develop and then read visually. Limits of detection (LOD were determined for all HHAs in each water type. Both ricin and SEB were detected by HHAs in formulated tap water at or below the suggested health effect levels of 455 ng/mL and 4.55 ng/mL, respectively. However, in brominated or chlorinated waters, LODs for SEB increased to approximately 2,500 ng/mL. LODs for ricin increased in chlorinated water, but still remained below the suggested health effect level. In brominated water, the LOD for ricin increased to approximately 2,500 ng/mL. In conclusion, the HHAs tested were less effective at detecting ricin and SEB in disinfected water, as currently configured.

  7. Recommended Immunological Assays to Screen for Ricin-Containing Samples

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    Stéphanie Simon

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ricin, a toxin from the plant Ricinus communis, is one of the most toxic biological agents known. Due to its availability, toxicity, ease of production and absence of curative treatments, ricin has been classified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC as category B biological weapon and it is scheduled as a List 1 compound in the Chemical Weapons Convention. An international proficiency test (PT was conducted to evaluate detection and quantification capabilities of 17 expert laboratories. In this exercise one goal was to analyse the laboratories’ capacity to detect and differentiate ricin and the less toxic, but highly homologuous protein R. communis agglutinin (RCA120. Six analytical strategies are presented in this paper based on immunological assays (four immunoenzymatic assays and two immunochromatographic tests. Using these immunological methods “dangerous” samples containing ricin and/or RCA120 were successfully identified. Based on different antibodies used the detection and quantification of ricin and RCA120 was successful. The ricin PT highlighted the performance of different immunological approaches that are exemplarily recommended for highly sensitive and precise quantification of ricin.

  8. Application of Microwave Irradiation and Heat to Improve Gliadin Detection and Ricin ELISA Throughput with Food Samples

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    Eric A. E. Garber

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The utility of microwave irradiation to accelerate the onset of equilibrium and improve ELISA performance was examined using ELISAs for the detection of the plant toxin ricin and gliadin. The ricin ELISA normally requires several one hour incubations at 37 °C, a total assay time of approximately five hours, and employs a complex buffer containing PBS, Tween-20®, and non-fat milk. Different energy levels and pulse designs were compared to the use of abbreviated incubation times at 37 °C for the detection of ricin in food. The use of microwave irradiation had no significant advantage over the application of heat using an oven incubator and performed worse with some foods. In contrast, a gliadin ELISA that relied on 30 min incubation steps at room temperature and a salt-based buffer performed better upon irradiation but also displayed improvement upon incubating the microtiter plate at 37 °C. Whether microwave irradiation was advantageous compared to incubation in an oven was inconclusive. However, by abbreviating the incubation time of the ricin ELISA, it was possible to cut the assay time to less than 2 hours and still display LOD values < 10 ppb and recoveries of 78%–98%.

  9. Electrochemical Aptamer Scaffold Biosensors for Detection of Botulism and Ricin Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Jessica; Fetter, Lisa; Jett, Susan; Rowland, Teisha J; Bonham, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    Electrochemical DNA (E-DNA) biosensors enable the detection and quantification of a variety of molecular targets, including oligonucleotides, small molecules, heavy metals, antibodies, and proteins. Here we describe the design, electrode preparation and sensor attachment, and voltammetry conditions needed to generate and perform measurements using E-DNA biosensors against two protein targets, the biological toxins ricin and botulinum neurotoxin. This method can be applied to generate E-DNA biosensors for the detection of many other protein targets, with potential advantages over other systems including sensitive detection limits typically in the nanomolar range, real-time monitoring, and reusable biosensors.

  10. Data Set for the manuscript entitled, "Sample Processing Approach for Detection of Ricin in Surface Samples."

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    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Figure. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Shah, S., S. Kane, A.M. Erler, and T. Alfaro. Sample Processing Approach for Detection of Ricin in...

  11. Analysis of active ricin and castor bean proteins in a ricin preparation, castor bean extract, and surface swabs from a public health investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieltz, David M; McGrath, Sara C; McWilliams, Lisa G; Rees, Jon; Bowen, Michael D; Kools, John J; Dauphin, Leslie A; Gomez-Saladin, Eduardo; Newton, Bruce N; Stang, Heather L; Vick, Michael J; Thomas, Jerry; Pirkle, James L; Barr, John R

    2011-06-15

    In late February 2008, law enforcement officials in Las Vegas, Nevada, discovered in a hotel room, a copy of The Anarchist Cookbook, suspected castor beans and a "white powder" thought to be a preparation of ricin. Ricin is a deadly toxin from the seed of the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis). The United States regulates the possession, use, and transfer of ricin and it is the only substance considered a warfare agent in both the Chemical and the Biological Weapons Conventions. Six samples obtained from the hotel room were analyzed by laboratories at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention using a panel of biological and mass spectrometric assays. The biological assays (real time-PCR, time resolved fluorescence and cytotoxicity) provided presumptive evidence of active ricin in each of the samples. This initial screen was followed by an in-depth analysis using a novel, state-of-the-art mass spectrometry-based ricin functional assay and high sensitivity tandem mass spectrometry for protein identification. Mass spectrometric analysis positively identified ricin and confirmed that in each of the samples it was enzymatically active. The tandem mass spectrometry analysis used here is the most selective method available to detect ricin toxin. In each sample, ricin was unequivocally identified along with other R. communis plant proteins, including the highly homologous protein RCA120. Although database searches using tandem mass spectra acquired from the samples indicated that additional controlled substances were not present in these samples, the mass spectrometric results did provide extensive detail about the sample contents. To the best of our knowledge following a review of the available literature, this report describes the most detailed analysis of a white powder for a public health or forensic investigation involving ricin. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Diverse Profiles of Ricin-Cell Interactions in the Lung Following Intranasal Exposure to Ricin

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    Anita Sapoznikov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ricin, a plant-derived exotoxin, inhibits protein synthesis by ribosomal inactivation. Due to its wide availability and ease of preparation, ricin is considered a biothreat, foremost by respiratory exposure. We examined the in vivo interactions between ricin and cells of the lungs in mice intranasally exposed to the toxin and revealed multi-phasic cell-type-dependent binding profiles. While macrophages (MΦs and dendritic cells (DCs displayed biphasic binding to ricin, monophasic binding patterns were observed for other cell types; epithelial cells displayed early binding, while B cells and endothelial cells bound toxin late after intoxication. Neutrophils, which were massively recruited to the intoxicated lung, were refractive to toxin binding. Although epithelial cells bound ricin as early as MΦs and DCs, their rates of elimination differed considerably; a reduction in epithelial cell counts occurred late after intoxication and was restricted to alveolar type II cells only. The differential binding and cell-elimination patterns observed may stem from dissimilar accessibility of the toxin to different cells in the lung and may also reflect unequal interactions of the toxin with different cell-surface receptors. The multifaceted interactions observed in this study between ricin and the various cells of the target organ should be considered in the future development of efficient post-exposure countermeasures against ricin intoxication.

  13. BiP Negatively Affects Ricin Transport

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    Kirsten Sandvig

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The AB plant toxin ricin binds both glycoproteins and glycolipids at the cell surface via its B subunit. After binding, ricin is endocytosed and then transported retrogradely through the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. In the ER, the A subunit is retrotranslocated to the cytosol in a chaperone-dependent process, which is not fully explored. Recently two separate siRNA screens have demonstrated that ER chaperones have implications for ricin toxicity. ER associated degradation (ERAD involves translocation of misfolded proteins from ER to cytosol and it is conceivable that protein toxins exploit this pathway. The ER chaperone BiP is an important ER regulator and has been implicated in toxicity mediated by cholera and Shiga toxin. In this study, we have investigated the role of BiP in ricin translocation to the cytosol. We first show that overexpression of BiP inhibited ricin translocation and protected cells against the toxin. Furthermore, shRNA-mediated depletion of BiP enhanced toxin translocation resulting in increased cytotoxicity. BiP-dependent inhibition of ricin toxicity was independent of ER stress. Our findings suggest that in contrast to what was shown with the Shiga toxin, the presence of BiP does not facilitate, but rather inhibits the entry of ricin into the cytosol.

  14. Produção de anticorpos policlonais anti-ricina Production of polyclonal anti-ricin antibodies

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    Roselayne Ferro Furtado

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A ricina é uma proteína bastante tóxica presente nas sementes de mamona que impossibilita o uso da torta de mamona "in natura", como ração. A torta de mamona destoxificada necessita ainda de métodos de análise que garantam a ausência de traços dessa proteína. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, produzir e avaliar a sensibilidade e especificidade de anticorpos policlonais anti-ricina, para serem empregados como possíveis componentes de métodos sorológicos na detecção de ricina em torta de mamona destoxificada. Foram avaliadas três doses da proteína: 400, 180 e 100 µg cada uma dividida em duas aplicações em coelhos. A primeira dose foi injetada no animal no início do experimento e a segunda após 21 dias. O método de ELISA indicou que as duas doses menores (100 e 180 µg induziram respostas imunológicas primária e secundária com produção de anticorpos específicos. Enquanto a dose maior (400 µg de ricina apresentou uma resposta primária com elevação dos títulos de anticorpos, seguida de uma supressão da resposta. Esse perfil é sugestivo de tolerância imunológica. Pela técnica de Western blotting verificou-se que os anticorpos policlonais produzidos são bastante específicos para a ricina, no entanto, por detectarem ricina na forma nativa e desnaturada não são recomendados para o monitoramento de ricina em torta de mamona destoxificada por tratamento térmico.Ricin is a very toxic protein found in castor bean plants, making it impossible to use natural castor cake as animal food. The detoxificated castor cake needs to be analyzed by methods that ensure the absence of traces of this protein. This work had the objective to produce and to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of anti-ricin polyclonal antibodies, to be employed as component of sorologic methods as the ELISA in the detection of ricin in detoxificated castor cake. Three doses of protein, 400, 180 and 100 µg were evaluated each one injected twice into

  15. Cloning and expression of recombinant, functional ricin B chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, M.S.; Russell, D.W.; Uhr, J.W.; Vitetta, E.S.

    1987-01-01

    The cDNA encoding the B chain of the plant toxin ricin has been cloned and expressed in monkey kidney COS-M6 cells. The recombinant B chain was detected by labeling the transfected cells with [ 35 S]methionine and [ 35 S]-cysteine and demonstrating the secretion of a protein with a M/sub r/ of 30,000-32,000 that was not present in the medium of mock-transfected COS-M6 cells. This protein was specifically immunoprecipitated by an anti-ricin or anti-B-chain antibody and the amount of recombinant B chain secreted by the COS-M6 cells was determined by a radioimmunoassay. Virtually all of the recombinant B chain formed active ricin when mixed with native A chain; it could also bind to the galactose-containing glycoprotein asialofetuin as effectively as native B chain.These results indicate that the vast majority of recombinant B chains secreted into the medium of the COS-M6 cells retain biological function

  16. Characterization of Ricin and R. communis Agglutinin Reference Materials

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    Worbs, Sylvia; Skiba, Martin; Söderström, Martin; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Zeleny, Reinhard; Russmann, Heiko; Schimmel, Heinz; Vanninen, Paula; Fredriksson, Sten-Åke; Dorner, Brigitte G.

    2015-01-01

    Ricinus communis intoxications have been known for centuries and were attributed to the toxic protein ricin. Due to its toxicity, availability, ease of preparation, and the lack of medical countermeasures, ricin attracted interest as a potential biological warfare agent. While different technologies for ricin analysis have been established, hardly any universally agreed-upon “gold standards” are available. Expert laboratories currently use differently purified in-house materials, making any comparison of accuracy and sensitivity of different methods nearly impossible. Technically challenging is the discrimination of ricin from R. communis agglutinin (RCA120), a less toxic but highly homologous protein also contained in R. communis. Here, we established both highly pure ricin and RCA120 reference materials which were extensively characterized by gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI MS/MS), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight approaches as well as immunological and functional techniques. Purity reached >97% for ricin and >99% for RCA120. Different isoforms of ricin and RCA120 were identified unambiguously and distinguished by LC-ESI MS/MS. In terms of function, a real-time cytotoxicity assay showed that ricin is approximately 300-fold more toxic than RCA120. The highly pure ricin and RCA120 reference materials were used to conduct an international proficiency test. PMID:26703723

  17. Characterization of Ricin and R. communis Agglutinin Reference Materials

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    Sylvia Worbs

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ricinus communis intoxications have been known for centuries and were attributed to the toxic protein ricin. Due to its toxicity, availability, ease of preparation, and the lack of medical countermeasures, ricin attracted interest as a potential biological warfare agent. While different technologies for ricin analysis have been established, hardly any universally agreed-upon “gold standards” are available. Expert laboratories currently use differently purified in-house materials, making any comparison of accuracy and sensitivity of different methods nearly impossible. Technically challenging is the discrimination of ricin from R. communis agglutinin (RCA120, a less toxic but highly homologous protein also contained in R. communis. Here, we established both highly pure ricin and RCA120 reference materials which were extensively characterized by gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI MS/MS, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight approaches as well as immunological and functional techniques. Purity reached >97% for ricin and >99% for RCA120. Different isoforms of ricin and RCA120 were identified unambiguously and distinguished by LC-ESI MS/MS. In terms of function, a real-time cytotoxicity assay showed that ricin is approximately 300-fold more toxic than RCA120. The highly pure ricin and RCA120 reference materials were used to conduct an international proficiency test.

  18. Molecular cloning and expression in mammalian cells of ricin B chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, M.

    1987-01-01

    In these studies, the cDNA encoding the B chain of ricin has been cloned and expressed in monkey kidney COS-M6 cells. The recombinant B chain was detected by labeling the transfected cells with 35 S-methionine and 35 S-cysteine and demonstrating secretion of a protein with a Mr of 30-32,000 which was not present in the medium of mock-transfected COS-M6 cells. This protein was specifically immunoprecipitated by an anti-ricin or anti-B chain antibody. The amount of recombinant B chain secreted by the COS-M6 cells was determined by radioimmunoassay to be 1-10 ng/ml of media. Virtually all the recombinant B chain formed active ricin when mixed with native A chain; it could also bind as effectively as native B chain to the galactose-containing glycoprotein, asialofetuin. These results indicate that the vast majority of recombinant B chains secreted into the medium of the COS-M6 cells retain biological function

  19. Forensic assays of ricin: development of snp assays to generate precise genetic signatures for mixed genotypes found in ricin preparations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Paul J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hill, Karen K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2009-11-09

    The results outlined in this report provide the information for needed to apply a SNP-based forensic analysis to diverse ricin preparations. The same methods could be useful in castor breeding programs that seek to reduce or eliminate ricin in oil-producing R. communis cultivars.

  20. Structure of RiVax: a recombinant ricin vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legler, Patricia M.; Brey, Robert N.; Smallshaw, Joan E.; Vitetta, Ellen S.; Millard, Charles B.

    2011-01-01

    The X-ray crystal structure (at 2.1 Å resolution) of an immunogen under development as part of a ricin vaccine for humans is presented and structure-based analysis of the results was conducted with respect to related proteins and the known determinants for inducing or suppressing the protective immune response. RiVax is a recombinant protein that is currently under clinical development as part of a human vaccine to protect against ricin poisoning. RiVax includes ricin A-chain (RTA) residues 1–267 with two intentional amino-acid substitutions, V76M and Y80A, aimed at reducing toxicity. Here, the crystal structure of RiVax was solved to 2.1 Å resolution and it was shown that it is superposable with that of the ricin toxin A-chain from Ricinus communis with a root-mean-square deviation of 0.6 Å over 258 C α atoms. The RiVax structure is also compared with the recently determined structure of another potential ricin-vaccine immunogen, RTA 1–33/44–198 R48C/T77C. Finally, the locations and solvent-exposure of two toxin-neutralizing B-cell epitopes were examined and it was found that these epitopes are within or near regions predicted to be involved in catalysis. The results demonstrate the composition of the RiVax clinical material and will guide ongoing protein-engineering strategies to develop improved immunogens

  1. An imaging flow cytometry method to assess ricin trafficking in A549 human lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, Dominic; Chong, Damien; Walker, Nicola; Green, A Christopher

    2018-02-01

    The endocytosis and trafficking of ricin in mammalian cells is an important area of research for those producing ricin anti-toxins and other ricin therapeutics. Ricin trafficking is usually observed by fluorescence microscopy techniques. This gives good resolution and leads to a detailed understanding of the internal movement of ricin within cells. However, microscopy techniques are often hampered by complex analysis and quantification techniques, and the inability to look at ricin trafficking in large populations of cells. In these studies we have directly labelled ricin and assessed if its trafficking can be observed using Imaging Flow Cytometry (IFC) both to the cytoplasmic region of cells and specifically to the Golgi apparatus. Using IDEAS® data analysis software the specific fluorescence location of the ricin within the cells was analysed. Then, using cytoplasmic masking techniques to quantify the number of cells with endocytosed cytoplasmic ricin or cells with Golgi-associated ricin, kinetic endocytosis curves were generated. Here we present, to the authors' knowledge, the first example of using imaging flow cytometry for evaluating the subcellular transport of protein cargo, using the trafficking of ricin toxin in lung cells as a model. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Isolation of Anti-Ricin Protective Antibodies Exhibiting High Affinity from Immunized Non-Human Primates

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    Tal Noy-Porat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ricin, derived from the castor bean plant Ricinus communis, is one of the most potent and lethal toxins known, against which there is no available antidote. To date, the use of neutralizing antibodies is the most promising post-exposure treatment for ricin intoxication. The aim of this study was to isolate high affinity anti-ricin antibodies that possess potent toxin-neutralization capabilities. Two non-human primates were immunized with either a ricin-holotoxin- or subunit-based vaccine, to ensure the elicitation of diverse high affinity antibodies. By using a comprehensive set of primers, immune scFv phage-displayed libraries were constructed and panned. A panel of 10 antibodies (five directed against the A subunit of ricin and five against the B subunit was isolated and reformatted into a full-length chimeric IgG. All of these antibodies were found to neutralize ricin in vitro, and several conferred full protection to ricin-intoxicated mice when given six hours after exposure. Six antibodies were found to possess exceptionally high affinity toward the toxin, with KD values below pM (koff < 1 × 10−7 s−1 that were well correlated with their ability to neutralize ricin. These antibodies, alone or in combination, could be used for the development of a highly-effective therapeutic preparation for post-exposure treatment of ricin intoxication.

  3. Ricin as a weapon of mass terror--separating fact from fiction.

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    Schep, Leo J; Temple, Wayne A; Butt, Grant A; Beasley, Michael D

    2009-11-01

    In recent years there has been an increased concern regarding the potential use of chemical and biological weapons for mass urban terror. In particular, there are concerns that ricin could be employed as such an agent. This has been reinforced by recent high profile cases involving ricin, and its use during the cold war to assassinate a high profile communist dissident. Nevertheless, despite these events, does it deserve such a reputation? Ricin is clearly toxic, though its level of risk depends on the route of entry. By ingestion, the pathology of ricin is largely restricted to the gastrointestinal tract where it may cause mucosal injuries; with appropriate treatment, most patients will make a full recovery. As an agent of terror, it could be used to contaminate an urban water supply, with the intent of causing lethality in a large urban population. However, a substantial mass of pure ricin powder would be required. Such an exercise would be impossible to achieve covertly and would not guarantee success due to variables such as reticulation management, chlorination, mixing, bacterial degradation and ultra-violet light. By injection, ricin is lethal; however, while parenteral delivery is an ideal route for assassination, it is not realistic for an urban population. Dermal absorption of ricin has not been demonstrated. Ricin is also lethal by inhalation. Low doses can lead to progressive and diffuse pulmonary oedema with associated inflammation and necrosis of the alveolar pneumocytes. However, the risk of toxicity is dependent on the aerodynamic equivalent diameter (AED) of the ricin particles. The AED, which is an indicator of the aerodynamic behaviour of a particle, must be of sufficiently low micron size as to target the human alveoli and thereby cause major toxic effects. To target a large population would also necessitate a quantity of powder in excess of several metric tons. The technical and logistical skills required to formulate such a mass of powder to

  4. Novel Class of Potential Therapeutics that Target Ricin Retrograde Translocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Redmann

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ricin toxin, an A-B toxin from Ricinus communis, induces cell death through the inhibition of protein synthesis. The toxin binds to the cell surface via its B chain (RTB followed by its retrograde trafficking through intracellular compartments to the ER where the A chain (RTA is transported across the membrane and into the cytosol. Ricin A chain is transported across the ER membrane utilizing cellular proteins involved in the disposal of aberrant ER proteins by a process referred to as retrograde translocation. Given the current lack of therapeutics against ricin intoxication, we developed a high-content screen using an enzymatically attenuated RTA chimera engineered with a carboxy-terminal enhanced green fluorescent protein (RTAE177Qegfp to identify compounds that target RTA retrograde translocation. Stabilizing RTAE177Qegfp through the inclusion of proteasome inhibitor produced fluorescent peri-nuclear granules. Quantitative analysis of the fluorescent granules provided the basis to discover compounds from a small chemical library (2080 compounds with known bioactive properties. Strikingly, the screen found compounds that stabilized RTA molecules within the cell and several compounds limited the ability of wild type RTA to suppress protein synthesis. Collectively, a robust high-content screen was developed to discover novel compounds that stabilize intracellular ricin and limit ricin intoxication.

  5. Forensic Applications of Light-Element Stable Isotope Ratios of Ricinus communis Seeds and Ricin Preparations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzer, Helen W.; West, Jason B.; Ehleringer, James

    2013-01-01

    Seeds of the castor plant Ricinus communis, also known as castor beans, are of forensic interest because they are the source of the poison ricin. We have tested whether stable isotope ratios of castor seeds and ricin prepared by various methods can be used as a forensic signature. We collected over 300 castor seed samples from locations around the world and measured the C, N, O, and H stable isotope ratios of the whole seeds, oil, and three types of ricin preparations. Our results demonstrate that N isotope ratios can be used to correlate ricin prepared by any of these methods to source seeds. Further, stable isotope ratios distinguished >99% of crude and purified ricin protein samples in pair-wise comparison tests. Stable isotope ratios therefore constitute a valuable forensic signature for ricin preparations.

  6. Humanization and characterization of an anti-ricin neutralization monoclonal antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Gang Hu

    Full Text Available Ricin is regarded as a high terrorist risk for the public due to its high toxicity and ease of production. Currently, there is no therapeutic or vaccine available against ricin. D9, a murine monoclonal antibody developed previously in our laboratory, can strongly neutralize ricin and is therefore a good candidate for humanization. Humanization of D9 variable regions was achieved by a complementarity-determining region grafting approach. The humanized D9 (hD9 variable regions were further grafted onto human heavy and light chain constant regions to assemble the complete antibody gene. A foot-and-mouth-disease virus-derived 2A self-processing sequence was introduced between heavy and light chain DNA sequences to cleave the recombinant protein into a functional full-length antibody molecule from a single open reading frame driven by a single promoter in an adenoviral vector. After expression in mammalian cells and purification, the hD9 was demonstrated to have equimolar expression of the full-length antibody heavy and light chains. More importantly, the hD9 exhibited high affinity to ricin with K(D of 1.63 nM, comparable to its parental murine D9 (2.55 nM. In a mouse model, intraperitoneal (i.p. administration of hD9, at a low dose of 5 µg per mouse, 4 hours after the i.p. challenge with 5×LD50 ricin was found to rescue 100% of the mice. In addition, administered 6 hours post-challenge, hD9 could still rescue 50% of the mice. The hD9 has the potential to be used for prophylactic or therapeutic purposes against ricin poisoning.

  7. Inactivation of Ricin Toxin by Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Including Evidences from Cell and Animal Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Kai; Li, Wei; Gao, Shan; Ji, Bin; Zang, Yating; Su, Bo; Wang, Kaile; Yao, Maosheng; Zhang, Jue; Wang, Jinglin

    2016-01-01

    Ricin is one of the most toxic and easily produced plant protein toxin extracted from the castor oil plant, and it has been classified as a chemical warfare agent. Here, nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) at 30 kV/cm (pulse durations: 10 ns, 100 ns, and 300 ns) were applied to inactivating ricin up to 4.2 μg/mL. To investigate the efficacy, cells and mice were tested against the ricin treated by the nsPEFs via direct intraperitoneal injection and inhalation exposure. Results showed that nsPEFs treatments can effectively reduce the toxicity of the ricin. Without the nsPEFs treatment, 100% of mice were killed upon the 4 μg ricin injection on the first day, however 40% of the mice survived the ricin treated by the nsPEFs. Compared to injection, inhalation exposure even with higher ricin dose required longer time to observe mice fatality. Pathological observations revealed damages to heart, lung, kidney, and stomach after the ricin exposure, more pronounced for lung and kidney including severe bleeding. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis(SDS-PAGE) and circular dichroism (CD) analyses revealed that although the primary structure of ricin was not altered, its secondary structures (beta-sheet and beta-turn) underwent transition upon the nsPEFs treatment. PMID:26728251

  8. Ricin Trafficking in Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Spooner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The heterodimeric plant toxin ricin binds exposed galactosyls at the cell surface of target mammalian cells, and, following endocytosis, is transported in vesicular carriers to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Subsequently, the cell-binding B chain (RTB and the catalytic A chain (RTA are separated reductively, RTA embeds in the ER membrane and then retrotranslocates (or dislocates across this membrane. The protein conducting channels used by RTA are usually regarded as part of the ER-associated protein degradation system (ERAD that removes misfolded proteins from the ER for destruction by the cytosolic proteasomes. However, unlike ERAD substrates, cytosolic RTA avoids destruction and folds into a catalytic conformation that inactivates its target ribosomes. Protein synthesis ceases, and subsequently the cells die apoptotically. This raises questions about how this protein avoids the pathways that are normally sanctioned for ER-dislocating substrates. In this review we focus on the molecular events that occur with non-tagged ricin and its isolated subunits at the ER–cytosol interface. This focus reveals that intra-membrane interactions of RTA may control its fate, an area that warrants further investigation.

  9. Differential neutralizing activities of a single domain camelid antibody (VHH specific for ricin toxin's binding subunit (RTB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Herrera

    Full Text Available Ricin, a member of the A-B family of ribosome-inactivating proteins, is classified as a Select Toxin by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention because of its potential use as a biothreat agent. In an effort to engineer therapeutics for ricin, we recently produced a collection of alpaca-derived, heavy-chain only antibody VH domains (VHH or "nanobody" specific for ricin's enzymatic (RTA and binding (RTB subunits. We reported that one particular RTB-specific VHH, RTB-B7, when covalently linked via a peptide spacer to different RTA-specific VHHs, resulted in heterodimers like VHH D10/B7 that were capable of passively protecting mice against a lethal dose challenge with ricin. However, RTB-B7 itself, when mixed with ricin at a 1 ∶ 10 toxin:antibody ratio did not afford any protection in vivo, even though it had demonstrable toxin-neutralizing activity in vitro. To better define the specific attributes of antibodies associated with ricin neutralization in vitro and in vivo, we undertook a more thorough characterization of RTB-B7. We report that RTB-B7, even at 100-fold molar excess (toxin:antibody was unable to alter the toxicity of ricin in a mouse model. On the other hand, in two well-established cytotoxicity assays, RTB-B7 neutralized ricin with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 that was equivalent to that of 24B11, a well-characterized and potent RTB-specific murine monoclonal antibody. In fact, RTB-B7 and 24B11 were virtually identical when compared across a series of in vitro assays, including adherence to and neutralization of ricin after the toxin was pre-bound to cell surface receptors. RTB-B7 differed from both 24B11 and VHH D10/B7 in that it was relatively less effective at blocking ricin attachment to receptors on host cells and was not able to form high molecular weight toxin:antibody complexes in solution. Whether either of these activities is important in ricin toxin neutralizing activity in vivo remains to be determined.

  10. A novel swine model of ricin-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahaf Katalan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary exposure to the plant toxin ricin leads to respiratory insufficiency and death. To date, in-depth study of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS following pulmonary exposure to toxins is hampered by the lack of an appropriate animal model. To this end, we established the pig as a large animal model for the comprehensive study of the multifarious clinical manifestations of pulmonary ricinosis. Here, we report for the first time, the monitoring of barometric whole body plethysmography for pulmonary function tests in non-anesthetized ricin-treated pigs. Up to 30 h post-exposure, as a result of progressing hypoxemia and to prevent carbon dioxide retention, animals exhibited a compensatory response of elevation in minute volume, attributed mainly to a large elevation in respiratory rate with minimal response in tidal volume. This response was followed by decompensation, manifested by a decrease in minute volume and severe hypoxemia, refractory to oxygen treatment. Radiological evaluation revealed evidence of early diffuse bilateral pulmonary infiltrates while hemodynamic parameters remained unchanged, excluding cardiac failure as an explanation for respiratory insufficiency. Ricin-intoxicated pigs suffered from increased lung permeability accompanied by cytokine storming. Histological studies revealed lung tissue insults that accumulated over time and led to diffuse alveolar damage. Charting the decline in PaO2/FiO2 ratio in a mechanically ventilated pig confirmed that ricin-induced respiratory damage complies with the accepted diagnostic criteria for ARDS. The establishment of this animal model of pulmonary ricinosis should help in the pursuit of efficient medical countermeasures specifically tailored to deal with the respiratory deficiencies stemming from ricin-induced ARDS.

  11. Stabilization of a recombinant ricin toxin A subunit vaccine through lyophilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, Kimberly J; Cousins, Megan C; Rabia, Lilia A; Chadwick, Chrystal M; O'Hara, Joanne M; Nandi, Pradyot; Brey, Robert N; Mantis, Nicholas J; Carpenter, John F; Randolph, Theodore W

    2013-10-01

    Lyophilization was used to prepare dry, glassy solid vaccine formulations of recombinant ricin toxin A-chain containing suspensions of colloidal aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. Four lyophilized formulations were prepared by using combinations of rapid or slow cooling during lyophilization and one of two buffers, histidine or ammonium acetate. Trehalose was used as the stabilizing excipient. Aggregation of the colloidal aluminum hydroxide suspension was reduced in formulations processed with a rapid cooling rate. Aluminum hydroxide particle size distributions, glass transition temperatures, water contents, and immunogenicities of lyophilized vaccines were independent of incubation time at 40 °C for up to 15 weeks. Mice immunized with reconstituted ricin toxin subunit A (RTA) vaccines produced RTA-specific antibodies and toxin-neutralizing antibodies (TNAs) regardless of the length of high temperature vaccine storage or the degree of aluminum adjuvant aggregation that occurred during lyophilization. In murine studies, lyophilized formulations of vaccines conferred protection against exposure to lethal doses of ricin, even after the lyophilized formulations had been stored at 40 °C for 4 weeks. A corresponding liquid formulation of vaccine stored at 40 °C elicited RTA-specific antibody titers but failed to confer immunity during a ricin challenge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Forensic determination of ricin and the alkaloid marker ricinine from castor bean extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, S M; Miller, M L; Allen, R O

    2001-09-01

    Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/ MS) and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS methods were developed for the presumptive identification of ricin toxin and the alkaloid marker ricinine from crude plant materials. Ricin is an extremely potent poison, which is of forensic interest due to its appearance in terrorism literature and its potential for use as a homicide agent. Difficulties arise in attempting to analyze ricin because it is a large heterogeneous protein with glycosylation. The general protein identification scheme developed uses LC/MS or MALDI-TOF for size classification followed by the use of the same instrumentation for the analysis of the tryptic digest. Fragments of the digest can be searched in an online database for tentative identification of the unknown protein and then followed by comparison to authentic reference materials. LC fractionation or molecular weight cutoff filtration was used for preparation of the intact toxin before analysis. Extracts from two types of castor beans were prepared using a terrorist handbook procedure and determined to contain 1% ricin. Additionally, a forensic sample suspected to contain ricin was analyzed using the presented identification scheme (data not shown). The identification of the alkaloid ricinine by GC/MS and LC/MS was shown to be a complementary technique for the determination of castor bean extracts.

  13. EL4 cell-based colorimetric toxin neutralization activity assays for determination of neutralizing anti-ricin antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Changhong Y; Brown, J Edward; Torabazar, Nahid R; Smith, Leonard A

    2013-01-01

    A recombinant ricin toxin A-chain 1-33/44-198 vaccine (RVEc), developed at the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases as a vaccine candidate, is under investigation in a phase 1 clinical study. To effectively evaluate the immunogenicity of this ricin vaccine and to eliminate the use of radioactive material, an EL4 cell-based colorimetric toxin neutralization activity (TNA) assay using a CellTiter 96 AQueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay Reagent has been developed, optimized, and applied in the vaccine efficacy studies. The TNA assay measures the protective neutralizing anti-ricin antibodies in animal sera by determining the cell viability after ricin exposure in the assay system and comparing it to a purified mouse polyclonal antiricin IgG standard curve. The standard curve of the anti-ricin TNA assay closely fits a four-parameter logistic regression model. The unknown test sample concentration was expressed as microg/mL, but not the 50% effective concentration (EC50), which was determined by most TNA assays. The neutralizing endpoint titers, not the 50% effective dilution (ED50), of human specimens were measured with the TNA assay in support of the clinical study of the RVEc vaccine. The optimal amount of ricin toxin, EL4 cells, and concentration of standards used in the assay system was established to minimize false-negative and false-positive results of serum specimens from the nonclinical and clinical studies of RVEc. The testing conditions were adjusted to optimize assay performance. The colorimetric TNA assay replaced a radioactive TNA assay previously used in the ricin vaccine studies.

  14. Evaluation of a Ricin Vaccine Candidate for Human Toxicity Using an In Vitro Vascular Leak Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Porter, Aimee; Hale, Martha L; Pace, Amanda; Rosario, John-Michael; DaSilva, Luis

    2004-01-01

    Inhaling lethal doses of ricin (RT) causes pulmonary edema and results in death. In lower concentrations, ricin minimally causes tissue damage to the respiratory tract and lungs, which can incapacitate the individuals exposed to this toxin...

  15. Ricin A chain reaches the endoplasmic reticulum after endocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qiong; Zhan Jinbiao; Chen Xinhong; Zheng Shu

    2006-01-01

    Ricin is a potent ribosome inactivating protein and now has been widely used for synthesis of immunotoxins. To target ribosome in the mammalian cytosol, ricin must firstly retrograde transport from the endomembrane system to reach the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where the ricin A chain (RTA) is recognized by ER components that facilitate its membrane translocation to the cytosol. In the study, the fusion gene of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-RTA was expressed with the pET-28a (+) system in Escherichia coli under the control of a T7 promoter. The fusion protein showed a green fluorescence. The recombinant protein can be purified by metal chelated affinity chromatography on a column of NTA. The rabbit anti-GFP antibody can recognize the fusion protein of EGFP-RTA just like the EGFP protein. The cytotoxicity of EGFP-RTA and RTA was evaluated by the MTT assay in HeLa and HEP-G2 cells following fluid-phase endocytosis. The fusion protein had a similar cytotoxicity of RTA. After endocytosis, the subcellular location of the fusion protein can be observed with the laser scanning confocal microscopy and the immuno-gold labeling Electro Microscopy. This study provided important evidence by a visualized way to prove that RTA does reach the endoplasmic reticulum

  16. Differentiation of ricin using rapd markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivodik, M.; Balazova, Z.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess genetic diversity within the set of 111 ricin genotypes using 13 RAPD primers. For differentiation of 111 ricin genotypes 13 RAPD primers were used. Amplification of genomic DNA of 111 genotypes using RAPD analysis yielded 102 fragments, with an average of 7.85 polymorphic fragments per primer. Number of amplified fragments with RAPD primers ranged from 3 to 13, with the size of amplicons ranging from 100 to 1500 bp. The polymorphism information content (PIC) value ranged from 0.491 to 0.898 with an average of 0.764 and diversity index (DI) value ranged from 0.576 to 0.900 with an average of 0.776. The dendrogram based on hierarchical cluster analysis using UPGMA algorithm was prepared. In dendrogram separated unique genotype RM-32 from other 110 genotypes which were further grouped into 3 subclusters (1, 2, 3). Only four genotypes were not distinguished. Using more polymorphic RAPD markers genetically close genotypes can be distinguished. Knowledge on the genetic diversity of castor can be used for future breeding programs for increased oil production to meet the ever increasing demand of castor oil for industrial uses as well as for biodiesel production. (author)

  17. Aerodynamic sampling for landmine trace detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settles, Gary S.; Kester, Douglas A.

    2001-10-01

    Electronic noses and similar sensors show promise for detecting buried landmines through the explosive trace signals they emit. A key step in this detection is the sampler or sniffer, which acquires the airborne trace signal and presents it to the detector. Practicality demands no physical contact with the ground. Further, both airborne particulates and molecular traces must be sampled. Given a complicated minefield terrain and microclimate, this becomes a daunting chore. Our prior research on canine olfactory aerodynamics revealed several ways that evolution has dealt with such problems: 1) proximity of the sniffer to the scent source is important, 2) avoid exhaling back into the scent source, 3) use an aerodynamic collar on the sniffer inlet, 4) use auxiliary airjets to stir up surface particles, and 5) manage the 'impedance mismatch' between sniffer and sensor airflows carefully. Unfortunately, even basic data on aerodynamic sniffer performance as a function of inlet-tube and scent-source diameters, standoff distance, etc., have not been previously obtained. A laboratory-prototype sniffer was thus developed to provide guidance for landmine trace detectors. Initial experiments with this device are the subject of this paper. For example, a spike in the trace signal is observed upon starting the sniffer airflow, apparently due to rapid depletion of the available signal-laden air. Further, shielding the sniffer from disruptive ambient airflows arises as a key issue in sampling efficiency.

  18. Production and Characterization of an Avian Ricin Antitoxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-15

    naturally -occurring plant and/or bacterial toxins as biological threat agents, effective antitoxins are needed for either piophylactic or causal...system, an avian antitoxin against the potent phytotoxin , ricin. will be developed and evaluated. The production of therapeutic antibodies in avian...Dynatech). PolyacrylmIde gel electrophoresis (PAGE): Acrylamide gels were prepared according to methods described by Laemmli ( Nature . 227. 1970) and

  19. Criblage in vitro des graines d'accessions locales de ricin ( Ricinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le ricin (Ricinus communis L.) est une plante peu exigeante dont la culture offre d'énormes potentialités économiques pour les exploitants agricoles sénégalais. L'identification de génotypes performants avec des rendements acceptables en conditions de stress salin constitue une des solutions pour promouvoir cette ...

  20. Photoacoustic Spectroscopy with Quantum Cascade Lasers for Trace Gas Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Scamarcio

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Various applications, such as pollution monitoring, toxic-gas detection, noninvasive medical diagnostics and industrial process control, require sensitive and selectivedetection of gas traces with concentrations in the parts in 109 (ppb and sub-ppb range.The recent development of quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs has given a new aspect toinfrared laser-based trace gas sensors. In particular, single mode distributed feedback QCLsare attractive spectroscopic sources because of their excellent properties in terms of narrowlinewidth, average power and room temperature operation. In combination with these lasersources, photoacoustic spectroscopy offers the advantage of high sensitivity and selectivity,compact sensor platform, fast time-response and user friendly operation. This paper reportsrecent developments on quantum cascade laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy for tracegas detection. In particular, different applications of a photoacoustic trace gas sensoremploying a longitudinal resonant cell with a detection limit on the order of hundred ppb ofozone and ammonia are discussed. We also report two QC laser-based photoacousticsensors for the detection of nitric oxide, for environmental pollution monitoring andmedical diagnostics, and hexamethyldisilazane, for applications in semiconductormanufacturing process.

  1. Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) for trace element detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebeli, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Noll, K. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Ion beam induced nuclear reactions can be used to analyse trace element concentrations in materials. The method is especially suited for the detection of light contaminants in heavy matrices. (author) 3 figs., 2 refs.

  2. Infrared photothermal imaging spectroscopy for detection of trace explosives on surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendziora, Christopher A; Furstenberg, Robert; Papantonakis, Michael; Nguyen, Viet; Byers, Jeff; Andrew McGill, R

    2015-11-01

    We are developing a technique for the standoff detection of trace explosives on relevant substrate surfaces using photothermal infrared (IR) imaging spectroscopy (PT-IRIS). This approach leverages one or more compact IR quantum cascade lasers, which are tuned to strong absorption bands in the analytes and directed to illuminate an area on a surface of interest. An IR focal plane array is used to image the surface and detect increases in thermal emission upon laser illumination. The PT-IRIS signal is processed as a hyperspectral image cube comprised of spatial, spectral, and temporal dimensions as vectors within a detection algorithm. The ability to detect trace analytes at standoff on relevant substrates is critical for security applications but is complicated by the optical and thermal analyte/substrate interactions. This manuscript describes a series of PT-IRIS experimental results and analysis for traces of RDX, TNT, ammonium nitrate, and sucrose on steel, polyethylene, glass, and painted steel panels. We demonstrate detection at surface mass loadings comparable with fingerprint depositions ( 10μg/cm2 to 100μg/cm2) from an area corresponding to a single pixel within the thermal image.

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction data of an LNA 7-mer duplex derived from a ricin aptamer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Förster, Charlotte; Oberthuer, Dominik; Gao, Jiang; Eichert, André; Quast, Frederick G.; Betzel, Christian; Nitsche, Andreas; Erdmann, Volker A.; Fürste, Jens P.

    2009-01-01

    An all-LNA duplex was designed from the stem region of an RNA aptamer which has been generated against ricin. The LNA duplex was crystallized and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis revealed diffraction to a resolution of up to 2.8 Å. Locked nucleic acids (LNAs) are modified nucleic acids which contain a modified sugar such as β-d-2′-O,4′-C methylene-bridged ribofuranose or other sugar derivatives in LNA analogues. The β-d-2′-O,4′-C methylene ribofuranose LNAs in particular possess high stability and melting temperatures, which makes them of interest for stabilizing the structure of different nucleic acids. Aptamers, which are DNAs or RNAs targeted against specific ligands, are candidates for substitution with LNAs in order to increase their stability. A 7-mer helix derived from the terminal part of an aptamer that was targeted against ricin was chosen. The ricin aptamer originally consisted of natural RNA building blocks and showed high affinity in ricin binding. For future stabilization of the aptamer, the terminal helix has been constructed as an ‘all-locked’ LNA and was successfully crystallized in order to investigate its structural properties. Optimization of crystal growth succeeded by the use of different metal salts as additives, such as CuCl 2 , MgCl 2 , MnCl 2 , CaCl 2 , CoCl 2 and ZnSO 4 . Preliminary X-ray diffraction data were collected and processed to 2.8 Å resolution. The LNA crystallized in space group P6 5 , with unit-cell parameters a = 50.11, b = 50.11, c = 40.72 Å. The crystals contained one LNA helix per asymmetric unit with a Matthews coefficient of 3.17 Å 3 Da −1 , which implies a solvent content of 70.15%

  4. Ultrasensitive microchip based on smart microgel for real-time online detection of trace threat analytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shuo; Wang, Wei; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Xie, Rui; Liu, Zhuang; Yu, Hai-Rong; Zhang, Chuan; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2016-02-23

    Real-time online detection of trace threat analytes is critical for global sustainability, whereas the key challenge is how to efficiently convert and amplify analyte signals into simple readouts. Here we report an ultrasensitive microfluidic platform incorporated with smart microgel for real-time online detection of trace threat analytes. The microgel can swell responding to specific stimulus in flowing solution, resulting in efficient conversion of the stimulus signal into significantly amplified signal of flow-rate change; thus highly sensitive, fast, and selective detection can be achieved. We demonstrate this by incorporating ion-recognizable microgel for detecting trace Pb(2+), and connecting our platform with pipelines of tap water and wastewater for real-time online Pb(2+) detection to achieve timely pollution warning and terminating. This work provides a generalizable platform for incorporating myriad stimuli-responsive microgels to achieve ever-better performance for real-time online detection of various trace threat molecules, and may expand the scope of applications of detection techniques.

  5. Time resolved IR-LIGS experiments for gas-phase trace detection and temperature measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantoni, R.; Giorgi, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy). Dip. Innovazione; Snels, M. [CNR, Tito Scalo, Potenza (Italy). Istituto per i Materiali Speciali; Latzel, H.

    1997-01-01

    Time resolved Laser Induced Grating Spectroscopy (LIGS) has been performed to detect different gases in mixtures at atmospheric pressure or higher. The possibility of trace detection of minor species and of temperature measurements has been demonstrated for various molecular species either of environmental interest or involved in combustion processes. In view of the application of tracing unburned hydrocarbons in combustion chambers, the coupling of the IR-LIGS technique with imaging detection has been considered and preliminary results obtained in small size ethylene/air flames are shown.

  6. ANALYSIS OF RICIN TOXIN PREPARATIONS FOR CARBOHYDRATE AND FATTY ACID ABUNDANCE AND ISOTOPE RATIO INFORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunschel, David S.; Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Antolick, Kathryn C.; Colburn, Heather A.; Moran, James J.; Melville, Angela M.

    2009-12-01

    This report describes method development and preliminary evaluation for analyzing castor samples for signatures of purifying ricin. Ricin purification from the source castor seeds is essentially a problem of protein purification using common biochemical methods. Indications of protein purification will likely manifest themselves as removal of the non-protein fractions of the seed. Two major, non-protein, types of biochemical constituents in the seed are the castor oil and various carbohydrates. The oil comprises roughly half the seed weight while the carbohydrate component comprises roughly half of the remaining “mash” left after oil and hull removal. Different castor oil and carbohydrate components can serve as indicators of specific toxin processing steps. Ricinoleic acid is a relatively unique fatty acid in nature and is the most abundant component of castor oil. The loss of ricinoleic acid indicates a step to remove oil from the seeds. The relative amounts of carbohydrates and carbohydrate-like compounds, including arabinose, xylose, myo-inositol fucose, rhamnose, glucosamine and mannose detected in the sample can also indicate specific processing steps. For instance, the differential loss of arabinose relative to mannose and N-acetyl glucosamine indicates enrichment for the protein fraction of the seed using protein precipitation. The methods developed in this project center on fatty acid and carbohydrate extraction from castor samples followed by derivatization to permit analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Method descriptions herein include: the source and preparation of castor materials used for method evaluation, the equipment and description of procedure required for chemical derivatization, and the instrument parameters used in the analysis. Two types of derivatization methods describe analysis of carbohydrates and one procedure for analysis of fatty acids. Two types of GC-MS analysis is included in the method development, one

  7. Edge Detection and Feature Line Tracing in 3D-Point Clouds by Analyzing Geometric Properties of Neighborhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Ni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an automated and effective method for detecting 3D edges and tracing feature lines from 3D-point clouds. This method is named Analysis of Geometric Properties of Neighborhoods (AGPN, and it includes two main steps: edge detection and feature line tracing. In the edge detection step, AGPN analyzes geometric properties of each query point’s neighborhood, and then combines RANdom SAmple Consensus (RANSAC and angular gap metric to detect edges. In the feature line tracing step, feature lines are traced by a hybrid method based on region growing and model fitting in the detected edges. Our approach is experimentally validated on complex man-made objects and large-scale urban scenes with millions of points. Comparative studies with state-of-the-art methods demonstrate that our method obtains a promising, reliable, and high performance in detecting edges and tracing feature lines in 3D-point clouds. Moreover, AGPN is insensitive to the point density of the input data.

  8. Toxicity of ricin A chain is reduced in mammalian cells by inhibiting its interaction with the ribosome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jetzt, Amanda E. [Department of Animal Sciences, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8520 (United States); Li, Xiao-Ping; Tumer, Nilgun E. [Department of Plant Biology and Pathology, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8520 (United States); Cohick, Wendie S., E-mail: cohick@aesop.rutgers.edu [Department of Animal Sciences, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8520 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Ricin is a potent ribotoxin that is considered a bioterror threat due to its ease of isolation and possibility of aerosolization. In yeast, mutation of arginine residues away from the active site results in a ricin toxin A chain (RTA) variant that is unable to bind the ribosome and exhibits reduced cytotoxicity. The goal of the present work was to determine if these residues contribute to ribosome binding and cytotoxicity of RTA in mammalian cells. The RTA mutant R193A/R235A did not interact with mammalian ribosomes, while a G212E variant with a point mutation near its active site bound ribosomes similarly to wild-type (WT) RTA. R193A/R235A retained full catalytic activity on naked RNA but had reduced activity on mammalian ribosomes. To determine the effect of this mutant in intact cells, pre R193A/R235A containing a signal sequence directing it to the endoplasmic reticulum and mature R193A/R235A that directly targeted cytosolic ribosomes were each expressed. Depurination and protein synthesis inhibition were reduced by both pre- and mature R193A/R235A relative to WT. Protein synthesis inhibition was reduced to a greater extent by R193A/R235A than by G212E. Pre R193A/R235A caused a greater reduction in caspase activation and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential than G212E relative to WT RTA. These findings indicate that an RTA variant with reduced ribosome binding is less toxic than a variant with less catalytic activity but normal ribosome binding activity. The toxin-ribosome interaction represents a novel target for the development of therapeutics to prevent or treat ricin intoxication. - Highlights: • Arginines 193 and 235 of RTA are critical for binding to the mammalian ribosome. • R193A/R235A has full catalytic activity on RNA but not on mammalian ribosomes. • R193A/R235A is less toxic than a mutant that targets the active site. • The toxin-ribosome interaction is a therapeutic target for ricin intoxication.

  9. Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Trace Vapor Detection and Standoff Detection of Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    construction of sensors that are designed for specific tasks. PAS is well suited for trace detection of gaseous and condensed media. Recent research has...The TLV for chemical substances is defined as a concentration in air , typically for inhalation or skin exposure. For acetone , the TLV is 250 ppm...12 pt) The findings in this report are not to be construed as an official Department of the Army position unless so designated by other authorized

  10. Detection of visual events along the apparent motion trace in patients with paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Lia Lira Olivier; Muckli, Lars; de Millas, Walter; Lautenschlager, Marion; Heinz, Andreas; Kathmann, Norbert; Sterzer, Philipp

    2012-07-30

    Dysfunctional prediction in sensory processing has been suggested as a possible causal mechanism in the development of delusions in patients with schizophrenia. Previous studies in healthy subjects have shown that while the perception of apparent motion can mask visual events along the illusory motion trace, such motion masking is reduced when events are spatio-temporally compatible with the illusion, and, therefore, predictable. Here we tested the hypothesis that this specific detection advantage for predictable target stimuli on the apparent motion trace is reduced in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Our data show that, although target detection along the illusory motion trace is generally impaired, both patients and healthy control participants detect predictable targets more often than unpredictable targets. Patients had a stronger motion masking effect when compared to controls. However, patients showed the same advantage in the detection of predictable targets as healthy control subjects. Our findings reveal stronger motion masking but intact prediction of visual events along the apparent motion trace in patients with paranoid schizophrenia and suggest that the sensory prediction mechanism underlying apparent motion is not impaired in paranoid schizophrenia. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. 15N-urea tracing emission spectroscopy for detecting the infection of Helicobacter pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yayi

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study a noninvasive and nonradioactive method, 15 N-urea tracing emission spectroscopy, for detecting the Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection. Methods: A group of 26 patients was tested with a method of 15 N-urea tracing emission spectroscopy for detecting the Hp infection. Results: Taking the bacterial culture or (and) Gram stain as a standard, the specificity, sensitivity and positive predicting rate of the test were 81%, 89% and 84%, respectively. Conclusion: The method could be considered useful for clinical practice

  12. Digital micromirror devices in Raman trace detection of explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glimtoft, Martin; Svanqvist, Mattias; Ågren, Matilda; Nordberg, Markus; Östmark, Henric

    2016-05-01

    Imaging Raman spectroscopy based on tunable filters is an established technique for detecting single explosives particles at stand-off distances. However, large light losses are inherent in the design due to sequential imaging at different wavelengths, leading to effective transmission often well below 1 %. The use of digital micromirror devices (DMD) and compressive sensing (CS) in imaging Raman explosives trace detection can improve light throughput and add significant flexibility compared to existing systems. DMDs are based on mature microelectronics technology, and are compact, scalable, and can be customized for specific tasks, including new functions not available with current technologies. This paper has been focusing on investigating how a DMD can be used when applying CS-based imaging Raman spectroscopy on stand-off explosives trace detection, and evaluating the performance in terms of light throughput, image reconstruction ability and potential detection limits. This type of setup also gives the possibility to combine imaging Raman with non-spatially resolved fluorescence suppression techniques, such as Kerr gating. The system used consists of a 2nd harmonics Nd:YAG laser for sample excitation, collection optics, DMD, CMOScamera and a spectrometer with ICCD camera for signal gating and detection. Initial results for compressive sensing imaging Raman shows a stable reconstruction procedure even at low signals and in presence of interfering background signal. It is also shown to give increased effective light transmission without sacrificing molecular specificity or area coverage compared to filter based imaging Raman. At the same time it adds flexibility so the setup can be customized for new functionality.

  13. A Photoluminescence-Based Field Method for Detection of Traces of Explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Roland Menzel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a photoluminescence-based field method for detecting traces of explosives. In its standard version, the method utilizes a commercially available color spot test kit for treating explosive traces on filter paper after swabbing. The colored products are fluorescent under illumination with a laser that operates on three C-size flashlight batteries and delivers light at 532 nm. In the fluorescence detection mode, by visual inspection, the typical sensitivity gain is a factor of 100. The method is applicable to a wide variety of explosives. In its time-resolved version, intended for in situ work, explosives are tagged with europium complexes. Instrumentation-wise, the time-resolved detection, again visual, can be accomplished in facile fashion. The europium luminescence excitation utilizes a laser operating at 355 nm. We demonstrate the feasibility of CdSe quantum dot sensitization of europium luminescence for time-resolved purposes. This would allow the use of the above 532 nm laser.

  14. Feasibility of Trace Alcohol Congener Detection and Identification Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jialiang; Wang Shangmin; Zhao Lixian; Liu Liying; Wang Dezhen

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a feasible scheme is reported for the detection and identification of trace alcohol congeners that have identical elemental composition using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). In the scheme, an intensive pulsed laser is used to break down trace alcohol samples and the optical emission spectra of the induced plasma are collected for the detection and identification of alcohol molecules. In order to prepare trace alcohol samples, pure ethanol or methanol is bubbled by argon carrier gas and then mixed into matrix gases. The key issue for the scheme is to constitute indices from the LIBS data of the alcohol samples. Two indices are found to be suitable for alcohol detection and identification. One is the emission intensity ratio (denoted as H/C) of the hydrogen line (653.3 nm) to the carbon line (247.9 nm) for identification and the other is the ratio of the carbon line (as C/Ar) or the hydrogen line (as H/Ar) to the argon lines (866.7 nm) for quantitative detection. The calibration experiment result shows that the index H/C is specific for alcohol congeners while almost being independent of alcohol concentration. In detail, the H/C keeps a specific constant of 34 and 23 respectively for ethanol and methanol. In the meanwhile, the C/Ar and H/Ar indices respond almost linearly to the alcohol concentration below 1300 ppm, and are therefore competent for concentration measurement. With the indices, trace alcohol concentration measurement achieves a limit of 140 ppm using a laser pulse energy of 300 mJ. (plasma technology)

  15. Production and purification of immunologically active core protein p24 from HIV-1 fused to ricin toxin B subunit in E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Lim Miguel A

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gag protein from HIV-1 is a polyprotein of 55 kDa, which, during viral maturation, is cleaved to release matrix p17, core p24 and nucleocapsid proteins. The p24 antigen contains epitopes that prime helper CD4 T-cells, which have been demonstrated to be protective and it can elicit lymphocyte proliferation. Thus, p24 is likely to be an integral part of any multicomponent HIV vaccine. The availability of an optimal adjuvant and carrier to enhance antiviral responses may accelerate the development of a vaccine candidate against HIV. The aim of this study was to investigate the adjuvant-carrier properties of the B ricin subunit (RTB when fused to p24. Results A fusion between ricin toxin B subunit and p24 HIV (RTB/p24 was expressed in E. coli. Affinity chromatography was used for purification of p24 alone and RTB/p24 from cytosolic fractions. Biological activity of RTB/p24 was determined by ELISA and affinity chromatography using the artificial receptor glycoprotein asialofetuin. Both assays have demonstrated that RTB/p24 is able to interact with complex sugars, suggesting that the chimeric protein retains lectin activity. Also, RTB/p24 was demonstrated to be immunologically active in mice. Two weeks after intraperitoneal inoculation with RTB/p24 without an adjuvant, a strong anti-p24 immune response was detected. The levels of the antibodies were comparable to those found in mice immunized with p24 alone in the presence of Freund adjuvant. RTB/p24 inoculated intranasally in mice, also elicited significant immune responses to p24, although the response was not as strong as that obtained in mice immunized with p24 in the presence of the mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin. Conclusion In this work, we report the expression in E. coli of HIV-1 p24 fused to the subunit B of ricin toxin. The high levels of antibodies obtained after intranasal and intraperitoneal immunization of mice demonstrate the adjuvant-carrier properties of RTB when

  16. Development of a bioassay to quantify the ricin toxin content of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. seeds=Desenvolvimento de um bioensaio para quantificar o teor da toxina ricina em sementes de mamona (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick Auld

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed a bioassay to quantify the ricin toxin content of castor bean seeds. Existing quantification methods do not always reflect actual toxicity of the seeds analyzed, which may present lower ricin content even though they are more toxic than seeds presenting a higher content of ricin. This is because these methods actually measure the addition of ricin RCA, which is a compound less toxic than pure ricin. We decided to use in this study, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which has been widely used by the pharmaceutical industry. We tested two strains of C. elegans using different methods in 8 experiments. We examined 4 methods of extracting the ricin complex and 3 methods of exposing the nematodes. Among the nematode strains and ricin extraction methods tested, we concluded that the best strain for testing ricin toxicity was the strain called N2 and that the best method for ricin extraction was a rotating bath followed by centrifugation and exposing the nematodes in 24 well plates with a solution of nematodes extracted from the media with destilated waterexposing the nematodes in 24-well plates This method is inexpensive, quick and adequate for the selection of offspring with lower RIP content.Foi desenvolvido um bioensaio para quantificar o teor de ricina nas sementes de mamona. Os métodos de quantificação existentes não refletem a toxidez real das sementes analizadas, que pode mostrar um resultado de menor teor de ricina e ainda assim ser mais toxico do que as sementes que apresentaram teores maiores. Isto ocorre por que estes métodos medem alem da ricina a RCA, que é um composto menos tóxico que a ricina pura. Foi decidido utilizar neste estudo o nematoide Caenorhabditis elegans, que tem sido amplamente utilizado na industria farmacêutica. Foram testadas duas estirpes de C.elegans usadas em diferentes métodos contando com 8 experimentos distintos. nós examinamos 4 métodos de extração de ricina e 3 m

  17. Trace elements detection in whole food samples by Neutron Activation Analysis, k0-method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathler, Márcia Maia; Menezes, Maria Ângela de Barros Correia; Salles, Paula Maria Borges de

    2017-01-01

    Inorganic elements, from natural and anthropogenic sources are present in foods in different concentrations. With the increase in anthropogenic activities, there was also a considerable increase in the emission of these elements in the environment, leading to the need of monitoring the elemental composition of foods available for consumption. Numerous techniques have been used to detect inorganic elements in biological and environmental matrices, always aiming at reaching lower detection limits in order to evaluate the trace element content in the sample. Neutron activation analysis (INAA), applying the k 0 -method, produces accurate and precise results without the need of chemical preparation of the samples – that could cause their contamination. This study evaluated the presence of inorganic elements in whole foods samples, mainly elements on trace levels. For this purpose, seven samples of different types of whole foods were irradiated in the TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 research reactor - located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte, MG. It was possible to detect twenty two elements above the limit of detection in, at least, one of the samples analyzed. This study reaffirms the INAA, k 0 - method, as a safe and efficient technique for detecting trace elements in food samples. (author)

  18. Research on fiber-optic cantilever-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy for trace gas detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Zhou, Xinlei; Gong, Zhenfeng; Yu, Shaochen; Qu, Chao; Guo, Min; Yu, Qingxu

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate a new scheme of cantilever-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy, combining a sensitivity-improved fiber-optic cantilever acoustic sensor with a tunable high-power fiber laser, for trace gas detection. The Fabry-Perot interferometer based cantilever acoustic sensor has advantages such as high sensitivity, small size, easy to install and immune to electromagnetic. Tunable erbium-doped fiber ring laser with an erbium-doped fiber amplifier is used as the light source for acoustic excitation. In order to improve the sensitivity for photoacoustic signal detection, a first-order longitudinal resonant photoacoustic cell with the resonant frequency of 1624 Hz and a large size cantilever with the first resonant frequency of 1687 Hz are designed. The size of the cantilever is 2.1 mm×1 mm, and the thickness is 10 μm. With the wavelength modulation spectrum and second-harmonic detection methods, trace ammonia (NH3) has been measured. The gas detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio = 1) near the wavelength of 1522.5 nm is achieved to be 3 ppb.

  19. Hyperspectral to multispectral imaging for detection of tree nuts and peanut traces in wheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Mishra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In current industrial environments there is an increasing need for practical and inexpensive quality control systems to detect the foreign food materials in powder food processing lines. This demand is especially important for the detection of product adulteration with traces of highly allergenic products, such as peanuts and tree nuts. Manufacturing industries dealing with the processing of multiple powder food products present a substantial risk for the contamination of powder foods with traces of tree nuts and other adulterants, which might result in unintentional ingestion of nuts by the sensitised population. Hence, the need for an in-line system to detect nut traces at the early stages of food manufacturing is of crucial importance. In this present work, a feasibility study of a spectral index for revealing adulteration of tree nut and peanut traces in wheat flour samples with hyperspectral images is reported. The main nuts responsible for allergenic reactions considered in this work were peanut, hazelnut and walnut. Enhanced contrast between nuts and wheat flour was obtained after the application of the index. Furthermore, the segmentation of these images by selecting different thresholds for different nut and flour mixtures allowed the identification of nut traces in the samples. Pixels identified as nuts were counted and compared with the actual percentage of peanut adulteration. As a result, the multispectral system was able to detect and provide good visualisation of tree nut and peanut trace levels down to 0.01% by weight. In this context, multispectral imaging could operate in conjuction with chemical procedures, such as Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay to save time, money and skilled labour on product quality control. This approach could enable not only a few selected samples to be assessed but also to extensively incorporate quality control surveyance on product processing lines.

  20. Trace element analysis by EPMA in geosciences: detection limit, precision and accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batanova, V. G.; Sobolev, A. V.; Magnin, V.

    2018-01-01

    Use of the electron probe microanalyser (EPMA) for trace element analysis has increased over the last decade, mainly because of improved stability of spectrometers and the electron column when operated at high probe current; development of new large-area crystal monochromators and ultra-high count rate spectrometers; full integration of energy-dispersive / wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS/WDS) signals; and the development of powerful software packages. For phases that are stable under a dense electron beam, the detection limit and precision can be decreased to the ppm level by using high acceleration voltage and beam current combined with long counting time. Data on 10 elements (Na, Al, P, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn) in olivine obtained on a JEOL JXA-8230 microprobe with tungsten filament show that the detection limit decreases proportionally to the square root of counting time and probe current. For all elements equal or heavier than phosphorus (Z = 15), the detection limit decreases with increasing accelerating voltage. The analytical precision for minor and trace elements analysed in olivine at 25 kV accelerating voltage and 900 nA beam current is 4 - 18 ppm (2 standard deviations of repeated measurements of the olivine reference sample) and is similar to the detection limit of corresponding elements. To analyse trace elements accurately requires careful estimation of background, and consideration of sample damage under the beam and secondary fluorescence from phase boundaries. The development and use of matrix reference samples with well-characterised trace elements of interest is important for monitoring and improving of the accuracy. An evaluation of the accuracy of trace element analyses in olivine has been made by comparing EPMA data for new reference samples with data obtained by different in-situ and bulk analytical methods in six different laboratories worldwide. For all elements, the measured concentrations in the olivine reference sample

  1. Fragment-based identification of determinants of conformational and spectroscopic change at the ricin active site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares Alexei S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ricin is a potent toxin and known bioterrorism threat with no available antidote. The ricin A-chain (RTA acts enzymatically to cleave a specific adenine base from ribosomal RNA, thereby blocking translation. To understand better the relationship between ligand binding and RTA active site conformational change, we used a fragment-based approach to find a minimal set of bonding interactions able to induce rearrangements in critical side-chain positions. Results We found that the smallest ligand stabilizing an open conformer of the RTA active site pocket was an amide group, bound weakly by only a few hydrogen bonds to the protein. Complexes with small amide-containing molecules also revealed a switch in geometry from a parallel towards a splayed arrangement of an arginine-tryptophan cation-pi interaction that was associated with an increase and red-shift in tryptophan fluorescence upon ligand binding. Using the observed fluorescence signal, we determined the thermodynamic changes of adenine binding to the RTA active site, as well as the site-specific binding of urea. Urea binding had a favorable enthalpy change and unfavorable entropy change, with a ΔH of -13 ± 2 kJ/mol and a ΔS of -0.04 ± 0.01 kJ/(K*mol. The side-chain position of residue Tyr80 in a complex with adenine was found not to involve as large an overlap of rings with the purine as previously considered, suggesting a smaller role for aromatic stacking at the RTA active site. Conclusion We found that amide ligands can bind weakly but specifically to the ricin active site, producing significant shifts in positions of the critical active site residues Arg180 and Tyr80. These results indicate that fragment-based drug discovery methods are capable of identifying minimal bonding determinants of active-site side-chain rearrangements and the mechanistic origins of spectroscopic shifts. Our results suggest that tryptophan fluorescence provides a sensitive probe for the

  2. Optimizing surface acoustic wave sensors for trace chemical detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frye, G.C.; Kottenstette, R.J.; Heller, E.J. [and others

    1997-06-01

    This paper describes several recent advances for fabricating coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors for applications requiring trace chemical detection. Specifically, we have demonstrated that high surface area microporous oxides can provide 100-fold improvements in SAW sensor responses compared with more typical polymeric coatings. In addition, we fabricated GaAs SAW devices with frequencies up to 500 MHz to provide greater sensitivity and an ideal substrate for integration with high-frequency electronics.

  3. Trace detection of analytes using portable raman systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M. Kathleen; Hotchkiss, Peter J.; Martin, Laura E.; Jones, David Alexander

    2015-11-24

    Apparatuses and methods for in situ detection of a trace amount of an analyte are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, the present disclosure provides a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) insert including a passageway therethrough, where the passageway has a SERS surface positioned therein. The SERS surface is configured to adsorb molecules of an analyte of interest. A concentrated sample is caused to flow over the SERS surface. The SERS insert is then provided to a portable Raman spectroscopy system, where it is analyzed for the analyte of interest.

  4. Trace elements detection in whole food samples by Neutron Activation Analysis, k{sub 0}-method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathler, Márcia Maia; Menezes, Maria Ângela de Barros Correia, E-mail: maia.sathler@gmail.com, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Salles, Paula Maria Borges de, E-mail: pauladesalles@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    Inorganic elements, from natural and anthropogenic sources are present in foods in different concentrations. With the increase in anthropogenic activities, there was also a considerable increase in the emission of these elements in the environment, leading to the need of monitoring the elemental composition of foods available for consumption. Numerous techniques have been used to detect inorganic elements in biological and environmental matrices, always aiming at reaching lower detection limits in order to evaluate the trace element content in the sample. Neutron activation analysis (INAA), applying the k{sub 0}-method, produces accurate and precise results without the need of chemical preparation of the samples – that could cause their contamination. This study evaluated the presence of inorganic elements in whole foods samples, mainly elements on trace levels. For this purpose, seven samples of different types of whole foods were irradiated in the TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 research reactor - located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte, MG. It was possible to detect twenty two elements above the limit of detection in, at least, one of the samples analyzed. This study reaffirms the INAA, k{sub 0} - method, as a safe and efficient technique for detecting trace elements in food samples. (author)

  5. Automatic Detect and Trace of Solar Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Cheng; Chen, P. F.; Tang, Yu-hua; Hao, Qi; Guo, Yang

    We developed a series of methods to automatically detect and trace solar filaments in solar Hα images. The programs are able to not only recognize filaments and determine their properties, such as the position, the area and other relevant parameters, but also to trace the daily evolution of the filaments. For solar full disk Hα images, the method consists of three parts: first, preprocessing is applied to correct the original images; second, the Canny edge-detection method is used to detect the filaments; third, filament properties are recognized through the morphological operators. For each Hα filament and its barb features, we introduced the unweighted undirected graph concept and adopted Dijkstra shortest-path algorithm to recognize the filament spine; then, using polarity inversion line shift method for measuring the polarities in both sides of the filament to determine the filament axis chirality; finally, employing connected components labeling method to identify the barbs and calculating the angle between each barb and spine to indicate the barb chirality. Our algorithms are applied to the observations from varied observatories, including the Optical & Near Infrared Solar Eruption Tracer (ONSET) in Nanjing University, Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) and Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). The programs are demonstrated to be effective and efficient. We used our method to automatically process and analyze 3470 images obtained by MLSO from January 1998 to December 2009, and a butterfly diagram of filaments is obtained. It shows that the latitudinal migration of solar filaments has three trends in the Solar Cycle 23: The drift velocity was fast from 1998 to the solar maximum; after the solar maximum, it became relatively slow and after 2006, the migration became divergent, signifying the solar minimum. About 60% filaments with the latitudes larger than 50 degree migrate towards the Polar Regions with relatively high velocities, and the latitudinal migrating

  6. Paper based Flexible and Conformal SERS Substrate for Rapid Trace Detection on Real-world Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singamaneni, Srikanth; Lee, Chang; Tian, Limei

    2011-03-01

    One of the important but often overlooked considerations in the design of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates for trace detection is the efficiency of sample collection. Conventional designs based on rigid substrates such as silicon, alumina, and glass resist conformal contact with the surface under investigation, making the sample collection inefficient. We demonstrate a novel SERS substrate based on common filter paper adsorbed with gold nanorods, which allows conformal contact with real-world surfaces, thus dramatically enhancing the sample collection efficiency compared to conventional rigid substrates. We demonstrate the detection of trace amounts of analyte (140 pg spread over 4 cm2) by simply swabbing the surface under investigation with the novel SERS substrate. The hierarchical fibrous structure of paper serves as a 3D vasculature for easy uptake and transport of the analytes to the electromagnetic hot spots in the paper. Simple yet highly efficient and cost effective SERS substrate demonstrated here brings SERS based trace detection closer to real-world applications. We acknowledge the financial support from Center for Materials Innovation at Washington University.

  7. Resonant photoacoustic detection of NO2 traces with a Q-switched green laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, Verónica; Codnia, Jorge; Peuriot, Alejandro L.; Santiago, Guillermo

    2003-01-01

    Resonant photoacoustic detection of NO2 traces by means of a high repetition pulsed green laser is presented. The resonator is a cylindrical Pyrex glass cell with a measured Q factor 380 for the first radial mode in air at atmospheric pressure. The system is calibrated with known mixtures in dry air and a minimum detectable volume concentration of 50 parts in 109 is obtained (S/N=1). Its sensitivity allows one to detect and quantify NO2 traces in the exhaust gases of cars. Previously, the analysis of gas adsorption and desorption on the walls and of changes in the sample composition is carried out in order to minimize errors in the determination of NO2 content upon application of the extractive method. The efficiency of catalytic converters of several models of automobiles is studied and the NO2 concentration in samples from exhausts of different types of engine (gasoline, diesel, and methane gas) at idling operation are measured.

  8. Explosives trace detection in the process of biometrical fingerprint identification for access control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertseva, Elena V.; Savin, Andrey V.

    2007-02-01

    A method for trace detection of explosives on the surface of biometric fingerprint scanner is proposed and its sensitivity explored. The method is based on attenuated total reflection mid-infrared spectroscopy. The detection limit is about several microgram and the detectivity increases with the wavelength used for scanning. The advantages of the proposed method include high selectivity and thus low false alarm level, applicability to low vapor pressure explosives and low cost.

  9. Colorimetric detection of trace copper ions based on catalytic leaching of silver-coated gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Tingting; Chen, Lingxin; Chen, Zhaopeng; Wang, Yunqing; Chen, Ling; Li, Jinhua

    2011-11-01

    A colorimetric, label-free, and nonaggregation-based silver coated gold nanoparticles (Ag/Au NPs) probe has been developed for detection of trace Cu(2+) in aqueous solution, based on the fact that Cu(2+) can accelerate the leaching rate of Ag/Au NPs by thiosulfate (S(2)O(3)(2-)). The leaching of Ag/Au NPs would lead to dramatic decrease in the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption as the size of Ag/Au NPs decreased. This colorimetric strategy based on size-dependence of nanoparticles during their leaching process provided a highly sensitive (1.0 nM) and selective detection toward Cu(2+), with a wide linear detection range (5-800 nM) over nearly 3 orders of magnitude. The cost-effective probe allows rapid and sensitive detection of trace Cu(2+) ions in water samples, indicating its potential applicability for the determination of copper in real samples.

  10. Oxidative stress and pathogenic attack in plants, studied by laser based photoacoustic trace gas detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santosa, Ignatius Edi

    2002-01-01

    Photoacoustic detection has proven to be a sensitive method, which is suitable for trace gas measurement. In this thesis, we improved the photoacoustic detection system to measure new biologically interesting gases, ethane (C2H6) and nitric oxide (NO). A new design of grating holder is incorporated

  11. A highly selective molecularly imprinted electrochemiluminescence sensor for ultra-trace beryllium detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jianping; Ma, Fei; Wei, Xiaoping; Fu, Cong; Pan, Hongcheng

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A novel molecular imprinted electrochemiluminescence sensor was fabricated for ultra-trace Be 2+ detection with an extremely lower detection limit based on the luminol–H 2 O 2 ECL system. - Highlights: • A novel molecular imprinted electrochemiluminescence sensor was fabricated for ultra-trace Be 2+ detection. • Imprint cavities in the MIPs from elution the Be–PAR complex could provide more recognition sites for analytes. • ECL emission produced by the luminol–H 2 O 2 ECL system, which was applied to detect Be 2+ . • It gave an extremely lower detection limit (2.35 × 10 −11 mol L −1 ) than the reported methods. - Abstract: A new molecularly imprinted electrochemiluminescence (ECL) sensor was proposed for highly sensitive and selective determination of ultratrace Be 2+ determination. The complex of Be 2+ with 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol (PAR) was chosen as the template molecule for the molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP). In this assay, the complex molecule could be eluted from the MIP, and the cavities formed could then selectively recognize the complex molecules. The cavities formed could also work as the tunnel for the transfer of probe molecules to produce sound responsive signal. The determination was based on the intensity of the signal, which was proportional to the concentrations of the complex molecule in the sample solution, and the Be 2+ concentration could then be determined indirectly. The results showed that in the range of 7 × 10 −11 mol L −1 to 8.0 × 10 −9 mol L −1 , the ECL intensity had a linear relationship with the Be 2+ concentrations, with the limit of detection of 2.35 × 10 −11 mol L −1 . This method was successfully used to detect Be 2+ in real water samples

  12. The application of imaging technologies in the detection of trace evidence in forensic medical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocks, Jeannie; du Toit-Prinsloo, Lorraine; Steffens, Francois; Saayman, Gert

    2015-04-01

    In a country notorious for violent crime, it seems that South African medico-legal laboratories make minimal application of technology in the death investigation process and little attention is given to trace evidence. Non-destructive, non-invasive, portable and cost-effective tools are required. This study was conducted at the Pretoria Medico-Legal Laboratory. The surface area of the bodies and clothing of victims of fatal interpersonal violence were examined using a torch, magnifying lamp, portable digital microscope and alternate light source to gauge their potential for trace evidence detection. Most studies apply these and similar tools to inert surfaces, with few focusing on their application to human skin. There was a statistically significant difference in the detection of many of the evidence types between the naked-eye observation of the pathologists and the technologies. The different imaging technologies were compared as to their cost, evidence detection ability and ease of use. The most common evidence types discovered on the bodies and clothing of victims of fatal interpersonal violence, as well as the propensity of each tool to detect these, was evaluated in order to devise the best option for incorporation into the Pretoria Medico-Legal Laboratory routine. The digital microscope performed best overall followed by the magnifying lamp, torch and the Polilight(®). This study aimed to justify the investment of more time, effort and funding into trace evidence recovery in the South African mortuary environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sensitive Multi-Species Emissions Monitoring: Infrared Laser-Based Detection of Trace-Level Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steill, Jeffrey D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Huang, Haifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hoops, Alexandra A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Patterson, Brian D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Birtola, Salvatore R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Jaska, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Strecker, Kevin E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Chandler, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Bisson, Soott [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes our development of spectroscopic chemical analysis techniques and spectral modeling for trace-gas measurements of highly-regulated low-concentration species present in flue gas emissions from utility coal boilers such as HCl under conditions of high humidity. Detailed spectral modeling of the spectroscopy of HCl and other important combustion and atmospheric species such as H 2 O, CO 2 , N 2 O, NO 2 , SO 2 , and CH 4 demonstrates that IR-laser spectroscopy is a sensitive multi-component analysis strategy. Experimental measurements from techniques based on IR laser spectroscopy are presented that demonstrate sub-ppm sensitivity levels to these species. Photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy is used to detect and quantify HCl at ppm levels with extremely high signal-to-noise even under conditions of high relative humidity. Additionally, cavity ring-down IR spectroscopy is used to achieve an extremely high sensitivity to combustion trace gases in this spectral region; ppm level CH 4 is one demonstrated example. The importance of spectral resolution in the sensitivity of a trace-gas measurement is examined by spectral modeling in the mid- and near-IR, and efforts to improve measurement resolution through novel instrument development are described. While previous project reports focused on benefits and complexities of the dual-etalon cavity ring-down infrared spectrometer, here details on steps taken to implement this unique and potentially revolutionary instrument are described. This report also illustrates and critiques the general strategy of IR- laser photodetection of trace gases leading to the conclusion that mid-IR laser spectroscopy techniques provide a promising basis for further instrument development and implementation that will enable cost-effective sensitive detection of multiple key contaminant species simultaneously.

  14. Trace Contraband Detection Field-Test by the South Texas Specialized Crimes and Narcotics Task Force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannum, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Contraband Detection Dept.; Shannon, Gary W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Contraband Detection Dept.

    2006-04-01

    This report describes the collaboration between the South Texas Specialized Crimes and Narcotics Task Force (STSCNTF) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in a field test that provided prototype hand-held trace detection technology for use in counter-drug operations. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ)/National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC)/Border Research and Technology Center (BRTC) was contacted by STSCNTF for assistance in obtaining cutting-edge technology. The BRTC created a pilot project for Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the STSCNTF for the use of SNL’s Hound, a hand-held sample collection and preconcentration system that, when combined with a commercial chemical detector, can be used for the trace detection of illicit drugs and explosives. The STSCNTF operates in an area of high narcotics trafficking where methods of concealment make the detection of narcotics challenging. Sandia National Laboratories’ (SNL) Contraband Detection Department personnel provided the Hound system hardware and operational training. The Hound system combines the GE VaporTracer2, a hand-held commercial chemical detector, with an SNL-developed sample collection and preconcentration system. The South Texas Task force reported a variety of successes, including identification of a major shipment of methamphetamines, the discovery of hidden compartments in vehicles that contained illegal drugs and currency used in drug deals, and the identification of a suspect in a nightclub shooting. The main advantage of the hand-held trace detection unit is its ability to quickly identify the type of chemical (drugs or explosives) without a long lag time for laboratory analysis, which is the most common analysis method for current law enforcement procedures.

  15. Disruption of the Putative Vascular Leak Peptide Sequence in the Stabilized Ricin Vaccine Candidate RTA1-33/44-198

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles B. Millard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitetta and colleagues identified and characterized a putative vascular leak peptide (VLP consensus sequence in recombinant ricin toxin A-chain (RTA that contributed to dose-limiting human toxicity when RTA was administered intravenously in large quantities during chemotherapy. We disrupted this potentially toxic site within the more stable RTA1-33/44-198 vaccine immunogen and determined the impact of these mutations on protein stability, structure and protective immunogenicity using an experimental intranasal ricin challenge model in BALB/c mice to determine if the mutations were compatible. Single amino acid substitutions at the positions corresponding with RTA D75 (to A, or N and V76 (to I, or M had minor effects on the apparent protein melting temperature of RTA1-33/44-198 but all four variants retained greater apparent stability than the parent RTA. Moreover, each VLP(− variant tested provided protection comparable with that of RTA1-33/44-198 against supralethal intranasal ricin challenge as judged by animal survival and several biomarkers. To understand better how VLP substitutions and mutations near the VLP site impact epitope structure, we introduced a previously described thermal stabilizing disulfide bond (R48C/T77C along with the D75N or V76I substitutions in RTA1-33/44-198. The D75N mutation was compatible with the adjacent stabilizing R48C/T77C disulfide bond and the Tm was unaffected, whereas the V76I mutation was less compatible with the adjacent disulfide bond involving C77. A crystal structure of the RTA1-33/44-198 R48C/T77C/D75N variant showed that the structural integrity of the immunogen was largely conserved and that a stable immunogen could be produced from E. coli. We conclude that it is feasible to disrupt the VLP site in RTA1-33/44-198 with little or no impact on apparent protein stability or protective efficacy in mice and such variants can be stabilized further by introduction of a disulfide bond.

  16. Au-TiO2/Chit modified sensor for electrochemical detection of trace organophosphates insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yunhe; Min, Hong; Wei, Yinyin; Xiao, Fei; Shi, Guoyue; Li, Xiaohua; Jin, Litong

    2008-08-15

    In this paper, Au-TiO2/Chit modified electrode was prepared with Au-TiO2 nanocomposite (Au-TiO2) and Chitosan (Chit) as a conjunct. The Au-TiO2 nanocomposite and the films were characterized by electrochemical and spectroscopy methods. A set of experimental conditions was also optimized for the film's fabrication. The electrochemical and electrocatalytic behaviors of Au-TiO2/Chit modified electrode to trace organophosphates (OPs) insecticides such as parathion were discussed in this work. By differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) measurement, the current responses of Au-TiO2/Chit modified electrode were linear with parathion concentration ranging from 1.0 ng/ml to 7.0 x 10(3)ng/ml with the detection limit of 0.5 ng/ml. In order to evaluate the performance of the detection system, we also examined the real samples successfully in this work. It exhibited a sensitive, rapid and easy-to-use method for the fast determination of trace OPs insecticides.

  17. The fate of object memory traces under change detection and change blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Niko A

    2013-07-03

    Observers often fail to detect substantial changes in a visual scene. This so-called change blindness is often taken as evidence that visual representations are sparse and volatile. This notion rests on the assumption that the failure to detect a change implies that representations of the changing objects are lost all together. However, recent evidence suggests that under change blindness, object memory representations may be formed and stored, but not retrieved. This study investigated the fate of object memory representations when changes go unnoticed. Participants were presented with scenes consisting of real world objects, one of which changed on each trial, while recording event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants were first asked to localize where the change had occurred. In an additional recognition task, participants then discriminated old objects, either from the pre-change or the post-change scene, from entirely new objects. Neural traces of object memories were studied by comparing ERPs for old and novel objects. Participants performed poorly in the detection task and often failed to recognize objects from the scene, especially pre-change objects. However, a robust old/novel effect was observed in the ERP, even when participants were change blind and did not recognize the old object. This implicit memory trace was found both for pre-change and post-change objects. These findings suggest that object memories are stored even under change blindness. Thus, visual representations may not be as sparse and volatile as previously thought. Rather, change blindness may point to a failure to retrieve and use these representations for change detection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Present and Future Challenges in Trace and Ultra-Trace Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toulhoat, P.

    2005-01-01

    The analysis of trace and ultra-trace elements is continuously stimulating the progress in analytical chemistry. Environmental chemistry, radiochemistry, biology, health, agri-food are prescribers of trace analyses, with continuously increasing exigencies: lowering detection limits, lowering costs and analysis time, improving the quality of analytical information. Precise data about the chemical identity and chemical environment of analytes are now requested. Such pieces of information, beyond simple numerical data and confidence intervals, are necessary to understand studied systems, and to predict their evolution. From environmental contamination cases, one can envisage the various aspects of a problem, with for each of them its own exigencies and specificities in terms of analytical methods and approaches. The detection of traces and ultra-traces of actinides and fission products has been recently revisited and stimulates new technological developments (non proliferation issues, waste management). Data on their speciation in geological and biological media are essential for evaluating the safety of nuclear waste repositories. Various techniques are now used to determine speciation in liquid samples or on surfaces, with tremendous spatial resolutions or sensitivities. A new revolution in analytical chemistry is expected with the development of micro- or nano-analytical technologies. (author)

  19. Detection of trace levels of Pb2+ in tap water at boron-doped diamond electrodes with anodic stripping voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragoe, Diana; Spataru, Nicolae; Kawasaki, Ryuji; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu; Spataru, Tanta; Tryk, Donald A.; Fujishima, Akira

    2006-01-01

    Boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes were used to investigate the possibility of detecting trace levels of lead by linear-sweep anodic stripping voltammetry. The low limit of detection (2 nM) is an advantage compared to other electrode materials, and it was found that at low pH values, copper concentrations that are usually present in drinking water do not affect to a large extent the detection of lead. These findings recommend anodic stripping voltammetry at the BDD electrodes as a suitable mercury-free method for the determination of trace levels of lead in drinking water. The results obtained for the lead detection in tap water real samples are in excellent agreement with those found by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), demonstrating the practical analytical utility of the method

  20. Ultrasensitive detection of atmospheric trace gases using frequency modulation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, David E.

    1986-01-01

    Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy is a new technique that promises to significantly extend the state-of-the-art in point detection of atmospheric trace gases. FM spectroscopy is essentially a balanced bridge optical heterodyne approach in which a small optical absorption or dispersion from an atomic or molecular species of interest generates an easily detected radio frequency (RF) signal. This signal can be monitored using standard RF signal processing techniques and is, in principle, limited only by the shot noise generated in the photodetector by the laser source employed. The use of very high modulation frequencies which exceed the spectral width of the probed absorption line distinguishes this technique from the well-known derivative spectroscopy which makes use of low (kHz) modulation frequencies. FM spectroscopy was recently extended to the 10 micron infrared (IR) spectral region where numerous polyatomic molecules exhibit characteristic vibrational-rotational bands. In conjunction with tunable semiconductor diode lasers, the quantum-noise-limited sensitivity of the technique should allow for the detection of absorptions as small as .00000001 in the IR spectral region. This sensitivity would allow for the detection of H2O2 at concentrations as low as 1 pptv with an integration time of 10 seconds.

  1. Galvanic detection of sulfur dioxide in ambient air at trace levels by anodic oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindqvist, F.

    1978-01-01

    A continuous method for the measurement of SO2 in ambient air at trace levels is described. The principle of detection is based on the anodic oxidation of SO2 in a galvanic cell. A differential measuring technique with a cell with two anodes and one cathode is used; background and noise current are

  2. Development of a portable preconcentrator/ion mobility spectrometer system for the trace detection of narcotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmeter, J.E.; Custer, C.A.

    1997-08-01

    This project was supported by LDRD funding for the development and preliminary testing of a portable narcotics detection system. The system developed combines a commercial trace detector known as an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) with a preconcentrator originally designed by Department 5848 for the collection of explosives molecules. The detector and preconcentrator were combined along with all necessary accessories onto a push cart, thus yielding a fully portable detection unit. Preliminary testing with both explosives and narcotics molecules shown that the system is operational, and that it can successfully detect drugs as marijuana, methamphetamine (speed), and cocaine based on their characteristics IMS signatures.

  3. Distributed Sensor Particles for Remote Fluorescence Detection of Trace Analytes: UXO/CW; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SINGH, ANUP K.; GUPTA, ALOK; MULCHANDANI, ASHOK; CHEN, WILFRED; BHATIA, RIMPLE B.; SCHOENIGER, JOSEPH S.; ASHLEY, CAROL S.; BRINKER, C. JEFFREY; HANCE, BRADLEY G.; SCHMITT, RANDAL L.; JOHNSON, MARK S.; HARGIS JR. PHILIP J.; SIMONSON, ROBERT J.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the development of sensor particles for remote detection of trace chemical analytes over broad areas, e.g residual trinitrotoluene from buried landmines or other unexploded ordnance (UXO). We also describe the potential of the sensor particle approach for the detection of chemical warfare (CW) agents. The primary goal of this work has been the development of sensor particles that incorporate sample preconcentration, analyte molecular recognition, chemical signal amplification, and fluorescence signal transduction within a ''grain of sand''. Two approaches for particle-based chemical-to-fluorescence signal transduction are described: (1) enzyme-amplified immunoassays using biocompatible inorganic encapsulants, and (2) oxidative quenching of a unique fluorescent polymer by TNT

  4. TraceContract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavelund, Klaus; Barringer, Howard

    2012-01-01

    TraceContract is an API (Application Programming Interface) for trace analysis. A trace is a sequence of events, and can, for example, be generated by a running program, instrumented appropriately to generate events. An event can be any data object. An example of a trace is a log file containing events that a programmer has found important to record during a program execution. Trace - Contract takes as input such a trace together with a specification formulated using the API and reports on any violations of the specification, potentially calling code (reactions) to be executed when violations are detected. The software is developed as an internal DSL (Domain Specific Language) in the Scala programming language. Scala is a relatively new programming language that is specifically convenient for defining such internal DSLs due to a number of language characteristics. This includes Scala s elegant combination of object-oriented and functional programming, a succinct notation, and an advanced type system. The DSL offers a combination of data-parameterized state machines and temporal logic, which is novel. As an extension of Scala, it is a very expressive and convenient log file analysis framework.

  5. The Polypyrrole/Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Modified Au Microelectrode for Sensitive Electrochemical Detection of Trace Levels of Pb2+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuxing Zhu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The sensitive detection of trace levels of heavy metal ions such as Pb2+ is of significant importance due to the health hazard they pose. In this paper, we present a polypyrrole (PPy/multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT-modified Au microelectrode. The PPy/MWCNT composite film was electrochemically deposited on the microelectrode by cyclic voltammetry (CV. The composite film was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM, CV, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, and the results show that this film presents a uniformly distributed and web-like entangled structure and good conductivity. Differential pulse stripping voltammetry (DPSV was applied to determine trace levels of Pb2+. Experimental conditions including accumulation time and deposition potential were optimized. In optimal conditions, the PPy/MWCNT-modified microelectrode performed sensitive detection of Pb2+ within a concentration range from 1 to 100 μg·L−1, and the limit of detection was 0.65 μg·L−1 at the signal-to-noise ratio of three.

  6. A highly flexible polymerization technique to prepare fluorescent nanospheres for trace ammonia detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waich, K.; Sandholzer, M.; Mayr, T.; Slugovc, C.; Klimant, I.

    2010-01-01

    The preparation of pH-sensitive nanospheres by emulsion polymerization for the detection of trace levels of ammonia is described. A fluorescent, polymerizable xanthene dye was copolymerized with styrene, crosslinkers and further copolymers aimed at enhancing the sensitivity to obtain materials for sensing of ammonia. A half-seeded technique was used to obtain stable emulsions of the monomers which were cured to obtain nanospheres with covalently attached active components. The nanospheres were embedded in a silicon matrix and the sensor films obtained were investigated regarding their response to ammonia at concentrations between 25 and 1,000 ppb. Sensors containing polystyrene nanospheres crosslinked with divinylbenzene showed the best performance in ammonia measurements exhibiting detection limits (LODs) of less than 25 ppb ammonia.

  7. The Ring of Five follows the traces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2015-01-01

    The Ring of Five is an informal network of European experts in radioactivity detection belonging to public bodies such as the IRSN. After having evoked different cases of detection (detection of unusual traces of iodine 131 in the region of Stockholm in 2015, detection of high levels of traces of caesium 137 in Switzerland in 1968) which leaded to the identification of the origin of these traces, this article briefly recalls the history of the creation of this network which extended with the occurrence of the Chernobyl accident, describes how the information is transmitted, the use of modelling tools, and outlines that the detection of some species can be associated either to a nuclear accident or to an atmospheric nuclear bomb test, and indicates how new sensors, not sensitive to humidity, have been developed after a lack of detection of iodine 131. In a brief interview, the future of the Ring of Five, topics to be studied and current projects are briefly evoked

  8. Trace element measurements with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, A.L.; Kraner, H.W.; Jones, K.W.; Gordon, B.M.; Mills, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Aspects of the application of synchrotron radiation to trace element determinations by x-ray fluorescence have been investigated using beams from the Cornell facility, CHESS. Fluoresced x rays were detected with a Si(Li) detector placed 4 cm from the target at 90 0 to the beam. Thick samples of NBS Standard Reference Materials were used to calibrate trace element sensitivity and estimate minimum detectable limits for this method

  9. The medicinal chemistry of botulinum, ricin and anthrax toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Rickey P; Hartell, Mark G; Nichols, Daniel A; Bhattacharjee, Apurba K; van Hamont, John E; Skillman, Donald R

    2005-01-01

    The potential use of weapons of mass destruction (nuclear, biological or chemical) by terrorist organizations represents a major threat to world peace and safety. Only a limited number of vaccines are available to protect the general population from the medical consequences of these weapons. In addition there are major health concerns associated with a pre-exposure mass vaccination of the general population. To reduce or eliminate the impact of these terrible threats, new drugs must be developed to safely treat individuals exposed to these agents. A review of all therapeutic agents under development for the treatment of the illnesses and injuries that result from exposure to nuclear, biological or chemical warfare agents is beyond the scope of any single article. The intent here is to provide a focused review for medicinal and organic chemists of three widely discussed and easily deployed biological warfare agents, botulinum neurotoxin and ricin toxins and the bacteria Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax will be addressed because of its similarity in both structure and mechanism of catalytic activity with botulinum toxin. The common feature of these three agents is that they exhibit their biological activity via toxin enzymatic hydrolysis of a specific bond in their respective substrate molecules. A brief introduction to the history of each of the biological warfare agents is presented followed by a discussion on the mechanisms of action of each at the molecular level, and a review of current potential inhibitors under investigation.

  10. Traces of Drosophila Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ronald L.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Studies using functional cellullar imaging of living flies have identified six memory traces that form in the olfactory nervous system after conditioning with odors. These traces occur in distinct nodes of the olfactory nervous system, form and disappear across different windows of time, and are detected in the imaged neurons as increased calcium influx or synaptic release in response to the conditioned odor. Three traces form at, or near acquisition and co-exist with short-term behavioral memory. One trace forms with a delay after learning and co-exists with intermediate-term behavioral memory. Two traces form many hours after acquisition and co-exist with long-term behavioral memory. The transient memory traces may support behavior across the time-windows of their existence. The experimental approaches for dissecting memory formation in the fly, ranging from the molecular to the systems, make it an ideal system for dissecting the logic by which the nervous system organizes and stores different temporal forms of memory. PMID:21482352

  11. Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of a glucose oxidase-functionalized bioconjugate as a trace label for ultrasensitive detection of thrombin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lijuan; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Yali; Wang, Yan; Xie, Shunbi

    2012-11-18

    For the first time, a glucose oxidase-functionalized bioconjugate was prepared and served as a new trace label through its direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis in a sandwich-type electrochemical aptasensor for ultrasensitive detection of thrombin.

  12. Lab-on-fiber electrophoretic trace mixture separating and detecting an optofluidic device based on a microstructured optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinghua; Guo, Xiaohui; Li, Song; Kong, Depeng; Liu, Zhihai; Yang, Jun; Yuan, Libo

    2016-04-15

    We report an in-fiber integrated electrophoretic trace mixture separating and detecting an optofluidic optical fiber sensor based on a specially designed optical fiber. In this design, rapid in situ separation and simultaneous detection of mixed analytes can be realized under electro-osmotic flow in the microstructured optical fiber. To visually display the in-fiber separating and detecting process, two common fluorescent indicators are adopted as the optofluidic analytes in the optical fiber. Results show that a trace amount of the mixture (0.15 μL) can be completely separated within 3.5 min under a high voltage of 5 kV. Simultaneously, the distributed information of the separated analytes in the optical fiber can be clearly obtained by scanning along the optical fiber using a 355 nm laser. The emission from the analytes can be efficiently coupled into the inner core and guides to the remote end of the optical fiber. In addition, the thin cladding around the inner core in the optical fiber can prevent the fluorescent cross talk between the analytes in this design. Compared to previous optical fiber optofluidic devices, this device first realizes simultaneously separating treatment and the detection of the mixed samples in an optical fiber. Significantly, such an in-fiber integrated separating and detecting optofluidic device can find wide applications in various analysis fields involves mixed samples, such as biology, chemistry, and environment.

  13. The Graphene/l-Cysteine/Gold-Modified Electrode for the Differential Pulse Stripping Voltammetry Detection of Trace Levels of Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Song

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium(II is a common water pollutant with high toxicity. It is of significant importance for detecting aqueous contaminants accurately, as these contaminants are harmful to human health and environment. This paper describes the fabrication, characterization, and application of an environment-friendly graphene (Gr/l-cysteine/gold electrode to detect trace levels of cadmium (Cd by differential pulse stripping voltammetry (DPSV. The influence of hydrogen overflow was decreased and the current response was enhanced because the modified graphene extended the potential range of the electrode. The Gr/l-cysteine/gold electrode showed high electrochemical conductivity, producing a marked increase in anodic peak currents (vs. the glass carbon electrode (GCE and boron-doped diamond (BDD electrode. The calculated detection limits are 1.15, 0.30, and 1.42 µg/L, and the sensitivities go up to 0.18, 21.69, and 152.0 nA·mm−2·µg−1·L for, respectively, the BDD electrode, the GCE, and the Gr/l-cysteine/gold electrode. It was shown that the Gr/l-cysteine/gold-modified electrode is an effective means for obtaining highly selective and sensitive electrodes to detect trace levels of cadmium.

  14. Array biosensor for detection of toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligler, Frances S.; Taitt, Chris Rowe; Shriver-Lake, Lisa C.; Sapsford, Kim E.; Shubin, Yura; Golden, Joel P.

    2003-01-01

    The array biosensor is capable of detecting multiple targets rapidly and simultaneously on the surface of a single waveguide. Sandwich and competitive fluoroimmunoassays have been developed to detect high and low molecular weight toxins, respectively, in complex samples. Recognition molecules (usually antibodies) were first immobilized in specific locations on the waveguide and the resultant patterned array was used to interrogate up to 12 different samples for the presence of multiple different analytes. Upon binding of a fluorescent analyte or fluorescent immunocomplex, the pattern of fluorescent spots was detected using a CCD camera. Automated image analysis was used to determine a mean fluorescence value for each assay spot and to subtract the local background signal. The location of the spot and its mean fluorescence value were used to determine the toxin identity and concentration. Toxins were measured in clinical fluids, environmental samples and foods, with minimal sample preparation. Results are shown for rapid analyses of staphylococcal enterotoxin B, ricin, cholera toxin, botulinum toxoids, trinitrotoluene, and the mycotoxin fumonisin. Toxins were detected at levels as low as 0.5 ng mL(-1).

  15. Automated computer analysis of plasma-streak traces from SCYLLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitman, R.L.; Jahoda, F.C.; Kruger, R.P.

    1977-01-01

    An automated computer analysis technique that locates and references the approximate centroid of single- or dual-streak traces from the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory SCYLLAC facility is described. The technique also determines the plasma-trace width over a limited self-adjusting region. The plasma traces are recorded with streak cameras on Polaroid film, then scanned and digitized for processing. The analysis technique uses scene segmentation to separate the plasma trace from a reference fiducial trace. The technique employs two methods of peak detection; one for the plasma trace and one for the fiducial trace. The width is obtained using an edge-detection, or slope, method. Timing data are derived from the intensity modulation of the fiducial trace. To smooth (despike) the output graphs showing the plasma-trace centroid and width, a technique of ''twicing'' developed by Tukey was employed. In addition, an interactive sorting algorithm allows retrieval of the centroid, width, and fiducial data from any test shot plasma for post analysis. As yet, only a limited set of sixteen plasma traces has been processed using this technique

  16. Automated computer analysis of plasma-streak traces from SCYLLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiteman, R.L.; Jahoda, F.C.; Kruger, R.P.

    1977-11-01

    An automated computer analysis technique that locates and references the approximate centroid of single- or dual-streak traces from the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory SCYLLAC facility is described. The technique also determines the plasma-trace width over a limited self-adjusting region. The plasma traces are recorded with streak cameras on Polaroid film, then scanned and digitized for processing. The analysis technique uses scene segmentation to separate the plasma trace from a reference fiducial trace. The technique employs two methods of peak detection; one for the plasma trace and one for the fiducial trace. The width is obtained using an edge-detection, or slope, method. Timing data are derived from the intensity modulation of the fiducial trace. To smooth (despike) the output graphs showing the plasma-trace centroid and width, a technique of ''twicing'' developed by Tukey was employed. In addition, an interactive sorting algorithm allows retrieval of the centroid, width, and fiducial data from any test shot plasma for post analysis. As yet, only a limited set of the plasma traces has been processed with this technique

  17. Identification of the sodium-calcium exchanger as the major ricin-binding glycoprotein of bovine rod outer segments and its localization to the plasma membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, D.M.; Molday, R.S.; Friedel, U.; Cook, N.J.

    1990-01-01

    After neuraminidase treatment the Na + /Ca 2+ exchanger of bovine rod outer segments was found to specifically bind Ricinus communis agglutinin. SDS gel electrophoresis and Western blotting of ricin-binding proteins purified from rod outer segment membranes by lectin affinity chromatography revealed the existence of two major polypeptides of M r 215K and 103K, the former of which was found to specifically react with PMe 1B3, a monoclonal antibody specific for the 230-kDa non-neuraminidase-treated Na + /Ca 2+ exchanger. Reconstitution of the ricin affinity-purified exchanger into calcium-containing liposomes revealed that neuraminidase treatment had no significant effect on the kinetics of Na + /Ca 2+ exchange activation by sodium. The authors further investigated the density of the Na + /Ca 2+ exchanger in disk and plasma membrane preparations using Western blotting, radioimmunoassays, immunoelectron microscopy, and reconstitution procedures. The results indicate that the Na + /Ca 2+ exchanger is localized in the rod photoreceptor plasma membrane and is absent or present in extremely low concentrations in disk membranes, as they have previously shown to be the case for the cGMP-gated cation channel. Previous reports describing the existence of Na + /Ca 2+ exchange activity in rod outer segment disk membrane preparations may be due to the fusion of plasma membrane components and/or the presence of contaminating plasma membrane vesicles

  18. The Graphene/l-Cysteine/Gold-Modified Electrode for the Differential Pulse Stripping Voltammetry Detection of Trace Levels of Cadmium

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Song; Chao Bian; Jianhua Tong; Yang Li; Shanghong Xia

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium(II) is a common water pollutant with high toxicity. It is of significant importance for detecting aqueous contaminants accurately, as these contaminants are harmful to human health and environment. This paper describes the fabrication, characterization, and application of an environment-friendly graphene (Gr)/l-cysteine/gold electrode to detect trace levels of cadmium (Cd) by differential pulse stripping voltammetry (DPSV). The influence of hydrogen overflow was decreased and the curr...

  19. Improved Bi Film Wrapped Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Ultrasensitive Electrochemical Detection of Trace Cr(VI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shilin; Xue, Zi-Ling; Xu, Lina; Gu, Yingying; Miao, Yuqing

    2014-01-01

    We report here the successful fabrication of an improved Bi film wrapped single walled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode (Bi/SWNTs/GCE) as a highly sensitive platform for ultratrace Cr(VI) detection through catalytic adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (AdCSV). The introduction of negatively charged SWNTs extraordinarily decreased the size of Bi particles to nanoscale due to electrostatic interaction which made Bi(III) cations easily attracted onto the surface of SWNTs in good order, leading to higher quality of Bi film deposition. The obtained Bi/SWNTs composite was well characterized with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the static water contact angle and the voltammetric measurements. The results demonstrates the improvements in the quality of Bi film deposited on the surface of SWNTs such as faster speed of electron transfer, more uniform and smoother morphology, better hydrophilicity and higher stripping signal. Using diethylene triaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) as complexing ligand, the fabricated electrode displays a well-defined and highly sensitive peak for the reduction of Cr(III)-DTPA complex at −1.06 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) with a linear concentration range of 0–25 nM and a fairly low detection limit of 0.036 nM. No interference was found in the presence of coexisting ions, and good recoveries were achieved for the analysis of a river sample. In comparison to previous approaches using Bi film modified GCE, the newly designed electrode exhibits better reproducibility and repeatability towards aqueous detection of trace Cr(VI) and appears to be very promising as the basis of a highly sensitive and selective voltammetric procedure for Cr(VI) detection at trace level in real samples. PMID:24771881

  20. Distributed trace using central performance counter memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterfield, David L.; Sexton, James C.

    2013-01-22

    A plurality of processing cores, are central storage unit having at least memory connected in a daisy chain manner, forming a daisy chain ring layout on an integrated chip. At least one of the plurality of processing cores places trace data on the daisy chain connection for transmitting the trace data to the central storage unit, and the central storage unit detects the trace data and stores the trace data in the memory co-located in with the central storage unit.

  1. Detection of trace explosives on relevant substrates using a mobile platform for photothermal infrared imaging spectroscopy (PT-IRIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendziora, Christopher A.; Furstenberg, Robert; Papantonakis, Michael; Nguyen, Viet; Byers, Jeff; McGill, R. Andrew

    2015-05-01

    This manuscript describes the results of recent tests regarding standoff detection of trace explosives on relevant substrates using a mobile platform. We are developing a technology for detection based on photo-thermal infrared (IR) imaging spectroscopy (PT-IRIS). This approach leverages one or more microfabricated IR quantum cascade lasers, tuned to strong absorption bands in the analytes and directed to illuminate an area on a surface of interest. An IR focal plane array is used to image the surface thermal emission upon laser illumination. The PT-IRIS signal is processed as a hyperspectral image cube comprised of spatial, spectral and temporal dimensions as vectors within a detection algorithm. Increased sensitivity to explosives and selectivity between different analyte types is achieved by narrow bandpass IR filters in the collection path. We have previously demonstrated the technique at several meters of stand-off distance indoors and in field tests, while operating the lasers below the infrared eye-safe intensity limit (100 mW/cm2). Sensitivity to explosive traces as small as a single 10 μm diameter particle (~1 ng) has been demonstrated. Analytes tested here include RDX, TNT, ammonium nitrate and sucrose. The substrates tested in this current work include metal, plastics, glass and painted car panels.

  2. Simultaneous Photoacoustic and Photopyroelectric Detection of Trace Gas Emissions from Some Plant Parts and Their Related Essential Oils in a Combined Detection Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Taha, M. I.; Abu-Teir, M. M.; Al-Jamal, A. J.; Eideh, H.

    The aim of this work was to establish the feasibility of the combined photoacoustic (PA) and photopyroelectric (PPE) detection of the vapours emitted from essential oils and their corresponding uncrushed leaves or flowers. Gas traces of jasmine (Jessamine (Jasminum)), mint (Mentha arvensis L.) and Damask rose (Rosa damascena Miller) and their essential oils were tested using a combined cell fitted with both a photopyroelectric film (PVDF) and a microphone in conjunction with a pulsed wideband infrared source (PWBS) source. Infrared PA and PPE absorbances were obtained simultaneously at room temperatures with excellent reproducibility and high signal-to-noise ratios. Significant similarities found between the PA and PPE spectra of the trace gas emissions of plant parts, i.e., flowers or leaves and their related essential oils show the good correlation of their emissions and that both effects are initiated by the same absorbing molecules.

  3. Improved Bi film wrapped single walled carbon nanotubes for ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of trace Cr(VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Ruizhuo; Zhang, Wangyao; Zhou, Shilin; Xue, Zi-Ling; Xu, Lina; Gu, Yingying; Miao, Yuqing

    2013-01-01

    reproducibility and repeatability toward aqueous detection of trace Cr(VI) and appears to be very promising as the basis of a highly sensitive and selective voltammetric procedure for Cr(VI) detection at trace level in real samples

  4. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles for trace level detection of a hazardous pollutant (nitrobenzene) causing Methemoglobinaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmanuel, R.; Karuppiah, Chelladurai; Chen, Shen-Ming; Palanisamy, Selvakumar; Padmavathy, S.; Prakash, P.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic representation for green synthesis of Au-NPs and its electroreduction of nitrobenzene. - Highlights: • A green synthesis of size controlled Au-NPs from plant extract. • Trace level detection of nitro benzene, a pollutant causing Methemoglobinaemia, at Au-NPs modified electrode. • Achievement of lower LOD and wider linear response. • The proposed sensor exhibits excellent practicality in various water samples. - Abstract: The present study involves a green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) using Acacia nilotica twig bark extract at room temperature and trace level detection of one of the hazardous materials, viz. nitrobenzene (NB) that causes Methemoglobinaemia. The synthesis protocol demonstrates that the bioreduction of chloroauric acid leads to the formation of Au-NPs within 10 min, suggesting a higher reaction rate than any other chemical methods involved. The obtained Au-NPs have been characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The electrochemical detection of NB has been investigated at the green synthesized Au-NPs modified glassy carbon electrode by using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The Au-NPs modified electrode exhibits excellent reduction ability toward NB compared to unmodified electrode. The developed NB sensor at Au-NPs modified electrode displays a wide linear response from 0.1 to 600 μM with high sensitivity of 1.01 μA μM −1 cm −2 and low limit of detection of 0.016 μM. The modified electrode shows exceptional selectivity in the presence of ions, phenolic and biologically coactive compounds. In addition, the Au-NPs modified electrode exhibits an outstanding recovery results toward NB in various real water samples

  5. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles for trace level detection of a hazardous pollutant (nitrobenzene) causing Methemoglobinaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmanuel, R. [Post Graduate and Research Department of Chemistry, Thiagarajar College, Madurai 625009, Tamil Nadu (India); Karuppiah, Chelladurai [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Shen-Ming, E-mail: smchen78@ms15.hinet.net [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Palanisamy, Selvakumar [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Padmavathy, S. [Department of Zoology and Microbiology, Thiagarajar College, Madurai 625009, Tamil Nadu (India); Prakash, P., E-mail: kmpprakash@gmail.com [Post Graduate and Research Department of Chemistry, Thiagarajar College, Madurai 625009, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: Schematic representation for green synthesis of Au-NPs and its electroreduction of nitrobenzene. - Highlights: • A green synthesis of size controlled Au-NPs from plant extract. • Trace level detection of nitro benzene, a pollutant causing Methemoglobinaemia, at Au-NPs modified electrode. • Achievement of lower LOD and wider linear response. • The proposed sensor exhibits excellent practicality in various water samples. - Abstract: The present study involves a green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) using Acacia nilotica twig bark extract at room temperature and trace level detection of one of the hazardous materials, viz. nitrobenzene (NB) that causes Methemoglobinaemia. The synthesis protocol demonstrates that the bioreduction of chloroauric acid leads to the formation of Au-NPs within 10 min, suggesting a higher reaction rate than any other chemical methods involved. The obtained Au-NPs have been characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The electrochemical detection of NB has been investigated at the green synthesized Au-NPs modified glassy carbon electrode by using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The Au-NPs modified electrode exhibits excellent reduction ability toward NB compared to unmodified electrode. The developed NB sensor at Au-NPs modified electrode displays a wide linear response from 0.1 to 600 μM with high sensitivity of 1.01 μA μM{sup −1} cm{sup −2} and low limit of detection of 0.016 μM. The modified electrode shows exceptional selectivity in the presence of ions, phenolic and biologically coactive compounds. In addition, the Au-NPs modified electrode exhibits an outstanding recovery results toward NB in various real water samples.

  6. Derivatization reaction-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for detection of trace acetone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ying; Chen, Zhuo; Zheng, Chengbin; Lee, Yong-Ill; Hou, Xiandeng; Wu, Li; Tian, Yunfei

    2016-08-01

    A facile method was developed for determination of trace volatile acetone by coupling a derivatization reaction to surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). With iodide modified Ag nanoparticles (Ag IMNPs) as the SERS substrate, acetone without obvious Raman signal could be converted to SERS-sensitive species via a chemical derivatization reaction with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH). In addition, acetone can be effectively separated from liquid phase with a purge-sampling device and then any serious interference from sample matrices can be significantly reduced. The optimal conditions for the derivatization reaction and the SERS analysis were investigated in detail, and the selectivity and reproducibility of this method were also evaluated. Under the optimal conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) for acetone was 5mgL(-1) or 0.09mM (3σ). The relative standard deviation (RSD) for 80mgL(-1) acetone (n=9) was 1.7%. This method was successfully used for the determination of acetone in artificial urine and human urine samples with spiked recoveries ranging from 92% to 110%. The present method is convenient, sensitive, selective, reliable and suitable for analysis of trace acetone, and it could have a promising clinical application in early diabetes diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Portable detection of trace metals in airborne particulates and sediments via μPADs and smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yuan; Dong, Hui; Zheng, Jianping; Sun, Hao

    2017-11-01

    Particulate matter (PM), a key indicator of air pollution by natural and anthropogenic activities, contributes to a wide spectrum of diseases that lead to a shortening of life expectancy. It has been recognized that trace metals in airborne PM are highly toxic and can be correlated with lesion in respiratory, gastrointestinal, immunological, and hematological systems. Traditional methods for trace metal assay require sophisticated instrumentations and highly trained operators in centralized laboratories. In this work, by integrating the technologies of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices, additive manufacturing, smartphone, and colorimetric sensing, we developed the first smartphone based paper microfluidic platform for portable, disposable, and quantitative measurements of cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), and iron (Fe) in ambient air and street sediments. On a single A4-sized paper, 48 devices were fabricated in under 30 s with a total cost of ∼$1.9. On each device, 12 reaction units were patterned and used for colorimetric tests. Particulate samples from urban ambient air and street sediments were collected, processed, and analyzed. Signals of the on-chip complexation product were recorded using a smartphone camera and processed by a self-developed app on an iOS system. For precisely controlling the object distance, chip position, and luminance, a hand-held 3D cellphone housing was designed and printed. The detection limits of Co, Cu, and Fe were determined to be 8.2, 45.8, and 186.0 ng, while the linear dynamic ranges were calculated to be 8.2-81.6, 45.8-4.58 × 10 2 , and 1.86 × 10 2 -1.86 × 10 3  ng, representing a practically relevant device performance with a significant reduction in the detection cost and time consumption. Trace metals in ambient air and sediments of two cities in China have been quantified portably, thus demonstrating the utility of our system in improving strategies for air pollution control in low-resource settings.

  8. Trace element analysis of soy sauce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Michio; Haruyama, Yoichi; Saito, Manabu

    1994-01-01

    Trace elements in soy sauce have been measured by means of in-air PIXE. Six kinds of trace elements were detected, such as Mu, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu and Br. Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Zn and Br which were observed in all samples, have been determined. Each analyzed sample contained considerable amount of bromine about 160 ppm. (author)

  9. Fibre optic sensor for the detection of adulterant traces in coconut oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeba, M.; Rajesh, M.; Vallabhan, C. P. G.; Nampoori, V. P. N.; Radhakrishnan, P.

    2005-11-01

    The design and development of a fibre optic evanescent wave refractometer for the detection of trace amounts of paraffin oil and palm oil in coconut oil is presented. This sensor is based on a side-polished plastic optical fibre. At the sensing region, the cladding and a small portion of the core are removed and the fibre nicely polished. The sensing region is fabricated in such a manner that it sits perfectly within a bent mould. This bending of the sensing region enhances its sensitivity. The oil mixture of different mix ratios is introduced into the sensing region and we observed a sharp decrease in the output intensity. The observed variation in the intensity is found to be linear and the detection limit is 2% (by volume) paraffin oil/palm oil in coconut oil. The resolution of this refractometric sensor is of the order of 10-3. Since coconut oil is consumed in large volumes as edible oil in south India, this fibre optic sensor finds great relevance for the detection of adulterants such as paraffin oil or palm oil which are readily miscible in coconut oil. The advantage of this type of sensor is that it is inexpensive and easy to set up. Another attraction of the side-polished fibre is that only a very small amount of analyte is needed and its response time is only 7 s.

  10. Detection of trace fluoride in serum and urine by online membrane-based distillation coupled with ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Chaoyan; Guo, Dandan; Wang, Nani; Wu, Shuchao; Zhang, Peimin; Zhu, Yan

    2017-06-02

    An online membrane-based distillation (MBD) coupled with ion chromatography (IC) method was proposed for automatic detection of trace fluoride (F - ) in serum and urine samples. The system consisted of a sample vessel, a lab-made membrane module and an ion chromatograph. Hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) hollow fiber membrane was used in MBD which was directly performed in serum and urine samples to eliminate the matrix interferences and enrich fluoride, while enabling automation. The determination of fluoride in biological samples was carried out by IC with suppressed conductometric detection. The proposed method feasibly determined trace fluoride in serum and urine matrices with the optimized parameters, such as acid concentration, distillation temperature, and distillation time, etc. Fluoride exhibited satisfactory linearity in the range of 0.01-5.0mg/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.9992. The limit of detection (LOD, S/N=3) and limit of quantification (LOQ, S/N=10) were 0.78μg/L and 2.61μg/L, respectively. The relative standard deviations of peak area and peak height were all less than 5.15%. The developed method was validated for the determination of fluoride in serum and urine with good spiked recoveries ranging between 97.1-101.9%. This method also can be proposed as a suitable alternative for the analysis of fluoride in other complex biological samples. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Rapid pretreatment and detection of trace aflatoxin B1 in traditional soybean sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fang; Lai, WeiHua; Saini, Jasdeep; Shan, Shan; Cui, Xi; Liu, DaoFeng

    2014-05-01

    Soybean sauce, a traditional fermented food in China, has different levels of aflatoxin B1 pollution. Two kinds of direct and indirect immunomagnetic bead methods for the pretreatment of aflatoxin B1 were evaluated in this work. A method was established to detect aflatoxin B1 in soybean sauce using an immunomagnetic bead system for pretreatment and ELISA for quantification. The pretreatment method of immunomagnetic beads performed better compared with the conventional extraction and immunoaffinity column method. ELISA exhibited a good linear relationship at an aflatoxin B1 concentration of 0.05-0.3μg/kg (r(2)=0.9842). The average recoveries across spike levels varied from 0.5 to 7μg/kg were 83.6-104% with a relative standard deviation between 4.2% and 11.7%. With the advantages of rapid detection, easy operation, simple equipment, sensitivity, accuracy, and high recovery; this method can be well applied in the trace determination of aflatoxin B1 in soybean sauce samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Trace element analysis in soy sauce. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruyama, Yoichi; Saito, Manabu; Tomita, Michio; Yoshida, Koji.

    1994-01-01

    Trace elements in four kinds of soybean and three kinds of salt have been measured by means of in-air PIXE. In soybeans, which were made in Japan, America, Canada and China, six kinds of trace elements were detected, such as Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Br. The concentration of these elements varied depending on the place they were made. American soybean showed characteristic feature compared with other soybeans. As to the bromine concentration, American soybean contains ten times as much as Japanese one. In salts Br and Sr were detected. (author)

  13. Bayesian Classification Models for Premature Ventricular Contraction Detection on ECG Traces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Manuel M; Avitia, Roberto L; Gonzalez-Navarro, Felix F; Cardenas-Haro, Jose A; Reyna, Marco A

    2018-01-01

    According to the American Heart Association, in its latest commission about Ventricular Arrhythmias and Sudden Death 2006, the epidemiology of the ventricular arrhythmias ranges from a series of risk descriptors and clinical markers that go from ventricular premature complexes and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia to sudden cardiac death due to ventricular tachycardia in patients with or without clinical history. The premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) are known to be associated with malignant ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD) cases. Detecting this kind of arrhythmia has been crucial in clinical applications. The electrocardiogram (ECG) is a clinical test used to measure the heart electrical activity for inferences and diagnosis. Analyzing large ECG traces from several thousands of beats has brought the necessity to develop mathematical models that can automatically make assumptions about the heart condition. In this work, 80 different features from 108,653 ECG classified beats of the gold-standard MIT-BIH database were extracted in order to classify the Normal, PVC, and other kind of ECG beats. Three well-known Bayesian classification algorithms were trained and tested using these extracted features. Experimental results show that the F1 scores for each class were above 0.95, giving almost the perfect value for the PVC class. This gave us a promising path in the development of automated mechanisms for the detection of PVC complexes.

  14. Chemical Selectivity and Sensitivity of a 16-Channel Electronic Nose for Trace Vapour Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Strle

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Good chemical selectivity of sensors for detecting vapour traces of targeted molecules is vital to reliable detection systems for explosives and other harmful materials. We present the design, construction and measurements of the electronic response of a 16 channel electronic nose based on 16 differential microcapacitors, which were surface-functionalized by different silanes. The e-nose detects less than 1 molecule of TNT out of 10+12 N2 molecules in a carrier gas in 1 s. Differently silanized sensors give different responses to different molecules. Electronic responses are presented for TNT, RDX, DNT, H2S, HCN, FeS, NH3, propane, methanol, acetone, ethanol, methane, toluene and water. We consider the number density of these molecules and find that silane surfaces show extreme affinity for attracting molecules of TNT, DNT and RDX. The probability to bind these molecules and form a surface-adsorbate is typically 10+7 times larger than the probability to bind water molecules, for example. We present a matrix of responses of differently functionalized microcapacitors and we propose that chemical selectivity of multichannel e-nose could be enhanced by using artificial intelligence deep learning methods.

  15. Structural re-alignment in an immunologic surface region of ricin A chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemla, A T; Zhou, C E

    2007-07-24

    We compared structure alignments generated by several protein structure comparison programs to determine whether existing methods would satisfactorily align residues at a highly conserved position within an immunogenic loop in ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs). Using default settings, structure alignments generated by several programs (CE, DaliLite, FATCAT, LGA, MAMMOTH, MATRAS, SHEBA, SSM) failed to align the respective conserved residues, although LGA reported correct residue-residue (R-R) correspondences when the beta-carbon (Cb) position was used as the point of reference in the alignment calculations. Further tests using variable points of reference indicated that points distal from the beta carbon along a vector connecting the alpha and beta carbons yielded rigid structural alignments in which residues known to be highly conserved in RIPs were reported as corresponding residues in structural comparisons between ricin A chain, abrin-A, and other RIPs. Results suggest that approaches to structure alignment employing alternate point representations corresponding to side chain position may yield structure alignments that are more consistent with observed conservation of functional surface residues than do standard alignment programs, which apply uniform criteria for alignment (i.e., alpha carbon (Ca) as point of reference) along the entirety of the peptide chain. We present the results of tests that suggest the utility of allowing user-specified points of reference in generating alternate structural alignments, and we present a web server for automatically generating such alignments.

  16. Combination of a Sample Pretreatment Microfluidic Device with a Photoluminescent Graphene Oxide Quantum Dot Sensor for Trace Lead Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Minsu; Ha, Hyun Dong; Kim, Yong Tae; Jung, Jae Hwan; Kim, Shin-Hyun; Kim, Do Hyun; Seo, Tae Seok

    2015-11-03

    A novel trace lead ion (Pb(2+)) detection platform by combining a microfluidic sample pretreatment device with a DNA aptamer linked photoluminescent graphene oxide quantum dot (GOQD) sensor was proposed. The multilayered microdevice included a microchamber which was packed with cation exchange resins for preconcentrating metal ions. The sample loading and recovery were automatically actuated by a peristaltic polydimethylsiloxane micropump with a flow rate of 84 μL/min. Effects of the micropump actuation time, metal ion concentration, pH, and the volumes of the sample and eluent on the metal ion capture and preconcentration efficiency were investigated on a chip. The Pb(2+) samples whose concentrations ranged from 0.48 nM to 1.2 μM were successfully recovered with a preconcentration factor value between 4 and 5. Then, the preconcentrated metal ions were quantitatively analyzed with a DNA aptamer modified GOQD. The DNA aptamer on the GOQD specifically captured the target Pb(2+) which can induce electron transfer from GOQD to Pb(2+) upon UV irradiation, thereby resulting in the fluorescence quenching of the GOQD. The disturbing effect of foreign anions on the Pb(2+) detection and the spiked Pb(2+) real samples were also analyzed. The proposed GOQD metal ion sensor exhibited highly sensitive Pb(2+) detection with a detection limit of 0.64 nM and a dynamic range from 1 to 1000 nM. The on-chip preconcentration of the trace metal ions from a large-volume sample followed by the metal ion detection by the fluorescent GOQD sensor can provide an advanced platform for on-site water pollution screening.

  17. Design of a compact permanent magnet Cyclotron Mass Spectrometer for the detection and measurement of trace isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, A.T.; Bertsche, K.J.; Clark, D.J.; Halbach, K.; Kunkel, W.B.; Leung, K.N.; Li, C.Y.

    1992-07-01

    A technique for the detection of trace amounts of rare isotopes, Cyclotron mass Spectrometry (CMS), is described. This technique uses the relationships between particle mass, charge, magnetic field strength and cyclotron orbital frequency to provide high mass resolution. The instrument also has high sensitivity and is capable of measuring isotopes with abundances of - 12 . Improvements now being implemented will lead to further increases in the sensitivity and enhance operating parameters such as cost, portability, and sample throughput

  18. Development of an ELISA microarray assay for the sensitive and simultaneous detection of ten biodefense toxins.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenko, Kathryn; Zhang, Yanfeng; Kostenko, Yulia; Fan, Yongfeng; Garcia-Rodriguez, Consuelo; Lou, Jianlong; Marks, James D.; Varnum, Susan M.

    2014-10-21

    Plant and microbial toxins are considered bioterrorism threat agents because of their extreme toxicity and/or ease of availability. Additionally, some of these toxins are increasingly responsible for accidental food poisonings. The current study utilized an ELISA-based protein antibody microarray for the multiplexed detection of ten biothreat toxins, botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) A, B, C, D, E, F, ricin, shiga toxins 1 and 2 (Stx), and staphylococcus enterotoxin B (SEB), in buffer and complex biological matrices. The multiplexed assay displayed a sensitivity of 1.3 pg/mL (BoNT/A, BoNT/B, SEB, Stx-1 and Stx-2), 3.3 pg/mL (BoNT/C, BoNT/E, BoNT/F) and 8.2 pg/mL (BoNT/D, ricin). All assays demonstrated high accuracy (75-120 percent recovery) and reproducibility (most coefficients of variation < 20%). Quantification curves for the ten toxins were also evaluated in clinical samples (serum, plasma, nasal fluid, saliva, stool, and urine) and environmental samples (apple juice, milk and baby food) with overall minimal matrix effects. The multiplex assays were highly specific, with little crossreactivity observed between the selected toxin antibodies. The results demonstrate a multiplex microarray that improves current immunoassay sensitivity for biological warfare agents in buffer, clinical, and environmental samples.

  19. Adsorption and Detection of Hazardous Trace Gases by Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woellner, Michelle; Hausdorf, Steffen; Klein, Nicole; Mueller, Philipp; Smith, Martin W; Kaskel, Stefan

    2018-06-19

    The quest for advanced designer adsorbents for air filtration and monitoring hazardous trace gases has recently been more and more driven by the need to ensure clean air in indoor, outdoor, and industrial environments. How to increase safety with regard to personal protection in the event of hazardous gas exposure is a critical question for an ever-growing population spending most of their lifetime indoors, but is also crucial for the chemical industry in order to protect future generations of employees from potential hazards. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are already quite advanced and promising in terms of capacity and specific affinity to overcome limitations of current adsorbent materials for trace and toxic gas adsorption. Due to their advantageous features (e.g., high specific surface area, catalytic activity, tailorable pore sizes, structural diversity, and range of chemical and physical properties), MOFs offer a high potential as adsorbents for air filtration and monitoring of hazardous trace gases. Three advanced topics are considered here, in applying MOFs for selective adsorption: (i) toxic gas adsorption toward filtration for respiratory protection as well as indoor and cabin air, (ii) enrichment of hazardous gases using MOFs, and (iii) MOFs as sensors for toxic trace gases and explosives. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. A review of biosensing techniques for detection of trace carcinogen contamination in food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanming; Yu, Yue; Li, Zhiliang; Wu, Tao

    2015-04-01

    Carcinogen contaminations in the food chain, for example heavy metal ions, pesticides, acrylamide, and mycotoxins, have caused serious health problems. A major objective of food-safety research is the identification and prevention of exposure to these carcinogens, because of their impossible-to-reverse tumorigenic effects. However, carcinogen detection is difficult because of their trace-level presence in food. Thus, reliable and accurate separation and determination methods are essential to protect food safety and human health. This paper summarizes the state of the art in separation and determination methods for analyzing carcinogen contamination, especially the advances in biosensing methods. Furthermore, the application of promising technology including nanomaterials, imprinted polymers, and microdevices is detailed. Challenges and perspectives are also discussed.

  1. Integrating Paper Chromatography with Electrochemical Detection for the Trace Analysis of TNT in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Ryan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on the development of an electrochemical probe for the trace analysis of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT in soil samples. The probe is a combination of graphite electrodes, filter paper, with ethylene glycol and choline chloride as the solvent/electrolyte. Square wave chromatovoltammograms show the probes have a sensitivity for TNT of 0.75 nA/ng and a limit of detection of 100 ng. In addition, by taking advantage of the inherent paper chromatography step, TNT can be separated in both time and cathodic peak potential from 4-amino-dinitrotolene co-spotted on the probe or in soil samples with the presence of methyl parathion as a possible interferent.

  2. A Miniaturized QEPAS Trace Gas Sensor with a 3D-Printed Acoustic Detection Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotao Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A 3D printing technique was introduced to a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS sensor and is reported for the first time. The acoustic detection module (ADM was designed and fabricated using the 3D printing technique and the ADM volume was compressed significantly. Furthermore, a small grin lens was used for laser focusing and facilitated the beam adjustment in the 3D-printed ADM. A quartz tuning fork (QTF with a low resonance frequency of 30.72 kHz was used as the acoustic wave transducer and acetylene (C2H2 was chosen as the analyte. The reported miniaturized QEPAS trace gas sensor is useful in actual sensor applications.

  3. DS-ARP: a new detection scheme for ARP spoofing attacks based on routing trace for ubiquitous environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min Su; Lee, Jae Dong; Jeong, Young-Sik; Jeong, Hwa-Young; Park, Jong Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Despite the convenience, ubiquitous computing suffers from many threats and security risks. Security considerations in the ubiquitous network are required to create enriched and more secure ubiquitous environments. The address resolution protocol (ARP) is a protocol used to identify the IP address and the physical address of the associated network card. ARP is designed to work without problems in general environments. However, since it does not include security measures against malicious attacks, in its design, an attacker can impersonate another host using ARP spoofing or access important information. In this paper, we propose a new detection scheme for ARP spoofing attacks using a routing trace, which can be used to protect the internal network. Tracing routing can find the change of network movement path. The proposed scheme provides high constancy and compatibility because it does not alter the ARP protocol. In addition, it is simple and stable, as it does not use a complex algorithm or impose extra load on the computer system.

  4. T2-enhanced tensor diffusion trace-weighted image in the detection of hyper-acute cerebral infarction: Comparison with isotropic diffusion-weighted image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, M.-C.; Tzeng, W.-S.; Chung, H.-W.; Wang, C.-Y.; Liu, H.-S.; Juan, C.-J.; Lo, C.-P.; Hsueh, C.-J.; Chen, C.-Y.

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Although isotropic diffusion-weighted imaging (isoDWI) is very sensitive to the detection of acute ischemic stroke, it may occasionally show diffusion negative result in hyper-acute stroke. We hypothesize that high diffusion contrast diffusion trace-weighted image with enhanced T2 may improve stroke lesion conspicuity. Methods: Five hyper acute stroke patients (M:F = 0:5, average age = 61.8 ± 20.5 y/o) and 16 acute stroke patients (M:F = 11:5, average age = 67.7 ± 12 y/o) were examined six-direction tensor DWIs at b = 707 s/mm 2 . Three different diffusion-weighted images, including isotropic (isoDWI), diffusion trace-weighted image (trDWI) and T2-enhanced diffusion trace-weighted image (T2E t rDWI), were generated. Normalized lesion-to-normal ratio (nLNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of three diffusion images were calculated from each patient and statistically compared. Results: The trDWI shows better nLNR than isoDWI on both hyper-acute and acute stroke lesions, whereas no significant improvement in CNR. Nevertheless, the T2E t rDWI has statistically superior CNR and nLNR than those of isoDWI and trDWI in both hyper-acute and acute stroke. Conclusions: We concluded that tensor diffusion trace-weighted image with T2 enhancement is more sensitive to stroke lesion detection, and can provide higher lesion conspicuity than the conventional isotropic DWI for early stroke lesion delineation without the need of high-b-value technique.

  5. Detection of trace amount of arsenic in groundwater by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, A. F. M. Y.; Hedayet Ullah, M.; Khan, Z. H.; Kabir, Firoza; Abedin, K. M.

    2014-03-01

    LIBS technique coupled with adsorption has been applied for the efficient detection of arsenic in liquid. Several adsorbents like tea leaves, bamboo slice, charcoal and zinc oxide have been used to enable sensitive detection of arsenic presence in water using LIBS. Among these, zinc oxide and charcoal show the better results. The detection limits for arsenic in water were 1 ppm and 8 ppm, respectively, when ZnO and charcoal were used as adsorbents of arsenic. To date, the determination of 1 ppm of As in water is the lowest concentration of detected arsenic in water by the LIBS technique. The detection limit of As was lowered to even less than 100 ppb by a combination of LIBS technique, adsorption by ZnO and concentration enhancement technique. Using the combination of these three techniques the ultimate concentration of arsenic was found to be 0.083 ppm (83 ppb) for arsenic polluted water collected from a tube-well of Farajikandi union (longitude 90.64°, latitude 23.338° north) of Matlab Upozila of Chandpur district in Bangladesh. This result compares fairly well with the finding of arsenic concentration of 0.078 ppm in the sample by the AAS technique at the Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR) lab. Such a low detection limit (1 ppm) of trace elements in liquid matrix has significantly enhanced the scope of LIBS as an analytical tool.

  6. Structure-selective hot-spot Raman enhancement for direct identification and detection of trace penicilloic acid allergen in penicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liying; Jin, Yang; Mao, Hui; Zheng, Lei; Zhao, Jiawei; Peng, Yan; Du, Shuhu; Zhang, Zhongping

    2014-08-15

    Trace penicilloic acid allergen frequently leads to various fatal immune responses to many patients, but it is still a challenge to directly discriminate and detect its residue in penicillin by a chemosensing way. Here, we report that silver-coated gold nanoparticles (Au@Ag NPs) exhibit a structure-selective hot-spot Raman enhancement capability for direct identification and detection of trace penicilloic acid in penicillin. It has been demonstrated that penicilloic acid can very easily link Au@Ag NPs together by its two carboxyl groups, locating itself spontaneously at the interparticle of Au@Ag NPs to form strong Raman hot-spot. At the critical concentration inducing the nanoparticle aggregation, Raman-enhanced effect of penicilloic acid is ~60,000 folds higher than that of penicillin. In particular, the selective Raman enhancement to the two carboxyl groups makes the peak of carboxyl group at C6 of penicilloic acid appear as a new Raman signal due to the opening of β-lactam ring of penicillin. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticle sensor reaches a sensitive limit lower than the prescribed 1.0‰ penicilloic acid residue in penicillin. The novel strategy to examine allergen is more rapid, convenient and inexpensive than the conventional separation-based assay methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of a mass spectrometry immunoassay for unambiguous detection of egg allergen traces in wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilolli, Rosa; Chaudhari, Ravindra; Palmisano, Francesco; Monaci, Linda

    2017-02-01

    A mass spectrometry immunoassay (MSIA) specifically designed for the detection of egg allergens in wines is described. MSIA is based on an immunoaffinity enrichment procedure combined with targeted MS/MS detection of selected egg peptide markers. Polyclonal antibodies raised against native ovalbumin, chosen as the target protein tracing for egg powder, were immobilized onto low backpressure monolithic MSIA customized disposable tips. Ovalbumin-free wine samples were fortified with standard protein at different concentrations in the low microgram-per-milliliter range. A simple protocol was devised consisting of a 1:4 dilution of the wine sample with a basic solution for pH adjustment, followed by a semi-automated purification/enrichment step on MSIA customized disposable tips fitted on a multichannel electronic pipette. Among the main figures of merit, LOD and LOQ values as low as 0.01 and 0.03 μg/mL, respectively, and within-day precision of 18% should be noticed. Noteworthy, the developed assay outperformed current MS-based methods for the detection of allergenic protein in wine matrices, thanks to the immunoaffinity enrichment. In addition, compared to other immunoassays, the present approach boasts the unquestionable advantage of providing an unambiguous identification of the target protein by simultaneous detection of three unique peptide markers each giving three specific MS/MS transitions.

  8. Trace-based post-silicon validation for VLSI circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    This book first provides a comprehensive coverage of state-of-the-art validation solutions based on real-time signal tracing to guarantee the correctness of VLSI circuits.  The authors discuss several key challenges in post-silicon validation and provide automated solutions that are systematic and cost-effective.  A series of automatic tracing solutions and innovative design for debug (DfD) techniques are described, including techniques for trace signal selection for enhancing visibility of functional errors, a multiplexed signal tracing strategy for improving functional error detection, a tracing solution for debugging electrical errors, an interconnection fabric for increasing data bandwidth and supporting multi-core debug, an interconnection fabric design and optimization technique to increase transfer flexibility and a DfD design and associated tracing solution for improving debug efficiency and expanding tracing window. The solutions presented in this book improve the validation quality of VLSI circuit...

  9. Infrared photothermal imaging of trace explosives on relevant substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendziora, Christopher A.; Furstenberg, Robert; Papantonakis, Michael; Nguyen, Viet; Borchert, James; Byers, Jeff; McGill, R. Andrew

    2013-06-01

    We are developing a technique for the stand-off detection of trace explosives on relevant substrate surfaces using photo-thermal infrared (IR) imaging spectroscopy (PT-IRIS). This approach leverages one or more compact IR quantum cascade lasers, tuned to strong absorption bands in the analytes and directed to illuminate an area on a surface of interest. An IR focal plane array is used to image the surface and detect small increases in thermal emission upon laser illumination. The PT-IRIS signal is processed as a hyperspectral image cube comprised of spatial, spectral and temporal dimensions as vectors within a detection algorithm. The ability to detect trace analytes on relevant substrates is critical for stand-off applications, but is complicated by the optical and thermal analyte/substrate interactions. This manuscript describes recent PT-IRIS experimental results and analysis for traces of RDX, TNT, ammonium nitrate (AN) and sucrose on relevant substrates (steel, polyethylene, glass and painted steel panels). We demonstrate that these analytes can be detected on these substrates at relevant surface mass loadings (10 μg/cm2 to 100 μg/cm2) even at the single pixel level.

  10. Novel ion imprinted magnetic mesoporous silica for selective magnetic solid phase extraction of trace Cd followed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Bingshan; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin, E-mail: binhu@whu.edu.cn

    2015-05-01

    Determination of trace Cd in environmental, biological and food samples is of great significance to toxicological research and environmental pollution monitoring. While the direct determination of Cd in real-world samples is difficult due to its low concentration and the complex matrix. Herein, a novel Cd(II)-ion imprinted magnetic mesoporous silica (Cd(II)-II-MMS) was prepared and was employed as a selective magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) material for extraction of trace Cd in real-world samples followed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) detection. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limit of the proposed method was 6.1 ng L{sup −1} for Cd with the relative standard deviation (RSD) of 4.0% (c = 50 ng L{sup −1}, n = 7), and the enrichment factor was 50-fold. To validate the proposed method, Certified Reference Materials of GSBZ 50009–88 environmental water, ZK018-1 lyophilized human urine and NIES10-b rice flour were analyzed and the determined values were in a good agreement with the certified values. The proposed method exhibited a robust anti-interference ability due to the good selectivity of Cd(II)-II-MMS toward Cd(II). It was successfully employed for the determination of trace Cd(II) in environmental water, human urine and rice samples with recoveries of 89.3–116%, demonstrating that the proposed method has good application potential in real world samples with complex matrix. - Highlights: • Novel Cd(II)-II-MMS was prepared by surface imprinting combined with a sol–gel process. • Cd(II)-II-MMS has a high selectivity and adsorption capacity for Cd(II). • A sensitive and selective method of Cd(II)-IIMSPE-GFAAS was developed for trace cadmium analysis. • The method can be applied to determine trace Cd in various samples with complicated matrix.

  11. Novel ion imprinted magnetic mesoporous silica for selective magnetic solid phase extraction of trace Cd followed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Bingshan; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Determination of trace Cd in environmental, biological and food samples is of great significance to toxicological research and environmental pollution monitoring. While the direct determination of Cd in real-world samples is difficult due to its low concentration and the complex matrix. Herein, a novel Cd(II)-ion imprinted magnetic mesoporous silica (Cd(II)-II-MMS) was prepared and was employed as a selective magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) material for extraction of trace Cd in real-world samples followed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) detection. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limit of the proposed method was 6.1 ng L −1 for Cd with the relative standard deviation (RSD) of 4.0% (c = 50 ng L −1 , n = 7), and the enrichment factor was 50-fold. To validate the proposed method, Certified Reference Materials of GSBZ 50009–88 environmental water, ZK018-1 lyophilized human urine and NIES10-b rice flour were analyzed and the determined values were in a good agreement with the certified values. The proposed method exhibited a robust anti-interference ability due to the good selectivity of Cd(II)-II-MMS toward Cd(II). It was successfully employed for the determination of trace Cd(II) in environmental water, human urine and rice samples with recoveries of 89.3–116%, demonstrating that the proposed method has good application potential in real world samples with complex matrix. - Highlights: • Novel Cd(II)-II-MMS was prepared by surface imprinting combined with a sol–gel process. • Cd(II)-II-MMS has a high selectivity and adsorption capacity for Cd(II). • A sensitive and selective method of Cd(II)-IIMSPE-GFAAS was developed for trace cadmium analysis. • The method can be applied to determine trace Cd in various samples with complicated matrix

  12. Trace gas absorption spectroscopy using laser difference-frequency spectrometer for environmental application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Cazier, F.; Boucher, D.; Tittel, F. K.; Davies, P. B.

    2001-01-01

    A widely tunable infrared spectrometer based on difference frequency generation (DFG) has been developed for organic trace gas detection by laser absorption spectroscopy. On-line measurements of concentration of various hydrocarbons, such as acetylene, benzene, and ethylene, were investigated using high-resolution DFG trace gas spectroscopy for highly sensitive detection.

  13. Method for detecting trace impurities in gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, S.M.; Maier, W.B. II; Holland, R.F.; Beattie, W.H.

    A technique for considerably improving the sensitivity and specificity of infrared spectrometry as applied to quantitative determination of trace impurities in various carrier or solvent gases is presented. A gas to be examined for impurities is liquefied and infrared absorption spectra of the liquid are obtained. Spectral simplification and number densities of impurities in the optical path are substantially higher than are obtainable in similar gas-phase analyses. Carbon dioxide impurity (approx. 2 ppM) present in commercial Xe and ppM levels of Freon 12 and vinyl chloride added to liquefied air are used to illustrate the method.

  14. Epidemic contact tracing via communication traces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoun Farrahi

    Full Text Available Traditional contact tracing relies on knowledge of the interpersonal network of physical interactions, where contagious outbreaks propagate. However, due to privacy constraints and noisy data assimilation, this network is generally difficult to reconstruct accurately. Communication traces obtained by mobile phones are known to be good proxies for the physical interaction network, and they may provide a valuable tool for contact tracing. Motivated by this assumption, we propose a model for contact tracing, where an infection is spreading in the physical interpersonal network, which can never be fully recovered; and contact tracing is occurring in a communication network which acts as a proxy for the first. We apply this dual model to a dataset covering 72 students over a 9 month period, for which both the physical interactions as well as the mobile communication traces are known. Our results suggest that a wide range of contact tracing strategies may significantly reduce the final size of the epidemic, by mainly affecting its peak of incidence. However, we find that for low overlap between the face-to-face and communication interaction network, contact tracing is only efficient at the beginning of the outbreak, due to rapidly increasing costs as the epidemic evolves. Overall, contact tracing via mobile phone communication traces may be a viable option to arrest contagious outbreaks.

  15. Epidemic contact tracing via communication traces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrahi, Katayoun; Emonet, Rémi; Cebrian, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Traditional contact tracing relies on knowledge of the interpersonal network of physical interactions, where contagious outbreaks propagate. However, due to privacy constraints and noisy data assimilation, this network is generally difficult to reconstruct accurately. Communication traces obtained by mobile phones are known to be good proxies for the physical interaction network, and they may provide a valuable tool for contact tracing. Motivated by this assumption, we propose a model for contact tracing, where an infection is spreading in the physical interpersonal network, which can never be fully recovered; and contact tracing is occurring in a communication network which acts as a proxy for the first. We apply this dual model to a dataset covering 72 students over a 9 month period, for which both the physical interactions as well as the mobile communication traces are known. Our results suggest that a wide range of contact tracing strategies may significantly reduce the final size of the epidemic, by mainly affecting its peak of incidence. However, we find that for low overlap between the face-to-face and communication interaction network, contact tracing is only efficient at the beginning of the outbreak, due to rapidly increasing costs as the epidemic evolves. Overall, contact tracing via mobile phone communication traces may be a viable option to arrest contagious outbreaks.

  16. Improved PIXE analysis of micro- and trace elements in dental composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preoteasa, E. A.; Ciortea, C.; Fluerasu, D.; Enescu, S. E.; Preoteasa, E.

    2001-01-01

    Due to the interactions occurring at the solid-solid and solid-liquid interfaces of a tooth's filling, the mineral elements of the restorative composite may induce a complex response of the organism. To study such problems, sensitive surface trace element analysis is required. Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) has a detection limit one order of magnitude lower than XRF and has been used for hard dental tissues, but not yet for dental composites. We evaluated the potential of PIXE in a study of ten types of composites used in restorative dentistry, some of them with two color shades each. The samples were prepared as described for XRF. The measurements were performed with 3 MeV protons from a van de Graaff tandem linear accelerator, using a hyper pure Ge detector and collecting the spectra for 1.5-4 hours. The spectra were processed with the program Leone. The proton route in the sample calculated with the Trim program (∼ 50-100 μm) exceeded the size of mineral particles (0.02-30 μm), thus granularity did not affect the analysis. The PIXE analysis detected Z ≥ 19 elements in all composites, and Z≥14 elements in only one low Z material. PIXE detected generally the same dominant elements, but many more trace elements than XRF. Thus both Charisma (Kulzer) and Pekafill (Bayer) contained Ba as the major element, but trace elements were Ni, Zn, In, in the first, and Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Ag in the second. In other glass- and ceramics-based materials we found: Ca, Zr, Ba, Yb and traces of Sr, In, and possibly Ti in Tetric Ceram and in Ariston (both from Vivadent); Ca, Zr, Ba, Hf, possibly Mn, and traces of Ni, Ho, Ti, Fe, Cr in Valux Plus (3M Dental); Sr, Ba (major), K, Fe, Mn (minor), and traces of Ni, Zn, In, in F2000 Compomer (3M Dental); Ba (major) and traces of Fe, Ni, Sr in Surefil (Dentsply). In quartz-based materials we detected: Si, Ca, Ti, Fe and traces of K, Cl, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn in Evicrol (Spofa); low and trace levels of Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu in

  17. Use of X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry to Determine Trace ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper deals with application of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for the detection of trace elements in graphic. An X-ray spectrometer was constructed and used to carry out measurements on graphite spheres impregnated with different chemical elements. The intensities of the lines of these trace elements, as function of ...

  18. Analysis of trace elements in serum from human eating irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zongzhi; Zhou Hongdi; Chen Shijie; Gao Sumei

    1987-01-01

    A method of trace element analysis by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AEC) in serum from human eating food preserved by irradiation is described. Trace element analysis in human serum is one of the research projects concerning the wholesomeness. 78 serum samples of the human eating food preserved by irradiation were collected. After ashing and solving ICP-AES analysis of serum is performed for detecting 12 trace elements in specimen solution. The detection limitations are in the range of 10 -2 - 10 -3 ppm for differemt elements. The recoveries of elements are over 73%. Concentrations of 12 trace elements in 78 human serum has been calculated with F and t tests at PDP 11/70 computer and it was concluded that there is no significant difference between testing group and control group

  19. DNA profiling of trace DNA recovered from bedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petricevic, Susan F; Bright, Jo-Anne; Cockerton, Sarah L

    2006-05-25

    Trace DNA is often detected on handled items and worn clothing examined in forensic laboratories. In this study, the potential transfer of trace DNA to bedding by normal contact, when an individual sleeps in a bed, is examined. Volunteers slept one night on a new, lower bed sheet in their own bed and one night in a bed foreign to them. Samples from the sheets were collected and analysed by DNA profiling. The results indicate that the DNA profile of an individual can be obtained from bedding after one night of sleeping in a bed. The DNA profile of the owner of the bed could also be detected in the foreign bed experiments. Since mixed DNA profiles can be obtained from trace DNA on bedding, caution should be exercised when drawing conclusions from DNA profiling results obtained from such samples. This transfer may have important repercussions in sexual assault investigations.

  20. Ultra-Trace Analysis of Krypton-85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daerr, H.; Kalinowski, M.; Kohler, M.; Sahling, P.

    2010-01-01

    To strengthen the efficiency and effectiveness of nuclear safeguards for detecting undeclared nuclear material and activities we propose to use the radioactive krypton isotope Krypton-85 as a tracer for clandestine plutonium production. The main idea is to detect inexplicable atmospheric Kr85 concentration using the novel technology atom trap trace analysis (ATTA) in order to detect an undeclared reprocessing facility. The Additional Protocol (INFCIRC/540, 1997) establishes the possibility to take environmental samples. Krypton-85 has a combination of unique features which makes it an ideal tracer for plutonium separation activities anywhere in the world. It is always generated along with plutonium and 99.9% remains within the fuel cladding. Due to its half-life of 10.76 years, significant amounts of krypton-85 still remain in the spent fuel even after long cooling times. Krypton is not removed from the atmosphere by any processes like chemical reactions or wash-out. Furthermore, there are no other relevant sources of krypton-85 besides of reprocessing. The novel technology of atom trap trace analysis (ATTA) has been demonstrated by the physics group at Argonne National Laboratory in 1999. This is an ultra-sensitive trace analysis technique able to detect single krypton atoms. We are setting up an ATTA apparatus in our laboratory, which is designed to fulfill all requirements to detect clandestine plutonium production. Our goal is to determine Krypton-85 concentration of one liter samples of atmospheric air with an analysis time of 3 hours. This sample volume reduction is a significant step, since one liter can be taken as a grab sample by sucking it directly into pre-evacuated bottles at atmospheric pressure. The small samples size and the short analysis time of ATTA will make it possible to use krypton-85 as a tracer for clandestine plutonium production with routine operation. (author)

  1. Trace element composition of hair in the Italian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, G.F.; Cigna Rossi, L.

    1979-01-01

    The content of the trace elements Ag, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hg, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn has been evaluated in hair samples collected from five different groups of subjects in Italy. All the measurements were performed by means of non-destructive neutron activation analysis of the hair samples that were carefully washed before analysis. In most of the samples the Cs, Rb and Sc content was below the detection limit of the analytical method. Each population group was formed of about five individuals of each sex, selected to be representative of the adult population living in a well-defined community. The five groups were chosen from distinct regions with different socio-economical living habits in order to detect the variability, if any, of the trace element burden among the Italian population. The trace element hair concentration of each subject was correlated with the trace element blood concentration and daily urinary excretion in order to differentiate the trace element content due to exogenous deposition on hair from that due to endogenous absorption routes. The results obtained show that the variability of the hair content among the various groups is strongly linked to local environmental factors. The histograms of the individual values of the hair concentration are given for all trace elements measured, together with a statistical analysis of all data. (author)

  2. Trace analysis of multi-class pesticide residues in Chinese medicinal health wines using gas chromatography with electron capture detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Wei-Jun; Liu, Qiu-Tao; Kong, Dan-Dan; Liu, Qian-Zhen; Ma, Xin-Ping; Yang, Mei-Hua

    2016-02-01

    A method is described for multi-residue, high-throughput determination of trace levels of 22 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 5 pyrethroid pesticides (PYPs) in Chinese medicinal (CM) health wines using a QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) based extraction method and gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). Several parameters were optimized to improve preparation and separation time while still maintaining high sensitivity. Validation tests of spiked samples showed good linearities for 27 pesticides (R = 0.9909-0.9996) over wide concentration ranges. Limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) were measured at ng/L levels, 0.06-2 ng/L and 0.2-6 ng/L for OCPs and 0.02-3 ng/L and 0.06-7 ng/L for PYPs, respectively. Inter- and intra-day precision tests showed variations of 0.65-9.89% for OCPs and 0.98-13.99% for PYPs, respectively. Average recoveries were in the range of 47.74-120.31%, with relative standard deviations below 20%. The developed method was then applied to analyze 80 CM wine samples. Beta-BHC (Benzene hexachloride) was the most frequently detected pesticide at concentration levels of 5.67-31.55 mg/L, followed by delta-BHC, trans-chlordane, gamma-BHC, and alpha-BHC. The validated method is simple and economical, with adequate sensitivity for trace levels of multi-class pesticides. It could be adopted by laboratories for this and other types of complex matrices analysis.

  3. Application of trace element analysis to determine trace element concentrations in the field of medicine. [Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasperek, K; Feinendegen, L E

    1976-01-01

    Applied trace elements research in medicine requires a sensitive and efficient technique of trace elements analysis, such as neutron activation analysis. Essential trace elements act as stabilizators (iron in haem), structural elements (silicon in fibrous tissue), in hormones (iodine in thyroid hormone), in vitamins (cobalt in vitamin B 12), and in enzymes. Most of the essential trace elements act as coenzymes or in coenzymes or directly as metabolic catalyzers. For example, selenium deficiency in PKU and maple syrup patients receiving dietary treatment can be detected by determining the selenium content of the serum, while low selenium values in the whole blood indicate liver cirrhosis. Acrodermatitis enteropathica can be diagnosed by determinig zinc in the serum, and pancreatic insufficiency by determining zinc in the pancreatic juice. Zinc also plays a part in disturbances of growth, in the healing of wounds, and in the insulin metabolism. Cobalt is important in some types of anaemia and in myocardiopathies. Trace elements are also necessary in the treatment of diseases, e.g. iron cobalt in some types of anaemia, and zinc in the delayed healing of wounds in the postoperative phase and in acrodermatitis enteropathica. Chromium is now being tested for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, and fluorides may be of interest in the treatment of osteoporosis. Finally, trace elements are important in the aetiology of acute poisoning, in nutrition, and in environmental protection.

  4. Application of trace element analysis to determine trace element concentrations in the field of medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasperek, K.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1976-01-01

    Applied trace elements research in medicine requires a sensitive and efficient technique of trace elements analysis such as, e.g., neutron activation analysis. Essential trace elements act as stabilisators (iron in haem), structural elements (silicium in fibrous tissue), in hormones (iodine in thyroid hormone), in vitamins (cobalt in vitamin B 12), and in enzymes. Most of the essential trace elements act as coenzymes or in coenzymes or directly as metabolic catalysators. For example, selenium deficiency in PKU and maple syrup patients receiving dietary treatment can be detected by determining the selenium content of the serum, while low selenium values in the whole blood indicate liver cirrhosis. Acrodermatitis enteropathica can be diagnosed by determinig zinc in the serum, and pancreatic insufficiency by determining zinc in the pancreatic juice. Zinc also plays a part in disturbances of growth, in the healing of wounds, and in the insulin metabolism. Cobalt is important in some types of anaemia and in myocardiopathies. Trace elements are also necessary in the treatment of diseases, e.g. iron cobalt in some types of anaemia, and zinc in the delayed healing of wounds in the postoperative phase and in acrodermatitis enteropathica. Chromium is now being tested for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, and fluorides may be of interest in the treatment of osteoporosis. Finally, trace elements are important in the aetiology of acute poisoning, in nutrition, and in environmental protection. (orig./AK) [de

  5. Trace element analysis in soy sauce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruyama, Yoichi; Saito, Manabu; Tomiya, Michio

    1993-01-01

    Trace elements in soy sauce have been measured by means of in-air PIXE. Six kinds of trace elements were detected, such as Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu and Br. Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Zn and Br which were observed in all samples, have been determined. Each analyzed sample contained considerable amount of Br about 160 ppm. Comparison of Br content of the imported raw materials with those of the domestic ones suggested that the large amount of Br was the residual fumigation chemicals in the imported raw materials. (author)

  6. Integration of gas chromatography mass spectrometry methods for differentiating ricin preparation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunschel, David S; Melville, Angela M; Ehrhardt, Christopher J; Colburn, Heather A; Victry, Kristin D; Antolick, Kathryn C; Wahl, Jon H; Wahl, Karen L

    2012-05-07

    The investigation of crimes involving chemical or biological agents is infrequent, but presents unique analytical challenges. The protein toxin ricin is encountered more frequently than other agents and is found in the seeds of Ricinus communis, commonly known as the castor plant. Typically, the toxin is extracted from castor seeds utilizing a variety of different recipes that result in varying purity of the toxin. Moreover, these various purification steps can also leave or differentially remove a variety of exogenous and endogenous residual components with the toxin that may indicate the type and number of purification steps involved. We have applied three gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based analytical methods to measure the variation in seed carbohydrates and castor oil ricinoleic acid, as well as the presence of solvents used for purification. These methods were applied to the same samples prepared using four previously identified toxin preparation methods, starting from four varieties of castor seeds. The individual data sets for seed carbohydrate profiles, ricinoleic acid, or acetone amount each provided information capable of differentiating different types of toxin preparations across seed types. However, the integration of the data sets using multivariate factor analysis provided a clear distinction of all samples based on the preparation method, independent of the seed source. In particular, the abundance of mannose, arabinose, fucose, ricinoleic acid, and acetone were shown to be important differentiating factors. These complementary tools provide a more confident determination of the method of toxin preparation than would be possible using a single analytical method.

  7. SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION OF TRACE AMOUNTS OF ZINC AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of trace heavy metals lower than the detection limits of ... utilized for the preconcentration and separation of trace metal ions from different matrices [17- .... At high pHs, the OH−on the sorbent can adsorbed cations, ... but, in the low pHs, the surface charge is neutralized and OH−is removed from the surface,.

  8. Trace conditioning in insects-keep the trace!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dylla, Kristina V; Galili, Dana S; Szyszka, Paul; Lüdke, Alja

    2013-01-01

    Trace conditioning is a form of associative learning that can be induced by presenting a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) following each other, but separated by a temporal gap. This gap distinguishes trace conditioning from classical delay conditioning, where the CS and US overlap. To bridge the temporal gap between both stimuli and to form an association between CS and US in trace conditioning, the brain must keep a neural representation of the CS after its termination-a stimulus trace. Behavioral and physiological studies on trace and delay conditioning revealed similarities between the two forms of learning, like similar memory decay and similar odor identity perception in invertebrates. On the other hand differences were reported also, like the requirement of distinct brain structures in vertebrates or disparities in molecular mechanisms in both vertebrates and invertebrates. For example, in commonly used vertebrate conditioning paradigms the hippocampus is necessary for trace but not for delay conditioning, and Drosophila delay conditioning requires the Rutabaga adenylyl cyclase (Rut-AC), which is dispensable in trace conditioning. It is still unknown how the brain encodes CS traces and how they are associated with a US in trace conditioning. Insects serve as powerful models to address the mechanisms underlying trace conditioning, due to their simple brain anatomy, behavioral accessibility and established methods of genetic interference. In this review we summarize the recent progress in insect trace conditioning on the behavioral and physiological level and emphasize similarities and differences compared to delay conditioning. Moreover, we examine proposed molecular and computational models and reassess different experimental approaches used for trace conditioning.

  9. use of x-ray fluorescence spectrometry to determine trace elements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    Abstract. This paper deals with application of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for the detection of trace elements in graphic. An X-ray spectrometer was constructed and used to carry out measurements on graphite spheres impregnated with different chemical elements. The intensities of the lines of these trace elements, ...

  10. An image analyzer system for the analysis of nuclear traces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuapio O, A.

    1990-10-01

    Inside the project of nuclear traces and its application techniques to be applied in the detection of nuclear reactions of low section (non detectable by conventional methods), in the study of accidental and personal neutron dosemeters, and other but, are developed. All these studies are based on the fact that the charged particles leave latent traces of dielectric that if its are engraved with appropriate chemical solutions its are revealed until becoming visible to the optical microscope. From the analysis of the different trace forms, it is possible to obtain information of the characteristic parameters of the incident particles (charge, mass and energy). Of the density of traces it is possible to obtain information of the flow of the incident radiation and consequently of the received dose. For carry out this analysis has been designed and coupled different systems, that it has allowed the solution of diverse outlined problems. Notwithstanding it has been detected that to make but versatile this activity is necessary to have an Image Analyzer System that allow us to digitize, to process and to display the images with more rapidity. The present document, presents the proposal to carry out the acquisition of the necessary components for to assembling an Image Analyzing System, like support to the mentioned project. (Author)

  11. Chirped laser dispersion spectroscopy for remote open-path trace-gas sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikodem, Michal; Wysocki, Gerard

    2012-11-28

    In this paper we present a prototype instrument for remote open-path detection of nitrous oxide. The sensor is based on a 4.53 μm quantum cascade laser and uses the chirped laser dispersion spectroscopy (CLaDS) technique for molecular concentration measurements. To the best of our knowledge this is the first demonstration of open-path laser-based trace-gas detection using a molecular dispersion measurement. The prototype sensor achieves a detection limit down to the single-ppbv level and exhibits excellent stability and robustness. The instrument characterization, field deployment performance, and the advantages of applying dispersion sensing to sensitive trace-gas detection in a remote open-path configuration are presented.

  12. Tracing pathogens in the food chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brul, S.; Fratamico, P.M.; McMeekin, T.A.

    2010-01-01

    Successful methods for the detection and investigation of outbreaks of foodborne disease are essential for ensuring consumer safety. Increased understanding of the transmission of pathogens in food chains will also assist efforts to safeguard public health. Tracing pathogens in the food chain

  13. Determination of trace zinc in seawater by coupling solid phase extraction and fluorescence detection in the Lab-On-Valve format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, Maxime M; Chocholouš, Petr; Růžička, Jarda; Solich, Petr; Measures, Christopher I

    2016-06-07

    By virtue of their compactness, long-term stability, minimal reagent consumption and robustness, miniaturized sequential injection instruments are well suited for automation of assays onboard research ships. However, in order to reach the sensitivity and limit of detection required for open-ocean determinations of trace elements, it is necessary to preconcentrate the analyte prior its derivatization and subsequent detection by fluorescence. In this work, a novel method for the determination of dissolved zinc (Zn) at subnanomolar levels in seawater is described. The proposed method combines, for the first time, automated matrix removal, extraction of the target element, and fluorescence detection within a miniaturized flow manifold, based on the Lab-On-Valve (LOV) concept. The key feature of the microfluidic manipulation of the sample is flow programming, designed to pass sample through a mini-column where the target analyte and other complexable cations are retained, while the seawater matrix is washed out. Next, zinc is eluted and merged with a Zn selective fluorescent probe (FluoZin-3) at the confluence point of the LOV central channel using two high-precision stepper motor driven pumps that are operated in concert. Finally, the thus formed Zn complex is transported to the LOV flow cell for selective fluorescence measurement. This work describes the characterization and optimization of the method including Solid Phase Extraction using the Toyopearl AF-Chelate-650M resin, and detailed assay protocol controlled by a commercially available software and instrument. The proposed method features a LOD of 0.02 nM, high precision (seawater reference standards and comparison with ICP-MS determinations on seawater samples collected in the upper 1300 m of the subtropical south Indian Ocean. This work confirms that integration of sample pretreatment with optical detection in the LOV format offers a widely applicable approach to trace analysis of seawater. Copyright © 2016

  14. Monitoring and trace detection of hazardous waste and toxic chemicals using resonance Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlacek, A.J. III; Dougherty, D.R.; Chen, C.L.

    1993-01-01

    Raman scattering is a coherent, inelastic, two-photon process, which shifts the frequency of an outgoing photon according to the vibrational structure of the irradiated species, thereby providing a unique fingerprint of the molecule. When involving an allowed electronic transition (resonance Raman), this scattering cross section can be enhanced by 10 4 to 10 6 and provides the basis for a viable technique that can monitor and detect trace quantities of hazardous wastes and toxic chemicals. Resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) possesses many of the ideal characteristics for monitoring and detecting of hazardous waste and toxic chemicals. Some of these traits are: (1) very high selectivity (chemical specific fingerprints); (2) independence from the excitation wavelength (ability to monitor in the solar blind region); (3) chemical mixture fingerprints are the sum of its individual components (no spectral cross-talk); (4) near independence of the Raman fingerprint to its physical state (very similar spectra for gas, liquid, solid and solutions -- either bulk or aerosols); and (5) insensitivity of the Raman signature to environmental conditions (no quenching). Data from a few chemicals will be presented which illustrate these features. In cases where background fluorescence accompanies the Raman signals, an effective frequency modulation technique has been developed, which can completely eliminate this interference

  15. Trace level detection of explosives in solution using leidenfrost phenomenon assisted thermal desorption ambient mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Subhrakanti; Mandal, Mridul Kanti; Chen, Lee Chuin; Ninomiya, Satoshi; Shida, Yasuo; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2013-01-01

    The present paper demonstrates the detection of explosives in solution using thermal desorption technique at a temperature higher than Leidenfrost temperature of the solvent in combination with low temperature plasma (LTP) ionization. Leidenfrost temperature of a solvent is the temperature above which the solvent droplet starts levitation instead of splashing when placed on a hot metallic surface. During this desorption process, slow and gentle solvent evaporation takes place, which leads to the pre-concentration of less-volatile explosive molecules in the droplet and the explosive molecules are released at the last moment of droplet evaporation. The limits of detection for explosives studied by using this thermal desorption LTP ionization method varied in a range of 1 to 10 parts per billion (ppb) using a droplet volume of 20 μL (absolute sample amount 90-630 fmol). As LTP ionization method was applied and ion-molecule reactions took place in ambient atmosphere, various ion-molecule adduct species like [M+NO2](-), [M+NO3](-), [M+HCO3](-), [M+HCO4](-) were generated together with [M-H](-) peak. Each peak was unambiguously identified using 'Exactive Orbitrap' mass spectrometer in negative ionization mode within 3 ppm deviation compared to its exact mass. This newly developed technique was successfully applied to detect four explosives contained in the pond water and soil sample with minor sample pre-treatment and the explosives were detected with ppb levels. The present method is simple, rapid and can detect trace levels of explosives with high specificity from solutions.

  16. Spectrographic determination of traces of halogens; Dosage de traces d'halogenes par la methode spectrographique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melamed, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    Hollow cathode source is employed for determining traces of halogens (fluorine - chlorine) in the uranium oxide U{sub 3}O{sub 8} qualitatively, detection of at least 40 ppm of fluorine, as alkali fluoride and 125 ppm of chlorine, is possible. (author) [French] Un tube a decharge a cathode creuse a ete utilise pour la determination spectrographique des halogenes (fluor - chlore) presentes a l'etat de traces dans un oxyde d'uranium U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. On a pu deceler qualitativement des teneurs de 40 ppm de fluor sous forme de fluorures alcalins. En ce qui concerne le chlore, la plus faible teneur decelee a ete de 125 ppm. (auteur)

  17. REMOTE SENSING IN DETECTING BURIED MUNITIONS FROM WORLD WAR I

    Science.gov (United States)

    During World War I, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among othe...

  18. Trace elements in the human endometrium and decidua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagenfeldt, K.; Landgren, B.-M.; Plantin, L.-O.; Diczfalusy, E.

    1977-01-01

    By means of neutron activation analysis, 25 trace elements, which are usually present in biological material, were estimated in 31 specimens of human endometrial tissue obtained at various phases of the menstrual cycle and in 14 specimens of decidua from the 12th to 18th week of pregnancy. Among the 13 trace elements invariably found in all specimens, the levels of copper, potassium, rubidium, antimony and zinc were significantly higher and those of bromine, selenium and sodium significantly lower in the endometrium than in the decidua. No difference was found in the levels of gold, calcium, cobalt, cesiuj and iron. Among the 12 trace elements which were found only occasionally, chromium, mercury, silver and cadmium were detected in approximately half and cerium and scandium in approximately one-fourth of the 45 samples studied. Arsenic, barium, lanthanum, molybdenum, samarium and strontium were detected only rarely. The cyclic variations in the endometrial levels of calcium, rubidium and copper were highly significant and those in the levels of gold, cesium, iron, potassium and zinc probably significant. (author)

  19. Trace conditioning in insects – Keep the trace!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina V Dylla

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Trace conditioning is a form of associative learning that can be induced by presenting a conditioned stimulus (CS and an unconditioned stimulus (US following each other, but separated by a temporal gap. This gap distinguishes trace conditioning from classical delay conditioning, where the CS and US overlap. To bridge the temporal gap between both stimuli and to form an association between CS and US in trace conditioning, the brain must keep a neural representation of the CS after its termination – a stimulus trace. Behavioral and physiological studies on trace and delay conditioning revealed similarities between the two forms of learning, like similar memory decay and similar odor identity perception in invertebrates. On the other hand differences were reported also, like the requirement of distinct brain structures in vertebrates or disparities in molecular mechanisms in both vertebrates and invertebrates. For example, in commonly used vertebrate conditioning paradigms the hippocampus is necessary for trace but not for delay conditioning, and Drosophila delay conditioning requires the Rutabaga adenylyl cyclase, which is dispensable in trace conditioning. It is still unknown how the brain encodes CS traces and how they are associated with a US in trace conditioning. Insects serve as powerful models to address the mechanisms underlying trace conditioning, due to their simple brain anatomy, behavioral accessibility and established methods of genetic interference. In this review we summarize the recent progress in insect trace conditioning on the behavioral and physiological level and emphasize similarities and differences compared to delay conditioning. Moreover, we examine proposed molecular and computational models and reassess different experimental approaches used for trace conditioning.

  20. Detection limits in the chromatographic element trace analysis - quantitative TLC, HPLC and GC with the example of beryllium acetylacetonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwedt, G.

    1981-01-01

    Chromatographic analyses of beryllium acetylacetonate are carried out in synthetic solutions within the nano- and picogram range of beryllium. For thin-layer chromatography (TLC) normal and silanized silica gel is used, for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) silica gel of 7 μm particles, for gas chromatography (GC) silicone SE-30 as stationary phase. Visual evaluation and remission measurements in TLC, UV-254 nm absorption measurements in HPLC and measurements with a FID in GC are employed for the determination of the calibration curves. A calibration curve through the origin and a detection limit of 150 pg Be determinable form are received by HPLC only. For trace analyses by GC a new definition of a detection limit for the evaluation of substance peaks on a solvent tailing is suggested. (orig.) [de

  1. Detection and Analytical Capabilities for Trace Level of Carbon in High-Purity Metals by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy with a Frequency Quintupled 213 nm Nd:YAG Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Ohata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS with a frequency quintupled 213 nm Nd:YAG laser was examined to the analysis of trace level of carbon (C in high-purity metals and its detection and analytical capabilities were evaluated. Though C signal in a wavelength of 247.9 nm, which showed the highest sensitivity of C, could be obtained from Cd, Ti, and Zn ca. 7000 mg kg−1 C in Fe could not be detected due to the interferences from a lot of Fe spectra. Alternative C signal in a wavelength of 193.1 nm could not be also detected from Fe due to the insufficient laser output energy of the frequency quintupled 213 nm Nd:YAG laser. The depth analysis of C by LIBS was also demonstrated and the C in Cd and Zn was found to be contaminated in only surface area whereas the C in Ti was distributed in bulk. From these results, the frequency quintupled 213 nm Nd:YAG laser, which was adopted widely as a commercial laser ablation (LA system coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS for trace element analysis in solid materials, could be used for C analysis to achieve simultaneous measurements for both C and trace elements in metals by LIBS and LA-ICPMS, respectively.

  2. Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), a versatile platform for polyvalent display of antigenic epitopes and vaccine design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Shantanu; Ochoa, Wendy; Singh, Pratik; Hsu, Catherine; Schneemann, Anette; Manchester, Marianne; Olson, Mark; Reddy, Vijay

    2009-01-01

    Viruses-like particles (VLPs) are frequently being used as platforms for polyvalent display of foreign epitopes of interest on their capsid surface to improve their presentation enhancing the antigenicity and host immune response. In the present study, we used the VLPs of Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), an icosahedral plant virus, as a platform to display 180 copies of 16 amino acid epitopes of ricin toxin fused to the C-terminal end of a modified TBSV capsid protein (NΔ52). Expression of the chimeric recombinant protein in insect cells resulted in spontaneous assembly of VLPs displaying the ricin epitope. Cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction of the chimeric VLPs at 22 A resolution revealed the locations and orientation of the ricin epitope exposed on the TBSV capsid surface. Furthermore, injection of chimeric VLPs into mice generated antisera that detected the native ricin toxin. The ease of fusing of short peptides of 15-20 residues and their ability to form two kinds (T = 1, T = 3) of bio-nanoparticles that result in the display of 60 or 180 copies of less constrained and highly exposed antigenic epitopes makes TBSV an attractive and versatile display platform for vaccine design.

  3. PIXE analysis of trace elements in cetacean teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitani, Yoko; Arai, Nobuaki; Sakamoto, Wataru; Yoshida, Koji

    1997-01-01

    PIXE was adopted for analysis of trace elements in teeth of two species of cetaceans, sperm whale (Physeter microcephalus) and pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata). The analyses were performed along with the growth layer of the teeth, which is formed annually, suitable for age determination. Mn, Fe, Cu, Zu and Sr were detected in the teeth of sperm whale and pantropical spotted dolphin. Among these trace elements, gradual increase was observed for Zn/Ca ratio in the sperm whale's teeth. (author)

  4. Silver ion modulated CdS quantum dots for highly selective detection of trace Hg{sup 2+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uppa, Yuwapon; Kulchat, Sirinan; Ngamdee, Kessarin; Pradublai, Kaewklao [Materials Chemistry Research Unit, Department of Chemistry and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Tuntulani, Thawatchai [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Ngeontae, Wittaya, E-mail: wittayange@kku.ac.th [Materials Chemistry Research Unit, Department of Chemistry and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Research Center for Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management (EHWM), Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2016-10-15

    In the present work, water-soluble cysteamine capped-CdS quantum dots (Cys-CdS QDs) modulated with Ag{sup +} were employed as fluorescence sensors for the determination of Hg{sup 2+} ion. The synthesized Cys-CdS QDs exhibit relatively weak fluorescence emission, however, the emission was enhanced exclusively in the presence of Ag{sup +} compared to other metal ions. Moreover, the fluorescence intensity of the Ag{sup +} modulated Cys-CdS QDs (Ag{sup +}@Cys-CdS QDs) was significantly quenched in the presence of trace amounts of Hg{sup 2+} due to high-affinity metallophilic interactions between Hg{sup 2+} and Ag{sup +}. Based on this specific interaction, good selectivity towards the detection of Hg{sup 2+} over other metal ions was achieved. To gain the best sensing performance, parameters affecting the Hg{sup 2+} detection sensitivity were studied and optimized in detail. Under the optimized conditions, the fluorescence intensity of Ag{sup +}@Cys-CdS QDs decreased linearly with Hg{sup 2+} concentration in the range of 0.1–3.5 μM, with a limit of detection of around 0.09 μM. The applicability of this sensor was demonstrated by the determination of Hg{sup 2+} in drinking water samples, corresponding well with results of cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry.

  5. Trace elements in wine and other beverages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschnauer, H.

    1974-01-01

    Survey of the mostly physical methods of analysis (e.g. activation analysis) for the dectection of trace elements in wine and in other alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages as well as for detection of radioactivity (natural and man-made) in these beverages. (HP) [de

  6. Tracing Internal Radar Layers in the Greenland Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panton, Christian

    Internal layers in radio-echograms from the sounding of ice sheets have long been a valuable resource in glaciology, but their usefulness have been limited by availability of traced (digitized) layers. To speed up this process, we have developed an algorithm for semi-automatic tracing the internal...... layers and a fully automated algorithm for mapping the layer slope. The layer slope is inferred by the intensity response to a slanted Gaussian filter, whereafter layers can be traced using an active contour model. With these techniques we show that it possible to trace internal layers over distances...... of hundreds kilometers with minimal operator intervention, and the methods have been successfully validated between two Greenland deep ice cores with internal match points. In order to remove any operator assistance, we show how the layer slope can be used to detect disturbances in the deep radiostratigraphy...

  7. Trace element analysis in liquids by proton induced x-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deconninck, G.

    Proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) from liquid has been developed for quantitative and simultaneous analysis of trace elements. Liquid drops and trickles are bombarded at atmospheric pressure, x-rays are detected in a non dispersive Si(Li) solid state detector. Absolute determinations are made by comparison with standard solutions. Detection limits in a 5 minutes run are in the ppm range for a single drop (0.05 ml). The application of this technique to the determination of trace elements in biological liquids is investigated (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, in plant extracts, haemocyanine, albumins...). (author)

  8. Trace element content of precipitation in a remote area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merritt, W.F.

    1976-01-01

    Rain and snow, sampled over a period of 18 months at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, were analysed for 40 elements by thermal neutron activation analysis. Correlation analysis revealed that the elements detected could be divided into groups of similar behaviour. Storm tracks for the events sampled were obtained, but only generalizations as to the probable origin of the trace elements could be made. Deuterium content of the samples was not correlated with levels of trace elements. (author)

  9. Distribution of uranium and some trace elements in groundwater of eastern delta, egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, M.S.; Aly, A.I.M.; Swailem, F.M.; Elreedy, W.; Nada, A.

    1986-01-01

    The distribution pattern of uranium and some trace elements in groundwater of eastern Nile delta indicate general trend of increasing trace element concentration from west and south to North and east direction. This trend is most probably due to extensive leaching from the soil due to recharge from irrigation water. The geochemical correlation among trace elements was also investigated. Possible industrial pollution in bahtim area was detected.1 fig.,4 tab

  10. Metal-Organic Frameworks for Resonant-Gravimetric Detection of Trace-Level Xylene Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Xu, Pengcheng; Zheng, Dan; Yu, Haitao; Li, Xinxin

    2016-12-20

    As one of typical VOCs, xylene is seriously harmful to human health. Nowadays, however, there is really lack of portable sensing method to directly detect environmental xylene that has chemical inertness. Especially when the concentration of xylene is lower than the human olfactory threshold of 470 ppb, people are indeed hard to be aware of and avoid this harmful vapor. Herein the metal-organic framework (MOF) of HKUST-1 is first explored for sensing to the nonpolar molecule of p-xylene. And the sensing mechanism is identified that is via host-guest interaction of MOF with xylene molecule. By loading MOFs on mass-gravimetric resonant-cantilevers, sensing experiments for four MOFs of MOF-5, HKUST-1, ZIF-8, and MOF-177 approve that HKUST-1 has the highest sensitivity to p-xylene. The resonant-gravimetric sensing experiments with our HKUST-1 based sensors have demonstrated that trace-level p-xylene of 400 ppb can be detected that is lower than the human olfactory threshold of 470 ppb. We analyze that the specificity of HKUST-1 to xylene comes from Cu 2+ -induced moderate Lewis acidity and the "like dissolves like" interaction of the benzene ring. In situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) is used to elucidate the adsorbing/sensing mechanism of HKUST-1 to p-xylene, where p-xylene adsorbing induced blue-shift phenomenon is observed that confirms the sensing mechanism. Our study also indicates that the sensor shows good selectivity to various kinds of common interfering gases. And the long-term repeatability and stability of the sensing material are also approved for the usage/storage period of two months. This research approves that the MOF materials exhibit potential usages for high performance chemical sensors applications.

  11. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, K.V.; Deus-de-Oliveira, N.; Godoy, M.G.; Guimarães, Z.A.S.; Nascimento, V.V.; Melo, E.J.T. de; Freire, D.M.G.; Dansa-Petretski, M.; Machado, O.L.T.

    2012-01-01

    Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin) and allergenic (2S albumin) proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 × 10 5 cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH) 2 or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained

  12. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Fernandes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin and allergenic (2S albumin proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 x 10(5 cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH2 or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained.

  13. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, K.V.; Deus-de-Oliveira, N. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Godoy, M.G. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia Microbiana, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Guimarães, Z.A.S. [Laboratório de Biologia Celular e Tecidual, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nascimento, V.V. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Melo, E.J.T. de [Laboratório de Biologia Celular e Tecidual, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Freire, D.M.G. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia Microbiana, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Dansa-Petretski, M.; Machado, O.L.T. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-08-24

    Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin) and allergenic (2S albumin) proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 × 10{sup 5} cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH){sub 2} or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained.

  14. Comparison of the Detection Characteristics of Trace Species Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Laser Breakdown Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhen Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid and precise element measurement of trace species, such as mercury, iodine, strontium, cesium, etc. is imperative for various applications, especially for industrial needs. The elements mercury and iodine were measured by two detection methods for comparison of the corresponding detection features. A laser beam was focused to induce plasma. Emission and ion signals were detected using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS and laser breakdown time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LB-TOFMS. Multi-photon ionization and electron impact ionization in the plasma generation process can be controlled by the pressure and pulse width. The effect of electron impact ionization on continuum emission, coexisting molecular and atomic emissions became weakened in low pressure condition. When the pressure was less than 1 Pa, the plasma was induced by laser dissociation and multi-photon ionization in LB-TOFMS. According to the experimental results, the detection limits of mercury and iodine in N2 were 3.5 ppb and 60 ppb using low pressure LIBS. The mercury and iodine detection limits using LB-TOFMS were 1.2 ppb and 9.0 ppb, which were enhanced due to different detection features. The detection systems of LIBS and LB-TOFMS can be selected depending on the condition of each application.

  15. Beta-trace protein in ascites and pleural effusions: limits of CSF leakage detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzel, Joanna; Krebs, Alexander; Böttcher, Dominique; Sieb, Manuela; Glocker, Michael O; Lüdemann, Jan; Roser, Markus; Dressel, Alexander

    2012-06-10

    Rhino- and/or otoliquorrhea can be diagnosed by detecting beta-trace protein (β-TP) in nasal or ear secretions, as β-TP is found in high concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) but not in serum. CSF fistulae following trauma or surgery can also occur at other anatomical sites, resulting in CSF leakage into the thoracic and abdominal cavities. By analogy, determination of ß-TP has also been used to diagnose CSF admixture in pleural effusions and ascites. However, no systematic study has yet evaluated the concentrations of β-TP in such fluids in the absence of CSF. To determine the validity of β-TP determination as a marker for the presence of CSF, we investigated β-TP concentrations in pleural effusions and ascites without CSF admixture. Patients from whom samples of ascites or pleural effusion and a paired plasma sample were available were investigated. One hundred sixty-four patients were prospectively recruited. ß-TP concentrations were determined by nephelometry. Mass spectrometric proteome analysis confirmed the presence of ß-TP in the samples. Median β-TP concentrations detected in ascites and pleural effusions (range, 0.014-26.5 mg/L, median 2.29 mg/L) exceeded the corresponding plasma concentrations 2.6-fold. According to cutoffs published to diagnose rhino- and otoliquorrhea, between 6.1% and 95.7% of the specimens would have been erroneously rated CSF-positive. Protein analysis confirmed the presence of β-TP in pleural effusion and ascites. Ascites and pleural effusion contain high concentrations of β-TP that exceed the levels in corresponding plasma. Therefore, β-TP is not a specific marker for the presence of CSF in these fluids.

  16. Sugar-Coated PPE's, Novel Nanomaterial's and Sensing Modules for Disease and Bioterrorism Related Threats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunz, Uwe [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2003-11-21

    The detection and sensing of biological warfare agents (ricin, anthrax toxin), of disease agents (cholera, botulinum, and tetnus toxins, influenza virus, etc.) and of biologically active species important for national security and disease control.

  17. Divided multimodal attention sensory trace and context coding strategies in spatially congruent auditory and visual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjánsson, Tómas; Thorvaldsson, Tómas Páll; Kristjánsson, Arni

    2014-01-01

    Previous research involving both unimodal and multimodal studies suggests that single-response change detection is a capacity-free process while a discriminatory up or down identification is capacity-limited. The trace/context model assumes that this reflects different memory strategies rather than inherent differences between identification and detection. To perform such tasks, one of two strategies is used, a sensory trace or a context coding strategy, and if one is blocked, people will automatically use the other. A drawback to most preceding studies is that stimuli are presented at separate locations, creating the possibility of a spatial confound, which invites alternative interpretations of the results. We describe a series of experiments, investigating divided multimodal attention, without the spatial confound. The results challenge the trace/context model. Our critical experiment involved a gap before a change in volume and brightness, which according to the trace/context model blocks the sensory trace strategy, simultaneously with a roaming pedestal, which should block the context coding strategy. The results clearly show that people can use strategies other than sensory trace and context coding in the tasks and conditions of these experiments, necessitating changes to the trace/context model.

  18. Preparation of tracing source layer in simulation test of nuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yingjie; Ni Shiwei; Li Weijuan; Yamamoto, T.; Tanaka, T.; Komiya, T.

    1993-01-01

    In cooperative research between CIRP and JAERI on safety assessment for shallow land disposal of low level radioactive waste, a laboratory simulation test of nuclide migration was carried out, in which the undisturbed loess soil column sampled from CIRP' s field test site was used as testing material, three nuclides, Sr-85, Cs-137 and Co-60 were used as tracers. Special experiment on tracing method was carried out, which included measuring pH value of quartz sand in HCl solution, determining the eligible water content of quartz sand as tracer carrier, measuring distribution uniformity of nuclides in the tracing quartz sand, determining elution rate of nuclides from the tracing quartz sand and detecting activity uniformity of tracing source layer. The experiment results showed that the tracing source layer, in which fine quartz sand was used as tracer carrier, satisfied expected requirement. (1 fig.)

  19. Detection of trace tetracycline in fish via synchronous fluorescence quenching with carbon quantum dots coated with molecularly imprinted silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji; Lin, Zheng-Zhong; Nur, A.-Zha; Lu, Yan; Wu, Ming-Hui; Zeng, Jun; Chen, Xiao-Mei; Huang, Zhi-Yong

    2018-02-01

    A novel fluorescence-based sensor combining synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) with molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) was fabricated with reverse microemulsion method. Tetracycline (TC), (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES), tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and carbon quantum dots (CDs) were used as template, functional monomer, cross-linker and signal sources respectively in the probe preparation. A synchronous fluorescence emission (λem) at 355 nm was observed for the prepared MIP-coated CDs (MIP@CDs) particles when the wavelength interval (Δλ) was set as 70 nm, and the synchronous fluorescence intensity could be rapidly and efficiently quenched by TC based on inner filter effect (IFE). The quenching efficiencies of synchronous fluorescence intensity was linearly fitted with tetracycline (TC) concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 50 μmol L- 1 with a detection limit (DL) of 9 nmol L- 1 (3σ, n = 9). The MIP@CDs was used as a probe to detect TC in fish samples with the recoveries ranging from 98.4% to 103.1% and the relative standard deviation less than 6.0%. The results illustrated that the as-prepared MIP@CDs could be applied to the detection of trace TC in fish samples with rapidity, high sensitivity and accuracy.

  20. Spectrochemical determination of impurities and noble metal traces in carnallite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldbart, Z.; Carmi, U.; Harrel, A.

    1978-02-01

    A spectrochemical method was developed for the determination of impurities and noble metal traces in carnallite by DC arc excitation. The investigated sample is brought to a standard form of potassium-magnesium sulphate mixed with graphite. Detection limits of 1-10 ppm were determined for 27 elements; the dynamical detection range is 1-400 ppm

  1. Application of LIBS in Detection of Antihyperglycemic Trace Elements in Momordica charantia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rai, N.K.; Rai, P.K.; Pandhija, S.; Watal, G.; Rai, A.K.; Bicanic, D.D.

    2009-01-01

    The present study exploits the information based on concentration of trace elements and minerals in understanding the role/mechanism of action of freeze-dried fruit powder suspended in distilled water of Momordica charantia (family: Cucurbitaceae) in diabetes treatment. Laser-induced break down

  2. Detection of trace microcystin-LR on a 20 MHz QCM sensor coated with in situ self-assembled MIPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hao; Zhou, Lianqun; Wang, Yi; Li, Chuanyu; Yao, Jia; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Qingwen; Li, Mingyu; Li, Haiwen; Dong, Wen-fei

    2015-01-01

    A 20 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor coated with in situ self-assembled molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) was presented for the detection of trace microcystin-LR (MC-LR) in drinking water. The sensor performance obtained using the in situ self-assembled MIPs was compared with traditionally synthesized MIPs on 20 MHz and normal 10 MHz QCM chip. The results show that the response increases by more than 60% when using the in situ self-assembly method compared using the traditionally method while the 20 MHz QCM chip provides four-fold higher response than the 10 MHz one. Therefore, the in situ self-assembled MIPs coated on a high frequency QCM chip was used in the sensor performance test to detect MC-LR in tap water. It showed a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.04 nM which is lower than the safety guideline level (1 nM MC-LR) of drinking water in China. The low sensor response to other analogs indicated the high specificity of the sensor to MC-LR. The sensor showed high stability and low signal variation less than 2.58% after regeneration. The lake water sample analysis shows the sensor is possible for practical use. The combination of the higher frequency QCM with the in situ self-assembled MIPs provides a good candidate for the detection of other small molecules. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantification and micron-scale imaging of spatial distribution of trace beryllium in shrapnel fragments and metallurgic samples with correlative fluorescence detection method and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jerrold L.; Chandra, Subhash; Agrawal, Anoop

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a report raised the possibility of shrapnel-induced chronic beryllium disease (CBD) from long-term exposure to the surface of retained aluminum shrapnel fragments in the body. Since the shrapnel fragments contained trace beryllium, methodological developments were needed for beryllium quantification and to study its spatial distribution in relation to other matrix elements, such as aluminum and iron, in metallurgic samples. In this work, we developed methodology for quantification of trace beryllium in samples of shrapnel fragments and other metallurgic sample-types with main matrix of aluminum (aluminum cans from soda, beer, carbonated water, and aluminum foil). Sample preparation procedures were developed for dissolving beryllium for its quantification with the fluorescence detection method for homogenized measurements. The spatial distribution of trace beryllium on the sample surface and in 3D was imaged with a dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) instrument, CAMECA IMS 3f SIMS ion microscope. The beryllium content of shrapnel (~100 ppb) was the same as the trace quantities of beryllium found in aluminum cans. The beryllium content of aluminum foil (~25 ppb) was significantly lower than cans. SIMS imaging analysis revealed beryllium to be distributed in the form of low micron-sized particles and clusters distributed randomly in X-Y-and Z dimensions, and often in association with iron, in the main aluminum matrix of cans. These observations indicate a plausible formation of Be-Fe or Al-Be alloy in the matrix of cans. Further observations were made on fluids (carbonated water) for understanding if trace beryllium in cans leached out and contaminated the food product. A direct comparison of carbonated water in aluminum cans and plastic bottles revealed that beryllium was below the detection limits of the fluorescence detection method (~0.01 ppb). These observations indicate that beryllium present in aluminum matrix was either present in an

  4. Quantification and micron-scale imaging of spatial distribution of trace beryllium in shrapnel fragments and metallurgic samples with correlative fluorescence detection method and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, J L; Chandra, S; Agrawal, A

    2014-11-01

    Recently, a report raised the possibility of shrapnel-induced chronic beryllium disease from long-term exposure to the surface of retained aluminum shrapnel fragments in the body. Since the shrapnel fragments contained trace beryllium, methodological developments were needed for beryllium quantification and to study its spatial distribution in relation to other matrix elements, such as aluminum and iron, in metallurgic samples. In this work, we developed methodology for quantification of trace beryllium in samples of shrapnel fragments and other metallurgic sample-types with main matrix of aluminum (aluminum cans from soda, beer, carbonated water and aluminum foil). Sample preparation procedures were developed for dissolving beryllium for its quantification with the fluorescence detection method for homogenized measurements. The spatial distribution of trace beryllium on the sample surface and in 3D was imaged with a dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry instrument, CAMECA IMS 3f secondary ion mass spectrometry ion microscope. The beryllium content of shrapnel (∼100 ppb) was the same as the trace quantities of beryllium found in aluminum cans. The beryllium content of aluminum foil (∼25 ppb) was significantly lower than cans. SIMS imaging analysis revealed beryllium to be distributed in the form of low micron-sized particles and clusters distributed randomly in X-Y- and Z dimensions, and often in association with iron, in the main aluminum matrix of cans. These observations indicate a plausible formation of Be-Fe or Al-Be alloy in the matrix of cans. Further observations were made on fluids (carbonated water) for understanding if trace beryllium in cans leached out and contaminated the food product. A direct comparison of carbonated water in aluminum cans and plastic bottles revealed that beryllium was below the detection limits of the fluorescence detection method (∼0.01 ppb). These observations indicate that beryllium present in aluminum matrix was either

  5. Direct detection of benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene at trace levels in ambient air by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization using a handheld mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guangming; Gao, Liang; Duncan, Jason; Harper, Jason D; Sanders, Nathaniel L; Ouyang, Zheng; Cooks, R Graham

    2010-01-01

    The capabilities of a portable mass spectrometer for real-time monitoring of trace levels of benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene in air are illustrated. An atmospheric pressure interface was built to implement atmospheric pressure chemical ionization for direct analysis of gas-phase samples on a previously described miniature mass spectrometer (Gao et al. Anal. Chem.2006, 78, 5994-6002). Linear dynamic ranges, limits of detection and other analytical figures of merit were evaluated: for benzene, a limit of detection of 0.2 parts-per-billion was achieved for air samples without any sample preconcentration. The corresponding limits of detection for toluene and ethylbenzene were 0.5 parts-per-billion and 0.7 parts-per-billion, respectively. These detection limits are well below the compounds' permissible exposure levels, even in the presence of added complex mixtures of organics at levels exceeding the parts-per-million level. The linear dynamic ranges of benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene are limited to approximately two orders of magnitude by saturation of the detection electronics. 2010 American Society for Mass Spectrometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. enrichment factor of atmospheric trace metal using zirconium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Twelve (12) elements (Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba, Sr, and Zr ) were detected in total suspended particulate matter (TSP) ..... Ni and V didn't show spatial variation (p>0.05). For K, ..... K.A. Wet deposition of trace metals to a remote.

  7. Using the ion microprobe mass analyser for trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    Most techniques for the analysis of trace elements are capable of determining the concentrations in a bulk sample or solution, but without reflecting their distribution. In a bulk analysis therefore elements which occur in high concentration in a few precipitates would still be considered trace elements even though their local concentration greatly exceed the normally accepted trace elements concentration limit. Anomalous distribution is also shown by an oxide layer, a few hundred Angstrom thick, on an aluminium sample. A low oxide concentration would be reported if it were included in the bulk analysis, which contradicts the high surface concentration. The importance of a knowledge of the trace element distribution is therefore demonstrated. Distributional trace element analysis can be carried out using the ion microprobe mass analyser (IMMA). Since the analytical technique used in this instrument, namely secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), is not universally appreciated, the instrument and its features will be described briefly followed by a discussion of quantitative analysis and the related subjects of detection limit and sample consumption. Finally, a few examples of the use of the instrument are given

  8. Trace detection of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) with a SERS-based capillary platform prepared by the in situ microwave synthesis of AgNPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Sezin; Schwenke, Almut M; Soliveri, Guido; Ardizzone, Silvia; Weber, Karina; Cialla-May, Dana; Hoeppener, Stephanie; Schubert, Ulrich S; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-10-05

    In the present study, an ultra-sensitive and highly reproducible novel SERS-based capillary platform was developed and utilized for the trace detection of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The approach combines the advantages of microwave-assisted nanoparticle synthesis, plasmonics and capillary forces. By employing a microwave-assisted preparation method, glass capillaries were reproducibly coated with silver nanoparticles in a batch fabrication process that required a processing time of 3 min without needing to use any pre-surface modifications or add surfactants. The coated capillaries exhibited an excellent SERS activity with a high reproducibility and enabled the detection of low concentrations of target molecules. At the same time, only a small amount of analyte and a short and simple incubation process was required. The developed platform was applied to the spectroscopic characterization of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and its identification at concentration levels down to 1 nM. Thus, a highly efficient detection system for practical applications, e.g., in drug monitoring/detection, is introduced, which can be fabricated at low cost by using microwave-assisted batch synthesis techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Biological trace element measurements using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giauque, R.D.; Jaklevic, J.M.; Thompson, A.C.

    1985-07-01

    The feasibility of performing x-ray fluorescence trace element determinations at concentrations substantially below the ppM level for biological materials is demonstrated. Conditions for achieving optimum sensitivity were ascertained. Results achieved for five standard reference materials were, in most cases, in excellent agreement with listed values. Minimum detectable limits of 20 ppM were measured for most elements

  10. A new method for automatic discontinuity traces sampling on rock mass 3D model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umili, G.; Ferrero, A.; Einstein, H. H.

    2013-02-01

    A new automatic method for discontinuity traces mapping and sampling on a rock mass digital model is described in this work. The implemented procedure allows one to automatically identify discontinuity traces on a Digital Surface Model: traces are detected directly as surface breaklines, by means of maximum and minimum principal curvature values of the vertices that constitute the model surface. Color influence and user errors, that usually characterize the trace mapping on images, are eliminated. Also trace sampling procedures based on circular windows and circular scanlines have been implemented: they are used to infer trace data and to calculate values of mean trace length, expected discontinuity diameter and intensity of rock discontinuities. The method is tested on a case study: results obtained applying the automatic procedure on the DSM of a rock face are compared to those obtained performing a manual sampling on the orthophotograph of the same rock face.

  11. Ultrasensitive, real-time trace gas detection using a high-power, multimode diode laser and cavity ringdown spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpf, Andreas; Qiao, Yuhao; Rao, Gottipaty N

    2016-06-01

    We present a simplified cavity ringdown (CRD) trace gas detection technique that is insensitive to vibration, and capable of extremely sensitive, real-time absorption measurements. A high-power, multimode Fabry-Perot (FP) diode laser with a broad wavelength range (Δλlaser∼0.6  nm) is used to excite a large number of cavity modes, thereby reducing the detector's susceptibility to vibration and making it well suited for field deployment. When detecting molecular species with broad absorption features (Δλabsorption≫Δλlaser), the laser's broad linewidth removes the need for precision wavelength stabilization. The laser's power and broad linewidth allow the use of on-axis cavity alignment, improving the signal-to-noise ratio while maintaining its vibration insensitivity. The use of an FP diode laser has the added advantages of being inexpensive, compact, and insensitive to vibration. The technique was demonstrated using a 1.1 W (λ=400  nm) diode laser to measure low concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in zero air. A sensitivity of 38 parts in 1012 (ppt) was achieved using an integration time of 128 ms; for single-shot detection, 530 ppt sensitivity was demonstrated with a measurement time of 60 μs, which opens the door to sensitive measurements with extremely high temporal resolution; to the best of our knowledge, these are the highest speed measurements of NO2 concentration using CRD spectroscopy. The reduced susceptibility to vibration was demonstrated by introducing small vibrations into the apparatus and observing that there was no measurable effect on the sensitivity of detection.

  12. Stand-off imaging Raman spectroscopy for forensic analysis of post-blast scenes: trace detection of ammonium nitrate and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceco, Ema; Önnerud, Hans; Menning, Dennis; Gilljam, John L.; Bââth, Petra; Östmark, Henric

    2014-05-01

    The following paper presents a realistic forensic capability test of an imaging Raman spectroscopy based demonstrator system, developed at FOI, the Swedish Defence Research Agency. The system uses a 532 nm laser to irradiate a surface of 25×25mm. The backscattered radiation from the surface is collected by an 8" telescope with subsequent optical system, and is finally imaged onto an ICCD camera. We present here an explosives trace analysis study of samples collected from a realistic scenario after a detonation. A left-behind 5 kg IED, based on ammonium nitrate with a TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) booster, was detonated in a plastic garbage bin. Aluminum sample plates were mounted vertically on a holder approximately 6 m from the point of detonation. Minutes after the detonation, the samples were analyzed with stand-off imaging Raman spectroscopy from a distance of 10 m. Trace amounts could be detected from the secondary explosive (ammonium nitrate with an analysis time of 1 min. Measurement results also indicated detection of residues from the booster (TNT). The sample plates were subsequently swabbed and analyzed with HPLC and GC-MS analyses to confirm the results from the stand-off imaging Raman system. The presented findings indicate that it is possible to determine the type of explosive used in an IED from a distance, within minutes after the attack, and without tampering with physical evidence at the crime scene.

  13. Synthesis, characterization and application of poly(acrylamide-co-methylenbisacrylamide) nanocomposite as a colorimetric chemosensor for visual detection of trace levels of Hg and Pb ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedghi, Roya, E-mail: r_sedghi@sbu.ac.ir; Heidari, Bahareh; Behbahani, Mohammad

    2015-03-21

    Highlights: • Poly(acrylamide-co-methylenbisacrylamide) nanocomposite. • Colorimetric chemosensor. • Determination of trace levels of Hg and Pb ions. • Environmental samples. - Abstract: In this study, a new colorimetric chemosensor based on TiO{sub 2}/poly(acrylamide-co-methylenbisacrylamide) nanocomposites was designed for determination of mercury and lead ions at trace levels in environmental samples. The removal and preconcentration of lead and mercury ions on the sorbent was achieved due to sharing an electron pair of N and O groups of polymer chains with the mentioned heavy metal ions. The hydrogel sensor was designed by surface modification of a synthesized TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles using methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilan (MAPTMS), which provided a reactive C=C bond that polymerized the acrylamide and methylenbisacrylamide. The sorbent was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscope (SEM), EDS analysis and Fourier transform in frared (FT-IR) spectrometer. This nanostructured composite with polymer shell was developed as a sensitive and selective sorbent for adsorption of mercury and lead ions from aqueous solution at optimized condition. This method involves two-steps: (1) preconcentration of mercury and lead ions by the synthesized sorbent and (2) its selective monitoring of the target ions by complexation with dithizone (DZ). The color of the sorbent in the absence and presence of mercury and lead ions shifts from white to violet and red, respectively. The detection limit of the synthesized nanochemosensor for mercury and lead ions was 1 and 10 μg L{sup −1}, respectively. The method was successfully applied for trace detection of mercury and lead ions in tap, river, and sea water samples.

  14. Computational and experimental research on infrared trace by human being contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong Zonglong; Yang Kuntao; Ding Wenxiu; Zhang Nanyangsheng; Zheng Wenheng

    2010-06-20

    The indoor detection of the human body's thermal trace plays an important role in the fields of infrared detecting, scouting, infrared camouflage, and infrared rescuing and tracking. Currently, quantitative description and analysis for this technology are lacking due to the absence of human infrared radiation analysis. To solve this problem, we study the heating and cooling process by observing body contact and removal on an object, respectively. Through finite-element simulation and carefully designed experiments, an analytical model of the infrared trace of body contact is developed based on infrared physics and heat transfer theory. Using this model, the impact of body temperature on material thermal parameters is investigated. The sensitivity of material thermal parameters, the thermal distribution, and the changes of the thermograph's contrast are then found and analyzed. Excellent matching results achieved between the simulation and the experiments demonstrate the strong impact of temperature on material thermal parameters. Conclusively, the new model, simulation, and experimental results are beneficial to the future development and implementation of infrared trace technology.

  15. Computational and experimental research on infrared trace by human being contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Zonglong; Yang Kuntao; Ding Wenxiu; Zhang Nanyangsheng; Zheng Wenheng

    2010-01-01

    The indoor detection of the human body's thermal trace plays an important role in the fields of infrared detecting, scouting, infrared camouflage, and infrared rescuing and tracking. Currently, quantitative description and analysis for this technology are lacking due to the absence of human infrared radiation analysis. To solve this problem, we study the heating and cooling process by observing body contact and removal on an object, respectively. Through finite-element simulation and carefully designed experiments, an analytical model of the infrared trace of body contact is developed based on infrared physics and heat transfer theory. Using this model, the impact of body temperature on material thermal parameters is investigated. The sensitivity of material thermal parameters, the thermal distribution, and the changes of the thermograph's contrast are then found and analyzed. Excellent matching results achieved between the simulation and the experiments demonstrate the strong impact of temperature on material thermal parameters. Conclusively, the new model, simulation, and experimental results are beneficial to the future development and implementation of infrared trace technology.

  16. Occurrence of trace elements and antibiotics in manure-based fertilizers from the Zhejiang Province of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Mingrong; Wu, Huizhen; Wang, Jianmei; Zhang, Hu; Zhang, Zulin; Zhang, Yongzhi; Lin, Hui; Ma, Junwei

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of seven trace elements and forty three antibiotics was investigated in manure-based fertilizers from the Zhejiang province of China. These trace elements included copper, zinc, arsenic, chromium, mercury, lead and cadmium. The targeted antibiotics included four groups: sulfonamides, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones and chloramphenicols. The median amounts of copper, zinc, arsenic, chromium, mercury, lead and cadmium in the analyzed samples were 160, 465, 7.9, 21.2, 0.3, 8.1 and 0.6 mg·kg"−"1, respectively. Seventeen antibiotics were detected. Enrofloxacin was the most frequently detected compound, with a detection rate of 39.3% and concentrations ranging from 6.7 μg·kg"−"1 to 4091 μg·kg"−"1. Based on the referred loading rates in agricultural soil, 10% of the collected manure-based fertilizer samples might pose a high potential ecological risk due to the presence of antibiotics. - Graphical abstract: Occurrence of seven trace elements and forty three antibiotics was investigated in manure-based fertilizers in Zhejiang province of China. The trace elements included copper, zinc, arsenic, chromium, mercury, lead and cadmium; the targeted antibiotics included four groups: sulfonamides, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones and chloramphenicols. The medium values of copper, zinc, arsenic, chromium, mercury, lead and cadmium in the analyzed samples were 160, 465, 7.9, 21.2, 0.3, 8.1 and 0.6 mg·kg"−"1, respectively. Seventeen antibiotics were detected. Enrofloxacin was the most frequently detected compound with the detection rate of 39.3% and the concentrations ranged from 6.7 μg·kg"−"1 to 4091 μg·kg"−"1. Based on the referred loading rates, 10% of the collected manure-based fertilizers might pose a high potential ecological risk after their application onto agriculture soil due to the presence of antibiotics. - Highlight: • Antibiotics and trace elements were investigated in manure-based fertilizers. • 64% of manure-based fertilizers

  17. Occurrence of trace elements and antibiotics in manure-based fertilizers from the Zhejiang Province of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Mingrong [Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, MOA Key Laboratory for Pesticide Residue Detection, Hangzhou 310021 (China); Wu, Huizhen [College of Chemical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Wang, Jianmei; Zhang, Hu [Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, MOA Key Laboratory for Pesticide Residue Detection, Hangzhou 310021 (China); Zhang, Zulin [The James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Zhang, Yongzhi [Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, MOA Key Laboratory for Pesticide Residue Detection, Hangzhou 310021 (China); Lin, Hui [Environmental Resources and Soil Fertilizer Institute, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021 (China); Ma, Junwei, E-mail: majw@mail.zaas.ac.cn [Environmental Resources and Soil Fertilizer Institute, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021 (China)

    2016-07-15

    The occurrence of seven trace elements and forty three antibiotics was investigated in manure-based fertilizers from the Zhejiang province of China. These trace elements included copper, zinc, arsenic, chromium, mercury, lead and cadmium. The targeted antibiotics included four groups: sulfonamides, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones and chloramphenicols. The median amounts of copper, zinc, arsenic, chromium, mercury, lead and cadmium in the analyzed samples were 160, 465, 7.9, 21.2, 0.3, 8.1 and 0.6 mg·kg{sup −1}, respectively. Seventeen antibiotics were detected. Enrofloxacin was the most frequently detected compound, with a detection rate of 39.3% and concentrations ranging from 6.7 μg·kg{sup −1} to 4091 μg·kg{sup −1}. Based on the referred loading rates in agricultural soil, 10% of the collected manure-based fertilizer samples might pose a high potential ecological risk due to the presence of antibiotics. - Graphical abstract: Occurrence of seven trace elements and forty three antibiotics was investigated in manure-based fertilizers in Zhejiang province of China. The trace elements included copper, zinc, arsenic, chromium, mercury, lead and cadmium; the targeted antibiotics included four groups: sulfonamides, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones and chloramphenicols. The medium values of copper, zinc, arsenic, chromium, mercury, lead and cadmium in the analyzed samples were 160, 465, 7.9, 21.2, 0.3, 8.1 and 0.6 mg·kg{sup −1}, respectively. Seventeen antibiotics were detected. Enrofloxacin was the most frequently detected compound with the detection rate of 39.3% and the concentrations ranged from 6.7 μg·kg{sup −1} to 4091 μg·kg{sup −1}. Based on the referred loading rates, 10% of the collected manure-based fertilizers might pose a high potential ecological risk after their application onto agriculture soil due to the presence of antibiotics. - Highlight: • Antibiotics and trace elements were investigated in manure-based fertilizers. • 64% of

  18. Removal of trace organic chemical contaminants by a membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, T; van den Akker, B; Stuetz, R M; Coleman, H M; Le-Clech, P; Khan, S J

    2012-01-01

    Emerging wastewater treatment processes such as membrane bioreactors (MBRs) have attracted a significant amount of interest internationally due to their ability to produce high quality effluent suitable for water recycling. It is therefore important that their efficiency in removing hazardous trace organic contaminants be assessed. Accordingly, this study investigated the removal of trace organic chemical contaminants through a full-scale, package MBR in New South Wales, Australia. This study was unique in the context of MBR research because it characterised the removal of 48 trace organic chemical contaminants, which included steroidal hormones, xenoestrogens, pesticides, caffeine, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). Results showed that the removal of most trace organic chemical contaminants through the MBR was high (above 90%). However, amitriptyline, carbamazepine, diazepam, diclofenac, fluoxetine, gemfibrozil, omeprazole, sulphamethoxazole and trimethoprim were only partially removed through the MBR with the removal efficiencies of 24-68%. These are potential indicators for assessing MBR performance as these chemicals are usually sensitive to changes in the treatment systems. The trace organic chemical contaminants detected in the MBR permeate were 1 to 6 orders of magnitude lower than guideline values reported in the Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling. The outcomes of this study enhanced our understanding of the levels and removal of trace organic contaminants by MBRs.

  19. Polarographic determination of trace amounts of thorium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaofan Zhao; Xiaohua Cai; Peibiao Li; Handong Yang

    1986-07-01

    A sensitive linear-sweep polarographic method for the determination of thorium is described. It is based on the thorium complex with Xylidyl Blue I (XBI) in a medium containing ethylenediamine, 1, 10-phenanthroline, oxalic acid and ninhydrin, at pH 10.5-11.5. The complex has been proved to be Th(XBI)/sub 2/, with log ..beta..'=9.6. The method can be used to determine trace amounts of thorium over the range 3.5x10/sup -8/-3x10/sup -6/M. The detection limit is 1x10/sup -8/M. A solvent extraction procedure is necessary to eliminate interference from several cations. The method has been applied to determination of traces of thorium in minerals, with good results.

  20. The Relevant Physical Trace in Criminal Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durdica Hazard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A criminal investigation requires the forensic scientist to search and to interpret vestiges of a criminal act that happened in the past. The forensic scientist is one of the many stakeholders who take part in the information quest within the criminal justice system. She reads the investigation scene in search of physical traces that should enable her to tell the story of the offense/crime that allegedly occurred. The challenge for any investigator is to detect and recognize relevant physical traces in order to provide clues for investigation and intelligence purposes, and that will constitute sound and relevant evidence for the court. This article shows how important it is to consider the relevancy of physical traces from the beginning of the investigation and what might influence the evaluation process. The exchange and management of information between the investigation stakeholders are important. Relevancy is a dimension that needs to be understood from the standpoints of law enforcement personnel and forensic scientists with the aim of strengthening investigation and ultimately the overall judicial process.

  1. Online Continuous Trace Process Analytics Using Multiplexing Gas Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunsch, Marco R; Lehnig, Rudolf; Trapp, Oliver

    2017-04-04

    The analysis of impurities at a trace level in chemical products, nutrition additives, and drugs is highly important to guarantee safe products suitable for consumption. However, trace analysis in the presence of a dominating component can be a challenging task because of noncompatible linear detection ranges or strong signal overlap that suppresses the signal of interest. Here, we developed a technique for quantitative analysis using multiplexing gas chromatography (mpGC) for continuous and completely automated process trace analytics exemplified for the analysis of a CO 2 stream in a production plant for detection of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and the three structural isomers of xylene (BTEX) in the concentration range of 0-10 ppb. Additional minor components are methane and methanol with concentrations up to 100 ppm. The sample is injected up to 512 times according to a pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS) with a mean frequency of 0.1 Hz into a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID). A superimposed chromatogram is recorded which is deconvoluted into an averaged chromatogram with Hadamard transformation. Novel algorithms to maintain the data acquisition rate of the detector by application of Hadamard transformation and to suppress correlation noise induced by components with much higher concentrations than the target substances are shown. Compared to conventional GC-FID, the signal-to-noise ratio has been increased by a factor of 10 with mpGC-FID. Correspondingly, the detection limits for BTEX in CO 2 have been lowered from 10 to 1 ppb each. This has been achieved despite the presence of detectable components (methane and methanol) with a concentration about 1000 times higher than the target substances. The robustness and reliability of mpGC has been proven in a two-month field test in a chemical production plant.

  2. A new method for automated discontinuity trace mapping on rock mass 3D surface model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojun; Chen, Jianqin; Zhu, Hehua

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents an automated discontinuity trace mapping method on a 3D surface model of rock mass. Feature points of discontinuity traces are first detected using the Normal Tensor Voting Theory, which is robust to noisy point cloud data. Discontinuity traces are then extracted from feature points in four steps: (1) trace feature point grouping, (2) trace segment growth, (3) trace segment connection, and (4) redundant trace segment removal. A sensitivity analysis is conducted to identify optimal values for the parameters used in the proposed method. The optimal triangular mesh element size is between 5 cm and 6 cm; the angle threshold in the trace segment growth step is between 70° and 90°; the angle threshold in the trace segment connection step is between 50° and 70°, and the distance threshold should be at least 15 times the mean triangular mesh element size. The method is applied to the excavation face trace mapping of a drill-and-blast tunnel. The results show that the proposed discontinuity trace mapping method is fast and effective and could be used as a supplement to traditional direct measurement of discontinuity traces.

  3. Near infrared photoacoustic detection of heptane in synthetic air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duggen, Lars; Albu, Mihaela; Willatzen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Trace contaminations of n-heptane in synthetic air is measured in the parts-per-billion (ppb) range using near infrared photoacoustic detection. We describe the fundamental theory used in the design of the photoacoustic cell for trace gas analysis and determine the detection limit of the cell...

  4. Magnetic sulfur-doped porous carbon for preconcentration of trace mercury in environmental water prior to ICP-MS detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chuyu; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Huang, Lijin; Hu, Bin

    2017-11-20

    A novel magnetic sulfur-doped porous carbon (MSPC) was fabricated via a simple one-step carbonization of a mixture of sucrose, basic magnesium sulfate whiskers and Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 nanoparticles. Due to the high S content, the prepared MSPC possessed high adsorption capacity for Hg 2+ (343 mg g -1 ) with good selectivity. Based on this, a method coupling magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was developed for the determination of trace Hg 2+ in environmental water samples. Various parameters such as pH, desorption solvent and its concentration, desorption volume and time, sample volume, and adsorption time that affect the determination have been optimized. Under the optimal conditions, a high enrichment factor of 100-fold was obtained, the limit of detection (LOD) was found to be 0.52 pg mL -1 with a relative standard deviation (c = 10 pg mL -1 , n = 7) of 7.1%, and a good linearity was obtained within the concentration range of 2-5000 pg mL -1 for Hg 2+ . Besides, the proposed method has very fast adsorption/desorption kinetics, target Hg 2+ could be rapidly adsorbed on the prepared MSPC in 2 min and desorbed from the MSPC in 2 min with the assistance of a permanent magnet. Therefore, the proposed method of MSPE-ICP-MS exhibits good application potential in the determination of trace Hg 2+ in environmental water samples.

  5. Detection of traces of triclosan in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Inês; Magalhâes-Mota, Gonçalo; Pires, Filipa; Sério, Susana; Ribeiro, Paulo A.; Raposo, Maria

    2017-11-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is an antibacterial agent widely used in soaps, toothpastes and first-aid products, which presents several drawbacks related with its noxious effects on the biological systems. As this compound is stable and lipophilic, its consumption in large scale is a great deal of concern, particularly because it has been widely found in river water, lake water, sediments, fish and human milk. Therefore, it is urgent to produce an effective, economic, disposable sensor to detect TCS in complex matrixes. This work explores the electronic tongue sensor concept towards the detection of pico-molar concentrations of TCS in aqueous medium. For that an array of sensor devices consisting of bare interdigitated electrodes (IEs) and covered with different layer-by-layer (LBL) films was developed being its response analyzed by impedance spectroscopy. The LbL films were prepared from poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI), graphene oxide (GO), chitosan (Chi), poly[1-[4-(3-carboxy-4-hydroxyphenylazo) benzene sulfonamido]-1,2-ethanediyl, sodium salt] (PAZO) and poly (allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH). Results allowed to select an adequate sensor array to be used for TCS detection in aqueous solutions within the 10-12 M-10-6 M concentrations range, either by using electrical resistance or electrical capacitance at fixed frequencies as key transducing variables. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) data treatment allowed the discrimination of triclosan solution and of methanol aqueous solutions used in TCS solutions preparation, suggesting that the methodology used in this work can be used to detect TCS in complex matrix solutions.

  6. Trace analysis of actinides in the environment using resonance ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raeder, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    In this work the resonant ionization of neutral atoms using laser radiation was applied and optimized for ultra-trace analysis of the actinides thorium, uranium, neptunium and plutonium. The sensitive detection of these actinides is a challange for the monitoring and quantification of radioactive releases from nuclear facilities. Using resonance ionization spectroscopy combined with a newly developed quadrupole-mass-spectrometer, numerous energy levels in the atomic structure of these actinides could be identified. With this knowledge efficient excitation schemes for the mentioned actinides could be identified and characterised. The applied in-source-ionization ensures for a high detection efficiency due to the good overlap of laser radiation with the atomic beam and allows therefore for a low sample consumption which is required for the analysis of radio nuclides. The selective excitation processes in the resonant ionization method supresses unwanted contaminations and was optimized for analytical detection of ultra-trace amounts in environmental samples as well as for determination of isotopic compositions. The efficient in-source-ionization combined with high power pulsed laser radiation allows for detections efficiency up to 1%. For plutonium detection limits in the range of 10 4 -10 5 atoms could be demonstrated for synthetic samples as well as for first environmental samples. The usage of narrow bandwidth continuous wave lasers in combination with a transversal overlap of the laser radiation and the free propagating atomic beam enable for resolving individual isotopic shifts of the resonant transitions. This results in a high selectivity against dominant neighboring isotopes but with a significant loss in detection efficiency. For the ultra-trace isotope 236 U a detection limit down to 10 -9 for the isotope ratio N ( 236 U)/N ( 238 U) could be determined.

  7. Effective Enrichment and Detection of Trace Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Food Samples based on Magnetic Covalent Organic Framework Hybrid Microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Wu, Di; Hu, Na; Fan, Guangsen; Li, Xiuting; Sun, Jing; Chen, Xuefeng; Suo, Yourui; Li, Guoliang; Wu, Yongning

    2018-04-04

    The present study reported a facile, sensitive, and efficient method for enrichment and determination of trace polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in food samples by employing new core-shell nanostructure magnetic covalent organic framework hybrid microspheres (Fe 3 O 4 @COF-(TpBD)) as the sorbent followed by HPLC-DAD. Under mild synthetic conditions, the Fe 3 O 4 @COF-(TpBD) were prepared with the retention of colloidal nanosize, larger specific surface area, higher porosity, uniform morphology, and supermagnetism. The as-prepared materials showed an excellent adsorption ability for PAHs, and the enrichment efficiency of the Fe 3 O 4 @COF-(TpBD) could reach 99.95%. The obtained materials also had fast adsorption kinetics and realized adsorption equilibrium within 12 min. The eluent was further analyzed by HPLC-DAD, and good linearity was observed in the range of 1-100 ng/mL with the linear correlation being above 0.9990. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) and limits of quantitation (S/N = 10) for 15 PAHs were in the range of 0.83-11.7 ng/L and 2.76-39.0 ng/L, respectively. For the application, the obtained materials were employed for the enrichment of trace PAHs in food samples and exhibited superior enrichment capacity and excellent applicability.

  8. Urban Intersection Recognition and Construction Based on Big Trace Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANG Luliang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Intersection is an important part of the generation and renewal of urban traffic network. In this paper, a new method was proposed to detect urban intersections automatically from the spatiotemporal big trace data. Firstly, the turning point pairs were based on tracking the trace data collected by vehicles. Secondly, different types of turning point pairs were clustered by using spatial growing clustering method based on angle and distance differences, and the clustering methods of local connectivity was used to recognize the intersection. Finally, the intersection structure of multi-level road network was constructed with the range of the intersection and turning point pairs. Taking the taxi trajectory data in Wuhan city as an example, the experimental results showed that the method proposed in this paper can automatically detect and recognize the road intersection and its structure.

  9. Measurements of trace contaminants in closed-type plant cultivation chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, A.; Kiyota, M.; Aiga, I.; Nitta, K.; Tako, Y.; Ashida, A.; Otsubo, K.; Saito, T.

    Trace contaminants generated in closed facilities can cause abnormal plant growth. We present measurement data of trace contaminants released from soils, plants, and construction materials. We mainly used two closed chambers, a Closed-type Plant and Mushroom Cultivation Chamber (PMCC) and Closed-type Plant Cultivation Equipment (CPCE). Although trace gas budgets from soils obtained in this experiment are only one example, the results indicate that the budgets of trace gases, as well as CO_2 and O_2, change greatly with the degree of soil maturation and are dependent on the kind of substances in the soil. Both in the PMCC and in the CPCE, trace gases such as dioctyl phthalate (DOP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), toluene and xylene were detected. These gases seemed to be released from various materials used in the construction of these chambers. The degree of increase in these trace gas levels was dependent on the relationship between chamber capacity and plant quantity. Results of trace gas measurement in the PMCC, in which lettuce and shiitake mushroom were cultivated, showed that ethylene was released both from lettuce and from the mushroom culture bed. The release rates were about 90 ng bed^-1 h^-1 for the shiitake mushroom culture bed (volume is 1700 cm^3) and 4.1 ~ 17.3 ng dm^-2h^-1 (leaf area basis) for lettuce. Higher ethylene release rates per plant and per unit leaf area were observed in mature plants than in young plants.

  10. Cadmium (II) imprinted 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane coated stir bar for selective extraction of trace cadmium from environmental water samples followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Nan [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Hu Bin, E-mail: binhu@whu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2012-04-20

    Graphical abstract: Ion imprinted 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTS) coated stir bar for selective extraction of trace Cd(II). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ion imprinted polymers were proposed as the coating for SBSE for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd(II) imprinted MPTS-silica coating was prepared by a double-imprinting concept. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel method of SBSE-ICP-MS was developed for the determination of Cd in waters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This method is rapid, selective, sensitive and applicable for determining trace Cd(II) in waters. - Abstract: Cd(II) imprinted 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTS)-silica coated stir bar was prepared by sol-gel technique combining with a double-imprinting concept for the first time and was employed for stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) of trace Cd(II) from water samples followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection. A tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) coating was first in situ created on the glass bar surface. Afterward, a sol solution containing MPTS as the functional precursor, ethanol as the solvent and both Cd(II) and surfactant micelles (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB) as the template was again coated on the TMOS bar. The structures of the stir bar coating were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy. Round-bottom vial was used for the extraction of Cd(II) by SBSE to avoid abrasion of stir bar coatings. The factors affecting the extraction of Cd(II) by SBSE such as pH, stirring rate and time, sample/elution volume and interfering ions have been investigated in detail, and the optimized experimental parameters were obtained. Under the optimized conditions, the adsorption capacities of non-imprinted and imprinted coating stir bars were found to be 0.5 {mu}g and 0.8 {mu}g bar{sup -1}. The detection limit (3{sigma}) based on three times standard deviations of the method blanks by 7 replicates was 4.40 ng L{sup -1} and the relative standard

  11. Cadmium (II) imprinted 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane coated stir bar for selective extraction of trace cadmium from environmental water samples followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Nan; Hu Bin

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Ion imprinted 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTS) coated stir bar for selective extraction of trace Cd(II). Highlights: ► Ion imprinted polymers were proposed as the coating for SBSE for the first time. ► Cd(II) imprinted MPTS-silica coating was prepared by a double-imprinting concept. ► A novel method of SBSE–ICP-MS was developed for the determination of Cd in waters. ► This method is rapid, selective, sensitive and applicable for determining trace Cd(II) in waters. - Abstract: Cd(II) imprinted 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTS)-silica coated stir bar was prepared by sol–gel technique combining with a double-imprinting concept for the first time and was employed for stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) of trace Cd(II) from water samples followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection. A tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) coating was first in situ created on the glass bar surface. Afterward, a sol solution containing MPTS as the functional precursor, ethanol as the solvent and both Cd(II) and surfactant micelles (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB) as the template was again coated on the TMOS bar. The structures of the stir bar coating were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy. Round-bottom vial was used for the extraction of Cd(II) by SBSE to avoid abrasion of stir bar coatings. The factors affecting the extraction of Cd(II) by SBSE such as pH, stirring rate and time, sample/elution volume and interfering ions have been investigated in detail, and the optimized experimental parameters were obtained. Under the optimized conditions, the adsorption capacities of non-imprinted and imprinted coating stir bars were found to be 0.5 μg and 0.8 μg bar −1 . The detection limit (3σ) based on three times standard deviations of the method blanks by 7 replicates was 4.40 ng L −1 and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 3.38% (c = 1 μg L −1 , n = 7). The proposed method was successfully applied for the

  12. Trace element distribution in the rat cerebellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatek, W.M.; Long, G.J.; Pounds, J.G.; Reuhl, K.R.; Hanson, A.L.; Jones, K.W.

    1989-10-01

    Spatial distributions and concentrations of trace elements (TE) in the brain are important because TE perform catalytic structural functions in enzymes which regulate brain function and development. We have investigated the distributions of TE in rat cerebellum. Structures were sectioned and analyzed by the Synchrotron Radiation Induced X-ray Emission (SRIXE) method using the NSLS X-26 white-light microprobe facility. Advantages important for TE analysis of biological specimens with x-ray microscopy include short time of measurement, high brightness and flux, good spatial resolution, multielemental detection, good sensitivity, and non-destructive irradiation. Trace elements were measured in thin rat brain sections of 20-micrometers thickness. The analyses were performed on sample volumes as small as 0.2 nl with Minimum Detectable Limits (MDL) of 50 ppb wet weight for Fe, 100 ppb wet weight for Cu, and Zn, and 1 ppM wet weight for Pb. The distribution of TE in the molecular cell layer, granule cell layer and fiber tract of rat cerebella was investigated. Both point analyses and two-dimensional semi-quantitative mapping of the TE distribution in a section were used

  13. Ar39 Detection at the 10-16 Isotopic Abundance Level with Atom Trap Trace Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, W.; Williams, W.; Bailey, K.; Davis, A. M.; Hu, S.-M.; Lu, Z.-T.; O'Connor, T. P.; Purtschert, R.; Sturchio, N. C.; Sun, Y. R.; Mueller, P.

    2011-03-01

    Atom trap trace analysis, a laser-based atom counting method, has been applied to analyze atmospheric Ar39 (half-life=269yr), a cosmogenic isotope with an isotopic abundance of 8×10-16. In addition to the superior selectivity demonstrated in this work, the counting rate and efficiency of atom trap trace analysis have been improved by 2 orders of magnitude over prior results. The significant applications of this new analytical capability lie in radioisotope dating of ice and water samples and in the development of dark matter detectors.

  14. Tracing salmon to their birthplace by activable tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, Masao

    1978-01-01

    Activable tracer technique was applied to trace the recurrent migration of white salmons, as a typical example of employing radioactivation analysis to the study of agricultural and marinefields. Europium was adopted because it is easy to use technically with less influence on fish body and easy to detect, and its remaining time is very long. Artificially hatched young white salmons were stocked in the Saibetsu River after being raised for a month with europium-containing feed. These stocked fish were labeled by fin-cutting method. Recurrent salmons (fin cutting-labeled fish) were then collected and dissected. The fishes were divided into otoliths, scales, flesh, internal organs, gills, bones, etc., and irradiated for 5 min in JRR-2 reactor of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Europium was detected from the scales and otoliths of 3 to 4 year stocked adult fishes by γ-spectrometry of Eu. This proved the availability of activable tracer method for tracing the recurrent migration of salmons. (Kobatake, H.)

  15. Recent trends in nanomaterial-based microanalytical systems for the speciation of trace elements: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wei-Chang; Hsu, Keng-Chang; Shiea, Christopher Stephen; Huang, Yeou-Lih

    2015-07-16

    Trace element speciation in biomedical and environmental science has gained increasing attention over the past decade as researchers have begun to realize its importance in toxicological studies. Several nanomaterials, including titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), have been used as sorbents to separate and preconcentrate trace element species prior to detection through mass spectrometry or optical spectroscopy. Recently, these nanomaterial-based speciation techniques have been integrated with microfluidics to minimize sample and reagent consumption and simplify analyses. This review provides a critical look into the present state and recent applications of nanomaterial-based microanalytical systems in the speciation of trace elements. The adsorption and preconcentration efficiencies, sample volume requirements, and detection limits of these nanomaterial-based speciation techniques are detailed, and their applications in environmental and biological analyses are discussed. Current perspectives and future trends into the increasing use of nanomaterial-based microfluidic techniques for trace element speciation are highlighted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of a tungsten coil atomization-laser-induced fluorescence detection approach for trace elemental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezer, Muhsin; Elwood, Seth A.; Jones, Bradley T.; Simeonsson, Josef B.

    2006-01-01

    The analytical utility of a tungsten (W)-coil atomization-laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) approach has been evaluated for trace level measurements of elemental chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), antimony (Sb), lead (Pb), tin (Sn), copper (Cu), thallium (Tl), indium (In), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn) and mercury (Hg). Measurements of As, Cr, In, Se, Sb, Pb, Tl, and Sn were performed by laser-induced fluorescence using a single dye laser operating near 460 nm whose output was converted by frequency doubling and stimulated Raman scattering to wavelengths ranging from 196 to 286 nm for atomic excitation. Absolute limits of detection (LODs) of 1, 0.3, 0.3, 0.2, 1, 6, 1, 0.2 and 0.8 pg and concentration LODs of 100, 30, 30, 20, 100, 600, 100, 20, and 80 pg/mL were achieved for As, Se, Sb, Sn, In, Cu, Cr, Pb and Tl, respectively. Determinations of Hg, Pb, Zn and Cd were performed using two-color excitation approaches and resulted in absolute LODs of 2, 30, 5 and 0.6 pg, respectively, and concentration LODs of 200, 3000, 500 and 60 pg/mL, respectively. The sensitivities achieved by the W-coil LIF approaches compare well with those reported by W-coil atomic absorption spectrometry, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, and graphite furnace electrothermal atomization-LIF approaches. The accuracy of the approach was verified through the analysis of a multielement reference solution containing Sb, Pb and Tl which each had certified performance acceptance limits of 19.6-20.4 μg/mL. The determined concentrations were 20.05 ± 2.60, 20.70 ± 2.27 and 20.60 ± 2.46 μg/mL, for Sb, Pb and Tl, respectively. The results demonstrate that W-coil LIF provides good analytical performance for trace analyses due to its high sensitivity, linearity, and capability to measure multiple elements using a single tunable laser and suggest that the development of portable W-coil LIF instrumentation using compact, solid-state lasers is feasible

  17. Evaluation of a tungsten coil atomization-laser-induced fluorescence detection approach for trace elemental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezer, Muhsin; Elwood, Seth A; Jones, Bradley T; Simeonsson, Josef B

    2006-06-30

    The analytical utility of a tungsten (W)-coil atomization-laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) approach has been evaluated for trace level measurements of elemental chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), antimony (Sb), lead (Pb), tin (Sn), copper (Cu), thallium (Tl), indium (In), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn) and mercury (Hg). Measurements of As, Cr, In, Se, Sb, Pb, Tl, and Sn were performed by laser-induced fluorescence using a single dye laser operating near 460 nm whose output was converted by frequency doubling and stimulated Raman scattering to wavelengths ranging from 196 to 286 nm for atomic excitation. Absolute limits of detection (LODs) of 1, 0.3, 0.3, 0.2, 1, 6, 1, 0.2 and 0.8 pg and concentration LODs of 100, 30, 30, 20, 100, 600, 100, 20, and 80 pg/mL were achieved for As, Se, Sb, Sn, In, Cu, Cr, Pb and Tl, respectively. Determinations of Hg, Pb, Zn and Cd were performed using two-color excitation approaches and resulted in absolute LODs of 2, 30, 5 and 0.6 pg, respectively, and concentration LODs of 200, 3000, 500 and 60 pg/mL, respectively. The sensitivities achieved by the W-coil LIF approaches compare well with those reported by W-coil atomic absorption spectrometry, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, and graphite furnace electrothermal atomization-LIF approaches. The accuracy of the approach was verified through the analysis of a multielement reference solution containing Sb, Pb and Tl which each had certified performance acceptance limits of 19.6-20.4 microg/mL. The determined concentrations were 20.05+/-2.60, 20.70+/-2.27 and 20.60+/-2.46 microg/mL, for Sb, Pb and Tl, respectively. The results demonstrate that W-coil LIF provides good analytical performance for trace analyses due to its high sensitivity, linearity, and capability to measure multiple elements using a single tunable laser and suggest that the development of portable W-coil LIF instrumentation using compact, solid-state lasers is feasible.

  18. Trace detection of organic compounds in complex sample matrixes by single photon ionization ion trap mass spectrometry: real-time detection of security-relevant compounds and online analysis of the coffee-roasting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Elisabeth; Kürten, Andreas; Hölzer, Jasper; Mitschke, Stefan; Mühlberger, Fabian; Sklorz, Martin; Wieser, Jochen; Ulrich, Andreas; Pütz, Michael; Schulte-Ladbeck, Rasmus; Schultze, Rainer; Curtius, Joachim; Borrmann, Stephan; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2009-06-01

    An in-house-built ion trap mass spectrometer combined with a soft ionization source has been set up and tested. As ionization source, an electron beam pumped vacuum UV (VUV) excimer lamp (EBEL) was used for single-photon ionization. It was shown that soft ionization allows the reduction of fragmentation of the target analytes and the suppression of most matrix components. Therefore, the combination of photon ionization with the tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) capability of an ion trap yields a powerful tool for molecular ion peak detection and identification of organic trace compounds in complex matrixes. This setup was successfully tested for two different applications. The first one is the detection of security-relevant substances like explosives, narcotics, and chemical warfare agents. One test substance from each of these groups was chosen and detected successfully with single photon ionization ion trap mass spectrometry (SPI-ITMS) MS/MS measurements. Additionally, first tests were performed, demonstrating that this method is not influenced by matrix compounds. The second field of application is the detection of process gases. Here, exhaust gas from coffee roasting was analyzed in real time, and some of its compounds were identified using MS/MS studies.

  19. Stability of retrieved memory: inverse correlation with trace dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Mark; Kobilo, Tali; Berman, Diego E; Dudai, Yadin

    2003-08-22

    In memory consolidation, the memory trace stabilizes and becomes resistant to certain amnesic agents. The textbook account is that for any memorized item, consolidation starts and ends just once. However, evidence has accumulated that upon activation in retrieval, the trace may reconsolidate. Whereas some authors reported transient renewed susceptibility of retrieved memories to consolidation blockers, others could not detect it. Here, we report that in both conditioned taste aversion in the rat and fear conditioning in the medaka fish, the stability of retrieved memory is inversely correlated with the control of behavior by that memory. This result may explain some conflicting findings on reconsolidation of activated memories.

  20. Enzyme catalytic resonance scattering spectral detection of trace ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    27.6 μM, with a linear regression equation of ΔI530 nm = 17.1C + 1.6, a relative coefficient of 0.9996 and a detection limit of 0.03 μM H2O2. This proposed method was applied to detect hydrogen peroxide in rain water, with sensitivity, selectivity, ...

  1. First-in-human evaluation of a hybrid modality that allows combined radio- and (near-infrared) fluorescence tracing during surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Nynke S. van den [Leiden University Medical Center, Interventional Molecular Imaging Laboratory, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Urology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Simon, Herve [Eurorad S.A., Eckbolsheim (France); Kleinjan, Gijs H. [Leiden University Medical Center, Interventional Molecular Imaging Laboratory, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Engelen, Thijs [Leiden University Medical Center, Interventional Molecular Imaging Laboratory, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Head and Neck Surgery and Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bunschoten, Anton; Welling, Mick M. [Leiden University Medical Center, Interventional Molecular Imaging Laboratory, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Tijink, Bernard M. [The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Head and Neck Surgery and Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Horenblas, Simon [The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Urology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Chambron, Jacques [The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Leeuwen, Fijs W.B. van [Leiden University Medical Center, Interventional Molecular Imaging Laboratory, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Urology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Head and Neck Surgery and Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-10-15

    The clinical introduction of the hybrid tracer indocyanine green (ICG)-{sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid, composed of a radioactive and a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence component, has created the need for surgical (imaging) modalities that allow for simultaneous detection of both signals. This study describes the first-in-human use of a prototype opto-nuclear probe during sentinel node (SN) biopsy using ICG-{sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid. To allow for fluorescence tracing, a derivative of the conventional gamma probe technology was generated in which two optical fibers were integrated to allow for excitation (785 nm) and emission signal collection (> 810 nm). The ability of this opto-nuclear probe to detect the fluorescence signal of the hybrid tracer ICG-{sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid was firstly determined ex vivo in (non)SNs samples obtained from 41 patients who underwent hybrid tracer-based SN biopsy in the head and neck or urogenital area. In an in vivo proof-of-concept study in nine of these 41 patients, SNs were localized using combined gamma and fluorescence tracing with the opto-nuclear probe. Fluorescence tracing was performed in a similar manner as gamma tracing and under ambient light conditions. Ex vivo, the gamma tracing option of the opto-nuclear probe correctly identified the SN in all 150 evaluated (non)SN samples. Ex vivo fluorescence tracing in the low-sensitivity mode correctly identified 71.7 % of the samples. This increased to 98.9 % when fluorescence tracing was performed in the high-sensitivity mode. In vivo fluorescence tracing (high-sensitivity mode) accurately identified the SNs in all nine patients (20 SNs evaluated; 100 %). This study demonstrates the first-in-human evaluation of a hybrid modality capable of detecting both gamma and fluorescence signals during a surgical procedure. Fluorescence tracing could be performed in ambient light. (orig.)

  2. Trace level detection of compounds related to the chemical weapons convention by 1H-detected 13C NMR spectroscopy executed with a sensitivity-enhanced, cryogenic probehead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinan, David B; Hondrogiannis, George; Henderson, Terry J

    2008-04-15

    Two-dimensional 1H-13C HSQC (heteronuclear single quantum correlation) and fast-HMQC (heteronuclear multiple quantum correlation) pulse sequences were implemented using a sensitivity-enhanced, cryogenic probehead for detecting compounds relevant to the Chemical Weapons Convention present in complex mixtures. The resulting methods demonstrated exceptional sensitivity for detecting the analytes at trace level concentrations. 1H-13C correlations of target analytes at chemical shift information could be derived quickly and simultaneously from the resulting spectra. The fast-HMQC pulse sequences generated magnitude mode spectra suitable for detailed analysis in approximately 4.5 h and can be used in experiments to efficiently screen a large number of samples. The HSQC pulse sequences, on the other hand, required roughly twice the data acquisition time to produce suitable spectra. These spectra, however, were phase-sensitive, contained considerably more resolution in both dimensions, and proved to be superior for detecting analyte 1H-13C correlations. Furthermore, a HSQC spectrum collected with a multiplicity-edited pulse sequence provided additional structural information valuable for identifying target analytes. The HSQC pulse sequences are ideal for collecting high-quality data sets with overnight acquisitions and logically follow the use of fast-HMQC pulse sequences to rapidly screen samples for potential target analytes. Use of the pulse sequences considerably improves the performance of NMR spectroscopy as a complimentary technique for the screening, identification, and validation of chemical warfare agents and other small-molecule analytes present in complex mixtures and environmental samples.

  3. Nanomolar Trace Metal Analysis of Copper at Gold Microband Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, A.; Dawson, K.; Sassiat, N.; Quinn, A. J.; O'Riordan, A.

    2011-08-01

    This paper describes the fabrication and electrochemical characterization of gold microband electrode arrays designated as a highly sensitive sensor for trace metal detection of copper in drinking water samples. Gold microband electrodes have been routinely fabricated by standard photolithographic methods. Electrochemical characterization were conducted in 0.1 M H2SO4 and found to display characteristic gold oxide formation and reduction peaks. The advantages of gold microband electrodes as trace metal sensors over currently used methods have been investigated by employing under potential deposition anodic stripping voltammetry (UPD-ASV) in Cu2+ nanomolar concentrations. Linear correlations were observed for increasing Cu2+ concentrations from which the concentration of an unknown sample of drinking water was estimated. The results obtained for the estimation of the unknown trace copper concentration in drinking was in good agreement with expected values.

  4. Nanomolar Trace Metal Analysis of Copper at Gold Microband Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, A; Dawson, K; Sassiat, N; Quinn, A J; O'Riordan, A

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the fabrication and electrochemical characterization of gold microband electrode arrays designated as a highly sensitive sensor for trace metal detection of copper in drinking water samples. Gold microband electrodes have been routinely fabricated by standard photolithographic methods. Electrochemical characterization were conducted in 0.1 M H 2 SO 4 and found to display characteristic gold oxide formation and reduction peaks. The advantages of gold microband electrodes as trace metal sensors over currently used methods have been investigated by employing under potential deposition anodic stripping voltammetry (UPD-ASV) in Cu 2+ nanomolar concentrations. Linear correlations were observed for increasing Cu 2+ concentrations from which the concentration of an unknown sample of drinking water was estimated. The results obtained for the estimation of the unknown trace copper concentration in drinking was in good agreement with expected values.

  5. [Authentication of Trace Material Evidence in Forensic Science Field with Infrared Microscopic Technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-quan; Hu, Ke-liang

    2016-03-01

    In the field of forensic science, conventional infrared spectral analysis technique is usually unable to meet the detection requirements, because only very a few trace material evidence with diverse shapes and complex compositions, can be extracted from the crime scene. Infrared microscopic technique is developed based on a combination of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic technique and microscopic technique. Infrared microscopic technique has a lot of advantages over conventional infrared spectroscopic technique, such as high detection sensitivity, micro-area analysisand nondestructive examination. It has effectively solved the problem of authentication of trace material evidence in the field of forensic science. Additionally, almost no external interference is introduced during measurements by infrared microscopic technique. It can satisfy the special need that the trace material evidence must be reserved for witness in court. It is illustrated in detail through real case analysis in this experimental center that, infrared microscopic technique has advantages in authentication of trace material evidence in forensic science field. In this paper, the vibration features in infrared spectra of material evidences, including paints, plastics, rubbers, fibers, drugs and toxicants, can be comparatively analyzed by means of infrared microscopic technique, in an attempt to provide powerful spectroscopic evidence for qualitative diagnosis of various criminal and traffic accident cases. The experimental results clearly suggest that infrared microscopic technique has an incomparable advantage and it has become an effective method for authentication of trace material evidence in the field of forensic science.

  6. Solid-Phase Extraction Coupled to a Paper-Based Technique for Trace Copper Detection in Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Casey W; Cate, David M; Miller-Lionberg, Daniel D; Reilly, Thomas; Volckens, John; Henry, Charles S

    2018-03-20

    Metal contamination of natural and drinking water systems poses hazards to public and environmental health. Quantifying metal concentrations in water typically requires sample collection in the field followed by expensive laboratory analysis that can take days to weeks to obtain results. The objective of this work was to develop a low-cost, field-deployable method to quantify trace levels of copper in drinking water by coupling solid-phase extraction/preconcentration with a microfluidic paper-based analytical device. This method has the advantages of being hand-powered (instrument-free) and using a simple "read by eye" quantification motif (based on color distance). Tap water samples collected across Fort Collins, CO, were tested with this method and validated against ICP-MS. We demonstrate the ability to quantify the copper content of tap water within 30% of a reference technique at levels ranging from 20 to 500 000 ppb. The application of this technology, which should be sufficient as a rapid screening tool, can lead to faster, more cost-effective detection of soluble metals in water systems.

  7. Software for computerised analysis of cardiotocographic traces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, M; Bifulco, P; Ruffo, M; Improta, G; Clemente, F; Cesarelli, M

    2016-02-01

    Despite the widespread use of cardiotocography in foetal monitoring, the evaluation of foetal status suffers from a considerable inter and intra-observer variability. In order to overcome the main limitations of visual cardiotocographic assessment, computerised methods to analyse cardiotocographic recordings have been recently developed. In this study, a new software for automated analysis of foetal heart rate is presented. It allows an automatic procedure for measuring the most relevant parameters derivable from cardiotocographic traces. Simulated and real cardiotocographic traces were analysed to test software reliability. In artificial traces, we simulated a set number of events (accelerations, decelerations and contractions) to be recognised. In the case of real signals, instead, results of the computerised analysis were compared with the visual assessment performed by 18 expert clinicians and three performance indexes were computed to gain information about performances of the proposed software. The software showed preliminary performance we judged satisfactory in that the results matched completely the requirements, as proved by tests on artificial signals in which all simulated events were detected from the software. Performance indexes computed in comparison with obstetricians' evaluations are, on the contrary, not so satisfactory; in fact they led to obtain the following values of the statistical parameters: sensitivity equal to 93%, positive predictive value equal to 82% and accuracy equal to 77%. Very probably this arises from the high variability of trace annotation carried out by clinicians. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prioritizing research for trace pollutants and emerging contaminants in the freshwater environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Kyle E., E-mail: Kyle.Murray@utsa.ed [Center for Water Research, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249-0663 (United States); Thomas, Sheeba M [San Antonio River Authority, San Antonio, TX (United States); Bodour, Adria A [Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment (AFCEE), Brooks City-Base, TX (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Organic chemicals have been detected at trace concentrations in the freshwater environment for decades. Though the term trace pollutant indicates low concentrations normally in the nanogram or microgram per liter range, many of these pollutants can exceed an acceptable daily intake (ADI) for humans. Trace pollutants referred to as emerging contaminants (ECs) have recently been detected in the freshwater environment and may have adverse human health effects. Analytical techniques continue to improve; therefore, the number and frequency of detections of ECs are increasing. It is difficult for regulators to restrict use of pollutants that are a human health hazard; scientists to improve treatment techniques for higher priority pollutants; and the public to modify consumption patterns due to the vast number of ECs and the breadth of literature on the occurrence, use, and toxicity. Hence, this paper examines literature containing occurrence and toxicity data for three broad classes of trace pollutants and ECs (industrials, pesticides, and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs)), and assesses the relevance of 71 individual compounds. The evaluation indicates that widely used industrials (BPF) and PPCPs (AHTN, HHCB, ibuprofen, and estriol) occur frequently in samples from the freshwater environment but toxicity data were not available; thus, it is important to establish their ADI. Other widely used industrials (BDE-47, BDE-99) and pesticides (benomyl, carbendazim, aldrin, endrin, ethion, malathion, biphenthrin, and cypermethrin) have established ADI values but occurrence in the freshwater environment was not well documented. The highest priority pollutants for regulation and treatment should include industrials (PFOA, PFOS and DEHP), pesticides (diazinon, methoxychlor, and dieldrin), and PPCPs (EE2, carbamazepine, {beta}E2, DEET, triclosan, acetaminophen, and E1) because they occur frequently in the freshwater environment and pose a human health hazard at

  9. Prioritizing research for trace pollutants and emerging contaminants in the freshwater environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, Kyle E.; Thomas, Sheeba M.; Bodour, Adria A.

    2010-01-01

    Organic chemicals have been detected at trace concentrations in the freshwater environment for decades. Though the term trace pollutant indicates low concentrations normally in the nanogram or microgram per liter range, many of these pollutants can exceed an acceptable daily intake (ADI) for humans. Trace pollutants referred to as emerging contaminants (ECs) have recently been detected in the freshwater environment and may have adverse human health effects. Analytical techniques continue to improve; therefore, the number and frequency of detections of ECs are increasing. It is difficult for regulators to restrict use of pollutants that are a human health hazard; scientists to improve treatment techniques for higher priority pollutants; and the public to modify consumption patterns due to the vast number of ECs and the breadth of literature on the occurrence, use, and toxicity. Hence, this paper examines literature containing occurrence and toxicity data for three broad classes of trace pollutants and ECs (industrials, pesticides, and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs)), and assesses the relevance of 71 individual compounds. The evaluation indicates that widely used industrials (BPF) and PPCPs (AHTN, HHCB, ibuprofen, and estriol) occur frequently in samples from the freshwater environment but toxicity data were not available; thus, it is important to establish their ADI. Other widely used industrials (BDE-47, BDE-99) and pesticides (benomyl, carbendazim, aldrin, endrin, ethion, malathion, biphenthrin, and cypermethrin) have established ADI values but occurrence in the freshwater environment was not well documented. The highest priority pollutants for regulation and treatment should include industrials (PFOA, PFOS and DEHP), pesticides (diazinon, methoxychlor, and dieldrin), and PPCPs (EE2, carbamazepine, βE2, DEET, triclosan, acetaminophen, and E1) because they occur frequently in the freshwater environment and pose a human health hazard at

  10. Trace elemental analysis of human breast cancerous blood by advanced PC-WDXRF technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranjit; Kainth, Harpreet Singh; Prasher, Puneet; Singh, Tejbir

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this work is to quantify the trace elements of healthy and non-healthy blood samples by using advanced polychromatic source based wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (PC-WDXRF) technique. The imbalances in trace elements present in the human blood directly or indirectly lead to the carcinogenic process. The trace elements 11Na, 12Mg, 15P, 16S, 17Cl, 19K, 20Ca, 26Fe, 29Cu and 30Zn are identified and their concentrations are estimated. The experimental results clearly discuss the variation and role of various trace elements present in the non-healthy blood samples relative to the healthy blood samples. These results establish future guidelines to probe the possible roles of essential trace elements in the breast carcinogenic processes. The instrumental sensitivity and detection limits for measuring the elements in the atomic range 11 ≤ Z ≤ 30 have also been discussed in the present work.

  11. Photoacoustic Techniques for Trace Gas Sensing Based on Semiconductor Laser Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Spagnolo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an overview on the use of photoacoustic sensors based on semiconductor laser sources for the detection of trace gases. We review the results obtained using standard, differential and quartz enhanced photoacoustic techniques.

  12. Flow-through solid-phase based optical sensor for the multisyringe flow injection trace determination of orthophosphate in waters with chemiluminescence detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, Ines P.A.; Miro, Manuel; Manera, Matias; Estela, Jose Manuel; Cerda, Victor; Souto, M. Renata S.; Rangel, Antonio O.S.S.

    2004-01-01

    In this work, a novel flow-through solid-phase based chemiluminescence (CL) optical sensor is described for the trace determination of orthophosphate in waters exploiting the multisyringe flow injection analysis (MSFIA) concept with multicommutation. The proposed time-based injection flow system relies upon the in-line derivatisation of the analyte with ammonium molybdate in the presence of vanadate, and the transient immobilisation of the resulting heteropolyacid in a N-vinylpyrrolidone/divinylbenzene copolymer packed spiral shape flow-through cell located in front of the window of a photomultiplier tube. The simultaneous injection of well-defined slugs of luminol in alkaline medium and methanol solution towards the packed reactor is afterwards performed by proper switching of the solenoid valves. Then, the light emission from the luminol oxidation by the oxidant species retained onto the sorbent material is readily detected. At the same time, the generated molybdenum-blue compound is eluted by the minute amount of injected methanol, rendering the system prepared for a new measuring cycle. Therefore, the devised sensor enables the integration of the solid-phase CL reaction with elution and detection of the emitted light without the typical drawbacks of the molybdenum-blue based spectrophotometric procedures regarding the excess of molybdate anion, which causes high background signals due to its self-reduction. The noteworthy features of the developed CL-MSFIA system are the feasibility to accommodate reactions with different pH requirements and the ability to determine trace levels of orthophosphate in high silicate content samples (Si/P ratios up to 500). Under the optimised conditions, a dynamic linear range from 5 to 50 μg P l -1 for a 1.8 ml sample, repeatability better than 3.0% and a quantification limit of 4 μg P l -1 were attained. The flowing stream system handles 11 analysis h -1 and has been successfully applied to the determination of trace levels of

  13. Trace element evaluation of different varieties of chewing gum by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, J.H.; Arif, M.; Fatima, I.; Ahmad, S.; Qureshi, I.H.

    2000-01-01

    Extensive use of chewing gums, by children in particular, entails the evaluation of trace element contents in them. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) was successfully employed to determine the concentration of 35 trace elements (essential, toxic and nonessential) in eight different brands of chewing gum generally consumed in Rawalpindi/Islamabad area. Comparison of trace element data of our work with literature has been presented. None of the elements detected in the brands of chewing gum examined was found to be present at a level representing a substantial contribution to the total dietary intake of the element. (author)

  14. Searching for biological traces on different materials using a forensic light source and infrared photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterzik, V; Panzer, S; Apfelbacher, M; Bohnert, M

    2016-05-01

    Because biological traces often play an important role in the investigation process of criminal acts, their detection is essential. As they are not always visible to the human eye, tools like a forensic light source or infrared photography can be used. The intention of the study presented was to give advice how to visualize biological traces best. Which wavelengths and/or filters give the best results for different traces on different fabrics of different colors? Therefore, blood (undiluted and diluted), semen, urine, saliva, and perspiration have been examined on 29 different materials.

  15. Nuclear traces in glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia A, M. de N.

    1978-01-01

    The charged particles produce, in dielectric materials, physical and chemical effects which make evident the damaged zone along the trajectory of the particle. This damaged zone is known as the latent trace. The latent traces can be enlarged by an etching of the detector material. This treatment attacks preferently the zones of the material where the charged particles have penetrated, producing concavities which can be observed through a low magnification optical microscope. These concavities are known as developed traces. In this work we describe the glass characteristics as a detector of the fission fragments traces. In the first chapter we present a summary of the existing basic theories to explain the formation of traces in solids. In the second chapter we describe the etching method used for the traces development. In the following chapters we determine some chatacteristics of the traces formed on the glass, such as: the development optimum time; the diameter variation of the traces and their density according to the temperature variation of the detector; the glass response to a radiation more penetrating than that of the fission fragments; the distribution of the developed traces and the existing relation between this ditribution and the fission fragments of 252 Cf energies. The method which has been used is simple and cheap and can be utilized in laboratories whose resources are limited. The commercial glass which has been employed allows the registration of the fission fragments and subsequently the realization of experiments which involve the counting of the traces as well as the identification of particles. (author)

  16. TraceContract: A Scala DSL for Trace Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Howard; Havelund, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe TRACECONTRACT, an API for trace analysis, implemented in the SCALA programming language. We argue that for certain forms of trace analysis the best weapon is a high level programming language augmented with constructs for temporal reasoning. A trace is a sequence of events, which may for example be generated by a running program, instrumented appropriately to generate events. The API supports writing properties in a notation that combines an advanced form of data parameterized state machines with temporal logic. The implementation utilizes SCALA's support for defining internal Domain Specific Languages (DSLs). Furthermore SCALA's combination of object oriented and functional programming features, including partial functions and pattern matching, makes it an ideal host language for such an API.

  17. Derivative flame atomic absorption spectrometry and its application in trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, H. W.; Li, L. Q.

    2005-01-01

    Flame atomic absorption spectrometry is an accepted and widely used method for the determination of trace elements in a great variety of samples. But its sensitivity doesn't meet the demands of trace and ultra-trace analysis for some samples. The derivative signal processing technique, with a very high capability for enhancing sensitivity, was developed for flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The signal models of conventional flame atomic absorption spectrometry are described. The equations of derivative signals are established for flame atomic absorption spectrometry, flow injection atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-FAAS) and atom trapping flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AT-FAAS). The principle and performance of the derivative atomic absorption spectrometry are evaluated. The derivative technique based on determination of variation rate of signal intensity with time (dl/dt) is different from the derivative spectrophotometry based on determination of variation rate of signal intensity with wavelength (dl/dhλ). Derivative flame atomic absorption spectrometry has higher sensitivity, lower detection limits and better accuracy. It has been applied to the direct determination of trace elements without preconcentration. If the derivative technique was combined with several preconcentration techniques, the sensitivity would be enhanced further for ultra-trace analysis with good linearity. The applications of derivative flame atomic absorption spectroscopy are reviewed for trace element analysis in biological, pharmaceutical, environmental and food samples

  18. Determination of trace impurities in iron-based alloy using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, J.H.; Waheed, S.; Ahmad, S.

    2000-01-01

    A radiochemical neutron activation analysis procedure has been developed and applied to investigate 40 major, minor, and trace impurities in iron-based alloy. A comparison of RNAA and INAA indicated a significant improvement in the detection limits. The extensive use of these alloys in the heavy mechanical industry, manufacturing of aircraft engines, nuclear applications, medical devices and chemical equipment requires their precise characterization. The concentration of iron in the iron-based alloy was found to be 86.7%, whereas Ca, Cr, K, Mg, Mn, V and W were the other constituents of the alloy, which constituted to around 12.89%. The rest of the elements were present in minor or trace levels. Most of the rare earth elements were also present in trace amounts. (orig.)

  19. Collection/concentration of trace uranium for spectrophotometric detection using activated carbon and first-derivative spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, A.A.; Hamed, M.M.; El-Reefy, S.; Hmmad, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    The need exists for preconcentration of trace and ultratrace amounts of uranium from environmental, geological and biological samples. The adsorption of uranium on various solids is important from the purification, environmental, and radioactivity waste disposal points of view. A method is described for the determination of traces of uranium using first-derivative spectrophotometry after adsorptive preconcentration of uranium on activated carbon. Various parameters that influence the adsorptive preconcentration of uranium on activated carbon, viz., pH, amounts of activated carbon and time of stirring and interference of metals have been studied. First-derivative spectrophotometry in conjunction with adsorptive preconcentration of uranium on activated carbon is used for determining uranium at concentration levels down to 20 ppb (w/v). (orig.)

  20. Quantitative Detection of Trace Malachite Green in Aquiculture Water Samples by Extractive Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaowei; Yang, Shuiping; Chingin, Konstantin; Zhu, Liang; Zhang, Xinglei; Zhou, Zhiquan; Zhao, Zhanfeng

    2016-08-11

    Exposure to malachite green (MG) may pose great health risks to humans; thus, it is of prime importance to develop fast and robust methods to quantitatively screen the presence of malachite green in water. Herein the application of extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS) has been extended to the trace detection of MG within lake water and aquiculture water, due to the intensive use of MG as a biocide in fisheries. This method has the advantage of obviating offline liquid-liquid extraction or tedious matrix separation prior to the measurement of malachite green in native aqueous medium. The experimental results indicate that the extrapolated detection limit for MG was ~3.8 μg·L(-1) (S/N = 3) in lake water samples and ~0.5 μg·L(-1) in ultrapure water under optimized experimental conditions. The signal intensity of MG showed good linearity over the concentration range of 10-1000 μg·L(-1). Measurement of practical water samples fortified with MG at 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mg·L(-1) gave a good validation of the established calibration curve. The average recoveries and relative standard deviation (RSD) of malachite green in lake water and Carassius carassius fish farm effluent water were 115% (6.64% RSD), 85.4% (9.17% RSD) and 96.0% (7.44% RSD), respectively. Overall, the established EESI-MS/MS method has been demonstrated suitable for sensitive and rapid (malachite green in various aqueous media, indicating its potential for online real-time monitoring of real life samples.

  1. Trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, M.

    1987-01-01

    What is the current state of quantitative trace analytical chemistry? What are today's research efforts? And what challenges does the future hold? These are some of the questions addressed at a recent four-day symposium sponsored by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) entitled Accuracy in Trace Analysis - Accomplishments, Goals, Challenges. The two plenary sessions held on the first day of the symposium reviewed the history of quantitative trace analysis, discussed the present situation from academic and industrial perspectives, and summarized future needs. The remaining three days of the symposium consisted of parallel sessions dealing with the measurement process; quantitation in materials; environmental, clinical, and nutrient analysis; and advances in analytical techniques

  2. Concentration of 24 Trace Elements in Human Heart Tissue Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wester, P O

    1964-06-15

    By means of neutron-activation analysis, human heart tissue from autopsy of 20 victims of traumatic accidents has been investigated with respect to the concentration of 24 different trace elements. A recently developed ion-exchange technique combined with gamma spectrometry has been used, which permits simultaneous determination of a large number of trace elements. The following trace elements have been determined quantitatively: Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br; Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, Pt, Rb, Sb, Se, Se, Sm, Zn, W. In some heart samples, Hf and Os were determined qualitatively. The mean and standard deviation are given for the elements Cu, Fe, Se and Zn, Since none of the other quantitatively determined trace elements were normally distributed, the median is given as the central value. When possible, comparisons with values from other investigations have been made. No marked differences in the trace-element concentrations with age or sex could be detected.

  3. Concentration of 24 Trace Elements in Human Heart Tissue Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wester, P.O.

    1964-06-01

    By means of neutron-activation analysis, human heart tissue from autopsy of 20 victims of traumatic accidents has been investigated with respect to the concentration of 24 different trace elements. A recently developed ion-exchange technique combined with gamma spectrometry has been used, which permits simultaneous determination of a large number of trace elements. The following trace elements have been determined quantitatively: Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br; Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, Pt, Rb, Sb, Se, Se, Sm, Zn, W. In some heart samples, Hf and Os were determined qualitatively. The mean and standard deviation are given for the elements Cu, Fe, Se and Zn, Since none of the other quantitatively determined trace elements were normally distributed, the median is given as the central value. When possible, comparisons with values from other investigations have been made. No marked differences in the trace-element concentrations with age or sex could be detected

  4. Trace element studies in bioenvironmental samples using 3-MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, R.L.; Willis, R.D.; Gutknecht, W.F.

    1974-01-01

    Trace metal compositions of a wide range of biological, environmental, medical and clinical samples were investigated using proton-induced x-ray emission analysis (PIXEA). The x-rays were detected with a Si(Li) detector and spectra from over 3000 irradiations have been recorded on magnetic tape. The chi 2 fitting code TRACE developed at our laboratory was used in a semi-automatic mode to extract abundances of elements from S to Cd. Various methods of overcoming analytical problems and specimen preparation difficulties are reported. Results from some samples for typical studies are illustrated along with the reasons for interest in the sample types

  5. Eastern Denali Fault surface trace map, eastern Alaska and Yukon, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Adrian M.; Haeussler, Peter J.

    2017-05-04

    We map the 385-kilometer (km) long surface trace of the right-lateral, strike-slip Denali Fault between the Totschunda-Denali Fault intersection in Alaska, United States and the village of Haines Junction, Yukon, Canada. In Alaska, digital elevation models based on light detection and ranging and interferometric synthetic aperture radar data enabled our fault mapping at scales of 1:2,000 and 1:10,000, respectively. Lacking such resources in Yukon, we developed new structure-from-motion digital photogrammetry products from legacy aerial photos to map the fault surface trace at a scale of 1:10,000 east of the international border. The section of the fault that we map, referred to as the Eastern Denali Fault, did not rupture during the 2002 Denali Fault earthquake (moment magnitude 7.9). Seismologic, geodetic, and geomorphic evidence, along with a paleoseismic record of past ground-rupturing earthquakes, demonstrate Holocene and contemporary activity on the fault, however. This map of the Eastern Denali Fault surface trace complements other data sets by providing an openly accessible digital interpretation of the location, length, and continuity of the fault’s surface trace based on the accompanying digital topography dataset. Additionally, the digitized fault trace may provide geometric constraints useful for modeling earthquake scenarios and related seismic hazard.

  6. Trace elements in natural drugs determined by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Kehshaw; Tseng Chialiang; Lin Tehsien

    1993-01-01

    Natural drugs are widely used for diuretic, phlegm elimination and stomach invigoration purposes. Seventy-five of the most common remedies used by Chinese people have been subjected to trace element survey analysis by instrumental neutron activation. Within this large number of different natural products, fourteen trace elements (K, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, Br, Rb, Cs, La, Sm, Eu, Au and Th) are commonly detected. Among these elements, Fe had the highest concentration followed by Zn, and Rb, Sm, Eu and Au were found to have the lowest concentrations. Although the three groups of natural drugs exhibit a widely different therapeutic action, the concentration ranges of the fourteen elements were very similar. While this suggests no apparent specific role for the trace elements in the drug function, parallels are drawn between the known drug related functions of Rb, Zn, Br, Fe, Co and K and the levels of elements found in the natural drugs. It is concluded that the various natural drugs also provide human benefits through supplements of essential elements such as Fe, Zn, Cr, Sc, Rb and Co. (author) 13 refs.; 5 tabs

  7. Advanced Detection Technology of Trace-level Borate for SG Leakage Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seban; Kang, Dukwon; Kim, Seungil; Kim, Hyunki; Heo, Jun; Sung, Jinhyun [Radiation Eng. Center, Shihung (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dongbum [Academic Support Dept., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Many studies have been reported for monitoring technology of steam generator, however, all of these methods have their own limitations. The leakage monitoring technology of steam generator of PWR has also got a limit due to the adoption of specific radionuclides (N-16, Ar-41, H-3, Xe, etc.) generated by nuclear fission, which are available only when reactor output is 20% or more. Most of domestic NPPs apply the N-16 technique for monitoring tube leakage but it has some problem that it is difficult to calculate the leakage rate because neutron flux are not completely formed during low power operation. For example, tube leakage of steam generator occurred in the Uljin nuclear power plant in 2002 during coast down operation for periodic plant maintenance. This plant could not prevent a rupture accident in advance because N-16 method is not possible the leak monitoring less than 20% reactor power. The development of excellent alternative monitoring technology that can monitor the real-time leakage is required under a variety of operating conditions like start-up and abnormal conditions of NPPs. This study was performed to lay a foundation in monitoring the leakage of steam generator coping with the lower output and low power operational condition using trace level of boron which is non-radioactive nuclide to inject control neutron injection. In this study, non-radioactive nuclide boron ion, which existed in the secondary system water, as leakage monitoring indicator was investigated for the separation of complex cation and anion phase. Borate was detected by using borate concentrator column coupled with the ion-exclusion column analytical column, revealing the problem of overlapped peak between fluoride and boron ions. Meanwhile, ion-exchange column could confirm the possibility as a leakage monitoring indicator of steam generator, despite the peak of glycolic acid salts was slightly overlapped. It will be needed for further research regarding the selectivity of the

  8. Advanced Detection Technology of Trace-level Borate for SG Leakage Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seban; Kang, Dukwon; Kim, Seungil; Kim, Hyunki; Heo, Jun; Sung, Jinhyun; Lee, Dongbum

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have been reported for monitoring technology of steam generator, however, all of these methods have their own limitations. The leakage monitoring technology of steam generator of PWR has also got a limit due to the adoption of specific radionuclides (N-16, Ar-41, H-3, Xe, etc.) generated by nuclear fission, which are available only when reactor output is 20% or more. Most of domestic NPPs apply the N-16 technique for monitoring tube leakage but it has some problem that it is difficult to calculate the leakage rate because neutron flux are not completely formed during low power operation. For example, tube leakage of steam generator occurred in the Uljin nuclear power plant in 2002 during coast down operation for periodic plant maintenance. This plant could not prevent a rupture accident in advance because N-16 method is not possible the leak monitoring less than 20% reactor power. The development of excellent alternative monitoring technology that can monitor the real-time leakage is required under a variety of operating conditions like start-up and abnormal conditions of NPPs. This study was performed to lay a foundation in monitoring the leakage of steam generator coping with the lower output and low power operational condition using trace level of boron which is non-radioactive nuclide to inject control neutron injection. In this study, non-radioactive nuclide boron ion, which existed in the secondary system water, as leakage monitoring indicator was investigated for the separation of complex cation and anion phase. Borate was detected by using borate concentrator column coupled with the ion-exclusion column analytical column, revealing the problem of overlapped peak between fluoride and boron ions. Meanwhile, ion-exchange column could confirm the possibility as a leakage monitoring indicator of steam generator, despite the peak of glycolic acid salts was slightly overlapped. It will be needed for further research regarding the selectivity of the

  9. Validation of a field filtration technique for characterization of suspended particulate matter from freshwater. Part II. Minor, trace and ultra trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odman, Fredrik; Ruth, Thomas; Rodushkin, Ilia; Ponter, Christer

    2006-01-01

    A field filtration method for the concentration and separation of suspended particulate matter (SPM) from freshwater systems and the subsequent determination of minor, trace and ultra trace elements (As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Ga, Hf, Mo, Nb, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sn, Sr, Ta, Th, Tl, U, V, W, Zn and Zr) is validated with respect to detection limits, precision and bias. The validation comprises the whole procedure including filtration, sample digestion and instrumental analysis. The method includes two digestion procedures (microwave acid digestion and alkali fusion) in combination with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS). Total concentrations of these 27 trace and minor elements have been determined in suspended particulate matter (SPM) from lake and river water with low levels of suspended solids ( -1 DW), and a wide range of element concentrations. The precision of the method including filtration, digestion and instrumental determination ranges between 8% and 18% RSD for most elements on a dry weight basis. Higher recovery after acid digestion is found for some elements, probably because of volatilization or retention losses in the fusion procedure. Other elements show higher recovery after fusion, which is explained by more efficient decomposition of refractory mineral phases relative to the non-total acid digestion. Non-detectable concentrations of some elements are reported due to small differences between blank filter levels and the amounts of elements present on the filters after sampling. The method limits of detection range between 0.7 ng and 2.65 μg, as estimated from the blank filter samples. These detection limits are 10-550 times higher compared to the corresponding instrumental limits of detection. The accuracy and bias of the overall analytical procedure was assessed from replicate analysis of certified reference materials. A critical evaluation of

  10. Fast and sensitive trace analysis of malachite green using a surface-enhanced Raman microfluidic sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangyeop; Choi, Junghyun; Chen, Lingxin; Park, Byungchoon; Kyong, Jin Burm; Seong, Gi Hun; Choo, Jaebum; Lee, Yeonjung; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Lee, Eun Kyu; Joo, Sang-Woo; Lee, Kyeong-Hee

    2007-05-08

    A rapid and highly sensitive trace analysis technique for determining malachite green (MG) in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic sensor was investigated using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). A zigzag-shaped PDMS microfluidic channel was fabricated for efficient mixing between MG analytes and aggregated silver colloids. Under the optimal condition of flow velocity, MG molecules were effectively adsorbed onto silver nanoparticles while flowing along the upper and lower zigzag-shaped PDMS channel. A quantitative analysis of MG was performed based on the measured peak height at 1615 cm(-1) in its SERS spectrum. The limit of detection, using the SERS microfluidic sensor, was found to be below the 1-2 ppb level and this low detection limit is comparable to the result of the LC-Mass detection method. In the present study, we introduce a new conceptual detection technology, using a SERS microfluidic sensor, for the highly sensitive trace analysis of MG in water.

  11. Detection and quantitation of trace phenolphthalein (in pharmaceutical preparations and in forensic exhibits) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, a sensitive and accurate method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kakali; Sharma, Shiba P; Lahiri, Sujit C

    2013-01-01

    Phenolphthalein, an acid-base indicator and laxative, is important as a constituent of widely used weight-reducing multicomponent food formulations. Phenolphthalein is an useful reagent in forensic science for the identification of blood stains of suspected victims and for apprehending erring officials accepting bribes in graft or trap cases. The pink-colored alkaline hand washes originating from the phenolphthalein-smeared notes can easily be determined spectrophotometrically. But in many cases, colored solution turns colorless with time, which renders the genuineness of bribe cases doubtful to the judiciary. No method is known till now for the detection and identification of phenolphthalein in colorless forensic exhibits with positive proof. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry had been found to be most sensitive, accurate method capable of detection and quantitation of trace phenolphthalein in commercial formulations and colorless forensic exhibits with positive proof. The detection limit of phenolphthalein was found to be 1.66 pg/L or ng/mL, and the calibration curve shows good linearity (r(2) = 0.9974). © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. A hard tissue cephalometric comparative study between hand tracing and computerized tracing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandra Prabhakar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To analyze and compare the angular and linear hard tissue cephalometric measurements using hand-tracing and computerized tracings with Nemoceph and Dolphin software systems. Subjects and Methods: A total of 30 cephalograms were randomly chosen for study with the following criteria, cephalograms of patients with good contrast, no distortion, and minimal radiographic artifacts were considered using the digital method (Kodak 8000 C with 12 angular and nine linear parameters selected for the study. Comparisons were determined by post-hoc test using Tukey HSD method. The N-Par tests were performed using Kruskal-Walli′s method. Statistical Analysis Used: ANOVA and post-hoc. Results: The results of this study show that there is no significant difference in the angular and linear measurements recorded. The P values were significant at 0.05 levels for two parameters, Co-A and Co-Gn with the hand-tracing method. This was significant in ANOVA and post-hoc test by Tukey HSD method. Conclusions: This study of comparison provides support for transition from digital hand to computerized tracing methodology. In fact, digital computerized tracings were easier and less time consuming, with the same reliability irrespective of each method of tracing.

  13. Trace element studies at University of Pittsburgh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.; Chan, K.C.; Shabason, L.; Wedberg, G.; Rudolph, H.

    1974-01-01

    Seven areas of research are discussed. A method was developed for analyzing samples for their major constituent elements by irradiating with protons and detecting prompt gamma rays, mostly produced in (p,p'γ) reactions. Among other applications, the method was used to analyze air particulates for C, N, O, Al, Si, S, Co, and Fe. Trace element analysis by proton or alpha particle induced x-ray fluorescence was used on thin samples in a study of the variations of Pb, Br, Fe, and Zn in air particulates as a function of time. Among other applications this method was also used in studying trace elements in rainwater. An x-ray fluorescence method that is effective in the analysis of thick samples was developed. A method based on measuring energies of elastically scattered protons was developed for the analysis of light elements. The use of proton and neutron activation analyses, as well as methods for studying depth profiles for hydrogen and helium in materials are discussed

  14. The miniaturized Raman system and detection of traces of life in halite from the Atacama Desert: some considerations for the search for life signatures on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vítek, Petr; Jehlička, Jan; Edwards, Howell G M; Hutchinson, Ian; Ascaso, Carmen; Wierzchos, Jacek

    2012-12-01

    Raman spectroscopy is being adopted as a nondestructive instrumentation for the robotic exploration of Mars to search for traces of life in the geological record. Here, miniaturized Raman spectrometers of two different types equipped with 532 and 785 nm lasers for excitation, respectively, were compared for the detection of microbial biomarkers in natural halite from the hyperarid region of the Atacama Desert. Measurements were performed directly on the rock as well as on the homogenized, powdered samples prepared from this material-the effects of this sample preparation and the excitation wavelength employed in the analysis are compared and discussed. From these results, 532 nm excitation was found to be superior for the analysis of powdered specimens due to its high sensitivity toward carotenoids and hence a higher capability for their detection at relatively low concentration in bulk powdered specimens. For the same reason, this wavelength was a better choice for the detection of carotenoids in direct measurements made on the rock samples. The 785 nm excitation wavelength, in contrast, proved to be more sensitive toward the detection of scytonemin.

  15. Trace impurity analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, W.J.; Edwards, D. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The desirability for long-term reliability of large scale helium refrigerator systems used on superconducting accelerator magnets has necessitated detection of impurities to levels of a few ppM. An analyzer that measures trace impurity levels of condensable contaminants in concentrations of less than a ppM in 15 atm of He is described. The instrument makes use of the desorption temperature at an indicated pressure of the various impurities to determine the type of contaminant. The pressure rise at that temperature yields a measure of the contaminant level of the impurity. A LN 2 cryogenic charcoal trap is also employed to measure air impurities (nitrogen and oxygen) to obtain the full range of contaminant possibilities. The results of this detector which will be in use on the research and development helium refrigerator of the ISABELLE First-Cell is described

  16. Molybdenite Mineral Evolution: A Study Of Trace Elements Through Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, M. M.; Downs, R. T.; Stein, H. J.; Zimmerman, A.; Beitscher, B. A.; Sverjensky, D. A.; Papineau, D.; Armstrong, J. T.; Hazen, R. M.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral evolution explores changes through time in Earth’s near-surface mineralogy, including diversity of species, relative abundances of species, and compositional ranges of major, minor and trace elements. Such studies elucidate the co-evolution of the geosphere and biosphere. Accordingly, we investigated trace and minor elements in molybdenite (MoS2) with known ages from 3 billion years to recent. Molybdenite, the commonest mineral of Mo, may prove to be a useful case study as a consequence of its presence in Earth’s early history, the effects of oxidation on Mo mobility, and the possible role of Mo mineral coevolution with biology via its role in the nitrogen fixation enzyme nitrogenase. We employed ICPMS, SEM and electron microprobe analyses to detect trace and minor elements. We detected significant amounts of Mn and Cu (~100 ppm) and greater amounts of Fe, W, and Re (to ~4000 ppm). Molybdenites commonly contain micro inclusions, resulting in local concentrations in otherwise homogeneous samples. Inhomogeneities in Fe, Zn and Sn concentrations, for example, point to the presence of pyrite, sphalerite and cassiterite inclusions, respectively. Analyses examined as a function of time reveal that samples containing significant concentrations (>200 ppm, compared to average values < 100 ppm) of W and Re formed primarily within the last billion years. These trends may reflect changes in the mobility of W and Re in oxic hydrothermal fluids at shallow crustal conditions following the Great Oxidation Event.

  17. Preconcentration of traces of radionuclides and elements with foamed polyurethane sorbents in the analysis of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palagyi, S.; Braun, T.

    1986-01-01

    The importance of preconcentration and the permanent need of efficient preconcentrating agents in environmental analysis are pointed out. Foamed polyurethane sorbents draw attention as novel agents in separation chemistry. A survey is presented of recent applications of unloaded and reagent-loaded open-cell type resilient polyurethane foams in the separation and preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples, and of the latest uses of these foams in the preconcentration and detection of traces of some, mainly inorganic materials in environmental samples, using radioanalytical techniques. Possible future uses of polyurethane foams in trace element detection in environmental analysis are outlined. (author)

  18. Quantum phase transition by employing trace distance along with the density matrix renormalization group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Da-Wei; Xu, Jing-Bo

    2015-01-01

    We use an alternative method to investigate the quantum criticality at zero and finite temperature using trace distance along with the density matrix renormalization group. It is shown that the average correlation measured by the trace distance between the system block and environment block in a DMRG sweep is able to detect the critical points of quantum phase transitions at finite temperature. As illustrative examples, we study spin-1 XXZ chains with uniaxial single-ion-type anisotropy and the Heisenberg spin chain with staggered coupling and external magnetic field. It is found that the trace distance shows discontinuity at the critical points of quantum phase transition and can be used as an indicator of QPTs

  19. Extraction inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Determination of traces of phosphorus in tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, G.; Wegscheider, W.; Mueller, K.

    1989-01-01

    A method for the separation and preconcentration of traces of phosphorus from tungsten was developed. Solid phase extraction of the phosphovanadomolybdate complex performed on a micro-column was applied. Phosphorus was determined by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) excitation. A limit of detection of 0,4 μg/g P with respect to the solid phase is obtained. By directly coupling the extraction/elution step to the ICP instrument a detection limit of 0,06 μg/g P in W was achieved. Besides, the complexity of spectral evaluation in ICP-OES determinations of traces in spectralline-rich matrices is discussed. (Authors)

  20. Examination of Pulse Oximetry Tracings to Detect Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Patients with Advanced Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne S Scott

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nocturnal hypoxemia and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA are common comorbidities in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The authors sought to develop a strategy to interpret nocturnal pulse oximetry and assess its capacity for detection of OSA in patients with stage 3 to stage 4 COPD. A review of consecutive patients with COPD who were clinically prescribed oximetry and polysomnography was conducted. OSA was diagnosed if the polysomnographic apnea-hypopnea index was >15 events/h. Comprehensive criteria were developed for interpretation of pulse oximetry tracings through iterative validation and interscorer concordance of ≥80%. Criteria consisted of visually identified desaturation ‘events’ (sustained desaturation ≥4%, 1 h time scale, ‘patterns’ (≥3 similar desaturation/saturation cycles, 15 min time scale and the automated oxygen desaturation index. The area under the curve (AUC, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were calculated. Of 59 patients (27 male, 31 had OSA (53%. The mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s was 46% of predicted (range 21% to 74% of predicted and 52% of patients were on long-term oxygen therapy. Among 59 patients, 35 were correctly identified as having OSA or not having OSA, corresponding to an accuracy of 59%, with a sensitivity and specificity of 59% and 60%, respectively. The AUC was 0.57 (95% CI 0.55 to 0.59. Using software-computed desaturation events (hypoxemia ≥4% for ≥10 s indexed at ≥15 events/h of sleep as diagnostic criteria, sensitivity was 60%, specificity was 63% and the AUC was 0.64 (95%CI 0.62 to 0.66. No single criterion demonstrated important diagnostic utility. Pulse oximetry tracing interpretation had a modest diagnostic value in identifying OSA in patients with moderate to severe COPD.

  1. Evaluation of toxic trace metals Cd and Pb in Arabian Sea waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sanzgiri, S.; Mesquita, A.; Kureishy, T.W.; SenGupta, R.

    An attempt has been made to present a picture of the distribution of toxic trace elements Cd and Pb in the Northern Arabian Sea by applying an improved analytical technique for the detection of dissolved forms of the metals at nanogram levels...

  2. Mercapto-ordered carbohydrate-derived porous carbon electrode as a novel electrochemical sensor for simple and sensitive ultra-trace detection of omeprazole in biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalate Bojdi, Majid [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faculty of Chemistry, Kharazmi (Tarbiat Moallem) University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Behbahani, Mohammad [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mashhadizadeh, Mohammad Hosein [Faculty of Chemistry, Kharazmi (Tarbiat Moallem) University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bagheri, Akbar [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseiny Davarani, Saied Saeed, E-mail: ss-hosseiny@sbu.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farahani, Ali [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-03-01

    We are introducing mercapto-mesoporous carbon modified carbon paste electrode (mercapto-MP-C-CPE) as a new sensor for trace determination of omeprazole (OM) in biological samples. The synthesized modifier was characterized by thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), elemental analysis (CHN) and N{sub 2} adsorption surface area measurement (BET). The electrochemical response characteristic of the modified-CPE toward OM was investigated by cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry (CV and DPV). The proposed sensor displayed a good electrooxidation response to the OM, its linear range is 0.25 nM to 25 μM with a detection limit of 0.04 nM under the optimized conditions. The prepared modified electrode shows several advantages such as high sensitivity, long-time stability, wide linear range, ease of preparation and regeneration of the electrode surface by simple polishing and excellent reproducibility. - Highlights: • A modified nanoporous carbon as a novel sensor • High stability and good repeatability and reproducibility by the prepared sensor • Trace determination of omeprazole • Biological and pharmaceutical samples.

  3. Mercapto-ordered carbohydrate-derived porous carbon electrode as a novel electrochemical sensor for simple and sensitive ultra-trace detection of omeprazole in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalate Bojdi, Majid; Behbahani, Mohammad; Mashhadizadeh, Mohammad Hosein; Bagheri, Akbar; Hosseiny Davarani, Saied Saeed; Farahani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    We are introducing mercapto-mesoporous carbon modified carbon paste electrode (mercapto-MP-C-CPE) as a new sensor for trace determination of omeprazole (OM) in biological samples. The synthesized modifier was characterized by thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), elemental analysis (CHN) and N 2 adsorption surface area measurement (BET). The electrochemical response characteristic of the modified-CPE toward OM was investigated by cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry (CV and DPV). The proposed sensor displayed a good electrooxidation response to the OM, its linear range is 0.25 nM to 25 μM with a detection limit of 0.04 nM under the optimized conditions. The prepared modified electrode shows several advantages such as high sensitivity, long-time stability, wide linear range, ease of preparation and regeneration of the electrode surface by simple polishing and excellent reproducibility. - Highlights: • A modified nanoporous carbon as a novel sensor • High stability and good repeatability and reproducibility by the prepared sensor • Trace determination of omeprazole • Biological and pharmaceutical samples

  4. Uncertainties in measuring trace amounts of cobalt and europium with low-flux neutron activation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burnham Steven

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron activation analysis is widely used for identification of elements and their quantities even in trace amounts in the samples of almost any type. The challenges in detecting trace amounts of particular elements are often associated with the neutron flux produced at the research reactors. Low-flux neutron activation analysis usually presents the biggest challenge when analyzing trace quantities of elements with lower magnitude of radiative capture cross-sections. In this paper, we present the methodology and the quantified uncertainties associated with the detection of trace amounts of cobalt and europium, using as an example concrete aggregates. Recent growing interest is in improving structural concrete (increasing its strength but reducing its activation in nuclear power plant environments. Aside from buildings, structural concrete is also used as a biological shield in nuclear power plant that become radioactive after exposure to neutron flux. Due to radiative capture interactions, artificial radionuclides are generated to high enough concentrations that classify concrete as low-level radioactive waste at the time of the plant's decommissioning. Disposal of this concrete adds to the expense of nuclear power plant financing and its construction. Three radionuclides, 60Co, 152Eu, and 154Eu, account for 99 % of total residual radioactivity of nuclear power plant decommissioned concrete. IAEA document RS-G-1.7, Application of the Concepts of Exclusion, Exemption, and Clearance, specifies clearance levels of radionuclides specific activities: a specific activity lower than 0.1 Bqg-1 for 60Co and 152Eu, and 154Eu allows for a concrete to be recycled after decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Therefore, low-flux neutron activation analysis is used to test the detection limits of trace elements in samples of cement, coarse, and fine concrete aggregates. These samples are irradiated at the University of Utah's 100 kW TRIGA Reactor at

  5. Trace elemental analysis of bituminous coals using the Heidelberg proton microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J R; Kneis, H; Martin, B; Nobiling, R; Traxel, K [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany, F.R.); Heidelberg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Physikalisches Inst.); Chao, E C.T.; Minkin, J A [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA)

    1981-03-01

    Trace elements in coal can occur as components of either the organic constituents (macerals) or the inorganic constituents (minerals). Studies of the concentrations and distribution of the trace elements are vital to understanding the geochemical milieu in which the coal was formed and in evaluating the attempts to recover rare but technologically valuable metals. In addition, information on the trace element concentrations is important in predicting the environmental impact of burning particular coals, as many countries move toward greater utilization of coal reserves for energy production. Traditionally, the optical and the electron microscopes and more recently the electron microprobe have been used in studying the components of coal. The proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) microprobe offers a new complementary approach with an order of magnitude or more better minimum detection limit. We present the first measurements with a PIXE microprobe of the trace element concentrations of bituminous coal samples. Elemental analyses of the coal macerals-vitrinite, exinite, and inertinite - are discussed for three coal samples from the Eastern U.S.A., three samples from the Western U.S.A., and one sample from the Peoples Republic of China.

  6. Global challenges/chemistry solutions: Promoting personal safety and national security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe Alper: Can you provide a little background about why there is a need for this type of assay? Mark Carter: Ricin is considered a biosecurity threat agent. A more efficient detection method was required. Joe Alper: How are these type of assays done today, or are current methods unsuitable for ...

  7. Application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) to detection of trace elements, heavy metals and radioisotopes in scalp hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozturk, Yildirim; Benderli, Cihan

    2010-01-01

    Trace element analysis of human hair has the potential to reveal retrospective information about an individual's nutritional status and exposure. As trace elements are incorporated into the hair during the growth process, longitudinal segments of the hair may reflect the body burden during the growth period. it was evaluated the potential of human hair to indicate exposure or nutritional status over time by analysing trace element profiles in single strands of human hair. By using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), it was achieved profiles of 43 elements in single strands of human hair. It was shown that trace element analysis along single strands of human hair can yield information about essential and toxic elements and for some elements, can be correlated with seasonal changes in diet and exposure. The information obtained from the trace element profiles of human hair in this study substantiates the potential of hair as a biomarker

  8. A new method to analyze copolymer based superplasticizer traces in cement leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérandel, Cyril; Vernex-Loset, Lionel; Krier, Gabriel; De Lanève, Michel; Guillot, Xavier; Pierre, Christian; Muller, Jean François

    2011-03-15

    Enhancing the flowing properties of fresh concrete is a crucial step for cement based materials users. This is done by adding polymeric admixtures. Such additives have enabled to improve final mechanicals properties and the development of new materials like high performance or self compacting concrete. Like this, the superplasticizers are used in almost cement based materials, in particular for concrete structures that can have a potential interaction with drinking water. It is then essential to have suitable detection techniques to assess whether these organic compounds are dissolved in water after a leaching process or not. The main constituent of the last generation superplasticizer is a PolyCarboxylate-Ester copolymer (PCE), in addition this organic admixture contains polyethylene oxide (free PEO) which constitutes a synthesis residue. Numerous analytical methods are available to characterize superplasticizer content. Although these techniques work well, they do not bring suitable detection threshold to analyze superplasticizer traces in solution with high mineral content such as leachates of hardened cement based materials formulated with superplasticizers. Moreover those techniques do not enable to distinguish free PEO from PCE in the superplasticizer. Here we discuss two highly sensitive analytical methods based on mass spectrometry suitable to perform a rapid detection of superplasticizer compounds traces in CEM I cement paste leachates: MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, is used to determine the free PEO content in the leachate. However, industrial copolymers (such as PCE) are characterized by high molecular weight and polymolecular index. These two parameters lead to limitation concerning analysis of copolymers by MALDI-TOFMS. In this study, we demonstrate how pyrolysis and a Thermally assisted Hydrolysis/Methylation coupled with a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer, provides good results for the detection of PCE copolymer traces in CEM I cement paste

  9. Development of a dual test procedure for DNA typing and methamphetamine detection using a trace amount of stimulant-containing blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irii, Toshiaki; Maebashi, Kyoko; Fukui, Kenji; Sohma, Ryoko; Matsumoto, Sari; Takasu, Shojiro; Iwadate, Kimiharu

    2016-05-01

    Investigation of drug-related crimes, such as violation of the Stimulant Drug Control Law, requires identifying the used drug (mainly stimulant drugs, methamphetamine hydrochloride) from a drug solution and the DNA type of the drug user from a trace of blood left in the syringe used to inject the drug. In current standard test procedures, DNA typing and methamphetamine detection are performed as independent tests that use two separate portions of a precious sample. The sample can be entirely used up by either analysis. Therefore, we developed a new procedure involving partial lysis of a stimulant-containing blood sample followed by separation of the lysate into a precipitate for DNA typing and a liquid-phase fraction for methamphetamine detection. The method enables these two tests to be run in parallel using a single portion of sample. Samples were prepared by adding methamphetamine hydrochloride water solution to blood. Samples were lysed with Proteinase K in PBS at 56°C for 20min, cooled at -20°C after adding methanol, and then centrifuged at 15,000rpm. Based on the biopolymer-precipitating ability of alcohol, the precipitate was used for DNA typing and the liquid-phase fraction for methamphetamine detection. For DNA typing, the precipitate was dissolved and DNA was extracted, quantified, and subjected to STR analysis using the AmpFℓSTR® Identifiler® Plus PCR Amplification Kit. For methamphetamine detection, the liquid-phase fraction was evaporated with N2 gas after adding 20μL acetic acid and passed through an extraction column; the substances captured in the column were eluted with a solvent, derivatized, and quantitatively detected using gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry. This method was simple and could be completed in approximately 2h. Both DNA typing and methamphetamine detection were possible, which suggests that this method may be valuable for use in criminal investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Determination of trace gold in rocks and minerals by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yunlong; Zhou Suqing; Liang Yutang

    1988-05-01

    The determination of trace gold in rocks and minerals by neutron activation analysis is described. Two methods are used for pre-separating and concentrating the trace gold in geological samples. one of the methods is that the samples are dissolved in aqua regia solution; activated carbon paper pulp filter is used for pre-separating and concentrating trace gold by dynamic adsorption method; then the activated carbon containing gold was ashed at 650 ∼ 700 deg c. The other method is that the samples are dissolved in aqua regia solution; the polyurethane foam plastic filled with activated carbon is used for pre-separating and concentrating trace gold by dynamic adsorption method; then the foam plastic containing gold was ashed at 650 deg c. The gold in ashes is determinated by neutron activation analysis. The detection limit is 0.004ng/g. The accuracy of the method is examined by gold in reference standard material. The results of this method are in good agreement with the recommended value. For analysis of the trace gold by the methods of instrumental neutron activation analysis and epithermal neutron activation analysis, the interference of 411.8 keV γ-ray from 153 Sm, 152 Eu and fission products of uranium and the correction methods are discussed

  11. Detection of axonal synapses in 3D two-photon images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cher Bass

    Full Text Available Studies of structural plasticity in the brain often require the detection and analysis of axonal synapses (boutons. To date, bouton detection has been largely manual or semi-automated, relying on a step that traces the axons before detection the boutons. If tracing the axon fails, the accuracy of bouton detection is compromised. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm that does not require tracing the axon to detect axonal boutons in 3D two-photon images taken from the mouse cortex. To find the most appropriate techniques for this task, we compared several well-known algorithms for interest point detection and feature descriptor generation. The final algorithm proposed has the following main steps: (1 a Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG based feature enhancement module to accentuate the appearance of boutons; (2 a Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF interest point detector to find candidate locations for feature extraction; (3 non-maximum suppression to eliminate candidates that were detected more than once in the same local region; (4 generation of feature descriptors based on Gabor filters; (5 a Support Vector Machine (SVM classifier, trained on features from labelled data, and was used to distinguish between bouton and non-bouton candidates. We found that our method achieved a Recall of 95%, Precision of 76%, and F1 score of 84% within a new dataset that we make available for accessing bouton detection. On average, Recall and F1 score were significantly better than the current state-of-the-art method, while Precision was not significantly different. In conclusion, in this article we demonstrate that our approach, which is independent of axon tracing, can detect boutons to a high level of accuracy, and improves on the detection performance of existing approaches. The data and code (with an easy to use GUI used in this article are available from open source repositories.

  12. infrared spectrophotometer for simultaneous detection of traces of heavy water and indocyanine green in flowing blood. In vivo experimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capitini, R.; Roveyaz, P.

    1981-07-01

    We have developed an infrared absorption method for the pulmonary extravascular water and cardiac output determination by the multiple indicator technique. This led us to construct an original double differential spectrophotometer (DUPLEX) for simultaneous detection of traces of heavy water (D 2 O) and indocyanine green (ICG) in circulating blood in a single absorption cell. This DUPLEX is connected to a computer and results are treated on line. D 2 O and ICG are used as non toxic diffusible and vascular tracers respectively. Performances of the DUPLEX are given and show a high accuracy with D 2 O (x 10) and ICG (x 2) compared with the commercial optical analysers. We show the validity of the method for determining the cardiac output and the pulmonary extravascular water in the course of numerous experiments on human and rats subjects. Preliminary results concerning the measurement of global water on rats are also given [fr

  13. Annual suspended sediment and trace element fluxes in the Mississippi, Columbia, Colorado, and Rio Grande drainage basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, A.J.; Elrick, K.A.; Smith, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    Suspended sediment, sediment-associated, total trace element, phosphorus (P), and total organic carbon (TOC) fluxes were determined for the Mississippi, Columbia, Rio Grande, and Colorado Basins for the study period (the 1996, 1997, and 1998 water years) as part of the US Geological Survey's redesigned National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) programme. The majority (??? 70%) of Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, Ba, P, As, Fe, Mn, and Al are transported in association with suspended sediment; Sr transport seems dominated by the dissolved phase, whereas the transport of Li and TOC seems to be divided equally between both phases. Average dissolved trace element levels are markedly lower than reported during the original NASQAN programme; this seems due to the use of 'clean' sampling, processing, and analytical techniques rather than to improvements in water quality. Partitioning between sediment and water for Ag, Pb, Cd, Cr, Co, V, Be, As, Sb, Hg, and Ti could not be estimated due to a lack of detectable dissolved concentrations in most samples. Elevated suspended sediment-associated Zn levels were detected in the Ohio River Basin and elevated Hg levels were detected in the Tennessee River, the former may affect the mainstem Mississippi River, whereas the latter probably do not. Sediment-associated concentrations of Ag, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Co, Ba, Mo, Sb, Hg, and Fe are markedly elevated in the upper Columbia Basin, and appear to be detectable (Zn, Cd) as far downstream as the middle of the basin. These elevated concentrations seem to result from mining and/or mining-related activities. Consistently detectable concentrations of dissolved Se were found only in the Colorado River Basin. Calculated average annual suspended sediment fluxes at the mouths of the Mississippi and Rio Grande Basins were below, whereas those for the Columbia and Colorado Basins were above previously published annual values. Downstream suspended sediment-associated and total trace element fluxes

  14. Study of trace elements distribution in various tissues structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatek, W.M.; Marczewska, E.

    1994-01-01

    Many papers have been written during the past ten years about TE study in cancer and normal tissues describing the use of different methods for detection of trace elements. Concentration of TE depends strongly on the sample measured. However, according to our knowledge, the role of TE in cancerous tissue is still known. Therefore, we propose to perform an experiment which will hopefully given us more information about the relationship between the concentration of elements in different tissues. The developing industry localised near Cracow becomes a serious danger for health of it's inhabitants. The negative influence of the air pollution to the living organisms is seen not only in the nature but also in humans. Therefore we want to analyse the trace element contents in the air. Such investigation will give the information about the pollution level in the City. The pollution has its obvious negative influence to health and toxic element concentration level in blood. It is interesting to check if placenta plays an effective role in foetus protection against toxic metals. In order to study this problem, the trace element analysis of placenta tissues will be done by means of synchrotron microbeam. (author). 1 ref

  15. Determination of Trace Anions in Concentrated Hydrogen Peroxide by Direct Injection Ion Chromatography with Conductivity Detection after Pt-Catalyzed On-Line Decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do Hee; Lee, Bo Kyung; Lee, Dong Soo

    1999-01-01

    A method has been developed for the determination of trace anion impurities in concentrated hydrogen peroxide. The method involves on-line decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, ion chromatographic separation and subsequent suppressed-type conductivity detection. H 2 O 2 is decomposed in Pt-catalyst filled Gore-Tex membrane tubing and the resulting aqueous solution containing analytes is introduced to the injection valve of an ion chromatograph for periodic determinations. The oxygen gas evolving within the membrane tubing escapes freely through the membrane wall causing no problem in ion chromatographic analysis. Decomposition efficiency is above 99.99% at a flow rate of 0.4mL/min for a 30% hydrogen peroxide concentration. Analytes are quantitatively retained. The analysis results for several brands of commercial hydrogen peroxides are reported

  16. New enhanced sensitivity infrared laser spectroscopy techniques applied to reactive plasmas and trace gas detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welzel, S.

    2009-01-01

    Infrared laser absorption spectroscopy (IRLAS) employing both tuneable diode and quantum cascade lasers (TDLs, QCLs) has been applied with both high sensitivity and high time resolution to plasma diagnostics and trace gas measurements. TDLAS combined with a conventional White type multiple pass cell

  17. A mass spectrometer based explosives trace detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilkov, Andrey; Jorabchi, Kaveh; Hanold, Karl; Syage, Jack A.

    2011-05-01

    In this paper we describe the application of mass spectrometry (MS) to the detection of trace explosives. We begin by reviewing the issue of explosives trace detection (ETD) and describe the method of mass spectrometry (MS) as an alternative to existing technologies. Effective security screening devices must be accurate (high detection and low false positive rate), fast and cost effective (upfront and operating costs). Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is the most commonly deployed method for ETD devices. Its advantages are compact size and relatively low price. For applications requiring a handheld detector, IMS is an excellent choice. For applications that are more stationary (e.g., checkpoint and alternatives to IMS are available. MS is recognized for its superior performance with regard to sensitivity and specificity, which translate to lower false negative and false positive rates. In almost all applications outside of security where accurate chemical analysis is needed, MS is usually the method of choice and is often referred to as the gold standard for chemical analysis. There are many review articles and proceedings that describe detection technologies for explosives. 1,2,3,4 Here we compare MS and IMS and identify the strengths and weaknesses of each method. - Mass spectrometry (MS): MS offers high levels of sensitivity and specificity compared to other technologies for chemical detection. Its traditional disadvantages have been high cost and complexity. Over the last few years, however, the economics have greatly improved and MS is now capable of routine and automated operation. Here we compare MS and IMS and identify the strengths and weaknesses of each method. - Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS): 5 MS-ETD Screening System IMS is similar in concept to MS except that the ions are dispersed by gas-phase viscosity and not by molecular weight. The main advantage of IMS is that it does not use a vacuum system, which greatly reduces the size, cost, and complexity

  18. Leach tests on grouts made with actual and trace metal-spiked synthetic phosphate/sulfate waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.; Martin, W.J.; LeGore, V.L.; Lindenmeier, C.W.; McLaurine, S.B.; Martin, P.F.C.; Lokken, R.O.

    1989-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted experiments to produce empirical leach rate data for phosphate-sulfate waste (PSW) grout. Effective diffusivities were measured for various radionuclides ( 90 Sr, 99 Tc, 14 C, 129 I, 137 Cs, 60 Co, 54 Mn, and U), stable major components (NO 3 - , SO 4 2- , H 3 BO 3 , K and Na) and the trace constituents Ag, As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se. Two types of leach tests were used on samples of actual PSW grout and synthetic PSW grout: the American Nuclear Society (ANS) 16.1 intermittent replacement leach test and a static leach test. Grout produced from both synthetic and real PSW showed low leach rates for the trace metal constituents and most of the waste radionuclides. Many of the spiked trace metals and radionuclides were not detected in any leachates. None of the effluents contained measurable quantities of 137 Cs, 60 Co, 54 Mn, 109 Cd, 51 Cr, 210 Pb, 203 Hg, or As. For those trace species with detectable leach rates, 125 I appeared to have the greatest leach rate, followed by 99 Tc, 75 Se, and finally U, 14 C, and 110m Ag. Leach rates for nitrate are between those for I and Tc, but there is much scatter in the nitrate data because of the very low nitrate inventory. 32 refs., 6 figs., 15 tabs

  19. Informative importance of determination of trace elements in biologocal mediums in patients with endocrine pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Николаевна Андрусишина

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The changes of mineral metabolism in human organism caused by the deficiency or excess of trace elements in environment (air, food stuffs, water can lead to disorder of functional status of organism.An excess or deficiency of the certain metals disturb the balance of metabolic processes in organism that causes the different changes in endocrine system too. That is why the aim of research was to detect the peculiarities of distribution of macro and trace elements in patients with different endocrine pathology and to show the reasonability of the complex approach in assessment of microelementoses at hyperthyroidism and diabetes mellitus.Methods. The balance of 15 macro and trace elements in different biological mediums (hairs, whole blood, blood serum, urine was studied using EAAS and AES-ICP methods.Result. There was demonstrated the high informative importance of determination of K, Mg, Mn, Cr, Zn at pancreas pathology and Cr, Mn, Se, Zn- at thyroid pathology in human. There was detected that endocrine pathology is characterized with the surplus accumulation of Al, As and Pb in organism of examined patients.Conclusions. To increase the reliability and efficiency of the clinical diagnostics of endocrine human pathology there was demonstrated the high informative importance of the complex approach in choice of biological mediums at assessment of the trace elements imbalance. 

  20. Planar Laser-Based QEPAS Trace Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Ma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS trace gas detection scheme is reported in this paper. A cylindrical lens was employed for near-infrared laser focusing. The laser beam was shaped as a planar line laser between the gap of the quartz tuning fork (QTF prongs. Compared with a spherical lens-based QEPAS sensor, the cylindrical lens-based QEPAS sensor has the advantages of easier laser beam alignment and a reduction of stringent stability requirements. Therefore, the reported approach is useful in long-term and continuous sensor operation.

  1. Olfactory memory traces in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jacob; Krause, William C; Davis, Ronald L

    2008-01-01

    In Drosophila, the fruit fly, coincident exposure to an odor and an aversive electric shock can produce robust behavioral memory. This behavioral memory is thought to be regulated by cellular memory traces within the central nervous system of the fly. These molecular, physiological, or structural changes in neurons, induced by pairing odor and shock, regulate behavior by altering the neurons' response to the learned environment. Recently, novel in vivo functional imaging techniques have allowed researchers to observe cellular memory traces in intact animals. These investigations have revealed interesting temporal and spatial dynamics of cellular memory traces. First, a short-term cellular memory trace was discovered that exists in the antennal lobe, an early site of olfactory processing. This trace represents the recruitment of new synaptic activity into the odor representation and forms for only a short period of time just after training. Second, an intermediate-term cellular memory trace was found in the dorsal paired medial neuron, a neuron thought to play a role in stabilizing olfactory memories. Finally, a long-term protein synthesis-dependent cellular memory trace was discovered in the mushroom bodies, a structure long implicated in olfactory learning and memory. Therefore, it appears that aversive olfactory associations are encoded by multiple cellular memory traces that occur in different regions of the brain with different temporal domains.

  2. Trace element analysis in an optimized set-up for total reflection PIXE (TPIXE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Kan, J.A.; Vis, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    A newly constructed chamber for measuring with MeV proton beams at small incidence angles (0 to 35 mrad) is used to analyse trace elements on flat surfaces such as Si wafers, quartz substrates and perspex. This set-up is constructed in such a way that the X-ray detector can reach very large solid angles, larger than 1 sr. Using these large solid angles in combination with the reduction of bremsstrahlungs background, lower limits of detection (LOD) using TPIXE can be obtained as compared with PIXE in the conventional geometry. Standard solutions are used to determine the LODs obtainable with TPIXE in the optimized set-up. These solutions contain traces of As and Sr with concentrations down to 20 ppb in an insulin solution. The limits of detection found are compared with earlier ones obtained with TPIXE in a non optimized set-up and with TXRF results. (author)

  3. Trace Detection of Organophosphorus Chemical Warfare Agents in Wastewater and Plants by Luminescent UIO-67(Hf) and Evaluating the Bioaccumulation of Organophosphorus Chemical Warfare Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Xiao; Yan, Bing

    2018-05-02

    Organophosphorus chemical warfare agents (OPCWAs) are a group of organic pollutants characterized by high toxicity and chemical stability, and they are very difficult to be degraded. The trace quality of OPCWAs in water and food will cause great harm to the human body. Therefore, the detection of OPCWAs is a difficult challenge, which has become the research hotspot over the world. In this work, a Hf-based luminescent metal-organic framework (Eu@1) is prepared, and the reactivity of Hf 12 results in a methanephosphonic acid (MPA)-induced luminescence quenching and the charge transfer from MPA to Hf(IV) and generated exciplexes which are responsible for this quenching effect. The excellent performance of Eu@1 in the detection of MPA, with its finer selectivity, high sensitivity (LOD = 0.4 ppm), and large linear range (10 -7 to 10 -3 M), is encouraging for application in wastewater detection. Importantly, MPA is a pollutant that can be absorbed by plants and causes the bioaccumulation effect, and thus, the detection of MPA in real plant samples is a purposeful topic. Eu@1 also achieved satisfactory results in actual plant sample testing, and the bioaccumulation of MPA in onions, turnips, and cabbages is determined via our sensor. This fabricated detector provides a feasible path for the detection of ppm-level OPCWAs in a complex environment, which will help humans to avoid OPCWA-contaminated foods.

  4. Diamond for Actinide Traces Detection and Spectrometry in Liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomorski, Michal; Mer, Christine; Sanoit, Jacques-de; Tran, Thuan-Quang; Bergonzo, Philippe

    2013-06-01

    We describe here a new approach for the detection and identification of actinides (Am, Pu, Cm etc) at very low activity levels in aqueous solution. The measurement consists at first in the electro-precipitation of the actinides ions as insoluble hydroxides directly onto a boron doped nanocrystalline diamond (BNCD) electrode deposited on an α-particle detector (Si or Si-PIN diode), followed by α-particles detection using front-end nuclear electronics. After α-particles counting, spectrometry, the detector can be easily decontaminated using anodization in aqueous solution to be able to be reused at once. The detection limit of the described prototype system can be estimated as low as a few mBq=L (for one day counting) to several mBq=L for 5 h counting and currently achieved energy resolution amounts to ΔE FW HM /E α = 2.3% for pulse height spectra of 5.486 MeV α-particles emitted by 241 Am, measured directly in water. (authors)

  5. Trace metal content in aspirin and women's cosmetics via proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hichwa, B.P.; Pun, D.D.; Wang, D.

    1981-01-01

    A multielemental analysis to determine the trace metal content of generic and name-brand aspirins and name-brand lipsticks was done via proton induced x-ray (PIXE) measurements. The Hope College PIXE system is described as well as the target preparation methods. The trace metal content of twelve brands of aspirin and aspirin substitutes and fourteen brands of lipstick are reported. Detection limits for most elements are in the range of 100 parts per billion (ppb) to 10 parts per million

  6. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in Japanese hormesis cosmetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, E.; Nakahara, H.; Hatsukawa, Y.; Matsue, H.; Sakane, H.

    2008-01-01

    In Japan, cosmetics claiming hormesis effect are available through Internet. Although these cosmetics show the contents, they never mention the minor elements and radioactive sources. The existence of radioisotopes, however, was observed by measurements of the gamma-rays with a HPGe detector. In this study, in order to clarify the contents of trace elements, the hormesis cosmetics including radioactive sources were analyzed using INAA, PGAA and NAA with multiple gamma-ray detection (NAAMG). Nineteen elements were analyzed quantitatively in hormesis cosmetics by INAA, PGAA and NAAMG and 16 elements were detected qualitatively by SEM-EPMA. (author)

  7. On recent progress using QCLs for molecular trace gas detection - from basic research to industrial applicaitons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röpcke, J.; Davies, P.; Hempel, F.; Hübner, M.; Glitsch, S.; Lang, N.; Nägele, M.; Rousseau, A.; Wege, S.; Welzel, S.

    2010-01-01

    Quantum Cascade Lasers offer attractive options for applications of MIR absorption spectroscopy for basic research and industrial process control. The contribution reviews applications for plasma diagnostics and trace gas monitoring in research and industry.

  8. [Determination of polysaccharide from Chinese medicine Morinda officinalis how and its trace elements analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yong-Jun; Liu, Jie; Wu, Yu-Ming; Liu, Li-E; Zhang, Hong-Quan

    2005-12-01

    Polysaccharide was extracted from morinda officinalis how by back-flowing with 80% ethanol for 1 h, and the method of improved phenol-sulfuric acid spectroscopy was adopted to determine the content of morinda officinalis how polysaccharide. As for its trace elements, the atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to detect the content of Zn, Fe and Cu, which were compared with its fake; and cold atomic fluorometry was applied to determine the trace mercury. The results were satisfactory, which can give reference about the effective components of morinda officinalis how, and will help to exploit it.

  9. Trace analysis of semiconductor materials

    CERN Document Server

    Cali, J Paul; Gordon, L

    1964-01-01

    Trace Analysis of Semiconductor Materials is a guidebook concerned with procedures of ultra-trace analysis. This book discusses six distinct techniques of trace analysis. These techniques are the most common and can be applied to various problems compared to other methods. Each of the four chapters basically includes an introduction to the principles and general statements. The theoretical basis for the technique involved is then briefly discussed. Practical applications of the techniques and the different instrumentations are explained. Then, the applications to trace analysis as pertaining

  10. Application of micro-PIXE analysis to investigate trace elements in deciduous teeth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igari, K.; Takahashi, A.; Ando, H.

    2010-01-01

    The early life environment has widespread consequences for later health and disease. To prevent the disease in later life, the assessment of fetal environment is very important. In Japan, birthweight has fallen rapidly during recent two decades. The reduction of birthweight represents reduced fetal nutrition. Deciduous tooth enamel contains pre- and postnatal enamel and its chemical composition reflects the status of metabolism of trace elements during formation period. Deciduous tooth enamel is considered to be a suitable indicator of trace elements exposure in utero. We applied micro-PIXE analysis to investigate the trace elemental content in deciduous tooth enamel. Two deciduous canines from one healthy Japanese boy were used for this study. The enamel section including pre- and postnatal enamel was prepared for micro-PIXE analysis. Five trace elements (Na, Mg, Cl, Zn, and Sr) were detected in the scanning area of tooth. The distribution profiles of 5 elements were obtained as X-ray maps. The distribution profiles of zinc and chlorine were specific, and showed higher concentration in surface enamel. No elements showed different profiles of X-ray maps between pre- and postnatal enamel in this sample. The results of this study suggested that micro-PIXE analysis would be able to estimate the trace elements in prenatal and postnatal enamel, respectively. (author)

  11. An analysis of fracture trace patterns in areas of flat-lying sedimentary rocks for the detection of buried geologic structure. [Kansas and Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podwysocki, M. H.

    1974-01-01

    Two study areas in a cratonic platform underlain by flat-lying sedimentary rocks were analyzed to determine if a quantitative relationship exists between fracture trace patterns and their frequency distributions and subsurface structural closures which might contain petroleum. Fracture trace lengths and frequency (number of fracture traces per unit area) were analyzed by trend surface analysis and length frequency distributions also were compared to a standard Gaussian distribution. Composite rose diagrams of fracture traces were analyzed using a multivariate analysis method which grouped or clustered the rose diagrams and their respective areas on the basis of the behavior of the rays of the rose diagram. Analysis indicates that the lengths of fracture traces are log-normally distributed according to the mapping technique used. Fracture trace frequency appeared higher on the flanks of active structures and lower around passive reef structures. Fracture trace log-mean lengths were shorter over several types of structures, perhaps due to increased fracturing and subsequent erosion. Analysis of rose diagrams using a multivariate technique indicated lithology as the primary control for the lower grouping levels. Groupings at higher levels indicated that areas overlying active structures may be isolated from their neighbors by this technique while passive structures showed no differences which could be isolated.

  12. Curved planar reformation and optimal path tracing (CROP) method for false positive reduction in computer-aided detection of pulmonary embolism in CTPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Guo, Yanhui; Wei, Jun; Chughtai, Aamer; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Sundaram, Baskaran; Patel, Smita; Kuriakose, Jean W.; Kazerooni, Ella A.

    2013-03-01

    The curved planar reformation (CPR) method re-samples the vascular structures along the vessel centerline to generate longitudinal cross-section views. The CPR technique has been commonly used in coronary CTA workstation to facilitate radiologists' visual assessment of coronary diseases, but has not yet been used for pulmonary vessel analysis in CTPA due to the complicated tree structures and the vast network of pulmonary vasculature. In this study, a new curved planar reformation and optimal path tracing (CROP) method was developed to facilitate feature extraction and false positive (FP) reduction and improve our PE detection system. PE candidates are first identified in the segmented pulmonary vessels at prescreening. Based on Dijkstra's algorithm, the optimal path (OP) is traced from the pulmonary trunk bifurcation point to each PE candidate. The traced vessel is then straightened and a reformatted volume is generated using CPR. Eleven new features that characterize the intensity, gradient, and topology are extracted from the PE candidate in the CPR volume and combined with the previously developed 9 features to form a new feature space for FP classification. With IRB approval, CTPA of 59 PE cases were retrospectively collected from our patient files (UM set) and 69 PE cases from the PIOPED II data set with access permission. 595 and 800 PEs were manually marked by experienced radiologists as reference standard for the UM and PIOPED set, respectively. At a test sensitivity of 80%, the average FP rate was improved from 18.9 to 11.9 FPs/case with the new method for the PIOPED set when the UM set was used for training. The FP rate was improved from 22.6 to 14.2 FPs/case for the UM set when the PIOPED set was used for training. The improvement in the free response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curves was statistically significant (p<0.05) by JAFROC analysis, indicating that the new features extracted from the CROP method are useful for FP reduction.

  13. On Emulation-Based Network Intrusion Detection Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, Ali; Wetzel, Jos; Bokslag, Wouter; Zambon, Emmanuele; Etalle, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Emulation-based network intrusion detection systems have been devised to detect the presence of shellcode in network traffic by trying to execute (portions of) the network packet payloads in an in- strumented environment and checking the execution traces for signs of shellcode activity.

  14. On emulation-based network intrusion detection systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, A.; Wetzels, J.; Bokslag, W.; Zambon, E.; Etalle, S.; Stavrou, A.; Bos, H.; Portokalidis, G.

    2014-01-01

    Emulation-based network intrusion detection systems have been devised to detect the presence of shellcode in network traffic by trying to execute (portions of) the network packet payloads in an instrumented environment and checking the execution traces for signs of shellcode activity.

  15. Bejing synchrotron radiation TXRF facility and its applications on trace element study of cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuying, H.; Yingrong, W.; Limin, Z.; Guangcheng, L.; Wie, H.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, Beijing synchrotron radiation TXRF facility and experimental method were described. The minimum detection limits of some elements were tested by using several kinds of standard reference materials. The feasibility of using TXRF in biomedical field is discussed. With this technique small intestine cells of both normal and radiated white mice were analyzed, and the elemental average contents of each single cell are also given. The results indicated that the contents of some trace elements for normal and radiated white mice are greatly different, which may be used to provide valuable reference for clinic medicine. On the other hand, the trace elements of cells of lung and cervix cancer before and after apoptosis were determined by SRTXRF and the changes of trace elements in these cells were discussed. (author)

  16. ICP-AES analysis of trace elements in serum from animals fed with irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zongzhi; Zhou Hongdi

    1986-01-01

    A method of trace element analysis by ICP-AES in serum from animals fed with irradiated food is described. In order to demonstrate that irradiated food is suitable for human consumption, it is necessary to perform an experiment of animal feeding with these food before use for human. Trace element analysis in animal serum could provide an actual evidence for further human consumption study. 53 serum samples of the rats fed with irradiated food were obtained. After ashed and solved, ICP-AES analysis has been used for determining 20 trace elements in specimen solution. The detection limitation is in the range of 10 -2 -10 -3 ppm for different elements. The recovery of elements is from 70.08% to 98.28%. The relative standard deviation is found to be 0.71% to 11.52%

  17. Computer ray tracing speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, P; Pawlowski, B

    1990-05-01

    The results of measuring the ray trace speed and compilation speed of thirty-nine computers in fifty-seven configurations, ranging from personal computers to super computers, are described. A correlation of ray trace speed has been made with the LINPACK benchmark which allows the ray trace speed to be estimated using LINPACK performance data. The results indicate that the latest generation of workstations, using CPUs based on RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) technology, are as fast or faster than mainframe computers in compute-bound situations.

  18. Anisotropic ray trace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wai Sze Tiffany

    Optical components made of anisotropic materials, such as crystal polarizers and crystal waveplates, are widely used in many complex optical system, such as display systems, microlithography, biomedical imaging and many other optical systems, and induce more complex aberrations than optical components made of isotropic materials. The goal of this dissertation is to accurately simulate the performance of optical systems with anisotropic materials using polarization ray trace. This work extends the polarization ray tracing calculus to incorporate ray tracing through anisotropic materials, including uniaxial, biaxial and optically active materials. The 3D polarization ray tracing calculus is an invaluable tool for analyzing polarization properties of an optical system. The 3x3 polarization ray tracing P matrix developed for anisotropic ray trace assists tracking the 3D polarization transformations along a ray path with series of surfaces in an optical system. To better represent the anisotropic light-matter interactions, the definition of the P matrix is generalized to incorporate not only the polarization change at a refraction/reflection interface, but also the induced optical phase accumulation as light propagates through the anisotropic medium. This enables realistic modeling of crystalline polarization elements, such as crystal waveplates and crystal polarizers. The wavefront and polarization aberrations of these anisotropic components are more complex than those of isotropic optical components and can be evaluated from the resultant P matrix for each eigen-wavefront as well as for the overall image. One incident ray refracting or reflecting into an anisotropic medium produces two eigenpolarizations or eigenmodes propagating in different directions. The associated ray parameters of these modes necessary for the anisotropic ray trace are described in Chapter 2. The algorithms to calculate the P matrix from these ray parameters are described in Chapter 3 for

  19. Main-, minor- and trace elements distribution in human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoeger, N.; Streli, C.; Wobrauschek, P.; Jokubonis, C.; Pepponi, G.; Roschger, P.; Bohic, S.; Osterode, W.

    2004-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is known to induce adverse health effects in humans. In fact, cognitive deficits are repeatedly described with Pb exposure, but little is known about the distribution of lead in brain. Measurements of the distribution of Pb in human brain and to study if Pb is associated with the distribution of other chemical elements such as zinc (Zn), iron (Fe) is of great interest and could reveal some hints about the metabolism of Pb in brain. To determine the local distribution of lead (Pb) and other trace elements x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) measurements have been performed, using a microbeam setup and highest flux synchrotron radiation. Experiments have been carried out at ID-22, ESRF, Grenoble, France. The installed microprobe setup provides a monochromatic beam (17 keV) from an undulator station focused by Kirkpatrick-Baez x-ray optics to a spot size of 5 μm x 3μm. Brain slices (20 μm thickness, imbedded in paraffin and mounted on Kapton foils) from areas of the frontal cortex, thalamus and hippocampus have been investigated. Generally no significant increase in fluorescence intensities could be detected in one of the investigated brain compartments. However Pb and other (trace) elements (e.g. S, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br) could be detected in all samples and showed strong inhomogeneities across the analyzed areas. While S, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br could be clearly assigned to the investigated brain structures (vessels, etc.) Pb showed a very different behavior. In some cases (e.g. plexus choroidei) Pb was located at the walls of the vessel, whereas with other structures (e.g. blood vessel) this correlation was not found. Moreover, the detected Pb in different brain areas was individually correlated with various elements. The local distribution of the detected elements in various brain structures will be discussed in this work. (author)

  20. An image analyzer system for the analysis of nuclear traces; Un sistema analizador de imagenes para el analisis de trazas nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuapio O, A

    1990-10-15

    Inside the project of nuclear traces and its application techniques to be applied in the detection of nuclear reactions of low section (non detectable by conventional methods), in the study of accidental and personal neutron dosemeters, and other but, are developed. All these studies are based on the fact that the charged particles leave latent traces of dielectric that if its are engraved with appropriate chemical solutions its are revealed until becoming visible to the optical microscope. From the analysis of the different trace forms, it is possible to obtain information of the characteristic parameters of the incident particles (charge, mass and energy). Of the density of traces it is possible to obtain information of the flow of the incident radiation and consequently of the received dose. For carry out this analysis has been designed and coupled different systems, that it has allowed the solution of diverse outlined problems. Notwithstanding it has been detected that to make but versatile this activity is necessary to have an Image Analyzer System that allow us to digitize, to process and to display the images with more rapidity. The present document, presents the proposal to carry out the acquisition of the necessary components for to assembling an Image Analyzing System, like support to the mentioned project. (Author)

  1. Analytical approximations to the Hotelling trace for digital x-ray detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Eric; Pineda, Angel R.; Barrett, Harrison H.

    2001-06-01

    The Hotelling trace is the signal-to-noise ratio for the ideal linear observer in a detection task. We provide an analytical approximation for this figure of merit when the signal is known exactly and the background is generated by a stationary random process, and the imaging system is an ideal digital x-ray detector. This approximation is based on assuming that the detector is infinite in extent. We test this approximation for finite-size detectors by comparing it to exact calculations using matrix inversion of the data covariance matrix. After verifying the validity of the approximation under a variety of circumstances, we use it to generate plots of the Hotelling trace as a function of pairs of parameters of the system, the signal and the background.

  2. Magnetic detection of ferrofluid injection zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borglin, S.; Moridis, G.; Becker, A.

    1998-03-01

    Ferrofluids are stable colloidal suspensions of magnetic particles that can be stabilized in various carrier liquids. In this study the authors investigate the potential of ferrofluids to trace the movement and position of liquids injected in the subsurface using geophysical methods. An ability to track and monitor the movement and position of injected liquids is essential in assessing the effectiveness of the delivery system and the success of the process. Ferrofluids can also provide a significant detection and verification tool in containment technologies, where they can be injected with the barrier liquids to provide a strong signature allowing determination of the barrier geometry, extent, continuity and integrity. Finally, ferrofluids may have unique properties as tracers for detecting preferential flow features (such as fractures) in the subsurface, and thus allow the design of more effective remediation systems. In this report the authors review the results of the investigation of the potential of ferrofluids to trace the movement and position of liquids injected in the subsurface using geophysical methods. They demonstrate the feasibility of using conventional magnetometry for detecting subsurface zones of injected ferrofluids used to trace liquids injected for remediation or barrier formation. The geometrical shapes considered were a sphere, a thin disk, a rectangular horizontal slab, and a cylinder. Simple calculations based on the principles of magnetometry are made to determine the detection depths of FTs. Experiments involving spherical, cylindrical and horizontal slabs show a very good agreement between predictions and measurements.

  3. Estimation of trace levels of plutonium in urine samples by fission track technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawant, P.D.; Prabhu, S.; Pendharkar, K.A.; Kalsi, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    Individual monitoring of radiation workers handling Pu in various nuclear installations requires the detection of trace levels of plutonium in bioassay samples. It is necessary to develop methods that can detect urinary excretion of Pu in fraction of mBq range. Therefore, a sensitive method such as fission track analysis has been developed for the measurement of trace levels of Pu in bioassay samples. In this technique, chemically separated plutonium from the sample and a Pu standard were electrodeposited on planchettes and covered with Lexan solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) and irradiated with thermal neutrons in APSARA reactor of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India. The fission track densities in the Lexan films of the sample and the standard were used to calculate the amount of Pu in the sample. The minimum amount of Pu that can be analyzed by this method using doubly distilled electronic grade (E. G.) reagents is about 12 μBq/L. (author)

  4. Tunable photonic cavities for in-situ spectroscopic trace gas detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Tiziana; Cole, Garrett; Goddard, Lynford

    2012-11-13

    Compact tunable optical cavities are provided for in-situ NIR spectroscopy. MEMS-tunable VCSEL platforms represents a solid foundation for a new class of compact, sensitive and fiber compatible sensors for fieldable, real-time, multiplexed gas detection systems. Detection limits for gases with NIR cross-sections such as O.sub.2, CH.sub.4, CO.sub.x and NO.sub.x have been predicted to approximately span from 10.sup.ths to 10s of parts per million. Exemplary oxygen detection design and a process for 760 nm continuously tunable VCSELS is provided. This technology enables in-situ self-calibrating platforms with adaptive monitoring by exploiting Photonic FPGAs.

  5. Potential for the use of reconstructed IASI radiances in the detection of atmospheric trace gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Atkinson

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Principal component (PC analysis has received considerable attention as a technique for the extraction of meteorological signals from hyperspectral infra-red sounders such as the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS. In addition to achieving substantial bit-volume reductions for dissemination purposes, the technique can also be used to generate reconstructed radiances in which random instrument noise has been reduced. Studies on PC analysis of hyperspectral infrared sounder data have been undertaken in the context of numerical weather prediction, instrument monitoring and geophysical variable retrieval, as well as data compression. This study examines the potential of PC analysis for chemistry applications.

    A major concern in the use of PC analysis for chemistry is that the spectral features associated with trace gases may not be well represented in the reconstructed spectra, either due to deficiencies in the training set or due to the limited number of PC scores used in the radiance reconstruction. In this paper we show examples of reconstructed IASI radiances for several trace gases: ammonia, sulphur dioxide, methane and carbon monoxide. It is shown that care must be taken in the selection of spectra for the initial training set: an iterative technique, in which outlier spectra are added to a base training set, gives the best results. For the four trace gases examined, key features of the chemical signatures are retained in the reconstructed radiances, whilst achieving a substantial reduction in instrument noise.

    A new regional re-transmission service for IASI is scheduled to start in 2010, as part of the EUMETSAT Advanced Retransmission Service (EARS. For this EARS-IASI service it is intended to include PC scores as part of the data stream. The paper describes the generation of the reference eigenvectors for this new service.

  6. Fluorescent discrimination between traces of chemical warfare agents and their mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz de Greñu, Borja; Moreno, Daniel; Torroba, Tomás; Berg, Alexander; Gunnars, Johan; Nilsson, Tobias; Nyman, Rasmus; Persson, Milton; Pettersson, Johannes; Eklind, Ida; Wästerby, Pär

    2014-03-19

    An array of fluorogenic probes is able to discriminate between nerve agents, sarin, soman, tabun, VX and their mimics, in water or organic solvent, by qualitative fluorescence patterns and quantitative multivariate analysis, thus making the system suitable for the in-the-field detection of traces of chemical warfare agents as well as to differentiate between the real nerve agents and other related compounds.

  7. Interactive Stable Ray Tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Corso, Alessandro; Salvi, Marco; Kolb, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Interactive ray tracing applications running on commodity hardware can suffer from objectionable temporal artifacts due to a low sample count. We introduce stable ray tracing, a technique that improves temporal stability without the over-blurring and ghosting artifacts typical of temporal post-pr...

  8. A dual channel optical detector for trace water chemodosimetry and imaging of live cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Guangwen; Zhang, Guirong; Liang, Chunshuang; Liu, Huiling; Yang, Bing; Pan, Yuyu; Wang, Zhenyu; Jiang, Shimei

    2013-05-21

    A novel 3-5-dichlorosalicylaldehyde Schiff base chemodosimeter (compound 1) for water is designed and synthesized, and it works based on a water-triggered reaction of a Schiff base. Addition of trace amounts of water into 1 in various organic solvents leads to a fluorescence turn-on response and a simultaneous dual-channel signal modulation (both in the fluorescence and absorption spectra). Especially, 1 is found to be an outstanding fluorescence enhancement water sensor in methanol with an extremely low detection limit of 22 ppm. Consequently this probe can be utilized to detect trace water in commercial methanol. The quantitative detection of a wide range of water content is enhanced in THF and acetonitrile (0-35% v/v for THF and 0-20% v/v for acetonitrile), where the fluorescence peak intensity is nearly proportional to the amount of water added. Moreover, 1 can be used for monitoring pH through a novel ON-OFF-ON type signal modulation both in fluorescence and absorption spectra within a wide pH detection range. Thus, the chemodosimeter can not only be utilized to monitor the intracellular pH fluctuations, but also to accomplish simultaneous in situ staining of the cytosol and acidic organelles in two different channels, respectively.

  9. Manual tracing versus smartphone application (app) tracing: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Gülşilay; Kilinc, Delal Dara

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to compare the results of conventional manual cephalometric tracing with those acquired with smartphone application cephalometric tracing. The cephalometric radiographs of 55 patients (25 females and 30 males) were traced via the manual and app methods and were subsequently examined with Steiner's analysis. Five skeletal measurements, five dental measurements and two soft tissue measurements were managed based on 21 landmarks. The durations of the performances of the two methods were also compared. SNA (Sella, Nasion, A point angle) and SNB (Sella, Nasion, B point angle) values for the manual method were statistically lower (p < .001) than those for the app method. The ANB value for the manual method was statistically lower than that of app method. L1-NB (°) and upper lip protrusion values for the manual method were statistically higher than those for the app method. Go-GN/SN, U1-NA (°) and U1-NA (mm) values for manual method were statistically lower than those for the app method. No differences between the two methods were found in the L1-NB (mm), occlusal plane to SN, interincisal angle or lower lip protrusion values. Although statistically significant differences were found between the two methods, the cephalometric tracing proceeded faster with the app method than with the manual method.

  10. Electrochemical X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy for trace heavy metal analysis: enhancing X-ray fluorescence detection capabilities by four orders of magnitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Laura A; O'Neil, Glen D; Read, Tania L; Ayres, Zoë J; Newton, Mark E; Macpherson, Julie V

    2014-05-06

    The development of a novel analytical technique, electrochemical X-ray fluorescence (EC-XRF), is described and applied to the quantitative detection of heavy metals in solution, achieving sub-ppb limits of detection (LOD). In EC-XRF, electrochemical preconcentration of a species of interest onto the target electrode is achieved here by cathodic electrodeposition. Unambiguous elemental identification and quantification of metal concentration is then made using XRF. This simple electrochemical preconcentration step improves the LOD of energy dispersive XRF by over 4 orders of magnitude (for similar sample preparation time scales). Large area free-standing boron doped diamond grown using microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition techniques is found to be ideal as the electrode material for both electrodeposition and XRF due to its wide solvent window, transparency to the XRF beam, and ability to be produced in mechanically robust freestanding thin film form. During electrodeposition it is possible to vary both the deposition potential (Edep) and deposition time (tdep). For the metals Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) the highest detection sensitivities were found for Edep = -1.75 V and tdep (=) 4000 s with LODs of 0.05 and 0.04 ppb achieved, respectively. In mixed Cu(2+)/Pb(2+) solutions, EC-XRF shows that Cu(2+) deposition is unimpeded by Pb(2+), across a broad concentration range, but this is only true for Pb(2+) when both metals are present at low concentrations (10 nM), boding well for trace level measurements. In a dual mixed metal solution, EC-XRF can also be employed to either selectively deposit the metal which has the most positive formal reduction potential, E(0), or exhaustively deplete it from solution, enabling uninhibited detection of the metal with the more negative E(0).

  11. Tracking explicit and implicit long-lasting traces of fearful memories in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Pau Alexander; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Stein, Lilian Milnitsky; Nicolás, Berta; Fuentemilla, Lluís

    2014-12-01

    Recent accounts of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) suggest that the encoding of an episode within a fearful context generates different implicit and explicit memory representations. Whilst implicit memory traces include the associated emotional states, explicit traces include a recoding into an abstract or gist-based structural context of the episode. Theoretically, the long-term preservation of implicit memory traces may facilitate the often untreatable memory intrusions in PTSD. Here, we tracked in two experiments how implicit and explicit memory traces for fearful episodes dissociate and evolve over time. Subjects (N=86) were presented with semantically-related word-lists in a contextual fear paradigm and tested for explicit memories either immediately (i.e., 30 min) or after a delay (i.e., 1 or 2 weeks) with a verbal recognition task. Skin Conductance Response (SCR) was used to assess implicit memory responses. Subjects showed high memory accuracy for words when tested immediately after encoding. At test, SCR was higher during the presentation of verbatim but not gist-based words encoded in a fearful context, and remained unchanged after 2 weeks, despite subjects being unaware of words' encoding context. We found no clear evidence of accurate explicit memory traces for the fearful or neutral contexts of words presented during encoding, either 30 min or 2 weeks afterwards. These findings indicate that the implicit, but not the explicit, memory trace of a fearful context of an episode can be detected at long-term through SCR and is dissociated from the gist-based memory. They may have implicationstowards the understanding of how the processing of fearful memoriescould lead to PTSD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of gated and non-gated detectors for double-pulse laser induced plasma analysis of trace elements in iron oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilbrunner, H.; Huber, N.; Wolfmeir, H.; Arenholz, E.; Pedarnig, J.D.; Heitz, J.

    2012-01-01

    Double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an emerging technique for accurate compositional analysis of many different materials. We present results of collinear double-pulse LIBS for analysis of the trace elements aluminum, phosphorus and boron in sintered iron oxide targets. The samples were ablated in air by double-pulse Nd:YAG laser radiation (6 ns pulse duration, laser wavelength of 532 nm) and spectra were recorded with an Echelle spectrometer equipped either with a CCD (charge coupled device) or an ICCD (intensified charge coupled device) camera. For the trace elements aluminum and phosphorus, the use of the CCD detector system resulted in considerable higher signal-to-noise ratios and/or better limits of detection compared to the results achieved with the ICCD detector. The use of CCD double-pulse LIBS enables to detect low concentrations of phosphorus with a limit of detection of 10 ppm by evaluating the UV line at 214.91 nm, which overlaps with a Fe I line. Compared to the ICCD system, the CCD system requires the accumulation of a higher number of laser double-pulses to achieve acceptable signal quality. This can be disadvantageous for elements showing pronounced depletion effects as for the trace element boron in sintered iron oxide targets. - Highlights: ► Direct comparison of double-pulse LIBS analysis using CCD and ICCD detectors ► Double-pulse LIBS technique for monitoring of trace elements in iron oxide ► CCD detector can result in better signal-to-noise ratios and limits of detection. ► Low P concentrations detectable by CCD double-pulse LIBS of the line at 214.91 nm ► CCD system disadvantageous for elements showing pronounced depletion effects

  13. A new perspective of using sequential extraction: To predict the deficiency of trace elements during anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yafan; Wang, Jungang; Zhao, Yubin; Zhao, Xiaoling; Zheng, Zehui; Wen, Boting; Cui, Zongjun; Wang, Xiaofen

    2018-09-01

    Trace elements were commonly used as additives to facilitate anaerobic digestion. However, their addition is often blind because of the complexity of reaction conditions, which has impeded their widespread application. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate deficiencies in trace elements during anaerobic digestion by establishing relationships between changes in trace element bioavailability (the degree to which elements are available for interaction with biological systems) and digestion performance. To accomplish this, two batch experiments were conducted. In the first, sequential extraction was used to detect changes in trace element fractions and then to evaluate trace element bioavailability in the whole digestion cycle. In the second batch experiment, trace elements (Co, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Mo and Se) were added to the reaction system at three concentrations (low, medium and high) and their effects were monitored. The results showed that sequential extraction was a suitable method for assessment of the bioavailability of trace elements (appropriate coefficient of variation and recovery rate). The results revealed that Se had the highest (44.2%-70.9%) bioavailability, while Fe had the lowest (1.7%-3.0%). A lack of trace elements was not directly related to their absolute bioavailability, but was instead associated with changes in their bioavailability throughout the digestion cycle. Trace elements were insufficient when their bioavailability was steady or increased over the digestion cycle. These results indicate that changes in trace element bioavailability during the digestion cycle can be used to predict their deficiency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Trace metal contents of selected seeds and vegetables from oil producing areas of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegwu, Matthew O; Omeodu, Stephen I

    2010-07-01

    The concentrations of accumulated trace metals in selected seeds and vegetables collected in the oil producing Rivers State of Nigeria were investigated. The values were compared with those of seeds and vegetables cultivated in Owerri, a less industrialized area in Nigeria. The lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contents of the seeds obtained from Rivers State ranged between 0.10 and 0.23 microg/g dry weight, while those of the seeds cultivated in Owerri fell below the detection limit of 0.01 microg/g dry weight. The highest manganese (Mn) level (902 microg/g dry weight) was found in Irvingia garbonesis seeds cultivated in Rivers State. Similarly, the highest nickel (Ni) value (199 microg/g dry weight) was also obtained in I. garbonesis, however, in the seeds sampled in Owerri. The highest copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) levels (16.8, 5.27, and 26.2 microg/g dry weight, resp.) were detected in seeds collected in Rivers State. With the exception of Talinum triangulae, Ocinum gratissimum, and Piper guineese, with Pb levels of 0.09, 0.10, and 0.11 microg/g dry weight, respectively, the Pb and Cd levels in the vegetables grown in Owerri fell below the detection limit of 0.01 microg/g dry weight. The trace metal with the highest levels in all the vegetables studied was Mn, followed by Fe. The highest concentrations of Ni and Cu occurred in vegetables collected from Rivers State, while the highest level of Zn was observed in Piper guineese collected in Owerri, with a value of 21.4 microg/g dry weight. Although the trace metal concentrations of the seeds and vegetables collected in Rivers State tended to be higher than those of the seeds and vegetables grown in Owerri, the average levels of trace metals obtained in this study fell far below the WHO specifications for metals in foods.

  15. Accumulation of trace metals by aquatic macrophytes and their possible use in phytoremediation techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Hillermannová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the performed research was to obtain knowledge on the ability of aquatic plants naturally growing at a site to absorb trace metals contained in bottom sediments and surface water. Furthermore, we compared differences in the accumulation of trace metals by the individual groups of aquatic plants (submerged and emergent and assessed a possible use of the individual plant species in phytoremediation techniques. Representative samples of water, sediments and aquatic macrophytes were taken from three anthropogenically loaded streams in six monitoring cycles in several collection profiles differing in the distance from a source of contamination. The samples were analysed for the total content of selected trace metals (As, Cd, Pb, Al, Hg, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni and Cu. For comparison, one profile at an unloaded site was sampled as well. The obtained results were subjected to multivariate statistical analysis of data. Increased contents of Fe, Al, Mn, Cr and Zn were detected in sediments and plant biomass at loaded sites, namely 2–3× higher than at the comparing site. The contents of metals in surface water samples were altogether below the detection limit of the analytical method. When evaluating the individual plant species, we can state that the lowest contents of metals were detected in shore species (reed canary grass Phalaroides arundinacea, wood club-rush Scirpus silvaticus and red dock Rumex aquaticus; plant species growing in the very water current (water star-wort Callitriche sp. and flote-grass Glyceria fluitans exhibited mean contents of metals. In species forming mats (Fontinalis antipyretica and Cladophora sp., these contents were several times higher as compared to the previous species. The results of the performed research show that one of important factors, which influence the accumulation of trace metals in plants, is their ecological group (emergent – submerged affiliation and the species classification within this group

  16. Trace elements in termites by PIXE analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, T. E-mail: tsuyoshi@termite.kuwri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Kagemori, N.; Kawai, S.; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S

    2002-04-01

    Trace elements in a Japanese subterranean xylophagous termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were analyzed by the PIXE method. The total amount of the 14 predominant elements out of 27 detected in an intact termite was higher in a soldier termite (23 000 {mu}g/g) than in a worker termite (10 000 {mu}g/g). A block of wood (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) for termite feed had a much lower concentration (3600 {mu}g/g) compared with that in an intact termite. This probably relates the functional bio-condensation and/or bio-recycling of trace elements in C. formosanus. When a termite was separated into three anatomical parts, head, degutted body and gut, the worker gut contained the highest total amount of the 14 predominant measured elements (31 000 {mu}g/g). This might be correlated with the higher activity of food digestion and energy production in the worker gut. Moreover, the mandible of the soldier head, with an exoskeleton that is intensely hardened, showed a preferential distribution of Mn and Fe. These results suggest that the characteristic localization of elements will be closely related to the functional role of the individual anatomical part of C. formosanus.

  17. Trace metal assay of uranium silicide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, M.J.; Argekar, A.A.; Thulasidas, S.K.; Dhawale, B.A.; Rajeswari, B.; Adya, V.C.; Purohit, P.J.; Neelam, G.; Bangia, T.R.; Page, A.G.; Sastry, M.D.; Iyer, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive trace metal assay of uranium silicide, a fuel for nuclear research reactors that employs low-enrichment uranium, is carried out by atomic spectrometry. Of the list of specification elements, 21 metallic elements are determined by a direct current (dc) arc carrier distillation technique; the rare earths yttrium and zirconium are chemically separated from the major matrix followed by a dc arc/inductively coupled argon plasma (ICP) excitation technique in atomic emission spectrometry (AES); silver is determined by electrothermal atomization-atomic absorption spectrometry (ETA-AAS) without prior chemical separation of the major matrix. Gamma radioactive tracers are used to check the recovery of rare earths during the chemical separation procedure. The detection limits for trace metallics vary in the 0.1- to 40-ppm range. The precision of the determinations as evaluated from the analysis of the synthetic sample with intermediate range analyte concentration is better than 25% relative standard deviation (RSD) for most of the elements employing dc arc-AES, while that for silver determination by ETS-AAS is 10% RSD. The precision of the determinations for four crucially important rare earths by ICP-AES is better than 3% RSD

  18. Trace elements in renal disease and hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Yoshinori; Nakai, Keiko; Suwabe, Akira; Sera, Koichiro

    2002-01-01

    A number of considerations suggest that trace element disturbances might occur in patients with renal disease and in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Using particle induced X-ray emission, we demonstrated the relations between serum concentration, urinary excretion of the trace elements and creatinine clearance (Ccr) in randomized 50 patients. To estimate the effects of HD, we also observed the changes of these elements in serum and dialysis fluids during HD. Urinary silicon excretion decreased, and serum silicon concentration increased as Ccr decreased, with significant correlation (r=0.702, p<0.001 and r=0.676, p<0.0001, respectively). We also observed the increase of serum silicon, and the decrease of silicon in dialysis fluids during HD. These results suggested that reduced renal function and also dialysis contributed to silicon accumulation. Although serum selenium decreased significantly according to Ccr decrease (r=0.452, p<0.01), we could detect no change in urinary selenium excretion and no transfer during HD. Serum bromine and urinary excretion of bromine did not correlate to Ccr. However we observed a bromine transfer from the serum to the dialysis fluid that contributed to the serum bromine decrease in HD patients

  19. Enzyme leaching of surficial geochemical samples for detecting hydromorphic trace-element anomalies associated with precious-metal mineralized bedrock buried beneath glacial overburden in northern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robert J.; Meier, A.L.; Riddle, G.; ,

    1990-01-01

    One objective of the International Falls and Roseau, Minnesota, CUSMAP projects was to develop a means of conducting regional-scale geochemical surveys in areas where bedrock is buried beneath complex glacially derived overburden. Partial analysis of B-horizon soils offered hope for detecting subtle hydromorphic trace-element dispersion patterns. An enzyme-based partial leach selectively removes metals from oxide coatings on the surfaces of soil materials without attacking their matrix. Most trace-element concentrations in the resulting solutions are in the part-per-trillion to low part-per-billion range, necessitating determinations by inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry. The resulting data show greater contrasts for many trace elements than with other techniques tested. Spatially, many trace metal anomalies are locally discontinuous, but anomalous trends within larger areas are apparent. In many instances, the source for an anomaly seems to be either basal till or bedrock. Ground water flow is probably the most important mechanism for transporting metals toward the surface, although ionic diffusion, electrochemical gradients, and capillary action may play a role in anomaly dispersal. Sample sites near the Rainy Lake-Seine River fault zone, a regional shear zone, often have anomalous concentrations of a variety of metals, commonly including Zn and/or one or more metals which substitute for Zn in sphalerite (Cd, Ge, Ga, and Sn). Shifts in background concentrations of Bi, Sb, and As show a trend across the area indicating a possible regional zoning of lode-Au mineralization. Soil anomalies of Ag, Co, and Tl parallel basement structures, suggesting areas that may have potential for Cobalt/Thunder Baytype silver viens. An area around Baudette, Minnesota, which is underlain by quartz-chlorite-carbonate-altered shear zones, is anomalous in Ag, As, Bi, Co, Mo, Te, Tl, and W. Anomalies of Ag, As, Bi, Te, and W tend to follow the fault zones, suggesting potential

  20. Traces generating what was there

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Traces keep time contained and make visible what was there. Going back to the art of trace-reading, they continue to be a fundamental resource for scientific knowledge production. The contributions study, from the biology laboratory to the large colliders of particle physics, techniques involved in the production of material traces. Following their changes over two centuries, this collection shows the continuities they have in the digital age.

  1. Trace element and ΣDDT concentrations in horticultural soils from the Tasman, Waikato and Auckland regions of New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaw, S.K.; Wilkins, A.L.; Kim, N.D.; Palmer, G.T.; Robinson, P.

    2006-01-01

    The long-term routine use of agrichemicals can result in elevated levels of trace elements and persistent organic pollutants in soils. Trace element concentrations and ΣDDT levels were measured in soil (0-7.5 cm) samples collected from horticultural and grazing properties in 3 regions of New Zealand (Auckland, Tasman and Waikato). Elevated levels of arsenic ( -1 ), cadmium ( -1 ), copper (5 to 523 mg kg -1 ), lead (5 to 243 mg kg -1 ) and ΣDDT ( -1 ) were detected in soils from all 3 regions. With the exception of cadmium and zinc, significantly higher levels of contaminants were generally detected in horticultural soils than in grazing soils. Our results have implications for the on-going use of agrichemicals as concentrations of cadmium, copper, tin and zinc in some samples exceeded ecotoxicity based soil criteria. The p,p'-DDE : DDT ratios indicate that the degradation of DDT in NZ horticultural soils may be inhibited by the co-contamination with trace elements

  2. Calcium supplements as source of trace elements: Adequacy and safety of supplements with vitamin C, vitamin D and phosphate formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Rahman, S.; Siddique, N.

    2014-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry were used to quantify trace elements in different national and multinational Ca supplements categorized on the basis of Ca with vitamin D, vitamin C and phosphate formulations. The supplements were found to contain low levels of Co, Cr and Cu with elevated amounts of Fe, K and Na. Toxic elements (As, Cd and Sb) were detected in very few samples at very low concentrations. The essential elements contribute to >3% of their respective Dietary Reference Intakes. - Highlights: • INAA and AAS were used to quantify trace elements in different national and multinational Ca supplements. • The essential elements contribute to >3% of their respective DRIs. • Toxic elements (As, Cd and Sb) were detected in very few samples at very low concentrations. • All supplements can be considered safe for human intake with respect to trace nutrients

  3. Determination of Trace Level Triclosan in Water by Online Preconcentration and HPLC-UV Diode Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    An online high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the detection and quantification of trace levels of triclosan in water is discussed. Triclosan, an anti-bacterial agent, and related compounds have been shown to reach municipal waste waters through the disposal ...

  4. Reverse ray tracing for transformation optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chia-Yu; Lin, Chun-Hung

    2015-06-29

    Ray tracing is an important technique for predicting optical system performance. In the field of transformation optics, the Hamiltonian equations of motion for ray tracing are well known. The numerical solutions to the Hamiltonian equations of motion are affected by the complexities of the inhomogeneous and anisotropic indices of the optical device. Based on our knowledge, no previous work has been conducted on ray tracing for transformation optics with extreme inhomogeneity and anisotropicity. In this study, we present the use of 3D reverse ray tracing in transformation optics. The reverse ray tracing is derived from Fermat's principle based on a sweeping method instead of finding the full solution to ordinary differential equations. The sweeping method is employed to obtain the eikonal function. The wave vectors are then obtained from the gradient of that eikonal function map in the transformed space to acquire the illuminance. Because only the rays in the points of interest have to be traced, the reverse ray tracing provides an efficient approach to investigate the illuminance of a system. This approach is useful in any form of transformation optics where the material property tensor is a symmetric positive definite matrix. The performance and analysis of three transformation optics with inhomogeneous and anisotropic indices are explored. The ray trajectories and illuminances in these demonstration cases are successfully solved by the proposed reverse ray tracing method.

  5. Volatile organic compounds and trace metal level in some beers collected from Romanian market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voica, Cezara; Kovacs, Melinda; Vadan, Marius

    2013-11-01

    Beer is one of the most popular beverages at worldwide level. Through this study fifteen different types of beer collected from Romanian market were analysed in order to evaluate their mineral, trace element as well the their organic content. Importance of such characterization of beer samples is supported by the fact that their chemical composition can affect both taste and stability of beer, as well the consumer health. Minerals and trace elements analysis were performed on ICP-MS while organic compounds analysis was done through GC-MS. Through ICP-MS analysis, elements as Ca, Na, K and Mg were evidenced at mgṡkg-1 order while elements as Cr, Ba, Co, Ni were detected at lower level. After GC-MS analysis the major volatile compounds that were detected belong to alcohols namely ethanol, propanol, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol and linalool. Selected fatty acids and esters were evidenced also in the studied beer samples.

  6. Measurement of Selected Organic Trace Gases During TRACE-P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, Elliot

    2004-01-01

    Major goals of the TRACE-P mission were: 1) to investigate the chemical composition of radiatively important gases, aerosols, and their precursors in the Asian outflow over the western Pacific, and 2) to describe and understand the chemical evolution of the Asian outflow as it is transported and mixed into the global troposphere. The research performed as part of this proposal addressed these major goals with a study of the organic chemical composition of gases in the TRACE-P region. This work was a close collaboration with the Blake/Rowland research group at UC-Irvine, and they have provided a separate report for their funded effort.

  7. Monitoring trace elements in Antarctic penguin chicks from South Shetland Islands, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerez, Silvia; Motas, Miguel; Benzal, Jesús; Diaz, Julia; Barbosa, Andrés

    2013-04-15

    The concentration of human activities in the near-shore ecosystems from the northern Antarctic Peninsula area can cause an increasing bioavailability of pollutants for the vulnerable Antarctic biota. Penguin chicks can reflect this potential impact in the rookeries during the breeding season. They also can reflect biomagnification phenomena since they are on the top of the Antarctic food chain. The concentrations of Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd and Pb were measured by ICP-MS in samples of liver, kidney, muscle, bone, feather and stomach content of gentoo, chinstrap and Adélie penguin chicks (n=15 individuals) collected opportunistically in the Islands of King George and Deception (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica). The detected levels of some trace elements were not as low as it could be expected in the isolated Antarctic region. Penguin chicks can be useful indicators of trace elements abundance in the study areas. Carcasses of Antarctic penguin chicks were used to evaluate the bioavailability of trace elements in the Islands of King George and Deception. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Using risk-tracing snowball approach to increase HIV case detection among high-risk populations in Cambodia: an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhim, Srean; Macom, John; Pav, Chettana; Nim, Nirada; Yun, Phearun; Seng, Sopheap; Chhim, Kolab; Tuot, Sovannary; Yi, Siyan

    2017-10-18

    Early HIV diagnosis and initiation onto antiretroviral therapy may prevent ongoing spread of HIV. Risk Tracing Snowball Approach (RTSA) has been shown to be effective in detecting new HIV cases in other settings. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of RTSA in increasing the rate of newly identified HIV cases among high-risk populations. Our second objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of RTSA, as compared to the walk-in group, in increasing the number of HIV tests and early case detection. This study was conducted from April 1 to September 30, 2016 at two NGO clinics in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Respondent driven sampling method was adapted to develop RTSA to reach high-risk populations, including key populations and the general population who have social connections with key populations. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. During the implementation period, 721 clients walked in for HIV testing (walk-in group), and all were invited to be seeds. Of the invited clients, 36.6% agreed to serve as seeds. Throughout the implementation, 6195 coupons were distributed to seeds or recruiters, and resulted in 1572 clients visiting the two clinics with coupons (RTSA group), for a coupon return rate of 25.3%. The rate of newly identified HIV cases among the RTSA group was significantly lower compared to that in walk-in group. However, the highest number of newly identified HIV cases was found during the implementation period, compared to both pre- and post-implementation period. Although statistically not significant, the mean CD4 count of newly identified HIV cases detected through RTSA was almost 200 cells/mm3 higher than that in the walk-in group. Although the rate of newly identified HIV cases among the RTSA group was lower than that in the walk-in group, the inclusion of RTSA in addition to the traditional walk-in method boosted new HIV case detection in the two participating clinics. A higher mean CD4

  9. Darkfield illumination improves microscopic detection of metals in Timm's stained tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, E; Frederickson, C J

    1989-01-01

    Deposits of trace or toxic metals can be quickly identified by light microscopical surveys of tissue sections stained for metals by variants of Timm's silver enhancement method. The present work shows that the small, isolated silver grains that label isolated deposits of metal in tissue are undet...... are undetectable in brightfield light microscopy but are easily detected in darkfield microscopy. Darkfield illumination is therefore recommended for improving the detection of trace or toxic metals in tissue. Udgivelsesdato: 1989-Aug......Deposits of trace or toxic metals can be quickly identified by light microscopical surveys of tissue sections stained for metals by variants of Timm's silver enhancement method. The present work shows that the small, isolated silver grains that label isolated deposits of metal in tissue...

  10. Double-trace deformations of conformal correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giombi, Simone; Kirilin, Vladimir; Perlmutter, Eric

    2018-02-01

    Large N conformal field theories often admit unitary renormalization group flows triggered by double-trace deformations. We compute the change in scalar four-point functions under double-trace flow, to leading order in 1/ N. This has a simple dual in AdS, where the flow is implemented by a change of boundary conditions, and provides a physical interpretation of single-valued conformal partial waves. We extract the change in the conformal dimensions and three-point coefficients of infinite families of double-trace composite operators. Some of these quantities are found to be sign-definite under double-trace flow. As an application, we derive anomalous dimensions of spinning double-trace operators comprised of non-singlet constituents in the O( N) vector model.

  11. Interplay between toxin transport and flotillin localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pust, Sascha; Dyve, Anne Berit; Torgersen, Maria L

    2010-01-01

    The flotillin proteins are localized in lipid domains at the plasma membrane as well as in intracellular compartments. In the present study, we examined the importance of flotillin-1 and flotillin-2 for the uptake and transport of the bacterial Shiga toxin (Stx) and the plant toxin ricin and we...... for flotillin-1 or -2. However, the Golgi-dependent sulfation of both toxins was significantly reduced in flotillin knockdown cells. Interestingly, when the transport of ricin to the ER was investigated, we obtained an increased mannosylation of ricin in flotillin-1 and flotillin-2 knockdown cells. The toxicity...... of both toxins was twofold increased in flotillin-depleted cells. Since BFA (Brefeldin A) inhibits the toxicity even in flotillin knockdown cells, the retrograde toxin transport is apparently still Golgi-dependent. Thus, flotillin proteins regulate and facilitate the retrograde transport of Stx and ricin....

  12. Liquid phase microextraction for the analysis of trace elements and their speciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Bin; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Xia, Linbo

    2013-01-01

    Trace/ultra-trace elements and their speciation analysis in complex matrices usually require sample preparation procedures to achieve sample clean-up and analyte preconcentration. Sample preparation is often the bottleneck in trace elements and their speciation analysis which has a direct impact on accuracy, precision and limits of detection and is often the rate-determining step of the analytical process. Recent trends in sample preparation include miniaturization, automation, high-throughput performance and reduction in solvent/sample consumption and operation time. Liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) technique as a novel and promising alternative in sample preparation can meet these requirements and has become a very efficient sample preparation technique. This review updates the state of art of LPME for trace elements and their speciation analysis and discusses its promising prospects. The major thrust of the article highlights the applications of LPME including single-drop microextraction (SDME), hollow fiber-liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME), dispersive liquid liquid microextraction (DLLME) and solidified floating organic drop microextraction (SFODME) to the fields of elemental and their speciation analysis by atomic spectrometry-based methods, especially inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. General and specific concepts, different extraction formats and characteristics of LPME are described and compared, along with examples of recent innovations and applications presented to demonstrate its potential for trace elements and their speciation analysis in biological and environmental fields. Moreover, the application potential and an outlook on the combination of LPME and atomic spectrometry-based techniques for inorganic analysis are commentated. - Highlights: • The state of art of LPME for trace elements and their speciation analysis is updated. • Different extraction formats of LPME are described. • The application potential and future

  13. TCP Packet Trace Analysis. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Timothy J.

    1991-01-01

    Examination of a trace of packets collected from the network is often the only method available for diagnosing protocol performance problems in computer networks. This thesis explores the use of packet traces to diagnose performance problems of the transport protocol TCP. Unfortunately, manual examination of these traces can be so tedious that effective analysis is not possible. The primary contribution of this thesis is a graphical method of displaying the packet trace which greatly reduce, the tediousness of examining a packet trace. The graphical method is demonstrated by the examination of some packet traces of typical TCP connections. The performance of two different implementations of TCP sending data across a particular network path is compared. Traces many thousands of packets long are used to demonstrate how effectively the graphical method simplifies examination of long complicated traces. In the comparison of the two TCP implementations, the burstiness of the TCP transmitter appeared to be related to the achieved throughput. A method of quantifying this burstiness is presented and its possible relevance to understanding the performance of TCP is discussed.

  14. Limit of detection in the presence of instrumental and non-instrumental errors: study of the possible sources of error and application to the analysis of 41 elements at trace levels by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badocco, Denis; Lavagnini, Irma; Mondin, Andrea; Tapparo, Andrea; Pastore, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the detection limit was estimated when signals were affected by two error contributions, namely instrumental errors and operational-non-instrumental errors. The detection limit was theoretically obtained following the hypothesis testing schema implemented with the calibration curve methodology. The experimental calibration design was based on J standards measured I times with non-instrumental errors affecting each standard systematically but randomly among the J levels. A two-component variance regression was performed to determine the calibration curve and to define the detection limit in these conditions. The detection limit values obtained from the calibration at trace levels of 41 elements by ICP-MS resulted larger than those obtainable from a one component variance regression. The role of the reagent impurities on the instrumental errors was ascertained and taken into account. Environmental pollution was studied as source of non-instrumental errors. The environmental pollution role was evaluated by Principal Component Analysis technique (PCA) applied to a series of nine calibrations performed in fourteen months. The influence of the seasonality of the environmental pollution on the detection limit was evidenced for many elements usually present in the urban air particulate. The obtained results clearly indicated the need of using the two-component variance regression approach for the calibration of all the elements usually present in the environment at significant concentration levels. - Highlights: • Limit of detection was obtained considering a two variance component regression. • Calibration data may be affected by instrumental and operational conditions errors. • Calibration model was applied to determine 41 elements at trace level by ICP-MS. • Non instrumental errors were evidenced by PCA analysis

  15. Improved automated lumen contour detection by novel multifrequency processing algorithm with current intravascular ultrasound system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Teruyoshi; Kim, Byeong-Keuk; Waseda, Katsuhisa; Sathyanarayana, Shashidhar; Li, Wenguang; Teo, Tat-Jin; Yock, Paul G; Fitzgerald, Peter J; Honda, Yasuhiro

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a new fully automated lumen border tracing system based on a novel multifrequency processing algorithm. We developed the multifrequency processing method to enhance arterial lumen detection by exploiting the differential scattering characteristics of blood and arterial tissue. The implementation of the method can be integrated into current intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) hardware. This study was performed in vivo with conventional 40-MHz IVUS catheters (Atlantis SR Pro™, Boston Scientific Corp, Natick, MA) in 43 clinical patients with coronary artery disease. A total of 522 frames were randomly selected, and lumen areas were measured after automatically tracing lumen borders with the new tracing system and a commercially available tracing system (TraceAssist™) referred to as the "conventional tracing system." The data assessed by the two automated systems were compared with the results of manual tracings by experienced IVUS analysts. New automated lumen measurements showed better agreement with manual lumen area tracings compared with those of the conventional tracing system (correlation coefficient: 0.819 vs. 0.509). When compared against manual tracings, the new algorithm also demonstrated improved systematic error (mean difference: 0.13 vs. -1.02 mm(2) ) and random variability (standard deviation of difference: 2.21 vs. 4.02 mm(2) ) compared with the conventional tracing system. This preliminary study showed that the novel fully automated tracing system based on the multifrequency processing algorithm can provide more accurate lumen border detection than current automated tracing systems and thus, offer a more reliable quantitative evaluation of lumen geometry. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Trace analysis of plutonium in environmental samples by resonance ionization mass spectroscopy (RIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdmann, N.; Herrmann, G.; Huber, G.; Koehler, S.; Kratz, J.V.; Mansel, A.; Nunnemann, M.; Passler, G.; Trautmann, N.; Waldek, A.

    1997-01-01

    Trace amounts of plutonium in the environment can be detected by resonance ionization mass spectroscopy (RIMS). An atomic beam of plutonium is produced after its chemical separation and deposition on a filament. The atoms are ionized by a three-step excitation using pulsed dye-lasers. The ions are mass-selectively detected in a time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer. With this setup a detection limit of 1·10 6 atoms of plutonium has been achieved. Furthermore, the isotopic composition can be determined. Different samples, including soil from the Chernobyl area, IAEA-certified sediments from the Mururoa Atoll and urine, have been investigated. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  17. TRACE ANALYSIS BY LASER-EXCITED ATOMIC FLUORESCENCE WITH ATOMIZATION IN A PULSED PLASMA

    OpenAIRE

    Lunyov , O.; Oshemkov , S.; Petrov , A.

    1991-01-01

    The possibilities of plasma atomization for laser fluorescence trace analysis are discussed. Pulsed hot hollow cathode discharge was used for analysis of solutions and powdered samples. The high voltage spark and laser-induced breakdown (laser spark) were used as atomizers of metal-containing atmospheric aerosols. Detection limits were improved by means of temporal background selection.

  18. Classification of conductance traces with recurrent neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritzen, Kasper P.; Magyarkuti, András; Balogh, Zoltán; Halbritter, András; Solomon, Gemma C.

    2018-02-01

    We present a new automated method for structural classification of the traces obtained in break junction experiments. Using recurrent neural networks trained on the traces of minimal cross-sectional area in molecular dynamics simulations, we successfully separate the traces into two classes: point contact or nanowire. This is done without any assumptions about the expected features of each class. The trained neural network is applied to experimental break junction conductance traces, and it separates the classes as well as the previously used experimental methods. The effect of using partial conductance traces is explored, and we show that the method performs equally well using full or partial traces (as long as the trace just prior to breaking is included). When only the initial part of the trace is included, the results are still better than random chance. Finally, we show that the neural network classification method can be used to classify experimental conductance traces without using simulated results for training, but instead training the network on a few representative experimental traces. This offers a tool to recognize some characteristic motifs of the traces, which can be hard to find by simple data selection algorithms.

  19. Béatrice Galinon-Mélénec (dir., L’Homme trace : perspectives anthropologiques des traces contemporaines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annick Monseigne

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available En première de couverture, une photographie qui a marqué un tournant dans l’histoire de l’Homme du XXème siècle : l’empreinte du premier pas d’un homme sur la Lune. Deux chapitres liminaires (pp. 15-55 où le directeur de l’ouvrage pose la question de la mise en place de traces symboliques, de la polysémie des traces, de l’absence de trace comme indice, du rôle de l’indexation pour lever la polysémie des signes et enfin de l’enjeu de la traçabilité des traces ouvrent les questions relatives ...

  20. Magnetic beads-based DNAzyme recognition and AuNPs-based enzymatic catalysis amplification for visual detection of trace uranyl ion in aqueous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyan; Lin, Ling; Zeng, Xiaoxue; Ruan, Yajuan; Wu, Yongning; Lin, Minggui; He, Ye; Fu, FengFu

    2016-04-15

    We herein developed a novel biosensor for the visual detection of trace uranyl ion (UO2(2+)) in aqueous environment with high sensitivity and specificity by using DNAzyme-functionalized magnetic beads (MBs) for UO2(2+) recognition and gold nano-particles (AuNPs)-based enzymatic catalysis oxidation of TMB (3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine sulfate) for signal generation. The utilization of MBs facilitates the magnetic separation and collection of sensing system from complex sample solution, which leads to more convenient experimental operation and more strong resistibility of the biosensor to the matrix of sample, and the utilization of AuNPs-based enzymatic catalysis amplification greatly improved the sensitivity of the biosensor. Compared with the previous DNAzyme-based UO2(2+) sensors, the proposed biosensor has outstanding advantages such as relative high sensitivity and specificity, operation convenience, low cost and more strong resistibility to the matrix of sample. It can be used to detect as low as 0.02 ppb (74 pM) of UO2(2+) in aqueous environment by only naked-eye observation and 1.89 ppt (7.0 pM) of UO2(2+) by UV-visible spectrophotometer with a recovery of 93-99% and a RSD ≤ 5.0% (n=6) within 3h. Especially, the visual detection limit of 0.02 ppb (74 pM) is much lower than the maximum allowable level of UO2(2+) (130 nM) in the drinking water defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), indicating that our method meets the requirement of rapid and on-site detection of UO2(2+) in the aqueous environment by only naked-eye observation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Determination of trace elements in chewing gum by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    Six trace elements of nutritional or toxicological interest (Al, Ca, Cl, Mn, Na and Sr) were determined in three different brands of chewing gum by instrumental neutron activation analysis. For the particular brands of gum examined, none of the detected elements was found to be present at a level representing a substantial contribution to the total dietary intake of the element for an American adult. (author) 11 refs.; 3 tabs

  2. Spoken word recognition without a TRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannagan, Thomas; Magnuson, James S.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    How do we map the rapid input of spoken language onto phonological and lexical representations over time? Attempts at psychologically-tractable computational models of spoken word recognition tend either to ignore time or to transform the temporal input into a spatial representation. TRACE, a connectionist model with broad and deep coverage of speech perception and spoken word recognition phenomena, takes the latter approach, using exclusively time-specific units at every level of representation. TRACE reduplicates featural, phonemic, and lexical inputs at every time step in a large memory trace, with rich interconnections (excitatory forward and backward connections between levels and inhibitory links within levels). As the length of the memory trace is increased, or as the phoneme and lexical inventory of the model is increased to a realistic size, this reduplication of time- (temporal position) specific units leads to a dramatic proliferation of units and connections, begging the question of whether a more efficient approach is possible. Our starting point is the observation that models of visual object recognition—including visual word recognition—have grappled with the problem of spatial invariance, and arrived at solutions other than a fully-reduplicative strategy like that of TRACE. This inspires a new model of spoken word recognition that combines time-specific phoneme representations similar to those in TRACE with higher-level representations based on string kernels: temporally independent (time invariant) diphone and lexical units. This reduces the number of necessary units and connections by several orders of magnitude relative to TRACE. Critically, we compare the new model to TRACE on a set of key phenomena, demonstrating that the new model inherits much of the behavior of TRACE and that the drastic computational savings do not come at the cost of explanatory power. PMID:24058349

  3. Combining image processing and modeling to generate traces of beta-strands from cryo-EM density images of beta-barrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Dong; He, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Electron cryo-microscopy (Cryo-EM) technique produces 3-dimensional (3D) density images of proteins. When resolution of the images is not high enough to resolve the molecular details, it is challenging for image processing methods to enhance the molecular features. β-barrel is a particular structure feature that is formed by multiple β-strands in a barrel shape. There is no existing method to derive β-strands from the 3D image of a β-barrel at medium resolutions. We propose a new method, StrandRoller, to generate a small set of possible β-traces from the density images at medium resolutions of 5-10Å. StrandRoller has been tested using eleven β-barrel images simulated to 10Å resolution and one image isolated from the experimentally derived cryo-EM density image at 6.7Å resolution. StrandRoller was able to detect 81.84% of the β-strands with an overall 1.5Å 2-way distance between the detected and the observed β-traces, if the best of fifteen detections is considered. Our results suggest that it is possible to derive a small set of possible β-traces from the β-barrel cryo-EM image at medium resolutions even when no separation of the β-strands is visible in the images.

  4. Serum trace elements as nutritional markers in a case with acute aortic dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Y.; Suwabe, A.; Tawara, M.; Endo, R.; Ikeda, K.; Sera, K.

    2008-01-01

    Serum trace elements were analyzed by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method in a patient with acute aortic dissection during the supportive process by a Nutrition support team (NST). The patient was a 53-year old male who suffered from acute aortic dissection on March 1, 2007. He received emergent Bentall operation and bow pars total displacement. Since he suffered from diarrhea as a result of hypoalbuminemia and bowel dysfunction, enteral nutrition was not sufficient to maintain adequate intake. Therefore, we also used parenteral nutrition until the 97th disease day. Afterwards, the patient managed only with enteral nutrition. We measured serum trace elements during these periods. Serum trace elements such as Fe, Zn and Se were preserved within normal ranges. On the other hand, Cu gradually decreased until the 54th disease day (44 μg/l) and stayed in the lower levels around the detection limit until the 109th disease day. Thereafter, Cu slightly increased and reached 117 μg/l on the 131st disease day (reference range of serum Cu in adult males: 700-1,300 μg/l). It was suggested that the serum levels of these trace elements might reflect the nutritional stages of the patient and could be useful as clinical markers for nutritional therapies. (author)

  5. Accelerator SIMS, a technique for the determination of stable trace elements in ultrapure materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ender, R.M.; Suter, M. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland); Doebeli, M.; Synal, H.A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    A new sputtering chamber with special precautions against sample contamination from the surroundings of the sample has been added to the AMS beamline of the tandem accelerator. This allows the detection of trace element concentrations in ultrapure materials below the ppb range in many cases. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  6. Speciation of protein-bound trace elements by gel electrophoresis and atomic spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Renli; McLeod, Cameron W; Tomlinson, Kerry; Poole, Robert K

    2004-08-01

    The metabolism of trace elements, in particular their binding to proteins in biological systems is of great importance in biochemical, toxicological, and pharmacological studies. As a result there has been a sustained interest over the last two decades in the speciation of protein-bound metals. Various analytical approaches have been employed, combining efficient separation of metalloproteins by liquid chromatography or electrophoresis with high-sensitivity elemental detection. Slab-gel electrophoresis (GE) is a key platform for high-resolution protein separation, and has been combined with autoradiography and various atomic spectrometric techniques for in-gel determination of protein-bound metals. Recently, the combination of GE with state-of-the-art inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), particularly when linked to laser ablation (LA) for direct gel interrogation, has opened up new opportunities for rapid characterization of metalloproteins. The use of GE and atomic spectrometry for the speciation of protein-bound trace elements is reviewed in this paper. Technical requirements for gel electrophoresis/atomic spectrometric measurement are considered in terms of method compatibilities, detection capability and potential usefulness. The literature is also surveyed to illustrate current status and future trends. Copyright 2004 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co.

  7. Computer program for optical systems ray tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, T. J.; Konn, H.

    1967-01-01

    Program traces rays of light through optical systems consisting of up to 65 different optical surfaces and computes the aberrations. For design purposes, paraxial tracings with astigmation and third order tracings are provided.

  8. Analysis of trace elements by means of accelerator secondary ion mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ender, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    The analysis of material composition and trace element concentration is of increasing interest primarily in semiconductor technology but also in metallurgy, geology, biology and medicine. At present, Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) is in many respects the best technique to provide 3-dimensional information on the distribution of trace elements with concentrations below 1 ppm. However, due to the presence of molecular ions the detectability of many trace elements it restricted because of molecular mass interferences. In addition, detectors used in SIMS have a background counting rate of 0.1-1 Hz, which further limits trace element analysis. In Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) long-lived radionuclides are detected free of molecular interferences and detector background at isotopic ratios as low as 10 -15 . Moreover, isobaric interferences can be reduced as well. In order to benefit from these advantages a combination of SIMS and AMS (Accelerator SIMS) has been proposed almost 20 years ago, but no facility has ever been fully developed. It has been the aim of this work to add a new sputtering chamber for AMS measurements of ultrapure semiconductor material to the existing PSI/ETH AMS facility. To fulfill the requirements of material analysis, an UHV chamber with special precautions against contamination has been built and adapted to the existing AMS setup. For sputtering, a commercial Cs gun with an ExB filter and a 1 o beam bend for neutral particle suppression is used to obtain a pure Cs ion beam. The gun is equipped with different apertures for varying the diameter of the beam spot. With the integrated scanning unit the 10 keV Cs beam can be rastered over approximately 1 mm 2 . This allows different applications such as bulk analysis, depth profiling and imaging. The secondary ion extraction is matched to the ion optical and geometrical requirements of the existing accelerator mass spectrometer. (author) figs., tabs., 67 refs

  9. Thermometric Titration for Rapid Determination of Trace Water in Jet Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Qiang Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water content in jet fuels is detected by thermometric titration (TMT, and the optimal detected system is 2,2-dimethoxypropane as titrant, cyclohexane and isopropanol as titration solvents, and methanesulfonic acid as catalyst in this method. The amounts of oil, concentration and delivery rate of titrant, volumes, and the reliability and accuracy of thermometric titration were emphasized. The results show that the accuracy, validity, and reliability of TMT are excellent by different indicated spiked water contents. The obtained results between TMT and Karl Fischer titration have been proven to be in accord. But, the duration of titration merely spends 3–5 min in the whole process, greatly shortening the detected time. Therefore, rapid and accurate determination of trace water in a jet fuel can be realized by TMT.

  10. About possibility of temperature trace observing on a human skin through clothes by using computer processing of IR image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.; Shestakov, Ivan L.; Blednov, Roman G.

    2017-05-01

    One of urgent security problems is a detection of objects placed inside the human body. Obviously, for safety reasons one cannot use X-rays for such object detection widely and often. For this purpose, we propose to use THz camera and IR camera. Below we continue a possibility of IR camera using for a detection of temperature trace on a human body. In contrast to passive THz camera using, the IR camera does not allow to see very pronounced the object under clothing. Of course, this is a big disadvantage for a security problem solution based on the IR camera using. To find possible ways for this disadvantage overcoming we make some experiments with IR camera, produced by FLIR Company and develop novel approach for computer processing of images captured by IR camera. It allows us to increase a temperature resolution of IR camera as well as human year effective susceptibility enhancing. As a consequence of this, a possibility for seeing of a human body temperature changing through clothing appears. We analyze IR images of a person, which drinks water and eats chocolate. We follow a temperature trace on human body skin, caused by changing of temperature inside the human body. Some experiments are made with observing of temperature trace from objects placed behind think overall. Demonstrated results are very important for the detection of forbidden objects, concealed inside the human body, by using non-destructive control without using X-rays.

  11. Poly(1-vinylimidazole) functionalized magnetic ion imprinted polymer for fast and selective extraction of trace gold in geological, environmental and biological samples followed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bingshan; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Xu, Hongrun; Hu, Bin

    2018-05-01

    In this study, poly(1-vinylimidazole) functionalized gold ion imprinted polymer coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs@PVIM-Au-IIP) were prepared and characterized. The adsorption behaviors of the prepared MNPs@PVIM-Au-IIP toward gold ions (Au(III)) were studied, it was found that MNPs@PVIM-Au-IIP has good selectivity, high adsorption capacity (185.4 mg g-1) and fast adsorption kinetic for Au(III). Based on it, a new method of ion imprinted magnetic solid phase extraction (II-MSPE) coupled with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) detection was proposed for the analysis of trace Au(III) in real samples with complicated matrix. Factors affecting MSPE including sample pH, desorption reagent, elution concentration and volume, elution time, sample volume and adsorption time were optimized. With high enrichment factor of 100-fold, the detection limit of the proposed method is 7.9 ng L-1 for Au(III) with the relative standard deviation of 7.4% (c = 50 ng L-1, n = 7). In order to validate the accuracy of the proposed method, the Certified Reference Material of GBW07293 geological sample (platinpalladium ore) was analyzed, and the determined value was in good agreement with the certified value. The proposed II-MSPE-GFAAS method is simple, fast, selective, sensitive and has been successfully applied in the determination of trace Au in ore, sediment, environmental water and human urine samples with satisfactory results.

  12. Detecting Anthrax, Botulinum Toxin, and Ricin – Immunoassay Test Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    This assay is listed as Tier I for presumptive analysis of BoNTs in drinking water samples and Tier II for presumptive analysis of BoNTs in other environmental sample types. The lateral flow immunochromatographic assay uses two antibodies in combination to

  13. Trace formulae for arithmetical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogomolny, E.B.; Georgeot, B.; Giannoni, M.J.; Schmit, C.

    1992-09-01

    For quantum problems on the pseudo-sphere generated by arithmetic groups there exist special trace formulae, called trace formulae for Hecke operators, which permit the reconstruction of wave functions from the knowledge of periodic orbits. After a short discussion of this subject, the Hecke operators trace formulae are presented for the Dirichlet problem on the modular billiard, which is a prototype of arithmetical systems. The results of numerical computations for these semiclassical type relations are in good agreement with the directly computed eigenfunctions. (author) 23 refs.; 2 figs

  14. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis for trace elements of basic ingredients of pan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, J.H.; Arif, M.; Fatima, I; Qureshi, I.H.

    2002-01-01

    Extensive use of pan, by one-tenth of world's population, entails the evaluation of trace element contents in its ingredients. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) was developed and successfully employed to determine the concentration of 36 trace elements (essential, toxic and nonessential) in its four basic ingredients, leaf of betel pepper, betel nut, catechu and lime. The radiochemical separation methodology has significantly improved the detection limits of most of these elements due to suppression of Compton background. Base-line values of certain toxic and essential elements in these ingredients is provided. The daily intake of essential and toxic elements through pan was estimated and compared with the recommended values. The cumulative intake of Mn is four times higher than the recommended value and that of toxic elements is well below the tolerance limits. (author)

  15. Offset Trace-Based Video Quality Evaluation Network Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeling, P.; Reisslein, M.; Fitzek, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Video traces contain information about encoded video frames, such as frame sizes and qualities, and provide a convenient method to conduct multimedia networking research. Although wiedely used in networking research, these traces do not allow to determine the video qaulityin an accurate manner...... after networking transport that includes losses and delays. In this work, we provide (i) an overview of frame dependencies that have to be taken into consideration when working with video traces, (ii) an algorithmic approach to combine traditional video traces and offset distortion traces to determine...... the video quality or distortion after lossy network transport, (iii) offset distortion and quality characteristics and (iv) the offset distortion trace format and tools to create offset distortion traces....

  16. Optimizing detectability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    HPLC is useful for trace and ultratrace analyses of a variety of compounds. For most applications, HPLC is useful for determinations in the nanogram-to-microgram range; however, detection limits of a picogram or less have been demonstrated in certain cases. These determinations require state-of-the-art capability; several examples of such determinations are provided in this chapter. As mentioned before, to detect and/or analyze low quantities of a given analyte at submicrogram or ultratrace levels, it is necessary to optimize the whole separation system, including the quantity and type of sample, sample preparation, HPLC equipment, chromatographic conditions (including column), choice of detector, and quantitation techniques. A limited discussion is provided here for optimization based on theoretical considerations, chromatographic conditions, detector selection, and miscellaneous approaches to detectability optimization. 59 refs

  17. PIXE analysis of caries related trace elements in tooth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annegarn, H.J.; Jodaikin, A.; Cleaton-Jones, P.E.; Sellschop, J.P.F.; Madiba, C.C.P.; Bibby, D.; University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg

    1981-01-01

    PIXE analysis has been applied to a set of twenty human teeth to determine trace element concentration in enamel from areas suceptible to dental caries (mesial and distal contact points) and in areas less susceptible to the disease (buccal surface), with the aim of determining the possible roles of trace elements in the carious process. The samples were caries-free anterior incisors extracted for periodontal reasons from subjects 10-30 years of age. Prior to extraction of the sample teeth, a detailed dental history and examination was carried out in each individual. PIXE analysis, using a 3 MeV proton beam of 1 mm diameter, allowed the determination of Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr and Pb above detection limits. As demonstrated in this work, the enhanced sensitivity of PIXE analysis over electron microprobe analysis, and capability of localised surface analysis compared with the pooled samples require for neutron activation analysis, makes it a powerful and useful technique in dental analysis. (orig.)

  18. PIXE analysis of caries related trace elements in tooth enamel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annegarn, H J; Jodaikin, A; Cleaton-Jones, P E; Sellschop, J P.F.; Madiba, C C.P.; Bibby, D [University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Nuclear Physics Research Unit; University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dental Research Unit)

    1981-03-01

    PIXE analysis has been applied to a set of twenty human teeth to determine trace element concentration in enamel from areas suceptible to dental caries (mesial and distal contact points) and in areas less susceptible to the disease (buccal surface), with the aim of determining the possible roles of trace elements in the carious process. The samples were caries-free anterior incisors extracted for periodontal reasons from subjects 10-30 years of age. Prior to extraction of the sample teeth, a detailed dental history and examination was carried out in each individual. PIXE analysis, using a 3 MeV proton beam of 1 mm diameter, allowed the determination of Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr and Pb above detection limits. As demonstrated in this work, the enhanced sensitivity of PIXE analysis over electron microprobe analysis, and capability of localised surface analysis compared with the pooled samples require for neutron activation analysis, makes it a powerful and useful technique in dental analysis.

  19. Determination of Trace Elements in Thai Cereal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permnamtip, Vorapot; Busamongkol, Arporn; Laoharojanaphand, Sirinart; Chaiyasith, Suwan

    2007-08-01

    Full text: Trace elements were analyzed in Thai cereal, e.g. rice and bean, by using neutron activation analysis (NAA). The selected cereals are major food items for Thai population. The data obtained from this work will be useful for nutrition and safety consumption of Thai cereal. Trace elements verified include Al, As, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, I, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Se, Sn, V and Zn. It was found that Al, As, Br, Cl, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ca, K and Mg are presented in the range of 2.2 to 35.7, 0.15 to 0.21, 0.44 to 13.5, 55.6 to 640.3, 16.3 to 16.5, 158.9 to 161.1, 12.2 to 55.7, 8.2 to 58.1 (g/g (ppm) , 0.02 to 0.28, 0.09 to 1.99 and 0.03 to 0.26 %, respectively. For Cd, Cr, I, Mo, Se, Sn and V were not found in sample because the concentrations were lower than detection limit. Precision and accuracy were determined by analyzing standard reference materials: NIST 1568a, NIST 8704, ACSP DORM-1, NIES No.9 and NMIJ 7302 to a

  20. X-ray fluorescent analysis of iodin traces in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlov, I.F.; Baturin, A.A.; Mikhajlov, A.I.; Borisova, S.S.; Reshetnyak, M.V.; Shlyakhova, N.V.; Budrejko, E.A.; Galata, D.I.

    2015-01-01

    Using XFA method, determination of iodine concentration in urine for 35 children of 10-15 with endocrine pathology (delay of sexual development, diffuse goiter, obesity) and 10 practically healthy children being observed under conditions of the consultative polyclinic and the department of endocrinology of SI ''ISHCJ NAMSU''. The proposed optimized XFA method allows by 1-2 orders increasing detection sensitivity for micro-elements measurements in biology objects and attaining the iodine trace contents in urine in the range from 50 to 200 gg/dm 3

  1. Release kinetics and mechanisms of trace heavy metals from cement based material; Cinetiques et mecanismes de relargage des metaux lourds presents en traces dans les matrices cimentaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moudilou, E.

    2002-12-15

    Chemical species contained in a solid matrix may be transferred to the environment through water leaching. Previous studies of trace metals released from building materials (particularly cement-based ones) highlight an important analytical difficulty. The aim of this study is to determine the kinetics and the mechanisms involved in the release of trace heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) from industrial cement pastes (usually ranging from 20 to 300 ppm). The development of a dynamic leaching system, named CTG-LEACHCRETE, (used at pH=5, 20 C) which permits the evaluation of the kinetics of trace heavy metals is presented in the first part. Also, innovative solid analysis techniques (ICP-MS-Laser Ablation, local and Grazing Incidence X-rays Diffraction (GIXD) technique) were used to characterise the cement-degraded layers formed during leaching experiments. These techniques enable to monitor the mineralogical evolution and the distribution of trace metals in these areas. The confrontation of these two approaches, kinetic and solid analysis, coupled with a thorough investigation of previously developed models, lead to proposals concerning the mechanisms of release of the trace heavy metals studied. In all the cement pastes studied (CPA-CEM I, CPJ-CEM II/A and CLC-CEM V/A), chromium is trapped in ettringite by substitution SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}(U)CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and its release is then controlled by the dissolution of this hydrate. The behaviour of copper, nickel and zinc in degraded areas and in leachates, are correlated to the silicon of the hydrated calcium silicate (CSH), which imply that they are localised there. Lead, was never detected in the leachates. But it is also correlated to the silicon in the degraded layers. (author)

  2. Tracing and inhibiting growth of Staphylococcus aureus in barbecue cheese production after product recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johler, S; Zurfluh, K; Stephan, R

    2016-05-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning is one of the most prevalent causes of foodborne intoxication worldwide. It is caused by ingestion of enterotoxins formed by Staphylococcus aureus during growth in the food matrix. Following a recall of barbecue cheese due to the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxins in Switzerland in July 2015, we analyzed the production process of the respective dairy. Although most cheese-making processes involve acidification to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria, barbecue cheese has to maintain a pH >6.0 to prevent undesired melting of the cheese. In addition, the dairy decided to retain the traditional manual production process of the barbecue cheese. In this study, therefore, we aimed to (1) trace Staph. aureus along the barbecue cheese production process, and (2) develop a sustainable strategy to inhibit growth of Staph. aureus and decrease the risk of staphylococcal food poisoning without changing the traditional production process. To this end, we traced Staph. aureus in a step-wise blinded process analysis on 4 different production days using spa (Staphylococcus protein A gene) typing, DNA microarray profiling, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis. We subsequently selected a new starter culture and used a model cheese production including a challenge test assay to assess its antagonistic effect on Staph. aureus growth, as well as its sensory and technological implications. We detected Staph. aureus in 30% (37/124) of the collected samples taken from the barbecue cheese production at the dairy. This included detection of Staph. aureus in the final product on all 4 production days, either after enrichment or using quantitative detection. We traced 2 enterotoxigenic Staph. aureus strains (t073/CC45 and t282/CC45) colonizing the nasal cavity and the forearms of the cheesemakers to the final product. In the challenge test assay, we were able to show that the new starter culture inhibited growth of Staph. aureus while meeting

  3. Diagnosing MOV problems using comparative trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents the concept of comparative trace analysis and shows it to be very effective in diagnosing motor operated valve (MOV) problems. Comparative trace analysis is simply the process of interpreting simultaneously gathered traces, each presenting a different perspective on the same series of events. The opening and closing of a motor operated valve is such a series of events. The simultaneous traces are obtained using Liberty Technologies' Valve Operation Test and Evaluation System (VOTES)reg-sign. The traces include stem thrust, motor current, motor power factor, motor power, switch actuations, vibration in three different frequency bands, spring pack displacement, and spring pack force. Spare and auxiliary channels enable additional key parameters to be measured, such as differential pressure and stem displacement. Though not specifically illustrated in this paper, the VOTES system also provides for FFT analysis on all traces except switches

  4. Impact of trace metal concentrations on coccolithophore growth and morphology: laboratory simulations of Cretaceous stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucher, Giulia; Hoffmann, Linn; Bach, Lennart T.; Bottini, Cinzia; Erba, Elisabetta; Riebesell, Ulf

    2017-07-01

    The Cretaceous ocean witnessed intervals of profound perturbations such as volcanic input of large amounts of CO2, anoxia, eutrophication and introduction of biologically relevant metals. Some of these extreme events were characterized by size reduction and/or morphological changes of a few calcareous nannofossil species. The correspondence between intervals of high trace metal concentrations and coccolith dwarfism suggests a negative effect of these elements on nannoplankton biocalcification processes in past oceans. In order to test this hypothesis, we explored the potential effect of a mixture of trace metals on growth and morphology of four living coccolithophore species, namely Emiliania huxleyi, Gephyrocapsa oceanica, Pleurochrysis carterae and Coccolithus pelagicus. The phylogenetic history of coccolithophores shows that the selected living species are linked to Mesozoic species showing dwarfism under excess metal concentrations. The trace metals tested were chosen to simulate the environmental stress identified in the geological record and upon known trace metal interactions with living coccolithophore algae.Our laboratory experiments demonstrated that elevated trace metal concentrations, similarly to the fossil record, affect coccolithophore algae size and/or weight. Smaller coccoliths were detected in E. huxleyi and C. pelagicus, while coccoliths of G. oceanica showed a decrease in size only at the highest trace metal concentrations. P. carterae coccolith size was unresponsive to changing trace metal concentrations. These differences among species allow discriminating the most- (P. carterae), intermediate- (E. huxleyi and G. oceanica) and least-tolerant (C. pelagicus) taxa. The fossil record and the experimental results converge on a selective response of coccolithophores to metal availability.These species-specific differences must be considered before morphological features of coccoliths are used to reconstruct paleo-chemical conditions.

  5. Impact of trace metal concentrations on coccolithophore growth and morphology: laboratory simulations of Cretaceous stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Faucher

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Cretaceous ocean witnessed intervals of profound perturbations such as volcanic input of large amounts of CO2, anoxia, eutrophication and introduction of biologically relevant metals. Some of these extreme events were characterized by size reduction and/or morphological changes of a few calcareous nannofossil species. The correspondence between intervals of high trace metal concentrations and coccolith dwarfism suggests a negative effect of these elements on nannoplankton biocalcification processes in past oceans. In order to test this hypothesis, we explored the potential effect of a mixture of trace metals on growth and morphology of four living coccolithophore species, namely Emiliania huxleyi, Gephyrocapsa oceanica, Pleurochrysis carterae and Coccolithus pelagicus. The phylogenetic history of coccolithophores shows that the selected living species are linked to Mesozoic species showing dwarfism under excess metal concentrations. The trace metals tested were chosen to simulate the environmental stress identified in the geological record and upon known trace metal interactions with living coccolithophore algae.Our laboratory experiments demonstrated that elevated trace metal concentrations, similarly to the fossil record, affect coccolithophore algae size and/or weight. Smaller coccoliths were detected in E. huxleyi and C. pelagicus, while coccoliths of G. oceanica showed a decrease in size only at the highest trace metal concentrations. P. carterae coccolith size was unresponsive to changing trace metal concentrations. These differences among species allow discriminating the most- (P. carterae, intermediate- (E. huxleyi and G. oceanica and least-tolerant (C. pelagicus taxa. The fossil record and the experimental results converge on a selective response of coccolithophores to metal availability.These species-specific differences must be considered before morphological features of coccoliths are used to reconstruct paleo-chemical conditions.

  6. Wireless Sensing System Using Open-circuit, Electrically-conductive Spiral-trace Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A wireless sensing system includes a sensor made from an electrical conductor shaped to form an open-circuit, electrically-conductive spiral trace having inductance and capacitance. In the presence of a time-varying magnetic field, the sensor resonates to generate a harmonic response having a frequency, amplitude and bandwidth. A magnetic field response recorder wirelessly transmits the time-varying magnetic field to the sensor and wirelessly detects the sensor's response frequency, amplitude and bandwidth.

  7. Trace maps of general substitutional sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolar, M.; Nori, F.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that for arbitrary n, there exists a trace map for any n-letter substitutional sequence. Trace maps are explicitly obtained for the well-known circle and Rudin-Shapiro sequences which can be defined by means of substitution rules on three and four letters, respectively. The properties of the two trace maps and their consequences for various spectral properties are briefly discussed

  8. Trace detection of explosive materials in air cargo containers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jezierska, M.M.; Spreen, J.S.; Ruiter, J.C. de; Koomen, G.C.M.; Slegt, M.

    2011-01-01

    At the request of the National Coordinator for Counterterrorism in the Netherlands a research project called “Security through innovation - risk-oriented detection in a drive-through set-up” has been carried out by TNO Defense, Security and Safety (TNO) and by Dutch Customs. In 2009 and 2010, a

  9. Tracing explosive in solvent using quantum cascade laser with pulsed electric discharge system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seong-Wook; Tian, Chao; Martini, Rainer, E-mail: rmartini@stevens.edu [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Stevens Institute of Technology, 1 Castle Point on Hudson, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030 (United States); Chen, Gang [School of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Chen, I-chun Anderson [Newport Corporation/Oriel Instruments, 150 Long Beach Boulevard, Stratford, Connecticut 06615 (United States)

    2014-11-03

    We demonstrated highly sensitive detection of explosive dissolved in solvent with a portable spectroscopy system (Q-MACS) by tracing the explosive byproduct, N{sub 2}O, in combination with a pulsed electric discharge system for safe explosive decomposition. Using Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), the gas was monitored and analyzed by Q-MACS and the presence of the dissolved explosive clearly detected. While HMX presence could be identified directly in the air above the solutions even without plasma, much better results were achieved under the decomposition. The experiment results give an estimated detection limit of 10 ppb, which corresponds to a 15 pg of HMX.

  10. Tracing explosive in solvent using quantum cascade laser with pulsed electric discharge system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seong-Wook; Tian, Chao; Martini, Rainer; Chen, Gang; Chen, I-chun Anderson

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrated highly sensitive detection of explosive dissolved in solvent with a portable spectroscopy system (Q-MACS) by tracing the explosive byproduct, N 2 O, in combination with a pulsed electric discharge system for safe explosive decomposition. Using Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), the gas was monitored and analyzed by Q-MACS and the presence of the dissolved explosive clearly detected. While HMX presence could be identified directly in the air above the solutions even without plasma, much better results were achieved under the decomposition. The experiment results give an estimated detection limit of 10 ppb, which corresponds to a 15 pg of HMX

  11. [Trace analysis of aristolochic acid A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yalin; Gao, Huimin; Wang, Zhimin; Zhang, Qiwei

    2010-12-01

    A HPLC method for limit detection of aristolochic acid A in the Chinese herbs containing aristolochic acid or suspected-containing aristolochic acid and their preparations was established. The samples were analyzed on an Alltima C18 column eluted with methanol-water-acetic acid (68:32:1.5) as the mobile phase. Flow rate was at 1.0 mL x min(-1) and the detection wavelength was at 390 nm. The calibration curve was linear over the range from 0.016 to 0.51 g (r = 0.9993) and LOD was 4 ng. The average recovery was 101.2% with RSD of 2.01%. The procedures of sample preparation were systematically investigated. The contents of aristolochic acid A in Radix et Rhizoma Asari bought from market or drugstore were fluctuated from 3.1 to 26.6 microg x g(-1) and 3 of 11 samples accorded with the quality requirement of current Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Among 15 batches samples of Chinese medicaments, only one sample was found to contain aristolochic acid A. The present investigation shows that the method is sensitive and repeatable and it could be used for the limit detection of aristolochic acid A in the Chinese herbal medicines containing trace amount of aristolochic acid A or suspected-containing aristolochic acid A and their preparations.

  12. Trace water vapor determination in nitrogen and corrosive gases using infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza, L.H.; Niemczyk, T.M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Stallard, B.R.; Garcia, M.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The generation of particles in gas handling systems as a result of corrosion is a major concern in the microelectronics industry. The corrosion can be caused by the presence of trace quantities of water in corrosive gases such as HCl or HBr. FTIR spectroscopy has been shown to be a method that can be made compatible with corrosive gases and is capable of detecting low ppb levels of water vapor. In this report, the application of FTIR spectroscopy combined with classical least squares multivariate calibration to detect trace H{sub 2}O in N{sub 2}, HCl and HBr is discussed. Chapter 2 discusses the gas handling system and instrumentation required to handle corrosive gases. A method of generating a background spectrum useful to the measurements discussed in this report, as well as in other application areas such as gas phase environmental monitoring, is discussed in Chapter 3. Experimental results obtained with the first system are presented in Chapter 4. Those results made it possible to optimize the design options for the construction of a dedicate system for low ppb water vapor determination. These designs options are discussed in Chapter 5. An FTIR prototype accessory was built. In addition, a commercially available evacuable FTIR system was obtained for evaluation. Test results obtained with both systems are discussed in Chapter 6. Experiments dealing with the interaction between H{sub 2}O-HCl and potential improvements to the detection system are discussed in Chapter 7.

  13. Sequential injection on-line matrix removal and trace metal preconcentration using a PTFE beads packed column as demonstrated for the determination of cadmium by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2002-01-01

    A sequential injection (SI) on-line matrix removal and trace metal preconcentration procedure by using a novel microcolumn packed with PTFE beads is described, and demonstrated for trace cadmium analysis with detection by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The analyte...

  14. Concentration of trace metals in boreholes in the Ankobra Basin, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortasi, B. K.

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of trace metals in ground water from the Ankobra basin revealed high levels of iron, manganese and aluminium. Approximately 40% of boreholes had total iron concentration exceeding 1000 μ 1 -1 (maximum WHO permissible limit). Aluminium concentration varied from 0.1 μ to 2510 μ 1 -1 with a median value of 10.0 μ 1 -1 . Approximately 20% of the boreholes had aluminium concentration exceeding the WHO maximum acceptable limit (200 μ 1 -1 ) for drinking water. Manganese concentration was in the range 6-2510 μ 1 -1 with a median of 356 μ 1 -1 . Roughly 25% of the boreholes had manganese concentrations higher that 500 μ 1 -1 , which is the WHO maximum acceptable limit for drinking water. The concentrations of mercury was higher than 1.0 μ 1 -1 (WHO maximum acceptable limit) in 60% of the boreholes during the rainy season but below detection limit in the dry season, suggesting anthropogenic origin for mercury in the groundwater. Other trace metals that occurred, but in insignificant concentration in the boreholes, include lead, arsenic, nickel and selenium. Most of the boreholes with high trace metal concentrations were located in and around the Bawdie-Bogoso-Prestea area. (au)

  15. NSF-RANN trace contaminants abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copenhaver, E.D.; Harnden, D.S.

    1976-10-01

    Specific areas of interest of the Environmental Aspects of Trace Contaminants Program are organic chemicals of commerce, metals and organometallic compounds, air-borne contaminants, and environmental assay methodology. Fifty-three abstracts of literature on trace contaminants are presented. Author, keyword, and permuted title indexes are included

  16. Effect of parameters in moving average method for event detection enhancement using phase sensitive OTDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong-Seok; Naeem, Khurram; Jeon, Min Yong; Kwon, Il-bum

    2017-04-01

    We analyze the relations of parameters in moving average method to enhance the event detectability of phase sensitive optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR). If the external events have unique frequency of vibration, then the control parameters of moving average method should be optimized in order to detect these events efficiently. A phase sensitive OTDR was implemented by a pulsed light source, which is composed of a laser diode, a semiconductor optical amplifier, an erbium-doped fiber amplifier, a fiber Bragg grating filter, and a light receiving part, which has a photo-detector and high speed data acquisition system. The moving average method is operated with the control parameters: total number of raw traces, M, number of averaged traces, N, and step size of moving, n. The raw traces are obtained by the phase sensitive OTDR with sound signals generated by a speaker. Using these trace data, the relation of the control parameters is analyzed. In the result, if the event signal has one frequency, then the optimal values of N, n are existed to detect the event efficiently.

  17. EpiContactTrace: an R-package for contact tracing during livestock disease outbreaks and for risk-based surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöremark, Maria; Widgren, Stefan

    2014-03-17

    During outbreak of livestock diseases, contact tracing can be an important part of disease control. Animal movements can also be of relevance for risk-based surveillance and sampling, i.e. both when assessing consequences of introduction or likelihood of introduction. In many countries, animal movement data are collected with one of the major objectives to enable contact tracing. However, often an analytical step is needed to retrieve appropriate information for contact tracing or surveillance. In this study, an open source tool was developed to structure livestock movement data to facilitate contact-tracing in real time during disease outbreaks and for input in risk-based surveillance and sampling. The tool, EpiContactTrace, was written in the R-language and uses the network parameters in-degree, out-degree, ingoing contact chain and outgoing contact chain (also called infection chain), which are relevant for forward and backward tracing respectively. The time-frames for backward and forward tracing can be specified independently and search can be done on one farm at a time or for all farms within the dataset. Different outputs are available; datasets with network measures, contacts visualised in a map and automatically generated reports for each farm either in HTML or PDF-format intended for the end-users, i.e. the veterinary authorities, regional disease control officers and field-veterinarians. EpiContactTrace is available as an R-package at the R-project website (http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/EpiContactTrace/). We believe this tool can help in disease control since it rapidly can structure essential contact information from large datasets. The reproducible reports make this tool robust and independent of manual compilation of data. The open source makes it accessible and easily adaptable for different needs.

  18. Geometry-invariant GRIN lens: finite ray tracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Mehdi; Goncharov, Alexander V

    2014-11-17

    The refractive index distribution of the geometry-invariant gradient refractive index lens (GIGL) model is derived as a function of Cartesian coordinates. The adjustable external geometry of the GIGL model aims to mimic the shape of the human and animal crystalline lens. The refractive index distribution is based on an adjustable power-law profile, which provides additional flexibility of the model. An analytical method for layer-by-layer finite ray tracing through the GIGL model is developed and used to calculate aberrations of the GIGL model. The result of the finite ray tracing aberrations of the GIGL model are compared to those obtained with paraxial ray tracing. The derived analytical expression for the refractive index distribution can be employed in the reconstruction processes of the eye using the conventional ray tracing methods. The layer-by-layer finite ray tracing approach would be an asset in ray tracing through a modified GIGL model, where the refractive index distribution cannot be described analytically. Using the layer-by-layer finite ray-tracing method, the potential of the GIGL model in representing continuous as well as shell-like layered structures is illustrated and the results for both cases are presented and analysed.

  19. Trace Elements in Human Tooth Enamel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixon, G. S. [Turner Dental School, University Of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Smith, H.; Livingston, H. D. [Department of Forensic Medicine, University Of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    1967-10-15

    The trace elements are considered to play a role in the resistance of teeth to dental caries. The exact mechanism by which they act has not yet been fully established. Estimations of trace elements have been undertaken in sound human teeth. By means of activation analysis it has been possible to determine trace element concentrations in different layers of enamel in the same tooth. The concentrations of the following elements have been determined: arsenic, antimony, copper, zinc, manganese, mercury, molybdenum and vanadium. The distribution of trace elements in enamel varies from those with a narrow range, such as manganese, to those with a broad range, such as antimony. The elements present in the broad range are considered to be non-essential and their presence is thought to result from a chance incorporation into the enamel. Those in the narrow range appear to be essential trace elements and are present in amounts which do not vary unduly from other body tissues. Only manganese and zinc were found in higher concentrations in the surface layer of enamel compared with the inner layers. The importance of the concentration of trace elements on this surface layer of enamel is emphasized as this layer is the site of the first attack by the carious process. (author)

  20. Full autonomous microline trace robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Deer; Lu, Si; Yan, Yingbai; Jin, Guofan

    2000-10-01

    Optoelectric inspection may find applications in robotic system. In micro robotic system, smaller optoelectric inspection system is preferred. However, as miniaturizing the size of the robot, the number of the optoelectric detector becomes lack. And lack of the information makes the micro robot difficult to acquire its status. In our lab, a micro line trace robot has been designed, which autonomous acts based on its optoelectric detection. It has been programmed to follow a black line printed on the white colored ground. Besides the optoelectric inspection, logical algorithm in the microprocessor is also important. In this paper, we propose a simply logical algorithm to realize robot's intelligence. The robot's intelligence is based on a AT89C2051 microcontroller which controls its movement. The technical details of the micro robot are as follow: dimension: 30mm*25mm*35*mm; velocity: 60mm/s.

  1. Mid-Ir Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer for Biological Trace Nitric Oxide Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Vincent; Ragab, Ahemd; Stsiapura, Vitali; Lehmann, Kevin K.; Gaston, Benjamin M.

    2011-06-01

    S-nitrosothiols have received much attention in biochemistry and medicine as donors of nitrosonium ion (NO^+) and nitric oxide (NO) - physiologically active molecules involved in vasodilation and signal transduction. Determination of S-nitrosothiols content in cells and tissues is of great importance for fundamental research and medical applications. We will report on our ongoing development of a instrument to measure trace levels of nitric oxide gas (NO), released from S-nitrosothiols after exposure to UV light (340 nm) or reaction with L-Cysteine+CuCl mixture. The instrument uses the method of cavity ring-down spectroscopy, probing rotationally resolved lines in the vibrational fundamental transition near 5.2 μm. The laser source is a continuous-wave, room temperature external cavity quantum cascade laser. An acousto-optic modulator is used to abruptly turn off the optical power incident on the cavity when the laser and cavity pass through resonance.

  2. Microwave synthesis of gibberellin acid 3 magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer beads for the trace analysis of gibberellin acids in plant samples by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuomin; Tan, Wei; Hu, Yuling; Li, Gongke; Zan, Song

    2012-02-21

    In this study, novel GA3 magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (mag-MIP) beads were synthesized by a microwave irradiation method, and the beads were applied for the trace analysis of gibberellin acids (GAs) in plant samples including rice and cucumber coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The microwave synthetic procedure was optimized in detail. In particular, the interaction between GA3 and functional monomers was further studied for the selection of the optimal functional monomers during synthesis. It can be seen that the interaction between GA3 and acrylamide (AM) finally selected was stronger than that between GA3 and other functional monomers. GA3 mag-MIP beads were characterized by a series of physical tests. GA3 mag-MIP beads had a porous and homogeneous surface morphology with stable chemical, thermal and magnetic properties. Moreover, GA3 mag-MIP beads demonstrated selective and specific absorption behavior for the target compounds during unsaturated extraction, which resulted in a higher extraction capacity (∼708.4 pmol for GA3) and selectivity than GA3 mag-non-imprinted polymer beads. Finally, an analytical method of GA3 mag-AM-MIP bead extraction coupled with HPLC-MS detection was established and applied for the determination of trace GA1, GA3, GA4 and GA7 in rice and cucumber samples. It was satisfactory that GA4 could be actually found to be 121.5 ± 1.4 μg kg(-1) in real rice samples by this novel analytical method. The recoveries of spiked rice and cucumber samples were found to be 76.0-109.1% and 79.9-93.6% with RSDs of 2.8-8.8% and 3.1-7.7% (n = 3), respectively. The proposed method is efficient and applicable for the trace analysis of GAs in complicated plant samples.

  3. Application of synchrotron radiation to x-ray fluorescence analysis of trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, B.M.; Jones, K.W.; Hanson, A.L.

    1986-08-01

    The development of synchrotron radiation x-ray sources has provided the means to greatly extend the capabilities of x-ray fluorescence analysis for determinations of trace element concentrations. A brief description of synchrotron radiation properties provides a background for a discussion of the improved detection limits compared to existing x-ray fluorescence techniques. Calculated detection limits for x-ray microprobes with micrometer spatial resolutions are described and compared with experimental results beginning to appear from a number of laboratories. The current activities and future plans for a dedicated x-ray microprobe beam line at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) of Brookhaven National Laboratory are presented

  4. Trace analysis of actinides in the environment using resonance ionization mass spectrometry; Spurenanalyse von Aktiniden in der Umwelt mittels Resonanzionisations-Massenspektrometrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeder, Sebastian

    2011-04-12

    In this work the resonant ionization of neutral atoms using laser radiation was applied and optimized for ultra-trace analysis of the actinides thorium, uranium, neptunium and plutonium. The sensitive detection of these actinides is a challange for the monitoring and quantification of radioactive releases from nuclear facilities. Using resonance ionization spectroscopy combined with a newly developed quadrupole-mass-spectrometer, numerous energy levels in the atomic structure of these actinides could be identified. With this knowledge efficient excitation schemes for the mentioned actinides could be identified and characterised. The applied in-source-ionization ensures for a high detection efficiency due to the good overlap of laser radiation with the atomic beam and allows therefore for a low sample consumption which is required for the analysis of radio nuclides. The selective excitation processes in the resonant ionization method supresses unwanted contaminations and was optimized for analytical detection of ultra-trace amounts in environmental samples as well as for determination of isotopic compositions. The efficient in-source-ionization combined with high power pulsed laser radiation allows for detections efficiency up to 1%. For plutonium detection limits in the range of 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} atoms could be demonstrated for synthetic samples as well as for first environmental samples. The usage of narrow bandwidth continuous wave lasers in combination with a transversal overlap of the laser radiation and the free propagating atomic beam enable for resolving individual isotopic shifts of the resonant transitions. This results in a high selectivity against dominant neighboring isotopes but with a significant loss in detection efficiency. For the ultra-trace isotope {sup 236}U a detection limit down to 10{sup -9} for the isotope ratio N ({sup 236}U)/N ({sup 238}U) could be determined.

  5. Phosphate dosing of mains water : novel approaches to water loss reduction through leakage detection and policy [abstract

    OpenAIRE

    Ascott, M.J.; Gooddy, D.C.; Lapworth, D.J.; Stuart, M.E.

    2016-01-01

    Detection and t racing of leakage in the environment are essential component s of water loss reduction strategies. Industry standard techniques for tracing leaks include analysis of chlorine and trihalomethane concentrations, but levels of these determinands can fall belo w detection limits due to their volatile nature 1 . Consequently additional tools to trace leakage in the environment are a useful step ...

  6. Removal of trace organic contaminants by a membrane bioreactor-granular activated carbon (MBR-GAC) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Luong N; Hai, Faisal I; Kang, Jinguo; Price, William E; Nghiem, Long D

    2012-06-01

    The removal of trace organics by a membrane bioreactor-granular activated carbon (MBR-GAC) integrated system were investigated. The results confirmed that MBR treatment can be effective for the removal of hydrophobic (log D>3.2) and readily biodegradable trace organics. The data also highlighted the limitation of MBR in removing hydrophilic and persistent compounds (e.g. carbamazepine, diclofenac, and fenoprop) and that GAC could complement MBR very well as a post-treatment process. The MBR-GAC system showed high removal of all selected trace organics including those that are hydrophilic and persistent to biological degradation at up to 406 bed volumes (BV). However, over an extended period, breakthrough of diclofenac was observed after 7320 BV. This suggests that strict monitoring should be applied over the lifetime of the GAC column to detect the breakthrough of hydrophilic and persistent compounds which have low removal by MBR treatment. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ar-39 Detection at the 10^-16 Isotopic Abundance Level with Atom Trap Trace Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, W.; Williams, W. D.; Bailey, K.; Davis, A. M.; Hu, S. -M.; Lu, Z. -T.; O'Connor, T. P.; Purtschert, R.; Sturchio, N. C.; Sun, Y. R.; Mueller, P.

    2011-01-01

    Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA), a laser-based atom counting method, has been applied to analyze atmospheric Ar-39 (half-life = 269 yr), a cosmogenic isotope with an isotopic abundance of 8x10^-16. In addition to the superior selectivity demonstrated in this work, counting rate and efficiency of ATTA have been improved by two orders of magnitude over prior results. Significant applications of this new analytical capability lie in radioisotope dating of ice and water samples and in the develop...

  8. A Theory of Network Tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Hrishikesh B.; Gouda, Mohamed G.

    Traceroute is a widely used program for computing the topology of any network in the Internet. Using Traceroute, one starts from a node and chooses any other node in the network. Traceroute obtains the sequence of nodes that occur between these two nodes, as specified by the routing tables in these nodes. Each use of Traceroute in a network produces a trace of nodes that constitute a simple path in this network. In every trace that is produced by Traceroute, each node occurs either by its unique identifier, or by the anonymous identifier"*". In this paper, we introduce the first theory aimed at answering the following important question. Is there an algorithm to compute the topology of a network N from a trace set T that is produced by using Traceroute in network N, assuming that each edge in N occurs in at least one trace in T, and that each node in N occurs by its unique identifier in at least one trace in T? We prove that the answer to this question is "No" if N is an even ring or a general network. However, it is "Yes" if N is a tree or an odd ring. The answer is also "No" if N is mostly-regular, but "Yes" if N is a mostly-regular even ring.

  9. Determination of trace elements by resonant ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruster, W.; Ames, F.; Rehklau, D.; Mang, M.; Muehleck, C.; Rimke, H.; Sattelberger, P.; Herrmann, G.; Trautmann, N.; Kluge, H.J.; Otten, E.W.

    1988-01-01

    A resonant ionization mass spectrometer has been developed as an analytical tool for the detection of trace elements, especially of plutonium and other radionuclides. The sample, deposited on a rhenium filament, is evaporated by electrical heating and the atoms of the element under investigation are selectively ionized by laser light delivered from three dye lasers pumped by a copper vapour laser. The resulting photoions are detected in a time-of-flight spectrometer with a channelplate detector. For plutonium a mass resolution of M/ΔM=1500 was obtained and an overall detection efficiency of 4x10 -6 was determined for stepwise excitation and ionization via autoionizing states. With a laser light bandwidth of 3-5 GHz neighbouring isotopes could be suppressed by a factor of 20 due to isotope shifts in the excitation transitions. The isotope composition of synthetic samples was measured and good agreement was found with mass spectroscopic results. The influence of the hyperfine structure on the isotope ratios is discussed. (orig.)

  10. Development of a process analyzer for trace uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiller, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    A process analyzer, based on time-resolved laser-induced luminescence, is being developed for the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for the ultra-trace determination of uranium. The present instrument has a detection limit of 1 μg/L; the final instrument will have a detection limit near 1 ng/L for continuous environmental monitoring. Time-resolved luminescence decay is used to enhance sensitivity, reduce interferences, and eliminate the need for standard addition. The basic analyzer sequence is: a pulse generator triggers the laser; the laser beam strikes a photodiode which initiates data acquisition and synchronizes the timing, nearly simultaneously, laser light strikes the sample; intensity data are collected under control of the gated photon counter; and the cycle repeats as necessary. Typically, data are collected in 10 μs intervals over 700 μs (several luminescence half-lives). The final instrument will also collect and prepare samples, calibrate itself, reduce the raw data, and transmit reduced data to the control station(s)

  11. Trace element, semivolatile organic, and chlorinated organic compound concentrations in bed sediments of selected streams at Fort Gordon, Georgia, February-April 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lashun K.; Journey, Celeste A.; Stringfield, Whitney J.; Clark, Jimmy M.; Bradley, Paul M.; Wellborn, John B.; Ratliff, Hagan; Abrahamsen, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    A spatial survey of streams was conducted from February to April 2010 to assess the concentrations of major ions, selected trace elements, semivolatile organic compounds, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls associated with the bed sediments of surface waters at Fort Gordon military installation near Augusta, Georgia. This investigation expanded a previous study conducted in May 1998 by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army Environmental and Natural Resources Management Office of the U.S. Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon, that evaluated the streambed sediment quality of selected surface waters at Fort Gordon. The data presented in this report are intended to help evaluate bed sediment quality in relation to guidelines for the protection of aquatic life, and identify temporal trends in trace elements and semivolatile organic compound concentrations at streambed sites previously sampled. Concentrations of 34 major ions and trace elements and 102 semivolatile organic, organochlorine pesticide, and polychlorinated biphenyl compounds were determined in the fine-grained fraction of bed sediment samples collected from 13 of the original 29 sites in the previous study, and 22 additional sites at Fort Gordon. Three of the sites were considered reference sites as they were presumed to be located away from potential sources of contaminants and were selected to represent surface waters flowing onto the fort, and the remaining 32 nonreference sites were presumed to be located within the contamination area at the fort. Temporal trends in trace elements and semivolatile organic compound concentrations also were evaluated at 13 of the 32 nonreference sites to provide an assessment of the variability in the number of detections and concentrations of constituents in bed sediment associated with potential sources, accumulation, and attenuation processes. Major ion and trace element concentrations in fine-grained bed

  12. Trace elements in natural azurite pigments found in illuminated manuscript leaves investigated by synchrotron x-ray fluorescence and diffraction mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smieska, Louisa M.; Mullett, Ruth; Ferri, Laurent; Woll, Arthur R.

    2017-07-01

    We present trace-element and composition analysis of azurite pigments in six illuminated manuscript leaves, dating from the thirteenth to sixteenth century, using synchrotron-based, large-area x-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) and diffraction (SR-XRD) mapping. SR-XRF mapping reveals several trace elements correlated with azurite, including arsenic, zirconium, antimony, barium, and bismuth, that appear in multiple manuscripts but were not always detected by point XRF. Within some manuscript leaves, variations in the concentration of trace elements associated with azurite coincide with distinct regions of the illuminations, suggesting systematic differences in azurite preparation or purification. Variations of the trace element concentrations in azurite are greater among different manuscript leaves than the variations within each individual leaf, suggesting the possibility that such impurities reflect distinct mineralogical/geologic sources. SR-XRD maps collected simultaneously with the SR-XRF maps confirm the identification of azurite regions and are consistent with impurities found in natural mineral sources of azurite. In general, our results suggest the feasibility of using azurite trace element analysis for provenance studies of illuminated manuscript fragments, and demonstrate the value of XRF mapping in non-destructive determination of trace element concentrations within a single pigment.

  13. Trace elements in natural azurite pigments found in illuminated manuscript leaves investigated by synchrotron x-ray fluorescence and diffraction mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smieska, Louisa M.; Woll, Arthur R. [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Wilson Laboratory, Ithaca, NY (United States); Mullett, Ruth [Cornell University, Medieval Studies Program, Ithaca, NY (United States); Ferri, Laurent [Cornell University, Cornell Library Rare and Manuscript Collections, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2017-07-15

    We present trace-element and composition analysis of azurite pigments in six illuminated manuscript leaves, dating from the thirteenth to sixteenth century, using synchrotron-based, large-area x-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) and diffraction (SR-XRD) mapping. SR-XRF mapping reveals several trace elements correlated with azurite, including arsenic, zirconium, antimony, barium, and bismuth, that appear in multiple manuscripts but were not always detected by point XRF. Within some manuscript leaves, variations in the concentration of trace elements associated with azurite coincide with distinct regions of the illuminations, suggesting systematic differences in azurite preparation or purification. Variations of the trace element concentrations in azurite are greater among different manuscript leaves than the variations within each individual leaf, suggesting the possibility that such impurities reflect distinct mineralogical/geologic sources. SR-XRD maps collected simultaneously with the SR-XRF maps confirm the identification of azurite regions and are consistent with impurities found in natural mineral sources of azurite. In general, our results suggest the feasibility of using azurite trace element analysis for provenance studies of illuminated manuscript fragments, and demonstrate the value of XRF mapping in non-destructive determination of trace element concentrations within a single pigment. (orig.)

  14. Application of a portable total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometer to a trace elemental analysis of wines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunimura, Shinsuke; Kawai, Jun

    2009-01-01

    A portable total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometer has been applied to a trace elemental analysis of wines. Sulfur, K, Mn, Fe, and Rb were detected. These five elements were quantified by using 1 ppm of Co as an internal standard. The quantified concentrations ranged from sub-ppm to several hundred ppm. Because of organic substances in wines, the scattering of the incident X-rays from the dry residues of wines becomes strong. Therefore, a high spectral background appears in TXRF spectra of wines. Because of this background, relative standard deviations of the quantified concentrations were from 4 to 28%. Although the high spectral background appeared in the TXRF spectra of the wines, a detection limit down to several tens of ppb was achieved. The present portable spectrometer can be applied to screening for trace elements in wines before an accurate and precise analysis using a large elemental analyzer. (author)

  15. A Plasma Based OES-CRDS Dual-mode Portable Spectrometer for Trace Element Detection: Emission and Ringdown Measurements of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, Peeyush; Scherrer, Susan; Wang, Chuji

    2012-10-01

    Design and development of a plasma based optical emission spectroscopy-cavity ringdown spectroscopy (OES-CRDS) dual-mode portable spectrometer for in situ monitoring of trace elements is described. A microwave plasma torch (MPT) has been utilized, which serves both as an atomization and excitation source for the two modes, viz. OES and CRDS, of the spectrometer. Operation of both modes of the instrument is demonstrated with initial measurements of elemental mercury (Hg). A detection limit of 44 ng mL-1 for Hg at 253.65 nm was determined with the emission mode of the instrument. Severe radiation trapping of 253.65 nm line hampers the measurement of Hg in higher concentration region (> 50 μg ml-1). Therefore, a different wavelength, 365.01 nm, is suggested to measure Hg in that region. Ringdown measurements of the metastable 6s6p ^3P0 state of Hg in the plasma using a 404.65 nm palm size diode laser was conducted to demonstrate the CRDS mode of the instrument. Along with being portable, dual-mode, and self-calibrated, the instrument is capable of measuring a wide range of concentration ranging from sub ng mL-1 to several μg ml-1 for a number of elements.

  16. Notes on saltwater intrusion and trace element distribution in Metro Manila groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G. Jr.; Ramos, A.F.; Fernandez, L.G.; Almoneda, R.V.; Garcia, T.Y.; Cruz, C.C.; Petrache, C.A.; Andal, T.T.; Alcantara, E.

    1989-01-01

    Preliminary analyses of waters for uranium and other trace elements from deepwells operated by the Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System (MWSS) in Metro Manila were performed. Uranium, which ranged from 0.2 ppb to 6 ppb, was correlated with saltwater intrusion. Values >=0.8 ppb for uranium were considered indicative of saline water intrusion in the aquifers. Saline water intrusions in Malabon, Navotas, Paranaque, Las Pinas, Bacoor, Imus, Kawit, Pasig, Antipolo, San Mateo, Taguig, Cainta, Taytay, Alabang and Muntinlupa were noted. Most of these areas were also identified by MWSS as being affected by saltwater intrusion. Tritium values ranged from 0 (below detection limits) to 44 tritium units. Except for one well in Muntinlupa, all the values obtained were below the lower limit of detection of 30.83 T.U. Mercury contents in six well locations had values above the maximum limit set by the National Standards for Drinking Water. Four wells exceeded the permissible level for manganese while two wells had iron concentrations greater than the National Standards. Other trace element concentrations such as Cr, Pb, Zn, Co and Ni either did not exceed their permissible levels or were not included in the National Standards. (Auth.). 6 refs.; 1 tab.; 3 figs

  17. Quantification of trace elements in protein bands by synchrotron radiation x-ray fluorescence after isoelectric focusing separation of human hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yuxi; Chen Chunying; Li Bai; He Wei; Huang Yuying; Chai Zhifang

    2005-01-01

    The role and effects of a trace element in a particular organism strongly depend on its particular chemical forms in which the element is present. Therefore, the bulk content or concentration of an element in the organism of interest is often meaningless in judging its biological significance. To understand bioavailability, transportation, cell uptake, metabolism, toxicity, and other biological behaviors of trace elements in the body, information is needed about speciation of trace element, especially about distribution of metal-containing proteins. Development of appropriate methods for speciation analysis is therefore required. Synchrotron radiation x-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) is a sensitive method for multielemental analysis with detection limit of 10 ng/g. It has been successfully used for imaging and quantifying trace elements in various pathological and healthy tissues, even in a single cell, to help understand the mechanism of diseases and the biochemistry of elements. In our previous work, the technique was combined with electrophoresis to study distribution of metalloproteins in biological samples, but the quantitative analysis of trace elements in protein bands after electrophoresis was still unrealized. In this study, a procedure has been proposed for quantification of Fe, Cu, and Zn in protein bands with SRXRF analysis after isoelectric focusing (IEF) separation. Calibration standards were prepared by adding certain amounts of metal ions and free-metal proteins to electrophoresis gel. Human hemoglobin was separated with IEF, and Fe, Cu, and Zn in protein bands were analyzed by SRXRF. The calibration curves can be obtained in a range of 0-8 mg/kg metals and a linear relationship between dosage of metals and fluorescent intensity can be observed (r 2 > 0.99). The method provides the detection limits of 2.43, 1.12, and 0.96 mg/kg for Fe, Cu and Zn, and the recoveries of 90.4 and 115.7 % for Fe and Zn, respectively. The hyphenated technique of SRXRF and IEF

  18. Expression and immunogenicity of M2e peptide of avian influenza virus H5N1 fused to ricin toxin B chain produced in duckweed plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firsov, Aleksey; Tarasenko, Irina; Mitiouchkina, Tatiana; Shaloiko, Lyubov; Kozlov, Oleg; Vinokurov, Leonid; Rasskazova, Ekaterina; Murashev, Arkadii; Vainstein, Alexander; Dolgov, Sergey

    2018-02-01

    The amino acid sequence of the extracellular domain of the virus-encoded M2 matrix protein (peptide M2e) is conserved among all subtypes of influenza A strains, enabling the development of a broad-range vaccine against them. We expressed M2e from avian influenza virus A/chicken/Kurgan/5/2005 (H5N1) in nuclear-transformed duckweed plants for further development of an avian influenza vaccine. The 30-amino acid N-terminal fragment of M2, including M2e (denoted M130), was selected for expression. The M2e DNA sequence fused in-frame to the 3’ end of ricin toxin B chain (RTB) was cloned under control of the CaMV 35S promoter into pBI121. The resulting plasmid was used for duckweed transformation, and 23 independent transgenic duckweed lines were obtained. Asialofetuin-binding ELISA of protein samples from the transgenic plants using polyclonal anti-RTB antibodies confirmed the expression of the RTB–M130 fusion protein in 20 lines. Quantitative ELISA of crude protein extracts from these lines showed RTB–M130 accumulation ranging from 0.25–2.5 µg/g fresh weight (0.0006–0.01% of total soluble protein). Affinity chromatography with immobilized asialofetuin and western blot analysis of protein samples from the transgenic plants showed expression of fusion protein RTB–M130 in the dimeric form with a molecular mass of about 70 kDa. Mice were immunized orally with a preparation of total soluble protein from transgenic plants, receiving four doses of 7 μg duckweed-derived RTB–M130 each, with no additional adjuvant. Specific IgG against M2e was detected in immunized mice, and the endpoint titer of anti-M2e IgG was 1024. It was confirmed that oral immunization with RTB-M2e induces production of specific antibodies against peptide M2e, one of the most conserved antigens of the influenza virus. These results may provide further information for the development of a duckweed-based expression system to produce a broad-range edible vaccine against avian influenza.

  19. ATTA - A new method of ultrasensitive isotope trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, K.; Chen, C.Y.; Du, X.; Li, Y.M.; Lu, Z.-T.; O'Connor, T.P.; Young, L.

    2000-01-01

    A new method of ultrasensitive isotope trace analysis has been developed. This method, based on the technique of laser manipulation of neutral atoms, has been used to count individual 85 Kr and 81 Kr atoms present in a natural krypton gas sample with isotopic abundances in the range of 10 -11 and 10 -13 , respectively. This method is free of contamination from other isotopes and elements and can be applied to various different isotope tracers for a wide range of applications. The demonstrated detection efficiency is 1x10 -7 . System improvements could increase the efficiency by many orders of magnitude

  20. Lectures on the Arthur-Selberg trace formula

    CERN Document Server

    Gelbart, Stephen

    1996-01-01

    The Arthur-Selberg trace formula is an equality between two kinds of traces: the geometric terms given by the conjugacy classes of a group and the spectral terms given by the induced representations. In general, these terms require a truncation in order to converge, which leads to an equality of truncated kernels. The formulas are difficult in general and even the case of GL(2) is nontrivial. The book gives proof of Arthur's trace formula of the 1970s and 1980s, with special attention given to GL(2). The problem is that when the truncated terms converge, they are also shown to be polynomial in the truncation variable and expressed as "weighted" orbital and "weighted" characters. In some important cases the trace formula takes on a simple form over G. The author gives some examples of this, and also some examples of Jacquet's relative trace formula. This work offers for the first time a simultaneous treatment of a general group with the case of GL(2). It also treats the trace formula with the example of Jacque...

  1. Tracing the origin of glomerular extracapillary lesions from parietal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Bart; Uhlig, Sandra; Fuss, Astrid; Mooren, Fieke; Wetzels, Jack F M; Floege, Jürgen; Moeller, Marcus J

    2009-12-01

    Cellular lesions form in Bowman's space in both crescentic glomerulonephritis and collapsing glomerulopathy. The pathomechanism and origin of the proliferating cells in these lesions are unknown. In this study, we examined proliferating cells by lineage tracing of either podocytes or parietal epithelial cells (PECs) in the nephrotoxic nephritis model of inflammatory crescentic glomerulonephritis. In addition, we traced the fate of genetically labeled PECs in the Thy-1.1 transgenic mouse model of collapsing glomerulopathy. In both models, cellular bridges composed of PECs were observed between Bowman's capsule and the glomerular tuft. Genetically labeled PECs also populated larger, more advanced cellular lesions. In these lesions, we detected de novo expression of CD44 in activated PECs. In contrast, we rarely identified genetically labeled podocytes within the cellular lesions of crescentic glomerulonephritis. In conclusion, PECs constitute the majority of cells that compose early extracapillary proliferative lesions in both crescentic glomerulonephritis and collapsing glomerulopathy, suggesting similar pathomechanisms in both diseases.

  2. Atmospheric trace metal pollution in the Naples urban area based on results from moss and lichen bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordano, S.; Adamo, P.; Sorbo, S.; Vingiani, S.

    2005-01-01

    The results of trace element content analysed in Sphagnum capillifolium and Pseudevernia furfuracea exposed in bags in 1999 are reconsidered to evaluate the reliability of moss and lichen transplants to detect urban trace element atmospheric pollution, using Naples as a case example. After 4 months' exposure, trace element concentrations were at least twice as high as the pre-exposure values and in general higher in Sphagnum than in Pseudevernia. Moss samples were enriched in the following order: As = Cu > Mo > Pb > V > Co > Cr > Zn; lichen samples in the order: Mo > Cu > As = Co = Ni > V > Pb. Based on the calculation of a cumulative load factor, all sites located along the coast had higher trace element loads compared to sites in the hilly inland area. Complementary SEM, TEM and EDS observations showed, despite significant damage to tissue and cell integrity, the recurrent presence of particulate matter in moss and lichen, indicating the considerable presence of dust in the urban atmosphere which, according to chemical composition, may be due both to anthropogenic and natural sources such as volcanic rock and soil and sea salts. - Despite significant damage to tissue and cell integrity, moss and lichen in bags efficiently intercept airborne trace elements

  3. Laser-excited luminescence of trace Nd3+ impurity in LaBr3 revealed by Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jinqiu; Cui, Lei; He, Huaqiang; Hu, Yunsheng; Wu, Hao; Zeng, Jia; Liu, Yuzhu

    2012-10-01

    Unexpected additional bands with obvious non-vibrational features were observed in Raman spectra of LaBr3. Extensive study was carried out to reveal the origin of these bands. Results indicate that the additional bands correspond to laser-excited luminescence of trace Nd3+ impurity unintentionally introduced from the La2O3 raw material, which was further confirmed by Raman spectra of specially prepared Nd3+-doped LaBr3 and LaOBr samples. The luminescence properties of Nd3+ in different matrix were compared and discussed. The ultrasensitivity of Raman spectroscopy in detecting trace luminescent lanthanide ions shows good potential for analytical applications.

  4. Efficient sample preparation method based on solvent-assisted dispersive solid-phase extraction for the trace detection of butachlor in urine and waste water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladaghlo, Zolfaghar; Fakhari, Alireza; Behbahani, Mohammad

    2016-10-01

    In this work, an efficient sample preparation method termed solvent-assisted dispersive solid-phase extraction was applied. The used sample preparation method was based on the dispersion of the sorbent (benzophenone) into the aqueous sample to maximize the interaction surface. In this approach, the dispersion of the sorbent at a very low milligram level was achieved by inserting a solution of the sorbent and disperser solvent into the aqueous sample. The cloudy solution created from the dispersion of the sorbent in the bulk aqueous sample. After pre-concentration of the butachlor, the cloudy solution was centrifuged and butachlor in the sediment phase dissolved in ethanol and determined by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Under the optimized conditions (solution pH = 7.0, sorbent: benzophenone, 2%, disperser solvent: ethanol, 500 μL, centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 3 min), the method detection limit for butachlor was 2, 3 and 3 μg/L for distilled water, waste water, and urine sample, respectively. Furthermore, the preconcentration factor was 198.8, 175.0, and 174.2 in distilled water, waste water, and urine sample, respectively. Solvent-assisted dispersive solid-phase extraction was successfully used for the trace monitoring of butachlor in urine and waste water samples. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Use of trace elements as indicators for underground fluid circulations in karstic environment; Utilisation des elements en trace comme traceurs des circulations souterraines en milieu karstique (site du Lamalou, Herault)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pane-Escribe, M B

    1995-06-29

    The geochemical study of the trace element behaviour in karstic groundwaters has been carried out over the experimental site of Lamalou (Herault, France). Routine measurements of the physico-chemical parameters and of the dissolved elements concentrations have been achieved during two hydrological cycles. Radon has been monitored by passive detectors and by automatic electronic probes. Trace elements (Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, Th, U) were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The first part of this work presents the methodologies employed with in particular the improvement of the analytical performances of ICP-MS for water samples analysis. The detection limit for each considered element has been determined. The short and long term reproducibility for the samples analysis has also been tested. The second part of this study presents the treatment and interpretation of the results. This analysis has pointed our the influence of the aquifer structure on the chemical elements distribution. The trace and major elements concentrations are effectively related to the fracturing state of the reservoir and allow to individualize the high transmissivity zones from zones with a lower transmissivity in this mono-lithological context, trace elements appear to be particularly efficient tracers for determining the water origin and circulation their spatial and temporal behaviour leads to identify three different origins for the water mineralization over the studied area: limestones, clays and external sources (rainfalls and occasional pollutions). (author). 154 refs.

  6. RAY TRACING IMPLEMENTATION IN JAVA PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aybars UĞUR

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper realism in computer graphics and components providing realism are discussed at first. It is mentioned about illumination models, surface rendering methods and light sources for this aim. After that, ray tracing which is a technique for creating two dimensional image of a three-dimensional virtual environment is explained briefly. A simple ray tracing algorithm was given. "SahneIzle" which is a ray tracing program implemented in Java programming language which can be used on the internet is introduced. As a result, importance of network-centric ray tracing software is discussed.

  7. Ricinus communis intoxications in human and veterinary medicine-a summary of real cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worbs, Sylvia; Köhler, Kernt; Pauly, Diana; Avondet, Marc-André; Schaer, Martin; Dorner, Martin B; Dorner, Brigitte G

    2011-10-01

    Accidental and intended Ricinus communis intoxications in humans and animals have been known for centuries but the causative agent remained elusive until 1888 when Stillmark attributed the toxicity to the lectin ricin. Ricinus communis is grown worldwide on an industrial scale for the production of castor oil. As by-product in castor oil production ricin is mass produced above 1 million tons per year. On the basis of its availability, toxicity, ease of preparation and the current lack of medical countermeasures, ricin has gained attention as potential biological warfare agent. The seeds also contain the less toxic, but highly homologous Ricinus communis agglutinin and the alkaloid ricinine, and especially the latter can be used to track intoxications. After oil extraction and detoxification, the defatted press cake is used as organic fertilizer and as low-value feed. In this context there have been sporadic reports from different countries describing animal intoxications after uptake of obviously insufficiently detoxified fertilizer. Observations in Germany over several years, however, have led us to speculate that the detoxification process is not always performed thoroughly and controlled, calling for international regulations which clearly state a ricin threshold in fertilizer. In this review we summarize knowledge on intended and unintended poisoning with ricin or castor seeds both in humans and animals, with a particular emphasis on intoxications due to improperly detoxified castor bean meal and forensic analysis.

  8. Ricin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marburg virus hemorrhagic fever Melioidosis ( Burkholderia pseudomallei ) Plague ( Yersinia pestis ) FAQ About Plague (as a bioweapon) Facts About ... Ebola, Marburg] and arenaviruses [e.g., Lassa, Machupo]) Yersinia pestis (plague) Fact Sheets Case Definitions Training Surveillance Preparation & ...

  9. Intraoral gothic arch tracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, Barry; Hill, Edward E

    2011-01-01

    In order to create optimum esthetics, function and phonetics in complete denture fabrication, it is necessary to record accurate maxillo-mandibular determinants of occlusion. This requires clinical skill to establish an accurate, verifiable and reproducible vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO) and centric relation (CR). Correct vertical relation depends upon a consideration of several factors, including muscle tone, inter-dental arch space and parallelism of the ridges. Any errors made while taking maxillo-mandibular jaw relation records will result in dentures that are uncomfortable and, possibly, unwearable. The application of a tracing mechanism such as the Gothic arch tracer (a central bearing device) is a demonstrable method of determining centric relation. Intraoral Gothic arch tracers provide the advantage of capturing VDO and CR in an easy-to-use technique for practitioners. Intraoral tracing (Gothic arch tracing) is a preferred method of obtaining consistent positions of the mandible in motion (retrusive, protrusive and lateral) at a comfortable VDO.

  10. From trace chemistry to single atom chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adloff, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    Hot atom chemistry in the vast majority of experimental works deals with the trace amount of radioactive matters. Accordingly, the concept of trace chemistry is at the heart of hot atom chemistry. Some aspects of the chemistry at trace scale and at subtrace scale are presented together with the related problems of speciation and the complication which may arise due to the formation of radio colloids. The examples of 127 I(n,γ) 128 I and 132 Te (β - ) 132 I are shown, and the method based on radioactivity was used. The procedure of separating the elements in pitchblende is shown as the example of the chemistry of traces. 13 27 Al+ 2 4 He→ 0 1 n+ 15 30 P and 15 30 P→ 14 30 Si+e + +V are shown, and how to recognize the presence of radioactive colloids is explained. The formation of radiocolloids is by the sorption of a trace radioelement on pre-existing colloidal impurity or the self-condensation of monomeric species. The temporal parameters of the nature of reactions at trace concentration are listed. The examples of Class A and Class B reactions are shown. The kinetics of reactions at trace level, radon concentration, anthropogenic Pu and natural Pu in environment, the behavior of Pu atoms and so on are described. (K.I.)

  11. Heavy metals and related trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leland, H.V.; Luoma, S.N.; Wilkes, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    A review is given of heavy metals and related trace elements in the aquatic environment. Other reviews and bibliographies are cited, dealing with the metabolism and transport of metal ions and with the toxic effects of stable and radioactive trace metals on aquatic organisms. The sources of trace elements in natural waters are discussed. It is suggested that atmospheric inputs of several trace metals comprise sizable fractions of total inputs to the Great Lakes and continental shelf waters. Information on stack emissions of trace elements from a coal-fired steam plant was used to estimate the likely range of air concentrations and inputs to a forested watershed in Tennessee. Some basic concepts of cycling of elements through aquatic communities were examined, such as the Pb, Mn and Zn concentrations in sediment and estuarine plants and animals colonizing dredge-spoil disposal areas. The use of plants as biological indicators of trace element contamination was outlined, as well as bioaccumulation in aquatic fauna. The effects of environmental factors on the kinetics of element exchange were noted, for example the influx rates of Cs 137 in tubificid worms, and Co 60 and Zn 65 in shrimp were shown to be temperature dependent. The toxicity of heavy metals on aquatic fauna was discussed, such as the histopathological lesions in the kidney and liver of fishes caused by heavy metals, and the effects of Hg and Cu on the olfactory response of rainbow trout

  12. Determination of trace elements in tailpipe fish produced in artificial farms and from white and blue nile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Zeinb Khalil Elsaim

    2017-01-01

    In this study, an analytical protocol of x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine the concentration of 13 trace elements, potassium (K), antimony (Sb), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), bromine (Br), rubidium (Rb), strontium (Sr), mercury (Hg), chromium (Cu), manjense (Mn), and calcium (Ca), in tilapa fish. A total of 70 samples covering 35 fish samples collected from different states includes Eldamazine for blue nile samples and the Mawrada market for the white nile samples and 5 artificial fish farms samples were collected from Om badda in Omdurman and Bahry state for three farms Alsamraband Aldorshab and from Alshagra state in Khartoum, during may to June 2016. The trace elements detected in all samples, and the concentration in part million (ppm). The concentrations of trace elements followed the sequence of, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu, Sr, Rb, Pb, but Cr, Hg and Ni were observed in one fish fram (farm A). The analysis included two tissues (flesh and gills), because most people in Sudan consume the flesh and gills, specially in the small fishes, consider as good indicators for the trace elements, and toxic compounds in general. The analysis indicated that the white nile fishes have higher l eves of most of the trace elements compared to the blue nile, e.g. Fe (560±186) in the white nile, whereas in the blue nile, (188±63). On the other hand , the artificial tilapia farms showed significant variations in the trace elements concentrations. The analysis revealed that a higher concentrations of most of the trace elements in gill tissues than flesh, e.g. Fe (1673±1453) in the flesh, and (9768±1175) in the gills. These results indicated that the gill accumulated higher levels of heavy metals than other organs, because they acted as a depot tissue. In addition, the post hoc test was performed following (Dunnett tests), using the blue nile group as a control group, since it has the lowest trace elements concentrations, among the river nile fishes in

  13. Development of Hplc Techniques for the Analysis of Trace Metal Species in the Primary Coolant of a Pressurised Water Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Keiron Robert Philip

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The need to monitor corrosion products in the primary circuit of a pressurised water reactor (PWR), at a concentration of 10pg ml^{-1} is discussed. A review of trace and ultra-trace metal analysis, relevant to the specific requirements imposed by primary coolant chemistry, indicated that high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), coupled with preconcentration of sample was an ideal technique. A HPLC system was developed to determine trace metal species in simulated PWR primary coolant. In order to achieve the desired detection limit an on-line preconcentration system had to be developed. Separations were performed on Aminex A9 and Benson BC-X10 analytical columns. Detection was by post column reaction with Eriochrome Black T and Calmagite Linear calibrations of 2.5-100ng of cobalt (the main species of interest), were achieved using up to 200ml samples. The detection limit for a 200ml sample was 10pg ml^{-1}. In order to achieve the desired aim of on-line collection of species at 300^circ C, the use of inorganic ion-exchangers is essential. A novel application, utilising the attractive features of the inorganic ion-exchangers titanium dioxide, zirconium dioxide, zirconium arsenophosphate and pore controlled glass beads, was developed for the preconcentration of trace metal species at temperature and pressure. The performance of these exchangers, at ambient and 300^ circC was assessed by their inclusion in the developed analytical system and by the use of radioisotopes. The particular emphasis during the development has been upon accuracy, reproducibility of recovery, stability of reagents and system contamination, studied by the use of radioisotopes and response to post column reagents. This study in conjunction with work carried out at Winfrith, resulted in a monitoring system that could follow changes in coolant chemistry, on deposition and release of metal species in simulated PWR water loops. On

  14. Integrated luminometer for the determination of trace metals in seawater using fluorescence, phosphorescence and chemiluminescence detection

    OpenAIRE

    Worsfold, P. J.; Achterberg, E. P.; Bowie, A. R.; Cannizzaro, V.; Charles, S.; Costa, J. M.; Dubois, F.; Pereiro, R.; San Vicente, B.; Sanz-Medel, A.; Vandeloise, R.; Donckt, E. Vander; Wollast, P.; Yunus, S.

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes an integrated luminometer able to perform fluorescence (FL), room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) and chemiluminescence (CL) measurements on seawater samples. The technical details of the instrumentation are presented together with flow injection (FI) manifolds for the determination of cadmium and zinc (by FL), lead (RTP) and cobalt (CL). The analytical figures of merit are given for each mainfold and results are presented for the determination of the four trace metals i...

  15. [Trace elements of bone tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashnikov, V M; Zaĭchik, V E; Bizer, V A

    1983-01-01

    Due to activation analysis involving the use of neutrons from a nuclear reactor, the concentrations of 11 trace elements: scandium, iron, cobalt, mercury, rubidium, selenium, silver, antimony, chrome, zinc and terbium in intact bone and skeletal tumors were measured. 76 specimens of bioptates and resected material of operations for bone tumors and 10 specimens of normal bone tissue obtained in autopsies of cases of sudden death were examined. The concentrations of trace elements and their dispersion patterns in tumor tissue were found to be significantly higher than those in normal bone tissue. Also, the concentrations of some trace elements in tumor differed significantly from those in normal tissue; moreover, they were found to depend on the type and histogenesis of the neoplasm.

  16. Bags with oven-dried moss for the active monitoring of airborne trace elements in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordano, S.; Adamo, P.; Monaci, F.; Pittao, E.; Tretiach, M.; Bargagli, R.

    2009-01-01

    To define a harmonized methodology for the use of moss and lichen bags as active monitoring devices of airborne trace elements in urban areas, we evaluated the element accumulation in bags exposed in Naples in different spring weather conditions for 6- and 12-weeks. Three different pre-exposure treatments were applied to moss and lichen materials: water-washing, acid-washing and oven-drying. During the different exposure periods in the Naples urban environment the moss accumulated always higher amounts of elements (except Hg) than lichens and the element accumulation increased during wetter weather and higher PM 10 conditions. The oven pre-treatment did not substantially modify the morphology and element composition of moss and the exposure in bags of this material for 6-weeks was sufficient to detect the pattern of airborne trace elements. - A 6-week exposure with oven-dried moss bags resulted a suitable approach to evaluate airborne trace elements in a Mediterranean urban environment.

  17. Equilibration-Based Preconcentrating Minicolumn Sensors for Trace Level Monitoring of Radionuclides and Metal Ions in Water without Consumable Reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, Oleg B.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Grate, Jay W.

    2006-01-01

    A sensor technique is described that captures analyte species on a preconcentrating minicolumn containing a selective solid phase sorbent. In this approach, the sample is pumped through the column until the sorbent phase is fully equilibrated with the sample concentration, and the exit concentration equals the inlet concentration. On-column detection of the captured analytes using radiometric and spectroscopic methods are demonstrated. In trace level detection applications, this sensor provides a steady state signal that is proportional to sample analyte concentration and is reversible. The method is demonstrated for the detection of Tc-99 using anion exchange beads mixed with scintillating beads and light detection; Sr-90 using SuperLig 620 beads mixed with scintillating beads and light detection; and hexavalent chromium detection using anion exchange beads with spectroscopic detection. Theory has been developed to describe the signal at equilibration, and to describe analyte uptake as a function of volume and concentration, using parameters and concepts from frontal chromatography. It is shown that experimental sensor behavior closely matches theoretical predictions and that effective sensors can be prepared using low plate number columns. This sensor modality has many desirable characteristics for in situ sensors for trace-level contaminant long-term monitoring where the use of consumable reagents for sensor regeneration would be undesirable. Initial experiments in groundwater matrixes demonstrated the detection of Tc-99 at drinking water level standards (activity of 0.033 Bq/mL) and detection of hexavalent chromium to levels below drinking water standards of 50 ppb

  18. Use of trace elements as indicators for underground fluid circulations in karstic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pane-Escribe, M.B.

    1995-01-01

    The geochemical study of the trace element behaviour in karstic groundwaters has been carried out over the experimental site of Lamalou (Herault, France). Routine measurements of the physico-chemical parameters and of the dissolved elements concentrations have been achieved during two hydrological cycles. Radon has been monitored by passive detectors and by automatic electronic probes. Trace elements (Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, Th, U) were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The first part of this work presents the methodologies employed with in particular the improvement of the analytical performances of ICP-MS for water samples analysis. The detection limit for each considered element has been determined. The short and long term reproducibility for the samples analysis has also been tested. The second part of this study presents the treatment and interpretation of the results. This analysis has pointed our the influence of the aquifer structure on the chemical elements distribution. The trace and major elements concentrations are effectively related to the fracturing state of the reservoir and allow to individualize the high transmissivity zones from zones with a lower transmissivity in this mono-lithological context, trace elements appear to be particularly efficient tracers for determining the water origin and circulation their spatial and temporal behaviour leads to identify three different origins for the water mineralization over the studied area: limestones, clays and external sources (rainfalls and occasional pollutions). (author)

  19. Ray Tracing for Real-time Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, J.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes efficient rendering algorithms based on ray tracing, and the application of these algorithms to real-time games. Compared to rasterizationbased approaches, rendering based on ray tracing allows elegant and correct simulation of important global effects, such as shadows,

  20. Modeling of contact tracing in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimring, Lev S.; Huerta, Ramón

    2003-07-01

    Spreading of certain infections in complex networks is effectively suppressed by using intelligent strategies for epidemic control. One such standard epidemiological strategy consists in tracing contacts of infected individuals. In this paper, we use a recently introduced generalization of the standard susceptible-infectious-removed stochastic model for epidemics in sparse random networks which incorporates an additional (traced) state. We describe a deterministic mean-field description which yields quantitative agreement with stochastic simulations on random graphs. We also discuss the role of contact tracing in epidemics control in small-world and scale-free networks. Effectiveness of contact tracing grows as the rewiring probability is reduced.

  1. The transition region and coronal explorer (TRACE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Title, Alan; Bruner, M.; Jurcevich, B.; Lemen, J.; Strong, K.; Tarbell, Ted; Wolfson, C. Jacob; Golub, L.; Bookbinder, J.; Fisher, R.

    1995-01-01

    The transition region and coronal explorer (TRACE) NASA small explorer mission and instrument are presented. The TRACE scientific investigation explores the relationships between fine-scale magnetic fields and the associated solar plasma structures. The instrument collects images of solar plasmas at temperatures from 10(exp 4) to 10(exp 7) K with one arcsec spatial resolution. The design specifications of the trace instrument are presented.

  2. Determination of trace amount of formaldehyde base on a bromate-Malachite Green system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yufang; Chen, Hao; Weng, Chao; Tang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Miaoling; Hu, Tao

    2015-01-25

    A novel catalytic kinetic spectrophotometric method for determination of trace amount of formaldehyde (FA) has been established, based on catalytic effect of trace amount of FA on the oxidation of Malachite Green (MG) by potassium bromate in presence of sulfuric acid medium, and was reported for the first time. The method was monitored by measuring the decrease in absorbance of MG at 617 nm and allowed a precise determination of FA in the range of 0.003-0.08 μg mL(-1), with a limit of detection down to 1 ng mL(-1). The relative standard deviation of 10 replicate measurements was 1.63%. The method developed was approved to be sensitive, selective and accurate, and adopted to determinate free FA in samples directly with good accuracy and reproducibility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Application of forensic luminol for blood detection in endodontic files

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo ARRUDA-VASCONCELOS

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Blood is a biological material with high potential of infectious transmission in dental environments, including herpes simplex, hepatitis and AIDS. Aim To investigate the efficacy of luminol in detecting blood in endodontic files before and after the sterilization process. Material and method Luminol was used to investigate the presence or absence of traces of blood tissue in 50 endodontic files, visible to naked eye or not, after performing endodontic treatment and after the cleaning/sterilization process. The results obtained were tabulated and statistically analyzed by using the Friedman’s test at a significance level of 5% (p<0.05. Result By naked eye, it was found that 31/50 files showed no trace of blood, 8/50 showed a slight presence of blood and 11/50 showed a considerable presence of blood after endodontic treatment. After the use of luminol, however, 16/50 endodontic files showed no trace of blood, 19/50 showed a slight presence of blood and 15/50 showed a considerable presence of blood. After the cleaning and sterilization process, no blood was detected in the files. Conclusion It was concluded that the luminol solution is effective in detecting blood tissue in endodontic files as well as in validating the cleaning/sterilization process.

  4. Atom trap trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Z.-T.; Bailey, K.; Chen, C.-Y.; Du, X.; Li, Y.-M.; O'Connor, T. P.; Young, L.

    2000-01-01

    A new method of ultrasensitive trace-isotope analysis has been developed based upon the technique of laser manipulation of neutral atoms. It has been used to count individual 85 Kr and 81 Kr atoms present in a natural krypton sample with isotopic abundances in the range of 10 -11 and 10 -13 , respectively. The atom counts are free of contamination from other isotopes, elements,or molecules. The method is applicable to other trace-isotopes that can be efficiently captured with a magneto-optical trap, and has a broad range of potential applications

  5. Inorganic and organic trace mineral supplementation in weanling pig diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA C. THOMAZ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary inorganic and organic trace minerals in two levels of supplementation regarding performance, diarrhea occurrence, hematological parameters, fecal mineral excretion and mineral retention in metacarpals and liver of weanling pigs. Seventy piglets weaned at 21 days of age with an average initial body weight of 6.70 ± 0.38 kg were allotted in five treatments: control diet (no added trace mineral premix; 50% ITMP (control diet with inorganic trace mineral premix supplying only 50% of trace mineral requirements; 50% OTMP (control diet with organic trace mineral premix supplying only 50% of trace mineral requirements; 100% ITMP (control diet with inorganic trace mineral premix supplying 100% of trace mineral requirements; and 100% OTMP (control diet with organic trace mineral premix supplying 100% of trace mineral requirements. Feed intake and daily weight gain were not affected by treatments, however, piglets supplemented by trace minerals presented better gain:feed ratio. No differences were observed at calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, sodium and sulfur excreted in feces per kilogram of feed intake. Treatments did not affect calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sulfur and iron content in metacarpals. Trace mineral supplementation, regardless of level and source, improved the performance of piglets.

  6. Ion Formation Resulting from Freezing, Thawing, and Collisional Processes in Plumes Emitted from Planetary Bodies: Implications for Plume Chemistry and the Detection of Trace Organics Present in Enceladus Geysers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, J. L.; Wiley, J. S.; Thomas, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Icy plumes emitted into space from Enceladus and other planetary bodies offer the intriguing possibility of sampling the composition of subsurface liquid reservoirs that may comprise habitable zones of particular astrobiological significance in our solar system. Mass spectrometric sampling of plume materials enables the detection of molecules that facilitate an assessment of the extent of chemical and biological evolution that may have occurred in a subsurface sea. In laboratory experiments we have investigated the physical and chemical processes that occur in the complex plume environment that lead to ionization of trace organic constituents, both as a result of the freezing of liquid droplets and the thawing of icy particles. We also demonstrate that collisions between icy particles lead to triboelectric charging. Subsequent discharges between oppositely charged particles result not only in the ionization of trace organics but to chemical reactions between molecular components present in the particles. For example, nitriles react with water to form amides and acids. In particular, icy particles doped with small amounts of aminoacetonitrile and water lead to the formation of the simplest amino acid glycine. The implications which these observations may have for sampling plume composition from orbit in a future mission to Enceladus will be discussed.

  7. Trace element analysis: a diagnostic tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.; Cheema, M.N.

    1976-09-01

    The human mody continuously assimilates a variety of elements from the environment, and the concentration of these elements in the blood is regulated by means of various homeostatic mechanisms. Some of the elements, though present in very small amounts, have highly specialized functions in initiating many biochemical reactions. These elements, known as essential trace elements, are closely related to human diseases since their deficiency or excess induces physiological changes. Many diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, etc., are related to an imbalance in trace element. The measurement of trace elements in body fluids and tissues can, therefore, be effectively employed for diagnostic tests

  8. Remediation using trace element humate surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riddle, Catherine Lynn; Taylor, Steven Cheney; Bruhn, Debra Fox

    2016-08-30

    A method of remediation at a remediation site having one or more undesirable conditions in which one or more soil characteristics, preferably soil pH and/or elemental concentrations, are measured at a remediation site. A trace element humate surfactant composition is prepared comprising a humate solution, element solution and at least one surfactant. The prepared trace element humate surfactant composition is then dispensed onto the remediation site whereby the trace element humate surfactant composition will reduce the amount of undesirable compounds by promoting growth of native species activity. By promoting native species activity, remediation occurs quickly and environmental impact is minimal.

  9. Quantum Cascade Laser-Based Photoacoustic Sensor for Trace Detection of Formaldehyde Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Mario Lugarà

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We report on the development of a photoacoustic sensor for the detection of formaldehyde (CH2O using a thermoelectrically cooled distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser operating in pulsed mode at 5.6 mm. A resonant photoacoustic cell, equipped with four electret microphones, is excited in its first longitudinal mode at 1,380 Hz. The absorption line at 1,778.9 cm-1 is selected for CH2O detection. A detection limit of 150 parts per billion in volume in nitrogen is achieved using a 10 seconds time constant and 4 mW laser power. Measurements in ambient air will require water vapour filters.

  10. Trace elements in human milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parr, R M [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Div. of Life Sciences

    1983-06-01

    Trace elements are those elements having a concentration lower than 10 ppm in body fluids or tissues. A total of 24 elements, both trace and minor elements, present in human milk have been analysed in this study, employing neutron activation analysis and absorption spectroscopy. The analyses have been carried out collaboratively by several different laboratories and the Agency which has also served as a coordinating centre. Although the evaluation of the results, altogether 8500 separate values, is still in progress, enough evidence is already available, however, to show some very interesting differences between different study areas and, in some cases, between different socio-economic groups within a single country. The main value of these data will probably be to throw new light on the nutritional requirements of young babies for trace elements.

  11. Real time ray tracing based on shader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, JiangHeng; Li, Min

    2017-07-01

    Ray tracing is a rendering algorithm for generating an image through tracing lights into an image plane, it can simulate complicate optical phenomenon like refraction, depth of field and motion blur. Compared with rasterization, ray tracing can achieve more realistic rendering result, however with greater computational cost, simple scene rendering can consume tons of time. With the GPU's performance improvement and the advent of programmable rendering pipeline, complicated algorithm can also be implemented directly on shader. So, this paper proposes a new method that implement ray tracing directly on fragment shader, mainly include: surface intersection, importance sampling and progressive rendering. With the help of GPU's powerful throughput capability, it can implement real time rendering of simple scene.

  12. NEXUS: tracing the cosmic web connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cautun, Marius; van de Weygaert, Rien; Jones, Bernard J. T.

    2013-02-01

    We introduce the NEXUS algorithm for the identification of cosmic web environments: clusters, filaments, walls and voids. This is a multiscale and automatic morphological analysis tool that identifies all the cosmic structures in a scale free way, without preference for a certain size or shape. We develop the NEXUS method to incorporate the density, tidal field, velocity divergence and velocity shear as tracers of the cosmic web. We also present the NEXUS+ procedure which, taking advantage of a novel filtering of the density in logarithmic space, is very successful at identifying the filament and wall environments in a robust and natural way. To assess the algorithms we apply them to an N-body simulation. We find that all methods correctly identify the most prominent filaments and walls, while there are differences in the detection of the more tenuous structures. In general, the structures traced by the density and tidal fields are clumpier and more rugged than those present in the velocity divergence and velocity shear fields. We find that the NEXUS+ method captures much better the filamentary and wall networks and is successful in detecting even the fainter structures. We also confirm the efficiency of our methods by examining the dark matter particle and halo distributions.

  13. Fiber-ring laser-based intracavity photoacoustic spectroscopy for trace gas sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Wang, Zhen; Chang, Jun; Ren, Wei

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrated a novel trace gas sensing method based on fiber-ring laser intracavity photoacoustic spectroscopy. This spectroscopic technique is a merging of photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) with a fiber-ring cavity for sensitive and all-fiber gas detection. A transmission-type PAS gas cell (resonant frequency f0=2.68  kHz) was placed inside the fiber-ring laser to fully utilize the intracavity laser power. The PAS signal was excited by modulating the laser wavelength at f0/2 using a custom-made fiber Bragg grating-based modulator. We used this spectroscopic technique to detect acetylene (C2H2) at 1531.6 nm as a proof of principle. With a low Q-factor (4.9) of the PAS cell, our sensor achieved a good linear response (R2=0.996) to C2H2 concentration and a minimum detection limit of 390 ppbv at 2-s response time.

  14. Major and Trace Element Analysis of Natural and Experimental Igneous Systems using LA-ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, Frances E.; Arevalo, Ricardo D., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Major- and trace-element compositions of minerals provide valuable information on a variety of global Earth-system processes, including melting of distinct mantle reservoirs, the growth and evolution of the Earths crust and the formation of economically viable ore deposits. In the mid-1980s and early 1990s, attempts were made to couple laser ablation (LA) systems to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) instruments (e.g. Fryer et al. 1995; Jackson et al. 1992). The goal was to develop a rapid, highly sensitive in situ analytical technique to measure abundances and spatial distributions of trace elements in minerals and other geological samples. Elemental analysis using LAICPMS was envisaged as a quicker and less destructive means of chemical analysis (requiring only g quantities) than labour-intensive sample digestion and solution analysis (requiring mg-levels of material); and it would be a more cost-effective method than secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for the routine analysis of trace elements from solid samples. Furthermore, it would have lower limits-of-detection than electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) (e.g. Jackson et al. 1992; Eggins 2003).

  15. Development and simulation of a Ge/Si multi-detector spectrometer for fission products traces detection in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cagniant, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    For the verification of the Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), the measurement of fission products trace levels in the environment is fundamental. Such measurement is a key indicator of a nuclear explosion. For constant amelioration of these measurements, the CEA/DAM-Ile de France has developed and installed a new dedicated surface spectrometer. Named GAMMA3, it is equipped with three germanium detectors, two silicon detectors (integrated in a dedicated gas cell, the PIPSBox) and includes an optimized shielding.This shielding reduces greatly the interference of environmental photons, muons and neutrons with the detectors. The residual radiological background measured inside the shielding is the community's lowest for a surface laboratory. This set of high energy resolution detectors allows the operator to optimize a measurement according to the sample geometry, activity or nature. More precisely, a radioactive noble gas can be measured by photon/electron coincidence, an active sample can be measured by photon/photon coincidence, and a low-active sample can be measured in a high-efficiency configuration. Combining optimized shielding and optimized measurement, Minimum Detectable Activities required for CTBT certification are obtained quickly. Specifically, MDA is reached in 5 hours for 140-Ba (24 mBq), in 6h30 hours for 131m/133m-Xe (5 mBq) and in 7h15 for 133-Xe (5 mBq), when CTBT requirement is in 6 days. (author) [fr

  16. Trace Dynamics and a non-commutative special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochan, Kinjalk; Singh, T.P.

    2011-01-01

    Trace Dynamics is a classical dynamical theory of non-commuting matrices in which cyclic permutation inside a trace is used to define the derivative with respect to an operator. We use the methods of Trace Dynamics to construct a non-commutative special relativity. We define a line-element using the Trace over space-time coordinates which are assumed to be operators. The line-element is shown to be invariant under standard Lorentz transformations, and is used to construct a non-commutative relativistic dynamics. The eventual motivation for constructing such a non-commutative relativity is to relate the statistical thermodynamics of this classical theory to quantum mechanics. -- Highlights: → Classical time is external to quantum mechanics. → This implies need for a formulation of quantum theory without classical time. → A starting point could be a non-commutative special relativity. → Such a relativity is developed here using the theory of Trace Dynamics. → A line-element is defined using the Trace over non-commuting space-time operators.

  17. Octanol-solubility of dissolved and particulate trace metals in contaminated rivers: implications for metal reactivity and availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Andrew; Mawji, Edward

    2005-01-01

    The lipid-like, amphiphilic solvent, n-octanol, has been used to determine a hydrophobic fraction of dissolved and particulate trace metals (Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) in contaminated rivers. In a sample from the River Clyde, southwest Scotland, octanol-solubility was detected for all dissolved metals except Co, with conditional octanol-water partition coefficients, D ow , ranging from about 0.2 (Al and Cu) to 1.25 (Pb). In a sample taken from the River Mersey, northwest England, octanol-solubility was detected for dissolved Al and Pb, but only after sample aliquots had been spiked with individual ionic metal standards and equilibrated. Spiking of the River Clyde sample revealed competition among different metals for hydrophobic ligands. Metal displacement from hydrophobic complexes was generally most significant following the addition of ionic Al or Pb, although the addition of either of these metals had little effect on the octanol-solubility of the other. In both river water samples hydrophobic metals were detected on the suspended particles retained by filtration following their extraction in n-octanol. In general, particulate Cu and Zn (up to 40%) were most available, and Al, Co and Pb most resistant ( 3.3 -10 5.3 ml g -1 . The presence of hydrophobic dissolved and particulate metal species has implications for our understanding of the biogeochemical behaviour of metals in aquatic environments. Specifically, such species are predicted to exhibit characteristics of non-polar organic contaminants, including the potential to penetrate the lipid bilayer. Current strategies for assessing the bioavailability and toxicity of dissolved and particulate trace metals in natural waters may, therefore, require revision. - New approaches are presented for fractionating trace metals in natural waters

  18. Ultra-trace analysis of hormones, pharmaceutical substances, alkylphenols and phthalates in two French natural mineral waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dévier, Marie-Hélène; Le Menach, Karyn [Environnements et Paléoenvironnements Océaniques et Continentaux (EPOC, UMR 5805 CNRS), Laboratoire de Physico- et Toxico-Chimie de l' Environnement (LPTC), Université de Bordeaux, 351 cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence cedex (France); Viglino, Liza [Danone Waters Analytical Center, Aqualab, Place de la Gare, 74500 Evian-Les-Bains (France); Di Gioia, Lodovico [Danone Research, R and D Waters Division, RD 128, 91767 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Lachassagne, Patrick [Danone Waters France, Environment and Water Resources Division, BP 87, 11 av. Général Dupas, 74500 Evian-Les-Bains cedex (France); Budzinski, Hélène, E-mail: h.budzinski@epoc.u-bordeaux1.fr [Environnements et Paléoenvironnements Océaniques et Continentaux (EPOC, UMR 5805 CNRS), Laboratoire de Physico- et Toxico-Chimie de l' Environnement (LPTC), Université de Bordeaux, 351 cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence cedex (France)

    2013-01-15

    The aim of this work was to investigate the potential presence of a broad range of organic compounds, such as hormones, alkylphenols, bisphenol A and phthalates, as well as pharmaceutical substances in two brands of bottled natural mineral waters (Evian and Volvic, Danone). The phthalates were determined by solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (SPME-GC–MS) and the other compounds by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) or gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) after solid-phase extraction. The potential migration of alkylphenols, bisphenol A and phthalates from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles was also investigated under standardized test conditions. Evian and Volvic natural mineral waters contain none of the around 120 targeted organic compounds. Traces of 3 pharmaceuticals (ketoprofen, salicylic acid, and caffeine), 3 alkylphenols (4-nonylphenol, 4-t-octylphenol, and 4-nonylphenol diethoxylate), and some phthalates including di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) were detected in the samples, but they were also present in the procedural blanks at similar levels. The additional test procedures demonstrated that the few detected compounds originated from the background laboratory contamination. Analytical procedures have been designed both in the bottling factory and in the laboratory in order to investigate the sources of DEHP and to minimize to the maximum this unavoidable laboratory contamination. It was evidenced that no migration of the targeted compounds from bottles occurred under the test conditions. The results obtained in this study underline the complexity of reaching a reliable measure to qualify the contamination of a sample at ultra-trace level, in the field of very pure matrices. The analytical procedures involving glassware, equipment, hoods, and rooms specifically dedicated to trace analysis allowed us to reach reliable procedural limits of quantification at the ng

  19. Ultra-trace analysis of hormones, pharmaceutical substances, alkylphenols and phthalates in two French natural mineral waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dévier, Marie-Hélène; Le Menach, Karyn; Viglino, Liza; Di Gioia, Lodovico; Lachassagne, Patrick; Budzinski, Hélène

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the potential presence of a broad range of organic compounds, such as hormones, alkylphenols, bisphenol A and phthalates, as well as pharmaceutical substances in two brands of bottled natural mineral waters (Evian and Volvic, Danone). The phthalates were determined by solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (SPME-GC–MS) and the other compounds by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) or gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) after solid-phase extraction. The potential migration of alkylphenols, bisphenol A and phthalates from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles was also investigated under standardized test conditions. Evian and Volvic natural mineral waters contain none of the around 120 targeted organic compounds. Traces of 3 pharmaceuticals (ketoprofen, salicylic acid, and caffeine), 3 alkylphenols (4-nonylphenol, 4-t-octylphenol, and 4-nonylphenol diethoxylate), and some phthalates including di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) were detected in the samples, but they were also present in the procedural blanks at similar levels. The additional test procedures demonstrated that the few detected compounds originated from the background laboratory contamination. Analytical procedures have been designed both in the bottling factory and in the laboratory in order to investigate the sources of DEHP and to minimize to the maximum this unavoidable laboratory contamination. It was evidenced that no migration of the targeted compounds from bottles occurred under the test conditions. The results obtained in this study underline the complexity of reaching a reliable measure to qualify the contamination of a sample at ultra-trace level, in the field of very pure matrices. The analytical procedures involving glassware, equipment, hoods, and rooms specifically dedicated to trace analysis allowed us to reach reliable procedural limits of quantification at the ng

  20. Improved explosive collection and detection with rationally assembled surface sampling materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Bays, J. Timothy; Gerasimenko, Aleksandr A.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.; Addleman, R. Shane

    2016-01-01

    Sampling and detection of trace explosives is a key analytical process in modern transportation safety. In this work we have explored some of the fundamental analytical processes for collection and detection of trace level explosive on surfaces with the most widely utilized system, thermal desorption IMS. The performance of the standard muslin swipe material was compared with chemically modified fiberglass cloth. The fiberglass surface was modified to include phenyl functional groups. When compared to standard muslin, the phenyl functionalized fiberglass sampling material showed better analyte release from the sampling material as well as improved response and repeatability from multiple uses of the same swipe. The improved sample release of the functionalized fiberglass swipes resulted in a significant increase in sensitivity. Various physical and chemical properties were systematically explored to determine optimal performance. The results herein have relevance to improving the detection of other explosive compounds and potentially to a wide range of other chemical sampling and field detection challenges.

  1. RAY TRACING IMPLEMENTATION IN JAVA PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Aybars UĞUR; Mustafa TÜRKSEVER

    2002-01-01

    In this paper realism in computer graphics and components providing realism are discussed at first. It is mentioned about illumination models, surface rendering methods and light sources for this aim. After that, ray tracing which is a technique for creating two dimensional image of a three-dimensional virtual environment is explained briefly. A simple ray tracing algorithm was given. "SahneIzle" which is a ray tracing program implemented in Java programming language which ...

  2. Temporally rendered automatic cloud extraction (TRACE) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodrero, Dennis M.; Yale, James G.; Davis, Roger E.; Rollins, John M.

    1999-10-01

    Smoke/obscurant testing requires that 2D cloud extent be extracted from visible and thermal imagery. These data are used alone or in combination with 2D data from other aspects to make 3D calculations of cloud properties, including dimensions, volume, centroid, travel, and uniformity. Determining cloud extent from imagery has historically been a time-consuming manual process. To reduce time and cost associated with smoke/obscurant data processing, automated methods to extract cloud extent from imagery were investigated. The TRACE system described in this paper was developed and implemented at U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground, UT by the Science and Technology Corporation--Acuity Imaging Incorporated team with Small Business Innovation Research funding. TRACE uses dynamic background subtraction and 3D fast Fourier transform as primary methods to discriminate the smoke/obscurant cloud from the background. TRACE has been designed to run on a PC-based platform using Windows. The PC-Windows environment was chosen for portability, to give TRACE the maximum flexibility in terms of its interaction with peripheral hardware devices such as video capture boards, removable media drives, network cards, and digital video interfaces. Video for Windows provides all of the necessary tools for the development of the video capture utility in TRACE and allows for interchangeability of video capture boards without any software changes. TRACE is designed to take advantage of future upgrades in all aspects of its component hardware. A comparison of cloud extent determined by TRACE with manual method is included in this paper.

  3. Infant word recognition: Insights from TRACE simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Julien; Plunkett, Kim

    2014-02-01

    The TRACE model of speech perception (McClelland & Elman, 1986) is used to simulate results from the infant word recognition literature, to provide a unified, theoretical framework for interpreting these findings. In a first set of simulations, we demonstrate how TRACE can reconcile apparently conflicting findings suggesting, on the one hand, that consonants play a pre-eminent role in lexical acquisition (Nespor, Peña & Mehler, 2003; Nazzi, 2005), and on the other, that there is a symmetry in infant sensitivity to vowel and consonant mispronunciations of familiar words (Mani & Plunkett, 2007). In a second series of simulations, we use TRACE to simulate infants' graded sensitivity to mispronunciations of familiar words as reported by White and Morgan (2008). An unexpected outcome is that TRACE fails to demonstrate graded sensitivity for White and Morgan's stimuli unless the inhibitory parameters in TRACE are substantially reduced. We explore the ramifications of this finding for theories of lexical development. Finally, TRACE mimics the impact of phonological neighbourhoods on early word learning reported by Swingley and Aslin (2007). TRACE offers an alternative explanation of these findings in terms of mispronunciations of lexical items rather than imputing word learning to infants. Together these simulations provide an evaluation of Developmental (Jusczyk, 1993) and Familiarity (Metsala, 1999) accounts of word recognition by infants and young children. The findings point to a role for both theoretical approaches whereby vocabulary structure and content constrain infant word recognition in an experience-dependent fashion, and highlight the continuity in the processes and representations involved in lexical development during the second year of life.

  4. Identification case of evidence in timber tracing of Pinus radiate, using high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Jaime; Anabalón, Leonardo; Encina, Francisco

    2016-03-01

    Fast, accurate detection of plant species and their hybrids using molecular tools will facilitate assessment and monitoring of timber tracing evidence. In this study the origin of unknown pine samples is determined for a case of timber theft in the region of Araucania southern Chile. We evaluate the utility of the trnL marker region for species identification applied to pine wood based on High Resolution Melting. This efficient tracing methods can be incorporated into forestry applications such as certification of origin. The object of this work was genotype identification using high-resolution melting (HRM) and trnL approaches for Pinus radiata (Don) in timber tracing evidence. Our results indicate that trnL is a very sensitive marker for delimiting species and HRM analysis was used successfully for genotyping Pinus samples for timber tracing purposes. Genotyping samples by HRM analysis with the trnL1 approach allowed us to differentiate two wood samples from the Pinaceae family: Pinus radiata (Don) and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco. The same approach with Pinus trnL wood was not able to discriminate between samples of Pinus radiata, indicating that the samples were genetically indistinguishable, possibly because they have the same genotype at this locus. Timber tracing with HRM analysis is expected to contribute to future forest certification schemes, control of illegal trading, and molecular traceability of Pinus spp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Plasma wave detection in laser spectroscopy and gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzke, J.; Irmer, A. von; Veza, D.; Niemax, K.

    1995-01-01

    Frequency changes of plasma oscillations in low-pressure discharges are used for sensitive detection of atomic or molecular trace gases. Analyte selectivity can be either obtained by resonant laser excitation or by gas chromatography

  6. Construction of a carbon ionic liquid paste electrode based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes-synthesized Schiff base composite for trace electrochemical detection of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afkhami, Abbas; Khoshsafar, Hosein; Bagheri, Hasan; Madrakian, Tayyebeh

    2014-01-01

    A simple, highly sensitive and selective carbon nanocomposite electrode has been developed for the electrochemical trace determination of cadmium. This sensor was designed by incorporation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and a new synthesized Schiff base into the carbon paste ionic liquid electrode (CPE IL ) which provides remarkably improved sensitivity and selectivity for the electrochemical stripping assay of Cd(II). The detection limit of the method was found to be 0.08 μg L −1 (S/N = 3) that is lower than the maximum contaminant level of Cd(II) allowed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in standard drinking waters. The proposed electrode exhibits good applicability for monitoring Cd(II) in various real samples. - Highlights: • A new nanocomposite was prepared and applied to the modification of CPE. • The prepared nanocomposite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. • The electrode was used to the rapid and selective determination of Cd(II)

  7. Mercapto-ordered carbohydrate-derived porous carbon electrode as a novel electrochemical sensor for simple and sensitive ultra-trace detection of omeprazole in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalate Bojdi, Majid; Behbahani, Mohammad; Mashhadizadeh, Mohammad Hosein; Bagheri, Akbar; Hosseiny Davarani, Saied Saeed; Farahani, Ali

    2015-03-01

    We are introducing mercapto-mesoporous carbon modified carbon paste electrode (mercapto-MP-C-CPE) as a new sensor for trace determination of omeprazole (OM) in biological samples. The synthesized modifier was characterized by thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), elemental analysis (CHN) and N2 adsorption surface area measurement (BET). The electrochemical response characteristic of the modified-CPE toward OM was investigated by cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry (CV and DPV). The proposed sensor displayed a good electrooxidation response to the OM, its linear range is 0.25nM to 25μM with a detection limit of 0.04nM under the optimized conditions. The prepared modified electrode shows several advantages such as high sensitivity, long-time stability, wide linear range, ease of preparation and regeneration of the electrode surface by simple polishing and excellent reproducibility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A dual-trace model for visual sensory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappiello, Marcus; Zhang, Weiwei

    2016-11-01

    Visual sensory memory refers to a transient memory lingering briefly after the stimulus offset. Although previous literature suggests that visual sensory memory is supported by a fine-grained trace for continuous representation and a coarse-grained trace of categorical information, simultaneous separation and assessment of these traces can be difficult without a quantitative model. The present study used a continuous estimation procedure to test a novel mathematical model of the dual-trace hypothesis of visual sensory memory according to which visual sensory memory could be modeled as a mixture of 2 von Mises (2VM) distributions differing in standard deviation. When visual sensory memory and working memory (WM) for colors were distinguished using different experimental manipulations in the first 3 experiments, the 2VM model outperformed Zhang and Luck (2008) standard mixture model (SM) representing a mixture of a single memory trace and random guesses, even though SM outperformed 2VM for WM. Experiment 4 generalized 2VM's advantages of fitting visual sensory memory data over SM from color to orientation. Furthermore, a single trace model and 4 other alternative models were ruled out, suggesting the necessity and sufficiency of dual traces for visual sensory memory. Together these results support the dual-trace model of visual sensory memory and provide a preliminary inquiry into the nature of information loss from visual sensory memory to WM. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. SU-F-T-555: Accurate Stereotactic Cone TMRs Converted from PDDs Scanned with Ray Trace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H; Zhong, H; Qin, Y; Snyder, K; Chetty, I; Wen, N

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the accuracy of TMRs for stereotactic cones converted from PDDs scanned with Ray Trace can be improved, when compared against the TMRs converted from the traditional PDDs. Methods: Ray Trace measurement in Sun Nuclear 3D Scanner is for accurate scan of small field PDDs. The system detects the center of field at two depths, for example, at 3 and 20 cm in our study, and then performs scan along the line passing the two centers. With both Ray Trace and the traditional method, PDDs for conical cones of 4, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, and 17.5 mm diameter (jaws set to 5×5 cm) were obtained for 6X FFF and 10X FFF energies on a Varian Edge linac, using Edge detectors. The formalism of converting PDD to TMR given in Khan’s book (4th Edition, p.161) was applied. Sp values at dmax were obtained by measuring cone Scp and Sc. Continuous direct measurement of TMR by filling/draining water to/from the tank and spot measurement by moving the tank and detector were also performed with the same equipment, using 100 cm SDD. Results: For 6XFFF energy and all the cones, TMRs converted from Ray Trace were very close to the continuous and spot measurement, while TMRs converted from traditional PDDs had larger deviation. Along the central axis beyond dmax, 1.7% of TMR data points calculated from Ray Trace had more 3% deviation from measurement, with maximal deviation of 5.2%. Whereas, 34% of TMR points calculated from traditional PDDs had more than 3% deviation, with maximum of 5.7%. In this initial study, Ray Trace scans for 10XFFF beam were noisy, further measurement is warranted. Conclusion: The Ray Trace could improve the accuracy of PDDs measurement and the calculated TMRs for stereotactic cones, which was within 3% of the measured TMRs.

  10. SU-F-T-555: Accurate Stereotactic Cone TMRs Converted from PDDs Scanned with Ray Trace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H; Zhong, H; Qin, Y; Snyder, K; Chetty, I; Wen, N [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate whether the accuracy of TMRs for stereotactic cones converted from PDDs scanned with Ray Trace can be improved, when compared against the TMRs converted from the traditional PDDs. Methods: Ray Trace measurement in Sun Nuclear 3D Scanner is for accurate scan of small field PDDs. The system detects the center of field at two depths, for example, at 3 and 20 cm in our study, and then performs scan along the line passing the two centers. With both Ray Trace and the traditional method, PDDs for conical cones of 4, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, and 17.5 mm diameter (jaws set to 5×5 cm) were obtained for 6X FFF and 10X FFF energies on a Varian Edge linac, using Edge detectors. The formalism of converting PDD to TMR given in Khan’s book (4th Edition, p.161) was applied. Sp values at dmax were obtained by measuring cone Scp and Sc. Continuous direct measurement of TMR by filling/draining water to/from the tank and spot measurement by moving the tank and detector were also performed with the same equipment, using 100 cm SDD. Results: For 6XFFF energy and all the cones, TMRs converted from Ray Trace were very close to the continuous and spot measurement, while TMRs converted from traditional PDDs had larger deviation. Along the central axis beyond dmax, 1.7% of TMR data points calculated from Ray Trace had more 3% deviation from measurement, with maximal deviation of 5.2%. Whereas, 34% of TMR points calculated from traditional PDDs had more than 3% deviation, with maximum of 5.7%. In this initial study, Ray Trace scans for 10XFFF beam were noisy, further measurement is warranted. Conclusion: The Ray Trace could improve the accuracy of PDDs measurement and the calculated TMRs for stereotactic cones, which was within 3% of the measured TMRs.

  11. THE CONCENTRATION OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE FROM WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT IN GNIEWINO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julita Karolina Milik

    2017-09-01

    were under detection limit, while gallium, molybdenum, thallium, vanadium and silver were detected in concentrations lower than 0,005 mg·kg-1/d.m. According to the obtained results, in all tested samples (the total amount of trace elements did not exceed the limit values in sewage sludge for their use in agriculture and land reclamation.

  12. Trace detection of the chlorohydrins of epoxidized soybean oil in foodstuffs by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Michele; De Dominicis, Emiliano; Commissati, Italo

    2010-09-01

    Epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) is used as an authorized plasticizer and a stabilizer for plastic polymers such as poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC). Recently, however, there has been a concrete effort devoted to its substitution for other plasticizers such as polyadipates. ESBO is exploited particularly in food closure gaskets for metal lids used to seal glass jars and bottles. The closure gaskets form an airtight seal necessary to prevent microbiological contamination. Thus, there are potential uses for food sterilization and storage. Additionally, the main pathway of PVC degradation involves the elimination of HCl, which can react with the epoxy groups of ESBO to give mono-, polychlorohydrins and/or other cyclic derivatives. The European Food Safety Authority noted that not enough analytical and toxicological data exist to express a formal opinion on the significance for the health effects of such derivatives. At present in the scientific literature, there are only a few indicative results of direct measurements of ESBO derivatives and there are no official analytical methods available for the determination of chlorohydrins directly from foodstuffs. This study presents the first example of the analysis of commercial food sauces for the detection of ESBO-chlorohydrins (as methyl esters). The results are obtained by a dedicated development of an ultraperformance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method. Sample preparation was based on the following main steps: organic extraction, transesterification and solid-phase extraction clean up. In particular, four isomers for 18-E-OHCl chlorohydrin and eight isomers for 18-2OHCl chlorohydrin were separated and identified. Different food sauces samples closed in glass jars with twist-off caps were subjected to qualitative determination, which yielded positive results for 18-E-OHCl, whereas no traces of 18-2OHCl were found. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Network Traffic Features for Anomaly Detection in Specific Industrial Control System Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Mantere

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The deterministic and restricted nature of industrial control system networks sets them apart from more open networks, such as local area networks in office environments. This improves the usability of network security, monitoring approaches that would be less feasible in more open environments. One of such approaches is machine learning based anomaly detection. Without proper customization for the special requirements of the industrial control system network environment, many existing anomaly or misuse detection systems will perform sub-optimally. A machine learning based approach could reduce the amount of manual customization required for different industrial control system networks. In this paper we analyze a possible set of features to be used in a machine learning based anomaly detection system in the real world industrial control system network environment under investigation. The network under investigation is represented by architectural drawing and results derived from network trace analysis. The network trace is captured from a live running industrial process control network and includes both control data and the data flowing between the control network and the office network. We limit the investigation to the IP traffic in the traces.

  14. HAIR HEAVY METAL AND ESSENTIAL TRACE ELEMENT CONCENTRATION IN CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatadze, T; Zhorzholiani, L; Kherkheulidze, M; Kandelaki, E; Ivanashvili, T

    2015-11-01

    Our study aims evaluation of level of essential trace elements and heavy metals in the hair samples of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and identification of changes that are associated with autistic spectrum disorders. Case-control study was conducted at Child Development Center of Iashvili Children's Central Hospital (LD).We studied 60 children aged from 4 to 5 years old. The concentrations of 28 elements among (Ca,Zn, K, Fe, Cu, Se, Mn, Cr, S, Br, Cl, Co, Ag, V, Ni, Rb, Mo, Sr, Ti, Ba, Pb, As, Hg, Cd, Sb, Zr, Sn, Bi) them trace elements and toxic metals) were determined in scalp hair samples of children (n=30) with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and from control group of healthy children (n=30) with matched sex and age. Micro-elemental status was detected in the hair, with roentgen-fluorescence spectrometer method (Method MBИ 081/12-4502-000, Apparatus ALVAX- CIP, USA - UKRAIN) .To achieve the similarity of study and control groups, pre and postnatal as well as family and social history were assessed and similar groups were selected. Children with genetic problems, malnourished children, children from families with social problems were excluded from the study. The diagnosis of ASD were performed by pediatrician and psychologist (using M-CHAT and ADOS) according to DSM IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders from the American Psychiatric association) criteria. The study was statistically analyzed using computer program SPSS 19. Deficiencies of essential trace microelements revealed in both group, but there was significant difference between control and studied groups. The most deficient element was zinc (92% in target and 20% in control), then - manganese (55% and 8%) and selenium (38% and 4%). In case of cooper study revealed excess concentration of this element only in target group in 50% of cases. The contaminations to heavy metals were detected in case of lead (78% and 16), mercury (43% and 10%) and cadmium (38% and 8%). The

  15. Trace element fingerprinting of emeralds by PIXE/PIGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xinpei; MacArthur, J.D.; Roeder, P.L.; Mariano, A.N.

    1993-01-01

    Gemologists consider the mineral beryl, beryllium aluminium silicate, to be the gem, emerald, when it contains sufficient chromium, >0.1%, to colour it a strong green. Emeralds usually contain other trace elements. To investigate the feasibility of distinguishing an emerald's country of origin through its trace content, the trace elements in emeralds and a few beryls from sixteen locations have been determined with a single nondestructive measurement using PIXE and PIGE. From the database established with this limited number of samples, distinguishing trace element patterns were found. (orig.)

  16. Atom trap trace analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Z.-T.; Bailey, K.; Chen, C.-Y.; Du, X.; Li, Y.-M.; O' Connor, T. P.; Young, L.

    2000-05-25

    A new method of ultrasensitive trace-isotope analysis has been developed based upon the technique of laser manipulation of neutral atoms. It has been used to count individual {sup 85}Kr and {sup 81}Kr atoms present in a natural krypton sample with isotopic abundances in the range of 10{sup {minus}11} and 10{sup {minus}13}, respectively. The atom counts are free of contamination from other isotopes, elements,or molecules. The method is applicable to other trace-isotopes that can be efficiently captured with a magneto-optical trap, and has a broad range of potential applications.

  17. Trace elements levels in centenarian ‘dodgers’

    OpenAIRE

    Alis, Rafael; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Sanchís-Gomar, Fabián; Pareja Galeano, Helios; Fiuza Luces, María del Carmen; Garatachea, Nuria; Lucía Mulas, Alejandro; Emanuele, Enzo

    2016-01-01

    Trace element bioavailability can play a role in several metabolic and physiological pathways known to be altered during the aging process. We aimed to explore the association of trace elements with increased lifespan by analyzing the circulating levels of seven trace elements (Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se and Zn) in a cohort of healthy centenarians or ‘dodgers’ (≥100 years, free of major age-related diseases) in comparison with sex-matched younger elderly controls. Centenarians showed significant ...

  18. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of trace copper, nickel, and cobalt ions in water samples using solid phase extraction coupled with partial least squares approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yugao; Zhao, He; Han, Yelin; Liu, Xia; Guan, Shan; Zhang, Qingyin; Bian, Xihui

    2017-02-01

    A simultaneous spectrophotometric determination method for trace heavy metal ions based on solid-phase extraction coupled with partial least squares approaches was developed. In the proposed method, trace metal ions in aqueous samples were adsorbed by cation exchange fibers and desorbed by acidic solution from the fibers. After the ion preconcentration process, the enriched solution was detected by ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer (UV-Vis). Then, the concentration of heavy metal ions were quantified by analyzing ultraviolet and visible spectrum with the help of partial least squares (PLS) approaches. Under the optimal conditions of operation time, flow rate and detection parameters, the overlapped absorption peaks of mixed ions were obtained. The experimental data showed that the concentration, which can be calculated through chemometrics method, of each metal ion increased significantly. The heavy metal ions can be enriched more than 80-fold. The limits of detection (LOD) for the target analytes of copper ions (Cu2 +), cobalt ions (Co2 +) and nickel ions (Ni2 +) mixture was 0.10 μg L- 1, 0.15 μg L- 1 and 0.13 μg L- 1, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSD) were less than 5%. The performance of the solid-phase extraction can enrich the ions efficiently and the combined method of spectrophotometric detection and PLS can evaluate the ions concentration accurately. The work proposed here is an interesting and promising attempt for the trace ions determination in water samples and will have much more applied field.

  19. Practical applications of trace minerals for dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, T R; Yasui, T

    2014-02-01

    Trace minerals have critical roles in the key interrelated systems of immune function, oxidative metabolism, and energy metabolism in ruminants. To date, the primary trace elements of interest in diets for dairy cattle have included Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se although data also support potentially important roles of Cr, Co, and Fe in diets. Trace minerals such as Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se are essential with classically defined roles as components of key antioxidant enzymes and proteins. Available evidence indicates that these trace minerals can modulate aspects of oxidative metabolism and immune function in dairy cattle, particularly during the transition period and early lactation. Chromium has been shown to influence both immune function and energy metabolism of cattle; dairy cows fed Cr during the transition period and early lactation have evidence of improved immune function, increased milk production, and decreased cytological endometritis. Factors that complicate trace mineral nutrition at the farm level include the existence of a large number of antagonisms affecting bioavailability of individual trace minerals and uncertainty in terms of requirements under all physiological and management conditions; therefore, determining the optimum level and source of trace minerals under each specific situation continues to be a challenge. Typical factorial approaches to determine requirements for dairy cattle do not account for nuances in biological function observed with supplementation with various forms and amounts of trace minerals. Trace mineral nutrition modulates production, health, and reproduction in cattle although both formal meta-analysis and informal survey of the literature reveal substantial heterogeneity of response in these outcome variables. The industry has largely moved away from oxide-based programs toward sulfate-based programs; however, some evidence favors shifting supplementation strategies further toward more bioavailable forms of inorganic and organic trace

  20. Analysing traces of autoinducer-2 requires standardization of the Vibrio harveyi bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilchez, Ramiro; Lemme, André; Thiel, Verena; Schulz, Stefan; Sztajer, Helena; Wagner-Döbler, Irene

    2007-01-01

    Autoinducer-2 (furanosyl borate diester) is a biologically active compound whose role as a universal bacterial signalling molecule is currently under intense investigation. Because of its instability and the low concentrations of it found in biological samples, its detection relies at present on a bioassay that measures the difference in the timing of the luminescence of the Vibrio harveyi BB170 sensor strain with and without externally added AI-2. Here we systematically investigated which parameters affected the fold induction values of luminescence obtained in the bioassay and developed a modified protocol. Our experiments showed that growth and luminescence of V. harveyi BB170 are strongly influenced by trace elements. In particular, addition of Fe(3+) within a certain concentration range to the growth medium of the preinoculum culture improved the reproducibility and reduced the variance of the bioassay. In contrast, trace elements and vitamins introduced directly into the bioassay caused inhibitory effects. The initial density and luminescence of the sensor strain are very important and the values required for these parameters were defined. Borate interferes with the detection of AI-2 by giving false positive results. The response of V. harveyi BB170 to chemically synthesized AI-2 in the bioassay is nonlinear except over a very small concentration range; it is maximum over three orders of magnitude and shows inhibition above 35 microM. Based on the modified protocol, we were able to detect AI-2 in the absence of inhibitors with maximum fold induction values for the positive control (chemically synthesized AI-2) of >120 with a standard deviation of approximately 30% in a reliable and reproducible way.

  1. Note: Possibilities of detecting the trace-level erosion products from an electric propulsion hollow cathode plasma source by the method of time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Zhong-Xi; Zhang, Hai-Guang; Zhu, Xi-Ming; Jiang, Bin-Hao; Zhou, Zhong-Yue; Yu, Da-Ren; An, Bing-Jian; Wang, Yan-Fei

    2018-02-01

    A hollow cathode produces electrons which neutralize ions from electric propulsion thrusters. After hundreds to thousands of hours of operation in space, the cathode materials can be significantly eroded due to ion bombardment. As a result, the electric propulsion system performance will be obviously changed or even fail. In this work, the erosion products from a LaB6 hollow cathode (widely used presently in electric propulsion systems) are studied by using a specific detection system, which consists of a molecular beam sampler and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. This system measures trace-level-concentration (10-6-10-3) products. Boron (B), tantalum (Ta), and tungsten (W)—originating from the emitter, keeper, and orifice of the hollow cathode—are measured. It is found that the erosion rate is significantly influenced by the gas flow rate to the cathode.

  2. Steam stable mesoporous silica MCM-41 stabilized by trace amounts of Al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Jordan T; Mokaya, Robert

    2014-02-12

    Evaluation of low and ultralow Al content (Si/Al between 50 and 412) aluminosilicate Al-MCM-41 materials synthesized via three contrasting alumination routes, namely, direct mixed-gel synthesis, post-synthesis wet grafting, and post-synthesis dry grafting, indicates that trace amounts of Al introduced via dry grafting can stabilize mesoporous silica MCM-41 to steaming at 900 °C for 4 h. It was found that trace amounts of Al (Si/Al > 400) introduced via so-called dry grafting of Al stabilize the virtually purely siliceous MCM-41 to steaming, whereas Al incorporated via other methods that involve aqueous media such as direct mixed gel synthesis or wet grafting of Al offer only limited protection at low Al content. It is particularly remarkable that a post-synthesis dry grafted Al-MCM-41 material possessing trace amounts of Al (i.e., Si/Al ratio of 412) and surface area and pore volume of 1112 m(2)/g and 1.20 cm(3)/g, respectively, retains 90% (998 m(2)/g) of the surface area and 85% (1.03 cm(3)/g) of the pore volume after exposure to steaming at 900 °C for 4 h. Under similar steam treatment conditions, the mesostructure of pure silica Si-MCM-41 is virtually destroyed and undergoes a 93% reduction in surface area (958 m(2)/g to 69 m(2)/g) and 88% decrease in pore volume (0.97 cm(3)/g to 0.12 cm(3)/g). The steam stable ultralow (i.e., trace) Al containing MCM-41 materials is found to be virtually similar to mesoporous pure silica Si-MCM-41 with hardly any detectable acidity. The improvement in steam stability arises from not only the presence of trace amounts of Al, but also from an apparent increase in the level of silica condensation that is specific to dry grafted alluminosilicate MCM-41 materials. The more highly condensed framework has fewer silanol groups and therefore is more resistant to hydrolysis under steaming conditions.

  3. Towards Safe Food Free From Pesticides Residues: Biochemical Changes of Selected Vitamins, Trace Elements and Genotoxicity of Irradiated Dates During Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, S.E.A.; Elsawy, KH.M.; Elgammal, M.H.; Hammoud, G.M.; Youssef, M.S.H.

    2012-01-01

    Decreasing quality of semi-dry dates due to infestation during storage is recorded by many researchers. Low gamma irradiation doses could be considered safe alternative of human toxic chemicals and pesticides. In the present study, semi-dry dates irradiated with different doses of 1, 3, 5 kGy beside non-irradiated samples were stored at 20 degree C and at -18 degree C for nine months. Vitamins E, A and trace elements were determined to check the genotoxicity effect of irradiation at high doses (1, 3, 5, 20 and 30 kGy). Results of high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) proved that semi-dry dates contain vitamins A (β-carotene) and E (α-tocopherol) in amounts of 98.78 μg/100 g and 1.818 mg/100 g, respectively, in raw non-irradiated fruits. Degradation of vitamins either naturally during storage or by irradiation was manifested. However, the lowest losses of vitamins were detected at low doses of irradiation (1-3 kGy). Also, trace elements and metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) technique. Six trace elements; selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), cupper (Cu), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni), which are responsible for immunity system were detected in dates with considerable concentrations. Two contaminants heavy metals, lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd), were detected. All the trace elements were in safe levels and have negligible changes under stress of irradiation and during long storage conditions. The genotoxicity test proved that the increased toxicity of irradiated dates was dose dependant, therefore, the irradiated samples at 1 kGy were safe (near control samples). Consequently, the irradiation at 1 kGy was preferable to be used as an alternative of pesticides in spite of some losses in some bioactive content.

  4. Application of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique for investigations of trace element composition in medicinal plants from Manipur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Daisy; Singh, Toudam Sony; Singh, Rajmohan

    2009-01-01

    Seven medicinal plants from remote areas of Manipur were analyzed for their trace elemental composition using an X-ray spectrometer consisting of a radioisotope source of 109 Cd and Si (Li) X-ray detector of resolution 170 eV at 5.9 keV Mn K-X-ray and its associated electronics. In most samples Ca, Mn, Fe and Sr were predominantly seen and Cu, Zn and Pb were detected at trace levels. The presence and significance of the elements in these medicinal plants will be presented and discussed in the following sections of the paper. (author)

  5. Infant word recognition: Insights from TRACE simulations☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Julien; Plunkett, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The TRACE model of speech perception (McClelland & Elman, 1986) is used to simulate results from the infant word recognition literature, to provide a unified, theoretical framework for interpreting these findings. In a first set of simulations, we demonstrate how TRACE can reconcile apparently conflicting findings suggesting, on the one hand, that consonants play a pre-eminent role in lexical acquisition (Nespor, Peña & Mehler, 2003; Nazzi, 2005), and on the other, that there is a symmetry in infant sensitivity to vowel and consonant mispronunciations of familiar words (Mani & Plunkett, 2007). In a second series of simulations, we use TRACE to simulate infants’ graded sensitivity to mispronunciations of familiar words as reported by White and Morgan (2008). An unexpected outcome is that TRACE fails to demonstrate graded sensitivity for White and Morgan’s stimuli unless the inhibitory parameters in TRACE are substantially reduced. We explore the ramifications of this finding for theories of lexical development. Finally, TRACE mimics the impact of phonological neighbourhoods on early word learning reported by Swingley and Aslin (2007). TRACE offers an alternative explanation of these findings in terms of mispronunciations of lexical items rather than imputing word learning to infants. Together these simulations provide an evaluation of Developmental (Jusczyk, 1993) and Familiarity (Metsala, 1999) accounts of word recognition by infants and young children. The findings point to a role for both theoretical approaches whereby vocabulary structure and content constrain infant word recognition in an experience-dependent fashion, and highlight the continuity in the processes and representations involved in lexical development during the second year of life. PMID:24493907

  6. Development of data acquisition system for tracing fast flow using GPIB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Bum; Jung, Sung Hee

    2003-12-01

    Radiotracer data acquisition system which was developed by radiotracer group in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has been used for field experiment since the late of 1990s. It has RS232C and 24 channel x10 sample. It was useful for radiotracer experiment whose period span from few second to few ten days. But the demand for tracing fast flow has been increasing. For example, to trace a fast gas flow in petro chemical industry or for application like computer aided radioactive particle tracking, high speed data acquisition system is necessary. The current commercial data acquisition systems have limited count channels. To solve above mentioned problem upgraded high speed data acquisition system using GPIB is developed. GPIB system is one method of control and communication. The data transmit speed of GPIB is 200k byte/sec which is faster then 20k bps of RS232C. In addition to that, GPIB has advantage of expanding up to 15 devices. It mean that 24 x15 channel is possible if one device has 24channel. It make possible to trace high fast flow or large number of channel. This technical report include details of the design of high speed multi-channel radiation detecting system which is consist of ratemeter module, display unit, mainboard with GPIB system and 24 channel counter board. The design of GPIB system developed here is also applicable to other measurement system for various applications.

  7. Development of data acquisition system for tracing fast flow using GPIB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Bum; Jung, Sung Hee

    2003-12-01

    Radiotracer data acquisition system which was developed by radiotracer group in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has been used for field experiment since the late of 1990s. It has RS232C and 24 channel x10 sample. It was useful for radiotracer experiment whose period span from few second to few ten days. But the demand for tracing fast flow has been increasing. For example, to trace a fast gas flow in petro chemical industry or for application like computer aided radioactive particle tracking, high speed data acquisition system is necessary. The current commercial data acquisition systems have limited count channels. To solve above mentioned problem upgraded high speed data acquisition system using GPIB is developed. GPIB system is one method of control and communication. The data transmit speed of GPIB is 200k byte/sec which is faster then 20k bps of RS232C. In addition to that, GPIB has advantage of expanding up to 15 devices. It mean that 24 x15 channel is possible if one device has 24channel. It make possible to trace high fast flow or large number of channel. This technical report include details of the design of high speed multi-channel radiation detecting system which is consist of ratemeter module, display unit, mainboard with GPIB system and 24 channel counter board. The design of GPIB system developed here is also applicable to other measurement system for various applications

  8. Survey of trace elements in hair of normal Japanese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, T.; Hayashi, T.; Takada, J.

    1979-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in hair has been performed on normal Japanese to define the base-line levels with which the levels of various elements found in hair samples of individuals in a given area, where significant pollution is suspected or known to be present, can be compared. Among the hair samples collected from various places in Japan, 342 samples were selected so as to represent a cross-section of the Japanese population and were analysed in accordance with the standardized procedure. Errors introduced by volatilization losses from standard samples during and after neutron irradiation for the volatile elements such as Cl, Br, I and Hg were examined and minimized. The range, the arithmetic and geometric means, the median for the detected samples and the median for all analysed samples are given for each of 28 detected elements. A cumulative frequency distribution curve relative to the number of analysed samples is also given for each element. For elements that were detected in less than 50% of the analysed samples, the median was estimated from the distribution curve. The geometric means of the detected concentrations were calculated for each element on the basis of permanent waving, age, sex and residence and then compared with each other. The detected elements were classified according to the effect of permanent waving. The elements are given which show remarkably different characteristics between the sexes, with age and residence. (author)

  9. [Determination of trace lead and cadmium in transgenic rice by crosslinked carboxymethyl konjac glucomannan microcolumn preconcentration combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-qing; Li, Sheng-qing; Qu, Yang; Chen, Hao

    2012-02-01

    A novel method was developed for the determination of trace lead and cadmium in transgenic brown rice based on separation and preconcentration with a micro column packed with crosslinked carboxymethyl konjac glucomannan (CCMKGM) prior to its determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Variables affecting the separation and preconcentration of lead and cadmium, such as the acidity of the aqueous solution, sample flow rate and volume, and eluent concentration and volume, were optimized. Under optimized condition, detection limits of the method for the determination of trace lead and cadmium in transgenic brown rice were 0.11 and 0.002 microg x L(-1), respectively. The obtained results of lead and cadmium in the certified reference material (GBW10010, GBS1-1) were in good agreement with the certified values. The recoveries were in the range of 90%-103% and 93%-105% for detection of Pb and Cd in transgenic brown rice and the wild-type brown rice samples respectively. This study could provide technical support for determination of trace Pb and Cd in transgenic rice.

  10. Becoming a Teacher: Tracing Changes in Pre-Service English as a Foreign Language Teachers' Sense of Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, H. Gülru

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study aimed to trace changes in Turkish pre-service English as a foreign language teachers' self-efficacy over a year, and to detect possible sources of information influencing their efficacy. Utilizing concurrent mixed model design of Creswell (2003) both qualitative and quantitative data was collected. A total of 40 pre-service…

  11. Foundations for Survivable System Development: Service Traces, Intrusion Traces, and Evaluation Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Linger, Richard

    2001-01-01

    .... On the system side, survivability specifications can be defined by essential-service traces that map essential-service workflows, derived from user requirements, into system component dependencies...

  12. Detection of 2-alkylcyclobutanones by labelling with fluorophene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moersel, J.T.; Schmiedl, D.

    1993-01-01

    Radiolysis of triglycerides results in radiolytic formation of 2-alkylcyclobutanone. Identification of such radiolysis products is attractive for both the detection of irradiation treatment of food and for quality assurance of irradiated foods. The authors demonstrated the model compound 2-dodecylcyclobutanone by the key compound 1-bromo-1-ethoxycyclopropane. Detection was effected by labelling the cyclobutanone with suitable fluorescent dies and by tracing them analytically by fluorescence detection using HPLC. 1-Pyrene-butyryl acid hydrazide (P-101) and 7-diethylaminecumarine-3-carbonylazide (D-1446) were used as fluorophores. Suitable model matrices resulted in a sensitive detection of dodecylcyclobutanone. (orig./UHE) [de

  13. The state of the art in intrusion prevention and detection

    CERN Document Server

    Pathan, Al-Sakib Khan

    2013-01-01

    The State of the Art in Intrusion Prevention and Detection analyzes the latest trends and issues surrounding intrusion detection systems in computer networks, especially in communications networks. Its broad scope of coverage includes wired, wireless, and mobile networks; next-generation converged networks; and intrusion in social networks.Presenting cutting-edge research, the book presents novel schemes for intrusion detection and prevention. It discusses tracing back mobile attackers, secure routing with intrusion prevention, anomaly detection, and AI-based techniques. It also includes infor

  14. On the trace anomaly of a Weyl fermion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastianelli, Fiorenzo; Martelli, Riccardo [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna,via Irnerio 46, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Bologna,via Irnerio 46, I-40126 Bologna (Italy)

    2016-11-29

    We calculate the trace anomaly of a Weyl fermion coupled to gravity by using Fujikawa’s method supplemented by a consistent regulator. The latter is constructed out of Pauli-Villars regulating fields. The motivation for presenting such a calculation stems from recent studies that suggest that the trace anomaly of chiral fermions in four dimensions might contain an imaginary part proportional to the Pontryagin density. We find that the trace anomaly of a Weyl fermion is given by half the trace anomaly of a Dirac fermion, so that no imaginary part proportional to the Pontryagin density is seen to arise.

  15. SolTrace: A Ray-Tracing Code for Complex Solar Optical Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendelin, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dobos, Aron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lewandowski, Allan [Allan Lewandowski Solar Consulting LLC, Evergreen, CO (United States)

    2013-10-01

    SolTrace is an optical simulation tool designed to model optical systems used in concentrating solar power (CSP) applications. The code was first written in early 2003, but has seen significant modifications and changes since its inception, including conversion from a Pascal-based software development platform to C++. SolTrace is unique in that it can model virtually any optical system utilizingthe sun as the source. It has been made available for free and as such is in use worldwide by industry, universities, and research laboratories. The fundamental design of the code is discussed, including enhancements and improvements over the earlier version. Comparisons are made with other optical modeling tools, both non-commercial and commercial in nature. Finally, modeled results are shownfor some typical CSP systems and, in one case, compared to measured optical data.

  16. Tracing light propagation to the intrinsic accuracy of spacetime geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosta, Mariateresa

    2011-01-01

    Advancement in astronomical observations requires codification of light propagation and of the processes of its physical measurement at a high level of accuracy. This could unveil a new window of several subtle relativistic effects suffered by light while propagating. Indeed, light modeling and its subsequent detection should be conceived in a fully relativistic context, in order to interpret the outcome of the observing process in accordance with the geometrical environment affecting light propagation itself and the precepts of measurement. This paper deals with the complexity of such a topic by showing how the geometrical framework of RAMOD, a relativistic model initially developed for astrometric observations in the visible, constitutes an appropriate environment for back-tracing photons. Through gauging the energy content of a given gravitationally bound system, the geometrical aspects that match the required accuracy of present and future observational capabilities are evidenced. Then, by comparing different formulations of the null geodesic, their domain of validity within the given geometrical scheme is refined. Finally, by proving its ability in retrieving recent literature cases, RAMOD is promoted as a measurement-based general relativistic method for any present and future advancement in the light-tracing problem. (paper)

  17. Urban environmental geochemistry of trace metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Coby S.C.; Li Xiangdong; Thornton, Iain

    2006-01-01

    As the world's urban population continues to grow, it becomes increasingly imperative to understand the dynamic interactions between human activities and the urban environment. The development of urban environmental geochemistry has yielded a significant volume of scientific information about geochemical phenomena found uniquely in the urban environment, such as the distribution, dispersion, and geochemical characteristics of some toxic and potentially toxic trace metals. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the development of urban environmental geochemistry as a field of scientific study and highlight major transitions during the course of its development from its establishment to the major scientific interests in the field today. An extensive literature review is also conducted of trace metal contamination of the urban terrestrial environment, in particular of urban soils, in which the uniqueness of the urban environment and its influences on trace metal contamination are elaborated. Potential areas of future development in urban environmental geochemistry are identified and discussed. - Urban environmental geochemistry as a scientific discipline provides valuable information on trace metal contamination of the urban environment and its associated health effects

  18. Trace element geochemistry (Li, Ba, Sr, and Rb) using Curiosity's ChemCam: early results for Gale crater from Bradbury Landing Site to Rocknest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollila, Ann M.; Newsom, Horton E.; Clark, Benton; Wiens, Roger C.; Cousin, Agnes; Blank, Jen G.; Mangold, Nicolas; Sautter, Violaine; Maurice, Sylvestre; Clegg, Samuel M.; Gasnault, Olivier; Forni, Olivier; Tokar, Robert; Lewin, Eric; Dyar, M. Darby; Lasue, Jeremie; Anderson, Ryan; McLennan, Scott M.; Bridges, John; Vaniman, Dave; Lanza, Nina; Fabre, Cecile; Melikechi, Noureddine; Perett, Glynis M.; Campbell, John L.; King, Penelope L.; Barraclough, Bruce; Delapp, Dorothea; Johnstone, Stephen; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Rosen-Gooding, Anya; Williams, Josh

    2014-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument package on the Mars rover, Curiosity, provides new capabilities to probe the abundances of certain trace elements in the rocks and soils on Mars using the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique. We focus on detecting and quantifying Li, Ba, Rb, and Sr in targets analyzed during the first 100 sols, from Bradbury Landing Site to Rocknest. Univariate peak area models and multivariate partial least squares models are presented. Li, detected for the first time directly on Mars, is generally low (100 ppm and >1000 ppm, respectively. These analysis locations tend to have high Si and alkali abundances, consistent with a feldspar composition. Together, these trace element observations provide possible evidence of magma differentiation and aqueous alteration.

  19. 1652-IJBCS-Article-Samba Ndiaye

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Ricinus communis L (ricin) figure parmi les espèces du Programme biocarburant au Sénégal. Sa culture sur des terrains incultes (terres salées) constitue une alternative pour éviter une concurrence sur les terres à vocation agricole. C'est pourquoi le taux de germination (TG) de sept accessions de graines de ricin a été.

  20. Tracers and tracing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclerc, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The first international congress on 'Tracers and tracing methods' took place in Nancy in May 2001. The objective of this second congress was to present the current status and trends on tracing methods and their applications. It has given the opportunity to people from different fields to exchange scientific information and knowledge about tracer methodologies and applications. The target participants were the researchers, engineers and technologists of various industrial and research sectors: chemical engineering, environment, food engineering, bio-engineering, geology, hydrology, civil engineering, iron and steel production... Two sessions have been planned to cover both fundamental and industrial aspects: 1)fundamental development (tomography, tracer camera visualization and particles tracking; validation of computational fluid dynamics simulations by tracer experiments and numerical residence time distribution; new tracers and detectors or improvement and development of existing tracing methods; data treatments and modeling; reactive tracer experiments and interpretation) 2)industrial applications (geology, hydrogeology and oil field applications; civil engineering, mineral engineering and metallurgy applications; chemical engineering; environment; food engineering and bio-engineering). The program included 5 plenary lectures, 23 oral communications and around 50 posters. Only 9 presentations are interested for the INIS database

  1. Biosensor for the detection of Listeria monocytogenes: emerging trends

    KAUST Repository

    Soni, Dharmendra Kumar; Ahmad, Rafiq; Dubey, Suresh Kumar

    2018-01-01

    effects on human health. Therefore, integration of methods to detect and trace the route of pathogens along the entire food supply network might facilitate elucidation of the main contamination sources. Recent research interest has been oriented towards

  2. Determination of trace metals in sea waters of the albanian coast by energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Civici, N.

    1994-01-01

    Preconcentration of trace transition and heavy metal ions by precipitation with APDC has been combined with energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence for environmental sea water analysis. The preconcentration procedure implies adding of 500 μg Mo ion and 10 ml of 1 % water solution of APDC to a 500 ml water sample at pH 4, filtering off on a Millipore filter and analyzing after drying. Realistic detection limits are at 1 μg * l -1 level and precision varies between 10 - 25% at about 5 μg * l -1 level, depending on the element. Eleven sea water samples, covering Albanian Adriatic and Ionian coast, are analyzed for trace metal ions. (author) 8 refs.; 2 figs.; 5 tabs

  3. A Computer Library for Ray Tracing in Analytical Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miqueles, Eduardo; Coimbra, Tiago A; Figueiredo, J J S de

    2013-01-01

    Ray tracing technique is an important tool not only for forward but also for inverse problems in Geophysics, which most of the seismic processing steps depends on. However, implementing ray tracing codes can be very time consuming. This article presents a computer library to trace rays in 2.5D media composed by stack of layers. The velocity profile inside each layer is such that the eikonal equation can be analitically solved. Therefore, the ray tracing within such profile is made fast and accurately. The great advantage of an analytical ray tracing library is the numerical precision of the quantities computed and the fast execution of the implemented codes. Although ray tracing programs already exist for a long time, for example the seis package by Cervený, with a numerical approach to compute the ray. Regardless of the fact that numerical methods can solve more general problems, the analytical ones could be part of a more sofisticated simulation process, where the ray tracing time is completely relevant. We demonstrate the feasibility of our codes using numerical examples.

  4. Limitation of productivity by trace metals in the sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, F.M.M.; Price, N.M.; Hudson, R.J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Some trace metals such as Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn are essential for the growth of phytoplankton. The concentrations of these essential trace elements in seawater are so low as to limit their availability to aquatic microbiota. Trace element uptake is ultimately limited by kinetics of reaction with transport ligands or by diffusion to the cell. From what the authors know of the characteristics of the uptake systems of phytoplankton and their trace metal requirements they can estimate that Fe and Zn may at some times in some place limit phytoplankton productivity, which is in accord with available field data on trace metal enrichments

  5. Carbon nanotube TiO2 hybrid films for detecting traces of O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llobet, E.; Espinosa, E. H.; Sotter, E.; Ionescu, R.; Vilanova, X.; Torres, J.; Felten, A.; Pireaux, J. J.; Ke, X.; Van Tendeloo, G.; Renaux, F.; Paint, Y.; Hecq, M.; Bittencourt, C.

    2008-09-01

    Hybrid titania films have been prepared using an adapted sol-gel method for obtaining well-dispersed hydrogen plasma-treated multiwall carbon nanotubes in either pure titania or Nb-doped titania. The drop-coating method has been used to fabricate resistive oxygen sensors based on titania or on titania and carbon nanotube hybrids. Morphology and composition studies have revealed that the dispersion of low amounts of carbon nanotubes within the titania matrix does not significantly alter its crystallization behaviour. The gas sensitivity studies performed on the different samples have shown that the hybrid layers based on titania and carbon nanotubes possess an unprecedented responsiveness towards oxygen (i.e. more than four times higher than that shown by optimized Nb-doped TiO2 films). Furthermore, hybrid sensors containing carbon nanotubes respond at significantly lower operating temperatures than their non-hybrid counterparts. These new hybrid sensors show a strong potential for monitoring traces of oxygen (i.e. beverage industry.

  6. Process modeling for Humanities: tracing and analyzing scientific processes

    OpenAIRE

    Hug , Charlotte; Salinesi , Camille; Deneckere , Rebecca; Lamasse , Stéphane

    2011-01-01

    International audience; This paper concerns epistemology and the understanding of research processes in Humanities, such as Archaeology. We believe that to properly understand research processes, it is essential to trace them. The collected traces depend on the process model established, which has to be as accurate as possible to exhaustively record the traces. In this paper, we briefly explain why the existing process models for Humanities are not sufficient to represent traces. We then pres...

  7. Octanol-solubility of dissolved and particulate trace metals in contaminated rivers: implications for metal reactivity and availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Andrew [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.uk; Mawji, Edward [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2005-05-01

    The lipid-like, amphiphilic solvent, n-octanol, has been used to determine a hydrophobic fraction of dissolved and particulate trace metals (Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) in contaminated rivers. In a sample from the River Clyde, southwest Scotland, octanol-solubility was detected for all dissolved metals except Co, with conditional octanol-water partition coefficients, D{sub ow}, ranging from about 0.2 (Al and Cu) to 1.25 (Pb). In a sample taken from the River Mersey, northwest England, octanol-solubility was detected for dissolved Al and Pb, but only after sample aliquots had been spiked with individual ionic metal standards and equilibrated. Spiking of the River Clyde sample revealed competition among different metals for hydrophobic ligands. Metal displacement from hydrophobic complexes was generally most significant following the addition of ionic Al or Pb, although the addition of either of these metals had little effect on the octanol-solubility of the other. In both river water samples hydrophobic metals were detected on the suspended particles retained by filtration following their extraction in n-octanol. In general, particulate Cu and Zn (up to 40%) were most available, and Al, Co and Pb most resistant (<1%) to octanol extraction. Distribution coefficients defining the concentration ratio of octanol-soluble particle-bound metal to octanol-soluble dissolved metal were in the range 10{sup 3.3}-10{sup 5.3} ml g{sup -1}. The presence of hydrophobic dissolved and particulate metal species has implications for our understanding of the biogeochemical behaviour of metals in aquatic environments. Specifically, such species are predicted to exhibit characteristics of non-polar organic contaminants, including the potential to penetrate the lipid bilayer. Current strategies for assessing the bioavailability and toxicity of dissolved and particulate trace metals in natural waters may, therefore, require revision. - New approaches are presented for fractionating

  8. The Effect of Nitrous Oxide Psychosedation on Pantographic Tracings; A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fareed, Kamal

    1989-01-01

    The form and reproducibility of pantographic tracings under the influence of relaxant drugs and in patients with muscle dysfunction and TMJ disorders, tend to emphasize the dominance of the neuromuscular factors. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the effect of nitrous oxide induced psychosedation, on the reproducibility of pantographic tracings of border movements of the mandible. This study included four male subjects (with no signs and symptoms of muscular dysfunction and temporomandibular joint problems). Operator guided border tracings were recorded using the Denar pantograph. Three sets of tracings were recorded: (1) three tracings prior to sedation (Tracing I); (2) one tracing prior to sedation and two after sedation (Tracing II); (3) three tracings after psychosedation (Tracing III). The coincidence of tracings I, II, and 111 were statistically analyzed applying the chi-square (X2) analysis. There was a significant difference in the coincidence of tracings between Tracings 1 and II (X2 = 14.892). There was no significant difference in the coincidence of tracings between Tracings I and III (X2 = 1.338). This suggests that nitrous oxide psychosedation produces a centrally induced relaxation of the musculature, by possibly eliminating the extraneous anxiety producing factors. (author)

  9. Trace element biomonitoring using mosses in urban areas affected by mud volcanoes around Mt. Etna. The case of the Salinelle, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Giuseppe; Lo Giudice, Rosa; Pavone, Pietro

    2012-08-01

    Trace element impact was assessed using mosses in a densely inhabited area affected by mud volcanoes. Such volcanoes, locally called Salinelle, are phenomena that occur around Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy) and are interpreted as the surface outflow of a hydrothermal system located below Mt. Etna, releasing sedimentary fluids (hydrocarbons and NaCl brines) along with magmatic gases (mainly CO(2) and He). To date, scarce data are available about the presence of trace elements, and no biomonitoring campaigns are reported about the cumulative effects of such emissions. In this study, concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn were detected in the moss Bryum argenteum, in soil and water. Results showed that the trace element contribution of the Salinelle to the general pollution was significant for Al, Mn, Ni, and Zn. The comparison of trace concentrations in mosses from Salinelle and Etna showed that the mud volcanoes release a greater amount of Al and Mn, whereas similar values of Ni were found. Natural emissions of trace elements could be hazardous in human settlements, in particular, the Salinelle seem to play an important role in environmental pollution.

  10. Determination of trace elements in kidneys, livers and brains of rats with sealer implants by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simsek, Neslihan; Akinci, Levent; Alan, Hilal; Gecör, Orhan; Özan, Ülkü

    2017-01-01

    Following root canal treatment, sealers may contact periapical tissue. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the systemic toxic effects of epoxy resin-based sealers (AH Plus and Obtuseal). Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to measure levels of trace elements (beryllium, magnesium, aluminium, calcium, chromium, arsenic and lead) in the brain, kidney and liver of rats. Twenty sterilized polyethylene tubes were then filled with AH Plus and Obtuseal and implanted into the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of 10 rats; three unoperated animals were used as a control group. After 45 days, the rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation following anaesthesia, and brains, kidneys and livers were removed from all experimental animals. ICP-MS analysis was u